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Sample records for malignant tumours excluding

  1. 2008 update of standards, options: recommendations for management of patients with salivary gland malignant tumours (excluding lymphoma, sarcoma and melanoma), summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensadoun, R.J.; Dassonville, O.; Rousmans, S.

    2008-01-01

    Context: An update of the S.O.R.-C.P.G. for management of patients with salivary gland malignant tumours has been initiated by the French National Federation of Cancer Centres (F.N.C.L.C.C.) in collaboration with French league against cancer, specialists from university or general hospitals and private clinics, and with the French National Cancer Institute. This work performed is based on the methodology developed and used in the 'Standards, Options: Recommendations' program (S.O.R.). Objectives. To update the S.O.R. guideline for the management of patients with salivary gland malignant tumors (excluding lymphoma, sarcoma and melanoma) previously validated in 1997 and 2003. Method: The guideline development process is based on literature review and critical appraisal by a multidisciplinary group of experts. The methodological approach combines systematic review with expert judgement. Recommendations take into account the effectiveness and toxicity of the different therapeutic alternatives and the levels of evidence. Following their development and prior to publication, S.O.R.-guidelines are reviewed by independent practitioners in cancer care delivery. Results: This paper is a summary version of the full clinical practice guideline presenting the updated recommendations. Recommendations on radiotherapy have been updated to underline new Options on more and more accessible emerging techniques including 'intensity-modulated radiotherapy', '3-D conformational radiotherapy', 'Cyber-knife', 'Tomotherapy', 'Proton therapy' and 'particle accelerators producing carbon ions' (e.g. last generation hadron therapy). Therapeutical modalities have also been specified. (authors)

  2. Malignant thyroid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, W.; Reiners, C.

    1987-01-01

    The subjects dealt with at the symposium cover all topical aspects of pathology, epidemiology, diagnosis, therapy, and aftercare of the malignant thyroid tumours. A survey of the histological classification of the thyroid tumours and a review of the latest findings concerning the radiocarcinogenesis are followed by a detailed discussion of the most significant tumours. There are also papers dealing with controversial aspects of the histological classification, the value of diagnostic methods, radicality of the therapy, or after care. For five conference papers, separate records are available in the database. (orig./ECB) With 59 figs.; 57 tabs [de

  3. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy

  4. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, S.H. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Oral Pathology)

    1982-08-01

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy.

  5. Malignant tumours of the vulva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonsen, E.

    1983-01-01

    The thesis analyses 317 patients with vulvar malignancies treated at the University Hospital, Lund, during 1960-1979. The three most common histological types of malignancy have been analysed. The oncological clinic in Lund has since the 1960's used a surgical technique where the primary tumour and the regional lymph nodes are operated on in two separate surgical seances. The vulvectomy is performed with tarm knife technique, and the wound is left open. The 5-year crude survival rate for the entire patient material treated with curative intention was over 60 %, which agrees well with reports from other centres. Our surgical approach using two separate seances has, however, much lower rates of postoperative complications and mortality than the rates in other reports. The overall most important prognostic factors for the patients with invasive vulvar malignancies are the presence of lymphatic metastases at the time of surgery, and the surgical radicality of the primary surgery. The treatment at most stages of tumour development and most histological types should include total vulvectomy preoperative irradiation of the inguinal lymph nodes, and inguinal lymphadenectomy. Only local extirpation and hemivulvectomy are, however, indicated for small microinvasively growing squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma. Samll invasive onesided squamous cell carcinoma is best treated with ipsilateral surgery combined with preoperative irradiation of the inguinal lymph nodes. Patients with metastases in the inguinal lymph nodes should receive additional irradiation of the inguinal and pelvic lymph node stations. (Author)

  6. Malignant tumours of the kidney: imaging strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smets, Anne M.; Kraker, Jan de

    2010-01-01

    Primitive malignant renal tumours comprise 6% of all childhood cancers. Wilms tumour (WT) or nephroblastoma is the most frequent type accounting for more than 90%. Imaging alone cannot differentiate between these tumours with certainty but it plays an important role in screening, diagnostic workup, assessment of therapy response, preoperative evaluation and follow-up. The outcome of WT after therapy is excellent with an overall survival around 90%. In tumours such as those where the outcome is extremely good, focus can be shifted to a risk-based stratification to maintain excellent outcome in children with low risk tumours while improving quality of life and decreasing toxicity and costs. This review will discuss the imaging issues for WT from the European perspective and briefly discuss the characteristics of other malignant renal tumours occurring in children and new imaging techniques with potential in this matter. (orig.)

  7. Computed tomography in malignant primary bone tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kersjes, W.; Harder, T.; Haeffner, P.

    1990-01-01

    The importance of computed tomography is examined in malignant primary bone tumours using a strongly defined examination group of 13 Patients (six Ewing's-sarcomas, five osteosarcomas, one chondrosarcoma and one spindle-shaped cell sarcoma). Computed tomography is judged superior compared to plain radiographs in recognition of bone marrow infiltration and presentation of parosteal tumour parts as well as in analysis of tissue components of tumours, CT is especially suitable for therapy planning and evaluating response to therapy. CT does not provide sufficient diagnostic information to determine dignity and exact diagnosis of bone tumours. (orig.) [de

  8. Malignant Appendage Tumours in Zaria | Samaila | Sudanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Eccrine sweat gland origin. Conclusion: Malignant appendage tumours showed a higher frequency in middle aged men in this review. A good knowledge and understanding of the pathology, high index of suspicion and immunohistochemical studies should help in making diagnosis. Surgical intervention with wide margin ...

  9. Radiological diagnosis of malignant tumours in patients with renal transplants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raaijmakers, P A.M.; Rosenbusch, G; Hoitsma, A J; Boetes, C; Strijk, S P; Koene, R A.P.

    1984-12-01

    17 of 400 patients with a total of 537 renal transplantations developed a malignant tumour (4,2%). 3 patients had a tumour of the skin or lips, 5 a solid lymphoma, 2 a hepatocellular carcinoma and 7 each another tumour. The radiologic findings of the patients are described. The problems around the diagnostics of malignant tumours in patients with renal transplantations are discussed.

  10. Primary Malignant Bone Tumours at the University Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Primary malignant bone tumours include malignancies arising primarily from bone tissue. This is opposed to secondary bone tumours in which case the neoplastic elements arise primarily from other sites within the body and secondarily spread to bone. Primary malignant bone tumours are generally ...

  11. Malignant insulinoma: The problems of tumour localization and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malignant insulinomas of the pancreas are rare tumours, accounting for 10% of ... Histological examination showed a R-cell malignant tumour of the pancreas with ... Associated vaso-. SA MEDICAL JOURNAL VOLUME 63 23 APRIL 1983 ... 52 cases of pancreatic endocrine malignant tumours, which have similar behaviour.

  12. Primary pleuro-pulmonary malignant germ cell tumours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaideeswar P

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Lungs and pleura are rare sites for malignant germ-cell tumours. Two cases, pure yolk-sac tumour and yolk sac-sac tumour/embryonal carcinoma are described in young males who presented with rapid progression of respiratory symptoms. The malignant mixed germ cell tumour occurred in the right lung, while the yolk-sac tumour had a pseudomesotheliomatous growth pattern suggesting a pleural origin. Alpha-foetoprotein was immunohistochemically demonstrated in both.

  13. Malignant Giant Cell Tumour of Bone with Axillary Metastasis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-06-06

    Jun 6, 2002 ... SUMMARY. Giant Cell Tumour of bone is a typically benign and solitary tumour. However, multiple lesions have been described and 5-10% of lesions may be malignant. We present a case of a malignant giant cell tumour of the distal radius with metastasis to the ipsilateral axilla (an uncommon location).

  14. Primary malignant bone tumour in a tropical African University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bone tumours are relatively rare tumours as compared with all other tumours. The relative frequency has not been well documented in this environment. The aim of the study was to define the frequency of primary malignant bone tumours in an African University teaching hospital in Ibadan. The medical records of 114 ...

  15. Special radiation therapy for malignent tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, G.; Bohndorf, W.; Franke, H.D.; Haas, R.; Halama, J.; Hess, F.; Kaercher, K.H.; Gauwerky, F.; Hellriegel, W.

    1980-01-01

    In the section on 'Special radiotherapy of malignant tumours', tumours of various parts of the body are treated in 11 chapters, whereby partly different authors have made even further subdivisions. The following chapters are dealt with: Skin (including lips and anal region) with separate treatment of melanomes, head region (with finer subdivision of eye, orbita, eye lid; ear, auditory meatus and parotis; oropharynx; nasopharynx; nasal cavities and paranasal sinus), neck region (subdivided into larynx and hypopharynx and glands), thorax (split into lungs, mediastinum and oesophagus), digestive organs (summarized together stomach and small intestine, colon and rectum, liver, gall and pancreas), male sex organs (subdivided into testicles, prostate and spermatocyst, penis and urethra), female sex organs (separately treated corpus uteri, collum uteri, vagina, vulva, urethra and ovary), female and male mamma, urinary organs (kidneys and ureter as well as bladder), sarcoma of moving and supporting organs and finally the nervous system. (MG) [de

  16. Malignant Renal Tumours in Adults in Nnamdi Azikiwe University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is however the urological tumour with the highest mortality/ incidence ratio. OBJECTIVE: To review the frequency, mode of presentation and histological pattern of patients with malignant renal tumours in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital. METHOD: A 7 year retrospective review of all our renal tumour folders in ...

  17. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumour of the Maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puja Sahai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 38-year-old man was diagnosed with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of the maxilla. He was treated with total maxillectomy. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed a close resection margin. The tumour was of high grade with an MIB-1 labelling index of almost 60%. At six weeks following the surgery, he developed local tumour relapse. The patient succumbed to the disease at five months from the time of diagnosis. The present report underlines the locally aggressive nature of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of the maxilla which necessitates an early therapeutic intervention. A complete resection with clear margins is the most important prognostic factor for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour in the head and neck region. Adjuvant radiotherapy may be considered to improve the local control. Future research may demarcate the role of targeted therapy for patients with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour.

  18. Synchronous and Metachronous Malignant Tumours expect the un-expected

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdi, I.; Shah, A.H.; Moona, M.S.; Verma, K.; Abussa, A.; Elramih, R.; El-Hashmi, H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate occurrence of synchronous and metachronous malignant tumours, to find tumour types, age group, and relationship to treatment received. Methods: Previously diagnosed first primary tumour cases experiencing a synchronous or metachronous tumour, seen at AOI from February 2003 to August 2009 (78 months) were included. The cases were analyzed for morphology/histology of first primary tumour, age and gender of patient, treatment received for first tumour, time interval between the first and second primary tumour, morphology/histology of second tumour, and the treatment conferred for second tumour. Results: The second synchronous and metachronous tumours were 46/4025 (1.14%), in 18 males and 28 females (M:F 1:1.6). The age range was 16-75 years (median 43 years). The follow up time was 24-150 months. The time to second primary tumour was 2-132 months. The first primary tumours were breast, ovary, GIT and urinary bladder. The patients received surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and hormonal therapy alone or as multi-modality treatment for the first tumours. The frequent second tumours were breast, ovary and Gastro Intestinal tumours. Conclusion: It is imperative that patients with a primary malignant tumour should be thoroughly, closely, and regularly followed. Genetic counseling, risk estimation, cancer screening and hemo prevention must be emphasized. Every subsequent occurring tumour should be biopsied. The effect of first tumour on the second or vice versa are still not fully understood and need exploration. The second primary tumour is usually more aggressive, treatment resistant, and metastasizes early requiring a more aggressive treatment strategy. (author)

  19. Malignant melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy affecting the occipital squama.

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    Patankar T

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available An unusual case of a melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of the occipital squama, which underwent malignant transformation in a nine-month-old infant is reported and pertinent literature reviewed.

  20. 4. Primary Malignant Bone Tumours at the University Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    46987.2

    1Orthopaedic Unit Department of Surgery, University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia. 2Department of ... primary malignant bone tumours at UTH and the hospital ..... unavailable resources. ... bone tumors in Mexico City: retrospective.

  1. Malignant tumours of the oral cavity and oropharynx: staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssefzadeh, S.; Pamberger, P.; Baumgartner, W.; Burian, M.; Becherer, A.; Wachter, S.

    1999-01-01

    Staging of malignant tumours of the oral cavity and the oropharynx not only requires far more than a basic knowledge of anatomy and the usual pathways of spread, but also a broad understanding of the diagnostic benefits of current imaging modalities. As radiology should never try to replace histology, the main aim should be precise prediction of tumour margins and differention of tumour from edema and posttherapeutic changes. Only then will imaging studies have a significant clinical impact. (orig.) [de

  2. Retroperitoneal Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumour: A Rare Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deger, Ayse Nur; Bayar, Mehmet Akif; Caydere, Muzaffer; Deger, Hakki; Tayfur, Mahir

    2015-09-01

    Malignant nerve sheath tumours (MPNST) are rare neoplasias and retroperitoneal cases are fairly rare and clinically difficult to be detected, but they are very agressive neoplasias. MPNST are frequently seen in head, neck and upper extremities. In patients with NF1; MPNST, a poor-prognostic lesion, may result from a malignant degeneration of a former plexiform neurofibroma. It is necessary to be aware of a potential malignancy in patients diagnosed with plexiform neurofibroma. We present a 21-year-old female with a diagnosis of MPNST. The patient was admited to the hospital because of a tumour in the subcutaneous region on her left buttock. The surgeon's clinical diagnosis was lipoma. After the pathological examination of biopsy specimen, the lesion was identified as "plexiform neurofibroma" and then the patient was diagnosed with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1). Simultaneously, another mass on the retroperitoneal region was identified as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST).

  3. Bone marrow oedema associated with benign and malignant bone tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, S.L.J. [Department of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham, B31 2AP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: steven.james@roh.nhs.uk; Panicek, D.M. [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Davies, A.M. [Department of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham, B31 2AP (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-15

    Bone marrow oedema is associated with a wide variety of pathological processes including both benign and malignant bone tumours. This imaging finding in relation to intraosseous tumours can aid in providing a more focused differential diagnosis. In this review, we will discuss the MR imaging of bone marrow oedema surrounding intraosseous neoplasms. The different pulse sequences used in differentiating underlying tumour from surrounding oedema are discussed along with the role of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI. Benign lesions commonly associated with bone marrow oedema include osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, chondroblastoma and Langerhan's cell histiocytosis. Metastases and malignant primary bone tumours such as osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma and chondrosarcoma may also be surrounded by bone marrow oedema. The imaging findings of these conditions are reviewed and illustrated. Finally, the importance of bone marrow oedema in assessment of post chemotherapeutic response is addressed.

  4. Radiation-induced malignant tumours: a specific cytogenetic profile?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveinc, L.; Gaboriaux, G.; Dutrillaux, A. M.; Dutrillaux, B.; Chauveinc, L.; Ricoul, M.; Sabatier, L.; Dutrillaux, B.

    1997-01-01

    To date, there is no criterion enabling to determine the spontaneous or radio-induced origin of malignant tumour occurring in a previously irradiated patient. Biological studies are rare. The cytogenetic data which could be found in the literature for eleven radio-induced tumours suggest that aneuploidies and polyclonality are frequent events. We studied, by R-Banding cytogenetic technique, five patients with short-term cultures (3 cases), short and long-term cultures (1 case) and xeno-grafting on nude pattern a high rate of balanced translocations, numerous random break points and a polyclonal evolution (10 clones). All other tumours, including the xeno-grafting sarcoma, had a monoclonal profile with complex karyotypes, hypo-diploid formulas and many deletions. These results show that the mechanism of radiation-induced tumours frequently involves chromosomes losses and deletions. The most likely explanation is that these alterations unmask radiation induced recessive mutations of tumour suppressor genes. (authors)

  5. [Diagnostic accuracy of malignancy risk index II in post-menopausal women with adnexal tumours].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño-Báez, Joaquín Darío; Cantú-Cruz, Javier Alejandro; Medina-Mercado, Javier; Abundis, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the diagnostic evaluation of adnexal tumours is to exclude the possibility of malignancy. The malignancy risk index II identifies patients at high risk for ovarian cancer. The cut-off value is greater than 200. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of malignancy risk index II in post-menopausal women with adnexal tumours in relation to the histopathological results. A total of 138 women with an adnexal mass were studied. The malignancy risk index II was determined in all of them. They were divided into two groups according to the histopathology results; 69 patients with benign tumours and 69 patients with malignant tumours. A diagnostic test type analysis was performed with respect to the results of malignancy risk index II ≤ 200 or greater than this. The percentages and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The accuracy was 81.8% (75.5-88.3), sensitivity 76.8% (66.9-86.7), specificity 87% (79.1-94.9), with a positive predictive value of 85.5% (76.7-94.3), and a negative predictive value of 78.9% (69.7-88.1). The positive likelihood ratio was 590, and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.266. The malignancy risk index II has good performance in the proper classification of post-menopausal women with adnexal masses, both benign and malignant, with an accuracy of 81.8%. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  6. Malignant Gastrointestinal Tumours in South Western Nigeria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: To document the pattern, age and sex distribution as well as histopathology characteristics of malignant tumours of the gastro-intestinal system in Lagos ... Colorectal cancers peaked in the 60–69 year age group, liver and stomach cancer occurred mostly between the 50–59 years age group. Over half of the ...

