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  1. Prevalence of Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 among blood donors in Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil

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    Márcia Poinho EncarnaçÃo de Morais

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2 is endemic in Brazil, but few studies have investigated the seroprevalence of HTLV and its subtypes among blood donors in the capital city Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. Aim: To estimate the seroprevalence of HTLV-1/2 and to identify circulating subtypes among blood donors in Manaus. Materials and Methods: Blood donors (2001-2003 were screened for HTLV-1/2 antibodies by ELISA. Positive results were confirmed and subtyped by Western blot assays. Prevalence rates were calculated and compared with demographic data. Results: Among the 87,402 individuals screened, 116 (0.13% were seropositive for HTLV-1/2. A second sample (76/116 was collected and retested by HTLV-1/2 ELISA, of which only 41/76 were positive. Western blot confirmed HTLV infection in 24/41 retested blood donors [HTLV-1 (n=16, HTLV-2 (n=5 and HTLV-untypable (n=3]. Discussion: HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are prevalent among blood donors in Manaus. However, additional studies are needed to comprehend the epidemiology of HTLV-1/2 in Amazonas not only to understand the pathophysiology of the disease providing adequate medical assistance, but also to reduce or block virus transmission.

  2. Simultaneous circulation of all four dengue serotypes in Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil in 2011

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    Michele de Souza Bastos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Manaus, the capital city of the state of Amazon with nearly 2 million inhabitants, is located in the middle of the Amazon rain forest and has suffered dengue outbreaks since 1998. METHODS: In this study, blood samples were investigated using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, aimed at identifying dengue virus serotypes. RESULTS: Acute phase sera from 432 patients were tested for the presence of dengue virus. Out of the 432 patients, 137 (31.3% were found to be positive. All the four dengue virus serotypes were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The simultaneous circulation of the four dengue serotypes is described for the first time in Manaus and in Brazil.

  3. Arboviral diseases in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a perspective and analysis from a tertiary health & research center in Manaus, State of Amazonas

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    Maria Paula Gomes Mourão

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD, located in Manaus, the capital of the State of Amazonas (Western Brazilian Amazon, is a pioneering institution in this region regarding the syndromic surveillance of acute febrile illness, including arboviral infections. Based on the data from patients at the FMT-HVD, we have detected recurrent outbreaks in Manaus by the four dengue serotypes in the past 15 years, with increasing severity of the disease. This endemicity has culminated in the simultaneous circulation of all four serotypes in 2011, the first time this has been reported in Brazil. Between 1996 and 2009, 42 cases of yellow fever (YF were registered in the State of Amazonas, and 71.4% (30/42 were fatal. Since 2010, no cases have been reported. Because the introduction of the yellow fever virus into a large city such as Manaus, which is widely infested by Aedes mosquitoes, may pose a real risk of a yellow fever outbreak, efforts to maintain an appropriate immunization policy for the populace are critical. Manaus has also suffered silent outbreaks of Mayaro and Oropouche fevers lately, most of which were misdiagnosed as dengue fever. The tropical conditions of the State of Amazonas favor the existence of other arboviruses capable of producing human disease. Under this real threat, represented by at least 4 arboviruses producing human infections in Manaus and in other neighboring countries, it is important to develop an efficient public health surveillance strategy, including laboratories that are able to make proper diagnoses of arboviruses.

  4. HEAD LICE IN HAIR SAMPLES FROM YOUTHS, ADULTS AND THE ELDERLY IN MANAUS, AMAZONAS STATE, BRAZIL

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    Suellen Cristina Barbosa NUNES

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of head lice infestations among young people, adults and elderly individuals was conducted from August 2010 to July 2013 in Manaus, AM, Northern Brazil. Hair samples collected from 1,860 individuals in 18 barber shops and beauty parlors were examined for the ectoparasite. The occurrence of pediculosis and its association with factors, such as sex, age, ethnicity, hair characteristics and the socioeconomic profile of salon customers, salon location and seasonal variation were determined. The overall occurrence rate was 2.84%. Occurrence was higher in hair samples from non-blacks and the elderly. Higher occurrence was also observed during kindergarten, elementary and junior education school holidays. The results indicate that the occurrence of head lice among young people, adults and the elderly in Manaus is relatively low compared to that determined in children and in other regions of the country. After children, the elderly were the most affected. The study also indicated the need to adopt additional procedures to improve surveys among the population with low or no purchasing power, which is usually the most affected by this ectoparasitic disease.

  5. HEAD LICE IN HAIR SAMPLES FROM YOUTHS, ADULTS AND THE ELDERLY IN MANAUS, AMAZONAS STATE, BRAZIL.

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    Nunes, Suellen Cristina Barbosa; Moroni, Raquel Borges; Mendes, Júlio; Justiniano, Sílvia Cássia Brandão; Moroni, Fábio Tonissi

    2015-01-01

    A study of head lice infestations among young people, adults and elderly individuals was conducted from August 2010 to July 2013 in Manaus, AM, Northern Brazil. Hair samples collected from 1,860 individuals in 18 barber shops and beauty parlors were examined for the ectoparasite. The occurrence of pediculosis and its association with factors, such as sex, age, ethnicity, hair characteristics and the socioeconomic profile of salon customers, salon location and seasonal variation were determined. The overall occurrence rate was 2.84%. Occurrence was higher in hair samples from non-blacks and the elderly. Higher occurrence was also observed during kindergarten, elementary and junior education school holidays. The results indicate that the occurrence of head lice among young people, adults and the elderly in Manaus is relatively low compared to that determined in children and in other regions of the country. After children, the elderly were the most affected. The study also indicated the need to adopt additional procedures to improve surveys among the population with low or no purchasing power, which is usually the most affected by this ectoparasitic disease.

  6. Evaluation of the residual effect of temephos on Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae larvae in artificial containers in Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil

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    Pinheiro Valéria Cristina Soares

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Trial tests and container observations were conducted in households to verify the residual effect of temephos in Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. Three plastic buckets, three tin cans, and three tires filled with water from an artesian well and larvicide were used in the experiment, with twenty-five third-instar larvae, which remained exposed for 24h, followed by mortality readings. The same types of containers were selected from common households. Collection and counts followed by chemical treatment were carried out on the larvae that were found. Follow-up was performed weekly to verify recolonization by Aedes aegypti.The experiment showed 100% mortality in the plastic buckets until day 90, and 80% in the tin cans until day 30, decreasing from day 45 onwards. Mortality in the tires decreased to 35% in the first month. Household results showed 100% mortality for all containers after 24h and differentiated values in the subsequent readings. Larvae were observed on day 35 in a tin can and on day 21 in a gallon can. There was a large diversity of results in the tires, with recolonization observed from day 7 onwards.

  7. Mercury and methylmercury concentration assessment in children's hair from Manaus, Amazonas state, Brazil Avaliação da concentração de mercúrio e metilmercúrio em cabelo de crianças de Manaus, estado do Amazonas, Brasil

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    Luciana A. Farias

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated Hg and MeHg content in hair samples of 201 children 2 to 7 years old, living in six neighborhoods of the city of Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. In general, the total Hg and MeHg median ranges in hair were similar (0.91 to 1.71 mg kg-1 except for the São Jose neighborhood, which was lower (0.16 mg kg-1. De spite the fact that the Manaus population consumes fish as part of the normal dietary intake, the Hg hair levels were below the level for an adult population not exposed to mercury (2.0 mg kg-1. These data were compared to demographic, socioeconomic information and eating habits of the families that took part in the study. The results were also compared to other published data from the Amazon region, other regions of Brazil and other countries. Future studies to set Hg and MeHg levels in hair of children in Brazil should take into account and assess the diversity of the country, mainly in terms of eating habits, socio-economic and cultural aspects.O presente estudo avaliou o teor de Hg e MeHg em amostras de cabelo de 201 crianças de 2 aos 7 anos de idade, residentes em seis bairros da cidade de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil. Em geral, o teor de Hg total e MeHg em cabelo foram semelhantes (medianas de 0,91 a 1,71 mg kg-1, exceto para o bairro São José, que foi menor (0,16 mg kg-1. Apesar da população de Manaus consumir peixe como parte da dieta normal, os níveis de Hg nos cabelos ficaram abaixo do nível para uma população adulta não exposta ao mercúrio (2,0 mg kg-1. Esses dados foram comparados com informações demográficas, socioeconômicas e hábitos alimentares das famílias que participaram do estudo. Os resultados também foram comparados com outros dados publicados da Amazônia, outras regiões do Brasil e outros países. Futuros estudos para definir os níveis de Hg total e MeHg no cabelo das crianças brasileiras deverão considerar e avaliar a diversidade do país, principalmente em termos de h

  8. "É muito dificultoso!": etnografia dos cuidados a pacientes com hipertensão e/ou diabetes na atenção básica, em Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil "It sure ain't easy!": an ethnographic study of primary health care for patients with hypertension and/or diabetes in Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil

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    Maximiliano Loiola Ponte de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto analisa os resultados de pesquisa avaliativa da Atenção Básica à Saúde do paciente com hipertensão e/ou diabetes em Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil. A abordagem etnográfica utilizou, como categorias analíticas centrais, o acesso aos serviços e a integralidade do cuidado, comparando-se as práticas sanitárias desenvolvidas em unidade do Programa Saúde da Família (PSF e em unidade básica de saúde não-PSF. A facilitação do acesso à unidade de saúde da família implantada em comunidade carente é limitada pela precariedade de infra-estrutura urbana do seu entorno. A unidade básica de saúde tem, nas grandes distâncias, a sua principal barreira de acesso. A inexistência de sistema de referência entre os distintos níveis de complexidade compromete o acesso dos pacientes a exames e especialistas. O cuidado oferecido nas duas unidades é restrito às queixas físicas passíveis de abordagem farmacológica, comprometendo a integralidade. Há baixa capacidade de escuta dos profissionais para problemas distintos do foco da ação programática. Destacam-se as potencialidades da utilização da etnografia na pesquisa avaliativa de sistemas e serviços de saúde.This paper analyzes the results of an evaluative study in the city of Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil, on primary health care for patients with hypertension and/or diabetes. The ethnographic approach used access to services and comprehensiveness of health care as core analytical categories, comparing the health practices developed by Family Health Program (FHP units with traditional non-FHP primary care units. Access to family health care units in low-income communities is limited by the precarious surrounding urban infrastructure. The main barrier to access to primary care units is distance. The lack of a referral system between the various levels of complexity jeopardizes patients' access to tests and specialists. The care supplied by the two units is limited to patient

  9. Fauna de flebotomíneos (Diptera: Psychodidae em um foco de leishmaniose tegumentar americana na área periurbana de Manaus, Estado do Amazonas Sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae in a focus of American cutaneous leishmaniasis on the urban periphery of Manaus, State of Amazonas

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    Maria das Graças Vale Barbosa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available No período de agosto de 2001 a julho de 2002, usando armadilhas CDC e Disney, realizaram-se coletas de flebotomíneos, na base de árvores no peridomicílio e nas matas da Comunidade São João, área periurbana de Manaus, Amazonas. Foram capturados 4.104 espécimes, pertencentes a quatro subtribos, 13 gêneros e 49 espécies da subfamília Phlebotominae. Predominou a subtribo Psychodopygina com 3.403 (83% espécimes, destacando-se Nyssomyia umbratilis, Nyssomyia anduzei, Trichophoromyia eurypyga, Bichromomyia olmeca nociva e Bichromomyia flaviscutellata. O registro de Nyssomyia umbratilis e Nyssomyia anduzei, incriminadas como vetoras de Leishmania (Viannia guyanensis, e de Bichromomyia flaviscutellata e Bichromomyia olmeca nociva, de Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis, indicam risco de infecção para os moradores da área. A grande maioria (98,5% dos flebotomíneos foi capturada na área de mata. Nyssomyia anduzei e Bichromomyia olmeca nociva foram coletadas no peridomicílio. A riqueza de espécies vetoras de Leishmania nessa área revela a necessidade de uma vigilância entomológica constante.From August 2001 to July 2002, sand flies were collected from the bases of trees and, using CDC and Disney traps, from areas surrounding homes and forested areas in the São João community, on the urban periphery of Manaus, State of Amazonas. 4,104 specimens belonging to four subtribes, 13 genera and 49 species of the Phlebotominae subfamily were collected. The subtribe Psychodopygina predominated, with 3,403 (83% specimens, especially of Nyssomyia umbratilis, Nyssomyia anduzei, Trichophoromyia eurypyga, Bichromomyia olmeca nociva and Bichromomyia flaviscutellata. The occurrences of Nyssomyia umbratilis and Nyssomyia anduzei, which have been incriminated as vectors for Leishmania (Viannia guyanensis, and of Bichromomyia flaviscutellata and Bichromomyia olmeca nociva, for Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis, indicate that there is a risk of infection

  10. [Record of epidemiologically important Culicidae in the rural area of Manaus, Amazonas].

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    Barbosa, Maria das Graças Vale; Fé, Nelson Ferreira; Marcião, Alexandre Herculano Ribera; Silva, Ana Paula Thomé da; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Guerra, Marcus Vinitius de Farias; Guerra, Jorge Augusto de Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    The biodiversity of the Amazon region includes many species of arthropod vectors in different ecotopes, thus enabling occurrences of diseases like malaria, filariasis and arbovirosis. From August 2001 to July 2002, we gathered culicids from inside homes, from areas surrounding these homes and from forested areas of the São João Community, in the rural zone of Manaus, State of Amazonas. 1240 specimens were collected, belonging to the Culicinae (99%) and Anophelinae (1%) subfamilies, with 50 species. The Culicini tribe clearly predominated, with 904 specimens (72.9%), and the species Culex usquatus (22.6%) and Culex quinquefasciatus (17.7%) were prominent. Out of the total number of culicids, 1,077 (86.9%) were caught in the forests, 101 (8.1%) in the areas surrounding homes and 62 (5%) inside homes. Forests were the ecotope that presented the highest species diversity. The presence of Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles triannulatus, Aedes aegypti, Haemagogus janthinomys and other proven or potential vectors was recorded.

  11. Epidemiologia da leishmaniose tegumentar na Comunidade São João, Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil Epidemiology of tegumentary leishmaniasis in São João, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Jorge Augusto de Oliveira Guerra

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Em Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil, o grau de exposição dos indivíduos à leishmaniose está relacionado aos processos de ocupação desordenada. Para avaliar fatores predisponentes à gênese do surto, confirmar o diagnóstico parasitológico, tratar os doentes, avaliar agentes etiológicos, reservatórios e transmissores, realizou-se um estudo em Manaus, numa comunidade localizada no Km 4 da BR-174, durante 12 meses. Atendeu-se 451 indivíduos, dos quais foram diagnosticados 17 casos de leishmaniose tegumentar americana. Seis pacientes eram mulheres e 11 homens. A idade variou de um a 64 anos. Onze pacientes tinham entre uma e três lesões. Em relação aos reservatórios, três marsupiais foram capturados. Não foram encontrados hemoflagelados nos exames realizados. Dentre os insetos capturados, Lutzomyia umbratilis foi a espécie predominante. Grande parte dos pacientes de leishmaniose tegumentar americana tem atividades que os expõem aos vetores da Leishmania. Um grupo de pacientes foi infectado possivelmente no intra/peridomicílio. O perfil epidemiológico da leishmaniose tegumentar americana nessa comunidade é semelhante àquele observado em outros focos na região. Com essa casuística, a leishmaniose tegumentar americana é caracterizada como endêmica e como um problema de saúde pública local.In Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil, the degree of individual exposure to leishmaniasis is related to disorganized land occupation. In order to evaluate predisposing factors for an outbreak, confirm the parasitological diagnosis, treat patients, and assess etiological agents, reservoirs, and vectors, a 12-month study was conducted in Manaus in a community located along the BR-174 federal highway. Some 451 individuals were studied, among whom 17 cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL were diagnosed (six women and 11 men. Age varied from one to 64 years. Eleven patients had from one to three lesions. As for reservoirs, three opossums were

  12. A temática ambiental em representações e práticas de profissionais de saúde da família no município de Manaus - AM/Brasil The environmental theme in representations and practices of family health professionals in the municipality of Manaus - state of Amazonas /Brazil

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    Raimunda das Chagas Mendonça

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidências científicas mostram que mudanças ambientais antrópicas aumentam riscos de exposição a diversas doenças. Na Estratégia Saúde da Família - ESF, tarefas com claro enfoque ambiental são prescritas indicando às equipes de profissionais que considerem esses aspectos em suas intervenções. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi conhecer representações e práticas de profissionais de Saúde da Família de Manaus (AM sobre a questão ambiental e sua interface com a saúde pública. Os dados foram coletados por meio de observação participante e entrevistas semiestruturadas, e a análise qualitativa destes deu-se pela Análise de Conteúdo e Triangulação de Métodos. Resultados da pesquisa revelaram que a maioria dos profissionais não compreende o ambiente de forma sistêmica, mesmo tendo declarado que os fatores ambientais têm grande influência sobre a saúde humana; enquanto intervenções, as práticas educativas seguem metodologias tradicionais e são centradas na culpabilização do indivíduo e na simples transmissão de conhecimentos pontuais; o relacionamento dos profissionais com a comunidade resume-se ao atendimento individual e/ou coletivo. Concluiu-se que, para a ESF contribuir para o reordenamento do sistema, é fundamental o redirecionamento desse novo modelo de política de saúde para efetivar-se como prática social e ambiental.There are abundant scientific evidences showing that the increased risk of exposure to diseases is a consequence of anthropogenic environmental changes. In the Family Health Strategy, tasks with a clear environmental focus are prescribed, indicating to the professional teams that they should consider these aspects in their health practices. The objective of this research was to study representations and practices of Family Health Professionals of Manaus - State of Amazonas, Northern Brazil - about environmental issues and their interface with public health. Data were collected by means of

  13. Registro de Culicidae de importância epidemiológica na área rural de Manaus, Amazonas Record of epidemiologically important Culicidae in the rural area of Manaus, Amazonas

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    Maria das Graças Vale Barbosa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A biodiversidade da Região Amazônica inclui diversas espécies de vetores artrópodes em seus diferentes ecótopos, possibilitando o surgimento de doenças como malária, filarioses e arboviroses. De agosto de 2001 a julho de 2002, realizou-se coletas de culicídeos no domicílio, peridomicílio e nas matas da Comunidade São João, área rural de Manaus, Amazonas. Foram capturados 1.240 culicídeos, pertencentes às subfamílias Culicinae (99% e Anophelinae (1%, somando 50 espécies. O predomínio entre as tribos foi nitidamente de Culicini, com 904 (72,9% exemplares, destacando-se as espécies Culex usquatus (22,6% e Culex quinquefasciatus (17,7%. Do total de culicídeos, 1.077 (86,9% exemplares foram capturados no interior das matas, 101 (8,1% no peridomicílio e 62 (5% no intradomicílio. O ecótopo com maior diversidade de espécies foi a mata. Assinalou-se a presença de Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles triannulatus, Aedes aegypti, Haemagogus janthinomys e outros vetores comprovados ou potenciais.The biodiversity of the Amazon region includes many species of arthropod vectors in different ecotopes, thus enabling occurrences of diseases like malaria, filariasis and arbovirosis. From August 2001 to July 2002, we gathered culicids from inside homes, from areas surrounding these homes and from forested areas of the São João Community, in the rural zone of Manaus, State of Amazonas. 1240 specimens were collected, belonging to the Culicinae (99% and Anophelinae (1% subfamilies, with 50 species. The Culicini tribe clearly predominated, with 904 specimens (72.9%, and the species Culex usquatus (22.6% and Culex quinquefasciatus (17.7% were prominent. Out of the total number of culicids, 1,077 (86.9% were caught in the forests, 101 (8.1% in the areas surrounding homes and 62 (5% inside homes. Forests were the ecotope that presented the highest species diversity. The presence of Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles triannulatus, Aedes aegypti, Haemagogus

  14. Fauna de flebotomíneos (Diptera: Psychodidae em fragmentos de floresta ao redor de conjuntos habitacionais na cidade de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil. I. Estratificação Vertical Sand flies fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae in forest fragments around housing complexes in the Manaus municipality, state of Amazonas, Brazil. I. Vertical Stratification

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    Marlisson Augusto Costa Feitosa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available No período de janeiro a agosto de 1999 foram realizadas coletas de flebotomíneos (Diptera: Psychodidae em duas áreas de floresta residual (Estrada do Turismo e Cidade de Deus, na periferia da cidade de Manaus (AM, tendo o objetivo de verificar as espécies e a estratificação vertical. Foram utilizadas armadilhas luminosas tipo CDC, colocadas nos fragmentos de florestas a um e dez metros de altura. Foram capturados 7.516 flebotomíneos distribuídos em 45 espécies; 4.836 espécimes, de 36 espécies, na estrada de Turismo e 2.680 exemplares, de 40 espécies, na Cidade de Deus. Predominaram na Estrada do Turismo Lutzomyia umbratilis e L. ubiquitalis e na Cidade de Deus, L. umbratilis e L. anduzei. A presença de algumas espécies, apenas em certas áreas, indica a adaptabilidade destes flebotomíneos em áreas sobre ação antrópica.Between January and August of 1999, a study was carried out on the phlebotomine (Diptera: Psychodidae sand flies occurrence in two areas of residual forest (Estrada do Turismo and Cidade de Deus, in the periphery of Manaus, AM. The objective of this study was to verify the Phlebotominae sand fly fauna and vertical stratification. CDC light traps were placed in the forests, one to ten meters in height. A total of 7.516 sand flies, distributed in 45 species, were captured: 4.836 specimens of 36 species in the Estrada do Turismo and 2.680 individuals of 40 species in the Cidade de Deus.Predominant in the Estrada do Turismo were the species Lutzomyia umbratilis and L. ubiquitalis were as L. umbratilis and L. anduzei prevailed in the Cidade de Deus. Different Phlebotominae sand fly species in certain areas, showed an adaptation of these sand flies to areas of human activity.

  15. Molecular Epidemiology of Epidemic Severe Malaria Caused by Plasmodium vivax in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Santos-Ciminera, Patricia D

    2005-01-01

    .... In Manaus, the capital of Amazonas, atypical cases of Plasmodium vivax infections, including patients presenting with severe thrombocytopenia and bleeding, led to the hypothesis that severe disease...

  16. Epidemiology of infectious meningitis in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Maria das Graças Gomes Saraiva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In the State of Amazonas, particularly in the capital Manaus, meningitis has affected populations of different cultures and social strata over the years. Bacterial meningitis is caused by several different species and represents a major issue of public health importance. The present study reports the meningitis case numbers with different etiologies in Amazonas from January 1976 to December 2012. METHODS: Since the 1970s, the (currently named Tropical Medicine Foundation of Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado [Fundação de Medicina Tropical Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD] has remained a reference center in Amazonas for the treatment of meningitis through the diagnosis and notification of cases and the confirmation of such cases using specific laboratory tests. RESULTS: The foundation has achieved coverage of over 90% of the state medical records for many years. Between 1990 and 2012, meningitis cases caused by Haemophilus influenzae decreased with the introduction of the H. influenzae vaccine. Meningococcal disease previously had a higher frequency of serogroup B disease, but starting in 2008, the detection of serogroup C increased gradually and has outpaced the detection of serogroup B. Recently, surveillance has improved the etiological definition of viral meningitis at FMT-HVD, with enteroviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and varicella zoster virus (VZV prevailing in this group of pathogens. With the advent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, cryptococcal meningitis has become an important disease in Amazonas. Additionally, infectious meningitis is an important burden in the State of Amazonas. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in the epidemiological profile for the different etiology-defined cases are the result of continuous epidemiological surveillance and laboratory capacity improvements and control measures, such as Haemophilus influenzae vaccination.

  17. Primeiro registro de Eufriesea laniventris (Ducke, 1902 (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossini no Amazonas, Brasil First record of Eufriesea laniventris (Ducke, 1902 (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossini in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Eliana Fernandez Storti

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available É registrada pela primeira vez a ocorrência de Eufriesea laniventris no Amazonas. No ano 2000, foram coletados seis exemplares na região de Manaus (2º 36' S e 60º 02' W atraídos pelas substâncias odoríferas 1,8 cineol e salicilato de metila.The first record of Eufriesea laniventris in the state of Amazonas is here reported. Attracted to 1.8 cineole and methyl salicylate fragrances, six specimens were colected in the region of Manaus (2º 36' S 60º 02' W during the year 2000.

  18. A organização do desembarque e o comércio de pescado na década de 1990 em Manaus, Amazonas Landing and fish commercialization in the decade of 1990 in the Manaus fishing harbor, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Valdenei de Melo Parente

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A maior parte da produção pesqueira do Estado do Amazonas é desembarcada em Manaus, entretanto, as características de organização do apoio à produção e da comercialização neste centro, pouco têm sido avaliadas ou consideradas nas discussões para o desenvolvimento do setor. O presente trabalho visa apresentar estas características de forma a estabelecer um referencial histórico sobre a organização do desembarque pesqueiro em Manaus e para subsidiar o planejamento do setor. Entrevistas foram efetuadas com diversos atores deste setor, de forma a cobrir o mosaico de alternativas que existem para o abastecimento de pescado. Há quatro tipos de agentes de comercialização atacadista de pescado para Manaus: o barco de pesca, o despachante, o atravessador e os frigoríficos. O despachante aparece como ator central no processo produtivo pesqueiro no período, seja por financiar as viagens e operações de comercialização, ou por executar a ligação entre os produtores-pescadores e os comerciantes de pescado. Exceção a esta regra ocorre com o "pescador ribeirinho autônomo", o qual pesca com seus próprios meios e comercializa sua produção com compradores sem intermediação. No comércio varejista, os feirantes são os mais importantes, sendo a Feira da Panair responsável por cerca de 20% do abastecimento do pescado in natura em Manaus. Os supermercados e os pequenos comerciantes são os demais agentes varejistas, cuja participação na comercialização da produção era ainda pequena, porém financeiramente é maior visto que disponibilizam produtos com valor agregado e portanto preços maiores a mercados de classe média que o dos feirantes.Manaus is the main commercial center for fish prodution in the state of Amazonas. However, its characteristics of commercialization have not been evaluated in order to assist the development of the fishery sector. The present paper presents these characteristics to establish a historical

  19. Fungos emboloradores e manchadores de madeira em toras estocadas em indústrias madeireiras no município de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil Mould and stain fungi in logs stored in wood industries of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Rogério Eiji Hanada

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Visando conhecer a diversidade e a incidência de fungos emboloradores e manchadores de madeira da região Amazônica, foi realizado um levantamento em 12 espécies florestais, estocadas em quatro indústrias madeireiras de Manaus. De cada espécie florestal selecionaram-se cinco toras, das quais retiraram-se amostras de onde procedeu-se isolamento dos fungos. Foram isolados 106 fungos associados às essências florestais, representados por nove gêneros e por dezesseis espécies. Paecilomyces variotii e Lasiodiplodia theobromae foram as espécies fúngicas mais freqüentemente associadas às espécies florestais. Ceiba pentandra e Hura crepitans foram as essências florestais que apresentaram maior diversidade de fungos, com sete espécies cada uma. Hymeneae courbaril foi a que apresentou menor diversidade de fungo, com apenas uma espécie.In order to know a diversity and incidence of wood mould and wood stain fungi from Amazonian wood, the survey and identification of these kinds of fungi were carried out in twelve wood species from four wood industries of Manaus, Amazonas. Five logs were randomly selected. Wood samples were prepared and transported to the Wood Pathology Laboratory at the Forest Product Research Center of the National Institute for Amazonian Research, where the isolation and identification of the fungi were conducted. One hundred and six fungi associated to the wood species were isolated, represented by nine genera and sixteen fungi species. Paecilomyces variotti and Lasiodiplodia theobromae were the more representative fungi, associated with ten and seven wood species respectively. Ceiba pentandra e Hura crepitans were the wood species with highest diversity of fungi, with seven species each. Hymenae courbaril was the wood that presented the lowest diversity of fungi, with only one fungus.

  20. Uranium isotopes in groundwater occurring at Amazonas State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luiz da Silva, Márcio; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the behavior of the dissolved U-isotopes 238 U and 234 U in groundwater providing from 15 cities in Amazonas State, Brazil. The isotope dilution technique accompanied by alpha spectrometry were utilized for acquiring the U content and 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio (AR) data, 0.01–1.4 µg L −1 and 1.0–3.5, respectively. These results suggest that the water is circulating in a reducing environment and leaching strata containing minerals with low uranium concentration. A tendency to increasing ARs values following the groundwater flow direction is identified in Manaus city. The AR also increases according to the SW–NE directions: Uarini→Tefé; Manacapuru→Manaus; Presidente Figueiredo→São Sebastião do Uatumã; and Boa Vista do Ramos→Parintins. Such trends are possibly related to several factors, among them the increasing acid character of the waters. The waters analyzed are used for human consumption and the highest dissolved U content is much lower than the maximum established by the World Health Organization. Therefore, in view of this radiological parameter they can be used for drinking purposes. - Highlights: • U-isotopes data in important aquifer systems in Amazon area. • Application of the U-isotopes data to investigate the groundwater flow direction. • Evaluation of the drinking-water quality in terms of dissolved uranium

  1. [Study of the association between socio-environmental factors and the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in the suburbs of the city of Manaus in the state of Amazonas, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Silvia; Giatti, Leandro Luiz; Carvalho, Ricardo Augusto Chaves de; Guerreiro, Jose Camilo Hurtado

    2011-08-01

    This study assesses the association between socio-environmental factors and urban sanitation conditions with the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in a community on the periphery of the city of Manaus. The study comprised a socio-environmental survey and a parasitological inquiry. A heterogeneous community was revealed with some socio-economic and environmental differences between the micro-areas evaluated, even though the urban sanitation conditions were found to be predominantly precarious. The prevalence of intestinal parasitosis was 44.2%. There was no significant difference between the micro-areas that could explain the occurrence of intestinal parasitosis. An association was found between intestinal parasitosis and residential building types, age bracket and the quality of the water used for personal hygiene and consumption in the home. Open air sewage was a risk factor associated with intestinal parasitosis (OR=6.72; p=0.034) and also with intestinal protozoa (OR=21.87; p=0.004). In terms of the presence of protozoa, two risk factors were verified: the dumping of sewage directly into the river system (OR=12.98; p=0.011) and the use of rudimentary cesspits (OR=9.54; p=0.019).

  2. Temporal distribution of tuberculosis in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Marlucia da Silva Garrido

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is one of the infectious diseases that contributes most to the morbidity and mortality of millions of people worldwide. Brazil is one of 22 countries that accounts for 80% of the tuberculosis global burden. The highest incidence rates in Brazil occur in the States of Amazonas and Rio de Janeiro. The aim of this study was to describe the temporal distribution of TB in the State of Amazonas. Between 2001 and 2011, 28,198 cases of tuberculosis were reported in Amazonas, distributed among 62 municipalities, with the capital Manaus reporting the highest (68.7% concentration of cases. Tuberculosis was more prevalent among males (59.3% aged 15 to 34 years old (45.5%, whose race/color was predominantly pardo (64.7% and who had pulmonary TB (84.3%. During this period, 81 cases of multidrug-resistant TB were registered, of which the highest concentration was reported from 2008 onward (p = 0.002. The municipalities with the largest numbers of indigenous individuals affected were São Gabriel da Cachoeira (93%, Itamarati (78.1%, and Santa Isabel do Rio Negro (70.1%. The future outlook for this region includes strengthening the TB control at the primary care level, by expanding diagnostic capabilities, access to treatment, research projects developed in collaboration with the Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado Tropical Medicine Foundation .;Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD.; and financing institutions, such as the project for the expansion of the Clinical Research Center and the creation of a hospital ward for individuals with transmissible respiratory diseases, including TB.

  3. Development Period of Forensic Importance Calliphoridae (Diptera: Brachycera in Urban Area Under Natural Conditions in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Alex Barros-Souza

    2012-06-01

    Resumo. Para descrever o tempo de desenvolvimento dos imaturos de Calliphoridae sob condições naturais, dois experimentos foram realizados no Campus II do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas, um na estação chuvosa e o outro na estação menos chuvosa. Cadáveres de porcos domésticos (25kg cada foram utilizados como substrato atrativo para a ovipostura dos califorídeos. Fêmeas grávidas de Calliphoridae foram coletadas e os ovos foram transferidos para potes plásticos contendo placas de Petri com carne bovina moída. As espécies criadas, com respectivo tempo de desenvolvimento de ovo a adulto (em dias, na estação mais chuvosa e menos chuvosa, foram: Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 14,5 e 9,4 dias, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 10,7 e 9,4, Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius, 11,5 e 10,7 Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann 19,4 e 14,3 e Paralucilia paraensis (Mello, 11,8 dias, essa criada somente na estação menos chuvosa. Este é o primeiro registro do tempo de desenvolvimento de P. paraensis.

  4. Impact of the Manaus urban plume on trace gas mixing ratios near the surface in the Amazon Basin: Implications for the NO-NO2-O-3 photostationary state and peroxy radical levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trebs, I.; Mayol-Bracero, O.L.; Pauliquevis, T.; Kuhn, U.; Sander, R.; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Meixner, F.X.; Kesselmeier, J.; Artaxo, P.; Andreae, M.O.

    2012-01-01

    We measured the mixing ratios of NO, NO2, O-3, and volatile organic carbon as well as the aerosol light-scattering coefficient on a boat platform cruising on rivers downwind of the city of Manaus (Amazonas State, Brazil) in July 2001 (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in

  5. Predation of Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae, Apiomerini over Meliponinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Alexandre Coletto da Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows the occurrence of an intense predatory activity on adults working Meliponinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, by Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius, 1787 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae, Apiomerini at a meliponary in the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil.O presente trabalho registra a ocorrência de intensa atividade predatória de Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius, 1787 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorini, Apiomerini sobre operárias adultas de meliponíneos (Hymenoptera, Apidae, no meliponário experimental do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. O meliponário se encontra num fragmento de vegetação secundária no próprio INPA.

  6. Hymenoptera stings in Brazil: a neglected health threat in Amazonas State

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    Allyson Guimarães Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hymenoptera injuries are commonly caused by stinging insects. In Amazonas state, Brazil, there is no information regarding distribution, profile, and systemic manifestations associated with Hymenoptera injuries. METHODS: This study aimed to identify risk factors for systemic manifestation using the Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (2007 to 2015. RESULTS: Half of Hymenoptera injuries were caused by bee stings. Hymenoptera injuries were concentrated in Manaus, and 13.36% of cases displayed systemic signs. Delayed medical assistance (4 to 12 hours presented four times more risk for systemic manifestations. CONCLUSIONS: Simple clinical observations and history of injury are critical information for prognostic improvement.

  7. Estudo da associação entre fatores socioambientais e prevalência de parasitose intestinal em área periférica da cidade de Manaus (AM, Brasil Study of the association between socio-environmental factors and the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in the suburbs of the city of Manaus in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Silvia Visser

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a associação entre fatores socioambientais e condições de saneamento urbano com a prevalência de parasitoses intestinais, em uma comunidade na periferia da cidade de Manaus. O estudo consistiu de um levantamento socioambiental e de um inquérito parasitológico. Foi encontrada uma comunidade heterogênea, apresentando diferenças em relação aos níveis socioeconômicos e ambientais entre as micro-áreas avaliadas, embora as condições de saneamento básico da comunidade tenham-se mostrado precárias de uma forma geral. A prevalência de parasitose intestinal foi de 44,2%. Não foi identificada diferença significativa entre as micro-áreas com respeito à ocorrência de parasitoses intestinais. Houve associação entre parasitoses intestinais e tipo de construção residencial, faixa etária e procedência da água de higiene pessoal e do lar. O despejo do esgoto a céu aberto foi fator de risco associado a parasitoses intestinais (OR=6,72; p=0,034 e a protozoários intestinais (OR=21,87; p=0,004. Foram fatores de risco, apenas para a presença de protozoários, o despejo de esgoto em igarapé (OR=12,98; p=0,011 e o uso de fossa rudimentar (OR=9,54; p=0,019.This study assesses the association between socio-environmental factors and urban sanitation conditions with the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in a community on the periphery of the city of Manaus. The study comprised a socio-environmental survey and a parasitological inquiry. A heterogeneous community was revealed with some socio-economic and environmental differences between the micro-areas evaluated, even though the urban sanitation conditions were found to be predominantly precarious. The prevalance of intestinal parasitosis was 44.2%. There was no significant difference between the micro-areas that could explain the occurrence of intestinal parasitosis. An association was found between intestinal parasitosis and residential building

  8. Artrópodes em ninhos de Columba livia Gmelin, 1789 (Aves, Columbidae em área urbana de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil.

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    Guilherme Maerschner Ogawa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo. Foi realizado um estudo sobre artrópodes que vivem em ninhos de Columba livia Gmelin 1789, ave conhecida como pombo urbano e que nidifica em construções humanas, com o intuito de inventariar as espécies de artrópodes associadas. Foram coletados 14 ninhos de C. livia em nove bairros da área urbana de Manaus os quais foram levados ao laboratótio e colocados em um extrator do tipo Berlese-Tulgren por 12 dias, para a captura dos artrópodes. Foram encontrados 10.323 artrópodes, pertencentes a 3 subfilos, 3 classes, 14 ordens e 33famílias. Acari foi mais abundante com 7.879 indivíduos, sendo o gênero Caloglyphus Berlese, 1923, o mais representativo (75%. A maioria das espécies encontradas é detritívora. A diversidade de artrópodes foi menor em Manaus se comparada à registrada em trabalhos da região Paleártica, provavelmente por C. livia ser uma espécie exótica na fauna Neotropical. Arthropods in the nests of Columba livia Gmelin 1789 (Aves, Columbidae in the urban area of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Abstract. The objective of this study was identify the arthropod fauna in nests of the urban pigeon, Columba livia Gmelin 1789 who build their nests in man-made buildings. Fourteen nests were collected in nine districts of the built up area of the city of Manaus. For twelve days, arthropods were extracted in a Berlese-Tulgren funnel. A total of 10.323 arthropods representing 3 subphyla, 3 classes, 14 orders and 33 families were detected. Acari was the most abundant group with 7879 individuals. Mites of the genus Caloglyphus Berlese, 1923, made up over 75 % of all arthropods collected. Most of the arthropods extracted are detrivorous and apterous. The diversity found in Manaus was lower than that reported for samples collected in the Palearctic Region, probably because C. livia is exotic in the Neotropical fauna. The introduction of this pigeon can be responsible for a major contact between some arthropods and humans.

  9. Associação micorrízica e teores de nutrientes nas folhas de cupuaçuzeiro (Theobroma grandiflorum e guaranazeiro (Paullinia cupana de um sistema agroflorestal em Manaus, Amazonas Arbuscular mycorrhizal association and foliar nutrient concentrations of cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum and guaraná (Paullinia cupana plants in an agroforestry system in Manaus, AM, Brazil

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    A. N. Oliveira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available As micorrizas arbusculares podem ser importantes na nutrição das plantas em solos ácidos e de baixa fertilidade, como são os da Amazônia de modo geral. Avaliaram-se a colonização radicular por fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs nativos e os teores de nutrientes em cupuaçuzeiro e guaranazeiro em um sistema agroflorestal no município de Manaus, Amazonas. Dez plantas de cada espécie foram selecionadas, das quais foram coletadas amostras de raiz, folha e solo durante o período seco e chuvoso da região de Manaus. Os guaranazeiros e os cupuaçuzeiros apresentaram maior colonização radicular por FMAs na época chuvosa. Os teores foliares de Ca, Mg, K, P, Zn, Cu e Mn nas duas espécies não foram influenciados pelas épocas de amostragem. O teor de Fe nas folhas dos cupuaçuzeiros foi maior na época chuvosa, enquanto o dos guaranazeiros, na época seca. A colonização micorrízica correlacionou-se com a concentração foliar de Ca, Mg, P e Cu nos cupuaçuzeiros e com a de Ca, Fe, Zn e Cu nos guaranazeiros.Arbuscular mycorrhiza can be important for plant nutrition in acid and low fertility soils such as those of the Amazon. The present study evaluated the mycorrhizal colonization by native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and nutrient concentrations of cupuassu and guarana leaves in an agroforestry system in Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. Ten plants of each species were selected, of which the roots, soil and leaves were sampled during the rainy and dry seasons. Guarana and cupuassu trees presented higher levels of AMF colonization during the rainy season. Ca, Mg, K, P, Zn, Cu, and Mn concentrations in both species were not affected by the season. Fe concentration was higher during the rainy season in the cupuassu leaves, but higher in the dry season in the guarana leaves. Mycorrhizal colonization correlated with Ca, Mg, P, and Cu concentrations in cupuassu plants and with Ca, Fe, Zn, and Cu in guarana plants.

  10. Situação das indústrias madeireiras do Estado do Amazonas em 2000 Lumber industries situation in 2000 in Amazonas State

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    José Ricardo Araújo Lima

    2005-06-01

    industries of the State of Amazonas to better understand the processes of production, industrialization and commercialization, and evaluate their influence on the sustainability of tropical forests. This information is very important in order to establish forest policies for the region. After defining the main forest industry (producers of lumber, plywood and veneer zones of the State, data were collected directly from the forest industries as well as from IBAMA, SUFRAMA, SEFAZ and IBGE. Manaus, Itacoatiara, Manacapuru and Parintins were the main municipalities of sawn products; and Manaus and Itacoatiara for plywood and veneer. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect information such as main tree species, transformation productivity, origin of raw material, transportation, personnel qualification and training, and exportation. In 2000, the annual roundwood production in the State of Amazonas was 323,400m³ (divided equally among sawmill and plywood and veneer industries. More than 50 different tree species are used in the Amazonas sawmills; but only 16 represent 80% of the total volume. Plywood and veneer industries use 17 tree species. Louro inhamui, angelim pedra, amapá, assacu and maçaranduba are the main species for sawmills; while muiratinga, sumaúma, copaíba, assacu and amapá for plywood and veneer industries.

  11. Temporal Distribution of Blowflies of Forensic Importance (Diptera: Calliphoridae, in Man-Size Domestic Pigs Carcasses, in the Forest Reserve Adolpho Ducke, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Alexandre Ururahy-Rodrigues

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the must forensic importance insect families is Calliphoridae (Diptera and different species of this family were used to demonstrate the efficiency of the experimental model used in this study. The experiments were performed with domestic pig models (approximately 60 kg in Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve (Manaus, Amazonas. To minimize the effect of repeated samplings in the same model (a result of pseudoreplication, two models were used to answer two questions: 1 What is the species composition and temporal distribution of Calliphoridae adults? 2 What is the species composition and temporal distribution of Calliphoridae that effectively colonized the carcass? Six pseudoreplicates were studied in three periods: from 06/30/2005 to 07/30/2005 (less rainy season, from 10/18/2005 to 11/17/2005 (transition period between the two seasons and from 03/15/2006 to 04/14/2006 (rainy season. The immatures and adults collected were identified as forensic indicators. The decomposition process presented five stages (fresh, bloated, decay, adipocere-like and skeletonization. The first four days included the first three stages of decomposition and were the most attractive to the Calliphoridae. The three taxa that were most abundant, regular and with highest peaks in the first four samples of each experiment were, in ascending order: Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani, Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius e Paralucilia spp.. Linear regressions showed low values of F and high values of P, indicating that rain did not influence the sampling results.

  12. Destino ambiental dos agrot?xicos e avalia??o de risco ambiental e humano nos munic?pios de Manaus, Iranduba e Careiro da V?rzea, no Estado do Amazonas

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Paola Souto

    2009-01-01

    O plantio de frutas e hortali?as no Estado do Amazonas est? sendo realizado com intensivo uso de agrot?xicos. Esta utiliza??o abusiva e incorreta pode estar acarretando a contamina??o ambiental e tamb?m dos agricultores e consumidores das frutas e verduras produzidas. Desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o risco para o ambiente e a sa?de humana associado ao uso de agrot?xico em ?reas agr?colas do munic?pio de Manaus, Iranduba e Careiro da V?rzea. Res?duos de agrot?xicos (deltame...

  13. Avaliação de danos por insetos em toras estocadas em indústrias madeireiras de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil

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    Abreu Raimunda Liége Souza de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Em seis indústrias madeireiras de Manaus, Amazonas, foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa, com a utilização de um questionário,para averiguar as condições de uso e processamento da madeira e as medidas preventivas contra o ataque de insetos. Foram realizados, também,um levantamento da ocorrência de insetos em 19 espécies de madeiras utilizadas por essas indústrias e a avaliação do dano provocado pelas principais espécies de Coleoptera (besouros e Isoptera (cupins. Das respostas apuradas, constatou-se que nenhuma das empresas visitadas emprega qualquer produto para prevenir o ataque de insetos às toras, assim como a secagem e a estocagem das toras são feitas de forma incorreta, contribuindo para aumentar a intensidade de ataque de insetos. Foram encontradas uma família de cupins e 16 de besouros, ressaltando que destas apenas cinco causam danos à madeira. Do total de 13 espécies de insetos coletados, destacam-se Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff e Platypus parallelus (Fabricius, encontradas em 18 espécies madeireiras, sendo conseqüentemente responsáveis pela maioria dos danos nas toras X. volvulus (Fabricius e Platypus sp. foram encontradas em cinco espécies; X. ferrugineus (Fabricius em três espécies; Minthea rugicolis Walk, Minthea sp. e Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky em duas, e Dinoderus bifoveolatus Wollaston, Anoplotermes sp.; e Cnesinus sp. em uma. As espécies de madeiras que sofreram maior grau de deterioração, causada principalmente por coleópteros, foram Ceiba pentandra (L. Gaertn. e Copaifera multijuga Hayne, seguidas por Couroupitaguianensis Aubl., Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess., Cedrela odorata L., Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg., Hura crepitans L., Hymenolobium sp., Maquira coriacea (Karsten C.C. Berg, Nectandra sp., Virolasurinamensis Warb. e Vochysia sp.

  14. Biosurfactants produced by Microbacterium sp., isolated from aquatic macrophytes in hydrocarbon-contaminated area in the Rio Negro, Manaus, Amazonas

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    João Marcelo Silva Lima

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria isolated from Eichhornia crassipes (Mart Solms., collected in oil contaminated wastewater of effluent generated by Petrobras refinery in Manaus were investigated to determine their potential for producing biosurfactants. Assay with 2.6-dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP indicator to verify hydrocarbon biodegradation activity; oil emulsification test; drop-collapse method; surface tension and growth curve of biosurfactant production. The M87 Microbacterium sp. strain chosen for this work was identified by the sequencing of the rDNA region and the chemical characterization was performed by FTIR, UFLC/MS and 1H RMN techniques. The selected bacterial isolate provided 3g L-1 of biosurfactant, using diesel oil as sole carbon source, being efficient in biodegrading oil as demonstrated by the DCPIP test. Fractions obtained by column chromatography were efficient in reducing water surface tension around 40 mN m-1, especially fraction 1, which reduced it to 34.17 mN m-1. The different techniques of chemical analysis used for the identification of the biosurfactant isolate indicated that this is probably a long - chain fatty acid lipid type, which may be used in the future as both biosurfactant in decontamination processes of hydrocarbon-polluted areas or as bioemulsifier in countless processes, since it exhibited no toxicity as determined by Alamar Blue assay.

  15. Small scale production of vegetal coal in the state of Amazonas, Brazil: legal and social-economical aspects; Producao de carvao vegetal em pequena escala no Amazonas: aspectos legais e socio-ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Roberto Ferreira de; Souza, Rubem Cesar Rodrigues de [Amazonas Univ., Manaus, AM (Brazil). Nucleo de Eficiencia Energetica (NEFEN)]. E-mail: nefen_ua@objetivomao.br

    2000-07-01

    Being a form of cheap energy, abundant and accessible, the vegetable coal is quite often used generally in the urban and rural areas in the Amazonas state, domestic and commercial use as well. Several families live of the production activity and commercialization of vegetable coal inside the State of Amazonas. However, actions of government organs of the environment area turn more and more difficult the exercise of those activities, creating a situation of clandestine production and in some cases making unfeasible the only form of subsistence of several families. Besides the legal aspect there exist the low technological level, being the production of vegetable coal done in ovens of the type 'hot tail', which cause problems for the users health. The mentioned subjects are discussed in that work based on the study accomplished at three places producing the vegetable coal in the the State of Amazonas hinter side, in the proximities of Manaus. Through the information obtained in the communities a proposal is presented for the small scale production of vegetable coal in a economical, social and environmentally self sustainable way. (author)

  16. Tegumentary leishmaniasis in the State of Amazonas: what have we learned and what do we need?

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    Jorge Augusto de Oliveira Guerra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the occurrence of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, in the last 30 years with emphasis on the last 10 years (2001 to 2010. The disease was predominantly observed in males (76.2%, in the 21- to 30-year-old age group (26.6% and in extractive workers (43.7%; 3.3% of the cases were the mucosal form. The endemic channel shows the disease seasonality, with a predominance of cases at the beginning and end of each year. The number of cases by municipality in the period of 2001-2010 shows the maintenance of the endemic in the localities where the highest numbers of cases have always been registered, namely, Manaus, Rio Preto da Eva, Itacoatiara and Presidente Figueiredo. The comparison of data from 2001 to 2005 and from 2006 to 2010 showed the emergence of this disease in municipalities that had been previously unaffected. In the last years, there has been a significant increase in the activities of control, diagnosis and treatment of leishmaniasis in the State of Amazonas. In conclusion, the historical series of ATL analyzed in this study suggests that the transmission foci remain and are even expanding, though without continuous transmission in the intra- or peridomicile settings. Moreover, the disease will persist in the Amazon while the factors associated with infection acquisition relative to forest exploitation continue to have economic appeal. There is a real expectation of wide variations in disease incidence that can be influenced by climate and economic aspects.

  17. Malaria in the State of Amazonas: a typical Brazilian tropical disease influenced by waves of economic development

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    Vanderson Souza Sampaio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, more than 99% of malaria cases are reported in the Amazon, and the State of Amazonas accounts for 40% of this total. However, the accumulated experience and challenges in controlling malaria in this region in recent decades have not been reported. Throughout the first economic cycle during the rubber boom (1879 to 1912, malaria was recorded in the entire state, with the highest incidence in the villages near the Madeira River in the Southern part of the State of Amazonas. In the 1970s, during the second economic development cycle, the economy turned to the industrial sector and demanded a large labor force, resulting in a large migratory influx to the capital Manaus. Over time, a gradual increase in malaria transmission was observed in peri-urban areas. In the 1990s, the stimulation of agroforestry, particularly fish farming, led to the formation of permanent Anopheline breeding sites and increased malaria in settlements. The estimation of environmental impacts and the planning of measures to mitigate them, as seen in the construction of the Coari-Manaus gas pipeline, proved effective. Considering the changes occurred since the Amsterdam Conference in 1992, disease control has been based on early diagnosis and treatment, but the development of parasites that are resistant to major antimalarial drugs in Brazilian Amazon has posed a new challenge. Despite the decreased lethality and the gradual decrease in the number of malaria cases, disease elimination, which should be associated with government programs for economic development in the region, continues to be a challenge.

  18. Diversity and distribution of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae in a military area in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Luís Henrique Monteiro Gomes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the distribution, ecotopes and fauna diversity of sandflies captured in five training bases on a military reserve in Manaus, state of Amazonas (AM. A total of 10,762 specimens were collected, which were distributed among 58 species, with the highest number recorded at Base Instruction 1 (BI1. A higher rate of species richness was found at the Base Instruction Boina Rajada and low levels of diversity associated with a high abundance index with the clear dominance of Lutzomyia umbratilis, Lutzomyia ruii and Lutzomyia anduzei were found at BI1. The abundance of Lu. umbratilis raises the possibility of outbreaks of American cutaneous leishmaniasis by the main vector of the disease in AM.

  19. Diversity and distribution of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a military area in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Luís Henrique Monteiro; Albuquerque, Maria Ivonei Carvalho; da Rocha, Liliane Coelho; Pinheiro, Francimeire Gomes; Franco, Antonia Maria Ramos

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the distribution, ecotopes and fauna diversity of sandflies captured in five training bases on a military reserve in Manaus, state of Amazonas (AM). A total of 10,762 specimens were collected, which were distributed among 58 species, with the highest number recorded at Base Instruction 1 (BI1). A higher rate of species richness was found at the Base Instruction Boina Rajada and low levels of diversity associated with a high abundance index with the clear dominance of Lutzomyia umbratilis, Lutzomyia ruii and Lutzomyia anduzei were found at BI1. The abundance of Lu. umbratilis raises the possibility of outbreaks of American cutaneous leishmaniasis by the main vector of the disease in AM. PMID:23903983

  20. Anemia e marcadores séricos da deficiência de ferro em grávidas atendidas na rede pública municipal de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil Anemia and serum markers of iron deficiency in pregnant women attended by Public Health Service in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Carolina Marinho da Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a anemia em grávidas, associando os resultados da dosagem de hemoglobina e hematócrito com a análise de marcadores do perfil sérico do ferro. Participaram do estudo 92 grávidas que estavam realizando pré-natal em unidades de atendimento à saúde no Município de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil. Foi aplicado um formulário para obtenção dos dados antropométricos e informações sobre estilo de vida, além de serem realizadas dosagens dos níveis séricos de ferro, capacidade latente de ligação do ferro (CLLF, capacidade total de ligação do ferro (CTLF, índice de saturação da transferrina (IST, transferrina, ferritina e níveis sanguíneos de hemoglobina e hematócrito por metodologia automatizada utilizando kits comerciais disponíveis. Foram encontradas 26,1% de grávidas com níveis de hemoglobina abaixo de 11 g/dL. Observou-se que 17,4% das grávidas com níveis normais de hemoglobina apresentavam níveis inadequados de ferro sérico e 9,8% apresentavam níveis baixos de ferritina sérica. Os níveis de ferritina e de hemoglobina apresentaram diferença significativa entre os trimestres de gestação (p This study aimed to evaluate anemia in pregnant women, comparing results of hemoglobin and hemotocrit dosages with analysis of iron serum status markers. 92 pregnant women, in pre-natal attendance in Public Health Service of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, participated in this study. A questionnaire was used to access anthropometric data and life style information. Serum levels of iron, latent iron binding capacity (LIBC, total iron binding capacity (TIBC, transferrin saturation (TS, transferrin, ferritin, and blood levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit were measured by automated methods, using commercially available kits. The study showed that 26.1% of the pregnant women had hemoglobin levels below 11 g/dL. Also, of the pregnant women with normal levels of hemoglobin, 17.4% showed inadequate iron

  1. A profile of scorpionism, including the species of scorpions involved, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Cícero Lucinaldo Soares de Oliveira; Fé, Nelson Ferreira; Sampaio, Iracilda; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: INTRODUCTION This study investigated scorpionism profile in the State of Amazonas, Brazil. METHODS: Data referring to stinging incidents were obtained from the National Databank of Major Causes of Morbidity. Information on the scorpion species involved was obtained from the Amazonas State health units. RESULTS: Amazonas has a scorpionism rate of 8.14 cases/100,000 inhabitants. Some municipalities (e.g., Apuí) presented higher rates (273 cases/100,000 inhabitants). Most species...

  2. Caracterização do uso de malhadeiras pela frota pesqueira que desembarca em Manaus e Manacapuru, Amazonas Characterization of gillnet fisheries landed in Manaus and Manacapuru, Central Amazon

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    Valdelira Lia Araújo Fernandes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A malhadeira é um apetrecho de pesca frequentemente utilizado na pesca regional. O presente estudo visa verificar características das malhadeiras utilizadas nos diversos subsistemas da Amazônia Central, seu uso e a aplicação de normas legais relacionadas. Os dados foram obtidos por meio de entrevistas com pescadores em Manaus entre 1994 e 2004 e em Manacapuru entre 2001 e 2004. Os resultados indicaram que o apetrecho responde em média a 14% da produção pesqueira de Manaus, com tendência a diminuição e a 24,5% de Manacapuru, com estabilidade interanual. As freqüências modais recentes do tamanho de malha estiveram entre 50-60 mm no desembarque em Manaus, mas em Manacapuru foram mais diversas, entre 20 mm e 90 mm. A moda do comprimento das redes foi de 100 m em ambos portos, mas se em Manaus correspondem a cerca de 90% das registradas, em Manacapuru não são nem 50% do total. Quanto à freqüência de ocorrência de uso da malhadeira nos subsistemas da Amazônia Central que desembarcaram em Manaus, destaca-se o rio Purus (47,8%, enquanto que para Manacapuru predominou explotação no Baixo Solimões (94,3%. A composição das capturas variou entre os anos analisados, destacando cinco principais pescados que compõem mais de 70% das capturas: tambaqui, aruanã, tucunaré, curimatá, pirapitinga. Com relação às restrições no tamanho de malha, a maioria dos apetrechos têm tamanho de malha passível de uso ilegal, similarmente aos comprimentos das mesmas. Concluiu-se que há grande diversidade de formas de uso do apetrecho, sendo necessário gerar normas legais mais efetivas e compatíveis com a realidade pesqueira, cultural e sócio-econômica da Amazônia.The gillnet is frequently used in Amazon commercial and artisanal fishing. The present study aims to verify characteristics of the gill-nets of gillnets found in various Central Amazon subsystems, their use, and compliance with related legal norms. Daily Interviews were made from

  3. Mortality by suicide: a focus on municipalities with a high proportion of self-reported indigenous people in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Jesem Douglas Yamall Orellana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze mortality rates and to describe the demographic and epidemiological characteristics of suicides recorded in the state of Amazonas. Methods: A descriptive and retrospective study has been carried out with emphasis on municipalities, which have shown, simultaneously, a high mortality rates and a high proportion of self-reported indigenous population, based on 2005 - 2009 data as provided by the Informatics Department of the Unified National Health System. Results: Among the general population of the state of Amazonas, the mortality rate, by suicide, of 4.2/100.000 inhabitants has been reported, similar to that of Manaus (4.6/100.000 inhabitants. In contrast, at Tabatinga (25.2/100.000 inhabitants, at São Gabriel da Cachoeira (27.6/100.000 inhabitants and at Santa Isabel do Rio Negro (36.4/100.000 inhabitants, municipalities, where the proportion of self-reported indigenous population is high, besides the taxes being notably higher, it was observed that most of the suicides has occurred among men; among young men aged between 15 - 24 years; at home; by hanging; during "weekend" and among the indigenous population. Discussion: Our findings have unveiled that suicide comes forth as a serious public health issue in some municipalities in the state of Amazonas, further indicating that the event occurs within very specific contexts, and that the dimension and the magnitude of the problem can be even more serious among populations or in territories exclusively inhabited by indigenous people.

  4. Preliminary study of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus infection in Manaus Hospital, Amazonia Region, Brazil Estudo preliminar das infeccões por Staphylococcus aureus na comunidade de um Hospital em Manaus, Região do Amazonas, Brasil

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    Jesus M. Egido

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus is considered a public health problem with a strong potential for dissemination and high rates of morbidity and mortality. In this study we describe bacteriological and epidemiological characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus in Manaus (Amazon region. During the one-year study period (2000-2001, sixteen cases of acute pyogenic multiple abscess were evaluated. Community-acquired S. aureus was identified as causative agent in 10 (62.5% patients. The strains tested with antimicrobials by discs diffusion method, exhibited a high rate of sensitivity to cephalexin (100%, erythromycin (90%. Oxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus was 90%. No isolate was resistant to Vancomycin. To our knowledge, no series of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus in Manaus hospital has been published. Our partial results showed a high rate of antimicrobial sensitivity among community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus in the hospital of Tropical Medicine Institute of Manaus, Amazon Region.O Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina é considerado como um problema na saúde publica por seu grande potencial de disseminação e altas porcentagens de morbidade e mortalidade. No estudo descrevemos as características bacteriológicas e epidemiológicas do Staphylococcus aureus na cidade de Manaus. No período de um ano (2000-2001 avaliou-se dezesseis casos de abscessos piogênicos múltiplos. Em 10 (62,5% doentes o agente causal foi identificado como Staphylococcus aureus adquirido na comunidade O estudo das bacterias isoladas frente aos diferentes antimicrobianos, seguindo o método de difusão em disco, mostrou boa sensibilidade a cefalexina (100% e eritromicina (90%. Noventa porcento dos Staphylococcus aureus isolados foram sensíveis ao oxacilina. Nenhum dos isolados mostrou ser resistente a Vancomicina. Não temos informações sobre publicações dos Staphylococcus aureus adquiridos na comunidade em hospitais de Manaus

  5. Identification of dengue viruses in naturally infected Aedes aegypti females captured with BioGents (BG-Sentinel traps in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Regina Maria Pinto de Figueiredo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In Manaus, the first autochthonous cases of dengue fever were registered in 1998. Since then, dengue cases were diagnosed by the isolation of viruses 1, 2, 3, and 4. Methods One hundred eighty-seven mosquitoes were collected with BioGents (BG-Sentinel traps in 15 urban residential areas in the Northern Zone of Manaus and processed by molecular tests. Results Infections with dengue viruses 1, 2, 3, and 4 and a case of co-infection with dengue viruses 2 and 3 were identified. Conclusions These findings corroborate the detection of dengue in clinical samples and reinforce the need for epidemiological surveillance by the Health authorities.

  6. Description of a new species of Microglanis (Siluriformes: Pseudopimelodidae from the Amazon basin, Amazonas State, Brazil

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    Lucas Ribeiro Jarduli

    Full Text Available The first species of Microglanis from the rio Amazonas, Amazonas State, Brazil is described. This species differs from all congeners by the forked caudal fin, and color pattern of the supraoccipital region consisting of two elliptical and juxtaposed pale spots, besides a combination of morphometrics characters.

  7. Estado nutricional e consumo de energia e nutrientes de pré-escolares que frequentam creches no município de Manaus, Amazonas: existem diferenças entre creches públicas e privadas? Estado nutricional y consumo de energía y nutrientes de pre-escolares que frecuentan guarderías en el municipio de Manaus, Amazonas (Brasil: ¿existen diferencias entre guarderías públicas y privadas? Nutritional status and energy and nutrients intake of children attending day-care centers in the city of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil: are there differences between public and private day-care centers?

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    Bruno Mendes Tavares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o estado nutricional e o consumo alimentar de crianças assistidas em creches públicas e privadas no município de Manaus, Amazonas. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas crianças entre 24 e 72 meses de duas creches públicas (n=217 e duas creches privadas (n=91 de Manaus. O estado nutricional foi classificado pelos índices peso para idade, peso para estatura, estatura para idade e índice de massa corporal (IMC para idade, em valores de escores Z. O consumo alimentar na creche foi avaliado pelo método da pesagem direta individual dos alimentos e, no domicílio, pelo registro alimentar de um dia aplicado aos responsáveis. Estimou-se a frequência de crianças com ingestão de nutrientes acima ou abaixo dos pontos de corte de Estimated Average Intake (EAR ou Adequate Intake (AI. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se maior frequência de crianças com excesso de peso nas creches privadas segundo os índices peso para estatura e IMC para idade. As crianças das instituições públicas, quando comparadas àquelas das privadas, consumiram mais gorduras poli-insaturadas, trans, ácido graxo ômega-6, vitamina C e sódio, e menos zinco. Em ambos os tipos de creches observaram-se consumo elevado de energia e proporção elevada de crianças com consumo de vitaminas A e C, zinco e sódio acima do limite superior tolerável de ingestão. A proporção de crianças com inadequação de consumo de cálcio foi maior nas creches públicas do que nas privadas (27,6 versus 7,9%; pOBJETIVO: Verificar el estado nutricional y el consumo alimentar de niños asistidos en guarderías públicas y privadas en el municipio de Manaus, Amazonas (Brasil. MÉTODOS: Se evaluaron niños entre 24 y 72 meses de dos guarderías públicas (n=217 y dos guarderías privadas (n=91 de Manaus. El estado nutricional fue clasificado por los índices peso para la edad, peso para la estatura, estatura para la edad e índice de masa corporal (IMC para edad, en valores de escores Z. El

  8. SIMULAÇÃO DE CURVAS ISOFÔNICAS PARA UM PLANO DE ZONEAMENTO DE RUÍDO DO AEROPORTO INTERNACIONAL EDUARDO GOMES, EM MANAUS, AMAZONAS

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    Clive Reis Nascimento

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visa simular curvas isofônicas aeronáuticas para o Aeroporto Internacional de Manaus/Eduardo Gomes seguindo a metodologia determinada pelo RBAC Nº 161, assim como tecer comparações com as curvas isofônicas atualmente em vigor. O software utilizado na simulação foi o INM. Foi simulado um conjunto de cinco curvas, sendo elas as de: 85, 80, 75, 70, 65 dB(A, que se propagaram por uma área de 2.214,7 hectares sobre a cidade de Manaus. Atualmente há um conjunto de duas curvas em vigência, uma de 75 e outra de 65 dB(A que abrangem 1.249,49 hectares. A quantidade de curvas em cada conjunto diverge devido a atualizações na legislação aeronáutica, que deu um novo cenário à problemática do ruído aeronáutico sobre as áreas no entorno dos aeroportos. O maior número delimita uma área de 1.074,75 hectares sobre a cidade de Manaus, onde as edificações necessitariam de tratamento acústico. Em trabalhos futuros seria interessante a realização de comparações de dados obtidos em estações de monitoramento de ruído das aeronaves que operam nesse aeroporto com os dados gerados pelo INM, assim como buscar conhecer como os habitantes abrangidos pelas curvas de ruído aeronáutico reagem a esse impacto ambiental.

  9. Fungos emboloradores e manchadores de madeira em toras estocadas em indústrias madeireiras no município de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Hanada,Rogério Eiji; Sales-Campos,Ceci; Abreu,Raimunda Liége Souza de; Pfenning,Ludwig

    2003-01-01

    Visando conhecer a diversidade e a incidência de fungos emboloradores e manchadores de madeira da região Amazônica, foi realizado um levantamento em 12 espécies florestais, estocadas em quatro indústrias madeireiras de Manaus. De cada espécie florestal selecionaram-se cinco toras, das quais retiraram-se amostras de onde procedeu-se isolamento dos fungos. Foram isolados 106 fungos associados às essências florestais, representados por nove gêneros e por dezesseis espécies. Paecilomyces variotii...

  10. From "flowery hell" to the hope of sanitation: Science, Nature, and Health in the State of Amazonas during Brazilian First Republic (1890-1930

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    Nísia Trindade Lima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first two decades of the 20th century, publications of Euclides da Cunha, Alberto Rangel and Carlos Chagas about the Amazon presented from different perspectives a critique of what they considered unrealistic visions originated in the travel accounts of naturalists of 18th and 19th centuries. Alternatively, they proposed the analysis of the region from the perspective of new scientific knowledge, which included several areas - from geology to tropical medicine. Recent studies have indicated the need for more research on the institutions and local scientific practices, both in the development of ideas about the region and the definition of public policies. This article is proposed on this perspective, to reflect on the different ideas that were built by the medical-scientific thought about Nature and Society in the state of Amazonas during the Brazilian First Republic, when the rise and decline of the Amazonian rubber was experienced. It is understood that local physicians actively participated in scientific discussions related to tropical medicine, and put into practice the main theses about control and prevention of endemic diseases like malaria and yellow fever. This set of ideas and practices contributed to the definition of sanitation of the city of Manaus and the hinterland of state of Amazonas.

  11. Perfil nosológico de centro de referência em dermatologia no estado do Amazonas - Brasil Nosological profile in a dermatology referral center in the state of Amazonas -Brazil

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    Adriana Andrade Raposo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: As doenças de pele estão associadas a alta morbidade, baixa mortalidade e baixa proporção de hospitalização. Entretanto, podem causar considerável interferência no bem-estar físico e emocional do indivíduo. Várias delas atingem grandes contingentes populacionais, havendo necessidade de intervenções específicas para seu controle. OBJETIVO: Descrever a frequência das dermatoses diagnosticadas em serviço de dermatologia na cidade de Manaus, capital do estado do Amazonas. MÉTODOS: Coletaram-se dados registrados sobre sexo, idade, procedência e diagnósticos referentes à primeira consulta dos pacientes atendidos entre janeiro de 2000 e dezembro de 2007. RESULTADOS: Das 56.024 consultas registradas, obtiveram-se 56.720 diagnósticos dermatológicos, sendo mais comuns as doenças sexualmente transmissíveis (25,12%, as dermatoses alérgicas (14,03%, as dermatoses não especificadas (13,01%, a hanseníase (6,34% e acne, seborreia e afins (5,05%. A frequência foi semelhante para ambos os sexos, a faixa etária de 20-29 anos foi predominante e Manaus foi a procedência mais referida. CONCLUSÕES: O padrão das doenças cutâneas identificadas neste estudo pode servir como linha de base para que gestores do sistema de saúde da região desenvolvam estratégias de prevenção e controle das dermatoses mais comuns, com ênfase nas doenças sexualmente transmissíveis, doenças cutâneas alérgicas, hanseníase e acneBACKGROUNDS: Fundaments: Skin diseases are associated wih high morbidity, low mortality and low rate of hospitalization. However, they can cause considerable interference in physical and emotional well-being of the individual. Several of them reach large population, requiring specific interventions for their control. OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency of skin disease diagnosed in the dermatology service in Manaus, capital of Amazonas State. METHODS: We collected data on registered sex, age, origin and

  12. Um estudo sobre renúncia tributária e os benefícios gerados pela Zona Franca de Manaus

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    Romina Batista de Lucena de Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo verificar se a criação da Zona Franca de Manaustrouxe benefícios líquidos positivos para a economia de Manaus e, em certa medida,para o Estado do Amazonas. No referencial teórico utilizou-se a teoria dos polos, ateoria da base e indicadores socioeconômicos. Abordaram-se diversos aspectos daZona Franca de Manaus, como legislação, evolução histórica, resultados edificuldades. Focou-se a arrecadação tributária Federal e Estadual no Amazonas e adesoneração tributária do Governo Federal. A pesquisa caracteriza-se comoexploratória, descritiva e explicativa. Os procedimentos técnicos utilizados foram apesquisa bibliográfica e documental. A coleta de dados foi realizada pelos sites daSuframa e da Receita Federal. Os resultados indicam que as desoneraçõestributárias foram expressivas, mas menores daquelas concedidas no Sul e noSudeste; apesar disso, a arrecadação tributária no Estado do Amazonas é elevada eos custos para a sociedade desses incentivos foram menores do que os benefíciosgerados pela Zona Franca e pelo polo industrial de Manaus.Abstract This paper aims to determine whether the creation of the Free Zone of Manausbrought positive benefits to the economy of Manaus and, to some extent, for theState of Amazonas. In the theoretical reference was used the theory of the poles, thetheory of the basic and socioeconomic indicators. It addressed to various aspects ofthe Free Zone of Manaus, as legislation, historical evolution, results and difficulties. Itfocused on the Federal and State tax collection in Amazonas and tax relief in FederalGovernment. The research is characterized as exploratory, descriptive andexplanatory. The technical procedures used were the bibliographic and documentaryresearch. The data collection was performed by sites of Suframa and the ReceitaFederal. The results indicate that the tax reliefs were significant, but smaller thosegranted in South and Southeast; nevertheless

  13. Hymenoptera stings in Brazil: a neglected health threat in Amazonas State

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Allyson Guimarães; Chaves, Bárbara Aparecida; Murta, Felipe Leão Gomes; Sachett, Jacqueline Almeida Gonçalves; Sampaio, Vanderson Souza; Silva, Vanessa Costa; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo

    2018-01-01

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hymenoptera injuries are commonly caused by stinging insects. In Amazonas state, Brazil, there is no information regarding distribution, profile, and systemic manifestations associated with Hymenoptera injuries. METHODS: This study aimed to identify risk factors for systemic manifestation using the Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (2007 to 2015). RESULTS: Half of Hymenoptera injuries were caused by bee stings. Hymenoptera injuries were concentrate...

  14. Distribution of Sandflies (Diptera:Psychodidae on Tree-trunks in a Non-flooded Area of the Ducke Forest Reserve, Manaus, AM, Brazil

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    MRS Cabanillas

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Sandflies were collected in the base of tree-trunks in the seasons of high and least rainfall in the Ducke Forest Reserve, near Manaus in the State of Amazonas. Lutzomyia umbratilis was the most abundant sandfly species. Caryocar villosum, Chrysophyllum amazonicum, Dinizia excelsa, Eschweilera atropetiolata and Parkia multijuga were the tree species on which most sandflies were collected and relative abundance were related to trunk characteristics. Seasonal patterns of sandfly distribution in the forest were observed.

  15. The paleozoic of Amazonas basin south edge: Tapajos river, Para state; O paleozoico da borda sul da bacia do Amazonas: rio Tapajos, estado do Para

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Nilo Siguehiko [Petrobras E e P, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao. Estratigrafia e Sedimentologia Geologia Aplicada a Exploracao], E-mail: nilo@petrobras.com.br; Winter, Wilson Rubem [Petrobras, Campoas dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao. Sedimentologia e Estratigrafia], E-mail: winter@petrobras.com.br; Wanderley Filho, Joaquim Ribeiro; Cacela, Alessandra Suzely Moda [Petrobras, Manaus, AM (Brazil). Exploracao. Unidade de Operacoes de Exploracao e Producao da Amazonia], Emails: jwand@petrobras.com.br, alessandra.suzely@petrobras.com.br

    2009-11-15

    The intracratonic Amazonas Basin covers an area close to 500.000km{sup 2} shared between the Amazonas and Para states. The phanerozoic stratigraphic framework is up to 6.000m thick and may be subdivided into two, first order depositional sequences: the Paleozoic sequence, intruded by diabase dikes and sills and the Mesozoic-Cenozoic sequence. Analyzing the stratigraphic framework, the great tectonic influence on the basin development can be appreciated. The mainly NW-SE structural directions of the basement, which mark the boundaries of the geochronological provinces of the Amazonas, are clearly identified along the Tapajos River. The Paleozoic sequence outcrops on the southern border of the Amazonas Basin embraces potential source rocks, reservoirs and seal rocks. They can be subdivided in three, second order sequences, limited by regional unconformities, as: the Ordovician/Devonian, which corresponds to the Pitinga lithostratigraphic formation; the Devonian-Tournaisian, which corresponds to the Maecuru, Erere, Barreirinha and Curiri formations and, the Pensylvanian-Permian that are represented by the Monte Alegre and Itaituba formations. This field trip guide presents these classic lithostratigraphic outcrop units, together with a brief sedimentological description and an analysis of their positioning related to sequence stratigraphical concepts. (author)

  16. The environmental and social impact of electric energy generation in villages and states of the interior of Amazonas state, Brazil; O impacto socio-ambiental da geracao de energia eletrica nas vilas e municipios do interior do estado do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Andre Frazao; Cavaliero, Carla Kazue Nakao [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos

    2004-07-01

    The interior of the State of Amazonas is nowadays socio and economically stagnant in consequence of various structural problems. The lack of a reliable source of electricity in these areas is one of these problems, and it has been causing several environment and social problems for the local population. To show, in a historic context, the consequences of this scenario to the country side of the State of Amazonas, is the goal of this article. (author)

  17. [Culicidae insect fauna from rural zone in Amazonas State with incidence of sylvatic yellow fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fé, Nelson Ferreira; Barbosa Md, Maria das Graças Vale; Fé, Flávio Augusto Andrade; Guerra, Marcus Vinitius de Farias; Alecrim, Wilson Duarte

    2003-01-01

    After the occurrence of 14 sylvatic yellow fever cases in 10 cities in the State of Amazonas during 1996, an investigation into the presence of sylvatic yellow fever vectors was carried out. The material of larvae and adult insects was collected around residences and canopy trees within forests, using a light trap (CDC) and human bait. A total of 424 insects was collected. Thirty seven species were identified, some of which were sylvatic yellow fever vectors: Haemagogus janthinomys, Ha. leucocelaenus, Aedes fulvus.

