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Sample records for mammals chronically exposed

  1. Genetic efficiency of low-dose chronic irradiation in mammals and fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharova, R.; Ryabokon, N.; Smolich, I.; Slukvin, A.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of biological effects of low-dose chronic irradiation is central radiobiological problem and seems to be very important for human monitoring and risk assessment Since 1986 we are engaged in studying genetic effects of low-dose chronic irradiation in natural populations of small mammals (bank vole - Clethrioiiomys glareolus) inhabiting radiocontaminated monitoring sites, in laboratory hybrid mice CBA*C57BI/6 j exposed to chronic irradiation at radiocontaminated sites, as well as in pond carp (Cyprinus carpio) reared in fish farms in areas contaminated due to the Chernobyl accident. The mean ground depositions in monitoring sites were 8-2330 kBq/m 2 and the mean bottom depositions in ponds were 52-3235 Bq/kg for Cs 137. We used conventional cytogenetics and genetics tests [1-3] and the following approaches in studying on genetic effects of low-dose chronic irradiation: Radiation exposures from external γ- and internal α, β, γ-irradiation from incorporated radionuclides were estimated for each specimen tested. Regression analysis of dose-effect relationships based on comparison of individual genetic end-points with individual absorbed doses was carried out We observed statistically significant changes in the frequencies of genetic end-points, which have been studied in somatic and germ cells, as well as in embryos of irradiated mammals and fish. So, the frequencies of chromosome aberrations in bank vole populations had up to 7-fold increase in comparison with background and pre-accident levels. It is of great importance to emphasize high radio-sensitivity of fertilized eggs (zygotes) and pond carp, embryos produced by chronically irradiated parents. Regression analysis allowed to reveal dependence of the studied parameters' frequencies on radiation exposure namely on the concentrations of basic dose forming radionuclides, absorbed dose rate and whole body absorbed dose. In most cases, dose-effect relationships were better approximated by non

  2. Analysis of reproductive function in persons exposed to chronic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossenko, M.M.; Ostroumova, E.V.; Vyushkova, O.V.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the reproductive function in individuals exposed to radiation in the riverside villages on the Techa in the Southern Urals. The exposure of the population, numbering 28000, occurred in 1950-1956 as a result of discharges into the river of radioactive wastes from the Mayak facility for processing weapon plutonium. The residents were exposed to chronic radiation, both external and internal. The range of exposure doses to gonads was sufficiently wide: 20-1270 mSv. However, the distribution of doses among the exposed individuals was ununiform, and the proportion of people whose dose was below 120 mGy accounted for 74%. The following characteristics of exposed women were analyzed: menstrual function, outcomes of pregnancy, birth rates, health status for newborns. The analysis of the menstrual function in exposed women showed that in persons exposed in childhood, menarche was registered at the age of 14.3 years, on the average (based on literature sources, menarche is attained at the age of 13 for unexposed population). The mean age at menopause was 47.9 years for exposed women (the respective mean value for Russia is 50.8 years). Pregnancy outcomes were analyzed in 9000 exposed women. The rate of medical and criminal abortions was estimated as 79 per 100 labors. The rate of spontaneous abortions for exposed women was slightly higher, 3.11%, than for controls, 2.30%; these difference, however, were statistically insignificant. The total loss of fetus or neonate (unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy: spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, early neonatal death) was estimated to be 4.58% at zero dose. Exposure to gonads at the dose 1 Sv, estimated using the above-indicated method, yielded 3% of additional unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy. It was shown, based on the analysis of birth rates for the Techa Cohort that they had not undergone any essential changes over the first 25 years of exposure compared to the respective coefficients for

  3. Analysis of reproductive function in persons exposed to chronic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossenko, M.M.; Ostroumova, E.V.; Vyushkova, O.V. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the reproductive function in individuals exposed to radiation in the riverside villages on the Techa in the Southern Urals. The exposure of the population, numbering 28000, occurred in 1950-1956 as a result of discharges into the river of radioactive wastes from the Mayak facility for processing weapon plutonium. The residents were exposed to chronic radiation, both external and internal. The range of exposure doses to gonads was sufficiently wide: 20-1270 mSv. However, the distribution of doses among the exposed individuals was ununiform, and the proportion of people whose dose was below 120 mGy accounted for 74%. The following characteristics of exposed women were analyzed: menstrual function, outcomes of pregnancy, birth rates, health status for newborns. The analysis of the menstrual function in exposed women showed that in persons exposed in childhood, menarche was registered at the age of 14.3 years, on the average (based on literature sources, menarche is attained at the age of 13 for unexposed population). The mean age at menopause was 47.9 years for exposed women (the respective mean value for Russia is 50.8 years). Pregnancy outcomes were analyzed in 9000 exposed women. The rate of medical and criminal abortions was estimated as 79 per 100 labors. The rate of spontaneous abortions for exposed women was slightly higher, 3.11%, than for controls, 2.30%; these difference, however, were statistically insignificant. The total loss of fetus or neonate (unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy: spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, early neonatal death) was estimated to be 4.58% at zero dose. Exposure to gonads at the dose 1 Sv, estimated using the above-indicated method, yielded 3% of additional unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy. It was shown, based on the analysis of birth rates for the Techa Cohort that they had not undergone any essential changes over the first 25 years of exposure compared to the respective coefficients for

  4. Heart rate variability in workers chronically exposed to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Jacek; Zyśko, Dorota; Chlebda, Ewa

    2004-07-01

    Lead is a strong neurotoxin. The effects of lead on the activity of the autonomic nervous system, assessed by the use of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, have not yet been established. To assess the effects of occupational chronic lead exposure on the autonomic nervous system activity. The study group consisted of 22 copper foundry workers (mean age 41.8+/-8.7 years) who had elevated parameters of lead overload and were admitted to the hospital for chelate therapy. The control group consisted of 13 age-matched healthy males. Lead concentration was measured with the use of atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and concentration of free protoporphyrins in erythrocytes (FEP) using a fluorometric method. Each patient underwent 24-hour ambulatory ECG monitoring, and standard short-term as well as long-term HRV parameters were obtained. There were no significant differences between patients and controls in HRV parameters. In the control group, HRV parameters correlated with age. In patients, a significant negative correlation between lead concentration and some short-term HRV parameters calculated during the night was found: SDNN (r=-0.48, p<0.05), TP (r=-0.48, p<0.01) and LF (r=-0.48, p<0.01). In patients, a negative correlation between lead concentration and HFnight/HFday index was found (r=-0.47 p<0.01), whereas in controls this correlation was positive (r=0.66 p<0.05). Overall HRV indices are similar in subjects exposed to lead and in healthy controls. A decrease in the physiological elevation of HF values during the night, together with an increase in lead blood concentration and lack of relationship between age and HRV parameters in workers chronically exposed to lead may suggest disturbances of the autonomic system. In subjects not exposed to lead a decrease in heart rate with an increase in FEP concentration was observed.

  5. Bone-Marrow Stem-Cell Survival in the Non-Uniformly Exposed Mammal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, V. P.; Robinson, C. V. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Medical Research Center, Upton, Long Island, NY (United States)

    1967-07-15

    For comparison of the effectiveness of non-uniform versus uniform irradiations in causing haematological death in mammals, a model of the irradiated haemopoietic system has been proposed. The essential features of this model are: (1) that different parts of the haemopoietic system have numbers of stem cells which are proportioned to the amounts of active marrow in those parts as measured by {sup 59}Fe uptake, (2) that stem cells in the different parts are subject to the, same dose-survival relationship, and (3) that survival of the animal depends on survival of a critical fraction of the total number of stem cells independent of their distribution among the parts of the total marrow mass. To apply this model one needs to know: (a) the relative {sup 59}Fe uptakes of the different parts of the haemopoietic system, (b) the doses delivered to those parts by each of the exposures to be compared, and (c) the dose-survival curve applicable to the stem cells. From these one can calculate the fraction of stem cells surviving each exposure. In a preliminary communication the applicability of the model was investigated using data obtained entirely from the literature. Additional data, particularly on bone-marrow distribution, have since been obtained and are included here. The primary object of the present paper is to test further the validity of the above 'stem-cell survival model'. Data on bilateral (essentially uniform) versus unilateral and non-uniform rotational exposures in mammals are examined with respect to the surviving fraction of stem cells at the LD{sub 50/30} day dose level. Although an adequate test is not possible at present for lack of a full set of data in any one species, a partial test indicates compatibility with data for dogs and rats. Other possible mortality determinants such as doses or exposures at entrance, midline or exit, or the gram-rads or average dose to the marrow, appear to be less useful than the critical stem-cell survival fraction.

  6. The modes of death in mammals exposed to whole body radiation (acute radiation syndromes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, O.R. dos.

    1990-07-01

    When an animal is exposed to a sufficient amount of radiation, there will be changes in many organs of the body, and as a result of either the effects in one particular organ or the interaction of effects in several organs, the animal as a whole will show characteristic syndromes. Some syndromes result inevitably in death. Others may or may not be lethal, depending on the extent of the tissue damage. The time of appearance of the syndromes, their duration, and the survival of the organism depend on many factors. Whole body acute doses of radiation produce the same spectrum of Central Nervous System (CNS), Gastrointestinal (GI) and Bone Marrow (BM) injury in man as was described for animals. Damage to the skin, ovary and testis are an integral and important part of the symptoms. (author) [pt

  7. 76 FR 41463 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... requirements, many marine animals may need to remain in areas where they are exposed to chronic stimuli... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a Marine... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). ACTION: Notice; proposed...

  8. PATTERN OF CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION IN ADULT, MALE RATS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO DIETARY CHLORPYRIFOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Very little is known about the effects of chronic exposure to relatively low levels of anticholinesterase insecticides or how the effects of chronic exposure compare to higher, intermittent exposure of the same compound for the same duration. To that end, we exposed adult male ra...

  9. Haemogram of adult Clarias gariepinus exposed to chronic levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clarias gariepinus (mean weight, 850 ± 60 g) mean length, 38.75 ± 6.7 cm) were exposed individually to four concentrations of Roundup, containing 360g/l glyphosate in the form of 480g/l isopropylamine salt (1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 mg/l) and a control (0 mg/l), five replicates per concentration for 70 days in static renewal ...

  10. Haematological evaluation of Wistar rats exposed to chronic doses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two groups (A and B) were respectively exposed to CdCl2 (0.25 and 2.5 mg/kg), two other groups (C and D) respectively received HgCl2 (0.12 and 1.2 mg/kg) and the last two groups (E and F) were respectively treated with the combination of these two metals: (0.25 mg/kg Cd + 0.12 mg/kg Hg) and (2.5 mg/kg Cd + 1.2 ...

  11. Proteomic analysis of liver in rats chronically exposed to fluoride.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloísa Aparecida Barbosa da Silva Pereira

    Full Text Available Fluoride (F is a potent anti-cariogenic element, but when ingestion is excessive, systemic toxicity may be observed. This can occur as acute or chronic responses, depending on both the amount of F and the time of exposure. The present study identified the profile of protein expression possibly associated with F-induced chronic hepatotoxicity. Weanling male Wistar rats (three-weeks old were divided into three groups and treated with drinking water containing 0, 5 or 50 mg/L F for 60 days (n=6/group. At this time point, serum and livers were collected for F analysis, which was done using the ion-sensitive electrode, after hexamethyldisiloxane-facilitated diffusion. Livers were also submitted to histological and proteomic analyses (2D-PAGE followed by LC-MS/MS. Western blotting was done for confirmation of the proteomic data A dose-response was observed in serum F levels. In the livers, F levels were significantly increased in the 50 mg/L F group compared to groups treated with 0 and 5 mg/L F. Liver morphometric analysis did not reveal alterations in the cellular structures and lipid droplets were present in all groups. Proteomic quantitative intensity analysis detected 33, 44, and 29 spots differentially expressed in the comparisons between control vs. 5 mg/L F, control vs. 50 mg/L F, and 5 mg/L vs. 50 mg/L F, respectively. From these, 92 proteins were successfully identified. In addition, 18, 1, and 5 protein spots were shown to be exclusive in control, 5, and 50 mg/L F, respectively. Most of proteins were related to metabolic process and pronounced alterations were seen for the high-F level group. In F-treated rats, changes in the apolipoprotein E (ApoE and GRP-78 expression may account for the F-induced toxicity in the liver. This can contribute to understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying hepatoxicity induced by F, by indicating key-proteins that should be better addressed in future studies.

  12. Bone metabolism of male rats chronically exposed to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzoska, Malgorzata M.; Moniuszko-Jakoniuk, Janina

    2005-01-01

    Recently, based on a female rat model of human exposure, we have reported that low-level chronic exposure to cadmium (Cd) has an injurious effect on the skeleton. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether the exposure may also affect bone metabolism in a male rat model and to estimate the gender-related differences in the bone effect of Cd. Young male Wistar rats received drinking water containing 0, 1, 5, or 50 mg Cd/l for 12 months. The bone effect of Cd was evaluated using bone densitometry and biochemical markers of bone turnover. Renal handling of calcium (Ca) and phosphate, and serum concentrations of vitamin D metabolites, calcitonin, and parathormone were estimated as well. At treatment with 1 mg Cd/l, corresponding to the low environmental exposure in non-Cd-polluted areas, the bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) at the femur and lumbar spine (L1-L5) and the total skeleton BMD did not differ compared to control. However, from the 6th month of the exposure, the Z score BMD indicated osteopenia in some animals and after 12 months the bone resorption very clearly tended to an increase. The rats' exposure corresponding to human moderate (5 mg Cd/l) and especially relatively high (50 mg Cd/l) exposure dose- and duration-dependently disturbed the processes of bone turnover and bone mass accumulation leading to formation of less dense than normal bone tissue. The effects were accompanied by changes in the serum concentration of calciotropic hormones and disorders in Ca and phosphate metabolism. It can be concluded that low environmental exposure to Cd may be only a subtle risk factor for skeletal demineralization in men. The results together with our previous findings based on an analogous model using female rats give clear evidence that males are less vulnerable to the bone effects of Cd compared to females

  13. Heavy metals content in reproductive organs of small mammals inhabiting in condition of chronic chemical exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhacheva, S.V.; Davydova, Yu.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this research by example of bank vole the heavy metals concentrations (cadmium, copper and zinc) in reproductive organs of small mammals inhabiting in condition of environmental pollution with wastes from copper-smelting industry have been considered. The levels of radionuclides accumulation in testes, seminal vesicle and ovaries of voles with radionuclide concentration in others organs and tissues of animals have been compared.

  14. Psychophysical Evaluation of Achromatic and Chromatic Vision of Workers Chronically Exposed to Organic Solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, E.M.D.B.; Lima, M.G.; Silveira, L.C.D.S.; Rodrigues, A.R.; Teixeira, C.E.C.; De Lima, L.J.B.; Silveira, L.C.D.S.; Ventura, D.F.; Ventura, D.F.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate achromatic and chromatic vision of workers chronically exposed to organic solvents through psychophysical methods. Thirty-one gas station workers (31.5 ± 8.4 years old) were evaluated. Psychophysical tests were achromatic tests (Snellen chart, spatial and temporal contrast sensitivity, and visual perimetry) and chromatic tests (Ishihara's test, color discrimination ellipses, and Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test FM100). Spatial contrast sensitivities of exposed workers were lower than the control at spatial frequencies of 20 and 30 cpd whilst the temporal contrast sensitivity was preserved. Visual field losses were found in 10-30 degrees of eccentricity in the solvent exposed workers. The exposed workers group had higher error values of FM100 and wider color discrimination ellipses area compared to the controls. Workers occupationally exposed to organic solvents had abnormal visual functions, mainly color vision losses and visual field constriction

  15. DETERMINATION OF URINARY TRIVALENT ARSENICALS (MMASIII AND DMASIII) IN INDIVIDUALS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO ARSENIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    DETERMINATION OF URINARY TRIVALENT ARSENICALS (MMAsIII and DMAsIII) IN INDIVIDUALS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO ARSENIC. L. M. Del Razo1, M. Styblo2, W. R. Cullen3, and D.J. Thomas4. 1Toxicology Section, Cinvestav-IPN, Mexico, D.F., 2Univ. North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; 3Uni...

  16. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the lymphocytes of rats chronically exposed to radiation and chemical factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.V.

    1986-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of lymphocytes in peripheral blood, thymus and spleen of rats chronically exposed to combined external γ-radiation trichlorfon pesticide effect have been studied. It is shown that chronical combined trichlorfon and γ irradiation effect is accompanied by suppression of lymphopoiesis already at the early stages of the experience. The observed effects are formed depending on both daily and cumulative doses of the effect. The development of the combined effect is based on the summation of effects of chronical effect of ionizing radiation and pesticide. The revealed changes in lymphocytes population exposed to radiation and chemical factors can lead to substantial decrease of natural immunity thereby decreasing to various diseases

  17. Effect of acetaminophen administration to rats chronically exposed to depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueguen, Y.; Grandcolas, L.; Baudelin, C.; Grison, S.; Tissandie, E.; Jourdain, J.R.; Paquet, F.; Voisin, P.; Aigueperse, J.; Gourmelon, P.; Souidi, M.

    2007-01-01

    The extensive use of depleted uranium (DU) in both civilian and military applications results in the increase of the number of human beings exposed to this compound. We previously found that DU chronic exposure induces the expression of CYP enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics (drugs). In order to evaluate the consequences of these changes on the metabolism of a drug, rats chronically exposed to DU (40 mg/l) were treated by acetaminophen (APAP, 400 mg/kg) at the end of the 9-month contamination. Acetaminophen is considered as a safe drug within the therapeutic range but in the case of overdose or in sensitive animals, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity could occur. In the present work, plasma concentration of APAP was higher in the DU group compared to the non-contaminated group. In addition, administration of APAP to the DU-exposed rats increased plasma ALT (p < 0.01) and AST (p < 0.05) more rapidly than in the control group. Nevertheless, no histological alteration of the liver was observed but renal injury characterized by incomplete proximal tubular cell necrosis was higher for the DU-exposed rats. Moreover, in the kidney, CYP2E1 gene expression, an important CYP responsible for APAP bioactivation and toxicity, is increased (p < 0.01) in the DU-exposed group compared to the control group. In the liver, CYP's activities were decreased between control and DU-exposed rats. These results could explain the worse elimination of APAP in the plasma and confirm our hypothesis of a modification of the drug metabolism following a DU chronic contamination

  18. Aggregated Transfer Factors For Small Mammals Collected From the Exposed Sediments Of A 137 Cs Contaminated Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, Michael H.; Jannika, G. Timothy; Wike, Lynn D

    2005-10-04

    {sup 137}Cs transfer factors were computed for small mammals collected from the dried sediment areas of a partially drained, contaminated reservoir. Soil {sup 137}Cs concentrations were heterogeneous on small and large spatial scales, with a geometric mean of 253.1 Bq/kg dry weight. About 50% of the variance in cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus tissue {sup 137}Cs levels was explained by variation in soil {sup 137}Cs levels. Soil to animal transfer factors (whole body dry weight) averaged 6.0 for cotton rats and 1.2 for cotton mice Peromyscus gossypinus. These values are similar to {sup 137}Cs transfer factors for herbivorous, homeothermic animals from other contaminated ecosystems. Site-specific transfer factors can significantly affect the estimation of dose. In the RESRAD-BIOTA dose model, the default transfer factor for {sup 137}Cs in terrestrial animals is 110 resulting in an estimate of radiation dose to terrestrial biota that is 16 times more than the dose calculated with the actual measured transfer factor.

  19. Effects on body size and composition of chronic exposure to altered gravity. [centrifuging stress in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, G. C.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of chronic centrifugation on body composition and growth of rats, mice, monkeys, and man are studied. The benefits of exercise and restraint during acceleration are investigated. Physiological regulation and energy balance are also discussed.

  20. Health status of grandchildren of subjects occupationally exposed to chronic radiation. Communication 4. Congenital developmental defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrushkina, N.P.; Musatkova, O.B.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the incidence and structure of cogenital developmental defects in the grandchildren of subjects occupationally exposed to chronic external gamma-irradiation. For 830 children only grandfather was exposed, for 259 only grandmother, and for 468 grandfather and grandmother. The mean equivalent doses for gonads by the moment of conception of future parents of the cohort examined ranged from 17.3 to 145.3 sSv. The incidence and structure of congenital developmental defects in 1557 grandchildren of occupationally exposed subjects differed from that in controls. Multifactorial analysis failed to establish the effect of grandparents' and parents' exposure on the development of diseases in the progeny. Factors other than radiation proved to be significant. 13 refs.; 1 tab

  1. Pulmonary function testing of animals chronically exposed to diluted diesel exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, K B

    1981-04-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the potential effect that chronic inhalation of diesel exhaust may have on lung mechanics and lung volume. Noninvasive pulmonary function tests that produced data on lung air flows and volumes have been conducted repeatedly on 25 male Fischer-344 rats exposed to diesel exhaust at a particulate concentration of 1500 micrograms m-3, 20 h per day, 5 1/2 days per week, for 612 days. The same tests were conducted on 25 clean air control animals. When the data were normalized, the majority of tests did not reveal any significant deviation from the norm for the first year of exposure. In the second year, the functional residual capacity and its component volumes - expiratory reserve and residual volume, maximum expiratory flow at 40% of vital capacity, maximum expiratory flow at 20% of vital capacity and the forced expiratory volume in 0.1 s - were significantly greater in the diesel exposed animals. The data are inconsistent with known clinically significant adverse health effects. Although the lung volume changes in the diesel exposed animals could be indicative of emphysema or other forms of chronic obstructive lung disease, this interpretation is contradicted by the air flow data which suggest simultaneous lowering of the resistance of the smaller airways. The observations are not consistent with documented clinical lung disease in man.

  2. Dynamics of genetic processes in chronically irradiated populations of small mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabokon', N.I.; Goncharova, R.I.; Smolich, I.I.; Kapitanova, N.P.; Nikitchenko, N.V.

    2000-01-01

    The distinctive features of dynamics of mutagenesis in mammalian populations under chronic low-intensive irradiation were first revealed. The main of them is gradual increase in mutability in somatic cells and embryonal lethality during series of irradiated generations of animals (bank vole - Clethrionomys glareolus). The data obtained strongly suggest that there are oppositely directed processes in natural populations after irradiation of more than 20 generations of animals: on the one hand, accumulation of mutations (genetic load of populations) and pre-mutation events which increase genome instability of germ and somatic cells in consecutive generations of animals, and on the other, formation of genetic radio adaptation through better functioning protection systems. In this period of micro evolution in chronically irradiated populations, the frequencies of genetic damages could be higher if the radiation adaptation doesn't form. (authors)

  3. Possible cause for altered spatial cognition of prepubescent rats exposed to chronic radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sareesh Naduvil; Kumar, Raju Suresh; Karun, Kalesh M; Nayak, Satheesha B; Bhat, P Gopalakrishna

    2015-10-01

    The effects of chronic and repeated radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RFEMR) exposure on spatial cognition and hippocampal architecture were investigated in prepubescent rats. Four weeks old male Wistar rats were exposed to RF-EMR (900 MHz; SAR-1.15 W/kg with peak power density of 146.60 μW/cm(2)) for 1 h/day, for 28 days. Followed by this, spatial cognition was evaluated by Morris water maze test. To evaluate the hippocampal morphology; H&E staining, cresyl violet staining, and Golgi-Cox staining were performed on hippocampal sections. CA3 pyramidal neuron morphology and surviving neuron count (in CA3 region) were studied using H&E and cresyl violet stained sections. Dendritic arborization pattern of CA3 pyramidal neuron was investigated by concentric circle method. Progressive learning abilities were found to be decreased in RF-EMR exposed rats. Memory retention test performed 24 h after the last training revealed minor spatial memory deficit in RF-EMR exposed group. However, RF-EMR exposed rats exhibited poor spatial memory retention when tested 48 h after the final trial. Hirano bodies and Granulovacuolar bodies were absent in the CA3 pyramidal neurons of different groups studied. Nevertheless, RF-EMR exposure affected the viable cell count in dorsal hippocampal CA3 region. RF-EMR exposure influenced dendritic arborization pattern of both apical and basal dendritic trees in RF-EMR exposed rats. Structural changes found in the hippocampus of RF-EMR exposed rats could be one of the possible reasons for altered cognition.

  4. Effects of chronic radiation exposure on small mammals in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.; Stone, D.M.; Copplestone, D.

    2004-01-01

    The Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986 caused the release to atmosphere of some 2 x 10 6 TBq, or more, of total fission/activation products. Estimates of deposition vary, although it is probable that about half the activity was deposited within 20 km of the release point, predominantly following two plume trajectories to the north and west. This resulted in the death of pine trees over 400 ha, the abandonment of up to 150 000 ha of agricultural land and the establishment of an exclusion zone extending to 30 km from the site. High levels of radionuclide contamination continue to prevail within the exclusion zone. Nonetheless, recolonisation has been widespread. Mixed deciduous woodlands, with a high proportion of birch (Betula spp.) and willow (Salix spp.), have become established in the forest areas, while agricultural land has succeeded to tall grassland and scrub. Field sites investigated in this study, during 2001-2003, exhibited external gamma dose rates varying from 0.1 μSv h-1 to 140 μSv h-1. Corresponding mean concentrations of 137 Cs in the top 20 cm of soil varied from about 6 x 10 2 to 3 x 10 6 Bq kg -1 dw (dry weight). Little impact is evident on populations of small mammals in these areas, either for species diversity or overall abundance, although there is a slight (not statistically significant) trend for increasing spleen weight in the bank vole with increasing levels of contamination. Previous suggestions that populations contain a preponderance of juveniles and sub-adults at the highest contaminated sites are not supported. (author)

  5. The health status of grandchildren of subjects occupationally exposed to chronic radiation. Communication 2. Morphofunctional parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrushkina, N.P.; Musatkova, O.B.

    1996-01-01

    The study was aimed at investigation of the parameters of physical development and specific features in the development of psychomotor habits and peripheral blood parameters in children aged 0 to 7 grandchildren of exposed individuals. A dynamic follow-up of physical and psychomotor development, as well as regular check-ups of peripheral blood were carried out in 877 grandchildren of test subjects occupationally exposed to chronic radiation before conception. Multifactorial analysis did not show a correlation between the deviations in the physical development of children in the studied cohort and exposure of their grandparents and/or parents. Factors other than radiation (poor health status of mother, gestosis) did influence the studied parameters. The mean levels of hemoglobin, red cells, platelets, and leukocytes in the test group were virtually the same as in controls and coincided with published data [ru

  6. Consideration of epigenetic responses at organisms chronically exposed to low levels of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombeau, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This work integrates within the general framework of the European program COMET (7. Framework Programme EURATOM) and aims to assess the epigenetic responses, and particularly DNA methylation, during chronic exposure to low levels of radioactive materials within two particularly representative contexts of radioecological issues (i.e. uranium mining area and Fukushima post-accidental context). During a first experiment, zebra fish (Danio rerio) were exposed in laboratory controlled conditions to environmentally relevant concentrations of depleted uranium: 2 and 20 μg L"-"1. This experiment allowed an impact on the genomic DNA methylation to be demonstrated, mainly in exposed males, which increased with the duration and level of exposure. In a second experiment, we observed an impact on DNA methylation patterns in the progeny of exposed parents, as well as a perturbation of transcriptomics (i.e. epigenetic processes, DNA damage signaling and repair pathways, embryogenesis) and histological damage in larvae skeletal muscle from exposed parents. The methods developed were applied to the second context focusing on the study of biological effects induced by radionuclides emitted following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. The analyses performed on the Japanese tree frog (Hyla japonica) revealed a positive correlation between the total dose of radiation absorbed by these frogs (correlated to "1"3"7Cs accumulation), hyper-methylation of genomic DNA as well as increasing damage to mitochondrial DNA. This work highlighted the sensitivity of epigenetic responses in different biological models exposed to low levels of radionuclides. Additionally, these epigenetic modifications are stable over the time and involved in the transfer of the parental toxicity of depleted uranium. As such, the epigenetic marks could be used to further characterize adaptation mechanisms and potential trans-generational effects induced by radionuclides. (author)

  7. Effect of nephrotoxic treatment with gentamicin on rats chronically exposed to uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouas, Caroline; Stefani, Johanna; Grison, Stéphane; Grandcolas, Line; Baudelin, Cédric; Dublineau, Isabelle; Pallardy, Marc; Gueguen, Yann

    2011-01-11

    Uranium is a radioactive heavy metal with a predominantly chemical toxicity, affecting especially the kidneys and more particularly the proximal tubular structure. Until now, few experimental studies have examined the effect of chronic low-dose exposure to uranium on kidney integrity: these mainly analyse standard markers such as creatinine and urea, and none has studied the effect of additional co-exposure to a nephrotoxic agent on rats chronically exposed to uranium. The aim of the present study is to examine the potential cumulative effect of treating uranium-exposed rats with a nephrotoxic drug. Neither physiological indicators (diuresis and creatinine clearance) nor standard plasma and urine markers (creatinine, urea and total protein) levels were deteriorated when uranium exposure was combined with gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. A histological study confirmed the preferential impact of gentamicin on the tubular structure and showed that uranium did not aggravate the histopathological renal lesions. Finally, the use of novel markers of kidney toxicity, such as KIM-1, osteopontin and kallikrein, provides new knowledge about the nephrotoxicity threshold of gentamicin, and allows us to conclude that under our experimental conditions, low dose uranium exposure did not induce signs of nephrotoxicity or enhance renal sensitivity to another nephrotoxicant. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of nephrotoxic treatment with gentamicin on rats chronically exposed to uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouas, Caroline; Stefani, Johanna; Grison, Stephane; Grandcolas, Line; Baudelin, Cedric; Dublineau, Isabelle; Pallardy, Marc; Gueguen, Yann

    2011-01-01

    Uranium is a radioactive heavy metal with a predominantly chemical toxicity, affecting especially the kidneys and more particularly the proximal tubular structure. Until now, few experimental studies have examined the effect of chronic low-dose exposure to uranium on kidney integrity: these mainly analyse standard markers such as creatinine and urea, and none has studied the effect of additional co-exposure to a nephrotoxic agent on rats chronically exposed to uranium. The aim of the present study is to examine the potential cumulative effect of treating uranium-exposed rats with a nephrotoxic drug. Neither physiological indicators (diuresis and creatinine clearance) nor standard plasma and urine markers (creatinine, urea and total protein) levels were deteriorated when uranium exposure was combined with gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. A histological study confirmed the preferential impact of gentamicin on the tubular structure and showed that uranium did not aggravate the histopathological renal lesions. Finally, the use of novel markers of kidney toxicity, such as KIM-1, osteopontin and kallikrein, provides new knowledge about the nephrotoxicity threshold of gentamicin, and allows us to conclude that under our experimental conditions, low dose uranium exposure did not induce signs of nephrotoxicity or enhance renal sensitivity to another nephrotoxicant.

  9. Altered activity of heme biosynthesis pathway enzymes in individuals chronically exposed to arsenic in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Zavala, A.; Del Razo, L.M.; Garcia-Vargas, G.G.; Aguilar, C.; Borja, V.H.; Albores, A.; Cebrian, M.E. [CINVESTAV-IPN, Mexico (Mexico). Dept. de Farmacologia y Toxicologica

    1999-03-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the activities of some enzymes of the heme biosynthesis pathway and their relationship with the profile of urinary porphyrin excretion in individuals exposed chronically to arsenic (As) via drinking water in Region Lagunera, Mexico. We selected 17 individuals from each village studied: Benito Juarez, which has current exposure to 0.3 mg As/l; Santa Ana, where individuals have been exposed for more than 35 years to 0.4 mg As/l, but due to changes in the water supply (in 1992) exposure was reduced to its current level (0.1 mg As/l), and Nazareno, with 0.014 mg As/l. Average arsenic concentrations in urine were 2058, 398, and 88 {mu}g As/g creatinine, respectively. The more evident alterations in heme metabolism observed in the highly exposed individuals were: (1) small but significant increases in porphobilinogen deaminase (PBG-D) and uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-D) activities in peripheral blood erythrocytes; (2) increases in the urinary excretion of total porphyrins, mainly due to coproporphyrin III (COPROIII) and uroporphyrin III (UROIII); and (3) increases in the COPRO/URO and COPROIII/COPROI ratios. No significant changes were observed in uroporphyrinogen III synthetase (UROIII-S) activity. The direct relationships between enzyme activities and urinary porphyrins, suggest that the increased porphyrin excretion was related to PBG-D, whereas the increased URO-D activity would enhance coproporphyrin synthesis and excretion at the expense of uroporphyrin. None of the human studies available have reported the marked porphyric response and enzyme inhibition observed in rodents. In conclusion, chronic As exposure alters human heme metabolism; however the severity of the effects appears to depend on characteristics of exposure not yet fully characterized. (orig.) With 1 fig., 3 tabs., 20 refs.

  10. Attenuation of the cortisol response to stress in female rainbow trout chronically exposed to dietary selenomethionine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiseman, Steve, E-mail: steve.wiseman@usask.ca [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Thomas, Jith K.; McPhee, Landon; Hursky, Olesya; Raine, Jason C. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Pietrock, Michael [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Giesy, John P. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Department of Zoology, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse and School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing (China); Hecker, Markus [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5CB (Canada); Janz, David M. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    , abundances of transcripts of cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (p450scc) and cytochrome P450 11B1 (cyp11b1) were not significantly different between controls and Se-Met exposed trout. Exposure to Se-Met affected accumulation and tissue partitioning of glycogen and triglycerides in liver and muscle as concentrations of these energy reserves were greater in muscle, but not liver. Concentrations of glycogen and triglycerides in muscle, but not in liver, were lesser following the handling stressor suggesting that the muscle energy reserves are an important source of energy required for recovery from the handling stressor. The results of the study demonstrate that chronic exposure to dietary Se-Met elicits a stress response, but prevents a cortisol response to a secondary handling stressor, most likely due to cortisol inactivation. Moreover, exposure to Se-Met has effects on concentrations of energy reserves that are important for providing the energy necessary to cope with a secondary stressor.

  11. Attenuation of the cortisol response to stress in female rainbow trout chronically exposed to dietary selenomethionine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiseman, Steve; Thomas, Jith K.; McPhee, Landon; Hursky, Olesya; Raine, Jason C.; Pietrock, Michael; Giesy, John P.; Hecker, Markus; Janz, David M.

    2011-01-01

    , abundances of transcripts of cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (p450scc) and cytochrome P450 11B1 (cyp11b1) were not significantly different between controls and Se-Met exposed trout. Exposure to Se-Met affected accumulation and tissue partitioning of glycogen and triglycerides in liver and muscle as concentrations of these energy reserves were greater in muscle, but not liver. Concentrations of glycogen and triglycerides in muscle, but not in liver, were lesser following the handling stressor suggesting that the muscle energy reserves are an important source of energy required for recovery from the handling stressor. The results of the study demonstrate that chronic exposure to dietary Se-Met elicits a stress response, but prevents a cortisol response to a secondary handling stressor, most likely due to cortisol inactivation. Moreover, exposure to Se-Met has effects on concentrations of energy reserves that are important for providing the energy necessary to cope with a secondary stressor.

  12. Impaired Latent Inhibition in GDNF-Deficient Mice Exposed to Chronic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Buhusi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Increased reactivity to stress is maladaptive and linked to abnormal behaviors and psychopathology. Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS alters catecholaminergic neurotransmission and remodels neuronal circuits involved in learning, attention and decision making. Glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF is essential for the physiology and survival of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra and of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus. Up-regulation of GDNF expression during stress is linked to resilience; on the other hand, the inability to up-regulate GDNF in response to stress, as a result of either genetic or epigenetic modifications, induces behavioral alterations. For example, GDNF-deficient mice exposed to chronic stress exhibit alterations of executive function, such as increased temporal discounting. Here we investigated the effects of CUS on latent inhibition (LI, a measure of selective attention and learning, in GDNF-heterozygous (HET mice and their wild-type (WT littermate controls. No differences in LI were found between GDNF HET and WT mice under baseline experimental conditions. However, following CUS, GDNF-deficient mice failed to express LI. Moreover, stressed GDNF-HET mice, but not their WT controls, showed decreased neuronal activation (number of c-Fos positive neurons in the nucleus accumbens shell and increased activation in the nucleus accumbens core, both key regions in the expression of LI. Our results add LI to the list of behaviors affected by chronic stress and support a role for GDNF deficits in stress-induced pathological behaviors relevant to schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders.

  13. Cancer risk of low dose/low dose rate radiation: a meta-analysis of cancer data of mammals exposed to low doses of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Hiromitsu; Magae, Junji

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Linear No Threshold (LNT) model is a basic theory for radioprotection, but the adaptability of this hypothesis to biological responses at low doses or at low dose rates is not sufficiently investigated. Simultaneous consideration of the cumulative dose and the dose rate is necessary for evaluating the risk of long-term exposure to ionizing radiation at low dose. This study intends to examine several numerical relationships between doses and dose rates in biological responses to gamma radiation. Collected datasets on the relationship between dose and the incidence of cancer in mammals exposed to low doses of radiation were analysed using meta-regression models and modified exponential (MOE) model, which we previously published, that predicts irradiation time-dependent biological response at low dose rate ionizing radiation. Minimum doses of observable risk and effective doses with a variety of dose rates were calculated using parameters estimated by fitting meta-regression models to the data and compared them with other statistical models that find values corresponding to 'threshold limits'. By fitting a weighted regression model (fixed-effects meta-regression model) to the data on risk of all cancers, it was found that the log relative risk [log(RR)] increased as the total exposure dose increased. The intersection of this regression line with the x-axis denotes the minimum dose of observable risk. These estimated minimum doses and effective doses increased with decrease of dose rate. The goodness of fits of MOE-model depended on cancer types, but the total cancer risk is reduced when dose rates are very low. The results suggest that dose response curve for cancer risk is remarkably affected by dose rate and that dose rate effect changes as a function of dose rate. For scientific discussion on the low dose exposure risk and its uncertainty, the term 'threshold' should be statistically defined, and dose rate effects should be included in the risk

  14. Lung inflammation biomarkers and lung function in children chronically exposed to arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivas-Calderón, Edgar, E-mail: edgar_olivascalderon@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Health, Biomedical Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Coahuila, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); School of Medicine, University Juarez of Durango, Gomez Palacio, Durango (Mexico); Recio-Vega, Rogelio, E-mail: rrecio@yahoo.com [Department of Environmental Health, Biomedical Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Coahuila, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); Gandolfi, A. Jay, E-mail: gandolfi@pharmacy.arizona.edu [Southwest Environmental Health Science Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Lantz, R. Clark, E-mail: lantz@email.arizona.edu [Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); González-Cortes, Tania, E-mail: taniagc2201@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Health, Biomedical Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Coahuila, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); Gonzalez-De Alba, Cesar, E-mail: cesargonzalezalba@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Health, Biomedical Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Coahuila, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); Froines, John R., E-mail: jfroines@ucla.edu [Center for Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Espinosa-Fematt, Jorge A., E-mail: dr.jorge.espinosa@gmail.com [School of Medicine, University Juarez of Durango, Gomez Palacio, Durango (Mexico)

    2015-09-01

    Evidence suggests that exposure to arsenic in drinking water during early childhood or in utero has been associated with an increase in respiratory symptoms or diseases in the adulthood, however only a few studies have been carried out during those sensitive windows of exposure. Recently our group demonstrated that the exposure to arsenic during early childhood or in utero in children was associated with impairment in the lung function and suggested that this adverse effect could be due to a chronic inflammation response to the metalloid. Therefore, we designed this cross-sectional study in a cohort of children associating lung inflammatory biomarkers and lung function with urinary As levels. A total of 275 healthy children were partitioned into four study groups according with their arsenic urinary levels. Inflammation biomarkers were measured in sputum by ELISA and the lung function was evaluated by spirometry. Fifty eight percent of the studied children were found to have a restrictive spirometric pattern. In the two highest exposed groups, the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products' (sRAGE) sputum level was significantly lower and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) concentration was higher. When the biomarkers were correlated to the urinary arsenic species, negative associations were found between dimethylarsinic (DMA), monomethylarsonic percentage (%MMA) and dimethylarsinic percentage (%DMA) with sRAGE and positive associations between %DMA with MMP-9 and with the MMP-9/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) ratio. In conclusion, chronic arsenic exposure of children negatively correlates with sRAGE, and positively correlated with MMP-9 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 levels, and increases the frequency of an abnormal spirometric pattern. Arsenic-induced alterations in inflammatory biomarkers may contribute to the development of restrictive lung diseases. - Highlights: • First study in children evaluating lung inflammatory biomarkers and As levels

  15. Endothelial dysfunction in rectal cancer patients chronically exposed to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhypbekov, Tolebay; Pak, Laura; Chaizhunusova, Nailya; Manambayeva, Zukhra; Tokanova, Sholpan; Madiyeva, Madina [Semey State Medical University, Semey (Kazakhstan); Inoue, Ken [Kochi University, Health Service Center, Kochi (Japan); Kawano, Noriyuki; Hoshi, Masaharu [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Takeichi, Nobuo [Takeichi Clinic, Hiroshima (Japan); Noso, Yoshihiro [Shimane University, Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Shimane (Japan); Khozhayev, Arman; Molgazhdarov, Maulen [The Kazakh National Medical University of S.D.Asfendiyarov, Department of Oncology, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Olzhaev, Sayakhat [Almaty Regional Oncologic Hospital, Department of Oncology, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2017-08-15

    We sought to identify the features of endothelial function in rectal cancer patients who were exposed to chronic ionizing radiation from a nuclear test site in Kazakhstan. We examined 146 individuals, 76 of whom were rectal cancer patients. The existence of a complex of disturbances of the endothelium and hemostasis systems in patients vs non-patients was revealed. Endothelial dysfunction was expressed as an increase of nitric oxide (NO) production along with decreases in vasodilatation function, and increased levels of von Willebrand factor in blood, along with an increase in the number of circulating endotheliocytes. Significant correlations between indicators of endothelial function and vascular-platelet hemostasis were observed. These changes and their interrelations were expressed more strongly in the patients who lived in the contaminated area around the nuclear test site. Such patients could have an increased risk of thrombosis and other complications after the treatment of a malignant neoplasm. (orig.)

  16. Proximal renal tubular injury in rats sub-chronically exposed to low fluoride concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cárdenas-González, Mariana C.; Del Razo, Luz M. [Departmento de Toxicología, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV-IPN), México, D. F., México (Mexico); Barrera-Chimal, Jonatan [Unidad de Fisiología Molecular, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México and Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, México, D. F., México (Mexico); Jacobo-Estrada, Tania [Departmento de Toxicología, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV-IPN), México, D. F., México (Mexico); López-Bayghen, Esther [Departamento de Genética y Biología Molecular, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV-IPN), México, D. F., México (Mexico); and others

    2013-11-01

    Fluoride is usually found in groundwater at a very wide range of concentration between 0.5 and 25 ppm. At present, few studies have assessed the renal effects of fluoride at environmentally relevant concentrations. Furthermore, most of these studies have used insensitive and nonspecific biomarkers of kidney injury. The aim of this study was to use early and sensitive biomarkers to evaluate kidney injury after fluoride exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations. Recently weaned male Wistar rats were exposed to low (15 ppm) and high (50 ppm) fluoride concentrations in drinking water for a period of 40 days. At the end of the exposure period, kidney injury biomarkers were measured in urine and renal mRNA expression levels were assessed by real time RT-PCR. Our results showed that the urinary kidney injury molecule (Kim-1), clusterin (Clu), osteopontin (OPN) and heat shock protein 72 excretion rate significantly increased in the group exposed to the high fluoride concentration. Accordingly, fluoride exposure increased renal Kim-1, Clu and OPN mRNA expression levels. Moreover, there was a significant dose-dependent increase in urinary β-2-microglobulin and cystatin-C excretion rate. Additionally, a tendency towards a dose dependent increase of tubular damage in the histopathological light microscopy findings confirmed the preferential impact of fluoride on the tubular structure. All of these changes occurred at early stages in which, the renal function was not altered. In conclusion using early and sensitive biomarkers of kidney injury, we were able to found proximal tubular alterations in rats sub-chronically exposed to fluoride. - Highlights: • Exposure to low concentrations of fluoride induced proximal tubular injury • Increase in urinary Kim-1, Clu, OPN and Hsp72 in 50 ppm fluoride-exposed group • Increase in urinary B2M and CysC in 15 and 50 ppm fluoride-exposed groups • Fluoride exposure increased renal Kim, Clu and OPN mRNA expression levels.

  17. Peribronchiolar fibrosis in lungs of cats chronically exposed to diesel exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyde, D.M.; Plopper, C.G.; Weir, A.J.; Murnane, R.D.; Warren, D.L.; Last, J.A.; Pepelko, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    This study reports the quantitative changes in the pulmonary proximal acinar region following chronic exposure to diesel exhaust and following an additional 6 months in clean air. Cats (13 months of age) from a minimum disease colony were exposed to clean air (eight cats for 27 months and nine cats for 33 months), diesel exhaust for 8 hours/day, 7 days/week (nine cats for 27 months), or diesel exhaust for 27 months followed by 6 months in clean air (10 cats). Morphologic and morphometric evaluation using light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed two major exposure-related lesions in proximal acinar regions of lungs of cats: peribronchiolar fibrosis associated with significant increases in lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and interstitial macrophages containing diesel particulate-like inclusions and bronchiolar epithelial metaplasia associated with the presence of ciliated and basal cells and alveolar macrophages containing diesel particulate-like inclusions. Peribronchiolar fibrosis was greater at the end of the 6 months in clean air following exposure, whereas the bronchiolar epithelial metaplasia was most severe at the end of exposure. Following an additional 6 months in clean air the epithelium more closely resembled the control epithelial cell population. The labeling index of terminal bronchiolar epithelium was significantly increased at the end of exposure but was not significantly different from controls or exposed cats following an additional 6 months in clean air. The ultrastructural appearance of epithelial cells remained relatively unchanged following diesel exhaust exposure with the exception of diesel particulate-like inclusions

  18. Lung radiology and pulmonary function of children chronically exposed to air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Fordham, Lynn A; Chung, Charles J; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Flores-Gómez, Silvia; Solt, Anna C; Gomez-del Campo, Alberto; Jardón-Torres, Ricardo; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Hazucha, Milan J; Reed, William

    2006-09-01

    We analyzed the chest radiographs (CXRs) of 249 clinically healthy children, 230 from southwest Mexico City and 19 from Tlaxcala. In contrast to children from Tlaxcala, children from southwest Mexico City were chronically exposed to ozone levels exceeding the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for an average of 4.7 hr/day and to concentrations of particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameters chronic pulmonary disease later in life.

  19. Changes in serum thioredoxin among individuals chronically exposed to arsenic in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Gao, Yanhui; Zhao, Lijun; Wei, Yudan; Feng, Hongqi; Wang, Cheng; Wei, Wei; Ding, Yunpeng; Sun, Dianjun

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that oxidative damage plays a key role in the development of chronic arsenicosis. There is a complex set of mechanisms of redox cycling in vivo to protect cells from the damage. In this study, we examined the differences in the levels of serum thioredoxin1 (TRX1) among individuals exposed to different levels of arsenic in drinking water and detected early biomarkers of arsenic poisoning before the appearance of skin lesions. A total of 157 subjects from endemic regions of China were selected and divided into arsenicosis group with skin lesions (total intake of arsenic: 8.68–45.71 mg-year) and non-arsenicosis group without skin lesions, which further divided into low (0.00–1.06 mg-year), medium (1.37–3.55 mg-year), and high (4.26–48.13 mg-year) arsenic exposure groups. Concentrations of serum TRX1 were analyzed by an ELISA method. Levels of water arsenic and urinary speciated arsenics, including inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylated arsenic (MMA), and dimethylated arsenic (DMA), were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Our results showed that the levels of serum TRX1 in arsenicosis patients were significantly higher than that of the subjects who were chronically exposed to arsenic, but without skin lesions. A positive correlation was seen between the levels of serum TRX1 and the total water arsenic intake or the levels of urinary arsenic species. The results of this study indicate that arsenic exposure could significantly change the levels of human serum TRX1, which can be detected before arsenic-specific dermatological symptoms occur. This study provides further evidence on revealing the mechanism of arsenic toxicity. -- Highlights: ► Three regions are selected as the areas affected by endemic arsenicosis of China. ► We first examine changes in serum TRX1 among individuals exposed to arsenic. ► A positive correlation was seen between serum TRX1 and total water arsenic intake. ► The same relationship

  20. Changes in serum thioredoxin among individuals chronically exposed to arsenic in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Gao, Yanhui; Zhao, Lijun [Center for Endemic Disease Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Medical University, Key Lab of Etiology and Epidemiology, Education Bureau of Hei Long Jiang Province and Ministry of Health (23618104), Harbin 150081 (China); Wei, Yudan [Department of Community Medicine, Mercer University School of Medicine, Macon 31207, GA (United States); Feng, Hongqi; Wang, Cheng; Wei, Wei; Ding, Yunpeng [Center for Endemic Disease Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Medical University, Key Lab of Etiology and Epidemiology, Education Bureau of Hei Long Jiang Province and Ministry of Health (23618104), Harbin 150081 (China); Sun, Dianjun, E-mail: hrbmusdj@163.com [Center for Endemic Disease Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Medical University, Key Lab of Etiology and Epidemiology, Education Bureau of Hei Long Jiang Province and Ministry of Health (23618104), Harbin 150081 (China)

    2012-02-15

    It is well known that oxidative damage plays a key role in the development of chronic arsenicosis. There is a complex set of mechanisms of redox cycling in vivo to protect cells from the damage. In this study, we examined the differences in the levels of serum thioredoxin1 (TRX1) among individuals exposed to different levels of arsenic in drinking water and detected early biomarkers of arsenic poisoning before the appearance of skin lesions. A total of 157 subjects from endemic regions of China were selected and divided into arsenicosis group with skin lesions (total intake of arsenic: 8.68–45.71 mg-year) and non-arsenicosis group without skin lesions, which further divided into low (0.00–1.06 mg-year), medium (1.37–3.55 mg-year), and high (4.26–48.13 mg-year) arsenic exposure groups. Concentrations of serum TRX1 were analyzed by an ELISA method. Levels of water arsenic and urinary speciated arsenics, including inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylated arsenic (MMA), and dimethylated arsenic (DMA), were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Our results showed that the levels of serum TRX1 in arsenicosis patients were significantly higher than that of the subjects who were chronically exposed to arsenic, but without skin lesions. A positive correlation was seen between the levels of serum TRX1 and the total water arsenic intake or the levels of urinary arsenic species. The results of this study indicate that arsenic exposure could significantly change the levels of human serum TRX1, which can be detected before arsenic-specific dermatological symptoms occur. This study provides further evidence on revealing the mechanism of arsenic toxicity. -- Highlights: ► Three regions are selected as the areas affected by endemic arsenicosis of China. ► We first examine changes in serum TRX1 among individuals exposed to arsenic. ► A positive correlation was seen between serum TRX1 and total water arsenic intake. ► The same relationship

  1. Neuroinflammation and Behavior in HIV-1 Transgenic Rats Exposed to Chronic Adolescent Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowson, Sydney A; Harrell, Constance S; Bekhbat, Mandakh; Gangavelli, Apoorva; Wu, Matthew J; Kelly, Sean D; Reddy, Renuka; Neigh, Gretchen N

    2016-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has improved prognosis for people living with HIV (PLWH) and dramatically reduced the incidence of AIDS. However, even when viral load is controlled, PLWH develop psychiatric and neurological disorders more frequently than those living without HIV. Adolescents with HIV are particularly susceptible to the development of psychiatric illnesses and neurocognitive impairments. While both psychiatric and neurocognitive disorders have been found to be exacerbated by stress, the extent to which chronic stress and HIV-1 viral proteins interact to impact behavior and relevant neuroinflammatory processes is unknown. Determination of the individual contributions of stress and HIV to neuropsychiatric disorders is heavily confounded in humans. In order to isolate the influence of HIV-1 proteins and chronic stress on behavior and neuroinflammation, we employed the HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rat model, which expresses HIV-1 proteins with a gag and pol deletion, allowing for viral protein expression without viral replication. This Tg line has been characterized as a model of HAART-controlled HIV-1 infection due to the lack of viral replication but continued presence of HIV-1 proteins. We exposed male and female adolescent HIV-1 Tg rats to a mixed-modality chronic stress paradigm consisting of isolation, social defeat and restraint, and assessed behavior, cerebral vascularization, and neuroinflammatory endpoints. Stress, sex, and presence of the HIV-1 transgene impacted weight gain in adolescent rats. Female HIV-1 Tg rats showed decreases in central tendency during the light cycle in the open field regardless of stress exposure. Both male and female HIV-1 Tg rats exhibited decreased investigative behavior in the novel object recognition task, but no memory impairments. Adolescent stress had no effect on the tested behaviors. Microglia in female HIV-1 Tg rats exhibited a hyper-ramified structure, and gene expression of complement factor B was

  2. Feeding success of Lutzomyia evansi (Diptera: Psychodidae) experimentally exposed to small mammal hosts in an endemic focus of Leishmania chagasi in northern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Gregory H; Becerra, María Teresa; Travi, Bruno L

    2003-12-01

    Lutzomyia evansi is the vector of Leishmania chagasi in northern Colombia. Differences in feeding success were revealed, when this phlebotomine sand fly was fed on five species of small mammal hosts from an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis. In each trial, 50 female sand flies were provided access to similar-sized depilated areas of the hind foot of each of 44 individual mammals and allowed to feed for 30 minutes. The number of engorged sand flies was counted at the end of each trial and compared among host species by analysis of variance and Tukey's multiple comparisons test. Sand flies fed least successfully on Sciurus granatensis, a common squirrel in the endemic area. It has not been found infected with L. chagasi. Intermediate numbers of sand flies engorged on Heteromys anomalus and Zygodontomys brevicauda, but these two mammals have not been found infected with L. chagasi and are not expected to be important in transmission. Sand flies fed most successfully on Didelphis marsupialis and Proechimys canicollis. These are the two most abundant mammals in the endemic area and frequently are infected. Results provided further evidence that these two species are the wild mammals with the greatest impact on transmission of L. chagasi in northern Colombia.