  7. Accuracy of FNAC and CT in the differentiation of benign and malignant parotid tumours in a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavín-Clavero, Marina A; Usón-Bouthelier, Tomás; Jariod-Ferrer, Úrsula M; Fernández-Larrañaga, Arancha; Pantilie, Bianca; Lobera-Molina, Fernando; Simón-Sanz, M Victoria; Nadal Cristóbal, Bartolomé

    Parotid tumours, in addition to the wide variety of types, are histologically complex. Differentiating between benign and malignant tumours in preoperative diagnosis is important in deciding the type of surgery required. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a simple, quick, low-cost, low-invasive and well-tolerated tool used in the preoperative diagnosis of these tumours. we calculated the sensitivity, specificity, predictive positive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of FNAC and computed tomography (CT) in the differentiation of benign and malignant parotid tumours operated between 2010 to 2014 in the oral and maxillofacial surgery department of the University Hospital Miguel Servet. The sensitivity of FNAC is 50%, while the specificity is high, at 98.7%. FNAC offers high reliability in the diagnosis of malignant tumours, despite its low sensitivity. However, when the diagnosis is indeterminate or benign, other than pleomorphic adenoma or Whartin tumour, the reliability to exclude malignancy decreases. The low sensitivity of FNAC to differentiate malignant from benign parotid tumours, means that we cannot rule out other diagnostic tests, clinical symptoms and especially the intraoperative vision of each surgeon. Especially when the diagnosis is indeterminate. Nevertheless, it is a technique used in a systematised way and helps in pre-surgical decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  8. Neutron therapy for malignant tumours of the salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, W.; Orr, J.A.; Arnott, S.J.; Jack, W.J.L.

    1987-01-01

    A group of 28 patients with malignant tumours of the salivary glands have been treated by d(15)+Be neutron irradiation. Nineteen patients had inoperable cancers. Three had gross recurrent cancer and three had measurable residual cancer after surgery. Three patients were treated post-operatively for microscopic residual disease. Seven different histological types of tumour were included. Six out of 8 patients with adenoid cystic carcinomas have lasting local tumour control. 54% of the gross tumours were locally controlled. All three of those classified as microscopic residual disease have no evidence of local recurrence. 11/14 cancers given 16.0 Gy or more in 20 fractions in 4 weeks were controlled compared with only 1/8 given a lower dose. 12/19 cancers less than 10.0 cm maximum diameter were controlled. The radiation-related morbidity was similar to that observed after photon therapy. (Auth.)

  9. Preclinical studies for increasing radiation response of malignant brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalia, Vijay K.; Kumari, Kalyani; Sai Shyam; George, Jennifer; Shobha, A.G.; Chandrasekhar Sagar, B.K.; Lal, Jagath

    2013-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are the most common among the CNS cancers. Standard treatment for these tumours - comprises of surgery, followed by Radiotherapy (RT). Combination of Temozolomide (TMZ) increases survival, but hematological toxicities are also increased as compared to RT alone. The median survival depends on grade and location of tumour, as well as the age of the patient. Grade IV gliomas (GSMs) are third leading cause of cancer induced death in the age group of 15 to 34 years. Therefore, it is important to carry out further preclinical studies to develop more effective treatment of malignant gliomas. The present studies were carried out on different established malignant glioma cell lines. (U373MG) as well as primary monolayer cultures derived from biopsies obtained from patients with malignant gliomas. Exponentially growing cells were exposed to TMZ, Lonidamine (LND) (in 0.1% DMSO), or 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose (2-DG, aqueous solution) - with or without 60 Co-Gamma-rays (1- 2 Gy). The drugs were removed 4 hours after irradiation and the cultures were processed further for different assays of damage. Short term (4 h) treatments with TMZ 20 μM, LND 100 μM or their combination; did not induce micronuclei formation in the unirradiated cultures of U373MG cells. However, radiation (2 Gy) induced micronuclei was significantly increased by drug treatments. In primary cultures from different tumours, TMZ (≤ 10 μM) or 2-DG (1 mM), or gamma-irradiation (1-2 Gy) induced micronuclei and/ or apoptosis. The effects, however, varied in different tumours. These data show that clinically achievable, very low concentrations of these drugs could induce cellular damage and death; and increase radiosensitivity of malignant gliomas. Therefore, adjuvants like Lonidamine and 2-DG, with non-overlapping toxicities, could optimize treatment of malignant gliomas, by reducing the side effects of radio-chemotherapy. (author)

  10. Malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumour presenting early in life: An uncommon feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalinee Rao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumour is a rare cutaneous malignant neoplasm usually occurring in elderly women. We present a case of malignant trichilemmal tumour in a young lady of 26 years of age with a previous history of proliferating trichilemmal tumour at the same site.

  11. Prognosticating and pharmacological prophylaxis of radiogenic malignant tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muksinova, K.N.; Kirillova, E.N.; Rabinovich, E.I.; Mushkacheva, G.S.; Revina, E.S.; Lemberg, V.K.

    1996-01-01

    Cancerogenic effect risks due to ionizing radiation, that impacted on large population groups because of Chernobyl and other accidents, cause the actuality of early diagnosis problems and of radiogenic tumour prevention. Since canceroembryonic antigen and α-fetoprotein had been found, the tumour markers began to be frequently used by oncologists. However, attempt to use onco-markers, as test for earlier pre-clinic determination, have been unsuccessful. The secondary messengers of hormonal signal, cyclic nucleotides, that take the leading place in system of organism self-regulation, had attracted our attention. As known, the increase of cell division number and suppression of morphological and biochemical developments of differentiation are the fundamental characteristics of tumour growth and are proceeding together with participating of cyclic nucleotide system. The including of both nucleotides in neoplastic transformation and at the same time their constant presence in extracellular fluid (blood serum, urine) makes the perspective use of these compounds as indicators of tumour growth before the appearance of clinic signs of diseases. This coincides with the modern viewpoints on the developments of optimum programs for pre-clinic diagnosing of tumours, that needs to base on the change in homeostasis preceded the malignant tumour development. (author)

  12. Malignant epithelial tumours of the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langezaal, O.A.M.

    1982-01-01

    By means of the present clinico-pathologic study the author has attempted, through analysis of the evolution in a group of 101 patients suffering from malignant epithelial tumors of the parotis, to obtain insight into the clinical and pathologic factors governing the prognosis. Furthermore it was tried to assess the value of the different modes of therapy, including radiotherapy. Starting from certain types of tumors defined according to the WHO classification of tumors of the salivary glands, chapter 2 presents the reports in the literature on the pathology, clinical description and prognosis of the individual types of tumors. The initial treatment of the tumors is analysed with the use of a number of factors discussed in chapter 3. The significance of tumor-associated factors ascertained by the clinician and the pathologist as well as of patient-associated factors is correlated with the tumor-free period; the treatment-associated factors are correlated with the period of time between therapy and the advent of a local recurrence. The tumor-free period, instead of the survival time, was chosen as a criterion because the survival time depends not only on the prognostic factors but also on collateral circumstances, such as different diseases and the effect of the treatment instituted for the local recurrence. (Auth.)

  13. [Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome: malignant tumour as triggering factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisado, J; Carbonell, C; Donaire, L; De Miguel, J; Vaz, F

    2001-01-01

    Gastrectomy, alcoholism and malignant tumour are three predisponing risk factors for the development of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. We described the clinical case of a patient with history of alcoholism that developed Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome 30 years after undergoing gastrectomy. This patient had, in the last year, a diagnostic for prostatic adenocarcinoma and changes in dietary habits. We presented the clinical and neuropathological features of the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. As well as some aspects in the treatment and prognosis.

  14. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidants status in human malignant and non-malignant thyroid tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, J A; Neelamohan, R; Suthagar, E; Vengatesh, G; Jayakumar, J; Chandrasekaran, M; Banu, S K; Aruldhas, M M

    2016-06-01

    Thyroid epithelial cells produce moderate amounts of reactive oxygen species that are physiologically required for thyroid hormone synthesis. Nevertheless, when they are produced in excessive amounts, they may become toxic. The present study is aimed to compare the lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant enzymes - superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and non-protein thiols (reduced glutathione (GSH)) in human thyroid tissues with malignant and non-malignant disorders. The study used human thyroid tissues and blood samples from 157 women (147 diseased and 10 normal). Thyroid hormones, oxidative stress markers and antioxidants were estimated by standard methods. LPO significantly increased in most of the papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC: 82.9%) and follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA: 72.9%) tissues, whilst in a majority of nodular goitre (69.2%) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT: 73.7%) thyroid tissues, it remained unaltered. GSH increased in PTC (55.3%), remained unaltered in FTA (97.3%) and all other goiter samples studied. SOD increased in PTC (51.1%) and all other malignant thyroid tissues studied. CAT remained unaltered in PTC (95.7%), FTA (97.3%) and all other non-malignant samples (HT, MNG, TMNG) studied. GPx increased in PTC (63.8%), all other malignant thyroid tissues and remained unaltered in many of the FTA (91.9%) tissues and all other non-malignant samples (HT, MNG, TMNG) studied. In the case of non-malignant thyroid tumours, the oxidant-antioxidant balance was undisturbed, whilst in malignant tumours the balance was altered, and the change in r value observed in the LPO and SOD pairs between normal and PTC tissues and also in many pairs with multi-nodular goitre (MNG)/toxic MNG tissues may be used as a marker to differentiate/detect different malignant/non-malignant thyroid tumours. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for malignant liver tumours in challenging locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelogrigoris, Michalis; Laspas, Fotios; Kyrkou, Katerina; Stathopoulos, Kostas; Georgiadou, Vithleem; Thanos, Loucas

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the treatment results of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for primary and metastatic malignant liver tumours in challenging locations and also to present the treatment strategy that was used in these cases.From January 2007 to January 2010, we performed CT-guided RFA on 528 lesions in 402 patients (265 men and 137 women; mean age 65.1 years, range 19–82 years) with liver tumours (primary and metastatic) of which 98 lesions in 84 patients (55 men and 29 women; mean age 67.8 years, range 33–82 years) were located in challenging locations, defined as less than 5 mm from a large vessel or an extrahepatic organ (heart, lung, gall bladder, right kidney or gastrointestinal tract). The sizes of the tumours ranged 1.5–6 cm. We used two different RFA systems with an expandable needle electrode (RITA; Rita Medical Systems, Inc, Mountain View, CA, USA and MIRAS; Invatec S.r.l., Roncadelle, Italy).The tumours were considered as ablated completely if no viability was found on dual-phase dynamic contrast-enhanced CT at 1 month after RFA. Complete ablation was obtained in 89.7% (88/98) of the high-risk located lesions, while 10 (10.3%) of the lesions were managed with repeated RFA because of tumour residue. The 1-, 2- and 3-year survival rates were 82.6, 67.3 and 54.1%, respectively. Minor complications occurred in eight of the 84 patients (9.5%), including small sub-capsular haematoma in four, small pleural effusion in three and partial liver infarction in one. Local tumour progression rate was 9.2% (9/98). RFA is a safe and effective method of treatment of primary and metastatic liver tumours even located in challenging locations when performed by a well-trained and experienced interventional radiologist.

  16. Fractionated afterloading therapy in inoperable malignant tumours of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparenberg, A.

    1987-01-01

    With the advent of the method of afterloading the range of uses for fractionated interstitial brady-therapy could be broadened to include malignant cerebral tumours. The mean survival time of 33 female patients was calculated to be 8.3 months for the entire group and 11.3 months for cases not otherwise pretreated. Even though the age, tumour volume, target dose and Karnofsky index obviously tended to influence the survival time, such relationships could not be confirmed statistically. Using the method by Kaplan-Meier it was determined that 65% of the total study group were likely to survive beyond six months and 32% to survive for one year. A separate analysis of patients receiving no previous treatment showed these chances to be 75% and 44%, respectively. The advantages of this therapy are discussed on a comparative basis. (VHE) [de

  17. Heat shock protein expression in canine malignant mammary tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanucci, Mariarita; Marinelli, Alessia; Sarli, Giuseppe; Salda, Leonardo Della

    2006-01-01

    Abnormal levels of Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) have been observed in many human neoplasms including breast cancer and it has been demonstrated that they have both prognostic and therapeutic implications. In this study, we evaluated immunohistochemical expression of HSPs in normal and neoplastic canine mammary glands and confronted these results with overall survival (OS), in order to understand the role of HSPs in carcinogenesis and to establish their potential prognostic and/or therapeutic value. Immunohistochemical expression of Hsp27, Hsp72, Hsp73 and Hsp90 was evaluated in 3 normal canine mammary glands and 30 malignant mammary tumours (10 in situ carcinomas, 10 invasive carcinomas limited to local structures without identifiable invasion of blood or lymphatic vessels, 10 carcinomas with invasion of blood or lymphatic vessels and/or metastases to regional lymph nodes). A semi-quantitative method was used for the analysis of the results. Widespread constitutive expression of Hsp73 and Hsp90 was detected in normal tissue, Hsp72 appeared to be focally distributed and Hsp27 showed a negative to rare weak immunostaining. In mammary tumours, a significant increase in Hsp27 (P < 0.01), Hsp72 (P < 0.05) and Hsp90 (P < 0.01) expression was observed as well as a significant reduction in Hsp73 (P < 0.01) immunoreactivity compared to normal mammary gland tissue. Hsp27 demonstrated a strong positivity in infiltrating tumour cells and metaplastic squamous elements of invasive groups. High Hsp27 expression also appeared to be significantly correlated to a shorter OS (P = 0.00087). Intense immunolabelling of Hsp72 and Hsp73 was frequently detected in infiltrative or inflammatory tumour areas. Hsp90 expression was high in all tumours and, like Hsp73, it also showed an intense positivity in lymphatic emboli. These results suggest that Hsp27, Hsp72 and Hsp90 are involved in canine mammary gland carcinogenesis. In addition, Hsp27 appears to be implicated in tumour invasiveness and

  18. [Surgical Management of Peritoneal Surface Malignancy with Respect to Tumour Type, Tumour Stage and Individual Tumour Biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckert, S; Struller, F; Grischke, E-M; Glatzle, J; Zieker, D; Königsrainer, A; Königsrainer, I

    2016-08-01

    Peritoneal tumour dissemination is still considered as a terminal disease. For the last two decades, cytoreductive surgery (CRS) combined with intraoperative hyperthermic chemotherapy (HIPEC) has been popularised by Paul Sugarbaker almost doubling survival in selected patients compared with systemic chemotherapy alone. Nowadays, this particular treatment protocol is available in comprehensive cancer centres with reasonable mortality and morbidity. However, patient selection is still challenging. In general, CRS and HIPEC is indicated in primary peritoneal tumours such as mesothelioma and pseudomyxoma peritonei as well as in peritoneal metastases derived from gastrointestinal malignancies and ovarian cancers. Since systemic tumour spread is uncommon in patients with peritoneal metastases, peritoneal tumour dissemination was defined as localised disease within the "compartment abdomen". However, CRS and HIPEC are only beneficial as long as complete cytoreduction is achieved (CC-0 or CC-1). Histopathological parameters, the Sugarbaker peritoneal carcinomatosis index (PCI) and general condition of the patient have been established as patient selection criteria. In primary peritoneal cancers, individual tumour biology is the predominant criterium for patient selection as opposed to intraabdominal tumour load in peritoneal metastases derived from gastrointestinal cancers. In gastric cancer, CRS and HIPEC should be restricted to synchronous limited disease because of its biological aggressiveness. In patients with free floating cancer cells without macroscopic signs of peritoneal spread, however, CRS and HIPEC following preoperative "neoadjuvant" chemotherapy preserves chances for cure. So far, there is no general recommendation for CRS and HIPEC by clinical practice guidelines. In the recent S3 guideline for treatment of colorectal cancer, however, CRS and HIPEC have been included as possible treatment options. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. PET-CT offers accurate assessment of tumour length in oesophageal malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollins, K.E.; Lucas, E.; Tewari, N.; James, E.; Hughes, S.; Catton, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We examine the accuracy of staging modalities in estimating tumour length of oesophageal malignancy. • PET CT correlates most strongly with histopathological length of resected specimen. • Better measure than EUS with OGD correlating poorly. • Potential impact in radiotherapy and surgical resection planning. - Abstract: Introduction: Radiotherapy is increasingly used for both curative and palliative treatment of oesophageal malignancy. Accurate treatment depends on determining tumour location and length. This study assessed the value of PET-CT versus other staging modalities in determining tumour length. Materials and methods: Oesophageal cancer patients who underwent staging with PET/CT and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in addition to their diagnostic upper GI endoscopy and subsequent surgical resection were assessed. PET/CT length was obtained retrospectively by using Hermes Hybrid Viewer™ with a 1–5 Standardised Uptake Value grey scale. An SUV of 5 was used as the cut off for determining length. Direct measurement by EUS and OGD were determined. Results: 53 patients underwent PET-CT, EUS, OGD and surgical resection for oesophageal cancer. Overall the correlation between PET-CT and histopathological length was strongest (Pearson r = 0.5977, 95% CI 0.390–0.747) versus EUS (Pearson R = 0.5365, 95% CI 0.311–0.705) and OGD (Pearson r = 0.1574, 95% CI −0.118 to 0.410). After excluding tumours with a significant chemotherapy response, PET-CT length correlated significantly with histopathological length (R = 0.5651, p = 0.0005). In comparison, the correlation between histological length and EUS (R = 0.4637, p = 0.0057) measurement was less significant and this did not correlate with OGD (R = −0.1084, p = 0.5417). Conclusion: Tumour length estimated by PET-CT correlated most strongly with histopathological length of oesophageal malignancy and is the most accurate determinant of tumour length of all the staging modalities. This suggests a