  18. Recurso polínico coletado por abelhas sem ferrão (Apidae, Meliponinae em um fragmento de floresta na região de Manaus - Amazonas Pollen resources collected by stingless bees (Apidae, Meliponinae in a forest fragment in the Manaus region, Amazonas

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    Francisco Plácido Magalhães Oliveira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O recurso polínico coletado por operárias de Melipona seminigra merrillae Cockerell, Melipona fulva Lepeletier, Trigona fulviventris (Smith e CephaloTrigona femorata Guérin, no Campus da UFAM, Manaus (AM foi estudado no período de março a outubro de 2001. Noventa tipos polínicos foram coletados pelas abelhas, distribuídos em 31 famílias, 67 gêneros e 10 formas Tipo. Trigona fulviventris diversificou mais suas coletas, utilizando 58 fontes no período. O tamanho do nicho polínico utilizado pelas abelhas ficou assim distribuído: T. fulviventris (58, M.s. merrillae (41, C. femorata (34 e M. fulva (25. Dos tipos determinados, os que mais contribuíram para a dieta das abelhas, apresentando as maiores freqüências nas amostras de pólen, foram Miconia myriantha (12,91%, Leucaena leucocephala (9,52%, Tapirira guianensis (6,53%, Eugenia stipitata (6,22%, Protium heptaphyllum (6,17% e Vismia guianensis (5,93%. As abelhas de modo geral concentraram suas coletas em um número reduzido de espécies vegetais e com um grau diferenciado de uso para cada uma das fontes. Tipos polínicos com freqüência acima de 10% ocorreram em pequena proporção na maioria dos meses, sendo responsáveis por mais de 50% do total do pólen coletado em cada mês. A utilização das fontes de pólen variou conforme a espécie. T. fulviventris teve uma dieta mais ampla e diversificada, enquanto M. fulva foi a que menos diversificou suas coletas. T. fulviventris apresentou maior uniformidade no uso das fontes polínicas e a sobreposição de nichos polínicos foi maior entre M.s. merrillae e M. fulva e menor entre T. fulviventris e C. femorata.The objective of this study was to characterize the resources used by Amazonian bees Melipona seminigra merrillae, Melipona fulva, Trigona fulviventris and CephaloTrigona femorata, in an urban Forest patch at Manaus city from March to October 2001. The pollen analysis determined 90 pollen types, distributed in 31 families, 67

  19. Progression of the load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases in the State of Amazonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Marilaine; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Moura, Marco Antonio Saboia; Santos, Eyde Cristianne Saraiva; Saraceni, Valéria; Saraiva, Maria Graças Gomes

    2015-01-01

    In the State of Amazonas, Brazil, urban expansion together with precarious basic sanitation conditions and human settlement on river banks has contributed to the persistence of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases. Time series of the recorded cases of cholera, typhoid fever, hepatitis A and leptospirosis are described, using data from different levels of the surveillance systems. The sources for intestinal parasitosis prevalence data (non-compulsory reporting in Brazil) were Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Literatura Latino-Americana (LILACS) and the annals of major scientific meetings. Relevant papers and abstracts in all languages were accessed by two independent reviewers. The references cited by each relevant paper were scrutinized to locate additional papers. Despite its initial dissemination across the entire State of Amazonas, cholera was controlled in 1998. The magnitude of typhoid fever has decreased; however, a pattern characterized by eventual outbreaks still remains. Leptospirosis is an increasing cause of concern in association with the annual floods. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites is high regardless of the municipality and the characteristics of areas and populations. The incidence of hepatitis A has decreased over the past decade. A comparison of older and recent surveys shows that the prevalence of intestinal parasitic diseases has remained constant. The load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases ranks high among the health problems present in the State of Amazonas. Interventions aiming at basic sanitation and vaccination for hepatitis A were formulated and implemented, but assessment of their effectiveness in the targeted populations is still needed.

  20. Health regionalization in Amazonas: progress and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnelo, Luiza; Sousa, Amandia Braga Lima; Silva, Clayton de Oliveira da

    2017-04-01

    This paper analyses the health services regionalization process in the State of Amazonas through a case study covering the health sub-region Manaus Surroundings. This is a qualitative, descriptive and analytical research, which data were collected using interviews, documents and Internet reviews, oriented by the guiding concept of health regionalization. Study findings revealed a social setting dominated by asymmetry, verticality, competitiveness and fragile multilateral relations among municipalities, associated to a bureaucratic profile of local institutions operating in the region under study. The political agents have limited acknowledgement of the sociopolitical and institutional conditions in which they operate. They usually impute healthcare networks' management and operational issues to the natural and geographical characteristics of the Amazon region, but their financing, governance and technical capacity are insufficient to overcome them.

  1. INCIDÊNCIA E DISTRIBUIÇÃO DA TUBERCULOSE NA CIDADE DE MANAUS/AM, BRASIL / INCIDENCE AND DISTRIBUTION THE TUBERCULOSIS IN MANAUS/AM, BRAZIL

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    Michael Guimarães de Souza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis is present in several countries, mainly in the emergent ones, infecting a large number of people and submitting many others to risk. The accentuated recent urbanization process in Brazil has contributed to dissemination and proliferation of several diseases including tuberculosis. This illness is a typical harm in cities that didn`theaded the vertiginous growth population, presenting basic health care decadence or idle. The objectives of this research where: analysis of incidence level of tuberculosis in Manaus identify the social and urban conditions that promote the dissemination of this illness in the city and; map the spatial distribution of tuberculosis in town. Therefore historical-geographical studies took place in Manaus city, starting with bibliographic research and analysis of medical data (2006 and 2007 of municipal health department, epidemiology and environment directory. Comparative analysis between tuberculosis data and human development rank (HDR have been made. Manaus is one of the municipalities in the Amazonas State with highest level of all types of tuberculosis, that means 1471 registered cases in the year 2006 and 1527 cases for the year 2007.

  2. Progression of the load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases in the State of Amazonas

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    Marilaine Martins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the State of Amazonas, Brazil, urban expansion together with precarious basic sanitation conditions and human settlement on river banks has contributed to the persistence of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases. Time series of the recorded cases of cholera, typhoid fever, hepatitis A and leptospirosis are described, using data from different levels of the surveillance systems. The sources for intestinal parasitosis prevalence data (non-compulsory reporting in Brazil were Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE, Literatura Latino-Americana (LILACS and the annals of major scientific meetings. Relevant papers and abstracts in all languages were accessed by two independent reviewers. The references cited by each relevant paper were scrutinized to locate additional papers. Despite its initial dissemination across the entire State of Amazonas, cholera was controlled in 1998. The magnitude of typhoid fever has decreased; however, a pattern characterized by eventual outbreaks still remains. Leptospirosis is an increasing cause of concern in association with the annual floods. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites is high regardless of the municipality and the characteristics of areas and populations. The incidence of hepatitis A has decreased over the past decade. A comparison of older and recent surveys shows that the prevalence of intestinal parasitic diseases has remained constant. The load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases ranks high among the health problems present in the State of Amazonas. Interventions aiming at basic sanitation and vaccination for hepatitis A were formulated and implemented, but assessment of their effectiveness in the targeted populations is still needed.

  3. Lymnaea columella: two new Brazilian localities in the states of Amazonas and Bahia

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    W. Lobato Paraense

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Lymnaea columella is recorded in Tefé, Amazonas state, where it was found together with Drepanotrema anatinum, Physa marmorata and pomacea sp. L. columella was also collected in Salvador, Bahia state, at the dique do Tororó, an urban lake formely mentioned (as "lac Baril" by Moricand (1853 as a breeding-place of Biomphalaria glabrata, Drepanotrema cimex, D. depressissimum, Pomacea lineata, P. decussata and Ancylus moricandi. The four first-mentioned species, as well as physa cubensis and Hemisinus brasiliensis, were also collected now. This is the first record of a lymnaeid in the Northeastern region of Brazil.É registrada a ocorrência de Lymnaea columella em Tefé, Estado do Amazonas, onde foi encontrada juntamente com Physa marmorata e Pomacea sp. L. columella foi também coletada em Salvador, Estado da Bahia, no Dique do Tororó, lago urbano antes mencionado por Moricand (1853 como criadouro de Biomphalaria glabrata, Drepanotrema cimex, D. depressissimum, Pomacea lineata, P. decussata e Ancylus moricandi. As quatro primeiras espécies mencionadas, assim como Physa cubensis e Hemisinus brasiliensis, também foram agora coletadas. Este é o primeiro registro de um limneídeo na região Nordeste do Brasil

  4. Estudo das parasitoses intestinais e da infecção chagásica no Município de Novo Airão, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil Cross-sectional study of intestinal parasites and Chagas' disease in the Municipality of Novo Airão, State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Marcio N. Boia

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo seccional descritivo em uma amostra sistemática por conglomerado de uma em cada dez famílias residentes na sede do Município de Novo Airão, na meso-região norte do Estado do Amazonas, a 250 quilômetros de Manaus por via fluvial. De cada um dos residentes nos 89 domicílios da amostra foram solicitadas fezes para exame pelos métodos de sedimentação de Lutz e pelo Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho e colhido sangue por punção venosa para testes de ELISA e imunofluorescência para pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi. O exame de 316 amostras de fezes mostrou 87,6% com um ou mais parasitos: 35,1% com Ascaris lumbricoides, 29,1% com Entamoeba histolytica, 17,4% com Giardia lamblia e outros parasitos com menor prevalência. Estes resultados foram correlacionados com a falta de saneamento e de suprimento de água tratada. De 346 soros examinados 16 (4,6% foram reativos para anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi, mas somente em três deles houve correlação entre este resultado e o contacto das pessoas com triatomíneos silvestres, conhecidos localmente como "piolho da piaçava".A cross-sectional study was performed on the residents of one in every ten households in the town of Novo Airão, in the northern meso-region of the State of Amazonas, 250 kilometers from Manaus by riverboat. A family cluster sample of 89 dwellings was studied. A stool sample was requested from each of the inhabitants for examination using the Lutz sedimentation and Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho techniques, and blood was taken by venous puncture for Trypanosoma cruzi ELISA antibody testing and immunofluorescence. From a total of 316 stool samples, 87.6% had one or more parasites: Ascaris lumbricoides (35.1%, Entamoeba histolytica (29.1%, Giardia lamblia (17.4%, and other parasites with lower prevalence rates. These results were directly correlated with lack of sanitation and clean water supply. Of the 346 sera examined, 16 (4.6% were reactive to T

  5. ALTERAÇÕES NO TRABALHO DO PROFISSIONAL DE SERVIÇO SOCIAL NO ESPAÇO URBANO INDUSTRIAL DE MANAUS

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    Heloisa Helena Corrêa da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the changes in the interventional space of the professional of Social Service, and the Industrial Park as the locus of the capital of Manaus in the state of Amazonas. Changes resulting from the neoliberal advance between the years 1995 and 2008, and the strategies of productive restructuring of capital in crisis and the neoliberal reforms of social policy from the Brazilian State Reform. It points out that those situations have focused on social issues and have changed the intervening field in which Social Service is inserted. The research conducted in the Industrial Park of Manaus is presented in its pedagogical dimension as a dialectic relation between Iiterature and empirical research and the exercise of reflection, in a process of numerous approaches in relation to the object studied.

  6. [Community-based organizations and the aids epidemic in Amazonas state, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Michele Rocha; Schweickardt, Julio Cesar

    2015-05-01

    The scope of this paper was to analyze the perception of community-based organizations and their contributions to the history of tackling Aids in Amazonas State. It involved qualitative research with the use of oral and documental sources. Data were collected between June and September 2013 by means of semi-structured interviews with the leaders of eight organizations that work or worked with more vulnerable communities. Based on Discourse Analysis the conclusion drawn is that that the organizations perceive two distinct phases since the decentralization of funds from the Sexually-Transmitted Diseases Aids and Viral Hepatitis Department to the local leaders. The first phase was marked by the strengthening of organizations, collective empowerment and active political participation. The current phase has seen the distancing between organizations, a loss of political momentum and weakening of common response and organization.

  7. Characterization of hepatitis B virus in Amerindian children and mothers from Amazonas State, Colombia.

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    Carlos Mario Jaramillo

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B Virus (HBV infection is a worldwide public health problem. In the 1980's a highly effective and safe vaccine against HBV was developed, although breakthrough infection still occasionally occurs because of the emergence of escape mutants. The aim of this study was to identify HBV genotypes and escape mutants in children and their mothers in Amerindian communities of the Amazonas State, Southern Colombia.Blood specimens collected from children and mothers belonging to 37 Amerindian communities in Amazonas state, were screened for HBsAg and anti-HBc using ELISA. The partial region containing the S ORF was amplified by nested PCR, and amplicons were sequenced. The phylogenetic analysis was performed using the MEGA 5.05 software.Forty-six children (46/1275, 3.6% and one hundred and seventy-seven mothers (177/572, 30.9% were tested positive for the anti-HBc serological marker. Among them, 190 samples were tested for viral genome detection; 8.3% (2/31 serum samples obtained from children and 3.1% (5/159 from mothers were positive for the ORF S PCR. The predominant HBV genotype in the study population was F, subgenotype F1b; in addition, subgenotype F1a and genotype A were also characterized. Two HBV escape mutants were identified, G145R, reported worldwide, and W156*; this stop codon was identified in a child with occult HBV infection. Other mutations were found, L109R and G130E, located in critical positions of the HBsAg sequence.This study aimed to characterize the HBV genotype F, subgenotypes F1b and F1a, and genotype A in Amerindian communities and for the first time escape mutants in Colombia. Further investigations are necessary to elucidate the frequency and the epidemiological impact of the escape mutants in the country.

  8. Simulating deforestation and carbon loss in Amazonia: impacts in Brazil's Roraima state from reconstructing Highway BR-319 (Manaus-Porto Velho).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, Paulo Eduardo; Fearnside, Philip Martin; Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima de Alencastro

    2015-02-01

    Reconstruction of Highway BR-319 (Manaus-Porto Velho) would allow for access from the "arc of deforestation" in the southern part of Brazil's Amazon region to vast blocks of forests in central and northern Amazonia. Building roads is known to be a major driver of deforestation, allowing entry of squatters, and other actors. Rather than deforestation along the highway route, here we consider the road's potential for stimulating deforestation in a separate location, approximately 550 km north of BR-319's endpoint in Manaus. Reconstructing BR-319 has great potential impact to start a new wave of migration to this remote region. The southern portion of the state of Roraima, the focus of our study, is already connected to Manaus by Highway BR-174. We modeled deforestation in southern Roraima and simulated carbon emissions between 2007 and 2030 under four scenarios. Simulations used the AGROECO model in DINAMICA-EGO © software. Two scenarios were considered with reconstruction of BR-319 and two without this road connection. For each of the two possibilities regarding BR-319, simulations were developed for (1) a "conservation" (CONSERV) scenario that assumes the creation of a series of protected areas, and (2) a "business-as-usual" (BAU) scenario that assumes no additional protected areas. Results show that by 2030, with BR-319 rebuilt, deforestation carbon emissions would increase between 19% (CONSERV) and 42% (BAU) over and above those corresponding to no-road scenarios.

  9. Professores indígenas e processos de territorialização na cidade de Manaus/AM/Brasil

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    Altaci Corrêa Rubim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous peoples in the Amazon are in constant movement, from their lands in the heart of the Amazon to the cities, mainly to the great metropolis called Manaus, the capital of the state of Amazonas. Arriving to the big city, they usually live in the peripheries and become exposed to the problems experienced by ethnic minorities, leading them to a crucial decision point regarding the organization of indigenous peoples in the city. This article deals with indigenous cultural diversity in Manaus / AM / Brazil. It presents the making of the indigenous teacher identity in a new process of territorialization to which the empirical field was the city of Manaus. In this new process, social agents reorganize themselves forming a collective movement with different ethnicities, in favor of specific claims, re-elaborating and re-signifying concepts, imposing their own classification. In this sense, the main goal of this study is to give visibility to the collective identities of the city, to the processes of social reorganization of indigenous communities which delineate their specific territorialities in the city, and to the demands for a Differentiated School.

  10. Snakebites as a largely neglected problem in the Brazilian Amazon: highlights of the epidemiological trends in the State of Amazonas

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    Esaú Samuel Feitosa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Envenoming snakebites are thought to be a particularly important threat to public health worldwide, especially in rural areas of tropical and subtropical countries. The true magnitude of the public health threat posed by snakebites is unknown, making it difficult for public health officials to optimize prevention and treatment. The objective of this work was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to gather data on snakebite epidemiology in the Amazon region and describe a case series of snakebites from epidemiological surveillance in the State of Amazonas (1974-2012. Only 11 articles regarding snakebites were found. In the State of Amazonas, information regarding incidents involving snakes is scarce. Historical trends show an increasing number of cases after the second half of the 1980s. Snakebites predominated among adults (20-39 years old; 38%, in the male gender (78.9% and in those living in rural areas (85.6%. The predominant snake envenomation type was bothropic. The incidence reported by the epidemiological surveillance in the State of Amazonas, reaching up to 200 cases/100,000 inhabitants in some areas, is among the highest annual snakebite incidence rates of any region in the world. The majority of the cases were reported in the rainy season with a case-fatality rate of 0.6%. Snakebite envenomation is a great disease burden in the State of Amazonas, representing a challenge for future investigations, including approaches to estimating incidence under-notification and case-fatality rates as well as the factors related to severity and disabilities.

  11. Nos voisines, les bêtes : situation des conflits avec la faune sauvage dans une aire protégée de la périphérie de Manaus (Amazonas, Brésil

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    Guillaume Marchand

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Au cours des trente dernières années, les différentes expérimentations menées en matière de protection de la faune sauvage au Brésil ont conduit à l’élaboration d’aires protégées habitées, jugées plus acceptables et justes sur le plan social. Or, depuis la création de ces espaces, de nombreuses voix ont remis en cause le bien-fondé de ce genre de réserve, considérant que la cohabitation avec la faune sauvage pouvait potentiellement avoir des effets négatifs dans les domaines environnementaux et sociaux. Cet article s’intéresse à l’état des conflits entre humains et faune sauvage dans une communauté appartenant à la réserve de développement durable de Tupé, à la périphérie de Manaus. Il observe notamment la façon dont les conflits sont perçus et résolus afin de montrer la diversité des représentations quant aux espèces problématiques ainsi que les enjeux sociaux et environnementaux qui reposent sur leur protection.  During the last thirty years, few different experiments on protection of wild fauna in Brazil have led to the development of inhabited protected areas, seen as socially more acceptable and fairer. However, since their creation, the validity of this kind of protected areas has been questioned, considering that the coexistence between men and wild fauna may have negative effects for environment as well as local communities. This paper focuses on human/wildlife conflicts in a rural community in the sustainable development reserve of Tupé, located in the periphery of Manaus city. It mainly observes how conflicts are perceived and resolved and it shows how diverse are the representations regarding problematic species, as well as environmental and social issues related to their protection.

  12. Simulium (Psaroniocompsa tergospinosum new species (Diptera: Simuliidae in siolii group from the southern part of the State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Neusa Hamada

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The larva, pupa, male and female of Simulium tergospinosum n. sp. are described and illustrated. The adults of this new species share many characters with species in the subgenus Psaroniocompsa, where it is placed. The larva of this species bears dorsal and lateral triangular tubercles on the abdomen and multiply branched scale-like setae on the body, suggesting that it belongs to the S. siolii species group. S. tergospinosum n.sp. was collected along the Juma River, Apuí county, in the southern part of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. The Juma, a black-water river, is a tributary of the Aripuanã River in the Madeira River hydrographic basin, on the southern part of Amazonas. Females were collected biting humans along the water courses during the sampling period (in the dry season.

  13. Isolation of Bacillus thuringiensis from the state of Amazonas, in Brazil, and screening against Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae

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    Joelma Soares-da-Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the use of Bacillus thuringiensis isolated in the state of Amazonas, in Brazil, for the biological control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. From 25 soil samples collected in nine municipalities, 484 bacterial colonies were obtained, 57 (11.78% of which were identified as B. thuringiensis. Six isolates, IBt-03, IBt-06, IBt-07, IBt-28, IBt-30, and BtAM-27 showed insecticidal activity, and only BtAM-27 presents the five genes investigated cry4Aa, cry4Ba, cry10Aa, cry11Aa, and cry11Ba. The IBt-07 and IBt- 28, with lower LC50 values, showed equal toxicity compared to the standards. The isolates of B. thuringiensis from Amazonas constitute potential new means of biological control for A. aegypti, because of their larvicidal activity and the possibility that they may also contain new combinations of toxins.

  14. Serological evidence of hantavirus infection in rural and urban regions in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

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    João Bosco Lima Gimaque

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus disease is caused by the hantavirus, which is an RNA virus belonging to the family Bunyaviridae. Hantavirus disease is an anthropozoonotic infection transmitted through the inhalation of aerosols from the excreta of hantavirus-infected rodents. In the county of Itacoatiara in the state of Amazonas (AM, Brazil, the first human cases of hantavirus pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome were described in July 2004. These first cases were followed by two fatal cases, one in the municipality of Maués in 2005 and another in Itacoatiara in 2007. In this study, we investigated the antibody levels to hantavirus in a population of 1,731 individuals from four different counties of AM. Sera were tested by IgG/IgM- enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of the Araraquara hantavirus as an antigen. Ten sera were IgG positive to hantavirus (0.6%. Among the positive sera, 0.8% (1/122, 0.4% (1/256, 0.2% (1/556 and 0.9% (7/797 were from Atalaia do Norte, Careiro Castanho, Itacoatiara and Lábrea, respectively. None of the sera in this survey were IgM-positive. Because these counties are distributed in different areas of AM, we can assume that infected individuals are found throughout the entire state, which suggests that hantavirus disease could be a local emerging health problem.

  15. Chagas disease in the State of Amazonas: history, epidemiological evolution, risks of endemicity and future perspectives

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    Maria das Graças Vale Barbosa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease (CD is a parasitic infection that originated in the Americas and is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. In the last few years, the disease has spread to countries in North America, Asia and Europe due to the migration of Latin Americans. In the Brazilian Amazon, CD has an endemic transmission, especially in the Rio Negro region, where an occupational hazard was described for piaçaveiros (piassaba gatherers. In the State of Amazonas, the first chagasic infection was reported in 1977, and the first acute CD case was recorded in 1980. After initiatives to integrate acute CD diagnostics with the malaria laboratories network, reports of acute CD cases have increased. Most of these cases are associated with oral transmission by the consumption of contaminated food. Chronic cases have also been diagnosed, mostly in the indeterminate form. These cases were detected by serological surveys in cardiologic outpatient clinics and during blood donor screening. Considering that the control mechanisms adopted in Brazil's classic transmission areas are not fully applicable in the Amazon, it is important to understand the disease behavior in this region, both in the acute and chronic cases. Therefore, the pursuit of control measures for the Amazon region should be a priority given that CD represents a challenge to preserving the way of life of the Amazon's inhabitants.

  16. Segurança/insegurança alimentar em famílias urbanas e rurais no estado do Amazonas: I. validação de metodologia e de instrumento de coleta de informação Nutritional security/insecurity in urban and rural families of Amazonas state: validation of methodology and of information collecting instrument

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    Lúcia K. O. Yuyama

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo validou a metodologia e o instrumento de coleta de informação para análise da segurança/insegurança alimentar, em famílias urbanas e rurais no estado do Amazonas conforme o proposto pelo USDA (Departamento de Agricultura dos Estados Unidos. Valendo-se de amostra intencional de domicílios, selecionadas para representar estratos sociais diferentes foram computadas 194 famílias sendo 174 com crianças na área urbana de Manaus, envolvendo os seguintes bairros: Jesus me Deu, Novo Israel, Cidade Nova, Coroado e Conjunto Petro. Na área rural foram entrevistadas 209 famílias ribeirinhas e destas 131 com crianças, distribuídas entre os Municípios de Iranduba e Manacapuru. A validação final do questionário (Consistência interna global deu-se por meio da comparação dos níveis de segurança e insegurança alimentar, com os estratos definidos dos indicadores sociais e de consumo. Pode-se concluir que os grupos com maior insegurança alimentar foram os situados em estratos sociais mais baixos e de baixo consumo de alimentos sensíveis a estas condições. O instrumento de coleta apresentou alta validade e consistência interna.The present study validates the methodology and the information collecting instrument for analysis of nutritional security/insecurity on the urban and rural family level, proposed by the USDA (United States Department of Agriculture. An intentional sample of domiciles was selected to represent different social strata, 194 families were enrolled in urban Manaus, of which 174 had children, in the following neighborhoods: Jesus me Deu, Nova Israel, Cidade Nova, Coroado and Conj. Petro. In the rural area between the municipalities of Iranduba and Manacapuru, 209 riparian families were interviewed, and of these 131 had children. The final validation of the questionnaire (global internal consistency was made by comparing, the levels of nutritional security/insecurity, with the defined social strata and

  17. Spatial distribution of tuberculosis in Manaus and its social determinants, 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, D B; Sadahiro, M; Pinto, R C; de Albuquerque, B C; Braga, J U

    2018-02-01

    Brazil ranks eighteenth worldwide in annual numbers of new tuberculosis (TB) cases. The municipality of Manaus, Amazonas State, has the highest incidence of TB in Brazil. To evaluate the quality of TB epidemiological surveillance, and to describe the spatial distribution pattern of TB incidence in Manaus and its social determinants. An ecological study was performed based on secondary data from TB epidemiological surveillance reports. An index was developed to classify neighborhoods in terms of the quality of surveillance and suspected underreporting. Based on data from neighborhoods with better surveillance performance, we observed that the average number of residents per room, the unemployment rate and the proportion of households connected to a sewage system were significant predictors of TB incidence. Seven neighborhoods in the south and west of the city had clusters of high TB transmission. Our results suggest that the association between TB and social vulnerability is obscured by the poor quality of TB surveillance data. We identified priority areas that require immediate TB control interventions and those where local surveillance efforts should be improved, and generated information useful for formulating more effective actions.

  18. Characterization and genesis of waterfalls of the Presidente Figueiredo region, Northeast State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFONSO C. R. NOGUEIRA

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The waterfalls of the Presidente Figueiredo municipality represent a fascinating natural scenery of northeast state of Amazonas, northern Brazil. The falls, generally less than 10m high, are developed on siliciclastic rocks of the Nhamundá (Lower Silurian, and Manacapuru (Upper Silurian - Lower Devonian formations. Morphological and structural analyses of these features indicate that most of them originated through Quaternary neotectonics and are installed in NE-trending normal fault escarpments. Waterfalls also developed within pseudokarstic features, but are less frequent. The origin of the Presidente Figueiredo waterfalls probably goes back to the Neogene, when the region was submitted to laterization processes associated with a humid climate and a dense rainforest. These conditions favored the development of caves in quartzarenites of the Nhamundá Formation. During the Quaternary, the region was subjected to NE-trending normal faulting which displaced laterite layers, rivers and streams giving rise to waterfalls. These climatic and tectonic phenomena promoted intense relief dissection, as indicated by fault escarpment retreat and cave dismantlement, responsible for the present-day morphologic configuration.As cachoeiras da região de Presidente Figueiredo constituem um dos mais fascinantes cenários naturais do nordeste do Estado do Amazonas, norte do Brasil. As quedas, geralmente com menos de 10m de altura, são desenvolvidas em rochas siliciclásticas das formações Nhamundá (Siluriano inferior e Manacapuru (Siluriano superior-Devoniano inferior. Os estudos morfológico e estrutural dessas feições indicam que a maioria dessas quedas de água originaram-se por neotectônica quaternária e encontram-se instaladas em escarpas de falhas normais NE-SW. Ocorrem, ainda, com menor freqüência, cachoeiras evoluídas a partir de feições pseudocársticas. A origem das cachoeiras de Presidente Figueiredo provavelmente remonta ao Ne

  19. Paca (Agouti paca and Agouti (Dasyprocta spp. - Minili-vestock Production in the Amazonas State of Venezuela : 1. Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govoni, G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to increasing human population pressure in the Amazonas State of Venezuela greater attention is being given to the "minilivestock" production of the wild rodents paca (Agouti paca, and agouti (Dasyprocta spp as sources of food and income and to reduce the risk of their possible extinction. In preparation for the increased farming of these rodents, this paper reviews published material on their characteristics, distribution, habitat, conservation status, behaviour, reproductive parameters and nutrition. It is concluded that the two rodents paca and agouti, have characteristics that justify greater investment in their domestication and farmed production, although and behavioural issues and reproductive limits need further research.

  20. Emission of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere of the Manaus city due to burning of fossil fuels; Emissao de gases poluentes na atmosfera urbana da cidade de Manaus devida a queima de combustiveis fosseis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valois, I.M. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Fac. de Tecnologia], E-mail: ivalois@ufam.edu.br; Cartaxo, E.F. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (NIEMA/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Fac. de Tecnologia. Nucleo de Energia, Meio Ambiente e Agua], E-mail: ecartaxo@ufam.edu.br; Chaar, Jamal da Silva [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (ICE/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas

    2009-07-01

    This paper intends to think over the impacts of pollutants gases in the atmosphere of the city of Manaus, caused by the thermal, the main electricity source in the State of Amazonas. The focus of the study is the urban atmosphere where physical and chemical phenomenon accelerate the effects of increased concentration of some components and secondary pollutants, which are produced due to human activities. It is based on two studies: monitoring the exhaust gas applied at a factory in the district of Aparecida, located in the urban area, and monitoring conducted by the energy operating company, about the influence of exhaust gas around the district of Mauazinho, also in urban area. It is a preliminary research that seeks to demonstrate the inconsistency of some studies and the need to make progress in search for more efficient methods and techniques. This is an important step toward a policy of environmental management that will complement future studies about air pollution in the city. (author)

  1. Ocorrência do pólen de Podocarpus sp. (Podocarpaceae nas coletas de Frieseomelitta varia Lepeletier 1836 (Apidae: Meliponinae em uma área de Manaus, AM, Brasil Occurrence of Podocarpus sp. (Podocarpaceae pollen on Frieseomelitta varia Lepeletier 1836 (Apidae: Meliponinae in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Marques-Souza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante o período de doze meses, o pólen transportado por Frieseomelitta varia Lepeletier 1836 foi coletado das corbículas das operárias, logo após o fechamento da entrada das colméias. Feita a identificação polínica dos grãos de pólen e sua frequência mensal nas amostras, constatou-se que as espécies das famílias mais visitadas pela ordem de coleta, foram: Cecropiaceae, Sapotaceae, Myrtaceae e Moraceae. As operárias coletaram o pólen de 79 espécies de plantas distribuídas em 60 gêneros e 37 famílias, sendo as mais frequentes: Cecropia sp. visitada o ano todo com atratividade em janeiro de 82,03%, Morus sp. com atratividade de 37,46% em dezembro; Myrcia amazonica DC. com atratividade em abril de 32,34% e Pouteria macrophylla (A.DC. Eyma em junho com atratividade de 36,54%. Quanto a Podocarpus sp. esse é o primeiro relato da presença do pólen dessa espécie em coletas de meliponíneos, o que não deixa de ser um fato curioso, uma vez que se trata de uma gimnosperma encontrada em áreas específicas da região amazônica e que apresentou atratividade para Frieseomelitta varia Lepeletier 1836 de 4,94% no mês de março.Over a 12 month period, pollen was sampled from the corbiculae of workers of the stingless bee Frieseomelitta varia Lepeletier 1836. Collections were obtained immediately after sealing the hives, located in a forest fragment in the city of Manaus. Pollen was identified and monthly frequency of each type was tallied. The most-visited plant families in decreasing order of frequency were Cecropiaceae, Sapotaceae, Myrtaceae and Moraceae. Identified pollen was harvested from 79 plant species in 60 genera and 37 families. The most frequent species were: Cecropia sp., visited year-round but with highest attractiveness (82% in January; Morus sp., with peak attractiveness (37% in December; Myrcia amazonica DC. with 32% peak attractiveness in April; and Pouteria macrophylla (A.DC. Eyma, with 37% peak attractiveness in

  2. The use of renewable alternative sources for the isolated electric generation: proposal of agroenergy system implantation based on the palm oil from the Amazonas state, Brazil; O uso de fontes alternativas renovaveis para a geracao eletrica isolada: proposta de implantacao de sistemas agroenergeticos com base na palma africana no Estado do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Anamelia Medeiros [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the introduction potential of agroenergetic systems in the state of Amazonas, BR, by giving priority to the plantation of the palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) in deforested areas od the state of Amazonas, BR, which presents the edaphoclimatic conditions necessary for the plantation of this palm tree. The palm oil can be used in natura in stationary engines and cas basic raw material for the production of biodiesel, both through transesterification and cracking as well.

  3. Elemental hydrochemistry and hydro geochemistry of the uranium isotopes in Alter do Chao formation, Manaus (Amazon - Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Marcio Luiz da; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos

    2006-01-01

    The water exploitation at Manaus city, Amazonas State, Brazil, takes place from Negro River and tubular wells, being performed by a private company. This paper evaluates the hydrochemistry and geochemical behavior of uranium isotopes ( 238 U and 234 U) in groundwaters from Manaus city, with the aim to characterize the contaminants or pollutants that possibly are affecting the quality of the underground hydrological resources, as well as to evaluate the potential use of the natural U-isotopes as hydrological tracers in the aquifer studied. The U-isotopes analysis allowed to determine 234 U/ 238 U activity ratios of 1.2-4.4, and dissolved uranium concentration of 0.003-1.1 μg.L -1 (ppb). These results and those concerning the others parameters indicated that the waters are appropriate for human consumption, permitting to classify the hydrological system as acid-reducing, and to say that the waters leach minerals in strata containing low U content.(author)

  4. A historical overview of leprosy epidemiology and control activities in Amazonas, Brazil

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    Carolina Cunha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is an ancient infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. According to comparative genomics studies, this disease originated in Eastern Africa or the Near East and spread with successive human migrations. The Europeans and North Africans introduced leprosy into West Africa and the Americas within the past 500 years. In Brazil, this disease arrived with the colonizers who disembarked at the first colonies, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador and Recife, at the end of the sixteenth century, after which it was spread to the other states. In 1854, the first leprosy cases were identified in State of Amazonas in the north of Brazil. The increasing number of leprosy cases and the need for treatment and disease control led to the creation of places to isolate patients, known as leprosaria. One of them, Colonia Antônio Aleixo was built in Amazonas in 1956 according to the most advanced recommendations for isolation at that time and was deactivated in 1979. The history of the Alfredo da Matta Center (AMC, which was the first leprosy dispensary created in 1955, parallels the history of leprosy in the state. Over the years, the AMC has become one of the best training centers for leprosy, general dermatology and sexually transmitted diseases in Brazil. In addition to being responsible for leprosy control programs in the state, the AMC has carried out training programs on leprosy diagnosis and treatment for health professionals in Manaus and other municipalities of the state, aiming to increase the coverage of leprosy control activities. This paper provides a historical overview of leprosy in State of Amazonas, which is an endemic state in Brazil.

  5. Clinical and virological descriptive study in the 2011 outbreak of dengue in the Amazonas, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquiria do Carmo Alves Martins

    Full Text Available Dengue is a vector-borne disease in the tropical and subtropical region of the world and is transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. In the state of Amazonas, Brazil during the 2011 outbreak of dengue all the four Dengue virus (DENV serotypes circulating simultaneously were observed. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical epidemiology of dengue in Manaus, the capital city of the state of the Amazonas, where all the four DENV serotypes were co-circulating simultaneously.Patients with acute febrile illness during the 2011 outbreak of dengue, enrolled at the Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Viera Dourado (FMT-HVD, a referral centre for tropical and infectious diseases in Manaus, were invited to participate in a clinical and virological descriptive study. Sera from 677 patients were analyzed by RT-nested-PCRs for flaviviruses (DENV 1-4, Saint Louis encephalitis virus-SLEV, Bussuquara virus-BSQV and Ilheus virus-ILHV, alphavirus (Mayaro virus-MAYV and orthobunyavirus (Oropouche virus-OROV.Only dengue viruses were detected in 260 patients (38.4%. Thirteen patients were co-infected with more than one DENV serotype and six (46.1% of them had a more severe clinical presentation of the disease. Nucleotide sequencing showed that DENV-1 belonged to genotype V, DENV-2 to the Asian/American genotype, DENV-3 to genotype III and DENV-4 to genotype II.Co-infection with more than one DENV serotype was observed. This finding should be warning signs to health authorities in situations of the large dispersal of serotypes that are occurring in the world.

  6. Distribution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, and subtype C identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, L.K.H.; Kashima, S.; Amarante, M.F.C.; Haddad, R.; Rodrigues, E.S.; Silva, K.L.T.; Lima, T.A.; Castro, D.B.; Brito, F.C.; Almeida, E.G.; Covas, D.T.; Malheiro, A.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have reported the molecular epidemiological characterization of HIV-1 in the Northern region of Brazil. The present study reports the molecular and epidemiological characterization of 31 HIV-1 isolates from blood donors from the State of Amazonas who donated blood between April 2006 and March 2007. Serum/plasma samples from all donors were screened for HIV antibodies by ELISA and the results confirmed by Western blot analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted from the buffy coat using the Super Quik-Gene-DNA Isolation kit. Nested PCR was performed on the env, gag, and pol regions of HIV-1 using the Gene Amp PCR System 9700. Sequencing reactions were performed using the inner PCR primers and the DYEnamic™ ET Dye Terminator Kit, and phylogenetic analysis was performed using the gag, pol, and env gene sequences. We collected samples from 31 blood donors who tested positive for HIV-1 in confirmatory experiments. The male:female ratio of blood donors was 3.4:1, and the mean age was 32.4 years (range: 19 to 61 years). Phylogenetic analysis showed that subtype B is the most prevalent among Northern Brazilian HIV-1-seropositive blood donors. One HIV-1 subtype C and one circulating recombinant form (CRF-BF) of HIV-1 were identified in the State of Amazonas. This is the first study showing the occurrence of a possible “homogenous” subtype C in this region of Brazil. This finding could contribute to a better characterization of the HIV-1 strains that circulate in the country. Key words: HIV-1; Subtypes; Phylogenetic analysis; Blood donors; Molecular and epidemiological characterization

  7. Distribution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, and subtype C identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, L.K.H. [Departamento de Parasitologia, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Kashima, S.; Amarante, M.F.C.; Haddad, R.; Rodrigues, E.S. [Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Hemocentro de Ribeirão Preto, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Silva, K.L.T.; Lima, T.A.; Castro, D.B.; Brito, F.C.; Almeida, E.G. [Diretoria de Ensino e Pesquisa,Fundação de Hematologia e Hemoterapia do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Covas, D.T. [Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Hemocentro de Ribeirão Preto, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Malheiro, A. [Departamento de Parasitologia, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Diretoria de Ensino e Pesquisa,Fundação de Hematologia e Hemoterapia do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2012-01-20

    Few studies have reported the molecular epidemiological characterization of HIV-1 in the Northern region of Brazil. The present study reports the molecular and epidemiological characterization of 31 HIV-1 isolates from blood donors from the State of Amazonas who donated blood between April 2006 and March 2007. Serum/plasma samples from all donors were screened for HIV antibodies by ELISA and the results confirmed by Western blot analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted from the buffy coat using the Super Quik-Gene-DNA Isolation kit. Nested PCR was performed on the env, gag, and pol regions of HIV-1 using the Gene Amp PCR System 9700. Sequencing reactions were performed using the inner PCR primers and the DYEnamic™ ET Dye Terminator Kit, and phylogenetic analysis was performed using the gag, pol, and env gene sequences. We collected samples from 31 blood donors who tested positive for HIV-1 in confirmatory experiments. The male:female ratio of blood donors was 3.4:1, and the mean age was 32.4 years (range: 19 to 61 years). Phylogenetic analysis showed that subtype B is the most prevalent among Northern Brazilian HIV-1-seropositive blood donors. One HIV-1 subtype C and one circulating recombinant form (CRF-BF) of HIV-1 were identified in the State of Amazonas. This is the first study showing the occurrence of a possible “homogenous” subtype C in this region of Brazil. This finding could contribute to a better characterization of the HIV-1 strains that circulate in the country. Key words: HIV-1; Subtypes; Phylogenetic analysis; Blood donors; Molecular and epidemiological characterization.

  8. Leptohyphidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera do estado do Amazonas, Brasil: novos registros, nova combinação, nova espécie e chave de identificação para estágios ninfais Leptohyphidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera of Amazonas state, Brazil: new records, new combination, new species and identification key for nymphal stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enide Luciana Lima Belmont

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Leptohyphidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera do Estado do Amazonas, Brasil: novos registros, nova combinação, nova espécie e chave de identificação para estágios ninfais. Os seguintes gêneros de Leptohyphidae ocorrem no estado do Amazonas: Amanahyphes Salles & Molineri, Leptohyphes Eaton, Tricorythodes Ulmer e Tricorythopsis Traver. A distribuição das espécies de Leptohyphidae no Estado do Amazonas é apresentada. Uma espécie nova, Tricorythodes yapekuna sp. nov., é descrita e pode ser diferenciada de outros Tricorythodes pelas (1 garras tarsais com um par de dentículos submarginais e sem dentículos marginais; (2 palpo maxilar biarticulado; (3 brânquia opercular uniformemente preta com exceção da margem apical; (4 fórmula branquial 2/3/3/3/2; e (5 margem lateral do abdome expandida nos segmentos III_VI. Uma combinação nova, Tricorythopsis rondoniensis (Dias, Cruz & Ferreira, 2009 comb. nov., é proposta e constitui o primeiro registro dessa espécie para o Estado do Amazonas. Uma chave dicotômica ilustrada para identificar ninfas de gêneros e espécies ocorrentes no Amazonas também é apresentada.Leptohyphidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera of Amazonas state, Brazil: new records, new combination, new species and identification key for nymphal stages. The following genera of Leptohyphidae occur in the Amazonas state: Amanahyphes Salles & Molineri, Leptohyphes Eaton, Tricorythodes Ulmer and Tricorythopsis Traver. Distribution of Leptohyphidae species in Amazonas state is presented. A new species, Tricorythodes yapekuna sp. nov., is described and can be distinguished from other Tricorythodes by: (1 tarsal claws with pair of submarginal denticles and no marginal denticles; (2 bi-articulated maxillary palp; (3 opercular gill black except on apical margin; (4 gill formula 2/3/3/3/2; and (5 expanded lateral abdominal margin of segments III_VI. The new combination, Tricorythopsis rondoniensis (Dias, Cruz & Ferreira, 2009 comb. nov., is proposed

  9. Characterization of the family health strategy in Amazonas state, Brazil: an analysis of implementation and impact

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Hadelândia Milon de; Gonçalves, Maria Jacirema Ferreira; Pires, Rodrigo Otávio Moretti

    2011-01-01

    Este artigo aborda a implantação do Programa Saúde da Família (PSF) em municípios do Estado do Amazonas, Brasil, analisando indicadores de cobertura populacional potencial, indícios de mudança do modelo assistencial e indício de impacto (2004 e 2008). A classificação de implantação foi intermediária e insatisfatória. Os resultados mostram aumento no número de municípios com PSF implantado, assim como na cobertura do programa, porém ainda abaixo de 50% da cobertura populacional. Para a dimensã...

  10. Avaliação do desembarque pesqueiro efetuado em Manacapuru, Amazonas, Brasil Evaluation of the Manacapuru fishing landings, Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Gonçalves

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A atividade comercial pesqueira na Amazônia Central é predominantemente direcionada para Manaus, porém o perfil das atividades pesqueiras efetuadas nos demais centros também é fundamental para o planejamento do setor. Neste contexto, o presente trabalho visa caracterizar o perfil da produção pesqueira que abastece a cidade de Manacapuru, um dos principais centros urbanos da Amazônia Central. Os desembarques ocorreram a partir de canoas a remo, canoas motorizadas, barcos de pesca e recreios. A média mensal de pescado desembarcado foi de 175,36 ± 39,50 t em 2001 e de 172,13 ± 18,88 t em 2002, não apresentando diferença significativa entre anos (P>0,05. Dos 35 nomes específicos comuns registrados, observa-se que curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans, jaraquis (Semaprochilodus spp., cubiu (Anodus spp., mapará (Hypophthalmus spp., e tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum foram os itens mais importantes nos dois anos, e piramutaba (Brachyplatystoma vaillantii em 2002. Sete sub-regiões foram visitadas pela frota pesqueira, destacando-se Baixo-Solimões e o rio Purus.The fishing commercial activity in Central Amazonia is mainly addressed for Manaus, even so the characteristics of the fishing activities directed to other important urban centers in the region are also fundamental for the planning of the sector. In this context, the present work seeks to characterize the profile of the fishing production that lands in the city of Manacapuru, one of the main urban centers of Central Amazon. Fish landings were done from non-motorized canoes, motorized canoes, fishing ships and pleasure boats. The monthly average of landed fish was of 175,36 ± 39,50 ton in 2001 and of 172,13 ± 18,88 ton in 2002, not presenting significant difference among years (P>0,05. Of the 35 registered common species names, it is observed that curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans, jaraquis (Semaprochilodus spp., cubiu (Anodus spp., mapará (Hypophthalmus spp., and tambaqui (Colossoma

  11. Estimation of electric power generation using coal from the fruit peel of cupuassu in Amazonas State, Brazil; Estimativa de geracao de energia eletrica utilizando o carvao da casca do fruto do cupuacuzeiro no estado do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Antonio Cleuder Lima da [Manaus Energia S/A., Manaus, AM (Brazil); Santos, Eyde Cristiane Saraiva dos [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (FCA/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Engenharia Agricola e Solos], e-mail: eyde_cristianne@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-01

    The application of the charcoal of agroforestry residue for the generation of electric energy, for being renewable power plant and possessing technology for application, comes being evidenced. In this research the potential of generation of electric energy was estimated, in the main producing cities of the State of Amazonas of the fruit of the cupuacuzeiro (Theobroma grandiflorum Wild. Ex. Spreng. Shum.), using the rind carbonized in technology of gasification, substitution of diesel. The charcoal of the rind of the fruit of the cupuacuzeiro presents to be able calorific next to the one to the deriving coal of the wood. Known the annual production of each one the cities, the amount and the cost of production of the generated electric energy, determined in this research, it justifies the exploitation of this residue, for having economic advantages, when comparative with the tariff of the adopted electric energy in the region for the concessionaire. (author)

  12. The unsustainability of the implantation of the 'Luz para todos' programme in the Amazonas state; A (in)sustentabilidade da implantacao do programa Luz para Todos no estado do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Andreia Santos; Cartaxo, Elizabeth Ferreira [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This article brings to discuss the policy of universalization of the supply of electrical energy 'Luz para todos' showing the significance of this proposal of the government, in a short time, bring electricity to more than 10 million people who still live in the darkness. It features the efficiency of this action of the government from the reality experienced in the context Amazon, which show a framework for various characteristics and natural, cultural and focused on the issue geospatial. This involves understanding the multitude of climates and geographical characteristics, cultural and social constitute major obstacles for the implementation of policies homogeneous, demonstrating that the potential for development of each region has different dynamics, which should influence in the formulation of policies. While electricity is essential for the economic progress of a country, the expansion of its services to society must be viewed with great discretion, in order to prevent the exploitation and consumption exacerbated of natural resources and waste of energy. With this reading, the work he proposes to show the inconsistencies of the program in the state of Amazonas, on presentation of data from the Companhia Energetica do Amazonas (CEAM), showing thus obstacles to the achievement of the goals outlined in the State. Considering the environmental importance that the Amazon represents for Brazil and for the world, emerges is the need for a differentiated look for the region, taking into account their unique reality. It is believed that is the acceptance of their characteristics that we can really promote a development that is sustainable for the Amazon. (author)

  13. Prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi among riverine communities in the municipality of Lábrea, State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Fernandes Medeiros

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Estimate the prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi infection and calculate the parasitic infection rate (PIR in simuliid black flies in the municipality of Lábrea, State of Amazonas, Brazil. METHODS: Prevalence was measured using the thick blood smear method collected from the fingers and was related to age, sex and occupation. Simuliidae were collected with a suction apparatus, then stained with hematoxylin and dissected to verify the PIR. RESULTS: The average prevalence rate of M. ozzardi among the 694 individuals examined was 20.7%. Infection was higher in men (27.6% than in women (14.3% (p 58 (60.5%. The highest prevalence rates were observed in the retired (64%, followed by farm workers (47.1%. Infection by M. ozzardi was only identified in Cerqueirellum amazonicum (Simuliidae with a PIR of 0.6%. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a high prevalence of M. ozzardi in the riverine communities of Lábrea due to the lack of policies regarding the treatment of microfilaremic individuals in the region and an abundance of competent vectors for M. ozzardi.

  14. Historical analysis of the records of sylvan yellow fever in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, from 1996 to 2009

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    Maria das Graças Gomes Saraiva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Yellow fever is a non-contagious infectious disease, highly lethal, transmitted by the Aedes, Haemagogus and Sabethes. Methods Descriptive retrospective study of the yellow fever cases in Amazonas, between 1996 and 2009. Results Forty two cases of yellow fever were confirmed, with 30 deaths, 10% of which were foreigners. Conclusions The presence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in both rural Amazonas and its capital demonstrates the dispersion of these vectors and underscores the need for better and continuous epidemiological and entomological control.

  15. BR-319: Brazil's Manaus-Porto Velho highway and the potential impact of linking the arc of deforestation to central amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, Philip M; de Alencastro Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima

    2006-11-01

    Brazil's BR-319 Highway linked Manaus, in the state of Amazonas, to Porto Velho, Rondônia, until it became impassable in 1988. Now it is proposed for reconstruction and paving, which would facilitate migration from the "Arc of Deforestation" in the southern part of the Amazon region to new frontiers farther north. The purpose of the highway, which is to facilitate transport to São Paulo of products from factories in the Manaus Free Trade Zone, would be better served by sending the containers by ship to the port of Santos. The lack of a land connection to Manaus currently represents a significant barrier to migration to central and northern Amazonia. Discourse regarding the highway systematically overestimates the highway's benefits and underestimates its impacts. A variety of changes would be needed prior to paving the highway if these potential impacts are to be attenuated. These include zoning, reserve creation, and increased governance in various forms, including deforestation licensing and control programs. More fundamental changes are also needed, especially the abandonment of the long-standing tradition in Brazil of granting squatters' rights to those who invade public land. Organizing Amazonian occupation in such a way that road construction and improvement cease to lead to explosive and uncontrolled deforestation should be a prerequisite for approval of the BR-319 and other road projects for which major impacts are expected. These projects could provide the impetus that is needed to achieve the transition away from appropriation of public land by both small squatters and by grileiros (large-scale illegal claimants). A delay in reconstructing the highway is advisable until appropriate changes can be effected.

  16. Spawning areas, dispersion and microhabitats of fish larvae in the Anavilhanas Ecological Station, rio Negro, Amazonas State, Brazil

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    Edinbergh C. de Oliveira

    Full Text Available The abundance and distribution of ichthyoplankton and their relationships to current velocity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and electrical conductivity of the water in the Anavilhanas Ecological Station, Negro River, Amazonas State, Brazil, were analyzed. Preferred microhabitats for spawning, dispersion and nursery were also verified. Sampling was undertaken during the falling water period of 2001 and the rising water period of 2002, in a section of 100 km subdivided into 5 subsections, with a total of 20 stations (5 beaches, 5 ravines, 5 channels, and 5 lake channels at night and during the day at the surface and at the bottom. 647 eggs and 4,187 larvae were captured, belonging to 10 families and four orders: Characiformes (6, Siluriformes (2, Perciformes (1, and Clupeiformes (1. Engraulidae (55.39%, Pimelodidae (30.45%, Auchenipteridae (5.23% and Sciaenidae (5.13% were the dominant families. The hierarchical statistical model (ANOVA with three factors (microhabitat, depth and period was applied to the environmental variables and the larval abundance, showing greater abundances of sciaenids in the ravines and lower abundances of engraulids in the channels. The highest captures were obtained at lower temperature values, at the bottom during the day and at the surface at night, suggesting an active larval behavior. The presence of the four larval development stages in all subsection for pimelodids and sciaenids, and in three subsections for engraulids, indicates that the Anavilhanas Ecological Station is an important spawning and nursery area for species of these groups in the Negro River. Larvae abundance of all characiform families was extremely low (from 0.1 to 1.17%, suggesting that they do not spawn in this system.

  17. Tuberculose na população indígena de São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Amazonas, Brasil Tuberculosis among the indian population in São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Amazonas State, Brazil

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    Antônio Levino

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O estudo descreve a situação da tuberculose no Município de São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil, no período de 1997 a 2002. Este município de população predominantemente indígena constitui uma importante noso-área da Amazônia para o problema da tuberculose, cuja magnitude se expressa por intermédio do coeficiente 2,4 vezes mais elevado que a média estadual e até quatro vezes mais que a média nacional. Análises estatísticas utilizadas para avaliar a tendência em relação à associação com a idade, o sexo e a forma clínica revelaram diferenças no comportamento da endemia, quando comparados os coeficientes de incidência entre os casos de procedência urbana e rural. As taxas padronizadas mostraram a população masculina com uma incidência mais elevada que a feminina nas duas áreas de residência. A faixa etária mais atingida foi acima de 50 anos, porém a proporção de menores de 15 anos se mostrou acima dos valores esperados na população geral do país, além de apresentar diferentes níveis de gravidade nas subáreas rurais estudadas. Os achados indicam que esta situação pode ser explicada pelas desigualdades, sobretudo, relativas à acessibilidade aos serviços de saúde que, contraditoriamente, parecem menos resolutivos na área urbana.This study describes the tuberculosis situation in São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Amazonas State, Brazil, from 1997 to 2002. The county, which has a predominantly Indian population, is a relevant tuberculosis area in Amazonas, since the infection rate is 2.4 to 4 times that of the overall State and national rates. The statistical analyses used to assess its association with age, gender, and clinical form showed differences in the endemic behavior, comparing the urban and rural incidence rates. Males had higher standardized incidence rates than females in both the urban and rural areas. The most heavily affected age group was greater than 50 years, but the rate among

  18. A modernização ecológica conquistando hegemonia nos discursos ambientais: o caso da Zona Franca de Manaus

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    Thaís Brianezi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A Zona Franca de Manaus (ZFM foi criada em 1967 pelo governo da ditadura militar brasileira, de acordo com um discurso nacionalista que apresentava a região amazônica como um território estratégico que era preciso ocupar e desenvolver. Apesar de a visão do grande vazio não ter sido apagada do imaginário popular, desde os anos de 1970 tem ganhado força a percepção da floresta como herança cultural e biológica a ser preservada. Estas mudanças nos discursos mais gerais sobre a Amazônia foram acompanhadas por um deslocamento do discurso de legitimação dos incentivos fiscais gozados pelas indústrias de Manaus, em um movimento relacionado ao processo de construção de hegemonia no campo ambiental, marcado pela emergência da chamada modernização ecológica. Utilizando a análise crítica do discurso, este artigo mostra como se constituiu o argumento de que as empresas em Manaus protegem a floresta, assentado em um roteiro de dupla ameaça: de desemprego e de desmatamento. As informações e dados foram levantados por meio de pesquisa bibliográfica, entrevistas semiestruturadas e observações diretas em reuniões e eventos corporativos. Fizeram parte do corpus, ainda, as transcrições oficiais de 64 pronunciamentos em plenário dos três senadores e oito deputados federais do Amazonas em 2007; 125 matérias publicadas no caderno de Economia do jornal A Crítica entre 1º de janeiro e 30 de junho, e quatro edições da revista institucional Suframa Hoje, no mesmo ano.La Zona Franca de Manaus (ZFM fue creada en 1967 por el gobierno de la dictadura militar brasileña, a partir de un discurso nacionalista que presentaba la región amazónica como un territorio estratégico que tenia que ser ocupado y desarrollado. A pesar de la imagen de un gran vacío no desaparecer del imaginario popular; desde los finales de los años 70 ha ganado fuerza la percepción de la floresta como herencia cultural e biológica que debe ser preservada

  19. Fontes de resistência à murcha bacteriana em germoplasma de Capsicum spp. do estado do Amazonas Sources of resistance against bacterial wilt in Capsicum spp. germoplasm of the Amazonas state

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    Liane Cristine Rebouças Demosthenes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A murcha bacteriana, causada por Ralstonia solanacearum, é uma das doenças mais importantes do gênero Capsicum no Brasil. No Amazonas, as condições de elevada temperatura e umidade favorecem o desenvolvimento da doença. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência à murcha bacteriana de germoplasma, selvagem e comercial, de Capsicum spp. Foram avaliados 22 acessos de Capsicum em casa de vegetação. A inoculação foi feita mediante ferimento das raízes, seguido de adição no solo, ao redor das plantas, de suspensão bacteriana na concentração de 10(8 ufc mL-1. A avaliação foi feita diariamente a partir do quarto dia após a inoculação, em função desenvolvimento dos sintomas. A partir das médias de progresso dos sintomas foi construída a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD, e os dados submetidos ao teste de Scott-Knott ao nível de 5% de probabilidade, utilizando o programa estatístico SAEG 9.1. Foram selecionados os acessos 30, 20 e 17, da espécie C. chinense, como resistentes à murcha bacteriana para ensaios futuros em programas de melhoramento genético.The bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important in the genus Capsicum in Brazil. In the state of Amazonas, high temperatures and humidity favor the development of the disease. The objective of this work was to evaluate resistance in germoplasm of wild and commercial Capsicum spp. to bacterial wilt. Twenty two accesses of Capsicum spp. were evaluated in greenhouse conditions. The inoculation was made by means of wounds in the roots, followed by addition of bacterial suspension in the concentration of 10(8 ufc ml-1 in the soil, around the plants. Plant evaluation was made daily after the fourth day of the inoculation (DAI considering the symptoms progress. From the average progress of symptoms was constructed the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC, and the data submitted to the Scott-Knott test at 5% of

  20. A Influência dos Projetos Municipais Voltados ao Desenvolvimento do Turismo e das Atividades Produtivas Familiares e Comerciais na Comunidade de São João do Lago do Tupé no Município de Manaus, Estado do Amazonas

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Delfino maia da Silva; Julio César Rodríguez Tello; Lizit Alencar da Costa

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to build the capacity to observe and reflect on the way in which projects are carried out by the administration of the city of Manaus as they pertain to the community of São João Lago do Tupé, in the Tupé Sustainable Development Reserve (REDES), and how they influence positively or negatively family business endeavors, as well as how they influence commerce and tourism. In October of (2005) field work was conducted in the community of São João Lago do Tupé whic...

  1. Preventive, reducing and compensation actions for environmental impacts of Coari-Manaus gas pipeline; Medidas preventivas, mitigadoras e compensatorias de impactos socioambientais do Projeto Gasoduto Coari-Manaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannarino, Ronaldo P. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rangel, Antonio Carlos F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Projetos Especiais da Area de Gas e Energia

    2004-07-01

    The estimated reserve of natural gas of 124,5 billions m3 existent in the Solimoes basin it's the big thermometrical market existent on the Manaus city, actually supplied with liquid fuels, they had become economically viable the construction of a gas pipeline establishing connection it offers of the demand. However, given the complexity of the Amazonian landscape, the ambient aspects need to be studied with use of tools and methodologies integrators, also contemplating the social aspects. A multi discipline group of researches, led for Centro de Ciencias Ambientais from Universidade Federal do Amazonas - CCA/UFAM they had carried through diagnosis of the influences area of Coari-Manaus gas pipeline had as base research developed for PIATAM (Potenciais Impactos e Riscos Ambientais do Transporte de Petroleo e Gas no Amazonas) project during 24 months in the region enclosed for the tracing considered. During the study of UFAM and in the Official Audiences of the licence process had done consultation for the involved communities, and the results served of base for proposal to the prevention of negative impacts, reduce and compensation of inevitable impacts. The legal and institutional requisites are argued and are considered a way to consolidate the existing regulation on the subject having as basic premise the compatibility of the local and regional interests with the necessity of economic development of the country. (author)

  2. Caracterização da estratégia saúde da família no estado do Amazonas, Brasil: análise da implantação e impacto Characterization of the family health strategy in Amazonas state, Brazil: an analysis of implementation and impact

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    Hadelândia Milon de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a implantação do Programa Saúde da Família (PSF em municípios do Estado do Amazonas, Brasil, analisando indicadores de cobertura populacional potencial, indícios de mudança do modelo assistencial e indício de impacto (2004 e 2008. A classificação de implantação foi intermediária e insatisfatória. Os resultados mostram aumento no número de municípios com PSF implantado, assim como na cobertura do programa, porém ainda abaixo de 50% da cobertura populacional. Para a dimensão de mudança no modelo assistencial, não foram observados municípios com alto índice de mudança. No indício de impacto houve diminuição no baixo impacto e aumento do alto impacto. O teste estatístico indica que a classificação final não apresentou mudança estatisticamente significante entre um ano e outro, prevalecendo nos municípios do Estado do Amazonas a classificação de implantação insatisfatória. A avaliação do PSF não é algo simples, pois há vários fatores que contribuem para essa problemática. Outros estudos poderão revelar os fatores para sua classificação insatisfatória no Estado do Amazonas.This article focuses on the implementation of the Family Health Program (FHP in municipalities (counties in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, analyzing potential population coverage, evidence of change in the health care model, and impact (2004 and 2008. Implementation was classified as fair versus unsatisfactory. The findings showed an increase in the number of municipalities with the FHP implemented, as well as in the program's coverage (which nevertheless was less than 50% of the population. Concerning change in the health care model, no municipalities were observed with a high rate of change. As for impact, there was a decrease in low impact and an increase in high impact. The final classification did not show a statistically significant change from one year to the next, and unsatisfactory implementation prevailed

  3. A Influência dos Projetos Municipais Voltados ao Desenvolvimento do Turismo e das Atividades Produtivas Familiares e Comerciais na Comunidade de São João do Lago do Tupé no Município de Manaus, Estado do Amazonas

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    Roberto Delfino maia da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to build the capacity to observe and reflect on the way in which projects are carried out by the administration of the city of Manaus as they pertain to the community of São João Lago do Tupé, in the Tupé Sustainable Development Reserve (REDES, and how they influence positively or negatively family business endeavors, as well as how they influence commerce and tourism. In October of (2005 field work was conducted in the community of São João Lago do Tupé which included a survey soliciting responses of local residents on socio-demographic, economic, and tourism aspects. 43,33% of interviewed described trash and pollution consequences of tourism.

  4. The generation of electric power in a model of endogenous development: possible solutions for isolated communities in the Amazonas State, Brazil; A geracao de energia eletrica em um modelo de desenvolvimento endogeno: possiveis solucoes para as comunidades isoladas do interior do estado do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Andre Frazao; Cavaliero, Carla Kazue Nakao [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2006-07-01

    This work was developed to fit the generation of electric energy for the isolated communities of the interior of the Amazonas State in a context of endogenous development. A regional development is proposed, with the inclusion of the generation of electric energy for these communities in a context of development, rather than the isolated form proposed in the federal government electrification program of 'Luz Para Todos' (Light For All). (author)

  5. The challenges of working values of SEH (Safety, Environment and Health) in the construction of Urucu / Manaus Gas Pipeline in the Amazon rain forest; Os desafios de trabalhar os valores de SMS (Seguranca, Meio ambiente e Saude) na construcao do Gasoduto Urucu/Manaus na Floresta Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Jeane Ramos; Rocha, Katia Rosilene Soares da; Paredio, Lindoneide Lima [Concremat Engenharia e Tecnologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pellin, Madson Weider Elgaly [JPTE Engenharia, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Barreto, Jean Luis Campos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work, aims to sharpen the main difficulties of acting in SMS and the corrective and preventive measures in the work of the pipeline Urucu / Manaus, located in the influence of the Solimoes River, covering several municipalities in the state of Amazonas (Coari, Codajas, Caapiranga, Anama, Iranduba, Manaus). Such pipeline has three spread, namely Spread A, from Urucu to Coari, Spread B1, from Coari to Anama, and Spread B2, from Anama to Manaus. For the purpose of the present case, we have focused on the Spread B2, from the city of Anama to Manaus, from km 475 to Km 662, being 174,400 m long. Its main line ends right within the premises of the Refinaria Isaac Sabba (a local refinery), which is located at Rua Rio Quixito - Distrito Industrial. The purpose of the pipeline is to convey natural gas to the Pressure Regulating Station, which is located close by the aforementioned refinery. The gas is transported to Maua Thermoelectrical, to generate energy for certain areas of the Amazon capital city. The information has been obtained through observations made on the difficulties faced by the workers to comply with safety behaviour while carrying out their activities. Also, by using several tools, such us Auditoria Comportamental (Behaviour Auditing) - Audicomp, Aplicacao de Listas de Verificacao - LV's (Verification Lists), as well as Indice de Praticas Seguras - IPS (Safety Practices Index). The collected data is analysed, and displayed in graphics, tables and processed in PETROBRAS internal systems, such Audicomp (Behaviour Auditing), SALV (Verification Lists Application System), and Auditoria de IPS (Safety Practices Index Auditing). The main difficulties to implement SMS (Safety, Environment and Health) in a pipeline works in the Amazon require from the transportation logistics, communication problems, lack of enough local skilled labor, the adverse region's season conditions, both flood and dry seasons, as well as to commit the local population with

  6. Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Lábrea, state of Amazonas, Brazil, with a description of Evandromyia (Aldamyia) apurinan Shimabukuro, Figueira & Silva, sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Elder Augusto Guimarães; Silva, Glacicleide; Chagas, Erica Cristina da Silva; Shimabukuro, Paloma Helena Fernandes

    2013-05-01

    An entomological survey was conducted from July-December 2009 and September-December 2010, as part of the epidemiological monitoring of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in the municipality of Lábrea, state of Amazonas (AM), Brazil. Sandflies were collected using CDC light traps installed in intra and peridomiciliary locations, as well as the border of forested areas around houses where autochthonous cases of ACL were recorded. A total of 510 sandflies belonging to 26 species were collected. The most abundant species was Nyssomyia antunesi (44.5%) followed by Evandromyia walkeri (10.6%) and Micropygomyia rorotaensis (9.8%). Here we also describe Evandromyia (Aldamyia) apurinan sp. nov. and report new records for Trichophoromyia flochi and Evandromyia sipani in AM and Brazil, respectively. Our results describe the composition of the sandfly fauna in the south of AM and suggest Ny. antunesi as the putative vector in the transmission of Leishmania in this area of the Amazon Region.

  7. Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae from Lábrea, state of Amazonas, Brazil, with a description of Evandromyia (Aldamyia apurinan Shimabukuro, Figueira & Silva, sp. nov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder Augusto Guimarães Figueira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An entomological survey was conducted from July-December 2009 and September-December 2010, as part of the epidemiological monitoring of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL in the municipality of Lábrea, state of Amazonas (AM, Brazil. Sandflies were collected using CDC light traps installed in intra and peridomiciliary locations, as well as the border of forested areas around houses where autochthonous cases of ACL were recorded. A total of 510 sandflies belonging to 26 species were collected. The most abundant species was Nyssomyia antunesi (44.5% followed by Evandromyia walkeri (10.6% and Micropygomyia rorotaensis (9.8%. Here we also describe Evandromyia (Aldamyia apurinan sp. nov. and report new records for Trichophoromyia flochi and Evandromyia sipani in AM and Brazil, respectively. Our results describe the composition of the sandfly fauna in the south of AM and suggest Ny. antunesi as the putative vector in the transmission of Leishmania in this area of the Amazon Region.

  8. DE LÁ PARA CÁ: A MIGRAÇÃO EXPRESSIVA DO CAMPONÊS RIBEIRINHO PARA MANAUS, UMA REFLEXÃO/ From there to here: Expressive migration of the riparian peasant for Manaus, a reflection

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    Dalila da Silva

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo se configura em uma fragmentação da pesquisa de Mestrado, na qual buscamos relacionar o aspecto cultural da migração interestadual em Manaus, ressaltando a territorialidade deste sujeito migrante na cidade. Através do resgate de dados quantitativos do IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, podemos identificar que a migração do camponês ribeirinho, do interior do Estado do Amazonas, para Manaus, também é bastante significativa. Neste sentido, desenvolvemos este estudo buscando compreender este caboclo amazônico, que muitas vezes possui sua terra, possui seu meio financeiro de sobrevivência, no interior, mas decide mudar-se para a capital do Estado.

  9. Plantas daninhas hospedeiras alternativas de Colletotrichum guaranicola em cultivos de guaraná no Estado do Amazonas Alternative host weeds of Colletotrichum guaranicola in guarana crops in the State Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. Miléo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As plantas daninhas reduzem a produção de sementes de guaraná e podem hospedar microrganismos patogênicos, tornando-se potenciais fontes de inóculo. Este trabalho identificou espécies de plantas daninhas colonizadas pelo fungo Colletotrichum guaranicola em cultivos de guaranazeiro em quatro municípios do Estado do Amazonas. As plantas daninhas foram identificadas e a presença do fungo foi verificada por meio de isolamentos feitos a partir de fragmentos de folhas lesionadas. As espécies colonizadas por C. guaranicola foram Bidens bipinnata, Chloris sp., Clidemia capitellata, Cyperus flavus, Elephantopus scaber, Euphorbia brasiliensis, Hemidiodia sp., Hyptis lantanifolia, Paspalum conjugatum, Physalis angulata e Synedrella nodiflora, as quais podem representar uma fonte de inóculo do patógeno, além das plantas de guaraná. A diversidade de plantas daninhas, em cultivos de guaranazeiro, reforça a importância de estabelecer práticas de manejo dessas plantas, principalmente em Maués, onde ocorreu maior colonização das espécies de plantas daninhas pelo fungo.Weed infestation may reduce grain guarana crops yield and host plant pathogens becoming potential inoculum sources. This research identified weed species colonized by the fungus Colletotrichum guaranicola in the guarana crop in four counties in the state of Amazon. The weeds were identified fungi presence was observed by isolation from leaf fragments of leaves injured by the fungi. The weed species colonized by Colletotrichum guaranicola were Bidens bipinnata, Chloris sp., Clidemia capitellata, Cyperus flavus, Elephantopus scaber, Euphorbia brasiliensis, Hemidiodia sp., Hyptis lantanifolia, Paspalum conjugatum, Physalis angulata and Synedrella nodiflora,that may represent a strong potential of plant pathogen inoculum, along with the guarana plants. Weed diversity in guarana crop shows the importance of establishing management practices to control these weeds, mainly in the Maues

  10. Análise geoespacial sobre saúde em aglomerados subnormais no bairro Redenção, Manaus-AM

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    Jessyca Mikaelly Benchimol de Andrade

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The urbanization process causes irregular occupation in urban areas, it is necessary the effectiveness of territorial planning in the great capitals of the country. Undoubtedly, it is essential not only emergency measures, but effective measures in irregular areas and inadequate to housing, as they are increasingly inhabited. An example of urban expansion to the city of Manaus, and its majority of the forms of occupation, classified by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics / IBGE as subnormal agglomerated, are located in valley bottom regions and near the river banks that drain a network Area of approximately 1,017 channels. In this context, 40 neighborhoods of the 63 registered ones with more than 100,000 inhabitants in this city are inserted. They constitute agglomerates of people who live under the IBGE, in conditions that are not suitable for housing,and bring together excluded populations, lacking infrastructure for health services, security, transportation, education and urban planning. In order to carry out this study, we selected the Redemption District located in the sub-basin of the Giant. The purpose of performing a geospatial analysis on the subnormal agglomerated of the Redenção neighborhood is firstly to identify and then classify the number of sectors of the subnormal agglomerated. Subsequently, it was found that in the State of Amazonas, which are n = 122 subnormal agglomerated, shows the city of Manaus as the largest recipient of n = 51 subnormal agglomerates, Iranduba n = 10, Parintins n = 7 and Tefé n = 7. In the Redencao neighborhood, 48 census tracts were identified, with 4 subnormal agglomerated, totaling 914 households.

  11. Atendimento oftalmológico dos recém-nascidos examinados nas maternidades públicas em Manaus Ophthalmological evaluations of the newborn at the public maternities in Manaus

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    José Cavalcanti Campos Júnior

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar o tipo e a frequência de diagnóstico ocular dos recém-nascidos atendidos no ambulatório, UCI e UTI neonatais das Maternidades Públicas Estaduais na cidade de Manaus (AM. MÉTODOS: Tratou-se de um estudo retrospectivo dos prontuários dos recém-nascidos, obtidos nas Maternidades Públicas Estaduais no município de Manaus, estado do Amazonas. Foram incluídos todos os pacientes avaliados durante trinta meses (setembro de 2005 a março de 2008. O trabalho foi submetido e aprovado pelas direções das unidades de saúde, que permitiram a execução do estudo sem restrições. RESULTADOS: Do total dos 4. 591 atendimentos realizados, 1880 (40,9% foram provenientes da Maternidade Balbina Mestrinho, enquanto que 1. 360 (29,6% foram atendidos na Maternidade Ana Braga, 788 (17,2% na Maternidade Nazira Daou, 315 (6,9% na Maternidade Azilda Marreiro e 248 (5,4% na Maternidade da Alvorada. Em relação ao tipo de diagnóstico, encontramos RN Normais em 2. 462 (53,6% casos e 2. 129 (46,4% casos de RN com alterações oculares - 69,8% (ROP, 18,9% (Conjuntivites, 4,1% (Catarata, 3,6% (Estrabismo, 2,5% (Uveítes, 0,8% (anormalidades congênitas e 0,3% (Outros. CONCLUSÃO: As alterações oculares foram encontradas em quase metade dos pacientes: ROP, conjuntivites, catarata, estrabismo, uveítesPURPOSE: Determine the type and frequency of diagnosis of newborn seen in the ambulatories, ICU and ITU at the Public Maternities in Manaus. METHODS: We present a retrospective study done at the Public Maternities in Manaus,Amazon state. We include all patients seen during thirty months (september 2005 to march 2008. The study was submitted and approved by the head of health units that allowed the execution of the study without restrictions. RESULTS: Of the total 4. 591 patients seen, 1. 880 (40,9% were from at the Balbina Mestrinho Maternity, while 1. 360 (29,6% were seen at the Ana Braga Maternity, 788 (17,2% at the Nazira Daou Maternity, 315

  12. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in endocervical smears of sexually active women in Manaus-AM, Brazil, by PCR

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    Cristina Santos

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is now one of the most prevalent bacteria found in classic sexually transmissible diseases (STD, and as such, constitutes a serious public health problem. We examined the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, in 121 sexually active women who sought treatment for STD in the Alfredo da Matta Institute of Dermatology and Venerology and the Institute of Tropical Medicine of Amazonas in Manaus, Brazil. These women were examined by a specific PCR for the chlamydial plasmid, and the nature of the amplicon was determined by restriction analysis and DNA sequencing. The PCR diagnosis revealed a prevalence of 20.7% infected women.

  13. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in endocervical smears of sexually active women in Manaus-AM, Brazil, by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Cristina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is now one of the most prevalent bacteria found in classic sexually transmissible diseases (STD, and as such, constitutes a serious public health problem. We examined the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, in 121 sexually active women who sought treatment for STD in the Alfredo da Matta Institute of Dermatology and Venerology and the Institute of Tropical Medicine of Amazonas in Manaus, Brazil. These women were examined by a specific PCR for the chlamydial plasmid, and the nature of the amplicon was determined by restriction analysis and DNA sequencing. The PCR diagnosis revealed a prevalence of 20.7% infected women.