  3. Ultrastructural nasal pathology in children chronically and sequentially exposed to air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Valencia-Salazar, G; Rodríguez-Alcaraz, A; Gambling, T M; García, R; Osnaya, N; Villarreal-Calderón, A; Devlin, R B; Carson, J L

    2001-02-01

    Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC) children are repeatedly exposed to a complex mixture of air pollutants, including ozone, particulate matter, and aldehydes. Nasal biopsies taken from these children exhibit a wide range of histopathologic alterations: marked changes in ciliated and goblet cell populations, basal cell hyperplasia, squamous metaplasia, and mild dysplasias. We studied the ultrastructural features of 15 nasal biopsies obtained from clinically healthy children 4 to 15 yr of age, growing up in SWMMC. The results were compared with nasal biopsies from 11 children growing up in Veracruz and exposed to low pollutant levels. Ultrathin sections of nasal biopsies revealed an unremarkable mucociliary epithelium in control children, whereas SWMMC children showed an epithelium comprised of variable numbers of basal, ciliated, goblet, and squamous metaplastic as well as intermediate cells. Nascent ciliated cells, as evidenced by the presence of migratory kinetosomes, were common, as were ciliary abnormalities, including absent central microtubules, supernumerary central and peripheral tubules, ciliary microtubular discontinuities, and compound cilia. Dyskinesia associated with these abnormal cilia was suggested by the altered orientation of the central microtubules in closely adjacent cilia. A transudate was evident between epithelial cells, suggesting potential deficiencies in epithelial junction integrity. Particulate matter was present in heterolysosomal bodies in epithelial cells and it was also deposited in intercellular spaces. The severe structural alteration of the nasal epithelium together with the prominent acquired ciliary defects are likely the result of chronic airway injury in which ozone, particulate matter, and aldehydes are thought to play a crucial role. The nasal epithelium in SWMMC children is fundamentally disordered, and their mucociliary defense mechanisms are no longer intact. A compromised nasal epithelium has less ability to

  4. Intersex occurrence in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss male fry chronically exposed to ethynylestradiol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Depiereux

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the male-to-female morphological and physiological transdifferentiation process in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss exposed to exogenous estrogens. The first objective was to elucidate whether trout develop intersex gonads under exposure to low levels of estrogen. To this end, the gonads of an all-male population of fry exposed chronically (from 60 to 136 days post fertilization--dpf to several doses (from environmentally relevant 0.01 µg/L to supra-environmental levels: 0.1, 1 and 10 µg/L of the potent synthetic estrogen ethynylestradiol (EE2 were examined histologically. The morphological evaluations were underpinned by the analysis of gonad steroid (testosterone, estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone levels and of brain and gonad gene expression, including estrogen-responsive genes and genes involved in sex differentiation in (gonads: cyp19a1a, ER isoforms, vtg, dmrt1, sox9a2; sdY; cyp11b; brain: cyp19a1b, ER isoforms. Intersex gonads were observed from the first concentration used (0.01 µg EE2/L and sexual inversion could be detected from 0.1 µg EE2/L. This was accompanied by a linear decrease in 11-KT levels, whereas no effect on E2 and T levels was observed. Q-PCR results from the gonads showed downregulation of testicular markers (dmrt1, sox9a2; sdY; cyp11b with increasing EE2 exposure concentrations, and upregulation of the female vtg gene. No evidence was found for a direct involvement of aromatase in the sex conversion process. The results from this study provide evidence that gonads of male trout respond to estrogen exposure by intersex formation and, with increasing concentration, by morphological and physiological conversion to phenotypic ovaries. However, supra-environmental estrogen concentrations are needed to induce these changes.

  5. Chronic impairments in spatial learning and memory in rats previously exposed to chlorpyrfos or diisopropylfluorophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, A V; Beck, W D; Warner, S; Vandenhuerk, L; Callahan, P M

    2012-01-01

    The acute toxicity of organophosphates (OPs) has been studied extensively; however, much less attention has been given to the subject of repeated exposures that are not associated with overt signs of toxicity (i.e., subthreshold exposures). The objective of this study was to determine if the protracted spatial learning impairments we have observed previously after repeated subthreshold exposures to the insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) or the alkylphosphate OP, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) persisted for longer periods after exposure. Male Wistar rats (beginning at two months of age) were initially injected subcutaneously with CPF (10.0 or 18.0mg/kg) or DFP (0.25 or 0.75 mg/kg) every other day for 30 days. After an extended OP-free washout period (behavioral testing begun 50 days after the last OP exposure), rats previously exposed to CPF, but not DFP, were impaired in a radial arm maze (RAM) win-shift task as well as a delayed non-match to position procedure. Later experiments (i.e., beginning 140 days after the last OP exposure) revealed impairments in the acquisition of a water maze hidden platform task associated with both OPs. However, only rats previously exposed to DFP were impaired in a second phase of testing when the platform location was changed (indicative of deficits of cognitive flexibility). These results indicate, therefore, that repeated, subthreshold exposures to CPF and DFP may lead to chronic deficits in spatial learning and memory (i.e., long after cholinesterase inhibition has abated) and that insecticide and alkylphosphate-based OPs may have differential effects depending on the cognitive domain evaluated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hepatic Proteome Sensitivity in Rainbow Trout after Chronically Exposed to a Human Pharmaceutical Verapamil*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Sulc, Miroslav; Hulak, Martin; Randak, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Verapamil (VRP), a cardiovascular pharmaceutical widely distributed and persistent in the aquatic environment, has potential toxicity to fish and other aquatic organisms. However, the molecular mechanisms that lead to these toxic effects are not well known. In the present study, proteomic analysis has been performed to investigate the protein patterns that are differentially expressed in liver of rainbow trout exposed to sublethal concentrations of VRP (0.5, 27.0, and 270 μg/liter) for 42 days. Two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry was employed to detect and identify the protein profiles. The analysis revealed that the expression of six hepatic acidic proteins were markedly altered in the treatment groups compared with the control group; three proteins especially were significantly down-regulated in fish exposed to VRP at environmental related concentration (0.5 μg/liter). These results suggested that the VRP induce mechanisms against oxidative stress (glucose-regulated protein 78 and 94 and protein disulfide-isomerase A3) and adaptive changes in ion transference regulation (calreticulin, hyperosmotic glycine-rich protein). Furthermore, for the first time, protein Canopy-1 was found to be significantly down-regulated in fish by chronic exposure to VRP at environmental related levels. Overall, our work supports that fish hepatic proteomics analysis serves as an in vivo model for monitoring the residual pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment and can provide valuable insight into the molecular events in VRP-induced toxicity in fish and other organisms. PMID:21997734

  7. Alteration of cytokine profiles in mice exposed to chronic low-dose ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Suk Chul [Radiation Health Research Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., 388-1, Ssangmun-dong, Dobong-gu, Seoul 132-703 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung-Mi [Global Research Lab, BAERI Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yu Mi [Radiation Health Research Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., 388-1, Ssangmun-dong, Dobong-gu, Seoul 132-703 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwanghee [Global Research Lab, BAERI Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Cha Soon; Yang, Kwang Hee; Jin, Young-Woo [Radiation Health Research Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., 388-1, Ssangmun-dong, Dobong-gu, Seoul 132-703 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chong Soon [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University, Busan 612-030 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Sun, E-mail: hskimdvm@khnp.co.kr [Radiation Health Research Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., 388-1, Ssangmun-dong, Dobong-gu, Seoul 132-703 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-09

    While a high-dose of ionizing radiation is generally harmful and causes damage to living organisms, a low-dose of radiation has been shown to be beneficial in a variety of animal models. To understand the basis for the effect of low-dose radiation in vivo, we examined the cellular and immunological changes evoked in mice exposed to low-dose radiation at very low (0.7 mGy/h) and low (3.95 mGy/h) dose rate for the total dose of 0.2 and 2 Gy, respectively. Mice exposed to low-dose radiation, either at very low- or low-dose rate, demonstrated normal range of body weight and complete blood counts. Likewise, the number and percentage of peripheral lymphocyte populations, CD4{sup +} T, CD8{sup +} T, B, or NK cells, stayed unchanged following irradiation. Nonetheless, the sera from these mice exhibited elevated levels of IL-3, IL-4, leptin, MCP-1, MCP-5, MIP-1{alpha}, thrombopoietin, and VEGF along with slight reduction of IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17, and IFN-{gamma}. This pattern of cytokine release suggests the stimulation of innate immunity facilitating myeloid differentiation and activation while suppressing pro-inflammatory responses and promoting differentiation of naive T cells into T-helper 2, not T-helper 1, types. Collectively, our data highlight the subtle changes of cytokine milieu by chronic low-dose {gamma}-radiation, which may be associated with the functional benefits observed in various experimental models.

  8. Intersex Occurrence in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Male Fry Chronically Exposed to Ethynylestradiol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depiereux, Sophie; Liagre, Mélanie; Danis, Lorraine; De Meulder, Bertrand; Depiereux, Eric; Segner, Helmut; Kestemont, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the male-to-female morphological and physiological transdifferentiation process in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to exogenous estrogens. The first objective was to elucidate whether trout develop intersex gonads under exposure to low levels of estrogen. To this end, the gonads of an all-male population of fry exposed chronically (from 60 to 136 days post fertilization – dpf) to several doses (from environmentally relevant 0.01 µg/L to supra-environmental levels: 0.1, 1 and 10 µg/L) of the potent synthetic estrogen ethynylestradiol (EE2) were examined histologically. The morphological evaluations were underpinned by the analysis of gonad steroid (testosterone, estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone) levels and of brain and gonad gene expression, including estrogen-responsive genes and genes involved in sex differentiation in (gonads: cyp19a1a, ER isoforms, vtg, dmrt1, sox9a2; sdY; cyp11b; brain: cyp19a1b, ER isoforms). Intersex gonads were observed from the first concentration used (0.01 µg EE2/L) and sexual inversion could be detected from 0.1 µg EE2/L. This was accompanied by a linear decrease in 11-KT levels, whereas no effect on E2 and T levels was observed. Q-PCR results from the gonads showed downregulation of testicular markers (dmrt1, sox9a2; sdY; cyp11b) with increasing EE2 exposure concentrations, and upregulation of the female vtg gene. No evidence was found for a direct involvement of aromatase in the sex conversion process. The results from this study provide evidence that gonads of male trout respond to estrogen exposure by intersex formation and, with increasing concentration, by morphological and physiological conversion to phenotypic ovaries. However, supra-environmental estrogen concentrations are needed to induce these changes. PMID:25033040

  9. Paroxetine ameliorates changes in hippocampal energy metabolism in chronic mild stress-exposed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khedr LH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lobna H Khedr, Noha N Nassar, Ezzeldin S El-Denshary, Ahmed M Abdel-tawab 1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr International University, 2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, 3Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt Abstract: The molecular mechanisms underlying stress-induced depression have not been fully outlined. Hence, the current study aimed at testing the link between behavioral changes in chronic mild stress (CMS model and changes in hippocampal energy metabolism and the role of paroxetine (PAROX in ameliorating these changes. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: vehicle control, CMS-exposed rats, and CMS-exposed rats receiving PAROX (10 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally. Sucrose preference, open-field, and forced swimming tests were carried out. Corticosterone (CORT was measured in serum, while adenosine triphosphate and its metabolites, cytosolic cytochrome-c (Cyt-c, caspase-3 (Casp-3, as well as nitric oxide metabolites (NOx were measured in hippocampal tissue homogenates. CMS-exposed rats showed a decrease in sucrose preference as well as body weight compared to control, which was reversed by PAROX. The latter further ameliorated the CMS-induced elevation of CORT in serum (91.71±1.77 ng/mL vs 124.5±4.44 ng/mL, P<0.001 as well as the changes in adenosine triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate (3.76±0.02 nmol/mg protein vs 1.07±0.01 nmol/mg protein, P<0.001. Furthermore, PAROX reduced the expression of Cyt-c and Casp-3, as well as restoring NOx levels. This study highlights the role of PAROX in reversing depressive behavior associated with stress-induced apoptosis and changes in hippocampal energy metabolism in the CMS model of depression. Keywords: rats, CMS, hippocampus, paroxetine, apoptosis, adenine nucleotides, cytochrome-c, caspase-3

  10. Changes in Serum Adiponectin in Mice Chronically Exposed to Inorganic Arsenic in Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuanbo; Li, Ying; Liu, Junqiu; Ji, Xiaohong; Zhao, Lijun; Wei, Yudan

    2017-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus are prominent features of glucose and lipid metabolism disorders. Adiponectin is a key adipokine that is largely involved in glucose and lipid metabolism processes. A growing body of evidence suggests that chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic is associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. We hypothesized that arsenic exposure may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus by affecting the level of adiponectin. In this study, we examined serum adiponectin levels, as well as serum levels of metabolic measures (including fasting blood glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol) in C57BL/6 mice exposed to inorganic arsenic in drinking water (5 and 50 ppm NaAsO 2 ) for 18 weeks. Body mass and adiposity were monitored throughout the study. We found no significant changes in serum insulin and glucose levels in mice treated with arsenic for 18 weeks. However, arsenic exposure decreased serum levels of adiponectin, triglyceride, and HDL-cholesterol. Further, an inverse relationship was observed between urinary concentrations of total arsenic and serum levels of adiponectin. This study suggests that arsenic exposure could disturb the metabolism of lipids and increase the risk of cardiovascular disease by reducing the level of adiponectin.

  11. Morbidity rate of nervous system among medical personnel occupationally exposed to chronic low dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonkova, A.

    1987-01-01

    The morbidity rate of the nervous system among 1190 subjects, medical personnel, working with sources and environment of ionizing radiation was studied by the personal analysis of the diseases, written down in the personal out-patient department cards as well as of a control group of 870 medical workers of various other specialities. The morbidity rate of the nervous system among the medical personnel, exposed to chronic occupational radiation effect, was established not to be higher than that of the other medical workers - 38.0 and 40.3% respectively. Neuroses and peripheral nervous diseases have the greatest relative share in the structure of morbidity rate of the nervous system in both groups examined, with no statistical significance in the differences of the indices. The significantly higher incidence of autonome dystonias, established among the personnel from the X-ray departments and consulting rooms could be discussed in connection with the great relative share of the subjects from that group with a length of service over 15 years and had received the possible maximum cumulative equivalent doses. 3 tabs., 21 refs

  12. Excretion of 14C-labeled cyanide in rats exposed to chronic intake of potassium cyanide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoh, P.N.

    1983-01-01

    The excretion of an acute dose of 14C-labeled cyanide in urine, feces, and expired air was studied in rats exposed to daily intake of unlabeled KCN in the diet for 6 weeks. Urinary excretion was the main route of elimination of cyanide carbon in these rats, accounting for 83% of the total excreted radioactivity in 12 hr and 89% of the total excreted radioactivity in 24 hr. The major excretion metabolite of cyanide in urine was thiocyanate, and this metabolite accounted for 71 and 79% of the total urinary activity in 12 hr and 24 hr, respectively. The mean total activity excreted in expired air after 12 hr was only 4%, and this value did not change after 24 hr. Of the total activity in expired air in 24 hr, 90% was present as carbon dioxide and 9% as cyanide. When these results were compared with those observed for control rats, it was clear that the mode of elimination of cyanide carbon in both urine and breath was not altered by the chronic intake of cyanide

  13. Bioavailability and chronic toxicity of bismuth citrate to earthworm Eisenia andrei exposed to natural sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omouri, Zohra; Hawari, Jalal; Fournier, Michel; Robidoux, Pierre Yves

    2018-01-01

    The present study describes bioavailability and chronic effects of bismuth to earthworms Eisenia andrei using OECD reproduction test. Adult earthworms were exposed to natural sandy soil contaminated artificially by bismuth citrate. Average total concentrations of bismuth in soil recovered by HNO 3 digestion ranged from 75 to 289mg/kg. Results indicate that bismuth decreased significantly all reproduction parameters of Eisenia andrei at concentrations ≥ 116mg/kg. However, number of hatched cocoons and number of juveniles seem to be more sensitive than total number of cocoons, as determined by IC 50 ; i.e., 182, 123 and > 289mg/kg, respectively. Bismuth did not affect Eisenia andrei growth and survival, and had little effect on phagocytic efficiency of coelomocytes. The low immunotoxicity effect might be explained by the involvement of other mechanisms i.e. bismuth sequestered by metal-binding compounds. After 28 days of exposure bismuth concentrations in earthworms tissue increased with increasing bismuth concentrations in soil reaching a stationary state of 21.37mg/kg dry tissue for 243mg Bi/kg dry soil total content. Data indicate also that after 56 days of incubation the average fractions of bismuth available extracted by KNO 3 aqueous solution in soil without earthworms varied from 0.0051 to 0.0229mg/kg, while in soil with earthworms bismuth concentration ranged between 0.310-1.347mg/kg dry soil. We presume that mucus and chelating agents produced by earthworms and by soil or/and earthworm gut microorganisms could explain this enhancement, as well as the role of dermal and ingestion routes of earthworms uptake to soil contaminant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 76 FR 18167 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ..., many marine animals may need to remain in areas where they are exposed to chronic stimuli (Richardson... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Central Gulf of Alaska, June, 2011 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  15. 77 FR 4765 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... physiological requirements, many marine animals may need to remain in areas where they are exposed to chronic... readily audible to the animals based on measured received levels and the hearing sensitivity of the marine... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Northwest Pacific...

  16. 76 FR 6430 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ..., many marine animals may need to remain in areas where they are exposed to chronic stimuli (Richardson... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Pacific Ocean off Costa Rica, April Through May, 2011 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  17. 76 FR 57959 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ..., many marine animals may need to remain in areas where they are exposed to chronic stimuli (Richardson... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Central Pacific Ocean, November, 2011 Through January, 2012 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  18. 77 FR 58255 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... requirements, many marine animals may need to remain in areas where they are exposed to chronic stimuli... Vol. 77 Wednesday, No. 182 September 19, 2012 Part III Department of Commerce Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey off the Central Coast of California...

  19. Lung function status of some Nigerian men and women chronically exposed to fish drying using burning firewood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, E J; Esin, R A; Immananagha, K K; Siziya, S; Osim, E E

    1999-05-01

    To determine the lung function status of some Nigerian men and women chronically exposed to fish drying using burning firewood. Case control study. Ibaka, Utaewa and Ikanga fishing settlements. 183 males and 192 females engaged in fishing, aged 20 to 45 years who have been exposed for a minimum of five years as cases. The control group comprised sex matched male (142) and female (152) Nigerians from the same area who were not exposed to any known air pollutant. Lung function indices: FVC, FEV1, FEV1% and PEFR. Lung function indices were significantly lower in men engaged in fishing than in their controls: FVC [mean (SD): 2.98 (0.20) vs 3.52 (0.29), p firewood can impair lung function and cause respiratory and other symptoms.

  20. Health implications of chronic hepatosplenomegaly in Kenyan school-aged children chronically exposed to malarial infections and Schistosoma mansoni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Shona; Vennervald, Birgitte J; Kadzo, Hilda

    2010-01-01

    Hepatosplenomegaly among school-aged children in sub-Saharan Africa is highly prevalent. Two of the more common aetiological agents of hepatosplenomegaly, namely chronic exposure to malaria and Schistosoma mansoni infection, can result in similar clinical presentation, with the liver and spleen...... being chronically enlarged and of a firm consistency. Where co-endemic, the two parasites are thought to synergistically exacerbate hepatosplenomegaly. Here, two potential health consequences, i.e. dilation of the portal vein (indicative of increased portal pressure) and stunting of growth, were...... with hepatosplenomegaly. Children who presented with hepatosplenomegaly had the lowest height-for-age Z-scores. This study shows that hepatosplenomegaly associated with chronic exposure to malaria and schistosomiasis is not a benign symptom amongst school-aged children but has potential long-term health consequences....

  1. The fur of mammals in exposed environments; do crypsis and thermal needs necessarily conflict? The polar bear and marsupial koala compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Terence J; Webster, Koa N; Maloney, Shane K

    2014-02-01

    The furs of mammals have varied and complex functions. Other than for thermoregulation, fur is involved in physical protection, sensory input, waterproofing and colouration, the latter being important for crypsis or camouflage. Some of these diverse functions potentially conflict. We have investigated how variation in cryptic colouration and thermal features may interact in the coats of mammals and influence potential heat inflows from solar radiation, much of which is outside the visible spectral range. The coats of the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and the marsupial koala (Phascolarctus cinereus) have insulative similarities but, while they feature cryptic colouration, they are of contrasting colour, i.e. whitish and dark grey. The reflectance of solar radiation by coats was measured across the full solar spectrum using a spectroradiometer. The modulation of incident solar radiation and resultant heat flows in these coats were determined at a range of wind speeds by mounting them on a heat flux transducer/temperature-controlled plate apparatus in a wind tunnel. A lamp with a spectral distribution of radiation similar to the solar spectrum was used as a proxy for the sun. Crypsis by colour matching was apparent within the visible spectrum for the two species, U. maritimus being matched against snow and P. cinereus against Eucalyptus forest foliage. While reflectances across the full solar spectrum differed markedly, that of U. maritimus being 66 % as opposed to 10 % for P. cinereus, the heat influxes from solar radiation reaching the skin were similar. For both coats at low wind speed (1 m s(-1)), 19 % of incident solar radiation impacted as heat at the skin surface; at higher wind speed (10 m s(-1)) this decreased to approximately 10 %. Ursus maritimus and P. cinereus have high and comparable levels of fur insulation and although the patterns of reflectance and depths of penetrance of solar radiation differ for the coats, the considerable insulation limited the

  2. Blood Pressure of Jordanian Workers Chronically Exposed to Noise in Industrial Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saed Nserat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational studies investigating the association between blood pressure and noise exposure are almost lacking in the Eastern Mediterranean Region countries. Objective: To determine the association between occupational exposure to high level of noise and blood pressure among a group of workers in Jordan. Methods: All workers who had been exposing to noise for at least 3 years in 3 plants in Madaba governorate in Jordan were included in this cross-sectional study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The occupational noise level was measured with a portable calibrated sound meter. Results: We studied 191 male workers, of whom 145 (75.9% were exposed to a noise level higher than the permissible limit of 85 dBA. The mean systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP and the prevalence of hypertension were significantly higher among those exposed to higher noise level. In multivariate analysis, workers exposed to high level of noise had a significantly higher odds of hypertension compared to those exposed to noise level lower than the permissible limit (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.6 to 13.8. The odds of hypertension increased by 17% (95% CI 10% to 30% for each dB increase in noise intensity. Conclusion: Exposure to high level of noise is associated with elevated blood pressure.

  3. A study of immunological reactions in dogs exposed to prolonged chronic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinova, I. V.; Grigoryev, Y. G.; Markelov, B. A.; Skryabin, A. S.; Zemskov, V. M.; Vasilyev, I. S.; Veysfeyler, Y. K.; Iokai, I.

    1974-01-01

    Immunomorphological studies on dog tissues exposed to long term gamma irradiation show that the number of cells containing antibodies increased and that the blast transformation reaction was activated. Prolonged radiation did not cause a reliable change in the synthesis of nucleic acids in spleen cells.

  4. Evaluation of chromosomal aberrations in radiologists and medical radiographers chronically exposed to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasuba, V.; Rozgaj, R.; Jazbec, A.

    2005-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations are fairly reliable indicators of damage induced by ionising radiation. This study included 180 radiologists and medical radiographers (technicians) and 90 controls who were not occupationally exposed to ionising radiation. All exposed subjects were routinely monitored with film badge, and none was exposed to a radiation dose exceeding the limit for occupational exposure recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Two hundred metaphases for each person were scored. The frequencies of acentric fragments, dicentrics, ring chromosomes and chromosomal exchanges were determined and compared to those obtained in the control group. Chromosome aberrations were analysed using Poisson regression for profession, age, sex, smoking and years of exposure. Age, smoking, diagnostic exposure to X-rays and occupation were found to correlate with the occurrence of acentric fragments. The influence of exposure duration on the frequency of acentric fragments was greater in medical radiographers than in radiologists. Smoking and sex were found to correlate with the occurrence of dicentric chromosomes, which were more common in men than in women. As chromosome aberrations exceeded the expected level with respect to the absorbed dose, our findings confirm the importance of chromosome analysis as a part of regular medical check-up of subjects occupationally exposed to ionising radiation.(author)

  5. Association of oxidative stress with arsenic methylation in chronic arsenic-exposed children and adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yuanyuan; Wang Yi; Zheng Quanmei; Li Xin; Li Bing; Jin Yaping; Sun Xiance; Sun Guifan

    2008-01-01

    Though oxidative stress is recognized as an important pathogenic mechanism of arsenic, and arsenic methylation capacity is suggested to be highly involved in arsenic-related diseases, the association of arsenic methylation capacity with arsenic-induced oxidative stress remains unclear. To explore oxidative stress and its association with arsenic methylation, cross-sectional studies were conducted among 208 high and 59 low arsenic-exposed subjects. Levels of urinary arsenic species [inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylated arsenic (MMA) and dimethylated arsenic (DMA)] were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Proportions of urinary arsenic species, the first methylation ratio (FMR) and the secondary methylation ratio (SMR) were used as indicators for arsenic methylation capacity. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentrations were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in whole blood were determined to reflect anti-oxidative status. The high arsenic-exposed children and adults were significantly increased in urinary 8-OHdG concentrations but decreased in blood GSH levels compared with the low exposed children and adults. In multiple linear regression models, blood GSH levels and urinary 8-OHdG concentrations of arsenic-exposed children and adults showed strong associations with the levels of urinary arsenic species. Arsenic-exposed subjects in the lower and the upper quartiles of proportions of urinary arsenic species, FMR or SMR were significantly different in urinary 8-OHdG, blood GSH and SOD. The associations of arsenic methylation capacity with 8-OHdG, GSH and SOD were also observed in multivariate regression analyses. These results may provide linkage between arsenic methylation capacity and oxidative stress in humans and suggest that adverse health effects induced by arsenic are related to arsenic methylation through oxidative stress

  6. Early Intervention for Families Exposed to Chronic Stress and Trauma: The Attachment Vitamins Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulette, Annmarie C.; Dunham, Mackenzie; Davis, Mindy; Gortney, Jason; Lieberman, Alicia F.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the Attachment Vitamins program, a trauma-informed parent group intervention for families with young children. Attachment Vitamins is a relational psychoeducational intervention based on the principles of Child-Parent Psychotherapy (CPP). Its goal is to repair the impact of chronic stress and trauma through strengthening the…

  7. Chronic and acute risk assessment of human exposed to novaluron-bifenthrin mixture in cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kaiwei; Li, Li; Li, Wei; Yuan, Longfei; Liu, Fengmao

    2016-09-01

    Based on the dissipation and residual level in cabbage determined by gas chromatography coupled with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD), chronic and acute risk assessments of the novaluron and bifenthrin were investigated. At different spiked levels, mean recoveries were between 81 and 108 % with relative standard deviations (RSDs) from 1.1 to 6.8 %. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.01 mg kg(-1), and good linearity with correlation coefficient (>0.9997) were obtained. The half-lives of novaluron and bifenthrin in cabbage were in the range of 3.2~10 days. Based on the consumption data in China, the risk quotients (RQs) of novaluron and bifenthrin were all below 100 %. The chronic and acute risk of novaluron in cabbage was relatively low, while bifenthrin exerts higher acute risk to humans than chronic risk. The obtained results indicated that the use of novaluron-bifenthrin mixture does not seem to pose any chronic or acute risk to humans even if cabbages are consumed at high application dosages and short preharvest interval (PHI).

  8. Decline of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in northern hardwood forests exposed to chronic nitrogen additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda T.A. van Diepen; Erik A. Lilleskov; Kurt S. Pregitzer; R. Michael Miller

    2007-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are important below-ground carbon (C) sinks that can be sensitive to increased nitrogen (N) availability. The abundance of AM fungi (AMF) was estimated in maple (Acer spp.) fine roots following more than a decade of experimental additions of N designed to simulate chronic atmospheric N deposition.

  9. Taurine Ameliorates Renal Oxidative Damage and Thyroid Dysfunction in Rats Chronically Exposed to Fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedara, Isaac A; Ojuade, Temini Jesu D; Olabiyi, Bolanle F; Idris, Umar F; Onibiyo, Esther M; Ajeigbe, Olufunke F; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2017-02-01

    Excessive exposure to fluoride poses several detrimental effects to human health particularly the kidney which is a major organ involved in its elimination from the body. The influence of taurine on fluoride-induced renal toxicity was investigated in a co-exposure paradigm for 45 days using five groups of eight rats each. Group I rats received normal drinking water alone, group II rats were exposed to sodium fluoride (NaF) in drinking water at 15 mg/L alone, group III received taurine alone at a dose of 200 mg/kg group IV rats were co-administered with NaF and taurine (100 mg/kg), while group V rats were co-administered with NaF and taurine (200 mg/kg). Administration of taurine significantly reversed the fluoride-mediated decrease in absolute weight and organo-somatic index of the kidney in the exposed rats. Taurine significantly prevented fluoride-induced elevation in plasma urea and creatinine levels in the exposed rats. Moreover, taurine restored fluoride-mediated decrease in the circulatory concentrations of triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and the ratio of triiodothyronine to thyroxine. Taurine ameliorated fluoride-mediated decrease in renal antioxidant status by significantly enhancing the antioxidant enzyme activities as well as glutathione level in the exposed rats. Additionally, taurine inhibited fluoride-induced renal oxidative damage by markedly decreasing the hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde levels as well as improved the kidney architecture in the treated rats. Collectively, taurine protected against fluoride-induced renal toxicity via enhancement of thyroid gland function, renal antioxidant status, and histology in rats.

  10. Conditioned flavor avoidance as a measure of withdrawal in rats chronically exposed to a caffeine solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreumont-Boudreau, Sarah E; Dingle, Rachel N; Alcolado, Gillian M; Lolordo, Vincent M

    2008-09-03

    Rats were given 21 days of chronic oral caffeine. A novel flavor (Maintenance CS) was then paired with the continuation of caffeine, and a second flavor (Withdrawal CS) was paired with caffeine removal. Rats avoided the Withdrawal CS, and drank more of the Maintenance CS in a two-bottle test, suggesting that removing caffeine had induced withdrawal. The value of the Maintenance CS was investigated by comparing it to a novel flavor paired with water (Neutral CS). In a series of two-bottle tests, the Maintenance and Neutral CSs were equivalent when pitted against each other, and both were preferred to the Withdrawal CS. These results demonstrate that conditioned flavor avoidance is a useful procedure in assessing caffeine withdrawal, and by inference dependence, produced by chronic oral consumption.

  11. Cytogenetic investigations of persons exposed to professional chronic low-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangelov, V.; Mitev, L.; Petrunov, P.; Vesselinova, L.

    2005-01-01

    The problem of long term influence of low-doses occupational irradiation is connected with the real assessment of their consequences. The current cytogenetic investigations were done on persons working under occupational chronic external partial irradiation. Accumulated doses of external irradiation are surveyed. Data give ground for suggestion about the relationship between accumulated dose and chromosomal aberrations. The additional damage factors (diagnostic investigations, chemical substances, tobacco addict) have done the more significant influence upon aberrations appearance increasing

  12. Respiratory tract pathology and cytokine imbalance in clinically healthy children chronically and sequentially exposed to air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Devlin, R B; Miller, F J

    2000-11-01

    Chronic exposure of children to a complex mixture of air pollutants leads to recurrent episodes of upper and lower respiratory tract injury. An altered nasal mucociliary apparatus leaves the distal acinar airways more vulnerable to reactive gases and particulate matter (PM). The heterogeneity of structure in the human lung can impart significant variability in the distribution of ozone dose and particle deposition; this, in turn, influences the extent of epithelial injury and repair in chronically exposed children. Cytokines are low-molecular-weight proteins that act as intercellular mediators of inflammatory reactions, including lung injury of various etiologies. Cytokines are involved in generating inflammatory responses that contribute to injury at the lung epithelial and endothelial barriers. Mexico City is a 20-million-person megacity with severe air pollution problems. Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC) atmosphere is characterized by a complex mixture of air pollutants, including ozone, PM, and aldehydes. There is radiological evidence that significant lower respiratory tract damage is taking place in clinically healthy children chronically and sequentially exposed to air pollutants while growing up in SWMMC. We hypothesize that there is an imbalanced and dysregulated cytokine network in SWMMC children with overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines and cytokines involved in lung tissue repair and fibrosis. The nature of the sustained imbalance among the different cytokines ultimately determines the final lung histopathology, which would include subchronic inflammation, emphysema, and fibrosis. Cytokines likely would reach the systemic circulation and produce systemic effects. Individuals with an underlying respiratory or cardiovascular disease are less able to maintain equilibrium of the precarious cytokine networks.

  13. Reorganization of auditory map and pitch discrimination in adult rats chronically exposed to low-level ambient noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin eZheng

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral adaption to a changing environment is critical for an animal’s survival. How well the brain can modify its functional properties based on experience essentially defines the limits of behavioral adaptation. In adult animals the extent to which experience shapes brain function has not been fully explored. Moreover, the perceptual consequences of experience-induced changes in the brains of adults remain unknown. Here we show that the tonotopic map in the primary auditory cortex of adult rats living with low-level ambient noise underwent a dramatic reorganization. Behaviorally, chronic noise-exposure impaired fine, but not coarse pitch discrimination. When tested in a noisy environment, the noise-exposed rats performed as well as in a quiet environment whereas the control rats performed poorly. This suggests that noise-exposed animals had adapted to living in a noisy environment. Behavioral pattern analyses revealed that stress or distraction engendered by the noisy background could not account for the poor performance of the control rats in a noisy environment. A reorganized auditory map may therefore have served as the neural substrate for the consistent performance of the noise-exposed rats in a noisy environment.

  14. Growth and development of children prenatally exposed to telbivudine administered for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huihui; Cai, Haodong; Wang, Ying; Shen, Ying

    2015-04-01

    We studied the growth and development of children prenatally exposed to telbivudine used to treat chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in their mothers. Maternal abnormalities during pregnancy and delivery and infant congenital anomalies, physical development status, developmental quotient (DQ), HBV vertical transmission status, and HBV vaccination outcomes of 54 infants were evaluated (2010-2013). No fetal abnormalities were observed during pregnancy or delivery. Postpartum, three infants (5.56%) had abnormalities: ankyloglossia, cutaneous hemangioma, and vaginal canal leak. Height and weight were within the normal range at birth and at 6 weeks, but were higher than the reference at 12 months (pchildren (68.52%), abnormal or suspicious for a developmental delay (15.19%, 41/270) in 17 children (31.48%), and indicated a developmental delay (4.07%, 11/270) in seven children (12.96%). There were no significant differences in developmental delay between children prenatally exposed to telbivudine and controls (p>0.05). HBV vertical transmission was successfully blocked in all infants. The effective HBV vaccination rate was 98.15% (53/54). The growth and development of children prenatally exposed to telbivudine was normal, indicating that telbivudine treatment during pregnancy is safe and effective. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Transcriptomic responses in mouse brain exposed to chronic excess of the neurotransmitter glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pal Ranu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increases during aging in extracellular levels of glutamate (Glu, the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, may be linked to chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Little is known about the molecular responses of neurons to chronic, moderate increases in Glu levels. Genome-wide gene expression in brain hippocampus was examined in a unique transgenic (Tg mouse model that exhibits moderate Glu hyperactivity throughout the lifespan, the neuronal Glutamate dehydrogenase (Glud1 mouse, and littermate 9 month-old wild type mice. Results Integrated bioinformatic analyses on transcriptomic data were used to identify bio-functions, pathways and gene networks underlying neuronal responses to increased Glu synaptic release. Bio-functions and pathways up-regulated in Tg mice were those associated with oxidative stress, cell injury, inflammation, nervous system development, neuronal growth, and synaptic transmission. Increased gene expression in these functions and pathways indicated apparent compensatory responses offering protection against stress, promoting growth of neuronal processes (neurites and re-establishment of synapses. The transcription of a key gene in the neurite growth network, the kinase Ptk2b, was significantly up-regulated in Tg mice as was the activated (phosphorylated form of the protein. In addition to genes related to neurite growth and synaptic development, those associated with neuronal vesicle trafficking in the Huntington's disease signalling pathway, were also up-regulated. Conclusions This is the first study attempting to define neuronal gene expression patterns in response to chronic, endogenous Glu hyperactivity at brain synapses. The patterns observed were characterized by a combination of responses to stress and stimulation of nerve growth, intracellular transport and recovery.

  16. Neoplastic and life-span effects of chronic exposure to tritium. II. Rats exposed in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahill, D.F.; Wright, J.F.; Godbold, J.H.; Ward, J.M.; Laskey, J.W.; Tompkins, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects on neoplasia incidence and life-span of exposure in utero to a major environmental radionuclide. Sprague-Dawley rats were continuously exposed to tritiated water (HTO) from conception through birth in doses of 0, 1, 10, 50, and 100 μCi HTO/ml body water. HTO administration was terminated at birth. Calculated cumulative doses during gestation were approximately 0, 6.6, 66, 330, and 660 rads of total body irradiation. Under these exposure conditions, the two highest doses resulted in sterile offspring. Animals surviving through 30 days postnatally were defined as the study population and observed until their deaths. Intrauterine exposures to doses up to 66 rads had no significant effects on either sex with respect to lifespan, overall neoplasia incidence, incidence rate, or onset of mammary fibroadenomas. Females exposed to 330 or 660 rads were sterile and had lower incidence rates of mammary fibroadenomas than did controls; at 660 rads females had a lower incidence of overall neoplasia and reduced mean lifespans. Sterile male offspring had reduced mean longevity after irradiation at 660 rads. Regardless of dose group, females had significantly higher incidences of neoplasia and longer life-spans than males

  17. Acute heroin intoxication in a baby chronically exposed to cocaine and heroin: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichini Simona

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acute intoxication with drugs of abuse in children is often only the tip of the iceberg, actually hiding chronic exposure. Analysis using non-conventional matrices such as hair can provide long-term information about exposure to recreational drugs. Case presentation We report the case of a one-month-old Caucasian boy admitted to our pediatric emergency unit with respiratory distress and neurological abnormalities. A routine urine test was positive for opiates, suggesting an acute opiate ingestion. No other drugs of misuse, such as cocaine, cannabis, amphetamines or derivatives, were detected in the baby's urine. Subsequently, hair samples from the baby and the parents were collected to evaluate the possibility of chronic exposure to drug misuse by segmental analysis. Opiates and cocaine metabolites were detected in hair samples from the baby boy and his parents. Conclusions In light of these and previous results, we recommend hair analysis in babies and children from risky environments to detect exposure to heroin and other drug misuse, which could provide the basis for specific social and health interventions.

  18. Marine Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  19. Microvascular pressure responses of second-generation rats chronically exposed to 2 g centrifugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, D. R.; Knapp, C. F.

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented for a study aimed at a quantitative comparison of microvascular dynamics in second-generation rats reared in a 2-g force field produced by centrifugation with similar data from animals reared in a centrifuge that produced only a 1-g force. It is shown that the pressure distribution in the mesenteric microvasculature of the second generation of rats reared in a 2-g environment, as well as the animals' blood pressure response to epinephrine, are significantly different compared to their 1-g counterparts. In particular, 1-g and 2-g chronic centrifugation enhances the arterial blood pressure, and the 2-g force field attenuates the pressor effects of norepinephrine.

  20. Adaptogenic potential of royal jelly in liver of rats exposed to chronic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Carvalho Caixeta

    Full Text Available Restraint and cold stress increase both corticosterone and glycemia, which lead to oxidative damages in hepatic tissue. This study assessed the effect of royal jelly (RJ supplementation on the corticosterone level, glycemia, plasma enzymes and hepatic antioxidant system in restraint and cold stressed rats. Wistar rats were allocated into no-stress, stress, no-stress supplemented with RJ and stress supplemented with RJ groups. Initially, RJ (200mg/Kg was administered for fourteen days and stressed groups were submitted to chronic stress from the seventh day. The results showed that RJ supplementation decreases corticosterone levels and improves glycemia control after stress induction. RJ supplementation also decreased the body weight, AST, ALP and GGT. Moreover, RJ improved total antioxidant capacity, SOD activity and reduced GSH, GR and lipoperoxidation in the liver. Thus, RJ supplementation reestablished the corticosterone levels and the hepatic antioxidant system in stressed rats, indicating an adaptogenic and hepatoprotective potential of RJ.

  1. Alterations of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the brain of rats chronically exposed to lead acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Larrubia, Pilar; Cauli, Omar

    2011-03-15

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) allows the assessment of the water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), a measure of tissue water diffusivity which is altered during different pathological conditions such as cerebral oedema. By means of DWI, we repeatedly measured in the same rats apparent diffusion coefficient ADC in different brain areas (motor cortex (MCx), somato-sensory cortex (SCx), caudate-putamen (CPu), hippocampus (Hip), mesencephalic reticular formation (RF), corpus callosum (CC) and cerebellum (Cb)) after 1 week, 4 and 12 weeks of lead acetate exposure via drinking water (50 or 500 ppm). After 12 weeks of lead exposure rats received albumin-Evans blue complex administration and were sacrificed 1h later. Blood-brain barrier permeability and water tissue content were determined in order to evaluate their relationship with ADC changes. Chronic exposure to lead acetate (500 ppm) for 4 weeks increased ADC values in Hip, RF and Cb but no in other brain areas. After 12 weeks of lead acetate exposure at 500 ppm ADC is significantly increased also in CPu and CC. Brain areas displaying high ADC values after lead exposure showed also an increased water content and increased BBB permeability to Evans blue-albumin complex. Exposure to 50 ppm for 12 weeks increased ADC values and BBB permeability in the RF and Cb. In summary, chronic lead exposure induces cerebral oedema in the adult brain depending on the brain area and the dose of exposure. RF and Cb appeared the most sensitive brain areas whereas cerebral cortex appears resistant to lead-induced cerebral oedema. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantitative dose-response of growth and development in Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to chronic gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, K.; Thompson, K.H.

    1975-01-01

    The response of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (Cruciferae) to a gradient of chronic gamma-radiation was examined under field conditions. Plants that were initially introduced to the gamma field as dry seeds received exposures of 1.34 to 18 800R/20 hour day from the time of seed germination. Regression analysis demonstrated a significant, but non-linear, response for three variables, number of seedlings emerging, number of plants flowering, and plant volume; the response of a fourth variable, number of leaves per plant, was not related to daily exposure. LD 50 values ranged from 66R/20 hour day for plant volume to 1231R/20 hour day for seedling emergence. Flowering and plant volume were the most sensitive indicators of radiation exposure. The demonstration of a variable threshold at low levels of exposure indicates that in nature A. thaliana may be exposed to environmental radiation throughout its life-cycle without significant modification of growth or development. (author)

  3. Lifespan studies on different strains of mice exposed chronically to low levels of whole body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, L.A.; Klein, A.K.; Cain, G.R.; Rosenblatt, L.S.

    1982-01-01

    Several strains of mice, chosen for their predisposition to immunohematological disorders, were exposed to low levels of 60 irradiation continuously for four weeks. All individuals were subsequently followed throughout their lifetimes. W/W/sup v/ mice, which are tyically subject to a stem cell deficiency, had a lower cumulative survival rate for the irradiated group than for the unirradiated controls. Irradiated RF/sub j/ mice had a dramatically lower cumulative survival rate than their unirradiated controls. Conversely, BXSB mice, which have a lumphoproliferative autoimmune disorder, had a higher cumulative survival rate after chronic irradiation than did unirradiated BXSBs. Irradiation had no effect upon the survival rate curves of the NZB strain, the murine model for Lupus Erythematosus

  4. Genetic effects of radon 222 in a population of Drosophila melanogaster chronically exposed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salceda, V.M.

    1997-01-01

    It was investigated the mutagenic effect of Radon 222 during a experimental period of 11 generations. In this lapse Drosophila melanogaster larvae line Canton-S were maintained in a radon atmosphere. In each test generation had been extracted males, consequently exposed to radiation which were subjected to a crossing series with a bearer marker genes of according to the Wallace experimental design (1956). Due to the experimental conditions it only was determined the recessive lethal mutations frequency for the second chromosome in the 1,4,7 and 11 generations. Of all study it was conduced in parallel way a non-treated witness population. The concentrations at which was subjected the experimental population varied of generation to generation from 12 ± 2 to 43 ± 5 kBq/m 3 . Our analysis correspond to lethality determination in 1182 second chromosomes distributed between two populations and the different exposition generations. The study allow to determine the respective frequencies of recessive lethal genes varying according to the population and/or generation between 10.53 and 22.02%. The statistical analysis of data did not show significant differences among the different populations. (Author)

  5. Deep-body temperature changes in rats exposed to chronic centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, J.; Platt, W. T.; Holland, V. B.

    1971-01-01

    Deep-body temperature was monitored continuously by implant biotelemetry in unrestrained rats before, during, and after exposure to prolonged and almost continuous centrifugation. Rats subjected to centrifugation for the first time at various G loads ranging up to 2.5 G show a rapid and significant fall in temperature which is sustained below normal levels for periods as long as 3 days. The magnitude of the temperature fall and the recovery time were generally proportional to the G load imposed. The initial fall and recovery of body temperature closely parallels the decrease in food consumption and to a lesser degree the decrease in body mass experienced by centrifuged rats. After exposure to 2 weeks of centrifugation, rats show either no change or only a small transient increase in temperature when decelerated to a lower G level or when returned to normal gravity. Rats repeatedly exposed to centrifugation consistently showed a smaller temperature response compared to the initial exposure. Implant temperature biotelemetry has been found to be a sensitive, reliable, and extremely useful technique for assessing the initial stress of centrifugation and in monitoring the time course of recovery and acclimation of rats to increase as well as*decrease G.

  6. Microbial activities in forest soils exposed to chronic depositions from a lignite power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klose, S.; Wernecke, K.D.; Makeschin, F. [Technical University of Dresden, Tharandt (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    Atmospheric emissions of fly ash and SO{sub 2} from lignite-fired power plants strongly affect large forest areas in Germany. The impact of different deposition loads on the microbial biomass and enzyme activities was studied at three forest sites (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) along an emission gradient of 3, 6, and 15 km downwind of a coal-fired power plant, representing high, moderate and low emission rates. An additional site at a distance of 3 km from the power plant was chosen to study the influence of forest type on microbial parameters in coniferous forest soils under fly ash and SO{sub 2} emissions. Soil microbial biomass C and N, CO{sub 2} evolved and activities of L-asparaginase, L-glutaminase, beta-glucosidase, acid phosphatase and arylsulfatase (expressed on dry soil and organic C basis) were determined in the forest floor (L, Of and Oh horizon) and mineral top soil (0-10 cm). It is concluded that chronic fly ash depositions decrease litter decomposition by influencing specific microbial and enzymatic processes in forest soils.

  7. Effect on the viability in populations of Drosophila Melanogaster chronically exposed to Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salceda, V.M.

    2004-01-01

    A four generations population of Drosophila melanogaster chronically subjected to the following radon concentrations were analyzed: 30 ± 7, 12 ± 2, 43 ± 5, 25 ± 7, 14 ± 2, 6 ± 2, 78 ± 1, 58 ± 5 and 74 ± 7 k B/m 3 with estimated doses of 1.209, 0.1, 2.088, 0.869, 0.156, 0.03, 3.18, 2.12 and 2.878 mGy by generation and their respective ones witness, in order to determine the effect of the radiation in the induction of detrimental genes, also measuring the effect of the viability with regard to the fecundity and the differential viability in categories of genes with smaller effects. So much the induction of detrimental genes like the distribution of the viability with regard to the fecundity for categories they did not show inductor effect due to the treatment with radon. Notwithstanding, the changes caused by the relating treatment to the fecundity they caused in three of the four comparisons possible significant results in the production of descendants, improving the adaptation of the populations, like it has been demonstrated by other authors

  8. Soil nutrient content of old-field and agricultural ecosystems exposed to chronic gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armentano, T.V.; Holt, B.R.; Bottino, P.J.

    1975-01-01

    Soil nutrients (extractable P. and NO 3 -N, exchangeable Ca, Mg and K), exchangeable Al, pH and organic matter content were measured over the top six inches of the soils of the seven-year old-field portion and the cultivated portion of the Brookhaven gamma field. Although concentrations of all nutrient elements were higher in the agricultural soil, the distributions of Ca, P, Al, pH and organic matter were similar along the radiation gradient in both fields. There was also a regular reduction in the phosphorus with decreasing exposure, but distribution of other elements was not clearly related to radiation effects. The distribution of all elements except K was significantly correlated with pH in the agricultural soil. In the old-field only Ca, Mg and Al showed this relationship. The most conspicuous effects of nearly 25 yr of chronic irradiation of the site were a reduction in soil organic matter content and an increase in soil P in both fields. (author)

  9. Performance of a neuro-fuzzy model in predicting weight changes of chronic schizophrenic patients exposed to antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, T H; Loh, E W; Wu, M S; Hu, T M; Chou, P; Lan, T Y; Chiu, H-J

    2008-12-01

    Artificial intelligence has become a possible solution to resolve the problem of loss of information when complexity of a disease increases. Obesity phenotypes are observable clinical features of drug-naive schizophrenic patients. In addition, atypical antipsychotic medications may cause these unwanted effects. Here we examined the performance of neuro-fuzzy modeling (NFM) in predicting weight changes in chronic schizophrenic patients exposed to antipsychotics. Two hundred and twenty inpatients meeting DSMIV diagnosis of schizophrenia, treated with antipsychotics, either typical or atypical, for more than 2 years, were recruited. All subjects were assessed in the same study period between mid-November 2003 and mid-April 2004. The baseline and first visit's physical data including weight, height and circumference were used in this study. Clinical information (Clinical Global Impression and Life Style Survey) and genotype data of five single nucleotide polymorphisms were also included as predictors. The subjects were randomly assigned into the first group (105 subjects) and second group (115 subjects), and NFM was performed by using the FuzzyTECH 5.54 software package, with a network-type structure constructed in the rule block. A complete learned model trained from merged data of the first and second groups demonstrates that, at a prediction error of 5, 93% subjects with weight gain were identified. Our study suggests that NFM is a feasible prediction tool for obesity in schizophrenic patients exposed to antipsychotics, with further improvements required.