  20. PET-CT offers accurate assessment of tumour length in oesophageal malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollins, K.E., E-mail: james.catton@nuh.nhs.uk [Department of Oesophago-Gastric Surgery, Nottingham University Hospitals, Hucknall Road, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Lucas, E. [University of Nottingham, Derby Road, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Tewari, N. [Department of Oesophago-Gastric Surgery, Nottingham University Hospitals, Hucknall Road, Nottingham (United Kingdom); James, E. [Department of Oncology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Hucknall Road, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Hughes, S. [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Hucknall Road, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Catton, J.A. [Department of Oesophago-Gastric Surgery, Nottingham University Hospitals, Hucknall Road, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • We examine the accuracy of staging modalities in estimating tumour length of oesophageal malignancy. • PET CT correlates most strongly with histopathological length of resected specimen. • Better measure than EUS with OGD correlating poorly. • Potential impact in radiotherapy and surgical resection planning. - Abstract: Introduction: Radiotherapy is increasingly used for both curative and palliative treatment of oesophageal malignancy. Accurate treatment depends on determining tumour location and length. This study assessed the value of PET-CT versus other staging modalities in determining tumour length. Materials and methods: Oesophageal cancer patients who underwent staging with PET/CT and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in addition to their diagnostic upper GI endoscopy and subsequent surgical resection were assessed. PET/CT length was obtained retrospectively by using Hermes Hybrid Viewer™ with a 1–5 Standardised Uptake Value grey scale. An SUV of 5 was used as the cut off for determining length. Direct measurement by EUS and OGD were determined. Results: 53 patients underwent PET-CT, EUS, OGD and surgical resection for oesophageal cancer. Overall the correlation between PET-CT and histopathological length was strongest (Pearson r = 0.5977, 95% CI 0.390–0.747) versus EUS (Pearson R = 0.5365, 95% CI 0.311–0.705) and OGD (Pearson r = 0.1574, 95% CI −0.118 to 0.410). After excluding tumours with a significant chemotherapy response, PET-CT length correlated significantly with histopathological length (R = 0.5651, p = 0.0005). In comparison, the correlation between histological length and EUS (R = 0.4637, p = 0.0057) measurement was less significant and this did not correlate with OGD (R = −0.1084, p = 0.5417). Conclusion: Tumour length estimated by PET-CT correlated most strongly with histopathological length of oesophageal malignancy and is the most accurate determinant of tumour length of all the staging modalities. This suggests a

  1. Nuclear hBD-1 accumulation in malignant salivary gland tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenghoefer, M; Merkelbach-Bruse, S; Fischer, HP; Novak, N; Winter, J; Pantelis, A; Dommisch, H; Götz, W; Reich, R; Bergé, S; Martini, M; Allam, JP; Jepsen, S

    2008-01-01

    Whereas the antimicrobial peptides hBD-2 and -3 are related to inflammation, the constitutively expressed hBD-1 might function as 8p tumour suppressor gene and thus play a key role in control of transcription and induction of apoptosis in malignant epithelial tumours. Therefore this study was conducted to characterise proteins involved in cell cycle control and host defence in different benign and malignant salivary gland tumours in comparison with healthy salivary gland tissue. 21 paraffin-embedded tissue samples of benign (n = 7), and malignant (n = 7) salivary gland tumours as well as healthy (n = 7) salivary glands were examined immunohistochemically for the expression of p53, bcl-2, and hBD-1, -2, -3. HBD-1 was distributed in the cytoplasm of healthy salivary glands and benign salivary gland tumours but seems to migrate into the nucleus of malignant salivary gland tumours. Pleomorphic adenomas showed cytoplasmic as well as weak nuclear hBD-1 staining. HBD-1, 2 and 3 are traceable in healthy salivary gland tissue as well as in benign and malignant salivary gland tumours. As hBD-1 is shifted from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in malignant salivary gland tumours, we hypothesize that it might play a role in the oncogenesis of these tumours. In pleomorphic adenomas hBD-1 might be connected to their biologic behaviour of recurrence and malignant transformation

  2. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of the bladder associated with neurofibromatosis I.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Julie

    2008-12-01

    Neurofibromatosis is a hamartomatous disorder of autonomic peripheral nerve sheaths associated with peripheral nerve sheath tumours. Most tumours are neurofibromas; however, the genitourinary system is rarely involved. We present a rare case of a nerve sheath tumour of the bladder in a young patient, which was discovered to be malignant.

  3. Strain histograms are equal to strain ratios in predicting malignancy in breast tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Jonathan Frederik; Ewertsen, Caroline; Sletting, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To assess whether strain histograms are equal to strain ratios in predicting breast tumour malignancy and to see if either could be used to upgrade Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) 3 tumours for immediate biopsy. Methods: Ninety-nine breast tumours were examined using...

  4. Malignant granular cell tumour on the thoracic wall: a case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, E.; Esteban, R.; Alcalaya, R.; Albors, L.; Jimenez, C.; Ovelar, Y.; Cantera, M.G.

    1993-01-01

    A case is presented of a malignant granular cell tumour in a 52-year-old patient the initial location of which was the thoracic wall. After the tumour's removal there was recurrence in the lymph nodes, retroperitoneum, bone, lung and orbits. The important features of this case are its extraordinary rarity, the unusual location in the thoracic wall, and the tumour's infrequent malignancy. The radiological and histological findings are discussed, and the literature on the subject is reviewed. (orig.)

  5. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours in inherited disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans D

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNST are rare tumours known to occur at high frequency in neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1, but may also occur in other cancer prone syndromes. Methods The North West Regional Genetic Register covers a population of 4.1 million and was interrogated for incidence of MPNST in 12 cancer prone syndromes. Age, incidence and survival curves were generated for NF1. Results Fifty two of 1254 NF1 patients developed MPNST, with MPNST also occurring in 2/181 cases of schwannomatosis and 2/895 NF2 patients. Three cases were also noted in TP53 mutation carriers. However, there were no cases amongst 5727BRCA1/2 carriers and first degree relatives, 2029 members from Lynch syndrome families, nor amongst 447 Familial Adenomatous Polyposis, 202 Gorlin syndrome, nor 87 vHL cases. Conclusion MPNST is associated with schwannomatosis and TP53 mutations and is confirmed at high frequency in NF1. It appears to be only increased in NF2 amongst those that have been irradiated. The lifetime risk of MPNST in NF1 is between 9–13%.

  6. Breast MRI used as a problem-solving tool reliably excludes malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spick, Claudio; Szolar, Dieter H.M.; Preidler, Klaus W.; Tillich, Manfred; Reittner, Pia; Baltzer, Pascal A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Breast MRI reliably excludes malignancy in conventional BI-RADS 0 cases (NPV: 100%). • Malignancy rate in the BI-RADS 0 population is substantial with 13.5%. • Breast MRI used as a problem-solving tool reliably excludes malignancy. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of breast MRI if used as a problem-solving tool in BI-RADS 0 cases. Material and methods: In this IRB-approved, single-center study, 687 women underwent high-resolution-3D, dynamic contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) between January 2012 and December 2012. Of these, we analyzed 111 consecutive patients (mean age, 51 ± 12 years; range, 20–83 years) categorized as BI-RADS 0. Breast MRI findings were stratified by clinical presentations, conventional imaging findings, and breast density. MRI results were compared to the reference standard, defined as histopathology or an imaging follow-up of at least 1 year. Results: One hundred eleven patients with BI-RADS 0 conventional imaging findings revealed 30 (27%) mammographic masses, 57 (51.4%) mammographic architectural distortions, five (4.5%) mammographic microcalcifications, 17 (15.3%) ultrasound-only findings, and two palpable findings without imaging correlates. There were 15 true-positive, 85 true-negative, 11 false-positive, and zero false-negative breast MRI findings, resulting in a sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of 100% (15/15), 88.5% (85/96), 57.7% (15/26), and 100% (85/85), respectively. Breast density and reasons for referral had no significant influence on the diagnostic performance of breast MRI (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Breast MRI reliably excludes malignancy in conventional BI-RADS 0 cases resulting in a NPV of 100% (85/85) and a PPV of 57.7% (15/26)

  7. Malignant tumours of the genital tract among Batswana women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanko, M. N.; Cainelli, F.; Vento, S.; Kayembe, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the frequency and pattern of malignant tumours of the female genital tract among Batswana women. A four-year retrospective histological study of the pattern of female genital tract malignancy in Botswana. University of Botswana and the National Health Laboratory Gaborone, Botswana. The National Health Laboratory is the only public tertiary referral laboratory that provides diagnostic pathology services in the South-Eastern part of Botswana. It is located just adjacent to Princess Marina Hospital, the major tertiary referral hospital in the country. All histologically confirmed diagnoses of female genital tract malignancies from January 1st 2006 to December 31st 2009 were reviewed by two pathologists and diagnoses re-confirmed by taking fresh tissue sections from paraffin embedded archival tissue blocks. The age of patients ranged from 13-96 years with a mean age of 54.5 ± 6.4 years. Cancer of the cervix constituted 80.6%, followed by uterine cancer (10.0%), carcinomas of the vulva (4.5%) and ovary (3.4%) in that order. Ovarian cancers predominated in the younger age group. There was a steady increase in the frequencies of cervical, uterine and ovarian cancers over the 4-year study period with a decline in uterine cancer in the 4th year. Cervical cancer incidence is high among Batswana women and all female genital tract cancers occurred at a relatively early mean age. Therefore the importance of established and accessible screening programs and awareness campaigns need more emphasis than it is being given currently. (au)

  8. MR first pass perfusion of benign and malignant cardiac tumours - significant differences and diagnostic accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauner, K.U.; Picciolo, M.; Theisen, D.; Sandner, T.A.; Reiser, M.F.; Huber, A.M.; Sourbron, S.; Schmitz, C.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance (MR) first pass perfusion in the differentiation of benign and malignant cardiac tumours. 24 patients with cardiac tumours (11 malignant, histopathological correlation present in all cases) were examined using MRI. In addition to morphological sequences a saturation-recovery T1w-GRE technique was implemented for tumour perfusion. The maximum relative signal enhancement (RSE[%]) and the slope of the RSE t -curve (slopeRSE[%/s]) of tumour tissue were assessed. A t-test was used to identify significant differences between benign and malignant tumours. Sensitivities and specificities were calculated for detection of malignant lesions and were compared with the sensitivity and specificity based on solely morphological image assessment. The RSE and slopeRSE of malignant cardiac tumours were significantly higher compared with benign lesions (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001). The calculated sensitivities and specificities of RSE and slopeRSE for identification of malignant lesions were 100% and 84.6% and 100% and 92.3%, respectively with cut-off values of 80% and 6%/s. The sensitivity and specificity for identification of malignant lesions on the basis of morphological imaging alone were 90.9% and 69.2%. With first pass perfusion, malignant cardiac masses can be identified with higher sensitivity and specificity compared with morphological image assessment alone. (orig.)

  9. Progression of fibroadenoma to malignant phyllodes tumour in a 14-year female

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faridi, S.H.; Aslam, M.; Siddiqui, B.; Ahmad, S.S.

    2018-01-01

    Phyllodes tumours are uncommon breast tumours which account for less than 1% of all breast neoplasms. High-grade malignant phyllodes tumour is a very rare but aggressive breast malignancy and forms approximately 15-30% of all phyllodes tumours. The transformation of a benign fibroadenoma into a malignant phyllodes tumour in a teenaged female is even rarer. We report here an interesting case of malignant phyllodes tumour in a 14-year female patient who was operated twice previously with the diagnosis of complex fibroadenoma in the same breast. There was a large tumour involving whole of the breast and infiltrating the skin. The patient was operated and total mastectomy was done. Diagnosis was confirmed after histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry of the resected specimen. Patient received adjuvant radiotherapy and there was no recurrence on 6-month follow-up. Owing to the rare occurrence of malignant phyllodes tumour in this age group along with previous operations for complex fibroadenoma, this case is being reported here. (author)

  10. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours in neurofibromatosis type 1: MRI supports the diagnosis of malignant plexiform neurofibroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mautner, V.F. [Department of Neurology, Klinikum Nord Hamburg, Langenhorner Chaussee 560, 22419, Hamburg (Germany); Friedrich, R.E. [Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Universitaetsklinikum Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Deimling, A. von [Department of Neuropathology, Charite, Berlin (Germany); Hagel, C. [Department of Neuropathology, Universitaetsklinikum Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Korf, B. [Center for Human Genetics, Harvard Institutes of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Knoefel, M.T. [Department of Surgery, Universitaetsklinikum Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Wenzel, R.; Fuensterer, C. [MRI-Institute Hamburg Othmarschen, Hamburg (Germany)

    2003-09-01

    Plexiform neurofibroma (PNF) is a typical feature of neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1). About 10% of patients with NF1 develop malignant peripheral nerve-sheath tumours (MPNST), usually arising from PNF, and this is the major cause of poor survival. A better prognosis can be achieved if the tumours are diagnosed at an early stage. Our objective was to establish MRI criteria for MPNST and to test their usefulness in detecting early malignant change in PNF. MRI was performed on 50 patients with NF1 and nerve-sheath tumours, of whom seven had atypical pain, tumour growth or neurological deficits indicative of malignancy; the other 43 were asymptomatic. On MRI all seven symptomatic patients had inhomogeneous lesions, due to necrosis and haemorrhage and patchy contrast enhancement. In one patient, the multiplicity of confluent tumours with inhomogeneous areas in addition to central lesions did not allow exclusion of malignancy. Only three of the 43 asymptomatic patients had comparable changes; the other 40 patients had tumours being of relatively homogeneous structure on T1- and T2-weighted images before and after contrast enhancement. All three asymptomatic patients with inhomogeneous lesions were shown to have MPNST. (orig.)

  11. The CT diagnosis and differential diagnosis of malignant tumours of the paranasal sinuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graber, H.R.; Zaunbauer, W.; Haertel, M.

    1986-01-01

    The CT appearances of malignant tumours of the paranasal sinuses are illustrated on the basis of 15 patients, and the differential diagnosis discussed. Malignant soft tissue tumours in the paranasal sinuses are characterised on CT by their non-homogeneous structure; they may destroy the bony margins of the sinus and infiltrate neighbouring regions in certain preferred directions, and they may enhance following the administration of contrast. Precise definition of the malignant tumour by CT permits their exact staging, may help to determine therapy and is valuable for serial observation. It remains to be seen, however, whether the improved radiological diagnosis results in improved prognosis of malignant tumours of the paranasal sinuses. (orig.) [de

  12. Primary malignant head and neck tumours in Ghana: a survey of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    12] epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection (for nasopharyngeal cancer),[13] and others which include immune suppression, sunlight ... incidence of primary head and neck malignant tumours to contribute to the knowledge and understanding on this.

  13. Multi-modality treatment in males with advanced malignant germ cell tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossaa, S.D.; Klepp, O.; Ous, S.; Lien, H.; Stenwig, J.T.; Abeler, V.; Eliasson, G.; Hoest, H.