  14. Óleo de andiroba: processo tradicional da extração, uso e aspectos sociais no estado do Amazonas, Brasil Crapwood oil: traditional extraction, use and social aspects in the state of Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreza P. Mendonça

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O processo tradicional de extração do óleo das sementes de andiroba foi levantado em três municípios (Anamã, Manacapuru e Silves no Estado do Amazonas. Em 1992 e 2004, foi aplicado um questionário a 38 extratoras. Sementes das duas espécies de andiroba (Carapa procera D.C. e Carapa guianensis Aubl. foram utilizadas como matéria prima. O processo tradicional é complexo, demora cerca de dois meses e pode ser dividido em três etapas: 1. A coleta, seleção de sementes boas e um primeiro armazenamento (3-15 dias. 2. O preparo da massa pelo cozimento das sementes em água (1-3 horas, um segundo período de armazenamento (até 20 dias e finalizada pela retirada da casca e o amassamento das amêndoas. 3. A extração do óleo (até 30 dias, pelo gotejamento colocando a massa sobre uma superfície inclinada. Óleo extraído na sombra foi considerado de melhor qualidade do que no sol, porém o processo é mais demorado. Uma segunda extração com a prensa ("tipiti", usada na fabricação de farinha, foi raramente empregada. Verificaram-se pequenas variações entre os procedimentos das extratoras, aparentemente com conseqüências na rentabilidade e na qualidade do óleo. Na primeira e segunda etapa da extração participaram membros da família e/ou vizinhos, ao contrário da etapa final, realizada por uma única mulher. Enquanto, transmissão do conhecimento tradicional, em geral, costuma passar de geração por geração pela oralidade e observação, este estudo revelou, que os jovens não participam mais da extração. Fato, que no futuro próximo, pode causar a perda de conhecimento em relação à extração do óleo de andiroba pelo método tradicional.The traditional method of oil extraction from crabwood seeds was observed in three municipalities (Anamã, Manacapuru e Silves in the state of Amazonas. In 1992 and 2004 a total of 38 producers were interviewed. Seeds of two species (Carapa procera D.C. and Carapa guianensis Aubl. were

  15. A hist?ria da Pol?tica de Sa?de Mental do Amazonas: a reforma psiqui?trica e sua estrutura??o

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, Raquel Maria

    2015-01-01

    O trabalho tem como objetivo analisar historicamente a estrutura??o da Pol?tica de Sa?de Mental no Amazonas, tendo como foco a Reforma Psiqui?trica ocorrida principalmente em Manaus. O Movimento da Reforma Psiqui?trica no Amazonas iniciou no final da d?cada de 1970, por um grupo de psiquiatras e profissionais do Hospital Col?nia Eduardo Ribeiro, que se inspiraram nas ideias da Reforma Psiqui?trica. Ideias que possibilitaram o surgimento de uma Pol?tica de Sa?de Mental no Brasil...

  16. Evaluation of the micro nutrients daily ingestion and mercury on pre-elementary school children from some communities of the state of Amazonas, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Andrea C.P.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Farias, Luciana; Maihara, Vera A.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; ime P.L.; Alencar, Fernando H.; Yuyama, Lucia K.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the daily dietetic ingestion of Hg and some nutrients of pre-scholar children from eight communities of Amazonas state, Brazil. Some children from each community were selected and their diets (24 hours total consumption) were collected by the duplicate quantity method and a pool of diets composed for each of these communities. The diet samples were analysed for the Hg total content by a CV AAS linear accelerator and neutron activation analysis for determination of Ca, Fe, K, Se and Zn micro nutrients. Both analytical methodologies precision and accuracy were validated using the certified reference materials analysis. The provisional tolerable weekly ingestion (PTWI) for Hg and the daily micro nutrient ingestion were calculated for each group, considering an 10 kg average weight for each child. The obtained results for all diets were shown the inadequacy prevail for the evaluated micro nutrients, and some communities exceeded the limit of 5 μg Hg/kg of body weight (PTWI). Those results suggested that the nutritional education program must be implemented at those communities, aiming the better utilization of the local food natural resources. (author)

  17. Hematologic and Total Plasma Protein Values in Free-Living Red-tailed Amazon Parrot Nestlings (Amazona brasiliensis) in Paraná State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Frederico F; Locatelli-Dittrich, Rosangela; Sipinski, Elenise A B; Abbud, Maria C; Sezerban, Rafael M; Schmidt, Elizabeth M S; Dittrich, Jaqueline; Cavalheiro, Maria L

    2015-09-01

    The red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis) is an endangered psittacid species that is endemic in the south and southeast Brazilian Atlantic coastal region. Hematologic evaluation is important to monitor the health of these birds, and information about laboratory values for this species is scarce. Hematologic and total plasma protein profiles were determined for 33 free-living nestling parrots in Paraná state, Brazil. Parrots were temporarily removed from the nest and manually restrained to record body weight and collect blood samples. Mean body weight was 400 g in 20 birds (group 2). Significantly higher levels of mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations, white blood cell counts, monocytes, and basophils were observed in younger birds (group 1). A stress leukogram (high white blood cell and heterophil count) was found in all nestlings, suggesting stress induced by capture and restraint. Parameters obtained in this study will be essential to assess the physiologic and pathologic condition of wild parrots, to evaluate the effects of environmental changes on their health, and to contribute to conservation efforts of this endangered species.

  18. American cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in the metropolitan region of Manaus, Brazil: association with climate variables over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Augusto Ferreira de Souza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A temporal series of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and other environmental parameters covering the years 2002- 2009 was used for the study of the potential association between the climate and the number of cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in Manaus Metropolitan Region (MMR, State of Amazonas, Brazil. The results show that CL has a marked seasonality and a strong linkage with local climate conditions. Dry and warm conditions favor the vector, while the maximum number of CL cases occurs during the following wet season. This has a clear relation to the El Niño/La Niña Southern Oscillation (ENSO and the results presented here show that uncharacteristic dry conditions in the MMR follow El Niño after a lag period of 3 months, while wet conditions follow La Niña, again after a lag period of 3 months. El Niño brings dry conditions with warming of the land surface leading to increased growth of trees and bushes as indicated by rising NDVI values, eventually producing increased numbers of CL cases, with a peak of new cases occurring 4 to 5 months later. La Niña, on the other hand, produces wet and cool weather, which is less favorable for the leishmaniasis vector and therefore results in comparatively lower number of CL cases. Since these seasonal climate changes affect the dynamics of the CL vector, and thus the number of CL cases, a close watch of the ENSO phenomenon and the weather type it brings should be useful for monitoring and control of CL in the MMR.

  19. SAÚDE URBANA NO EIXO MANAUS – IRANDUBA: UM ESTUDO SOBRE O PERFIL EPIDEMIOLÓGICO DOS FEIRANTES DE IRANDUBA – AM

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Marina Lelis; UFAM; Schor, Tatiana; UFAM

    2011-01-01

    O perfil epidemiológico dos municípios no Amazonas, em especial na calha do rio Solimões é influenciado pela estrutura da rede urbana devido à centralização dos serviços de saúde, a distância física, a geohistória da rede urbana e meio fisico-biótico-climático. Partindo desta hipótese, este artigo visa compreender a geografia da saúde na Região Metropolitana de Manaus – RMM, com ênfase ao eixo Manaus-Iranduba, considerando as condições epidemiológicas dos feirantes da cidade de Iranduba e da ...

  20. Mites (Arachnida, Acari on Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck orange trees in the state of Amazonas, Northern Brazil Ácarofauna de Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck no estado do Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teiamar da Encarnação Bobot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of citriculture in Brazil, very little is known about mite populations in citrus crops in the Northern Region. In the municipality of Manaus, 12 sprayed sweet orange orchards were surveyed every two weeks during seven months to record mite species amount, and to describe the abundance and distribution of the most important species. The size and age of the orchards varied from 3,360 to 88,080 m² and seven to 25 years, respectively. In the fourteen sampling period, leaves, twigs and fruits were collected from 12 trees, one per orchard. In total, 3,360 leaves, 672 twigs and 1,344 fruits were sampled from 168 trees. Mites were manually extracted from the fruits, and by the washing method on leaves and twigs. We identified pests with the potential to cause economic loss. Fourteen species of phytophagous and mycophagous mites from Eriophyidae, Tarsonemidae, Tenuipalpidae, and Tetranychidae were recorded. Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes 1939 and Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashm., 1879, the two commonest phytophagous mites in other Brazilian regions were dominant, showing that local orchards are susceptible to their infestation. Eleven predatory mites were recorded, comprising 10% of the mite population, belonging to Phytoseiidae and Ascidae. Phytoseiidae was the richest family, with ten species. The results are discussed in relation to the temporal variation aspects and habitat use of the most important species. Long-term research encompassing chemical applications followed by evaluations of the mite community are necessary for a better management of the orchards, taking into consideration the seasonal phenology of key pests.Apesar da importância da citricultura no Brasil, pouco se conhece sobre as populações de ácaros em plantações de citros no norte do país. No município de Manaus, 12 pomares de laranja doce pulverizados foram avaliados a cada duas semanas, durante sete meses, para o registro de ácaros plantícolas e

  1. Electric power and traditional communities in the state of Amazonas: learning from the experience of the Roque Community in the Middle Jurua extractive reserve; Energia eletrica e as populacoes tradicionais do Estado do Amazonas: aprendizados a partir da experiencia na Comunidade do Roque na Reserva Extrativista do Medio Jurua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Celia Salama

    2010-09-15

    This work aims to bring new ideas for expanding access to electricity services to traditional communities in the state of Amazonas including strategies for income generation and improvement of local living conditions. To this end, the main achievements in the community of Roque in the implementation of the project Vegetable Oil for Electricity Generation and Valuation of Biodiversity in Isolated Communities of Extractive Reserve in the Middle Jurua, Carauari, Amazon state were identified and evaluated. Based on the results, a proposal for planning electrification works is formulated that takes into account local knowledge on socioeconomic and environmental conditions. In order to be implemented, such a proposal will require an improvement of the existing regulatory system and the establishment of partnerships or institutional articulation with broad stake holder involvement, including representatives of communities and local power utilities. (author)

  2. Comportamento de cultivares de milho verde em ecossistema de v?rzea e terra firme no estado do Amazonas.

    OpenAIRE

    Di?genes, Haroldo Cunha

    2011-01-01

    O trabalho objetivou avaliar o comportamento de oito cultivares de milho com caracter?sticas para consumo no est?dio verde de matura??o e verificar a adaptabilidade aos ecossistemas de terra firme e v?rzea nas condi??es edafoclim?ticas dos munic?pios de Manaus e Iranduba no Estado do Amazonas. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com arranjo fatorial 8 x 2 x 5 e quatro repeti??es. Os tratamentos foram definidos por oito cultivares de milho, em d...

  3. Aspectos epidemiológicos e clínicos dos acidentes ofídicos ocorridos nos municípios do Estado do Amazonas Epidemiological and clinical aspects of snake accidentes in the municipalities of the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célio Campos Borges

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available No Amazonas, o acidente ofídico é um problema de saúde pública pouco conhecido. Por este motivo, foi realizado um estudo descritivo dos acidentes ofídicos atendidos nas Unidades de Saúde de 34 municípios, um distrito e dois pelotões de fronteira do Estado do Amazonas. As características mais comuns encontradas dentre os pacientes foram: agricultor (50,4%, do sexo masculino (81,3%, em idade produtiva (72,1%, picado no membro inferior (88,5%, por jararaca (48,6% ou surucucu (46,8%, na zona rural de seu município (70,2% e que só recebeu atendimento médico em tempo superior a seis horas, após acidente (57,3%. As manifestações locais mais freqüentes foram: edema (76,9%, dor (68,7%, eritema (10,2% e hemorragia (9,3%. Hemorragia (18,8% foi a manifestação sistêmica mais freqüente. O antiveneno foi administrado em apenas 65,9% dos pacientes. A via mais utilizada foi a endovenosa (52,3%, sendo relevante o uso de vias não mais recomendadas (47,7%. O antiveneno administrado, na maioria dos pacientes, foi o antibotrópico (66,7%. As complicações mais freqüentes foram abcesso (13,7%, necrose (12,3%, infecção secundária (8,3%, insuficiência renal (2,5% e gangrena (2,5%. Os procedimentos médicos mais usados para o tratamento das complicações foram: drenagem (52,6%, debridamento (28,9%, amputação (10,5%, limpeza cirúrgica (5,3% e diálise peritoneal (2,6%. A letalidade foi de 1%.In the State of Amazonas, accidents with snakes are a public health problem. For this reasons, the objective of this work was to carry out a descriptive study of the snake accidents attended in the health units of 34 municipalities, one district and two border platoons in the State of Amazonas. The characteristics most commonly observed among those involved in snake accidents were: farmers (50.4%, male (81.3%, belonging to the working age-group (72.1%, bitten on an upper limb (88.5% by a "jararaca" (48.6% or a "surucucu" (46.8% in the rural part of the

  4. O Boi-Bumbá de Parintins, Amazonas: breve história e etnografia da festa Boi-Bumbá in Parintins, Amazonas: a brief history and ethnography of the festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laura Viveiros de Castro Cavalcanti

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available O festival dos Bois-Bumbás de Parintins (AM alcançou nos últimos anos dimensões massivas, conjugando, de modo inesperado e criativo, padrões e temas culturais tradicionais a procedimentos e abordagens modernizantes. É hoje uma das grandes manifestações populares do Norte do Brasil, atraindo milhares de pessoas não só de Manaus (a capital do estado e cidades próximas, como de diversas partes do país. O artigo analisa-o a partir de uma perspectiva antropológica, centrada no estudo dos rituais. Tece considerações sobre o estudo e a história do folguedo no Brasil. Empreende uma etnografia do festival, situando-o no contexto da região amazônica e examinando a trajetória percorrida desde sua criação aos dias atuais. Sugere, finalmente, a interpretação do Bumbá como um novo nativismo que, ao valorizar as raízes regionais indígenas, afirma positivamente uma identidade cultural cabocla.In recent years, the Boi-Bumbá festival in Parintins, in the state of Amazonas, has reached massive proportions. In surprising and creative ways, the festival mixes traditional cultural patterns and themes together with modernizing procedures and approaches. It has now become a major expression of popular culture in North Brazil, drawing thousands of people not only from the state capital of Manaus and nearby cities but also from all over the country. The article analyzes the Boi-Bumbá from an anthropological perspective, centered on the study of rituals and including observations on the study and history of folguedo in Brazil. Looking from an ethnographic angle, the article situates the festival in the context of the Amazon and examines the road taken from its creation to today. In conclusion, the Bumbá is interpreted as a new nativism that serves as a positive affirmation of cabocla cultural identity by valuing indigenous regional roots.

  5. Biologia reprodutiva de Psychotria spectabilis Steyrm. e Palicourea cf. virens (Poepp & Endl. Standl. (Rubiaceae em uma floresta tropical úmida na região de Manaus, AM, Brasil Reproductive biology of Psychotria spectabilis Steyrm. and Palicourea cf. virens (Poepp. & Endl. Standl. (Rubiaceae in a moist tropical forest at Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilene dos Anjos Santos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo descreve a fenologia reprodutiva, morfologia e biologia floral, polinização e sucesso reprodutivo de Psychotria spectabilis e Palicourea cf. virens. Psychotria spectabilis floresceu de setembro a dezembro enquanto Palicourea cf. virens floresceu de maio a outubro. As inflorescências de Psychotria spectabilis são inflorescências terminais do tipo capítulo, com brácteas amarelas, flores brancas e heterostilia associada a diferenças na papila estigmática. Palicourea cf. virens apresenta inflorescências terminais do tipo corimbo, com flores amarelas homostílicas. Os recursos florais oferecidos foram néctar e pólen em ambas as espécies. Os beija-flores Phaethornis bourcieri e o macho de Thalurania furcata foram os principais visitantes florais de Psychotria spectabilis. Palicourea cf. virens também foi visitada por Thalurania furcata, com maior freqüência de visitas pela fêmea desta espécie. A abelha Trigona fulviventris visitou as flores das duas espécies, mas se comportou como pilhadora. O sucesso reprodutivo pré-emergente (SRPE das duas espécies foi baixo, embora tenham apresentado um alto potencial reprodutivo.This study describes the reproductive phenology, floral biology, pollination and reproductive success of Psychotria spectabilis and Palicourea cf. virens. Psychotria spectabilis flowered from September to December while P. cf. virens flowered from May to October. The terminal inflorescence of Psychotria spectabilis is of the capitate type with yellow bracts, white flowers and heterostyly associated with differences of stigmatic papillae. The terminal inflorescence of Palicourea cf. virens is a corymb with yellow, homostylous flowers. Flower resources include nectar and pollen for both species. The hummingbirds Phaethornis bourcieri and the male of Thalurania furcata were the main floral visitors of Psychotria spectabilis. Palicourea cf. virens was also visited by T. furcata, but the female was the main visitor. Trigona fulviventris visited flowers of both species, but was considered a thief. Pre-emergent reproductive success (PERS of these two species was low, although they showed high reproductive potential.

  6. Estudo da demanda ambulatorial da clínica de odontologia da Universidade do Estado do Amazonas The study of de ambulatory demand of de dental clinic of State University of Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emílio Carlos Sponchiado Júnior

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a demanda ambulatorial da Clínica de Odontologia da Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA. Foram entrevistados cem pacientes em tratamento na disciplina de semiologia; por meio de um questionário, foram coletados os dados demográficos e o perfil socioeconômico e por meio de exame clínico foram obtidos o perfil nosológico e o perfil da pressão arterial e das perdas dentais. Os resultados evidenciaram que 52% dos pacientes eram do sexo feminino, com idade predominante entre 20 e 29 anos; 48,3% com o segundo grau incompleto e 60,8% com renda mensal maior que cinco salários mínimos. Quanto à perda dental, os dentes mais acometidos foram os primeiros molares; 29% perderam o primeiro molar superior e 45%, o inferior. O perfil nosológico mais encontrado foi de 31,3% para tratamentos na área de dentística restauradora, seguida de 21% de periodontia e 19% de cirurgia. Apenas um paciente apresentava hipertensão. Concluí-se que a população predominantemente atendida foi de mulheres de classe média baixa, com nível médio de instrução e quadro odontológico precário, evidenciando muitas perdas dentais e necessitando mais de tratamentos reabilitadores do que os preventivos. Com a maior compreensão da realidade dos usuários da clínica odontológica da UEA, será possível melhorar o planejamento do atendimento e das ações para promoção de saúde.The objective of this study was to evaluate the demand of the clinic of Dentistry of UEA. One hundred patients who were being treated in the discipline of Semiology answered a questionnaire that collected data on demographic and socio-economic profile. The clinical examination showed the nosologic profile, the blood pressure and dental losses profile. Results showed that 52% of patients were female, aged between 20 and 29 years, 48.3% with the incomplete high school and 60.8% with monthly income greater than five minimum wages. As for dental loss

  7. Energy efficiency program through exchange of air conditioners in residential sector of Manaus city: a concrete experience; Programa de eficiencia energetica atraves da troca de condicionadores de ar no setor residencial de Manaus: uma experiencia concreta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Fabricio Rodrigues; Goncalves, Ana Catarina Lima Chaves; Cartaxo, Elizabeth Ferreira; Gomes, Hugo Miguel Oliveira; Nascimento, Nilton Correa; Inui, Raul Eiji; Guedes, Ricardo Augusto de Morais; Benchaya, Roberto Tavares [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The present review attempts to evaluate the importance of efficient equipment diffusion in reducing energy consumption, based upon the Study-case of an air conditioned exchange program in Manaus city of Amazonas. In spite of the existence, in the actual market, of efficient technology, it has been, yet, badly diffused, mostly due to economical and informative laps. Therefore, once tried to demonstrate the potential benefits, in technical gains, of energy efficiency offered by efficient Air conditioned equipment, through a plan that favors the consumer's participation as an active contributor in the dissemination process of efficient technology, and a following program for efficiency evaluation, beside a tributary evaluation proposal, so that technology becomes accessible to the general population, attempting its benefices. In addition, the environmental benefits of that specific proposal are analyzed, trough the developed recycling program. (author)

  8. New records of Mansonella ozzardi: a parasite that is spreading from the state of Amazonas to previously uninfected areas of the state of Acre in the Purus River region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Leite Adami

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mansonella ozzardi infections are common in the riverside communities along the Solimões, Negro and Purus Rivers in the state of Amazonas (AM. However, little is known about the presence of this parasite in communities located in regions bordering AM and the state of Acre. The prevalence rate of M. ozzardi infections was determined in blood samples from volunteers according to the Knott method. A total of 355 volunteers from six riverine communities were enrolled in the study and 65 (18.3% were found to be infected with M. ozzardi. As expected, most of the infections (25% occurred in individuals involved in agriculture, cattle rearing and fishing and an age/sex group analysis revealed that the prevalence increased beginning in the 40-50-years-of-age group and reached 33% in both sexes in individuals over 50 years of age. Based on the described symptomatology, articular pain and headache were found to be significantly higher among infected individuals (56 and 65% prevalence, respectively, p < 0.05. Sera from volunteers were subjected to ELISA using a cocktail of recombinant proteins from Onchocerca volvulus to evaluate the specificity of the test in an endemic M. ozzardi region. No cross-reactions between M. ozzardi-infected individuals and recombinant O. volvulus proteins were detected, thus providing information on the secure use of this particular cocktail in areas where these parasites are sympatric.

  9. Case study of supply induced demand: the case of provision of imaging scans (computed tomography and magnetic resonance) at Unimed-Manaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Edson de Oliveira; Andrade, Elizabeth Nogueira de, E-mail: dredsonandrade@gmail.co [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Gallo, Jose Hiran [Universidade do Porto (U.Porto) (Portugal)

    2011-03-15

    Objective: to present the experience of a health plan operator (Unimed-Manaus) in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, with the accreditation of imaging services and the demand induced by the supply of new services (Roemer's Law). Methods: this is a retrospective work studying a time series covering the period from January 1998 to June 2004, in which the computed tomography and the magnetic resonance imaging services were implemented as part of the services offered by that health plan operator. Statistical analysis consisted of a descriptive and an inferential part, with the latter using a mean parametric test (Student T-test and ANOVA) and the Pearson correlation test. A 5% alpha and a 95% confidence interval were adopted. Results: at Unimed-Manaus, the supply of new imaging services, by itself, was identified as capable of generating an increased service demand, thus characterizing the phenomenon described by Roemer. Conclusion: the results underscore the need to be aware of the fact that the supply of new health services could bring about their increased use without a real demand. (author)

  10. Case study of supply induced demand: the case of provision of imaging scans (computed tomography and magnetic resonance) at Unimed-Manaus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Edson de Oliveira; Andrade, Elizabeth Nogueira de; Gallo, Jose Hiran

    2011-01-01

    Objective: to present the experience of a health plan operator (Unimed-Manaus) in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, with the accreditation of imaging services and the demand induced by the supply of new services (Roemer's Law). Methods: this is a retrospective work studying a time series covering the period from January 1998 to June 2004, in which the computed tomography and the magnetic resonance imaging services were implemented as part of the services offered by that health plan operator. Statistical analysis consisted of a descriptive and an inferential part, with the latter using a mean parametric test (Student T-test and ANOVA) and the Pearson correlation test. A 5% alpha and a 95% confidence interval were adopted. Results: at Unimed-Manaus, the supply of new imaging services, by itself, was identified as capable of generating an increased service demand, thus characterizing the phenomenon described by Roemer. Conclusion: the results underscore the need to be aware of the fact that the supply of new health services could bring about their increased use without a real demand. (author)

  11. Case study of supply induced demand: the case of provision of imaging scans (computed tomography and magnetic resonance) at Unimed-Manaus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Edson de Oliveira; Andrade, Elizabeth Nogueira de; Gallo, José Hiran

    2011-01-01

    To present the experience of a health plan operator (Unimed-Manaus) in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, with the accreditation of imaging services and the demand induced by the supply of new services (Roemer's Law). This is a retrospective work studying a time series covering the period from January 1998 to June 2004, in which the computed tomography and the magnetic resonance imaging services were implemented as part of the services offered by that health plan operator. Statistical analysis consisted of a descriptive and an inferential part, with the latter using a mean parametric test (Student T-test and ANOVA) and the Pearson correlation test. A 5% alpha and a 95% confidence interval were adopted. At Unimed-Manaus, the supply of new imaging services, by itself, was identified as capable of generating an increased service demand, thus characterizing the phenomenon described by Roemer. The results underscore the need to be aware of the fact that the supply of new health services could bring about their increased use without a real demand.

  12. Eight new species of Oragua Melichar, 1926 (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from Amazonas State, Brazil, with description of the female terminalia of Oragua jurua Young, 1977, and new records for the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camisão, Beatriz M; Cavichioli, Rodney R; Takiya, Daniela M

    2014-07-29

    The thirty known species of Oragua are distributed from southern Mexico to Argentina. Seventeen species are recorded from Brazil, but only O. elegantula Young, 1977, O. insipida Young, 1977, and O. jurua Young, 1977 are recorded from Amazonas State. Oragua partitula (Jacobi, 1905) is herein firstly recorded from Brazil, ocurring in Amazonas State. The aim of the study was to describe eight new species of Oragua, to provide a key to males of the species of the genus that are recorded from Amazonas State and to study in detail the female terminalia of these new species. Also, the female of O. jurua Young, 1977 is herein described for the first time. Oragua alerochae sp. nov. has the external color pattern similar to O. bifasciata Cavichioli, 2000, however, the head is darker, the forewings are paler and the stripes are thinner, aedeagus is much more curved with long apical processes, and apex of paraphyses rami are curved. Oragua aurantimaculata sp. nov. is similar externally to O. elegantula and Oragua jau sp. nov. as they share the body brown with three orange maculae on crown and orange maculae on forewings, but it has the aedeagus with shaft enlarged medially with a pair of apical processes curved anteriorly and connective more slender. Oragua bella sp. nov. is dark with orange spots, aedeagus with basal elongated processes extending to the apex of the pygofer, with the basal portion enlarged and narrowing toward the apex. Oragua copiosa sp. nov. is dark with small pale dots all over the body, paraphyses rami are slender and their apices expanded, and styles with hooked apex, extending posteriorly beyond the connective apex. Oragua gracilenta sp. nov. has the external color similar to O. galerula, but it can be distinguished by the brown ground color, absence of two maculae near median line just before posterior margin on pronotum and apex of rami of paraphyses bifurcate and not truncate. Oragua jau sp. nov. has the external color similar to O. elegantula, but

  13. Ocorrência da Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda, Onchocercidae em comunidades ribeirinhas do rio Purus, Município de Boca do Acre, Amazonas, Brasil Occurrence of Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda, Onchocercidae in riverine communities of the Purus river, Boca do Acre municipality, Amazonas State, Brazil

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    Jansen Fernandes Medeiros

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve o objetivo de estimar as prevalências de Mansonella ozzardi e calcular taxa de infecção parasitária nos simulídeos. O trabalho foi realizado em comunidades ribeirinhas do rio Purus, Boca do Acre, Amazonas, Brasil. As prevalências foram obtidas por meio do método de gota espessa de sangue obtido por porção digital. Os simulídeos coletados foram dissecados para estimar a taxa de infecção parasitária. A prevalência de M. ozzardi foi de 27,3% (282/77. Foram observadas maiores prevalências nos homens (31,97% que nas mulheres (22,22%, nos agricultores (48% e nos indivíduos entre: 38-47 (60%, 48-57 (66,66% e 58-67 (75%. A microfilaremia foi maior nos indivíduos entre 58-67 anos (média = 58,41mf/40µL, sexo masculino (41,44mf/40µL e nos agricultores (49,94mf/40µL. Somente o simulídeo Cerqueirellum amazonicum foi encontrado infectado com taxa de infecção parasitária de 0,98%.The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi and calculate the parasitic infection rate in simuliid blackflies. The research was conducted in communities on the Purus River, Boca do Acre municipality, Amazonas State, Brazil. Prevalence was measured using the thick smear method. Captured blackflies were dissected to verify the parasitic infection rate. M. ozzardi prevalence was 27.30% (77/282. The study showed higher prevalence in men (31.97% than women (22.22%, farmers (48.99%, and individuals in the 38-47 (60.00%, 48-57 (66.66%, and 58-67-year age brackets (75.00%. Microfilaremia was higher in individuals 58 to 67 years of age (average= 58.41mf/40µl, men (41.44mf/40µl, and farmers (49.94mf/40µl. Only the simuliid Cerqueirellum amazonicum was found infected with a parasitic infection rate of 0.98%.

  14. Decapod crustaceans used as food by the Yanomami Indians of the Balawa-ú village, State of Amazonas, Brazil Crustáceos decápodos usados na alimentação pelos índios Yanomami da aldeia de Balawa-ú, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil

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    Célio Magalhães

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Yanomami are a group of South American Indians that live in the rainforest along the borderlands of Brazil and Venezuela. They depend on hunting, gardening and wild food for survival; crustaceans are a highly prized food item in their diet. Taxonomical and ethnozoological aspects of the Yanomami Indians of the Balawa-ú village, state of Amazonas, Brazil, related to the crustaceans are described. Information and specimens were obtained from August to December, 2003. Interviews were conducted with residents of the village and focused on questions about species exploited, indigenous names, modes of capture and use of the species. One shrimp species of the family Palaemonidae (Macrobrachium brasiliense and two crab species of Trichodactylidae (Sylviocarcinus pictus, Valdivia serrata as well as two of Pseudothelphusidae (Fredius fittkaui, F. platyacanthus were recorded. The indigenous names applied to these species are: shuhu, for shrimp, oko and peimatherimi for each of the two pseudothelphusid crabs, and hesiki tôtôrema for both trichodactylid crabs.Os Yanomami são um grupo de índios que habitam a floresta tropical úmida ao longo da fronteira entre Brasil e Venezuela. Eles dependem da caça, da agricultura e da coleta de produtos da floresta para a sua sobrevivência, sendo os crustáceos um dos itens alimentares mais apreciados. São descritos aspectos taxonômicos e etnozoológicos dos índios Yanomami da aldeia de Balawa-ú, no estado do Amazonas, Brasil, relacionados aos crustáceos. Informações e espécimes foram coletados de agosto a dezembro de 2003. Foram realizadas entrevistas com habitantes da aldeia com enfoque nas espécies exploradas, nomes indígenas, modos de captura e utilização. Foram registradas uma espécie de camarão da família Palaemonidae (Macrobrachium brasiliense, duas espécies de caranguejos da família Trichodactylidae (Sylviocarcinus pictus, Valdivia serrata e duas da família Pseudothelphusidae (Fredius

  15. Diversidade de Agaricales (Basidiomycota na Reserva Biológica Walter Egler, Amazonas, Brasil Diversity of Agaricales (Basidiomycota in the Reserva Biológica Walter Egler, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Helenires Queiroz de Souza

    2004-01-01

    the Reserva Biológica Walter Egler was carried out from December 2000 to June 2001. The area of study is situated at Road AM-010, Manaus-Itacoatiara, km 64, Latitude 02° 43' S and Longitude 59° 47' W, Rio Preto da Eva, in the State of Amazonas, with a total area of 709 ha of terra firme rain forest. The fungi collected were identified based on traditional methodology for identification of Agaricales. A total of 39 species were studied, distributed in 13 genera and six families: Polyporaceae: Pleurotus sp.; Hygrophoraceae: Hygrocybe cf. megistospora, Hygrocybe aff. miniceps, Hygrocybe occidentalis var. scarletina and eight indeterminate species of Hygrocybe; Tricholomataceae: Clitocybe sp., Hydropus sp.1 and Hydropus sp.2, Macrocystidia sp., Marasmiellus sp., Marasmius bellus, Marasmius haedinus var. haedinus, Marasmius cf. leoninus, Marasmius cf. mazatecus, Marasmius cf. ruber, Marasmius cf. setulosifolius, Marasmius tageticolor, Marasmius cf. variabiliceps var. variabiliceps, Marasmius sp.1, Marasmius sp.2, Marasmius sp.3 and Marasmius sp.4, Tricholoma sp.; Agaricaceae: Agaricus sp.1 and Agaricus sp.2, Lepiota sp., Cystoderma sp.; Entolomataceae: Entoloma cf. azureoviride, Entoloma cf. cystidiophorum, Entoloma strigosissima, Entoloma sp.; Russulaceae: Lactarius panuoides. Entoloma azureoviride, Hygrocybe miniceps, Lactarius panuoides, Marasmius cf. mazatecus, Marasmius cf. setulosifolius and Marasmius variabiliceps var. variabiliceps, apparently are here cited for the first time from Brazil. With exception of Marasmius tageticolor, all species are cited here for the first time as occurring in Egler Forest. The tables with the species occurrence, in accordance with the topographical gradient (sand bank, incline, plateau and its respective habitat, are supplied.

  16. Evaluation of the micro nutrients daily ingestion and mercury on pre-elementary school children from some communities of the state of Amazonas, Brazil; Avaliacao da ingestao diaria de micronutrientes e mercurio em pre-escolares de algumas comunidades do Estado do Amazonas, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Andrea C.P. [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Farias, Luciana; Maihara, Vera A.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br; ime, P.L.; Alencar, Fernando H.; Yuyama, Lucia K. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil)]. E-mail: yuyama@inpa.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    This study evaluates the daily dietetic ingestion of Hg and some nutrients of pre-scholar children from eight communities of Amazonas state, Brazil. Some children from each community were selected and their diets (24 hours total consumption) were collected by the duplicate quantity method and a pool of diets composed for each of these communities. The diet samples were analysed for the Hg total content by a CV AAS linear accelerator and neutron activation analysis for determination of Ca, Fe, K, Se and Zn micro nutrients. Both analytical methodologies precision and accuracy were validated using the certified reference materials analysis. The provisional tolerable weekly ingestion (PTWI) for Hg and the daily micro nutrient ingestion were calculated for each group, considering an 10 kg average weight for each child. The obtained results for all diets were shown the inadequacy prevail for the evaluated micro nutrients, and some communities exceeded the limit of 5 {mu}g Hg/kg of body weight (PTWI). Those results suggested that the nutritional education program must be implemented at those communities, aiming the better utilization of the local food natural resources. (author)

  17. Employment and income generation within the framework of the 'Luz para todos' program in the State of Amazonas, Brazil; Geracao de emprego e renda no ambito do programa Luz para Todos no estado do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Rubem Cesar Rodrigues; Moraes, Betsy Eddy Praia; Souza, Cristiane Daliassi Ramos de [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amazonico

    2008-07-01

    The low level of the electric demand to be accomplished in the isolated Amazon communities, associated to the low purchasing power of those populations and the high costs for electrification of these, they impose the implementation of concrete actions of generation of job and income when it intend to assure the universalization of the electric power service in isolated Amazon communities, as ir the case of the program 'Luz para Todos'. The present article shows that is being developed by the committee state manager of the program 'Luz para Todos' in the amazon state, demonstrating that it is possible to assure good results since the effective involvement of several agents is made possible. (author)

  18. NPP Tropical Forest: Manaus, Brazil, 1963-1990 , R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes six ASCII files (.txt format). Five files contain productivity values for several types of tropical Amazon rainforest near Manaus, Brazil...

  19. Caracterização do modelo de cultivo protegido em Manaus com ênfase na produção de pimentão Characterization of the protected cultivation model in Manaus with emphasis on sweet pepper production

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    Aildo da S Gama

    2008-03-01

    �rea com cultivo protegido.The protected cultivation of vegetables is an activity in expansion in Amazonas State, Brazil. There are several advantages in comparison to the cultivation under field conditions: harvest all year long, precocity, increase of productivity and improvement of the quality of the product. The aim of this work was to characterize the use of protected cultivation model in Iranduba, region of Manaus, with emphasis on sweet pepper production. On the basis of the answers gotten in an questionnaire applied to the nine producers of the region, 67% of the producers interviewed had never produced vegetables previously and that most of them used the convective chapel greenhouse type, with size varying between 160 and 495 m², at a cost of R$ 7,30 to 10,0 on each m². The cultivated average area was of 0,68 ha for producer. The sweet pepper is the predominant vegetable in the greenhouse. For its culture, only 22% of the interviewed ones had carried through soil analyses and soil liming. Even so, the used amounts of lime and fertilizer were not based on soil analyses. The soil is prepared by tractor by 89% of the interviewed ones and all use dripping and fertirrigation. The water comes from artesian wells, but analyses of its adequacy for the activity are not made. Plagues and illnesses are controlled using the available agricultural defensive in the market, usually in the same dosages and applications recommended for the conventional cultivation. The sweet pepper productivity in the first planting reaches 125 t ha-1, with a sudden fall, of up to 40%, from the second planting on. While half of the producers deliver the production to midlemen, the other half is commercialized in fairs and supermarkets. Although the diverse challenges (deficient technical assistance, high cost and low durability of the structures, lack of suitable cultivars for the local climate, definition lack of management of the culture, 67% of the interviewed producers would like to extend

  20. Ecological aspects and molecular detection of Leishmania DNA Ross (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) in phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in terra firme and várzea environments in the Middle Solimões Region, Amazonas State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Júnior, Antonio Marques; Teles, Carolina Bioni Garcia; de Azevedo dos Santos, Ana Paula; de Souza Rodrigues, Moreno; Marialva, Eric Fabrício; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes

    2015-03-25

    Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are insects of medical importance due to the role that some species play in the transmission of leishmaniasis. This work aimed to study some ecological aspects among sand flies fauna inhabiting two different environments: the várzea (lowland Amazonian forest) and terra firme (upland Amazonian forest), both located in Tefé Municipality, Amazonas State, Braziland to detect Leishmania infection in those phlebotomine populations. Sand flies were collected using HP light traps. Collection took place over the course of six months: January, February, April, August, September, and October of 2013. To detect natural infection by Leishmania, DNA samples were extracted from female sand flies and submitted to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) targeting the kDNA gene; Leishmania species were identified by PCR-RFLP targeting the hsp70 gene and genetic sequencing. In all, 5,716 individuals were collected, and 46 species were identified. Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis (3,330 - 58.26%) and Nyssomyia antunesi (661 - 11.26%) were the most abundant species. Species richness was greater in terra firme environments (42 species) than in the várzea environments (22 species), and forests ecotopes (43 species) were richer than peridomiciles (28 species). DNA of Leishmania was found in Th. ubiquitalis and Psychodopygus davisi, both of which inhabit the terra firme environment and sequencing analysis confirmed the presence of Leishmania (Viannia) lainsoni DNA in Th. ubiquitalis in Tefé Municipality. The high abundance of Th. ubiquitalis and Ps. davisi and detection of DNA of Leishmania sp. may indicate that both species could be putative vectors for American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in the terra firme environment of Tefé. The sand fly fauna found in várzea is rich and diverse, exhibiting several species, nevertheless the seasonal hydric stress during part of the year that could influence the local diversity, if compared with other studies

  1. Urucu-Manaus gas pipeline: challenges and solutions; Gasoduto Urucu-Manaus: desafios e solucoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Mauro de O.; Machado, Otto Luiz de M.; Moura, Marcos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The challenge of building and develop a gas pipeline such as Urucu-Manaus, in the middle of Amazon rain forest, it is beyond to conventional engineering solutions that is common used in this kind of contract. The development of this venture join a large variety of activities since the several techniques of pipeline construction to the improvement the skills of the local workers but never to leave out important points such as integrated management of work, for instance, safety, environment care, health, communication with the involved parts, archaeology, goods and services acquisition, telecommunications and the mean of transportation to equipment and workers. (author)

  2. Space Radar Image of Manaus, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    These two images were created using data from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). On the left is a false-color image of Manaus, Brazil acquired April 12, 1994, onboard space shuttle Endeavour. In the center of this image is the Solimoes River just west of Manaus before it combines with the Rio Negro to form the Amazon River. The scene is around 8 by 8 kilometers (5 by 5 miles) with north toward the top. The radar image was produced in L-band where red areas correspond to high backscatter at HH polarization, while green areas exhibit high backscatter at HV polarization. Blue areas show low backscatter at VV polarization. The image on the right is a classification map showing the extent of flooding beneath the forest canopy. The classification map was developed by SIR-C/X-SAR science team members at the University of California,Santa Barbara. The map uses the L-HH, L-HV, and L-VV images to classify the radar image into six categories: Red flooded forest Green unflooded tropical rain forest Blue open water, Amazon river Yellow unflooded fields, some floating grasses Gray flooded shrubs Black floating and flooded grasses Data like these help scientists evaluate flood damage on a global scale. Floods are highly episodic and much of the area inundated is often tree-covered. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those

  3. Hanseníase em populações indígenas do Amazonas, Brasil: um estudo epidemiológico nos municípios de Autazes, Eirunepé e São Gabriel da Cachoeira (2000 a 2005 Leprosy in indigenous populations of Amazonas State, Brazil: an epidemiological study in the counties of Autazes, Eirunepé and São Gabriel da Cachoeira (2000 to 2005

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    Elsia Belo Imbiriba

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available O Estado do Amazonas, Brasil, apresentou, em 2005, coeficientes hiperendêmicos de detecção de hanseníase e prevalência de média endemicidade. O estado detém a maior população indígena no país, mas inexistem informações sobre o perfil da hanseníase nesses grupos. O estudo objetivou a descrição e análise das características epidemiológicas das notificações de hanseníase nos municípios de Autazes, Eirunepé e São Gabriel da Cachoeira, comparando achados entre indígenas e não indígenas, segundo variáveis de interesse. Foram analisados os casos notificados no SINAN, no período de 2000 a 2005. Do total de 386 casos notificados, verificaram-se coeficientes médios de detecção de 3,55, 14,94 e 2,13/10 mil (entre os não indígenas e de 10,95, 1,93 e 0,78/10 mil (para os indígenas, para Autazes, Eirunepé e São Gabriel da Cachoeira, respectivamente. Houve predomínio de casos paucibacilares em indígenas e em não indígenas, no entanto, a forma dimorfa representou 1/3 das notificações. Apesar das limitações de cobertura e do sub-registro, os achados sugerem que a hanseníase representa importante problema de saúde pública para os indígenas no Amazonas. A classificação segundo "raça/etnicidade" se constituiu em ferramenta útil para elucidar desigualdades em saúde.In 2005, Amazonas State, Brazil, showed hyperendemic leprosy detection coefficients and prevalence with medium endemicity. Although this State has the largest indigenous population in Brazil, there are no data on the leprosy profile in these groups. This study aimed to describe and analyze the epidemiological characteristics of leprosy case reporting in the municipalities (counties of Autazes, Eirunepé, and São Gabriel da Cachoeira, comparing indigenous and non-indigenous findings according to target variables. A total of 386 cases reported to SINAN from 2000 to 2005 were analyzed. Mean detection rates were 3.55, 14.94, and 2.13/10,000 (among non

  4. Estudo de misturas asfálticas com ligante modificado pelo polímero EVA para pavimentos urbanos de Manaus - AM Study of asphalt mixtures containing a binder modified with EVA polymer for use in urban pavements in Manaus

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    Daniela M. G. D'Antona

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa buscou soluções com materiais alternativos visando à construção de pavimentos urbanos para Manaus (AM com maior vida útil e condizente com as suas condições de serviço, em particular, o seu desempenho mecânico frente às temperaturas regionais. Estudou-se o ligante regional, CAP 50/70, misturado com 4% do polímero EVA, e como partícipe em compósitos asfálticos. A incorporação do mencionado polímero teve como objetivo melhorar suas propriedades reológicas e, por conseguinte, o comportamento mecânico desse compósito - concreto asfáltico, empregado como revestimento nas vias urbanas da Capital do Estado do Amazonas. Os ligantes (virgem e modificado foram caracterizados conforme a especificação da ANP e a metodologia Superpave. As misturas asfálticas foram avaliadas pelo ensaio de fluência por compressão axial, com carregamento dinâmico à temperatura de 40 ºC. O material asfáltico modificado com EVA (AMP EVA demonstrou melhores propriedades reológicas ou equivalentes ao asfalto convencional (REMAN, ao longo de todos os ensaios de caracterização. As misturas alternativas compostas com o CAP modificado (SEVA obtiveram desempenho mecânico superior ao de misturas com cimento asfáltico habitualmente comercializado na região (SMAN.In this research we investigated alternative materials to build urban pavements in Manaus, seeking for pavements with longer lifetime for usage and suitable mechanical properties to withstand the local temperatures. The asphaltic mixtures contained a regional binder, namely CAP 50/70, mixed with 4% of EVA polymer. The incorporation of the latter polymer was aimed at improving the rheological properties of asphaltic concrete used in roads in the Amazonas' capital. The asphalt binders (original and modified were characterized in accordance with the ANP (National Petroleum Agency specification and the Superpave methodology. The asphalt mixtures had their mechanical properties

  5. Intestinal parasitosis and socio-environmental factor sof a population from peri-urban area of Manaus - AM - doi: 10.5020/18061230.2010.p30

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    Cecília Leite Motta de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in patients who sought a Basic Health Unit and get to know the conditions and socio-environmental characteristics of a population of peri-urban area of Manaus - AM, Brazil. Methods: A study conducted by spontaneous demand of patients in a Basic Health Unit, Northern Zone of Manaus, Amazonas, between April and July 2007, conducting parasitological examination in 400 stool samples by Hoffmann-Pons-Janer’s method, and interviews. Results: From the total, 271/400 (67,8% contained parasites; 181/268 (45,25% samples were of females; 147/224 (36,7% aged between 19 and 85 years; 119/170 (29,75% with incomplete elementary school; 207/299 (51.75% with a family income between one and three minimum wages; 220/316 (55% were natural from Amazonas; 192/284 (48% worked at home; 199/298 (49,7% consumed water from artesian public well; 106/152 (26.5% treated the water; 165/248 (66% did not treat the consumed water. The most frequent helminthes found: Ascaris lumbricoides 48 (12%, Enterobius vermicularis 44 (11%, Ancilostomídeos 38 (9,5%. Protozoa: Entamoeba histolytica 83 (20,8%, Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nana, 79 (19,8% e 79 (19,8% respectively, Giardia lamblia 41 (10,3% and Iodamoeba butschlii 17 (4,3%. It was observed monoparasitism for E. histolytica 83 (20,8%, biparasitism 104/271 (26% E. histolytica and A. lumbricóides, E. histolytica and E. vermicularis, E. histolytica and G. lamblia. Conclusions:   We recorded a high prevalence of parasites in young people with low income, low cultural level, predominantly women of the household. Among the environmental factors associated with these indexes are a deficiency in water services and sanitary sewer.

  6. Papagaio-de-peito-roxo Amazona vinacea (Kuhl (Aves: Psittacidae no norte do Espírito Santo: redescoberta e conservação Vinaceous Amazon Amazona vinacea (Kuhl (Aves: Psittacidae in the northern region of Espirito Santo state, southeastern Brazil: rediscovery and conservation

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    Lucas A. Carrara

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Amazona vinacea (Kuhl, 1820 é uma espécie endêmica da Mata Atlântica e ameaçada de extinção no Brasil e no mundo. Não existem relatos recentes de sua presença na porção setentrional de sua distribuição ao norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro. O último é datado provavelmente de 1991, tendo sido considerado extinto ao norte do Espírito Santo. O presente trabalho noticia a redescoberta da espécie em Alto Rio Novo, noroeste do Espírito Santo, divisa com Minas Gerais. Foram registrados bandos em duas localidades em dezembro de 2005, sendo o maior deles composto por 28 indivíduos. Durante os registros foi observado A. vinacea se alimentando de Anadenanthera sp. (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae, uma nova fonte alimentar para a espécie. Os registros históricos mais recentes para a região citam localidades com distância inferior a 35 km dos atuais registros, reforçando a importância local. No entanto, a degradação ambiental e a captura ilegal representam obstáculos à conservação da espécie nesta região. Em dezembro de 2002 foi criado o Parque Nacional dos Pontões Capixabas, primeira Unidade de Conservação na porção serrana do norte do Espírito Santo. Uma das áreas históricas da espécie está incluída em seus limites e um dos locais onde foi agora redescoberto fica a cerca de 10 km de distância da borda do parque. Essa Unidade de Conservação é essencial à proteção de trechos nativos da Mata Atlântica e conseqüentemente do papagaio-de-peito-roxo. Além de medidas conservacionistas, a aquisição de informações sobre as populações de A. vinacea no noroeste do Espírito Santo e leste de Minas Gerais torna-se indispensável para a proposição de medidas de manejo capazes de reverter o grave quadro atual, objetivando viabilizar a permanência de populações na região mais setentrional da distribuição conhecida atualmente para a espécie.Endemic of the Atlantic Forest, Amazona vinacea (Kuhl, 1820 is listed as

  7. Estudo de caso de oferta induzindo a demanda: o caso da oferta de exames de imagem (tomografia axial computadorizada e ressonância magnética na Unimed-Manaus Case study of supply induced demand: the case of provision of imaging scans (computed tomography and magnetic resonance at Unimed-Manaus

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    Edson de Oliveira Andrade

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar a experiência de uma operadora de plano de saúde (Unimed-Manaus na cidade de Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, com o credenciamento de serviços de imagem e a indução de demanda pela oferta dos novos serviços (Lei de Roemer. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de uma pesquisa de caráter retrospectivo, com estudo de série temporal, abordando o período de janeiro de 1998 a junho de 2004, lapso de tempo em que ocorreu a implantação dos serviços de tomografia computadorizada e da ressonância magnética no âmbito dos serviços oferecidos por aquele plano de saúde. A análise estatística consistiu em uma parte descritiva e uma inferencial, sendo esta última utilizando teste paramétrico de média (teste t de Student e ANOVA e o teste de correlação de Pearson. Foi adotado um alfa de 5% e um intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Foi possível identificar na Unimed-Manaus que a oferta de novos serviços de imagem foi capaz de, por si só, gerar um aumento da demanda do serviço caracterizando o fenômeno descrito por Roemer. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados deste trabalho ressaltam a necessidade de se estar atento ao fato de que a oferta de novos serviços no setor da saúde poderá acarretar, por si só, um aumento de sua utilização sem que haja uma demanda real.OBJECTIVE: To present the experience of a health plan operator (Unimed-Manaus in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, with the accreditation of imaging services and the demand induced by the supply of new services (Roemer's Law. METHODS: This is a retrospective work studying a time series covering the period from January 1998 to June 2004, in which the computed tomography and the magnetic resonance imaging services were implemented as part of the services offered by that health plan operator. Statistical analysis consisted of a descriptive and an inferential part, with the latter using a mean parametric test (Student T-test and ANOVA and the Pearson correlation test. A 5% alpha and a 95

  8. Psychometric properties of the OHIP-14 and prevalence and severity of oral health impacts in a rural riverine population in Amazonas State, Brazil Avaliação das propriedades psicométricas do OHIP-14 e da prevalência dos impactos da saúde bucal, em população rural ribeirinha no Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Cohen-Carneiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were: (1 test the psychometric properties of OHIP-14 in a rural population; and (2 compare the oral health impacts in two riverine communities in the Brazilian Amazon that were living at different distances from an urban center. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study in a consecutive sample (n = 126. The validity was assessed through the association of OHIP with clinical and subjective variables, which showed a more significant association with: pain, caries, need of extraction or endodontic treatment; than with tooth loss, periodontal disease or need of prostheses. The stability and internal consistency were good (ICC = 0.97; Cronbach's α = 0.89. The prevalence of oral impacts was greater in the community far from the urban center [70.3 (59.9-80.7] than in the community closer to it [44.3 (30.7-57.7], and in women [66.7 (56.0-77.3] in comparison with men [49.1 (35.3-62.7]. The OHIP-14 adapted to rural populations in Amazonas State was valid, reproducible, and consistent. There was high prevalence of impacts, especially for riverine communities that lived far from urban centers.Os objetivos do trabalho foram: (1 testar as propriedades psicométricas do OHIP-14 em população rural e (2 comparar os impactos da saúde bucal em duas comunidades ribeirinhas amazônicas, com diferentes distâncias do centro urbano. Os dados foram obtidos de uma amostra consecutiva de pacientes (n = 126 em estudo de corte transversal. A validade do instrumento foi testada pela associação do OHIP com variáveis clínicas e subjetivas, sendo mais significativa para as variáveis: dor, cárie, necessidade de extração e de endodontia que para perda dentária, doença periodontal e necessidade de prótese. Estabilidade e consistência interna foram boas (CCI = 0,97; α Cronbach = 0,89. A prevalência de impactos foi maior na comunidade mais distante do centro urbano [70,3 (59,9-80,7] que na mais próxima [44,3 (30,7-57,7], e nas

  9. Oral health conditions among pregnant women attended to at a health care center in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil = Condições de saúde bucal de gestantes atendidas em uma unidade de saúde em Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil

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    Bressane, Larissa Borges

    2011-01-01

    Conclusões: Diante dos resultados obtidos, pôde-se constatar que as condições de saúde na população de gestantes estudadas foram desfavoráveis; entretanto, a maioria a considerou regular ou boa

  10. Guia de identificação dos ninhos de vespas sociais (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae na Reserva Ducke, Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil Identification guide for nests of social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae in Reserva Ducke, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Somavilla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vespidae sociais utilizam principalmente material vegetal para a elaboração de seus ninhos. Embora existam alguns estudos referentes à fauna de vespas na região Amazônica, nenhum trabalho trata exclusivamente dos ninhos. Além disso, nas coleções biológicas poucos são os ninhos tombados, devido principalmente à fragilidade e difícil conservação dos mesmos. O objetivo desse trabalho foi o conhecimento de alguns ninhos encontrados na Reserva Ducke, apresentando informações a respeito dos mesmos e uma chave de identificação dos gêneros. Os ninhos foram coletados através da busca direta, percorrendo os transectos da grade do Programa de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade; locais como margens de igarapés, bordas de acampamentos e construções na sede da reserva também foram explorados. Para todos os ninhos obteve-se o registro fotográfico e a localização exata por GPS. Foram registrados 39 ninhos de vespas sociais alocados em 17 espécies de Polistinae: Agelaia constructor, A. pallipes, Angiopolybia pallens, Apoica pallens, Metapolybia unilineata, Mischocyttarus lecointei, M. saturatus, Polybia bistriata, P. dimidiata, P. jurinei, P. liliacea, P. occidentalis, P. procellosa, P. rejecta, Protopolybia bituberculata, P. chartergoides e Synoeca virginea. Cinco ninhos desabitados de Mischocyttarus, Polybia e Polistes também foram coletados.Nests of social wasps are composed mainly out of plant material. Although there are some studies about the social wasp fauna in the Amazon region, there is no work exclusively about these wasps' nests. Also, there are few catalogued nests in biological collections, because of their fragility and difficult conservation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the kinds of nests found at "Reserva Ducke", compiling information about them and developing a key to identify the nests of each genera. The nests were actively collected in tracks of the "Programa de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade" plot; areas such as "igarapés" margins, base camp's surroundings and buildings at the reserve headquarters were also explored. All the nests were photographed and their precise location was obtained by GPS. Thirty-nine wasp's nests from 17 species of Polistinae were recorded: Agelaia constructor, A. pallipes, Angiopolybia pallens, Apoica pallens, Metapolybia unilineata, Mischocyttarus lecointei, M. saturatus, Polybia bistriata, P. dimidiata, P. jurinei, P. liliacea, P. occidentalis, P. procellosa, P. rejecta, Protopolybia bituberculata, P. chartergoides and Synoeca virginea. Five uninhabited nests of Mischocyttarus, Polybia and Polistes were collected.

  11. Genetic differentiation in red-bellied piranha populations (Pygocentrus nattereri, Kner, 1858) from the Solimões-Amazonas River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Carlos Henrique Dos A; de Sá Leitão, Carolina S; Paula-Silva, Maria de N; Almeida-Val, Vera Maria F

    2016-06-01

    Red-bellied piranhas (Pygocentrus nattereri) are widely caught with different intensities throughout the region of Solimões-Amazonas River by local fishermen. Thus, the management of this resource is performed in the absence of any information on its genetic stock. P. nattereri is a voracious predator and widely distributed in the Neotropical region, and it is found in other regions of American continent. However, information about genetic variability and structure of wild populations of red-bellied piranha is unavailable. Here, we describe the levels of genetic diversity and genetic structure of red-bellied piranha populations collected at different locations of Solimões-Amazonas River system. We collected 234 red-bellied piranhas and analyzed throughout eight microsatellite markers. We identified high genetic diversity within populations, although the populations of lakes ANA, ARA, and MAR have shown some decrease in their genetic variability, indicating overfishing at these communities. Was identified the existence of two biological populations when the analysis was taken altogether at the lakes of Solimões-Amazonas River system, with significant genetic differentiation between them. The red-bellied piranha populations presented limited gene flow between two groups of populations, which were explained by geographical distance between these lakes. However, high level of gene flow was observed between the lakes within of the biological populations. We have identified high divergence between the Catalão subpopulation and all other subpopulations. We suggest the creation of sustainable reserve for lakes near the city of Manaus to better manage and protect this species, whose populations suffer from both extractive and sport fishing.

  12. Análise da estrutura e do estoque de fitomassa de uma floresta secundária da região de Manaus AM, dez anos após corte raso seguido de fogo Biomass stock and structural analysis of a secondary forest in Manaus (AM region, ten years after clear cutting followed by fire

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    Adriano José Nogueira Lima

    2007-01-01

    areas in the Brazilian Amazônia. This study was carried out in the Tropical Forestry Experimental Station (EEST/INPA, around 50 kilometers north of Manaus, the capital of Amazonas State. A secondary forest ("capoeira", 10 years old, was selected for this study; its land use history includes clear cutting followed by fire. Two different samples of primary forests were included as control plots for the "capoeira". All individuals with diameter at breast height (DBH greater than 5 cm were measured and recorded in a single area of 0,4 ha for each treatment. Ten years after burning, the secondary forest is still very different in comparison with primary forest, in terms of important parameters of the vegetation structure, such as floristic composition, abundance, frequency, dominance, index of value of importance (IVI and the diameter distribution. In "capoeira" studied the dominant species are mainly of the following botanical families: Annonaceae, Arecaceae, Burseraceae, Cecropiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lecythidaceae, Melastomataceae, Mimosaceae, Sapindaceae and Sterculiaceae. The estimates of dry biomass were 56.2 t. ha-1 ± 12 (CI 95% and 339.7 t.ha-1 ± 66.7 (CI 95% for "capoeira" and primary forest, respectively.

  13. Eggs viability of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera, Culicidae under different environmental and storage conditions in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

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    V. C. Soares-Pinheiro

    Full Text Available Abstract The viability of Aedes aegypti eggs was assessed in the Amazon region. The eggs were maintained under different conditions: indoors (insectarium and outdoors (natural environment, as well as in different storage types (plastic cup, paper envelope, plastic bag for different days. Egg viability was measured as the mean of hatchings observed from egg-bearing sheets of filter paper immersed in water, using three sheets randomly selected from each storage type and at both sites. There were significant differences in the viability of Ae. aegypti eggs with respect to the location (F=30.40; DF=1; P<0.0001, storage type (F=17.66; DF=2; P<0.0001, and time of storage (F=49.56; DF=9; P<0.0001. The interaction between storage site versus storage type was also significant (F=15.96; DF=2; P<0.0001. A higher hatching mean was observed for the eggs kept in the insectarium than for those outdoors (32.38 versus 7.46. Hatching rates of egg batches stored for 12 to 61 days ranged between 84 and 90%. A reduction was observed between 89 and 118 days, with values of 63 and 48%, respectively. With respect to type of storage, mean egg hatching was higher for the eggs in plastic cups (44.46. It was concluded that the viability of the eggs of Ae. aegypti in the Amazon region remains high up to 4 months, after which it declines drastically, although in this study hatching occurred for up to 8 months in very low percentages.

  14. Association of Oxelytrum cayennense (Silphidae, Coleoptera with Pig Carcasses (Sus scrofa, Suidae in Terra Firme Areas in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Alexandre Ururahy-Rodrigues

    2010-07-01

    Resumo. Aspectos da colonização do silfídeo Oxelytrum cayennense (Sturm em carcaças de porcos do tamanho de um homem adulto na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke são apresentados. Esta espécie colonizou as carcaças de porcos do estágio enfisematoso à esqueletização. Adultos foram observados eventualmente predando larvas de moscas a partir do segundo dia de intervalo pós-morte e suas larvas foram observadas a partir do quinto dia se alimentando em áreas esqueletizadas, provavelmente limpando os ossos dos tecidos moles remanescentes. O comportamento predatório dos adultos nas larvas de dípteros mais velhas podem impactar suas populações e complicar estimativas de intervalo pós-morte, uma vez que estas são freqüentemente usadas para esta estimativa. Além disso, adultos e larvas têm potencial uso como indicadores de intervalo pós-morte (IPM porque o adulto pode colonizar carcaças do segundo dia em diante e as larvas do quinto dia em diante.

  15. Perfil demográfico dos Hupd'äh, povo Maku da região do Alto Rio Negro, Amazonas (2000-2003 Perfil demográfico de los Hupd'äh, pueblo Maku de la región del Alto Rio Negro, Amazonas (2000-2003 Demographic profile of the Hupd'äh, a Maku people living the Upper Rio Negro Region, State of Amazonas, Brazil (2000-2003

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    Marina Machado

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Os Hupd'äh são um povo de língua Maku, habitante da região do Alto Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brasil. Lideranças indígenas, antropólogos, missionários e profissionais de saúde afirmam que eles estariam vivendo em condições de saúde precárias, com alta mortalidade geral e infantil. A partir de dados provenientes do Distrito Especial Indígena do Rio Negro - DSEI-RN, da Funasa/MS, para o período 2000-2003, foi realizado um estudo descritivo para avaliar o perfil demográfico e conhecer melhor essa população, contribuindo para a implementação de políticas públicas que lhe favoreçam e para os debates em antropologia, demografia e saúde indígena. A população de 1.487 indivíduos, em 2003, cresceu 8,4% ao ano no período estudado. Sua composição por idade e sexo indica concentração de jovens (44,9% com menos de 15 anos, além da predominância de população do sexo masculino. A taxa bruta de natalidade (TBN média do período foi de 33,4 nascimentos por mil habitantes, a de fecundidade total (TFT correspondeu a 3,4 filhos por mulher, a de mortalidade (TBM foi de 10 óbitos por mil habitantes e a de mortalidade infantil (TMI chegou a 116,3 óbitos por mil nascimentos. O aperfeiçoamento da coleta de informações, o elevado crescimento vegetativo e a intensa mobilidade espacial dos Hupd'äh poderiam explicar o alto ritmo de crescimento verificado entre 2000 e 2003.Los Hupd'äh son un pueblo de lengua Maku, habitante de la región del Alto Río Negro, Amazonas, Brasil. Liderazgos indígenas, antropólogos, misionarios y profesionales de la salud, afirman que estarían viviendo en condiciones de salud precarias, con alta mortalidad general e infantil. A partir de datos provenientes del Distrito Especial Indígena del Río Negro - DSEI-RN, de la Funasa/MS, para el período 2000-2003, fue realizado un estudio descriptivo para evaluar el perfil demográfico y conocer mejor esta población, contribuyendo con la implementación de pol

  16. [Use of psychoactive drugs by health sciences undergraduate students at the Federal University in Amazonas, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Ana Cyra dos Santos; Parente, Rosana Cristina Pereira; Picanço, Neila Soares; Conceição, Denis Alvaci; Costa, Karen Regina Carim da; Magalhães, Igor Rafael dos Santos; Siqueira, João Cladirson Alves

    2006-03-01

    A survey was conducted with 521 undergraduate health sciences students from the Federal University in Amazonas, Manaus, Brazil. Lifetime alcohol consumption was reported by 87.7% students, as compared to 30.7% for tobacco, with the latter reported more frequently by males (39.7%). The most common illicit drugs were solvents (11.9%), marijuana (9.4%), amphetamines and anxiolytics (9.2% each), cocaine (2.1%), and hallucinogens (1.2%). The main reason for illicit drug use was curiosity. Lifetime use of anabolic steroids was reported by 2.1% of the students. Alcohol abuse in the previous 30 days was reported by 12.4% of the students. Events following drinking included: fights (4.7%), accidents (2.4%), classroom absenteeism (33.7%), and job absenteeism (11.8%). Another important finding was that 47.3% of students drove after drinking. Opinions on drug abuse and patterns agree with those from similar studies in other regions of Brazil.

  17. Aves de la ribera colombiana del Amazonas

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    Dugand Armando

    1946-08-01

    Full Text Available Las 106 especies y subespecies que se mencionan en este trabajo constituyen una lista preliminar de la fauna ornitológica de la región más meridional de Colombia, esto es, la ribera izquierda del rio Amazonas entre la boca del Atacuari y la población de Leticia, capital de la Intendencia del Amazonas, en el extrema sur del territorio que en Colombia llamamos comúnmente "Trapecio Amazónico". La lista esta compuesta principalmente por las colecciones hechas en Leticia y la Isla Ronda par el senor Carlos Lehmann en octubre y noviembre de 1939 y par uno de nosotros -José I. Borrero- en Leticia, Isla Mocagua, Hamacayacu y Loretoyacu en marzo y abril del presente año. Los ejemplares que mencionamos en dicha lista se hallan en la colección ornitológica del Instituto de Ciencias Naturales.

  18. Precipitable water and vapor flux between Belem and Manaus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.

    1977-01-01

    The water vapor flux and precipitable water was computated over the natural Amazon forest in the stretch between Belem and Manaus for 1972. The atmospheric branch of hidrological cycle theory was applied and the most significant conclusions on an annual basis are: Atlantic Ocean water vapor contributes 52% to the regional precipitation and is significant the role played by local evapotranspiration in the precipitation in the area; there were signs of the phenomenon of water vapor recycling nearly throughout the year. Evapotranspiration contributes to 48% of the precipitations in the area studied. The real evapotranspiration estimated by this method was 1,000mm year - 1 [pt

  19. Uma proposta de avaliação integrada de risco do uso de agrotóxicos no estado do Amazonas, Brasil A proposal for integrated risk assessment of pesticide use in Amazon State, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Viviana Waichman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante os últimos 30 anos, o aumento da população humana no Amazonas introduziu a necessidade de produção adicional de alimentos e levou o governo do estado a desenvolver programas para aumentar e melhorar a produção agrícola. A produção de hortaliças não tradicionais apresentou vários problemas desconhecidos para os agricultores da região, uma vez que estas culturas não são bem adaptadas às condições locais. A suscetibilidade a insetos, fungos e outras pragas, e a competição com vegetação nativa vem forçando os agricultores a usar intensivamente os agrotóxicos. Os agricultores não estavam preparados para o uso adequado desta tecnologia ignorando os riscos dos agrotóxicos para saúde humana e o ambiente. Os agricultores não usam equipamento de proteção individual, porque é caro, desconfortável e inadequado para o clima quente da região. A falta treinamento e o escasso conhecimento sobre os perigos dos agrotóxicos contribuem para a manipulação incorreta durante a preparação, aplicação e disposição das embalagens vazias. Nestas condições, a exposição dos agricultores, suas famílias, consumidores e ambiente é alta. Como um primeiro passo para o entendimento deste problema e a proposição de soluções é proposta a realização de uma avaliação integrada de risco. As três fases do processo, formulação de problema, avaliação da exposição, e caracterização de risco são detalhadas. Programas de educação, treinamento e informação fazem parte das estratégias para a redução do risco do uso de agrotóxicos permitindo o desenvolvimento de uma agricultura ambientalmente sustentável.During the last 30 years, the increase of the human population in the Amazon introduced the need for additional food production and caused the state government to implement programs to increase and improve agricultural production. The production of nontraditional crops introduced several problems unknown to

  20. O consumo de alimentos orgânicos na cidade de Manaus (AM: o comércio de produtos e a sustentabilidade do setor

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    Paula de Fátima da Cruz Lima

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A produção de alimentos orgânicos proporciona a oferta de produtos saudáveis; o uso sustentável da água e do solo; a integridade cultural das comunidades rurais; a sustentabilidade econômica e ecológica; e a eliminação do uso de organismos geneticamente modificados em qualquer fase do processo de produção, processamento, armazenamento, distribuição e comercialização. Considerando a importância ecológica da região Amazônica, foi avaliado o mercado de consumo de produtos alimentícios orgânicos em Manaus-Amazonas e caracterizado seu perfil de consumo, potencialidade e limitações. A pesquisa foi realizada junto a Associação de Produtores Orgânicos do Amazonas. Os resultados indicaram os consumidores são em sua maioria do sexo feminino, com faixa etária entre 30 a 40 anos, nível de escolaridade superior completo, em sua maioria, com uma renda superior a 4 salários mínimos. São clientes e consumidores fiéis, porém não avaliam com critério o alimento que estão adquirindo. Os produtores encontram dificuldades principalmente no apoio do poder público à produção e comercialização, com isso a oferta não é ampla e variada, havendo a competição com os preços dos produtos gerados sem a qualidade de orgânico.  

  1. Estudo de metais pesados (Co, Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Pb e Zn na Bacia do Tarumã-Açu Manaus (AM Heavy metal (Co, Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Pb e Zn study in the Tarumã-Açu Basin Manaus (AM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genilson Pereira Santana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Os resíduos gerados em domicílios incluem diversos produtos, como pesticidas, produtos farmacêuticos, detergentes, óleos de cozinha, metais pesados contidos em baterias e outros utensílios. Esses resíduos são lançados continuamente em aterro sanitário ou lixões em cidades como Manaus. O chorume produzido nesses aterros, quando não tratados, contamina recursos hídricos superficiais e subterrâneos. Neste estudo foi feita uma avaliação das conseqüências da liberação do chorume no sistema hídrico da bacia do Tarumã-Açu. Amostras de água e sedimento foram coletadas nos igarapés Matrinxã, Acará, Bolívia, bacia do Tarumã-Açu e dentro do aterro sanitário (Manaus - Amazonas - Brasil em março 2001. As amostras de água foram filtradas em filtro Milipore (0,45 mm de poro e, em seguida, tratadas com HNO3 concentrado. As amostras de sedimento foram peneiradas em malha de 0,053 mm e digeridas com HCl:HNO3 (1:3 a 150ºC. As concentrações de alguns metais pesados (Co, Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Pb e Zn foram determinadas nas amostras de água e sedimento por espectrometria de absorção atômica de chama. Os resultados revelaram que a concentração dos metais pesados é muito acima dos permitidos pela resolução 357/2005 do CONAMA em praticamente todos os locais amostrados, mostrando que o Aterro Sanitário é um dos principais responsáveis pelo impacto ambiental observado nos corpos hídricos estudados. As análises dos componentes principais (PCA e hierárquica de cluster (HCA, revelam que os pontos de coleta localizados dentro do aterro sanitário apresentam características diferentes dos outros locais amostrados. Além disso, o HCA e PCA mostraram que existe uma similaridade entre os pontos de coleta localizados fora do aterro o que permite afirmar que o chorume do aterro se dissolve por todo corpo hídrico estudado.Domestic sewage involves several products, such as pesticides, pharmaceutics products, detergents, soybean oil

  2. A survey of necrophagous blowflies (Diptera: Oestroidea in the Amazonas-Negro interfluvial region (Brazilian Amazon

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    Eduardo Amat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The fauna of blowflies (Calliphoridae and Mesembrinellidae in three localities of primary Amazon forest coverage in the Amazonas-Negro interfluvial region was assessed. A total of 5066 blowflies were collected, with Chloroprocta idiodea being the most abundant species (66.3%. A difference in species richness between the localities ZF2 and Novo Airão was observed. Comparison among sampled sites revealed no considerable variation in fauna composition, except for the species Eumesembrinella benoisti (Séguy 1925 and Hemilucilia sp., whose occurrence was observed only in a single locality. Apparently, Amazon rivers are not efficient geographical barriers to influence the current composition of necrophagous blowfly assemblages. Also, most of the blowfly species did not show a noticeable specificity for any specific forest among the interfluvial areas of the ombrophilous forest. Finally, an updated checklist of necrophagous blowfly species of the Amazonas state in Brazil is presented.

  3. LBA-ECO CD-34 Landsat Fractional Land Cover Analysis, Manaus, Brazil: 2004-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides the results of fractional land cover analysis for nonphotosynthetic vegetation (NPV) from two Landsat images of Manaus, Brazil, for October...

  4. Limnological characterization of floodplain lakes in Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, Central Amazon (Amazonas State, Brazil Caracterização limnológica dos lagos da planície de inundação na Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Mamirauá, Amazônia Central (Estado do Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gomes Affonso

    2011-03-01

    em 2009, e água baixa em 2008, 2009 e 2010; RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que as variáveis medidas possuem uma alta variabilidade nos corpos d'água na região de estudo: a entre as fases da hidrógrafas; b entre os rios principais; e c entre as margens opostas do Rio Japurá, mostrando a importância do pulso de inundação na variação dos parâmetros físicos e químicos e ainda a em relação ao rio principal de alimentação; CONCLUSÕES: O monitoramento dos parâmetros físicos e químicos em Mamirauá servirá como futura referência para comparação com outras regiões menos preservadas, como o Baixo Amazonas, e ainda como linha de base para modelos sobre efeitos das mudanças climáticas e influências antropogênicas no ecossistema aquático Amazônico.

  5. Considerations about the Urucu-Manaus gas pipeline design; Consideracoes sobre o projeto do gasoduto Urucu-Manaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villela, Claudio Henrique Lobianco G.; Correia, Luiz de Carvalho Dias [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The main purpose of this job is to present the characteristics that influenced the elaboration of the Urucu-Manaus Gas Pipeline Project and the difference between this pipeline and other pipelines already installed on the Amazon region. In this project were emphasized the aspects related to the route definition, mapping technologies that had not been utilized in our pipeline projects, the crossing of vast flooded areas, requiring specific studies, as well the minimization of the environment impacts, in this case the existence of animal species present only in this region. Other differential factor was the Rio Negro crossing, where the pipeline will be installed in the riverbed. The know-how attained with this project consolidates ever so the activity of building pipelines in tropical forest regions. (author)

  6. Desempenho de cultivares de alface na região de Manaus Performance of lettuce cultivars in Manaus region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isac N Rodrigues

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Na avaliação de cultivares de hortaliças, os rendimentos médios mais elevados nos ensaios de competição, associados a fatores de qualidade, são utilizados como critérios de recomendação para plantio. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as cultivares de alface Frisella, Deisy, Tender Green, Lollo Bionda, Itapuã 401, Marisa, Verônica, Banchu New Red Fire e Hortência nas condições climáticas da região de Manaus, sob cultivo protegido e a campo. Foram avaliadas as características: massa fresca total, massa fresca comercial, diâmetro da cabeça e altura. As cultivares de alface Marisa, Itapuã 401 e Hortência são opções mais adequadas para o cultivo protegido e a campo na região, incluindo-se para o cultivo a campo a cultivar Verônica, a qual apresentou a melhor produção na avaliação realizada neste ambiente.In the evaluation of vegetable cultivars, the high average yield in the competition assays associated to quality factors are utilized as criteria to recommend cultivars. In the present work we evaluated the lettuce cultivars Frisella, Deisy, Tender Green, Lollo Bionda, Itapuã 401, Marisa, Verônica, Banchu New Red Fire and Hortência under the climatic conditions of the region of Manaus, under protected and conventional cultivation. The evaluated characteristics were: total and commercial weight, plant diameter and height. The lettuce cultivars Marisa, Itapuã 401 and Hortência presented higher production in both environments adding Verônica with best production under conventional cultivation.

  7. Regionalização em Saúde no Amazonas: avanços e desafios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Garnelo

    Full Text Available Resumo O artigo analisa o processo de regionalização em saúde no estado do Amazonas por meio de estudo de caso da regional em Saúde Entorno de Manaus. Pesquisa qualitativa, descritivo-analítica, cujos dados foram coletados através de entrevistas, revisão de documentos e de páginas de internet, tomando como conceito guia a regionalização em saúde. Os achados do estudo mostram uma cena social onde predominam a assimetria, a verticalidade, a competitividade e a fragilidade das relações multilaterais entre municípios, associados a um perfil cartorial das instituições que atuam na região de saúde sob estudo. Os agentes políticos envolvidos no processo têm limitado reconhecimento das condições sociopolíticas e institucionais em que atuam. Tendem a atribuir os problemas de gestão e operacionalização das redes de assistência à configuração dos espaços naturais-geográficos amazônicos, mas seu financiamento, governança e capacidade técnica são insuficientes para superá-los.