  10. Neoplastic and life-span effects of chronic exposure to tritium. I. Effects on adult rats exposed during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahill, D.F.; Wright, J.F.; Godbold, J.H.; Ward, J.M.; Laskey, J.W.; Tompkins, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    Female Sprague-Dawley rats were continuously exposed to equilibrium levels of tritiated water (HTO) during pregnancy. The tritium activities were 1, 10, 50, and 100 μCi HTO/ml body water which provided cumulative, whole-body radiation doses of approximately 6.6, 66, 330, and 660 rads. Administration of the radioisotope was terminated at parturition. Throughout their life-spans and at autopsy, the dams showed an increased incidence of mammary fibroadenomas at exposure to 330 and 660 rads. Although the data for the incidence of malignant mammary neoplasms were consistent with a linear dose response, the small numbers of tumors preclude specific definition of the dose-response curve. Postexposure life-spans for dams chronically exposed to 66, 330, and 660 rads during pregnancy were reduced by 14, 24, and 22 percent, respectively. Accelerated aging was also demonstrated in these rats: The mean age for mammary fibroadenoma onset decreased with an increasing dose of radiation. (U.S.)

  11. Diazepam administration prevents testosterone decrease and lipofuscin accumulation in testis of mouse exposed to chronic noise stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffoli, R; Carpi, A; Giambelluca, M A; Grasso, L; Scavuzzo, M C; Giannessi F, F

    2006-10-01

    Lipofuscin is an autofluorescent and undegradable material, which accumulates in tissues during ageing and under different types of stress. Among these, oxidative stress represents a major trigger for lipofuscin formation. However, prolonged noise exposure is also an effective stressful stimuli. Diazepam may inhibit lipofuscinogenesis in liver and prevent the noise-induced reduction of the steroidogenesis in the adrenal gland. The aim of the study was to ascertain whether chronic noise exposure causes lipofuscin accumulation in mouse testis, and to evaluate the effects of diazepam administration. Eight-week old mice were either exposed for 6 weeks (6 h day(-1)) to white-noise (group A), or received diazepam (3 mg kg(-1), i.p.) before noise exposures (group B), while a further group was used as control (group C). Light fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy revealed lipofuscin in large amounts in the Leydig cells in mice of group A, which concomitantly had low serum testosterone levels; pre-treatment with diazepam occluded both effects. The present study indicates that: (i) chronic noise exposure causes lipofuscin accumulation at the level of the Leydig cells and a decrease in testosterone; (ii) all these effects are suppressed by pre-treatment with diazepam. As the Leydig cells represent the only cellular type of the interstitial testicular tissue having peripheral benzodiazepine receptors, these results could be explained by the capacity of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptors to prevent reactive oxygen species damage and to increase the resistance of these cells to oxidative stress.

  12. The status of the nervous system of persons exposed to occupational chronic radiation (45 years of observation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizova, T.V.

    2000-01-01

    The retrospective study of a state of the nervous system in dynamics in 1090 workers of the first Russian atomic enterprise was carried out. The main unfavorable factor of occupational effect in the yearly years of work (1948-1954) was chronic external gamma-radiation in doses from 0.4 to 5.7 Gy per one year. During maximal radiation exposure a vegetative dystonia of a hypotensive type (51.8%), asthenic syndrome (35.2%) and syndrome of microorganic changes of the central nervous system (5.9%) were most frequently registered in workers. Frequency and the periods of the development of these syndromes depended on an annual exposure dose (p<0.001). Alongside with an occupational chronic exposure non-radiation factors (age at the moment of an exposure, initial state of health, intense nature of job regarding nervous loads) exerted the certain influence on the development of these neurologic syndromes. In the long-term period after an exposure the cerebrovascular diseases were most frequent. Their incidence was naturally related with the age of patients. However, it was determined that the initial clinical manifestations of a cerebral atherosclerosis in persons exposed to irradiation in doses more of 2.5 Gy/year were registered in younger age than in control group. The frequency of their development depended on an annual dose of a gamma-irradiation, age at the moment of an exposure, degree of manifestation and duration of preceding vegetative - vascular disorders. (author)

  13. Ventilatory and chemoreceptor responses to hypercapnia in neonatal rats chronically exposed to moderate hyperoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavis, Ryan W; Li, Ke-Yong; DeAngelis, Kathryn J; March, Ryan J; Wallace, Josefine A; Logan, Sarah; Putnam, Robert W

    2017-03-01

    Rats reared in hyperoxia hypoventilate in normoxia and exhibit progressive blunting of the hypoxic ventilatory response, changes which are at least partially attributed to abnormal carotid body development. Since the carotid body also responds to changes in arterial CO 2 /pH, we tested the hypothesis that developmental hyperoxia would attenuate the hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR) of neonatal rats by blunting peripheral and/or central chemoreceptor responses to hypercapnic challenges. Rats were reared in 21% O 2 (Control) or 60% O 2 (Hyperoxia) until studied at 4, 6-7, or 13-14days of age. Hyperoxia rats had significantly reduced single-unit carotid chemoafferent responses to 15% CO 2 at all ages; CO 2 sensitivity recovered within 7days after return to room air. Hypercapnic responses of CO 2 -sensitive neurons of the caudal nucleus tractus solitarius (cNTS) were unaffected by chronic hyperoxia, but there was evidence for a small decrease in neuronal excitability. There was also evidence for augmented excitatory synaptic input to cNTS neurons within brainstem slices. Steady-state ventilatory responses to 4% and 8% CO 2 were unaffected by developmental hyperoxia in all three age groups, but ventilation increased more slowly during the normocapnia-to-hypercapnia transition in 4-day-old Hyperoxia rats. We conclude that developmental hyperoxia impairs carotid body chemosensitivity to hypercapnia, and this may compromise protective ventilatory reflexes during dynamic respiratory challenges in newborn rats. Impaired carotid body function has less of an impact on the HCVR in older rats, potentially reflecting compensatory plasticity within the CNS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Modifications of the sympathetic skin response in workers chronically exposed to lead

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    D.B. Nora

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The long-term effects of low-level lead intoxication are not known. The sympathetic skin response (SSR was evaluated in a group of 60 former workers of a primary lead smelter, located in Santo Amaro, BA, Brazil. The individuals participating in the study were submitted to a clinical-epidemiological evaluation including questions related to potential risk factors for intoxication, complaints related to peripheral nervous system (PNS involvement, neurological clinical examination, and also to electromyography and nerve conduction studies and SSR evaluation. The sample consisted of 57 men and 3 women aged 34 to 69 years (mean ± SD: 46.8 ± 6.9. The neurophysiologic evaluation showed the presence of lumbosacral radiculopathy in one of the individuals (1.7%, axonal sensorimotor polyneuropathy in 2 (3.3%, and carpal tunnel syndrome in 6 (10%. SSR was abnormal or absent in 12 cases, representing 20% of the sample. More than half of the subjects (53.3% reported a history of acute abdominal pain requiring hospitalization during the period of work at the plant. A history of acute palsy of radial and peroneal nerves was reported by about 16.7 and 8.3% of the individuals, respectively. Mean SSR amplitude did not differ significantly between patients presenting or not the various characteristics in the current neurological situation, except for diaphoresis. The results suggest that chronic lead intoxication induces PNS damage, particularly affecting unmyelinated small fibers. Further systematic study is needed to more precisely define the role of lead in inducing PNS injury.

  15. Resveratrol exerts anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects to prevent memory deficits in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazir, Yusufhan; Utkan, Tijen; Gacar, Nejat; Aricioglu, Feyza

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have recently focused on the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol. In prior studies, we described its beneficial effects on scopolamine-induced learning deficits in rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol on emotional and spatial cognitive functions, neurotropic factor expression, and plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), which is known to induce cognitive deficits. Resveratrol (5 or 20mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally for 35 days. Rats in the CUMS group and in the 5mg/kg resveratrol+CUMS group performed poorly in tasks designed to assess emotional and spatial learning and memory. The 20mg/kg resveratrol+CUMS group showed improved performance compared to the CUMS group. In addition, the CUMS procedure induced lower expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and c-Fos in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 and in the amygdala of stressed rats. These effects were reversed by chronic administration of resveratrol (20mg/kg). In addition, plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta were increased by CUMS, but were restored to normal by resveratrol. These results indicate that resveratrol significantly attenuates the deficits in emotional learning and spatial memory seen in chronically stressed rats. These effects may be related to resveratrol-mediated changes in neurotrophin factor expression in hippocampus and in levels of proinflammatory cytokines in circulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Greenhouse gas fluxes from salt marshes exposed to chronic nutrient enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmura, Gail L.; Kellman, Lisa; van Ardenne, Lee; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the impact of nutrient additions on greenhouse gas fluxes using dark static chambers in a microtidal and a macrotidal marsh along the coast of New Brunswick, Canada approximately monthly over a year. Both were experimentally fertilized for six years with varying levels of N and P. For unfertilized, N and NPK treatments, average yearly CO2 emissions (which represent only respiration) at the microtidal marsh (13, 19, and 28 mmoles CO2 m-2 hr-1, respectively) were higher than at the macrotidal marsh (12, 15, and 19 mmoles m-2 hr-1, respectively, with a flux under the additional high N/low P treatment of 21 mmoles m-2 hr-1). Response of CH4 to fertilization was more variable. At the macrotidal marsh average yearly fluxes were 1.29, 1.26, and 0.77 μmol CH4 m-2 hr-1 with control, N, and NPK treatments, respectively and 1.21 μmol m-2 hr-1 under high N/low P treatment. At the microtidal marsh CH4fluxes were 0.23, 0.16, and -0.24 μmol CH4 m-2 hr-1 in control, N, and NPK and treatments, respectively. Fertilization changed soils from sinks to sources of N2O. Average yearly N2O fluxes at the macrotidal marsh were -0.07, 0.08, and 1.70, μmol N2O m-2 hr-1 in control, N, NPK and treatments, respectively and 0.35 μmol m-2 hr-1 under high N/low P treatment. For the control, N, and NPK treatments at the microtidal marsh N2O fluxes were -0.05, 0.30, and 0.52 μmol N2O m-2 hr-1, respectively. Our results indicate that N2O fluxes are likely to vary with the source of pollutant nutrients but emissions will be lower if N is not accompanied by an adequate supply of P (e.g., atmospheric deposition vs sewage or agricultural runoff). With chronic fertilization the global warming potential of the increased N2O emissions may be enough to offset the global cooling potential of the C sequestered by salt marshes.

  17. Coral reefs chronically exposed to river sediment plumes in the southwestern Caribbean: Rosario Islands, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Juan D; Park, Edward; Aquino, Samia; Latrubesse, Edgardo M

    2016-05-15

    Politicians do not acknowledge the devastating impacts riverine sediments can have on healthy coral reef ecosystems during environmental debates in Caribbean countries. Therefore, regional and/or local decision makers do not implement the necessary measures to reduce fluvial sediment fluxes on coral reefs. The Magdalena River, the main contributor of continental fluxes into the Caribbean Sea, delivers water and sediment fluxes into the Rosario Islands National Park, an important marine protected area in the southwestern Caribbean. Until now, there is no scientific consensus on the presence of sediment fluxes from the Magdalena River in the coral reefs of the Rosario Islands. Our hypothesis is that high sediment and freshwater inputs from the Magdalena have been present at higher acute levels during the last decade than previously thought, and that these runoff pulses are not flashy. We use in-situ calibrated MODIS satellite images to capture the spatiotemporal variability of the distribution of suspended sediment over the coral reefs. Furthermore, geochemical data are analyzed to detect associated sedimentation rates and pollutant dispersion into the coastal zone. Results confirm that turbidity levels have been much higher than previous values presented by national environmental authorities on coral reefs off Colombia over the last decade. During the 2003-2013-period most of the Total Suspended Sediments (TSS) values witnessed in the sampled regions were above 10mg/l, a threshold value of turbidity for healthy coral reef waters. TSS concentrations throughout the analyzed time were up to 62.3mg/l. Plume pulses were more pronounced during wet seasons of La Niña events in 2002-2003, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010. Reconstructed time series of MODIS TSS indicates that coral reef waters were exposed to river plumes between 19.6 and 47.8% of the entire period of analysis (2000-2013). Further analyses of time series of water discharge and sediment load into the coastal zone

  18. DJ1 Expression Downregulates in Neuroblastoma Cells (SK-N-MC Chronically Exposed to HIV-1 and Cocaine.

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    Upal eRoy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV-associated neurological disorder (HAND has long been recognized as a consequence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection in the brain. The pathology of HAND gets more complicated with the recreational drug use such as cocaine. Recent studies have suggested multiple genetic influences involved in the pathology of addiction and HAND but only a fraction of the entire genetic risk has been investigated so far. In this regard, role of DJ1 protein (a gene linked to autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinson’s disease in regulating dopamine transmission and reactive oxygen species (ROS production in neuronal cells will be worth investigating in HIV-1 and cocaine exposed microenvironment. Being a very abundant protein in the brain, DJ1 could serve as a potential marker for early detection of HIV-1 and/or cocaine related neurological disorder.Methods: In vitro analysis was done to observe the effect of HIV-1 and/or cocaine on DJ1 protein expression in neuroblastoma cells (SK-N-MC. Gene expression and protein analysis of DJ1 was done on the HIV infected and/or cocaine treated SK-N-MC and compared to untreated cells using real time PCR, Western Blot and flow cytometry.Results: Gene expression and protein analysis indicated that there was a significant decrease in DJ1 expression in SK-N-MC chronically exposed to HIV-1 and/or cocaine.Conclusion: This is the first study to establish that DJ1 expression level in the neuronal cells significantly decreased in presence of HIV-1and/or cocaine indicating oxidative stress level of dopamine neurons.

  19. Akebia quinata Decaisne aqueous extract acts as a novel anti-fatigue agent in mice exposed to chronic restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun Haeng; Jang, Seol; Lee, Si Woo; Park, Sun Dong; Sung, Yoon-Young; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2018-08-10

    Akebia quinata Decaisne extract (AQE; Lardizabalaceae) is used in traditional herbal medicine for stress- and fatigue-related depression, improvement of fatigue, and mental relaxation. To clarify the effects of AQE on stress-induced fatigue, we investigated the neuroprotective pharmacological effects of A. quinata Decaisne in mice exposed to chronic restraint stress. Seven-week old C57BL/6 mice chronically stressed by immobilization for 3 h daily for 15 d and non-stressed control mice underwent daily oral administration of AQE or distilled water. The open field, sucrose preference, and forced swimming behavioral tests were carried out once weekly, and immunohistochemical analyses of NeuN, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding (CREB) protein, and BDNF receptor tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) in striatum and hippocampus were performed at the end of the experimental period. Brain levels of serotonin, adrenaline, and noradrenaline as well as serum levels of corticosterone were measured. Behavioral tests showed that treatment with AQE improved all lethargic behaviors examined. AQE significantly attenuated the elevated levels of adrenaline, noradrenaline, and serotonin in the brain and corticosterone, alanine transaminase, and aspartate transaminase levels in the serum. Histopathological analysis showed that AQE reduced liver injury and lateral ventricle size in restraint-stress mice via inhibition of neuronal cell death. Immunohistochemical analysis showed increased phosphorylation of CREB and expression of BDNF and its receptor TrkB in striatum and hippocampus. Chlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acid A, and isochlorogenic acid C were identified as the primary components of AQE. All three agents increased expression of BDNF in SH-SY5Y cells and PC12 cells with H 2 O 2 -induced neuronal cell damage. AQE may have a neuroprotective effect and ameliorate the effects of stress and fatigue-associated brain damage through

  20. The Impacts of Swimming Exercise on Hippocampal Expression of Neurotrophic Factors in Rats Exposed to Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression is associated with stress-induced neural atrophy in limbic brain regions, whereas exercise has antidepressant effects as well as increasing hippocampal synaptic plasticity by strengthening neurogenesis, metabolism, and vascular function. A key mechanism mediating these broad benefits of exercise on the brain is induction of neurotrophic factors, which instruct downstream structural and functional changes. To systematically evaluate the potential neurotrophic factors that were involved in the antidepressive effects of exercise, in this study, we assessed the effects of swimming exercise on hippocampal mRNA expression of several classes of the growth factors (BDNF, GDNF, NGF, NT-3, FGF2, VEGF, and IGF-1 and peptides (VGF and NPY in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS. Our study demonstrated that the swimming training paradigm significantly induced the expression of BDNF and BDNF-regulated peptides (VGF and NPY and restored their stress-induced downregulation. Additionally, the exercise protocol also increased the antiapoptotic Bcl-xl expression and normalized the CUMS mediated induction of proapoptotic Bax mRNA level. Overall, our data suggest that swimming exercise has antidepressant effects, increasing the resistance to the neural damage caused by CUMS, and both BDNF and its downstream neurotrophic peptides may exert a major function in the exercise related adaptive processes to CUMS.

  1. Chronic risk assessment for the use of radiation in occupationally exposed personnel (OEP) in the oral health area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores H, C.; Huerta F, M. R.; Sosa A, M. A.; Diaz de Leon M, L. V.

    2017-10-01

    There is a scientific discordance in the amounts of radiation used in radio-diagnosis and received in practice by the occupationally exposed personnel (OEP), with the exception of radiologists who follow the safety and hygiene measures recommended by the regulations. The objective of this study was to quantify the risk of the OEP in the dental area by the use of ionizing radiation chronically. A fundamental variable to take into account in the study was the number of films taken day/shift. A comparative study was carried out, n = 70 study subjects. The information was collected by occupational clinical history, biological and occupational monitoring. The average age was 19.6 years for E-1 and E-2 was 50 years. The radiation emission in the calibrated equipment was 1.578 (Lp). The risk is 2:1 E-1:E-2. As a result of the study was found that in most cases the OEP does not use protection measures, only the patient. (Author)

  2. Antidepressant Effects of Aripiprazole Augmentation for Cilostazol-Treated Mice Exposed to Chronic Mild Stress after Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ri Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects and underlying mechanism of aripiprazole (APZ augmentation for cilostazol (CLS-treated post-ischemic stroke mice that were exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS. Compared to treatment with either APZ or CLS alone, the combined treatment resulted in a greater reduction in depressive behaviors, including anhedonia, despair-like behaviors, and memory impairments. This treatment also significantly reduced atrophic changes in the striatum, cortex, and midbrain of CMS-treated ischemic mice, and inhibited neuronal cell apoptosis, particularly in the striatum and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Greater proliferation of neuronal progenitor cells was also observed in the ipsilateral striatum of the mice receiving combined treatment compared to mice receiving either drug alone. Phosphorylation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB was increased in the striatum, hippocampus, and midbrain of mice receiving combined treatment compared to treatment with either drug alone, particularly in the neurons of the striatum and hippocampus, and dopaminergic neurons of the midbrain. Our results suggest that APZ may augment the antidepressant effects of CLS via co-regulation of the CREB signaling pathway, resulting in the synergistic enhancement of their neuroprotective effects.

  3. An integrated omic analysis of hepatic alteration in medaka fish chronically exposed to cyanotoxins with possible mechanisms of reproductive toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Qin; Le Manach, Séverine; Huet, Hélène; Duvernois-Berthet, Evelyne; Chaouch, Soraya; Duval, Charlotte; Sotton, Benoit; Ponger, Loïc; Marie, Arul; Mathéron, Lucrèce; Lennon, Sarah; Bolbach, Gérard; Djediat, Chakib; Bernard, Cécile; Edery, Marc; Marie, Benjamin

    2016-12-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms threaten human health as well as the population of other living organisms in the aquatic environment, particularly due to the production of natural toxic components, the cyanotoxin. So far, the most studied cyanotoxins are microcystins (MCs). In this study, the hepatic alterations at histological, proteome and transcriptome levels were evaluated in female and male medaka fish chronically exposed to 1 and 5 μg L -1 microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and to the extract of MC-producing Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7820 (5 μg L -1 of equivalent MC-LR) by balneation for 28 days, aiming at enhancing our understanding of the potential reproductive toxicity of cyanotoxins in aquatic vertebrate models. Indeed, both MC and Microcystis extract adversely affect reproductive parameters including fecundity and egg hatchability. The liver of toxin treated female fish present glycogen storage loss and cellular damages. The quantitative proteomics analysis revealed that the quantities of 225 hepatic proteins are dysregulated. In particular, a notable decrease in protein quantities of vitellogenin and choriogenin was observed, which could explain the decrease in reproductive output. Liver transcriptome analysis through Illumina RNA-seq reveals that over 100-400 genes are differentially expressed under 5 μg L -1  MC-LR and Microcystis extract treatments, respectively. Ingenuity pathway analysis of the omic data attests that various metabolic pathways, such as energy production, protein biosynthesis and lipid metabolism, are disturbed by both MC-LR and the Microcystis extract, which could provoke the observed reproductive impairment. The transcriptomics analysis also constitutes the first report of the impairment of circadian rhythm-related gene induced by MCs. This study contributes to a better understanding of the potential consequences of chronic exposure of fish to environmental concentrations of cyanotoxins, suggesting that Microcystis extract could impact a

  4. Investigation of genomic instability by assay of DNA fingerprint from the offspring of male mice exposed to chronic low-level γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezlepkin, V.G.; Vasil'eva, G.V.; Lomaeva, M.G.; Sirota, N.P.; Gaziev, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    By polymerase chain reaction with arbitrary primer (AP-PCR), the possibility of transmission of genome instability to somatic cells of the offspring (F 1 generation) from male parents of mice exposed to chronic low-dose γ-radiation was studied. Male mice 15 days after exposure to 10-50 cGy were mated with unirradiated females. Biopsies were taken from tale tips of two month-old mice progeny for DNA separation. Primer in the AP-PCR was 20-mer oligonucleotide flanking the micro-satellite locus Atplb2 on chromosome 11 of the mouse. Comparative analysis of individual fingerprints of AP-PCR products on DNA-templates from the offspring of irradiated and unirradiated male mice revealed an increased variability of micro-satellite-associated sequences in the genome of the offspring of males exposed to 25 and 50 cGy. DNA-fingerprints of the offspring of male mice exposed to chronic irradiation doses 10 and 25 cGy. 15 days before fertilization (at the post-meiotic stage of spermatogenesis) showed an increased frequency of non-parent bands. Result of the study point to the possibility of transmission to the offspring somatic cells of changes increasing genome instability from male parents exposed to chronic low-dose radiation prior to fertilization [ru

  5. Electrolysed reduced water decreases reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improves performance in broiler chickens exposed to medium-term chronic heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, M A K; Kikusato, M; Zulkifli, I; Toyomizu, M

    2013-01-01

    1. The present study was designed to achieve a reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and to improve the performance of broiler chickens exposed to chronic heat stress. 2. Chickens were given a control diet with normal drinking water, or diets supplemented with cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) or grape seed extract (GSE), or a control diet with electrolysed reduced water (ERW) for 19 d after hatch. Thereafter, chickens were exposed to a temperature of either 34°C continuously for a period of 5 d, or maintained at 24°C, on the same diets. 3. The control broilers exposed to 34°C showed decreased weight gain and feed consumption and slightly increased ROS production and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in skeletal muscle. The chickens exposed to 34°C and supplemented with ERW showed significantly improved growth performance and lower ROS production and MDA contents in tissues than control broilers exposed to 34°C. Following heat exposure, CNSL chickens performed better with respect to weight gain and feed consumption, but still showed elevated ROS production and skeletal muscle oxidative damage. GSE chickens did not exhibit improved performance or reduced skeletal muscle oxidative damage. 4. In conclusion, this study suggests that ERW could partially inhibit ROS-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improve growth performance in broiler chickens under medium-term chronic heat treatment.

  6. Lithuanian mammal fauna review

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    Linas Balciauskas

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Data on Lithuania mammal fauna are presented. From 78 mammal species recorded in Lithuania, 7 were seen only in the 17-18th centuries, two species are extinct. Recent Lithuanian mammal fauna contains 68 species. Five of them are observed occasionally. 63 mammal species are permant inhabitants, 18 included in the Red Data Book, mostly bats and dormice. 8 mammal species were introduced or reintroduced. Population tendencies of game animals are also considered.

  7. Are radiosensitivity data derived from natural field conditions consistent with data from controlled exposures? A case study of Chernobyl wildlife chronically exposed to low dose rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier-Laplace, J; Geras'kin, S; Della-Vedova, C; Beaugelin-Seiller, K; Hinton, T G; Real, A; Oudalova, A

    2013-07-01

    The discrepancy between laboratory or controlled conditions ecotoxicity tests and field data on wildlife chronically exposed to ionising radiation is presented for the first time. We reviewed the available chronic radiotoxicity data acquired in contaminated fields and used a statistical methodology to support the comparison with knowledge on inter-species variation of sensitivity to controlled external γ irradiation. We focus on the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and effects data on terrestrial wildlife reported in the literature corresponding to chronic dose rate exposure situations (from background ~100 nGy/h up to ~10 mGy/h). When needed, we reconstructed the dose rate to organisms and obtained consistent unbiased data sets necessary to establish the dose rate-effect relationship for a number of different species and endpoints. Then, we compared the range of variation of radiosensitivity of species from the Chernobyl-Exclusion Zone with the statistical distribution established for terrestrial species chronically exposed to purely gamma external irradiation (or chronic Species radioSensitivity Distribution - SSD). We found that the best estimate of the median value (HDR50) of the distribution established for field conditions at Chernobyl (about 100 μGy/h) was eight times lower than the one from controlled experiments (about 850 μGy/h), suggesting that organisms in their natural environmental were more sensitive to radiation. This first comparison highlights the lack of mechanistic understanding and the potential confusion coming from sampling strategies in the field. To confirm the apparent higher sensitive of wildlife in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, we call for more a robust strategy in field, with adequate design to deal with confounding factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of topical application of antioxidants and free radical scavengers on protection of hairless mouse skin exposed to chronic doses of ultraviolet B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muizzuddin, N.; Shakoori, A.R. [Univ. of the Punjab, Dept. of Zoology, Cell and Molecular Biology Lab., Lahore (Pakistan); Marenus, K.D. [SUNY at Stonybrook, Stonybrook, NY (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Background/aims: Within the past three decades, there has emerged a greater awareness of the molecular effects of solar rays especially ultraviolet radiation (UV-R), to the extent that the harmful effects of solar radiation are recognized not only by molecular biologists and physicians, but also by the general public. Various sunscreen molecules that effectively block the UVB component of the sun are available; however, a large part of Western populations elicits adverse reactions against chemical sunscreens. This study was designed to observe the protective effect of antioxidants against the damaging effects of chronic UVB exposure of skin in an attempt to introduce antioxidants and free radical scavengers as topical sun protective agents. Methods: Jackson hairless mice were exposed to suberythemal doses of UVB, three times a week, and topically treated with a cream containing the anti-oxidants vitamin E, butylated hydroxytoluene, nordihydroguaradinic acid and vitamin C. Results: Treatment with vehicle alone along with UVB exposure resulted in an increase in epidermal thickness showing a 38%, 77% and 112% increase after 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks, respectively. Chronic UVB exposed skin treated with the material containing free radical scavengers and antioxidants mix (AO mix) exhibited 39%, 73% and 124% thicker epidermis than the untreated control after, respectively, 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks of treatment. The vehicle did not appear to protect skin against UV irradiation, since there appeared to be more (16%) sunburn cells in vehicle treated skin than the untreated, UV exposed skin after 4 weeks of treatment. After 8 weeks and 12 weeks, there were 33% and 36% less sunburn cells in the vehicle treated skin than the untreated, UV exposed skin. The antioxidant mix was significantly effective (P=<0.001) in protecting against UVB irradiation, having 63%, 71% and 79% fewer sunburn cells than the untreated, UV exposed skin af after 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks of

  9. Effect of topical application of antioxidants and free radical scavengers on protection of hairless mouse skin exposed to chronic doses of ultraviolet B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muizzuddin, N.; Shakoori, A.R.; Marenus, K.D.

    1998-01-01

    Background/aims: Within the past three decades, there has emerged a greater awareness of the molecular effects of solar rays especially ultraviolet radiation (UV-R), to the extent that the harmful effects of solar radiation are recognized not only by molecular biologists and physicians, but also by the general public. Various sunscreen molecules that effectively block the UVB component of the sun are available; however, a large part of Western populations elicits adverse reactions against chemical sunscreens. This study was designed to observe the protective effect of antioxidants against the damaging effects of chronic UVB exposure of skin in an attempt to introduce antioxidants and free radical scavengers as topical sun protective agents. Methods: Jackson hairless mice were exposed to suberythemal doses of UVB, three times a week, and topically treated with a cream containing the anti-oxidants vitamin E, butylated hydroxytoluene, nordihydroguaradinic acid and vitamin C. Results: Treatment with vehicle alone along with UVB exposure resulted in an increase in epidermal thickness showing a 38%, 77% and 112% increase after 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks, respectively. Chronic UVB exposed skin treated with the material containing free radical scavengers and antioxidants mix (AO mix) exhibited 39%, 73% and 124% thicker epidermis than the untreated control after, respectively, 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks of treatment. The vehicle did not appear to protect skin against UV irradiation, since there appeared to be more (16%) sunburn cells in vehicle treated skin than the untreated, UV exposed skin after 4 weeks of treatment. After 8 weeks and 12 weeks, there were 33% and 36% less sunburn cells in the vehicle treated skin than the untreated, UV exposed skin. The antioxidant mix was significantly effective (P=<0.001) in protecting against UVB irradiation, having 63%, 71% and 79% fewer sunburn cells than the untreated, UV exposed skin af after 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks of

  10. Lipid metabolism in rat tissues exposed to the chronic effects of γ-irradiation and ubiquinone Q9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novoselova, E.G.

    1992-01-01

    Chronic γ-irradiation of rats with the daily dose of 0.129 Gy activates the synthesis of various classes of lipids in the thymus, spleen and bone marrow cells and induces lipid accumulation in these tissues. Feeding of rats with the antioxidant, ubiquinone Q-9, under conditions of chronic irradiation causes a considerable normalization of lipogenesis and levels of the lipid concentration in the tissues of animals irradiated with the dose of 20 Gy

  11. Exacerbation of N-nitrosodiethylamine Induced Hepatotoxicity and DNA Damage in Mice Exposed to Chronic Unpredictable Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayeem Bilal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress contributes to increased susceptibility to a number of diseases including cancer. The present study was designed to assess the effect of chronic unpredictable stress on N-nitrosodiethylamine induced liver toxicity in terms of in vivo antioxidant status and DNA damage in Swiss albino mice. The animals used in this study were randomized into different groups based on the treatment with N-nitrosodiethylamine or chronic unpredictable stress alone and post-stress administration of N-nitrosodiethylamine. The mice were sacrificed after 12 weeks of treatment, and the status of major enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, liver function markers, lipid peroxidation and the extent of DNA damage were determined in circulation and liver tissues of all the groups. The N-nitrosodiethylamine treated group showed significantly compromised levels of the antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and the liver function markers with enhanced DNA damage as compared to chronic unpredictable stress or control groups. A similar but less typical pattern observed in the chronic unpredictable stress treated mice. All the measured biochemical parameters were significantly altered in the group treated with the combination of chronic unpredictable stress and N-nitrosodiethylamine when compared to controls, or chronic unpredictable stress alone and/or N-nitrosodiethylamine alone treated groups. Thus, exposure to continuous, unpredictable stress conditions even in general life may significantly enhance the hepatotoxic potential of N-nitrosodiethylamine through an increase in the oxidative stress and DNA damage.

  12. DNA damage in nasal and brain tissues of canines exposed to air pollutants is associated with evidence of chronic brain inflammation and neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Maronpot, Robert R; Torres-Jardon, Ricardo; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Schoonhoven, Robert; Acuña-Ayala, Hilda; Villarreal-Calderón, Anna; Nakamura, Jun; Fernando, Reshan; Reed, William; Azzarelli, Biagio; Swenberg, James A

    2003-01-01

    Acute, subchronic, or chronic exposures to particulate matter (PM) and pollutant gases affect people in urban areas and those exposed to fires, disasters, and wars. Respiratory tract inflammation, production of mediators of inflammation capable of reaching the brain, systemic circulation of PM, and disruption of the nasal respiratory and olfactory barriers are likely in these populations. DNA damage is crucial in aging and in age-associated diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. We evaluated apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites in nasal and brain genomic DNA, and explored by immunohistochemistry the expression of nuclear factor NFkappaB p65, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX2), metallothionein I and II, apolipoprotein E, amyloid precursor protein (APP), and beta-amyloid(1-42) in healthy dogs naturally exposed to urban pollution in Mexico City. Nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Forty mongrel dogs, ages 7 days-10 years were studied (14 controls from Tlaxcala and 26 exposed to urban pollution in South West Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC)). Nasal respiratory and olfactory epithelium were found to be early pollutant targets. Olfactory bulb and hippocampal AP sites were significantly higher in exposed than in control age matched animals. Ni and V were present in a gradient from olfactory mucosa > olfactory bulb > frontal cortex. Exposed dogs had (a) nuclear neuronal NFkappaB p65, (b) endothelial, glial and neuronal iNOS, (c) endothelial and glial COX2, (d) ApoE in neuronal, glial and vascular cells, and (e) APP and beta amyloid(1-42) in neurons, diffuse plaques (the earliest at age 11 months), and in subarachnoid blood vessels. Increased AP sites and the inflammatory and stress protein brain responses were early and significant in dogs exposed to urban pollution. Oil combustion PM-associated metals Ni and V were detected in the brain. There was an acceleration of Alzheimer

  13. Effects of acamprosate on attentional set-shifting and cellular function in the prefrontal cortex of chronic alcohol-exposed mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei

    Background: The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) inhibits impulsive and compulsive behaviors that characterize drug abuse and dependence. Acamprosate is the leading medication approved for the maintenance of abstinence, shown to reduce craving and relapse in animal models and human alcoholics. Whether acamprosate can modulate executive functions that are impaired by chronic ethanol exposure is unknown. Here we explored the effects of acamprosate on an attentional set-shifting task, and tested whether these behavioral effects are correlated with modulation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission and intrinsic excitability of mPFC neurons. Methods: We induced alcohol dependence in mice via chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure in vapor chambers and measured changes in alcohol consumption in a limited access 2-bottle choice paradigm. Impairments of executive function were assessed in an attentional set-shifting task. Acamprosate was applied subchronically for 2 days during withdrawal before the final behavioral test. Alcohol-induced changes in cellular function of layer 5/6 pyramidal neurons, and the potential modulation of these changes by acamprosate, were measured using patch clamp recordings in brain slices. Results: Chronic ethanol exposure impaired cognitive flexibility in the attentional set-shifting task. Acamprosate improved overall performance and reduced perseveration. Recordings of mPFC neurons showed that chronic ethanol exposure increased use-dependent presynaptic transmitter release and enhanced postsynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function. Moreover, CIE-treatment lowered input resistance, and decreased the threshold and the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) of action potentials, suggesting chronic ethanol exposure also impacted membrane excitability of mPFC neurons. However, acamprosate treatment did not reverse these ethanol-induced changes cellular function. Conclusion: Acamprosate improved attentional control of ethanol exposed animals

  14. The Antidepressant Agomelatine Improves Memory Deterioration and Upregulates CREB and BDNF Gene Expression Levels in Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress (UCMS-Exposed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esen Gumuslu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Agomelatine, a novel antidepressant with established clinical efficacy, acts as an agonist of melatonergic MT 1 and MT 2 receptors and as an antagonist of 5-HT 2C receptors. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether chronic treatment with agomelatine would block unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS-induced cognitive deterioration in mice in passive avoidance (PA, modified elevated plus maze (mEPM, novel object recognition (NOR, and Morris water maze (MWM tests. Moreover, the effects of stress and agomelatine on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP response element binding protein (CREB messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA levels in the hippocampus was also determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Male inbred BALB/c mice were treated with agomelatine (10 mg/kg, i.p., melatonin (10 mg/kg, or vehicle daily for five weeks. The results of this study revealed that UCMS-exposed animals exhibited memory deterioration in the PA, mEPM, NOR, and MWM tests. The chronic administration of melatonin had a positive effect in the PA and +mEPM tests, whereas agomelatine had a partial effect. Both agomelatine and melatonin blocked stress-induced impairment in visual memory in the NOR test and reversed spatial learning and memory impairment in the stressed group in the MWM test. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that CREB and BDNF gene expression levels were downregulated in UCMS-exposed mice, and these alterations were reversed by chronic agomelatine or melatonin treatment. Thus, agomelatine plays an important role in blocking stress-induced hippocampal memory deterioration and activates molecular mechanisms of memory storage in response to a learning experience.

  15. Methylation changes in muscle and liver tissues of male and female mice exposed to acute and chronic low-dose X-ray-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalchuk, Olga; Burke, Paula; Besplug, Jill; Slovack, Mark; Filkowski, Jody; Pogribny, Igor

    2004-01-01

    The biological and genetic effects of chronic low-dose radiation (LDR) exposure and its relationship to carcinogenesis have received a lot of attention in the recent years. For example, radiation-induced genome instability, which is thought to be a precursor of tumorogenesis, was shown to have a transgenerational nature. This indicates a possible involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in LDR-induced genome instability. Genomic DNA methylation is one of the most important epigenetic mechanisms. Existing data on radiation effects on DNA methylation patterns is limited, and no one has specifically studied the effects of the LDR. We report the first study of the effects of whole-body LDR exposure on global genome methylation in muscle and liver tissues of male and female mice. In parallel, we evaluated changes in promoter methylation and expression of the tumor suppressor gene p16 INKa and DNA repair gene O 6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). We observed different patterns of radiation-induced global genome DNA methylation in the liver and muscle of exposed males and females. We also found sex and tissue-specific differences in p16 INKa promoter methylation upon LDR exposure. In male liver tissue, p16 INKa promoter methylation was more pronounced than in female tissue. In contrast, no significant radiation-induced changes in p16 INKa promoter methylation were noted in the muscle tissue of exposed males and females. Radiation also did not significantly affect methylation status of MGMT promoter. We also observed substantial sex differences in acute and chronic radiation-induced expression of p16 INKa and MGMT genes. Another important outcome of our study was the fact that chronic low-dose radiation exposure proved to be a more potent inducer of epigenetic effects than the acute exposure. This supports previous findings that chronic exposure leads to greater genome destabilization than acute exposure

  16. Effects of chronic exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation on the reproductive performance and outcome of an exposed population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannino, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that low doses of ionizing radiation (cumulative dose less than 5.0 rads/yr) effects the reproductive history and/or outcome of a human population. Medically-related personnel who were exposed to low doses of radiation in the course of their employment were compared with medically-related personnel who were not routinely exposed to ionizing radiation. Each population consisted of 3000 persons from the states of Michigan and Ohio. Reproductive performance, history, and outcome of each sample population was compared statistically. Nineteen congenital defects and 47 postnatal defects were recorded for conceptions of the non-exposed population and 50 congenital defects and 83 postnatal defects were recorded for the exposed group. These groups were further broken down as to whether conception took place before, during, or after exposure and the results statistically analyzed. It was found that the exposure population had greater than expected numbers of postnatal defects and less than expected numbers of normal conceptions

  17. BENEFICIAL EFFECT OF CHRONIC NIMODIPINE TREATMENT ON BEHAVIORAL DYSFUNCTIONS OF AGED RATS EXPOSED TO PERINATAL ETHANOL TREATMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARKEL, E; FELSZEGHY, K; LUITEN, PGM; NYAKAS, C

    1995-01-01

    The long-term effects of prenatal and early postnatal ethanol exposure were assessed in adult (5-month), aged (24-month), and senescent (30-month) rats on non-aggressive intermale social behavior, and on black-white discrimination and spatial learning behaviors. Furthermore, the effects of chronic

  18. Impaired Subset Progression and Polyfunctionality of T Cells in Mice Exposed to Methamphetamine during Chronic LCMV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Uma; Hill, Beth L; Cenna, Jonathan M; Gofman, Larisa; Fernandes, Nicole C; Haldar, Bijayesh; Potula, Raghava

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a widely used psychostimulant that severely impacts the host's innate and adaptive immune systems and has profound immunological implications. T cells play a critical role in orchestrating immune responses. We have shown recently how chronic exposure to METH affects T cell activation using a murine model of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection. Using the TriCOM (trinary state combinations) feature of GemStone™ to study the polyfunctionality of T cells, we have analyzed how METH affected the cytokine production pattern over the course of chronic LCMV infection. Furthermore, we have studied in detail the effects of METH on splenic T cell functions, such as cytokine production and degranulation, and how they regulate each other. We used the Probability State Modeling (PSM) program to visualize the differentiation of effector/memory T cell subsets during LCMV infection and analyze the effects of METH on T cell subset progression. We recently demonstrated that METH increased PD-1 expression on T cells during viral infection. In this study, we further analyzed the impact of PD-1 expression on T cell functional markers as well as its expression in the effector/memory subsets. Overall, our study indicates that analyzing polyfunctionality of T cells can provide additional insight into T cell effector functions. Analysis of T cell heterogeneity is important to highlight changes in the evolution of memory/effector functions during chronic viral infections. Our study also highlights the impact of METH on PD-1 expression and its consequences on T cell responses.

  19. Social stress exacerbates the aversion to painful experiences in rats exposed to chronic pain: the role of the locus coeruleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Lidia; Alba-Delgado, Cristina; Torres-Sanchez, Sonia; Mico, Juan Antonio; Neto, Fani L; Berrocoso, Esther

    2013-10-01

    Stressful experiences seem to negatively influence pain perception through as yet unknown mechanisms. As the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) nucleus coordinates many components of the stress response, as well as nociceptive transmission, we evaluated whether the sensory and affective dimension of chronic neuropathic pain worsens in situations of stress due to adaptive changes of LC neurons. Accordingly, male rats were socially isolated for 5 weeks, and in the last 2 weeks, neuropathic pain was induced by chronic constriction injury. In this situation of stress, chronic pain selectively heightened the animal's aversion to painful experiences (affective pain), as measured in the place escape/avoidance test, although no changes were observed in the sensory dimension of pain. In addition, electrophysiological recordings of LC neurons showed a low tonic but exacerbated nociceptive-evoked activity when the injured paw was stimulated. These changes were accompanied by an increase in tyrosine hydroxylase and gephyrin expression in the LC. Furthermore, intra-LC administration of bicuculline, a γ-aminobutyric acid-A receptor antagonist, attenuated the negative affective effects of pain. These data show that changes in the LC are greater than those expected from the simple summation of each independent factor (pain and stress), revealing mechanisms through which stressors may exacerbate pain perception without affecting the sensorial dimension. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Intra-facility linkage of HIV-positive mothers and HIV-exposed babies into HIV chronic care: rural and urban experience in a resource limited setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Mugasha

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Linkage of HIV-infected pregnant women to HIV care remains critical for improvement of maternal and child outcomes through prevention of maternal-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT and subsequent chronic HIV care. This study determined proportions and factors associated with intra-facility linkage to HIV care and Early Infant Diagnosis care (EID to inform strategic scale up of PMTCT programs. METHODS: A cross-sectional review of records was done at 2 urban and 3 rural public health care facilities supported by the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI. HIV-infected pregnant mothers, identified through routine antenatal care (ANC and HIV-exposed babies were evaluated for enrollment in HIV clinics by 6 weeks post-delivery. RESULTS: Overall, 1,025 HIV-infected pregnant mothers were identified during ANC between January and June, 2012; 267/1,025 (26% in rural and 743/1,025 (74% in urban facilities. Of these 375/1,025 (37% were linked to HIV clinics [67/267(25% rural and 308/758(41% urban]. Of 636 HIV-exposed babies, 193 (30% were linked to EID. Linkage of mother-baby pairs to HIV chronic care and EID was 16% (101/636; 8/179 (4.5%] in rural and 93/457(20.3% in urban health facilities. Within rural facilities, ANC registration <28 weeks-of-gestation was associated with mothers' linkage to HIV chronic care [AoR, 2.0 95% CI, 1.1-3.7, p = 0.019] and mothers' multi-parity was associated with baby's linkage to EID; AoR 4.4 (1.3-15.1, p = 0.023. Stigma, long distance to health facilities and vertical PMTCT services affected linkage in rural facilities, while peer mothers, infant feeding services, long patient queues and limited privacy hindered linkage to HIV care in urban settings. CONCLUSION: Post-natal linkage of HIV-infected mothers to chronic HIV care and HIV-exposed babies to EID programs was low. Barriers to linkage to HIV care vary in urban and rural settings. We recommend targeted interventions to rapidly improve linkage to

  1. Chronic radiation exposure: possibility of studying mutation process in generations based on the established DNA bank of exposed individuals and their offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusinova, Galina G.; Adamova, Galina V.; Dudchenko, Natalya N.; Azizova, Tamara V.; Kurbatov, Andrey V.

    2002-01-01

    Data were summarized on the DNA Bank establishment for workers of the Mayak nuclear facility in Southern Ural, who were exposed to different doses of chronic radiation from γ -rays during the first years of the enterprise operations (1948-1958) and their families. Some workers were exposed to combined radiation (external + internal radiation from incorporated 239 Pu). The DNA Bank was established to store the unique genetic material from these individuals and their offspring for future risk estimation of the late consequences of radiation exposure using modern molecular-genetic technologies. Today, DNA Bank contains genetic material from 1,500 individuals and 218 families. The computer database was generated for the DNA Bank. It included individual medical-demographic, occupational descriptions and doses, quantitative and qualitative DNA data. Literature data on radiation-induced genome instability (variability of hypervariable areas) were also analyzed. Prospects of the DNA Bank establishment are also presented. The work is carried out on extension of the DNA Bank of exposed individuals and their offspring

  2. In vivo evaluation of the potential neurotoxicity of aerosols released from mechanical stress of nano-TiO2 additived paints in mice chronically exposed by inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manixay, S.; Delaby, S.; Gaie-Levrel, F.; Wiart, M.; Motzkus, C.; Bencsik, A.

    2017-06-01

    Engineered Nanomaterials (ENM) provide technical and specific benefits due to their physical-chemical properties at the nanometer scale. For instance, many ENM are used to improve products in the building industry. Nanoscaled titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the most used ENM in this industry. Incorporated in different matrix, cement, glass, paints… TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) provide the final product with anti-UV, air purification and self-cleaning properties, thanks to their photocatalytic activity. However, ageing processes of such products, as photocatalytic paints, during a mechanical stress have been shown to release TiO2 NPs from this matrix associated with sanding dust. Thus, workers who sand painted walls could be exposed to TiO2 NPs through inhalation. As inhalation may lead to a translocation of particulate matter to the brain via olfactory or trigeminal nerves, there is an urgent need for evaluating a potential neurotoxicity. In order to provide new knowledge on this topic, we developed a dedicated experimental set-up using a rodent model exposed via inhalation. The aerosol released from a mechanical stress of photocatalytic paints containing TiO2 NPs was characterized and coupled to an exposition chamber containing group of mice free to move and chronically exposed (2 hours per day for 5 days a week during 8 weeks).

  3. In vivo evaluation of the potential neurotoxicity of aerosols released from mechanical stress of nano-TiO2 additived paints in mice chronically exposed by inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manixay, S; Bencsik, A; Delaby, S; Gaie-Levrel, F; Wiart, M; Motzkus, C

    2017-01-01

    Engineered Nanomaterials (ENM) provide technical and specific benefits due to their physical-chemical properties at the nanometer scale. For instance, many ENM are used to improve products in the building industry. Nanoscaled titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) is one of the most used ENM in this industry. Incorporated in different matrix, cement, glass, paints… TiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) provide the final product with anti-UV, air purification and self-cleaning properties, thanks to their photocatalytic activity. However, ageing processes of such products, as photocatalytic paints, during a mechanical stress have been shown to release TiO 2 NPs from this matrix associated with sanding dust. Thus, workers who sand painted walls could be exposed to TiO 2 NPs through inhalation. As inhalation may lead to a translocation of particulate matter to the brain via olfactory or trigeminal nerves, there is an urgent need for evaluating a potential neurotoxicity. In order to provide new knowledge on this topic, we developed a dedicated experimental set-up using a rodent model exposed via inhalation. The aerosol released from a mechanical stress of photocatalytic paints containing TiO 2 NPs was characterized and coupled to an exposition chamber containing group of mice free to move and chronically exposed (2 hours per day for 5 days a week during 8 weeks). (paper)

  4. Lemna minor plants chronically exposed to ionising radiation: RNA-seq analysis indicates a dose rate dependent shift from acclimation to survival strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoeck, Arne; Horemans, Nele; Nauts, Robin; Van Hees, May; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Blust, Ronny

    2017-04-01

    Ecotoxicological research provides knowledge on ionising radiation-induced responses in different plant species. However, the sparse data currently available are mainly extracted from acute exposure treatments. To provide a better understanding of environmental exposure scenarios, the response to stress in plants must be followed in more natural relevant chronic conditions. We previously showed morphological and biochemical responses in Lemna minor plants continuously exposed for 7days in a dose-rate dependent manner. In this study responses on molecular (gene expression) and physiological (photosynthetic) level are evaluated in L. minor plants exposed to ionising radiation. To enable this, we examined the gene expression profiles of irradiated L. minor plants by using an RNA-seq approach. The gene expression data reveal indications that L. minor plants exposed at lower dose rates, can tolerate the exposure by triggering acclimation responses. In contrast, at the highest dose rate tested, a high number of genes related to antioxidative defense systems, DNA repair and cell cycle were differentially expressed suggesting that only high dose rates of ionising radiation drive L. minor plants into survival strategies. Notably, the photosynthetic process seems to be unaffected in L. minor plants among the tested dose rates. This study, supported by our earlier work, clearly indicates that plants shift from acclimation responses towards survival responses at increasing dose rates of ionising radiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Are radiosensitivity data derived from natural field conditions consistent with data from controlled exposures? A case study of Chernobyl wildlife chronically exposed to low dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier-Laplace, J.; Geras’kin, S.; Della-Vedova, C.; Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Hinton, T.G.; Real, A.; Oudalova, A.

    2013-01-01

    The discrepancy between laboratory or controlled conditions ecotoxicity tests and field data on wildlife chronically exposed to ionising radiation is presented for the first time. We reviewed the available chronic radiotoxicity data acquired in contaminated fields and used a statistical methodology to support the comparison with knowledge on inter-species variation of sensitivity to controlled external γ irradiation. We focus on the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and effects data on terrestrial wildlife reported in the literature corresponding to chronic dose rate exposure situations (from background∼100 nGy/h up to ∼10 mGy/h). When needed, we reconstructed the dose rate to organisms and obtained consistent unbiased data sets necessary to establish the dose rate–effect relationship for a number of different species and endpoints. Then, we compared the range of variation of radiosensitivity of species from the Chernobyl-Exclusion Zone with the statistical distribution established for terrestrial species chronically exposed to purely gamma external irradiation (or chronic Species radioSensitivity Distribution – SSD). We found that the best estimate of the median value (HDR 50 ) of the distribution established for field conditions at Chernobyl (about 100 μGy/h) was eight times lower than the one from controlled experiments (about 850 μGy/h), suggesting that organisms in their natural environmental were more sensitive to radiation. This first comparison highlights the lack of mechanistic understanding and the potential confusion coming from sampling strategies in the field. To confirm the apparent higher sensitive of wildlife in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, we call for more a robust strategy in field, with adequate design to deal with confounding factors. -- Highlights: ► Discrepancy between controlled tests and Chernobyl effects data on wildlife was examined. ► We proposed a method to correct the dosimetry used for Chernobyl wildlife. ► Wildlife from the

  6. Assessment of thyroid system disruption in Rana pipiens tadpoles chronically exposed to UVB radiation and 4-tert-octylphenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, M.C., E-mail: maxinecroteau@hotmail.com [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics (CAREG), Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie Curie Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Davidson, M., E-mail: mdavi089@uottawa.ca [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics (CAREG), Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie Curie Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Duarte-Guterman, P., E-mail: duarte.paula@gmail.com [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics (CAREG), Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie Curie Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Wade, M., E-mail: mike_wade@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Columbine Driveway, Tunney' s Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0K9 (Canada); Popesku, J.T., E-mail: jpopesku@gmail.com [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics (CAREG), Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie Curie Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Wiens, S., E-mail: susannawiens@hotmail.com [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics (CAREG), Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie Curie Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Lean, D.R.S., E-mail: dlean@uottawa.ca [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics (CAREG), Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie Curie Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Trudeau, V.L., E-mail: trudeauv@uottawa.ca [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics (CAREG), Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie Curie Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2009-11-08

    Many studies have considered recent increases in ultraviolet B radiation (UVBR) and endocrine disrupting chemicals polluting the environment as possible contributing factors to the reduction in amphibian populations. It has been demonstrated that exposure of amphibians to estrogenic chemicals or UVBR can affect the timing of larval development and metamorphosis. However, amphibians in the wild are exposed to multiple environmental stressors simultaneously. Therefore, our study examines the effects of UVBR and the estrogenic chemical 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), alone and in combination, on the thyroid system of Rana pipiens tadpoles, which is the main regulator of amphibian metamorphosis. Results demonstrate that thyroid gland histomorphology measurements in Gosner stage 31 tadpoles continuously exposed to UVBR (0.21 W/m{sup 2}) were not different than those measured in animals from the control group. In a separate experiment, tadpoles exposed to environmentally relevant levels of UVBR (0.22 W/m{sup 2}) and/or OP (0.01 nM or 10 nM) exhibited significantly delayed development starting from Gosner stage 29, given that fewer tadpoles developed past stage 29 in these groups. In addition, significantly fewer UVBR-treated tadpoles developed past stage 34 and metamorphosed. Samples were collected from stages 29 and 34 tadpoles for gene expression analysis in tail tissue and measurements of T3 (triiodothyronine) whole body levels (minus tail). UVBR and/or OP exposure did not affect T3 levels in stages 29 and 34 tadpoles. However, a decrease in deiodinase type 2 (D2) or increase in deiodinase type 3 (D3) mRNA levels was observed in groups of tadpoles with slowed developmental rates at those developmental stages. Given that D2 activates and D3 inactivates thyroid hormones (TH), UVBR/OP mediated disruptions in development are likely caused by dysfunctions in the localized metabolism of THs through alterations in the expression of these enzymes in peripheral tissues. This is the

  7. South African red data book - Terrestrial mammals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smithers, RHN

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, 243 species of terrestrial wild mammals are known to occur in the Republic of South Africa. Using the well established IUCN definitions, 42 of these may be considered as exposed to some level of threat of extinction. Three species...