    1984-01-01

    After chemotherapy with cis-platinum, vinblastine and bleomycin, 33 surgical prosedures were performed in 29 patients with advanced malignant germ-cell tumours. The tumour masses could be completely resected macroscopially in 26 patients. Patients with fibros/necrosis or completely resected mature teratoma had an excellent prognosis, whereas only 5 of the 11 patients with vital malignant tumour survived in spite of second-line treatment with chemotherapy/radiotherapy. Preoperatively elevated serum levels of AFP, β-HCG and/or LDH indicated the presence of residual germ cell tumour. Eight of 14 patients were rendered tumour-free by radiotherapy given as second- or third-line treatment. In general, tumour masses, remaining after cis-platinum-based induction chemotherapy should be resected as completely as possible even in the case of mature teratoma or fibrosis/necrosis. Radiotherapy should be considered as second -and thirdline treatment

  14. Aggressive solitary intracranial metastatic malignant melanoma from a primary mediastinal tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraju, Laxminadh; Aryan, Saritha; Hegde, Vinay S; Ghosal, Nandita; Hegde, Alangar S

    2016-08-01

    Malignant melanoma is the third most common tumour to cause cerebral metastases, following breast and lung cancer. Central nervous system metastases occur in 10-40% of patients with melanoma. Intracranial metastasis from a primary malignant melanoma of the anterior mediastinum is uncommon. We report a case of solitary intracranial metastatic melanoma arising from a primary mediastinal tumour. We then discuss the clinico-radiological features and treatment options. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Nuclear hBD-1 accumulation in malignant salivary gland tumours.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenghoefer, M.H.; Pantelis, A.; Dommisch, H.; Gotz, W.; Reich, R.; Berge, S.J.; Martini, M.; Allam, J.P.; Jepsen, S.; Merkelbach-Bruse, S.; Fischer, H.P.; Novak, N.; Winter, J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whereas the antimicrobial peptides hBD-2 and -3 are related to inflammation, the constitutively expressed hBD-1 might function as 8p tumour suppressor gene and thus play a key role in control of transcription and induction of apoptosis in malignant epithelial tumours. Therefore this

  16. Nuclear expression of Snail1 in borderline and malignant epithelial ovarian tumours is associated with tumour progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuhkanen, Hanna; Soini, Ylermi; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Anttila, Maarit; Sironen, Reijo; Hämäläinen, Kirsi; Kukkonen, Laura; Virtanen, Ismo; Mannermaa, Arto

    2009-01-01

    Transcription factor Snail1 has a central role in induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The aim of the present study was to elucidate the expression of Snail1 protein during epithelial ovarian tumourigenesis and to study the association of Snail1 expression with clinicopathological factors and prognosis. Epithelial and stromal fibroblast-like fusiform cells of 14 normal ovarian samples, 21 benign, 24 borderline and 74 malignant epithelial ovarian tumours were studied for Snail1 protein using immunohistochemistry. Nuclei of surface peritoneal cells of normal ovaries (n = 14) were regarded as negative for Snail1. Nuclear expression of Snail1 protein in epithelial ovarian tumours was increased during tumour progression from precursor lesions into carcinomas both in epithelial (p = 0.006) and stromal cells (p = 0.007). Nuclei of benign tumours (n = 21) were negative for Snail1. In borderline tumours (n = 24) occasional positive epithelial cells were found in 2 (8%) samples and in 3 (13%) samples stromal cells were focally positive for Snail1. In carcinomas (n = 74) focal Snail1 staining in epithelial cells was present in 17 (23%) tumours, and in stromal cells in 18 (24%) tumours. Nuclear expression of Snail1 in epithelial or stromal cells was not associated with clinicopathological factors or prognosis. Nuclear Snail1 expression seems to be related to tumour progression, and expression in borderline tumours indicates a role for Snail1 in early epithelial ovarian tumour development. Snail1 also appears to function more generally in tissue remodelling as positive staining was demonstrated in stromal cells

  17. Contrast kinetics of the malignant breast tumour - border versus centre enhancement on dynamic midfield MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marklund, M.; Torp-Pedersen, S.; Bentzon, N.

    2008-01-01

    receptor negative tumours. CONCLUSION: The border/centre enhancement difference in malignant breast tumours is easily visualized on midfield dynamic magnetic resonance mammography. The dynamic behaviour is significantly correlated to histological features and receptor status of the tumours Udgivelsesdato......PURPOSE: To quantify the border versus centre enhancement of malignant breast tumours on dynamic magnetic resonance mammography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-two women diagnosed with primary breast cancer underwent dynamic magnetic resonance mammography (Omniscan 0.2 mmol/kg bodyweight......) on a midfield scanner (0.6 T), prior to surgery. The following five variables were recorded from the border and centre regions of the tumours: Early Enhancement, Time to Peak, Wash-in rate, Wash-out rate and Area under Curve. Information on histology type, oestrogen and progesterone receptor status...

  18. Clinical management of borderline tumours of the ovary - experience from the "Berlin online tumour conference for gynaecological malignancies".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehouli, Jalid; Oskay-Oezcelik, Guelten; Pietzner, Klaus; Chen, Frank; Coumbos, Alexandra; Darb-Esfahani, Silvia; Schuback, Beatrix; Heinrich, Georg; Kronenberger, Christel; Lorsbach, Michael; Lichtenegger, Werner; Chekerov, Radoslav

    2010-05-01

    Borderline ovarian tumour (BOT) represents a rare and special tumour entity. Despite a generally favourable prognosis for patients with BOT, the presence of invasive peritoneal implants decreases the survival rate to 30-50%. In contrast to ovarian cancer, only few data exist concerning the current clinical management of patients with BOT. For this reason, the present analyses were performed for patients with BOT who were admitted into our online tumor conference for patients with gynaecological malignancies. Based on the results discussed in this article, the current aspects and problems regarding the diagnostic, surgical and conservative treatment and aftercare management of patients with BOT are considered.

  19. Malignant renal tumours in adults in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaeri, T U; Orakwe, J C; Nwofor, A M E; Oranusi, C K; Ulebe, A O

    2012-01-01

    Malignant renal tumour is the third commonest urological tumour after prostate and bladder cancer. It is however the urological tumour with the highest mortality/incidence ratio. To review the frequency, mode of presentation and histological pattern of patients with malignant renal tumours in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital. A 7 year retrospective review of all our renal tumour folders in the institution. 19 patients qualified for the study with a male/female ratio of 1:2.8 and a mean age of 52.6 +/- 15.8 years. The peak age was in the seventh decade. Most patient present late (78.9%).Renal cell cancer was the commonest tumour type with the commonest mode of presentation being abdominal mass and pain. Malignant renal tumours present very late in our environment and patients hesitate in accepting available treatment option which is surgery. There is need for increased patient awareness and high index of suspicion by the clinician, particularly during imaging procedures, as this would significantly enhance the early detection of these patients.

  20. Solitary fibrous tumour of pleura: CT differentiation of benign and malignant types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A; Souza, C A; Sekhon, H S; Gomes, M M; Hare, S S; Agarwal, P P; Kanne, J P; Seely, J M

    2017-09-01

    To analyse and compare the computed tomography (CT) features of benign and malignant types of histopathologically proven cases of solitary fibrous tumours of pleura (SFTP). Retrospective analysis of preoperative CT images of 28 cases of histopathologically proven and classified SFTP from three participating institutions was performed. Patient demographics and lesion characteristics including size, borders, presence of a pedicle, extension into the fissure, attenuation, enhancement, pleural effusion, and calcifications were recorded and correlated with the final histopathological diagnosis. Type and results of preoperative biopsy were also recorded. Follow-up imaging and the clinical charts were reviewed to identify recurrence. Out of 28 cases (15 women and 13 men), 18 were proven to be benign and 10 were malignant. The mean age of patients was 58.1±15.9 and 66.5±11.8 years (p=0.1564) for benign and malignant tumours, respectively. The median (interquartile range) diameter was 6.05 (3.2-10.9) cm for benign and 15.7 (7.1-17.5) cm for malignant type tumours (p=0.0291). Tumours had lobulate borders in 28% (5/18) of benign cases and in 80% (8/10) of malignant cases (p=0.0163). Extension into adjacent fissure was seen in 22% (4/18) of benign lesions and 40% (4/10) of malignant lesions (p=0.40). A pedicle was present in 17% (3/18) of benign and 10% (1/10) of malignant lesions (p=1). Heterogeneous attenuation was present in 61% (11/18) of benign and 90% (9/10) of malignant lesions (p=0.19). Calcification was present in 17% (3/18) of benign tumours and in 70% (7/10) of malignant tumours (p=0.0113). Pleural effusion was present in 6% (1/18) of benign and 40% (4/10) of malignant lesions (p=0.04). Only 1/13 preoperative fine-needle aspirates yielded diagnosis of SFTP. Preoperative diagnosis of SFTP was made in all cases (11/11) with core biopsies. At follow-up (1-10 years, mean 3 years), local recurrence occurred in 3/6 (50%) patients with malignant SFTP and in none of the

  1. Targeted radiotherapy with 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE in athymic mice with induced pancreatic malignant tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M. A de; Pedraza L, M.; Rodriguez C, J.; Ferro F, G.; Murphy S, E.

    2006-01-01

    Malignant pancreas tumours induced in athymic mice are a good model for targeted radiotherapy. The objective of this research was to estimate pancreatic tumour absorbed radiation doses and to evaluate 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE as a therapeutic radiopharmaceutical that could be used in humans. AR42J murine pancreas cancer cells, which over-express somatostatin receptors, were injected in athymic mice and 20 days later the mean tumour size was 3.08 square cm (n=3). A mean of 86.3 MBq 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE, was injected in a tail vein and 19 days after therapy the size of the tumours was 0.81 square cm. There was a partial relapse and after 16 days, when sacrificed, the mean tumour size was 8.28 cubic cm. An epithelial and sarcoma mixed tumour in the kidney of one treated mouse was found. The tumour of the control mouse was 8.61 cubic cm when sacrificed 14 days after tumour induction. Radiotherapy estimates to the tumours was 35.9-39.7 Gy and the tumours might have been completely reduced with a second therapy dose. These preliminary studies justify further therapeutic and dosimetry estimations to ensure that Lu- 177 -DOTA-TATE will act as expected in man, considering kidney radiation. (Author)

  2. Utility of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant gynaecological tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hiroaki; Sakamoto, Jinichi; Osaka, Yasuhiro; Shibata, Takeo; Fujita, Satoko; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki

    2018-02-05

    Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) involving 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is widely used for systemic cancer and recurrence diagnosis. However, the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant gynaecological tumours according to FDG accumulation is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the intensity of FDG uptake/metabolic activity for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant gynaecological tumours. This study included seven patients with physiological phenomena, 34 with benign tumours, 13 with borderline malignant tumours and 119 with malignant tumours who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT. We assessed the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and determined its utility in the diagnosis of benign and malignant tumours using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Among the 63 patients with ovarian tumours, the mean SUVmax of 22 patients with benign ovarian tumours was 2.48 and the mean SUVmax of 41 patients with malignant ovarian tumours was 10.98 (P benign and malignant ovarian tumours, as well as uterine myomas and uterine sarcomas. © 2018 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  3. Factors influencing malignant evolution and long-term survival in solitary fibrous tumours of the pleura

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-González, Marta; Novoa, Nuria M.; Gomez, Maria T.; García, Juan L.; Ludeña, María Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Solitary pleuro-pulmonary fibrous tumours are relatively uncommon neoplasms that are difficult to manage therapeutically and which, cytogenetically, have been poorly studied. The aim of the present work was to analyse the characteristics of a series of consecutive operated solitary pleural fibrous tumours in an attempt to discover a malignant pattern of evolution. This was a retrospective observational study of 19 cases. Samples were studied for clinical, histological, immunohistochemical and...

  4. The combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the treatment of malignant tumours: indications and dangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartelink, H.; Somers, R.

    1980-01-01

    The combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy has improved the results of treatment of certain malignant tumours. However, during both experimental investigations and clinical treatment, a number of severe side effects have been observed, during as well as some time after the administration, especially with use of actinomycin and adriamycin. Also the possibility exists that more secondary tumours are induced as the consequence of combination therapy. (Auth.)

  5. Fast neutron therapy in advanced malignant tumour treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avinc, A.

    1998-01-01

    In this report the fast neutron therapy applications were examined by thoroughly consideration of the fast neutron sources and the interactions of the fast neutron by the medium. The efficacy of fast neutron radiotherapy with that of patients with locally advanced tumours were compared. Radiological data indicate that fast neutrons could bring benefit in the treatment of some tumour types especially salivary glands, paranasal sinuses, soft tissue sarcomas, prostatic adenocarcinomas, palliative treatment of melanoma and rectum. There is a significant improvement in local/regional control for the neutron group, but no improvement in the survival. The neutron therapy is suggested through which this benefit could be achieved

  6. Vascular endothelial growth factor in prognosis of splenic malignant tumours in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobczyńska-Rak Aleksandra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the levels of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in the serum of dogs suffering from splenic malignant tumours, prior to splenectomy, as well as three and six months after the surgery. Tumours and blood samples were collected from 10 dogs of various breeds, aged between 7 and 13 years, and from 10 control animals. Tumour sections were fixed in 10% buffered formalin for 24 h. The type of tumour was determined according to the WHO classification. Blood samples were centrifuged and the obtained sera were subjected to immunoenzymatic assays to determine the VEGF levels. The median of VEGF levels in the serum of dogs suffering from splenic malignant tumours was 37.85 pg/mL (15.40-107.18 pg/mL. The highest values were observed in dogs with confirmed metastases (107.18 pg/mL and 65.43 pg/mL. The VEGF values in control group were between 0.1 pg/mL and 13.04 pg/mL. A comparative analysis of the VEGF levels against the animals' survival time indicated that VEGF overexpression may serve as a prognostic factor in cases of malignant tumours of the spleen.

  7. Contrast enhancement pattern on multidetector CT predicts malignancy in pancreatic endocrine tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappelli, Carla [University of Pisa, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, Pisa (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana-Radiodiagnostica I, Pisa (Italy); Boggi, Ugo [University of Pisa, General and Transplant Surgery, Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, Pisa (Italy); Mazzeo, Salvatore; Cervelli, Rosa; Contillo, Benedetta Pontillo; Bartolozzi, Carlo [University of Pisa, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, Pisa (Italy); Campani, Daniela; Funel, Niccola [University of Pisa, Pathology, Department of Surgical, Medical, Molecular and Critical Area Pathology, Pisa (Italy)

    2014-12-02

    Preoperative suspicion of malignancy in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (pNETs) is mostly based on tumour size. We retrospectively reviewed the contrast enhancement pattern (CEP) of a series of pNETs on multiphasic multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), to identify further imaging features predictive of lesion aggressiveness. Sixty pNETs, diagnosed in 52 patients, were classified based on CEP as: type A showing early contrast enhancement and rapid wash-out; type B presenting even (B1) or only (B2) late enhancement. All tumours were resected allowing pathologic correlations. Nineteen pNETs showed type A CEP (5-20 mm), 29 type B1 CEP (5-80 mm) and 12 type B2 (15-100 mm). All tumours were classified as well differentiated tumours, 19 were benign (WDt-b), 15 with uncertain behaviour (WDt-u) and 26 carcinomas (WDC). None of A lesions were malignant (12 WDt-b; 7 WDt-u), all B2 lesions were WDC, 7 B1 lesions were WDt-b, 8 WDt-u and 14 WDC; 4/34 (12 %) lesions ≤2cm were WDC. CEP showed correlation with all histological prognostic indicators. Correlating with the lesion grading and other histological prognostic predictors, CEP may preoperatively suggest the behaviour of pNETs, assisting decisions about treatment. Moreover CEP allows recognition of malignant small tumours, incorrectly classified on the basis of their dimension. (orig.)

  8. Contrast enhancement pattern on multidetector CT predicts malignancy in pancreatic endocrine tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappelli, Carla; Boggi, Ugo; Mazzeo, Salvatore; Cervelli, Rosa; Contillo, Benedetta Pontillo; Bartolozzi, Carlo; Campani, Daniela; Funel, Niccola

    2015-01-01

    Preoperative suspicion of malignancy in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (pNETs) is mostly based on tumour size. We retrospectively reviewed the contrast enhancement pattern (CEP) of a series of pNETs on multiphasic multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), to identify further imaging features predictive of lesion aggressiveness. Sixty pNETs, diagnosed in 52 patients, were classified based on CEP as: type A showing early contrast enhancement and rapid wash-out; type B presenting even (B1) or only (B2) late enhancement. All tumours were resected allowing pathologic correlations. Nineteen pNETs showed type A CEP (5-20 mm), 29 type B1 CEP (5-80 mm) and 12 type B2 (15-100 mm). All tumours were classified as well differentiated tumours, 19 were benign (WDt-b), 15 with uncertain behaviour (WDt-u) and 26 carcinomas (WDC). None of A lesions were malignant (12 WDt-b; 7 WDt-u), all B2 lesions were WDC, 7 B1 lesions were WDt-b, 8 WDt-u and 14 WDC; 4/34 (12 %) lesions ≤2cm were WDC. CEP showed correlation with all histological prognostic indicators. Correlating with the lesion grading and other histological prognostic predictors, CEP may preoperatively suggest the behaviour of pNETs, assisting decisions about treatment. Moreover CEP allows recognition of malignant small tumours, incorrectly classified on the basis of their dimension. (orig.)

  9. How to differentiate benign from malignant myometrial tumours using MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomassin-Naggara, Isabelle [Hopital Tenon, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris and Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Hopital Tenon, Service de Radiologie, Paris (France); Dechoux, Sophie; Morel, Audrey; Carette, Marie-France; Bazot, Marc [Hopital Tenon, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris and Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Bonneau, Claire; Rouzier, Roman; Darai, Emile [Hopital Tenon, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris and Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Department of Gynecology-Obstetrics, Paris (France)

    2013-08-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to differentiate malignant from benign myometrial tumours. Fifty-one women underwent MRI before surgery for evaluation of a solitary myometrial tumour. At histopathology, there were 25 uncertain or malignant mesenchymal tumours and 26 benign leiomyomas. Conventional morphological MRI criteria were recorded in addition to b{sub 1,000} signal intensity and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Odds ratios (OR) were calculated for each criterion. A multivariate analysis was performed to construct an interpretation model. The significant criteria for prediction of malignancy were high b{sub 1,000} signal intensity (OR = +{infinity}), intermediate T2-weighted signal intensity (OR = +{infinity}), mean ADC (OR = 25.1), patient age (OR = 20.1), intra-tumoral haemorrhage (OR = 21.35), endometrial thickening (OR = 11), T2-weighted signal heterogeneity (OR = 10.2), menopausal status (OR = 9.7), heterogeneous enhancement (OR = 8) and non-myometrial origin on MRI (OR = 4.9). In the recursive partitioning model, using b{sub 1,000} signal intensity, T2 signal intensity, mean ADC, and patient age, the model correctly classified benign and malignant tumours in 47 of the 51 cases (92.4 %). We have developed an interpretation model usable in routine practice for myometrial tumours discovered at MRI including T2 signal, b{sub 1,000} signal and ADC measurement. (orig.)