  8. The costs of REDD: lessons from Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Virgilio M.; Ribenboim, Gabriel [Amazonas Sustainable Foundation (Brazil); Mea, Rosana Della [Rainforest Concern (Brazil); Grieg-Gran, Maryanne

    2009-11-15

    Reducing tropical deforestation is a major climate and development issue: forest clearing is responsible for roughly a fifth of greenhouse gas emissions, and the forest-dependent poor number over a billion. In the runup to the Copenhagen climate summit, REDD – reducing emissions from deforestation and (forest) degradation by providing incentives to tropical forest countries – has been touted as one of the most cost-effective mitigation mechanisms on the table. But the benefits would be only temporary if forests saved today are cleared once incentives cease. Would the expense of maintaining such incentives over decades raise the price to uncompetitive levels? A forest reserve in Amazonas, Brazil, offers some of the first real-world data on the costs of REDD. Even with pessimistic assumptions about future pressures, the project's carbon cuts look highly affordable.

  9. Condições higiênico-sanitárias dos portos de Manaus-AM, 2007-2010 | Sanitary conditions of the ports of Manaus-AM, 2007-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerfeson Nepumuceno Caldas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Um porto organizado dispõe de infraestrutura física, serviços e processos e é construído e aparelhado para atender às necessidades da navegação, movimentação e armazenagem de mercadorias e deslocamento de viajantes, sob a responsabilidade de uma autoridade portuária. Objetivo: Analisar os determinantes das condições higiênico-sanitárias dos portos organizados da cidade de Manaus-AM. Método: Estudo transversal e descritivo com base nos dados da Coordenação de Vigilância Sanitária de Portos, Aeroportos, Fronteiras e Recintos Alfandegados do estado do Amazonas. Os dados foram coletados dos termos de inspeção das instalações físicas dos portos emitidos no período de janeiro de 2007 a dezembro de 2010. O processamento e análise dos dados ocorreram através de planilhas do Microsoft Excel e calculadas as distribuições percentuais. A interpretação e análise dos dados ocorreram conforme categorias de análise da RDC nº 72, de 29 de dezembro de 2009, da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. Resultados: Observou-se que os processos de higiene e limpeza e os serviços de alimentação apresentaram a maior porcentagem de inspeção e mais da metade se mostrou insatisfatória. Conclusões: Os resultados demonstraram que as autoridades portuárias devem investir no controle das condições higiênico-sanitária das instalações, processos e serviços dos portos organizados, para mitigar potenciais fatores de risco capazes de produzir agravos à saúde. =============================================== Introduction: An organized port has physical infrastructure, services and processes, and is built and equipped to meet the needs of navigation, handling and storage of goods and travelers in general, under the responsibility of a port authority. Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the determinants of the hygienic-sanitary conditions of the organized ports of the city of Manaus-AM. Method

  10. Sobrecarga de trabalho e adoecimento no Polo Industrial de Manaus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerusa Menezes de Carvalho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O avanço de doenças como LER/DORT traz como imperativo analisar asnovas formas de organização de trabalho e sua relação com o adoecimento. A pesquisa que fundamenta este artigo buscou compreender o processo de adoecimento no trabalho no Polo Industrial de Manaus (PIM, partindo da fundamentação teórica da Psicodinâmica do Trabalho, que estuda os processos intersubjetivos mobilizados no trabalhar e os destinos possíveis do sofrimento. Utilizou-se a metodologia qualitativa, tendo como instrumento de coleta de dados uma entrevista individual semiestruturada. Participaram cinco trabalhadores de indústrias do PIM, afastados por doença, membros de uma associação para lesionados no trabalho. Os resultados indicam que a organização de trabalho no PIM é marcada por sobrecarga, pressão e outros elementos patogênicos, relacionados às novas formas de gestão, associadas ao modo de acumulação flexível do capital, que contribuem para o agravamento do sofrimento e para a proliferação das novas patologias sociais do trabalho.

  11. Os sistemas agroflorestais como alternativa de sustentabilidade em ecossistemas de várzea no Amazonas The Agroforestry systems as an alternative of sustainable land use in várzea (floodplain ecosystems in Amazon State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albejamere Pereira de Castro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Os sistemas agroflorestais (SAFs representam uma alternativa agroecológica de produção, sob regime sustentável, para os agricultores familiares na várzea dos Rios Solimões/Amazonas, principalmente no que se refere ao manejo florestal, à diversidade de produtos e à geração de renda. Diante disso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi compreender as diferentes formas de apropriação e de manejo dos recursos naturais através dos SAFs, nos subsistemas roça, sítio e lagos, como componente para a sustentabilidade dos agricultores familiares da localidade Costa da Terra Nova, município do Careiro da Várzea, Amazonas. O método empregado foi o Estudo de Caso com aplicação de questionários, entrevistas e observação participante. A produção familiar na Costa da Terra Nova é representada pelos SAFs, constituído pelos os subsistemas: roça quintal e lago, que proporcionam produtos tanto para subsistência quanto para comercialização local, e estabelecendo a agricultura como fundamental atividade na localidade. O principal produto para comercialização é obtido das hortaliças cultivadas na época da vazante no subsistema roça nas comunidades São Francisco e Nossa Senhora da Conceição; e do extrativismo pesqueiro no subsistema lago, na época da cheia, principalmente na comunidade São José. A criação de animal se dá no subsistema sítio e é apenas para subsistência, sendo as aves e os suínos os principais animais domésticos criados nas três comunidades. Portanto os SAFs tradicionais, constituídos pelos subsistemas, roça, sitio e lago, são responsáveis pela sustentabilidade socioeconômica da localidade pesquisada, servindo, como alternativa agrícola melhor adaptada às condições locais das áreas de várzea na Amazônia.The Agroforest Systems (SAF's presents an agro ecological alternative of production under sustainable basis for the families farmers, in the várzea (floodplain of the Solimões/Amazonas Rivers

  12. Radioactive background of Granito Madeira, north Amazonas, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Vanderlei; Pereira, Claubia; Martins, Agnaldo Kenji, E-mail: vandermoura@gmail.com, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: amartins@mtaboca.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Mineracao Taboca S.A., Presidente Figueiredo, AM (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides, such as the uranium and thorium decay chains, are present in rocks and soils. But its distribution is not homogeneous: it depends on the type of rock being that those of volcanic origin have higher concentrations of uranium and thorium. These are NORM. Locations with NORM present higher dose rates than the world average. Thus, the determination of the natural radioactivity of a NORM region is of extreme importance since it provides data for the estimation of human exposure to natural radiation. In addition, if there is a mining company exploring NORM, the background radiation estimation should be considered in the decommissioning and future planning. There are places in Brazil, such as Granito Madeira in the state of Amazonas, in the north of Brazil, where NORM is present. It is an extremely remote area located within the Amazon Forest currently in the process of open cast mining. In this study, the iodide scintillator detector was used to measure and map the natural background radiation of the Granito Madeira using a scintillator detector of sodium iodide that was transported in tracks within the forest. The data obtained were georeferenced, classified and used to obtain the annual dose related to gamma radiation. The results are presented in frequency histograms and maps. The annual average was (6.0 ± 3.0) mSv.y{sup -1}. These data were compared to those available from other regions with NORM in Brazil and the 2010 UNSCEAR report. (author)

  13. Radioactive background of Granito Madeira, north Amazonas, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Vanderlei; Pereira, Claubia; Martins, Agnaldo Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides, such as the uranium and thorium decay chains, are present in rocks and soils. But its distribution is not homogeneous: it depends on the type of rock being that those of volcanic origin have higher concentrations of uranium and thorium. These are NORM. Locations with NORM present higher dose rates than the world average. Thus, the determination of the natural radioactivity of a NORM region is of extreme importance since it provides data for the estimation of human exposure to natural radiation. In addition, if there is a mining company exploring NORM, the background radiation estimation should be considered in the decommissioning and future planning. There are places in Brazil, such as Granito Madeira in the state of Amazonas, in the north of Brazil, where NORM is present. It is an extremely remote area located within the Amazon Forest currently in the process of open cast mining. In this study, the iodide scintillator detector was used to measure and map the natural background radiation of the Granito Madeira using a scintillator detector of sodium iodide that was transported in tracks within the forest. The data obtained were georeferenced, classified and used to obtain the annual dose related to gamma radiation. The results are presented in frequency histograms and maps. The annual average was (6.0 ± 3.0) mSv.y"-"1. These data were compared to those available from other regions with NORM in Brazil and the 2010 UNSCEAR report. (author)

  14. Construction and assembly of the Urucu-Coari-Manaus gas pipeline; Construcao e montagem do gasoduto Urucu-Coari-Manaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Antonio E; Sarno, Ruy [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    This paper aims to present the strategies adopted for the development of the construction and assembly of the Urucu-Coari-Manaus Gas Pipeline and its branches, emphasizing the logistics. With 662 km of extension and crossing 7 Amazonian counties, the construction of this pipeline will take in consideration particular aspects of the region (wavy relief, local population, Amazonian forest and diverse water bodies) and its interference in the works, mainly transport of workers and equipment, distribution of supplying points of fuels and foods, and localization of support work sites. Considering the importance of the region watercourses, techniques for its passages were studied, on a case by case basis and the conventional process, directional drilling and special launching for the passage of the Black river have been adopted. Moreover, this paper presents the activities summary of both environmental licensing process and pre communication related to the communities directly affected by the works, aiming at the beginning of the services of construction and assembly, as well as a story brief of the experiences gathered during the construction of the Poliduto and the Urucu-Coari Gas Pipeline, both constructed between the years of 1997 and 1999. (author)

  15. The construction of environmental governance in the RDS Igapó-Açu (Amazonas, Brazil: organization, complexity and interdependence

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    Marília Gabriela Rezende

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present text is to analyze environmental governance in the Sustainable Development Reserve Igapó-Açu, located in the municipalities of Manicoré, Borba and Beruri, state of Amazonas, Brazil. The study area was chosen because the RDS is the only Amazonas state protected area crossed by a federal interstate highway. This highway provides a specific territorial arrangement of governance elements in the studied area. Different methodological tools were used in this research, such as close-ended questionnaires and open-ended interviews. Data were systematized using Excel software and they were graphically represented in the form of organizational charts drawn with Websphere Analysis Software. Results indicate that environmental governance of the RDS Igapó-Açu involves multiple factors, while the central node of the local political articulation is held by a Management Council that is in charge of materializing the governability of the RDSt, as well as its ramifications.

  16. Space Radar Image of Manaus region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    These L-band images of the Manaus region of Brazil were acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The left image was acquired on April 12, 1994, and the middle image was acquired on October 3, 1994. The area shown is approximately 8 kilometers by 40 kilometers (5 miles by 25 miles). The two large rivers in this image, the Rio Negro (top) and the Rio Solimoes (bottom), combine at Manaus (west of the image) to form the Amazon River. The image is centered at about 3 degrees south latitude and 61 degrees west longitude. North is toward the top left of the images. The differences in brightness between the images reflect changes in the scattering of the radar channel. In this case, the changes are indicative of flooding. A flooded forest has a higher backscatter at L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) than an unflooded river. The extent of the flooding is much greater in the April image than in the October image, and corresponds to the annual, 10-meter (33-foot) rise and fall of the Amazon River. A third image at right shows the change in the April and October images and was created by determining which areas had significant decreases in the intensity of radar returns. These areas, which appear blue on the third image at right, show the dramatic decrease in the extent of flooded forest, as the level of the Amazon River falls. The flooded forest is a vital habitat for fish and floating meadows are an important source of atmospheric methane. This demonstrates the capability of SIR-C/X-SAR to study important environmental changes that are impossible to see with optical sensors over regions such as the Amazon, where frequent cloud cover and dense forest canopies obscure monitoring of floods. Field studies by boat, on foot and in low-flying aircraft by the University of California at Santa Barbara, in collaboration with Brazil's Instituto Nacional de Pesguisas Estaciais, during

  17. A review of wildlife ecotourism in Manaus, Brazil

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    Neil D'Cruze

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon’s ability to draw tourists is thought to be strongly associated with the opportunity to have sight of and interact with iconic wild animals. Tourism leaders are calling for the private and public sectors to develop wildlife focused ecotourism in this region. However, specific information regarding current practice and their impact on wildlife is lacking. Although wildlife ecotourism here remains in its relative infancy, our study demonstrates that a wide variety of wildlife-focused activities are already being promoted and provided to tourists who visit the city of Manaus in Brazil. Issues of potential wildlife conservation and animal welfare concern include wildlife-baiting, swim-with free-ranging pink river dolphin activity, the use of captive wild animals as photo props and the sale of wildlife body parts as souvenirs. We found that tour guides actively promoted these activities on 77% of excursions attended, which involved a range of different wild animals, representing at least 10 different species from three different taxonomic classes. From a legal perspective, despite the potential risks imposed to wildlife and tourist well-being, there are still no specific laws regulating feeding, touching and swimming with pink river dolphins in Brazil. However, the illegality of advertising and providing direct physical contact wildlife ‘photo prop’ tourism is demonstrated by enforcement action taken by wildlife authorities during our study. We suggest that tourist focused human behavior change initiatives should become a critical component of a wider holistic approach to effectively balance wildlife protection goals and any expansion of wildlife ecotourism in the Amazon.

  18. YERSINIA PSEUDOTUBERCULOSIS, SEROGROUP O:1A, INFECTION IN TWO AMAZON PARROTS (AMAZONA AESTIVA AND AMAZONA ORATRIX) WITH HEPATIC HEMOSIDEROSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galosi, Livio; Farneti, Silvana; Rossi, Giacomo; Cork, Susan Catherine; Ferraro, Stefano; Magi, Gian Enrico; Petrini, Stefano; Valiani, Andrea; Cuteri, Vincenzo; Attili, Anna-Rita

    2015-09-01

    Necropsies were conducted on a female blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) and a female yellow-headed Amazon (Amazona oratrix) that died after depression, ruffled feathers, diarrhea, and biliverdin in the urine. Gross and microscopic examinations revealed multifocal necrosis in the liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, intestines, and heart caused by acute bacteremia. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, serogroup O:1a, was isolated by culturing from the visceral lesions in the liver, intestines, and spleen. Virulence gene analysis showed the presence of the inv gene and the complete pathogenicity island: IS100, psn, yptE, irp1, irp2 ybtP-ybtQ, ybtX-ybtS, and int asnT-Int. Histopathologic findings and chemical analysis also demonstrated hepatic hemosiderosis. As has been demonstrated in other species, hemosiderosis may predispose Amazona spp. to systemic infection with Y. pseudotuberculosis after enteric disease.

  19. Diagnóstico de um projeto de enriquecimento florestal na Comunidade do Brasileirinho, Manaus, Amazonas Diagnosis of a project of forest enrichment in the Community of the Brasileirinho, Manaus, Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Willerding

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available As ações do projeto consistiram no reconhecimento da comunidade, realizando-se entrevistas, seguidas de um levantamento da demanda por espécies florestais e frutíferas, aquisição, transporte e distribuição das mudas e sementes. Das 28 propriedades cadastradas, 18 tornaram-se participantes, engajando-se no projeto. Na comunidade, a fruticultura é a principal atividade e o cupuaçu a principal cultura, presente em oito propriedades participantes com 2950 indivíduos plantados. Outras culturas importantes são: manga, pupunha, açaí, coco. O projeto promoveu também a introdução e o plantio de espécies vegetais com valor de mercado. Com as atividades do projeto, diversificaram-se as espécies florestais e frutíferas existentes na comunidade. Distribuíram-se 12.455 mudas de pau-rosa, cedro, andiroba, mogno, maçaranduba, seringueira, camu-camu (caçari, araçá-boi, cubiu e outras. Como perspectiva, as ações pretendem fixar o agricultor no campo, propor alternativas econômicas, sensibilizar a comunidade com relação à preservação da floresta e exploração racional dos recursos naturais.The activities of this project consisted in the recognition of the community by interviews, followed by a survey of the demand for forest and fruitful species, the acquisition, transport and distribution of seedlings and seeds. Of the 28 registered properties, 18 participated in the project. In the community, fruit culture is the main activity, and cupuaçu the main fruit in eight participant properties with 2950 plants. Other cultures are: mango, pupunha, açaí, coconut. The project also promoted the introduction and plantation of vegetal species with market value. Among the project activities, community forest and fruit species were diversified with 12,455 seedlings of wood-rose, cedar andiroba, mahogany, maçaranduba, seringueira, camu-camu, araçá-boi, cubiu and anothers were distributed. As the perspective, the activities intend to fix the agriculturist in the field, to consider economic alternatives, to make the community aware of the between preservation of the forest and the rational exploration of natural resources.

  20. Rapid Point-of-Care Diagnostic Test for Syphilis in High-Risk Populations, Manaus, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sabid?, Meritxell; Benzaken, Adele S.; de Andrade Rodrigues, ?nio Jos?; Mayaud, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    : We assessed the acceptability and operational suitability of a rapid point-of-care syphilis test and identified barriers to testing among high-risk groups and healthcare professionals in a sexually transmitted infections clinic in Manaus, Brazil. Use of this test could considerably alleviate the impact of syphilis in hard-to-reach populations in the Amazon region of Brazil.

  1. Essential oil composition of leaf and fine stem of Aniba canelilla (Kunth) Mez from Manaus, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lima,Maria da Paz; Silva,Tatiana Maria D.; Silva,João Domingos da; Zoghbi,Maria das Graças B.; Andrade,Eloisa Helena A.

    2004-01-01

    The essential oil of the leaves and fine stems of Aniba canelilla (Kunth) Mez collected in the city of Manaus, AM, Brazil, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. Forty-two components were identified, of which 1-nitro-2-phenylethane, as expected, was the major (71.2%-68.2%).

  2. Distribuição de Paravelia recens (Drake & Harris, 1935 (Hemíptera, Heteroptera, Veliidae em Guzmania brasiliensis Ule, 1907 (Bromeliaceae na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, Amazonas, Brasil Distribution of Paravelia recens (Drake & Harris, 1935 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Veliidae in Guzmania brasiliensis Ule, 1907 (Bromeliaceae at Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Leonardo Vieira Pereira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este é o primeiro registro de Paravelia recens (Drake & Harris, 1935 (Heteroptera: Veliidae em fitotelmata de Guzmania brasiliensis Ule, 1907 (Bromeliaceae. O estudo foi conduzido na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, localizada na rodovia AM 010 km 26, Manaus, Amazonas. Foram realizadas doze amostragens, entre abril de 2003 e abril de 2005, seis no período chuvoso e seis no período de seca. Para cada amostragem, 12 bromélias foram analisadas, seis terrestres e seis epífitas, totalizando 144 amostras. Com exceção das amostras de março e outubro de 2004, 94 espécimes de P. recens foram encontrados. O número de indivíduos coletados foi semelhante nos estratos amostrados, sendo 46 terrestres e 48 epífitas. No período chuvoso foi encontrado um maior número de P. recens (teste-t entre períodos; t =2,57; p=0,011, assim como a abundância de indivíduos esteve positivamente correlacionada com o volume de água por bromélia (r s= 0,18; p=0,033. Este fato pode ser explicado pelo maior aporte de água no período chuvoso acarretando o aumento do volume médio de água nas bromélias.This is the first record of Paravelia recens (Drake & Harris, 1935 (Heteroptera: Veliidae in phytotelmata of Guzmania brasiliensis Ule, 1907 (Bromeliaceae. The study was conduced at Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, located on road AM 010 Km 26, Manaus, Amazonas. Twelve samplings were taken between April 2003 and April 2005, namely, six in the wet season and six in the dry season. Twelve bromeliads were analysed for each sampling, six terrestrials and six epiphytics, totaling 144 samples. With the exception of the 2004 March and October samples, 94 specimens of P. recens were found. The number of individuals was similar in the stratums sampled, accounting for 46 terrestrials and 48 epiphytics. P. recens were found in great abundance in the wet season (t-test between season; t=2,57; p=0,011, and the abundance of individuals was positively correlated with water volume

  3. Propagação in vitro de tucumã do Amazonas In vitro propagation of Astrocarium aculeatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Hercílio Viegas Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Astrocaryum possui um grande número de espécies com potencial alimentício e produtoras de óleos. A espécie mais utilizada, o tucumã do Amazonas, é consumida em larga escala nos estados da região norte do Brasil e originado do extrativismo vegetal. Embriões zigóticos de sementes maduras e imaturas de tucumã do Amazonas (Astrocaryum aculeatum G. Mey foram inoculados em meio de cultivo semi-sólido de Murashige e Skoog (MS suplementado com vitaminas. Os embriões sobreviventes foram transferidos para o mesmo meio MS suplementado com 0,0; 1,0; 3,0 e 5,0mg L-1 de BAP, obtendo-se taxa crescente de brotação, sendo as mais eficientes as doses de 3,0 a 5,0mg L-1There is a large number of species within the genus Astrocaryum with the potential for use as food and for oil production. The most used species, tucumã do Amazonas, is consumed on a large scale in the States in the northern region of Brazil, originating from extractivism. Zygotic embryos of mature and immature tucumã do Amazonas (Astrocaryum aculeatum G. Mey. seeds were inoculated in a semi-solid Murashige and Skoog (MS culture medium supplemented with vitamins. The surviving embryos were transferred to the same MS medium supplemented with 0.0; 1.0; 3.0 and 5.0mg L-1 of BAP, obtaining an increasing rate of shoot formation.

  4. Guia de identificação dos ninhos de vespas sociais (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae na Reserva Ducke, Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Somavilla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vespidae sociais utilizam principalmente material vegetal para a elaboração de seus ninhos. Embora existam alguns estudos referentes à fauna de vespas na região Amazônica, nenhum trabalho trata exclusivamente dos ninhos. Além disso, nas coleções biológicas poucos são os ninhos tombados, devido principalmente à fragilidade e difícil conservação dos mesmos. O objetivo desse trabalho foi o conhecimento de alguns ninhos encontrados na Reserva Ducke, apresentando informações a respeito dos mesmos e uma chave de identificação dos gêneros. Os ninhos foram coletados através da busca direta, percorrendo os transectos da grade do Programa de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade; locais como margens de igarapés, bordas de acampamentos e construções na sede da reserva também foram explorados. Para todos os ninhos obteve-se o registro fotográfico e a localização exata por GPS. Foram registrados 39 ninhos de vespas sociais alocados em 17 espécies de Polistinae: Agelaia constructor, A. pallipes, Angiopolybia pallens, Apoica pallens, Metapolybia unilineata, Mischocyttarus lecointei, M. saturatus, Polybia bistriata, P. dimidiata, P. jurinei, P. liliacea, P. occidentalis, P. procellosa, P. rejecta, Protopolybia bituberculata, P. chartergoides e Synoeca virginea. Cinco ninhos desabitados de Mischocyttarus, Polybia e Polistes também foram coletados.

  5. O desflorestamento ao longo da rodovia BR-174 (Manaus/Am - Boa Vista/Rr / The deforestation along the BR-174 road (Manaus / Am - Boa Vista / Rr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Paschoal Rodrigues,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisas indicam que o processo de desflorestamento na Amazônia está associado à abertura de estradas, uma vez que favorece o fluxo migratório, a ocupação de terras e a exploração de madeiras. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar o desflorestamento no entorno (20 km da rodovia BR-174 para um período de 30 anos (1978-2008. Foram utilizadas imagens LANDSAT, dados do INPE/PRODES, dados cartográficos e econômicos e trabalhos de campo. Os resultados demonstraram um crescimento do desflorestamento, passando de 622,15 km2 em 1978 para 2.618,58 km2 em 2008. As principais atividades econômicas dos municípios por onde passa a BR-174, exceto Manaus, estão associadas à agropecuária. Em Manaus, o desflorestamento ocorre principalmente na área urbana. Ainda que a construção da BR-174 esteja associada a processos de desflorestamento, a rodovia possui grande importância para a região, pois foi responsável pela ligação terrestre entre duas capitais do norte do país (Manaus/AM e Boa Vista/RR e possibilitou formar comunidades onde são desenvolvidas atividades econômicas e sociais. A criação de projetos de desenvolvimento sustentável é o grande desafio dos governos locais, para agregar valor aos empreendimentos existentes e desenvolver novos modelos de uso e ocupação na região.

  6. Biogeochemical cycling of metals in freshwater algae from Manaus and Carajas, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konhauser, K.O.; Fyfe, W.S.

    1993-01-01

    Freshwater algae were analyzed in different riverine environments in Manaus and Carajas, Brazil. Filamentous algae from both locations were characterized by enhanced levels of a wide array of heavy metals. A comparison of the two main rivers in the Manaus area indicated that the algal samples from the solute-rich waters of the Rio Solimoes consistently contained higher metal concentrations than in the solute-deficient waters of the Rio Negro. A similar relationship also existed between algal samples collected from forested regions relative to adjacent deforested regions in the Carajas area. In the Rio Negro, diatoms were shown to be the most prolific eucaryotic microorganisms found in the study area. These siliceous algae were found adhering to a variety of submerged solid substrates, including wood, rocks, and leaves. The abundance of these unicellular micro-organisms suggested that the dissolved silicon levels of the Rio Negro were influenced by biological activity

  7. Morphological and molecular identification of ticks infesting Boa constrictor (Squamata, Boidae in Manaus (Central Brazilian Amazon

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    Leonardo Costa Fiorini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Boa constrictor is one of the world's largest vertebrate carnivores and is often found in urban areas in the city of Manaus, Brazil. The morphological identification of ticks collected from 27 snakes indicated the occurrence of Amblyomma dissimile Koch 1844 on all individuals sampled. In contrast, Amblyomma rotundatum Koch was found on only two snakes. An analysis of the 16S rRNA molecular marker confirmed the morphological identification of these ectoparasites.

  8. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 Manaus Pollution Study Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keutsch, Frank N. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This work was part of the larger Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 (GOAmazon 2014/15) experiment, which extended through the wet and dry seasons from January 2014 through December 2015 and which took place around the urban region of Manaus, Brazil in central Amazonia. This work was conducted as part of this experiment at the main U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility ground research site “T3” circa 100 km west of Manaus during two intensive operational periods, “IOP1” and “IOP2” (February 1 to March 31, 2014, and August 15 to October 15, 2014, respectively). Funding for this work was provided by the National Science Foundation AGS 1321987/1628491. The GoAmazon experiment was designed to enable the study of how aerosols and surface fluxes influence cloud cycles under clean conditions, as well as how aerosol and cloud life cycles, including cloud-aerosol-precipitation interactions, are influenced by pollutant outflow from a tropical megacity. These observations provide a data set vital to constrain tropical rain forest model parameterizations for organic aerosols, cloud and convection schemes, and terrestrial vegetation components and how these are perturbed by pollution. Research objectives specific to this work and the T3 ground site included studies of how outflow of pollution from Manaus modulated the photochemically driven conversion of emitted precursors to aerosol precursors and aerosol.

  9. Evaluation of cryolite from pitinga (Amazonas-Brazil as a source of hydrogen fluoride

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    Jéssica F. Paulino

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the use of cryolite from the Pitinga Mine (Amazonas state, Brazil as raw material in hydrogen fluoride production. Samples were initially characterized by chemical and mineralogical analyses. They presented low silica content (< 4 wt.%. After milling, cryolite samples were digested with concentrated sulfuric acid under stirring (200 rpm and variable temperature, time and liquid to solid ratio conditions. Under the best experimental conditions (140 °C, 3-5 h, 96 wt.% of fluorine was recovered as hydrogen fluoride. The application of a 23 full factorial design showed that temperature and reaction time were relevant parameters during leaching, whereas liquid to solid ratio was not statistically significant.

  10. Medicinal animals: knowledge and use among riverine populations from the Negro River, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Andréa Leme da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article documents the use of animals in the home medicine among riverine populations from the Negro River, State of Amazonas, Brazil. Data were collected through interviews and observations concerning to the knowledge and everyday practices of the use of medicinal animals. About 60 animal species are known with medicinal purposes. The knowledge is well distributed between sexes (men and women and localities (urban and rural. The use of medicinal animals is embedded in etiological concepts and involves a complex cosmological vision of the cure process. The rural exodus and the facilitated access to the western medicine may be promoting the loss of the traditional knowledge, which can be mitigated through the valorization and transmission of this knowledge to the future generations.

  11. Presencia de Aedes albopictus en Leticia, Amazonas, Colombia

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    Iván Darío Vélez

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available La especie Aedes albopictus es un eficiente vector del dengue en Asia y, posiblemente, de otros arbovirus incluyendo la fiebre amarilla y la encefalitis. En la ultima década se ha extendido la distribución de A. albopictus a las Américas. En la ciudad de Tabatinga, Brasil, muy cerceide la frontera con Colombia, se ha informado la presencia de esta especie en 1996 y, posteriormente, en octubre de 1997. En marzo de 1998, en desarrollo de un e&udio sobre enfermedades tropicales realizado por el Programa de Estudio y Cotítrol de Enfermedades Tropicales, PECET, de la Universidad de Antioquia y la secretaría de Salud del Amazonas, se capturaron 8 ejemplares adultos de A. albopictus en la ciudad de Leticia, departamento del Amazonas, siendo éste el primer hallazgo de esta especie en Colombia. La presencia en Colombia de A. albopictus vuelve más complejo el problema del dengue por la mayor adaptación de este vector a climas más fríos, la capacidad de transmisión transovariana, la buena capacidad vectorial para transmitir los cuatro serotipos del virus y la mayor dificultad para su control dado que sus criaderos están en áreas peridomésticas y rurales. La distribución de esta especie tanto en zonas selváticas como rurales y urbanas presenta un peligro potencial de urbanizar la transmisión de la fiebre amarilla. Se presenta el plan de contingencia que se debe implementar por parte de la Secretaría de Salud del Amazonas con miras a evitar la propagación de este vector a otras regiones del país.

  12. El Amazonas en el camino de la sostenibilidad

    OpenAIRE

    Pinilla, Nelson

    2003-01-01

    La Amazonia es en la conciencia colectiva del planeta el espacio natural y cultural más conservado y donde es posible el desarrollo sostenible. Pero la realidad es otra: factores históricos y económicos, aunados a la codicia, la ignorancia y las erradas políticas andinas para las selvas han llevado a esta región a soportar intensos procesos de deforestación y extracción de sus recursos naturales y culturales. Al analizar la encrucijada del sin modelo económico actual del Amazonas, se encuentr...

  13. Avifauna of the Pongos Basin, Amazonas Department, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Daniel M.; O'Neill, John P.; Foster, Mercedes S.; Mark, Todd; Dauphine, Nico; Franke, Irma J.

    2009-01-01

    We provide an inventory of the avifauna of the Pongos Basin, northern Amazonas Department, Peru based on museum specimens collected during expeditions spanning >60 years within the 20th century. Four hundred and thirty-eight species representing 52 families are reported. Differences between lowland and higher elevation avifaunas were apparent. Species accounts with overviews of specimen data are provided for four species representing distributional records, two threatened species, and 26 species of Nearctic and Austral migrants, of which six are considered probable migrants.

  14. Cloacolith in a blue-fronted amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Nevarez, Javier; Tully, Thomas N

    2010-06-01

    A 4-year-old blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) was admitted for vocalization secondary to constipation. Saline infusion cloacoscopy revealed the presence of a 2-cm-diameter cloacolith within the coprodeum that was obstructing the rectal opening. The cloacolith was fragmented with a pair of biopsy forceps and the pieces removed. The cloacolith was subsequently analyzed and was composed of 100% uric acid salts. The bird improved completely and was able to defecate normally after the procedure. Cloacoliths are relative uncommon cloacal conditions, and this case documents cloacoscopic findings, rectal obstruction, and confirmation of its uric acid composition by urolith analysis.

  15. Osteoma in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, João Felipe Rito; Levy, Marcelo Guilherme Bezerra; Liparisi, Flavia; Romão, Mario Antonio Pinto

    2013-09-01

    Osteoma is an uncommon bone formation documented in avian species and other animals. A blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) with clinical respiratory symptoms was examined because of a hard mass present on the left nostril. Radiographs suggested a bone tumor, and the mass was surgically excised. Histopathologic examination revealed features of an osteoma. To our knowledge, this is the first description of an osteoma in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot. Osteoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in birds with respiratory distress and swelling of the nostril.

  16. A molecular phylogeny of Amazona: implications for Neotropical parrot biogeography, taxonomy, and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russello, Michael A; Amato, George

    2004-02-01

    Amazon parrots (Genus Amazona) are among the most recognizable and imperiled of all birds. Several hypotheses regarding the evolutionary history of Amazona are investigated using a combined phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequence data from six partitions including mitochondrial (COI, 12S, and 16S) and nuclear (beta-fibint7, RP40, and TROP) regions. The results demonstrate that Amazona is not monophyletic with respect to the placement of the Yellow-faced parrot (Amazona xanthops), as first implied by. In addition, the analysis corroborates previous studies suggesting a Neotropical short-tailed parrot genus as sister to Amazona. At a finer level, the phylogeny resolves the Greater Antillean endemic species as constituting a monophyletic group, including the Central American Amazona albifrons, while further revealing a paraphyletic history for the extant Amazon species of the Lesser Antilles. The reconstructed phylogeny provides further insights into the mainland sources of the Antillean Amazona, reveals areas of taxonomic uncertainty within the genus, and presents historical information that may be included in conservation priority-setting for Amazon parrots.

  17. Cidadania: ret?rica e realidade nas pol?ticas sociais de Manaus

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Raimundo Emerson Dourado

    2004-01-01

    Este trabalho discute os aspectos que norteiam a quest?o da cidadania, verificando o distanciamento que a ret?rica governamental adquire ao ser confrontada ? reprodu??o da pobreza e da exclus?o social no espa?o urbano de Manaus. Partimos do entendimento de que os programas assistenciais implantados nesta cidade podem se constituir em espa?o onde ? poss?vel observar, dentre outras quest?es que podem ser suscitadas no contexto das pol?ticas sociais no capitalismo perif?rico, as contradi??es que...

  18. Logistics at the Amazon forest: the challenge of Urucu-Manaus pipeline construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Ricardo Magalhaes; Araujo, Jorge Marques de; Barbosa, Gilberto Rodrigues; Campos, Marcos Zeferino Teixeira [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The predominant difficulties and logistics complexities at the Amazon Region, required of the technical body responsible for the construction of the Undertaking Urucu-Manaus Pipeline, technological knowledge and a profound background of the regional particularities, qualities that were determinants for the execution of this significant work. The logistics solutions, supported on an accurate and adequate planning for people, equipment and material mobilization for several front services, were planned considering the constant climatic variables, river flood and dry periods and with the monitoring daily routines of the communities located around the pipeline construction influence area. (author)

  19. Os óleos essenciais das folhas e galhos finos de Aniba canelilla (Kunth) Mez coletados em Manaus, B

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Maria da Paz; Silva, Tatiana Maria D.; Silva, João Domingos da; Zoghbi, Maria das Graças B.; Andrade, Eloisa Helena A.

    2004-01-01

    The essential oil of the leaves and fine stems of Aniba canelilla (Kunth) Mez collected in the city of Manaus, AM, Brazil, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. Forty-two components were identified, of which 1-nitro-2-phenylethane, as expected, was the major (71.2%-68.2%).Os óleos essenciais das folhas e dos galhos finos de Aniba canelilla (Kunth) Mez coletada na cidade de Manaus, AM, Brasil, foram obtidos por hidrodestilação e analisados por CG-EM. Quarenta e dois compone...

  20. Language planning for "Mundurukú do Amazonas" Planejamento Linguístico para "Mundurukú do Amazonas"

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    Gessiane Picanço

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mundurukú, a Tupian language of Brazil, exhibits two opposite scenarios. On one extreme, there is Mundurukú do Pará, the language of daily communication in the Mundurukú Indigenous Land, with fluent speakers found across all generations and still acquired by children as a mother tongue. On the other extreme, there is Mundurukú do Amazonas, formerly spoken in the Kwatá-Laranjal Indigenous Land, but whose inhabitants have shifted to Portuguese. A group of Mundurukú students from Amazonas decided to initiate a process of language revitalisation as a way to strengthen the community's ethnic and cultural identity. This paper reports the initial stages of language planning, and includes future actions to promote language use in the homes and communities, assessement of language proficiency, and definition of educational programs to teach Mundurukú in local schools.Mundurukú, uma língua Tupí do Brasil, apresenta dois cenários opostos. Em um extremo, há o Mundurukú do Pará, a língua de comunicação diária na Terra Indígena Mundurukú, com falantes fluentes de todas as idades e adquirida pelas crianças como língua materna. No outro extremo encontra-se o Mundurukú do Amazonas, Terra Indígena Kwatá-Laranjal, que foi substituída pelo Português. Um grupo de estudantes Mundurukú do Amazonas decidiu iniciar um processo de revitalização de sua língua, como uma forma de fortalecer a identidade étnica e cultural da comunidade. Este trabalho relata os estágios iniciais do planejamento linguístico, incluindo as ações futuras para promover o uso da língua em casa e na comunidade, avaliação da proficiência na língua e definição de programas educacionais para ensinar Mundurukú nas escolas locais.

  1. Hedylidae (Lepidoptera: Hedyloidea coletados à luz a 40 metros de altura no dossel da floresta da Estação Experimental de Silvicultura Tropical em Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil Hedylidae (Lepidoptera: Hedyloidea collected with light trap at 40 meter height over an Amazon forest canopy at Experimental Station of the Tropical Silviculture in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Gilcéia Melo Lourido

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Os Hedylidae constituem um grupo de lepidópteros exclusivamente neotropical com 35 espécies conhecidas em um gênero, Macrosoma Hübner, 1818. Antes classificados entre as mariposas Geometridae, agora são considerados um grupo basal e noturno de borboletas. Foram realizadas coletas mensais de janeiro a dezembro de 2004 no dossel de uma floresta em área de terra-firme, utilizando um lençol branco iluminado por luz mista de mercúrio e outra luz negra UV-BLB, instalado a 40 m de altura em uma torre. As coletas foram realizadas das 18:00 às 6:00 h do dia seguinte. Foram coletados 55 exemplares , a maioria machos, somente dois exemplares fêmeas pertencentes a nove espécies, uma delas provavelmente nova, a saber: M. hedylaria Warren (1894, M. bahiata (Felder & Rogenhofer, 1875, M. conifera (Warren, 1897, M. heliconiaria (Guenée, 1857, M. hyacinthina (Warren, 1905, M. klagesi (Prout, 1916, M. lucivittata (Walker, 1863 M. nigrimacula (Warren, 1897 e Macrosoma sp. Os Hedylidae foram mais abundantes na estação mais chuvosa, dezembro a maio, com 65,5% dos espécimes coletados. O horário de maior atividade foi entre 19:00 e 22 h com 80% dos espécimes coletados.The Hedylidae is a lepidopteran group exclusively neotropical, with 35 known species in the genus Macrosoma Hübner, 1818. The family was classified as Geometridae moths but presently they are considered a basal and nocturnal group of butterflies. The collections were carried out monthly from January to December of 2004, during three nights of lunar transition third quarter moon/new moon from 6 p.m. to 6 a.m. The insects were collected over a vertical white sheet illuminated by a 250 watt mixed light and a 20 watt black-light (BLB lamp installed in a tower at a height of 40 m. We collected 53 male specimens and two female specimens, belonging to nine species of which one was probably new to science: M. hedylaria Warren (1894, M. bahiata (Felder & Rogenhofer, 1875, M. conifera (Warren, 1897, M. heliconiaria (Guenée, 1857, M. hyacinthina (Warren, 1905, M. klagesi (Prout, 1916, M. lucivittata (Walker, 1863 M. nigrimacula (Warren, 1897 e Macrosoma sp. The hedylids were more abundant in the rainy season, December to May, with 65,5% of the collected specimens. They were collected mainly from 7:00 pm to 10:00 pm with 80% of the collected specimens.

  2. Eficiência de Inseticidas no Controle de Pragas em Sementes e Mudas de Pau-rosa (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke, em Viveiros, Manaus, Amazonas Inseticides efficiency on pest control of rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke seeds and seedling in greenhouse, Manaus, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Wellington Morais

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O pau-rosa (Aniba rosaeodora é conhecido pela presença do álcool linalol, que fornece um odor forte e perfumado em todas as partes da planta. A sua exploração na Amazônia ao longo dos últimos anos, para utilização do linalol como fixador de perfumes, coloca o pau-rosa em risco de extinção, a sua frutificação irregular aumenta a dificuldade em se obter sementes para a produção de mudas e, além disso, parte de sua produção é perdida face ao ataque de pragas nas sementes. Em razão desses fatores o presente estudo teve como objetivo realizar a aplicação de inseticidas nas sementes e mudas em viveiro a fim de evitar ou minimizar o ataque de pragas, aumentando, assim, a produção de mudas. Utilizou-se um total de 300 sementes, distribuídas em 2 tratamentos e 1 testemunha. Cada tratamento (n = 100 foi constituído por 4 repetições (bandejas com 25 sementes. O inseticida utilizado nos tratamentos foi acetamiprid e fipronil nas concentrações de 0,09 mg/planta e 0,18 mg/planta, respectivamente, para o tratamento 1 (T1 e o tratamento 2 (T2, distribuídos na forma de sachês. O T1 recebeu a aplicação de 1 sachê e o T2 a aplicação de dois sachês, enterrados com areia lavada nas sementeiras. Para avaliar os resultados foi feita uma análise de Variância (ANOVA, usando o programa Systat 9 e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey em nível de 5%. As taxas de germinação foram: testemunha com 62%; T1 com 73% e T2 com 79%. Houve ataque de insetos em sementes apenas na testemunha com 23% do total (n = 100 e os resultados foram estatisticamente significativos (F = 31,263; p The rosewood tree (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke is known for its linalool which provides a strong, fragrant smell in all parts of the plant. Due to its exploitation in the Amazon for its linalool in the use of perfumes, the rosewood is in danger of extinction. Its irregular fruiting increases the difficulty in obtaining seeds for producing seedlings and, in addition, part of its production is lost due to pests attacking the seeds. Due to these factors, the object of this study was to achieve the application of insecticides on seeds and seedlings in nursery to avoid or minimize the attack of pests, thus improving seedling production. 300 seeds were used, distributed into 2 treatments and 1 witness. Each treatment (n = 100 was set for 4 repetitions (trays with 25 seeds. The insecticide used was acetamiprid and fipronil in concentrations of 0.09 mg / plant and 0.18 mg / plant, respectively for treatment 1 (T1 and the treatment 2 (T2, distributed in the form of "sachês". The T1 received the application from 1 "sachê" and T2 the implementation of two "sachês", buried with washed sand in seaders. The results were evaluated by analysis of Variance (ANOVA using the Systat 9 program and the averages compared by the Tukey test at 5% of significance. The rates of germination were: witness with 62%; T1 with 73% and T2 with 79%. There was an attack of insects only in the witness treatment with 23% of the total (n = 300, and the results were statistically significant (F = 31.263 p < 0.001. There were significant differences only between the height of the seedlings in treatments T1 and T2 and witness treatment (F = 15.090 p < 0.001.The main pest identified was Heilipus odoratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae. We, therefore, recommended the concentration of 0.09 mg of acetamiprid and fipronil distributed in "sachês" in sowing and transplanted to reduce the attack of pests in seeds and seedlings of rosewood in nurseries.

  3. Ocorrência de Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson, Brown & Burckhardt, 1986(Hemiptera: Homoptera, Psyllidae em plantios experimentais de camu-camu Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. Mc Vaugh em Manaus (Amazonas, Brasil Occurrence of Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson, Brown & Burckhardt, 1986 (Hemiptera: Homoptera, Psyllidae in experimental plantations of camu-camu Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. Mc Vaugh in Manaus (Amazonas, Brazil

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    Márcio Luís Leitão Barbosa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo de camu-camu Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. Mc Vaugh tem apresentado inúmeros problemas fitossanitários, dentre os quais, Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson et al. (Hemiptera: Homoptera, Psyllidae, que constantemente é citada como praga secundária. Os objetivos deste estudo foram determinar o nível e a intensidade de infestação (% por T. cognata e estudar aspectos do ciclo biológico e do comportamento de T. cognata, em plantios experimentais de camu-camu. Foram selecionados, de forma aleatória, 17 e 14 exemplares nos plantios I e II, respectivamente. Para cada uma das variáveis estudadas, foram calculados a média aritmética, o desviopadrão, a variância e a amplitude de variação. Foi verificado um nível de infestação de 82% (plantio I e 57% (plantio II, uma intensidade de infestação de 94% (plantio I e 75% (plantio II e uma média de seis ninfas/folha em cada plantio, o que indica que T. cognata representa uma das pragas-chave dessa cultura. Foram observados adultos de Chrysoperla sp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae e ninfas de Reduviidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, que podem atuar como prováveis agentes de controle biológico de T. cognata.The cultivation of camu-camu Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. Mc Vaugh has presented countless phytosanitary problems, among them, Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson et al. (Hemiptera: Homoptera, Psyllidae, which often is noticed as a secondary pest. This study aimed to determine the level and the intensity of infestation (% for T. cognata, as well as to study the biological cycle and behavioural aspects of T. cognata, in experimental plantation of camu-camu. 17 and 14 specimens from plantation I and II, respectively, were randomly selected. The arithmetic average, the standard deviation, the variance and the total amplitude were calculated for each studied variable. A level of infestation of 82% (plantation I and 57% (plantation II, an intensity of infestation of 94% (plantation I and 75% (plantation II and an average number of six nymphs/leaf in each plantation were found, indicating that T. cognata is one of the key pest on this culture. Adults of Chrysoperla sp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae and nymphs of Reduviidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, which can to be considered as probable biological control agents for T. cognata, were found in the plantations.

  4. Branchial cysts in two Amazon parrots (Amazona species).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Castillo-Alcala, Fernanda; Holmberg, David L; Boston, Sarah; Smith, Dale A; Taylor, W Michael

    2010-03-01

    A 37-year-old yellow-crowned Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala) and a 20-year-old red-lored Amazon parrot (Amazona autumnalis) each presented with a large mass localized on the lateral neck. With the first bird, there was no evidence of signs of pain or discomfort, and the bird prehended and swallowed food normally. The second bird showed signs of mild upper-gastrointestinal discomfort. Results of an ultrasound examination and aspiration of the mass on each bird revealed a cystic structure. A computed tomography performed on the second bird revealed a large polycystic mass connected to the pharynx by a lateral tract. During surgical resection, both masses were found to originate from the subpharyngeal area. Based on topography and the histopathologic and immunohistochemical results, the masses were determined to be a second branchial cleft cyst for the first case and a second branchial pouch cyst for the second case. In addition, a carcinoma was present in situ within the epithelium of case 1, and the cyst in case 2 was secondarily infected. Branchial cysts are uncommonly diagnosed in veterinary and human medicine. These 2 cases are the first documented in parrots and appear similar to second branchial cysts reported in adult humans.

  5. Pesquisa de Micobactérias Ambientais em água de torneira, luvas e soluções utilizadas em procedimentos cirúrgicos no Hospital Universitário Getúlio Vargas - Manaus/AM Investigation of Environmental Mycobacteria in tap water, surgical gloves and antiseptic solutions used in surgical procedures at the Getúlio Vargas University Hospital, Manaus-AM/Brazil

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    Adriana Vallejo Restrepo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se por métodos bacteriológicos (cultivo e moleculares (PCR - Restriction Enzyme Analysis, PRA, a presença de micobactérias ambientais em águas de torneira, soluções e luvas cirúrgicas, utilizadas nas etapas dos procedimentos cirúrgicos executados no centro cirúrgico do Hospital Universitário Getulio Vargas (HUGV, na cidade de Manaus-Amazonas/Brasil. Foram colhidas e analisadas 105 amostras sendo: 24 de águas (colhidas das 2 torneiras existentes no centro cirúrgico, 8 de solução de Povidine e 7 de solução de Clorhexidina, que servem para a higienização das mãos dos cirurgiões; 39 de luvas cirúrgicas (superfícies internas e externas; e 27 de soluções que foram efetivamente utilizadas durante o ato cirúrgico. Por método bacteriológico obteve-se 41 isolados micobacterianos apenas de águas das torneiras. Pelo PRA obteve-se a detecção de DNA micobacteriano somente na amostra de água que forneceu acima de 100 colônias de micobactérias por tubo semeado. Os isolados foram identificados como sendo Mycobacterium celatum perfil 2, M. gordonae perfil 3, M. gordonae perfil 6, M. intracellulare perfil 1, M. lentiflavum perfil 3 e M. mucogenicum perfil 1. O encontro de M. mucogenicum, espécie já incriminada em surtos pós-cirúrgicos, indica que devem ser efetuados procedimentos de limpeza e monitoramento em todos os pontos de distribuição de águas, visando à prevenção de surtos de micobacterioses nosocomiais induzidos pelo uso das águas nas diferentes atividades de manuseio ou higienização dos pacientes submetidos a procedimentos invasivos.Using bacteriological (culture and molecular (PCR - Restriction Enzyme Analysis, PRA methods, we investigated the presence of environmental mycobacteria in tap water, antiseptic solutions and surgical gloves, used in carrying out surgical procedures at the Getúlio Vargas University Hospital Surgical Center, in Manaus -Amazonas/Brazil. Samples (105 were collected and

  6. Anemia ferropriva em atletas adolescentes da Fundação Vila Olímpica de Manaus-AM Iron deficiency anaemia in adolescent athletes of the Vila Olímpica Fonndation of Manaus - AM

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    Sandra Maria Trindade Nunes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerando a escassez de informações quanto ao estado nutricional de atletas jovens, identificou-se a prevalência de anemia ferropriva e sua associação com indicadores nutricionais de atletas adolescentes participantes do Programa de Iniciação Esportiva da Fundação Vila Olímpica de Manaus-AM. A amostra foi constituída por 194 atletas adolescentes do gênero masculino, voluntários, praticantes de diferentes modalidades esportivas classificados como iniciantes. A coleta dos dados foi realizada mediante verificação de medidas antropométricas (peso corporal, estatura e espessuras das dobras cutâneas tricipital e subescapular, dosagem de hemoglobina utilizando o hemoglobinômetro portátil (Sistema Hemocue e instrumento socioeconômico. No diagnóstico do estado nutricional foram utilizados os indicadores Estatura para a Idade (E/I e Índice de Massa Corporal para a idade (IMC/I, assumindo pontos de corte propostos pela OMS. Os resultados mostraram que 9,4% dos adolescentes apresentaram desnutrição, 8,2% sobrepeso e 4,6% obesidade. A prevalência de anemia ferropriva encontrada na amostra foi de 41,7%, com predominância na classe socioeconômica mais baixa. Embora a prevalência de anemia tenha sido elevada, o estado nutricional dos adolescentes não influenciou sobre este resultado, considerando que a maioria dos adolescentes apresentou-se eutrófica. Diante do exposto, sugere-se a adoção de medidas efetivas de intervenção e de educação nutricional visando à minimização e/ou o controle da anemia ferropriva.Considering the dearth of information with regard to the nutritional state of young athletes, were identified the prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia and its association with nutritional indicators of adolescent athletes participating in the Sport Initiation Program of the Vila Olímpica Foundation in Manaus -AM. A sample was made up of 194 voluntary adolescent male athletes classified as beginners, who participated

  7. Determinação de vitamina A no leite de mães doadoras do banco de leite humano (BLH de Manaus/AM: efeito do processamento Determination of vitamin A in the milk of donor mothers from the human milk bank (hmb in Manaus/AM: Effect of processing

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    Ana Maria Matos Monteiro Oliveira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo teve como objetivo determinar os teores de vitamina A no Leite Humano Materno (LHM, de 50 mães doadoras do Banco de Leite Humano (BLH, da Maternidade Ana Braga, em Manaus-AM. As amostras foram coletadas semanalmente e mantidas congeladas até a pasteurização. As análises de retinol e β-caroteno no leite humano foram realizadas antes e após o tratamento (pasteurização, mediante o método cromatográfico. Foram retiradas alíquotas de 5 mL aproximadamente de leite de cada amostra. Os pesos dos bebês ao nascer das mães doadoras de leite incluídos no estudo foram > 2500g. A concentração de vitamina A no leite tanto antes quanto após o processamento, não foram suficientes para suprir o requerimento (46,75 ± 6,28 μg/dL e 31,55 ± 8,29 μg/dL, respectivamente, de crianças que se alimentam exclusivamente do leite do BLH, notadamente as pré-termo, cujos requerimentos de vitamina A são maiores e a capacidade de ingerir leite é menor do que os nascidos a termo. A perda de vitamina A pelo processamento, em nosso estudo foi de 32,51%. Para garantir a formação de reservas hepáticas e a proteção contra deficiência de vitamina A, seriam necessárias concentrações dessa vitamina no leite superiores a 80 μg/dL.This study treats a transversal, descriptive, observational and analytical study with the objective of determining the Vitamin A chemical content in Human Maternal Milk (HMM of 50 donor mothers from the Ana Braga Maternity Human Milk Bank (HMB, in Manaus, Amazonas. Samples were collected weekly and maintained frozen until pasteurization. Analyses of retinol and β-carotene in human milk were undertaken before and after the treatment (pasteurization, chromatographic method. Aliquots of approximately 5 mL of milk were taken from each sample. The babies included in the study were weight > 2500g. The Vitamin A concentration in the milk, before and after the processing, was found to be insufficient for that required (46

  8. Cooking process evaluation on micronutrient and total mercury content in fish species in Manaus, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Luciana; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Vaconcellos, Marina B.A.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated different cooking processes (roasted, cooked and fried) on micronutrient (Ca, Fe, K, Na, Se and Zn) and total Hg content in fish species most consumed by Manaus residents and surrounding communities. Twelve different fresh water fish species were purchased at the central receiving market (CEASA) in Manaus and prepared at the INPA Food and Nutrition Laboratory. In total 64 fish samples were analysed. Analytical determinations were performed by Neutron Activation Analysis Technique (NAA) for micronutrients and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV AAS) for total Hg. All analytical methods were developed and validated for precision and accuracy by means of reference material analyses with certified values for the elements determined. The concentration variation of the analyzed elements was: Hg (2392 to 19 μ kg -1 ); K (19187 to 1185 mg kg -1 ); Ca (14590 to 994 mg kg -1 ); Na (18386 to 12850 mg kg -1 ); Fe (5580 to 4 mg kg -1 ); Se (5249 to 129 μg kg -1 ) and Zn (684 to 15 mg kg -1 ). The effect of the different cooking processes on the variation of micronutrient composition was quite significant. On the other hand Hg composition variation seems to be more related to fish species rather than the cooking process itself. As was expected, predatory species presented higher Hg and Se levels. (author)

  9. Factors affecting nutrition behavior among middle-class adolescents in urban area of Northern region of Brazil Preferências nutricionais entre adolescentes da classe média de Manaus, AM (Brazil

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    Eva I. Doyle

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Brazil has been called a nation in nutrition transitional because of recent increases in the prevalence of obesity and related chronic diseases. With overweight conditions already prevalent among middle-income populations, there exists a need to identify factors that influence nutrition behavior within this group. OBJECTIVE: To address this subject, a research study was implemented among middle-class adolescents attending a large private secondary school in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. The study determined the availability and accessibility of snack foods as well as subjects’ attitudes and preferences towards, and the influence of family and friends on healthy (high-nutrient density snack choices. METHODS: The 4-stage process included: (a a nutrition expert focus group discussion that reported local nutrition problems in general and factors related to adolescent nutrition, (b an adolescent pilot survey (n=63 that solicited information about snacking preferences and habits as well as resources for nutrition information and snack money; (c a survey of various area food market sources to determine the availability and accessibility of high nutrient density snacks; and (d a follow-up adolescent survey (n=55 that measured snack food preferences and perceptions about their cost and availability. RESULTS: Results included the finding that, although affordable high nutrient density snacks were available, preferences for low nutrient density snacks prevailed. The adolescents were reportedly more likely to be influenced by and obtain nutrition information from family members than friends. CONCLUSION: From study results it is apparent that a focus on food availability will not automatically result in proper nutritional practices among adolescents. This fact and the parental influence detected are evidence of a need to involve adolescents and their parents in nutrition education campaigns to improve adolescent snack food choices.INTRODUÇÃO: O

  10. Tendências de índices de extremos climáticos para a região de Manaus-AM Trends of extreme climatic indices for Manaus - AM region

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    Carlos Antonio Costa dos Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas tendências nos índices de extremos climáticos baseados em dados de precipitação para três estações localizadas em Manaus e na região circunvizinha para o período de 1971-2007. Baseado nos resultados obtidos pode ser observado que houve aumento da precipitação total anual sobre a região estudada. A estação localizada na zona urbana de Manaus (INMET teve aumento, com significância estatística, dos eventos de precipitação iguais ou superiores a 50 mm (R50mm, na precipitação máxima acumulada em cinco dias consecutivos (Rx5day e nos dias úmidos (R95p, indicando que Manaus poderá sofrer com o aumento das chuvas extremas. Aumento das anomalias positivas de TSM no Oceano Pacífico Equatorial leva a um aumento dos dias consecutivos secos e diminuição dos eventos extremos de chuva e da precipitação total sobre a bacia amazônica. As anomalias positivas de TSM no Oceano Atlântico Sul induz o deslocamento da ZCIT mais ao sul do Equador levando a um aumento da precipitação sobre a região de Manaus. Os resultados obtidos aqui têm potencial para possíveis previsões das características da precipitação em Manaus.Trends in the extreme climate indices based on precipitation data at three stations in and around the city of Manaus for the period 1971-2007 are studied. Based on the results obtained it can be observed that there was an increase of the annual total precipitation in the area studied. At the station located in the city of Manaus (INMET, the frequency of precipitation events with 50 mm (R50mm or more, the amount precipitation in five consecutive days (Rx5day and the number of wet days (R95p, showed an increase, with statistical significance, indicating that Manaus may suffer with the increase of the extreme rainfall events. An increase in the positive SST anomalies in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean induce an increase of the consecutive dry days and decrease of the extreme rainfall events and

  11. Estudo das parasitoses intestinais e da infecção chagásica no Município de Novo Airão, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil

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    Marcio N. Boia

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo seccional descritivo em uma amostra sistemática por conglomerado de uma em cada dez famílias residentes na sede do Município de Novo Airão, na meso-região norte do Estado do Amazonas, a 250 quilômetros de Manaus por via fluvial. De cada um dos residentes nos 89 domicílios da amostra foram solicitadas fezes para exame pelos métodos de sedimentação de Lutz e pelo Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho e colhido sangue por punção venosa para testes de ELISA e imunofluorescência para pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi. O exame de 316 amostras de fezes mostrou 87,6% com um ou mais parasitos: 35,1% com Ascaris lumbricoides, 29,1% com Entamoeba histolytica, 17,4% com Giardia lamblia e outros parasitos com menor prevalência. Estes resultados foram correlacionados com a falta de saneamento e de suprimento de água tratada. De 346 soros examinados 16 (4,6% foram reativos para anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi, mas somente em três deles houve correlação entre este resultado e o contacto das pessoas com triatomíneos silvestres, conhecidos localmente como "piolho da piaçava".

  12. [Nature and civilization: the decorative panels of the Teatro Amazonas foyer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, Ana Maria Lima

    2007-12-01

    The decorative panels in the foyer of the Teatro Amazonas, inaugurated in 1896, stand out from the rest of the building's ornamental iconography. The rubber trade brought great wealth to the capitals of Pará and Amazonas and as these cities gained national and international fame, their urban fabric and forms of sociability underwent significant changes. The article looks for parallels between the landscape representations of Amazonian nature adorning the building's foyer, the construction of the modern city, and social uses of the Teatro Amazonas, symbol of the era and emblem of the newly rich elite, who were then taking their place on the regional and national stages. The Teatro Amazonas formed the center of the era's social life and its foyer played host to veritable rituals of 'civilization', in which Brazilian and foreign guests enjoyed the fine setting of Amazon's nature as represented in the decorative wall panels.

  13. Impact of Manaus City on the Amazon Green Ocean atmosphere: Ozone production, precursor sensitivity and aerosol load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhn, U.; Ganzeveld, L.N.

    2010-01-01

    As a contribution to the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia – Cooperative LBA Airborne Regional Experiment (LBA-CLAIRE-2001) field campaign in the heart of the Amazon Basin, we analyzed the temporal and spatial dynamics of the urban plume of Manaus City during the wet-to-dry

  14. The snakes of the genus Atractus Wagler (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, M.; Oliveira, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Taxonomic and natural history data are presented on eight species of Atractus from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil, namely: A. alphonsehogei, A. latifrons, A, major, A. poeppigi, A. schach, A. snethlageae, A. torquatus, and A. trilineatus. Four of these species are recorded for the first

  15. El Amazonas en el camino de la sostenibilidad

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    Nelson Pinilla

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available La Amazonia es en la conciencia colectiva del planeta el espacio natural y cultural más conservado y donde es posible el desarrollo sostenible. Pero la realidad es otra: factores históricos y económicos, aunados a la codicia, la ignorancia y las erradas políticas andinas para las selvas han llevado a esta región a soportar intensos procesos de deforestación y extracción de sus recursos naturales y culturales. Al analizar la encrucijada del sin modelo económico actual del Amazonas, se encuentra que la salida está en apoyar técnica y decididamente a los productores indígenas y campesinos para estructurar participativamente encadenamientos comerciales entre diferentes sectores productivos, como una gran red asociativa de "empresas" e iniciativas sostenibles locales.

  16. Lipid Panel Reference Intervals for Amazon Parrots (Amazona species).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravich, Michelle; Cray, Carolyn; Hess, Laurie; Arheart, Kristopher L

    2014-09-01

    The lipoprotein panel is a useful diagnostic tool that allows clinicians to evaluate blood lipoprotein fractions. It is a standard diagnostic test in human medicine but is poorly understood in avian medicine. Amazon parrots (Amazona species) are popular pets that frequently lead a sedentary lifestyle and are customarily fed high-fat diets. Similar to people with comparable diets and lifestyles, Amazon parrots are prone to obesity and atherosclerosis. In human medicine, these conditions are typically correlated with abnormalities in the lipoprotein panel. To establish reference intervals for the lipoprotein panel in Amazon parrots, plasma samples from 31 captive Amazon parrots were analyzed for concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). The data were also grouped according to sex, diet, body condition score, and age. Aside from HDL levels, which were significantly different between male and female parrots, no intergroup differences were found for any of the lipoprotein fractions.

  17. Impactos ambientales en la ciudad de Manaus: una búsqueda de comprensión Ambient impacts in the city of Manaus: an understanding search

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    Eveline Maria Damasceno do Nascimento

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este análisis está centrado en el tema titulado Impactos Ambientales en la ciudad de Manaus: una búsqueda de la comprensión nos ayudará a entender mejor la importancia de una gestión compartida con énfasis en la corresponsabilidad en la gestión del espacio público y en la calidad de vida urbana, y a que se estimulen cada vez más acciones preventivas, sin descuidar la necesidad de lidiar con las acciones correctivas. El modelo de desarrollo que ha caracterizado nuestra civilización en los dos últimos siglos conduce irremediablemente a la situación de degradación ambiental de nuestras ciudades. Este estudio analiza las implicaciones ambientales que afectan la ciudad de Manaus, generados por la no preservación de su espacio natural. El proceso de reproducción del espacio urbano nos coloca frente a transformaciones profundas porque cada sujeto se sitúa en un espacio y eso determina, al nivel de vida cotidiano, la construcción colectiva de la ciudad. Esto refuerza la necesidad de identificar los papeles y las responsabilidades de los diversos actores de cara a los temas ambientales, y la necesidad de construir consensos en torno de ellos. Se buscó adoptar una metodología dialéctica que permitió establecer un diálogo para comprender en fenómeno en cuestión. Se tornó fundamental percibir y articular la investigación en las dimensiones políticas, cultural y social y educativa que componen la visión del mundo de los habitantes de la ciudad. Los procedimientos técnicos operativos incluyeron un conjunto de instrumentos de orden cualitativa y cuantitativa compatibles y complementares que permitieron la aprensión, organización y sistematización de los datos de la investigación. Para consolidar esta discusión, entendemos que el estudio, aunque marcadamente ambiental, no es una visión ecológico-naturalista. Se busca a partir de una reflexión lúcida de la relación del espacio urbano, comprender el proceso de producci

  18. Uso de psicotrópicos entre universitários da área da saúde da Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Brasil Use of psychoactive drugs by health sciences undergraduate students at the Federal University in Amazonas, Brazil

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    Ana Cyra dos Santos Lucas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento sobre uso de psicotrópicos entre estudantes da Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, Brasil, em uma amostra de 521 alunos. O "uso na vida" de álcool foi relatado por 87,7% dos estudantes (IC95%: 85,34-90,06 e o de tabaco por 30,7% (IC 95%: 27,39-34,01, sendo o último maior entre estudantes do sexo masculino (39,7%; IC95%: 33,33-46,01. As substâncias ilegais mais usadas foram: solventes (11,9%; IC95%: 9,57-14,23, maconha (9,4%; IC95%: 7,30-11,50, anfetamínicos e ansiolíticos (ambos com 9,2%; IC95%: 7,12-11,28, cocaína (2,1%; IC95%: 1,07- 3,13 e alucinógenos (1,2%; IC95%: 0,42-1,98. O principal motivo relatado para o uso de drogas ilegais foi a curiosidade. O "uso na vida" de esteróides anabolizantes foi citado por 2,1% dos estudantes. O uso abusivo de álcool nos últimos 30 dias foi relatado por 12,4% dos universitários. Entre os eventos ocorridos após a ingestão de bebidas alcoólicas, os estudantes citaram envolvimento em briga (4,7%, acidentes (2,4%, faltaà escola (33,7%, falta ao trabalho (11,8% e condução de veículos (47,3%. A opinião sobre as drogas e o padrão de uso dos estudantes não diferem muito dos estudos semelhantes em outras regiões do Brasil.A survey was conducted with 521 undergraduate health sciences students from the Federal University in Amazonas, Manaus, Brazil. Lifetime alcohol consumption was reported by 87.7% students, as compared to 30.7% for tobacco, with the latter reported more frequently by males (39.7%. The most common illicit drugs were solvents (11.9%, marijuana (9.4%, amphetamines and anxiolytics (9.2% each, cocaine (2.1%, and hallucinogens (1.2%. The main reason for illicit drug use was curiosity. Lifetime use of anabolic steroids was reported by 2.1% of the students. Alcohol abuse in the previous 30 days was reported by 12.4% of the students. Events following drinking included: fights (4.7%, accidents (2.4%, classroom

  19. Natural transovarial transmission of dengue virus 4 in Aedes aegypti from Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Lucinéia Claudia de Toni Aquino da Cruz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease in tropical areas. In Mato Grosso, outbreaks are reported every year, but studies on dengue in this state are scarce. METHODS: Natural transovarial infection of Aedes aegypti by a flavivirus was investigated in the Jardim Industriário neighborhood of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso. Eggs were collected with ovitraps during the dry, intermediate, and rainy seasons of 2012. After the eggs hatched and the larvae developed to adulthood, mosquitoes (n = 758 were identified and allocated to pools of 1-10 specimens according to the collection location, sex, and climatic period. After RNA extraction, multiplex semi-nested RT-PCR was performed to detect the four dengue virus (DENV serotypes, yellow fever virus, West Nile virus and Saint Louis encephalitis virus. RESULTS: DENV-4 was the only flavivirus detected, and it was found in 8/50 pools (16.0%. Three of the positive pools contained females, and five contained males. Their nucleotide sequences presented 96-100% similarity with DENV-4 genotype II strains from Manaus, Amazonas. The minimum infection rate was 10.5 per 1000 specimens, and the maximum likelihood estimator of the infection rate was 11.6 (95% confidence interval: 4.8; 23.3. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first evidence of natural transovarial infection by DENV-4 in Ae. Aegypti in Mato Grosso, suggesting that this type of infection might serve as a mechanism of virus maintenance during interepidemic periods in Cuiabá, a city where dengue epidemics are reported every year. These results emphasize the need for efficient vector population control measures to prevent arbovirus outbreaks in the state.

  20. Pupunha no mercado de Manaus: preferências de consumidores e suas implicações

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    Clement Charles R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A demanda para o fruto fresco de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, Palmae permanece estável após 50 anos de pesquisa e fomento na Amazônia. Entrevistas com 30 consumidores na principal feira de Manaus, durante a segunda safra, determinaram que o fruto preferido é o vermelho (por 53%, de tamanho médio (67%, moderadamente a oleoso (53% oleoso e 40% moderadamente, em cachos grandes (50% e com um custo razoável (R$5/cacho em outubro 2001, diferente dos frutos usados no fomento (grandes, secos, mais caros e de dificil criação por melhoristas. A quantificação e o detalhamento destas preferências são essenciais para reorientar a pesquisa e o fomento.

  1. Overall equipment effectiveness: application in a company in the drinks Manaus industrial sector

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    Cristiane Fátima Cavalcante Raposo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE is an indicator used as a management and continuous improvement of machinery and equipment, useful to identify losses, thus reducing production costs. In order to examine in more detail the application of OEE in the production system of a company in the beverage industry of the Industrial Pole of Manaus, was performed by means of literature search and descriptive, and using the case study method, a remark in the production system of the company Alfa, in the period from January to November 2008. The results from this research show the application of OEE in eleven steps, the statistical analysis of the results of this indicator shows a positive trend in the initial stage because of the improvements achieved in the production system through actions for elimination / reduction of losses, revealing that the manager can make improvements that may be necessary.

  2. Variabilité hydrologique et vulnérabilité des populations du Lago Janauaca (Amazonas, Brésil Variabilidade hidrológica e vulnerabilidade das populações do Lago Janauaca (Amazonas, BrasilHydrological variability and human vulnerability in Lago Janauaca (Amazonas, Brazil

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    Josyane Ronchail

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Étroitement liées à la pulsation saisonnière des crues de l’Amazone, les activités des petits paysans et pêcheurs des várzeas sont particulièrement sensibles aux manifestations plus extrêmes de la variabilité hydrologique. Ce travail propose d’appréhender la vulnérabilité de ces communautés riveraines aux crues et étiages extrêmes autour du Lago Janauaca, près de Manaus, dans un contexte climatique d’intensification du cycle hydrologique. Dans un premier temps nous proposons de caractériser la variabilité hydrologique du Rio Solimões et son impact spatial sur le Lago. Si l’extension du phénomène est frappante, les dynamiques anthropiques sur les rives du lac sont elles aussi importantes. Celles-ci s’expliquent plus par l’ouverture de pistes entre le lac et la BR319, que par l’expansion des cultures traditionnelles qui restent modérée. Enfin, une série d’entretiens menés auprès des riverains dévoile une relation complexe entre les différentes activités des populations et les extrêmes hydrologiques. Les sécheresses y apparaissent comme les perturbations majeures, non seulement à cause de leurs impacts sur les cultures, mais surtout en raison des difficultés qu’elles entraînent pour les mobilités locale et régionale.Intimamente relacionado com o pulso de inundação sazonal do rio Amazonas, as atividades dos agricultores e pescadores das várzeas são particularmente sensíveis aos eventos mais extremos da variabilidade hidrológica. Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar a vulnerabilidade das comunidades ribeirinhas às cheias e às estiagens extremas ao redor do Lago Janauaca, próximo de Manaus, em um contexto de intensificação do ciclo hidrológico. Inicialmente, propomos uma caracterização da variabilidade hidrológica do Rio Solimões e do seu impacto espacial sobre o lago. As dinâmicas antrópicas às margens do lago são importantes também. Elas são mais decorrentes pela abertura

  3. Essential oil composition of leaf and fine stem of Aniba canelilla (Kunth Mez from Manaus, Brazil Os óleos essenciais das folhas e galhos finos de Aniba canelilla (Kunth Mez coletados em Manaus, B

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    Maria da Paz Lima

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of the leaves and fine stems of Aniba canelilla (Kunth Mez collected in the city of Manaus, AM, Brazil, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. Forty-two components were identified, of which 1-nitro-2-phenylethane, as expected, was the major (71.2%-68.2%.Os óleos essenciais das folhas e dos galhos finos de Aniba canelilla (Kunth Mez coletada na cidade de Manaus, AM, Brasil, foram obtidos por hidrodestilação e analisados por CG-EM. Quarenta e dois componentes foram identificados, dos quais 1-nitro-2-feniletano, como esperado, foi o que apresentou maior porcentagem (71,2%-68,2%.