  8. Chronic health effects in people exposed to arsenic via the drinking water: dose-response relationships in review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Takahiko; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Sun Guifan

    2004-01-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) poisoning has become a worldwide public health issue. Most human As exposure occurs from consumption of drinking water containing high amounts of inorganic As (iAs). In this paper, epidemiological studies conducted on the dose-response relationships between iAs exposure via the drinking water and related adverse health effects are reviewed. Before the review, the methods for evaluation of the individual As exposure are summarized and classified into two types, that is, the methods depending on As concentration of the drinking water and the methods depending on biological monitoring for As exposure; certain methods may be applied as optimum As exposure indexes to study dose-response relationship based on various As exposure situation. Chronic effects of iAs exposure via drinking water include skin lesions, neurological effects, hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, diabetes mellitus, and malignancies including skin cancer. The skin is quite sensitive to arsenic, and skin lesions are some of the most common and earliest nonmalignant effects related to chronic As exposure. The increase of prevalence in the skin lesions has been observed even at the exposure levels in the range of 0.005-0.01 mg/l As in drinking waters. Skin, lung, bladder, kidney, liver, and uterus are considered as sites As-induced malignancies, and the skin is though to be perhaps the most sensitive site. Prospective studies in large area of endemic As poisoning, like Bangladesh or China, where the rate of malignancies is expected to increase within the next several decades, will help to clarify the dose-response relationship between As exposure levels and adverse health effects with enhanced accuracy

  9. Production and standing crop of litter and humus in a forest exposed to chronic gamma irradiation for twelve years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armentano, T.V.; Woodwell, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Continuous exposure since 1961 of an oak-pine forest at Brookhaven National Laboratory to chronic gamma irradiation has shown: (1) progressive reduction in litter production from the first year through 1965; (2) greater litter production in 1973 compared to 1965 at exposure rates below 9 R/day primarily because of the prolific sprouting of the oaks, especially Quercus alba; (3) further reduction in litter production in intermediate zones (14-49 R/day) from 1965 to 1973 as a result of replacement of the forest by a Carex pensylvanica mat; (4) increased litter production in the high exposure zone (125 R/day) in 1973 as a result of colonization by adventive species; (5) reduction in the standing crop of litter by 1973 at the lowest exposure rate studied (3.5 R/day) although in 1965 there was no reduction at exposure rates up to 15 R/day; (6) decline in humus content at 4.6 R/day and above with the standing crop in the Carex zone exceeding that of the shrub and damaged forest zones of lower exposures. Both further losses and partial recovery in the production and storage of organic matter have occurred since 1965. These changes constitute a portion of the long-term response of the forest to chronic disturbance. The pattern of response is the result of ecosystem processes that are still not in equilibrium with the chronic disturbance and which were not predictable from short-term studies, even those spanning as much as 4 yr

  10. [Neurologic diagnosis and certification in persons chronically exposed to certain organic solvents in light of personal cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sińczuk-Walczak, H

    1995-01-01

    A clinical picture of selected cases diagnosed or suspected of chronic poisoning by organic solvents such as: Trichlorethylene (TRI), Tetrachlorethylene (PER), Carbon Disulfide (CS2) is presented. Based on examples of diagnosed neurological syndromes, some diagnostic and certification issues concerning occupational diseases of the neurological system, are analysed. An objective assessment of patients' complaints, differentiation between occupational diseases, so called idiopathic diseases of the nervous system, selection of appropropriate diagnostic methods in order to confirm or exclude these diseases belong to essential problems among those discussed.

  11. Effect of chronic irradiation combined with other damaging factors on some morphological systems of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomareva, T.V.; Merkushev, G.N.; Pil'shchuk, E.M.; Bikkulov, R.I.

    1978-01-01

    A model experiment on mice is carried out to study morphofunctional changes that occur in mammals chronically exposed to radiation in doses close to those in occupational exposures of a man. Mice have been exposed to gamma-radiation at dose rates of 6, 16, 40, 120, and 300 mr/day from the time of birth onward throughout lifetime. It is concluded that, where a chronic purulent infection is present, chronic irradiation at the above dose rates, with the exception of 6 mr/day, accelerates the onset of irreversible pathologic changes, in particular of amyloidosis, in immunocompetent organs

  12. Risk assessment of chronic stress at work place and work environment of persons occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation at work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanovic, S.; Ilic, Z.; Spasojevic-Tisma, V.; Milanovic, S.)

    2007-01-01

    Interactions of factors at work and worker's health have been analyzed through indicators of chronic professional stress. The examinees have been persons working with sealed sources of radiation with various professional risks among which we have stressed exposure to different radiation doses. Health professionals (medical doctors, radiologist, technicians) working in radio diagnostic and radiotherapy of oncology deceases have been examined. It was concluded that examinees among the subgroup 'therapy' has higher values of stress indicators expressed through all examined indicators: work motivation, personal opinion of work load, behavioral dysfunctions (smoking, alcoholism, drug abuse), increase incidence of health dysfunctions and general neuroticism of examinees. Obtained results are values for which statistical significant have not been established, so they have certain theoretical and practical importance in the frame research with descriptive nature [sr

  13. Time trends for alendronate prescription practices in women with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and women exposed to systemic glucocorticoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask-Lindemann, Dorthe; Eiken, P; Eskildsen, P

    2013-01-01

    Summary Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and systemic glucocorticoid exposure are well-known risk factors of osteoporosis. We evaluated alendronate prescription practices related to COPD and exposure to systemic corticosteroids from 1996 to 2008 and showed an increasing targeting...... of alendronate treatment in patients with COPD and patients with systemic corticosteroid exposure. Introduction COPD and systemic glucocorticoid exposure are well-known risk factors of osteoporosis and fragility fracture, but osteoporosis is often underdiagnosed and undertreated in these patients. This study...... aims to evaluate alendronate prescription practices related to COPD and/or to exposure to systemic glucocorticoids among Danish women. Methods A total of 388,314 female subjects >50 years old, 64,719 of whom initiated treatment with alendronate, and 323,595 age- and gender-matched controls were...

  14. Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA or Act) prohibits, with certain exceptions, the "take" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas,...

  15. Antidepressant-like effect of Butea superba in mice exposed to chronic mild stress and its possible mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuki, Daishu; Matsumoto, Kinzo; Tanaka, Ken; Thi Le, Xoan; Fujiwara, Hironori; Ishikawa, Tsutomu; Higuchi, Yoshihiro

    2014-10-28

    Butea superba (BS) is a Thai medicinal plant that has been used as a folk medicine to improve physical and mental conditions and to prevent impaired sexual performance in middle-aged or elderly males. We have previously reported that this plant extract could improve cognitive deficits and depression-like behavior in olfactory bulbectomized mice, an animal model of dementia and depression. In this study we examined the effect of BS on depression-like behavior in mice subjected to unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) to clarify the antidepressant-like activity of BS and the molecular mechanism underlying this effect. UCMS mice were administered BS daily (300 mg of dried herb weight/kg, p.o.) or a reference drug, imipramine (IMP, 10 mg/kg, i.p.), 1 week after starting the UCMS procedure. We employed the sucrose preference test and the tail suspension test to analyze anhedonia and depression-like behavior of mice, respectively. Serum and brain tissues of mice were used for neurochemical and immunohistochemical studies. The UCMS procedure induced anhedonia and depression-like behavior, and BS treatment, as well as IMP treatment, attenuated these symptoms. UCMS caused an elevation of serum corticosterone level, an index of hyper-activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, in a manner attenuated by BS and IMP treatment. BS treatment also attenuated UCMS-induced decrease in the expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA, cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and a phosphorylated form of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit NR1, synaptic plasticity-related signaling proteins. Moreover, the UCMS procedure reduced doublecortin-positive cells in the dentate gyrus region of the hippocampus. BS administration reversed these UCMS-induced neurochemical and histological abnormalities. These results suggest that BS can ameliorate chronic stress-induced depression-like symptoms and that the effects of BS are mediated by

  16. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor teneligliptin functions as antioxidant on human endothelial cells exposed to chronic hyperglycemia and metabolic high-glucose memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujadas, Gemma; De Nigris, Valeria; Prattichizzo, Francesco; La Sala, Lucia; Testa, Roberto; Ceriello, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors are widely used in type 2 diabetes. Endothelium plays a crucial role maintaining vascular integrity and function. Chronic exposure to high glucose drives to endothelial dysfunction generating oxidative stress. Teneligliptin is a novel dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor with antioxidant properties. This study is aimed to verify a potential protective action of teneligliptin in endothelial cells exposed to high glucose. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were cultured under normal (5 mmol/L) or high glucose (25 mmol/L) during 21 days, or at high glucose during 14 days followed by 7 days at normal glucose, to reproduce the high-metabolic memory state. During this period, different concentrations of teneligliptin (0.1, 1.0 and 3.0 µmol/L) or sitagliptin (0.5 µmol/L) were added to cells. Ribonucleic acid and protein expression were assessed for antioxidant response, proliferation, apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress markers. Teneligliptin promotes the antioxidant response in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, reducing ROS levels and inducing Nrf2-target genes messenger ribonucleic acid expression. Teneligliptin, but not sitagliptin, reduces the expression of the nicotine amide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase regulatory subunit P22 -phox , however, both blunt the high glucose-induced increase of TXNIP. Teneligliptin improves proliferation rates in human umbilical vein endothelial cells exposed to high glucose, regulating the expression of cell-cycle inhibitors markers (P53, P21 and P27), and reducing proapoptotic genes (BAX and CASP3), while promotes BCL2 expression. Teneligliptin ameliorates high glucose-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress reducing the expression of several markers (BIP, PERK, ATF4, CHOP, IRE1a and ATF6). Teneligliptin has antioxidant properties, ameliorates oxidative stress and apoptotic phenotype and it can overcome the metabolic memory effect, induced by chronic exposure to high

  17. Linking genomic responses of gonads with reproductive impairment in marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) exposed chronically to the chemopreventive and antifouling agent, 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lianguo [Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong SAR (China); Au, Doris W.T. [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR (China); Hu, Chenyan [School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhang, Weipeng [Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong SAR (China); Zhou, Bingsheng [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Cai, Lin [Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong SAR (China); Giesy, John P. [Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, 44 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Zoology, and Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Qian, Pei-Yuan, E-mail: boqianpy@ust.hk [Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Marine medaka were exposed chronically to low-doses of DIM. • Toxicogenomic responses of gonads were profiled at transcript and protein levels. • Molecular initiating events were linked to adverse apical outcomes. • VTG mobilization was blocked by lower abundance of cathepsin enzyme in ovary. • Eggshell proteins were more indicative of reproductive failure than VTG. - Abstract: 3,3′-Diindolylmethane (DIM) has been promoted as an effective chemopreventive and antifouling additive. However, the concurrent risks or side effects of DIM are not fully understood, especially on tissues responsive to estrogen. Therefore, this study employed marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) as a test model to evaluate relative safety and explore mechanisms of toxic action of DIM on development and function of gonad after chronic (28 days) aqueous exposure to relatively low doses (0 μg/L or 8.5 μg/L). Integration of comprehensive toxicogenomic analysis at the transcriptome and proteome levels with apical endpoints, such as production of eggs and swimming performance of larvae, elucidated the molecular linkage in gonad from bottom up along the reproductive adverse outcome pathway. A series of sequential changes at the transcript and protein levels were linked to lesser fecundity and viability of larvae exposed to DIM. Anomalous production of vitellogenin (VTG) and eggshell proteins in testis confirmed the estrogenic potency of DIM. In the ovary, although storage of VTG was greater, lesser expressions of cathepsin enzymes blocked cleavage and incorporation of VTG into oocytes as yolk, which acted together with lower eggshell proteins to inhibit maturation of primary oocyte and thus contributed to impairment of fecundity. Overall, this study demonstrated that exposure to DIM impaired reproductive fitness. Diverse molecular initiating changes in gonads were linked to apical endpoints that could be used in assessment of risks posed by DIM on gametogenesis. In

  18. Pronounced susceptibility to infection by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in mice chronically exposed to lead correlates with a shift to Th2-type immune responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Cabezudo, Maria J.; Ali, Sumaya A.E.; Ullah, Azim; Hasan, Mohammed Y.; Kosanovic, Melita; Fahim, Mohamed A.; Adem, Abdu; Al-Ramadi, Basel K.

    2007-01-01

    Persistent exposure to inorganic lead (Pb) is known to adversely affect the immune system. In the present study, we assessed the effect of chronic Pb exposure on susceptibility to infection by the facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Mice were exposed to 10 mM Pb-acetate in drinking water for ∼ 16 weeks, resulting in a significant level of Pb in the blood (106.2 ± 8.9 μg/dl). Pb exposure rendered mice susceptible to Salmonella infection, manifested by increased bacterial burden in target organs and heightened mortality. Flow cytometric analysis of the splenic cellular composition in normal and Pb-exposed mice revealed no gross alteration in the ratios of B and T lymphocytes or myeloid cells. Similarly, the capacity of B and T cells to upregulate the expression of activation antigens in response to mitogenic or inflammatory stimuli was not hindered by Pb exposure. Analysis of the ability of ex vivo-cultured splenocytes to secrete cytokines demonstrated a marked reduction in IFN-γ and IL-12p40 production associated with Pb exposure. In contrast, secretion of IL-4 by splenocytes of Pb-treated mice was 3- to 3.6-fold higher than in normal mice. The increased capacity to produce IL-4 correlated with a shift in the in vivo anti-Salmonella antibody response from the protective IgG2a isotype to the Th2-induced IgG1 isotype. We conclude that chronic exposure to high levels of Pb results in a state of immunodeficiency which is not due to an overt cytotoxic or immunosuppressive mechanism, but rather is largely caused by a shift in immune responsiveness to Th2-type reactions

  19. Linking genomic responses of gonads with reproductive impairment in marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) exposed chronically to the chemopreventive and antifouling agent, 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lianguo; Au, Doris W.T.; Hu, Chenyan; Zhang, Weipeng; Zhou, Bingsheng; Cai, Lin; Giesy, John P.; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Marine medaka were exposed chronically to low-doses of DIM. • Toxicogenomic responses of gonads were profiled at transcript and protein levels. • Molecular initiating events were linked to adverse apical outcomes. • VTG mobilization was blocked by lower abundance of cathepsin enzyme in ovary. • Eggshell proteins were more indicative of reproductive failure than VTG. - Abstract: 3,3′-Diindolylmethane (DIM) has been promoted as an effective chemopreventive and antifouling additive. However, the concurrent risks or side effects of DIM are not fully understood, especially on tissues responsive to estrogen. Therefore, this study employed marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) as a test model to evaluate relative safety and explore mechanisms of toxic action of DIM on development and function of gonad after chronic (28 days) aqueous exposure to relatively low doses (0 μg/L or 8.5 μg/L). Integration of comprehensive toxicogenomic analysis at the transcriptome and proteome levels with apical endpoints, such as production of eggs and swimming performance of larvae, elucidated the molecular linkage in gonad from bottom up along the reproductive adverse outcome pathway. A series of sequential changes at the transcript and protein levels were linked to lesser fecundity and viability of larvae exposed to DIM. Anomalous production of vitellogenin (VTG) and eggshell proteins in testis confirmed the estrogenic potency of DIM. In the ovary, although storage of VTG was greater, lesser expressions of cathepsin enzymes blocked cleavage and incorporation of VTG into oocytes as yolk, which acted together with lower eggshell proteins to inhibit maturation of primary oocyte and thus contributed to impairment of fecundity. Overall, this study demonstrated that exposure to DIM impaired reproductive fitness. Diverse molecular initiating changes in gonads were linked to apical endpoints that could be used in assessment of risks posed by DIM on gametogenesis. In

  20. Antidepressant-Like Effects of Shuyusan in Rats Exposed to Chronic Stress: Effects on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to investigate antidepressant activities of Shuyusan (a Chinese herb, using a rats model of depression induced by unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS. The administration groups were treated with Shuyusan decoction for 3 weeks and compared with fluoxetine treatment. In order to understand the potential antidepressant-like activities of Shuyusan, tail suspension test (TST and forced swimming test (FST were used as behavioral despair study. The level of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRH, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, corticosterone (CORT and hippocampus glucocorticoid receptor expression were examined. After modeling, there was a significant prolongation of immobility time in administration groups with the TST and FST. High-dose Shuyusan could reduce the immobility time measured with the TST and FST. The immobility time in high-dose herbs group and fluoxetine group was increased significantly compared with the model group. After 3 weeks herbs fed, the serum contents level of CRH, ACTH, and CORT in high-dose herb group was significantly decreased compared to the model group. The result indicated that Shuyusan had antidepressant activity effects on UCMS model rats. The potential antidepressant effect may be related to decreasing glucocorticoid levels activity, regulating the function of HPA axis, and inhibiting glucocorticoid receptor expression in hippocampus.

  1. Effect of epimedium pubescen flavonoid on bone mineral status and bone turnover in male rats chronically exposed to cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shu-guang; Cheng, Ling; Li, Kang-hua; Liu, Wen-He; Xu, Mai; Jiang, Wei; Wei, Li-Cheng; Zhang, Fang-jie; Xiao, Wen-feng; Xiong, Yi-lin; Tian, Jian; Zeng, Chao; Sun, Jin-peng; Xie, Qiang; Lei, Guang-hua

    2012-06-19

    Epimedii herba is one of the most frequently used herbs in formulas that are prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and its main constituent is Epimedium pubescen flavonoid (EPF). However, it is unclear whether EPF during chronic exposure to cigarette smoke may have a protective influence on the skeleton. The present study investigated the effect of EPF on bone mineral status and bone turnover in a rat model of human relatively high exposure to cigarette smoke. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: controls, passive smoking groups and passive smoking rats administered EPF at three dosage levels (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day) in drinking water for 4 months. A rat model of passive smoking was prepared by breeding male rats in a cigarette-smoking box. Bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover markers, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical properties were examined. Smoke exposure decreased BMC and BMD, increased bone turnover (inhibited bone formation and stimulated its resorption), affected bone histomorphometry (increased trabecular separation and osteoclast surface per bone surface; decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, cortical thickness, bone formation rate and osteoblast surface per bone surface), and reduced mechanical properties. EPF supplementation during cigarette smoke exposure prevented smoke-induced changes in bone mineral status and bone turnover. The results suggest that EPF can prevent the adverse effects of smoke exposure on bone by stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone turnover and bone resorption.

  2. [Effects of interleukin-18 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in serum and gingival tissues of rat model with periodontitis exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluates the expression of interleukin-18 (IL-18) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-lα in rat periodontitis model exposed to normoxia and chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) environments. The possible correlation between periodontitis and obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) was also investigated. Methods: Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into four groups: normoxia control, normoxia periodontitis, hypoxia control, and hypoxia periodontitis groups. The periodontitis models were established by ligating the bilateral maxillary second molars and employing high-carbohydrate diets. Rats in hypoxia control and hypoxia periodontitis groups were exposed to CIH treatment mimicking a moderately severe OSAHS condition. All animals were sacrificed after eight weeks, and the clinical periodontal indexes were detected. The levels of IL-18 and HIF-1α in serum and gingival tissues were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The correlation between attachment loss (AL) and the levels of IL-18 and HIF-lα in hypoxia periodontitis group was evaluated. The levels of IL-18 and HIF-lα in hypoxia periodontitis group were significantly higher than that in normoxia periodontitis and hypoxia control groups (Pperiodontal tissues, which is correlated with IL-18 and HIF-lα levels.

  3. The medical management of high risk individuals. Experiences with persons exposed to chronic internal irradiation; Ueber den aerztlichen Umgang mit Hochrisikopersonen. Erfahrungen bei Personen mit chronischer interner Strahlenexposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaick, G. van; Delorme, S. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, E010 - Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The medical management and counseling of persons at high risk due to exposure to chemicals or radiation or due to personal disposition, present an additional challenge for physicians and especially radiologists involved. This article is based on own experiences with patients who had been exposed to Thorotrast. They had been injected with the contrast medium Thorotrast, which was in use world-wide until around 1950. Thorotrast caused a chronic alpha irradiation mainly of the liver (up to 0.4 Gy/a), spleen (1.2 Gy/a) and bone marrow (0.1 Gy/a). For the Thorotrast patients and their physicians the most worrying problem was the risk of primary malignant liver tumors which occurred in more than 20% of the exposed persons, i.e. 100 times more frequently than in a non-exposed control group. The medical and especially radiological experiences with the management of these patients summarize a general aspect of the problem and can be referred to when managing other high risk groups. (orig.) [German] Die aerztliche Fuehrung von Personen, die noch nicht erkrankt sind, aber ein deutlich hoeheres Risiko fuer bestimmte Tumorerkrankungen aufgrund exogener oder endogener Ursachen haben, stellt den Arzt und speziell den diagnostischen Radiologen vor neue Herausforderungen. Dem Beitrag zugrunde liegen die Erfahrungen bei der Betreuung und Beratung so genannter Thorotrastpatienten, d. h. Personen, die nach lange zurueckliegender (vor 1950) intravasaler Injektion eines weltweit eingesetzten Roentgenkontrastmittels zeitlebens einer Alphastrahlung v. a. der Leber (bis 0,4 Gy/a), der Milz (1,2 Gy/a) und des Knochenmarks (0,1 Gy/a) ausgesetzt waren. Fuer die Thorotrastpatienten und die Aerzte stand im Vordergrund die Sorge der Entstehung primaerer, maligner Lebertumoren, die bei mehr als 20% der Betroffenen und damit im Vergleich zu einer Kontrollgruppe 100-fach haeufiger auftraten. Die allgemeinen aerztlichen und speziell radiologischen Erfahrungen sind grundsaetzlicher Art und lassen

  4. Human health risk assessment with spatial analysis: Study of a population chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water from Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navoni, J.A.; De Pietri, D.; Olmos, V.; Gimenez, C.; Bovi Mitre, G.

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous element widely distributed in the environment. This metalloid has proven carcinogenic action in man. The aim of this work was to assess the health risk related to As exposure through drinking water in an Argentinean population, applying spatial analytical techniques in addition to conventional approaches. The study involved 650 inhabitants from Chaco and Santiago del Estero provinces. Arsenic in drinking water (Asw) and urine (UAs) was measured by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Average daily dose (ADD), hazard quotient (HQ), and carcinogenic risk (CR) were estimated, geo-referenced and integrated with demographical data by a health composite index (HI) applying geographic information system (GIS) analysis. Asw covered a wide range of concentration: from non-detectable (ND) to 2000 μg/L. More than 90% of the population was exposed to As, with UAs levels above the intervention level of 100 μg/g creatinine. GIS analysis described an expected level of exposure lower than the observed, indicating possible additional source/s of exposure to inorganic arsenic. In 68% of the locations, the population had a HQ greater than 1, and the CR ranged between 5·10 −5 and 2,1·10 −2 . An environmental exposure area through ADD geo-referencing defined a baseline scenario for space-time risk assessment. The time of residence, the demographic density and the potential health considered outcomes helped characterize the health risk in the region. The geospatial analysis contributed to delimitate and analyze the change tendencies of risk in the region, broadening the scopes of the results for a decision-making process. - Highlights: • Risk assessment (RA) to As using deterministic procedures • Integration of RA through deterministic procedures with GIS tools • Analysis of the time-space behavior of the risk area • Analysis of As effect outcomes through HI • Broaden the scopes of deterministic approaches

  5. Human health risk assessment with spatial analysis: study of a population chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navoni, J A; De Pietri, D; Olmos, V; Gimenez, C; Bovi Mitre, G; de Titto, E; Villaamil Lepori, E C

    2014-11-15

    Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous element widely distributed in the environment. This metalloid has proven carcinogenic action in man. The aim of this work was to assess the health risk related to As exposure through drinking water in an Argentinean population, applying spatial analytical techniques in addition to conventional approaches. The study involved 650 inhabitants from Chaco and Santiago del Estero provinces. Arsenic in drinking water (Asw) and urine (UAs) was measured by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Average daily dose (ADD), hazard quotient (HQ), and carcinogenic risk (CR) were estimated, geo-referenced and integrated with demographical data by a health composite index (HI) applying geographic information system (GIS) analysis. Asw covered a wide range of concentration: from non-detectable (ND) to 2000 μg/L. More than 90% of the population was exposed to As, with UAs levels above the intervention level of 100 μg/g creatinine. GIS analysis described an expected level of exposure lower than the observed, indicating possible additional source/s of exposure to inorganic arsenic. In 68% of the locations, the population had a HQ greater than 1, and the CR ranged between 5·10(-5) and 2,1·10(-2). An environmental exposure area through ADD geo-referencing defined a baseline scenario for space-time risk assessment. The time of residence, the demographic density and the potential health considered outcomes helped characterize the health risk in the region. The geospatial analysis contributed to delimitate and analyze the change tendencies of risk in the region, broadening the scopes of the results for a decision-making process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Changes in the structure and function of the kidney of rats chronically exposed to cadmium. II. histoenzymatic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzoska, M.M.; Moniuszko-Jakoniuk, J. [Dept. of Toxicology, Medical Univ. of Bialystok, Bialystok (Poland); Kaminski, M.; Dziki, M. [Dept. of Histology and Embryology, Silesian School of Medicine, Katowice-Ligota (Poland)

    2004-04-01

    Early effects of cadmium (Cd) on the structure and function of the kidney were studied in an experimental model using rats intoxicated with Cd at the levels of 5 and 50 mg Cd/1 drinking water. The effect of Cd was evaluated histopathologically and biochemically. Damage to the cellular structures was assessed on the basis of histoenzymatic analyses of the activity and localization of indicator enzymes (succinate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphatase, Mg{sup 2+}-dependent adenosine triphosphatase and acid phosphatase). The histochemical observations indicate that Cd causes damage to the organization and function of the nephron. Several structures, i.e. endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondrion, lysosome, cellular and intracellular membrane, as well as their biological functions, i.e. aerobic and anaerobic respiration, transport functions and biochemical processes taking place in the endoplasmic reticulum, were affected. The cytotoxic action of Cd occurs mainly in the tubules and partially also in the glomeruli. The results clearly indicate that Cd damages kidney structurally and functionally even at a relatively low level (5 mg/l) corresponding to human environmental exposure, and they confirm our previous hypothesis that the threshold for the kidney effects of Cd is less than 4.08 {+-} 0.33 {mu}g/g kidney wet weight and higher than 2.40 {+-} 0.15 {mu}g/g. The target for Cd action in the kidney is the tubules (proximal convoluted tubules and straight tubules), and disturbance in their function is the main toxic effect of Cd. Renal glomeruli are also injured, but only partially, whereas in other parts of the nephron the damage is slight. The results, together with observations reported in the first paper of the study, incline us to conclude that humans environmentally exposed to Cd are at risk of tubular damage. (orig.)

  7. Human health risk assessment with spatial analysis: Study of a population chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water from Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navoni, J.A., E-mail: jnavoni@ffyb.uba.ar [Cátedra de Toxicología y Química Legal, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 956, C1113AAD Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); De Pietri, D., E-mail: depietrid@hotmail.com [Dirección Nacional de Determinantes de la Salud e Investigación, Ministerio de Salud de la Nación, Av. 9 de Julio 1925, C1073ABA Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Olmos, V. [Cátedra de Toxicología y Química Legal, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 956, C1113AAD Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gimenez, C. [Cátedra Química Analítica I, Universidad Nacional del Chaco Austral. Cmte., Fernández 755 (3700), Pres. Roque Sáenz Peña, Chaco (Argentina); Bovi Mitre, G. [Grupo INQA (Investigación Química Aplicada) Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional de Jujuy, Alberdi 47, piso 1, San Salvador de Jujuy, Jujuy CP 4600 (Argentina); and others

    2014-11-15

    Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous element widely distributed in the environment. This metalloid has proven carcinogenic action in man. The aim of this work was to assess the health risk related to As exposure through drinking water in an Argentinean population, applying spatial analytical techniques in addition to conventional approaches. The study involved 650 inhabitants from Chaco and Santiago del Estero provinces. Arsenic in drinking water (Asw) and urine (UAs) was measured by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Average daily dose (ADD), hazard quotient (HQ), and carcinogenic risk (CR) were estimated, geo-referenced and integrated with demographical data by a health composite index (HI) applying geographic information system (GIS) analysis. Asw covered a wide range of concentration: from non-detectable (ND) to 2000 μg/L. More than 90% of the population was exposed to As, with UAs levels above the intervention level of 100 μg/g creatinine. GIS analysis described an expected level of exposure lower than the observed, indicating possible additional source/s of exposure to inorganic arsenic. In 68% of the locations, the population had a HQ greater than 1, and the CR ranged between 5·10{sup −5} and 2,1·10{sup −2}. An environmental exposure area through ADD geo-referencing defined a baseline scenario for space-time risk assessment. The time of residence, the demographic density and the potential health considered outcomes helped characterize the health risk in the region. The geospatial analysis contributed to delimitate and analyze the change tendencies of risk in the region, broadening the scopes of the results for a decision-making process. - Highlights: • Risk assessment (RA) to As using deterministic procedures • Integration of RA through deterministic procedures with GIS tools • Analysis of the time-space behavior of the risk area • Analysis of As effect outcomes through HI • Broaden the scopes of deterministic approaches.

  8. Chronic arsenic exposure increases TGFalpha concentration in bladder urothelial cells of Mexican populations environmentally exposed to inorganic arsenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenzuela, Olga L.; Germolec, Dori R.; Borja-Aburto, Victor H.; Contreras-Ruiz, Jose; Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo G.; Razo, Luz M. del

    2007-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a well-established carcinogen and human exposure has been associated with a variety of cancers including those of skin, lung, and bladder. High expression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α) has associated with local relapses in early stages of urinary bladder cancer. iAs exposures are at least in part determined by the rate of formation and composition of iAs metabolites (MAs III , MAs V , DMAs III , DMAs V ). This study examines the relationship between TGF-α concentration in exfoliated bladder urothelial cells (BUC) separated from urine and urinary arsenic species in 72 resident women (18-51 years old) from areas exposed to different concentrations of iAs in drinking water (2-378 ppb) in central Mexico. Urinary arsenic species, including trivalent methylated metabolites were measured by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry method. The concentration of TGF-α in BUC was measured using an ELISA assay. Results show a statistically significant positive correlation between TGF-α concentration in BUC and each of the six arsenic species present in urine. The multivariate linear regression analyses show that the increment of TGF-α levels in BUC was importantly associated with the presence of arsenic species after adjusting by age, and presence of urinary infection. People from areas with high arsenic exposure had a significantly higher TGF-α concentration in BUC than people from areas of low arsenic exposure (128.8 vs. 64.4 pg/mg protein; p < 0.05). Notably, exfoliated cells isolated from individuals with skin lesions contained significantly greater amount of TGF-α than cells from individuals without skin lesions: 157.7 vs. 64.9 pg/mg protein (p = 0.003). These results suggest that TGF-α in exfoliated BUC may serve as a susceptibility marker of adverse health effects on epithelial tissue in arsenic-endemic areas

  9. Cancer Mortality Among Techa Riverside Residents (Southern Urals). Chronically Exposed to Radiation During the Prenatal Period and in Childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostroumova, E. V.; Akleyev, A. V.

    2004-01-01

    Imperfect technology and lack of management and utilization facilities for reprocessing liquid waste released by the Mayak PA resulted in a protracted combined (external and internal) environmental radiation exposure of the population resident on the banks of the Techa River. The followup of 8.640 subjects exposed during the prenatal period and in childhood covered the period of 49 years (1.1.1950-31.12.1998), the total person-years under observation amounted to 222,686. From 1950 through 1998 1,231 death cases were registered in the catchment area (5 raions in Chelyabinsk OBlast through which the Techa flows). In 70 cases death was caused by solid cancers, and in 12 cases by leukemia. Analyses of solid cancer mortality yielded higher rates for men as compared to women (p<0.001). No significant differences in death rates were observed between different ethnic groups (Slavs vs Tartars and Bashkirs). A statistically significant increase in solid cancer mortality with attained age was shown (p<0.001). The age at first exposure was demonstrated to be a factor modifying the solid cancer mortality rate (p=0.049). The highest risk of death from solid cancers was manifested by persons whose exposure started in the prenatal period or at the age under 5 years. There were 4.6 excess cases in this group of 30 observed solid cancer cases, whereas in the group including subjects aged 5 years or older at first exposure only 1 excess case was registered among the 40 observed cancer cases. The obtained leukemia mortality ERR value (CLL excluded) was 7.76, p=0.09. The excess leukemia death was found to be 7.6 out of of 10 observed cases. The analysis performed should be regarded as a preliminary one, taking into account the need to further extend the followup of the cohort and a potential verification of dose estimates in the future. (Author) 11 refs

  10. Chronic radiation injury with mice and dogs exposed to external whole-body irradiation at the Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grahn, D.; Fritz, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    This document describes studies on chronic radiation injury in experimental animals and the extrapolation of derived injury parameters to man. Most of the large studies have used mice given single, weekly, or continuous exposure to cobalt-60 gamma rays, or, more recently, single or weekly exposure to fission neutrons from the JANUS reactor. Primary measures of injury have been life shortening and the associated major pathological changes, particularly neoplastic diseases. Recent and ongoing studies compare the effects of extremely low neutron exposures with gamma irradiations delivered as a single dose or in 60 equal weekly increments. Total neutron doses range from 1 to 40 rads; gamma-ray doses range from 22.5 to 600 rads. Selected genetic studies are performed concurrently to provide a nearly complete matrix of somatic and genetic effects of these low exposures. Studies with the beagle have complemented those with mice and have shown a strong parallelism in the responses of the two species. Present exposures are at 0.3, 0.75, and 1.88 rads per day of continuous gamma irradiation to test a model for the prediction of life shortening in man which has evolved from Argonne's long-term studies. The dog offers the opportunity for longitudinal clinical evaluations that are not possible in the mouse, to develop a broader view of the neoplastic disease spectrum, and to study the mechanisms of radiation induction of leukemia. Diverse statistical approaches have been used to measure excess risk, dose-response functions, and rates of injury and repair. Actuarial statistical methods have been favored since they permit a more direct means of extrapolation to man. 50 refs., 4 figs

  11. Evaluation of behavioural and antioxidant activity of Cytisus scoparius Link in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harisudhan Thanukrishnan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various human diseases have oxidative stress as one of their component. Many herbs have been reported to exhibit properties that combat oxidative stress through their active constituents such as flavonoids, tannins, phenolic compounds etc. Cytisus scoparius (CS Link, (Family: Leguminosae, also called Sarothamnus scoparius, has been shown in invitro experiments to be endowed with anti-diabetic, hypnotic and sedative and antioxidant activity. Therefore this study was carried out to evaluate CS for its anxiolytic, antidepressant and anti-oxidant activity in stressed rats. Methods 60% methanolic extract of CS was quantified for phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau's method. Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS was employed to induce stress in rats. CS (125 and 250 mg/kg, p.o and diazepam (DZM (2 mg/kg, p.o was administered during the 21 day stress exposure period. Anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of CS were assessed in open field exploratory and behavioural despair paradigms, respectively. Plasma glucose and total lipids; endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT; non-enzymic-ascorbic acid and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS levels were measured in brain, kidneys and adrenals using standard protocols to assess the effect of CS. Results Total phenolic content of CS was found to be 8.54 ± 0.16% w/w. CMS produced anxiogenic and depressive behaviour in experimental rats with metabolic disturbance. Significant decrease in SOD, CAT levels and increase in lipid peroxidation level was observed in stressed rats. CS administration for 21 days during stress exposure significantly increased the ambulatory behaviour and decreased the freezing time in open field behaviour. In behavioural despair test no significant alteration in the immobility period was observed. CS also improved SOD, CAT, and ascorbic acid level and controlled the lipid peroxidation in different tissues

  12. Effect of epimedium pubescen flavonoid on bone mineral status and bone turnover in male rats chronically exposed to cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Shu-guang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epimedii herba is one of the most frequently used herbs in formulas that are prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and its main constituent is Epimedium pubescen flavonoid (EPF. However, it is unclear whether EPF during chronic exposure to cigarette smoke may have a protective influence on the skeleton. The present study investigated the effect of EPF on bone mineral status and bone turnover in a rat model of human relatively high exposure to cigarette smoke. Methods Fifty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: controls, passive smoking groups and passive smoking rats administered EPF at three dosage levels (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day in drinking water for 4 months. A rat model of passive smoking was prepared by breeding male rats in a cigarette-smoking box. Bone mineral content (BMC, bone mineral density (BMD, bone turnover markers, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical properties were examined. Results Smoke exposure decreased BMC and BMD, increased bone turnover (inhibited bone formation and stimulated its resorption, affected bone histomorphometry (increased trabecular separation and osteoclast surface per bone surface; decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, cortical thickness, bone formation rate and osteoblast surface per bone surface, and reduced mechanical properties. EPF supplementation during cigarette smoke exposure prevented smoke-induced changes in bone mineral status and bone turnover. Conclusion The results suggest that EPF can prevent the adverse effects of smoke exposure on bone by stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone turnover and bone resorption.

  13. Mental health, life functioning and risk factors among people exposed to frequent natural disasters and chronic poverty in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Amie Alley; Weiss, Bahr; Trung, Lam Tu

    2016-06-01

    People living in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) are at increased risk for exposure to major natural disasters, which places them at increased risk for mental health problems. Evidence is less clear, however, regarding the effects of less severe but more frequent natural disasters, which are likely to increase due to global climate change. To examine the mental health and life functioning, and their predictors, of people living in central coastal Vietnam, an area characterized by high risk for natural disasters and poverty. 1000 individuals were randomly selected from 5 provinces in central coastal Vietnam. Individuals were assessed cross-sectionally for exposure to major storms and other traumatic events (Post-traumatic Diagnostic Scale; PDS), financial stress (Chronic Financial Stress Scale), depression (PHQ-9), anxiety (GAD-7), PTSD (PDS), somatic syndrome (SCL-90-R), alcohol dependency (ICD-10), self-perceived general physical health (SF 36), and functional impairment (PDS life functioning section); caseness was determined using the various measures' algorithms. 22.7% percent of the sample ( n =227) met caseness criteria in one or more mental health domains, and 22.1% ( n =221) reported moderate to severe functional impairment. Lifetime exposure to typhoons and other major storms was 99% ( n =978), with 77% ( n =742) reporting traumatic major storm exposure. Moderate to high levels of financial stress were reported by 30% ( n =297). Frequency of exposure to major storms was not associated with increased risk for mental health problems but traumatic exposure to a major storm was. Overall, the strongest predictor of mental health problems was financial stress. Number of traumatic typhoons and other major storms in turn were significant predictors (r 2 = .03) of financial stress. The primary predictor of alcohol dependency was male gender, highlighting the importance of gender roles in development of alcohol abuse in countries like Vietnam. Individuals

  14. Marine Mammals :: NOAA Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources Habitat Conservation Science and Technology International Affairs Law Enforcement Aquaculture Application Types Apply Online (APPS) Endangered Species Permits Marine Mammal Permits Public Display of : NMFS Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center North Atlantic right whales North Atlantic Right whales

  15. Estimation of health effects of long-term chronic exposure of the low level radiation among children exposed in consequence of the disaster at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomko, E.I.; Romanneko, A.E.; Bomko, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    The low level dose effects have been studied for a long time within a framework of biological effects of radiation exposure. The estimation of the dose level of Ukrainian people who have been exposed in consequence of the Chernobyl accident allowed to consider that one of the critical populations which had been exposed to the low level radiation were children residing on the areas contaminated with radionuclides. The purpose of this work is - to reveal a regularity in morbidity and mortality of the critical populations having been exposed to long-term chronic exposure of the low level doses of radiation in consequences of the Chernobyl accident

  16. Glucoregulatory consequences and cardiorespiratory parameters in rats exposed to chronic-intermittent hypoxia: Effects of the duration of exposure and losartan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor B Fenik

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is associated with glucose intolerance. Both chronic sleep disruption and recurrent blood oxygen desaturations (chronic-intermittent hypoxia – CIH may cause, or exacerbate, metabolic derangements. Methods: To assess the impact of CIH alone, without accompanying upper airway obstructions, on the counter-regulatory response to glucose load and cardiorespiratory parameters, we exposed adult male Sprague-Dawley rats to CIH or sham room air exchanges for 10 h/day for 7, 21 or 35 days and then, one day after conclusion of CIH exposure, conducted intravenous glucose tolerance tests (ivgtt under urethane anesthesia. Additional rats underwent 35 days of CIH followed by 35 days of regular housing, or had 35 day-long CIH exposure combined with daily administration of the type 1 angiotensin II receptor antagonist, losartan (15 mg/kg, p.o., and then were also subjected to ivgtt. Results: Compared with the corresponding control groups, CIH rats had progressively reduced glucose-stimulated insulin release and impaired glucose clearance, only mildly elevated heart rate and/or arterial blood pressure and slightly reduced respiratory rate. The differences in insulin release between the CIH and sham-treated rats disappeared in the rats normally housed for 35 days after 35 days of CIH/sham exposure. The losartan-treated rats had improved insulin sensitivity, with no evidence of suppressed insulin release in the CIH group. Conclusions: In adult rats, the glucose-stimulated insulin release is gradually suppressed with the duration of exposure to CIH, but the effect is reversible. Elimination of the detrimental effect of CIH on insulin release by losartan suggests that CIH disrupts glucoregulation through angiotensin/catecholaminergic pathways. Accordingly, treatment with continuous positive airway pressure may ameliorate pre-diabetic conditions in OSA patients, in part, by reducing sympathoexcitatory effects of recurrent

  17. Dose-rate effects and chronological changes of chromosome aberration rates in spleen cells from mice that are chronically exposed to gamma-ray at low dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Kohda, Atsushi; Ichinohe, Kazuaki; Matsumoto, Tsuneya; Oghiso, Yoichi

    2006-01-01

    Dose-rate effects have not been examined in the low dose-rate regions of less than 60-600 mGy/h. Mice were chronically exposed to gamma-ray at 20 mGy/day (approximately 1 mGy/h) up to 700 days and at 1 mGy/day (approximately 0.05 mGy/h) for 500 days under SPF conditions. Chronological changes of chromosome aberration rates in spleen cells were observed along with accumulated doses at both low dose-rates. Unstable aberrations increased in a biphasic manner within 0-2 Gy and 4-14 Gy in 20 mGy/day irradiation. They slightly increased up to 0.5 Gy in 1 mGy/day irradiation. Chromosome aberration rates at 20 mGy/day and 1 mGy/day were compared at the same total doses of 0.5 Gy and 0.25 Gy. They were 2.0 vs. 0.53, and 1.0 vs. 0.47 respectively. Thus, dose-rate effects were observed in these low dose-rate regions. (author)

  18. Down-regulation of vascular PPAR-γ contributes to endothelial dysfunction in high-fat diet-induced obese mice exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanan; Zhang, Chunlian; Li, Haiou; Hou, Jingdong

    2017-10-14

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), is associated with endothelial dysfunction. The prevalence of OSA is linked to an epidemic of obesity. CIH has recently been reported to cause endothelial dysfunction in diet-induced obese animals by exaggerating oxidative stress and inflammation, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. PPAR-γ, a ligand-inducible transcription factor that exerts anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, is down-regulated in the peripheral tissues in diet-induce obesity. We tested the hypothesis that down-regulation of vascular PPAR-γ in diet-induced obesity enhances inflammation and oxidative stress in response to CIH, resulting in endothelial dysfunction. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD) or a low-fat diet (LFD) and simultaneously exposed to CIH or intermittent air for 6 weeks. An additional HFD group received a combination of CIH and PPAR-γ agonist pioglitazone for 6 weeks. Endothelial-dependent vasodilation was impaired only in HFD group exposed to CIH, compared with other groups, but was restored by concomitant pioglitazone treatment. Molecular studies revealed that vascular PPAR-γ expression and activity were reduced in HFD groups, compared with LFD groups, but were reversed by pioglitazone treatment. In addition, CIH elevated vascular expression of NADPH oxidase 4 and dihydroethidium fluorescence, and increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β in both LFD and HFD groups, but these increases was significantly greater in HFD group, along with decreased vascular eNOS activity. Pioglitazone treatment of HFD group prevented CIH-induced changes in above molecular markers. The results suggest that HFD-induced obesity down-regulates vascular PPAR-γ, which results in exaggerated oxidative stress and inflammation in response to CIH, contributing to endothelial dysfunction. This finding may provide new insights into the mechanisms by which OSA

  19. Detection of genomic instability in descendants of male mice exposed to chronic low-level gamma-radiation using the test 'adaptive response'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozanova, O.M.; Zaichkina, S.I.; Akhmadieva, A.; Aptikaeva, G.F.; Klokov, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The goal of the present study was to examine whether the genomic instability can be revealed in vivo using the test 'adaptive response' (AR). Two-month-old BALB/C male mice were subjected to chronic irradiation in the gamma-field with a dose of 0.1 Gy (0.01 Gy/day) and a dose of 0.5 Gy (0.01 and 0.05 Gy/day). Control animals were kept under similar conditions but without irradiation. Fifteen days after the irradiation, males from the irradiated and control groups were mated in separate cages with unirradiated females for 2 weeks. The males, descendants from irradiated and unirradiated parents, at an age of two months were subjected to additional irradiation with a dose of 1.5 Gy. To reveal the genetic instability using the AR test, another group of males, the descendants from irradiated and unirradiated parents, were exposed to acute irradiation by the scheme of AR: with an adapting dose (D1) of 0.1 Gy (0.125 Gy/min) followed after a day by a challenging dose (D2) of 1.5 Gy (0.47 Gy/min). After 28 h, the animals of all groups were killed. Bone marrow specimens for calculating micronuclei (MN) in polychromatophyl erythrocytes (PCE) were prepared. It was found that in descendants that resulted from unirradiated parents and the parents irradiated with a dose of 0.1 Gy, the percentages of PCE with injuries were nearly equal. Upon irradiation of parents with a dose of 0.5 Gy, the percentage of PCE with MN in descendants increased. The examination of radiosensitivity of descendants from irradiated parents showed that the percentage of PCE with MN decreased three-to-fourfold (depending on the dose of irradiation of the parents) compared to descendants from unirradiated parents. If the descendants from exposed parents were irradiated by the scheme of AR, no AR was observed. Thus, the experimental data indicated that, it is possible to detect the transition of gamma-radiation-induced genomic instability in sex cells of male parents into somatic cells of mice (F1

  20. Laying performance, digestibility and plasma hormones in laying hens exposed to chronic heat stress as affected by betaine, vitamin C, and/or vitamin E supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Youssef A; Abd El-Hamid, Abd El-Hamid E; Abedalla, Ahmed A; Berika, Marfat A; Al-Harthi, Mohammed A; Kucuk, Osman; Sahin, Kazim; Abou-Shehema, Baha M

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress had a negative effect on laying hens' performance, thus this research was to study the influences of betaine (Bet, 1000 mg/kg betaine), vitamin C (VC, 200 mg/kg ascorbic acid), and vitamin E (VE, 150 mg/kg α-Tocopherol acetate) and their possible combinations on egg production, digestibility of nutrients, plasma hormones and reproductive organs of dual-purpose hens exposed to chronic heat stress. Two hundred and eighty eight hens and thirty-six cocks from 32 to 48 weeks of age were divided into nine treatment groups of four replicates, each containing eight hens and one cock. One group was kept under thermo-natural condition and the eight others were kept under chronic heat stress (CHS). One of these eight was used as a negative control, while the others were supplemented with VC, VE and/or betaine and their possible combinations. Body weights, laying rate, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio in hens reared under CHS rooster without any supplementation during 32 to 48 weeks of impairment (P = 0.0052) were recorded. Hens reared under heat stress and fed a diet supplemented with either Bet, VC, VE or combination of the supplements increased production traits. However, hens supplemented with VC showed the greatest production traits. Plasma glucose, estradiol-17 (E2), progesterone (P4), tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) decreased in hens reared under CHS and fed a diet with no supplementation compared to the other treatments (P = 0.001). Liver weights, spleen weights, thyroid gland weights, ovary weights, oviduct weights and oviduct lengths were lowest in hens reared under CHS and fed a diet with no supplementation (P = 0.0480). In conclusion, dual purpose hens reared under CHS and supplemented with VC at 200 mg/kg diet and Bet at 1000 mg/kg enhanced the laying performance and combated CHS.

  1. Louisiana ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for terrestrial mammals in Louisiana. Vector polygons in this data set represent terrestrial mammal...

  2. Osteotoxicity after chronic dietary administration of 13-CIS-retinoic acid, retinyl palmitate or selenium in mice exposed to tumor initiation and promotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, K.S.; Gensler, H.L.; Watson, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    In view of the clinical trials of retinoids as therapeutic agents for premalignant skin lesions, a radiographic study was undertaken to measure skeletal toxicities after chronic dietary administration of retinoids in mice exposed to tumor initiation and promotion. CD-1 mice were initiated with 0.15 moles of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and promoted twice daily with 8 nmoles of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate for 23 weeks. Diets were supplemented with 60 IU, 200 IU, or 700 IU or retinyl palmitate (RP) per g diet. After 5 weeks, the 700 IU of RP/g diet was lowered to 350 IU/g diet. Administration of these diets to mice during the 23 weeks of tumor promotion results in a 0-fold, 2-fold, or 10-fold increase in bone fractures, respectively. Osteoporotic bone lesions identified on radiographs rose 0-fold, 0-fold, and 10-fold at the respective doses, whereas metaphyseal flares increased O-fold, 1.4-fold, and 3.6-fold. Bone deformities was augmented O-fold, 1.8-fold and 2.9-fold at the respective doses. Addition of selenium did not alter the bone toxicity of RP. 13-cis-retionic acid (CRA) was less toxic at 700 IU/g diet than was RP at that dose, as evidence by the death of 12 of 70 mice by the 6th week of dietary RP and no deaths in the 35 mice fed 700 IU CRA/g diet for 23 weeks. CRA at 700 IU/g diet resulted in 3/4 as many osteoporotic bones, 1/3 as many bone fractures, 4/5 as many metaphyseal flares, and a similar number of bone deformities as mice fed 700/350 IU/g diet. At the dose of 200 IU/g food, osterotoxicities were similar in the mice fed diets supplemented with RP and CRA

  3. Carnitine biosynthesis in mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaz, Frédéric M.; Wanders, Ronald J. A.

    2002-01-01

    Carnitine is indispensable for energy metabolism, since it enables activated fatty acids to enter the mitochondria, where they are broken down via beta-oxidation. Carnitine is probably present in all animal species, and in numerous micro-organisms and plants. In mammals, carnitine homoeostasis is

  4. The Mammals of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husson, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    The knowledge of the fauna of Suriname is of essential importance in the study of the neotropical Mammalia. The first publications containing information on mammals of Suriname appeared very early in the history of European exploration of South America. Such publications were relatively numerous in

  5. The Mammals of the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1984, 19(4). Book Review. The Mammals of the. Southern Mrican. Subregiol1. Reay H.N. Smithers. University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 1983. 736 pp. Price RIOO. A major new work ... of wild horses with separate profIles of two subspecies of mountain ... broader problems of ecological adaptation and evolutionary history which ...