  10. Conventional megavoltage radiotherapy in the management of malignant epithelial tumours of the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piedbois, P.; Bataini, J.P.; Colin, P.; Jaulerry, C.; Brunin, F.; Pontvert, D.; Durand, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    This is an evaluation of definitive conventional megavoltage radiotherapy in a consecutive series of 35 patients presenting malignant epithelial tumours of the parotid gland. In this series, the 5-year actuarial locoregional control rate was 41% with a 5-year crude survival rate of 36%. The results are analyzed according to tumour presentation and tumour doses. Six of 15 patients with tumours larger than 6 cm have had a lasting locoregional control. During the same period 43 other patients received radiotherapy as a post-operative modality. Results obtained in this group confirm the previously published data. While recent studies tend to demonstrate the specific efficacy of high LET radiation in the management of locally advanced salivary gland tumours, radical conventional radiotherapy can still be employed with a curative intent when neutron facilities are not available. (author). 34 refs.; 1 fig.; 5 tabs

  11. Malignant mixed Mullerian tumour of the prolapsed cervix: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... which was ulcerated, friable, and bled easily on touch. Impression was grade three uterine prolapse with infected cervical polyp/ cervical sarcoma. Excision of the tumour through trans-vaginal hysterectomy was performed, no lymphadenopathy was found, no adnexa abnormalities, and no involvement of the vaginal wall.

  12. Clinico-pathological analysis of malignant salivary gland tumours in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They were made into slides and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) and periodic acid Schiff (PAS) stains. The slides were reported independently by four pathologists. Diagnosis was made according to the world health organisation (WHO) classification of salivary gland tumours. Case files of these patients were ...

  13. Analysis of adrenocortical tumours morphology as regards their structure and potential malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajor, M.; Ciupinska-Kajor, M.; Dobrosz, Z.; Ziaja, J.; Krol, R.; Heitzman, M.; Cierpka, L.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: A consequence of diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is introduction of pharmacological therapy, precise monitoring of the patients and in some cases re-operation. The aim of the study is to analyse morphology of adrenocortical tumours as regards their malignancy by use of criteria proposed by Weiss. Material and methods: 110 adrenocortical tumours in 107 patients were analysed (M 27.1%, F 72.9%; age 32 to 77 years, mean 55.2 ± 9.7). Conn syndrome was diagnosed in 16 patients (14.9%), Cushing syndrome in 12 (11.2%), and virilisation in 3 (2.8%). In 76 patients (71.0%) biochemical tests did not reveal hormonal hyperactivity of the tumour. Results: In routine histopathological examination ACC was diagnosed in 6 tumours (5.4%), adrenocortical adenoma (ACA) in 92 (83.6%) and adrenocortical hyperplasia in 12 (10.9%). Nuclear grade III or IV was observed in 8 tumours (7.3%), mitotic rate > 5/50 high power fields in 6 (5.4%), atypical mitoses in 5 (4.5%), clear cells constituting < 25% of the tumour in 10 (9.1%), diffuse architecture in 8 (7.3%), necrosis in 16 (14.5%), veins infiltration in 4 (3.6%), sinusoids infiltration in 7 (6.3%), and tumour capsule infiltration in 5 (4.5%). Among ACC tumours 4 - 9 features of malignancy were present, among ACA - 0 - 3 features. Statistical analysis revealed correlation between number of criteria proposed by Weiss and maximal tumour size (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The structure and cell arrangement in adrenocortical adenoma are heterogeneous. Application of criteria proposed by Weiss in histopathological examination of adrenocortical tumours can be useful in differentiating adrenocortical adenoma from carcinoma. (author)

  14. Optical spectroscopy techniques can accurately distinguish benign and malignant renal tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couapel, Jean-Philippe; Senhadji, Lotfi; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Verhoest, Grégory; Lavastre, Olivier; de Crevoisier, Renaud; Bensalah, Karim

    2013-05-01

    WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: There is little known about optical spectroscopy techniques ability to evaluate renal tumours. This study shows for the first time the ability of Raman and optical reflectance spectroscopy to distinguish benign and malignant renal tumours in an ex vivo environment. We plan to develop this optical assistance in the operating room in the near future. To evaluate the ability of Raman spectroscopy (RS) and optical reflectance spectroscopy (ORS) to distinguish benign and malignant renal tumours at surgery. Between March and October 2011, RS and ORS spectra were prospectively acquired on surgical renal specimens removed for suspicion of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Optical measurements were done immediately after surgery. Optical signals were normalised to ensure comparison between spectra. Initial and final portions of each spectrum were removed to avoid artefacts. A support vector machine (SVM) was built and tested using a leave-one-out cross-validation. Classification scores, including accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were calculated on the entire population and in patients with tumours of 700 optical spectra were obtained and submitted to SVM classification. The SVM could recognise benign and malignant renal tumours with an accuracy of 96% (RS) and 88% (ORS) in the whole population and with an accuracy of 93% (RS) and 95% (ORS) in the present subset of small renal tumours (Benign and malignant renal tumours can be accurately discriminated by a combination of RS and ORS. In vivo experiments are needed to further assess the value of optical spectroscopy techniques. © 2012 BJU International.

  15. Clinical multi-colour fluorescence imaging of malignant tumours - initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svanberg, K.; Wang, I.; Montan, S.; Andersson-Engels, S.; Svanberg, S.; Lund Inst. of Technology

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to present a new technique for non-invasive tumour detection based on tissue fluorescence imaging. A clinically adapted multi-colour fluorescence system was employed in the real-time imaging of malignant tumours of the skin, breast, head and neck region, and urinary bladder. Tumour detection was based on the contrast displayed in fluorescence between normal and malignant tissue, related to the selective uptake of tumour-marking agents and natural chromophore differences between various tissues. In order to demarcate basal cell carcinomas of the skin, ALA was applied topically 4-6 h before the fluorescence investigation. For urinary bladder tumour visualisation, ALA was instilled into the bladder 1-2 h prior to the study. Malignant and premalignant lesions in the head and neck region were imaged after i.v. injection of HPD (Photofrin). The tumour imaging system was coupled to an endoscope. Fluorescence light emission from the tissue surface was induced with 100-ns-long optical pulses at 390 nm, generated from a frequency-doubled alexandrite laser. With the use of special image-splitting optics, the tumour fluorescence, intensified in a micro-channel plate, was imaged in 3 selected wavelength bands. These 3 images were processed together to form a new optimised-contrast image of the tumour. This image, updated at a rate of about 3 frames/s was mixed with a normal colour video image of the tissue. A clear demarcation from normal surrounding tissue was found during in vivo measurements of superficial bladder carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma of the skin, and leukoplakia with dysplasia of the lip, and in vitro investigations of resected breast cancer. (orig./MG)

  16. Malignant mixed Mullerian tumour of the prolapsed cervix: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massinde, Anthony N; Rumanyika, Richard R; Kihunrwa, Albert; Rambau, Peter; Magoma, Moke

    2012-04-01

    Malignant mixed Mullerian tumour is a rare gynaecological tumour commonly presenting with vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain or mass in the uterine cavity, cervix or vagina. The neoplasms are commonly seen in postmenopausal women although it has been observed in younger women. Ovaries and the corpus of the uterus are commonly involved, whereas involvement of the cervix and vagina is rare. A 37 year-old Tanzania lady para 7 with a previous history of two genital polypectomies presented with history of recurrent vaginal mass which was associated with abnormal vaginal bleeding and foul smelling discharge. Vaginal examination revealed a prolapsed uterus with giant fungating cervical mass which was ulcerated, friable, and bled easily on touch. Impression was grade three uterine prolapse with infected cervical polyp/cervical sarcoma. Excision of the tumour through trans-vaginal hysterectomy was performed, no lymphadenopathy was found, no adnexa abnormalities, and no involvement of the vaginal wall. Histological diagnosis of Malignant mixed Mullerian tumour of the cervix was made. Patient recovery was unremarkable; however she was lost to follow up. The patient's mass was initially suspected to be prolapsed uterus with decubitus ulcer but the histological results were of a malignant condition. Lack of clear management guidelines for some rare mixed tumours remains a challenge for clinicians in low resource settings.

  17. Can 16-detector multislice CT exclude skeletal lesions during tumour staging? Implications for the cancer patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groves, Ashley M.; Beadsmoore, Clare J.; Courtney, Helen M.; Harish, Srinivasan; Bearcroft, Philip W.P.; Dixon, Adrian K.; Cheow, Heok K.; Balan, Kottekkattu K.; Kaptoge, Stephen; Win, Thida

    2006-01-01

    Current imaging guidelines recommend that many cancer patients undergo soft-tissue staging by computed tomography (CT) whilst the bones are imaged by skeletal scintigraphy (bone scan). New CT technology has now made it feasible, for the first time, to perform a detailed whole-body skeletal CT. This advancement could save patients from having to undergo duplicate investigations. Forty-three patients with known malignancy were investigated for bone metastasis using skeletal scintigraphy and 16-detector multislice CT. Both studies were performed within six weeks of each other. Whole-body images were taken 4 h after injection of 500 Mbq 99m Tc-MDP using a gamma camera. CT was performed on a 16-detector multislice CT machine from the vertex to the knee. The examinations were reported independently and discordant results were compared at follow-up. Statistical equivalence between the two techniques was tested using the Newcombe-Wilson method within the pre-specified equivalence limits of ±20%. Scintigraphy detected bone metastases in 14/43 and CT in 13/43 patients. There were seven discordances; four cases were positive on scintigraphy, but negative on CT; three cases were positive on CT and negative on scintigraphy. There was equivalence between scintigraphy and CT in detecting bone metastases within ±19% equivalence limits. Patients who have undergone full whole-body staging on 16-detector CT may not need additional skeletal scintigraphy. This should shorten the cancer patient's diagnostic pathway. (orig.)

  18. Radiofrequency Ablation for 110 Malignant Liver Tumours: Preliminary Results on Percutaneous and Surgical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wong

    2009-01-01

    Conclusion: RFA is a safe and effective procedure for treating patients with malignant liver tumours. No difference in short term outcomes was observed between percutaneous and surgical approaches. A more prolonged follow-up study is required to assess longer-term outcomes.

  19. Primary malignant head and neck tumours in Ghana: a survey of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Results: 2,041 of 4,546 reports were malignant. 1342 were ... Conclusion: We observed a rising incidence of head and neck .... head and neck cancer rose from 44 cases in ... Carcinosarcoma. 1. Clear cell tumour. 0. 1. Cutaneous lymphoma. 1.

  20. Region of the eye. Strategy for the management of malignant tumours of the orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The strategy for the management of the various malignant tumours of the orbit was tabulated and also illustrated in diagrams. Table 1. Strategy for retinoblastoma; Table 2. Strategy for malignant melanoma: (a) intra-ocular, (b) epibulbar; Table 3. Strategy for squamous cell carcinoma: (a) conjunctival, (b) palpebral; Table 4. Strategy for basal cell carcinoma: (a) palpebral, (b) intra-orbital; Table 5. Strategy for rhabdomyosarcoma (and embryoma) of the orbit; Table 6. Strategy for lymphosarcoma of the orbit; Table 7. Strategy for other tumours of the orbit or adnexa: (A) hystiocytosis X, (B) adenocarcinoma of the lachrymal gland, (C) optic nerve glioma, (D) para-nasal sinus tumours involving orbit; Table 8. Strategy for systemic or metastatic disease involving the orbit or contents: (a) intra-ocular [(i) leukaemia, (ii) carcinoma of the breast or of the bronchus], (b) orbital or peri-orbital [(i) leukaemia, (ii) neuroblastoma, (iii) histiocytosis X, (iv) lymphoma

  1. New technologies to combat malignant tumours of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, F

    1982-01-01

    1. The primary problem in an effective treatment of a glioblastoma is the prevention of a recurrence. 2. For that purpose were the following therapeutical procedures undertaken: (a) Temporary implantation of radio cobalt in the brain itself (1957): (b) Clostridium butyricum M 55 was used to render the centre of the tumour fluid (1967): (c) Podophyllin was used to destroy the border of the tumour (1980); (d) The CO2 Laser beam (1975); (e) The electromagnetic heat induction deep in the brain (1973-1978). 3. In order to make the operation and postoperative phase safer for the patient, the following precautions were drawn upon or employed: (a) Hyperbaric oxygenisation in the pressure chamber (1971); (b) The anti-G-suit (1974); (c) the computer controlled automatic infusion pump (1980), and (d) the telemetric measurement of intra-cranial pressure (1975). 4. Apart from the pressure chamber, the mentioned devices were all supervised and developed in the department of the author. 5. The first successful means in the prevention of the recurrence of a glioblastoma multiform seems to be the telethermic method mentioned in 2 (e) above.

  2. A prospective study of three diagnostic sonographic methods in differentiation between benign and malignant salivary gland tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khateeb, SM; Abou-Khalaf, AE; Farid, MM; Nassef, MA

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of three diagnostic sonographic methods, greyscale sonography (GSS), colour Doppler sonography (CDS) and spectral Doppler (SPD), in differentiating between benign and malignant salivary gland (SG) tumours. Methods 44 patients with SG masses were examined using GSS, CDS and SPD. The morphological features of each tumour were evaluated using GSS, the distribution and number of detected blood vessels were assessed using CDS, and peak systolic velocity (PSV), resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) were measured on SPD. All cases underwent excisional biopsy and a definite tissue diagnosis was obtained. Results Histopathological examination revealed that 28 of the 44 tumours were benign and 16 were malignant. GSS showed that malignant SG tumours had a significantly higher incidence of ill-defined borders and lymph node involvement than benign tumours, but there was no significant difference between benign and malignant SG tumours regarding echogenicity, homogeneity or sonographic shape. CDS demonstrated malignant tumours with significantly higher vascularity and a scattered distribution. Using SPD, malignant tumours had significantly higher PSV, RI and PI compared with benign tumours. Conclusion RI values above 0.7, PI values above 1.2, PSV values above 44.3 cm s–1, ill-defined borders, lymph node involvement, Grade 2 or 3 vascularity and hilar distribution of blood vessels should alert the clinician to suspect a malignant SG tumour. After consensus on the threshold values of PSV, RI and PI in differentiating benign from malignant SG tumours, these numbers should be incorporated into the software of ultrasound machines to guide the sonographer in his or her analysis. PMID:22065796

  3. lmmunohistochemical study of effect of ionizing radiation on human malignant tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomaitiene, D. I.; Aleknavicius, E.; Valuckas, K. and others

    2000-01-01

    Cell proliferation-associated tumour markers are considered to have a valuable clinical significance. The current study was designed to investigate changes in immunohistochemical (IH) expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen PCNA in human malignant tumour tissue samples obtained before and after preoperative radiotherapy. Tumour tissue samples were obtained from 26 patients with rectal carcinoma, from 22 patients with carcinoma corporis uteri and from 82 patients with breast cancer. Tumour samples were processed for IH examination by using monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) PC10 against PCNA. IH analysis of histological specimens of carcinoma corporis uteri and rectal carcinoma obtained before and after preoperative radiotherapy has revealed heterogeneity of biological response to irradiation. The great majority of tumour specimens after irradiation showed a high PCNA expression level in cell population. Only minority of tumour specimens (15-20%) exhibited reduced immunoreactivity with MoAbs PC10. PCNA positivity rate in breast cancer specimens obtained during surgery from 55 patients after preoperative radiotherapy in comparison to biomarker expression pattern in tumour specimens from 27 unirradiated patients (control group) was found to be tended to decrease. These in vivo findings are discussed in terms of radiation-induced cell death, followed after proliferation, and PCNA role in DNA repair. (author)

  4. Evaluation of IOTA Simple Ultrasound Rules to Distinguish Benign and Malignant Ovarian Tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sugandha; Kaur, Amarjit; Mohi, Jaswinder Kaur; Sibia, Preet Kanwal; Kaur, Navkiran

    2017-08-01

    IOTA stands for International Ovarian Tumour Analysis group. Ovarian cancer is one of the common cancers in women and is diagnosed at later stage in majority. The limiting factor for early diagnosis is lack of standardized terms and procedures in gynaecological sonography. Introduction of IOTA rules has provided some consistency in defining morphological features of ovarian masses through a standardized examination technique. To evaluate the efficacy of IOTA simple ultrasound rules in distinguishing benign and malignant ovarian tumours and establishing their use as a tool in early diagnosis of ovarian malignancy. A hospital based case control prospective study was conducted. Patients with suspected ovarian pathology were evaluated using IOTA ultrasound rules and designated as benign or malignant. Findings were correlated with histopathological findings. Collected data was statistically analysed using chi-square test and kappa statistical method. Out of initial 55 patients, 50 patients were included in the final analysis who underwent surgery. IOTA simple rules were applicable in 45 out of these 50 patients (90%). The sensitivity for the detection of malignancy in cases where IOTA simple rules were applicable was 91.66% and the specificity was 84.84%. Accuracy was 86.66%. Classifying inconclusive cases as malignant, the sensitivity and specificity was 93% and 80% respectively. High level of agreement was found between USG and histopathological diagnosis with Kappa value as 0.323. IOTA simple ultrasound rules were highly sensitive and specific in predicting ovarian malignancy preoperatively yet being reproducible, easy to train and use.