  4. Prevalência de pectus carinatum e pectus excavatum em escolares de Manaus Prevalence of pectus carinatum and pectus excavatum in students in the city of Manaus, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Westphal

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência das deformidades congênitas da parede torácica anterior em escolares de 11 a 14 anos. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo escolares da rede estadual de ensino da cidade de Manaus (AM. Para a composição de uma amostra estatisticamente significativa, com precisão de 1% e IC95%, foram incluídos 1.332 escolares. A deformidade pectus foi identificada através de exame físico do tórax, e os indivíduos com esta deformidade responderam a um questionário com questões sobre hereditariedade e sintomatologia decorrente da anomalia torácica. RESULTADOS: A idade média dos participantes foi de 11,7 anos. A prevalência da deformidade pectus foi de 1,95% (pectus excavatum: 1,275%; pectus carinatum: 0,675%. Dos 26 escolares com deformidades pectus, 17 (65,4% tinham pectus excavatum, e 18 (69,2% eram do sexo masculino. Houve associação com a escoliose em 3 casos (11,5%. História familiar de pectus foi relatada por 17 escolares (65,4%, e 17 (65,4% relataram dor torácica, dispneia ou palpitações. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência das deformidades pectus encontrada neste estudo (1,95% foi inferior àquela de trabalhos em outras regiões do país (3,6-4,9%, porém, superior àquela relatada na literatura (média, 1%.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of congenital anterior chest wall deformities in 11- to 14-year-old students. METHODS: Students participating in the study were recruited from public schools in the city of Manaus, Brazil. The statistically significant sample (precision, 1%; 95% CI comprised 1,332 students. Pectus deformities were identified by physical examination of the chest, and the individuals with one of these deformities completed a questionnaire regarding heredity and symptoms resulting from the chest abnormality. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 11.7 years. The prevalence of pectus abnormalities was 1.95% (pectus excavatum: 1.275%; pectus carinatum: 0.675%. Of the 26 students with a

  5. Evaluation of the fluoride stability of dentifrices sold in Manaus, AM, Brazil Estabilidade do fluoreto de dentifrícios comercializados em Manaus, AM, Brasil

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    Nikeila Chacon de Oliveira Conde

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The minimum requirement for the anti-caries effect of a dentifrice is the presence of available and stable fluoride in the formulation. The concentration of available fluoride in the major dentifrices sold in Brazil has been reported, but few data have been published about its stability, which is temperature-dependent. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the concentration and stability of fluoride in dentifrices sold in Manaus, AM, Brazil, which is a typical tropical city. The concentrations of total fluoride, total soluble fluoride, MFP, and of insoluble fluoride of six Brazilian dentifrices and an imported one were analyzed. The analyses were made when the dentifrices were purchased and during a year of storage at room temperature (28.9 ± 1.16°C and under refrigeration (26.3 ± 0.88°C. The analyses were performed using an ion specific electrode Orion 96-09. At the time of purchase, all the dentifrices analyzed showed more than 1,000 ppm (mug F-/g; w/w of soluble fluoride. However, in most of them, this form of fluoride was not shown to be stable. The highest loss of soluble fluoride was found for storage at room temperature, reaching up to 40%. Although all dentifrices comply with the Brazilian guidelines with regard to the concentration of total fluoride (maximum of 0.15%, the instability of soluble fluoride observed in some of them can impair their anti-caries effect and this condition is not contemplated in the Governmental rules.O requisito mínimo para que um dentifrício tenha potencial anticárie é ele ter uma formulação com fluoreto na forma solúvel e estável. A concentração de fluoreto solúvel nos dentifrícios vendidos no Brasil tem sido descrita, mas pouco é conhecido sobre sua estabilidade, a qual é função da temperatura. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a concentração e estabilidade do fluoreto em dentifrícios vendidos em Manaus, AM, Brasil. As concentrações de fluoreto total, fluoreto sol

  6. Desigualdade social, crescimento urbano e hanseníase em Manaus: abordagem espacial Desigualdad social, crecimiento urbano y hanseníasis en Manaus (Norte de Brasil: abordaje espacial Social inequality, urban growth and leprosy in Manaus: a spatial approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsia Nascimento Belo Imbiriba

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a epidemiologia de hanseníase segundo a distribuição espacial e condições de vida da população. MÉTODOS: Estudo ecológico baseado na espacialização da hanseníase em Manaus (AM, entre 1998 e 2004. Os 4.104 casos obtidos do Sistema de Informações de Agravos de Notificação foram georreferenciados de acordo com a localização dos endereços em 1.536 setores censitários urbanos, por meio de quatro técnicas: correios (73,7% dos endereços encontrados; Programa de Cadastro de Logradouros (7,3%; Programa Saúde da Família (2,1% e folhas de coleta do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (1,5%. Para cálculo do coeficiente de detecção utilizou a população de 2001. Na análise espacial foi aplicado o método bayesiano empírico local para produzir uma estimativa do risco da hanseníase, suavizando o efeito da flutuação das taxas, quando calculadas para pequenas áreas. Para análise da associação entre espacialização e fatores de risco empregou-se a regressão logística, tendo como variáveis explicativas a ocorrência de casos em menores de 15 anos (indicador de gravidade e o Índice de Carência Social construído a partir das variáveis do Censo 2000. RESULTADOS: O coeficiente de detecção apresentou-se hiperendêmico em 34,0% dos setores e muito alto em 26,7%. A medida de associação (odds ratio referente às variáveis explicativas foi significativa. A combinação de baixa condição de vida e ocorrência em menores de 15 anos foi adotada para identificar as áreas prioritárias para intervenção. CONCLUSÕES: A análise espacial da hanseníase mostrou que a distribuição da doença é heterogênea, atingindo mais intensamente as regiões habitadas por grupos em situação de maior vulnerabilidade.OBJETIVO: Analizar la epidemiología de hanseníasis según la distribución espacial y condiciones de vida de la población. MÉTODOS: Estudio ecológico basado en la especialización de la

  7. The hybrid generation systems of Campinas-Amazonas and Joanes-Para

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moszkowicz, M.; Ribeiro, C. M.; Borba, A. J. V. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Electrica (CEPEL), (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The Brazilian Amazon region is an ideal location for isolated mini-grid systems. Thousands of Diesel systems have been installed to supply electricity to this sparsely populated region. However, the availability of renewable resources makes the Amazon well-suited to renewable energy systems. This paper describes the technical characteristics and touches economic aspects of two hybrid systems being installed in this region through the cooperative effort of multiple partners: Brazilian CEPEL/ELETROBRAS and State Electric Utilities and U.S. Department of Energy, through NREL. It focuses on the market potential for hybrid systems in Northern Brazil and discusses the configuration of the two prototypes, the effort to implement both systems and the preliminary results of these projects. [Espanol] La region Brasilena del Amazonas es un lugar ideal para los sistemas aislados de mini-red. Se han instalado miles de sistemas Diesel para proporcionar electricidad a esta region escasamente poblada. Sin embargo, la disponibilidad de fuentes renovables hacen la Amazonia muy adecuada para sistemas renovables de energia. Este articulo describe las caracteristicas tecnicas y toca aspectos economicos de dos sistemas hibridos que se estan instalando en esta region mediante el esfuerzo cooperativo de multiples participantes: La brasilena CEPEL/ELECTROBRAS y las Empresas Electrica Estatales, el U.S. Departament of Energy, a traves de NREL. Se enfoca al mercado potencial de sistemas hibridos en Brasil del Norte y analiza la configuracion de los dos prototipos, el esfuerzo de instaurar ambos sistemas y los resultados preliminares de estos proyectos.

  8. USE OF SCALED SEMIVARIOGRAMS IN THE PLANNING SAMPLE OF SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN SOUTHERN AMAZONAS, BRAZIL

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    Ivanildo Amorim de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The lack of information concerning the variability of soil properties has been a major concern of researchers in the Amazon region. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial variability of soil chemical properties and determine minimal sampling density to characterize the variability of these properties in five environments located in the south of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. The five environments were archaeological dark earth (ADE, forest, pasture land, agroforestry operation, and sugarcane crop. Regular 70 × 70 m mesh grids were set up in these areas, with 64 sample points spaced at 10 m distance. Soil samples were collected at the 0.0-0.1 m depth. The chemical properties of pH in water, OM, P, K, Ca, Mg, H+Al, SB, CEC, and V were determined at these points. Data were analyzed by descriptive and geostatistical analyses. A large part of the data analyzed showed spatial dependence. Chemical properties were best fitted to the spherical model in almost all the environments evaluated, except for the sugarcane field with a better fit to the exponential model. ADE and sugarcane areas had greater heterogeneity of soil chemical properties, showing a greater range and higher sampling density; however, forest and agroforestry areas had less variability of chemical properties.

  9. Static and dynamic (18) FDG-PET in normal hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J; Wall, Jonathan S; Stuckey, Alan; Daniel, Gregory B

    2011-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is often used to stage and monitor human cancer and has recently been used in a similar fashion in veterinary medicine. The most commonly used radiopharmaceutical is 2-Deoxy-2-[(18) F]-Fluoro-d-glucose ((18) F-FDG), which is concentrated and trapped within cells that use glucose as their energy substrate. We characterized the normal distribution of (18) F-FDG in 10 healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) by performing whole body PET scans at steady state, 60min after injection. Significant variability was found in the intestinal activity. Avian species are known to reflux fluid and electrolytes from their cloaca into their colon. To evaluate reflux as the cause of variability in intestinal distribution of (18) F-FDG, dynamic PET scans were performed on the coelomic cavity of six Hispaniolan Amazon parrots from time 0 to 60min postinjection of radiotracer. Reflux of radioactive material from the cloaca into the colon occurred in all birds to varying degrees and occurred before 60min. To evaluate the intestinal tract of clinical avian patients, dynamic scans must be performed starting immediately after injection so that increased radioactivity due to metabolism or hypermetabolic lesions such as cancer can be differentiated from increased radioactivity due to reflux of fluid from the cloaca. © 2010 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  10. The hybrid generation systems of Campinas-Amazonas and Joanes-Para

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moszkowicz, M; Ribeiro, C M; Borba, A J. V. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Electrica (CEPEL), (Brazil)

    1998-12-31

    The Brazilian Amazon region is an ideal location for isolated mini-grid systems. Thousands of Diesel systems have been installed to supply electricity to this sparsely populated region. However, the availability of renewable resources makes the Amazon well-suited to renewable energy systems. This paper describes the technical characteristics and touches economic aspects of two hybrid systems being installed in this region through the cooperative effort of multiple partners: Brazilian CEPEL/ELETROBRAS and State Electric Utilities and U.S. Department of Energy, through NREL. It focuses on the market potential for hybrid systems in Northern Brazil and discusses the configuration of the two prototypes, the effort to implement both systems and the preliminary results of these projects. [Espanol] La region Brasilena del Amazonas es un lugar ideal para los sistemas aislados de mini-red. Se han instalado miles de sistemas Diesel para proporcionar electricidad a esta region escasamente poblada. Sin embargo, la disponibilidad de fuentes renovables hacen la Amazonia muy adecuada para sistemas renovables de energia. Este articulo describe las caracteristicas tecnicas y toca aspectos economicos de dos sistemas hibridos que se estan instalando en esta region mediante el esfuerzo cooperativo de multiples participantes: La brasilena CEPEL/ELECTROBRAS y las Empresas Electrica Estatales, el U.S. Departament of Energy, a traves de NREL. Se enfoca al mercado potencial de sistemas hibridos en Brasil del Norte y analiza la configuracion de los dos prototipos, el esfuerzo de instaurar ambos sistemas y los resultados preliminares de estos proyectos.

  11. The Socioeconomic Factors and the Indigenous Component of Tuberculosis in Amazonas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of tuberculosis prevention and control services throughout Amazonas, high rates of morbidity and mortality from tuberculosis remain in the region. Knowledge of the social determinants of tuberculosis in Amazonas is important for the establishment of public policies and the planning of effective preventive and control measures for the disease. To analyze the relationship of the spatial distribution of the incidence of tuberculosis in municipalities and regions of Amazonas to the socioeconomic factors and indigenous tuberculosis component, from 2007 to 2013. An ecological study was conducted based on secondary data from the epidemiological surveillance of tuberculosis. A linear regression model was used to analyze the relationship of the annual incidence of tuberculosis to the socioeconomic factors, performance indicators of health services, and indigenous tuberculosis component. The distribution of the incidence of tuberculosis in the municipalities of Amazonas was positively associated with the Gini index and the population attributable fraction of tuberculosis in the indigenous peoples, but negatively associated with the proportion of the poor and the unemployment rate. The spatial distribution of tuberculosis in the different regions of Amazonas was heterogeneous and closely related with the socioeconomic factors and indigenous component of tuberculosis. PMID:27362428

  12. CARACTERIZAÇÃO FÍSICA DE BACIAS HIDROGRÁFICAS NA REGIÃO DE MANAUS – AM.

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    Eduardo Bulcão da Silva Costa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi fazer uma caracterização física das bacias hidrográficas da área urbana do município de Manaus - AM, se limitando as bacias hidrográficas do Tarumã-Açu e Puraquequara. Para tanto foi utilizado o programa computacional ArcGis 9.2®, para o processamento dos dados SRTM. Diante dos resultados obtidos, foi verificado que as bacias hidrográficas do Tarumã-Açu e Puraquequara no município de Manaus-AM podem ser classificadas como grandes quanto à área. São naturalmente não muito sujeitas a enchentes, pouco dissecadas e com baixa declividade, o que resultará em uma resposta hidrológica lenta, com redução dos picos de enchente.

  13. Pent-up demand for surgery in the Manaus metropolitan region: A population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Priscila Gusmão da Silva; Galvao, Tais Freire; Silva, Marcus Tolentino

    2017-08-01

    Waiting lines in healthcare reflect an imbalance between the availability and the demand for medical services. This study aimed to analyze the prevalence and factors associated with the pent-up demand for surgical procedures in the Manaus metropolitan region.We performed a population-based cross-sectional study in 2015. Pent-up demand was based on self-report by the participants; those who reported waiting were contacted by phone to clarify the nature and reasons for the experienced delay.We interviewed 4001 adults in their households. The pent-up demand for surgical procedures in the Manaus metropolitan region was 14% (95% confidence interval: 13-15%). The surgical specialties with the highest demand included orthopedics (18.1%), gynecology (17.0%), ophthalmology (12.4%), neurosurgery (10.8%), and general surgery (10.2%). The main reason for not accessing services was their lack of availability in the public health system, leading some patients to pay for procedures in private facilities. The populations most affected by pent-up demand included elderly individuals, women, and housewives.Pent-up demand for surgical procedures is a common problem in the Manaus metropolitan region and thus requires coordinated actions to optimize access to and capacity of the healthcare system.

  14. The principal reservoir host of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the urban areas of Manaus, Central Amazon of Brazil

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    Jorge R. Arias

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty one opossums (Didelphis marsupialis from disturbed primary forest in the vicinity of Manaus, and seven from an isolated island of secondary vegetation within the city of Manaus, were examined for the presence of Leishmania. Of the opossums from the primary forests, 13 (61.9% were found to be positive for Leishmania braziliensis guyanenesis. One additional opossum was found to be positive for Le. mexicana amazonensis. A simple and economical trapping technique for opossums is presented here, and a control method in special cases is suggested.Vinte e uma mucuras (Didelphis marsupialis, procedentes de uma floresta primária explorada, e sete de uma vegetação secundária em uma ilha isolada, nas cercanias de Manaus, foram examinadas para detectar a presença de Leishmania. Das mucuras da floresta primária, 13 (61.9% foram detectadas positivas para Leishmania braziliensis guyanensis. Somente uma mucura foi dada como positiva para Le.mexicana amozonensis. Apresentamos aqui uma técnica simples e economica para captura de mucuras e e sugerido um método de controle, em casos especiais.

  15. Mansonella ozzardi in the municipality of Tefé, Amazonas, Brazil, 60 years after the first report: an epidemiologic study

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros,Jansen Fernandes; Rodrigues,Moreno Souza; Katsuragawa,Tony Hiroshi; Costa,Cristóvão Alves; Pessoa,Felipe Arley Costa

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of mansonelliasis was studied in the municipality of Tefé, state of Amazonas, Brazil. The prevalence (thick blood smear method) was 13.6% (147/1,078), higher in the Solimões River region (16.3%) than in the Tefé River region (6.3%). In the sampled communities in the Solimões River region, a higher density of cases was observed, as indicated by a kernel analysis (odds ratio 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.20-0.57). Males had a higher prevalence (χ2 = 31...

  16. OS RESÍDUOS SÓLIDOS URBANOS COMO CONDICIONANTE DE DOENÇAS NA CIDADE DE MANAUS – AM/ Solid urban waste as conditioning of diseases in the city of Manaus-AM

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    Ulliane de Amorim Pereira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisa a ocorrência da disposição final ambientalmente inadequada dos resíduos sólidos urbanos na cidade de Manaus, tal prática realizada sem critérios ambientais adequados se torna um condicionante de doenças, implicando na saúde e na qualidade de vida da população. O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar a problemática dos resíduos sólidos na cidade de Manaus e identificar sua interferência na saúde humana. O estudo foi desenvolvido com base na bibliografia especializada sobre o tema e a realização de trabalho de campo na cidade de Manaus, além de coleta de dados no DATASUS e IBGE. A precária aplicabilidade das políticas públicas resulta na degradação de alguns ambientes em Manaus, sendo identificados comumente em alguns espaços da cidade durante realização de trabalho de campo, apresentando a existência de lixeiras com excesso de material depositado e resíduo dispostos inadequadamente nos igarapés urbanos da cidade. Também se verificou que a espacialização da problemática dos resíduos sólidos não ocorre de forma homogênea na cidade, estando mais presente nas áreas periféricas. Além disso, verificou-se que a cidade apresenta o total elevado de casos de doenças que têm como condicionante socioambiental a disposição inadequada do resíduo, especialmente a Leptospirose. Conclui-se assim que o resíduo e a respectiva disposição inadequada do mesmo atuam como um condicionante de doenças na cidade de Manaus, estando as ocorrências ligadas a precariedade da gestão e gerenciamento dos resíduos sólidos urbanos na cidade.

  17. Protein requirements for Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carciofi, A C; Sanfilippo, L F; de-Oliveira, L D; do Amaral, P P; Prada, F

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the protein requirements for hand-rearing Blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva). Forty hatchlings were fed semi-purified diets containing one of four (as-fed basis) protein levels: 13%, 18%, 23% and 28%. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with the initial weight of the nestling as the blocking factor and 10 parrots per protein level. Regression analysis was used to determine relationships between protein level and biometric measurements. The data indicated that 13% crude protein supported nestling growth with 18% being the minimum tested level required for maximum development. The optimal protein concentration for maximum weight gain was 24.4% (p = 0.08; r(2) = 0.25), tail length 23.7% (p = 0.09; r(2) = 0.19), wing length 23.0% (p = 0.07; r(2) = 0.17), tarsus length 21.3% (p = 0.06; r(2) = 0.10) and tarsus width 21.4% (p = 0.07; r(2) = 0.09). Tarsus measurements were larger in males (p < 0.05), indicating that sex must be considered when studying developing psittacines. These results were obtained using a highly digestible protein and a diet with moderate metabolizable energy levels.

  18. Intermittent bradyarrhythmia in a Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembert, Melanie S; Smith, Julie A; Strickland, Keith N; Tully, Thomas N

    2008-03-01

    A clinically normal 2-year-old Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis) was found to have periodic second-degree atrioventricular (AV) block with variable nodal conductions while anesthetized with isoflurane during a thermal-support research project. Arrhythmias were observed on 5 successive weekly electrocardiograms. A complete cardiac evaluation, including a diagnostic electrocardiogram, revealed intermittent bradyarrhythmias ranging from a 2:1 to a 7:1 second-degree AV block, with concurrent hypotensive episodes during the nodal blocks. Results of a complete blood cell count, plasma biochemical profile, blood gas analysis, and atropine-response test, as well as radiography and auscultation, revealed no obvious cause for the arrhythmias. Echocardiography demonstrated cardiac wall thickness, chamber size, and systolic function similar to other psittacine birds. On return to the colony, the parrot continued to be outwardly asymptomatic despite the dramatic conduction disturbances. Although cardiac arrhythmias, including second-degree AV block, have been widely reported in birds, the wide variation of nodal conductions, the intermittent nature, and an arrhythmia with a 7:1 second-degree AV block that spontaneously reverts to normal as seen in this case have not been well documented in parrots.

  19. Multifragment alleles in DNA fingerprints of the parrot, Amazona ventralis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, M.K.; White, B.N.

    1991-01-01

    Human DNA probes that identify variable numbers of tandem repeat loci are being used to generate DNA fingerprints in many animal and plant species. In most species the majority of the sc rable autoradiographic bands of the DNA fingerprint represent alleles from numerous unlinked loci. This study was initiated to use DNA fingerprints to determine the amount of band-sharing among captive Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis) with known genetic relationships. This would form the data base to examine DNA fingerprints of the closely related and endangered Puerto Rican parrot (A. vittata) and to estimate the degree of inbreeding in the relic population. We found by segregation analysis of the bands scored in the DNA fingerprints of the Hispaniolan parrots that there may be as few as two to five loci identified by the human 33.15 probe. Furthermore, at one locus we identified seven alleles, one of which is represented by as many as 19 cosegregating bands. It is unknown how common multiband alleles might be in natural populations, and their existence will cause problems in the assessment of relatedness by band-sharing analysis. We believe, therefore, that a pedigree analysis should be included in all DNA fingerprinting studies, where possible, in order to estimate the number of loci identified by a minisatellite DNA probe and to examine the nature of their alleles.

  20. Retrobulbar adenocarcinoma in an Amazon parrot (Amazona autumnalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Victoria E; Murdock, Jessica H; Cazzini, Paola; Schnellbacher, Rodney; Divers, Stephen J; Sakamoto, Kaori

    2013-03-01

    Retrobulbar neoplasms are not common in mammals and are even more infrequently seen in nonmammalian species. The current report describes a retrobulbar mass creating exophthalmia and neurologic signs in a red-lored Amazon parrot (Amazona autumnalis). A 27-year-old female parrot presented for a 3-day history of anorexia and a 2-week history of periocular soft tissue swelling and exophthalmia of the right eye. Physical examination revealed 9% dehydration and right eye exophthalmia with inability to retropulse the globe. A fine-needle aspirate was performed, and cytologic evaluation revealed necrotic debris with scattered clusters of epithelial cells, moderate numbers of macrophages, and few heterophils. Given the possibility of neoplasia and paucity of treatment options, the owners elected euthanasia and submitted the body for necropsy. A large, fluctuant, friable, red, retrobulbar mass with multiple areas of hemorrhage, on cut surface, was noted at necropsy. Histologically, the mass was composed of neoplastic, cuboidal to columnar epithelial cells, forming rosette-like glandular structures, admixed with abundant necrotic debris. The neoplastic cells were strongly positive for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) by immunohistochemistry. Based on histopathology and immunohistochemistry, the mass was diagnosed as an adenocarcinoma.

  1. ANÁLISE AMBIENTAL DOS PROCESSOS DE BENEFICIAMENTO DAS MARMORARIAS DA CIDADE DE MANAUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercilia Socorro Souza Soares

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O setor de beneficiamento de rochas ornamentais vive um crescimento bastante significativo no contexto mundial. Através deste estudo propõe-se apresentar uma análise qualitativa relativa aos impactos sobre os meios físicos e antrópicos gerados nos processos produtivos das empresas de beneficiamento de pedras ornamentais no município de Manaus. Contudo há uma grande problemáticano processo de corte, polimento e acabamento das matérias primas como o mármore e o granito, pois geram grandes quantidades de resíduos tais como a poeira e a lama, formados neste beneficiamento e descartados de maneira inadequada resultam em impactos ambientais significativos, uma vez que eles contribuem para a acumulação e dispersão prejudiciais no ar, água e solo de partículas sólidas. Os dados obtidos servem como alerta ao poder público e aos geradores para atentarem quanto ao cumprimento da legislação que versa sobre a destinação final sanitariamente adequada dos resíduos sólidos, além de expor a necessidade de políticas educacionais e ambientais nesses processos de trabalho. The ornamental stone processing industry is experiencing significant growth in the global context. Through this study aims to present a qualitative analysis of the impacts on the physical and anthropogenic resources generated in the production processes of ornamental stone processing companies in the city of Manaus. However there is a big problem in the process of cutting, polishing and finishing of raw materials such as marble and granite, because they generate large amounts of waste such as dust and mud, formed in the processing and discarded inappropriately result in significant environmental impacts since they contribute to the accumulation and damaging dispersal in air, water and soil solids. The data serve as a warning to the government and the generators to heed as to comply with the legislation that deals with the disposal of solid waste sanitary appropriate, in

  2. A locally funded Puerto Rican parrot (Amazona vittata genome sequencing project increases avian data and advances young researcher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksyk Taras K

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amazona vittata is a critically endangered Puerto Rican endemic bird, the only surviving native parrot species in the United States territory, and the first parrot in the large Neotropical genus Amazona, to be studied on a genomic scale. Findings In a unique community-based funded project, DNA from an A. vittata female was sequenced using a HiSeq Illumina platform, resulting in a total of ~42.5 billion nucleotide bases. This provided approximately 26.89x average coverage depth at the completion of this funding phase. Filtering followed by assembly resulted in 259,423 contigs (N50 = 6,983 bp, longest = 75,003 bp, which was further scaffolded into 148,255 fragments (N50 = 19,470, longest = 206,462 bp. This provided ~76% coverage of the genome based on an estimated size of 1.58 Gb. The assembled scaffolds allowed basic genomic annotation and comparative analyses with other available avian whole-genome sequences. Conclusions The current data represents the first genomic information from and work carried out with a unique source of funding. This analysis further provides a means for directed training of young researchers in genetic and bioinformatics analyses and will facilitate progress towards a full assembly and annotation of the Puerto Rican parrot genome. It also adds extensive genomic data to a new branch of the avian tree, making it useful for comparative analyses with other avian species. Ultimately, the knowledge acquired from these data will contribute to an improved understanding of the overall population health of this species and aid in ongoing and future conservation efforts.

  3. A new species of Stenomicra Coquillett (Diptera: Periscelididae) from the Brazilian Amazon and its life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Eliane Solar; Ale-Rocha, Rosaly; Keppler, Ruth Leila Ferreira

    2018-04-12

    A new species of Stenomicra is described for the Neotropical Region, from phytotelmata of Araceae at an urban forest fragment in the city of Manaus, state of Amazonas, Brazil. Morphological descriptions of the immatures and the adults (male and female) are provided, together with biological information on the life cycle of the species and its "host" plant.

  4. Prevalence of hearing impairment in elderly patients referred to the audiology service in Manaus, Amazon

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    Karla Geovanna Moraes Crispim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the audiological findings (type, audiometric configuration, degree of hearing loss and its association with gender and age in subjects aged over 60 years, treated at outpatient clinic of specialties of Manaus. Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological descriptive study conducted with the universe of elderly who underwent audiometry from January to December 2010, with a total of 574 subjects. To classify the type, degree and configuration of hearing loss, we used the criteria adopted by Santos & Russo, Davis & Silverman and Silman & Silverman, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using measures of central tendency, dispersion and frequency distributions. To check for statistically significant differences, we used the chi-square test, with a significance level of 5% (p ≤ 0.05. Results: The prevalence of 94.4% (n = 542 of hearing loss, sensorineural predominantly (85.5%, n = 491 and mild (60%, n = 188 in females and degree moderate or greater in males (50%, n = 130, downward sloping (54.2%, n = 311 in both sexes. The percentage of normality was low, with 261 (3.4% for men and 313 (7.3% for women. Conclusion: The prevalence of hearing loss increased with age, being equal to 100% in individuals 80 years or older, and men have the worst hearing thresholds. There is need for greater awareness about hearing loss in the elderly, needing additional population-based and multicentric studies in order to support public policies.

  5. The City and its representations: Manaus in the Nineteenth Century (1850- 1883

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    Bruno Miranda Braga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to discuss and present data showing the everyday practices of a city: Manáos in the second half of the nineteenth century, which had become a place of multiple sociability, where a mix of people from overseas decided it as a place for residence, or income generation. In this perspective, the vision of the "outside" is distant and the local elite, as to the latter, the city boasted the "pride of civilization" and its inhabitants all had left behind the customs and habits of Manáos of old, connected to the delay, the uncivil, the river and the indigenous. We leave especially the iconographic analysis in this souvenir album of the Chicago Exposition of 1883, which Manaus was presented as a place of wealth and civilization and the environment of the province, a place of rurality and extensive nature. Thus, we will highlight the everyday life of this city, this routine marked by different "ways of doing."

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of endangered Yellow-shouldered Amazon (Amazona barbadensis): two control region copies in parrot species of the Amazona genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urantowka, Adam Dawid; Hajduk, Kacper; Kosowska, Barbara

    2013-08-01

    Amazona barbadensis is an endangered species of parrot living in northern coastal Venezuela and in several Caribbean islands. In this study, we sequenced full mitochondrial genome of the considered species. The total length of the mitogenome was 18,983 bp and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, duplicated control region, and degenerate copies of ND6 and tRNA (Glu) genes. High degree of identity between two copies of control region suggests their coincident evolution and functionality. Comparative analysis of both the control region sequences from four Amazona species revealed their 89.1% identity over a region of 1300 bp and indicates the presence of distinctive parts of two control region copies.

  7. Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics of Piperacillin/Tazobactam in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis )

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpenter, James W; Tully, Thomas N; Gehring, Ronette; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon

    To determine the pharmacokinetics of piperacillin/tazobactam in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ), 8 healthy adult parrots of both sexes were used in a 2-part study. In a pilot study, piperacillin (87 mg/kg) in combination with tazobactam (11 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly

  8. O acervo de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae de Nelson L. Cerqueira na Coleção de Invertebrados do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Brasil The Nelson L. Cerqueira Mosquito Collection (Diptera, Culicidae in the Invertebrate Collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Brazil

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    Rosa Sá Gomes Hutchings

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Registra-se a descoberta de espécimes de mosquitos que pertenciam a Nelson L. Cerqueira, e estão sendo depositados na coleção de Invertebrados do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia. A coleção contém 2.046 espécimes adultos e 387 lâminas representando 261 espécies, 22 gêneros, incluindo 51 parátipos de 34 espécies. Mais de 90% dos espécimes foram coletados no Brasil dos quais metade são do Estado do Amazonas. As espécies representadas neste acervo são listadas indicando o número de espécimes para cada tipo de preparação e as localidades de coleta. O material tipo também é listado, incluindo os dados dos rótulos de identificação e de procedência, bem como outras informações pertinentes.The discovery of mosquito specimens that belonged to Nelson L. Cerqueira, which are being deposited in the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia Invertebrate Collection, is reported. The collection contains 2,046 adult specimens and 387 slide preparations representing 261 species, 22 genera, including 51 paratypes of 34 species. More than 90% of the specimens were collected in Brazil of which half are from the State of Amazonas. A list of the species represented in this collection is provided indicating the number of specimens for each type of preparation and the collecting localities. The type specimens are also listed including their label data and other pertinent information.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of repeated oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J; Gerhardt, Lillian; Cox, Sherry

    2013-07-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics of tramadol hydrochloride (30 mg/kg) following twice-daily oral administration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 9 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Tramadol hydrochloride was administered to each parrot at a dosage of 30 mg/kg, PO, every 12 hours for 5 days. Blood samples were collected just prior to dose 2 on the first day of administration (day 1) and 5 minutes before and 10, 20, 30, 60, 90, 180, 360, and 720 minutes after the morning dose was given on day 5. Plasma was harvested from blood samples and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Degree of sedation was evaluated in each parrot throughout the study. No changes in the parrots' behavior were observed. Twelve hours after the first dose was administered, mean ± SD concentrations of tramadol and its only active metabolite M1 (O-desmethyltramadol) were 53 ± 57 ng/mL and 6 ± 6 ng/mL, respectively. At steady state following 4.5 days of twice-daily administration, the mean half-lives for plasma tramadol and M1 concentrations were 2.92 ± 0.78 hours and 2.14 ± 0.07 hours, respectively. On day 5 of tramadol administration, plasma concentrations remained in the therapeutic range for approximately 6 hours. Other tramadol metabolites (M2, M4, and M5) were also present. On the basis of these results and modeling of the data, tramadol at a dosage of 30 mg/kg, PO, will likely need to be administered every 6 to 8 hours to maintain therapeutic plasma concentrations in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

  10. Observações sôbre a produtividade de seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis muell.-arg. plantadas de sementes: II - Produtividade de 100 plantas do seringal mirim, em Manaus Observations on the latex production of seedlings of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis muell.-arg.: II - Study of 100 rubber trees of the seringal mirim, Manaus

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    Luiz O. T. Mendes

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho é feito um estudo da produtividade de 100 seringueiras plantadas de sementes, existentes no Seringal Mirim, em Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, quando tinham a idade de 30 anos. Os resultados se referem à produção obtida de sangrias feitas a meia espiral, em dois regimes de trabalho: a sangria todos os dias (de maio a julho de 1943; b sangria em dias alternados (de agôsto a dezembro de 1943. Tais resultados mostram que, no conjunto de plantas estudado, as de maior produção logo se sobressairam das demais, em qualquer dos regimes de sangria a que foram submetidas; mostram também que, de um modo geral, a mudança do regime de sangria todos os dias para o de sangria em dias alternados provocou um aumento na produção individual, por sangria, tanto mais pronunciado quanto menor foi a produtividade da planta no regime de sangria diária. É também apresentado o resultado do estudo da distribuição, dentro da população, das plantas e conjuntos de plantas classificadas de acordo com sua produtividade, por onde se verifica que umo quarta parte da população foi responsável pela produção de quase 60% do látex total colhido em qualquer dos regimes de sangria adotados. Êsses resultados mostram a possibilidade da formação de seringais de produção relativamente boa, a partir de sementes não selecionadas, desde que plantados inicialmente com densidades bastante elevadas, que permitam posteriores desbastes para a eliminação da maior parte da população, representada pelas plantas de baixa produção.The results of eight month tappings (half-spiral cut of 100 seedlings of rubber trees, 30 years old, are presented. From May to July 1943 the trees were tapped every day; from August to December, every other day. The change of the tapping system, from daily to every other day, caused an increase in the individual yield, per tapping; this yield increase was more pronounced in the low production plants. The study of the

  11. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Lake Balbina, near Manaus, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    These two images show exactly the same area, Lake Balbina near Manaus, Brazil. The image on the left was created using the best global topographic data set previously available, the U.S. Geological Survey's GTOPO30. In contrast, the much more detailed image on the right was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, which collected enough measurements to map 80 percent of Earth's landmass at this level of precision.Lake Balbina is a man-made reservoir created to supply hydroelectric power to the city of Manaus, located 125 kilometers (77 miles) to the south. The reservoir is located on the Uatuma River and drains a 19,100-square-kilometer (7,340-square-mile) basin of mostly upland topography where the relief extends from 30 meters (98 feet) to 200 meters(650 feet) in elevation. The lake includes a cluster of approximately 1,500 islands separated by submerged, shallow valleys within a flooded water-surface area of 2,400 square kilometers (920 square miles). Prior to the dam closure on October 1, 1987, the annually averaged flow on thriver was about 450 cubic meters (16,000 cubic feet) per second. Water depths in the full reservoir average 7.4 meters (24 feet). Because the vegetation was not cleared before filling, the lake consists mostly of forest and inundated trunks of dead, leafless trees.For some parts of the globe, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission measurements are 30 times more precise than previously available topographical information, according to NASA scientists. Mission data will be a welcome resource for national and local governments, scientists, commercial enterprises, and members of the public alike. The applications are as diverse as earthquake and volcano studies, flood control, transportation, urban and regional planning, aviation, recreation, and communications. The data's military applications include mission planning and rehearsal, modeling, and simulation.This image combines two types of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data

  12. O PROCESSO DE ADOLESCER NO DISCURSO DE MULHERES ADOLESCENTES DE UMA COMUNIDADE PERIFÉRICA EM MANAUS

    OpenAIRE

    Vilma Gomes Mourão; Rosângela Francischini

    2018-01-01

    O trabalho promove uma discussão acerca da adolescência no que tange às diversas formas de entendimento desse termo ao longo da história, para, assim, nos aproximarmos das concepções que mulheres adolescentes de um bairro periférico da cidade de Manaus desenvolveram acerca da adolescência. Trata-se de uma pesquisa exploratória de base qualitativa, cujos dados foram construídos com seis adolescentes entre 16 e 19 anos e analisados por meio da análise de discurso (Pêcheux). Os resultados aponta...

  13. ECO-ENTOMOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS FROM THE AMAZON. IV. Occurrence and feeding habits of the aquatic caterpillar Palustra laboulbeni Bar, 1873 (Arctiidae: Lepidoptera) in the vicinity of Manaus, Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    Adis, Joachim

    1983-01-01

    Abstract Aquatic larvae of Palustra laboulbeni Bar, 1873 are recorded for the first time from Brazil. They live among macrophytes in different types of lakes around Manaus and mostly feed on algae. Observations on their respiration are given. Resumo Larvas aquáticas de Palustra laboulbeni Bar. 1873 são referidas pela primeira vez no Brasil. Elas vivem entre macrófitas em diferentes tipos de lagos nas proximidades de Manaus e se alimentam principalmente de algas. Observações sobre a respira...

  14. Obesity and dyslipidemia in patients with psoriasis treated at a dermatologic clinic in Manaus*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Mônica; Fonseca, Hannah Monteiro; Jalkh, Alex Panizza; Gomes, Gabriela Piraice; Cavalcante, Andrea de Souza

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease of multifactorial etiology, with participation of genetic, autoimmune and environmental factors. Recent studies have demonstrated the role of inflammatory cells and mediators in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, which is now defined as a systemic and autoimmune inflammatory disease that may be associated with other diseases of inflammatory nature. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the occurrence of obesity and dyslipidemia in patients with psoriasis treated at a dermatology clinic in Manaus. METHODS We performed a prospective descriptive study to assess the prevalence of obesity and dyslipidemia in patients with psoriasis. Besides the recommended dermatological care, a physical examination was performed to measure weight, height and waist circumference. RESULTS We included 72 patients, 44 (61.1%) female and 28 (38.9%) male, with a mean age of 51.0 years ± 15.9 years. As for body mass index (BMI), 16 (22.2%) were overweight and 20 (27.8%) were obese. In the analysis of waist circumference in relation to gender, we found that 79.5% of women surveyed had central obesity, a percentage statistically higher than that observed among men (42.9%) at the 5% level of significance (p = 0.001). Regarding the diagnosis of dyslipidemia, 29 (65.9%) females and 22 (78.6%) males showed alterations in lipid profile. CONCLUSIONS The occurrence of dyslipidemia and obesity in patients with psoriasis can affect life quality and expectancy, increasing the risk of systemic and metabolic diseases, which makes periodic investigation of these comorbidities in patients with psoriasis mandatory. PMID:24474099

  15. Diversidade de Larvas de Leptophlebiidae (Insecta: Ephemeroptera da Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, Manaus, AM.

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    Claudio Rabelo dos Santos-Neto

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumoA Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke (RFAD é um fragmento de 10.000 hectares em conflito geográfico com a cidade de Manaus. O conhecimento da diversidade dos Ephemeroptera na RFAD é fundamental uma vez que estes organismos são elementos biológicos importantes; como importante fonte de alimento e, por seu potencial como indicadores das perturbações antropogênicas. Neste estudo teve-se como objetivo o levantamento da fauna de Leptophlebiidae (Ephemeroptera das duas bacias hidrográficas, comparando a diversidade entre as bacias e entre os períodos seco e chuvoso. Coletou-se em 38 pontos dos igarapés das bacias Leste (Ipiranga, Uberê e Tinga e a Oeste (Acará e Bolívia da RFAD com rede entomológica aquática (rapiché. Para verificar diferenças na riqueza das duas bacias e, comparar a riqueza nos períodos seco e chuvoso foi feito o Índice de Riqueza de Jackknife. Foram obtidas 804 larvas de Leptophlebiidae sendo identificados 368 indivíduos e reconhecidos sete gêneros: Hagenulopsis Ulmer (35%; n=128; Thraulodes Ulmer (34%; n=124; Farrodes Peters (13%; n=48; Miroculis Edmunds Jr (12%; n=45; Hydrosmilodon Flowers & Dominguez (5%; n=19; Hermanella Needham & Murphy (0.8%; n=3, Microphlebia Savage & Peters (n=1. Este representa o primeiro registro de Hydrosmilodon, Hermanella e Microphlebia para a RFAD. Na comparação entre as bacias Leste e Oeste, o Índice de Riqueza de Jackknife não indicou diferença significativa na riqueza de gêneros. Hermanella e Hydrosmilodon não ocorreram na bacia Oeste e, Microphlebia não ocorreu na bacia Leste, no entanto estas ausências não representam diferença significativa na riqueza taxonômica das bacias. A comparação na riqueza de espécie de Leptophlebiidae considerando o período seco e chuvoso revelou uma diferença significativa entre os períodos. Cerca de 68% dos indivíduos foram coletados no período seco provavelmente porque neste período a água fica restrita ao canal do igarap

  16. Comunidade sateré-mawé Y'Apyrehyt: ritual e saúde na periferia urbana de Manaus The Sateré-Mawé community of Y'Apyrehyt: ritual and health on the urban outskirts of Manaus

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    João Bosco Botelho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A comunidade Y'Apyrehyt, uma das três comunidades da etnia Sateré-mawé, na periferia de Manaus, está assentada no antigo Parque das Seringueiras. A comunidade é composta por 67 pessoas, entre adultos e crianças, que sobrevivem dos rendimentos advindos dos turistas que pagam para ver o Ritual da Tucandeira e da venda de artesanato. Mesmo com o puratin ou poratig, o Remo Mágico fincado na entrada da comunidade, somente o Ritual da Tucandeira mantém-se vivo. O processo de ressignificação desse ritual assumiu também caráter estético de coreografia artística e objeto para troca econômica.The Y'Apyrehyt community, one of three belonging to the Sateré-Mawé indigenous people found on the outskirts of Manaus, is located in a former nature reserve, the Parque das Seringueiras. The community comprises 67 people, adults and children, who live from the income obtained from tourists paying to see the Tucandeira Ant Ritual and from the sale of craftwork. Even with the Magic Oar - the puratin or poratig - displayed at the entrance to the community, only the Tucandeira Ant Ritual remains alive today. The process of attributing new meanings to this ritual has involved both an aesthetic dimension, evinced in its artistic choreography, and its commercialization.

  17. GEOGRAFIA DA DENGUE: UMA ANÁLISE DAS POLÍTICAS DE CONTROLE E MONITORAMENTO DO AEDES AEGYPTI EM MANAUS/ Geography of Dengue: an analysis of the control and monitoring policies of Aedes aegypti in Manaus

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    Renato Ferreira de Souza

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Manaus apresentou uma expansão urbana impulsionada pelo advento da Zona Franca, resultando numa insuficiente infraestrutura urbana para atender o aumento populacional, atraído pelo crescimento industrial e comercial da capital amazonense, a partir da década de 1970. Dessa forma, ampliaram-se os problemas de saneamento básico, comprometendo a qualidade de vida de sua população. O controle do dengue torna-se um grande desafio, não só para os geógrafos, mas também para as políticas de controle de endemias. As zonas norte e leste de Manaus caracterizam-se por bairros mais pobres, onde degradação ambiental e desigualdades sociais ameaçam o acesso a um ambiente saudável. Infelizmente muitas pessoas não têm o cuidado de manter o ambiente limpo e livre de proliferação de mosquitos, principalmente o do vetor da dengue. Nesse sentido, é importante desenvolver um trabalho de sensibilização junto às escolas, pois as crianças e adolescentes são base para serem multiplicadores de divulgação dos cuidados necessários contra a dengue.

  18. Prevalência de parasitos intestinais e aspectos socioambientais em comunidade indígena no Distrito de Iauaretê, Município de São Gabriel da Cachoeira (AM, Brasil Prevalence of intestinal parasites and social-environmental aspects in an indigenous Community in the Iauaretê District, Municipality of São Gabriel da Cachoeira (State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Leonardo Rios

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Situado em Terra Indígena do Alto Rio Negro, Iauaretê é o segundo maior pólo de concentração humana no município de São Gabriel da Cachoeira (AM e agrega dez vilas, com 15 etnias. Esse distrito indígena vem sofrendo processo de transformação progressiva de padrão de ocupação disperso e ribeirinho para núcleo com feições urbanas, com aproximadamente 2700 habitantes, desencadeando problemas de saúde pública. Com objetivo de investigar a distribuição de prevalências de parasitos intestinais na população local e discutir a relação desse indicador de saúde com aspectos socioambientais no distrito de Iauaretê, foram realizadas análises da qualidade da água de abastecimento e exames parasitológicos em amostras de fezes e solo. Do total de amostras de água analisadas, 89,2% apresentaram resultado positivo para coliformes termotolerantes. Identificou-se que a vila Dom Bosco foi a que apresentou maior índice de prevalência em amostras fecais com 76% dos indivíduos parasitados. A vila São José apresentou o menor índice com 56%. Os parasitos mais prevalentes em amostras fecais positivas foram, em ordem decrescente, Ascaris lumbricoides (64,84%, Entamoeba coli (32,58%, Endolimax nana (14,84% e Blastoyistis hominis (13,39%. Em amostras de solo as prevalências mais significativas foram de ovos de Ascaris sp (52,6%, cistos de Entamoeba coli (52,6% e larvas de ancilostomídeos (52,6%. Concluiu-se que os altos índices de parasitoses intestinais na população, aliados à falta de saneamento básico e à manutenção de práticas sanitárias tradicionais constituem um quadro preocupante em saúde pública.The Iauaretê District is the second largest human concentration centre in the municipality of São Gabriel da Cachoeira, state of Amazonas. Situated in Alto Rio Negro Indigenous Land, on the border between Brazil and Colombia, Iauaretê aggregates ten villages, encompassing 15 ethnic cultures. This indigenous district has

  19. Análise da implantação do sistema de atendimento pré-hospitalar móvel em cinco capitais brasileiras Analysis of the implementation of a mobile pre-hospital treatment system in five Brazilian state capitals

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    Maria Cecília de Souza Minayo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos descrição e análise da implantação do sistema de atendimento pré-hospitalar móvel (Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência - SAMU. O texto é parte de uma pesquisa denominada Análise Diagnóstica de Implantação da Política Nacional de Redução de Acidentes e Violências. Estudamos a história recente da implantação, organização, recursos humanos, materiais e equipamentos do SAMU em cinco capitais (Curitiba - Paraná; Recife - Pernambuco; Brasília - Distrito Federal; Manaus - Amazonas; Rio de Janeiro que apresentam elevadas taxas de morbimortalidade por causas externas. Trabalhamos em quatro fases, cada qual agregando ciclos exploratórios, de trabalho de campo e de análise, triangulando dados quantitativos e qualitativos. Os resultados mostram que a implantação do SAMU constitui, hoje, um avanço do setor saúde e da sociedade. É preciso ainda completar a implantação de várias portarias quanto a veículos, pessoal e equipamentos; intensificar a articulação do pré-hospitalar móvel com as unidades de saúde; enfatizar informações geradas nesse subsistema visando ao melhor planejamento das ações; manter e promover a alta qualificação dos profissionais do SAMU. Este serviço veio oficializar, padronizar e regular um subsistema fundamental para salvar vidas.The article presents a description and analysis of the implementation of a pre-hospital treatment system (SAMU as part of the research project Diagnostic Analysis of the Implementation of a National Policy for the Reduction of Violence and Accidents. Implementation and organization of the SAMU service, together with the related materials, human resources, and equipment, was studied in five Brazilian State capitals with high morbidity and mortality rates from external causes: Curitiba (Paraná, Recife (Pernambuco, Brasília (Federal District, Rio de Janeiro, and Manaus (Amazonas. The study involved four phases, each developing exploratory and

  20. Estudos florísticos no município de Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas. Brasil: I. famílias Annonaceae e Gnetaceae Floristic studies in township of Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas. Brazil: I. families Annonaceae and Gnetaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Coelho da Silva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O Município de Presidente Figueiredo, no Estado do Amazonas, foi visitado durante três anos consecutivos, de 1996 a 1999, com o objetivo de se obter amostras botânicas da área, para estudos no Subprojeto "Elaboração de Revisões e Monografias Taxonômicas" com a finalidade de se elaborar uma Flórula para o Município. As coleções feitas neste período encontram-se depositadas no acervo do Herbário do INPA e as informações gerais sobre os taxa aqui estudados foram complementadas com as obtidas das coleções feitas anteriormente por outros pesquisadores. Para a família Annonaceae Juss. (Magnoliopsida foram identificadas 39 espécies distribuídas em 15 gêneros. Destes, Duguetia A. St. Hill., Guatteria Ruiz & Pavon, Annona L., Unonopsis R.E.Fries e Xylopia L.destacaram-se pela diversidade em espécies, sendo os dois primeiros representados por oito e seis espécies, respectivamente, e os três últimos, com quatro espécies. A família Gnetaceae Lindl. (Gimnospermae está representada no Município apenas pelo gênero Gnetum L., com a espécie G. leyboldii Tul.The Township of Presidente Figueiredo, in the State of Amazonas, was visited for three consecutive years, from 1996 to 1999, with the aim of acquiring botanical samples from the area, in order to carry out studies in the "Taxonomic Monographies and Revisions Preparation" SubProject, for the purpose of preparing a survey of the flora. Collections pertaining to the present work are deposited at INPA's herbarium and, general information on the taxa studied here were complemented with those obtained from earlier collections conducted by other researchers. Thirty nine (39 species distributed into 15 genera were identified for the family Annonaceae Juss. (Magnoliopsida. Of these, Duguetia A. St. Hill., Guatteria Ruiz & Pavon, Annona L., Unonopsis R.E.Fries and Xylopia L. stood out on account of their species diversity, the former two were represented by eight and six species

  1. Estudos florísticos no município de Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas, Brasil - II: famílias Myristicaceae, Siparunaceae e Monimiaceae Floristic studies in township of Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas, Brazil - II: families Myristicaceae, Siparunaceae and Monimiaceae

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    José Augusto Coelho da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O Município de Presidente Figueiredo, do Estado do Amazonas, Brasil, foi visitado durante três anos consecutivos (1996 a 1999, com o objetivo de obter-se amostras botânicas da área para estudos do Subprojeto "Elaboração de Revisões e Monografias Taxonômicas", com a finalidade de elaborar-se a Flórula para o Município. As coleções feitas nesse período encontram-se depositadas no acervo do Herbário do INPA e as informações gerais sobre os taxa aqui estudados foram complementadas com as obtidas das coleções feitas anteriormente por outros pesquisadores. Para a família Myristicaceae Br. R. foram identificadas 23 espécies e duas variedades, distribuídas em quatro gêneros. Destes, Iryanthera Warb. e Virola Aubl. destacaram-se pela diversidade em espécies, sendo Iryanthera ulei Warb. e Virola calophylla (Spruce Warb. var. calophylla as espécies mais coletadas. A família Monimiaceae Juss. está representada apenas pelo gênero Mollinedia Ruiz & Pavón, pela espécie M. ovata Ruiz & Pavón; já a família Siparunaceae (A. DC. Schodde encontra-se representada pelo gênero Siparuna Aubl. com oito espécies, sendo S. cristata (Poepp. & Endl. A. DC. a espécie mais coletada.The Township of Presidente Figueiredo, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, was visited for three consecutive years, from 1996 to 1999, with the aim of acquiring botanical samples from the area, in order to carry out studies on the "Taxonomic Monographies and Revisions Preparation" Subproject for the purpose of preparing a survey of the flora. Collections pertaining to the present work are deposited at INPA's herbarium and, general information on the taxa studied here were complemented with those obtained from earlier collections conducted by other researchers. Twenty three (23 species and two varieties, distributed in four genera were identified for family Myristicaceae Br. R. Of these Iryanthera Warb. and Virola Aubl. stood out on account of their species diversity

  2. Tools and techniques for schedule's controlling: tracking system and control of Urucu-Manaus gas-pipeline construction, stretch B1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuany, Valdenise Marques; Dias, Jose Luiz Gomes [CONCREMAT Engenharia e Tecnologia S/A, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The goal is to show the monitoring systems and deadline control, using the PMBOK{sup R} project management tools, in the Construction and Assembly of the Coari-Manaus Gas-pipeline, stretch B1, which includes the cities of Coari, Codajas, Anori and Anama, in the state of Amazon, in the Northern Undertaking Implementation (IENOR), an Engineering division of the PETROBRAS System. This report presents the practical effects of the usage of three schedule control tools of the project: Performance Measurement, using the technique of the Earned Value Management (EVM), which integrates cost, schedule and physical progress of the enterprise to determine the variations of schedule and performance; Project Management Software, MSProject, which allows schedule's elaboration and makes the tracking of the planned dates possible (baseline) in relation to real dates and forecasts the trend level, the effects of changes in the project's schedule, demonstrating its utility as a schedule control tool; and Schedule Variance Analysis, which adopts practical data to reach the pessimistic, most likely and optimistic expectations. The implantation of these tools was based in the Work Breakdown Structure of the enterprise. The application of these three tools in the tracking and control of the enterprise demonstrates that, the use of information and techniques deriving from the planning and control can be an important support for project management and decision taking, comparing the results gotten in the implantation of the plan with its actual realization, defining, thus, the necessary corrective actions, generating learned lessons to use in future projects. (author)

  3. Failure of both azithromycin and antimony to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis in Manaus, AM, Brazil Falha da azitromicina e do antimonial no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea em Manaus, AM, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan César Teixeira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A non-randomized controlled clinical trial was carried outin order to evaluate both azithromycin and antimony efficacy in cutaneous leishmaniasis in Manaus, AM, Brazil. Forty nine patients from both genders, aged 14 to 70, with cutaneous ulcers for less than three months and a positive imprint for Leishmania spp. amastigotes were recruited into two groups. Group I (26 patients received a daily-single oral dose of 500 mg of azithromycin for 20 days and Group II (23 patients received a daily-single intramuscular dose of 20 mg/kg of meglumine antimony, also for 20 days. Azithromycin cured three of 24 (12.5% patients on days 60, 90 and 120 respectively whereas therapeutic failure was considered in 21 of 24 (87.5% cases. In group II, antimony cured eight of 19 (42.1% cases as follows: three on day 30, one each on day 60 and day 90, and three on day 120. Therapeutic failure occurred in 11 of 19 (57.9% individuals. The efficacy of antimony for leishmaniasis was better than azithromycin but analysis for the intention-to-treat response rate did not show statistical difference between them. Although azithromycin was better tolerated, it showed a very low efficacy to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis in Manaus.Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficácia da azitromicina no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea, foi realizado ensaio comparativo, em Manaus. Foram recrutados 49 pacientes de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 14 e 70 anos que apresentassem úlceras cutâneas com menos de três meses de evolução e que tivessem exame direto positivo para amastigotas de leishmânia. Estes pacientes foram alocados em dois grupos assim: Grupo I (26 recebeu uma dose diária de 500 mg de azitromicina pela via oral durante 20 dias e o Grupo II, recebeu uma dose diária de 20 mg/kg de antimoniato de meglumina por via intramuscular, durante 20 dias. Do grupo da azitromicina, três (12,5% de 24 pacientes curaram 60, 90 e 120 dias, respectivamente, enquanto, em 21 (87,5% de 24 houve

  4. Estudo de misturas asfálticas com ligante modificado pelo polímero EVA para pavimentos urbanos de Manaus - AM Study of asphalt mixtures containing a binder modified with EVA polymer for use in urban pavements in Manaus

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela M. G. D'Antona; Consuelo A. Da Frota

    2011-01-01

    A presente pesquisa buscou soluções com materiais alternativos visando à construção de pavimentos urbanos para Manaus (AM) com maior vida útil e condizente com as suas condições de serviço, em particular, o seu desempenho mecânico frente às temperaturas regionais. Estudou-se o ligante regional, CAP 50/70, misturado com 4% do polímero EVA, e como partícipe em compósitos asfálticos. A incorporação do mencionado polímero teve como objetivo melhorar suas propriedades reológicas e, por conseguinte...

  5. O uso do geoprocessamento no diagnóstico dos roteiros de coleta de lixo da cidade de Manaus The use of geoprocessing in the diagnosis of the routes of garbage collection in the city of Manaus

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    José Olavo Nogueira Braga

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir da necessidade de garantir a melhoria continua da Limpeza Pública de Manaus e possibilitar a ampliação da prestação do serviço de coleta de lixo, que atualmente é gerenciado pela Secretaria Municipal de Limpeza Urbana - SEMULSP, e realizado pelas empresas concessionárias de coleta de lixo, utilizou-se o geoprocessamento, com o intuito de analisar o atual sistema. Para analisar o sistema, fez-se um diagnóstico dos roteiros de coleta, onde se mapeou todas as informações identificadas em campo, declividade, ruas sem asfalto e estreitas, lixeiras viciadas, tempo e distâncias dos trechos produtivos e improdutivos, produção de lixo e disposição do trânsito, com o auxílio de receptores GPS.In order to promote the continuous improvement of Public Cleansing System in Manaus as well as the expansion of garbage collection, currently operated by private contractors, the Municipal Secretary of Urban Cleansing - SEMULSP has performed an integrated analyses of the existing collection service design in geoprocessing, so as to identify possible improvements in the system. Aiming the practical evaluation of the present system, an assessment of the collection routes was performed, by collecting, georeferencing and mapping all related features, as slopes, road conditions, dead-end streets, narrow lanes, illegal dumping, time taken and trip distance of productive and unproductive routes, waste quantity and traffic conditions. Most of data were taken by GPS equipments.

  6. OPEN INNOVATION PROJECT: THE SYSTEM OF ONLINE INDICATORS IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION OF AMAZONAS (SiON

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    Moises Andrade Coelho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the implementation of an open innovation project in a public institution in the state of Amazonas. The theoretical and empirical background deals with science, technology and innovation indicators and open innovation. The study is characterized as a qualitative and descriptive research, with the case study as a methodological procedure. The delimitation of the universe was composed by a public institution in the area of science, technology and innovation (ST&I. In the case study, it was used an approach as tool to assess the implementation of open innovation projects. The results are shown several stages of open innovation project analyzed.  The study demonstrates the implications of open innovation project adoption to the strengthening of external networks and the maturing of the internal environment. The relevance of the study is based on the evaluation of an open innovation project in a public institution in order to foster the transition from traditional innovation processes to open innovation processes.

  7. Landscapes and ethno-knowledge in the Ticuna and Cocama agriculture at upper River Solimões, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Sandra do Nascimento Noda

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The units of landscape in the Cocama and Ticuna agriculture, in the upper River Solimões, are characterized by productionarrangements and management of natural resources. This paper aims to characterize these agro-ecological based practices,the landscaped results and its regional applicability. The survey was conducted in Novo Paraíso, at Bom Intento Island,and in Nova Aliança, both located in the municipality of Benjamin Constant, state of Amazonas, Brazil. The social andeconomic organization of Ticuna and Cocama Peoples is founded on kinship and communal ownership of natural resources,including spaces for gathering. Family units, despite their weak linkages with the market and its rules, have in the logicof reciprocity the motivation for the production, transmission and management of resources and factors of production.The landscapes are reconstructed by agro-ecological production derived from ethno-knowledge and correspond to theinherent processes of management and conservation of flora and fauna. This process allows the existence of compleximbrications of constantly changing landscapes in which forms of production are recreated for sufficiency and sustainability.

  8. EDIÇÃO ESPECIAL: 10 ANOS DO PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM GEOGRAFIA DA UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO AMAZONAS.

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    João Cândido André da Silva Neto

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Prezados leitores e autores, a Revista Geonorte, do Departamento de Geografia e do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geografia da Universidade Federal do Amazonas – UFAM, apresenta sua nova edição, de 10 ANOS DO PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM GEOGRAFIA DA UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO AMAZONAS.

  9. EDIÇÃO ESPECIAL: 10 ANOS DO PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM GEOGRAFIA DA UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO AMAZONAS.

    OpenAIRE

    João Cândido André da Silva Neto

    2018-01-01

    Prezados leitores e autores, a Revista Geonorte, do Departamento de Geografia e do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geografia da Universidade Federal do Amazonas – UFAM, apresenta sua nova edição, de 10 ANOS DO PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM GEOGRAFIA DA UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO AMAZONAS.

  10. Technical clearance for mental disorders among the servers in the city hall of Manaus: a preliminary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vívian Silva Lima Marangoni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of work absenteeism due to mental disorders among the servers of the Prefeitura Municipal de Manaus - PMM, registered by the Junta Médica do Município, in the period January to December 2011. It was found, after the documentary analysis, data of extreme significance that converge with numerous studies which indicate the nature of work as a risk factor for mental illness. It is through them that mental disorders has been a major cause of absence from work activities, especially among the servers in the area of health and education, representing 10% of total permits issued in 2011. These findings may support future studies that focus on health promotion and quality of life of these professionals, thus becoming a major challenge for policy makers

  11. INCIDÊNCIAS DO NEOLIBERALISMO NO TRABALHO DOS ASSISTENTES SOCIAlS DO PARQUE INDUSTRIAL DA ZONA FRANCA DE MANAUS

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    Heloísa Helena Corrêa da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The first corresponding analyses considering the new dimensions of the social worker s work between 1995 and 2008 are presented in this article. These data point out the changes occurred in the social workers work market considering curricular formularizations, the dynamism of the projects of the profession and the identification of these with the social projects. This paper also points out the relation between the profession and the market as well as the relation between the work market world changes. lt is atso emphasized how these transformations occurred in the social workers practice within the industrial park of Manaus. The discussion that rises this issue is "the Work in the transformations contemporaries in the Amazon region and the particutarities of the professional work of the Social Worker.

  12. Aspectos clínicos de pacientes com pitiríase versicolor atendidos em um centro de referência em dermatologia tropical na cidade de Manaus (AM, Brasil Clinical aspects of patients with pityriasis versicolor seen at a referral center for tropical dermatology in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Motta de Morais

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A pitiríase versicolor (tinha versicolor é uma micose superficial crônica, causada por leveduras do gênero Malassezia spp. comensais das camadas queratinizadas da pele e que, sob determinadas condições ainda não esclarecidas, se torna patogênica, determinando as manifestações clínicas da doença. É uma dermatose recidivante e, mesmo após tratamento, pode deixar hipopigmentação persistente, causando problemas sociais aos indivíduos acometidos. OBJETIVO: Descrever as características clínicas e epidemiológicas de pacientes com diagnóstico de tinha versicolor atendidos em uma unidade de referência em Dermatologia (Fundação Alfredo da Matta. MÉTODOS: Estudo de série de casos em que foram detalhadas as manifestações cutâneas e as características epidemiológicas de pacientes atendidos na Fundação Alfredo da Matta com diagnóstico de tinha versicolor. RESULTADOS: Cento e dezesseis pacientes foram incluídos no estudo no período de janeiro a agosto de 2008. A maioria dos indivíduos é do sexo masculino, de cor parda, da faixa etária jovem e formada por estudantes, que apresentavam fatores predisponentes ao surgimento das manchas. Também a maioria apresentava lesões extensas e história passada da doença. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo mostrou alta proporção de indivíduos com quadros extensos e de longa duração da doença.BACKGROUND: Pityriasis versicolor (tinea versicolor is a chronic superficial mycosis caused by yeasts of the Malassezia spp. genus commensal of the keratinized layers of the skin. Under conditions not yet understood, it becomes pathogenic determining the clinical manifestations of the disease. It is a recurrent skin condition and persistent hypopigmentation may remain after treatment, causing social problems to those affected. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and epidemiological features of patients diagnosed with tinea versicolor treated at a referral center for dermatology (Alfredo da Matta Foundation. METHODS: Case-studies in which cutaneous manifestations and epidemiological characteristics of patients diagnosed with tinea versicolor treated at Alfredo da Matta Foundation were detailed. RESULTS: One hundred and sixteen patients were included in the study from January to August 2008. Most subjects were male, of mixed ethnicity and young age. Most were students who were predisposed to the development of macules. The majority had extensive injuries and past history of the disease. CONCLUSION: The results revealed a high proportion of individuals with extensive clinical manifestations and duration of the disease.

  13. Effects of an oil spill and discharge of domestic sewage on the insect fauna of Cururu stream, Manaus, AM, Brazil Os efeitos de um vazamento de óleo e despejo de esgoto doméstico na fauna de insetos do igarapé Cururu, em Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil

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    S. R. M. Couceiro

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Assemblages of aquatic and edaphic insects in three streams in Central Amazonia were used to evaluate the impact on one of the streams (Cururu caused by an oil spill that occurred in August 1999. The Cururu stream had already been impacted by domestic sewage. These three streams were evaluated during four different periods of the regional hydrological cycle (falling-, low-, rising- and high-water, from September 2000 to May 2001. An Eckman dredge, an aquatic entomological net and a manual auger were used to collect insects, which were used to estimate the taxonomic richness (at the family level and insect density in each stream. Anoxic and eutrophic conditions were determined in each stream based on the mean concentration of dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen and phosphorus. Richness and abundance of insect fauna were higher in the Cristalino stream (not impacted than in the Bom Jardim stream (impacted by domestic sewage and in the Cururu stream, with the exception of samples collected along the stream banks (littoral fauna. The mean dissolved oxygen was lower in the Cururu stream than in the other two, while the mean concentrations of total nitrogen and phosphorus were higher. These elements showed intermediate values in the Bom Jardim stream, while the opposite pattern was observed in the Cristalino stream, with higher concentrations of dissolved oxygen and lower concentrations of total nitrogen and phosphorus. The concentrations of these variables reflect the modifications resulting from anthropogenic eutrophication caused by the discharge of domestic sewage into Bom Jardim and Cururu and by the oil spill in Cururu, which negatively affected the richness and abundance of insects in these streams.As assembléias de insetos aquáticos e edáficos de três igarapés da Amazônia Central foram utilizadas para avaliar o impacto sofrido por um deles (igarapé Cururu, após um vazamento de óleo derivado de petróleo, ocorrido em agosto de 1999. O igarapé Cururu já era impactado pelo despejo de esgoto doméstico. A avaliação desses sistemas foi realizada em quatro diferentes períodos do ciclo hidrológico da região (vazante, seca, enchente e cheia, entre setembro de 2000 e maio de 2001. Os insetos foram coletados com draga Eckman, rede entomológica aquática e trado, e utilizados para estimar a riqueza taxonômica (nível de família e a densidade de insetos em cada sistema. Os efeitos de anóxia e os efeitos da eutroficação foram mensurados pelas médias de concentração de oxigênio dissolvido, nitrogênio total e fósforo total, estimadas nos três sistemas. A riqueza e abundância da fauna de insetos foram maiores no igarapé Cristalino (não impactado do que nos igarapés Bom Jardim (impactado pelo despejo de esgoto e Cururu, com exceção das amostragens de insetos litorâneos. A concentração do oxigênio dissolvido no igarapé Cururu foi menor do que nos outros dois sistemas, enquanto as concentrações de nitrogênio total e fósforo total no igarapé Cururu foram maiores. Esses elementos tiveram valores inversos no igarapé Cristalino e intermediários no igarapé Bom Jardim. As concentrações de oxigênio dissolvido, nitrogênio total e fósforo total refletem as modificações provocadas pela eutroficação antropogênica nos sistemas Bom Jardim e Cururu. Isso ocorreu devido à liberação de efluentes domésticos pelas comunidades locais e pelo óleo introduzido no igarapé Cururu, influenciando negativamente a riqueza e abundância de insetos nesses igarapés.

  14. Parasitism of two zoonotic reservoirs Dasyprocta leporina and D. fuliginosa (Rodentia from Amazonas, with Trichostrongylina nematodes (Heligmonellidae: description of a new genus and a new species

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    Alessandra Queiroga Gonçalves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and a new species of Heligmonellidae nematodes are described parasiting the stomach of three agoutis (two Dasyprocta fuliginosa and one D. leporina captured in the middle and high Negro river microregion, state of Amazonas, Brazil. The new genus, as well as its type-species, are closely related to the trichostrongylids included in Fuellebornema, particularly on what concerns the pattern of the caudal bursa, but differing from them by the characteristics of the synlophe, that presents a poorly developed carene, when compared to the referred number of body ridges in Freitastrongylus n. gen. and consequently in F. angelae n. sp.,in which the ridges are well developed and the carene at mid-body has a similar size when compared to the ridge situated in front of the right field (ridge no. 5. Caudal bursa is of the type 1-4, with rays 9 shorter than rays 10, with a very long genital cone.

  15. Mansonella ozzardi in the municipality of Tefé, Amazonas, Brazil, 60 years after the first report: an epidemiologic study

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    Jansen Fernandes Medeiros

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of mansonelliasis was studied in the municipality of Tefé, state of Amazonas, Brazil. The prevalence (thick blood smear method was 13.6% (147/1,078, higher in the Solimões River region (16.3% than in the Tefé River region (6.3%. In the sampled communities in the Solimões River region, a higher density of cases was observed, as indicated by a kernel analysis (odds ratio 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.20-0.57. Males had a higher prevalence (χ2 = 31.292, p < 0.001 than women. Mansonella ozzardi prevalence was higher in retirees and farmers (28.9% and 27%, respectively. Prevalence also significantly increased with age (χ2 = -128.17, p < 0.001, with the highest numbers occurring in persons older than 67 years.

  16. Natureza e civilização: os painéis decorativos do Salão Nobre do Teatro Amazonas Nature and civilization: the decorative panels of the Teatro Amazonas foyer

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    Ana Maria Lima Daou

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Os painéis decorativos do salão nobre do Teatro Amazonas singularizam-se em relação ao restante da iconografia que decora o edifício, inaugurado em 1896. Na ocasião, as capitais do Pará e do Amazonas, enriquecidas pela economia gomífera, passaram por significativas transformações no tecido urbano e nas formas de sociabilidade, projetando-se nacional e internacionalmente. O artigo procura identificar paralelos entre as representações paisagísticas da natureza amazônica que decoram o salão nobre do edifício, a construção da cidade moderna e os usos sociais do Teatro Amazonas, símbolo do período e emblema da elite enriquecida que se afirmava no cenário regional e nacional. O Teatro Amazonas ocupou o centro da vida social da época, e em seu salão nobre ocorreram verdadeiros rituais de 'civilização' em que os convidados - brasileiros ou estrangeiros - tinham como cenário privilegiado a natureza amazônica representada nos painéis parietais decorativos.The decorative panels in the foyer of the Teatro Amazonas, inaugurated in 1896, stand out from the rest of the building's ornamental iconography. The rubber trade brought great wealth to the capitals of Pará and Amazonas and as these cities gained national and international fame, their urban fabric and forms of sociability underwent significant changes. The article looks for parallels between the landscape representations of Amazonian nature adorning the building's foyer, the construction of the modern city, and social uses of the Teatro Amazonas, symbol of the era and emblem of the newly rich elite, who were then taking their place on the regional and national stages. The Teatro Amazonas formed the center of the era's social life and its foyer played host to veritable rituals of 'civilization', in which Brazilian and foreign guests enjoyed the fine setting of Amazon's nature as represented in the decorative wall panels.

  17. Proposal for the optimization of the procedures for the analysis, assessment and follow-up of energy efficiency at the Manaus Energia S/A enterprise environment; Proposta de otimizacao dos procedimentos para analise, avaliacao e acompanhamento de projetos de eficiencia energetica no ambito da empresa Manaus Energia S/A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Junior, Benjamim Cordeiro [Manaus Energia S/A., AM (Brazil). Programa de Eficiencia Energetica e Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento

    2006-07-01

    The present article has for objective, to present a proposal to optimize the procedures for analysis and evaluation of projects that composes the annual Program of Energy Efficiency of Manaus Energia S/A, assisting to criteria of market prices, sustainability and return for the company. (author)

  18. Efeitos sedativos da associação de Cetamina e Midazolam administrados pela via intranasal ou intramuscular em papagaio (Amazona aestiva e Amazona vinacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduarda H. Bitencourt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A falta de protocolos de sedação seguros para uso em papagaios na literatura demonstra a necessidade de conhecer os anestésicos que são eficazes nestes animais. Devido a pouca massa muscular desta espécie, notou-se a necessidade de estudar outra via de administração, menos invasiva e dolorosa ao animal, como a via intranasal. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos sedativos e a viabilidade da administração intranasal, em comparação à via intramuscular, de 15mg/kg de Cetamina e 1mg/kg de Midazolam. Foram utilizados 14 papagaios das espécies Amazona aestiva e Amazona vinacea, de ambos os sexos, adultos, peso médio de 388,5±29,1g. Os animais foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: intramuscular (IM, n=7 e intranasal (IN, n=7. No grupo intramuscular, a administração dos anestésicos foi realizada nos músculos peitorais, utilizando seringas de insulina e no grupo intranasal, com auxílio de uma micropipeta. Avaliou-se o período de latência, tempo de duração, qualidade de sedação, e o tempo de recuperação total. A média para o período de latência no grupo IM foi de 6,13±2,02 minutos e no grupo IN de 4,84±2,37 minutos. Já para o tempo de duração da sedação no grupo IM a média foi de 35,81±29,56 e no grupo IN de 24,52±14,83 minutos. Ambas as vias promoveram sedação adequada, pois a média do escore da qualidade de sedação obtida pelo grupo IM foi 2±1,5 e pelo grupo IN 1,28±1,1. O tempo de recuperação total no grupo IM foi de 27,04±11,69 e no grupo IN de 17,67±11,64 minutos. Apesar do grupo IN ter apresentado os menores tempos de período de latência, duração e de recuperação total e ter obtido melhor escore na qualidade de sedação, não houve diferença estatística significativa entre os grupos. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo indicam que a administração de 15 mg/kg de cetamina e 1mg/kg de midazolam pela via intranasal ou intramuscular em papagaios (Amazona aestiva e

  19. Sedative Effects of Intranasal Midazolam Administration in Wild Caught Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) and Orange-winged Amazon (Amazona amazonica) Parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Débora P H; de Araújo, Nayone L L C; Raposo, Ana Cláudia S; Filho, Emanoel F Martins; Vieira, João Victor R; Oriá, Arianne P

    2017-09-01

    Safe and effective sedation protocols are important for chemical restraint of birds in clinical and diagnostic procedures, such as clinical evaluations, radiographic positioning, and blood collection. These protocols may reduce stress and ease the management of wild-caught birds, which are susceptible to injury or death when exposed to stressful situations. We compare the sedative effect of intranasal midazolam in wild-caught blue-fronted (Amazona aestiva) and orange-winged (Amazona amazonica) Amazon parrots. Ten adult parrots of each species (n = 20), of unknown sex, weighing 0.337 ± 0.04 (blue-fronted) and 0.390 ± 0.03 kg (orange-winged), kg were used. Midazolam (2 mg/kg) was administered intranasally and the total volume of the drug was divided equally between the 2 nostrils. Onset time and total sedation time were assessed. Satisfactory sedation for clinical evaluation was induced in all birds. Onset time and total sedation times were similar in both species: 5.36 ± 1.16 and 25.40 ± 5.72 minutes, respectively, for blue-fronted Amazons and 5.09 ± 0.89 and 27.10 ± 3.73 minutes, respectively, for orange-winged Amazons. A total of 15 animals showed absence of vocalization, with moderate muscle relaxation and wing movement upon handling, and 2 animals presented with lateral recumbence, with intense muscle relaxation and no wing movement, requiring no restraint. Three blue-fronted Amazons had no effective sedation. Intranasally administered midazolam at a dose of 2 mg/kg effectively promoted sedative effects with a short latency time and fast recovery in wild-caught parrots.

  20. Análise geoespacial sobre saúde em aglomerados subnormais no bairro Redenção, Manaus-AM

    OpenAIRE

    Jessyca Mikaelly Benchimol de Andrade; Adorea Rebello da Cunha Albuquerque

    2017-01-01

    The urbanization process causes irregular occupation in urban areas, it is necessary the effectiveness of territorial planning in the great capitals of the country. Undoubtedly, it is essential not only emergency measures, but effective measures in irregular areas and inadequate to housing, as they are increasingly inhabited. An example of urban expansion to the city of Manaus, and its majority of the forms of occupation, classified by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and ...

  1. Formas de tierra y clases de pendiente del departamento de Amazonas: informe ejecutivo

    OpenAIRE

    Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales. Dirección General de Estudios y Proyectos

    2000-01-01

    Muestra la evaluación de las formas de tierra y clases de pendiente de la región sierra del departamento de Amazonas. El objetivo principal es presentar de manera esquemática el conjunto de formas de tierra, clases de pendiente dominante, sus diferencias morfoclimáticas y evolutivas, así como la identificación de las principales acciones erosivas que actualmente puedan significar riesgos a las actividades humanas, o a coadyuvar al deterioro generalizado del medio. El documento ha sido elabora...

  2. Report about star fruit fruits damaged by Amazona albifrons Sparman, in Tabasco, Mexico.

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    Saúl Sánchez-Soto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine, the animal species causing damage to inmature fruits of Averrhoa carambola, in a home garden. The study was conducted in a home garden with two star fruit trees in Cardenas, Tabasco, Mexico (18°00’10.9’’ N, 93°25’52.2’’ W. The loss of fruits was registered from June 21st to August 2nd, 2015 based on weekly evaluations. 12 637 fruits were toppled by the bird Amazona albifrons Sparman (Psitaciformes: Psittacidae, which is distributed from Mexico to Costa Rica.

  3. Curvas de car?ncias nutricionais em adultos quilombolas de ?reas ribeirinhas do baixo Amazonas

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    Silva, Lu?sa Margareth Carneiro da

    2013-01-01

    INTRODU??O: A Pol?tica Nacional de Alimenta??o e Nutri??o 2012 assegura: A alimenta??o e nutri??o constituem requisitos b?sicos para a promo??o e a prote??o da sa?de, possibilitando a afirma??o plena do potencial de crescimento e desenvolvimento humano, com qualidade de vida e cidadania . OBJETIVO: Elaborar curvas de car?ncias nutricionais atrav?s da investiga??o das tend?ncias de consumo, padr?o alimentar e nutricional de adultos quilombolas de ?reas ribeirinhas do Baixo Amazonas no Munic?p...

  4. Diagnóstico da realidade nutricional no estado do Amazonas, Brasil. I - hipovitaminose A

    OpenAIRE

    ALENCAR,Fernando Hélio; CASTRO,Janete Seixas; YUYAMA,Lúcia Kioko O.; MARINHO,Helyde Albuquerque; NAGAHAMA,Dionísia

    2002-01-01

    Procedeu-se uma revisão de toda produção científica do Amazonas, da área da nutrição nas últimas décadas. A análise deste material, consubstanciada com as últimas pesquisas realizadas pelo grupo da Nutrição do INPA viabilizou a composição do diagnóstico da hipovitaminose A na região Amazônica. A investigação clínico-oftalmológica, envolveu 487 crianças de 2 a 5 anos, de ambos os ...