  6. 76 FR 76949 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ...-XR52 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric.... 14534 is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216...

  7. 75 FR 68605 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ...-XX23 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... permit to conduct research on marine mammals. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are available... applicant. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of...

  8. 77 FR 2512 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ...-XA905 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Dorian Houser, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal Foundation, 2240 Shelter Island Drive, 200, San Diego, CA... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended...

  9. 77 FR 14352 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...-XB065 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  10. 75 FR 77616 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    .... 14334] Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  11. Physiological Monitoring in Diving Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Physiological Monitoring in Diving Mammals Andreas...825-2025 email: andreas.fahlman@tamucc.edu Peter L. Tyack School of Biology Sea Mammal Research Unit Scottish Oceans Institute...OBJECTIVES This project is separated into three aims: Aim 1: Develop a new generation of tags/data logger for marine mammals that will

  12. Chronic toxicity test with sea urchin Echinometra lucunter and Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea, exposed to light-stick - flag paternoster used for longline surface fishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Cesar-Ribeiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the chronic toxicity of a mixture of light-stick chemicals and water was tested. The light-stick is used in fishery activities to catch swordfish. The tubes were collected on the beaches of the Costa dos Coqueiros - BA, Brazil, in the period from 14th to 31st July 2007. The method used was a short chronic toxicity test where embryos of the sea urchins Echinometra lucunter and Lytechinus variegatus were exposed to a stock solution consisting of the supernatant formed from a mixture of sea water and the orange-colored light-stick chemical. After a preliminary test, concentrations defined were 0.002, 0.003, 0.01, 0.02, 0.1, 1.0% of stock solution. The final test ran for 36 hours for E. Lucunter and 24 hours for L. variegatus with 4 replicates for each concentration. The value of EC50 - 36h was 0.062% with confidence limits ranging from 0.042 to 0.079% and the EC50 - 24h was 0.011% with confidence limits ranging from 0.009 to 0.014%, i.e., the chemical mix present in the light-stick is potentially toxic. So, as these flags are commonly used for fishing there is potential danger in their disposal in the open ocean.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade crônica da água do mar em contato com o líquido contido no light-stick, sinalizador utilizado em pesca de espinhel de superfície para a captura de espadarte. Os tubos foram coletados nas praias da Costa dos Coqueiros - BA, no período de 14 a 31 de Julho de 2007. O método utilizado para a verificação da toxicidade crônica foi o teste de curta duração com embriões de ouriço-do-mar Echinometra lucunter e Lytechinus variegatus, os ensaios foram realizados com solução estoque que consiste do sobrenadante formado a partir de uma mistura de água do mar com o líquido do sinalizador de coloração laranja. Após um teste preliminar as concentrações definidas foram 0.002; 0.003; 0.01; 0.02; 0.1; 1.0%. O teste definitivo teve duração de 36 horas para E. lucunter e 24

  13. Sex differences in the rapid and the sustained antidepressant-like effects of ketamine in stress-naïve and "depressed" mice exposed to chronic mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschelli, A; Sens, J; Herchick, S; Thelen, C; Pitychoutis, P M

    2015-04-02

    During the past decade, one of the most striking discoveries in the treatment of major depression was the clinical finding that a single infusion of a sub-anesthetic dose of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine produces a rapid (i.e. within a few hours) and long-lasting (i.e. up to two weeks) antidepressant effect in both treatment-resistant depressed patients and in animal models of depression. Notably, converging clinical and preclinical evidence support that responsiveness to antidepressant drugs is sex-differentiated. Strikingly, research regarding the antidepressant-like effects of ketamine has focused almost exclusively on the male sex. Herein we report that female C57BL/6J stress-naïve mice are more sensitive to the rapid and the sustained antidepressant-like effects of ketamine in the forced swim test (FST). In particular, female mice responded to lower doses of ketamine (i.e. 3mg/kg at 30 min and 5mg/kg at 24h post-injection), doses that were not effective in their male counterparts. Moreover, tissue levels of the excitatory amino acids glutamate and aspartate, as well as serotonergic activity, were affected in a sex-dependent manner in the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus, at the same time-points. Most importantly, a single injection of ketamine (10mg/kg) induced sex-dependent behavioral effects in mice subjected to the chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression. Intriguingly, female mice were more reactive to the earlier effects of ketamine, as assessed in the open field and the FST (at 30 min and 24h post-treatment, respectively) but the antidepressant potential of the drug proved to be longer lasting in males, as assessed in the splash test and the FST (days 5 and 7 post-treatment, respectively). Taken together, present data revealed that ketamine treatment induces sex-dependent rapid and sustained neurochemical and behavioral antidepressant-like effects in stress-naïve and CMS-exposed C57BL/6J mice. Copyright © 2015 IBRO

  14. Toxicology of Marine Mammals: New Developments and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijs, Liesbeth; Zaccaroni, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    It is widely recognized that marine mammals are exposed to a wide variety of pollutants, with a weight of evidence indicating impacts on their health. Since hundreds of new chemicals enter the global market every year,the methods, approaches and technologies used to characterize pollution levels or impacts are also in a constant state of flux. However, legal and ethical constraints often limit the type and extent of toxicological research being carried out in marine mammals. Nevertheless, new and emerging in vivo, in vitro as well as in silico research opportunities abound in the field of marine mammal toxicology. In the application of findings to population-, species-, or habitat-related risk assessments, the identification of causal relationships which inform source apportionment is important. This, in turn, is informed by a comprehensive understanding of contaminant classes, profiles and fate overspace and time. Such considerations figure prominently in the design and interpretation of marine mammal (eco)-toxicology research. This mini-review attempts to follow the evolution behind marine mammal toxicology until now,highlight some of the research that has been done and suggest opportunities for future research. This Special Issue will showcase new developments in marine mammal toxicology, approaches for exposure-effect research in risk assessment as well as future opportunities.

  15. Effect of Schizandra chinensis lignans on cell division in the corneal epithelium and tongue of albino rats exposed to chronic cold stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mel'nik, E.I.; Lupandin, A.V.; Timoshin, S.S.

    1985-01-01

    The authors study the possibility of correcting cellular manifestations of disadaptation following chronic exposure to cold stress by means of preparations of Sch. chinensis. The model of chronic stress was cooling male albino rats daily for 1.5 h to a temperature of 28-30 C for 28 days. Since differences between levels of proliferation in intact animals and in the rats receiving 1.9% ethanol solution were absent, values obtained in the group of intact animals are presented in a table as the control. The animals underwent euthanasia 48 hours after the final exposure to the cold. The rats received an injection of tritium-thymidine one hour before sacrifice. It is shown that the results confirm those in previous studies of stimulation of DNA synthesis and mitotic activity in the corneal and lingual epithelium of albino rats during chronic exposure to stress

  16. Mammal Evolution, an mustrated Guide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mammal Evolution, an mustrated Guide. R.J.G. Savage and M.R. Long. British Museum of Natural ... structural anatomy of fossils can be related to their probable function. The body of the text discusses the ... gnawers, rooters and browsers, mammals on island continents, hoofed herbivores and ftnally primate evolution,.

  17. Low-exposure tritium radiotoxicity in mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of tritium radiotoxicity involving chronic 3 H0H exposures in mammals demonstrate in both mice and monkeys that biological effects can be measured following remarkably low levels of exposure - levels in the range of serious practical interest to radiation protection. These studies demonstrate also that deleterious effects of 3 H beta radiation do not differ significantly from those of gamma radiation at high exposures. In contrast, however, at low exposures tritium is significantly more effective than gamma rays, rad for rad, by a factor approaching 3. This is important for hazard evaluation and radiation protection because knowledge concerning biological effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure has come mainly from gamma-ray data; and predictions based on gamma-ray data will underestimate tritium effects - especially at low exposures - unless the RBE is fully taken into account

  18. Changes in gene expression in chronic allergy mouse model exposed to natural environmental PM2.5-rich ambient air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yuhui; Xu, Zhaojun; Fan, Erzhong; Li, Ying; Miyake, Kunio; Xu, Xianyan; Zhang, Luo

    2018-04-20

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution has been associated with an increase in the incidence of chronic allergic diseases; however, the mechanisms underlying the effect of exposure to natural ambient air pollution in chronic allergic diseases have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the cellular responses induced by exposure to natural ambient air pollution, employing a mouse model of chronic allergy. The results indicated that exposure to ambient air pollution significantly increased the number of eosinophils in the nasal mucosa. The modulation of gene expression profile identified a set of regulated genes, and the Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid cells1(TREM1) signaling canonical pathway was increased after exposure to ambient air pollution. In vitro, PM2.5 increased Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (Nod1) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway activation in A549 and HEK293 cell cultures. These results suggest a novel mechanism by which, PM2.5 in ambient air pollution may stimulate the innate immune system through the PM2.5-Nod1-NF-κB axis in chronic allergic disease.

  19. High prevalence of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in chronic renal failure patients exposed to gadodiamide, a gadolinium-containing magnetic resonance contrast agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydahl, Casper; Thomsen, Henrik S; Marckmann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a serious disease affecting renal failure patients. It may be caused by some gadolinium (Gd)-containing contrast agents, including gadodiamide. The study aimed at estimating the prevalence of NSF after gadodiamide exposure for patients with chronic...

  20. Cancer incidence among a cohort of subjects exposed to low-dose rate chronic radiation exposure in utero and after birth in the techa riverbank villages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostroumova, E.V.; Akleyev, A.V.; Akleyev, A.V.; Hall, P.

    2003-01-01

    As a result of releases of liquid radioactive waste by the Mayak Production Association (PA) into the Techa River since 1949 till 1956 the population of the Riverside villages was exposed to a protracted effect of combined (external and internal) radiation. The 1-st-generation offspring of exposed residents born on 01.01.1950 and later were exposed both in utero and after birth. In all, 46 cancer cases, including 4 cases of leukemia, were registered among the study cohort members numbering 7,890 subjects born in the Techa Riverside villages in the Chelyabinsk province over the period since 1950 till 1998. No significant differences were noted in cancer incidence rates between men and women. Cancer incidence in the offspring's cohort was by 30-35% higher compared with the unexposed population of the USSR and Russia, the differences, however, are statistically insignificant. No influence of the parents total gonadal dose on cancer development in offspring was observed. The positive dose-effect dependence of cancer incidence on both antenatal and postnatal exposure was traced

  1. The efficiency of tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia exposed to ionizing radiation due to the Chornobyl nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrenko, Yi.V.; Fedorenko, V.G.; Shlyakhtichenko, T.Yu.; And Others

    2014-01-01

    Additional chromosomal abnormalities as well as special pattern of BCR/ABL transcripts were not revealed in CML patients exposed to ionizing radiation. Complete cytogenetic response (CCR) was shown in 50 and 48.5 % of patients from study and comparison group, respectively. Major molecular response (MMR) was achieved in 20 % of patients with radiation exposure in anamnesis and in 27.6 % of patients from comparison group. The vast majority of CCR and MMR was reached in patients with the pretreatment term up to 6 months, when imatinib was used as a first line therapy. There were less cases of primary imatinib resistance in the same group of patients. In CML patients who had a history of radiation exposure, secondary resistance developed more frequently than in the comparison group and was 25 %. Laboratory monitoring based on the registration of CCR and MMR demonstrated high efficiency of TKI in the CML treatment of patients, exposed due to Chornobyl accident. Extension of pretreatment term leads to the loss of TKI therapy efficiency and increases the likelihood of primary resistance. CML patients exposed to ionizing radiation develop secondary resistance more often than CML patients without radiation exposure in anamnesis

  2. A mathematical modeling approach to risk assessment for normal and anemic women chronically exposed to carbon monoxide from biomass-fueled cookstoves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Margaret C.; Erupaka-Chada, Kinnera

    2011-01-01

    In developing countries, the chronic exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) from biomass-fueled cookstoves may pose a significant health risk for women who use these stoves, especially for those with underlying clinical conditions that impair tissue oxygenation, e.g., anemia and coronary artery disease. CO concentrations measured in the vicinity of these cookstoves often exceed World Health Organization (WHO) indoor air guidelines for an 8-h average (9 ppm) and a 1-h maximum (26 ppm). Carboxyhemoglobin levels, reported infrequently because they are difficult to obtain, often exceed the WHO threshold of 2.5%. Despite this evidence, specific adverse effects have not yet been linked with chronic CO exposures in these women. Furthermore, anemia, which is prevalent in populations that use biomass fuels, could exacerbate the adverse effects of chronic CO exposure. Because of the difficulties inherent in conducting prospective studies to address this issue, we used a mathematical model to calculate the effects of reported CO levels and exercise on carboxyhemoglobin for women living in 1) Guatemalan villages at altitudes of 4,429–4,593 ft, and 2) coastal villages in Pakistan. In addition, we used the model to calculate the effects of CO exposures in women with moderate to severe anemia on specific physiological parameters (carboxyhemoglobin, carboxymyoglobin, cardiac output, and tissue Po2) at exercise levels representing the activities in which these women would be engaged. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of using a mathematical model to predict the physiologic responses to CO and also demonstrate that chronic anemia is a critically important determinant of CO toxicity in these women. PMID:21596914

  3. Expression of selected pathway-marker genes in human urothelial cells exposed chronically to a non-cytotoxic concentration of monomethylarsonous acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer has been associated with chronic arsenic exposure. Monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III] is a metabolite of inorganic arsenic and has been shown to transform an immortalized urothelial cell line (UROtsa at concentrations 20-fold less than arsenite. MMA(III was used as a model arsenical to examine the mechanisms of arsenical-induced transformation of urothelium. A previous microarray analysis revealed only minor changes in gene expression at 1 and 2 months of chronic exposure to MMA(III, contrasting with substantial changes observed at 3 months of exposure. To address the lack of information between 2 and 3 months of exposure (the critical period of transformation, the expression of select pathway marker genes was measured by PCR array analysis on a weekly basis. Cell proliferation rate, anchorage-independent growth, and tumorigenicity in SCID mice were also assessed to determine the early, persistent phenotypic changes and their association with the changes in expression of these selected marker genes. A very similar pattern of alterations in these genes was observed when compared to the microarray results, and suggested that early perturbations in cell signaling cascades, immunological pathways, cytokine expression, and MAPK pathway are particularly important in driving malignant transformation. These results showed a strong association between the acquired phenotypic changes that occurred as early as 1–2 months of chronic MMA(III exposure, and the observed gene expression pattern that is indicative of the earliest stages in carcinogenesis.

  4. Alabama ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for dolphins and manatees in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine mammal distribution...

  5. American Samoa ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for whales and dolphins in American Samoa. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine mammal...

  6. Epigenetic memory in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe eMigicovsky

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic information can be passed on from one generation to another via DNA methylation, histone modifications and changes in small RNAs, a process called epigenetic memory. During a mammal’s lifecycle epigenetic reprogramming, or the resetting of most epigenetic marks, occurs twice. The first instance of reprogramming occurs in primordial germ cells and the second occurs following fertilization. These processes may be both passive and active. In order for epigenetic inheritance to occur the epigenetic modifications must be able to escape reprogramming. There are several examples supporting this non-Mendelian mechanism of inheritance including the prepacking of early developmental genes in histones instead of protamines in sperm, genomic imprinting via methylation marks, the retention of CenH3 in mammalian sperm and the inheritance of piwi-associated interfering RNAs. The ability of mammals to pass on epigenetic information to their progeny provides clear evidence that inheritance is not restricted to DNA sequence and epigenetics plays a key role in producing viable offspring.

  7. Effects of acute caffeine on anxiety-related behavior in rats chronically exposed to the drug, with some evidence of possible withdrawal-reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert N; Hancock, Nicola J

    2017-03-15

    For 20days male and female PVG/c hooded rats were provided with caffeinated (approximately 50mg/kg/day) or unadulterated drinking water, and then their anxiety-related behavior was observed in an open field and elevated plus maze. Their choices of a brightness change were also observed in a Y maze to assess any caffeine effects on spatial memory. 24h later, all rats were tested again following an intraperitoneal injection of 50mg/kg acute caffeine, or vehicle. Earlier chronic caffeine decreased ambulation, walking, rearing, center occupancy and increased immobility in the open field thereby suggesting increased anxiety. However, occupancy of the plus-maze open arms and the Y-maze novel arm were increased by caffeine for male rats, but decreased for females probably because of sex differences in control levels of the response rather than to drug effects on anxiety and memory respectively. Following caffeine withdrawal, acute caffeine had the opposite effect to chronic treatment namely, increased open-field ambulation, walking, center occupancy and decreased immobility and defecation for caffeine-naïve rats that were suggestive of decreased anxiety. Similar but more consistent effects (plus decreased emergence latencies from a darkened start box into the open field) also typified the caffeine-experienced rats which in this case may have been accentuated by caffeine withdrawal-reversal. There was no evidence of either chronic or acute caffeine affecting spatial memory measured in the Y maze. There were also examples of lower overall activity and higher anxiety in male rats, than in females, and some sex-dependent caffeine effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ground Water is a Chronic Source of Chloride to Surface Water of an Urban Stream Exposed to Road Salt in a Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, P.; Doheny, E.; Kaushal, S.; Groffman, P.; Striz, E.

    2006-05-01

    Recent evidence from the mid-Atlantic suggests that freshwater supplies are threatened by chronic chloride inputs from road salts applied to improve highway safety. Elevated chloride levels also may limit the ability of aquatic systems to microbially process nitrate nitrogen, a nutrient whose elevated levels pose human and ecological threats. Understanding the behavior of chloride in urban watersheds where road salts are applied is critical to predicting subsequent impacts to ecosystem health and drinking water supplies. Here we report on a long-term study of water chemistry in Minebank Run, a recently restored stream in an urban watershed of Towson, MD that receives chronic chloride inputs from the 695 Beltway highway and connecting arteries. Chloride, sodium, and specific conductance were greatly elevated in the both surface water and ground water of Minebank Run, spiking in correspondence to road salt application in the winter. Chloride levels were consistently higher in ground water of the bank side of a minor roadway and downstream of the 695 Beltway. Surface water chloride levels remained elevated throughout the year apparently because ground water continued to supply surface water with chloride even after road salt application ceased. Thus, ground water may represent a chronic source of chloride to surface water, thereby contributing to the upward trend in freshwater salinity in urbanizing areas. Stream susceptibility to road salt impacts may depend upon ground water hydrology and stream geomorphology. However, geomorphic stream restoration practices widely used in the mid-Atlantic are not designed to address salinity effects. Source control of road salts may be necessary to reduce environmental risk.

  9. 76 FR 25308 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ...-XA165 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Jennifer Burns, Ph.D., University of Alaska Anchorage, Biology Department, 3101 Science Circle, Anchorage, AK, has been issued a permit to conduct [[Page 25309

  10. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section 14.18....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully taken a marine mammal on the high seas and who is authorized to import such marine mammal in accordance...

  11. Differential diagnosis of neuroses and vegetative dystonias among medical personnel exposed to chronic effect of occupational low dose irradiation. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonkova, A.

    1987-01-01

    An ttempt to differentiate the importance of radiation factor in the origination of functional changes in nervous activity is made. Clinical methods are applied to 456 madical workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation as well as to a control group of 300 medical workers. 100 subjects from each group have been investigated by inquiry psychological methods. No dependence is established between the incidence of neurasthenic neuroses and the duration of service, the cumulative equivalent doses respectively, being within the range of 25 mSv - 1.6 Sv. Asthenic states of the nervous system, not included in the clinical picture of neuroses and other diseases, have not been diagnosed. The significantly higher incidence of vegetative dystonias among the female medical personnel, working with sources and environment of ionizing radiation with a length of service over 15 years, is discussed in causal relationship with the radiation factor. 4 tabs., 15 refs

  12. A lower dose threshold for the in vivo protective adaptive response to radiation. Tumorigenesis in chronically exposed normal and Trp53 heterozygous C57BL/6 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchel, R.E.J.; Burchart, P.; Wyatt, H.

    2008-01-01

    Low doses of ionizing radiation to cells and animals may induce adaptive responses that reduce the risk of cancer. However, there are upper dose thresholds above which these protective adaptive responses do not occur. We have now tested the hypothesis that there are similar lower dose thresholds that must be exceeded in order to induce protective effects in vivo. We examined the effects of low dose/low dose rate fractionated exposures on cancer formation in Trp53 normal or cancer-prone Trp53 heterozygous female C57BL/6 mice. Beginning at 6 weeks of age, mice were exposed 5 days/week to single daily doses (0.33 mGy, 0.7 mGy/h) totaling 48, 97 or 146 mGy over 30, 60 or 90 weeks. The exposures for shorter times (up to 60 weeks) appeared to be below the level necessary to induce overall protective adaptive responses in Trp53 normal mice, and detrimental effects (shortened lifespan, increased frequency) evident for only specific tumor types (B- and T-cell lymphomas), were produced. Only when the exposures were continued for 90 weeks did the dose become sufficient to induce protective adaptive responses, balancing the detrimental effects for these specific cancers, and reducing the risk level back to that of the unexposed animals. Detrimental effects were not seen for other tumor types, and a protective effect was seen for sarcomas after 60 weeks of exposure, which was then lost when the exposure continued for 90 weeks. As previously shown for the upper dose threshold for protection by low doses, the lower dose boundary between protection and harm was influenced by Trp53 functionality. Neither protection nor harm was observed in exposed Trp53 heterozygous mice, indicating that reduced Trp53 function raises the lower dose/dose rate threshold for both detrimental and protective tumorigenic effects. (author)

  13. 78 FR 60852 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Construction of the East Span of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... marine mammals to experience TTS or PTS, the animals have to be close enough to be exposed to high... sighting; (6) behavior of marine animals sighted; (7) direction of travel; (8) when in relation to... animal. In addition, the reports will include an estimate of the number and species of marine mammals...

  14. The ecological features of the areal structure of the spieces population of the mammal of the Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Dzuev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological analyses of spatial structure of species population of Caucasus mammals were performed in this article. On the basis of the analyses types of natural habitats and modern trends of their anthropogenic transformation were exposed (researched Practical recommendation (advice of keeping rare and endangered species of mammals of Caucasus fauna are consisting in this work.

  15. Dehydroepiandrosterone increases the number and dendrite maturation of doublecortin cells in the dentate gyrus of middle age male Wistar rats exposed to chronic mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Pérez, J J; Martínez-Mota, L; Jiménez-Rubio, G; Ortiz-López, L; Cabrera-Muñoz, E A; Galindo-Sevilla, N; Zambrano, E; Hernández-Luis, F; Ramírez-Rodríguez, G B; Flores-Ramos, M

    2017-03-15

    Aging increases the vulnerability to stress and risk of developing depression. These changes have been related to a reduction of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels, an adrenal steroid with anti-stress effects. Also, adult hippocampal neurogenesis decreases during aging and its alteration or impaired is related to the development of depression. Besides, it has been hypothesized that DHEA increases the formation of new neurons. However, it is unknown whether treatment with DHEA in aging may stimulate the dendrite maturation of newborn neurons and reversing depressive-like signs evoked by chronic stress exposure. Here aged male rats (14 months old) were subjected to a scheme of chronic mild stress (CMS) during six weeks, received a treatment with DHEA from the third week of CMS. Changes in body weight and sucrose preference (SP) were measured once a week. DHEA levels were measured in serum, identification of doublecortin-(DCX)-, BrdU- and BrdU/NeuN-labeled cells was done in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. CMS produced a gradual reduction in the body weight, but no changes in the SP were observed. Treatment enhanced levels of DHEA, but lack of recovery on body weight of stressed rats. Aging reduced the number of DCX-, BrdU- and BrdU/NeuN- cells but DHEA just significantly increased the number of DCX-cells in rats under CMS and controls, reaching levels of young non-stressed rats (used here as a reference of an optimal status of health). In rats under CMS, DHEA facilitated dendritic maturation of immature new neurons. Our results reveal that DHEA improves neural plasticity even in conditions of CMS in middle age rats. Thus, this hormone reverted the decrement of DCX-cells caused during normal aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Exposing diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørtoft, Kamilla; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    professionals´ meetings with patients and relatives. In the paper we draw data from focus group discussions with interdisciplinary groups of health care professionals working in the area of care for older people. The video narratives used to initiate discussions are developed through ethnographic fieldwork...... in the homes of older people and in pedagogical institutions targeting older people. In the paper we look at the potentials and challenges in working with ethnographic video narratives as a pedagogical tool. Our findings indicate that the use of video narratives has the potential to expose the diversity...... focus on their own professional discipline and its tasks 2) stimulates collaborative learning when they discuss their different interpretations of the ethnographic video narratives and achieve a deeper understanding of each other’s work and their clients’ lifeworlds, which might lead to a better...

  17. Neurobehavioral endocrine regulation of small mammal populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    A brief review is given of the hypothesis that density-dependent behavioral-endocrine negative feedbacks can regulate and often limit the growth of populations of many species of small mammals. Recent laboratory studies are summarized that show how stress, particularly psychogenic, which results in increased adrenocortical secretion also alters gonadotropin secretion and inhibits reproduction. Chronic stress due to crowding, immobilization, et al. inhibits the release of LH and FSH, particularly by abolishing the pulsatile release of LH, and also causes a rise in prolactin (at least acutely). Stimulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical system is accompanied by an inversely proportional inhibition of growth hormone secretion. Decreasing photoperiod enhances the sensitivity of the hypothalamus to inhibition of gonadotropin secretion by androgens and estrogens. Other endocrine responses to increased density or subordinate social rank also are summarized. How these facts fit into the negative feedback scheme is discussed, including the greatly prolonged effects of diminished lactation. The changed quality of the animals associated with changes in density discussed by Lidicker also can be explained by the above responses to density. Data on changes in growth and reproductive function which are consistent with the behavioral-endocrine feedback hypothesis are presented for several populations of small mammals, including some previously unpublished data for Microtus pennsylvanicus

  18. Antidepressant-like Effect of Bacopaside I in Mice Exposed to Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress by Modulating the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Function and Activating BDNF Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Xianpeng; Zhang, Mingjian; Li, Wencai; Xie, Haisheng; Lin, Zhang; Yang, Niao; Liu, Xinru; Zhang, Weidong

    2017-11-01

    Preliminary studies conducted in our laboratory have confirmed that Bacopaside I (BS-I), a saponin compound isolated from Bacopa monnieri, displayed antidepressant-like activity in the mouse behavioral despair model. The present investigation aimed to verify the antidepressant-like action of BS-I using a mouse model of behavioral deficits induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and further probe its underlying mechanism of action. Mice were exposed to CUMS for a period of 5 consecutive weeks to induce depression-like behavior. Then, oral gavage administrations with vehicle (model group), fluoxetine (12 mg/kg, positive group) or BS-I (5, 15, 45 mg/kg, treated group) once daily were started during the last two weeks of CUMS procedure. The results showed that BS-I significantly ameliorated CUMS-induced depression-like behaviors in mice, as characterized by an elevated sucrose consumption in the sucrose preference test and reduced immobility time without affecting spontaneous locomotor activity in the forced swimming test, tail suspension test and open field test. It was also found that BS-I treatment reversed the increased level of plasma corticosterone and decreased mRNA and protein expressions of glucocorticoid receptor induced by CUMS exposure, indicating that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity of CUMS-exposed mice was restored by BS-I treatment. Furthermore, chronic administration of BS-I elevated expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (mRNA and protein) and activated the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and cAMP response element-binding protein in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in mice subjected to CUMS procedure. Taken together, these results indicated that BS-I exhibited an obvious antidepressant-like effect in mouse model of CUMS-induced depression that was mediated, at least in part, by modulating HPA hyperactivity and activating BDNF signaling pathway.

  19. Genetic effects of radon 222 in a population of Drosophila melanogaster chronically exposed; Efectos geneticos del radon 222 en una poblacion de Drosophila melanogaster cronicamente expuesta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salceda, V M [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Dept. de Biologia

    1997-07-01

    It was investigated the mutagenic effect of Radon 222 during a experimental period of 11 generations. In this lapse Drosophila melanogaster larvae line Canton-S were maintained in a radon atmosphere. In each test generation had been extracted males, consequently exposed to radiation which were subjected to a crossing series with a bearer marker genes of according to the Wallace experimental design (1956). Due to the experimental conditions it only was determined the recessive lethal mutations frequency for the second chromosome in the 1,4,7 and 11 generations. Of all study it was conduced in parallel way a non-treated witness population. The concentrations at which was subjected the experimental population varied of generation to generation from 12 {+-} 2 to 43 {+-} 5 kBq/m{sup 3}. Our analysis correspond to lethality determination in 1182 second chromosomes distributed between two populations and the different exposition generations. The study allow to determine the respective frequencies of recessive lethal genes varying according to the population and/or generation between 10.53 and 22.02%. The statistical analysis of data did not show significant differences among the different populations. (Author)

  20. Low-exposure tritium radiotoxicity in mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    A special feature of tritium radiation is the very low energy of the beta particles (5.7 keV average, 18 keV maximum). This low energy results in very short particle ranges in tissue, ranges that are less than cell dimensions. Another result of the low energy is that the ionization density along beta-ray tracks (even though the tracks are short) is significantly greater than that associated with secondary electrons from gamma rays. The studies of tritium radiotoxicity reviewed, involving chronic 3 HOH exposures in mammals, demonstrate in both mice and monkeys that biological effects can be measured following remarkably low levels of exposure --- levels in the range of serious practical interest to radiation protection. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. Antidepressant-like behavioral, anatomical, and biochemical effects of petroleum ether extract from maca (Lepidium meyenii) in mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Zhong; Cheng, Ai-Fang; Yu, Yuan-Tao; Yu, Long-Jiang; Jin, Wenwen

    2014-05-01

    Maca has been consumed as a medical food in Peru for thousands of years, and exerts anxiolytic and antidepressant effects. Our present study aimed to evaluate the behavior and anatomical and biochemical effects of petroleum ether extract from maca (ME) in the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model of depression in mice. Three different doses of maca extract (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) were orally administrated in the six-week CUMS procedure. Fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) was used as a positive control drug. Maca extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) significantly decreased the duration of immobility time in the tail suspension test. After treatment with maca extract (250 and 500 mg/kg), the granule cell layer in the dentate gyrus appeared thicker. Maca extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) also induced a significant reduction in corticosterone levels in mouse serum. In mouse brain tissue, after six weeks of treatment, noradrenaline and dopamine levels were increased by maca extract, and the activity of reactive oxygen species was significantly inhibited. Serotonin levels were not significantly altered. These results demonstrated that maca extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) showed antidepressant-like effects and was related to the activation of both noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems, as well as attenuation of oxidative stress in mouse brain.

  2. Effect on the viability in populations of Drosophila Melanogaster chronically exposed to Radon; Efecto sobre la viabilidad en poblaciones de Drosophila melanogaster cronicamente expuestas a Radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salceda, V M [Depto. de Biologia, ININ, Km.36.5 Carr. Mexico-Toluca, Salazar, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    A four generations population of Drosophila melanogaster chronically subjected to the following radon concentrations were analyzed: 30 {+-} 7, 12 {+-} 2, 43 {+-} 5, 25 {+-} 7, 14 {+-} 2, 6 {+-} 2, 78 {+-} 1, 58 {+-} 5 and 74 {+-} 7 k B/m{sup 3} with estimated doses of 1.209, 0.1, 2.088, 0.869, 0.156, 0.03, 3.18, 2.12 and 2.878 mGy by generation and their respective ones witness, in order to determine the effect of the radiation in the induction of detrimental genes, also measuring the effect of the viability with regard to the fecundity and the differential viability in categories of genes with smaller effects. So much the induction of detrimental genes like the distribution of the viability with regard to the fecundity for categories they did not show inductor effect due to the treatment with radon. Notwithstanding, the changes caused by the relating treatment to the fecundity they caused in three of the four comparisons possible significant results in the production of descendants, improving the adaptation of the populations, like it has been demonstrated by other authors.

  3. Fluoxetine increases the activity of the ERK-CREB signal system and alleviates the depressive-like behavior in rats exposed to chronic forced swim stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaoli; Lin, Wenjuan; Li, Junfa; Li, Huanhuan; Wang, Weiwen; Wang, Donglin; Sun, Meng

    2008-08-01

    Our previous research indicates that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-cyclic AMP-responsive-element-binding protein (CREB) signal system may be involved in the molecular mechanism of depression. The present study further investigated the effect of antidepressant fluoxetine on the ERK-CREB signal system and the depressive-like behaviors in rats. Fluoxetine was administrated to either naive rats or stressed rats for 21 days. The results showed that chronic forced swim stress induced depressive-like behaviors and decreased the levels of P-ERK2, P-CREB, ERK1/2 and CREB in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Fluoxetine alleviated the depressive-like behaviors and reversed the disruptions of the P-ERK2 and P-CREB in stressed rats. Fluoxetine also exerted mood-elevating effect and increased the levels of the P-ERK2 and P-CREB in naive rats. These results suggest that the ERK-CREB signal system may be the targets of the antidepressant action of fluoxetine and participate in the neuronal mechanism of depression.

  4. Neuroplastic Correlates in the mPFC Underlying the Impairment of Stress-Coping Ability and Cognitive Flexibility in Adult Rats Exposed to Chronic Mild Stress during Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a valid chronic mild stress (CMS model of depression, we found that adolescent (postnatal days [PND] 28–41 CMS induced transient alterations in anhedonia that did not persist into adulthood after a 3-week recovery period. Previously stressed adult rats exhibited more immobility/despair behaviors in the forced swimming test and a greater number of trials to reach criterion in the set-shifting task, suggesting the impaired ability to cope with stressors and the cognitive flexibility that allows adaptation to dynamic environments during adulthood. In addition, adult rat exposure to adolescent CMS had a relatively inhibited activation in ERK signaling and downstream protein expression of phosphorylated cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the medial prefrontal cortex. Further correlation analysis demonstrated that immobility and set-shifting performance were positively correlated with the inhibition of ERK signaling. These results indicated adolescent CMS can be used as an effective stressor to model an increased predisposition to adult depression.

  5. Publication of new results from the INWORKS epidemiological study about the risk of cancer among nuclear industry workers chronically exposed to low ionizing radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    In this cohort study, 308297 workers in the nuclear industry from France, the United Kingdom, and the United States with detailed monitoring data for external exposure to ionising radiation were linked to death registries. Excess relative rate per Gy of radiation dose for mortality from cancer was estimated. Follow-up encompassed 8.2 million person years. Of 66632 known deaths by the end of follow-up, 17?957 were due to solid cancers. Results suggest a linear increase in the rate of cancer with increasing radiation exposure. The average cumulative colon dose estimated among exposed workers was 20.9 mGy (median 4.1 mGy). The estimated rate of mortality from all cancers excluding leukaemia increased with cumulative dose by 48% per Gy (90% confidence interval 20% to 79%), lagged by 10 years. Similar associations were seen for mortality from all solid cancers (47% (18% to 79%)), and within each country. The estimated association over the dose range of 0-100 mGy was similar in magnitude to that obtained over the entire dose range but less precise. Smoking and occupational asbestos exposure are potential confounders; however, exclusion of deaths from lung cancer and pleural cancer did not affect the estimated association. Despite substantial efforts to characterise the performance of the radiation dosimeters used, the possibility of measurement error remains. The study provides a direct estimate of the association between protracted low dose exposure to ionising radiation and solid cancer mortality. Although high dose rate exposures are thought to be more dangerous than low dose rate exposures, the risk per unit of radiation dose for cancer among radiation workers was similar to estimates derived from studies of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Quantifying the cancer risks associated with protracted radiation exposures can help strengthen the foundation for radiation protection standards

  6. Chronic genetic damages in Geophagus brasiliensis exposed to anthropic impact in estuarine lakes at Santa Catarina coast--southern of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benincá, Cristiane; Ramsdorf, Wanessa; Vicari, Taynah; de Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro A; de Almeida, Marina I; Silva de Assis, Helena C; Cestari, Marta Margarete

    2012-04-01

    Biological monitoring through animals exposed to pollutants using biomarkers provides a promising tool for the identification of pollutants that may cause damage to human health and/or to sustainability of ecosystems. The effects of pollutants in fish tissues are important tools to understand the impact of human activities in natural ecosystems. The aim of this work was to study the water quality of two estuarine lakes in Santa Catarina, Brazil (Camacho Lake and Santa Marta Lake). Geophagus brasiliensis is a species widely distributed in Brazil and was used in this work. Comet assays in peripheral red blood and kidney cells, micronucleus tests in peripheral red blood cells, measurements of acetylcholinesterase activity in axial muscle and histopathological analysis of liver were used as biomarkers. Three sampling campaigns were undertaken in November 2004, June 2005 and November 2005. Thirty adult animals were sampled from each of three different sites (P1--Santa Marta Lake, P2 and P3--Camacho Lake). A negative control was sampled in a non-polluted site at Costa Ecological Park, Paraná. The positive control for genotoxicity was obtained by treating animals with copper sulphate. The results showed that both studied lakes are impacted by potential genotoxic substances. Severe lesions in liver of G. brasiliensis were also observed. The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity suggests the presence of pesticides or metals in the studied sites. This work shows that the water quality of Santa Marta and Camacho Lakes have been compromised and further control source of pollutants into these ecosystems is required.

  7. Inflammation, oxidative stress, and higher expression levels of Nrf2 and NQO1 proteins in the airways of women chronically exposed to biomass fuel smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Nandan Kumar; Saha, Hirak; Mukherjee, Bidisha; Tyagi, Neetu; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2018-01-24

    The study was carried out to examine whether chronic exposure to smoke during daily household cooking with biomass fuel (BMF) elicits changes in airway cytology and expressions of Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2 [NF-E2]-related factor 2 [Nrf2]), Keap1 (Kelch-like erythroid-cell-derived protein with CNC homology [ECH]-associated protein 1), and NQO1 (NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1) proteins in the airways. For this, 282 BMF-using women (median age 34 year) and 236 age-matched women who cooked with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) were enrolled. Particulate matter with diameters of LPG. Compared with LPG users, BMF users had 32% more leukocytes in circulation and their sputa were 1.4-times more cellular with significant increase in absolute number of neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and alveolar macrophages, suggesting airway inflammation. ROS generation was 1.5-times higher in blood neutrophils and 34% higher in sputum cells of BMF users while erythrocyte SOD was 31% lower and plasma catalase was relatively unchanged, suggesting oxidative stress. In BMF users, Keap1 expression was reduced, the percentage of AEC with nuclear expression of Nrf2 was two- to three-times more, and NQO1 level in sputum cell lysate was two-times higher than that of LPG users. In conclusion, cooking with BMF was associated with Nrf2 activation and elevated NQO1 protein level in the airways. The changes may be adaptive cellular response to counteract biomass smoke-elicited oxidative stress and inflammation-related tissue injury in the airways.

  8. Hippocampus and serum metabolomic studies to explore the regulation of Chaihu-Shu-Gan-San on metabolic network disturbances of rats exposed to chronic variable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhi-heng; Jia, Hong-mei; Zhang, Hong-wu; Feng, Yu-Fei; An, Lei; Zou, Zhong-mei

    2014-03-04

    Chaihu-Shu-Gan-San (CSGS), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, has been effectively used for the treatment of depression. However, studies of its anti-depressive mechanism are challenging, due to the complex pathophysiology of depression, and complexity of CSGS with multiple constituents acting on different receptors. In the present work, metabolomic studies of biochemical changes in the hippocampus and serum of chronic variable stress (CVS)-induced depression rats after treatment with CSGS were performed using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS). Partial least squares-discriminate analysis indicated that the metabolic perturbation induced by CVS was reduced by treatment with CSGS. A total of twenty-six metabolites (16 from the hippocampus and 10 from serum) were considered as potential biomarkers involved in the development of depression. Among them, 11 were first reported to have potential relevance in the pathogenesis of depression, and 25 may correlate to the regulation of CSGS treatment on depression. The results combined with a previous study indicated that CSGS mediated synergistically abnormalities of the metabolic network, composed of energy metabolism, synthesis of neurotransmitters, tryptophan, phospholipids, fatty acid and bile acid metabolism, bone loss and liver detoxification, which may be helpful for understanding its mechanism of action. Furthermore, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signal pathway, involved in the neuronal protective mechanism of depression related to energy metabolism, was investigated by western blot analysis. The results showed that CSGS reversed disruptions of BDNF, ERK1/2 and pERK1/2 in CVS rats, which provides the first evidence that the ERK signal system may be one of the targets related to the antidepressant action of CSGS.

  9. The ghosts of mammals past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turvey, Samuel T; Fritz, Susanne A

    2011-01-01

    Although the recent historical period is usually treated as a temporal base-line for understanding patterns of mammal extinction, mammalian biodiversity loss has also taken place throughout the Late Quaternary. We explore the spatial, taxonomic and phylogenetic patterns of 241 mammal species...... extinctions known to have occurred during the Holocene up to the present day. To assess whether our understanding of mammalian threat processes has been affected by excluding these taxa, we incorporate extinct species data into analyses of the impact of body mass on extinction risk. We find that Holocene...... extinctions have been phylogenetically and spatially concentrated in specific taxa and geographical regions, which are often not congruent with those disproportionately at risk today. Large-bodied mammals have also been more extinction-prone in most geographical regions across the Holocene. Our data support...

  10. 75 FR 12734 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation of Offshore...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... marine mammal or marine mammal stock in the wild by causing disruption of behavioral patterns, including... supplies; production operations; drilling operations; pipeline design, inspection, and maintenance; routine...

  11. Diffusion MRI and MR spectroscopy reveal microstructural and metabolic brain alterations in chronic mild stress exposed rats: A CMS recovery study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ahmad Raza; Hansen, Brian; Wiborg, Ove; Kroenke, Christopher D; Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj

    2018-02-15

    Chronic mild stress (CMS) induced depression elicits several debilitating symptoms and causes a significant economic burden on society. High variability in the symptomatology of depression poses substantial impediment to accurate diagnosis and therapy outcome. CMS exposure induces significant metabolic and microstructural alterations in the hippocampus (HP), prefrontal cortex (PFC), caudate-putamen (CP) and amygdala (AM), however, recovery from these maladaptive changes are limited and this may provide negative effects on the therapeutic treatment and management of depression. The present study utilized anhedonic rats from the unpredictable CMS model of depression to study metabolic recovery in the ventral hippocampus (vHP) and microstructural recovery in the HP, AM, CP, and PFC. The study employed 1 H MR spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) and in-vivo diffusion MRI (d-MRI) at the age of week 18 (week 1 post CMS exposure) week 20 (week 3 post CMS) and week 25 (week 8 post CMS exposure) in the anhedonic group, and at the age of week 18 and week 22 in the control group. The d-MRI data have provided an array of diffusion tensor metrics (FA, MD, AD, and RD), and fast kurtosis metrics (MKT, W L and W T ). CMS exposure induced a significant metabolic alteration in vHP, and significant microstructural alterations were observed in the HP, AM, and PFC in comparison to the age match control and within the anhedonic group. A significantly high level of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) was observed in vHP at the age of week 18 in comparison to age match control and week 20 and week 25 of the anhedonic group. HP and AM showed significant microstructural alterations up to the age of week 22 in the anhedonic group. PFC showed significant microstructural alterations only at the age of week 18, however, most of the metrics showed significantly higher value at the age of week 20 in the anhedonic group. The significantly increased NAA concentration may indicate impaired catabolism due to astrogliosis or

  12. Cadmium-handling strategies in two chronically exposed indigenous freshwater organisms-the yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and the floater mollusc (Pyganodon grandis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, Peter G.C.; Giguere, Anik; Bonneris, Emmanuelle; Hare, Landis

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory experiments on a variety of aquatic organisms suggest that metallothionein-like proteins (MT) play an important role in the regulation of essential metals, and in the sequestration and detoxification of non-essential metals (e.g., Cd). However, the importance of metallothionein production relative to alternative strategies of metal detoxification, and its effectiveness in metal detoxification, remain largely unexplored in field situations. In the present study we explored metal-handling strategies in an adult benthic bivalve (Pyganodon grandis) and in juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens), exposed to Cd in their natural habitat. The two biomonitor species were collected from lakes located along a Cd concentration gradient. Ambient dissolved Cd concentrations were determined by in situ dialysis as a measure of metal exposure. Sub-cellular Cd partitioning was determined in target tissues (bivalve gills and digestive gland; perch liver) by differential centrifugation, and metallothionein was measured independently by a mercury-saturation assay in the bivalve tissues. Malondialdehyde concentrations were measured as a potential indicator of oxidative stress. Ambient dissolved Cd concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 0.57 nM in the nine lakes from which bivalves were collected, and from max /[Cd] min ratios for the various tissues decreased in the order: bivalve gill Cd (28) > bivalve digestive gland Cd (18) > perch hepatic Cd (14). In the two lakes that were common to both the bivalve and perch studies, i.e. lakes Opasatica and Vaudray, accumulated Cd concentrations were consistently higher in the bivalve than in the perch. Cadmium-handling strategies were similar in the bivalve digestive gland and perch liver, in that Cd was mainly associated with the heat-stable protein (HSP) fraction. Furthermore, in these organs the contributions from the 'mitochondria' and 'lysosomes + microsomes' fractions were consistently higher than in the gill tissue. In the bivalve

  13. Allometry in dinosaurs and mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Scott

    2015-03-01

    The proportions of the leg bones change as the size of an animal becomes larger since the mass of the animal increases at a faster rate than the cross-sectional area of its leg bones. For the case of elastic similarity (in which the longitudinal stress in the legs remains constant in animals of all sizes), the diameter d and length L of the femur should be related as d = A L3/2. For geometric similarity (in which all dimensions are scaled by the same factor), d = A L. For animals with femora longer than 20 cm, we find the power law relationship to be d = A Lb with b = 1.13 +/- 0.06 for extant mammals (the largest mammal being Loxodonta africana with a 1.00-m-long femur) and b = 1.18 +/- 0.02 for dinosaurs (the largest dinosaur being Brachiosaurus brancai with a 2.03-m-long femur). These data show that extinct dinosaurs and extant animals scale in the same basic manner. The large sauropods (with femora twice as long as found in elephants) scale in a manner consistent with extrapolation of the scaling shown by extant mammals. These results argue that extinct dinosaurs moved in a manner very similar to extant mammals.

  14. Small Mammals, Reptiles, and Amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce Rickel

    2005-01-01

    This chapter focuses on small mammals, reptiles, and amphibians that inhabit the grasslands within the Southwestern Region of the USDA Forest Service. The chapter is not intended to be an all inclusive list of species, but rather to address the species that play important roles in grassland ecosystems and that often are associated with the management of grasslands....

  15. 75 FR 76399 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [File No. 781-1824] RIN 0648-XZ66 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice; receipt of application for permit amendment; extension of public...

  16. Mammals of the Oak forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otalora Ardila, Aida

    2003-01-01

    The high rate of deforestation over the Andean forests has generated a large proportion of fragmented landscapes in the country. The distribution of oak groves in the country was determined based on ecosystem maps. Charala and Encino oak groves patches are the largest ones found at the east Andes and like others, due to the unfair use of these resources, have suffered a fragmentation process. Fifty-five species of mammals included in 10 orders and 14 families were found in these forests. Chiroptera and Rodentia were the most representative groups. Anthropic processes had produced a 68.1% loss of the habitat and constitute the main threat for these forests. The sizes of the patches were evaluated for three mammal species categories. The patches' area are not favorable for large-size species, intermediately to favorable to medium-size species and are favorable for small-size species. It is suggested that patches' area effect over mammal species could relate to the decrease of species richness and of each fragment area. There are good connections between patches (only five isolated), allowing the presence of a greater species diversity. There is also a bleak plateau zone between connected patches increasing their connectivity and offering different habitats and resources for some mammal species

  17. Neo-oogenesis in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras-Gómez, Tania Janeth; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma

    2017-08-01

    Recently, the existence of a mechanism for neo-oogenesis in the ovaries of adult mammals has generated much controversy within reproductive biology. This mechanism, which proposes that the ovary has cells capable of renewing the follicular reserve, has been described for various species of mammals. The first evidence was found in prosimians and humans. However, these findings were not considered relevant because the predominant dogma for reproductive biology at the time was that of Zuckerman. This dogma states that female mammals are born with finite numbers of oocytes that decline throughout postnatal life. Currently, the concept of neo-oogenesis has gained momentum due to the discovery of cells with mitotic activity in adult ovaries of various mammalian species (mice, humans, rhesus monkeys, domestic animals such as pigs, and wild animals such as bats). Despite these reports, the concept of neo-oogenesis has not been widely accepted by the scientific community, generating much criticism and speculation about its accuracy because it has been impossible to reproduce some evidence. This controversy has led to the creation of two positions: one in favour of neo-oogenesis and the other against it. Various animal models have been used in support of both camps, including both classic laboratory animals and domestic and wild animals. The aim of this review is to critically present the current literature on the subject and to evaluate the arguments pro and contra neo-oogenesis in mammals.

  18. 76 FR 72680 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ..., Office of Protected Resources, NMFS, 1315 East-West Highway, Room 13705, Silver Spring, MD 20910; phone... surveys to document seasonal distribution and abundance of marine mammals in western lower Cook Inlet... on the human environment in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of [[Page 72681...

  19. Marine mammals as sentinel species for oceans and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossart, G D

    2011-05-01

    The long-term consequences of climate change and potential environmental degradation are likely to include aspects of disease emergence in marine plants and animals. In turn, these emerging diseases may have epizootic potential, zoonotic implications, and a complex pathogenesis involving other cofactors such as anthropogenic contaminant burden, genetics, and immunologic dysfunction. The concept of marine sentinel organisms provides one approach to evaluating aquatic ecosystem health. Such sentinels are barometers for current or potential negative impacts on individual- and population-level animal health. In turn, using marine sentinels permits better characterization and management of impacts that ultimately affect animal and human health associated with the oceans. Marine mammals are prime sentinel species because many species have long life spans, are long-term coastal residents, feed at a high trophic level, and have unique fat stores that can serve as depots for anthropogenic toxins. Marine mammals may be exposed to environmental stressors such as chemical pollutants, harmful algal biotoxins, and emerging or resurging pathogens. Since many marine mammal species share the coastal environment with humans and consume the same food, they also may serve as effective sentinels for public health problems. Finally, marine mammals are charismatic megafauna that typically stimulate an exaggerated human behavioral response and are thus more likely to be observed.

  20. Southeast US Historical Marine Mammal Stranding Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data on marine mammal strandings are collected by the Southeast Marine Mammal Stranding Network. Basic data on the location, species identification, animal...

  1. Exposure to a predator scent induces chronic behavioral changes in rats previously exposed to low-level blast: Implications for the relationship of blast-related TBI to PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Perez-Garcia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI has been unfortunately common in veterans who served in the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The postconcussion syndrome associated with these mTBIs has frequently appeared in combination with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The presence of PTSD has complicated diagnosis since clinically PTSD and the postconcussion syndrome of mTBI have many overlapping symptoms. In particular establishing how much of the symptom complex can be attributed to the psychological trauma associated with PTSD in contrast to the physical injury of TBI has proven difficult. Indeed some have suggested that much of what is now being called blast-related postconcussion syndrome is better explained by PTSD. The relationship between the postconcussion syndrome of mTBI and PTSD is complex. Association of the two disorders might be viewed as additive effects of independent psychological and physical traumas suffered in a war zone. However we previously found that rats exposed to repetitive low-level blast exposure in the absence of a psychological stressor developed a variety of anxiety and PTSD-related behavioral traits that were present months following the last blast exposure. Here we show that a single predator scent challenge delivered 8 months after the last blast exposure induces chronic anxiety related changes in blast-exposed rats that are still present 45 days later. These observations suggest that in addition to independently inducing PTSD-related traits, blast exposure sensitizes the brain to react abnormally to a subsequent psychological stressor. These studies have implications for conceptualizing the relationship between blast-related mTBI and PTSD and suggest that blast-related mTBI in humans may predispose to the later development of PTSD in reaction to subsequent psychological stressors.