  5. Clinicopathological Analysis of Malignant Eyelid Tumours in north-west Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, I.; Khan, F. M.; Alam, M.; Khan, B. S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the demography, mode of presentation, gross morphology, histopathological diagnosis and subsequent course of malignant eyelid tumours in north-west Pakistan. Methods: The retrospective observational study was performed at the Department of Ophthalmology, Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, from January 2007 to July 2010, and comprised data related to 222 patients. Charts of patients with malignant eyelid tumours admitted to the department during study period were reviewed. Patients' demographic data, gross and microscopic features of the tumours and their subsequent course of treatments were recorded. SPSS 14 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the total, 122 (54.1%) patients were male and 102 (45.9%) were female. Mean age of all patients was 59.3+-14.2 years. Among the patients, 73 (32.9%) had the involvement of the lower lid; 57 (25.7%) the upper lid; 18 (8.11%) the medial canthus; 2 (0.9%) the lateral canthus; and 72 (32.4%) had more than one region involved. On histopathology, basal cell carcinoma was the most common (n= 131; 59%), followed by squamous cell carcinoma in 70 (31.5%), sebaceous gland carcinoma in 15 (6.8%), malignant melanoma in 3 (1.3%) and undifferentiated carcinoma in 3 (1.3%) cases. Of the total tumours, 164 (73.87%) did not spread, and 58 (26.13%) spread either locally or distantly. Conclusion: Basal cell carcinoma was is the most common malignant eyelid tumour in the study. Squamous cell carcinoma, which was second, was found to be more common in north-west Pakistan than in any other part of Asia, while the sebaceous gland carcinoma was relatively less common. (author)

  6. A histomorphologic and ultrastructural study of the malignant tumours of the renal pelvis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyagi N

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried at two different centres. Only 9 cases of primary malignant tumours of the renal pelvis could be collected during the period of 7 years (1984-1990. Renal pelvis malignancies constituted 0.21% of all the malignancies and 12.16% of all the malignant growths of the kidney (9 out of 74 cases. The age of these patients ranged from 24 to 70 years; the mean being 41.7 years. Male/female ratio was 8:1. Common triad of complaints (pain, haematuria and lump was noticed in 22.2% of patients. Individually they were noticed in 77.8%, 66.7% and 44.4% of patients respectively. Transitional cell carcinoma was the commonest, seen in 7 patients (77.8% whereas squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma were noticed in one patient (11.1% each. Hydronephrosis, chronic pyelonephritis and nephrolithiasis were noticed in 66.7%, 44.4% and 22.2% of patients respectively. Ultrastructural study of urothelial tumours revealed tumour cells in various stages of differentiation with loss of intercellular junctions and dense collection of rough endopasmic reticulum fibrils around the nucleus.

  7. Non-germ cell tumours arising in germ cell tumours (teratoma with malignant transformation) in men: CT and MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athanasiou, A. [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Department of Radiology, Institut Curie, Paris (France)], E-mail: alexandra.athanasiou@curie.net; Vanel, D. [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Department of Radiology, Istituti Ortopedici Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); El Mesbahi, O. [Department of Medicine, Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Theodore, C. [Department of Medicine, Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Department of Oncology, Hopital Foch, Suresnes (France); Fizazi, K. [Department of Medicine, Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France)

    2009-02-15

    Purpose: To describe the imaging findings of germ cell tumours (GCT) containing non-germ cell malignant components (also designated teratoma with malignant transformation or TMT). Patients and methods: The records of 14 male patients with GCT and a non-germ cell histological component TMT were retrospectively reviewed. All patients had computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance (MR) studies before and after initial surgery and chemotherapy, as well as during follow-up. Imaging findings were correlated with the response to treatment and with overall survival. Pathological evaluation, immunohistochemistry, serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) were also taken into consideration. Sarcoma was identified in 10 out of 14 patients, with rhabdomyosarcoma ranking first (n = 4), followed by osteosarcoma (n = 2), fusiform cell sarcoma (n = 1), undifferentiated sarcoma (n = 1), neurosarcoma (n = 1) and myxoid sarcoma (n = 1). Other histological types of malignant transformation included adenocarcinoma (n = 3) and bronchoalveolar carcinoma (n = 1). Overall, 9 patients relapsed at a median time of 84 months (range 60-168). Results: Non-GCT malignant transformation was identified in the retroperitoneum (5), testis (3), mediastinum (3), peritoneum (2) and lungs (1). The CT and MR imaging findings before treatment and after relapse were evaluated with emphasis on imaging features that could possibly imply the presence of malignant transformation (heterogeneously enhancing soft-tissue masses, ossified masses with calcified lymph nodes, diffuse epiploic thickening associated with ascites and peritoneal nodules, pulmonary alveolar infiltration with septal thickening). All but 1 patient with TMT presented with nodal and distant metastases. The prognosis was poor: within a median follow-up of 59 months (range 3-180), 4 out of 14 patients were alive. Conclusion: TMT is rare and associated with poorer survival compared to GCT. Imaging can be useful

  8. Newer Clinical Strategies for Combining Interferon and Cytotoxic Agents Against Solid Tumours and Hematological Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wadler

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of interferons in the treatment of cancer continues to evolve. Despite limited single agent activity against solid tumours, interferons now appear to have an important role as modulators of the activity of a variety of cytotoxic drugs. Clinical benefits have been observed for combinations of interferons and alkylating agents against low grade lymphomas, interferons and dacarbazine against malignant melanoma, and interferons and 5-fluorouracil against gastrointestinal and genitourinary malignancies. Further progress will depend on a grealer understanding of the biology of the interaction.

  9. Initial experience with TPA as a tumour marker in ovarian malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalen, A. van; Favier, J.; Eastham, W.N.

    1984-01-01

    The Tissue Polypeptide Antigen (TPA) and Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) content of serum were estimated in samples taken from 21 patients with malignant ovarian tumours. The patients were followed for variable period ranging from 6 to 22 months and the TPA and CEA levels were estimated after debulking operations and courses of CHAP-5 therapy. The relative success of the operation and/or treatment was reflected in an appropriate alteration of the serum TPA level. CEA levels remained more or less stationary. The serum TPA levels of 13 of the 21 patients, irrespective of the tumour type, differentiation or stage of tumour growth, exhibited a good concordance with the clinical observations at second look operations. The one patient with a disseminated form of adenoacanthoma failed to show an elevation of the TPA levels and 7 patients continue to have a constantly elevated TPA levels but as yet no clinical evidence of recurrent or metastatic disease. (orig.) [de

  10. Effects of insulin and glucose loading on FDG uptake in experimental malignant tumours and inflammatory lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Songji; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Kato, Takashi; Tamaki, Nagara; Kuge, Yuji; Hikosaka, Kenji; Mochizuki, Takafumi; Hosokawa, Masuo; Kohanawa, Masashi

    2001-01-01

    Fluorine-18 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) accumulation in tumours has been well investigated, but much less is known regarding FDG accumulation in inflammatory lesions. In this study, we determined the effects of hypo- and hyperglycaemia on FDG uptake in inflammatory lesions of infectious and non-infectious origin and compared them with those in malignant tumours in rats, to provide a biological basis for differentiating malignant lesions from benign lesions by means of FDG-PET. Rats were inoculated with a suspension of allogenic hepatoma cells (KDH-8) or Staphylococcus aureus, or with turpentine oil into the left calf muscle. Two weeks after KDH-8 inoculation and 1 week after S. aureus and turpentine oil inoculations, the rats were divided into three subgroups: insulin-loaded (2 U/kg body weight, i.p.), glucose-loaded (1.2 g/kg body weight, p.o.) and control groups. Radioactivity in tissues was determined 1 h after i.v. injection of FDG. Intraperitoneal injection of insulin and oral administration of glucose induced hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia, respectively. In the control animals, tumours showed a level of FDG uptake which was 2.2 and 3.0 times higher than the levels in the inflammatory lesions induced by S. aureus and turpentine oil, respectively (P<0.0001). There was no significant difference in the level of FDG uptake between the two inflammatory lesions of infectious and non-infectious origin. Insulin loading significantly decreased the level of FDG uptake in tumours and in both types of inflammatory lesion to approximately one-half of the control values (P=0.001 in the tumour group and P<0.0001 in the two inflammatory lesion groups). In the glucose-loaded group, the level of FDG uptake in both types of inflammatory lesion decreased significantly to 50%-61% of the control value (P=0.0002 in the S.aureus group and P<0.0001 in the turpetine group), while the tumour uptake did not decrease significantly (86% of the control value) (P=NS). It is concluded

  11. Malignant tumour stroma gonads Sertoli-Leydig:a communication clinic case and bibliographic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krygier Waltier, G.; Rodriguez Lemes, R.; Carlevaro Elizondo, T.

    1995-01-01

    The malignant tumors of the stroma gonads represent 0.2% of all the tumors of the testicle, and they are almost exclusive of the relatively refractory to the radiotherapy and the chemotherapy, and the medium survive of the illness is of two years. it presents a clinical case of tumour to cells of Sertoli-Leydig in a 45 year-old man that heI consulted for sterility . A review of the literature it is made for finish [es

  12. Lymphoscintigraphy and radioguided surgery in cervical and vulvar malignant tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Guzman-Barron, Rosanna E.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To validate a combined technique in the detection of sentinel nodes in early cervix and vulvar cancer patients. Material and Methods: Seventy patients, 24 to 63 years old (average 40 years), with cervical cancer stages IA2, IB1 and IIA, and fourteen patients, 28 to 80 years old (median 68 years) with vulval neoplasm, stage I and II, had sentinel node (SN) detection using lymphoscintigraphy and a gamma probe in the surgical room, after injection of Tc 99m dextran and patent blue dye. Sentinel nodes were seen between 20 and 135 minutes after injection, in cervical cancer, and between one and sixty minutes in vulvar neoplasms. In patients with cervical tumors, 99 sentinel nodes were localized in the obturator region, 28 were interiliac, nine were located in the external iliac region, three in the common iliac region and one was found in perineum. In patients with a vulvar neoplasm, all sentinel nodes were located in the superficial inguinal region. The detection rate was 98,8% for cervical cancer and 100% for vulvar neoplasms, with bilateral drainage in 46% and 29% respectively. Metastases were found in 10,4% (7/65) of IB1 stage cervical cancer patients (6 squamous cell carcinomas - non keratinizing: 5, keratinizing: 1 and one adenocarcionoma) and none in four patients with IA2 stage (with non keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma). The patients with IIA stage cervical cancer (keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma) had metastases in the SN. Three out of 14 patients with vulvar cancer showed metastases in the sentinel node. Two of them had epidermoid carcinoma and one, malignant melanoma. There were no metastases in non-sentinel nodes when sentinel nodes were negative for metastases, both in cervical or vulvar cancer. Conclusion: It is feasible to localize sentinel nodes in cervical and vulvar cancer, using a combined technique with Tc 99m Dextran and 'patent blue'. (author)

  13. Human α-defensin (DEFA) gene expression helps to characterise benign and malignant salivary gland tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, Jochen; Wenghoefer, Matthias; Pantelis, Annette; Kraus, Dominik; Reckenbeil, Jan; Reich, Rudolf; Jepsen, Soeren; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Allam, Jean-Pierre; Novak, Natalija

    2012-01-01

    Because of the infrequence of salivary gland tumours and their complex histopathological diagnosis it is still difficult to exactly predict their clinical course by means of recurrence, malignant progression and metastasis. In order to define new proliferation associated genes, purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of human α-defensins (DEFA) 1/3 and 4 in different tumour entities of the salivary glands with respect to malignancy. Tissue of salivary glands (n=10), pleomorphic adenomas (n=10), cystadenolymphomas (n=10), adenocarcinomas (n=10), adenoidcystic carcinomas (n=10), and mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=10) was obtained during routine surgical procedures. RNA was extracted according to standard protocols. Transcript levels of DEFA 1/3 and 4 were analyzed by quantitative realtime PCR and compared with healthy salivary gland tissue. Additionally, the proteins encoded by DEFA 1/3 and DEFA 4 were visualized in paraffin-embedded tissue sections by immunohistochemical staining. Human α-defensins are traceable in healthy as well as in pathological altered salivary gland tissue. In comparison with healthy tissue, the gene expression of DEFA 1/3 and 4 was significantly (p<0.05) increased in all tumours – except for a significant decrease of DEFA 4 gene expression in pleomorphic adenomas and a similar transcript level for DEFA 1/3 compared to healthy salivary glands. A decreased gene expression of DEFA 1/3 and 4 might protect pleomorphic adenomas from malignant transformation into adenocarcinomas. A similar expression pattern of DEFA-1/3 and -4 in cystadenolymphomas and inflamed salivary glands underlines a potential importance of immunological reactions during the formation of Warthin’s tumour

  14. Evaluation of IOTA Simple Ultrasound Rules to Distinguish Benign and Malignant Ovarian Tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amarjit; Mohi, Jaswinder Kaur; Sibia, Preet Kanwal; Kaur, Navkiran

    2017-01-01

    Introduction IOTA stands for International Ovarian Tumour Analysis group. Ovarian cancer is one of the common cancers in women and is diagnosed at later stage in majority. The limiting factor for early diagnosis is lack of standardized terms and procedures in gynaecological sonography. Introduction of IOTA rules has provided some consistency in defining morphological features of ovarian masses through a standardized examination technique. Aim To evaluate the efficacy of IOTA simple ultrasound rules in distinguishing benign and malignant ovarian tumours and establishing their use as a tool in early diagnosis of ovarian malignancy. Materials and Methods A hospital based case control prospective study was conducted. Patients with suspected ovarian pathology were evaluated using IOTA ultrasound rules and designated as benign or malignant. Findings were correlated with histopathological findings. Collected data was statistically analysed using chi-square test and kappa statistical method. Results Out of initial 55 patients, 50 patients were included in the final analysis who underwent surgery. IOTA simple rules were applicable in 45 out of these 50 patients (90%). The sensitivity for the detection of malignancy in cases where IOTA simple rules were applicable was 91.66% and the specificity was 84.84%. Accuracy was 86.66%. Classifying inconclusive cases as malignant, the sensitivity and specificity was 93% and 80% respectively. High level of agreement was found between USG and histopathological diagnosis with Kappa value as 0.323. Conclusion IOTA simple ultrasound rules were highly sensitive and specific in predicting ovarian malignancy preoperatively yet being reproducible, easy to train and use. PMID:28969237

  15. Clinical utility of a combination of tumour markers in the diagnosis of malignant pleural effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, M J; De Miguel, J; García Díaz, J D; Díez, M

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of the tumour markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigens CA 125, CA 15.3, CA 19.9 and tumor-associated glycoprotein 72 (TAG 72) in the pleural fluid (PF) of patients with pleural effusions of different etiologies. One hundred and fifty-five patients with pleural effusions (40 malignant, 84 benign and 31 paraneoplastic) were studied prospectively. The concentration of the tumour markers in serum and PF were measured by magnetic particle enzyme immunoassay. The PF to serum (PF/S) concentration ratios were calculated. The concentrations of CEA, CA 15.3, CA 19.9 and TAG 72 in PF and the PF/serum ratios were significantly higher in effusions of malignant and paraneoplastic origin than in those of benign origin. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated for each marker and the diagnostic cut-off point was selected as the value that offered a specificity of 100% (CEA: 6.5 ng/ml; CA 15.3:62.4 IU/l; TAG 72:10.9 IU/l). CEA presented the greatest sensitivity [45% in the malignant group, 38.7% in the paraneoplastic group, and 41.4% in the pooled group (combined malignant and paraneoplastic)]. TAG 72 presented the largest area under the curve (0.89 in the malignant group and 0.80 in the pooled group). The diagnostic efficacy of the PF/S ratios was not better than measurement of the tumour markers in pleural fluid. The highest diagnostic accuracy for the diagnosis of malignant pleural effusions was achieved by grouping the markers in a panel comprising CEA, CA 15.3 and TAG 72; this showed a sensitivity of 75% and a negative predictive value of 79.1% . In the subgroup of patients with negative cytology, the sensitivity was 41.2% for CEA, 35.5% for CA 15.3 and 33.3% for TAG 72. The combination of these three markers achieved a sensitivity of 84.6%. The combined measurement of CEA, CA 15.3 and TAG 72 in pleural fluid is a useful complementary test in the differential

  16. Early medical rehabilitation after neurosurgical treatment of malignant brain tumours in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Natasa; Kos, Boris; Benedicic, Mitja

    2016-06-01

    The number of patients with malignant brain tumours is on the rise, but due to the novel treatment methods the survival rates are higher. Despite increased survival the consequences of tumour properties and treatment can have a significant negative effect on the patients' quality of life. Providing timely and appropriate rehabilitation interventions is an important aspect of patient treatment and should be started immediately after surgery. The most important goal of rehabilitation is to prevent complications that could have a negative effect on the patients' ability to function. By using individually tailored early rehabilitation it is often possible to achieve the patients' independence in mobility as well as in performing daily tasks before leaving the hospital. A more precise evaluation of the patients' functional state after completing additional oncologic therapy should be performed to stratify the patients who should be directed to complex rehabilitation treatment. The chances of a good functional outcome in patients with malignant brain tumours could be increased with good early medical rehabilitation treatment.