  5. Combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma in a Yellow-headed Amazon (Amazona oratrix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennakoon, Anusha Hemamali; Izawa, Takeshi; Fujita, Daisuke; Denda, Yuki; Seto, Eiko; Sasai, Hiroshi; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Yamate, Jyoji

    2013-11-01

    A 9-year-old male Yellow-headed Amazon (Amazona oratrix) with a history of anorexia and vomiting died of a liver tumor. The tumor consisted of neoplastic cells with hepatocellular and cholangiocellular differentiations and their intermingled areas. Neoplastic hepatocytes showed islands or trabecular growth with vacuolated eosinophilic cytoplasm. Cells showing biliary differentiation formed ducts or tubules lined by cytokeratin AE1/AE3-positive epithelia, accompanied by desmoplasia consisting of myofibroblasts reacting to α-smooth muscle actin and desmin. The tumor was diagnosed as a combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma, which is very rare in the avian.

  6. Mycobacterium marinum infection in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, David E; Bemis, David A; Garner, Michael M

    2012-12-01

    A blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) was presented with a granuloma involving the proximal rhinotheca and extending into the rostral sinuses. Mycobacterium marinum was diagnosed based on results of biopsy and culture. Treatment was initiated with clarithromycin, rifampin, and ethambutol, but the bird died 4 months after the onset of antimicrobial therapy. Additional granulomas were found in the left lung and liver on postmortem examination. Mycobacterial isolation on postmortem samples was unsuccessful. This is the first report of Mycobacterium marinum in a bird.

  7. Papel da mulher de camadas populares de Manaus na produção de cuidados da saúde The role of women from popular groups in Manaus concerning health care production

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    Denise Machado Duran Gutierrez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho apresenta resultado de investigação sobre o papel da mulher na produção de cuidados da saúde no âmbito da família. Utilizamos as categorias: papel de mãe, divisão do trabalho, relações de poder, cuidado do outro e autocuidado da saúde. Foram entrevistados 21 profissionais de duas equipes do PSF e onze famílias do Ouro Verde, bairro popular de Manaus. Verificamos que as mulheres entrevistadas cuidam dos membros de suas famílias de forma bastante ampla, abrangendo várias pessoas e em diversas dimensões de cuidado, desde cuidados físicos e ambientais, acompanhamento de prescrições médicas e monitoramento da saúde na vida diária. Essas ações têm grande importância para a resolutividade das intervenções médicas. No entanto, vemos que o desempenho efetivo desse cuidado é fortemente influenciado por aspectos da realidade concreta, que delimita recursos e possibilidades, e por aspectos da dinâmica relacional da família da qual faz parte, que favorece ou dificulta seu desempenho.This work presents the results of an investigation about the woman's role in the production of health care within the family context. We use categories such as mother's social role, work sharing, power relations, taking care of the other and self health care. Twenty-one professionals belonging to two Family Health Program teams and eleven families living in a popular area in the city of Manaus were interviewed. We found that the interviewed women provide health care for their family members in a broad way, including many people and many care dimensions, such as physical and environmental care, following medical prescriptions and monitoring health on a daily basis. These actions have great importance to the solving capability of medical interventions. However, we see that the good performance of this care is strongly influenced by aspects of the concrete reality, which delimit resources and possibilities, and by aspects of the relational

  8. Exposição à água contaminada: percepções e práticas em um bairro de Manaus, Brasil Exposure to contaminated water: perceptions and practices in a neighborhood in the city of Manaus, Brazil

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    Leandro Luiz Giatti

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar o modo de abastecimento de água e a percepção quanto aos problemas causados por essa água entre moradores de um bairro sem abastecimento público e instalado numa área anteriormente utilizada como depósito de lixo na Cidade de Manaus, Brasil. MÉTODOS. Foram realizadas 162 entrevistas semiestruturadas em domicílios do bairro, além de um grupo focal com professores de uma escola pública local, onde também houve uma reunião com moradores. Os instrumentos aplicados enfocaram a percepção e os modos de uso da água e o processo de exposição a contaminantes químicos pela água. RESULTADOS: Predominou entre a população o uso de água de poço sem qualquer tratamento. Essa água foi considerada como "boa" por 64,8% dos entrevistados. A maioria dos moradores (88,3% declarou saber da existência do lixão; desses, 77,6% afirmaram que o lixão causava problemas ao ambiente e à saúde. Contudo, análises qualitativas das respostas não demonstraram reconhecimento da contaminação por elementos químicos e nem de suas possíveis consequências. Em atividades com os professores, ficou claro que os mesmos conheciam parcialmente o problema, não realizando intervenções a esse respeito. Em reunião com os moradores foi identificada uma militância relativa ao problema dentro do bairro, mas que não extrapolava a localidade e não interagia com esferas governamentais. CONCLUSÕES. O estudo identificou uma situação crítica de exposição que tende a se perpetuar em decorrência de percepções equivocadas e da falta de mobilização da sociedade. A disseminação de resultados junto a professores e moradores locais foi útil para empoderar os sujeitos da pesquisa.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the modes of water supply and the perception concerning the problems caused by this water among residents of a neighborhood without public supply of water, settled in an area previously used as a garbage dump in the city of Manaus

  9. Notas, novos registros e novas espécies da coleção de Cerambycidae (Coleoptera do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus

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    Maria Helena M. Galileo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Espécies novas descritas da Amazônia brasileira em Ibidionini: Compsibidion uniforme sp. nov. (Amazonas; Heterachthes rafaeli sp. nov. (Amazonas; em Apomecynini: Amphicnaeia lineolata sp. nov. (Pará; em Desmiphorini: Cotycicuiara magnifica sp. nov. (Amazonas. Novos registros e notas são apresentados para: Gnomidolon insulicola Bates, 1885 e G. lansbergei (Thomson, 1867 (Hexoplonini; Desmiphora (D. uniformis Galileo & Martins, 2003 (Desmiphorini; Omosarotes paradoxum (Tippmann, 1955 (Cyrtinini e Ozotroctes ogeri Tavakilian & Néouze, 2007 (Acanthoderini.

  10. Deep mycoses in Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhari, S; Cunha, M G; Schettini, A P; Talhari, A C

    1988-09-01

    Patients with deep mycoses diagnosed in dermatologic clinics of Manaus (state of Amazonas, Brazil) were studied from November 1973 to December 1983. They came from the Brazilian states of Amazonas, Pará, Acre, and Rondônia and the Federal Territory of Roraima. All of these regions, with the exception of Pará, are situated in the western part of the Amazon Basin. The climatic conditions in this region are almost the same: tropical forest, high rainfall, and mean annual temperature of 26C. The deep mycoses diagnosed, in order of frequency, were Jorge Lobo's disease, paracoccidioidomycosis, chromomycosis, sporotrichosis, mycetoma, cryptococcosis, zygomycosis, and histoplasmosis.

  11. Health and Reproductive Assessment of Selected Puerto Rican Parrots ( Amazona vittata ) in Captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clubb, Susan; Velez, Jafet; Garner, Michael M; Zaias, Julia; Cray, Carolyn

    2015-12-01

    The Puerto Rican parrot ( Amazona vittata ) has become an iconic and high-profile conservation species. The cornerstone of the recovery plan for this critically endangered species is an active captive breeding program, management of the wild population, and a long-term reintroduction program. In 2002, 40 adult Puerto Rican parrots that had not produced viable offspring were selected for reproductive assessment at 2 aviary populations in Puerto Rico (Iguaca and Río Abajo), which are the only sources of parrots for release. The goal was to enhance reproductive potential and produce productive pairings in an attempt to augment the population growth and provide ample individuals for reintroduction. Seven Hispanolian Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) that were used as surrogate parents for the Puerto Rican parrots were also included in the study. This assessment included physical examination, endoscopic evaluation, hematologic and plasma biochemical profiles, viral screening, and hormonal assays. Results of general physical examination and hematologic and plasma biochemical testing revealed overall good health and condition of this subset of the population of Puerto Rican parrots; no major infectious diseases were found. Endoscopic examination also revealed overall good health and condition, especially of females. The apparent low fertility of male birds warrants further investigation. The findings helped to define causes of reproductive failure in the selected pairs and individual birds. New pairings resulting from the assessment helped to augment reproduction of this critically endangered species.

  12. As Organizações da Sociedade Civil no enfrentamento à AIDS no Amazonas, Brasil

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    Michele Rocha Kadri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou analisar a percepção que as Organizações da Sociedade Civil fazem de sua contribuição na história do enfrentamento à AIDS, no Amazonas. Trata-se de pesquisa qualitativa com uso de fontes documentais e orais. Os dados foram coletados entre junho e setembro de 2013. Utilizou-se técnica de entrevistas com roteiro semiestruturado com as lideranças de oito organizações que trabalham/trabalharam com grupos mais vulneráveis. A partir da análise do discurso, concluiu-se que com a descentralização de recursos do Departamento de DST, AIDS e Hepatites Virais para as Coordenações locais, as Organizações reconhecem dois momentos distintos: um primeiro momento de fortalecimento organizacional, engajamento coletivo e participação política ativa; e um momento atual de distanciamento entre as Organizações e desarticulação política e, consequentemente, enfraquecimento do movimento social na luta contra AIDS no Amazonas.

  13. The Paleozoic ichthyofauna of the Amazonas and Parnaíba basins, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Rodrigo Tinoco; Machado, Deusana Maria da Costa

    2018-03-01

    The Brazilian Paleozoic ichthyofauna from the Parnaíba and Amazonas basins regard a sparsely known diversity, including chondrichthyans and acanthodians, besides some osteichthyan remains. This work proposes a revision of the fossil material from these two sedimentary basins and synthesizes the morphological aspect of such material trying to understand the influences of those fossils to the paleontology of the region, comparing the Brazilian fossils with other gondwanan faunas. The Brazilian Paleozoic fish fauna shows great resemblance to those of Bolivia, especially during the Devonian. Many of the Acanthodian spines from the Manacapuru Formation (Amazonas Basin), and the Pimenteira Formation (Parnaíba Basin), are comparable to the taxa found in Bolivia. The lack of more Placoderm remains in the Brazilian outcrops is similar to the low diversity of this group in Bolivia, when compared to other South American and Euramerican localities. The most diverse Brazilian ichthyofauna is encountered in the Permian Pedra de Fogo Formation where numerous chondrichthyans and 'paleopterygians' remains are found, together with dipnoans and actinistians. Despite the apparent lack of more representative Paleozoic ichthyofaunas in Brazil, the available material that ranges from Lower Devonian to early Permian from Brazil bears important taxa that could address valuable taxonomic and biogeographic informations.

  14. Study on the absenteeism of nursing professionals in a psychiatric center in Manaus, Brazil Estudio sobre ausentismo en profesionales de enfermería del centro psiquiátrico de Manaus, Brasil Estudo do absenteísmo dos profissionais de enfermagem de um centro psiquiátrico em Manaus, Brasil

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    Sandra Greice Becker

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This quantitative study was performed to research the rate of absenteeism of nursing professionals in a psychiatric center in Manaus, from January/2004 to January/2005, in the Human Resources sector of the institution. In this period, the records of workers who were absent from their professional activities for at least one day were checked. Results showed that there were 415 absence reports in the nursing team during the studied period, by 74.29% of nursing professionals. The average rate of absenteeism is 2.79. The main reason reported for absenteeism was illness. These data suggest further studies are needed in order to improve professionals' health, allowing for better quality of life, and, consequently, for providing better health care to Single Health System users.Con el objetivo de investigar sobre el índice de ausentismo en trabajadores de enfermería del Centro Psiquiátrico de Manaus, se realizó una investigación cuantitativa durante el periodo de enero de 2004 a enero del 2005 en el sector de recursos humanos de la institución en mención. Durante este periodo se buscó a través de consulta documental, registros de los trabajadores que tuvieron faltas de por lo menos 1 día en sus actividades laborales. Los resultados mostraron que durante el periodo de la investigación, hubo 415 registros de faltas por parte del equipo de enfermería, totalizando 74,29%. El índice del ausentismo profesional fue en promedio 2.79. Se observó que el principal motivo del ausentismo fue por enfermedad. Este hecho resalta la necesidad de mejorar la salud del trabajador, favoreciendo a una mejor calidad de vida en el trabajo y en consecuencia una mejor atención a la salud del usuario a través del SUS.Com o objetivo de investigar o índice de absenteísmo dos trabalhadores de enfermagem de um Centro Psiquiátrico em Manaus, realizou-se esta pesquisa quantitativa, no período de janeiro de 2004 a janeiro de 2005, no setor de recursos humanos da

  15. Ocorrência de enteroparasitas na população geronte de Nova Olinda do Norte Amazonas, Brasil Occurrence of enteroparasites in the elderly population of Nova Olinda do Norte, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Ana Felisa Hurtado-Guerrero

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo para avaliar a prevalência de enteroparasitas em um grupo de idosos ribeirinhos, moradores do Município de Nova Olinda do Norte, Estado do Amazonas Brasil, no período de abril e agosto de 1999. Por meio de um estudo de corte transversal foram analisados 81 exames, através do método de Sedimentação Espontânea (Método de Hoffman et al., 1934. Foi constatada positividade em 72,8% dos idosos, predominando o monoparasitismo (43,2%. Os helmintos foram os mais freqüentes (70,4%, destacando-se: Ascaris lumbricoides (35,2%, Trichuris trichiura (16,0%, Ancylostoma duodenale (9,0% e Strongyloides stercoralis (9,0%. Dentre os protozoários (29,5%, a ocorrência de Entamoeba coli foi de 18,2%, Giárdia lamblia de 7,0% e Entamoeba histolytica 4,5%. Não houve associação estatisticamente significativa entre sexo e grau de parasitismo e entre faixas etárias e condição parasitária. Estes resultados evidenciam um quadro de alta prevalência de parasitas intestinais nesta população e discordam dos reportados por outros pesquisadores quando afirmam que a intensidade da infestação por parasitas diminui na idade avançada. Os achados anteriores exigem das autoridades governamentais medidas de controle e educação para melhorar a qualidade de vida desses idosos, considerando a grave repercussão que esses parasitas tem no estado nutricional dos gerontes de baixa renda.A study was carried out to determine the prevalence of enteroparasites attacking elderly people living in a riverside city of the Municipal district of Nova Olinda do Norte, Amazonas State Brazil. In this cross sectional study were examined the faecal material from 81 elderly people using the method of spontaneous sedimentation (Hoffman et al., 1934. It was found a positiveness in 72,8% of the elderly people examined, predominating the mono parasitism (43,2%. The helminths were more frequents (70,3%: Ascaris lumbricoides (35,2%, Trichuris trichiura (16

  16. Adapting transport modes to supply chains classified by the uncertainty supply chain model: A case study at Manaus Industrial Pole

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    Fabiana Lucena Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses transport modes supporting Uncertainty Supply Chain Model (USCM in the case of Manaus Industrial Pole (PIM, an industrial cluster in the Brazilian Amazon that hosts six hundred factories with diverse logistics and supply chain managerial strategies. USCM (Lee, 2002; Fisher, 1997develops a dot matrix classification of the supply chains considering several attributes (e.g., agility, cost, security, responsiveness and argues that emergent economies industrial clusters, in the effort to keep attractiveness for technological frontier firms, need to adapt supply chain strategies according to USCM attributes. The paper takes a further step, discussing which transport modes are suitable to each supply chain classified at the USCM in PIM´s case. The research´s methods covered the use of PIM´s statistical official database (secondary data, interviews with the main logistical services providers of PIM and phone survey with a sample of firms (primary data. Findings confirm the theoretical argument that different supply chains will demand different transport modes running at the same time in the same industrial cluster (Oliveira, 2009. In the case of PIM, this implies investments on port and airport infrastructure and a strategic focus on air transport mode, due to (1 short life cycle of products, (2 distance from suppliers, (3 quick response to demand and (4 the fact that even PIM´s standard products use, in average, forty per cent of air transport at inbound logistics.

  17. Reptilia, Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae, Arthrosaura reticulata (O'Shaughnessy, 1881: Distribution extension and new state record.

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    Mott, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Arthrosaura reticulata (O´Shaugnessy, 1881 is reported from two localities in Mato Grosso, Brazil. It representsthe first state record for the species, extending its known distribution in 830 km southeastern of the southernmost recordin the state of Amazonas and 470 km eastern of the state of Rondônia, the southernmost record of the species.

  18. Eunotiaceae (Bacillariophyceae em igarapés da Amazônia Central, Manaus e Presidente Figueiredo, Brasil Eunotiaceae (Bacillariophyceae from central Amazon rivers, Manaus and Presidente Figueiredo districts, Brasil

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    Fernanda Ferrari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudos florísticos e taxonômicos envolvendo diatomáceas são escassos para a região amazônica. As publicações existentes incluem registros de diatomáceas da Amazônia brasileira, do Equador, da Colômbia e do Peru e comumente mostram que Eunotia e Actinella (Eunotiaceae são gêneros bem representados nessa região. A maioria dos igarapés amazônicos costuma apresentar potencial hidrogeniônico (pH ácido, característica aquática que promove o desenvolvimento de uma comunidade típica de diatomáceas, dominada por espécimes de Eunotiaceae. O objetivo deste trabalho foi providenciar um levantamento florístico das espécies de Eunotiaceae presentes em igarapés da Amazônia Central brasileira e registrar os morfotipos de algumas espécies. Amostras fitoplanctônicas e perifíticas foram coletadas em cinco igarapés na rodovia BR-174, em Manaus e Presidente Figueiredo, em setembro e outubro de 1996 e fevereiro e março de 1997. Lâminas permanentes foram preparadas de acordo com a técnica de oxidação lenta para o estudo qualitativo. Vinte e três espécies pertencentes ao gênero Eunotia e seis ao gênero Actinella foram determinadas. Chaves dicotômicas de identificação, descrição detalhada, comentários relevantes e ilustrações foram providenciadas para cada táxon determinado. Morfotipos foram documentados para Eunotia zygodon. Espécies raramente citadas na literatura foram registradas, tais como, Eunotia falcifera e Eunotia rostellata.Floristic and taxonomical studies about diatoms to Amazonian region are commonly well represented by Eunotia and Actinella (Eunotiaceae. The available works include diatom assemblage from Brazilian, Ecuadorian, Colombian and Peruvian Amazonia. The local streams often present acid pH which provides environmental conditions to develop a very particular diatom community dominated by specimens of Eunotiaceae. Thus, the aim of this paper is to give a floristic survey of Eunotiaceae from central

  19. Fatores de risco e profilaxia para tromboembolismo venoso em hospitais da cidade de Manaus Risk factors and prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism in hospitals in the city of Manaus, Brazil

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    Edson de Oliveira Andrade

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar e classificar os fatores de risco para tromboembolismo venoso (TEV em pacientes internados, avaliando as condutas médicas adotadas para a profilaxia da doença. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, de corte transversal no período de janeiro a março de 2006, envolvendo uma população de pacientes internados em três hospitais na cidade de Manaus (AM. A estratificação do risco para TEV foi feita com base nos critérios da Sociedade Brasileira de Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular e da International Union of Angiology. Foram avaliados variáveis sobre os fatores de risco clínicos, cirúrgicos e medicamentosos, assim como os métodos profiláticos para TEV. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente, adotando-se um alfa de 5% e IC95%. Os dados qualitativos foram analisados pelo teste do qui-quadrado e os dados quantitativos pelo teste t de Student. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 1.036 pacientes num total de 1.051 internações, sendo 515 (49,7% homens e 521 (50,3% mulheres. Um total de 23 de fatores de risco para TEV foram identificados (número total de eventos, 2.319. O risco estratificado para TEV foi de 50,6%, 18,6% e 30,8% das internações para risco alto, moderado e baixo, respectivamente. Em 73,3% das internações, não foram adotadas medidas profiláticas não-medicamentosas durante o período do estudo, e em 74% das internações que apresentavam risco moderado ou alto, não foram adotadas quaisquer medidas terapêuticas medicamentosas. CONCLUSÕES: Este estudo evidenciou que, na população estudada, os fatores de risco foram frequentes e que medidas profiláticas não foram utilizadas para pacientes com riscos potenciais de desenvolverem TEV e suas complicações.OBJECTIVE: To identify and classify risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE in hospitalized patients, as well as to evaluate medical practices regarding prophylaxis for the disease. METHODS: An observational cross-sectional study, carried out between

  20. Vila amazonas: antes um espaço "acionado" hoje um passado esquecido

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    Jaqueline Ferreira de Lima Brito

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Um projeto inovador situado no município de Santana no Estado do Amapá, Vila Amazonas se destacou como um centro autônomo, dotado de uma perfeita infra-estrutura, que fugia dos padrões vividos no município. Um trabalho conciso de exemplar aplicação dos princípios modernistas, bem como do urbanismo progressista especificamente no que concerne a cidade industrial, onde a razão determinante de tal estabelecimento é a presença próxima de matéria-prima, existência de uma força natural suscetível e a comodidade dos meios de transportes. O estudo coloca em discussão aspectos importantes da preservação do patrimônio que no momento se encontra na eminência de ser destruído e esquecido.

  1. Gêneros Textuais e formação de professores (PARFOR para o interior do Amazonas

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    Paulo Vinícius Ávila Nóbrega

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O intuito deste artigo é mostrar duas propostas de produção de gêneros textuais escritos elaboradas por professores cursistas de uma disciplina do Plano Nacional de Formação de Professores de Educação Básica, da Universidade Federal do Amazonas. Os dados correspondem a projetos de aula com produção textual com gênero escrito ou oral entregues pelos cursistas como requisito de conclusão da disciplina. Estes projetos procuram ser baseados nas postulações da sequência didática de Schneuwly e Dolz (2007 e no método dos descritores do SAEB para a Prova Brasil. Percebeu-se que alguns proponentes compreenderam o funcionamento produtivo das aulas de língua portuguesa quando usadas as produções de gêneros de texto presentes no cotidiano dos alunos.

  2. ‘Nação Mestiça’: As políticas étnico-raciais vistas da periferia de Manaus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Véran

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Em 2001, nasce nos subúrbios de Manaus o movimento social Nação Mestiça. Seu discurso pode ser resumido por uma fórmula: “sou mestiço nas minhas origens, caboclo na minha cultura e cidadão frente aos meus direitos”. A partir de uma sociologia pragmática, que consiste em levar o movimento a sério em sua existência e seu discurso, o texto procura mostrar a configuração ideológica e prática da questão da “igualdade racial”, tal como ela aparece e se manifesta do ponto de vista de seus integrantes. Pretendese assim entender um lugar lógico, entre muitos outros, a partir dos quais se questiona a democracia brasileira. In 2001, the social movement Nação Mestiça arose in the poor suburbs of Manaus. Its proposal can be summarised by a single statement: “I’m mestizo in my origins, caboclo in my culture, and a citizen in relation to my rights.” Adopting a pragmatic sociological approach, which consists in taking the movement seriously in terms of its existence and proposal, the article ‘Nação Mestiça’: Ethnic-Racial Policies Seen from the Manaus Outskirts attempts to demonstrate the ideological and practical confi guration of the “racial equality” issue, as it is appears and is expressed from the viewpoint of the movement’s members. Thus, a logical position is sought, among many others, from where Brazilian democracy is questioned.

  3. PESQUISA ESCOLAR: a prática dos bibliotecários nas escolas públicas municipais de Manaus-AM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquiles Santos Pinheiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho aborda a pesquisa escolar e a prática dos bibliotecários das escolas públicas de Manaus-AM. Sabe-se que a pesquisa escolar está vinculada à construção do conhecimento que por sua vez, implica a relação ensino-aprendizagem, além de ser uma possibilidade para que o estudante chegue sozinho às fontes de informações à sua disposição. Para discutir o tema em questão, foi necessário analisar as práticas dos bibliotecários no processo ensino-aprendizagem junto à biblioteca escolar pública. Portanto, a pesquisa teve a sua aplicabilidade voltada à pesquisa escolar e as práticas dos bibliotecários nas escolas municipais da cidade de Manaus-AM, cujo foco da pesquisa foi identificar em que o profissional bibliotecário pode contribui para o processo ensino-aprendizagem. Nesse sentido, foram aplicados questionários com bibliotecários das escolas municipais de Manaus, o que possibilitou uma maior aproximação com a realidade vivenciada nas bibliotecas, onde resultados preliminares demonstraram que há grande participação destes profissionais no incentivo à pesquisa escolar. Os resultados confirmam que a prática da pesquisa escolar com auxílio dos profissionais de biblioteconomia contribui de maneira satisfatória para despertar o interesse dos estudantes para o mundo da leitura e escrita.

  4. Estudo de misturas asf?lticas com res?duo de constru??o e demoli??o oriundo do munic?pio de Manaus-AM.

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Diego Meneses de

    2010-01-01

    A disserta??o ora apresentada tem por objetivo realizar estudo sobre a utiliza??o de res?duos de constru??es e demoli??es (RCD) como agregado gra?do em concreto asf?ltico, buscando solu??o t?cnica e ambiental para a car?ncia hist?rica de agregados p?treos no munic?pio de Manaus-AM. A pesquisa exp?e caracter?sticas peculiares do material alternativo, comparando com o seixo rolado, elemento usual nas misturas asf?lticas utilizadas regionalmente. Realizouse a dosagem de uma mistur...

  5. Distribui??o de ?gua pot?vel na cidade de Manaus: considera??es sobre os primeiros anos de privatiza??o do Sistema

    OpenAIRE

    Magalh?es, Julio Cesar Moraes

    2004-01-01

    A satisfa??o das necessidades basicas de urna popula??o. como saude. Seguran?a, saneamento b?sico, entre outras, e condi??o necessaria para que se possa partir para um processo de desenvolvimento dessa popula??o. Mesmo situada no seio da maior reserva de agua doce do planeta, Manaus ainda conta com um expressivo percentual da popula??o sem acesso a ?gua pot?vel. A Conferencia de Estocolmo (1972), a Agenda 21 na ECO 92 no Rio de Janeiro ou proclama??o da D?cada da ?gua em 1981 pela Confer?n...

  6. Incidência de Mancha Púrpura (Alternaria porri Ell. Cif.) em cultivares e híbridos de cebola (Allium cepa L.), em Manaus, Am. ()

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Maria Luiza Braz; Paiva, Waldelice Oliveira; Assis, Luís Alberto Guimarães

    1982-01-01

    Resumo Avaliou-se, em Manaus, AM, a intensidade do ataque de Alternaria porri em híbridos e cultivares de cebola (Allium cepa L.) A doença ocorreu naturalmente e efetuaram-se as observações ao final do ciclo vegetativo. Considerou-se o total de plantas avaliadas como 100% e as plantas, de acordo com a porcentagem de infecção, foram enquadradas nas seguintes classes: I ((0-10%); II (10-30%); III (30-50%); IV (50-70%) e V (> 70%). O híbrido (Px-76) foi o único a apresentar plantas na classe com...

  7. Associa??o entre fatores socioambientais e a presen?a do vetor da dengue: uma perspectiva da geografia da sa?de na cidade de Manaus

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Renato Ferreira de

    2010-01-01

    A Geografia da Sa?de tem contribu?do bastante nos estudos sobre o processo sa?de-doen?a. Essa abordagem permite compreender a din?mica que ocorre no espa?o geogr?fico em rela??o a um determinado agravo ou doen?a. O comportamento da distribui??o espacial do dengue ? um bom exemplo para compreender essa din?mica. Dessa forma, essa pesquisa procurou associar a densidade larval na cidade de Manaus atrav?s do Levantamento de ?ndice R?pido do Aedes aegypti (LIRAa), mas levando em considera??o fator...

  8. Using of the AMS - 14 C technique for dating of soil charcoals, from holocene period, in the amazon forest(Manaus-Brazil region)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G.M.; Gomes, P.R.S.; Anjos, R.M.; Cordeiro, R.C.; Turcq, B.J.; Sifeddine, A.; Tada, M.L. di; Cresswell, R.G.; Fifield, L.K.

    1999-01-01

    The Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) technique was used to determine the radiocarbon age of charcoal fragments of soil samples from the Amazon Region near Manaus. The radiocarbon ages are within the 130 - 2400 years range. The interpretation is that these results are evidences of important fire events that occurred mostly during the superior Holocene dry phase. These res had spread out more intensely at the high land areas than at shoals. In this paper there are descriptions of the processes of sample preparation and the procedures for the AMS analysis. (author)

  9. A presen?a de mulheres negras em cargos hierarquizados da Secretaria Municipal de Educa??o de Manaus: racismo e impasse na sua perten?a e autodeclara??o

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Maria do Perpetuo Socorro Lima

    2015-01-01

    Esta pesquisa tem por objeto o estudo da presen?a de mulheres negras em cargos hierarquizados da Secretaria Municipal de Educa??o de Manaus, tem?tica pouco explorada nas ci?ncias sociais e que hoje surge com grande potencial de an?lise. O prop?sito deste estudo consiste em verificar a forma pela qual as mulheres negras adentram os espa?os de poder na Secretaria Municipal de Educa??o de Manaus, dando destaque tanto para o aspecto do preconceito enfrentado por elas no ?mbito do t...

  10. Lutzomyia reducta Feliciangeli et al., 1988, a host of Leishmania amazonensis, sympatric with two other members of the Flaviscutellata complex in southern Amazonas and Rondônia, Brazil (Diptera: Psychodidae Lutzomyia reducta Feliciangeli et al., 1988 um hospedeiro de Leishmania amazonensis, simpátrico com duas outras espécies do complexo flaviscutellata no sul do Amazonas e Rondônica, Brasil (Diptera: Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Freitas

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available A member of the Lutzomyia flaviscutellata complex from Rondônia and southern Amazonas States, Brazil, is so close to the Venezuelan Lutzomyia olmeca recuta Feliciangeli et al., 1988, that it is regarded as belonging to the same species. Since this phlebotomine co-extis with L. olmeca nociva in Brazil, the subspecific status of the former is untenable and is rased to specific rank, as Lutzomyia reducta. The Brazilian material is described and illustrated, and compared with specimens of L. o. nociva and L. flaviscutellata from the same area. Keys to the known taxa of the flaviscutellata complex are presented. Leishmania amazonensis was isolated from one heavily infected specimen of L. reducta, making this the third species of the flaviscutellata complex to be implicated as a vector of this parasite in Brazil. The relative abundance of the three sympatric flaviscutellata complex species varies locally and appears to be related to soil drainage. L. reducta constituted about 25% if all phlebotomines captured in Disney traps at poorly drained and well drained site, but appears not to coloniza areas subject to periodic flooding. L. olmeca nociva was restricted to poorly drained areas not subject to flooding, whereas L. flaviscutellata was ubiquitous L. reducta has never been detected north of the Amazon river in Brazil, but absence of recosrds from western and northwestern Amazonas State may reflect lack of collecting in these areas.Um flebotomíneo do complexo Lutzomyia flaviscutellata, de Rondônia e sul do Amazonas, Brasil é tão parecido com Lutzomyia olmeca reducta, que é considerado como sendo da mesma espécie. Este flebotomíneo ocorre junto com L. olmeca nociva, portanto o nome é emendado para o nível de espécie, como Lutzomyia reducta. O material do Brasil é descrito e ilustrado, e comparado com exemplares de L. o. nociva e L. flaviscutellata da mesma área. Chaves para as espécies e subespécies do complexo flaviscutellata são inclu

  11. Redes sociales en una investigación de migración indígena: el caso de Manaus Redes sociais em uma investigação de migração indígena: o caso de Manaus Social networks in a study on migration of Brazilian Indians: the case of the city of Manaus

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    Leonardo H. G. Fígoli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende discutir algunos aspectos de método en el mapeo de redes sociales con migrantes indígenas, a partir de una investigación etnográfica realizada con un grupo de migrantes indios (Alto Río Negro y residentes en la ciudad de Manaus (Amazonia. El trazado de las redes sociales fue una herramienta crucial en campo, permitiendo identificar los individuos dispersados en el lugar de destino de la migración, obtener datos sobre los modos de desplazamiento o instalación de los migrantes en el medio urbano. Si, por una parte, se mostró un importante instrumento de investigación, se reveló también como noción esencial desde el punto de vista teórico, ya que las propias redes diseñadas constituían una fuerte evidencia de la cohesión social, de la manutención y reelaboración de los lazos étnicos en el contexto urbano. Las redes mapeadas, por ejemplo, revelaron la maleabilidad de las fronteras étnicas diseñadas por los grupos, resultado de las relaciones sociales desarrolladas durante el trayecto migratorio, al paso que nos obligaba a aprehender el fenómeno étnico desde el punto de vista de una genuina antropología relacional. Hoy, las nuevas tecnologías informatizadas permiten la mejor visualización y el análisis más detallado de las redes sociales (ARS, que el que fue posible realizar manualmente en la época de la investigación (1980. Los nuevos recursos hacen aún más importante esa herramienta en la investigación etnográfica. Discutir las múltiples posibilidades y aplicaciones en la investigación de flujos migratorios indígenas es lo que proponemos en este trabajo.Este trabalho pretende discutir alguns aspectos metodológicos do mapeamento de redes sociais com migrantes indígenas, a partir de uma pesquisa etnográfica realizada junto a um grupo de migrantes índios (Alto Rio Negro e moradores de Manaus (Amazônia. O desenho das redes sociais constituiu um instrumento de campo, permitindo identificar

  12. [HIV-1 infection after occupational accidents in the State of Amazonas: first reported case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Noaldo Oliveira de; Pereira, Flávio Ribeiro; Barros, Flávio Silveira de; Silva, Nélson Barbosa da; Alexandre, Márcia Almeida de Araújo; Castilho, Márcia da Costa; Alecrim, Maria das Graças Costa

    2011-10-01

    The medical care of occupational accidents in Tropical Medicine Foundation Dr. Heitor Dourado (FMT-HVD), involving blood and body fluids, started routinely in 1999. The objective of this report is to emphasize the importance of the measures used for the control of accidents with biological material. This study is carried out after a detailed epidemiological investigation confirmed one case of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroconversion after an occupational accident involving bodily fluids and sharp instruments.

  13. Geochronologic study of sediments deposition of two lakes from the Rio Negro basin, Amazonas State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Ana Carla F.; Mozeto, Antonio A.; Cazotti, Raul I.; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F.; Taddei, Maria Helena

    2000-01-01

    Since 1963 the radionuclide 210 Pb became an important tool for dating (geochronology) recent sediments (up to 120 years). In this work the sedimentary geochronology of two lakes from the Negro River Basin was determined, using different radiochemical separation methods for 210 Pb and 226 Ra. (author)

  14. Molecular Epidemiology of Epidemic Severe Malaria Caused by Plasmodium vivax in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Suarez, C.F., Florez, C., del Portillo, H.A.; Andrade, L.E. Direct Submission to NCBI gene bank. Submitted 03-JAN-1997. Laboratorio de Biologia Molecular...Departamento de Biologia , Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Ciudad Universitaria, Santa Fe de Bogota, D.C., Colombia. Nardin, E.H.; Zavala, F

  15. Acidez potencial pelo método do pH SMP no Estado do Amazonas Potential acidity by pH SMP method in Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adônis Moreira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi definir um modelo matemático que estime o H+Al a partir do pH SMP medido em água e em solução de CaCl2 0,01 mol L-1 nas condições edafoclimáticas locais. Foram utilizadas 246 amostras de solo provenientes de diversas localidades. Mesmo apresentando menor coeficiente da correlação (r = 0,89*, a equação H+Al = 30,646 - 3,848pH SMP obtida em H2O foi mais eficiente que a obtida em solução CaCl2 (H+Al = 30,155 - 3,834pH SMP, r = 0,91*, a qual subestima os valores da acidez potencial.The objective of this work was to determine a mathematic model that estimates the potential acidity with pH SMP measured in water and in solution of CaCl2 0.01 mol L-1. Two hundred and forty six soil samples from several localities were utilized. Despite presenting a lower correlation coefficient (r = 0.89*, the equation H+Al = 30.646 - 3.848pH SMP, obtained in H2O, was more efficient than in the CaCl2 solution (H+Al = 30.155 -3.834pH SMP, r = 0.91*, since this last one underestimates the values of the potential acidity.

  16. Estudio fitoquímico y biológico preliminar de la corteza (tallo de vismia cayennensis proveniente del estado Amazonas, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marín, Karina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A chemical and biological preliminary study of the species Vismia cayennensis, collected in the Amazonas state, Venezuela. The antibacterial test of plant bark extract showed significant inhibition in Escherichia coli, Shigella sp and Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, three of the five soluble fractions of different polarity solvents, specifically those of chloroform, acetone and water, maintained moderately active against Shigella sp strain. The hydroalcoholic extract of the plant and the fraction soluble in chloroform, exhibited a significant antiinflammatory effect. Cytotoxicity tests performed by the methods of (3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboximetoxifenil-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium/phenazine methosulfate of (MTS/PMS and sulforhodamine B , revealed that only has water soluble cytotoxic effect. Additionally, a study phytochemical obtained information on the presence of some families of secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, saponins, tannins, polyphenols, anthraquinones, triterpenes and sterols. It can be inferred that the stem bark of the plant V. cayennensis, is a promising source of bioactive secondary metabolites

  17. Innovation tube transport using helicopters to minimize the construction risk of Urucu-Manaus pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Jean Luis C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mendes, Jeane R.; Rodrigues, Jose Alberto S.; Rocha, Katia Rosilene S. [CONCREMAT Engenharia e Tecnologia Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Our purpose is to focus on the Safety, Environment and Health (SEH) Management, integrated to pipeline construction and assembly, aiming at minimizing the risks involving the transportation and handling of 20-inch pipes. Please note that peculiar, challenging situations occur when constructing a gas pipeline at the Coari-Anama Section, which leads to some difficulty in the exploitation of oil and gas, where fragile elements represented by the environment and man are faced in this evolution and progress process. Overcoming the severe conditions while streaming 196.6-km-length of pipes in flooded lands no doubt represented a real challenge. State-of-the-art techniques have been implemented such as air transportation of pipes, with two large-sized helicopters being used (Kamov and S64 Skycrane). This has demanded integrated actions to be adopted, involving transportation of concrete pipes, double joints, pipesak, hydraulic excavators, net carrier containing assorted materials, skids and natural gas pressure, measurement and filtering equipment. Nevertheless, we have succeeded in reducing the rate of exposure to the construction and assembly process risks, thus minimizing occurrences and improving the conditions of processes, where, had the conventional method been used, would have led to a great amount of incidents and accidents, resulting mainly from the huge logistic difficulties, which would expose the task force to high potential risks. (author)

  18. Physicians, diseases, and territory occupation at the Comissão de Linhas Telegráficas Estratégicas de Mato Grosso ao Amazonas (1907-1915

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Torres Caser

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the reports generated by physicians participating in the Comissão de Linhas Telegráficas Estratégicas de Mato Grosso ao Amazonas (CLTEMTA, or Rondon Commission, that labored in these states between 1907 and 1915. The commission had as its objective the construction of telegraph lines to the borders of Brazil with Bolivia and Peru. The construction activity was also accompanied by scientific studies for the 'productive occupation' of the region and by the writing of medical assessments of the region. These assessments of the so called 'northwest hinterlands' (sertões highlighted the region's unhealthy climate and the debilitating impact of malaria. The purpose is to analyze the impact of this disease in the works of the CLTEMTA. Our hypothesis is that one of its main effects was the elaboration of medical studies more and more detailed about the possible causes of diseases in that region.

  19. Espacialidade e temporalidades das vilas e cidade amazônicas: da vila de Ega à cidade de Tefé nas Cartas dos Governadores da Província do Amazonas, 1852-1857.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandriele Pessoa dos Santos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the emergence and permanence of the Amazonian cities in the area corresponding to the present state of Amazonas, it was necessary to describe the political and economic facts that led to the disappearance of towns and villages or their spatialisation. The methodology is based on the investigative and descriptive analysis of primary documents. It seeks to reconstruct Tefe's geo-history and its spatiality from Vila to the city. The results show that in the mid-nineteenth century the events related to the elevation of the Amazon to the Province in 1850, the creation of the Comarca of Solimões in 1853 with headquarters in Ega, the introduction of steam navigation and the installation of new institutions to house the apparatus Legal-administrative, transplanted of the Capital. They created the conditions for the improvement of the infrastructure of the village and were conditions to elevate it to the condition of city.

  20. Determinantes e conseqüências da insegurança alimentar no Amazonas: a influência dos ecossistemas Alimentary insecurity determinants and consequences at Amazonas: ecosystems influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Hélio Alencar

    2007-01-01

    in these researches the systematic exclusion of the rural area from North region of the new national epidemic picture, currently characterized by the decline of the infantile malnutrition and concomitant rise of the obesity, beyond the lack of scientific investigation to be in reference the health, nutrition and survival conditions of the practically all the populations of North region states. Specifically for Amazonas state lesser stature is referred among the Brazilian children that become evident to exposition nutritional needs at long term. The same way, the evolutionary analysis of the regional researches characterizes the persistence of a serious picture of alimentary insecurity. However, it is known that the Amazonia holds a great diversity in fishes and fruits, what should represent an abundant offer and to make use of protein of the highest biological quality, calories, vitamins, minerals, and like this, to make possible an appropriate pattern of health, nutrition and life quality for its population. The social and economical reality, as well as the picture of precariousness of the health and nutritional of the region contradicts with its abundance in natural resources. For the understanding of this obvious paradox the components of the Amazon Bioma were investigated with relation to the: heterogeneity, complexity, fragility, interactivity and their relations with the alimentary potential of the region, as well as its influence ability in the determination of the binomial health versus nutrition for the inhabitants of their several ecosystems.

  1. Activities of tabanids (Diptera, Tabanidae attacking domestic duck-Cairina moschata (Linnaeus (Aves, Anatidae, introduced in a forest area in the Central Amazon, Manaus, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth L. M. Ferreira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Presented here are the feeding habits, attack behavior, daily and annual activity of adult of Phorcotabanus cinereus (Wiedeman, 1821, Chrysops laetus (Fabricius, 1805 and Phaeotabanus cajennensis (Fabricius, 1787, while biting a domestic duck, Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758. The last two species were recorded for the first time attacking birds. This study comprehended monthly observations of two consecutive days from April/97 to March/98 between 5:30 a.m. and 6:30 p.m. at the Army Instructional Base ((BI-2/CIGS near Manaus. Annual occurrence of P. cinereus was from July to September, with a daily occurrence between 9:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m. and highest activity at 12:00 a.m. and 2:00 p.m. C. laetus ocurred from June to October; with a daily occurrence between 8:00 a.m. and 3 p.m. and highest activity at 11:00 and 12:00 a.m. Occurrence of P. cajennensis with one specimen only, was in July between 10:00 and 11:00 a.m.Atividades de tabanídeos (Diptera, Tabanidae atacando pato doméstico Cairina moschata Linnaeus (Aves, Anatidae, introduzido em área de floresta na Amazônia Central, Manaus, Brasil. São apresentados o hábito alimentar, comportamento de ataque, atividade diária e anual de adultos de Phorcotabanus cinereus (Wiedemann, 1821, Chrysops laetus (Fabricius, 1805 e Phaeotabanus cajennensis (Fabricius, 1787 atacando pato doméstico - Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758. As últimas duas últimas espécies são registradas pela primeira vez atacando aves. O estudo compreendeu observações mensais durante dois dias consecutivos de Abril/97 a Março/98, entre 5:30 e 18:30 h, na base de instrução 2 do Centro de Instrução de Guerra na Selva (BI-2/CIGS, Manaus. A ocorrência anual de P. cinereus, foi de julho a setembro, com atividade diária entre 9:00 e 17:00 horas, com maior abundância entre 12:00 e 14:00 horas. C. laetus, ocorreu de junho a outubro, com atividade diária entre 8:00 e 15:00 horas, e maior abundância entre 11:00 e 12

  2. Mujeres y poder: Amazonas en el cine contemporáneo para adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Menéndez Menéndez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Las amazonas son un símbolo femenino que aparece en obras artísticas y textos literarios, construyendo un imaginario de mujeres míticas y guerreras del que se han alimentado múltiples obras de cultura popular, casi siempre desde un punto de vista patriarcal y/o fálico. Sin embargo, es posible descubrir la existencia de algunos productos mainstream que subvierten esta representación, configurando un perfil heroico positivo y emancipador. El presente texto ofrece un análisis de dos obras recientes dirigidas a público juvenil: la película de animación Brave (Mark Andrews y Brenda Chapman, 2012 y la saga cinematográfica The Hunger Games (Gary Ross, 2012; Francis Lawrence, 2013, 2014 y 2015. En ambos casos existe un protagonismo femenino incuestionable que, desde un análisis feminista, ofrece una alternativa a la mayoría de personajes de la industria audiovisual, caracterizados por el sexismo y la subordinación a lo masculino pues, tanto Mérida como Katniss, son descritas como heroínas independientes, con personalidad y capacidad de decisión.

  3. Acetylcholinesterase concentrations in heparinized blood of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Thomas N; Osofsky, Anna; Jowett, Peter L H; Hosgood, Giselle

    2003-12-01

    Organophosphate and carbamate pesticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) at nerve synapses. Blood samples from 22 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) were assayed for cholinesterase levels by two different techniques. Using the modified Michel method, the whole-blood cholinesterase activity levels ranged from 0.082 to 0.616 deltapH/hr with a mean value of 0.35 deltapH/hr. A reference range (0.08-0.62 deltapH/hr) for cholinesterase was established in birds. The modified Ellman spectrophotometric method was used to measure AChE activity by adding acetylthiocholine or pseudocholinesterase (plasma cholinesterase) activity by adding butyrylthiocholine. The reference range of the AChE activity using the modified Ellman spectrophotometric method was 0-1.12 micromol/ml/min with a mean of 0.48 micromol/ml/min, and for pseudocholinesterase the range was 0.09-0.98 micromol/ml/min with a mean of 0.53 micromol/ml/min.

  4. Analgesic effects of intramuscular administration of meloxicam in Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis) with experimentally induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Gretchen A; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Krugner-Higby, Lisa; Klauer, Julia M; Medlin, Scott E; Keuler, Nicholas S; Sladky, Kurt K

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVE-To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of meloxicam in parrots with experimentally induced arthritis, with extent of weight bearing and rotational perch walking used as outcome measures. ANIMALS-15 adult Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis). PROCEDURES-Arthritis was experimentally induced via intra-articular injection of microcrystalline sodium urate suspension (MSU) into 1 intertarsal joint. Parrots were treated in a crossover design. Five treatments were compared as follows: meloxicam (4 dosages) at 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg (IM, q 12 h, 3 times) and 0.03 mL of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (IM, q 12 h, 3 times). The first treatment was given 6 hours following MSU administration. Lameness was assessed by use of a biomechanical perch to record weight-bearing load and a rotational perch to determine dexterity. Feces were collected to assay for occult blood. RESULTS-Parrots treated with meloxicam at 1.0 mg/kg had significantly better return to normal (baseline) weight bearing on the arthritic pelvic limb, compared with control parrots or parrots treated with meloxicam at 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 mg/kg. All fecal samples collected from parrots following induction of arthritis and treatment with meloxicam had negative results for occult blood. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Meloxicam administered at 1.0 mg/kg, IM, every 12 hours effectively relieved arthritic pain in parrots.

  5. DEVELOPMENT AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE BRACHIAL PLEXUS IN BLUE-FRONTED PARROT (Amazona aestiva, Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayssa Marley Nóbrega da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Local anesthetic procedures are commonly used in domestic and wild birds, because of its low cost and fast induction, as long as applied with great precision, which requires specific anatomical knowledge of the site of incision. This study aimed to establish the origin and distribution of the brachial plexus of the Blue-fronted Parrot (Amazona aestiva by anatomic dissection of the skin and musculature of 22 specimens (17 males and 5 females from the Wild Animals Screening Center of the Federal District after death by natural causes. The dissection work promoted the isolation of the forming roots of the brachial plexus, as well as its ramifications. The brachial plexus was formed by four trunks, including the ventral spinal cord rami segments from C9 to C10, C10 to C11, C11 to T1 and T1 to T2, which joined into a short common trunk, branched into dorsal and ventral cords. The thin nerves subcoracoideus and subscapularis and the branch to the scapulohumeralis muscle originated from the common trunk. The dorsal cord originated the anconeal, axillaris and radialis nerves, while the ventral cord gave origin for the pectoralis cranialis, pectoralis caudalis, coracobrachialis and medianoulnaris. These branches innervated the muscles of the extensor and flexor compartments of the forelimb, pectoral muscles and overlying skin.

  6. Nota sobre la dieta de la Lechucita Bigotona, Xenoglaux loweryi en Yambrasbamba, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Alarcón

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se dan a conocer los resultados del análisis de heces de la Lechucita Bigotona (Xenoglaux loweryi, especie endémica de Perú y en peligro de extinción según IUCN, que habita los bosques montanos húmedos de la cordillera Oriental de los Andes. Entre enero y setiembre de 2014, durante evaluaciones sobre la ecología de este búho en el área de bosque montano conocido como “La Jalca”, en la comunidad de Yambrasbamba, Amazonas; se colectaron cuatro muestras de heces de diferentes individuos, en los meses de mayo, julio, agosto y setiembre correspondientemente. Estos fueron analizados, encontrándose fragmentos característicos del orden Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Ortoptera y Lepidoptera. Confirmándose que parte de su dieta son pequeños insectos; al igual que otros pequeños estrígidos.

  7. Conodont color alteration index and upper Paleozoic thermal history of the Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Cassiane Negreiros; Sanz-López, Javier; Blanco-Ferrera, Silvia; Lemos, Valesca Brasil; Scomazzon, Ana Karina

    2015-12-01

    The conodont color alteration index (CAI) was determined in elements from core samples of the Frasnian Barreirinha Formation (one well) and of the Pennsylvanian-Permian Tapajós Group (twenty three wells and one limestone quarry) in the Amazonas Basin. The thermal history of the basin is analyzed using the CAI value distribution represented in maps and stratigraphic sections through correlation schemes, and in conjunction with previously published data. The pattern of palaeotemperatures for CAI values of 1.5-3 is coincident with organic matter maturation under a sedimentary overburden providing diagenetic conditions in the oil/gas window. Locally, conodonts show metamorphism (CAI value of 6-7) in relation to the intrusion of diabase bodies in beds including high geothermal gradient evaporites. Microtextural alteration on the surface conodonts commonly shows several types of overgrowth microtextures developed in diagenetic conditions. Locally, recrystallization in conodonts with a high CAI value is congruent with contact metamorphism in relation to Mesozoic intrusions. The CAI values of 1.5 or 2 observed close to the surface in several areas of the basin may be interpreted in relation to a high thermal palaeogradient derived from the magmatic episode or/and to the local denudation of the upper part of the Paleozoic succession prior to this thermal event.

  8. Hydrocephalus in a yellow-headed Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala oratrix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Krista A; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Muthuswamy, Anantharaman; Forrest, Lisa J; Steinberg, Howard; Sladky, Kurt; Petersen, Sophie

    2011-09-01

    A 37-year-old female yellow-headed Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala oratrix) was presented after a 4-month-period behavior change and intermittent episodes of obtunded mentation. Clinical findings on physical examination included ataxia, a weak grasp, and reluctance to move. Results of magnetic resonance imaging were consistent with severe hydrocephalus without evidence of cerebrospinal fluid obstruction. The bird was treated with tapering dosages of prednisolone over a 4-month period, during which time the episodes did not occur. Discontinuation of treatment was attempted several times but resulted in relapse. After 3.5 years of maintenance treatment with prednisolone, the bird was presented subsequent to a 5-hour episode of obtunded mentation and worsening neurologic signs. Despite increasing the dose of prednisolone and providing additional supportive care, the bird's condition worsened, and euthanasia was elected. Necropsy findings included severe hydrocephalus with significant loss of right cerebral parenchyma and no evidence of cerebrospinal fluid obstruction. Histologic examination of the remaining cerebral parenchyma revealed a moderate, multifocal, cellular infiltrate; encephalomalacia; fibrosis; and hemosiderosis in tissue adjacent to the distended ventricles. Other findings included hepatic vacuolar degeneration. Diagnostic imaging and postmortem findings were consistent with a diagnosis of hydrocephalus ex vacuo. To our knowledge, this is the first report of hydrocephalus in an Amazon parrot as well as the first report of hydrocephalus in any avian species associated with long-term follow-up and prolonged corticosteroid treatment.

  9. Renal, gastrointestinal, and hemostatic effects of oral administration of meloxicam to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Bas; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Gustavsen, Kate; Owens, Sean D; Hass, Carlyle; Kass, Philip H; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2015-04-01

    To investigate renal, gastrointestinal, and hemostatic effects associated with oral administration of multiple doses of meloxicam to healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 12 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Birds were assigned to receive meloxicam oral suspension (1.6 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) and 2.5 mL of tap water inserted into the crop by use of a gavage tube (n = 8) or the equivalent volume of tap water only (control group; 4) for 15 days. Urine and feces were collected 2 hours after treatment administration each day. Feces were evaluated for occult blood. Results of a CBC and serum biochemical analysis and measured N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity and whole blood clotting time were evaluated before, during, and after completion of treatments. Results of urinalysis and measured urine NAG activity were also evaluated. Birds treated with meloxicam had a significant increase in number of WBCs and decrease in PCV from before to after treatment. The PCV also decreased significantly, compared with results for the control group; however, WBC count and PCV for all birds remained within reference ranges throughout the study. One parrot treated with meloxicam had a single high value for urine NAG activity. Meloxicam administered orally at the dosage used in this study caused no apparent negative changes in several renal, gastrointestinal, or hemostatic variables in healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Additional studies to evaluate adverse effects of NSAIDs in birds will be needed.

  10. A presumptive case of Baylisascaris procyonis in a feral green-cheeked Amazon parrot (Amazona viridigenalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done, Lisa B; Tamura, Yoko

    2014-03-01

    A feral green-cheeked Amazon parrot (Amazona viridigenalis), also known as the red-crowned Amazon, with generalized neurologic symptoms was found in Pasadena in Southern California and brought in for treatment. The bird was refractory to a wide variety of medications and supportive treatment. Tests for polyoma virus, psittacine beak and feather disease virus, and West Nile virus as well as Chlamydophila psittaci were negative. Hospitalized and home care continued for a total of 69 days. The bird was rehospitalized on day 66 for increasing severity of clinical signs and found 3 days later hanging with its head down, in respiratory arrest. Resuscitation was unsuccessful. There were no gross pathologic lesions. Histopathology showed a focal subcutaneous fungal caseous granuloma under the skin of the dorsum. Many sarcocysts morphologically consistent with Sarcocystis falcatula were found in the cytoplasm of the skeletal myofibers from skeletal muscles of different locations of this bird, a finding that was considered an incidental, clinically nonsignificant finding in this case. Necrosis with microscopic lesions typical of Baylisascaris spp. neural larva migrans was in the brain. Although multiple histologic serial sections of the brain were examined and a brain squash performed and analyzed, no Baylisascaris larvae were found. This is the first presumptive case of Baylisascaris in a feral psittacine.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of long-acting nalbuphine decanoate after intramuscular administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; KuKanich, Butch; Heath, Timothy D; Krugner-Higby, Lisa A; Barker, Steven A; Brown, Carolyn S; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of nalbuphine decanoate after IM administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 9 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex. Nalbuphine decanoate (37.5 mg/kg) was administered IM to all birds. Plasma samples were obtained from blood collected before (time 0) and 0.25, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 96 hours after drug administration. Plasma samples were used for measurement of nalbuphine concentrations via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated with computer software. Plasma concentrations of nalbuphine increased rapidly after IM administration, with a mean concentration of 46.1 ng/mL at 0.25 hours after administration. Plasma concentrations of nalbuphine remained > 20 ng/mL for at least 24 hours in all birds. The maximum plasma concentration was 109.4 ng/mL at 2.15 hours. The mean terminal half-life was 20.4 hours. In Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, plasma concentrations of nalbuphine were prolonged after IM administration of nalbuphine decanoate, compared with previously reported results after administration of nalbuphine hydrochloride. Plasma concentrations that could be associated with antinociception were maintained for 24 hours after IM administration of 37.5 mg of nalbuphine decanoate/kg. Safety and analgesic efficacy of nalbuphine treatments in this species require further investigation to determine the potential for clinical use in pain management in psittacine species.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of nalbuphine hydrochloride after intravenous and intramuscular administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Dominique L; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Klauer, Julia M; KuKanich, Butch; Barker, Steven A; Rodríguez-Ramos Fernández, Julia; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2011-06-01

    To assess the pharmacokinetics of nalbuphine HCl after IV and IM administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 8 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex. Nalbuphine HCl (12.5 mg/kg) was administered IV and IM to all birds in a complete randomized crossover study design; there was a washout period of 21 days between subsequent administrations. Plasma samples were obtained from blood collected at predetermined time points for measurement of nalbuphine concentration by use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by use of computer software. Nalbuphine was rapidly eliminated with a terminal half-life of 0.33 hours and clearance of 69.95 mL/min/kg after IV administration and a half-life of 0.35 hours after IM administration. Volume of distribution was 2.01 L/kg after IV administration. The fraction of the dose absorbed was high (1.03) after IM administration. No adverse effects were detected in the parrots during the study. In Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, nalbuphine appeared to have good bioavailability after IM administration and was rapidly cleared after IV and IM administration. Safety and analgesic efficacy of various nalbuphine treatment regimens in this species require further investigation to determine the potential for clinical palliation of signs of pain in psittacine species.

  13. Antinociceptive effects of tramadol hydrochloride after intravenous administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, Saskia; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Souza, Marcy J; Cox, Sherry; Keuler, Nicholas S; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2013-02-01

    To determine the antinociceptive and sedative effects of tramadol in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) following IV administration. 11 healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex. Tramadol hydrochloride (5 mg/kg, IV) and an equivalent volume (≤ 0.34 mL) of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution were administered to parrots in a complete crossover study design. Foot withdrawal response to a thermal stimulus was determined 30 to 60 minutes before (baseline) and 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after treatment administration; agitation-sedation scores were determined for parrots at each of those times. The estimated mean changes in temperature from the baseline value that elicited a foot withdrawal response were 1.65° and -1.08°C after administration of tramadol and saline solution, respectively. Temperatures at which a foot withdrawal response was elicited were significantly higher than baseline values at all 5 evaluation times after administration of tramadol and were significantly lower than baseline values at 30, 120, and 240 minutes after administration of saline solution. No sedation, agitation, or other adverse effects were observed in any of the parrots after administration of tramadol. Tramadol hydrochloride (5 mg/kg, IV) significantly increased the thermal nociception threshold for Hispaniolan Amazon parrots in the present study. Sedation and adverse effects were not observed. These results are consistent with results of other studies in which the antinociceptive effects of tramadol after oral administration to parrots were determined.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of Compounded Intravenous and Oral Gabapentin in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baine, Katherine; Jones, Michael P; Cox, Sherry; Martín-Jiménez, Tomás

    2015-09-01

    Neuropathic pain is a manifestation of chronic pain that arises with damage to the somatosensory system. Pharmacologic treatment recommendations for alleviation of neuropathic pain are often multimodal, and the few reports communicating treatment of suspected neuropathic pain in avian patients describe the use of gabapentin as part of the therapeutic regimen. To determine the pharmacokinetics of gabapentin in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ), compounded gabapentin suspensions were administered at 30 mg/kg IV to 2 birds, 10 mg/kg PO to 3 birds, and 30 mg/kg PO to 3 birds. Blood samples were collected immediately before and at 9 different time points after drug administration. Plasma samples were analyzed for gabapentin concentration, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with both a nonlinear mixed-effect approach and a noncompartmental analysis. The best compartmental, oral model was used to simulate the concentration-time profiles resulting from different dosing scenarios. Mild sedation was observed in both study birds after intravenous injection. Computer simulation of different dosing scenarios with the mean parameter estimates showed that 15 mg/kg every 8 hours would be a starting point for oral dosing in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots based on effective plasma concentrations reported for human patients; however, additional studies need to be performed to establish a therapeutic dose.

  15. Attempted semen collection using the massage technique in blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Volpe, Angelique; Volker, Schmidt; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a technique for collecting semen from blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva) and to evaluate the samples that were collected. The massage method is the most common technique used to collect semen in birds and has been proven successful in several psittacine species; however, collection attempts in larger parrots have been unsatisfactory. Six blue-fronted Amazon parrot males, 3 paired with hens and 3 unpaired, were used in this study. The semen collection technique was revised to allow collection from individual birds by a single person. Semen collection was attempted from the 6 parrots on 52-56 occasions, which totaled 330 single attempts. Nineteen ejaculates were collected, and each bird produced at least 1 ejaculate that contained spermatozoa. Large ranges of sample volume (1-15.4 microL), sperm quality (motility = 2%-60%; live:dead ratio = 2:198 to 185:15), sperm concentration (0.79-3.3 x 10(6) sperm/mL), and contamination rate (0%-100%) were observed. Measured parameters did not appear to be significantly impacted by birds being paired or kept singly. Because of the relatively short acclimation period, the birds appeared to be sexually inactive for the majority of the study. Further research using sexually active birds will be necessary to determine standard spermatological parameters and verify the success of the methodology used here.

  16. Ovarian hemangiosarcoma in an orange-winged Amazon parrot (Amazona amazonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickley, Kimberly; Buote, Melanie; Kiupel, Matti; Graham, Jennifer; Orcutt, Connie

    2009-03-01

    A 25-year-old intact female orange-winged Amazon parrot (Amazona amazonica) presented for a 2-week history of straining to defecate, lethargy, open-beak breathing, decreased vocalization, and ruffled feathers. On physical examination, the parrot had a heart murmur, increased air sac and lung sounds, open-beak breathing, increased respiratory rate and effort, and coelomic distension. An ultrasound revealed intracoelomic fluid, and hemorrhagic fluid was aspirated from the coelom. Cytologic analysis indicated hemocoelom. Pericardial effusion was observed during the sonogram, and pericardiocentesis was performed. The bird was euthanatized upon the owner's request because of a poor prognosis. At necropsy, several masses that involved the ovary and oviduct were observed, as well as a thickened pericardium and a thickened, fibrinous epicardium. Results of a histopathologic examination of the masses that involved the reproductive tract revealed ovarian hemangiosarcoma, which was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. To our knowledge, ovarian hemangiosarcoma has not been reported in a psittacine species, nor has immunohistochemistry confirmed ovarian hemangiosarcoma in avian species, specifically in an orange-winged Amazon parrot.

  17. Comparison of osmolality and refractometric readings of Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis) urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, A Paige; Grunkemeyer, Vanessa L; Fry, Michael M; Hall, James S; Bartges, Joseph W

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the relationship between osmolality and specific gravity of urine samples from clinically normal adult parrots and to determine a formula to convert urine specific gravity (USG) measured on a reference scale to a more accurate USG value for an avian species, urine samples were collected opportunistically from a colony of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Samples were analyzed by using a veterinary refractometer, and specific gravity was measured on both canine and feline scales. Osmolality was measured by vapor pressure osmometry. Specific gravity and osmolality measurements were highly correlated (r = 0.96). The linear relationship between refractivity measurements on a reference scale and osmolality was determined. An equation was calculated to allow specific gravity results from a medical refractometer to be converted to specific gravity values of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots: USGHAp = 0.201 +0.798(USGref). Use of the reference-canine scale to approximate the osmolality of parrot urine leads to an overestimation of the true osmolality of the sample. In addition, this error increases as the concentration of urine increases. Compared with the human-canine scale, the feline scale provides a closer approximation to urine osmolality of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots but still results in overestimation of osmolality.

  18. Granulomatous encephalomyelitis and intestinal ganglionitis in a spectacled Amazon parrot (Amazona albifrons) infected with Mycobacterium genavense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, G; Saggese, M D; Weeks, B R; Hoppes, S M; Porter, B F

    2011-01-01

    An approximately 30-year-old male spectacled Amazon parrot (Amazona albifrons) was presented with a 2-week history of ataxia, head shaking, weight loss and seizures. Gross findings on necropsy examination included atrophy of the musculature, ruffled feathers and minimal epicardial and abdominal fat. Microscopically, there were perivascular cuffs of macrophages with fewer lymphocytes in the grey and white matter of the brain and spinal cord. These lesions were accompanied by gliosis and mild vacuolation of the white matter. In the small intestine, up to 70% of the intestinal ganglia were effaced by infiltrates of macrophages and fewer lymphocytes. The intestinal lamina propria contained multiple inflammatory aggregates of a similar nature. Ziehl-Neelsen staining revealed the presence of numerous bacilli within the cytoplasm of macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS) and enteric ganglia. Amplification of the DNAJ gene confirmed a mycobacterial infection and subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a species-specific primer confirmed the aetiology as Mycobacterium genavense. Infection of the CNS with Mycobacterium spp. is uncommon and has not been previously reported in a parrot. This case is unusual in that the organism exhibited tropism for neural tissue. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of terbinafine after oral administration of a single dose to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Erika E; Emery, Lee C; Cox, Sherry K; Souza, Marcy J

    2013-06-01

    To determine pharmacokinetics after oral administration of a single dose of terbinafine hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 6 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A single dose of terbinafine hydrochloride (60 mg/kg) was administered orally to each bird, which was followed immediately by administration of a commercially available gavage feeding formula. Blood samples were collected at the time of drug administration (time 0) and 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after drug administration. Plasma concentrations of terbinafine were determined via high-performance liquid chromatography. Data from 1 bird were discarded because of a possible error in the dose of drug administered. After oral administration of terbinafine, the maximum concentration for the remaining 5 fed birds ranged from 109 to 671 ng/mL, half-life ranged from 6 to 13.5 hours, and time to the maximum concentration ranged from 2 to 8 hours. No adverse effects were observed. Analysis of the results indicated that oral administration of terbinafine at a dose of 60 mg/kg to Amazon parrots did not result in adverse effects and may be potentially of use in the treatment of aspergillosis. Additional studies are needed to determine treatment efficacy and safety.

  20. Thromboelastography Values in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis ): A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Krista A; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Acierno, Mark J; Beaufrère, Hugues; Sinclair, Kristin M; Owens, Sean D; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Tully, Thomas N

    2015-09-01

    Thromboelastography (TEG) provides a global assessment of coagulation, including the rate of clot initiation, clot kinetics, achievement of maximum clot strength, and fibrinolysis. Thromboelastography (TEG) is used with increasing frequency in the field of veterinary medicine, although its usefulness in avian species has not been adequately explored. The purpose of this preliminary study was to assess the applicability of TEG in psittacine birds. Kaolin-activated TEG was used to analyze citrated whole blood collected routinely from 8 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ). The minimum and maximum TEG values obtained included time to clot initiation (2.6-15 minutes), clot formation time (4.3-20.8 minutes), α angle (12.7°-47.9°), maximum amplitude of clot strength (26.3-46.2 mm), and percentage of lysis 30 minutes after achievement of maximum amplitude (0%-5.3%). The TEG values demonstrated comparative hypocoagulability relative to published values in canine and feline species. Differences may be explained by either the in vitro temperature at which TEG is standardly performed or the method of activation used in this study. Although TEG may have significant advantages over traditional coagulation tests, including lack of need for species-specific reagents, further evaluation is required in a variety of avian species and while exploring various TEG methodologies before this technology can be recommended for use in clinical cases.

  1. Fluoroscopic study of the normal gastrointestinal motility and measurements in the Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Nevarez, Javier; Taylor, W Michael; Jankowski, Gwendolyn; Rademacher, Nathalie; Gaschen, Lorrie; Pariaut, Romain; Tully, Thomas N

    2010-01-01

    Contrast fluoroscopy is a valuable tool to examine avian gastrointestinal motility. However, the lack of a standardized examination protocol and reference ranges prevents the objective interpretation of motility disorders and other gastrointestinal abnormalities. Our goals were to evaluate gastrointestinal motility in 20 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) by contrast fluoroscopy. Each parrot was crop-fed an equal part mixture of barium sulfate and hand-feeding formula and placed in a cardboard box for fluoroscopy. Over a 3-h period, 1.5 minute segments of lateral and ventrodorsal fluoroscopy were recorded every 30 min. The gastric cycle and patterns of intestinal motility were described. The frequency of crop contractions, esophageal boluses, and gastric cycles were determined in lateral and ventrodorsal views. A range of 3.4-6.6 gastric cycles/min was noted on the lateral view and 3.0-6.6 gastric cycles/min on the ventrodorsal view. Circular measurements of the proventriculus diameter, ventriculus width, and length were obtained using the midshaft femoral diameter as a standard reference unit. The upper limits of the reference ranges were 3.6 and 4.7 femoral units for the proventriculus diameter in the lateral and ventrodorsal view, respectively. Two consecutive measurements were obtained and the measurement technique was found to have high reproducibility. In this study, we established a standardized protocol for contrast fluoroscopic examination of the gastrointestinal tract and a reliable measurement method of the proventriculus and ventriculus using femoral units in the Hispaniolan Amazon parrot.

  2. Pericardial Mesothelioma in a Yellow-naped Amazon Parrot (Amazona auropalliata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleery, Brynn; Jones, Michael P; Manasse, Jorden; Johns, Sara; Gompf, Rebecca E; Newman, Shelley

    2015-03-01

    A 37-year-old female yellow-naped Amazon parrot (Amazona auropalliata) was presented with a history of lethargy, inappetence, and decreased vocalizations. On examination, the coelom was moderately distended and palpated fluctuant, and the heart was muffled on auscultation. Coelomic ultrasound, coelomocentesis, and radiographs were performed and revealed an enlarged cardiac silhouette and marked coelomic effusion. Pericardial effusion was confirmed by echocardiography. A well-circumscribed, hyperechoic soft tissue density was observed at the level of the right atrium on initial echocardiography; however, a cardiac mass was not identified by computed tomography scan or repeat echocardiograms. Ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis was performed under anesthesia, and cytology results were consistent with hemorrhage; no neoplastic cells were identified. A repeat echocardiogram 4 days after pericardiocentesis revealed recurrence of the pericardial effusion. Due to the grave prognosis, the owners declined endoscopic pericardiectomy, and the patient died the following day. On postmortem examination, the pericardial surface of the heart was covered in a white to yellow, multinodular mass layer. Histologic analysis revealed a multinodular mass extending from the atria, running along the epicardium distally, and often extending into the myocardium. Neoplastic cells present in the heart mass and pericardium did not stain with a Churukian-Schenk stain, and thyroglobulin immunohistochemistry was negative. Cytokeratin and vimentin stains showed positive expression in the neoplastic cells within the mass. These results are consistent with a diagnosis of mesothelioma. This is the first report of mesothelioma in a psittacine bird.

  3. Endocarditis due to Lactobacillus jensenii in a Salvin's Amazon parrot (Amazona autumnalis salvini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldenauer, Ulrike; Rusch, Martina; Simova-Curd, Stefka; Nitzl, Dagmar; Hoop, Richard K; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2009-02-01

    A 30-year-old Salvin's Amazon parrot (Amazona autumnalis salvini) with a history of a lifelong poor diet and inappropriate housing was presented in lateral recumbency to a veterinary teaching hospital for further evaluation. Radiological and ultrasonographic examination revealed a mild proventricular dilatation, mild hepatomegaly, signs of enteritis and airsacculitis. The main laboratory findings included a mild macrocytic hyperchromic anaemia, hypoglobulinaemia, decreased bile acids and increased alkaline phosphatase. In this bird a liver pathology was suspected because of the clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic findings. The bird was treated with supportive care and metabolic aids. After initial improvement of the clinical signs, the bird's condition deteriorated and it died. Pathological findings revealed an endocarditis and myocarditis due to Lactobacillus jensenii and a bacteraemia. Endocarditis due to Lactobacillus sp. is a rare phenomenon in humans not yet described in animals. It is associated with severe underlying illnesses leading to translocation of otherwise non-pathogenic bacteria in the bloodstream. A similar pattern might be assumed in animals with compromised immunity.

  4. Successful Treatment of Suspected Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in a Mealy Amazon Parrot (Amazona farinose).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Sean M; Burgdorf-Moisuk, Anne; Silverman, Sarah; Wack, Raymund F

    2016-12-01

    A 25-year-old, male mealy Amazon parrot (Amazona farinose) with a history of polycythemia, hepatomegaly, and epistaxis was evaluated for progressive lethargy and anorexia. Clinical laboratory testing revealed severe polycythemia (71%), hypophosphatemia (1.6 mg/dL), and mild hypokalemia (2.8 mEq/L). Radiographs showed marked hepatomegaly and loss of air sac space. Despite supportive treatments, the bird's condition deteriorated, and it developed ataxia, was unable to fly, and became oxygen dependent. An echocardiogram, including an air bubble study, revealed a right-to-left atrial shunt and presumed pulmonary arterial hypertension. The bird was started on periodic phlebotomy (5-10 mL/kg q6wk) to reduce packed cell volume and sildenafil citrate (2.5 mg/kg PO q8h) for treatment of suspected pulmonary arterial hypertension. One week later, the patient was weaned off oxygen, and 24 days after initial presentation, the parrot was returned to its outdoor exhibit. Intermittent periods of increased respiratory rate and effort have been reported but have resolved without additional treatments. Epistaxis, once common in this bird, has not been noted since initiating treatment with sildenafil citrate 15 months ago.

  5. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in a yellow-naped Amazon (Amazona ochrocephala) with pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, J W; Degernes, L A; Brown, T T

    1997-01-01

    This report describes exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in a yellow-naped Amazon (Amazona ochrocephala) with complete effacement of the pancreas by a pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The bird presented with a 3-month history of weight loss and voluminous, foul-smelling droppings. Clinically, routine hematologic findings were normal and fecal tests were performed to evaluate exocrine pancreatic function. The fecal function tests were positive for neutral and split fats and negative for trypsin. Oral administration of corn oil did not result in elevation of blood triglyceride levels. Two days later, the triglyceride tolerance test was repeated using corn oil mixed with pancreatic enzymes. This time, there was a 70% elevation of blood triglyceride levels. Because of a poor prognosis, the bird was euthanatized. At necropsy, the pancreas was diffusely enlarged, white, nodular, and firm. The liver contained multiple, 1-2-mm-diameter, randomly located, tan nodules. Microscopically, the pancreas was effaced by numerous lobules of neoplastic ductular structures surrounded by abundant fibrous connective tissue. In the liver, the hepatic parenchyma was replaced by multiple, well-demarcated, nonencapsulated foci of neoplastic tissue similar to that in the pancreas.

  6. Composição florística das plantas daninhas na cultura de guaraná (Paullinia cupana, no estado do Amazonas Floristic composition of weeds in guarana (Paullinia cupana crop in Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.F. Albertino

    2004-09-01

    Urucará located in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. Samples of weeds were taken from guarana growing areas in the five counties and identified by class, family and species. A total of 14,707 individual plants were collected and grouped into 40 families and 87 species,as follows: 70 Dicotyledonous, 13 Monocotyledonous and 4 Pteridophyts. The Dicotyledonous class presented the largest number of families and the monocotyledonous the largest number of individual plants, except in Maués and Iranduba. The number of Pteridophyts was inexpressive in all the counties. The Poaceae and Asteraceae families presented the largest number of species. Poaceae was found in all the counties, presenting the largest number of species in Maues. Panicum pilosum was the species with the largest number of individual plants, frequency, density and value of importance index, while Panicum laxum presented an expressive number of species in Urucará and Iranduba. Scleria malaleuca presented an expressive number in Coari and Chamaesyce hirta in Maués. Homolepis aturensis, Paspalum conjugatum and Spermacoce capitata were found in the five counties. The largest species diversity was found in Maues whereas the largest number of individual plants was found in Coari. The largest similarity index was found between Iranduba and Presidente Figueiredo (45% and the smallest between Iranduba and Coari (21.43%.