  2. Effects of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 on the Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in Rats Exposed to Air Pollutant Particles Less than 2.5 Micrometers in Diameter (PM2.5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lerong; Yuan, Xiaolan; Zou, Luru; Peng, Jianping; Hu, Xinchun

    2018-01-18

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate the effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) on airway changes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) rats exposed to air pollutant particles less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5), and to evaluate the mechanisms. MATERIAL AND METHODS Three groups were included in this study: a normal group, a COPD model group, and a COPD with 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment group. In each group, the rats were divided into four subgroups: control and different doses of PM2.5 (1.6, 8 and 40 mg/kg body weight). Apoptosis in lung tissue was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). The expression of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) and mucin 5AC (MUC5AC) were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS Compared with corresponding subgroups in normal group, the apoptotic rates in COPD group were significantly increased. By contrast, 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment group significantly reduced COPD-induced apoptosis in lung tissue. Upon the dose increase of PM2.5, the apoptotic rate was also elevated in each group. Compared with the corresponding control in each group, PM2.5 increased apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, 1,25(OH)2D3 also prevented apoptosis in COPD rats exposed to PM2.5. Mechanically, the expression of MUC5AC and JNK1 in COPD group was significantly upregulated, compared with corresponding subgroups in the normal group. Treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 reduced expression of MUC5AC and JNK1 in COPD rats. It was found that the expression of MUC5AC and JNK1 was elevated with the dose increase of PM2.5 in each group. Consistently, 1,25(OH)2D3 also reduced the expression of MUC5AC and JNK1 in COPD rats exposed to PM2.5. CONCLUSIONS 1,25(OH)2D3 prevented lung injury in COPD rats with or without PM2.5 exposure. Our results suggest that 1,25(OH)2D3 is useful to mitigate the injury caused by COPD.

  3. NODC Standard Format Marine Mammals of Coastal Alaska Data (1975-1981): Marine Mammal Specimens (F025) (NODC Accession 0014150)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC maintains data in three NODC Standard Format Marine Mammal Data Sets: Marine Mammal Sighting and Census (F127); Marine Mammal Specimens (F025); Marine Mammal...

  4. Transformation and diversification in early mammal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhe-Xi

    2007-12-13

    Evolution of the earliest mammals shows successive episodes of diversification. Lineage-splitting in Mesozoic mammals is coupled with many independent evolutionary experiments and ecological specializations. Classic scenarios of mammalian morphological evolution tend to posit an orderly acquisition of key evolutionary innovations leading to adaptive diversification, but newly discovered fossils show that evolution of such key characters as the middle ear and the tribosphenic teeth is far more labile among Mesozoic mammals. Successive diversifications of Mesozoic mammal groups multiplied the opportunities for many dead-end lineages to iteratively evolve developmental homoplasies and convergent ecological specializations, parallel to those in modern mammal groups.

  5. Chronic risk assessment for the use of radiation in occupationally exposed personnel (OEP) in the oral health area; Evaluacion del riesgo cronico por uso de radiacion en personal ocupacionalmente expuesto (POE) en el area de la salud oral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores H, C.; Huerta F, M. R. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus Leon, Division de Ciencias de la Salud, DCAT, Laboratorio de Salud Ocupacional e Higiene Ambiental, 36320 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Sosa A, M. A. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus Leon, Division de Ciencias e Ingenierias, Departamento de Ingenieria Fisica, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Diaz de Leon M, L. V., E-mail: fhcorina@ugto.mx [IMSS, Unidad Medica de Alta Especialidad, HGP 48, Direccion de Educacion e Investigacion en Salud, Paseo de los Insurgentes s/n, Los Paraisos, 37320 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2017-10-15

    There is a scientific discordance in the amounts of radiation used in radio-diagnosis and received in practice by the occupationally exposed personnel (OEP), with the exception of radiologists who follow the safety and hygiene measures recommended by the regulations. The objective of this study was to quantify the risk of the OEP in the dental area by the use of ionizing radiation chronically. A fundamental variable to take into account in the study was the number of films taken day/shift. A comparative study was carried out, n = 70 study subjects. The information was collected by occupational clinical history, biological and occupational monitoring. The average age was 19.6 years for E-1 and E-2 was 50 years. The radiation emission in the calibrated equipment was 1.578 (Lp). The risk is 2:1 E-1:E-2. As a result of the study was found that in most cases the OEP does not use protection measures, only the patient. (Author)

  6. Ancient DNA from marine mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David; Hofreiter, Michael; Morin, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    such as bone, tooth, baleen, skin, fur, whiskers and scrimshaw using ancient DNA (aDNA) approaches provide an oppor- tunity for investigating such changes over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Here, we review the application of aDNA techniques to the study of marine mammals. Most of the studies have...... focused on detecting changes in genetic diversity following periods of exploitation and environmental change. To date, these studies have shown that even small sample sizes can provide useful information on historical genetic diversity. Ancient DNA has also been used in investigations of changes...... in distribution and range of marine mammal species; we review these studies and discuss the limitations of such ‘presence only’ studies. Combining aDNA data with stable isotopes can provide further insights into changes in ecology and we review past studies and suggest future potential applications. We also...

  7. Immune function in arctic mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre; Jasperse, Lindsay; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2018-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are a vital part of the rapid and non-specific immune defense against invading pathogens and tumor cells. This study evaluated NK cell-like activity by flow cytometry for the first time in three ecologically and culturally important Arctic mammal species: polar bear (Ursus...... the effector:target cell ratio increased. Comparing NK activity between fresh and cryopreserved mouse lymphocytes revealed little to no difference in function, highlighting the applicability of cryopreserving cells in field studies. The evaluation of this important innate immune function in Arctic mammals can...... contribute to future population health assessments, especially as pollution-induced suppression of immune function may increase infectious disease susceptibility....

  8. Late radiation pathology of mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrov, S N

    1982-01-01

    The comprehensive monograph on delayed radiation effects in mammals including man comprises 3 main chapters dealing with non-neoplastic as well as neoplastic manifestations of late radiation pathology, with the prophylaxis of delayed radiation effects, and with the therapy of radiation injuries. Alterations induced by whole-body irradiation and delayed radiation effects caused by partial body irradiation are described in detail. The developmental mechanisms and pathogenesis of non-neoplastic pathological changes and of radiation-induced neoplasms are elaborated.

  9. Dietary characterization of terrestrial mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Munoz, Silvia; Alroy, John

    2014-08-22

    Understanding the feeding behaviour of the species that make up any ecosystem is essential for designing further research. Mammals have been studied intensively, but the criteria used for classifying their diets are far from being standardized. We built a database summarizing the dietary preferences of terrestrial mammals using published data regarding their stomach contents. We performed multivariate analyses in order to set up a standardized classification scheme. Ideally, food consumption percentages should be used instead of qualitative classifications. However, when highly detailed information is not available we propose classifying animals based on their main feeding resources. They should be classified as generalists when none of the feeding resources constitute over 50% of the diet. The term 'omnivore' should be avoided because it does not communicate all the complexity inherent to food choice. Moreover, the so-called omnivore diets actually involve several distinctive adaptations. Our dataset shows that terrestrial mammals are generally highly specialized and that some degree of food mixing may even be required for most species.

  10. Adaptive Responses to Thermal Stress in Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Lenis Sanin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The environment animals have to cope with is a combination of natural factors such as temperature. Extreme changes in these factors can alter homeostasis, which can lead to thermal stress. This stress can be due to either high temperatures or low temperatures. Energy transference for thermoregulation in homoeothermic animals occurs through several mechanisms: conduction, convection, radiation and evaporation. When animals are subjected to thermal stress, physiological mechanisms are activated which may include endocrine, neuroendocrine and behavioral responses. Activation of the neuroendocrine system affects the secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters which act collectively as response mechanisms that allow them to adapt to stress. Mechanisms which have developed through evolution to allow animals to adapt to high environmental temperatures and to achieve thermo tolerance include physiological and physical changes in order to reduce food intake and metabolic heat production, to increase surface area of skin to dissipate heat, to increase blood flow to take heat from the body core to the skin and extremities to dissipate the heat, to increase numbers and activity of sweat glands, panting, water intake and color adaptation of integument system to reflect heat. Chronic exposure to thermal stress can cause disease, reduce growth, decrease productive and reproductive performance and, in extreme cases, lead to death. This paper aims to briefly explain the physical and physiological responses of mammals to thermal stress, like a tool for biological environment adaptation, emphasizing knowledge gaps and offering some recommendations to stress control for the animal production system.

  11. Mammal endemism In Italy: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Amori

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although there are various checklists of Italian mammals, there is not yet a synthesis of those mammals that are endemic to Italy. Therefore, we provide for the first time a detailed review on Italian mammal endemic species including endemic taxa deserving additional studies. This review is based on the most recent taxonomic revisions obtained using Scopus and Google Scholar databases. We also considered the age of endemic species. Some aspects of mammalian conservation are also provided and discussed.

  12. Internally Coupled Ears in Living Mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Matthew James

    2015-01-01

    It is generally held that the right and left middle ears of mammals are acoustically isolated from each other, such that mammals must rely on neural computation to derive sound localisation cues. There are, however, some unusual species in which the middle ear cavities intercommunicate, in which case each ear might be able to act as a pressure-difference receiver. This could improve sound localisation at lower frequencies. The platypus Ornithorhynchus is apparently unique among mammals in tha...

  13. A checklist of mammals of Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. O. Nameer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of mammals of Kerala State is presented in this paper. Accepted English names, scientific binomen, prevalent vernacular names in Malayalam, IUCN conservation status, endemism, Indian Wildlife (Protection Act schedules, and the appendices in the CITES, pertaining to the mammals of Kerala are also given. The State of Kerala has 118 species of mammals, 15 of which are endemic to Western Ghats, and 29 species fall under the various threatened categories of IUCN.  

  14. Mercury accumulation in native mammals of the Southeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumbie, P.M.; Jenkins, J.H.

    1974-01-01

    Mercury levels in tissues of mammals collected in Georgia, Florida, and South Carolina were compared using hair mercury concentration as an index of total mercury content. Bobcats (Lynx rufus), raccoons (Procyon lotor), opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) and gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) from the Lower Coastal Plain of Georgia had higher mercury levels than specimens from the Upper Coastal Plain or Piedmont. The highest individual mercury levels in raccoons and bobcats occurred in specimens from the Georgia Lower Coastal Plain flatwoods. Skeletal muscle and liver of individual raccoons and bobcats taken in the coastal flatwoods exceeded the 0.5 ppm limit for mercury in human foodstuffs. No pattern of mercury accumulation was detected in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Hair analysis revealed elevated mercury levels in mammals from a region exposed to mercury pollution. Mercury levels in wildlife exhibit a pattern similar to that of certain fallout radioisotopes such as /sub 137/Cs. These observations indicate that significant biomagnification of mercury may occur in native mammals in certain southeastern habitats. 28 references, 6 tables.

  15. 78 FR 33357 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... confidence in these values is unknown. Table 3--Marine Mammal Density Estimates Density Species (animals/km\\2... unintentional taking of marine animals occurring incidental to the shock testing which involved large explosives... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting...

  16. 76 FR 7548 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... Importing Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapons Testing and Training by Eglin Air Force Base in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... a Letter of Authorization. SUMMARY: In accordance with provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection...

  17. 77 FR 17033 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy's Training...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... take marine mammals by harassment incidental to its training activities at the Gulf of Mexico (GOMEX... Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy's Training Activities at the Gulf of Mexico Range Complex AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  18. 75 FR 16754 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... Importing Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapons Testing and Training by Eglin Air Force Base in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... a Letter of Authorization. SUMMARY: In accordance with provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection...

  19. Introduced species: domestic mammals are more significant transmitters of parasites to native mammals than are feral mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landaeta-Aqueveque, Carlos; Henríquez, Analía; Cattan, Pedro E

    2014-03-01

    The study of parasitism related to biological invasion has focused on attributes and impacts of parasites as invaders and the impact of introduced hosts on endemic parasitism. Thus, there is currently no study of the attributes of hosts which influence the invasiveness of parasites. We aimed to determine whether the degree of domestication of introduced mammalian species - feral introduced mammals, livestock or pets, hereafter 'D' - is important in the spillover of introduced parasites. The literature on introduced parasites of mammals in Chile was reviewed. We designed an index for estimating the relevance of the introduced host species to parasite spillover and determined whether the D of introduced mammals predicted this index. A total of 223 introduced parasite species were found. Our results indicate that domestic mammals have a higher number of introduced parasites and spillover parasites, and the index indicates that these mammals, particularly pets, are more relevant introducers than introduced feral mammals. Further analyses indicated that the higher impact is due to higher parasite richness, a longer time since introduction and wider dispersal, as well as how these mammals are maintained. The greater relevance of domestic mammals is important given that they are basically the same species distributed worldwide and can become the main transmitters of parasites to native mammals elsewhere. This finding also underlines the feasibility of management in order to reduce the transmission of parasites to native fauna through anti-parasitic treatment of domestic mammals, animal-ownership education and the prevention of importing new parasite species. Copyright © 2014 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Introduced mammals on Western Indian Ocean islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Russell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of introduced mammals and their introduction history varies greatly across the Western Indian Ocean (WIO islands, from ancient introductions in the past millennia on islands off the East coast of Africa where extant terrestrial native mammal communities exist, to very recent invasions in the past decades on islands in the Mascarene archipelago. We compile the distribution of 16 introduced mammal taxa on 28 island groups comprising almost 2000 islands. Through an exhaustive literature review and expert consultation process we recorded all mammal eradications, and species recoveries which could be attributed to introduced mammal eradication or control. All island groups have been invaded by mammals, and invasive cats and rats in particular are ubiquitous, but cultural contingency has also led to regional invasions by other mammals such as lemurs, civets and tenrecs. Mammal eradications have been attempted on 45 islands in the WIO, the majority in the Seychelles and Mauritius, and where successful have resulted in spectacular recovery of species and ecosystems. Invasive mammalian predator eradication or control in association with habitat management has led to improved conservation prospects for at least 24 species, and IUCN red-list down-listing of eight species, in the Mascarene Islands. Future island conservation prioritisation in the region will need to take account of global climate change and predicted sea-level rises and coastal inundation. Greater investment and prioritisation in island conservation in the region is warranted, given its high biodiversity values and the extent of invasions.

  1. Natural History of Oregon Coast Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Maser; Bruce R. Mate; Jerry F. Franklin; C.T. Dyrness

    1981-01-01

    The book presents detailed information on the biology, habitats, and life histories of the 96 species of mammals of the Oregon coast. Soils, geology, and vegetation are described and related to wildlife habitats for the 65 terrestrial and 31 marine species. The book is not simply an identification guide to the Oregon coast mammals but is a dynamic portrayal of their...

  2. Evolution of the Placenta in Eutherian Mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Mess, A

    2007-01-01

    of eutherian mammals had an endotheliochorial placenta or a haemochorial one. Research has been stimulated by improved understanding of the relations between the orders of mammals provided by molecular phylogenetics. In part, the uncertainties arise from doubt about how to root the mammalian tree. Resolution...

  3. Distribution of mammals in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Prigioni

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Some 63 species have been recorded in Albania from 1950 to 1994, with the exclusion of Cetacea. Another 15 species, including 5 found on the eastern border between Albania and Greece, are considered probably present. Hence 78 species could occur in Albania. According to IUCN red list of threatened animals, 8 species are defined as vulnerable, 15 as lower risk and one (the Mediterranean monk seal as critically endangered. In Albania, the legal protection of mammals includes all bat species, carnivores (except the stone marten, the red fox and the wolf, the chamois, the roe deer and the Mediterranean monk seal. General information on the distributional pattern and the population size is reported for some species, mainly carnivores.

  4. Riparian Habitat Management for Mammals on Corps of Engineers Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Chester

    2002-01-01

    .... This note provides an overview of the importance of riparian ecosystems to mammals, discusses regional variation in mammal communities characteristic of riparian zones, identifies potential impacts...

  5. Buildings exposed to fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 24 lectures presented to the colloquium cover the following subject fields: (1) Behaviour of structural components exposed to fire; (2) Behaviour of building materials exposed to fire; (3) Thermal processes; (4) Safety related, theoretical studies. (PW) [de

  6. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

  7. traditional medicinal uses of small mammal products

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Nelson Boniface

    hunted small mammals mainly by dogs for cultural and ornamental reasons. Products of African ... (WHO) defines traditional medicine as ''health practices ... particularly in Asian countries. ..... Ntiamoa- Baidu Y 1992 Local Perceptions and.

  8. Ocean Disposal of Marine Mammal Carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocean dumping of marine mammal carcasses is allowed with a permit issued by EPA under the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. Includes permit information, potential environmental impacts, and instructions for getting the general permit.

  9. Atlantic Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in South Atlantic (Florida to Maryland) waters from 1994 to the...

  10. South African red data book - large mammals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Skinner, JD

    1977-11-01

    Full Text Available Data sheets are provided for 22 threatened South African large mammals, one exterminated (Liechtenstein1s hartebeest), eight endangered (cheetah, hunting dog, dugong, Cape mountain zebra, black rhinoceros, tsessebe, roan antelope, suni), one...

  11. Caribbean Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in Caribbean waters conducted during 2000-2001. These surveys were...

  12. Marine Mammal Food Habits Reference Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) Food Habits Reference Collection, containing over 8000 specimens of cephalopod beaks and fish bones and otoliths, is...

  13. SE Marine Mammal Histology/Tissue data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples are collected from stranded marine mammals in the Southeastern United States. These tissue samples are examined histologically and evaluated to...

  14. Recovery trends in marine mammal populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Magera

    Full Text Available Marine mammals have greatly benefitted from a shift from resource exploitation towards conservation. Often lauded as symbols of conservation success, some marine mammal populations have shown remarkable recoveries after severe depletions. Others have remained at low abundance levels, continued to decline, or become extinct or extirpated. Here we provide a quantitative assessment of (1 publicly available population-level abundance data for marine mammals worldwide, (2 abundance trends and recovery status, and (3 historic population decline and recent recovery. We compiled 182 population abundance time series for 47 species and identified major data gaps. In order to compare across the largest possible set of time series with varying data quality, quantity and frequency, we considered an increase in population abundance as evidence of recovery. Using robust log-linear regression over three generations, we were able to classify abundance trends for 92 spatially non-overlapping populations as Significantly Increasing (42%, Significantly Decreasing (10%, Non-Significant Change (28% and Unknown (20%. Our results were comparable to IUCN classifications for equivalent species. Among different groupings, pinnipeds and other marine mammals (sirenians, polar bears and otters showed the highest proportion of recovering populations, likely benefiting from relatively fast life histories and nearshore habitats that provided visibility and protective management measures. Recovery was less frequent among cetaceans, but more common in coastal than offshore populations. For marine mammals with available historical abundance estimates (n = 47, larger historical population declines were associated with low or variable recent recoveries so far. Overall, our results show that many formerly depleted marine mammal populations are recovering. However, data-deficient populations and those with decreasing and non-significant trends require attention. In particular

  15. Species longevity in North American fossil mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothero, Donald R

    2014-08-01

    Species longevity in the fossil record is related to many paleoecological variables and is important to macroevolutionary studies, yet there are very few reliable data on average species durations in Cenozoic fossil mammals. Many of the online databases (such as the Paleobiology Database) use only genera of North American Cenozoic mammals and there are severe problems because key groups (e.g. camels, oreodonts, pronghorns and proboscideans) have no reliable updated taxonomy, with many invalid genera and species and/or many undescribed genera and species. Most of the published datasets yield species duration estimates of approximately 2.3-4.3 Myr for larger mammals, with small mammals tending to have shorter species durations. My own compilation of all the valid species durations in families with updated taxonomy (39 families, containing 431 genera and 998 species, averaging 2.3 species per genus) yields a mean duration of 3.21 Myr for larger mammals. This breaks down to 4.10-4.39 Myr for artiodactyls, 3.14-3.31 Myr for perissodactyls and 2.63-2.95 Myr for carnivorous mammals (carnivorans plus creodonts). These averages are based on a much larger, more robust dataset than most previous estimates, so they should be more reliable for any studies that need species longevity to be accurately estimated. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. 50 CFR 216.83 - Importation of birds or mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Importation of birds or mammals. 216.83 Section 216.83 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.83 Importation of birds or mammals. No mammals or birds...

  17. 45 CFR 670.19 - Designation of native mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of native mammals. 670.19 Section 670... CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates § 670.19 Designation of native mammals. The following are designated native mammals: Pinnipeds: Crabeater seal—Lobodon...

  18. Do Bird Friendly® Coffee Criteria Benefit Mammals? Assessment of Mammal Diversity in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudill, S Amanda; Rice, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity-friendly coffee certifications offer a viable way to protect wildlife habitat while providing a financial incentive to farmers. Most studies related to these certifications focus on avian habitat requirements and it is not known whether these standards also apply to other wildlife, such as mammals, that inhabit the coffee landscapes. We assessed the non-volant mammalian fauna and their associated habitat requirements in 23 sites representing forest, Bird Friendly® shade, conventional shade, and sun coffee habitats. We used Sherman trap-grids to measure small mammal abundance and richness, while camera traps were set for medium-sized and large mammals. We detected 17 species of mammals, representing 11 families. This preliminary study indicates that coffee farms in this region provide an important refuge for mammalian wildlife. Mammal species density ranked significantly higher in Bird Friendly® coffee sites than other coffee habitats, although there was no significant difference for species richness (using Chao2 estimator) among the habitat types. No significant difference was found in small mammal abundance among the habitat types. We found a higher species density of medium and large mammals in sites with larger, more mature shade trees associated with, but not required by Bird Friendly® certification standards. However, lower strata vegetation (5 cm to 1 m tall), the only vegetation parameter found to increase abundance and density for small mammals, is not specified in the Bird Friendly® standards. Our findings suggest that although the standards devised for avian habitat do benefit mammals, further study is needed on the requirements specific for mammals that could be included to enhance the coffee habitat for mammals that inhabit these coffee landscapes.

  19. 77 FR 841 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... and the Single Ping Equivalent (SPE) To model potential impacts to marine animals from exposure to... Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 218 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals... [Docket No. 110808485-1534-01] RIN 0648-BB14 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals...

  20. Chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  1. 76 FR 11205 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction and Operation of a Liquefied Natural Gas Deepwater Port in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... request from Port Dolphin Energy LLC (Port Dolphin) for authorization for the take, by Level B harassment...

  2. 75 FR 24906 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... physical effects; and, at least in theory, temporary or permanent hearing impairment (Richardson et al... based on measured received levels and the hearing sensitivity of that mammal group. Although various... must adapt, the introduction of strong sounds into the sea at frequencies important to marine mammals...

  3. 75 FR 20481 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... exploration drilling program on U.S. Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service (MMS) Alaska OCS... proposed drilling program in Camden Bay on marine mammals would most likely be acoustic in nature... acoustic effects on marine mammals relate to sound produced by drilling activity, vessels, and aircraft...

  4. Lack of a distinct gradient in biomarker responses in small mammals collected at different distances from a highway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, T.; Smit, L.A.M.; Bosveld, A.T.C.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Koeman, J.H.; Schooten, van F.J.; Murk, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    This study describes biomarker effects in small mammals exposed to traffic emissions. Animals were collected at 10-50 m (site 1), 150-200 m (site 2), and 5 km (site 3) from a very busy highway (A2). To distinguish between routes of exposure, strictly carnivorous common shrews (Sorex araneus) and

  5. Hepatic Proteomic Responses in Marine Medaka ( Oryzias melastigma ) Chronically Exposed to Antifouling Compound Butenolide [5-octylfuran-2(5H)-one] or 4,5-Dichloro-2- N -Octyl-4-Isothiazolin-3-One (DCOIT)

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Lianguo; Sun, Jin; Zhang, Huoming; Au, Doris W. T.; Lam, Paul K. S.; Zhang, Weipeng; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    function in marine organisms. In the present study, we investigated the hepatic protein expression profiles of both male and female marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) exposed to low concentrations of DCOIT at 2.55 mu g/L (0.009 mu M) or butenolide, a

  6. Environmental Radiation Effects on Mammals A Dynamical Modeling Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnova, Olga A

    2010-01-01

    This text is devoted to the theoretical studies of radiation effects on mammals. It uses the framework of developed deterministic mathematical models to investigate the effects of both acute and chronic irradiation in a wide range of doses and dose rates on vital body systems including hematopoiesis, small intestine and humoral immunity, as well as on the development of autoimmune diseases. Thus, these models can contribute to the development of the system and quantitative approaches in radiation biology and ecology. This text is also of practical use. Its modeling studies of the dynamics of granulocytopoiesis and thrombocytopoiesis in humans testify to the efficiency of employment of the developed models in the investigation and prediction of radiation effects on these hematopoietic lines. These models, as well as the properly identified models of other vital body systems, could provide a better understanding of the radiation risks to health. The modeling predictions will enable the implementation of more ef...

  7. NODC Standard Format Marine Mammals of Coastal Alaska Data (1975-1976): Marine Mammal Sighting 2 (F026) (NODC Accession 0014151)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC maintains data in three NODC Standard Format Marine Mammal Data Sets: Marine Mammal Sighting and Census (F127); Marine Mammal Specimens (F025); Marine Mammal...

  8. Mathematical modelling of the death rate dynamics in mammals with intestinal form of radiation sicleness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, O.A.

    1990-01-01

    A mathematical models has been developed to describe the death rate dynamics in irradiated mammals. The model links statistical biometric functions with statistical and dynamic characteristics of the organism's 'critical' system. There is an agreement between the results of modelling and experiments with respect to death rate dynamics of small laboratory animals subjected to acute and chronic irradiation with doses and dose-rates at which small intestine epithelium is 'ctitical'

  9. Immune-escape mutations and stop-codons in HBsAg develop in a large proportion of patients with chronic HBV infection exposed to anti-HBV drugs in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colagrossi, Luna; Hermans, Lucas E; Salpini, Romina

    2018-01-01

    structure of HBV genome, some immune-escape mutations or stop-codons in HBsAg can derive from drug-resistance mutations in RT. This study is aimed at gaining insight in prevalence and characteristics of immune-associated escape mutations, and stop-codons in HBsAg in chronically HBV-infected patients...

  10. Area selection for conservation of Mexican mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez, L. B.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Three sets of priority cells for mammal conservation in Mexico were identified using distributional data. A complementarity approach was implemented through linear integer programming. The minimum set of sites required for the representation of each mammal species varied between 38 (5.4% grid cells for at least one occurrence, 110 (15.6% grid cells for at least three occurrences, and 173 (24.5% grid cells for at least five occurrences. The complementary analyses mainly highlighted three regions of particular concern for mammal conservation in Mexico: (i the trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and natural provinces of the Pacific Coast, (ii Sierra Madre del Sur and the Highlands of Chiapas, and (iii the northern portion of the Sierra Madre Occidental. The results reported here did not indicate absolute priority locations for conservation activities, but rather identified locations warranting further investigation at finer resolutions more appropriate to such activity

  11. Life history consequences of mammal sibling rivalry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockley, P; Parker, G A

    2002-10-01

    Mammal life history traits relating to growth and reproduction are extremely diverse. Sibling rivalry may contribute to selection pressures influencing this diversity, because individuals that are relatively large at birth typically have an advantage in competition for milk. However, selection for increased growth rate is likely to be constrained by kin selection and physiological costs. Here, we present and test a model examining the ESS (evolutionarily stable strategy) balance between these constraints and advantages associated with increased prenatal growth in mammal sibling rivalry. Predictions of the model are supported by results of comparative analyses for the Carnivora and Insectivora, which demonstrate an increase in prenatal growth rate with increasing intensity of postnatal scramble competition, and a decrease in postnatal growth rate relative to size at birth. Because increased prenatal growth rates are predicted to select for reduced gestation length under certain conditions, our study also indicates that sibling rivalry may contribute to selection pressures influencing variation in altriciality and precociality among mammals.

  12. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca(2+)]i and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca(2+)], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Microcystin-LR Induced Immunotoxicity in Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqoob Lone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcystins are toxic molecules produced by cyanobacterial blooms due to water eutrophication. Exposure to microcystins is a global health problem because of its association with various other pathological effects and people all over the world are exposed to microcystins on a regular basis. Evidence shows that microcystin-LR (MC-LR may adversely affect the immune system, but its specific effects on immune functions are lacking. In the present review, immunotoxicological effects associated with MC-LR in animals, humans, and in vitro models have been reported. Overall, the data shows that chronic exposure to MC-LR has the potential to impair vital immune responses which could lead to increased risk of various diseases including cancers. Studies in animal and in vitro models have provided some pivotal understanding into the potential mechanisms of MC-LR related immunotoxicity suggesting that further investigation, particularly in humans, is required to better understand the relationship between development of disease and the MC-LR exposure.

  14. Global mammal distributions, biodiversity hotspots, and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Gerardo; Ehrlich, Paul R

    2006-12-19

    Hotspots, which have played a central role in the selection of sites for reserves, require careful rethinking. We carried out a global examination of distributions of all nonmarine mammals to determine patterns of species richness, endemism, and endangerment, and to evaluate the degree of congruence among hotspots of these three measures of diversity in mammals. We then compare congruence of hotspots in two animal groups (mammals and birds) to assess the generality of these patterns. We defined hotspots as the richest 2.5% of cells in a global equal-area grid comparable to 1 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude. Hotspots of species richness, "endemism," and extinction threat were noncongruent. Only 1% of cells and 16% of species were common to the three types of mammalian hotspots. Congruence increased with increases in both the geographic scope of the analysis and the percentage of cells defined as being hotspots. The within-mammal hotspot noncongruence was similar to the pattern recently found for birds. Thus, assigning global conservation priorities based on hotspots is at best a limited strategy.

  15. A system for gathering small mammal data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert D. Neely; Robert W. Campbell

    1973-01-01

    As an aid to studying vertebrate predators of the gypsy moth, a radio telemetry system was designed to detect the death of small mammals and facilitate recovery of the remains. An intraperitoneally implanted radio transmitter is triggered by the drop in body temperature when the animal dies. The device was tested in white-footed mice.

  16. Mammals of the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cothran, E.G.; Smith, M.H.; Wolff, J.O.; Gentry, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    This book is designed to be used as a field guide, reference book, bibliography, and introduction to the basic biology and ecology of the 54 mammal species that currently or potentially exist on or near the Savannah River Site (SRS). For 50 of these species, we present basic descriptions, distinguishing morphological features, distribution and habitat preferences, food habits, reproductive biology, social behavior, ecological relationships with other species, and economic importance to man. For those species that have been studied on the SRS, we summarize the results of these studies. Keys and illustrations are provided for whole body and skull identification. A selected glossary defines technical terminology. Illustrations of tracks of the more common larger mammals will assist in field identifications. We also summarize the results of two major long-term SRS studies, ''The Forbearer Census'' and ''White-tailed Deer Studies''. A cross-indexed list of over 300 SRS publications on mammals classifies each publication by 23 categories such as habitat, reproduction, genetics, etc., and also for each mammal species. The 149 Master's theses and Ph.D. dissertations that have been conducted at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory are provided as additional references

  17. Morbilliviruses and morbillivirus diseases of marine mammals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. de Swart (Rik); T.C. Harder (Timm); P.S. Ross (Peter); H.W. Vos (Helma); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years, serious disease outbreaks among seals and dolphins were attributed to infection with established or newly recognized morbilliviruses. The first identification of a morbillivirus as causative agent of mass mortality among marine mammals was in 1988, when the previously

  18. Mammals of the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cothran, E.G.; Smith, M.H.; Wolff, J.O.; Gentry, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    This book is designed to be used as a field guide, reference book, bibliography, and introduction to the basic biology and ecology of the 54 mammal species that currently or potentially exist on or near the Savannah River Site (SRS). For 50 of these species, we present basic descriptions, distinguishing morphological features, distribution and habitat preferences, food habits, reproductive biology, social behavior, ecological relationships with other species, and economic importance to man. For those species that have been studied on the SRS, we summarize the results of these studies. Keys and illustrations are provided for whole body and skull identification. A selected glossary defines technical terminology. Illustrations of tracks of the more common larger mammals will assist in field identifications. We also summarize the results of two major long-term SRS studies, The Forbearer Census'' and White-tailed Deer Studies''. A cross-indexed list of over 300 SRS publications on mammals classifies each publication by 23 categories such as habitat, reproduction, genetics, etc., and also for each mammal species. The 149 Master's theses and Ph.D. dissertations that have been conducted at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory are provided as additional references.

  19. Mammals of the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cothran, E.G.; Smith, M.H.; Wolff, J.O.; Gentry, J.B.

    1991-12-31

    This book is designed to be used as a field guide, reference book, bibliography, and introduction to the basic biology and ecology of the 54 mammal species that currently or potentially exist on or near the Savannah River Site (SRS). For 50 of these species, we present basic descriptions, distinguishing morphological features, distribution and habitat preferences, food habits, reproductive biology, social behavior, ecological relationships with other species, and economic importance to man. For those species that have been studied on the SRS, we summarize the results of these studies. Keys and illustrations are provided for whole body and skull identification. A selected glossary defines technical terminology. Illustrations of tracks of the more common larger mammals will assist in field identifications. We also summarize the results of two major long-term SRS studies, ``The Forbearer Census`` and ``White-tailed Deer Studies``. A cross-indexed list of over 300 SRS publications on mammals classifies each publication by 23 categories such as habitat, reproduction, genetics, etc., and also for each mammal species. The 149 Master`s theses and Ph.D. dissertations that have been conducted at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory are provided as additional references.

  20. Mammals of the Genera Odocoileus and Sylvilagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar Hummelinck, P.

    1940-01-01

    Whilst visiting the Leeward Group, little time could be spared to the collecting of mammals; from Odocoileus and Sylvilagus however, a rather representative series could be obtained. Regarding this, I must offer my grateful thanks and appreciation to the people who so ably and kindly assisted in

  1. Description of Specimens in the Marine Mammal Osteology Reference Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NMFS Alaska Fisheries Science Center National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) Marine Mammal Osteology Collection consists of approximately 2500 specimens (skulls...

  2. AKRO/PR: Alaska Marine Mammal Observer Program (AMMOP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NMFS is mandated by the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) to measure and report on the effects of commercial fisheries on marine mammal stocks. One of the ways...

  3. Small mammal communities on cattle and game grazing areas in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small mammal communities on cattle and game grazing areas in Namibia. ... small mammal communities on two differently managed farmlands (cattle and game farm) in Namibia over the course of one year. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  4. Southeast Region Level A Marine Mammal Stranding Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data on marine mammal strandings are collected by the Southeast Marine Mammal Stranding Network. Basic data on the location, species identification, animal...

  5. Northern Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Unusual Mortality Event Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissues and samples collected from marine mammals during investigation of the Northern Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Unusual Mortality Event are tracked within this...

  6. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for marine mammals in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of...

  7. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Mississippi: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for dolphin and manatees in Mississippi. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine mammal...

  8. 77 FR 33718 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Training Exercises...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... (LOA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting training exercises within the... issue an LOA to the Navy that includes the use of time delayed firing devices (TDFDs), which have not been explicitly addressed previously, to [[Page 33719

  9. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for small mammal species in coastal Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey. Vector polygons in...

  10. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca 2+ ] i and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca 2+ ], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers showed higher PS

  11. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Hernández, Gerardo [Section of Methodology of Science, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica [Faculty of Medicine, UJED, Durango, DGO (Mexico); Maldonado-Vega, María [CIATEC, León, GTO (Mexico); Rosas-Flores, Margarita [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor, E-mail: jcalder@cinvestav.mx [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico)

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca{sup 2+}], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers

  12. ORTHOMYXO- AND PARAMYXOVIRUSES IN MARINE MAMMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina G. Gulyaeva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. Marine mammals play the role of "sentries", standing guard over the health and functioning of marine ecosystems. The analysis of data reported in literature was carried out to understand and to evaluate a circulation of representatives of the Orthomyxoviridae and Paramyxoviridae, dangerous pathogens capable to cause morbidity and mortality in marine warm-blooded animals. Discussion. In the population of marine animals, in the available literature, no more than twenty infectious diseases were described. At the same time, according to preliminary estimates, about 15% of marine mammals die from indicated diseases. Previous studies conducted by various groups of scientists have already shown the circulation of various viral pathogens, which cause different infections in these animals. The present fact indicates the important role of marine mammals in the ecology and spreading of a number of viruses. In accordance with a literature data, representatives of Orthomixoviruses and Paramyxoviruses are among the most dangerous pathogens, which may infect this type of animals. Thus, it was suggested that seals may be infected with a wide range of influenza viruses without prior adaptation. It was emphasized that pinnipeds are one of the reservoir of a human influenza B virus in nature. Infections caused by morbilliviruses, can be the reason of epizootics in a population of seals and among the other species of marine mammals. Signs of a disease are similar to the clinic of carnivore plague. Main conclusions. The data presented in literature is extremely not enough for fully understanding a role of marine mammals as hosts or carriers of potential zoonotic pathogens, such as avian influenza virus (AIV, morbilliviruses and others. Thus, this issue requires further more detailed study.

  13. Treating chronic arsenic toxicity with high selenium lentil diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sah, Shweta [Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4Z6 (Canada); Vandenberg, Albert [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A8 (Canada); Smits, Judit, E-mail: judit.smits@ucalgary.ca [Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4Z6 (Canada)

    2013-10-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity causes serious health problems in humans, especially in the Indo-Gangetic plains and mountainous areas of China. Selenium (Se), an essential micronutrient is a potential mitigator of As toxicity due to its antioxidant and antagonistic properties. Selenium is seriously deficient in soils world-wide but is present at high, yet non-toxic levels in the great plains of North America. We evaluate the potential of dietary Se in counteracting chronic As toxicity in rats through serum biochemistry, blood glutathione levels, immunotoxicity (antibody response), liver peroxidative stress, thyroid response and As levels in tissues and excreta. To achieve this, we compare diets based on high-Se Saskatchewan (SK) lentils versus low-Se lentils from United States. Rats drank control (0 ppm As) or As (40 ppm As) water while consuming SK lentils (0.3 ppm Se) or northwestern USA lentils (< 0.01 ppm Se) diets for 14 weeks. Rats on high Se diets had higher glutathione levels regardless of As exposure, recovered antibody responses in As-exposed group, higher fecal and urinary As excretion and lower renal As residues. Selenium deficiency caused greater hepatic peroxidative damage in the As exposed animals. Thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), were not different. After 14 weeks of As exposure, health indicators in rats improved in response to the high Se lentil diets. Our results indicate that high Se lentils have a potential to mitigate As toxicity in laboratory mammals, which we hope will translate into benefits for As exposed humans. - Highlights: • We reduce chronic arsenic toxicity in rats with a whole food solution. • High selenium lentils decrease liver damage and increase blood glutathione levels. • High selenium lentil diets increase urinary and fecal arsenic excretion. • High selenium lentil diets decrease arsenic levels in kidney, the storage organ. • High selenium lentil diets reverse arsenic suppression of the B cell

  14. Treating chronic arsenic toxicity with high selenium lentil diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, Shweta; Vandenberg, Albert; Smits, Judit

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity causes serious health problems in humans, especially in the Indo-Gangetic plains and mountainous areas of China. Selenium (Se), an essential micronutrient is a potential mitigator of As toxicity due to its antioxidant and antagonistic properties. Selenium is seriously deficient in soils world-wide but is present at high, yet non-toxic levels in the great plains of North America. We evaluate the potential of dietary Se in counteracting chronic As toxicity in rats through serum biochemistry, blood glutathione levels, immunotoxicity (antibody response), liver peroxidative stress, thyroid response and As levels in tissues and excreta. To achieve this, we compare diets based on high-Se Saskatchewan (SK) lentils versus low-Se lentils from United States. Rats drank control (0 ppm As) or As (40 ppm As) water while consuming SK lentils (0.3 ppm Se) or northwestern USA lentils (< 0.01 ppm Se) diets for 14 weeks. Rats on high Se diets had higher glutathione levels regardless of As exposure, recovered antibody responses in As-exposed group, higher fecal and urinary As excretion and lower renal As residues. Selenium deficiency caused greater hepatic peroxidative damage in the As exposed animals. Thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), were not different. After 14 weeks of As exposure, health indicators in rats improved in response to the high Se lentil diets. Our results indicate that high Se lentils have a potential to mitigate As toxicity in laboratory mammals, which we hope will translate into benefits for As exposed humans. - Highlights: • We reduce chronic arsenic toxicity in rats with a whole food solution. • High selenium lentils decrease liver damage and increase blood glutathione levels. • High selenium lentil diets increase urinary and fecal arsenic excretion. • High selenium lentil diets decrease arsenic levels in kidney, the storage organ. • High selenium lentil diets reverse arsenic suppression of the B cell

  15. Use of models in small mammal population studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, W.; Nichols, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The role of models as contributors to the understanding of natural populations of small mammals is reviewed. A philosophy of model use and projections for future work are also included. Categories of biological phenomena reviewed include models on population dynamics (demographic variables and population regulation, dispersal, sex-ratios, predation, population cycles), population responses to environmental conditions, genetics of small mammal populations, competitive interactions, ecosystems and small mammal functions, and control and management of small mammal populations

  16. Pesticide residues in birds and mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; Edwards, C.A.

    1973-01-01

    SUMMARY: Residues of organochlorine pesticides and their breakdown products are present in the tissues of essentially all wild birds throughout the world. These chemicals accumulate in fat from a relatively small environmental exposure. DDE and dieldrin are most prevalent. Others, such as heptachlor epoxide, chlordane, endrin, and benzene hexachloride also occur, the quantities and kinds generally reflecting local or regional use. Accumulation may be sufficient to kill animals following applications for pest control. This has occurred in several large-scale programmes in the United States. Mortality has also resulted from unintentional leakage of chemical from commercial establishments. Residues may persist in the environment for many years, exposing successive generations of animals. In general, birds that eat other birds, or fish, have higher residues than those that eat seeds and vegetation. The kinetic processes of absorption, metabolism, storage, and output differ according to both kind of chemical and species of animal. When exposure is low and continuous, a balance between intake and excretion may be achieved. Residues reach a balance at an approximate animal body equilibrium or plateau; the storage is generally proportional to dose. Experiments with chickens show that dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide have the greatest propensity for storage, endrin next, then DDT, then lindane. The storage of DDT was complicated by its metabolism to DDE and DDD, but other studies show that DDE has a much greater propensity for storage than either DDD or DDT. Methoxychlor has little cumulative capacity in birds. Residues in eggs reflect and parallel those in the parent bird during accumulation, equilibrium, and decline when dosage is discontinued. Residues with the greatest propensity for storage are also lost most slowly. Rate of loss of residues can be modified by dietary components and is speeded by weight loss of the animal. Under sublethal conditions of continuous

  17. Auditory Weighting Functions and TTS/PTS Exposure Functions for Marine Mammals Exposed to Underwater Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    male I’a nui hahai TYH WEN MUK, NOC female HF Jacobs and Hall, 1972 Kastelein et al., 2002** Kastelein, Hoek, de Jong, and Wensveen...Ridgway, S. H., D. A. Carder, T. Kamolnick, R. R. Smith, C. E. Schlundt, and W. R. Elsberry. 2001. “Hearing and Whistling in the Deep Sea: Depth

  18. Small mammals distribution and diversity in a plague endemic area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small mammals play a role in plague transmission as hosts in all plague endemic areas. Information on distribution and diversity of small mammals is therefore important for plague surveillance and control in such areas. The objective of this study was to investigate small mammals' diversity and their distribution in plague ...

  19. Improvements to Passive Acoustic Tracking Methods for Marine Mammal Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-02

    separate and associate calls from individual animals . Marine mammal; Passive acoustic monitoring; Localization; Tracking; Multiple source; Sparse array...position and hydrophone timing offset in addition to animal position Almost all marine mammal tracking methods treat animal position as the only unknown...Workshop on Detection, Classification and Localization (DCL) of Marine Mammals). The animals were expected to be relatively close to the surface

  20. 77 FR 27719 - Marine Mammals; File Nos. 16109 and 15575

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ...., Riverhead, NY 11901 to conduct research on marine mammals and sea turtles. ADDRESSES: The permits and... Register (76 FR 51001) that requests for permits to conduct research on marine mammals and sea turtles had... governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973...

  1. 78 FR 39258 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17355

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... Investigator: Peter Corkeron] to conduct research on marine mammals and sea turtles. ADDRESSES: The permit and... to conduct research on marine mammals and sea turtles had been submitted by the above-named applicant... mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq...

  2. 78 FR 3402 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16919

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... Mammals; File No. 16919 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR...

  3. 78 FR 21113 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17845

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... Mammals; File No. 17845 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered...

  4. 78 FR 51146 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14535

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... Mammals; File No. 14535 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.); and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). Permit No...

  5. 77 FR 50472 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15748

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... Mammals; File No. 15748 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The amended...

  6. 77 FR 27441 - Marine Mammals; File No. 13927

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... Mammals; File No. 13927 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... INFORMATION: The subject amendment to Permit No. 13927 is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal... importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C...

  7. 76 FR 31942 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15748

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Mammals; File No. 15748 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... mammals. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are available for review upon written request or by... Register (76 FR 13603) that a request for a permit to conduct research on marine mammals had been [[Page...

  8. 77 FR 72829 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16305

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... Mammals; File No. 16305 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Building, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04104-9300, to receive, import, and export marine mammal and sea... of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations...

  9. 77 FR 268 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16998

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... Mammals; File No. 16998 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR...

  10. 78 FR 39713 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17751

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... Mammals; File No. 17751 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... applicant. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of... marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). Permit No. 17751 authorizes Dr. Mitani to study gray and killer whales...

  11. 76 FR 72178 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14334

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... Mammals; File No. 14334 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act...

  12. 76 FR 31942 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14329

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Mammals; File No. 14329 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Mammal Research Consortium (NPUMMRC), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC., Canada. ADDRESSES... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq...

  13. 76 FR 30109 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15453

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Mammals; File No. 15453 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act...

  14. 77 FR 60107 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17298

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... Mammals; File No. 17298 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... a permit to collect, import, export, and receive marine mammal parts for scientific research. DATES.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection...

  15. 76 FR 4091 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15510

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... Mammals; File No. 15510 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric..., AK, has applied in due form for a permit to receive, import, and export marine mammal parts for... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended...

  16. 75 FR 39665 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14791

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... Mammals; File No. 14791 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered...

  17. 77 FR 20793 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16599

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... Mammals; File No. 16599 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... permit has been issued to Dorian Houser, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal Foundation, 2240 Shelter Island... applicant. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of...

  18. 75 FR 8303 - Marine Mammals; File No. 13430

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... Mammals; File No. 13430 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... National Marine Mammal Laboratory, (Responsible Party: Dr. John Bengtson, Director), Seattle, WA, has been issued a permit to conduct research on marine mammals. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are...

  19. 77 FR 3744 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17029

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... Mammals; File No. 17029 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... analyses marine mammal specimens for scientific research. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or email comments must.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection...

  20. 77 FR 55456 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17410

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... Mammals; File No. 17410 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric..., AK 99811, has applied in due form for a permit to import, export, collect, and receive marine mammal... is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U...

  1. 78 FR 51146 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17429

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... Mammals; File No. 17429 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as... mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq...

  2. 77 FR 19649 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17029

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... Mammals; File No. 17029 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Flagler Road, Milltown, MT 59851 to receive, import, export, and possess marine mammal specimens for... authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations...

  3. 78 FR 56219 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17115

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... Mammals; File No. 17115 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). Permit No. 17115-01 authorizes the permit...

  4. 77 FR 54902 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17278

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Mammals; File No. 17278 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric..., 404H West, Boston, MA 02215, to import and receive marine mammal parts for scientific research... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing...

  5. 77 FR 268 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15682

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... Mammals; File No. 15682 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR [[Page 269...

  6. 77 FR 34352 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17178

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Mammals; File No. 17178 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric....], P.O. Box 1346, Route 1208 Greate Road, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 to import marine mammal parts for... Register (77 FR 19646) that a request for a permit to import marine mammal parts for scientific research...

  7. 77 FR 19004 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16621

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... Mammals; File No. 16621 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The permit authorizes harassment of...

  8. 76 FR 19976 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15537

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... Mammals; File No. 15537 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...) prepared in response to a public display permit application received from the Institute for Marine Mammal... of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.) and the regulations...

  9. 76 FR 32144 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15543

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... Mammals; File No. 15543 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216...

  10. 77 FR 58358 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14097

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... Mammals; File No. 14097 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... amendment has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR...

  11. 77 FR 63296 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17115

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... Mammals; File No. 17115 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... permit has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR...

  12. 76 FR 2888 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Mammals; File No. 16000 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection... importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). Section 104(c)(6) provides for photography for educational or...

  13. 77 FR 4765 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15142

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... Mammals; File No. 15142 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The applicant proposes to...

  14. 77 FR 51519 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17403

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... Mammals; File No. 17403 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216...

  15. 76 FR 48146 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15330

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... Mammals; File No. 15330 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... to take marine mammals in the Pacific Ocean for the purposes of scientific research. ADDRESSES: The... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the...

  16. 76 FR 81916 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16685

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... Mammals; File No. 16685 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The permit authorizes photo...

  17. 78 FR 29117 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... Mammals; File No. 17005 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part...

  18. 76 FR 67151 - Marine Mammals; File No. 13927

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... Mammals; File No. 13927 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  19. 77 FR 21753 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Mammals; File No. 17011 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). NHK...

  20. 77 FR 2513 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... Mammals; File No. 17011 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). Section 104(c)(6) provides for...

  1. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine mammals (seals) in the Hudson River. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine mammal...

  2. 78 FR 30873 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... mammal or marine mammal stock in the wild by causing disruption of behavioral patterns, including, but.... The clamshell would be used to grasp and lift large components. When a wooden pile cannot be...

  3. [Comparative studies on the toxicity of various dielectrics--petroleum derivatives used in the electroerosion technic. V. Functional, morphological and cytoenzymatic changes in the kidneys of rats chronically exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starek, A; Kamiński, M

    1982-01-01

    The rats exposed for 14 weeks to odourless kerosene mists (concentration of 75 and 300 mg/m3) had their urinary chemical and morphotic composition determined. In addition, morphological and cytoenzymatic examinations of kidneys were carried out. The findings were: increased pH and protein concentration and single erythrocytes in urine and also: passive congestion of renal cortex and medulla, infiltrates composed of granulocytes and eosinophils and albuminous casts in renal tubules. Decreased activity of succinate dehydrogenase, glucoso-6-phosphatase, Mg++ stimulated adenosinotriphosphatase and increased activity of acid phosphatase were found. Those changes were localized in cortical part of the kidney especially in the main tubules epithelial cells. The observed functional, morphological and cytoenzymatic changes depended on the magnitude of exposure. The obtained results confirm that kerosene hydrocarbons may exhibit toxic effects on the kidney function and structure.

  4. [Comparative studies on toxicity of various dielectrics, petroleum derivatives, used in electroerosion technology. IV. Morphological and cytoenzymatic changes in the lungs and acid-base imbalance in rats chronically exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starek, A; Kamiński, M

    1981-01-01

    In rats exposed to odourless kerosene of 75 and 300 mg/m3 concentration, for 14 weeks, morphologic and cytoenzymatic examinations of lungs have been carried out and acid-base equilibrium indices in blood have been determined. Passive congestion of lung parenchyma, subpleural blood extravasation, atelectasis foci, thickened interalveolar septa with infiltrates from neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and macrophages have been found. In addition a decrease in succinic dehydrogenase activity, NADPH -- tetrazolium reductase, and Mg++-ATP-ase and increase in acid phosphatase activity have been revealed. Those have been focal changes, involving, apart from bronchial tree (low exposure -- 75 mg/m3), the remaining lung parenchyma segments (high exposure -- 300 mg/m3). In addition, disturbances in acid-base equilibrium in form of compensated metabolic alkalosis (75 mg/m3) and compensated metabolic acidosis (300 mg/m3) have occurred. The obtained results demonstrate toxic effects of kerosene hydrocarbons on the function and structure of lungs.

  5. Comparative studies on the toxicity of various dielectrics--petroleum derivatives used in the electroerosion technic. V. Functional, morphological and cytoenzymatic changes in the kidneys of rats chronically exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starek, A.; Kaminski, M.

    1982-01-01

    The rats exposed for 14 weeks to odourless kerosene mists (concentration of 75 and 300 mg/m3) had their urinary chemical and morphotic composition determined. In addition, morphological and cytoenzymatic examinations of kidneys were carried out. The findings were: increased pH and protein concentration and single erythrocytes in urine and also: passive congestion of renal cortex and medulla, infiltrates composed of granulocytes and eosinophils and albuminous casts in renal tubules. Decreased activity of succinate dehydrogenase, glucoso-6-phosphatase, Mg++ stimulated adenosinotriphosphatase and increased activity of acid phosphatase were found. Those changes were localized in cortical part of the kidney especially in the main tubules epithelial cells. The observed functional, morphological and cytoenzymatic changes depended on the magnitude of exposure. The obtained results confirm that kerosene hydrocarbons may exhibit toxic effects on the kidney function and structure.