  17. Increased levels of deleted in malignant brain tumours 1 (DMBT1) in active bacteria-related appendicitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaemmerer, Elke; Schneider, Ursula; Klaus, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Kaemmerer E, Schneider U, Klaus C, Plum P, Reinartz A, Adolf M, Renner M, Wolfs T G A M, Kramer B W, Wagner N, Mollenhauer J & Gassler N (2012) Histopathology Increased levels of deleted in malignant brain tumours 1 (DMBT1) in active bacteria-related appendicitis Aims:  Deleted in malignant brain...

  18. Targeted radiotherapy with 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE in athymic mice with induced pancreatic malignant tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez C, J.; Murphy, C.A. de; Pedraza L, M.; Ferro F, G.; Murphy S, E.

    2006-01-01

    Malignant pancreas tumours induced in athymic mice are a good model for peptide receptor targeted radiotherapy. The objective of this research was to estimate pancreatic tumour absorbed radiation doses after administration of 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE in mice as a therapeutic radiopharmaceutical that could be used in humans. AR42J murine pancreas cancer cells expressing somatostatin receptors, were implanted in athymic mice (n=18) to obtain the 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE biokinetics and dosimetry. To estimate its therapeutic efficacy 87 MBq were injected in a tail vein of 3 mice and 19 days p.i. there were a partial relapse. There was an epithelial and sarcoma mixed tumour in the kidneys of mouse III. The absorbed dose to tumour, kidney and pancreas was 50.5 ± 7.2 Gy, 17.5 ± 2.5 Gy and 12.6 ± 2.3 Gy respectively. These studies justify further therapeutic and dosimetry estimations to ensure that 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE will act as expected in man considering its kidney radiotoxicity. (Author)

  19. SFRP Tumour Suppressor Genes Are Potential Plasma-Based Epigenetic Biomarkers for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen Yee Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM is associated with asbestos exposure. Asbestos can induce chronic inflammation which in turn can lead to silencing of tumour suppressor genes. Wnt signaling pathway can be affected by chronic inflammation and is aberrantly activated in many cancers including colon and MPM. SFRP genes are antagonists of Wnt pathway, and SFRPs are potential tumour suppressors in colon, gastric, breast, ovarian, and lung cancers and mesothelioma. This study investigated the expression and DNA methylation of SFRP genes in MPM cells lines with and without demethylation treatment. Sixty-six patient FFPE samples were analysed and have showed methylation of SFRP2 (56% and SFRP5 (70% in MPM. SFRP2 and SFRP5 tumour-suppressive activity in eleven MPM lines was confirmed, and long-term asbestos exposure led to reduced expression of the SFRP1 and SFRP2 genes in the mesothelium (MeT-5A via epigenetic alterations. Finally, DNA methylation of SFRPs is detectable in MPM patient plasma samples, with methylated SFRP2 and SFRP5 showing a tendency towards greater abundance in patients. These data suggested that SFRP genes have tumour-suppresive activity in MPM and that methylated DNA from SFRP gene promoters has the potential to serve as a biomarker for MPM patient plasma.

  20. Respiratory Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumours 1 (DMBT1) levels increase during lung maturation and infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, H; End, C; Weiss, C

    2007-01-01

    .0179). An increase of respiratory DMBT1 levels was detected in neonatal infections (P ...Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumours 1 (DMBT1) is a secreted scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein that binds and aggregates various bacteria and viruses in vitro. Studies in adults have shown that DMBT1 is expressed mainly by mucosal epithelia and glands, in particular within the respiratory...... tract, and plays a role in innate immune defence. We hypothesized that respiratory DMBT1 levels may be influenced by various developmental and clinical factors such as maturity, age and bacterial infection. DMBT1 levels were studied in 205 tracheal aspirate samples of 82 ventilated preterm and full...

  1. Malignancy assessment of brain tumours with magnetic resonance spectroscopy and dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayed, Nicolas; Davila, Jorge; Medrano, Jaime [Diagnostic Radiology Department, Clinica Quiron, Zaragoza (Spain); Olmos, Salvador [Instituto de Investigacion en Ingenieria de Aragon, Zaragoza (Spain)], E-mail: olmos@unizar.es

    2008-09-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most common and well-established imaging modality for evaluation of intracerebral neoplasms, but there are still some incompletely solved challenges, such as reliable distinction between high- and low-grade tumours, exact delineation of tumour extension, and discrimination between recurrent tumour and radiation necrosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of two MRI techniques to non-invasively estimate brain tumour grade. Twenty-four patients referred to MRI examination were analyzed and diagnosed with single intra-axial brain tumour. Lastly, histopathological analysis was performed to verify tumour type. Ten patients presented low-grade gliomas, while the remaining patients showed high-grade tumours, including glioblastomas in eight cases, isolated metastases in four patients and two cases with anaplastic gliomas. MRI examinations were performed on a 1.5-T scanner (Signa, General Electric). The acquisition protocol included the following sequences: saggital T1-weighted localizer, axial T1- and T2-weighted MRI, single-voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI. MRS data was analyzed with standard software provided by the scanner manufacturer. The metabolite ratio with the largest significant difference between tumour grades was the choline/creatine (Ch/Cr) ratio with elevated values in high-grade gliomas and metastases. A Ch/Cr ratio equal or larger than 1.55 predicted malignancy grade with 92% sensitivity and 80% specificity. The area under the ROC curve was 0.92 (CI: 95%; 0.81-1). Regarding to perfusion parameters, relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps were estimated from the MR signal intensity time series during bolus passage with two commercial software packages. Two different regions of interest (ROI) were used to evaluate rCBV: lesion centre and perilesional region. All rCBV values were normalized to CBV in a

  2. Malignancy assessment of brain tumours with magnetic resonance spectroscopy and dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayed, Nicolas; Davila, Jorge; Medrano, Jaime; Olmos, Salvador

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most common and well-established imaging modality for evaluation of intracerebral neoplasms, but there are still some incompletely solved challenges, such as reliable distinction between high- and low-grade tumours, exact delineation of tumour extension, and discrimination between recurrent tumour and radiation necrosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of two MRI techniques to non-invasively estimate brain tumour grade. Twenty-four patients referred to MRI examination were analyzed and diagnosed with single intra-axial brain tumour. Lastly, histopathological analysis was performed to verify tumour type. Ten patients presented low-grade gliomas, while the remaining patients showed high-grade tumours, including glioblastomas in eight cases, isolated metastases in four patients and two cases with anaplastic gliomas. MRI examinations were performed on a 1.5-T scanner (Signa, General Electric). The acquisition protocol included the following sequences: saggital T1-weighted localizer, axial T1- and T2-weighted MRI, single-voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI. MRS data was analyzed with standard software provided by the scanner manufacturer. The metabolite ratio with the largest significant difference between tumour grades was the choline/creatine (Ch/Cr) ratio with elevated values in high-grade gliomas and metastases. A Ch/Cr ratio equal or larger than 1.55 predicted malignancy grade with 92% sensitivity and 80% specificity. The area under the ROC curve was 0.92 (CI: 95%; 0.81-1). Regarding to perfusion parameters, relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps were estimated from the MR signal intensity time series during bolus passage with two commercial software packages. Two different regions of interest (ROI) were used to evaluate rCBV: lesion centre and perilesional region. All rCBV values were normalized to CBV in a

  3. Pulmonary Metastases of a Uterine Smooth Muscle Tumour with Undefined Malignancy Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, M; Teschner, M; Braesen, J-H

    2014-03-01

    Smooth muscle neoplasms with atypical proliferative behaviour, but without clear histopathological malignancy represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, as distinction from a sarcoma can be difficult and no guaranteed treatment recommendations are available due to the rarity of these changes. In the event of uncertain primary histology, even metastases cannot be assessed as malignancy criteria, but may contribute to the clarification of the histology. Similarities with other smooth muscle proliferations, such as lymphangioleiomyomatosis, are striking. The diagnostic difficulties and treatment options are explained based on the example of a 59-year-old patient, in whom a retroperitoneal mass and pulmonary lesion of such a tumour occurred 4 years after a hysterectomy. Even though the genesis and histological diagnostics have not been conclusively clarified, slow growth and a low recurrence rate for post-menopausal patients allow for a wait-and-see approach, whereby the option for anti-hormonal treatment exists in the event of positive evidence of hormone receptors.

  4. FDG-PET/CT and FLT-PET/CT for differentiating between lipid-poor benign and malignant adrenal tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajo, Masatoyo; Jinguji, Megumi; Fukukura, Yoshihiko; Nakabeppu, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Yoshiura, Takashi [Kagoshima University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Kajiya, Yoriko; Tani, Atushi; Nakajo, Masayuki [Nanpuh Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kagoshima (Japan); Arimura, Hiroshi; Nishio, Yoshihiko [Kagoshima University, Department of Diabetes and Endocrine Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    To compare F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and F-18-fluorothymidine (FLT) PET/CT examinations for differentiating between benign and malignant adrenal tumours. Thirty lipid-poor benign and 11 malignant tumours of 40 patients were included. FDG- and FLT-based indices including visual score, maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and FDG adrenal lesion/liver SUVmax (A/L SUVmax) or FLT adrenal lesion/back muscle SUVmax (A/B SUVmax) ratio were compared between benign and malignant tumours using the Mann-Whitney's U or Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and their diagnostic performances were evaluated by means of the area under the curve (AUC) values derived from the receiver operating characteristic analysis. All indices were significantly higher in malignant than benign tumours on both images (p < 0.05 each). On FDG-PET/CT, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 91 %, 63 % and 71 % for visual score, 91 %, 67 % and 73 % for SUVmax, and 100 %, 70 % and 78 % for A/L SUVmax ratio, respectively. On FLT-PET/CT, they were 100 %, 97 % and 98 % for visual score, SUVmax and A/B SUVmax ratio, respectively. All FLT indices were significantly higher than those of FDG in AUC (p < 0.05 each). FLT-PET/CT may be superior to FDG-PET/CT in differentiating lipid-poor benign from malignant adrenal tumours because of higher specificity and accuracy. (orig.)

  5. Targeted radiotherapy with {sup 177} Lu-DOTA-TATE in athymic mice with induced pancreatic malignant tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M. A de; Pedraza L, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rodriguez C, J. [Faculty of Medicine, UAEM, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ferro F, G. [ININ, 52045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Murphy S, E. [Hospital Santelena, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    Malignant pancreas tumours induced in athymic mice are a good model for targeted radiotherapy. The objective of this research was to estimate pancreatic tumour absorbed radiation doses and to evaluate {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE as a therapeutic radiopharmaceutical that could be used in humans. AR42J murine pancreas cancer cells, which over-express somatostatin receptors, were injected in athymic mice and 20 days later the mean tumour size was 3.08 square cm (n=3). A mean of 86.3 MBq {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE, was injected in a tail vein and 19 days after therapy the size of the tumours was 0.81 square cm. There was a partial relapse and after 16 days, when sacrificed, the mean tumour size was 8.28 cubic cm. An epithelial and sarcoma mixed tumour in the kidney of one treated mouse was found. The tumour of the control mouse was 8.61 cubic cm when sacrificed 14 days after tumour induction. Radiotherapy estimates to the tumours was 35.9-39.7 Gy and the tumours might have been completely reduced with a second therapy dose. These preliminary studies justify further therapeutic and dosimetry estimations to ensure that Lu-{sup 177}-DOTA-TATE will act as expected in man, considering kidney radiation. (Author)

  6. Collision Tumour of Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Malignant Melanoma in the Oral Cavity of a Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, F; Castro, P; Ramírez, G A

    2016-05-01

    A 7-year-old, male cocker spaniel was presented with a gingival proliferative lesion in the rostral maxilla and enlargement of the regional lymph node. Morphological and immunohistochemical analysis revealed a collision tumour composed of two malignant populations, epithelial and melanocytic, with metastasis of the neoplastic melanocytes to the regional lymph node. The epithelial component consisted of trabeculae and islands of well-differentiated squamous epithelium immunoreactive to cytokeratins. The melanocytic component had a varying degree of pigmentation of polygonal and spindle-shaped cells, growing in nests or densely packed aggregates and immunolabelled with S100, melanoma-associated antigen (melan A), neuron-specific enolase and vimentin antibodies. Protein markers involved in tumorigenesis or cell proliferation (i.e. COX-2, p53, c-kit and Ki67), were overexpressed by the neoplastic cells. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of an oral collision tumour involving malignant melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma in the dog. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Malignant spinal cord compression in cancer patients may be mimicked by a primary spinal cord tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadianpanah, M; Vasei, M; Mosalaei, A; Omidvari, S; Ahmadloo, N

    2006-12-01

    Although it is quite rare, second primary neoplasms in cancer patients may present with the signs and symptoms of malignant spinal cord compression. Primary spinal cord tumours in the cancer patients may be deceptive and considered as the recurrent first cancer. Therefore, it should be precisely differentiated and appropriately managed. We report such a case of intramedullary ependymoma of the cervical spinal cord mimicking metatstatic recurrent lymphoma and causing cord compression. A 50-year-old man developed intramedullary ependymoma of the cervical spinal cord 1.5 years following chemoradiation for Waldeyer's ring lymphoma. He presented with a 2-month history of neck pain, progressive upper- and lower-extremity numbness and weakness, and bowel and bladder dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intramedullary expansive lesion extending from C4 to C6 levels of the cervical spinal cord. The clinical and radiological findings were suggestive of malignant process. A comprehensive investigation failed to detect another site of disease. He underwent operation, and the tumour was subtotally resected. The patient's neurological deficits improved subsequently. The development of the intramedullary ependymoma following treating lymphoma has not been reported. We describe the clinical, radiological and pathological findings of this case and review the literature.

  8. Post-operative treatment of malignant salivary gland tumours of the palate with iodine-125 brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stannard, Clare E.; Hering, Egbert; Hough, Jan; Knowles, Ruth; Munro, Roger; Hille, Jos

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: Malignant minor salivary gland tumours are usually small and clinically indistinguishable from benign lesions. Surgery is the treatment of choice with post-operative radiotherapy for involved margins or unfavourable histology. We assessed the results of a series of such patients treated with iodine-125 brachytherapy in the form of a temporary applicator or implant. Patients and methods: There were nine patients with T1/T2 tumours of the hard and/or soft palate that had been excised. All had close or involved margins. Six were treated with a dental applicator alone, two with an applicator and additional I-125 seeds in tubes and one with an implant alone. The applicator consists of two layers of plastic made from a dental impression enclosing a predetermined number of I-125 seeds, 9-39, glued to one surface and a layer of ash metal to protect the tongue. It was inserted 1-3 months post-operatively and delivered 35-62 Gy, median 56 Gy, at 5-7 mm depth over 58-156 h, median 120 h, at 0.26-0.67 Gy/h, median 0.45 Gy/h. Results: The patients have been followed up for 32-158 months, median 50 months, and there were no recurrences. The applicator was well tolerated. A confluent mucositis developed which lasted 3-4 weeks. One patient developed a mucosal ulcer which healed spontaneously. Conclusions: Brachytherapy is an effective way of delivering post-operative radiotherapy to the hard and soft palate in patients with malignant salivary gland tumours that have been incompletely excised or have unfavourable histology. Local control is excellent, treatment time is short and morbidity is minimal

  9. XIAP and Ki-67: A Correlation Between Antiapoptotic and Proliferative Marker Expression in Benign and Malignant Tumours of Salivary Gland: An Immunohistochemical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagulkar, Bhupesh Bhayyaji; Gawande, Madhuri; Chaudhary, Minal; Gadbail, Amol Ramchandra; Patil, Swati; Bagulkar, Smita

    2015-02-01

    Impaired balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis is crucial to the development of malignant neoplasm. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the expression of X-Linked inhibitor of apoptotic protein (XIAP) (antiapoptotic marker) and Ki-67 (proliferative marker) expression in benign and malignant salivary gland (SG) tumours. The study consisted of 40 cases of benign SG tumours and 50 cases of malignant SG tumours. The immunohistochemistry was carried out by using Ki-67 antibody (clone MIB-1) and XIAP antibody in all the groups. XIAP expression was significantly higher in malignant SG tumours than benign SG tumours (p = 0.016). Ki-67 LI was significantly higher in malignant SG tumours than benign SG tumours (p = 0.0002). Statistically significant positive correlation between Ki-67 count and XIAP expression was noted in benign and malignant SG tumours (p = 0.000). As the expression of an antiapoptotic marker (XIAP) increases, the expression of a proliferative marker (Ki-67) also increases from benign to malignant SG tumours. Thus, targeted therapy of XIAP may play a future role in the management of SG malignancy.