  7. A mística do Pirarucu: pesca, ethos e paisagem em comunidades rurais do baixo Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Sérgio S. Murrieta

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é uma análise das práticas e significados que permeiam a pesca do pirarucu nas comunidades rurais da Ilha de Ituqui, no Baixo Amazonas, Pará. O pirarucu é o maior peixe de escamas da Amazônia e também um valioso produto de mercado devido ao seu papel privilegiado na culinária local. A pesca do Pirarucu é uma das atividades mais antigas no Baixo Amazonas, remontando a tempos pré-coloniais. Para os pescadores que habitam a ilha de Ituqui, a captura do pirarucu pode representar não apenas o retorno econômico garantido de uma jornada de trabalho, como também revestir-se de uma série de significados e vivências ontologicamente estruturadas no dia-a-dia e na identidade dos pescadores. Conflitos sociais e disputas pessoais são intensificadas ou reduzidas, afeições são confirmadas e laços sociais refeitos através das práticas e encontros vivenciados durante uma viagem de pesca aos lagos próximos. Além da prática em si, tais viagens tornam-se referências mnemônicas e afetivas da paisagem, do evento de captura e do próprio sentido de lugar; resultando numa unidade processual conectada a muitas esferas pessoais e sociais de significado, as quais são de difícil compartimentalização. No meio de tantos aspectos motivadores, disputas e pescarias "irracionais" acontecem em Ituqui. Locais de pescaria são possessivamente guardados e "fronteiras territoriais" sutilmente estabelecidas entre comunidades e famílias. O direito ao recurso e, por extensão, aos significados e emoções que ele incorpora, torna-se um luxo ferozmente protegido por alguns. O decréscimo da população de pirarucus, as novas tecnologias de pesca, a alta demanda do mercado pelo peixe e a "mística" que ainda permeia a captura do animal colocaram muitos pescadores num dilema em que a sobrevivência desta atividade parece colidir com o que os desenvolvimentistas e ambientalistas chamam de "racionalidade" da conservação.This article aims to

  8. Cen?rio das Pol?ticas P?blicas de fixa??o e provimento de profissionais de sa?de no Amazonas, 1970 - 1990

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Erica Lima

    2016-01-01

    A presente Disserta??o ? resultado da pesquisa de cunho hist?rico, que teve como objetivo analisar o cen?rio das pol?ticas p?blicas de fixa??o e provimento de profissionais de Sa?de no Amazonas no per?odo de 1970 a 1990. A problematiza??o est? desmembrada nas seguintes quest?es: Quais as estrat?gias de fixa??o e provimentos de profissionais de sa?de foram desenvolvidas no Amazonas no per?odo entre 1970 a 1990? Como as pol?ticas de desenvolvimento de recursos humanos foram articuladas com as p...

  9. The major floods in the Amazonas river and tributaries (Western Amazon Basin) during the 1970-2012 period : a focus on the 2012 flood

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, J. C.; Ronchail, J.; Frappart, F.; Lavado, W.; Santini, William; Guyot, Jean-Loup

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the authors analyze the origin of the extreme floods in the Peruvian Amazonas River during the 1970-2012 period, focusing on the recent April 2012 flooding (55 400 m(3) s(-1)). Several hydrological variables, such as rainfall, terrestrial water storage, and discharge, point out that the unprecedented 2012 flood is mainly related to an early and abundant wet season over the north of the basin. Thus, the peak of the Maranon River, the northern contributor of the Amazonas, occurred...

  10. AVALIAÇÃO DO IMPACTO DA CAPACITAÇÃO PROFISSIONAL ADMINISTRADA NA PREFEITURA DE MANAUS POR MEIO DA APLICAÇÃO DO MODELO IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Melo Dias

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A capacitação profissional é uma arma poderosa na busca pelo desenvolvimento das competências humanas no trabalho. O foco em treinamento e desenvolvimento tornou-se indispensável ao alcance da excelência na prestação de serviços. Na administração pública os órgãos responsáveis pelo aperfeiçoamento profissional são as Escolas de Governo, que atuam junto aos funcionários públicos na melhoria da máquina estatal, que tem o dever de prestar serviços públicos de qualidade. Sendo assim, o estudo objetiva avaliar o impacto da capacitação profissional voltada para o servidor na Prefeitura de Manaus. Para isso a análise se deu por meio da adaptação do Modelo IMPACT de avaliação do treinamento, aplicado junto aos servidores egressos de atividades de capacitação promovidas pela Escola de Serviço Público da Prefeitura de Manaus (ESPI. Os resultados sugerem que há forte impacto positivo da capacitação administrada pela ESPI nas atividades laborais dos servidores, no entanto, o suporte dado pelas chefias ao treinamento necessita de ajustes para que possa proporcionar um melhor aproveitamento dos conhecimentos e habilidades adquiridos pelos servidores em prol de suas instituições.

  11. Lectura, biblioteca e inclusión social: Importancia de la promoción de la lectura en comunidades ribereñas en Amazonas, Brasil = Reading, library and social inclusion: The importance of promoting reading in riverside communities in Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Giordano de Souza Siqueira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available La lectura es un factor clave para la vida en sociedad; sin embargo, hay personas que no se han apropiado de este práctica. Este tema ha sido objeto de varias investigaciones e instancias académicas y científicas, siempre con el objetivo de lograr que la lectura sea accesible a todos. Brasil es conocido por su enorme extensión, pero carece de eficiencia en la ejecución de dichos proyectos. El Estado de Amazonas ocupa la superficie terrestre más grande del país; además, el transporte fluvial por los ríos es la única forma de acceso a las comunidades. El artículo describe un conjunto de actividades con el fin de acercar la lectura a las comunidades ribereñas, en un intento de democratizar el acceso a los libros y la lectura en ausencia de las bibliotecas públicas contribuyendo, de este modo, al proceso de inclusión informacional en la sociedad actual de la información y del conocimiento, donde la cuestión de la lectura es un desafío y, aunque sea una condición esencial, todavía existen analfabetos que necesitan ser incluidos con el fin de garantizar su participación como ciudadanos = Reading is a key factor for life in society, yet there are people who have not appropriated this habit. This theme has been the focus of various research and academic and scientific events, always with the intention of making it accessible to all. Brazil is known for its huge extension, but suffers from inefficiency in the implementation of this type of projects. The State of Amazonas occupies the largest land area of the country; in addition, the river transport is the only way to access to many communities. The article describes developed activities with the intention of bringing the reading to the riverside communities in an attempt to democratize access to books and reading in the absence of public libraries, contributing to the process of informational inclusion in the current society of information and knowledge where the issue of reading is

  12. Characterization of sediments laid on Solimoes/Amazonas river flood plains, using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Ana E.V.; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. do

    1997-01-01

    This paper proposes sediment analysis with high light elements fraction using dispersive energy X-ray fluorescence technique with radioisotopic excitation, The proposed procedure is based on the Fundamental Parameters for analytical elements (Z ≥ 13) evaluation, and coherent and incoherent scattered radiation for quantification of the light fraction of the matrix (Z < 13). Laid sediments samples on Solimoes/Amazonas river flood plains were analyzed, determining simultaneously the Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sc, V, Mn, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr and Zr element concentrations, thus allowing chemical characterization and spatial variability, and some mineralogical and weathering sediments aspects. (author). 15 refs., 11 tabs

  13. La geotecnia en el impacto al medio ambiente de la construcción del puente Amazonas, Huancayo

    OpenAIRE

    Rosado Carhuancho, Saturnino

    2011-01-01

    El estudio Geotécnico como condicionante de la construcción del PUENTE AMAZONAS y su implicancia ambiental, permite conocer las características delvsubsuelo de cimentación para garantizar un diseño seguro preservando elvmedio ambiente. Para cumplir con el objetivo se ejecutaron trabajos de campo a través devexcavaciones, como calicatas, pozas, ensayo STP según Norma ASTM D1586v y pruebas de Refracción Sísmica. Ensayos de laboratorio y labores de gabinete, en base a ellos se desarrollaron l...

  14. T-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a double yellow-headed Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala oratrix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osofsky, Anna; Hawkins, Michelle G; Foreman, Oded; Kent, Michael S; Vernau, William; Lowenstine, Linda J

    2011-12-01

    An adult, male double yellow-headed Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala oratrix) was diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia based on results of a complete blood cell count and cytologic examination of a bone marrow aspirate. Treatment with oral chlorambucil was attempted, but no response was evident after 40 days. The bird was euthanatized, and the diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia was confirmed on gross and microscopic examination of tissues. Neoplastic lymphocytes were found in the bone marrow, liver, kidney, testes, and blood vessels. Based on CD3-positive immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical immunophenotyping, the chronic lymphocytic leukemia was determined to be of T-cell origin.

  15. Hematology of the Red-capped parrot (Pionopsitta pileata) and Vinaceous Amazon parrot (Amazona vinacea) in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Elizabeth Moreira dos Santos; Lange, Rogério Ribas; Ribas, Janaciara Moreira; Daciuk, Bárbara Maria; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano; Paulillo, Antonio Carlos

    2009-03-01

    Preliminary reference intervals for hematologic and total plasma protein profiles were determined for nine adult Red-capped parrots (Pionopsitta pileata) (six males and three females) and six Vinaceous Amazon parrots (Amazona vinacea) (two adult males, two adult females, one juvenile, and one nonsexed) from the Curitiba Zoo, Paraná, Brazil. For both Red-capped parrots and Vinaceous Amazon parrots, adult males had higher red blood cell counts than adult females. Regarding white blood cell distribution, differences due to gender were also found for both species of parrots.

  16. Caracteriza??o da frota e do desembarque da pesca comercial no munic?pio de Coari, Amazonas, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Laredo, Maria Ang?lica Corr?a

    2009-01-01

    Neste estudo, foi avaliado o potencial da pesca comercial no munic?pio de Coari, Amazonas, Brasil, por meio da caracteriza??o da frota que atua na regi?o e do desembarque pesqueiro realizado no per?odo de 1 de Dezembro de 2007 a 30 de Novembro de 2008. A frota foi caracterizada com base nas entrevistas de 217 pescadores e donos de embarca??o, os quais identificaram a atua??o de 41 barcos e 176 canoas motorizadas. Estas embarca??es apresentaram um padr?o com rela??o ao comprimen...

  17. Reflections about the Brazilian energy policy from a project of DSM (Demand Side Management) in low-income social strata in the Manaus city, AM, Brazil; Reflexoes sobre a politica energetica brasileira a partir de um projeto de GLD (Gerenciamento pelo Lado da Demanda) em extrato social de baixa renda na cidade de Manaus, AM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valois, Ilsa; Cartaxo, Elizabeth [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Fac. de Tecnologia. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Energia, Meio Ambiente e Agua

    2008-07-01

    Considering the peculiarities of the different Brazilian regions, this article reports a survey developed in the city of Manaus - AM and makes a political analysis about the electric energy and environmental impacts arising. The main objective is to discuss the importance of rational energy consumption in a region where they add, the problems on the depletion of energy resources, the climatic difficulties, geographical and economic interests inherent in the capitalist system. Within this reality this article discuss aspects of a study by the Amazon Federal University, in the context of a project on energy efficiency. The project swapped 66 inefficient air conditioners for equipment with the stamp PROCEL energy efficiency in seven public schools in the Manaus city. Alongside the exchange program, an educational program selected 111 students whose homes were also monitored through the history of consumption during the life of the project. The result s of monitoring was demonstrated an economy of substantial energy (31%) whereas, in homes, there was no exchange of air conditioners. Should be the positive results only to a new position with respect to the final use of electric energy. It was found that the user's public school belongs to the group of low -income consumers and small the opportunity to reduce their consumption. Consequently, the results point to the inefficient application of resources that limit the possibilities for projects with greater economic and social return. (author)

  18. Reflections about the Brazilian energy policy from a project of DSM (Demand Side Management) in low-income social strata in the Manaus city, AM, Brazil; Reflexoes sobre a politica energetica brasileira a partir de um projeto de GLD (Gerenciamento pelo Lado da Demanda) em extrato social de baixa renda na cidade de Manaus, AM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valois, Ilsa; Cartaxo, Elizabeth [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Fac. de Tecnologia. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Energia, Meio Ambiente e Agua

    2008-07-01

    Considering the peculiarities of the different Brazilian regions, this article reports a survey developed in the city of Manaus - AM and makes a political analysis about the electric energy and environmental impacts arising. The main objective is to discuss the importance of rational energy consumption in a region where they add, the problems on the depletion of energy resources, the climatic difficulties, geographical and economic interests inherent in the capitalist system. Within this reality this article discuss aspects of a study by the Amazon Federal University, in the context of a project on energy efficiency. The project swapped 66 inefficient air conditioners for equipment with the stamp PROCEL energy efficiency in seven public schools in the Manaus city. Alongside the exchange program, an educational program selected 111 students whose homes were also monitored through the history of consumption during the life of the project. The result s of monitoring was demonstrated an economy of substantial energy (31%) whereas, in homes, there was no exchange of air conditioners. Should be the positive results only to a new position with respect to the final use of electric energy. It was found that the user's public school belongs to the group of low -income consumers and small the opportunity to reduce their consumption. Consequently, the results point to the inefficient application of resources that limit the possibilities for projects with greater economic and social return. (author)

  19. New sedimentological and palynological data from surface Miocene strata in the central Amazonas Basin area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emílio Alberto Amaral Soares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The scarcity of stratigraphic data has hindered the demarcation of the outcropping area of Miocene deposits of the Amazon Basin, represented informally by the Novo Remanso Formation. Moreover, this unit is characterized by a sparse and irregular geographic distribution due to its sedimentological features and rare fossil content. Miocene deposits cropping out in central Amazonas Basin area were described in sedimentological terms and analyzed palynologically. All analyses were undertaken in samples collected at the Uatumã River banks (Itapiranga and São Sebastião do Uatumã cities. Lithostratigraphic data shows that Novo Remanso Formation consists of sandstones, with subordinate conglomerates and pelites, characteristic of a meandering fluvial paleosystem, with fluvial channel, point bar, floodplain and crevasse splay facies. The palynoflora retrieved from five samples consists exclusively of continental-origin palynomorphs dominated by angiosperms species. Trilete spores are well represented, while gymnosperms pollen grains are minor components. The presence of Psilastephanoporites tesseroporus, Syncolporites poricostatus, Jandufouria seamrogiformis and Polypodiaceoisporites potoniei ensure these deposits fits into the Grimsdalea magnaclavata palynozone (Regali et al. 1974a, b, and the Grimsdalea magnaclavata/Crassoretitriletes vanraadshooveni palynozones of Jaramillo et al. (2011 considered Middle Miocene age. This age is confirmed by the zonation of Jaramillo et al. (2011, based on the LADs of Bombacacidites baumfalki (11.57Ma and Crototricolpites annemariae (12.91Ma; and the FAD of Psilastephanoporites tesseroporus (14.00Ma. With these new data presented herein, it is possible to assume that the Miocene strata represented by the Novo Remanso Formation covers a larger area in the basin than previously considered, and that it may be extended for about 300 km until the Manacapuru village, indicating a Miocene subsidence phase.

  20. Atrofia nutricional e nanismo nutricional em escolares de Tabatinga, Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Enrique Gainette-Prates

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tuvo como propósito evaluar la prevalencia de atrofia nutricional y enanismo nutricional en estudiantes, de 6 a 11 años de edad, de escuelas públicas de Tabatinga, Amazonas, Brasil. Fue realizado un estudio transversal en que fueron evaluados 340 estudiantes a través de datos antropométricos (peso y altura. Se utilizó los índices altura/edad y peso/edad basados en el score-z. Los estudiantes con altura/edad inferior a -2 desviación estándar fueron clasificados con atrofia nutricional y aquellas con peso/edad inferior a -2 desviación estándar con nanismo nutricional. El Consumo Energético-Proteico fue evaluado por medio de Cuestionario de Frecuencia Alimentaria. El ingreso familiar clasificado en clases económicas se basó en criterios de la Associação Brasileira de Empresas de Pesquisa. Se verificó que 18 estudiantes (5,3% presentaron altura/edad abajo de -2 desviación estándar. Sin embargo, no hubo estudiantes con peso/edad abajo de desviación estándar. Se percibe que ni todos los estudiantes con déficit nutricional eran de clases económicamente vulnerables (C, D, E. El consumo alimentario evidenció carencia de proteínas y de calorías saludables en la dieta de los estudiantes, siendo el principal determinante de la desnutrición en esa población. No hubo correlación entre el nanismo nutricional y el rendimiento escolar de los estudiantes.

  1. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma in the Skull of an Orange-winged Amazon Parrot (Amazona amazonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nau, Melissa R; Carpenter, James W; Lin, Denise; Narayanan, Sanjeev; Hallman, Mackenzie

    2017-09-01

    A 33-year-old female intact orange-winged Amazon parrot (Amazona amazonica) presented for a slowly growing mass over the right eye. A computed tomography scan performed with and without intravenous contrast revealed a heterogeneous mixed soft tissue and mineral-dense mass with a small area of non-contrast-enhancing fluid density located between the orbits at the caudal aspect of the nasal passages, with associated lysis of the right caudal nasal passage and the right frontal bone. Following euthanasia, the mass was found to consist of soft tissue between the right eye and nostril over the right frontal bone. Lysis of the underlying bone resulted in a bony defect leading into the infraorbital sinus along the dorsorostral aspect of the right eye. Histopathology revealed an unencapsulated, poorly demarcated, highly cellular neoplasm composed of islands and trabeculae of neoplastic cells embedded in abundant loose fibrovascular stroma which completely obliterated the cortical bone and sinuses of the rostral skull and infiltrated the surrounding muscle and soft tissue. Histologically, the tumor was consistent with a high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, characterized by the presence of epidermoid, intermediate, and mucous-producing cell types. No evidence of metastasis was identified. The tissue of origin was suspected to be salivary or nasal mucous glands, but was difficult to confirm due to distortion of normal tissue architecture as a result of the tumor. Although mucoepidermoid carcinomas are a common salivary gland tumor in human medicine, they are not well recognized in avian species, and no specific case reports exist describing this pathology in an Amazon parrot. Despite the lack of distinct salivary glands in most avian species, mucoepidermoid carcinomas can occur, can cause significant clinical disease, and should be included as a differential diagnosis for avian patients presenting with similar lesions.

  2. Antinociceptive effects of nalbuphine hydrochloride in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; KuKanich, Butch; Keuler, Nicholas S; Klauer, Julia M; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the antinociceptive effects and duration of action of nalbuphine HCl administered IM on thermal thresholds in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 14 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex. 3 doses of nalbuphine (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg, IM) and saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control treatment) were evaluated in a blinded complete crossover experimental design by use of foot withdrawal threshold to a noxious thermal stimulus. Baseline data on thermal threshold were generated 1 hour before administration of nalbuphine or saline solution; thermal threshold measurements were obtained 0.5, 1.5, 3, and 6 hours after administration. Nalbuphine administered IM at 12.5 mg/kg significantly increased the thermal threshold (mean change, 2.4°C), compared with results for the control treatment, and significantly changed thermal threshold for up to 3 hours, compared with baseline results (mean change, 2.6° to 3.8°C). Higher doses of nalbuphine did not significantly change thermal thresholds, compared with results for the control treatment, but had a significant effect, compared with baseline results, for up to 3 and 1.5 hours after administration, respectively. Nalbuphine administered IM at 12.5 mg/kg significantly increased the foot withdrawal threshold to a thermal noxious stimulus in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Higher doses of nalbuphine did not result in significantly increased thermal thresholds or a longer duration of action and would be expected to result in less analgesic effect than lower doses. Further studies are needed to fully evaluate the analgesic effects of nalbuphine in psittacine species.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of single oral dose of pimobendan in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Beaufrère, Hugues; KuKanich, Butch; Barker, Steven A; Brandão, João; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Tully, Thomas N

    2014-06-01

    Pimobendan is a phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor and calcium sensitizer with inotropic, lusitropic, and rasodilator properties used in the treatment of congestive heart failure. The mechanism of action is by inhibition of PDE III and V and by increasing intracellular calcium sensitivity in the cardiac myocardium. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies have been published in humans, dogs, and cats, but there are no studies in avian species. Pimobendan has been used in birds at the empirical dosage of 0.25 mg/kg q12h. To determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of pimobendan in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), 3 pilot studies with 2 birds, each receiving 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg PO, provided the basis for the pivotal trials with 6 birds, each receiving 10 mg/kg PO using 2 different suspensions. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, and 18 hours after drug administration. Plasma concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) by use of electrospray ionization. Because of the erratic and low concentrations of pimobendan, pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using naive averaged analysis. Plasma concentrations after commercial pimobendan tablet suspension at 10 mg/kg reached a Cmax of 8.26 ng/mL at 3 hours with a terminal half-life of 2.1 hours, while concentrations after the bulk chemical suspension reached a Cmax of 1.28 ng/mL at 12 hours and had a terminal half-life of 2.3 hours. Further studies evaluating the effect of oral pimobendan in parrots are needed.

  4. B-mode ultrasonography biometry of the Amazon Parrot (Amazona aestiva) eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmkuhl, Ricardo C; Almeida, Mariana F; Mamprim, Maria J; Vulcano, Luiz C

    2010-09-01

    Ultrasonographic evaluation of the eye is a relatively recent addition to routine ophthalmic diagnostics in small animal ophthalmology. Some parameters for ophthalmic biometry have been established. There are few studies in clinical avian ophthalmology that describe ultrasound images of eye in some nocturnal avian species and in other birds that do not belong to the Brazilian fauna, but the psittacine family is not represented. The purpose of this study was to describe the following measurements: the distances between cornea and anterior lens capsule (D1) between the anterior and posterior lens capsule (D2), between posterior lens capsule and optic papilla (D3) and the axial length. Sixty four transpalpebral ocular ultrasound examinations were performed on 32 Blue fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) with no history of previous ophthalmic disease. The measurements were taken in sagital planes using a 10 MHz linear probe without a standoff pad. The mean values for the left eye were; D1 0.17 ± 0.03 cm, D2 0.35 ± 0.02 cm, D3 0.73 ± 0.04 cm and the axial length 1.26 ± 0.06 cm. In the right eye D1 0.17 ± 0.02 cm, D2 0.34 ± 0.02 cm, D3 0.74 ± 0.03 cm and the axial length 1.25 ± 0.05 cm. No significant statistical difference was observed among the birds or between the left and right eye. The description of these parameters will allow the veterinary practitioner to evaluate the structural changes that specific diseases may cause in these animals.

  5. Antinociceptive effects after oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Souza, Marcy J; Braun, Jana M; Cox, Sherry K; Keuler, Nicholas S; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate antinociceptive effects on thermal thresholds after oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Animals-15 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. 2 crossover experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, 15 parrots received 3 treatments (tramadol at 2 doses [10 and 20 mg/kg] and a control suspension) administered orally. In the second experiment, 11 parrots received 2 treatments (tramadol hydrochloride [30 mg/kg] and a control suspension) administered orally. Baseline thermal foot withdrawal threshold was measured 1 hour before drug or control suspension administration; thermal foot withdrawal threshold was measured after administration at 0.5, 1.5, 3, and 6 hours (both experiments) and also at 9 hours (second experiment only). For the first experiment, there were no overall effects of treatment, hour, period, or any interactions. For the second experiment, there was an overall effect of treatment, with a significant difference between tramadol hydrochloride and control suspension (mean change from baseline, 2.00° and -0.09°C, respectively). There also was a significant change from baseline for tramadol hydrochloride at 0.5, 1.5, and 6 hours after administration but not at 3 or 9 hours after administration. Tramadol at a dose of 30 mg/kg, PO, induced thermal antinociception in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. This dose was necessary for induction of significant and sustained analgesic effects, with duration of action up to 6 hours. Further studies with other types of noxious stimulation, dosages, and intervals are needed to fully evaluate the analgesic effects of tramadol hydrochloride in psittacines.

  6. Effects of dopamine and dobutamine on isoflurane-induced hypotension in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnellbacher, Rodney W; da Cunha, Anderson F; Beaufrère, Hugues; Queiroz, Patricia; Nevarez, Javier G; Tully, Thomas N

    2012-07-01

    To assess the effects of dopamine and dobutamine on the blood pressure of isoflurane-anesthetized Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 8 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A randomized crossover study was conducted. Each bird was anesthetized (anesthesia maintained by administration of 2.5% isoflurane in oxygen) and received 3 doses of each drug during a treatment period of 20 min/dose. Treatments were constant rate infusions (CRIs) of dobutamine (5, 10, and 15 μg/kg/min) and dopamine (5, 7, and 10 μg/kg/min). Direct systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure measurements, heart rate, esophageal temperature, and end-tidal partial pressure of CO(2) were recorded throughout the treatment periods. Mean ± SD of the systolic, mean, and diastolic arterial blood pressures at time 0 (initiation of a CRI) were 132.9 ± 22.1 mm Hg, 116.9 ± 20.5 mm Hg, and 101.9 ± 22.0 mm Hg, respectively. Dopamine resulted in significantly higher values than did dobutamine for the measured variables, except for end-tidal partial pressure of CO(2). Post hoc multiple comparisons revealed that the changes in arterial blood pressure were significantly different 4 to 7 minutes after initiation of a CRI. Overall, dopamine at rates of 7 and 10 μg/kg/min and dobutamine at a rate of 15 μg/kg/min caused the greatest increases in arterial blood pressure. Dobutamine CRI at 5, 10, and 15 μg/kg/min and dopamine CRI at 5, 7, and 10 μg/kg/min may be useful in correcting severe hypotension in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots caused by anesthesia maintained with 2.5% isoflurane.

  7. Etnobotânica das variedades locais do cará (Dioscorea spp. cultivados em comunidades no município de Caapiranga, estado do Amazonas Ethnobotany of local varieties of yams (Dioscorea spp. cultivated in the municipality of Caapiranga, AM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albejamere Pereira de Castro

    2012-09-01

    (Amazonas State. For this work, a four-celled method, botanical inventory and collecting, a form, interviews and participant observation with farmers about the peculiarities of each species and varieties were used. The collected material was identified by an expert at the Herbarium of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Amazonas (EAFM and the Institute of Botany, IBt, São Paulo, and deposited in the Herbarium of Federal University of Amazonas (HUAM. For further identification of all collected species and varieties, the collected material was grown in a UFAM experimental field. Among the fifteen local varieties surveyed, ten are believed to belong to D. trifida and one to D. bulbifera. It was not possible to identify the four other taxa because they are no longer cultivated in gardens. It was found that the traditional farmers surveyed have great knowledge about the cultivated fields, as well as about cultivated local varieties, and that they have different forms of management and conservation that are fundamental to the maintenance of the agrobiodiversity of their gardens. The production systems of Caapiranga are true germplasm collections and the major local strategy for in situ/on farm conservation of genetic resources, and, therefore, should be maintained and encouraged.

  8. Morpho structural interpretation with SRTM data for helping the oil exploration: an example of Amazonas-Brazil sedimentary basin; Interpretacao morfoestrutural com dados SRTM no auxilio a exploracao petrolifera: um exemplo na bacia sedimentar do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida-Filho, Raimundo; Ibanez, Delano M. [INPE, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], E-mails: rai@ltid.inpe.br, dmi77@uol.com.br; Miranda, Fernando P. de [Petrobras-CENPES, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: fmiranda@petrobras.com.br

    2010-01-15

    The availability of digital elevation models produced by the SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission) opened new possibilities for studies of geological remote sensing in the Amazonia, since these models enhance subtle details of the terrain and drainage system, usually masked in conventional orbital images. Using as a case study an area located in the Amazonas sedimentary basin, this article discusses an approach to use these data as an aid to oil exploration in that region. The analysis of the drainage network automatically extracted from that product, combined with altitude information provided by the digital elevation model, revealed a number of drainage anomalies, which may indicate surface expression of buried geological features. One of these drainage anomalies is located exactly within the limits of the Azulao Gas Field, and may correspond to the surface expression of the hydrocarbon trapping structures in that area. The methodological approach discussed in this study can be replicated elsewhere in the Amazonas and Solimoes sedimentary basins, which together comprise about 1,000,000 km{sup 2} covered by rainforest. (author)

  9. Aspectos epidemiológicos, sociais e sanitários de uma área no Rio Negro, estado do Amazonas, com especial referência às parasitoses intestinais e à infecção chagásica

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    Coura José R.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo seccional foi realizado na população residente em um de cada quatro domicílios habitados na cidade de Barcelos (no norte do Estado do Amazonas, na margem direita do Rio Negro, a 490km de Manaus por via fluvial, visando a avaliar as condições sociais, sanitárias e os indicadores específicos para as parasitoses intestinais e para infecção chagásica. No inquérito, foram aplicados dois questionários, um domiciliar para avaliar os aspectos sociais e sanitários, e outro individual, para a avaliação das condições sociais e epidemiológicas da população. Uma amostra por conglomerado familiar de 171 domicílios foi estudada. De cada um dos 658 habitantes, foi requisitada uma amostra de fezes para exame parasitológico pelas técnicas de sedimentação de Lutz e de Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho, modificado por Willcox & Coura (1989, 1991 e coletada uma amostra de sangue em papel de filtro para a reação de imunofluorescência para anticorpos anti-T. cruzi pelo método de Fife & Muschel modificado por Camargo (1966 e Souza & Camargo (1966 e Petana & Willcox (1975. O exame de fezes mostrou 69,4% das amostras com um ou mais parasitos. O Ascaris lumbricoides foi predominante, com 51% de positividade, e o Entamoeba histolytica, embora com exame não específico, foi positivo em 19,7%. Surpreendentemente, 20,1% das 658 amostras de sangue foram reativas para anticorpos anti-T. cruzi na diluição de 1:20, e 13,7%, na diluição de 1:40. Houve forte correlação entre esses resultados e o nível de contato da população humana com triatomíneos silvestres, conhecidos localmente como piolho-da-piaçava, e conseguimos isolar por xenodiagnóstico uma cepa de T. cruzi de um paciente (nº 209-1 com sorologia positiva para infecção chagásica, natural da área e que havia trabalhado na agricultura, transportando piaçava, e que conhecia muito bem o piolho-da-piaçava.

  10. From drought to flooding: understanding the abrupt 2010-11 hydrological annual cycle in the Amazonas River and tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo Espinoza, Jhan; Ronchail, Josyane; Loup Guyot, Jean; Junquas, Clementine; Drapeau, Guillaume; Martinez, Jean Michel; Santini, William; Vauchel, Philippe; Lavado, Waldo; Ordoñez, Julio; Espinoza, Raúl

    2012-06-01

    In this work we document and analyze the hydrological annual cycles characterized by a rapid transition between low and high flows in the Amazonas River (Peruvian Amazon) and we show how these events, which may impact vulnerable riverside residents, are related to regional climate variability. Our analysis is based on comprehensive discharge, rainfall and average suspended sediment data sets. Particular attention is paid to the 2010-11 hydrological year, when an unprecedented abrupt transition from the extreme September 2010 drought (8300 m3 s-1) to one of the four highest discharges in April 2011 (49 500 m3 s-1) was recorded at Tamshiyacu (Amazonas River). This unusual transition is also observed in average suspended sediments. Years with a rapid increase in discharge are characterized by negative sea surface temperature anomalies in the central equatorial Pacific during austral summer, corresponding to a La Niña-like mode. It originates a geopotential height wave train over the subtropical South Pacific and southeastern South America, with a negative anomaly along the southern Amazon and the southeastern South Atlantic convergence zone region. As a consequence, the monsoon flux is retained over the Amazon and a strong convergence of humidity occurs in the Peruvian Amazon basin, favoring high rainfall and discharge. These features are also reported during the 2010-11 austral summer, when an intense La Niña event characterized the equatorial Pacific.

  11. Geochronology of the basement rocks, Amazonas Territory, Venezuela and the tectonic evolution of the western Guiana Shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudette, H E; Olszewski, Jr, W J

    1985-01-01

    The Amazonas Territory of Venezuela is a large area of Precambrian basement rocks overlain in some locales by the supracrustal sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Roraima Formation. The basement rocks are medium to high grade gneisses with both igneous and sedimentary protoliths, plutonic rocks ranging in composition from granite to tonalite, and meta-volcanic rocks. Rb-Sr whole rock, and U-Pb isotopic analyses of zircons indicate a period of medium to high grade metamorphism and intrusion from 1860 to 1760 Ma. Post-tectonic plutonic activity continued to 1550 Ma. The volcanic rocks of the Roraima Formation in Venezuela give an age of 1746 Ma comparable to volcanic rocks of the Roraima Formation in other parts of the Guiana Shield. The ages and distribution of the basement rocks suggest the presence of a tectonic zone, approximately coincident with the Venezuelan-Colombian border, representing an active orogenic boundary between distinct tectonic provinces. The rocks to the northeast of this zone are part of the Trans-Amazonian of the Guiana Shield, while to the southwest and in adjacent Brazil and Colombia, new younger continental crust has been developed and cratonized. We suggest a model of collision and subduction followed by a chan0140n tectonic style to extensional-vertical to produce the basement rocks of the western Guiana Shield in the Amazonas Territory. (Auth.). 20 refs.; 13 figs.; 2 tabs.

  12. Frequencies of Blood Group Systems MNS, Diego, and Duffy and Clinical Phases of Carrion’s Disease in Amazonas, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Acosta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carrion’s disease (CD, is a human bartonellosis, that is, endemic in the Andes of Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia. Bartonella bacilliformis, a native hemotrophic bacteria, is the causative agent of CD, and the interaction with the host could have produced changes in the gene frequencies of erythrocyte antigens. The goal here is to investigate the relationship between allele frequencies of blood group systems MNS, Diego, and Duffy and the clinical phases of CD, within a genetic context. In this associative and analytical study, 76 individuals from Bagua Grande, the province of Utcubamba, and the department of Amazonas in Peru, were enrolled. Forty of them resided in Tomocho-Collicate-Vista Hermosa area (high prevalence of cases in chronic phase, verrucous, or eruptive phase, without previous acute phase. Thirty-six individuals were from the area of Miraflores (high prevalence of cases in acute phase only and were evaluated for blood group systems MNS, Diego, and Duffy. This study constitutes one of the first attempts at evaluating the genetic factors and clinical phases of CD. No significant statistical differences (P>0.05 between allele frequencies of blood groups MNS, Diego, and Duffy and the prevalence of chronic and acute phases were detected in the two areas of Amazonas, Peru.

  13. From drought to flooding: understanding the abrupt 2010–11 hydrological annual cycle in the Amazonas River and tributaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinoza, Jhan Carlo; Ronchail, Josyane; Drapeau, Guillaume; Guyot, Jean Loup; Martinez, Jean Michel; Santini, William; Vauchel, Philippe; Espinoza, Raúl; Junquas, Clementine; Lavado, Waldo; Ordoñez, Julio

    2012-01-01

    In this work we document and analyze the hydrological annual cycles characterized by a rapid transition between low and high flows in the Amazonas River (Peruvian Amazon) and we show how these events, which may impact vulnerable riverside residents, are related to regional climate variability. Our analysis is based on comprehensive discharge, rainfall and average suspended sediment data sets. Particular attention is paid to the 2010–11 hydrological year, when an unprecedented abrupt transition from the extreme September 2010 drought (8300 m 3 s −1 ) to one of the four highest discharges in April 2011 (49 500 m 3 s −1 ) was recorded at Tamshiyacu (Amazonas River). This unusual transition is also observed in average suspended sediments. Years with a rapid increase in discharge are characterized by negative sea surface temperature anomalies in the central equatorial Pacific during austral summer, corresponding to a La Niña-like mode. It originates a geopotential height wave train over the subtropical South Pacific and southeastern South America, with a negative anomaly along the southern Amazon and the southeastern South Atlantic convergence zone region. As a consequence, the monsoon flux is retained over the Amazon and a strong convergence of humidity occurs in the Peruvian Amazon basin, favoring high rainfall and discharge. These features are also reported during the 2010–11 austral summer, when an intense La Niña event characterized the equatorial Pacific. (letter)

  14. A new eimerian species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the blue-fronted Amazon parrot Amazona aestiva L. (Aves: Psittacidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstatter, P G; Guaraldo, A M A

    2011-12-01

    The Neotropical psittacine species Amazona aestiva, commonly known as the blue-fronted Amazon, is one of the most common and best-known psittacine birds kept as a pet worldwide. However, very little is known about the diseases or parasites of these birds. In this study, we describe a new species, Eimeria aestivae, associated with these parrots. The new species is characterized by: ovoid smooth oocysts (n  =  60), 36.8 (33.2-41.5) × 23.7 (21.7-25.7) µm, length/width ratio  =  1.55; polar granule present; ellipsoidal sporocysts (n  =  25), 19.8 (17.5-21.6) × 9.3 (8.3-9.9) µm; Stieda, sub-Stieda body, and sporocyst residuum present. Sporozoites (n  =  20), 2 per sporocyst, elongate and curved, 17.6 (15.8-19.2) × 3.8 (3.2-4.8) µm; each with 2 refractile bodies. The oocysts of the other 2 eimerian species described for Amazona are larger than those of the presented species, but they all seem to be closely related because of some similarities among them.

  15. Two new Eimeria species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the yellow-crowned Amazon Amazona ochrocephala (Aves: Psittacidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstatter, P G; Kawazoe, U

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we describe 2 new species of Eimeria associated with the yellow-crowned Amazon Amazona ochrocephala. Eimeria amazonae n. sp. has bilayered, ellipsoidal, and smooth oocysts that measure 48.9 × 36.2 µm; the length/width ratio is 1.35. The micropyle and oocyst residuum are both absent, but the polar granule is present. Ovoidal sporocysts are 22.2 × 11.9 µm. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies and sporocyst residuum are present. The 2 elongate sporozoites are curved and measure 18.1 × 3.4 µm; both have 2 refractile bodies. Eimeria ochrocephalae n. sp. has bilayered, ellipsoidal, and smooth oocysts that measure 43.8 × 27.7 µm; the length/width ratio is 1.58. The micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent, but the polar granule is present; ovoidal sporocysts are 20.6 × 10.1 µm. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies and sporocyst residuum are present; 2 elongate and curved sporozoites are 15.8 × 3.4 µm, each of which has 2 refractile bodies.

  16. Estatística multivariada na discriminação de raças amazônicas de pupunheiras (Bactris gasipaes Kunth em Manaus (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martel Jorge Hugo Iriarte

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available As raças e populações de pupunheiras ao longo dos rios Amazonas e Solimões apresentam grande variabilidade genética ainda não totalmente caracterizada. Neste estudo, foram aplicadas técnicas estatísticas multivariadas a 15 descritores morfológicos numa tentativa de caracterizar, morfometricamente, três raças existentes ao longo da Bacia desses rios. As três análises em conjunto permitiram uma discriminação das raças, mostrando também que os descritores mais importantes nessa seleção foram: número de espigas, comprimento da ráquis, peso do fruto, espessura das cascas, facilidade para descascar os frutos, peso das cascas, sabor dos frutos, espessura da polpa, distância morfológica dos frutos e peso da semente.

  17. Neogene vegetation development in the Amazon Basin: evidence from marine well-2, Foz do Amazonas (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogota-Angel, Raul; Chemale Junior, Farid; Davila, Roberto; Soares, Emilson; Pinto, Ricardo; Do Carmo, Dermeval; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Origen and development of the highly diverse Amazon tropical forest has mostly been inferred from continental sites. However, sediment records in the marine Foz do Amazonas Basin can provide important information to better understand the influence of the Andes uplift and climate change on its plant biomes evolution since the Neogene. Sediment analyses of samples from BP-Petrobras well 1 and 2, drilled in the Amazon Fan, allowed to infer the onset of the transcontinental Amazon river and the fan phase during the middle to late Miocene (c. 10.5 Ma). As part of the CLIMAMAZON research programme we performed pollen analysis on the 10.5 to 0.4 Ma time interval. 76 ditch cutting samples of the upper 4165 m sediments of well 2 permitted us to infer changes in floral composition in the Amazon Basin. The palynological spectra across this interval (nannofossil based age model) include pollen, fern spores, dinocysts and foram lignings. When possible pollen and fern spores were grouped in four vegetation types: estuarine, tropical, mountain forest and high mountain open treeless vegetation. Pollen is generally corroded and reflects the effects of sediment transportation while reworked material is also common. Good pollen producers such as Poaceae, Asteraceae and Cyperaceae are common and reflect indistinctive vegetation types particularly those associated to riverine systems. Rhizophora/Zonocostites spp. indicate "close-distance" mangrove development. Tropical forest biomes are represented by pollen that resemble Moraceae-Urticaceae, Melastomataceae-Combretaceae, Sapotaceae, Alchornea, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Mauritia and Arecaceae. Myrica, and particularly sporadic occurrences of fossil fern spores like Lophosoria, and Cyathea suggest the development of a moist Andean forest in areas above 1000 m. First indicators of high altitudes appear in the last part of late Miocene with taxa associated to current Valeriana and particularly Polylepis, a neotropical taxon

  18. Palpation- and ultrasound-guided brachial plexus blockade in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Anderson F; Strain, George M; Rademacher, Nathalie; Schnellbacher, Rodney; Tully, Thomas N

    2013-01-01

    To compare palpation-guided with ultrasound-guided brachial plexus blockade in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Prospective randomized experimental trial. Eighteen adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) weighing 252-295 g. After induction of anesthesia with isoflurane, parrots received an injection of lidocaine (2 mg kg(-1)) in a total volume of 0.3 mL at the axillary region. The birds were randomly assigned to equal groups using either palpation or ultrasound as a guide for the brachial plexus block. Nerve evoked muscle potentials (NEMP) were used to monitor effectiveness of brachial plexus block. The palpation-guided group received the local anesthetic at the space between the pectoral muscle, triceps, and supracoracoideus aticimus muscle, at the insertion of the tendons of the caudal coracobrachial muscle, and the caudal scapulohumeral muscle. For the ultrasound-guided group, the brachial plexus and the adjacent vessels were located with B-mode ultrasonography using a 7-15 MHz linear probe. After location, an 8-5 MHz convex transducer was used to guide injections. General anesthesia was discontinued 20 minutes after lidocaine injection and the birds recovered in a padded cage. Both techniques decreased the amplitude of NEMP. Statistically significant differences in NEMP amplitudes, were observed within the ultrasound-guided group at 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes after injection and within the palpation-guided group at 10, 15, and 20 minutes after injection. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. No effect on motor function, muscle relaxation or wing droop was observed after brachial plexus block. The onset of the brachial plexus block tended to be faster when ultrasonography was used. Brachial plexus injection can be performed in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and nerve evoked muscle potentials were useful to monitor the effects on nerve conduction in this avian species. Neither technique produced an effective block at the

  19. Pharmacokinetics of butorphanol after intravenous, intramuscular, and oral administration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Flammer, Keven; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R; Barker, Steven A; Tully, Thomas N

    2011-09-01

    Previous studies have validated the clinical use of opioids with kaap-receptor affinities for pain management in birds. Butorphanol, a kappa opioid receptor agonist and a mu opioid receptor antagonist, is currently considered by many clinicians to be the opioid of choice for this use. However, despite studies reporting the analgesic properties of butorphanol in psittacine birds, dosing intervals have not been established for any psittacine species. The goals of this study in the Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis) were to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate after intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), and oral (PO) administration and to determine the bioavailability of butorphanol tartrate after oral administration. Twelve Hispaniolan Amazon parrots were used in the study, with a complete-crossover experimental design and a 3-month period separating each part of the study. The birds were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 4) for each stage. Butorphanol tartrate was administered once at a dose of 5 mg/kg in the basilic vein or pectoral muscles or as an oral solution delivered via feeding tube into the crop for the IV, IM, and PO studies, respectively. After butorphanol administration, blood samples were collected at 1, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 minutes for the IV and IM studies and at 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, and 300 minutes for the PO study. Because of the size limitation of the birds, naive pooling of datum points was used to generate a mean plasma butorphanol concentration at each time point. For each study, birds in each group (n = 4) were bled 3 times after dosing. Plasma butorphanol concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. Butorphanol tartrate was found to have high bioavailability and rapid elimination following IM administration. In contrast, oral administration resulted in low bioavailability (Amazon

  20. Deployment of the FIGAERO Iodide Time of flight (ToF)-Chemical ionisation mass spectrometer (CIMS) using X-ray ionisation in Manaus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannan, T.; Bacak, A.; Priestley, M.; Adelstein, E.; Worrall, S.; Artaxo, P.; Carbone, S.; Topping, D. O.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Percival, C.

    2017-12-01

    Here the deployment of the The Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO) coupled with the Aerodyne High Resolution (HR)-Time of flight (ToF)-Chemical ionisation mass spectrometer (CIMS) in Manaus is presented. This project utilised the Tofwerk X-ray ionisation source in the tropical rainforest in close proximity to Manaus, Brazil, at the ZF2 measurement site. The FIGAERO is a filter based technique that provides simultaneous molecular information of both the gas and particle phase. When analysing particles that have been collected the evolution of the MS signals from different compounds change independently as a function of temperature; creating a thermogram that is m/z specific. The temperature for which the desorbed signal shows a maximum for each compound has been used previously to extract vapour pressure information in laboratory characterisatio. Krieger et al. (2017) defined the homologous series of polyethylene glycols as a series of compounds that showed a very good agreement over a wide range of atmospherically relevant vapour pressures between different experimental setups. PEG samples therefore provide an ideal bench mark for characterising individual FIGAERO inlets to give vapour pressure information essential for partitioning characterisation. The PEG calibration curve has been used to validate vapour pressure measurements in a well-defined single component bases and in simple chamber experiments, results of which are presented. With a high reactivity and large ubiquitous global source, isoprene has a profound effect upon atmospheric chemistry and composition. Despite this there are still significant gaps in the understanding of the processes that lead to isoprene derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA). This project aims to provide insights into the role of isoprene in the mechanisms of production of SOA and its importance in the particulate mass budgets in the tropics and the fundamental chemical processes. The volatility and composition of

  1. [Pilot study of echocardiographic studies using color- and pulsed-wave spectral Doppler methods in blue-crowned amazons (Amazona ventralis) and blue-fronted amazons (Amazona a. aestiva)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pees, M; Straub, J; Schumacher, J; Gompf, R; Krautwald-Junghanns, M E

    2005-02-01

    Colour-flow and pulsed-wave spectral Doppler echocardiography was performed on 6 healthy, adult Hispaniolan amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) and 6 blue-fronted amazon parrots (Amazona a. aestiva) to establish normal reference values. Birds were anesthetized with isoflurane in oxygen and placed in dorsal recumbency. An electrocardiogram was recorded continuously and birds were imaged with a micro-phased-array scanner with a frequency of 7.0 MHz. After assessment of cardiac function in 2-D-echocardiography, blood flow across the left and the right atrioventricular valve and across the aortic valve was determined using color-flow and pulsed-wave spectral Doppler echocardiography. Diastolic inflow (mean value +/- standard deviation) into the left ventricle was 0.17 +/- 0.02 m/s (Hispaniolan amazons) and 0.18 +/- 0.03 m/s (Blue fronted amazons). Diastolic inflow into the right ventricle was 0.22 +/- 0.05 m/s (Hispaniolan amazons) and 0.22 +/- 0.04 m/s (Blue fronted amazons). Velocity across the aortic valve was 0.84 +/- 0.07 m/s (Hispaniolan amazons) and 0.83 +/- 0.08 m/s (Blue fronted amazons). Systolic pulmonary flow could not be detected in any of the birds in this study. No significant differences were evident between the two species examined. Results of this study indicate that Doppler echocardiography is a promising technique to determine blood flow in the avian heart. Further studies in other avian species are needed to establish reference values for assessment of cardiac function in diseased birds.

  2. Análise da ocorrência dos fluxos e Jatos de Nível Baixo no perfil vertical do vento na baixa atmosfera em Manaus (AM Analysis of the occurrence of streams and Low Level Jets in the vertical wind profile at the lower-atmosphere of Manaus city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Souza Corrêa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo apresenta uma análise sobre as estruturas verticais nos baixos níveis da atmosfera tropical, região norte do Brasil, utilizando dados de radiossondagem realizadas na cidade de Manaus. Foi descrito um modelo dinâmico que envolve fluxos/Jatos de Nível Baixo (JNB entre os níveis de 950 hPa e 926 hPa, entre 860 hPa e 880 hPa (correspondendo aproximadamente ao nível intermediário de 850 hPa e ao terceira camada mais alta entre 800 hPa e 700 hPa (níveis médios. Esses fluxos e Jatos caracterizam um processo dinâmico de intenso transporte de energia e massa, criando uma estrutura estratificada turbulenta muito eficiente na geração de convecção na região tropical, demonstrando a influência da Camada Limite Planetária Tropical (CLPT na geração de convecção em meso escala.This study presents an analysis of the vertical structure of the low level tropical atmosphere, north region of Brazil, using radiosonde data at Manaus. A dynamical model involving flow/Low Level Jet (LLJ between the 950hPa and 926 hPa levels, between 860 hPa and 880 hPa levels (correspounding to 850 hPa intermediary level and in the third higher layer between 800 hPa and 700 hPa levels (middle levels is described. These streams and jets characterise a dynamical process of intense energy and mass transport, creating a turbulent stratified structure which is very efficient in producing convection at tropical region, demonstrating the influence of the Tropical Planetary Boundary Layer (TPLB, in the mesoscale convection generation.

  3. Parasitoid diversity (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Figitidae on frugivorous larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae at Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, Central Amazon Region, Manaus, Brazil

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    SGM. Costa

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify parasitoid species of frugivorous larvae and to describe the tritrophic interactions involving wild fruits, frugivorous insects and their natural enemies at Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve (RFAD (Manaus, AM, Brazil. Collections were performed in four 1 km² quadrants in the corners of the RFAD. The wild fruits were collected inside the forest in access trails leading to each collection area and in trails that surrounded the quadrants, up to five metres from the trail on each side. The fruits were placed in plastic containers covered with thin fabric, with a vermiculite layer on the base to allow the emergence of flies or parasitoids. Seven Braconidae species were collected, distributed among Opiinae: Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, 1911, Utetes anastrephae (Viereck, 1913, and Opius sp., and Alysiinae: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck, 1958, Phaenocarpa pericarpa Wharton and Carrejo, 1999, Idiasta delicata Papp, 1969, and Asobara sp. Parasitism rates by braconids and figitids are presented. Doryctobracon areolatus was the most frequent, parasitizing the highest number of fly species, and showing the highest parasitism percentage in larvae feeding on Micropholis williamii fruits. The collected figitids belong to Aganaspis nordlanderi Wharton, 1998 and A. pelleranoi (Brethes, 1924. All 15 tritrophic associations are new records for the Brazilian Amazon region. The RFAD is an important natural reservoir of frugivorous larvae parasitoids.

  4. PERCEPÇÃO DE SAÚDE E COMPORTAMENTO PREVENTIVO EM ESCOLARES DO ENSINO MÉDIO DA CIDADE DE MANAUS, BRASIL

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    Ewertton de Souza Bezerra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare by gender the variables of aspects related to health perception and preventive behavior of students in public school attending high school in the city of Manaus. 894 students were selected (15-19 years being and 393 boys and 501 girls. Data were collected through a questionnaire developed and validated for adolescents. It was observed that boys are considered healthier than girls. There was no significant difference between genders regarding the quality of sleep. The girls showed higher levels of stress being the main source "relationship problems" (57.9%. Over the past 12 months 9.4% of boys and 9% of girls in "most often" felt alone. Most of the girls have never had intercourse (46.1% when compared to boys (25.4%. The ratio of boys who "always" make condom use was higher (41% compared to girls (29.3%. The values for both genders that have never been involved with fighting were greater than 50%. Thus it becomes important to check these health indicators as well as their perceptions and behaviors as these when cultivated in a positive way during adolescence contribute to an affirmation of the quality of life, but when is not grown can negatively affect health.

  5. Influência do Aterro Municipal de Manaus sobre as águas superficiais da circunvizinhança: um enfoque ao estudo de metais pesados

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    Dorian Lesca de Oliveira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisou as concentrações de metais pesados (Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb e Zn por espectrometria de absorção atômica de chama (FAAS e variáveis físico-químicas (pH, condutividade elétrica e temperatura in situ em amostras de águas superficiais da circunvizinhança do Aterro Municipal de Manaus e chorume. Amostras de água e chorume foram coletadas no período de estiagem e chuvoso com o objetivo de verificar a influência antrópica sobre o sistema hídrico composto pelos Igarapés: Matrinxã, Aracu, Acará, e Bolívia. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos a duas análises estatísticas exploratórias: Análise de Componente Principal (PCA e Análise de Agrupamento Hierárquico (HCA. Os resultados indicaram concentrações de metais pesados distintos conforme a estação do ano e elemento. A PCA revelou correlações significativas entre: Al, Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni e Pb assim como Zn e Co. A HCA e PCA mostraram que as características do sistema hídrico são semelhantes ao chorume na estiagem.

  6. DOSAGEM DE METABÓLITOS DE GLUCOCORTICOIDES E PROGESTERONA EM FEZES DE PAPAGAIO-VERDADEIRO (AMAZONA AESTIVA

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    Caroline Junko Fujihara

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to evaluate fecal concentrations of metabolites of glucocorticoids, measured by enzyme immunoassay with a cortisol antibody and by radioimmunoassay with a corticosterone antibody, and progesterone by radioimmunoassay with a progesterone antibody in blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva after ACTH challenge. The adrenal stimulation with ACTH (25 UI/animal resulted in an increase of fecal glucocorticoids metabolites concentration, but it did not affect the concentrations of fecal progesterone metabolites. Although there were no synchronized peaks of glucocorticoid metabolites excretion measured by enzyme immunoassay and radioimmunoassay, there were two peaks of excretion, one at 2-4 hours and other at 8-10 hours. Despite the occurrence of peaks, the analysis of fecal glucocorticoids metabolites and progesterone metabolites showed no effect of group (control and treatment, moment (hours of sampling and sex.

  7. Nuevo registro del loro frente blanca (Amazona albifrons para la Isla de Cozumel, Quintana Roo, México

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    Alexis Herminio Plasencia Vázquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reportamos, por primera vez en la literatura científica, al loro frente blanca (Amazona albifrons como especie introducida en áreas urbanas de la Isla de Cozumel, Quintana Roo, durante el trabajo de campo realizado en el mes de abril de 2011. Su presencia sólo en áreas urbanas de la isla, la capacidad de la especie para poder vivir con éxito en áreas urbanas, la abundancia de árboles frutales y su uso como mascota por los isleños nos permite sugerir que los individuos registrados son resultado de escapes o fueron liberados por sus dueños. Es probable que las condiciones sean favorables para el establecimiento de una población dentro del poblado de San Miguel de Cozumel, lo que debe monitorearse en el futuro.

  8. Characterization of atherosclerosis by histochemical and immunohistochemical methods in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) and Amazon parrots (Amazona spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Cornelia; Schmidt, Volker; Cramer, Kerstin; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Dorrestein, Gerry M

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize atherosclerotic changes in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) and Amazon parrots (Amazona spp.) by histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Samples of the aorta ascendens and trunci brachiocephalici from 62 African grey parrots and 35 Amazon parrots were stained by hematoxylin and eosin and Elastica van Gieson for grading of atherosclerosis in these birds. Four different stages were differentiated. The incidence of atherosclerosis in the examined parrots was 91.9% in African grey parrots and 91.4% in Amazon parrots. To evaluate the pathogenesis in birds, immunohistochemical methods were performed to demonstrate lymphocytes, macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and chondroitin sulfate. According to the missing lymphocytes and macrophages and the absence of invasion and proliferation of smooth muscle cells in each atherosclerotic stage, "response-to-injury hypothesis" seems inapplicable in parrots. Additionally, we found alterations of vitally important organs (heart, lungs) significantly correlated with atherosclerosis of the aorta ascendens.

  9. Itinerário dos usuários de medicamentos via judicial no estado do Amazonas, Brasil

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    Marselle Nobre de Carvalho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo teve como objetivo analisar o itinerário dos usuários que tiveram acesso a medicamentos via judicial no estado do Amazonas, Brasil. Trata-se de estudo qualitativo, prospectivo, baseado em dados coletados por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas com usuários que receberam medicamentos via mandado judicial. A judicialização na saúde mostrou-se um fator agregador ao reconhecimento dos direitos e da cidadania pelos usuários que, na sua trajetória de vida, acabaram adquirindo um grande aprendizado sobre formas de enfrentar a falta de acesso aos medicamentos. Conclui-se que a relação entre o sujeito e o Estado permanece desigual, e o direito à saúde se deu na dimensão individual e restritiva, desconsiderando a dimensão coletiva e a concepção de cidadania.

  10. Effects of Hurricane Georges on habitat use by captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots (Amazona ventralis) released in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, T.H.; Collazo, J.A.; Vilella, F.J.; Guerrero, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    We radio-tagged and released 49 captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots (Amazona ventralis) in Parque Nacional del Este (PNE), Dominican Republic, during 1997 and 1998. Our primary objective was to develop a restoration program centered on using aviary-reared birds to further the recovery of the critically endangered Puerto Rican Parrot (A. vittata). Hurricane Georges made landfall over the release area on 22 September 1998 with sustained winds of 224 km/h, providing us with a unique opportunity to quantify responses of parrots to such disturbances. Quantitative data on such responses by any avian species are scarce, particularly for Amazona species, many of which are in peril and occur in hurricane-prone areas throughout the Caribbean. Mean home ranges of 18 parrots monitored both before and after the hurricane increased (P = 0.08) from 864 ha (CI = 689-1039 ha) pre-hurricane to 1690 ha (CI = 1003-2377 ha) post-hurricane. The total area traversed by all parrots increased > 300%, from 4884 ha pre-hurricane to 15,490 ha post-hurricane. Before Hurricane Georges, parrot activity was concentrated in coastal scrub, tall broadleaf forest, and abandoned agriculture (conucos). After the hurricane, parrots concentrated their activities in areas of tall broadleaf forest and abandoned conucos. Topographic relief, primarily in the form of large sinkholes, resulted in "resource refugia" where parrots and other frugivores foraged after the hurricane. Habitat use and movement patterns exhibited by released birds highlight the importance of carefully considering effects of season, topography, and overall size of release areas when planning psittacine restorations in hurricane-prone areas. ?? The Neotropical Ornithological Society.

  11. EFFECTS OF EXERCISE ON THE PLASMA LIPID PROFILE IN HISPANIOLAN AMAZON PARROTS (AMAZONA VENTRALIS) WITH NATURALLY OCCURRING HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsen, Kate A; Stanhope, Kimber L; Lin, Amy S; Graham, James L; Havel, Peter J; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2016-09-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is common in psittacines, and Amazon parrots ( Amazona spp.) are particularly susceptible. Associations have been demonstrated between naturally occurring and experimentally induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in psittacines. Daily exercise improves lipid metabolism in humans and other mammals, as well as pigeons and chickens, under varying experimental conditions. Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) with naturally occurring hypercholesterolemia (343-576 mg/dl) were divided into two groups. An exercised group (n = 8) was housed as a flock and exercised daily with 30 min of aviary flight and 30 min walking on a rotating perch. A sedentary control group (n = 4) was housed in individual cages with no exercise regime. A plasma lipid panel, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides, was validated for this species. Body weight, chest girth, and the lipid panel were measured at 0, 61, and 105 days. Hematology and plasma biochemistry were measured at 0 and 105 days. Weight and girth were significantly lower in exercised than sedentary parrots at 61 and 105 days. HDL-C concentrations were significantly higher in exercised parrots at 61 days but returned to near baseline by 105 days. There were no significant changes in hematology, biochemistry, or other lipid panel parameters. Results were similar to studies in humans and animal models, in which increased HDL-C was the most consistent effect of exercise on circulating lipid and lipoprotein parameters. The return toward baseline HDL-C may have resulted from decreased participation in aviary flight. Additional investigation will be required to determine the amount of exercise and change in circulating lipid-related parameters necessary to improve long-term wellness in psittacine species predisposed to hypercholesterolemia.

  12. LBA-ECO LC-03 Hypsography, Rivers, Roads, and DEM, Four Areas across Brazilian Amazon

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    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides four related spatial data products for four study areas across the Brazilian Amazon: Manaus, Amazonas; Tapajos National Forest, Para Western...

  13. Envia garciai, a new genus and species of mygalomorph spiders (Araneae, Microstigmatidae from Brazilian Amazonia

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    Ott Ricardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Envia, comprising only the new species Envia garciai, is proposed. These small mygalomorph spiders were abundantly collected in soil cores and litter samples in primary rain forests near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.

  14. [Nesting habitat characterization for Amazona oratrix (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) in the Central Pacific, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterrubio-Rico, Tiberio C; Álvarez-Jara, Margarito; Tellez-Garcia, Loreno; Tena-Morelos, Carlos

    2014-09-01

    The nesting requirements of the Yellow-headed Parrot (Amazona oratrix) are poorly understood, despite their broad historical distribution, high demand for pet trade and current endangered status. Information concerning their nesting requirements is required in order to design specific restoration and conser- vation actions. To assess this, we studied their nesting ecology in the Central Pacific, Michoacan, Mexico during a ten year period. The analyzed variables ranged from local scale nest site characteristics such as nesting tree species, dimensions, geographic positions, diet and nesting forest patches structure, to large scale features such as vegetation use and climatic variables associated to the nesting tree distributions by an ecological niche model using Maxent. We also evaluated the parrot tolerance to land management regimes, and compared the Pacific nest trees with 18 nest trees recorded in an intensively managed private ranch in Tamaulipas, Gulf of Mexico. Parrots nested in tall trees with canopy level cavities in 92 nest-trees recorded from 11 tree species. The 72.8% of nesting occurred in trees of Astronium graveolens, and Enterolobium cyclocarpum which qualified as key- stone trees. The forests where the parrots nested, presented a maximum of 54 tree species, 50% of which were identified as food source; besides, these areas also had a high abundance of trees used as food supply. The lowest number of tree species and trees to forage occurred in an active cattle ranch, whereas the highest species rich- ness was observed in areas with natural recovery. The nesting cavity entrance height from above ground of the Pacific nesting trees resulted higher than those found in the Gulf of Mexico. We hypothesize that the differences may be attributed to Parrot behavioral differences adapting to differential poaching pressure and cavity avail- ability. Nesting trees were found in six vegetation types; however the parrots preferred conserved and riparian semi

  15. Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics of Piperacillin/Tazobactam in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis ).

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    Carpenter, James W; Tully, Thomas N; Gehring, Ronette; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon

    2017-06-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics of piperacillin/tazobactam in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ), 8 healthy adult parrots of both sexes were used in a 2-part study. In a pilot study, piperacillin (87 mg/kg) in combination with tazobactam (11 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly (IM) to 2 birds, and blood samples were obtained at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 10 hours after administration. Based on the results obtained, a main study was done in which piperacillin/tazobactam was administered at 2 different doses. In 3 birds, the initial dose of piperacillin (87 mg/kg)/tazobactam (11 mg/kg) IM was administered, and in 3 birds, the dose was doubled to piperacillin (174 mg/kg)/tazobactam (22 mg/kg) IM. In all 6 birds, blood samples were obtained at 0, 5, 15, and 30 minutes and at 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, and 4 hours after administration. Quantification of plasma piperacillin and tazobactam concentrations was determined by validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry assay. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by noncompartmental analysis. After intramuscular administration, the mean ± standard error values of T 1/2 (h) was 0.52 ± 0.05 and 0.32 ± 0.07, T max (h) was 0.28 ± 0.09 and 0.25 ± 0.10, C max (μg/mL) was 86.34 ± 20.62 and 9.03 ± 2.88, and C max /dose was 0.99 ± 0.24 and 0.83 ± 0.26 for piperacillin (87 mg/kg) and tazobactam (11 mg/kg), respectively. When the doses were doubled, the T 1/2 (h) was 0.65 ± 0.08 and 0.34 ± 0.02, T max (h) was 0.28 ± 0.12 and 0.14 ± 0.06, C max (μg/mL) was 233.0 ± 6.08 and 22.13 ± 2.35, and C max /dose was 1.34 ± 0.03 and 1.02 ± 0.11 for piperacillin and tazobactam, respectively. Results indicate that piperacillin is rapidly absorbed and reaches high initial concentrations; however, it is also rapidly eliminated in the Hispaniolan Amazon parrot, and tazobactam has similar pharmacokinetics as piperacillin. Administration of piperacillin at 87 mg/kg IM q3-4h is recommended for this species

  16. Impactos ambientais decorrentes do lixão da cidade de Humaitá, Amazonas

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    Benone Otávio Souza de Oliveira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente a problemática relacionada aos resíduos sólidos vem ganhando destaque no tocante à necessidade de gerenciamento integrado e aos impactos ambientais e os problemas de saúde pública. Nesse sentido torna-se necessário a implementação de medidas de gestão para a extinção de lixões à céu aberto. Com base nesse contexto, objetivou-se avaliar os impactos ambientais causados pela prática inadequada de disposição de resíduos sólidos a céu aberto da cidade de Humaitá-AM. A metodologia utilizada baseou-se na realização de visitas de campo e aplicação do método de avaliação de impactos ambientais conhecido por “Índice de Impacto” e o índice da qualidade de aterros de resíduos (IQAR que permite avaliar as condições gerais da destinação final de resíduos sólidos urbanos, classificando os sistemas em condições adequadas, controladas e inadequadas. O lixão encontra-se em funcionamento inadequado, sem atender as regras de proteção ao meio ambiente, ocasionando assim inúmeros impactos ambientais, tais como: aumento dos processos erosivos do solo, compactação do solo, poluição do ar, poluição dos recursos hídricos, proliferação de micro e macrovetores, redução da biota do solo, stress da fauna local, poluição visual, contaminação dos catadores, entre outros. O valor do IQAR foi de 1,53, mostrando que as condições da área são inadequadas. Desta forma, é evidente a ação negativa do lixão devido à falta de manejo adequado, disposição final e políticas públicas voltadas ao gerenciamento dos resíduos sólidos gerados na cidade. Environmental impacts of landfill of the city of Humaitá, AmazonasAbstract: Currently the problems related to solid waste has been gaining attention on the need for integrated management and environmental impacts and public health problems. In this sense it is necessary to implement management measures for putting out garbage dumps in the open air. Within

  17. Estudo do Fenômeno da Ilha de Calor na Cidade de Manaus/AM: Um Estudo a Partir de Dados de Sensoriamento Remoto, Modelagem e Estações Meteorológicas

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    Polari Batista Corrêa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O fenômeno da ilha de calor (IC na cidade de Manaus foi estudado usando dados de modelagem do clima urbano com o modelo Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF e dados de estações meteorológicas. Foram usados os dados de temperatura da superfície (TS obtidos pelo sensor MODIS do satélite ambiental Aqua, produto MYD11A2 na resolução horizontal de 1 km por um 1 km para o período de 2002 a 2012 na cidade de Manaus para avaliar o processo de urbanização. Foi realizado um estudo de caso com as simulações de TS e de temperatura do ar (TA nos meses de agosto e setembro de 2009 que foram comparadas, respectivamente, com os dados de satélite e de estações meteorológicas. Identificou-se a distribuição espacial da TS na cidade, e as diferenças de TS entre a área urbana e a de floresta e entre a área urbana e de rios foram quantificadas. As diferenças de TS ao longo das faixas de longitude de 60,03° O a 59,97° O e de latitude de 3,09° S a −3,03° S foram analisadas com os dados do modelo WRF e do sensor MODIS. A intensidade da IC estimada com os dados de TA do modelo e de estações meteorológicas foram, em média, respectivamente de 1,87 °C e de 1,80 °C, consistentes com resultados anteriores. Portanto, a TA simulada pode ser usada para fins de estimar a intensidade da IC em Manaus.

  18. Pseudoescorpiões (Arachnida da vegetação de sub-bosque da floresta primária tropical de terra firme (Coari, Amazonas, Brasil Pseudoscorpions (Aracnida in the undergrowth vegetetion in dryland forest in Coari, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Nair Otaviano Aguiar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi encontrada uma riqueza de 15 espécies de pseudoscorpiões, de 12 gêneros e 5 famílias (Chthoniidae, Geogarypidae, Olpiidae, Atemnidae e Chernetidae, habitando diferentes plantas da vegetação do sub-bosque, em floresta primária de terra firme, no alto rio Urucu, Coari, Amazonas, no período de 1991 a 1996. As plantas foram examinadas pelo método de "bateção". Apolpium aff. vastum foi à espécie mais freqüente e abundante sobre as plantas. Dentre os tipos de plantas avaliados, as maiores diversidades de espécies de pseudoscorpiões foram registradas nas pequenas palmeiras, tanto com fronde junto ao chão, como elevada acima do chão. A análise da composição das espécies que ocorreram sobre os diferentes tipos de plantas avaliadas foi realizada pelo "modo-Q", tendo como base a matriz de coeficientes de similaridade de "Jaccard", o que demonstrou maior similaridade entre a fauna das palmeiras e outras plantas que acumulam detritos acima do chão, entre as bromélias e entre aráceas de chão e outras plantas que acumulam detritos junto ao chão.A richness of 15 pseudoscorpion species, 12 genera belonging to 5 families (Chthoniidae, Geogarypidae, Olpiidae, Atemnidae and Chernetidae were found in the undergrowth vegetation of the dryland forest, at the upper Urucu river, Coari, Amazonas, from 1991 to 1996, and was collected by the "beating tray" method. Apolpium aff. vastum was the most frequent and abundant species in the undergrowth forest vegetation. Among the various types of plants examined, the majority of the pseudoscorpions occurred in small palms (in the ground-trenched palms as much as the erect stemmed palms. To appraise the specie's composition of these arachnids found in the different kinds of plants, the Q-mode analysis was used based on Jaccard's similarity coefficients. The coefficients that showed the greatest similarity were between the fauna of the palms and other plants that accumulate litter on top of the

  19. Enfermedad de chagas en la Región Nororiental del Perú. I. Triatominos (Hemiptera, Reduviidae presentes en Cajamarca y Amazonas

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    Abraham G Cáceres

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Conocer la diversidad de triatominos presentes en las provincias de San Ignacio y Jaén (Cajamarca y en Bagua, Condorcanqui y Utcubamba (Amazonas. Materiales y métodos: los triatominos fueron capturados de mayo 1995 a diciembre 2000 en el intra y peridomicilios de las viviendas de las provincias de San Ignacio (5 distritos y Jaén (10 distritos del departamento de Cajamarca, y en 5 distritos de Bagua, un distrito de Condorcanqui y en seis de Utcubamba (Amazonas. El muestreo fue de 08:00 a 19:00 horas con alambre de 30 cm de largo, pinzas largas y linterna de mano. Resultados: se capturaron 5567 triatominos pertenecientes a cinco especies. Panstrongylus herreri fue la especie más predominante (94%. 90% del total de triatominos fueron capturados en ambientes intradomiciliarios. Se reporta Rhodnius robustus por primera vez para Amazonas. Ejemplares de R. ecuadoriensis y R. robustus, fueron colectados en intradomicilios en porcentajes mínimos en Sallique, provincia de Jaén (Cajamarca y Nieva, provincia de Condorcanqui (Amazonas. Panstrongylus geniculatus fue colectado en intradomicilios. Se reporta en ciertas localidades de La Coipa, Huarango y Namballe (San Ignacio; así como en Bellavista y Santa Rosa (Jaén y en Aramango, Copallín e Imaza (Bagua; además, en Jamalca, Cajaruro y Bagua Grande (Utcubamba. Panstrongylus chinai, especie silvestre con tendencia a domesticarse, se encontró en Santa Rosa, Bellavista, Chontalí y San José del Alto (Jaén y en Namballe, San Ignacio, La Coipa y Chirinos (San Ignacio. También se encontró en Cajaruro y Bagua Grande (Utcubamba. 90% de P. herreri fueron colectados en el interior de las viviendas. Para Cajamarca se ha colectado en Pomahuaca, Pucará, San José del Alto, Pirias, Bellavista, Santa Rosa, La Coipa y Huarango; mientras que para Amazonas en Aramango, Parco, Bagua Grande, Cajaruro y El Milagro.

  20. Determinação da variaçâo no microclima de Manaus-AM por atividades antropogênicas e modulações climáticas naturais Determination of variation in the Manaus-AM microclimate for anthropogenic activities and natural climatic modulations

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    Flavio Mendes Oliveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O foco principal deste artigo foi detectar mudanças no microclima da cidade de Manaus (AM, Brasil e procurar indicar as possíveis causas destas flutuações e tendências observadas. A análise está baseada em informações geotérmicas e meteorológicas. Por dados meteorológicos determinamos um incremento nas temperaturas médias do ar de 0,27 ± 0,04 ºC, durante os últimos 80 anos, baseado na normal climatológica de 1950 a 1979 e este incremento não tem sido contínuo, mas parece ser modulado pelas freqüências de meses com El Niño, La Niña e Neutros, detectados no Oceano Pacifico tropical. Contudo, por dados geotérmicos, nós determinamos um incremento quase instantâneo de 3,17 ºC ± 0,53 ºC, relacionado com o uso do solo. Verificamos que as perturbações transientes do subsolo de locais com cobertura vegetal são bons indicadores das variabilidades climáticas anuais recentes e que as análises dos perfis sob locais sem cobertura vegetal indicam mudanças no microclima atribuídas às atividades antrópicas, tais como, o desflorestamento e urbanização.The focus of this paper was to detect microclimate changes in Manaus City (AM, Brazil in attempting to indicate possible causes for the fluctuations and trends observed. The analysis is based on Meteorological and shallow geothermal records. The meteorological data indicated an increment of 0.27 ± 0.04 ºC in the mean surface air temperature during the last 80 years with reference to the 1950-1979 climatological mean and this increment has not been continuous, but seem to be modulated by frequency of El Niño, La Niña e Neutral events over the tropical Pacific Ocean. Though, quasi-instantaneous increment of 3.17 ± 0.53 ºC was determined from geothermal data, which is associated with the land-use changes. From shallow geothermic data under sites with vegetation cover we verified that transient perturbations are good indicators of recent annual climate variability, while

  1. Estudo de dois anos com animais reservatórios em área de ocorrência de leishmaniose tegumentar americana humana em bairro de urbanização antiga na cidade de Manaus-AM, Brasil Two year study of reservoir animals in an old urban area with cutaneous Leishmaniasis occurrence in the city of Manaus-AM, Brazil

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    Jorge Augusto de Oliveira Guerra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem o resultado de dois anos de investigação de um foco de Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana (LTA, ocorrida em área urbanizada em um conjunto habitacional na cidade da Manaus-AM. Chama atenção o fato de que este não é o padrão de ocorrência de surtos da doença na região, e sim interrupção da transmissão após urbanização. Foram investigados os animais considerados reservatórios em potencial para a leishmaniose em domicílios humanos e em áreas de floresta adjacentes. Foram testados anticorpos contra Leishmania spp em amostras de sangue de cães e detectada reatividade pela reação de imunofluorescencia indireta em oito (20,51 % dos examinados. Entre os animais silvestres examinados a espécie Didelphis marsupialis foi predominante, com 20 exemplares capturados, sendo encontrados homoflagelados em três destes e lesões suspeitas de leishmaniose cutanea em dois. Acredita-se que um assentamento populacional desordenado ocorrido nas adjacências tenha causado o deslocamento das populações de vetores e reservatórios naturais em direção às casas do conjunto Hiléia propiciando o surto.This is the result of a two year follow-up of a Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL foci in the Hileia urban neighborhood in Manaus. It is important to point out that this is not the usual pattern of Leishmaniasis occurrence in this area. The authors investigated the animal potential reservoir in households and in the surrounding forest area. Samples were tested for leishmaniasis antibodies by RIFI. Eight (20.51% of the examined domestic dogs showed reactivity. In captured wild animals, the Didelphis marsupialis was predominant in twenty specimens, three with homoflagelated in the blood and two with suspicious cutaneous lesions. We believe that the disordered population growth in the nearby area pushed the population of vectors and natural reservoir toward the homes in the Heleia neighborhood creating conditions for this outbreak.