  6. Elevated carboxyhemoglobin in a marine mammal, the northern elephant seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tift, Michael S; Ponganis, Paul J; Crocker, Daniel E

    2014-05-15

    Low concentrations of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), generated primarily through degradation of heme from heme-proteins, have been shown to maintain physiological function of organs and to exert cytoprotective effects. However, high concentrations of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), formed by CO binding to hemoglobin, potentially prevent adequate O2 delivery to tissues by lowering arterial O2 content. Elevated heme-protein concentrations, as found in marine mammals, are likely associated with greater heme degradation, more endogenous CO production and, consequently, elevated COHb concentrations. Therefore, we measured COHb in elephant seals, a species with large blood volumes and elevated hemoglobin and myoglobin concentrations. The levels of COHb were positively related to the total hemoglobin concentration. The maximum COHb value was 10.4% of total hemoglobin concentration. The mean (± s.e.m.) value in adult seals was 8.7 ± 0.3% (N=6), while juveniles and pups (with lower heme-protein contents) had lower mean COHb values of 7.6 ± 0.2% and 7.1 ± 0.3%, respectively (N=9 and N=9, respectively). Serial samples over several hours revealed little to no fluctuation in COHb values. This consistent elevation in COHb suggests that the magnitude and/or rate of heme-protein turnover is much higher than in terrestrial mammals. The maximum COHb values from this study decrease total body O2 stores by 7%, thereby reducing the calculated aerobic dive limit for this species. However, the constant presence of elevated CO in blood may also protect against potential ischemia-reperfusion injury associated with the extreme breath-holds of elephant seals. We suggest the elephant seal represents an ideal model for understanding the potential cytoprotective effects, mechanisms of action and evolutionary adaptation associated with chronically elevated concentrations of endogenously produced CO. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. 76 FR 12070 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Energy's EROS operations in 2010: Marine mammals Biological impacts Company Structure Dates sighted... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  8. 77 FR 42279 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... the shutdown zone clear of marine mammals; animals will be allowed to remain in the shutdown zone (i.e... these problems, any adverse responses to construction activities by marine mammals, and a complete... of impacts of sound on marine mammals, it is common practice to estimate how many animals are likely...

  9. 76 FR 35856 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification is hereby...

  10. 75 FR 8921 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification is hereby...

  11. 76 FR 33704 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification is hereby...

  12. 77 FR 45341 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...). SUMMARY: In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations...

  13. 77 FR 10481 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification is hereby...

  14. 77 FR 16539 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...). SUMMARY: In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations...

  15. 76 FR 23570 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification is hereby...

  16. 75 FR 28566 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification is hereby...

  17. 78 FR 22517 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...). SUMMARY: In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations...

  18. 75 FR 31423 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...: In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification...

  19. 78 FR 13865 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...). SUMMARY: In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations...

  20. 75 FR 54851 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification is hereby...

  1. 75 FR 38078 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification is hereby...

  2. 77 FR 39485 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...). SUMMARY: In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations...

  3. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.E.J.; Soetens, F.

    2005-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical

  4. Prioritizing conservation investments for mammal species globally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kerrie A.; Evans, Megan C.; Di Marco, Moreno; Green, David C.; Boitani, Luigi; Possingham, Hugh P.; Chiozza, Federica; Rondinini, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    We need to set priorities for conservation because we cannot do everything, everywhere, at the same time. We determined priority areas for investment in threat abatement actions, in both a cost-effective and spatially and temporally explicit way, for the threatened mammals of the world. Our analysis presents the first fine-resolution prioritization analysis for mammals at a global scale that accounts for the risk of habitat loss, the actions required to abate this risk, the costs of these actions and the likelihood of investment success. We evaluated the likelihood of success of investments using information on the past frequency and duration of legislative effectiveness at a country scale. The establishment of new protected areas was the action receiving the greatest investment, while restoration was never chosen. The resolution of the analysis and the incorporation of likelihood of success made little difference to this result, but affected the spatial location of these investments. PMID:21844046

  5. North Spain (Burgos wild mammals ectoparasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez G.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-seven species of arthropods were collected from 105 wild mammals, six wolves Canis lupus (Linnaeus, 1758 included. A total of 87 animals (82,8 % harboured some ectoparasites. Ticks were found in 60 % of the samples, fleas in 51.4 %, chewing-lice in 3.8 %, and others (Mesostigmata and hippoboscids in 3.8 %. Moreover, 42.5 % were single infestation and 57.5 % mixed. Some of the species were new records for a host in spanish country such as Trichodectes canis (De Géer, 1778, Ixodes trianguliceps (Birula, 1895, Ceralophyllus (Monopsyllus S. sciurorum (Schrank, 1803 and Paraceras melis melis (Walker, 1856 on several mammals. Two species were new records for Spain: Chaetopsylla matina (Jordan, 1925 and Archaeopsylla erinacei erinacei (Bouché, 1835.

  6. Future hotspots of terrestrial mammal loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti, Piero; Pressey, Robert L.; Giorgini, Daniele; Maiorano, Luigi; Bakkenes, Michel; Boitani, Luigi; Alkemade, Rob; Falcucci, Alessandra; Chiozza, Federica; Rondinini, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Current levels of endangerment and historical trends of species and habitats are the main criteria used to direct conservation efforts globally. Estimates of future declines, which might indicate different priorities than past declines, have been limited by the lack of appropriate data and models. Given that much of conservation is about anticipating and responding to future threats, our inability to look forward at a global scale has been a major constraint on effective action. Here, we assess the geography and extent of projected future changes in suitable habitat for terrestrial mammals within their present ranges. We used a global earth-system model, IMAGE, coupled with fine-scale habitat suitability models and parametrized according to four global scenarios of human development. We identified the most affected countries by 2050 for each scenario, assuming that no additional conservation actions other than those described in the scenarios take place. We found that, with some exceptions, most of the countries with the largest predicted losses of suitable habitat for mammals are in Africa and the Americas. African and North American countries were also predicted to host the most species with large proportional global declines. Most of the countries we identified as future hotspots of terrestrial mammal loss have little or no overlap with the present global conservation priorities, thus confirming the need for forward-looking analyses in conservation priority setting. The expected growth in human populations and consumption in hotspots of future mammal loss mean that local conservation actions such as protected areas might not be sufficient to mitigate losses. Other policies, directed towards the root causes of biodiversity loss, are required, both in Africa and other parts of the world. PMID:21844048

  7. Probing spinal circuits controlling walking in mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiehn, Ole; Dougherty, Kimberly J.; Hägglund, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Locomotion in mammals is a complex motor act that involves the activation of a large number of muscles in a well-coordinated pattern. Understanding the network organization of the intrinsic spinal networks that control the locomotion, the central pattern generators, has been a challenge to neuros...... populations of neurons for the key network functions including coordinating muscle activity and generating rhythmic activity. These findings are summarized in proposed organizational principles for the mammalian segmental CPG....

  8. Terrestrial and aquatic mammals of the Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CJR. Alho

    Full Text Available Different works have registered the number of mammal species within the natural habitats of the Pantanal based on currently known records, with species richness ranging from 89 to 152 of annotated occurrences. Our present list sums 174 species. However, at least three factors have to be emphasised to deal with recorded numbers: 1 to establish the ecotone limit between the floodplain (which is the Pantanal and its neighbouring domain like the Cerrado, besides the existence of maps recently produced; 2 the lack of intensive surveys, especially on small mammals, rodents and marsupials; and 3 the constant taxonomic revision on bats, rodents and marsupials. Some species are very abundant - for example the capybara Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris and the crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous, and some are rare, and others are still intrinsically rare - for example, the bush dog Speothos venaticus. Abundance of species is assumed to reflect ecological resources of the habitat. Local diversity and number of individuals of wild rodents and marsupials also rely on the offering of ecological resources and behavioural specialisation to microhabitat components. A large number of species interact with the type of the vegetation of the habitat, by means of habitat selection through active patterns of ecological behaviour, resulting on dependency on arboreal and forested habitats of the Pantanal. In addition, mammals respond to seasonal shrinking-and-expansion of habitats due to flooding regime of the Pantanal. The highest number of species is observed during the dry season, when there is a considerable expansion of terrestrial habitats, mainly seasonally flooded grassland. Major threats to mammal species are the loss and alteration of habitats due to human intervention, mainly deforestation, unsustainable agricultural and cattle-ranching practices, which convert the natural vegetation into pastures. The Pantanal still harbours about a dozen of species officially listened

  9. Regional Diversity and Diversification in Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machac, Antonin; Graham, Catherine H

    2017-01-01

    The effects of regional diversity on diversification remain controversial. The classic hypothesis that diversification decelerates as regional diversity increases has been recently revived. Yet, there is little geographic evidence for slower diversification across regions of high diversity, and diversity is often thought to promote diversification through its effects on ecological divergence and speciation. Here, we use the newest phylogeny for mammals (4,990 species) and two different methods to test the effects of regional diversity on diversification. We find that regions of high diversity are dominated by expanding clades that are far from their estimated carrying capacities. Regions of low diversity host clades that are small and mostly saturated. These results were supported across mammals and their six largest orders. They were corroborated by the two methods when controlling for clade relatedness, clade nestedness, and clade size. Together, these results reject the hypothesis that high geographic concentration of mammals effectively suppresses their further diversification. Instead, highly diverse regions (especially the tropics) seem to act as the engine of mammalian richness.

  10. Diversity and endemism of Peruvian mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Pacheco

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an annotated list for all land, aquatic and marine mammals known to occur in Peru and their distribution by ecoregions. We also present species conservation status according to international organizations and the legal conservation status in Peru. At present, we record 508 species, in 13 orders, 50 families, and 218 genera, making Peru the third most diverse country with regards to mammals in the New World, after Brazil and Mexico, and the fifth most diverse country for mammals in the World. This diversity includes 40 didelphimorphs, 2 paucituberculates, 1 manatee, 6 cingulates, 7 pilosa, 39 primates, 162 rodents, 1 rabbit, 2 soricomorphs, 165 bats, 34 carnivores, 2 perissodactyls, and 47 cetartiodactyls. Bats and rodents (327 species represent almost two thirds of total diversity (64% for Peru. Five genera and 65 species (12.8% are endemics to Peru, with the majority of these being rodents (45 species, 69,2%. Most of the endemic species are restricted to the Yungas of the eastern slope of the Andes (39 species, 60% followed by Selva Baja (14 species, 21.5%. The taxonomic status of some species is commented on, when those depart from accepted taxonomy. The marsupial Marmosa phaea; the rodents Melanomys caliginosus, M. robustulus, and Echinoprocta rufescens; the shrew Cryptotis equatoris; the bats Anoura fistulata, Phyllostomus latifolius, Artibeus ravus, Cynomops greenhalli, Eumops maurus, and Rhogeessa velilla; and the carnivore Nasuella olivacea are first records of species occurrence in Peru. Finally, we also include a list of 15 non-native species.

  11. [Comparative studies on the toxicity of various dieelectrics, kerosene derivatives, used in the electroerosion technic. I. Morphological, cytoenzymatic and biochemical changes in the liver of rats chronically exposed to kerosene hydrocarbons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starek, A; Kamiński, M

    1982-01-01

    Rats exposed to cosmetic kerosene mists (odourless kerosene), concentration of 75 and 300 mg/m3 for 14 days, underwent morphological and cytoenzymatic liver tests and biochemical tests of lipids composition in this organ. In addition, lipids concentration and activity of test--enzymes in blood serum were determined. The findings were: passive congestion, fine--droplet fatty degeneration in I zones of clusters and increased number of Browicz--Kupffer's phagocytes near liver triads. Those changes were accompanied by: decreased activity of succinic dehydrogenese (SDH), tetrazolic NADPH--reductase (NADPH-r.t.) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-P-ase) and increased activity of adenosine triphosphatase (Mg++-ATP-ase) and acid phosphatase (AcP). In blood serum medium increase of base phosphatase (AP), 5-nucleotidase (5-Nt) and leucyloaminepeptidase (LAP) and decreased activity of prothrombin (Pt) were found. In addition, it was demonstrated that liver steatosis was characterized by cumulation of free fatty acids, phospholipids and cholesterol esters with simultaneous decrease in triglycerides content in this organ. The obtained results indicate that changes induced by kerosene hydrocarbons in liver are focal and cumulate in I zones of liver clusters. The degree of lesion varies with the extent of exposure, and results from toxic effects of this preparation on hepatic cells lypoproteid membranes.

  12. Hepatic Proteomic Responses in Marine Medaka ( Oryzias melastigma ) Chronically Exposed to Antifouling Compound Butenolide [5-octylfuran-2(5H)-one] or 4,5-Dichloro-2- N -Octyl-4-Isothiazolin-3-One (DCOIT)

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Lianguo

    2015-02-03

    The pollution of antifoulant SeaNine 211, with 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT) as active ingredient, in coastal environment raises concerns on its adverse effects, including endocrine disruption and impairment of reproductive function in marine organisms. In the present study, we investigated the hepatic protein expression profiles of both male and female marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) exposed to low concentrations of DCOIT at 2.55 mu g/L (0.009 mu M) or butenolide, a promising antifouling agent, at 2.31 mu g/L (0.012 mu M) for 28 days. The results showed that proteins involved in phase I (CYP450 enzyme) metabolism, phase II (UDPGT and GST) conjugation as well as mobilization of retinoid storage, an effective nonenzymatic antioxidant, were consistently up-regulated, possibly facilitating the accelerated detoxification of butenolide. Increased synthesis of bile acid would promote the immediate excretion of butenolide metabolites. Activation of fatty acid beta-oxidation and ATP synthesis were consistent with elevated energy consumption for butenolide degradation and excretion. However, DCOIT did not significantly affect the detoxification system of male medaka, but induced a marked increase of vitellogenin (VTG) by 2.3-fold in the liver of male medaka, suggesting that there is estrogenic activity of DCOIT in endocrine disruption. Overall, this study identified the molecular mechanisms and provided sensitive biomarkers characteristic of butenolide and DCOIT in the liver of marine medaka. The low concentrations of butenolide and DCOIT used in the exposure regimes highlight the needs for systematic evaluation of their environmental risk. In addition, the potent estrogenic activity of DCOIT should be considered in the continued applications of SeaNine 211.

  13. Chronic periodontitis, inflammatory cytokines, and interrelationship with other chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Elsa Maria; Reis, Cátia; Manzanares-Céspedes, Maria Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Periodontal diseases, such as chronic periodontitis, share common inflammatory risk factors with other systemic and chronic inflammatory disorders. Mucosal tissues, such as oral epithelia, are exposed to environmental stressors, such as tobacco and oral bacteria, that might be involved in promoting a systemic inflammatory state. Conversely, chronic disorders can also affect oral health. This review will summarize recent evidence for the interrelationship between chronic periodontitis and other prevalent chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer and chronic respiratory diseases. The association with pregnancy is also included due to possible obstetric complications. We will focus on inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha, IL-1, and IL-6, because they have been shown to be increased in patients with chronic periodontitis, in patients with chronic systemic diseases, and in patients with both chronic periodontitis and other chronic diseases. Therefore, an imbalance towards a proinflammatory immune response could underline a bidirectional link between chronic periodontitis and other chronic diseases. Finally, we highlight that a close coordination between dental and other health professionals could promote oral health and prevent or ameliorate other chronic diseases.

  14. RFRP neurons - the doorway to understanding seasonal reproduction in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Beldring Henningsen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal control of reproduction is critical for the perpetuation of species living in temperate zones that display major changes in climatic environment and availability of food resources. In mammals, seasonal cues are mainly provided by the annual change in the 24h light/dark ratio (i.e. photoperiod, which is translated into the nocturnal production of the pineal hormone melatonin. The annual rhythm in this melatonin signal acts as a synchronizer ensuring that breeding occurs when environmental conditions favor survival of the offspring. Although specific mechanisms might vary among seasonal species, the hypothalamic RF (Arg-Phe amide-related peptides (RFRP-1 and -3 are believed to play a critical role in the central control of seasonal reproduction and in all seasonal species investigated, the RFRP system is persistently inhibited in short photoperiod. Central chronic administration of RFRP-3 in short day-adapted male Syrian hamsters fully reactivates the reproductive axis despite photoinhibitory conditions, which highlights the importance of the seasonal changes in RFRP expression for proper regulation of the reproductive axis. The acute effects of RFRP peptides, however, depend on species, photoperiod and recent studies point towards a different role of RFRP in regulating female reproductive activity. In this review we summarize the recent advances made to understand the role and underlying mechanisms of RFRP in the seasonal control of reproduction, primarily focusing on mammalian species.

  15. Hazardous chemicals in marine mammals from the western North Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, N.; Tanabe, S.

    1999-01-01

    Marine mammals have long-term life and occupy the highest ecological niche in the marine ecosystem. Thus, higher concentration of hazardous chemicals are expected in marine mammals. In the present study, we review contamination of organochlorine compounds (DDTs, PCBs, HCHs, etc.), heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Pb, etc.) and butyltin (TBT, DBT and MBT) in marine mammals collected from the western North Pacific, and discuss the worldwide contamination of these chemicals

  16. Marine Mammals and Noise-Progress Since 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Marine Mammals & Noise - Progress Since 1995 Christine...effects of underwater noise on marine mammals has grown steadily over the last few decades. Results and information are scattered across the peer...reviewed and grey literature. In this project, we try to review the information on noise impacts on marine mammals , focussing on results since the

  17. 78 FR 20800 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... mammals observed by species, sex, age class, their location within the zone, and their reaction (if any... or description of the animal(s) involved; (8) the fate of the animal(s); and (9) photographs or video... Protected Resources, within 24 hours of the discovery. Port Dolphin should provide photographs or video...

  18. 78 FR 35851 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... area is 995 km\\2\\ (384 mi\\2\\). The receiver layout and seismic survey data will be acquired using the... desirable acoustic environment; and Cease feeding or social interaction. For example, at the Guerreo Negro... similar to those in humans and other terrestrial mammals (Southall et al. 2007). Based on data from...

  19. 77 FR 9628 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy's Mission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... revised LOA that is valid for two years, to take marine mammals by harassment incidental to the U.S. Navy... 3395). The application requested authorization, for a period of two years, to take, by harassment..., 2011 within the required timeframes and it is posted on NMFS Web site: http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr...

  20. 77 FR 30996 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy's Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... harassment incidental to its Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT&E) activities at the NAVSEA... period of four years, to take, by harassment, marine mammals incidental to proposed training activities... Navy's 2011 RDT&E activities can be found in the exercise report posted on NMFS Web site: http://www...

  1. 78 FR 52135 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ...--Marine Mammal Density Estimates Density Species (animals/km \\2\\) Bottlenose dolphin \\1\\ 0.455 Atlantic... criteria and thresholds in a final rule on the unintentional taking of marine animals occurring incidental... analysis assumed the marine species populations were 100 percent small animals. The criterion with the...

  2. 76 FR 41486 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... Liquefied Natural Gas Facility off Massachusetts AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... documentation may be obtained by writing to Michael Payne, Chief, Permits, Conservation and Education Division...) implementing passive acoustic monitoring of marine mammals to supplement the effectiveness of visual sightings...

  3. 75 FR 20344 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Rocket Launches from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... traditional haulout site) during the December 7 survey; however, this has been the trend during the past few... subsistence uses. In addition, NMFS must prescribe regulations that include permissible methods of taking and... missile on July 18, 2008 at 1:47:00 a.m. ADT. Aerial surveys to document marine mammals in the primary...

  4. 75 FR 25729 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    .... Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service (MMS) Alaska OCS leases located greater than 60 mi... in the Chukchi Sea on marine mammals would most likely be acoustic in nature. Petroleum development and associated activities introduce sound into the marine environment. Potential acoustic effects on...

  5. 76 FR 34157 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    .../navfac/navfac--ww--pp/ navfac--hq--pp/navfac--environmental/mra) to estimate densities of the species in... temperature, precipitation, and percent cloud cover, etc.); Condition of the marine mammal observation....g., wind speed and direction, sea state, cloud cover, and visibility); (7) the species...

  6. Osteoarthritis in two marine mammals and 22 land mammals: learning from skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganvongpanit, Korakot; Soponteerakul, Ratsadakorn; Kaewkumpai, Piyatida; Punyapornwithaya, Veerasak; Buddhachat, Kittisak; Nomsiri, Raksiri; Kaewmong, Patcharaporn; Kittiwatanawong, Kongkiat; Chawangwongsanukun, Rachanchai; Angkawanish, Taweepoke; Thitaram, Chatchote; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2017-07-01

    The occurrence of osteoarthritis (OA) in marine mammals is still questionable. Here we investigated the prevalence of OA in marine (dolphin and dugong) and terrestrial mammals (Asian elephant, Asiatic buffalo, camel, cat, cattle, deer, dog, domestic goat, horse, human, hyena, impala, lion, Malayan tapir, Assam macaque, mule, pig, rabbit, red kangaroo, sheep, tiger and waterbuck). Skeletal remains obtained from five institutes were used as subjects; a total of 45 different parts (locations) of bones were observed for OA lesions. The prevalence of OA was reported as number of OA lesions/total number of bones. Our results revealed that the presence of OA in marine species (dolphin and dugong) was 2.44% and 3.33%, respectively. In dolphins, the highest OA occurrence was on the left and right humeral trochlea, with 13.68% and 12.63%, respectively, while the highest number of OA lesions in dugongs was on the lumbar vertebrae (8.79%). No significant difference (P > 0.05) in the prevalence of OA between sexes in dolphins and dugongs was observed, but we found a significant difference (P mammals, similar to terrestrial mammals, even though their natural habitat is the ocean. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  7. 77 FR 27720 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ...-injurious) thresholds for underwater sound sources (except explosives and tactical active sonar) based on... this recommendation as a mitigation measure to be impracticable for both economic and practical reasons... vessel activity, Apache will follow NMFS' Marine Mammal Viewing Guidelines and Regulations and will alter...

  8. 78 FR 63396 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Replacement of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... discussion of the functional hearing ranges of the different groups of marine mammals (by frequency) as well... discussion of each species' description, status, behavior and ecology, and vocalizations. The Description of... numbers,'' (2) provide a basis for that threshold, and (3) work with the Fish and Wildlife Service and the...

  9. Tracing evolutionary relicts of positive selection on eight malaria-related immune genes in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bing-Hong; Liao, Pei-Chun

    2015-07-01

    Plasmodium-induced malaria widely infects primates and other mammals. Multiple past studies have revealed that positive selection could be the main evolutionary force triggering the genetic diversity of anti-malaria resistance-associated genes in human or primates. However, researchers focused most of their attention on the infra-generic and intra-specific genome evolution rather than analyzing the complete evolutionary history of mammals. Here we extend previous research by testing the evolutionary link of natural selection on eight candidate genes associated with malaria resistance in mammals. Three of the eight genes were detected to be affected by recombination, including TNF-α, iNOS and DARC. Positive selection was detected in the rest five immunogenes multiple times in different ancestral lineages of extant species throughout the mammalian evolution. Signals of positive selection were exposed in four malaria-related immunogenes in primates: CCL2, IL-10, HO1 and CD36. However, selection signals of G6PD have only been detected in non-primate eutherians. Significantly higher evolutionary rates and more radical amino acid replacement were also detected in primate CD36, suggesting its functional divergence from other eutherians. Prevalent positive selection throughout the evolutionary trajectory of mammalian malaria-related genes supports the arms race evolutionary hypothesis of host genetic response of mammalian immunogenes to infectious pathogens. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Role of small mammals in ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golley, F.B.

    1978-01-01

    Small mammals are one of the groups commonly studied as an ecological unit in ecosystem analysis; the aggregation being justified on taxonomic or methodological grounds. Since small mammals include animals with habits of herbivory, omnivory, and carnivory, nocturnal and diurnal habits, living in a great variety of habitats, and adapted to conditions of life such as burrowing and flight, the collection is a diverse taxonomic aggregation and an unusually bad ecological grouping. For ecosystem analysis, groupings of organisms that have evolved in common with each other in the community seem more reasonable than aggregations based on taxonomic grounds. The depth of the problem is made clear when we examine the record and find that there are almost no studies of energy and material flow in terrestrial food chains. It is incredible that almost every study of a population considers that population as a receiver and donor of energy and materials acting independently. It would appear that aggregation of food chains into ecosystem components might be more fruitful than aggregation of independent populations

  11. The blastema and epimorphic regeneration in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Ashley W; Muneoka, Ken

    2018-01-15

    Studying regeneration in animals where and when it occurs is inherently interesting and a challenging research topic within developmental biology. Historically, vertebrate regeneration has been investigated in animals that display enhanced regenerative abilities and we have learned much from studying organ regeneration in amphibians and fish. From an applied perspective, while regeneration biologists will undoubtedly continue to study poikilothermic animals (i.e., amphibians and fish), studies focused on homeotherms (i.e., mammals and birds) are also necessary to advance regeneration biology. Emerging mammalian models of epimorphic regeneration are poised to help link regenerative biology and regenerative medicine. The regenerating rodent digit tip, which parallels human fingertip regeneration, and the regeneration of large circular defects through the ear pinna in spiny mice and rabbits, provide tractable, experimental systems where complex tissue structures are regrown through blastema formation and morphogenesis. Using these models as examples, we detail similarities and differences between the mammalian blastema and its classical counterpart to arrive at a broad working definition of a vertebrate regeneration blastema. This comparison leads us to conclude that regenerative failure is not related to the availability of regeneration-competent progenitor cells, but is most likely a function of the cellular response to the microenvironment that forms following traumatic injury. Recent studies demonstrating that targeted modification of this microenvironment can restrict or enhance regenerative capabilities in mammals helps provide a roadmap for eventually pushing the limits of human regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sexual Selection of Protamine 1 in Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüke, Lena; Tourmente, Maximiliano; Roldan, Eduardo R S

    2016-01-01

    Protamines have a crucial role in male fertility. They are involved in sperm chromatin packaging and influence the shape of the sperm head and, hence, are important for sperm performance. Protamine structure is basic with numerous arginine-rich DNA-binding domains. Postcopulatory sexual selection is thought to play an important role in protamine sequence evolution and expression. Here, we analyze patterns of evolution and sexual selection (in the form of sperm competition) acting on protamine 1 gene sequence in 237 mammalian species. We assessed common patterns as well as differences between the major mammalian subclasses (Eutheria, Metatheria) and clades. We found that a high arginine content in protamine 1 associates with a lower sperm head width, which may have an impact on sperm swimming velocity. Increase in arginine content in protamine 1 across mammals appears to take place in a way consistent with sexual selection. In metatherians, increase in sequence length correlates with sexual selection. Differences in selective pressures on sequences and codon sites were observed between mammalian clades. Our study revealed a complex evolutionary pattern of protamine 1, with different selective constraints, and effects of sexual selection, between mammalian groups. In contrast, the effect of arginine content on head shape, and the possible involvement of sperm competition, was identified across all mammals. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Avian influenza virus transmission to mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfst, S; Imai, M; Kawaoka, Y; Fouchier, R A M

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause yearly epidemics and occasional pandemics. In addition, zoonotic influenza A viruses sporadically infect humans and may cause severe respiratory disease and fatalities. Fortunately, most of these viruses do not have the ability to be efficiently spread among humans via aerosols or respiratory droplets (airborne transmission) and to subsequently cause a pandemic. However, adaptation of these zoonotic viruses to humans by mutation or reassortment with human influenza A viruses may result in airborne transmissible viruses with pandemic potential. Although our knowledge of factors that affect mammalian adaptation and transmissibility of influenza viruses is still limited, we are beginning to understand some of the biological traits that drive airborne transmission of influenza viruses among mammals. Increased understanding of the determinants and mechanisms of airborne transmission may aid in assessing the risks posed by avian influenza viruses to human health, and preparedness for such risks. This chapter summarizes recent discoveries on the genetic and phenotypic traits required for avian influenza viruses to become airborne transmissible between mammals.

  14. Distribution of chromium in vegetation and small mammals adjacent to cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, F.G. Jr.; Parr, P.D.; Dahlman, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    Surface contamination of vegetation by aerosol pollutants and subsequent ingestion by grazing vertebrates is a pathway for incorporation of toxic elements into food chains. Small mammals (herbivores) were live-trapped in a fescue-dominated field adjacent to large, mechanical draft cooling towers comparable to those utilized by power generation facilities. Cooling waters of the towers contain a chromate, zinc-phosphate compound to inhibit corrosion and fouling within the cooling system. A fraction of the cooling water becomes entrained within the exit air flow and is deposited as drift on the landscape. Resident mammals are chronically subjected to increased chromium exposures through both ingestion and inhalation pathways. Concentrations in vegetation ranged from 342 to 15 ppM at 15 and 130 meters down wind. Concentration levels in litter exceeded those of live plant materials by a factor of 5. Chromium distribution in mammals adjacent to the cooling towers is compared by organ analyses to corresponding organs and tissues of mammals collected remote from drift. Concentrations of chromium in pelt, hair, and bone of animals trapped near the cooling towers were significantly higher (P is less than 0.01) than tissues from control animals. Air concentrations ranged from 15 to 8 μg/m 3 at 15 and 100 meters, and thus provided a potential pathway for increased chromium levels through inhalation. Biological accumulation and retention following ingestion are discussed in a subsequent paper in this symposium (Van Hook et al.). Elevated levels of hexavalent chromium in air have been identified as a potential health hazard. Pathological studies of lung tissues were performed and were negative for lesions. (U.S.)

  15. The exposed breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingman, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    The skin and lungs are two tissues that are frequently bombarded with cancer-initiating factors, such as ultraviolet rays from the sun and smoke and pollutants in the air we breathe. Yet breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in Australian women, affecting one in eight before the age of 85. It is more common than skin melanoma and lung cancer. Why, then, does the breast so commonly get cancer when it is not a tissue that is particularly exposed to the environmental agents that increase cancer risk in other major organs? Is there something unique about this tissue that makes it particularly susceptible? The breast undergoes cellular changes over the course of the monthly menstrual cycle, and and these changes affect cancer susceptibility. Rising levels of the hormones oestrogen and progesterone occur immediately after the egg is released from the ovary, and these hormones cause the breast cells to divide and change to accommodate further development if pregnancy occurs. If the woman becomes pregnant, the cells in the breast continue to develop and become the milk-producing structures required to feed a newborn baby. But if pregnancy does not occur there is a drop in progesterone, which triggers the death of the newly developed breast cells. This occurs at the same time women have their period. Then the cycle starts again, and continues every month until menopause, unless the woman becomes pregnant.

  16. Exposing the faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    UK NIREX, the body with responsibility for finding an acceptable strategy for deposition of radioactive waste has given the impression throughout its recent public consultation that the problem of nuclear waste is one of public and political acceptability, rather than one of a technical nature. However the results of the consultation process show that it has no mandate from the British public to develop a single, national, deep repository for the burial of radioactive waste. There is considerable opposition to this method of managing radioactive waste and suspicion of the claims by NIREX concerning the supposed integrity and safety of this deep burial option. This report gives substance to those suspicions and details the significant areas of uncertainty in the concept of effective geological containment of hazardous radioactive elements, which remain dangerous for tens of thousands of years. Because the science of geology is essentially retrospective rather than predictive, NIREX's plans for a single, national, deep 'repository' depend heavily upon a wide range of assumptions about the geological and hydrogeological regimes in certain areas of the UK. This report demonstrates that these assumptions are based on a limited understanding of UK geology and on unvalidated and simplistic theoretical models of geological processes, the performance of which can never be directly tested over the long time-scales involved. NIREX's proposals offer no guarantees for the safe and effective containment of radioactivity. They are deeply flawed. This report exposes the faults. (author)

  17. 77 FR 60966 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16239

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ..., proposed energy and construction areas; (2) movement patterns of marine mammal species most at risk; and (3... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC268 Marine Mammals; File No. 16239 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  18. 78 FR 57133 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14514

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... of marine mammal parts (hard and soft parts) from up to 200 animals per year within the order Cetacea... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW11 Marine Mammals; File No. 14514 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  19. 75 FR 23241 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14514

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... subsistence harvests; from marine mammals caught incidental to fisheries; or from animals in foreign countries... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW11 Marine Mammals; File No. 14514 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  20. 77 FR 36488 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17350

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... to augment the National Marine Mammal Tissue Bank or state tissue archives. No animals would be... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC067 Marine Mammals; File No. 17350 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  1. 75 FR 34106 - Taking and Importing of Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... the Government of Mexico under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). This affirmative finding will... Importing of Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... based on review of documentary evidence submitted by the Government of Mexico and obtained from the...

  2. 76 FR 40700 - Taking and Importing of Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... affirmative finding annual renewal to the Government of Mexico under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA... Importing of Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... the Government of Mexico and obtained from the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) and the...

  3. Divergence time estimates of mammals from molecular clocks and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    2009-10-30

    Oct 30, 2009 ... Keywords. Cretaceous; Eocene; Indian Plate; molecular clocks; placental mammals ... variation is known to occur among loci on a gene, between branches on a tree, ... been proposed to explain placental mammal diversification with respect .... Figure 1. Three models (a, explosive, b, long fuse, c, short fuse).

  4. 77 FR 29969 - Marine Mammal Stock Assessment Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... Mammal Stock Assessment Reports AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... of marine mammal stock assessment reports (SARs). The 2011 reports are final and available to the... individual reports at the following address: http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/sars/ . You also may send requests...

  5. The Marine Mammal Programme at the Prince Edward Islands: 38 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Marine Mammal Programme (MMP) conducts research on pinnipeds and killer whales Orcinus orca at Marion Island, Prince Edward Islands, under the auspices of the Mammal Research Institute, Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria. The history of the MMP, which has benefited from ...

  6. 77 FR 32571 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14856

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... Bruce R. Mate, Ph.D., Hatfield Marine Science Center, Oregon State University, Newport, OR 97365, has applied in due form for a permit to take marine mammals world-wide for the purposes of scientific research... identified species of marine mammals species world-wide. The purposes of the proposed research are to: (1...

  7. Marine Mammals: Hearing and Echolocation at Coconut Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Marine Mammals: Hearing and Echolocation at Coconut ...REPORT DATE 2012 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Marine Mammals: Hearing and Echolocation at Coconut Island

  8. Epimorphic regeneration approach to tissue replacement in adult mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urodeles and fetal mammals are capable of impressive epimorphic regeneration in a variety of tissues, whereas the typical default response to injury in adult mammals consists of inflammation and scar tissue formation. One component of epimorphic regeneration is the recruitment of resident progenitor...

  9. 75 FR 36064 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14186

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XM26 Marine Mammals; File No. 14186 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...) of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.). Permit No...

  10. All about Mammals. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    In this videotape, students learn more about the characteristics of common warm-blooded mammals and what makes them different from other animals. Children also find out how humans are more advanced in structure than other mammals, but how they still share the same basic traits. This videotape correlates to the following National Science Education…

  11. 77 FR 25145 - Marine Mammals; File No. 978-1857

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... mammals at the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology through May 31, 2012. The minor amendment (No. 978-1857... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA37 Marine Mammals; File No. 978-1857 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  12. 76 FR 28422 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16053

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... Paul E. Nachtigall, PhD, Marine Mammal Research Program Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, P.O. Box... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA384 Marine Mammals; File No. 16053 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  13. Competition between species of small mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, P.R.

    1978-01-01

    Interspecific competition has often been inferred from its results. In evolutionary time it has been responsible for patterns of regularity in the structure of mammalian communities, and in the morphological and ecological characteristics of the constituent species. In contemporary time it gives rise to reciprocal (complementary) numbers and distributions of two or more species. These inferences are strengthened by recent experimental demonstrations of competition between species of North American rodents. Recent observations and experiments are reviewed. The most thoroughly studied competitors are two species of microtine rodents, Microtus pennsylvanicus and Clethrionomys gapperi. Species which compete for space have been studied experimentally more often than have food competitors. Overt aggression is frequently implicated, but its importance in nature in relation to other means of interaction (e.g. through vocal or scent communication) is not known. The definitive study of competition for food between mammal species has yet to be performed

  14. Initiation of Meiotic Recombination in Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination is initiated by the induction of programmed DNA double strand breaks (DSBs. DSB repair promotes homologous interactions and pairing and leads to the formation of crossovers (COs, which are required for the proper reductional segregation at the first meiotic division. In mammals, several hundred DSBs are generated at the beginning of meiotic prophase by the catalytic activity of SPO11. Currently it is not well understood how the frequency and timing of DSB formation and their localization are regulated. Several approaches in humans and mice have provided an extensive description of the localization of initiation events based on CO mapping, leading to the identification and characterization of preferred sites (hotspots of initiation. This review presents the current knowledge about the proteins known to be involved in this process, the sites where initiation takes place, and the factors that control hotspot localization.

  15. Inventory of mammals at Forsmark and Haallnaes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truve, Johan

    2012-08-01

    A selection of terrestrial mammals was surveyed in the SKB site investigation areas near Forsmark and Haallnaes between January and April 2012. The methods that were used include snow tracking along line transects, snow tracking along water, aerial survey and fecal pellet counts. The same species were found in 2012 as in previous surveys performed in 2002, 2003 and 2007. Some species show a large variation in density between years and it is difficult to draw any conclusions about their long term development. Several carnivores, i.e. lynx, fox and otter show a positive growth rate in both areas. The wild boar population is also growing whilst moose density remains fairly stable and roe deer are becoming less numerous

  16. Mammal extinctions, body size, and paleotemperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bown, T M; Holroyd, P A; Rose, K D

    1994-10-25

    There is a general inverse relationship between the natural logarithm of tooth area (a body size indicator) of some fossil mammals and paleotemperature during approximately 2.9 million years of the early Eocene in the Bighorn Basin of northwest Wyoming. When mean temperatures became warmer, tooth areas tended to become smaller. During colder times, larger species predominated; these generally became larger or remained the same size. Paleotemperature trends also markedly affected patterns of local (and, perhaps, regional) extinction and immigration. New species appeared as immigrants during or near the hottest (smaller forms) and coldest (larger forms) intervals. Paleotemperature trend reversals commonly resulted in the ultimate extinction of both small forms (during cooling intervals) and larger forms (during warming intervals). These immigrations and extinctions mark faunal turnovers that were also modulated by sharp increases in sediment accumulation rate.

  17. Applying tribology to teeth of hoofed mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Ellen; Calandra, Ivan; Kaiser, Thomas M

    2010-01-01

    Mammals inhabit all types of environments and have evolved chewing systems capable of processing a huge variety of structurally diverse food components. Surface textures of cheek teeth should thus reflect the mechanisms of wear as well as the functional traits involved. We employed surface textures parameters from ISO/DIS 25178 and scale-sensitive fractal analysis (SSFA) to quantify dental wear in herbivorous mammals at the level of an individual wear enamel facet. We evaluated cheek dentitions of two grazing ungulates: the Blue Wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) and the Grevy's Zebra (Equus grevyi). Both inhabit the east African grassland savanna habitat, but they belong to fundamentally different taxonomic units. We tested the hypothesis that the foregut fermenting wildebeest and the hindgut fermenting zebra show functional traits in their dentitions that relate to their specific mode of food-composition processing and digestion. In general, surface texture parameters from SSFA as well as ISO/DIS 25178 indicated that individual enamel ridges acting as crushing blades and individual wear facets of upper cheek teeth are significantly different in surface textures in the zebra when compared with the wildebeest. We interpreted the complexity and anisotropy signals to be clearly related to the brittle, dry grass component in the diet of the zebra, unlike the wildebeest, which ingests a more heterogeneous diet including fresh grass and herbs. Thus, SSFA and ISO parameters allow distinctions within the subtle dietary strategies that evolved in herbivorous ungulates with fundamentally different systematic affinities but which exploit a similar dietary niche. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Optimising camera traps for monitoring small mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair S Glen

    Full Text Available Practical techniques are required to monitor invasive animals, which are often cryptic and occur at low density. Camera traps have potential for this purpose, but may have problems detecting and identifying small species. A further challenge is how to standardise the size of each camera's field of view so capture rates are comparable between different places and times. We investigated the optimal specifications for a low-cost camera trap for small mammals. The factors tested were 1 trigger speed, 2 passive infrared vs. microwave sensor, 3 white vs. infrared flash, and 4 still photographs vs. video. We also tested a new approach to standardise each camera's field of view. We compared the success rates of four camera trap designs in detecting and taking recognisable photographs of captive stoats (Mustelaerminea, feral cats (Felis catus and hedgehogs (Erinaceuseuropaeus. Trigger speeds of 0.2-2.1 s captured photographs of all three target species unless the animal was running at high speed. The camera with a microwave sensor was prone to false triggers, and often failed to trigger when an animal moved in front of it. A white flash produced photographs that were more readily identified to species than those obtained under infrared light. However, a white flash may be more likely to frighten target animals, potentially affecting detection probabilities. Video footage achieved similar success rates to still cameras but required more processing time and computer memory. Placing two camera traps side by side achieved a higher success rate than using a single camera. Camera traps show considerable promise for monitoring invasive mammal control operations. Further research should address how best to standardise the size of each camera's field of view, maximise the probability that an animal encountering a camera trap will be detected, and eliminate visible or audible cues emitted by camera traps.

  19. Cranial modularity and sequence heterochrony in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Anjali

    2007-01-01

    Heterochrony, the temporal shifting of developmental events relative to each other, requires a degree of autonomy among those processes or structures. Modularity, the division of larger structures or processes into autonomous sets of internally integrated units, is often discussed in relation to the concept of heterochrony. However, the relationship between the developmental modules derived from studies of heterochrony and evolutionary modules, which should be of adaptive importance and relate to the genotype-phenotype map, has not been explicitly studied. I analyzed a series of sectioned and whole cleared-and-stained embryological and neonatal specimens, supplemented with published ontogenetic data, to test the hypothesis that bones within the same phenotypic modules, as determined by morphometric analysis, are developmentally integrated and will display coordinated heterochronic shifts across taxa. Modularity was analyzed in cranial bone ossification sequences of 12 therian mammals. A dataset of 12-18 developmental events was used to assess if modularity in developmental sequences corresponds to six phenotypic modules, derived from a recent morphometric analysis of cranial modularity in mammals. Kendall's tau was used to measure rank correlations, with randomization tests for significance. If modularity in developmental sequences corresponds to observed phenotypic modules, bones within a single phenotypic module should show integration of developmental timing, maintaining the same timing of ossification relative to each other, despite differences in overall ossification sequences across taxa. Analyses did not find any significant conservation of developmental timing within the six phenotypic modules, meaning that bones that are highly integrated in adult morphology are not significantly integrated in developmental timing.

  20. Small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talmage, S.S.; Walton, B.T.

    1991-01-01

    The merit of using small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants was assessed using data from the published literature. Information was located on 35 species of small mammals from 7 families used to monitor heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals at mine sites, industrial areas, hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites, and agricultural and forested land. To document foodchain transfer of chemicals, concentrations in soil, vegetation, and invertebrates, where available, were included. The most commonly trapped North American species were Peromyscus leucopus, Blarina brevicauda, and Microtus pennsylvanicus. In these species, exposure to chemicals was determined from tissue residue analyses, biochemical assays, and cytogenetic assays. Where enough information was available, suitable target tissues, or biological assays for specific chemicals were noted. In general, there was a relationship between concentrations of contaminants in the soil or food, and concentrations in target tissues of several species. This relationship was most obvious for the nonessential heavy metals, cadmium, lead, and mercury and for fluoride. Kidney was the single best tissue for residue analyses of inorganic contaminants. However, bone should be the tissue of choice for both lead and fluorine. Exposure to lead was also successfully documented using biochemical and histopathological endpoints. Bone was the tissue of choice for exposure to 90Sr, whereas muscle was an appropriate tissue for 137Cs. For organic contaminants, exposure endpoints depended on the chemical(s) of concern. Liver and whole-body residue analyses, as well as enzyme changes, organ histology, genotoxicity, and, in one case, population dynamics, were successfully used to document exposure to these contaminants

  1. Road Zone Effects in Small-Mammal Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Bissonette

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Our study focused on the putative effects of roads on small-mammal communities in a high desert region of southern Utah. Specifically, we tested whether or not roads create adjacent zones characterized by lower small- mammal densities, abundance, and diversity. We sampled abundance of small mammals at increasing distances from Interstate 15 during two summers. We recorded 11 genera and 13 species. We detected no clear abundance, density, or diversity effects relative to distance from the road. Only two of 13 species were never captured near roads. The abundance of the remaining 11 small mammal species was either similar at different distances from the road or higher closer to the road. We conclude that although roads may act as barriers and possible sources of mortality, adjacent zones of vegetation often provide favorable microhabitat in the desert landscape for many small mammals.

  2. Chronic Actinic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Çevirgen Cemil

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD is characterized by persistent eczema-like lesions, mainly on sun-exposed sites, induced by ultraviolet B, sometimes ultraviolet A, and occasionally visible light. CAD is a rare photodermatitis. It is often associated with contact allergens including airborne allergens such as fragrances, plant antigens and topical medications. A 62 year old farmer is applied with eczematous lesions restricted to sun-exposed areas. Clinical findings and histopathologic features were consistent with the diagnosis of chronic actinic dermatitis. The patient also had contact allergy to multiple allergens. We present this case to emphasize the significance of patch test on CAD treatment and the success of topical tacrolimus and azathioprine.

  3. A novel antibody-based biomarker for chronic algal toxin exposure and sub-acute neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Kathi A.; Frame, Elizabeth R.; Gulland, Frances; Hansen, John D.; Kendrick, Preston S.; Beyer, Richard P.; Bammler, Theo K.; Farin, Frederico M.; Hiolski, Emma M.; Smith, Donald R.; Marcinek, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The neurotoxic amino acid, domoic acid (DA), is naturally produced by marine phytoplankton and presents a significant threat to the health of marine mammals, seabirds and humans via transfer of the toxin through the foodweb. In humans, acute exposure causes a neurotoxic illness known as amnesic shellfish poisoning characterized by seizures, memory loss, coma and death. Regular monitoring for high DA levels in edible shellfish tissues has been effective in protecting human consumers from acute DA exposure. However, chronic low-level DA exposure remains a concern, particularly in coastal and tribal communities that subsistence harvest shellfish known to contain low levels of the toxin. Domoic acid exposure via consumption of planktivorous fish also has a profound health impact on California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) affecting hundreds of animals yearly. Due to increasing algal toxin exposure threats globally, there is a critical need for reliable diagnostic tests for assessing chronic DA exposure in humans and wildlife. Here we report the discovery of a novel DA-specific antibody response that is a signature of chronic low-level exposure identified initially in a zebrafish exposure model and confirmed in naturally exposed wild sea lions. Additionally, we found that chronic exposure in zebrafish caused increased neurologic sensitivity to DA, revealing that repetitive exposure to DA well below the threshold for acute behavioral toxicity has underlying neurotoxic consequences. The discovery that chronic exposure to low levels of a small, water-soluble single amino acid triggers a detectable antibody response is surprising and has profound implications for the development of diagnostic tests for exposure to other pervasive environmental toxins.

  4. A novel antibody-based biomarker for chronic algal toxin exposure and sub-acute neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Kathi A; Frame, Elizabeth R; Gulland, Frances; Hansen, John D; Kendrick, Preston S; Beyer, Richard P; Bammler, Theo K; Farin, Frederico M; Hiolski, Emma M; Smith, Donald R; Marcinek, David J

    2012-01-01

    The neurotoxic amino acid, domoic acid (DA), is naturally produced by marine phytoplankton and presents a significant threat to the health of marine mammals, seabirds and humans via transfer of the toxin through the foodweb. In humans, acute exposure causes a neurotoxic illness known as amnesic shellfish poisoning characterized by seizures, memory loss, coma and death. Regular monitoring for high DA levels in edible shellfish tissues has been effective in protecting human consumers from acute DA exposure. However, chronic low-level DA exposure remains a concern, particularly in coastal and tribal communities that subsistence harvest shellfish known to contain low levels of the toxin. Domoic acid exposure via consumption of planktivorous fish also has a profound health impact on California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) affecting hundreds of animals yearly. Due to increasing algal toxin exposure threats globally, there is a critical need for reliable diagnostic tests for assessing chronic DA exposure in humans and wildlife. Here we report the discovery of a novel DA-specific antibody response that is a signature of chronic low-level exposure identified initially in a zebrafish exposure model and confirmed in naturally exposed wild sea lions. Additionally, we found that chronic exposure in zebrafish caused increased neurologic sensitivity to DA, revealing that repetitive exposure to DA well below the threshold for acute behavioral toxicity has underlying neurotoxic consequences. The discovery that chronic exposure to low levels of a small, water-soluble single amino acid triggers a detectable antibody response is surprising and has profound implications for the development of diagnostic tests for exposure to other pervasive environmental toxins.

  5. 77 FR 50289 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... areas of high marine animal densities, we believe that the incidental take of marine mammals would... response, tagging of free-ranging marine animals at-sea, and radar-based detection of marine mammals from... effects of sonar use will not be greater on animals listed under the ESA than the effects on other marine...

  6. Proteomic analysis of urine in rats chronically exposed to fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Claudia Ayumi Nakai; Leite, Aline de Lima; da Silva, Thelma Lopes; dos Santos, Lucilene Delazari; Nogueira, Fábio César Sousa; Santos, Keity Souza; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Cardoso; Palma, Mario Sérgio; Domont, Gilberto Barbosa; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2011-01-01

    Urine is an ideal source of materials to search for potential disease-related biomarkers as it is produced by the affected tissues and can be easily obtained by noninvasive methods. 2-DE-based proteomic approach was used to better understand the molecular mechanisms of injury induced by fluoride (F(-)) and define potential biomarkers of dental fluorosis. Three groups of weanling male Wistar rats were treated with drinking water containing 0 (control), 5, or 50 ppm F(-) for 60 days (n = 15/group). During the experimental period, the animals were kept individually in metabolic cages, to analyze the water and food consumption, as well as fecal and urinary F(-) excretion. Urinary proteome profiles were examined using 2-DE and Colloidal Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining. A dose-response regarding F(-) intake and excretion was detected. Quantitative intensity analysis revealed 8, 11, and 8 significantly altered proteins between control vs. 5 ppm F(-), control vs. 50 ppm F(-) and 5 ppm F(-) vs. 50 ppm F(-) groups, respectively. Two proteins regulated by androgens (androgen-regulated 20-KDa protein and α-2μ-globulin) and one related to detoxification (aflatoxin-B1-aldehyde-reductase) were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF MS/MS. Thus, proteomic analysis can help to better understand the mechanisms underlying F(-) toxicity, even in low doses. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Potential Ecological Effects of Contaminants in the Exposed Par Pond Sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-08-01

    Sediment and small mammal samples were collected from the exposed sediments of Par Pond in early 1995, shortly before the reservoir was refilled after a 4-year drawdown. Sampling was confined to elevations between 58 and 61 meters (190 and 200 feet) above mean sea level, which includes the sediments likely to be exposed if the Par Pond water level is permitted to fluctuate naturally. Both soil and small mammal samples were analyzed for a number of radionuclides and metals. Some of the soil samples were also analyzed for organic contaminants. The objective of the study was to determine if contaminant levels in the Par Pond sediments were high enough to cause deleterious ecological effects

  8. Wound-healing ability is conserved during periods of chronic stress and costly life history events in a wild-caught bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuRant, S E; de Bruijn, R; Tran, M N; Romero, L M

    2016-04-01

    Chronic stress, potentially through the actions of corticosterone, is thought to directly impair the function of immune cells. However, chronic stress may also have an indirect effect by influencing allocation of energy, ultimately shifting resources away from the immune system. If so, the effects of chronic stress on immune responses may be greater during energetically-costly life history events. To test whether the effects of chronic stress on immune responses differ during expensive life history events we measured wound healing rate in molting and non-molting European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) exposed to control or chronic stress conditions. To determine whether corticosterone correlated with wound healing rates before starting chronic stress, we measured baseline and stress-induced corticosterone and two estimates of corticosterone release and regulation, negative feedback (using dexamethasone injection), and maximal capacity of the adrenals to secrete corticosterone (using adrenocorticotropin hormone [ACTH] injection). After 8days of exposure to chronic stress, we wounded both control and chronically stressed birds and monitored healing daily. We monitored nighttime heart rate, which strongly correlates with energy expenditure, and body mass throughout the study. Measures of corticosterone did not differ with molt status. Contrary to work on lizards and small mammals, all birds, regardless of stress or molt status, fully-healed wounds at similar rates. Although chronic stress did not influence healing rates, individuals with low baseline corticosterone or strong negative feedback had faster healing rates than individuals with high baseline corticosterone or weak negative feedback. In addition, wound healing does appear to be linked to energy expenditure and body mass. Non-molting, chronically stressed birds decreased nighttime heart rate during healing, but this pattern did not exist in molting birds. Additionally, birds of heavier body mass at the start of

  9. A long-lasting wireless stimulator for small mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D Hentall

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The chronic effects of electrical stimulation in unrestrained awake rodents are best studied with a wireless neural stimulator that can operate unsupervised for several weeks or more. A robust, inexpensive, easily built, cranially implantable stimulator was developed to explore the restorative effects of brainstem stimulation after neurotrauma. Its connectorless electrodes directly protrude from a cuboid epoxy capsule containing all circuitry and power sources. This physical arrangement prevents fluid leaks or wire breakage and also simplifies and speeds implantation. Constant-current pulses of high compliance (34 volts are delivered from a step-up voltage regulator under microprocessor control. A slowly pulsed magnetic field controls activation state and stimulation parameters. Program status is signaled to a remote reader by interval-modulated infrared pulses. Capsule size is limited by the two batteries. Silver oxide batteries rated at 8 milliamp-hours were used routinely in 8 mm wide, 15 mm long and 4 mm high capsules. Devices of smaller contact area (5 by 12 mm but taller (6 mm were created for mice. Microstimulation of the rat’s raphe nuclei with intermittent 5-minute (50% duty cycle trains of 30 µA, 1 ms pulses at 8 or 24 Hz frequency during 12 daylight hours lasted 21.1 days ±0.8 (mean ± standard error, Kaplan-Meir censored estimate, n=128. Extended lifetimes (>6 weeks, no failures, n=16 were achieved with larger batteries (44 milliamp-hours in longer (18 mm, taller (6 mm capsules. The circuit and electrode design are versatile; simple modifications allowed durable constant-voltage stimulation of the rat’s sciatic nerve through a cylindrical cathode from a subcutaneous pelvic capsule. Devices with these general features can address in small mammals many of the biological and technical questions arising neurosurgically with prolonged peripheral or deep brain stimulation.