  2. Estrutura populacional, razão sexual e abundância de Podocnemis sextuberculata (Testudines, Podocnemididae na Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Mamirauá, Amazonas, Brasil

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    Augusto Fachín-Terán

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied turtles in the focal area of the Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Mamirauá from September 1996 through August 1998. The reserve is located in the western part of the Brazilian Amazon, between the Japurá, Solimões, and Auti-Paraná rivers, near the city of Tefé, in the state of Amazonas. In this study the population structure, sex ratio and abundance of Podocnemis sextuberculata were investigated. We intensively studied the population of turtles in the Jarauá river basin in order to determine population structure. We sampled turtles in different sectors in the focal area of the reserve for one month each year during July and August of 1997 and 1998. We captured the turtles using flag gill nets and trammel nets. The type of net and the size of the nets used influenced the size of the turtles captured. The nets used by the local fishermen were sexually selective in the capture of the turtles. Sevent-two percent of the P. sextuberculata captured were adults; 13% juveniles and 14.7% subadults. During the second year of the study we found a lower density of turtles in the five areas wich we sampled each years. The sex ratio of captured P. sextuberculata was 1.87 males per female.

  3. Leptohyphidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera do estado do Amazonas, Brasil: novos registros, nova combinação, nova espécie e chave de identificação para estágios ninfais

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    Enide Luciana Lima Belmont

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Leptohyphidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera do Estado do Amazonas, Brasil: novos registros, nova combinação, nova espécie e chave de identificação para estágios ninfais. Os seguintes gêneros de Leptohyphidae ocorrem no estado do Amazonas: Amanahyphes Salles & Molineri, Leptohyphes Eaton, Tricorythodes Ulmer e Tricorythopsis Traver. A distribuição das espécies de Leptohyphidae no Estado do Amazonas é apresentada. Uma espécie nova, Tricorythodes yapekuna sp. nov., é descrita e pode ser diferenciada de outros Tricorythodes pelas (1 garras tarsais com um par de dentículos submarginais e sem dentículos marginais; (2 palpo maxilar biarticulado; (3 brânquia opercular uniformemente preta com exceção da margem apical; (4 fórmula branquial 2/3/3/3/2; e (5 margem lateral do abdome expandida nos segmentos III_VI. Uma combinação nova, Tricorythopsis rondoniensis (Dias, Cruz & Ferreira, 2009 comb. nov., é proposta e constitui o primeiro registro dessa espécie para o Estado do Amazonas. Uma chave dicotômica ilustrada para identificar ninfas de gêneros e espécies ocorrentes no Amazonas também é apresentada.

  4. UNCERTAINTY SUPPLY CHAIN MODEL AND TRANSPORT IN ITS DEPLOYMENTS

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    Fabiana Lucena Oliveira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the Model Uncertainty of Supply Chain, and proposes a matrix with their transportation modes best suited to their chains. From the detailed analysis of the matrix of uncertainty, it is suggested transportation modes best suited to the management of these chains, so that transport is the most appropriate optimization of the gains previously proposed by the original model, particularly when supply chains are distant from suppliers of raw materials and / or supplies.Here we analyze in detail Agile Supply Chains, which is a result of Uncertainty Supply Chain Model, with special attention to Manaus Industrial Center. This research was done at Manaus Industrial Pole, which is a model of industrial agglomerations, based in Manaus, State of Amazonas (Brazil, which contemplates different supply chains and strategies sharing same infrastructure of transport, handling and storage and clearance process and uses inbound for suppliers of raw material.  The state of art contemplates supply chain management, uncertainty supply chain model, agile supply chains, Manaus Industrial Center (MIC and Brazilian legislation, as a business case, and presents concepts and features, of each one. The main goal is to present and discuss how transport is able to support Uncertainty Supply Chain Model, in order to complete management model. The results obtained confirms the hypothesis of integrated logistics processes are able to guarantee attractivity for industrial agglomerations, and open discussions when the suppliers are far from the manufacturer center, in a logistics management.

  5. APLICAÇÃO DE IMAGENS IKONOS II E TM/LANDSAT-5 NA ELABORAÇÃO DE UMA BASE CARTOGRÁFICA PARA A RESERVA DE DESENVOLVIMENTO SUSTENTÁVEL MAMIRAUÁ – AMAZONAS / APPLICATION OF IKONOS II AND TM/LANDSAT-5 SATELLITES DATA FOR DIGITAL BASE MAPPING THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT RESERVE MAMIRAUÁ, AMAZON, BRAZIL

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    Josimara Martins Dias

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as purpose present the methodology developed to produce an updated digital map base support for participatory management Mamirauá Reserve of Sustainable Development in the state of Amazonas, Braszil. Because this protected área is situated within an area of flooded forest, both the physical landscape and social organization often change, and the dynamic demand the systematic update of cartographic databases. This work has images of orbital sensors IKONOS II and LANDSAT 5 TM, interviews with users and collecting spatial data in the Mamirauá Reserve. This work obtained a cartographic base at 1:100.000 scale and a geodatabase compatible with the local references, with which is possible to generate thematic maps updated to support dialogue in the sustainable management programs of the Mamirauá Reserve and minimize conflicts with communities.

  6. Study of the behavior of aggregate of calcined clay for use in permeable pavements for the city of Manaus; Estudo do comportamento de agregado sintetico de argila calcinada para uso em pavimentos permeaveis para a cidade de Manaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.S.; Vilela, P.A.T.; Araujo, V.S., E-mail: oliveirasmichelle@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEAM), AM (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Research on the production of ceramic aggregates and their use in paving in the country began in the 80’s in the search for an alternative material that could replace the pebble or crushed stone, studied the clay, considered an abundant mineral resource by virtue of being the predominant soil in this region and which were made synthetic calcinated clay aggregates (ASAC), for their application in permeable paving concrete motivated by the lack of permeable areas. The study consists of the characterization of materials for manufacture of concrete slabs permeable and the assessment of the effects of synthetic aggregate on its properties in fresh and hardened state. The ceramic bodies were subjected to tests of X-ray diffraction, determination of chemical composition and plasticity. The results indicate that the use of synthetic clusters is a viable alternative for the production of porous concrete. (author)

  7. Análise da variação do tempo dedicado ás viagens urbanas da população de Manaus – AM, em função do modo de transporte utilizado

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    Aline Leite

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A ausência de planejamento, característica da maioria dos bairros de Manaus deixou como herança um sistema viário incompatível com o tamanho atual da cidade. Neste artigo busca-se analisar a variação do tempo dedicado às viagens urbanas em Manaus em função de três diferentes modos de transporte: ônibus, micro-ônibus e automóvel. Receptores do Sistema de Posicionamento Global (GPS e recursos de um Sistema de Informações Geográficas (SIG foram utilizados para levantar e tratar os dados das viagens urbanas realizadas. Considera-se (por tudo o que o trabalho permitiu concluir, que a metodologia adotada foi bastante consistente para o reconhecimento da variação de desempenho de modos de transporte investigados. Os percursos mais longos permitiram melhor desempenho que os mais curtos, notadamente influenciado pela área central da cidade, que registrou os trechos mais lentos para os três modos.

  8. Mansonella ozzardi in Amazonas, Brazil: prevalence and distribution in the municipality of Coari, in the middle Solimões River

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    Marilaine Martins

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated some epidemiological aspects of the Mansonella ozzardi in municipality of Coari, Amazonas. Clinical symptoms were correlated with the filarial infection and the parasitic infection rates (PIR were estimated in simuliid vectors. The general M. ozzardi human prevalence rate was 13.3% (231/1733, of which 10.2% (109/1069 were from the urban area and 18.4% (122/664 from the rural area. The prevalence rates were higher in men (14.5% urban and 19.7% rural than in women (6.7% urban and 17.2% rural and occurred in most age groups. The indices of microfilaremics were higher in people > 51 years old (26.9% urban and 61.5% rural. High prevalence rates were observed in retired people (27.1% urban area, housewives and farmer (41.6% and 25%, respectively, in rural area. The main clinical symptoms were joint pains and sensation of leg coldness. Only Cerqueirellum argentiscutum (Simuliidae transmits M. ozzardi in this municipality (PIR = 5.6% urban and 7.1% rural. M. ozzardi is a widely distributed parasitic disease in Coari. Thus, temporary residency in the region of people from other localities involved with the local gas exploitation might be a contributing factor in spreading the disease.

  9. Caracterização da Frota Pesqueira de Coari, Médio Rio Solimões (Amazonas-Brasil

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    Sandrelly Oliveira Inomata

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Os aspectos físicos, operacionais e econômicos da frota pesqueira no município de Coari, situado na região do Médio Rio Solimões (Estado do Amazonas, foram analisados por meio de dados coletados diretamente no porto de desembarque e dados secundários no período de setembro de 2008 a outubro de 2009 obtidos junto às entidades de classe ligadas à atividade pesqueira. A frota pesqueira do município de Coari foi composta, em sua maioria, por canoas motorizadas (7,6 m ±1,29, e por barcos pesqueiros com média de comprimento de 12,8 m (±1,94. Os lagos Coari e Juçara foram os principais locais de captura do pescado. A malhadeira foi o apetrecho de pesca mais utilizado durante as expedições. As principais espécies capturadas foram as da ordem Characiforme, jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp., pacu (Mylossoma duriventre, Myleus sp., sardinha (Triportheus spp. e curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans. O componente dos custos mais oneroso durante as pescarias de canoas motorizadas foi o combustível. Estes resultados podem subsidiar a elaboração de políticas de investimento e medidas adequadas de manejo para melhoria da atividade pesqueira na região de Coari.

  10. Antecipação do período de diagnose foliar em laranjeira 'Pêra' no Amazonas

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    Jairo Rafael Machado Dias

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a possibilidade de se antecipar o período de realização da diagnose foliar em laranjeira 'Pêra'. Vinte e sete pomares representativos da região produtora de laranja do Estado do Amazonas foram monitorados durante o ano agrícola de 2011/2012. Foram realizadas diagnoses da composição nutricional (CND em amostras foliares retiradas durante a floração e quando a árvore apresentava frutos com três e seis meses de idade (época tradicional para o monitoramento nutricional. Pomares com produtividade superior a 25 Mg ha‑1 foram selecionados para o estabelecimento dos padrões de referência. O estado nutricional da laranja variou com o estádio fenológico no qual se realizou a amostragem foliar, o que fez com que fosse necessário estabelecer normas CND para cada período. Com a antecipação da diagnose para o período de floração, observou-se aumento nas concentrações foliares de N, P, K e Cu diminuição e nas de Ca. A antecipação da diagnose foliar em laranja 'Pêra' depende da geração de padrões nutricionais CND específicos para cada época de amostragem.

  11. Violência contra crianças e adolescentes no Amazonas: análise dos registros

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    Angela Costa Maia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A violência contra crianças e adolescentes é um fenômeno frequente, mas pouco se conhece sobre o contexto em que ocorre e sobre suas consequências. O objetivo deste estudo é caracterizar esta violência no Interior do Estado do Amazonas. Foram analisados 193 registros do Relatório Txain sobre a Violência contra Crianças e Adolescentes. Como resultado, verificou-se que grande parte dos registros oficiais omitem informações. A agressão física é o tipo de violência mais relatado, e a maior parte das vítimas é constituída de adolescentes do sexo feminino de idades entre 12 e 15 anos. Os agressores são predominantemente desconhecidos das vítimas e são do sexo masculino. Em termos de consequências para a saúde, há referência a algumas lesões físicas, mas os dados são bastante omissos em relação à saúde mental. Estes dados sugerem a necessidade de integralização e aprimoramento dos sistemas de registro, informação e atendimento a vítimas fora das grandes cidades.

  12. Crop damage of Eriotheca gracilipes (Bombacaceae by the Blue-Fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva, Psittacidae, in the Brazilian Cerrado

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    J Ragusa-Netto

    Full Text Available Seed predation has major effects on the reproductive success of individuals, spatial patterns of populations, genetic variability, interspecific interactions and ultimately in the diversity of tree communities. At a Brazilian savanna, I evaluated the proportional crop loss of Eriotheca gracilipes due the Blue-Fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva during a fruiting period. Also, I analyzed the relationship between proportional crop loss to Amazons and both fruit crop size and the distance from the nearest damaged conspecific. Trees produced from 1 to 109 fruits, so that Amazons foraged more often on trees bearing larger fruit crop size, while seldom visited less productive trees. Moreover, the relationship between fruit crop sizes and the number of depredated fruits was significant. However, when only damaged trees were assessed, I found a negative and significant relation between fruit crop size and proportional crop loss to Blue-Fronted Amazons. Taking into account this as a measure more directly related to the probability of seed survival, a negative density dependent effect emerged. Also, Amazons similarly damaged the fruit crops of either close or distant neighboring damaged trees. Hence, in spite of Blue-Fronted Amazons searched for E. gracilipes bearing large fruit crops, they were swamped due to the presence of more fruits than they could eat. Moderate seed predation by Blue-Fronted Amazons either at trees with large fruit crops or in areas where fruiting trees were aggregated implies in an enhanced probability of E. gracilipes seed survival and consequent regeneration success.

  13. Duet function in the yellow-naped amazon, Amazona auropalliata: evidence from playbacks of duets and solos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Christine R; Wright, Timothy F

    2012-01-01

    The question of why animals participate in duets is an intriguing one, as many such displays appear to be more costly to produce than individual signals. Mated pairs of yellow-naped amazons, Amazona auropalliata, give duets on their nesting territories. We investigated the function of those duets with a playback experiment. We tested two hypotheses for the function of those duets: the joint territory defense hypothesis and the mate-guarding hypothesis, by presenting territorial pairs with three types of playback treatments: duets, male solos, and female solos. The joint territory defense hypothesis suggests that individuals engage in duets because they appear more threatening than solos and are thus more effective for the establishment, maintenance and/or defense of territories. It predicts that pairs will be coordinated in their response (pair members approach speakers and vocalize together) and will either respond more strongly (more calls and/or more movement) to duet treatments than to solo treatments, or respond equally to all treatments. Alternatively, the mate-guarding hypothesis suggests that individuals participate in duets because they allow them to acoustically guard their mate, and predicts uncoordinated responses by pairs, with weak responses to duet treatments and stronger responses by individuals to solos produced by the same sex. Yellow-naped amazon pairs responded to all treatments in an equivalently aggressive and coordinated manner by rapidly approaching speakers and vocalizing more. These responses generally support the joint territory defense hypothesis and further suggest that all intruders are viewed as a threat by resident pairs.

  14. Sedation and physiologic response to manual restraint after intranasal administration of midazolam in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, Christoph; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Lahner, Lesanna L; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Sladky, Kurt K

    2012-09-01

    Administration of intranasal midazolam (2 mg/kg) was evaluated for sedation and effects on cloacal temperature, respiratory rate, and heart rate in manually restrained Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Adult parrots (n=9) were administered either midazolam (2 mg/kg) or an equal volume of saline solution intranasally before a 15-minute manual restraint in a complete crossover study. Respiratory rate and sedation scores were recorded before and during capture and during and after 15 minutes of manual restraint. Heart rate and cloacal temperature were recorded during manual restraint. After restraint, the parrots received intranasal flumazenil (0.05 mg/kg) or an equal volume of saline solution, and the recovery time was recorded. In those birds that received midazolam, sedation was observed within 3 minutes of administration, and vocalization, flight, and defense responses were significantly reduced during capture. During manual restraint, the mean rate of cloacal temperature increase was significantly slower and remained significantly lower in birds that received midazolam compared with controls. Mean respiratory rates were significantly lower for up to 12 minutes in parrots that received midazolam compared with those receiving saline solution. Flumazenil antagonized the effects of midazolam within 10 minutes. No overt clinical adverse effects to intranasal midazolam and flumazenil administration were observed. Further studies on the safety of intranasal midazolam and flumazenil in this species are warranted.

  15. Pharmacokinetics after oral and intravenous administration of a single dose of tramadol hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R; Cox, Sherry K

    2012-08-01

    To determine pharmacokinetics after IV and oral administration of a single dose of tramadol hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 9 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (3 males, 5 females, and 1 of unknown sex). Tramadol (5 mg/kg, IV) was administered to the parrots. Blood samples were collected from -5 to 720 minutes after administration. After a 3-week washout period, tramadol (10 and 30 mg/kg) was orally administered to parrots. Blood samples were collected from -5 to 1,440 minutes after administration. Three formulations of oral suspension (crushed tablets in a commercially available suspension agent, crushed tablets in sterile water, and chemical-grade powder in sterile water) were evaluated. Plasma concentrations of tramadol and its major metabolites were measured via high-performance liquid chromatography. Mean plasma tramadol concentrations were > 100 ng/mL for approximately 2 to 4 hours after IV administration of tramadol. Plasma concentrations after oral administration of tramadol at a dose of 10 mg/kg were 100 ng/mL for approximately 6 hours after administration. Oral administration of the suspension consisting of the chemical-grade powder resulted in higher plasma tramadol concentrations than concentrations obtained after oral administration of the other 2 formulations; however, concentrations differed significantly only at 120 and 240 minutes after administration. Oral administration of tramadol at a dose of 30 mg/kg resulted in plasma concentrations (> 100 ng/mL) that have been associated with analgesia in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

  16. Antinociceptive effects of long-acting nalbuphine decanoate after intramuscular administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Braun, Jana M; Steagall, Paulo V M; Keuler, Nicholas S; Heath, Timothy D; Krugner-Higby, Lisa A; Brown, Carolyn S; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the thermal antinociceptive effects and duration of action of nalbuphine decanoate after IM administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 10 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex. Nalbuphine decanoate (33.7 mg/kg) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was administered IM in a randomized complete crossover experimental design (periods 1 and 2). Foot withdrawal threshold to a noxious thermal stimulus was used to evaluate responses. Baseline thermal withdrawal threshold was recorded 1 hour before drug or saline solution administration, and thermal foot withdrawal threshold measurements were repeated 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after drug administration. Nalbuphine decanoate administered IM at a dose of 33.7 mg/kg significantly increased thermal foot withdrawal threshold, compared with results after administration of saline solution during period 2, and also caused a significant change in withdrawal threshold for up to 12 hours, compared with baseline values. Nalbuphine decanoate increased the foot withdrawal threshold to a noxious thermal stimulus in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots for up to 12 hours and provided a longer duration of action than has been reported for other nalbuphine formulations. Further studies with other types of nociceptive stimulation, dosages, and dosing intervals as well as clinical trials are needed to fully evaluate the analgesic effects of nalbuphine decanoate in psittacine birds.

  17. Crop damage of Eriotheca gracilipes (Bombacaceae) by the Blue-Fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva, Psittacidae), in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa-Netto, J

    2014-11-01

    Seed predation has major effects on the reproductive success of individuals, spatial patterns of populations, genetic variability, interspecific interactions and ultimately in the diversity of tree communities. At a Brazilian savanna, I evaluated the proportional crop loss of Eriotheca gracilipes due the Blue-Fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) during a fruiting period. Also, I analyzed the relationship between proportional crop loss to Amazons and both fruit crop size and the distance from the nearest damaged conspecific. Trees produced from 1 to 109 fruits, so that Amazons foraged more often on trees bearing larger fruit crop size, while seldom visited less productive trees. Moreover, the relationship between fruit crop sizes and the number of depredated fruits was significant. However, when only damaged trees were assessed, I found a negative and significant relation between fruit crop size and proportional crop loss to Blue-Fronted Amazons. Taking into account this as a measure more directly related to the probability of seed survival, a negative density dependent effect emerged. Also, Amazons similarly damaged the fruit crops of either close or distant neighboring damaged trees. Hence, in spite of Blue-Fronted Amazons searched for E. gracilipes bearing large fruit crops, they were swamped due to the presence of more fruits than they could eat. Moderate seed predation by Blue-Fronted Amazons either at trees with large fruit crops or in areas where fruiting trees were aggregated implies in an enhanced probability of E. gracilipes seed survival and consequent regeneration success.

  18. Performance on the Hamilton search task, and the influence of lateralization, in captive orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussen, Victoria A; Mench, Joy A

    2014-07-01

    Psittacines are generally considered to possess cognitive abilities comparable to those of primates. Most psittacine research has evaluated performance on standardized complex cognition tasks, but studies of basic cognitive processes are limited. We tested orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica) on a spatial foraging assessment, the Hamilton search task. This task is a standardized test used in human and non-human primate studies. It has multiple phases, which require trial and error learning, learning set breaking, and spatial memory. We investigated search strategies used to complete the task, cognitive flexibility, and long-term memory for the task. We also assessed the effects of individual strength of motor lateralization (foot preference) and sex on task performance. Almost all (92%) of the parrots acquired the task. All had significant foot preferences, with 69% preferring their left foot, and showed side preferences contralateral to their preferred limb during location selection. The parrots were able to alter their search strategies when reward contingencies changed, demonstrating cognitive flexibility. They were also able to remember the task over a 6-month period. Lateralization had a significant influence on learning set acquisition but no effect on cognitive flexibility. There were no sex differences. To our knowledge, this is the first cognitive study using this particular species and one of the few studies of cognitive abilities in any Neotropical parrot species.

  19. The Efficacy and Safety of Topical Rocuronium Bromide to Induce Bilateral Mydriasis in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baine, Katherine; Hendrix, Diane V H; Kuhn, Sonia E; Souza, Marcy J; Jones, Michael P

    2016-03-01

    The efficacy and safety of topically applied rocuronium in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) was assessed in a group of 10 adult birds. A complete ophthalmic examination (including Schirmer tear test, ocular reflexes, applanation tonometry, fluorescein staining, and slit-lamp biomicroscopy) was performed, and rocuronium bromide (0.15 mg in both eyes) was administered. Pupillary light reflex (PLR) and pupillary diameter were recorded in a darkened room at the following time points: 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 300, and 360 minutes, and 24 hours. Fluorescein staining in both eyes was performed at 24 hours. By 10 minutes, PLR was absent in all birds (at 5 minutes, 8 birds; at 10 minutes, remaining 2 birds). Pupil diameter differed significantly from baseline at all time points. Additionally, PLR was decreased in 7/10 birds at 360 minutes and normal in all birds at 24 hours. Superficial corneal ulceration was observed at 24 hours in the left eye of 2/10 of the birds after fluorescein stain application. This study demonstrated that rocuronium bromide was an effective mydriatic agent in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots with rapid onset and prolonged duration of action.

  20. Design and Use of a 3D Prosthetic Leg in a Red-lored Amazon Parrot ( Amazona autumnalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galicia, Cecilia; Hernandez Urraca, Vanessa; Del Castillo, Luis; Mvz, Jaime Samour

    2018-06-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) prosthesis was designed and built for a red-lored Amazon parrot ( Amazona autumnalis) with a pre-existing amputation of the distal left leg at the tibiotarsal-tarsometatarsal joint and injuries to the right leg caused by cage companion aggression. The prosthesis consisted of a straight main imprint, with a round element at both ends to provide stability, and a bridge connecting this to a socket without a bottom where the stump could be accommodated and held securely with self-adhesive bandaging. Over a 4-month period, 3 different 3D prosthetic models were made and evaluated. The first model was fitted, but the parrot would only use the tip of the main imprint to stand and walk. The second model was designed with a semicircular imprint with only 1 round element at the cranial end, a different bridge to accommodate the change to the main imprint, and the same socket. With these changes, the parrot was able to place the imprint of the prosthesis on the floor to stand and move freely around its enclosure. To accommodate morphologic changes on the stump, a third model was created consisting of the same imprint and bridge, but the socket was cut vertically all the way on one side to allow distention on its diameter and provide a long-lasting fit to the stump over time.

  1. Survey of pathogens in threatened wild red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis) nestlings in Rasa Island, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Frederico Fontanelli; Serafini, Patrícia Pereira; Locatelli-Dittrich, Rosangela; Meurer, Rafael; Durigon, Edison Luiz; de Araújo, Jansen; Thomazelli, Luciano Matsumiya; Ometto, Tatiana; Sipinski, Elenise Angelotti Bastos; Sezerban, Rafael Meirelles; Abbud, Maria Cecília; Raso, Tânia Freitas

    The red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis) is a threatened species of psittacine bird that inhabit coastal regions of Brazil. In view of the threat of this species, the aim of this study was to perform a health evaluation in wild nestlings in Rasa Island, determining the prevalence of enterobacteria and infectious agents according to type of nest. Blood samples were collected from 64 birds and evaluated for antibodies of Chlamydia psittaci by commercial dot-blot ELISA. Cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs samples were collected from 23 birds from artificial wooden nests, 15 birds from PVC nests and 2 birds from natural nests for microbiological analysis. Swab samples were collected from 58 parrots for C. psittaci detection by PCR and from 50 nestlings for Avian Influenza, Newcastle Disease and West Nile viruses' detection analysis by real-time RT-PCR. Ten bacterial genera and 17 species were identified, and the most prevalent were Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca. There was no influence of the type of nest in the nestlings' microbiota. All samples tested by ELISA and PCR were negative. There is currently insufficient information available about the health of A. brasiliensis and data of this study provide a reference point for future evaluations and aid in conservation plans. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Founded: Genetic Reconstruction of Lineage Diversity and Kinship Informs Ex situ Conservation of Cuban Amazon Parrots (Amazona leucocephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milián-García, Yoamel; Jensen, Evelyn L; Madsen, Jeanette; Álvarez Alonso, Suleiky; Serrano Rodríguez, Aryamne; Espinosa López, Georgina; Russello, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Captive breeding is a widespread conservation strategy, yet such programs rarely include empirical genetic data for assessing management assumptions and meeting conservation goals. Cuban Amazon parrots (Amazona leucocephala) are considered vulnerable, and multiple on-island captive populations have been established from wild-caught and confiscated individuals of unknown ancestry. Here, we used mitochondrial haplotypic and nuclear genotypic data at 9 microsatellite loci to quantify the extent and distribution of genetic variation within and among captive populations in Zapata Swamp and Managua, Cuba, and to estimate kinship among breeders (n = 88). Using Bayesian clustering analysis, we detected 2 distinct clusters within the Zapata population, one of which was shared with Managua. Individuals from the cluster unique to Zapata possessed mitochondrial haplotypes with affinities to Cuban subspecies (A. l. leucocephala, A. l. palmarum); the shared cluster was similar, but also included haplotypes closely related to the subspecies restricted to Cayman Brac (A. l. hesterna). Overall mean kinship was low within each captive population (-0.026 to -0.012), with 19 and 11 recommended breeding pairs in Zapata and Managua, respectively, ranked according to mean kinship and informed by molecular sexing. Our results highlight the importance of understanding population history within ex situ management programs, while providing genetic information to directly inform Cuban parrot conservation. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Measuring the Level of Agreement Between Cloacal Gram's Stains and Bacterial Cultures in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Erika E; Mitchell, Mark A; Whittington, Julia K; Roy, Alma; Tully, Thomas N

    2014-12-01

    Cloacal or fecal Gram's stains and bacterial cultures are routinely performed during avian physical examinations to assess the microbial flora of the gastrointestinal tract. Although cloacal or fecal Gram's stains and bacterial cultures are considered routine diagnostic procedures, the level of agreement between the individual tests has not been determined. To investigate the level of agreement between results from Gram's stain and bacterial culture when used to assess cloacal or fecal samples from psittacine birds, samples were taken from 21 clinically healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) and tested by Gram's stain cytology and bacterial culture. Most bacteria (97.2%) identified by Gram's stain were gram positive. However, gram-negative organisms were identified in 7 of 21 (33.3%; 95% confidence interval: 13.3%-53.3%) birds. Escherichia coli was the only gram-negative organism identified on culture. Agreement between results of Gram's stain and culture was fair (weighted κ = 0.27). The results of this study suggest that Gram's stains and bacterial culture may need to be performed with a parallel testing strategy to limit the likelihood of misclassifying the microbial flora of psittacine patients.

  4. Animais medicinais: conhecimento e uso entre as populações ribeirinhas do rio Negro, Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Leme da Silva

    Full Text Available O estudo tem por objetivo documentar o uso de animais na medicina caseira entre ribeirinhos do rio Negro, Amazonas, Brasil. Os dados foram coletados por meio de 92 entrevistas e de observações sobre o conhecimento e as práticas cotidianas de uso de animais medicinais. Cerca de 60 espécies animais são conhecidas com propósitos medicinais. O conhecimento é bem distribuído entre os sexos (homens e mulheres e entre localidades (urbano e rural. O uso de animais medicinais está imerso em conceitos etiológicos e envolve uma complexa visão cosmológica do processo de cura. O êxodo rural e o acesso facilitado à medicina ocidental podem promover a perda dos conhecimentos tradicionais, o que pode ser mitigado através da valorização e da transmissão desses saberes às futuras gerações.

  5. REDES URBANAS, ABASTECIMENTO E O CAFÉ DA MANHÃ DE IDOSAS NA CIDADE DE TEFÉ, AMAZONAS: ELEMENTOS PARA A ANÁLISE DA GEOGRAFIA DA ALIMENTAÇÃO NO BRASIL

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Ellen Anjos Camilo da; Universidade Federal do Amazonas; Schor, Tatiana; Doutora em Ciência Ambiental e Pós-doutorado em Geografia Economica na CUNY/NY.

    2013-01-01

    A Amazônia, e o Amazonas em especial, pode ser considerado uma das últimas fronteiras do processo de transição dos hábitos alimentares. A substituição da dieta tradicional por uma “dieta do supermercado” é marcante em todas as regiões do Amazonas. Com o objetivo de analisar a relação entre transição dos hábitos alimentares, saúde, envelhecimento e rede urbana na Amazônia este artigo delimita um estudo de caso na cidade de Tefé, no Amazonas. Tefé, caracterizada como cidade polo para o IBGE e c...

  6. Visiones jesuíticas del Amazonas en la Colonia: de la misión como dominio espiritual a la exploración de las riquezas del río vistas como tesoro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Torres-Londoño

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina las elaboraciones textuales de jesuitas españoles y portugueses en relación con el río Amazonas durante los siglos XVII y XVIII. Los jesuitas de las misiones de Maynas, establecidas entre diversos tributarios del río Amazonas, entendieron sus misiones como la mejor forma de garantizar el dominio español en la región. El fracaso de este modelo aproximó a los misioneros de Maynas a la visión de los jesuitas portugueses del Pará, entre ellos el padre João Daniel, que vieron el río Amazonas como una gran fuente de riqueza, base para una ocupación sustentada en el poblamiento y la agricultura.

  7. Red Tecnológica del Amazonas: fuente de información para la toma de decisiones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Giordano de Souza Siqueira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Debate os resultados de um projeto de Iniciação Científica sobre o fluxo da informação para a gestão empresarial a partir do serviço “Rede de Tecnologia” oferecido pelo Núcleo de Inovação e Empreendedorismo do Instituto Euvaldo Lodi. Método: A pesquisa caracterizou-se como exploratório-descritiva fazendo-se uso do método quali-quantitativo e empregando-se pesquisa bibliográfica e de campo. Resultados: Analisa a forma como os empreendedores da cidade de Manaus utilizam as informações fornecidas pelo serviço de informação em seu ambiente organizacional. Identifica as necessidades da demanda e de que forma as informações são aplicadas na gestão ou nos processos de inovação. Revela que a maior parte dos sujeitos da pesquisa é composta de microempresas com menos de um ano de atuação no mercado voltadas ao setor comercial. Conclusão: Evidencia-se a procura por informação mercadológica, seguido da procura por informação sobre criação/registro de empresa, bem como informação sobre fornecedores, em sua maioria com enfoque técnico ou mercadológico. Para parte dos sujeitos, a informação fornecida foi aplicada no estabelecimento do foco no negócio em que atua, existindo uma parcela de empreendedores para a qual o serviço não possibilitou aplicabilidade alguma devido às informações não apresentarem o resultado esperado.

  8. Study of the behavior of aggregate of calcined clay for use in permeable pavements for the city of Manaus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.S.; Vilela, P.A.T.; Araujo, V.S.

    2016-01-01

    Research on the production of ceramic aggregates and their use in paving in the country began in the 80’s in the search for an alternative material that could replace the pebble or crushed stone, studied the clay, considered an abundant mineral resource by virtue of being the predominant soil in this region and which were made synthetic calcinated clay aggregates (ASAC), for their application in permeable paving concrete motivated by the lack of permeable areas. The study consists of the characterization of materials for manufacture of concrete slabs permeable and the assessment of the effects of synthetic aggregate on its properties in fresh and hardened state. The ceramic bodies were subjected to tests of X-ray diffraction, determination of chemical composition and plasticity. The results indicate that the use of synthetic clusters is a viable alternative for the production of porous concrete. (author)

  9. Neisseria meningitidis: a neglected cause of infectious haemorrhagic fever in the amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, David E; Silva, Luciete A

    2007-12-01

    Neisseria meningitidis has not been seen as a significant cause of infectious haemorrhagic fever in the Amazon inlands; most reported cases are from the city of Manaus, the capital of the State of Amazonas. This picture is sustained by the lack of reliable microbiology laboratories, the perception of the health care workers, and the difficult to reach medical assistance; thus the number of confirmed cases is even lower with no reference of the strains phenotype. We report here the investigation of a case of suspected meningococcemia and his close contacts in a rural community in the Coari Lake, up the Amazon River.

  10. Neisseria meningitidis: a neglected cause of infectious haemorrhagic fever in the amazon rainforest

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    David E. Barroso

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis has not been seen as a significant cause of infectious haemorrhagic fever in the Amazon inlands; most reported cases are from the city of Manaus, the capital of the State of Amazonas. This picture is sustained by the lack of reliable microbiology laboratories, the perception of the health care workers, and the difficult to reach medical assistance; thus the number of confirmed cases is even lower with no reference of the strains phenotype. We report here the investigation of a case of suspected meningococcemia and his close contacts in a rural community in the Coari Lake, up the Amazon River.

  11. Aspectos morfológicos, citoquímicos e imunológicos da leucemia mielóide aguda no estado do Amazonas: estudo observacional em pacientes atendidos na Fundação de Hematologia e Hemoterapia do Amazonas - FHEMOAM

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Eliana Brasil [UNIFESP

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigated the best laboratorial diagnosis methods to acute myeloid leukemia, acute undifferentiated leukemia and biphenotypic acute leukemia. We have prospective, observacional and descriptive study about 62 patients from Fundação de Hematologia e Hemoterapia do Amazonas - FHEMOAM, in the period of September of 2000 at June of 2003. The frequency, clinical and laboratories characteristics was analyzed. .Methods: The classification of the acute myeloid leukemia ...

  12. Composição florística de plantas daninhas em um lago do Rio Solimões, Amazonas Floristic composition of weeds in a lake of Solimoes River, Amazonas, Brazil

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    S.M.F. Albertino

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available As áreas inundáveis localizadas na bacia dos rios Amazonas e Solimões são denominadas várzeas. A inundação é um evento natural que promove mudanças na estrutura e composição florística dessas comunidades. O conhecimento da diversidade de espécies é de fundamental importância para o entendimento da dinâmica da regeneração natural de espécies nos ecossistemas amazônicos. Este trabalho teve como objetivo levantar a composição florística do solo do fundo do lago do Manaquiri-AM, em um período de seca excepcional, ocorrida em 2005, na Amazônia. Foram realizadas coletas de material botânico em duas áreas do lago, em novembro de 2005; para a amostragem, utilizou-se um quadrado de madeira de 0,36 m², atirado aleatoriamente por 20 vezes em cada local de estudo. A vegetação emergente foi de 5.958 indivíduos, distribuídos em sete famílias e nove espécies. As famílias mais representativas em número de espécies foram Poaceae e Cyperaceae. Cyperus esculentus e Luziola spruceana foram as mais frequentes, e Mimosa pudica e Alternanthera sessilis, as de maior abundância. C. esculentus e M. pudica apresentaram maior número de indivíduos, de densidade e de valor de importância. As espécies de plantas encontradas neste estudo mantiveram sua capacidade de crescer e se desenvolver mesmo após longo período submersas.The swamps located at the basins of the Amazonas and Solimões rivers are denominated "várzeas". In these areas, flooding is a natural event that changes the structure and composition of the local plants. Thus, knowing the species diversity in these Amazon region areas is extremely important to understand the dynamics of the natural regeneration of the Amazon ecosystem species. Accordingly, the goal of this study was to survey the soil floristic composition at the bottom of the Manaquiri Lake, Amazon, during an exceptional dry period in 2005. Plants were collected in two areas of the lake in November 2005. Flora

  13. Interculturalidad y grado de adopción del cultivo del cacao en el distrito de Santa María de Nieva, Condorcanqui, Amazonas, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Almestar Montenegro, José Salomón

    2015-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Innovación Agraria para el Desarrollo Rural El objetivo general de esta investigación fue analizar el efecto de los factores sociales y culturales en el grado de adopción de cacao entre productores agrícolas del distrito de Santa María de Nieva, en la provincia de Condorcanqui, en la región Amazonas. La investigación se llevó a cabo en cuatro comunidades Awajún (Santa Rosa de Pagkintsa, Tayuntsa, Putuyacat y Najain Pa...

  14. Isolamento e identificação de Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Enterococcus spp., Pediococcus spp. e Lactococcus spp. da microbiota intestinal de Papagaio-verdadeiro (Amazona aestiva)

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Allegretti

    2009-01-01

    No Brasil, o papagaio-verdadeiro (Amazona aestiva) é uma das aves mais procuradas como animal de estimação e comercializadas ilegalmente. Na literatura pouco é descrito sobre a microbiota intestinal de aves silvestres. O trato intestinal das aves é composto por inúmeras e diferentes espécies bacterianas. A grande maioria são bactérias gram-positivas pertencentes ao grupo de bactérias ácido-láticas. Este estudo teve como objetivo isolar e identificar a presença de bactérias dos gêneros Lactoba...

  15. Factores de riesgo asociados a infección aguda por hepatitis B en población militar destacada al departamento de Amazonas, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    César Cabezas; J. Jaime Miranda; Giovana Romero; Magna Suáre; Frine Samalvides; Juan Echevarría; Juan D. Valdivia; Walter A. Valdivia

    2007-01-01

    El Perú es considerado un país de endemicidad intermedia-alta para el virus de hepatitis B (VHB), con variaciones entre diferentes regiones. Existen pocos reportes del problema de infección por el VHB en personal militar. Objetivos. Determinar los factores de riesgo asociados con el desarrollo de infección por el VHB en un brote epidémico en personal militar destacado en Ampama, Amazonas, Perú. Material y métodos. Estudio caso-control en personal militar destacado al puesto de Ampama y a la b...

  16. Avaliação da eficiência nutricional e economica de dietas para papagaios verdadeiros (Amazona aestiva) em cativeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Lucio de Oliveira e [UNESP

    2016-01-01

    O papagaio-verdadeiro (Amazona aestiva), pertencente à família Psittacidae, é uma ave que ocorre em toda a América do Sul, sendo considerado uma das aves mais comuns do Brasil. Pouco se conhece sobre a nutrição dos psitacídeos, e no caso dos papagaios a alimentação em cativeiro tem sido feita de maneira empírica, baseando na sua preferência e nos hábitos alimentares na natureza. O estudo envolveu ensaio de metabolismo com o objetivo de determinar o consumo voluntário e o aproveitamento dos nu...

  17. Chemical and bacteriological assessment of irrigation water used in the Agricultural Community Nova Esperança, Manaus - AM = Análise química e bacteriológica da água de irrigação utilizada na Comunidade Agrícola Nova Esperança, Manaus - AM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiuscia dos Santos de Souza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the quality of the water used for irrigation in agriculture is of great importance for the environmentand human health. The continuous use of contaminated water causes pollution to soil and cultivated crops, causing variousdiseases associated with consumption of contaminated vegetables. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the qualityof irrigation water of three water bodies: artesian wells, cacimbas (kind of graves that collect water from swampy lands andstreams, used in the Nova Esperança Agricultural Community, located between a peripheral urban area and a native forestin Manaus - AM. Potentially toxic metals (PTM: Cd, Cu, Co, Fe, Ni, Mn and Zn were evaluated using atomic absorptionspectrometry by flame and bacteriological analyses (total and faecal coliforms by filter membrane method. The results showedhigh levels of total and faecal coliforms, 89,3% in water samples collected in the three water bodies, as well as high levels of TPM, especially Cd and Pb extremely toxic. Statistical tests showed the influence of the seasonal period on the average concentrations of the PTM and there is not meaning difference of these contaminants on the different water bodies during the period of this study. = A avaliação da qualidade da água utilizada para a irrigação no meio agrícola é relevante tanto para o meio ambiente, quanto para a saúde humana. O uso contínuo de água contaminada acarreta poluição ao solo e às culturas cultivadas, transmitindo doenças por meio do consumo de hortaliças contaminadas. Desse modo, objetivou-se com esse trabalho avaliar a qualidade da água de irrigação de três corpos hídricos: poço, cacimba e igarapé, utilizada na Comunidade Agrícola Nova Esperança, localizada entre uma área urbana periférica e uma floresta nativa na cidade de Manaus – AM. Foram avaliados os metaispotencialmente tóxicos (MPT: Cd, Cu, Co, Fe, Ni, Mn, Pb e Zn, utilizando espectrometria de absor

  18. Pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate in a long-acting poloxamer 407 gel formulation administered to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laniesse, Delphine; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Knych, Heather K; Smith, Dale A; Mosley, Cornelia; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R; Beaufrère, Hugues

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate incorporated into poloxamer 407 (P407) after SC administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). ANIMALS 11 adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (6 males and 5 females; 11 to 27 years old). PROCEDURES A sterile formulation of butorphanol in P407 (But-P407) 25% (percentage determined as [weight of P407/weight of diluent] × 100]) was created (8.3 mg/mL). Five preliminary experiments (2 birds/experiment) were performed to determine the ideal dose for this species. The formulation then was administered (12.5 mg/kg, SC) to 8 birds. Blood samples were collected before (time 0) and 0.08, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after drug administration. Some birds were used more than once, with a washout period of ≥ 3 months between subsequent treatments. Butorphanol concentrations were quantitated by use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed by use of noncompartmental analysis. RESULTS Maximal plasma butorphanol concentration was reached at 1.31 hours. Plasma concentrations of butorphanol remained > 100 ng/mL for > 3 hours (all birds) or > 4 hours (5/8 birds) but Amazon parrots, and absorption followed a pharmacokinetic profile compatible with a sustained-release drug. A dose of 12.5 mg/kg, SC, would theoretically provide analgesia for 4 to 8 hours. No adverse effects were detected. Studies on the pharmacodynamics of this formulation are necessary to confirm the degree and duration of analgesia.

  19. Reação de híbridos de pepino a Corynespora cassiicola no Amazonas.

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    Elisângela de Jesus da Silva Bezerra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A mancha-alvo, causada pelo fungo Corynespora cassiicola, é a principal doença da parte área do tomateiro na região Norte do Brasil. No Estado do Amazonas o patógeno em plantas de pepino, causa severos danos à produção tanto em cultivo protegido quanto em campo aberto. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a reação de dez genótipos de pepino a C. cassiicola. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com dez tratamentos e dez repetições. Foram avaliados a cultivar Aodai e os híbridos tipo japonês General Lee F1, Hokushim, Japonês Híbrido F1 (Soudai, Jóia, Marketmore 76 (verde comprido, Natsubayashi, Natsu Suzumi, Sprint 440 II e Tsuyataro. Os isolados do patógeno foram obtidos a partir de folhas de plantas de pepino naturalmente infectadas, e multiplicado em meio de cultura BDA. As plantas foram inoculadas nas duas primeiras folhas definitivas com suspensão de inóculo na concentração 104 conídios mL-1 e mantidas em câmara úmida por 48 horas. A severidade foi avaliada e calculada a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD para cada tratamento. Houve variação na reação dos genótipos ao patógeno e a cultivar Aodai apresentou menor AACPD considerada como resistente. Os híbridos Hokuchim, Soudai, Verde Comprido e Natsubayashi apresentaram menores valores de AACPD entre os híbridos avaliados em contraposição ao Tsuyataro o mais suscetível.

  20. Aspectos estructurales y tipos de vegetación de la isla Mocagua, río Amazonas

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    Prieto Adriana

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of some parameters of vegetation structure (coberture -%-, density and specific diversity is presented for plant formations in the Mocagua island (Colombian Amazonia. The structure of the vegetation types ranging from simple river beach zone, aquatic and floodplain environments, to complex arrangement in forest formations. The average number of individuals with DAP > 10 cm (58/0.1 ha is lower than other similar regions. In addition, we describe the types of vegetation founded according with floristic affinities, wich is related to the water content in the sustrata.Tha natural vegetation comprise from aquatic communities of Oxyearyum eubense - Pontederia rotundifolia, to continental ones of Rheedia madruno- Palieourea eroeea, Triehilia pallida - Sommera sabiceoides, phases of Montriehardia arboreseens and Ceeropia latíloba, Paspalum repens and Ceeropia latíloba, and Leptochloa seabra and Torulinium maeroeephalum.Se presentan los resultados de los análisis sobre parámetros estructurales de la vegetación (cobertura-%-, densidad y diversidad específica de las formaciones vegetales de la isla Mocagua (Amazonas, Colombia. La estructura de los tipos de vegetación diferenciados cubre desde los arreglos simples como la de las zonas de playa, ambientes lacustres e inundables, hasta arreglos complejos con diferentes estratos en formaciones boscosas. El número de individuos con DAP > 10 cm (prom.=58/0.1 ha en comparación con los valores en otras zonas es bajo. Los tipos de vegetación descritos obedecen en su distribución esencialmente al contenido de agua en el sustrato; la vegetación natural comprende desde comunidades acuáticas de Oxycaryum cubense - Pontederia rotundifolia, hasta las continentales de Rheedia. madruno - Palieourea eroeea, Triehilia pallida - Sommera sabieeoides y las fases de Montriehardia arboreseens y Ceeropia latiloba, Paspalum repens y Cecropia latiloba, y la de Leptochloa scabra y Torulinium maerocephalum.

  1. Coletar ou Cultivar: as escolhas dos produtores de açaí-da-mata (Euterpe precatoria do Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Feldmann Martinot

    Full Text Available Resumo: A crescente demanda de mercado por produtos florestais não madeireiros oferece uma oportunidade de desenvolvimento econômico que poderia aliar a inclusão social produtiva de agricultores familiares com a conservação dos ecossistemas florestais. No entanto, o aumento da produção poderá significar a substituição do manejo extrativo das florestas pelo monocultivo, anulando seus efeitos positivos quanto à conservação das florestas. Buscou-se identificar os fatores determinantes que levam os agricultores familiares tradicionais do baixo rio Manacapuru a se engajarem na atividade extrativista ou de cultivo do açaí-da-mata (Euterpe precatória, a espécie nativa do estado do Amazonas. Dado que a coleta extrativa dos frutos é feita mediante a escala das árvores, a decisão de produção parece depender principalmente da oferta de mão de obra masculina jovem, de trabalhadores com a habilidade e força física para realizar essa tarefa. Já a decisão de cultivo pode estar associada à maior disponibilidade de capital financeiro que as famílias obtêm da renda das atividades agrícolas. As famílias que cultivam o açaí mantiveram a prática de coleta extrativa, indicando que o plantio de pequenas áreas de cultivos consorciados representa uma estratégia de aumento da produção sem que necessariamente haja a completa substituição do extrativismo pelo cultivo da espécie.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of meloxicam after intravenous, intramuscular, and oral administration of a single dose to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molter, Christine M; Court, Michael H; Cole, Gretchen A; Gagnon, David J; Hazarika, Suwagmani; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2013-03-01

    To compare pharmacokinetics after IV, IM, and oral administration of a single dose of meloxicam to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 11 healthy parrots. Cohorts of 8 of the 11 birds comprised 3 experimental groups for a crossover study. Pharmacokinetics were determined from plasma concentrations measured via high-performance liquid chromatography after IV, IM, and oral administration of meloxicam at a dose of 1 mg/kg. Initial mean ± SD plasma concentration of 17.3 ± 9.0 μg/mL was measured 5 minutes after IV administration, whereas peak mean concentration was 9.3 ± 1.8 μg/mL 15 minutes after IM administration. At 12 hours after administration, mean plasma concentrations for IV (3.7 ± 2.5 μg/mL) and IM (3.5 ± 2.2 μg/mL) administration were similar. Peak mean plasma concentration (3.5 ± 1.2 μg/mL) was detected 6 hours after oral administration. Absolute systemic bioavailability of meloxicam after IM administration was 100% but was lower after oral administration (range, 49% to 75%). Elimination half-lives after IV, IM, and oral administration were similar (15.9 ± 4.4 hours, 15.1 ± 7.7 hours, and 15.8 ± 8.6 hours, respectively). Pharmacokinetic data may provide useful information for use of meloxicam in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A mean plasma concentration of 3.5 μg/mL would be expected to provide analgesia in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots; however, individual variation may result in some birds having low plasma meloxicam concentrations after IV, IM, or oral administration. After oral administration, meloxicam concentration slowly reached the target plasma concentration, but that concentration was not sustained in most birds.

  3. Determinination of plasma osmolality and agreement between measured and calculated values in healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

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    Acierno, Mark J; Mitchell, Mark A; Freeman, Diana M; Schuster, Patricia J; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Tully, Thomas N

    2009-09-01

    To determine plasma osmolality in healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) and validate osmolality equations in these parrots. 20 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A blood sample (0.5 mL) was collected from the right jugular vein of each parrot and placed into a lithium heparin microtainer tube. Samples were centrifuged, and plasma was harvested and frozen at -30 degrees C. Samples were thawed, and plasma osmolality was measured in duplicate with a freezing-point depression osmometer. The mean value was calculated for the 2 osmolality measurements. Plasma osmolality values were normally distributed, with a mean +/- SD of 326.0 +/- 6.878 mOsm/kg. The equations (2 x [Na(+) + K(+)]) + (glucose/18), which resulted in bias of 2.3333 mOsm/kg and limits of agreement of -7.0940 to 11.7606 mOsm/kg, and (2 x [Na(+) + K(+)]) + (uric acid concentration/16.8) + (glucose concentration/18), which resulted in bias of 5.8117 mOsm/kg and limits of agreement of -14.6640 to 3.0406 mOsm/kg, yielded calculated values that were in good agreement with the measured osmolality. IV administration of large amounts of hypotonic fluids can have catastrophic consequences. Osmolality of the plasma from parrots in this study was significantly higher than that of commercially available prepackaged fluids. Therefore, such fluids should be used with caution in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots as well as other psittacines. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the estimation of osmolality has the same clinical value in psittacines as it does in other animals.

  4. Intermittent claudication-like syndrome secondary to atherosclerosis in a yellow-naped Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala auropalliata).

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    Beaufrère, Hugues; Holder, Kali A; Bauer, Rudy; Schnellbacher, Rodney; Pariaut, Romain; Tully, Thomas N; Wakamatsu, Nobuko

    2011-12-01

    A 25-year-old yellow-naped Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala auropalliata) was presented for nasal discharge and sneezing. Physical examination revealed poor feather quality, a mild serous nasal discharge, and a mass on the dorsal surface of the oral cavity. Cytologic examination of a mass aspirate as well as results of a choanal culture revealed squamous metaplasia of the salivary glands and bacterial rhinitis, respectively. Following resolution of the presenting conditions, the patient was presented for hind limb weakness and ataxia. The clinical signs were transient and generally resolved with rest but could be reproduced after stressful episodes, such as restraint for procedures or treatment. Test results from a complete blood count, biochemistry profile, whole-body radiographs, needle electromyography of the leg muscles, and an edrophonium challenge test were within reference limits. Based on the clinical signs and results of the diagnostic workup, the presumptive diagnosis was intermittent claudication, a condition caused by peripheral vascular disease and defined as intermittent weakness and pain in the legs induced by exercise and relieved by rest. Shortly after initiation of treatment with isoxsuprine, the bird died. Postmortem examination and histopathology revealed severe atherosclerotic lesions throughout the vascular system with stenotic lesions present in the abdominal aorta and femoral arteries. Electron microscopic examination of the great arteries was also performed and helped to further characterize the nature of the lesions. This case is the first report, to our knowledge, of an intermittent claudication-like syndrome associated with peripheral atherosclerosis in a psittacine bird. In addition, the distribution and some of the macroscopic and histopathologic features of the lesions differ from previous descriptions of atherosclerosis in psittacine birds.

  5. Evaluation of the mydriatic effects of topical administration of rocuronium bromide in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petritz, Olivia A; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Gustavsen, Kate; Wiggans, K Tomo; Kass, Philip H; Houck, Emma; Murphy, Christopher J; Paul-Murphy, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE :To determine the mydriatic effects of topical rocuronium bromide administration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) and to identify any adverse effects associated with treatment. Randomized crossover study. 8 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Rocuronium bromide (20 μL/eye; 10 mg/mL) or saline (20 μL/eye; 0.9% NaCl) solution was administered in both eyes of each bird with a 26-day washout period. The birds were manually restrained in lateral recumbency with the apex of the cornea positioned upward for 2 minutes following administration in each eye. Infrared pupillometry and direct pupillary light reflex measurements were used to evaluate the mydriatic effects. Pupillary measurements were recorded prior to administration and every 20 minutes for 2 hours after administration, then hourly for a total of 7 hours. A brief physical examination was performed, direct pupillary light reflex was tested, and fluorescein staining was performed on each eye of each bird 24 hours after administration. A significant difference in pupillary diameter for the active versus control treatment group was noted from 20 to 360 minutes after drug administration, but not at 420 minutes. Minimal adverse effects were noted. Three birds had transient inferior eyelid paresis noted in both eyes after receiving rocuronium; 24 hours after the treatment, no differences in ocular measurements existed between the active and control treatments. Results suggested that topical rocuronium bromide administration may be safely used for pupillary dilation in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and could be used for clinical evaluation, fundus imaging, and surgical interventions involving the lens and posterior segment in this species.

  6. Effects of leuprolide acetate on selected blood and fecal sex hormones in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventrais).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaphake, Eric; Fecteau, Kellie; DeWit, Martine; Greenacre, Cheryl; Grizzle, Judith; Jones, Michael; Zagaya, Nancy; Abney, L Kim; Oliver, Jack

    2009-12-01

    The luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist leuprolide acetate is used commonly to anage reproductive problems in pet birds. To determine the effect of leuprolide acetate on plas a and fecal hormone levels in a psittacine species, a single 800 microg/kg dose of the 30-day depot form of leuprolide acetate was administered IM in 11 healthy, nonbreeding adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), and plasma and fecal hormone levels were measured before and after leuprolide administration. At pooled baseline to 21 days postleuprolide acetate administration, sample collection day was significantly associated with plasma 17beta-estradiol and androstenedione levels and fecal 17beta-estradiol levels (evaluated in females only). Both plasma androstenedione and plasma 17beta-estradiol levels decreased significantly from baseline to a nadir at 7 days postleuprolide acetate administration but did not differ significantly 14 days later from that nadir or from pooled baseline samples, suggesting that the effect of leuprolide on hormone levels remained about 2 weeks. Fecal 17beta-estradiol levels increased significantly from the nadir at 7 days postleuprolide to 21 days postleuprolide administration, with trends of the level at 21 days postleuprolide being higher than the pooled baseline level and of decreasing levels from pooled baseline to 7 days postleuprolide administration. Plasma luteinizing hormone and fecal testosterone levels did not change significantly from baseline levels after leuprolide administration over the 2-day period. No significant correlations were found between plasma hormone and fecal hormone levels. These results suggest that measurement of plasma androstenedione, plasma 17beta-estradiol, and fecal 17beta-estradiol levels might be useful in assessing the effects of 30-day depot leuprolide acetate in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

  7. EFFECT OF ROUTINE HANDLING AND TRANSPORTATION ON BLOOD LEUKOCYTE CONCENTRATIONS AND PLASMA CORTICOSTERONE IN CAPTIVE HISPANIOLAN AMAZON PARROTS ( AMAZONA VENTRALIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRee, Anna Elizabeth; Tully, Thomas N; Nevarez, Javier G; Beaufrere, Hugues; Ammersbach, Melanie; Gaunt, Stephen D; Fuller, Rory G; Romero, L Michael

    2018-06-01

      Increased glucocorticoids cause a characteristic stress leukogram in mammalian taxa. It is assumed that avians exhibit a similar response, but to date, there have been no controlled studies to correlate serial endogenous corticosterone levels to hematologic values. An established flock of 18 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis) was used as a model in a crossover study. The treatment group was subjected to the stress of transport, restraint, and common clinical procedures with serial blood samples collected at 20-min intervals for hematology and corticosterone levels; the control group was sampled at the same intervals. Longitudinal data analysis was performed with linear mixed modeling. For all hematologic analytes, the baseline value had a significant positive effect on subsequent values (all P < 0.001). The white blood cell, heterophil, and eosinophil counts and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio increased over time in the treatment group, whereas it remained stable in the control group ( P = 0.016, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.02, respectively, for the time*treatment effect). Lymphocyte absolute counts decreased over time, although not significantly; the decrease was significant for the relative lymphocyte count in the treatment group. Monocytes and basophils were not significantly altered. The treatment group had a higher mean corticosterone level overall than the control group by approximately 60% ( P = 0.008). The mean corticosterone level also increased over time in both groups by three- to fourfold ( P < 0.001) by 20 min then plateaued. These results demonstrate that some significant hematologic changes may arise with routine handling and transportation of birds and should be accounted for in hematologic interpretation of cell counts.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of Levetiracetam in Healthy Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) After Oral Administration of a Single Dose.

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    Schnellbacher, Rodney; Beaufrère, Hugues; Vet, Dr Med; Arnold, Robert D; Tully, Thomas N; Mayer, Joerg; Divers, Stephen J

    2014-09-01

    Long-term anticonvulsive treatments have been poorly described in birds, and few pharmacokinetic studies have been performed, with mixed results. Levetiracetam, a new anticonvulsive drug, has shown good efficacy for monotherapy or adjunctive treatment of seizures in both human and veterinary medicine. To determine pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ), 20 healthy birds were randomly divided into 2 groups and administered either a 50 mg/kg (n = 10) or a 100 mg/kg (n = 10) oral dose of levetiracetam with no observable adverse effects. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 12 time intervals (6 per group) for 16 hours. The concentration-time profiles resembled characteristic absorption, with maximum plasma concentrations of 61.0 μg/mL and 95.1 μg/mL at 60 minutes; terminal half-lives at 2.38 and 2.37 hours; volumes of distribution of 0.807 and 0.773 L/kg, with an area under the curve at 14 100 and 28 820 mg × min/L; and clearance rates of 3.65 and 3.60 mL/min per kg, respectively. Plasma concentrations were greater than 5.5 mg/L for up to 9.4 and 12 hours, suggesting an 8- and 12-hour oral dosing at 50 and 100 mg/kg, respectively, would be sufficient to maintain targeted values. Clinically, doses and frequencies may need escalation based on differences in species and individuals, and drug levels should be monitored.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of a Sustained-release Formulation of Meloxicam After Subcutaneous Administration to Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots (Amazona ventralis).

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    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Court, Michael H; Zhu, Zhaohui; Summa, Noémie; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2017-09-01

    Meloxicam has been shown to have a safe and favorable pharmacodynamic profile with individual variability in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). In the current study, we determined the pharmacokinetics of a sustained-release formulation of meloxicam after subcutaneous administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Twelve healthy adult parrots, 6 males and 6 females, were used in the study. Blood samples were collected before (time 0) and at 0.5, 1, 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours after a single dose of the sustained-release meloxicam formulation (3 mg/kg SC). Plasma meloxicam concentrations were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by noncompartmental analysis. Plasma concentrations reached a mean C max of 23.4 μg/mL (range, 14.7-46.0 μg/mL) at 1.8 hours (range, 0.5-6 hours), with a terminal half-life of 7.4 hours (range, 1.4-40.9 hours). Individual variation was noticeable, such that some parrots (4 of 12 birds) had very low plasma meloxicam concentrations, similar to the high variability reported in a previous pharmacokinetic study of the standard meloxicam formulation in the same group of birds. Two birds developed small self-resolving scabs at the injection site. On the basis of these results, the sustained-release meloxicam formulation could be administered every 12 to 96 hours in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots to manage pain. Because of these highly variable results, the use of this formulation in this species cannot be recommended until further pharmacokinetic, safety, and pharmacogenomic evaluations are performed to establish accurate dosing recommendations and to understand the high pharmacokinetic variability.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of voriconazole after oral administration of single and multiple doses in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

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    Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Flammer, Keven; Papich, Mark G; Grooters, Amy M; Shaw, Shannon; Applegate, Jeff; Tully, Thomas N

    2010-04-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics and safety of voriconazole administered orally in single and multiple doses in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 15 clinically normal adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Single doses of voriconazole (12 or 24 mg/kg) were administered orally to 15 and 12 birds, respectively; plasma voriconazole concentrations were determined at intervals via high-pressure liquid chromatography. In a multiple-dose trial, voriconazole (18 mg/kg) or water was administered orally to 6 and 4 birds, respectively, every 8 hours for 11 days (beginning day 0); trough plasma voriconazole concentrations were evaluated on 3 days. Birds were monitored daily, and clinicopathologic variables were evaluated before and after the trial. Voriconazole elimination half-life was short (0.70 to 1.25 hours). In the single-dose experiments, higher drug doses yielded proportional increases in the maximum plasma voriconazole concentration (C(max)) and area under the curve (AUC). In the multiple-dose trial, C(max), AUC, and plasma concentrations at 2 and 4 hours were decreased on day 10, compared with day 0 values; however, there was relatively little change in terminal half-life. With the exception of 1 voriconazole-treated parrot that developed polyuria, adverse effects were not evident. In Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, oral administration of voriconazole was associated with proportional kinetics following administration of single doses and a decrease in plasma concentration following administration of multiple doses. Oral administration of 18 mg of voriconazole/kg every 8 hours would require adjustment to maintain therapeutic concentrations during long-term treatment. Safety and efficacy of voriconazole treatment in this species require further investigation.

  11. O ACESSO GEOGRÁFICO AOS SERVIÇOS DE SAÚDE NA REGIÃO METROPOLITANA DE MANAUS E O PERFIL DA MORTALIDADE/Geographic access to health services in the metropolitan region of Manaus and the mortality profile

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    Larissa Cristina Cardoso dos Anjos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A Região Metropolitana de Manaus (RMM está localizada no setor central da Amazônia, inserida no bioma da maior floresta tropical do planeta. Nessa paisagem, povos de diferentes culturas vivem e carecem de infraestrutura básica, serviços de educação e saúde. Considerando-se este contexto é apresentado neste artigo um estudo sobre o acesso geográfico aos serviços de saúde organizados na RMM. A análise incluiu: os aspectos do ambiente, a distribuição espacial dos serviços de saúde, os modais de transporte utilizados pela população em busca de atendimento a estes serviços e o perfil de mortalidade nos municípios que compõe a RMM. Os procedimentos metodológicos foram trabalhados por meio de levantamentos bibliográficos e documentais, dados secundários e cartográficos retirados do CPRM, DATASUS, DNIT e IBGE. Para apresentar o perfil de mortalidade da RMM foi calculada a taxa de incidência para cada município. De acordo com os resultados, observou-se que o acesso aos serviços de saúde, em todos os níveis de atenção, varia de acordo com a Geografia Física da região, sazonalidades fluviais e localização da população (urbana e rural. Esses aspectos podem ser relacionados com o perfil epidemiológico dos óbitos, cuja localização se conexa aos padrões de modais de transportes, assim como as mortes por causas mal definidas e o acesso fluvial ao serviço de saúde.

  12. ASPECTOS MORFOESTRUTURAIS DO RELEVO NA REGIÃO NORTE DA CIDADE DE MANAUS E SUAS INFLUÊNCIAS NA DINÂMICA DO AQUÍFERO ALTER DO CHÃO

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    João Silva Carvalho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A área de estudo está localizada a norte da cidade de Manaus, entre as coordenadas de 2º00’ e 3º00’ de latitude sul e 59º30’ e 60º30’ de longitude oeste, envolvendo porções dos municípios de Manaus, Rio Preto da Eva e Presidente Figueiredo. Essa porção territorial exibe predominantemente sedimentos da Formação Alter do Chão, de idade neocretácea, representada por materias clásticos e pelíticos que foram depositados em depressões tectônicas originadas durante a abertura do Oceano Atlântico. Atualmente esses terrenos são afetados por diversos lineamentos estruturais, com direções preferenciais NE-SW a NW-SE, a exemplo dos lineamentos Rio Preto da Eva e Rio Urubu, que condicionam as trajetórias dos respectivos rios. Esta unidade estratigráfica hospeda o sistema aquífero Alter do Chão, que é o mais importante manancial de águas subterrâneas dessa região. O trabalho consistiu de análises sobre produtos temáticos (mapas de drenagem, declividade e curvas de nível gerados por processamento de imagens SRTM, por meio dos softwares ArcGis e Global Mapper, com apoio de referências geológicas, hidrogeológicas e geodésicas obtidas nos banco de dados da CPRM e IBGE, respectivamente. A morfologia do relevo, fortemente dissecado pela drenagem, mostra-se rigorosamente condicionada às direções dos alinhamentos estruturais, onde também se destacam outras feições importantes, como o escalonamento do relevo em níveis diferenciados, a declividade da superfície (com aclive para norte, no sentido da borda da bacia, e a assimetria das redes de drenagem, que são reflexos dos processos de basculamentos de blocos, identificadas pelo parâmetro Fator de Assimetria. As porções mais impactadas dessa região correspondem às áreas de expansão da fronteira urbana norte da cidade de Manaus, porções urbanas e periurbanas do município de Rio Preto da Eva, áreas de ocupações (comunidades rurais, áreas de transforma

  13. Zona Franca de Manaus : um estudo sobre a renúncia tributária dos entes federativos e os benefícios socioeconômicos gerados pelo modelo

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    Jofre Luís da Costa Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    O presente trabalho avalia a renúncia tributária dos entes federativos e os benefícios socioeconômicos gerados pelo modelo da Zona Franca de Manaus (ZFM). Nosso objetivo foi mensurar os custos sociais do modelo por intermédio da desoneração tributária ou gastos tributários dos Entes e confrontá-los com os benefícios locais que foram medidos pelos diversos indicadores socioeconômicos. A plataforma teórica tem como sustentáculo a teoria dos pólos de Desenvolvimento e a Teoria da Base Exportador...

  14. Impacto económico y ambiental del uso del gas natural en la generación de electricidad en El Amazonas: Estudio de caso

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    Wagner Ferreira Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Las transformaciones que tienen lugar en el Amazonas, considerado "el pulmón del planeta", tienen un significado especial, no solamente por el ahorro de energía, sino también por su impacto ambiental debido a la reducción de gases de efecto invernadero. Desde el año 2010, en Manaos la capital del Amazonas en Brasil, muchas centrales termoeléctricas están sustituyendo el fueloil por gas natural para la generación de energía. Debido a la gran reserva de gas natural en la región, este combustible se ha convertido en la mejor opción para las centrales eléctricas construidas en este lugar. En el presente trabajo se analiza el impacto técnico económico y medio ambiental de la sustitución del fueloil por el gas natural en la planta de generación de energía analizada.

  15. Phylogeny of Amazona barbadensis and the Yellow-headed Amazon complex (Aves: Psittacidae): a new look at South American parrot evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urantówka, Adam Dawid; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Strzała, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    The Yellow-shouldered Amazon (Amazona barbadensis) is the sole parrot of the genus Amazona that inhabits only dry forests. Its population has been dropping; therefore it has been the topic of many studies and conservation efforts. However, the phylogenetic relationship of this species to potential relatives classified within the Yellow-Headed Amazon (YHA) complex are still not clear. Therefore, we used more extensive data sets, including the newly sequenced mitochondrial genome of A. barbadensis, to conduct phylogenetic analyses. Various combinations of genes and many phylogenetic approaches showed that A. barbadensis clustered significantly with A. ochrocephala ochrocephala from Colombia and Venezuela, which created the Northern South American (NSA) lineage, clearly separated from two other lineages within the YHA complex, the Central (CA) and South American (SA). Tree topology tests and exclusion of rapidly evolving sites provided support for a NSA+SA grouping. We propose an evolutionary scenario for the YHA complex and its colonization of the American mainland. The NSA lineage likely represents the most ancestral lineage, which derived from Lesser Antillean Amazons and colonized the northern coast of Venezuela about a million years ago. Then, Central America was colonized through the Isthmus of Panama, which led to the emergence of the CA lineage. The southward expansion to South America and the origin of the SA lineage happened almost simultaneously. However, more intensive or prolonged gene flow or migrations have led to much weaker geographic differentiation of genetic markers in the SA than in the CA lineage.

  16. Screening of plants found in the State of Amazonas, Brazil for activity against Aedes aegypti larvae Triagem de plantas encontradas no Estado do Amazonas para atividade larvicida contra Aedes aegypti

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    Adrian Martin Pohlit

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol, methanol and water extracts representing mostly native plant species found in the Amazon region were prepared, respectively, by maceration, continuous liquid-solid extraction and infusion, followed by evaporation and freeze-drying. The freeze-dried extracts were tested for lethality toward Aedes aegypti larvae at test concentrations of 500 mg / mL. In general, methanol extracts exhibited the greatest larvicidal activity. The following 7 methanol extracts of (the parts of the indicated plant species were the most active, resulting in 100% mortality in A. aegypti larvae: Tapura amazonica Poepp. (root, Piper aduncum L. (leaf and root, P. tuberculatum Jacq. (leaf, fruit and branch. and Simaba polyphylla (Cavalcante W.W. Thomas (branch.Extratos aquosos, etanólicos e metanólicos, representando principalmente espécies vegetais nativas encontradas na região Amazônica, foram preparados, respectivamente, por infusão, maceração e extração contínua líquido-sólido, seguida de evaporação e liofilização. Os extratos liofilizados foram testados para atividade contra larvas de Aedes aegypti, na concentração única de 500 mg / mL. Os extratos metanólicos foram, em geral, os que apresentaram maior atividade larvicida. Os seguintes 7 extratos metanólicos das (partes das espécies vegetais indicadas foram os mais ativos, provocando 100% de mortalidade em larvas de A. aegypti: Tapura amazonica Poepp. (raiz, Piper aduncum L. (folha e raiz, P. tuberculatum Jacq. (folha, fruto e galho e Simaba polyphylla (Cavalcante W.W. Thomas (galho.

  17. A new Paxillus MacLeay, 1819 (Coleoptera: Passalidae: Passalinae from the state of Amazonas, Brazil Um novo Paxillus MacLeay, 1819 (Coleoptera: Passalidae: Passalinae do Estado do Amazonas, Brasil

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    Claudio Ruy Vasconcelos da Fonseca

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Paxillus is a neotropical genus belonging to the subfamily Passalinae widespread from Mexico to Argentina. Brazil is known to harbor five species belonging to this genus with most of them presenting at head a flattened central tubercle lacking a free apex. However, one of these species, Paxillus macrocerus Reyes-Castillo & Fonseca, differs from that pattern by having a long central tubercle with a completely free apex. The present study describes and illustrates another new species, which has been found in the Brazilian Amazon, showing this same characteristic.Paxillus é um gênero neotropical pertencente à subfamília Passalinae, distribuído do México até a Argentina. No Brasil são conhecidas cinco espécies desse gênero, a maioria delas apresentando um tubérculo central achatado sem ápice livre. Entretanto, uma dessas espécies, Paxillus macrocerus Reyes-Castillo & Fonseca, apresenta um padrão diferente, tendo em vista que possui um tubérculo central longo com o ápice completamente livre. O presente estudo descreve e ilustra outra espécie nova, a qual foi encontrada na Amazônia brasileira, que apresenta essa mesma característica.

  18. Manejo da podridão-de-Sclerotium em pimentão em um argisolo no Amazonas Southern blight management of bell pepper in an argissol in the Amazonas State

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    Rosalee Albuquerque Coelho Netto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A podridão-de-Sclerotium é uma doença comum em plantas da família Solanaceae na Amazônia. Visando avaliar estratégias de manejo para esta doença em pimentão (Capsicum annuum, L. Solanaceae, foi conduzido experimento em campo em blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas e seis repetições, em Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo artificialmente infestado com Sclerotium rolfsii. O tratamento principal foi a cobertura do solo (cobertura do solo com serragem ou solo nu. Os tratamentos secundários consistiram na adição ao solo de: 1 composto vegetal (3 L por cova, 2 arroz colonizado com Trichoderma harzianum (90 g por cova contendo ≈ 1,4 x 10(9 conídios g-1, 3 composto vegetal e T. harzianum nas mesmas proporções descritas anteriormente e 4 testemunha. Todas as plantas receberam apenas adubação orgânica com composto vegetal na proporção de 1,5 L por cova, exceto as dos tratamentos com 3 L de composto por cova. A parcela principal foi constituída de três fileiras com dez plantas de pimentão (0,50 x 1,0 m e cada subparcela continha três fileiras com cinco plantas. A incidência da podridão-de-Sclerotium foi avaliada duas vezes por semana. A cobertura morta favoreceu significativamente a ocorrência da doença. Nas parcelas com esse tratamento o aumento da intensidade da doença, expressa em área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD, foi 35,5% maior, em comparação com as parcelas sem cobertura morta. A aplicação de T. harzianum ou o incremento na quantidade de composto (de 1,5 para 3 L por cova reduziu a AACPD em 38,1% e 37,5%, respectivamente. A aplicação de T. harzianum ou o incremento na quantidade de composto, mesmo nos tratamentos com cobertura morta, reduziu significativamente a AACPD em 52,8% e em 55,1%, respectivamente, em comparação com o tratamento apenas com cobertura morta. Esses resultados sugerem que a utilização de T. harzianum e o aumento na quantidade de composto por cova são estratégias eficientes de manejo da podridão-de-Sclerotium em pimentão. A cobertura morta com serragem não deve ser utilizada em áreas infestadas com S. rolfsii.Southern blight is a common disease in plants belonging to the Solanaceae family in the Amazon. To compare southern blight management strategies for bell pepper (Capsicum annuum, L. Solanaceae a field experiment was conducted in a split plot design with main plots arranged in randomized blocks, with six replicates for each treatment, in a red-yellow Argisol (Ultisol artificially infested with Sclerotium rolfsii. The main factor was soil cover (sawdust mulch or bare soil The secondary factors were the incorporation to the soil: 1 compost (3 L by planting hole, 2 rice colonized by Trichoderma harzianum (90 g by planting hole, with ≈ 1.4 x 10(9 conidia g-1 and 3 compost and T. harzianum in the same proportion described previously; 4 control. All plants were fertilized with 1.5 L of compost by planting hole except those in the treatments with 3 L of compost by hole. The main plot had three rows with ten bell pepper plants (0.50 x 1.0 m and the subplot, three rows with five plants. Southern blight incidence was accessed twice a week. The sawdust mulch increased the disease incidence significantly. In the mulched plots the disease intensity, expressed as the area under disease progress curve (AUDPC, increase 35.5% compared with bare soil. Trichoderma harzianum or the increase in the amount of compost (1.5 L to 3 L by planting hole reduced the AUDPC by 38.1% and of 37.5%, respectively. Furthermore T. harzianum or the increase in the amount of compost, even with sawdust mulch added, reduced the AUDPC by 52.8% and in 55.1%, respectively, in comparison with mulch alone. These results suggested that the utilization of T. harzianum or the increase in the amount of compost by planting hole are viable strategies to southern blight management in bell pepper. The sawdust surface mulch is not recommended in an S. rolfsii infested area.

  19. Prevalencia del Enteroparasitismo en escolares de comunidades nativas del Alto Marañon, Amazonas, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicanor Ibáñez H

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de infección por protozoarios y helmintos intestinales y su relación con el sexo, localidad de procedencia y grupo etáreo, en escolares nativos de la zona selvática del Alto Marañón, provincia de Bagua, departamento de Amazonas, Perú. Materiales y métodos: En este estudio transversal-observacional se seleccionó a los colegios representativos de la mencionada región lográndose examinar las muestras fecales de 1049 escolares de seis a 15 años de edad, entre octubre de 2001 y octubre de 2002, usando las técnicas microscópicas de observación directa, con solución salina fisiológica y lugol, de Teleman y de Kinnyoun. Resultados: La prevalencia de los protozoos y helmintos intestinales hallados es: Entamoeba coli 68,0%; Blastocystis hominis 28,4%; Endolimax nana 23,9%;