  10. NODC Standard Format Marine Mammals of Coastal Alaska Data (1979-1991): Sighting and Census (F127) (NODC Accession 0014197)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC maintains data in three NODC Standard Format Marine Mammal Data Sets: Marine Mammal Sighting and Census (F127); Marine Mammal Specimens (F025); Marine Mammal...

  11. A phylogenetic approach to total evaporative water loss in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sant, Matthew J; Oufiero, Christopher E; Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Hammond, Kimberly A; Williams, Joseph B

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining appropriate water balance is a constant challenge for terrestrial mammals, and this problem can be exacerbated in desiccating environments. It has been proposed that natural selection has provided desert-dwelling mammals physiological mechanisms to reduce rates of total evaporative water loss. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between total evaporative water loss and body mass in mammals by using a recent phylogenetic hypothesis. We compared total evaporative water loss in 80 species of arid-zone mammals to that in 56 species that inhabit mesic regions, ranging in size from 4 g to 3,500 kg, to test the hypothesis that mammals from arid environments have lower rates of total evaporative water loss than mammals from mesic environments once phylogeny is taken into account. We found that arid species had lower rates of total evaporative water loss than mesic species when using a dichotomous variable to describe habitat (arid or mesic). We also found that total evaporative water loss was negatively correlated with the average maximum and minimum environmental temperature as well as the maximum vapor pressure deficit of the environment. Annual precipitation and the variable Q (a measure of habitat aridity) were positively correlated with total evaporative water loss. These results support the hypothesis that desert-dwelling mammals have lower rates of total evaporative water loss than mesic species after controlling for body mass and evolutionary relatedness regardless of whether categorical or continuous variables are used to describe habitat.

  12. Are mammal olfactory signals hiding right under our noses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apps, Peter James

    2013-06-01

    Chemical communication via olfactory semiochemicals plays a central role in the social behaviour and reproduction of mammals, but even after four decades of research, only a few mammal semiochemicals have been chemically characterized. Expectations that mammal chemical signals are coded by quantitative relationships among multiple components have persisted since the earliest studies of mammal semiochemistry, and continue to direct research strategies. Nonetheless, the chemistry of mammal excretions and secretions and the characteristics of those semiochemicals that have been identified show that mammal semiochemicals are as likely to be single compounds as to be mixtures, and are as likely to be coded by the presence and absence of chemical compounds as by their quantities. There is very scant support for the view that mammal semiochemicals code signals as specific ratios between components, and no evidence that they depend on a Gestalt or a chemical image. Of 31 semiochemicals whose chemical composition is known, 15 have a single component and 16 are coded by presence/absence, one may depend on a ratio between two compounds and none of them are chemical images. The expectation that mammal chemical signals have multiple components underpins the use of multivariate statistical analyses of chromatographic data, but the ways in which multivariate statistics are commonly used to search for active mixtures leads to single messenger compounds and signals that are sent by the presence and absence of compounds being overlooked. Research on mammal semiochemicals needs to accommodate the possibility that simple qualitative differences are no less likely than complex quantitative differences to encode chemical signals.

  13. Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in arctic marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norstrom, R J; Muir, D C

    1994-09-16

    By 1976, the presence of chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants (CHCs) had been demonstrated in fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus), walrus (Obdobenus rosmarus divergens), beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) in various parts of the Arctic. In spite of this early interest, very little subsequent research on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals was undertaken until the mid-1980s. Since that time, there has been an explosion of interest, resulting in a much expanded data base on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals. Except in the Russian Arctic, data have now been obtained on the temporospatial distribution of PCBs and other contaminants in ringed seal, beluga and polar bear. Contaminants in narwhal (Monodon monoceros) have also now been measured. On a fat weight basis, the sum of DDT-related compounds (S-DDT) and PCB levels are lowest in walrus (Polar bears have similar levels of PCBs as cetaceans (1-10 micrograms/g), but with a much simpler congener pattern. DDE levels are lowest in polar bear, indicating rapid metabolism. Effects of age and sex on residue levels are found for all species where this was measured. Among cetaceans and ringed seal, sexually mature females have lower levels than males due to lactation. Although PCB levels in adult male polar bears are about twice as high as females, there is only a trivial age effect in either sex apart from an initial decrease from birth to sexual maturity (age 0-5). Comparison of levels of S-DDT and PCBs in Arctic beluga and ringed seal with those in beluga in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and ringed seal in the Baltic Sea, indicate that overall contamination of the Arctic marine ecosystem is 10-50 times less than the most highly contaminated areas in the northern hemisphere temperate latitude marine environment. Geographic distribution of residue levels in polar bears

  14. Chronic Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stram, Michelle; Liu, Shu; Singhi, Aatur D

    2016-12-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a debilitating condition often associated with severe abdominal pain and exocrine and endocrine dysfunction. The underlying cause is multifactorial and involves complex interaction of environmental, genetic, and/or other risk factors. The pathology is dependent on the underlying pathogenesis of the disease. This review describes the clinical, gross, and microscopic findings of the main subtypes of chronic pancreatitis: alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, obstructive chronic pancreatitis, paraduodenal ("groove") pancreatitis, pancreatic divisum, autoimmune pancreatitis, and genetic factors associated with chronic pancreatitis. As pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma may be confused with chronic pancreatitis, the main distinguishing features between these 2 diseases are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Replication of avian influenza A viruses in mammals.

    OpenAIRE

    Hinshaw, V S; Webster, R G; Easterday, B C; Bean, W J

    1981-01-01

    The recent appearance of an avian influenza A virus in seals suggests that viruses are transmitted from birds to mammals in nature. To examine this possibility, avian viruses of different antigenic subtypes were evaluated for their ability to replicate in three mammals-pigs, ferrets, and cats. In each of these mammals, avian strains replicated to high titers in the respiratory tract (10(5) to 10(7) 50% egg infective doses per ml of nasal wash), with peak titers at 2 to 4 days post-inoculation...

  16. Mammal (Mammalia Fauna of Kapıdağ Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem HIZAL

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of studies on mammals of Kapıdag Peninsula is insufficent. The present study is based on mammal species collected and observed in Kapıdag Peninsula. Kapıdag Peninsula was visited as a total of 226 days between 2001-2007. Field collections yielded 32 mammal species from 6 orders: Insectivora (5, Chiroptera (9,Lagomorpha (1, Rodentia (7, Carnivora (7, Artiodactyla (3. Of the species recorded in this study are rare for Kapıdag Peninsula: Lynx lynx and Felis silvestris.

  17. UDS in lymphocytes of occupationally radiation exposed persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuschl, H.; Kovac, R.

    1982-01-01

    To determine a possible effect of low dose radiation on DNA repair processes, peripheral lymphocytes of mine workers exposed to 222 Rn in the thermal gallery of Badgastein (Austria) and employees of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf, exposed to varying doses of gamma radiation, were investigated. The capacity for unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) induced by in vitro UV irradiation was measured by autoradiography of isolated lymphocytes of exposed persons and unexposed controls. In all 222 Rn-exposed mine workers a significant increase of UDS above control values could be observed. Gamma irradiation 31 mrad had a significant effect on UDS, indicating a stimulation of DNA repair capability by chronic low dose exposure. (Author)

  18. Apparatus for enhancing tissue repair in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Parker, Clayton R. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An apparatus is disclosed for enhancing tissue repair in mammals, with the apparatus comprising: a sleeve for encircling a portion of a mammalian body part, said sleeve comprising an electrically conductive coil capable of generating an electromagnetic field when an electrical current is applied thereto, means for supporting the sleeve on the mammalian body part; and means for supplying the electrically conductive coil with a square wave time varying electrical current sufficient to create a time varying electromagnetic force of from approximately 0.05 gauss to 0.05 gauss within the interior of the coil in order that when the sleeve is placed on a mammalian body part and the time varying electromagnetic force of from approximately 0.05 gauss to 0.05 gauss is generated on the mammalian body part for an extended period of time, tissue regeneration within the mammalian body part is increased to a rate in excess of the normal tissue regeneration rate that would occur without application of the time varying electromagnetic force.

  19. Microparasites and Placental Invasiveness in Eutherian Mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Capellini

    Full Text Available Placental invasiveness-the number of maternal tissue layers separating fetal tissues from maternal blood-is variable across mammalian species. Although this diversity is likely to be functionally important, variation in placental invasiveness remains unexplained. Here we test the hypothesis that increased risk of transplacental transmission of pathogens from the mother to the fetus promotes the evolution of non-invasive placentation, the most likely derived condition in eutherian mammals. Specifically, we predict that non-invasive placentation is associated with increased microparasite species richness relative to more invasive placental types, based on the assumption that higher numbers of microparasites in a population reflects greater risk of transplacental transmission to fetuses. As predicted, higher bacteria species richness is associated with non-invasive placentation. Protozoa species richness, however, shows the opposite pattern. Because invasive placentae facilitate the transfer of maternal antibodies to the fetus, we propose that the ancestral condition of invasive placentation is retained under selection for protection of newborns from higher risk of postnatal protozoan infection. Hence, our findings suggest that a tradeoff exists between protection against bacterial infection prenatally and protozoan infection postnatally. Future studies are needed to investigate how maternal prevalence of infection and the relative pre- versus postnatal risk of fetal infection by different microparasite groups vary among mammalian hosts in relation to placental invasiveness.

  20. Mammal extinctions in the Vallesian (Upper Miocene)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agusti, J.; Moya-Sola, S.

    The term Vallesian was created by Crusafont (1950) to designate the first European Mammalian palaeofaunas containing the equid Hipparion, the remainder of the faunas being composed of typical elements coming from the Middle Miocene such as Micromeryx, Euprox, Sansanosmilus, Pseudaelurus, and Listriodon. Thus, the Aragonian-Vallesian boundary does not show a strong change among European Miocene mammalian faunas (Agusti et al., 1984). On the other hand, the Lower Vallesian/Upper Vallesian transition corresponds to a major biotic crisis. This boudnary is characterized by the disappearence of most of the Aragonian artiodactyl forms such as Protragocerus, Miotragocerus, Listriodon, Hyotherium, Parachleusastochoerus, etc. Among the rodents, this crisis affects the family Eomyidae and most of the cricetid and glirid species. On the other hand, a number of eastern elements appear in the area at the same time. This is the case of the suid Schizochoerus and the murid Progonomys. Other eastern forms are Tragoportax, Graecoryx, Adcrocuta, Paramachairodus, Microstonyx, etc. Most of these are typical elements of the next Mammal stage, the Turolian. Thus, whereas the Lower Vallesian fauna has a typical Aragonian composition except for Hipparion. After the Middle Vallesian event, the Upper Vallesian faunas are already largely Turolian in character. The possible factors involved in this extinction event are discussed.

  1. New Genes and Functional Innovation in Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis Villanueva-Cañas, José; Ruiz-Orera, Jorge; Agea, M Isabel; Gallo, Maria; Andreu, David; Albà, M Mar

    2017-07-01

    The birth of genes that encode new protein sequences is a major source of evolutionary innovation. However, we still understand relatively little about how these genes come into being and which functions they are selected for. To address these questions, we have obtained a large collection of mammalian-specific gene families that lack homologues in other eukaryotic groups. We have combined gene annotations and de novo transcript assemblies from 30 different mammalian species, obtaining ∼6,000 gene families. In general, the proteins in mammalian-specific gene families tend to be short and depleted in aromatic and negatively charged residues. Proteins which arose early in mammalian evolution include milk and skin polypeptides, immune response components, and proteins involved in reproduction. In contrast, the functions of proteins which have a more recent origin remain largely unknown, despite the fact that these proteins also have extensive proteomics support. We identify several previously described cases of genes originated de novo from noncoding genomic regions, supporting the idea that this mechanism frequently underlies the evolution of new protein-coding genes in mammals. Finally, we show that most young mammalian genes are preferentially expressed in testis, suggesting that sexual selection plays an important role in the emergence of new functional genes. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  2. Guidance of retinal axons in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Eloísa; Erskine, Lynda; Morenilla-Palao, Cruz

    2017-11-26

    In order to navigate through the surrounding environment many mammals, including humans, primarily rely on vision. The eye, composed of the choroid, sclera, retinal pigmented epithelium, cornea, lens, iris and retina, is the structure that receives the light and converts it into electrical impulses. The retina contains six major types of neurons involving in receiving and modifying visual information and passing it onto higher visual processing centres in the brain. Visual information is relayed to the brain via the axons of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), a projection known as the optic pathway. The proper formation of this pathway during development is essential for normal vision in the adult individual. Along this pathway there are several points where visual axons face 'choices' in their direction of growth. Understanding how these choices are made has advanced significantly our knowledge of axon guidance mechanisms. Thus, the development of the visual pathway has served as an extremely useful model to reveal general principles of axon pathfinding throughout the nervous system. However, due to its particularities, some cellular and molecular mechanisms are specific for the visual circuit. Here we review both general and specific mechanisms involved in the guidance of mammalian RGC axons when they are traveling from the retina to the brain to establish precise and stereotyped connections that will sustain vision. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chronic Pericarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... surgery) and is considered subacute. Causes Usually, the cause of chronic effusive pericarditis is unknown. However, it may be caused by cancer, tuberculosis , or an underactive thyroid gland ( hypothyroidism ), and it occasionally occurs in people with chronic ...

  4. Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain. Psychotherapy, relaxation and medication therapies, biofeedback, and behavior modification may also be employed to treat chronic pain. × ... pain. Psychotherapy, relaxation and medication therapies, biofeedback, and behavior modification may also be employed to treat chronic pain. ...

  5. Tidal energy site - Tidal energy site mammal/bird survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A vessel-based line visual transect survey was conducted for birds and marine mammals near the proposed Snohomish County PUD Admiralty Inlet tidal energy site...

  6. Taxonomic Report on Small Mammals from Two Coastal Wetland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    Abstract. Surveys of the small mammal populations of two coastal wetlands in Ghana, .... Captured animals were euthanized with chloroform, according to the American Society of. Mammalogy Animal Care and Use Committee guidelines.

  7. 75 FR 53271 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15271

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ..., Silver Spring, MD 20910; phone (301)713-2289; fax (301)713-0376; Southwest Region, NMFS, 501 West Ocean... behaviors as marine mammals exploit prey resources; (3) determine types of acoustic behavior of marine...

  8. 77 FR 19646 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17178

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... 1208 Greate Road, Gloucester Point, VA 23062, has applied in due form for a permit to import marine... the dietary preferences and feeding ecology of Antarctic marine mammals by analyzing seal and whale...

  9. 75 FR 14425 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14486

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... rosmarus) annually for research on marine mammal population ecology, diet and nutrition, reproductive... such permit: (1) was applied for in good faith; (2) will not operate to the disadvantage of such...

  10. 75 FR 10463 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15126

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ..., has applied for a permit to conduct research on marine mammals in Alaska. DATES: Written, telefaxed... five-year permit to investigate the foraging ecology, habitat requirements, vital rates, and effects of...

  11. 75 FR 1029 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14486

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ..., Responsible Party), has applied in due form for a permit to receive, import, and export marine mammal... studies of population ecology, diet and nutrition, reproductive physiology, toxicology and health of...

  12. Ecological aspects of social evolution: birds and mammals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rubenstein, D.I; Wrangham, R.W

    1986-01-01

    Seeking common principles of social evolution in different taxonomic groups, the contributors to this volume discuss eighteen groups of birds and mammals for which long-term field studies have been carried...

  13. 76 FR 28423 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14259

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... and endangered species parts of all marine mammals under NMFS. Please refer to the following Web site... authorized and no incidental harassment of animals would occur. Parts would be archived by the Burke Museum...

  14. THE ORIGINS OF THE SOUTHERN AFRICAN MAMMAL FAUNA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern Africa can be geographically subdivided into different biotic zones, differing from .... The greater part of the southern African mammal fauna consists of savanna .... spread into southern Africa by way of the Savanna biotic zone.

  15. Small mammals as components of the consumer subsystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, N.R.

    1978-01-01

    The trophic and species composition of small mammal populations in various environments are related to structural complexity of the plant community. The basis for these relationships is in energetics, abundance, and dependability of food resources determining the potential patterns of exploitation possible. There is evidence for resource partitioning by small mammals in grasslands, but development of suitable strategies are dependent upon demographic characteristics. Energetic efficiency of small mammals and invertebrates is examined as it affects their relative success as consumers in grasslands. The relative importance of small mammals, birds, and arthropods in relation to utilization of plant herbage, seeds, and invertebrate food resources is estimated for five grassland sites. Recommendations are made for topics meriting further investigation

  16. Supplemental Equipment Request for Advanced Marine Mammal Acoustic Localization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thode, Aaron

    2004-01-01

    ...). The overall project goal is to modify flash-memory recorders, originally developed for marine mammal acoustic tags, into modular, portable, and rugged array systems that can be deployed in multiple...

  17. Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Assessment Aerial Surveys - NRDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys were conducted during the spring-summer of 2010 and seasonally during 2011-2012 to assess the abundance and spatial distribution of marine mammals and...

  18. Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Research Collection (MMASTR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southwest Fisheries Science Center in La Jolla houses one of the largest marine mammal and marine turtle sample collections in the world, with over 140,000...

  19. 75 FR 32497 - Marine Mammals; Incidental Take During Specified Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... bench above the beach. A diesel bus would be used to transport passengers between the hovercraft and... marine mammal Marking, Tagging, and Reporting Program (MTRP) indicates that on average, less than one sea...

  20. 135 SPECIES LIST AND STATUS OF MAMMALS AND BIRDS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-03-01

    Mar 1, 2010 ... Officer i/c Sambisa Game Reserve Forestry and Wildlife Services Division,. Ministry of ... Key words: Game Reserve, Mammals, Birds, Checklist and Status. INTRODUCTION. Species ..... Ph.D Thesis, University of. Ibadan. pp ...

  1. Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis interactions with large mammals in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    behaviour on Cattle Egret numbers and distribution. Cattle Egrets ... Egret activity was classified as stationary, flying, foraging, or vigilant, while large mammal activity was .... ivLev v.s. 1961. Experimental ecology of the feeding of fishes.

  2. 78 FR 66336 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17030

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... (16 U.S.C. 1151 et seq.). The applicant requests a permit to import, export and archive marine mammal... incidentally in fisheries (bycatch), including products legally sold in wildlife and fisheries markets...

  3. 1 Land use determinants of small mammal abundance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management practices associated with small mammal distribution and ... human activity diversity; (c) Landform characteristics (plain, escarpment, plateau dissected at .... distributions (Axelsson et al., 2011; SAS Resource on the web, 2012).

  4. Measures of Auditory Function in Stranded Marine Mammals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ketten, Darlene

    2000-01-01

    .... Behavioral measures, which consist of simple yes-no replies to a sound stimulus, are possible in trained marine mammals but are not applicable to the large number and diverse species of wild animals...

  5. Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Vessel Surveys - NRDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large vessel surveys were conducted during June-August and Oct-Nov, 2010 in the north central Gulf of Mexico to collect data on marine mammal spatial distribution...

  6. Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in the Gulf of Mexico from 1991 to the present. These are designed as...

  7. Potential Impacts of Ambient Noise in the on Marine Mammals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frisk, George

    2003-01-01

    The Committee was charged with assessing our state of knowledge of underwater noise and recommending research areas to assist in determining whether noise in the ocean adversely affects marine mammals...

  8. Contaminants, lipids, fatty acids, and stable isotopes in tissues of various marine mammals - Biomonitoring of marine mammals as part of the Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program (MMHSRP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program (MMHSRP) was established in 1992 under Title IV of the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). The MMHSRP...

  9. Descriptions of marine mammal specimens in Marine Mammal Osteology Reference Collection, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from 1938-01-01 to 2015-12-05 (NCEI Accession 0140937)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NMFS Alaska Fisheries Science Center National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) Marine Mammal Osteology Collection consists of approximately 2500 specimens (skulls...

  10. A review of the conservation status of Australian mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Woinarski, John C. Z.; Burbidge, Andrew A.; Harrison, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This paper provides a summary of results from a recent comprehensive review of the conservation status of all Australian land and marine mammal species and subspecies. Since the landmark date of European settlement of Australia (1788), at least 28 of the ca. 272 Australian endemic land mammal species have been rendered extinct.RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Extinctions have occurred at a more or less consistent rate of one to two species per decade since the 1840s, with that rate conti...

  11. A checklist of the mammals (Mammalia) from Durango, western Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    García-Mendoza, Diego; López-González, Celia

    2013-01-01

    An updated list of the mammals of Durango state, Mexico was built from literature records and Museum specimens. A total of 139 species have been recorded, representing 28.3 % of the Mexican terrestrial mammals, and 25.1 % species more compared to the previous account. Two species have been extirpated from the state, 23 are endemic to Mexico. Four major ecoregions have been previously defined for the state, Arid, Valleys, Sierra, and Quebradas. Species richness is highest at the Quebradas, a t...

  12. Syndrome Analysis: Chronic Alcoholism in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendorf, James E.

    1990-01-01

    Provides outline narrative of most possible outcomes of regular heavy alcohol use, regular alcohol abuse, or chronic alcoholism. A systems analysis approach is used to expose conditions that may result when a human organism is subjected to excessive and chronic alcohol consumption. Such an approach illustrates the detrimental effects which alcohol…

  13. Solitary mammals provide an animal model for autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reser, Jared Edward

    2014-02-01

    Species of solitary mammals are known to exhibit specialized, neurological adaptations that prepare them to focus working memory on food procurement and survival rather than on social interaction. Solitary and nonmonogamous mammals, which do not form strong social bonds, have been documented to exhibit behaviors and biomarkers that are similar to endophenotypes in autism. Both individuals on the autism spectrum and certain solitary mammals have been reported to be low on measures of affiliative need, bodily expressiveness, bonding and attachment, direct and shared gazing, emotional engagement, conspecific recognition, partner preference, separation distress, and social approach behavior. Solitary mammals also exhibit certain biomarkers that are characteristic of autism, including diminished oxytocin and vasopressin signaling, dysregulation of the endogenous opioid system, increased Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) activity to social encounters, and reduced HPA activity to separation and isolation. The extent of these similarities suggests that solitary mammals may offer a useful model of autism spectrum disorders and an opportunity for investigating genetic and epigenetic etiological factors. If the brain in autism can be shown to exhibit distinct homologous or homoplastic similarities to the brains of solitary animals, it will reveal that they may be central to the phenotype and should be targeted for further investigation. Research of the neurological, cellular, and molecular basis of these specializations in other mammals may provide insight for behavioral analysis, communication intervention, and psychopharmacology for autism.

  14. Tyrosine metabolic enzymes from insects and mammals: a comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavricka, Christopher John; Han, Qian; Mehere, Prajwalini; Ding, Haizhen; Christensen, Bruce M; Li, Jianyong

    2014-02-01

    Differences in the metabolism of tyrosine between insects and mammals present an interesting example of molecular evolution. Both insects and mammals possess fine-tuned systems of enzymes to meet their specific demands for tyrosine metabolites; however, more homologous enzymes involved in tyrosine metabolism have emerged in many insect species. Without knowledge of modern genomics, one might suppose that mammals, which are generally more complex than insects and require tyrosine as a precursor for important catecholamine neurotransmitters and for melanin, should possess more enzymes to control tyrosine metabolism. Therefore, the question of why insects actually possess more tyrosine metabolic enzymes is quite interesting. It has long been known that insects rely heavily on tyrosine metabolism for cuticle hardening and for innate immune responses, and these evolutionary constraints are likely the key answers to this question. In terms of melanogenesis, mammals also possess a high level of regulation; yet mammalian systems possess more mechanisms for detoxification whereas insects accelerate pathways like melanogenesis and therefore must bear increased oxidative pressure. Our research group has had the opportunity to characterize the structure and function of many key proteins involved in tyrosine metabolism from both insects and mammals. In this mini review we will give a brief overview of our research on tyrosine metabolic enzymes in the scope of an evolutionary perspective of mammals in comparison to insects. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Eye shape and the nocturnal bottleneck of mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Margaret I; Kamilar, Jason M; Kirk, E Christopher

    2012-12-22

    Most vertebrate groups exhibit eye shapes that vary predictably with activity pattern. Nocturnal vertebrates typically have large corneas relative to eye size as an adaptation for increased visual sensitivity. Conversely, diurnal vertebrates generally demonstrate smaller corneas relative to eye size as an adaptation for increased visual acuity. By contrast, several studies have concluded that many mammals exhibit typical nocturnal eye shapes, regardless of activity pattern. However, a recent study has argued that new statistical methods allow eye shape to accurately predict activity patterns of mammals, including cathemeral species (animals that are equally likely to be awake and active at any time of day or night). Here, we conduct a detailed analysis of eye shape and activity pattern in mammals, using a broad comparative sample of 266 species. We find that the eye shapes of cathemeral mammals completely overlap with nocturnal and diurnal species. Additionally, most diurnal and cathemeral mammals have eye shapes that are most similar to those of nocturnal birds and lizards. The only mammalian clade that diverges from this pattern is anthropoids, which have convergently evolved eye shapes similar to those of diurnal birds and lizards. Our results provide additional evidence for a nocturnal 'bottleneck' in the early evolution of crown mammals.

  16. A Cretaceous eutriconodont and integument evolution in early mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas; Marugán-Lobón, Jesús; Vullo, Romain; Martín-Abad, Hugo; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Buscalioni, Angela D

    2015-10-15

    The Mesozoic era (252-66 million years ago), known as the domain of dinosaurs, witnessed a remarkable ecomorphological diversity of early mammals. The key mammalian characteristics originated during this period and were prerequisite for their evolutionary success after extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs 66 million years ago. Many ecomorphotypes familiar to modern mammal fauna evolved independently early in mammalian evolutionary history. Here we report a 125-million-year-old eutriconodontan mammal from Spain with extraordinary preservation of skin and pelage that extends the record of key mammalian integumentary features into the Mesozoic era. The new mammalian specimen exhibits such typical mammalian features as pelage, mane, pinna, and a variety of skin structures: keratinous dermal scutes, protospines composed of hair-like tubules, and compound follicles with primary and secondary hairs. The skin structures of this new Mesozoic mammal encompass the same combination of integumentary features as those evolved independently in other crown Mammalia, with similarly broad structural variations as in extant mammals. Soft tissues in the thorax and abdomen (alveolar lungs and liver) suggest the presence of a muscular diaphragm. The eutriconodont has molariform tooth replacement, ossified Meckel's cartilage of the middle ear, and specialized xenarthrous articulations of posterior dorsal vertebrae, convergent with extant xenarthran mammals, which strengthened the vertebral column for locomotion.

  17. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis in natural populations of mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrein, Irmgard

    2015-05-01

    This review will discuss adult hippocampal neurogenesis in wild mammals of different taxa and outline similarities with and differences from laboratory animals. It begins with a review of evidence for hippocampal neurogenesis in various mammals, and shows the similar patterns of age-dependent decline in cell proliferation in wild and domesticated mammals. In contrast, the pool of immature neurons that originate from proliferative activity varies between species, implying a selective advantage for mammals that can make use of a large number of these functionally special neurons. Furthermore, rapid adaptation of hippocampal neurogenesis to experimental challenges appears to be a characteristic of laboratory rodents. Wild mammals show species-specific, rather stable hippocampal neurogenesis, which appears related to demands that characterize the niche exploited by a species rather than to acute events in the life of its members. Studies that investigate adult neurogenesis in wild mammals are not numerous, but the findings of neurogenesis under natural conditions can provide new insights, and thereby also address the question to which cognitive demands neurogenesis may respond during selection. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  18. Study of chromosome aberrations on the workers occupationally exposed to thorium and rare earth mixed dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Wang Chunyan; Lv Huiming; Zhang Cuilan; Hao Shuxia; Su Xu; Jia Kejun; Liu Yufei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of thorium and rare earth mixed dust on chromosome aberrations in the lymphocytes of occupational exposed workers. Methods: Analyses of unstable chromosome aberrations on 53 occupational exposed workers and 58 control workers were carried out by the conventional Giemsa staining method. Fluorescence in situ hybridization method was performed to analyze the chromosome stable aberrations on 10 occupational exposed workers and l0 control workers. Results: The frequencies of chromosomal aberration cells, dicentrics plus rings, total aberrations in exposed workers were significantly higher than those in controls. No significant difference was found in the frequency of acentric aberrations between exposed and non-exposed workers. No significant difference was found in the frequency of translocations between exposed and non-exposed workers. Conclusions: Chronically occupational exposure to thorium and rare earth mixed dust can increase the induction of unstable chromosome aberration, but the increase of stable chromosome aberrations (translocation) can not be observed. (authors)

  19. High Risk Behaviors in Marine Mammals: Linking Behavioral Responses to Anthropogenic Disturbance to Biological Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. High Risk Behaviors in Marine Mammals : Linking...comprehensive evaluation of biological safety zones for diving marine mammals . In this way we intend to identify those marine mammal species or specific...improving the protection of marine mammals during naval operations. OBJECTIVES We are testing the hypothesis that extreme behaviors requiring

  20. Sexual arousal, is it for mammals only?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Gregory F.; Balthazart, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Sexual arousal has many dimensions and has consequently been defined in various ways. In humans sexual arousal can be assessed based in part on verbal communication. In male non-human mammalian species it has been argued that arousal can only be definitively inferred if the subject exhibits a penile erection in a sexual context. In non-mammalian species that lack an intromittent organ, as is the case for most avian species, the question of how to assess sexual arousal has not been thoroughly addressed. Based on studies performed in male Japanese quail, we argue that several behavioral or physiological characteristics provide suitable measures of sexual arousal in birds and probably also in other tetrapods. These indices include the performance of appetitive sexual behavior in anticipation of copulation (although anticipation and arousal are not the synonyms), the activation of specific brain areas as identified by the detection of the expression of immediate early genes (fos, egr-1) or by 2-deoxygucose quantitative autoradiography, and above all the release of dopamine in the medial preoptic areas as measured by in vivo dialysis. Based on these criteria, it is possible to assess in birds sexual arousal in its broadest sense but meeting the more restrictive definition of arousal proposed for mammals (erection in an explicit sexual context) is and will probably remain impossible in birds until refinement of in vivo imaging techniques such fMRI allow us to match in different species, with and without an intromittent organ, the brain areas that are activated in the presence of specific stimuli. PMID:21073874

  1. Primitive and definitive erythropoiesis in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James ePalis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cells (RBCs, which constitute the most abundant cell type in the body, come in two distinct flavors- primitive and definitive. Definitive RBCs in mammals circulate as smaller, anucleate cells during fetal and postnatal life, while primitive RBCs circulate transiently in the early embryo as large, nucleated cells before ultimately enucleating. Both cell types are formed from lineage-committed progenitors that generate a series of morphologically identifiable precursors that enucleate to form mature RBCs. While definitive erythroid precursors mature extravascularly in the fetal liver and postnatal marrow in association with macrophage cells, primitive erythroid precursors mature as a semi-synchronous cohort in the embryonic bloodstream. While the cytoskeletal network is critical for the maintenance of cell shape and the deformability of definitive RBCs, little is known about the components and function of the cytoskeleton in primitive erythroblasts. Erythropoietin (EPO is a critical regulator of late-stage definitive, but not primitive, erythroid progenitor survival. However, recent studies indicate that EPO regulates multiple aspects of terminal maturation of primitive murine and human erythroid precursors, including cell survival, proliferation, and the rate of terminal maturation. Primitive and definitive erythropoiesis share central transcriptional regulators, including Gata1 and Klf1, but are also characterized by the differential expression and function of other regulators, including myb, Sox6, and Bcl11A. Flow cytometry-based methodologies, developed to purify murine and human stage-specific erythroid precursors, have enabled comparative global gene expression studies and are providing new insights into the biology of erythroid maturation.

  2. Transfer and incorporation of tritium in mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoek, J. van den; Juan, N.B.

    1979-01-01

    The metabolism of tritium in mammals has been studied in a number of laboratories which have participated in the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Behaviour of Tritium in the Environment. The results of these studies are discussed and related to data obtained elsewhere. The animals studied are small laboratory and domestic animals. Tritium has been administered as THO, both in single and long-term dosing experiments, and also as organically bound tritium. The biological half-life of tritium in the body water pool has been determined in different species. The following values have been found: 1.1 days in mice; 13.2 days in kangaroo rats; 3.8 days in pigs; 4.1 days in lactating versus 8.3 in non-lactating goats and 3.1-4.0 days in lactating cows and steers. Much attention has been paid to the incorporation of tritium into organic constituents, both in the animal organism (organs, tissues) and in the secretions of the animal after continuous administration of tritium, mostly as THO. When compared with tritium levels in body water, and expressed as the ratio of specific activities, values of 0.25 and 0.40 have been found in mice liver and testis respectively. In cow's milk, these ratios vary from 0.30 for casein to 0.60 for lactose. The transfer of tritium into milk after continuous ingestion of THO by a lactating cow is about 1.50% of the daily ingested tritium per litre of milk. Some results of experiments, utilizing organically bound tritium, are also presented. (author)

  3. Sexual arousal, is it for mammals only?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Gregory F; Balthazart, Jacques

    2011-05-01

    Sexual arousal has many dimensions and has consequently been defined in various ways. In humans, sexual arousal can be assessed based in part on verbal communication. In male non-human mammalian species, it has been argued that arousal can only be definitively inferred if the subject exhibits a penile erection in a sexual context. In non-mammalian species that lack an intromittent organ, as is the case for most avian species, the question of how to assess sexual arousal has not been thoroughly addressed. Based on studies performed in male Japanese quail, we argue that several behavioral or physiological characteristics provide suitable measures of sexual arousal in birds and probably also in other tetrapods. These indices include, the performance of appetitive sexual behavior in anticipation of copulation (although anticipation and arousal are not synonymous), the activation of specific brain area as identified by the detection of the expression of immediate early genes (fos, egr-1) or by 2-deoxyglucose quantitative autoradiography, and above all, by the release of dopamine in the medial preoptic area as measured by in vivo dialysis. Based on these criteria, it is possible to assess in birds sexual arousal in its broadest sense but meeting the more restrictive definition of arousal proposed for male mammals (erection in an explicit sexual context) is and will probably remain impossible in birds until refinement of in vivo imaging techniques such fMRI allow us to match in different species, with and without an intromittent organ, the brain areas that are activated in the presence of specific stimuli. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Different methods for volatile sampling in mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Kücklich

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that olfactory cues are important for mammalian communication. However, many specific compounds that convey information between conspecifics are still unknown. To understand mechanisms and functions of olfactory cues, olfactory signals such as volatile compounds emitted from individuals need to be assessed. Sampling of animals with and without scent glands was typically conducted using cotton swabs rubbed over the skin or fur and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. However, this method has various drawbacks, including a high level of contaminations. Thus, we adapted two methods of volatile sampling from other research fields and compared them to sampling with cotton swabs. To do so we assessed the body odor of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus using cotton swabs, thermal desorption (TD tubes and, alternatively, a mobile GC-MS device containing a thermal desorption trap. Overall, TD tubes comprised most compounds (N = 113, with half of those compounds being volatile (N = 52. The mobile GC-MS captured the fewest compounds (N = 35, of which all were volatile. Cotton swabs contained an intermediate number of compounds (N = 55, but very few volatiles (N = 10. Almost all compounds found with the mobile GC-MS were also captured with TD tubes (94%. Hence, we recommend TD tubes for state of the art sampling of body odor of mammals or other vertebrates, particularly for field studies, as they can be easily transported, stored and analysed with high performance instruments in the lab. Nevertheless, cotton swabs capture compounds which still may contribute to the body odor, e.g. after bacterial fermentation, while profiles from mobile GC-MS include only the most abundant volatiles of the body odor.

  5. Search for Mycobacterium leprae in wild mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Cristina Barboza Pedrini

    Full Text Available Leprosy is still a worldwide public health problem. Brazil and India show the highest prevalence rates of the disease. Natural infection of armadillos Dasypus novemcinctus with Mycobacterium leprae has been reported in some regions of the United States. Identification of bacilli is difficult, particularly due to its inability to grow in vitro. The use of molecular tools represents a fast and sensitive alternative method for diagnosis of mycobacteriosis. In the present study, the diagnostic methods used were bacilloscopy, histopathology, microbiology, and PCR using specific primers for M. leprae repetitive sequences. PCR were performed using genomic DNA extracted from 138 samples of liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and skin of 44 D. novemcinctus, Euphractus sexcinctus, Cabassous unicinctus, and C. tatouay armadillos from the Middle Western region of the state of São Paulo and from the experimental station of Embrapa Pantanal, located in Pantanal da Nhecolândia of Mato Grosso do Sul state. Also, the molecular analysis of 19 samples from internal organs of other road killed species of wild animals, such as Nasua nasua (ring-tailed coati, Procyon cancrivoros (hand-skinned, Cerdocyon thous (dog-pity-bush, Cavia aperea (restless cavy, Didelphis albiventris (skunk, Sphigurrus spinosus (hedgehog, and Gallictis vittata (ferret showed PCR negative data. None of the 157 analyzed samples had shown natural mycobacterial infection. Only the armadillo inoculated with material collected from untreated multibacillary leprosy patient presented PCR positive and its genomic sequencing revealed 100% identity with M. leprae. According to these preliminary studies, based on the used methodology, it is possible to conclude that wild mammals seem not to play an important role in the epidemiology of leprosy in the Middle Western region of the São Paulo state and in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul state.

  6. 78 FR 71566 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... fields. These observers will be required to watch the Navy's Marine Species Awareness Training video and... state); Species, numbers, and, if possible, sex and age class of marine mammals; Description of any...

  7. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: New Hampshire: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seals, porpoise, and whales in New Hampshire. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine mammal...

  8. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for terrestrial mammals for the Upper Coast of Texas. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  9. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for State and Federally threatened and endangered terrestrial mammals in [for] South Florida. Vector...

  10. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Central California: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for rare/sensitive species occurrences of terrestrial mammals in Central California. Vector polygons in...

  11. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for small terrestrial mammals (woodrats, myotis, muskrat, mink) for the Hudson River. Vector polygons in...

  12. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Southern California: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for rare and threatened/endangered terrestrial mammals in Southern California. Vector polygons in this data...

  13. Radiation exposure and dose to small mammals in radon-rich soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, C.R.; Laverock, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Protection of the environment from radionuclide releases requires knowledge of the normal background levels of radiation exposure in the exposed biotic community and an estimate of the detriment caused by additional exposure. This study modeled the background exposure and dose to the lungs of small burrowing mammals from 222 Rn in artificial burrows in radon-rich soils at a site in southeastern Manitoba. E-PERM chambers used to measure 222 Rn in soil showed good reproducibility of measurement, with an average coefficient of variance (CV) of about 10%. Geometric mean (GM) 222 Rn concentrations at nine randomly selected sites ranged from 5,490 Bq/m 3 (GSD = 1.57, n = 7) to 41,000 Bq/m 3 (GSD = 1.02, n = 5). Long-term monitoring of 222 Rn concentrations in artificial burrows showed large variation within and between burrows and did not show consistent variation with season, orientation of the burrow opening, or levels of 226 Ra in the soil. Annual GM concentrations in individual burrows ranged from 7,480 Bq/m 3 (GSD = 1.60) to 18,930 Bq/m 3 (GSD = 1.81) in burrows several meters apart. A grand GM of 9,990 Bq/m 3 (GSD = 1.81, n = 214) was measured over the site for the year. An exposure model was constructed for five small mammal species based on their respiration rates and the number of hours spent in the burrow, active or hibernating, exposed to soil gas 222 Rn, and the time spent out of the burrow exposed to atmospheric 222 Rn. A background dose of 0.9 mGy/a from atmospheric 222 Rn (40 Bq/m 3 ) was estimated for a large-bodied (80 kg), nonburrowing animal living on the soil surface. The highest exposures (mJ/a) in burrowing mammals occurred in those species with the highest respiration rates. Hibernation accounted for a small fraction of total annual exposure ( 22R n concentrations from the field studies and an equilibrium factor (F) of 0.5, doses to lung ranged from 90 mGy/a in the badger to 700 mGy/a in the pocket gopher. These doses closely correspond to those

  14. Correlation and persistence of hunting and logging impacts on tropical rainforest mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Jedediah F; Giordano, Anthony J; Zipkin, Elise F; Bernard, Henry; Mohd-Azlan, Jayasilan; Ambu, Laurentius

    2015-02-01

    Humans influence tropical rainforest animals directly via exploitation and indirectly via habitat disturbance. Bushmeat hunting and logging occur extensively in tropical forests and have large effects on particular species. But how they alter animal diversity across landscape scales and whether their impacts are correlated across species remain less known. We used spatially widespread measurements of mammal occurrence across Malaysian Borneo and recently developed multispecies hierarchical models to assess the species richness of medium- to large-bodied terrestrial mammals while accounting for imperfect detection of all species. Hunting was associated with 31% lower species richness. Moreover, hunting remained high even where richness was very low, highlighting that hunting pressure persisted even in chronically overhunted areas. Newly logged sites had 11% lower species richness than unlogged sites, but sites logged >10 years previously had richness levels similar to those in old-growth forest. Hunting was a more serious long-term threat than logging for 91% of primate and ungulate species. Hunting and logging impacts across species were not correlated across taxa. Negative impacts of hunting were the greatest for common mammalian species, but commonness versus rarity was not related to species-specific impacts of logging. Direct human impacts appeared highly persistent and lead to defaunation of certain areas. These impacts were particularly severe for species of ecological importance as seed dispersers and herbivores. Indirect impacts were also strong but appeared to attenuate more rapidly than previously thought. The lack of correlation between direct and indirect impacts across species highlights that multifaceted conservation strategies may be needed for mammal conservation in tropical rainforests, Earth's most biodiverse ecosystems. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. 76 FR 46729 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... characteristics, and the receiver's (i.e., animal's) age, sex, motivation states, and prior experience, etc... exposed when the vessel travels near the area again on day 23 during the detailed survey, amounting to...

  16. Impact of non-native terrestrial mammals on the structure of the terrestrial mammal food web of Newfoundland, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin S Strong

    Full Text Available The island of Newfoundland is unique because it has as many non-native terrestrial mammals as native ones. The impacts of non-native species on native flora and fauna can be profound and invasive species have been identified as one of the primary drivers of species extinction. Few studies, however, have investigated the effects of a non-native species assemblage on community and ecosystem properties. We reviewed the literature to build the first terrestrial mammal food web for the island of Newfoundland and then used network analyses to investigate how the timing of introductions and trophic position of non-native species has affected the structure of the terrestrial mammal food web in Newfoundland. The first non-native mammals (house mouse and brown rat became established in Newfoundland with human settlement in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. Coyotes and southern red-backed voles are the most recent mammals to establish themselves on the island in 1985 and 1998, respectively. The fraction of intermediate species increased with the addition of non-native mammals over time whereas the fraction of basal and top species declined over time. This increase in intermediate species mediated by non-native species arrivals led to an overall increase in the terrestrial mammal food web connectance and generality (i.e. mean number of prey per predator. This diverse prey base and sources of carrion may have facilitated the natural establishment of coyotes on the island. Also, there is some evidence that the introduction of non-native prey species such as the southern red-backed vole has contributed to the recovery of the threatened American marten. Long-term monitoring of the food web is required to understand and predict the impacts of the diverse novel interactions that are developing in the terrestrial mammal food web of Newfoundland.

  17. Chronic effects of clofibric acid in zebrafish (Danio rerio): A multigenerational study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coimbra, Ana M., E-mail: acoimbra@utad.pt [Centre for The Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences (CITAB), University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro (UTAD), Quinta de Prados, 5000-801 Vila Real (Portugal); Department of Biology and Environment, Life Sciences and Environment School (ECVA), University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro (UTAD), Quinta de Prados, 5000-801 Vila Real (Portugal); Peixoto, Maria João [CIMAR/CIIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre for Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 177, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Department of Biology and Environment, Life Sciences and Environment School (ECVA), University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro (UTAD), Quinta de Prados, 5000-801 Vila Real (Portugal); Coelho, Inês; Lacerda, Ricardo [CIMAR/CIIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre for Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 177, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Carvalho, António Paulo [CIMAR/CIIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre for Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 177, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); FCUP, Faculty of Sciences University of Porto, Department of Biology, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Gesto, Manuel [CIMAR/CIIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre for Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 177, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Department of Functional Biology and Health Sciences, Faculty of Biology, University of Vigo, As Lagoas-Marcosende s/n, 36310, Vigo (Spain); Lyssimachou, Angeliki; Lima, Daniela; Soares, Joana; André, Ana; Capitão, Ana [CIMAR/CIIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre for Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 177, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); and others

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Clofibric acid (CA) induces multigenerational effects in zebrafish (Danio rerio). • CA impacts fish lipid metabolism, with similarities to those reported in mammals. • Weight is impacted in F1 and F2 generations, thought with opposite patterns. - Abstract: Clofibric acid (CA) is an active metabolite of the blood lipid lowering agent clofibrate, a pharmaceutical designed to work as agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa). It is the most commonly reported fibrate in aquatic environments with low degradation rate and potential environmental persistence. Previous fish exposures showed that CA may impact spermatogenesis, growth and the expression of fat binding protein genes. However, there are limited data on the effects of chronic multigenerational CA exposures. Here, we assessed chronic multigenerational effects of CA exposure using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a teleost model. Zebrafish were exposed through the diet to CA (1 and 10 mg/g) during their whole lifetime. Growth, reproduction-related parameters and embryonic development were assessed in the exposed fish (F1 generation) and their offspring (F2 generation), together with muscle triglyceride content and gonad histology. In order to study the potential underlying mechanisms, the transcription levels of genes coding for enzymes involved in lipid metabolism pathways were determined. The results show that chronic life-cycle exposure to CA induced a significant reduction in growth of F1 generation and lowered triglyceride muscle content (10 mg/g group). Also, an impact in male gonad development was observed together with a decrease in the fecundity (10 mg/g group) and higher frequency of embryo abnormalities in the offspring of fish exposed to the lowest CA dose. The profile of the target genes was sex- and tissue-dependent. In F1 an up-regulation of male hepatic pparaa, pparb and acox transcript levels was observed, suggesting an activation of the fatty acid

  18. Chronic effects of clofibric acid in zebrafish (Danio rerio): A multigenerational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coimbra, Ana M.; Peixoto, Maria João; Coelho, Inês; Lacerda, Ricardo; Carvalho, António Paulo; Gesto, Manuel; Lyssimachou, Angeliki; Lima, Daniela; Soares, Joana; André, Ana; Capitão, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Clofibric acid (CA) induces multigenerational effects in zebrafish (Danio rerio). • CA impacts fish lipid metabolism, with similarities to those reported in mammals. • Weight is impacted in F1 and F2 generations, thought with opposite patterns. - Abstract: Clofibric acid (CA) is an active metabolite of the blood lipid lowering agent clofibrate, a pharmaceutical designed to work as agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa). It is the most commonly reported fibrate in aquatic environments with low degradation rate and potential environmental persistence. Previous fish exposures showed that CA may impact spermatogenesis, growth and the expression of fat binding protein genes. However, there are limited data on the effects of chronic multigenerational CA exposures. Here, we assessed chronic multigenerational effects of CA exposure using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a teleost model. Zebrafish were exposed through the diet to CA (1 and 10 mg/g) during their whole lifetime. Growth, reproduction-related parameters and embryonic development were assessed in the exposed fish (F1 generation) and their offspring (F2 generation), together with muscle triglyceride content and gonad histology. In order to study the potential underlying mechanisms, the transcription levels of genes coding for enzymes involved in lipid metabolism pathways were determined. The results show that chronic life-cycle exposure to CA induced a significant reduction in growth of F1 generation and lowered triglyceride muscle content (10 mg/g group). Also, an impact in male gonad development was observed together with a decrease in the fecundity (10 mg/g group) and higher frequency of embryo abnormalities in the offspring of fish exposed to the lowest CA dose. The profile of the target genes was sex- and tissue-dependent. In F1 an up-regulation of male hepatic pparaa, pparb and acox transcript levels was observed, suggesting an activation of the fatty acid

  19. Responses of wild small mammals to a pollution gradient: Host factors influence metal and metallothionein levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, Clementine; Cosson, Richard P.; Coeurdassier, Michael; Raoul, Francis; Giraudoux, Patrick; Crini, Nadia; Vaufleury, Annette de; Scheifler, Renaud

    2010-01-01

    We investigated how host factors (species, age, gender) modulated Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu concentrations, metallothionein levels (MTs) and their relationships in 7 sympatric small mammal species along a pollution gradient. Cd concentrations in liver and kidneys increased with age in all species. Age effect on other metals and MTs differs among species. Gender did not influence metal and MT levels except in the bank vole. Three patterns linking internal metal concentrations and MTs were observed along the gradient: a low metal accumulation with a (i) high (wood mouse) or (ii) low (bank vole) level of MTs accompanied by a slight or no increase of MTs with Cd accumulation; (iii) an elevated metal accumulation with a sharp increase of MTs (common and pygmy shrews). In risk assessment and biomonitoring perspectives, we conclude that measurements of MTs and metals might be associated because they cannot be interpreted properly when considered separately. - Age more than gender and species more than trophic group influence metallic trace element and metallothionein levels and their relationships in wild small mammals exposed to metals.

  20. Mammal-like muscles power swimming in a cold-water shark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Diego; Donley, Jeanine M; Shadwick, Robert E; Syme, Douglas A

    2005-10-27

    Effects of temperature on muscle contraction and powering movement are profound, outwardly obvious, and of great consequence to survival. To cope with the effects of environmental temperature fluctuations, endothermic birds and mammals maintain a relatively warm and constant body temperature, whereas most fishes and other vertebrates are ectothermic and conform to their thermal niche, compromising performance at colder temperatures. However, within the fishes the tunas and lamnid sharks deviate from the ectothermic strategy, maintaining elevated core body temperatures that presumably confer physiological advantages for their roles as fast and continuously swimming pelagic predators. Here we show that the salmon shark, a lamnid inhabiting cold, north Pacific waters, has become so specialized for endothermy that its red, aerobic, locomotor muscles, which power continuous swimming, seem mammal-like, functioning only within a markedly elevated temperature range (20-30 degrees C). These muscles are ineffectual if exposed to the cool water temperatures, and when warmed even 10 degrees C above ambient they still produce only 25-50% of the power produced at 26 degrees C. In contrast, the white muscles, powering burst swimming, do not show such a marked thermal dependence and work well across a wide range of temperatures.