  10. Differentiation of malignant from benign soft tissue tumours: use of additive qualitative and quantitative diffusion-weighted MR imaging to standard MR imaging at 3.0 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So-Yeon; Jee, Won-Hee; Jung, Joon-Yong; Park, Michael Y; Kim, Sun-Ki; Jung, Chan-Kwon; Chung, Yang-Guk

    2016-03-01

    To determine the added value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to differentiate malignant from benign soft tissue tumours at 3.0 T. 3.0 T MR images including DWI in 63 patients who underwent surgery for soft tissue tumours were retrospectively analyzed. Two readers independently interpreted MRI for the presence of malignancy in two steps: standard MRI alone, standard MRI and DWI with qualitative and quantitative analysis combined. There were 34 malignant and 29 non-malignant soft tissue tumours. In qualitative analysis, hyperintensity relative to skeletal muscle was more frequent in malignant than benign tumours on DWI (P=0.003). In quantitative analysis, ADCs of malignant tumours were significantly lower than those of non-malignant tumours (P≤0.002): 759±385 vs. 1188±423 μm(2)/sec minimum ADC value, 941±440 vs. 1310±440 μm(2)/sec average ADC value. The mean sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of both readers were 96%, 72%, and 85% on standard MRI alone and 97%, 90%, and 94% on standard MRI with DWI. The addition of DWI to standard MRI improves the diagnostic accuracy for differentiation of malignant from benign soft tissue tumours at 3.0 T. DWI has added value for differentiating malignant from benign soft tissue tumours. Addition of DWI to standard MRI at 3.0 T improves the diagnostic accuracy. Measurements of both ADC min within solid portion and ADC av are helpful.

  11. Prognostic relevance of FDG PET in patients with neurofibromatosis type-1 and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, Winfried; Buchert, Ralph; Clausen, Malte; Friedrich, Reinhard E.; Mautner, Victor F.; Gawad, Karim A.; Hagel, Christian; Deimling, Andreas von; Wit, Maike de

    2006-01-01

    In patients with neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF1) and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNSTs), survival rates are low and time to death is often less than 2 years. However, there are patients with a more favourable prognosis who develop metastases rather late or not at all. Since histopathology and tumour grading are not well correlated with prognosis, we aimed to evaluate the potential of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) for prediction of patient outcome in MPNST. FDG PET was performed in 16 patients with NF1 and MPNSTs. Standardised uptake values (SUVs) were calculated for each tumour and correlated to tumour grade and patient outcome in terms of survival or death. Three patients with tumour grade II had an SUV 3. Only one of these patients is still alive after 20 months; the remaining 12 died within 4-33 months. SUV predicted long-term survival with an accuracy of 94%, compared with 69% for tumour grade. In Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, patients with an SUV >3 had a significantly shorter mean survival time, 13 months, than patients with an SUV <3, in whom the mean survival time was 52 months. Tumour grading did not reveal differences in survival time (15 vs 12 months). Tumour SUV obtained by FDG PET was a significant parameter for prediction of survival in NF1 patients with MPNSTs while histopathological tumour grading did not predict outcome. (orig.)

  12. Cyclin D1 in well differentiated thyroid tumour of uncertain malignant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba Saini, Monika; Weynand, Birgit; Rahier, Jacques; Mourad, Michel; Hamoir, Marc; Marbaix, Etienne

    2015-04-18

    Encapsulated follicular tumours with equivocal papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) type nuclear features continue to remain a challenge despite the recent attempts to classify these borderline lesions. The term 'well differentiated tumour of uncertain malignant potential (WDT-UMP)' was introduced to classify these tumours. The present study aimed to evaluate the role of a cell cycle regulator like cyclin D1 in these tumours along with assessment of other well established PTC markers like galectin-3, HBME-1, CK19. Thirteen cases of metastatic PTC, papillary microcarcinoma and follicular variant of PTC (FVPTC) were identified from a histological review of 510 cases. In addition, 13 cases of a subset of follicular adenomatoid nodules with focal areas showing nuclear features characteristic of PTC, identified as WDT-UMP, were also analyzed. Immunohistochemical analysis of galectin-3, HBME-1, CK19 and the proliferation markers Ki67 and cyclin D1 was performed. Lesions were analyzed for cyclin D1 gene amplification by fluorescent in-situ hybridization. All WDT-UMP lesions showed immunolabelling of cyclin D1, Ki67; 11/ 13 cases showed immunolabelling of CK19; 10/13 cases showed immunolabelling of HBME-1 and 4/13 cases showed immunolabelling of galectin-3. Surrounding benign adenomatoid areas showed no to faint focal staining in all thirteen cases of cyclin D1, HBME-1 and galectin-3. A low rate of cyclin D1 gene amplification was identified in a significant proportion of cells in the WDT-UMP lesions as compared to surrounding benign adenomatoid areas. Increased expression of cyclin D1 and amplification of its gene along with immunolabelling of HBME-1 in WDT-UMP lesions showing cytological features of papillary thyroid carcinoma within follicular adenomatoid nodules suggest that these areas could correspond to a precursor lesion of follicular variant of PTC. Overexpression of cyclin D1, associated with the amplification of the gene suggests that these WDT-UMP lesions are an

  13. Malignant tumours in the digestive tract of employees of the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manz, A.; Berger, J.; Waltsgott, H.; Kersting, A.

    1991-01-01

    An epidemiological study was carried out to investigate whether the influences of a person's working environment can lead to the development of malignant tumours in the digestive tract. The subjects of the study were employees of a large gas company, 4.928 men and 592 women. It appears that the workers at the furnace block were relatively more affected by tumors of the digestive tract than the other groups. The SMR as compared with the office workers and administrative personnel is 2.838, and compared with the other industrial employees is 1.333. The differences in both cases are statistically significant. Smoking habits have even less effects on the development of carcinomas of the digestive tract than on those of the respiratory tract. Apart from this, it is only the upper section of the digestive tract (the oral cavity, esophagus and stomach) which could be influenced by smoking. Psychological/nervous strain seems to accelerate the formation of such tumours, especially in the stomach region. (orig.) [de

  14. Detection of circulating tumour cells in peripheral blood of patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Jacques; Massard, Christophe; Gong, Inna Y; Farace, Françoise; Margery, Jacques; Billiot, Fanny; Hollebecque, Antoine; Besse, Benjamin; Soria, Jean-Charles; Planchard, David

    2015-01-01

    The independent prognostic value of Circulating Tumour Cells (CTC) level has been demonstrated in several solid tumours. There is currently few data on Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) and CTC. We investigated whether the presence of CTC was correlated with prognosis factors and treatment efficacy. MPM patients (pts) were enrolled in a prospective monocentric study. CTC detection was made using the "CellSearch" assay. The correlation between the presence of CTC and worse prognosis factors was assessed using the X(2) test. Comparison of Overall Survival (OS) and Progression Free Survival (PFS) according to CTC detection was performed using the log-rank test. Twenty-seven MPM pts with a median follow-up of 4.2 months were included. CTC were detected in 44% of pts with a median level of 1.5. No significant correlation was observed between the presence of CTC and worse prognosis factors. Moreover, CTC detection was not a significant predictor of OS or PFS (p=0.155 and p=0.32 respectively). CTC were detected in a small cohort of MPM patients. We couldn't demonstrate a significant prognostic value or a difference in OS/PFS between CTC levels. Further analyses, validation studies and detection techniques are needed to establish their real clinical value in MPM.

  15. 2005 PRETEXT: a revised staging system for primary malignant liver tumours of childhood developed by the SIOPEL group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roebuck, Derek J.; McHugh, Kieran; Olsen, Oeystein E. [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Aronson, Daniel [Academisch Medisch Centrum/Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Clapuyt, Philippe; Ville de Goyet, Jean de; Otte, Jean-Bernard [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Departments of Surgery and Medical Imaging, Brussels (Belgium); Czauderna, Piotr [Medical University of Gdansk, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Gdansk (Poland); Gauthier, Frederic; Pariente, Daniele [Centre Hospital-Universitaire de Bicetre APHP, Le Kremlin-Bicetre cedex (France); MacKinlay, Gordon [Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Surgery, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Maibach, Rudolf [SIAK Coordinating Center, Bern (Switzerland); Plaschkes, Jack [Inselspital, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Bern (Switzerland); Childs, Margaret [United Kingdom Children' s Cancer Study Group, Leicester (United Kingdom); Perilongo, Giorgio [Padua University Hospital, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Padua (Italy)

    2007-02-15

    Over the last 15 years, various oncology groups throughout the world have used the PRETEXT system for staging malignant primary liver tumours of childhood. This paper, written by members of the radiology and surgery committees of the International Childhood Liver Tumor Strategy Group (SIOPEL), presents various clarifications and revisions to the original PRETEXT system. (orig.)

  16. 2005 PRETEXT: a revised staging system for primary malignant liver tumours of childhood developed by the SIOPEL group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roebuck, Derek J.; McHugh, Kieran; Olsen, Oeystein E.; Aronson, Daniel; Clapuyt, Philippe; Ville de Goyet, Jean de; Otte, Jean-Bernard; Czauderna, Piotr; Gauthier, Frederic; Pariente, Daniele; MacKinlay, Gordon; Maibach, Rudolf; Plaschkes, Jack; Childs, Margaret; Perilongo, Giorgio

    2007-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, various oncology groups throughout the world have used the PRETEXT system for staging malignant primary liver tumours of childhood. This paper, written by members of the radiology and surgery committees of the International Childhood Liver Tumor Strategy Group (SIOPEL), presents various clarifications and revisions to the original PRETEXT system. (orig.)

  17. Computer-aided designed, three dimensional-printed hemipelvic prosthesis for peri-acetabular malignant bone tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baichuan; Hao, Yongqiang; Pu, Feifei; Jiang, Wenbo; Shao, Zengwu

    2018-03-01

    Prosthetic reconstruction may be a promising treatment for peri-acetabular malignant bone tumour; however, it is associated with a high complication rate. Therefore, prosthetic design and approach of prosthetic reconstruction after tumour resection warrant study. We retrospectively analyzed 11 patients with peri-acetabular malignant bone tumours treated by personalized 3D-printed hemipelvic prostheses after en bloc resection between 2015 and 2016. Pre-operative and post-operative pain at rest was assessed according to a 10-cm VAS score. The results of functional improvement were evaluated using the MSTS-93 score at the final follow-up. We also analyzed tumour recurrence, metastases, and complications associated with the reconstruction procedure. All patients were observed for six to 24 months with an average follow-up of 15.5 months. One patient had occasional pain of the involved hip at the final follow-up (VAS, pre vs. post 8 months: 3 vs. 2). The mean MSTS-93 score was 19.2 (range, 13-25). Hip dislocation was detected in two patients, while delayed wound healing occurred in one patient. One patient with mesenchymal chondrosarcoma had a left iliac bone metastasis. Local tumour recurrence was not observed. Reconstruction of bony defect after tumour resection using personalized 3D-printed hemipelvic prostheses can obtain acceptable functional results without severe complications. Based on previous reports and our results, we believe that reconstruction arthroplasty using 3D-printed hemipelvic prostheses will provide a promising alternative for those patients with peri-acetabular malignant bone tumours. Level IV, therapeutic study.

  18. Differentiation of malignant from benign soft tissue tumours: use of additive qualitative and quantitative diffusion-weighted MR imaging to standard MR imaging at 3.0 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, So-Yeon; Jee, Won-Hee; Jung, Joon-Yong; Park, Michael Y.; Kim, Sun-Ki; Jung, Chan-Kwon; Chung, Yang-Guk

    2016-01-01

    To determine the added value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to differentiate malignant from benign soft tissue tumours at 3.0 T. 3.0 T MR images including DWI in 63 patients who underwent surgery for soft tissue tumours were retrospectively analyzed. Two readers independently interpreted MRI for the presence of malignancy in two steps: standard MRI alone, standard MRI and DWI with qualitative and quantitative analysis combined. There were 34 malignant and 29 non-malignant soft tissue tumours. In qualitative analysis, hyperintensity relative to skeletal muscle was more frequent in malignant than benign tumours on DWI (P=0.003). In quantitative analysis, ADCs of malignant tumours were significantly lower than those of non-malignant tumours (P≤0.002): 759±385 vs. 1188±423 μm 2 /sec minimum ADC value, 941±440 vs. 1310±440 μm 2 /sec average ADC value. The mean sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of both readers were 96 %, 72 %, and 85 % on standard MRI alone and 97 %, 90 %, and 94 % on standard MRI with DWI. The addition of DWI to standard MRI improves the diagnostic accuracy for differentiation of malignant from benign soft tissue tumours at 3.0 T. (orig.)

  19. Localisation of malignant germ-cell tumours by external scanning after injection of radiolabelled anti-alpha-fetoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsall, A.K.; Fairweather, D.S.; Bradwell, A.R.; Blackburn, J.C.; Howell, A.; Dykes, P.W.; Reeder, A.; Hine, K.R.

    1981-01-01

    Sheep IgG antibody to alpha-fetoprotein was labelled with 131 I and used to identify human germ-cell tumours by emission scanning. Eleven patients were studied after resection of their primary tumours. Ten had malignant teratoma and one an endodermal sinus tumour. All eight patients with raised serum alpha-fetoprotein concentrations had metastases apparent in the antibody scans. Of the remaining three patients with normal serum alpha-fetoprotein concentrations, two had positive scans. Three of the patients with positive results were scanned twice; the second scans were negative after treatment, when the alpha-fetoprotein concentrations had returned to normal. These results suggest that antibody scans are useful in the clinical management of patients with germ-cell tumours. (author)

  20. Results of primary and postoperative radiotherapy of malignant tumours of the larynx and posterior pharynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppele, G.

    1980-01-01

    In a study on the epidemiology of laryngeal and pharyngeal tumours, a coincidence was found between established alcohol abuse and tumours of the two organs. The results of surgery followed by gammatron radiotherapy (laryngeal tumours) or betatron therapy (pharyngeal tumours) are prescuted and discussed. (APR) [de

  1. Safety evaluation of combination toceranib phosphate (Palladia®) and piroxicam in tumour-bearing dogs (excluding mast cell tumours): a phase I dose-finding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, E; McCartan, L; Kubicek, L N; Vail, D M

    2012-09-01

    Toceranib phosphate and piroxicam have individually demonstrated antineoplastic activity. Additionally, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory therapy is often warranted in aged cancer-bearing dogs for management of osteoarthritis comorbidity. As concurrent use may be warranted for a given individual and the adverse event (AE) profile for each can be overlapping (gastrointestinal), a phase I trial was performed in tumour-bearing (non-mast cell) dogs to establish the safety of the combination using a standard 3+3 cohort design. Five dose-escalating cohorts, up to and including approved label dosage for toceranib and standard dosage for piroxicam, were completed without observing a frequency of dose-limiting AEs necessitating cohort closure. Therefore, the combination of standard dosages of both drugs (toceranib, 3.25 mg kg(-1), every other day; piroxicam, 0.3 mg kg(-1) daily) is generally safe. Several antitumour responses were observed. As with single-agent toceranib, label-indicated treatment holidays and dose reductions (e.g. 2.5-2.75 mg kg(-1)) may occasionally be required owing to gastrointestinal events. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. A difficult decision: what should we do when malignant tumours are diagnosed in patients supported by left ventricular assist devices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smail, Hassiba; Pfister, Christian; Baste, Jean-Marc; Nafeh-Bizet, Catherine; Gay, Arnaud; Barbay, Virginie; Bessou, Jean-Paul; Peillon, Christophe; Litzler, Pierre-Yves

    2015-09-01

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are used as a bridge to heart transplantation. During the preimplantation or pretransplantation screening, malignant tumours can be discovered. Owing to the lack of guidelines, the management is difficult. We describe our perioperative approach and the patients' outcomes. Between 2006 and 2014, 55 patients underwent implantation of HeartMate II LVAD. Five were diagnosed with malignant tumours: 2 renal, 2 lung and 1 breast tumours. The renal tumours were diagnosed during the preimplantation screening. An LVAD was implanted in both followed by partial nephrectomies 8 and 9 months later. The lung cancers were diagnosed after device implantation, a left pulmonary segmentectomy and a right upper sleeve lobectomy were performed. The breast cancer was diagnosed few months after support and a tumourectomy with lymphadenectomy was performed. Tumour resection was performed successfully in all patients. Prior to surgery haemostasis, device and heart function were evaluated. During surgery, haemodynamics and anticoagulation were monitored. Reoperations were necessary to evacuate haemothorax after lobectomy and an abdominal haematoma post-nephrectomy. After discussion with oncologists, 3 patients were relisted for heart transplantation. Two were successfully transplanted 2 and 3 years after partial nephrectomy with an actual survival of 56 and 59 months after the cancer diagnosis. The follow-up revealed no cancer recurrences. Malignant tumours during support with LVAD can be successfully resected. A multidisciplinary evaluation in these high-risk patients is mandatory. After careful evaluation, regaining the patient's heart transplant candidacy is possible. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  3. Cytological Diagnosis of an Uncommon High Grade Malignant Thyroid Tumour: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Ruchi; Kaushal, Manju; Kumar, Sawan

    2017-07-01

    Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma (ATC) is a relatively uncommon highly malignant tumour originating from the follicular cells of thyroid gland having poor prognosis. It accounts for 2% to 5% of all thyroid carcinomas and patients typically present with a rapidly growing anterior neck mass with aggressive symptoms. A 53-year-old male presented with diffuse neck swelling measuring 8x6 cm and right cervical lymph node measuring 2x2 cm since one month which was associated with dyspepsia and dyspnoea. Ultrasound and Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography (CECT) neck revealed enlarged right lobe of thyroid and multiple enlarged cervical lymph nodes with soft tissue density nodules in bilateral lungs. Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) from the swelling revealed giant cell, spindle cell and squamoid pattern. Focal areas showed follicular epithelial cells arranged in repeated microfollicular pattern suggesting an underlying follicular neoplasm. FNAC smears from the lymph node also revealed similar findings. Based on the cytomorphological and radiological findings, final diagnosis of ATC probably arising from underlying follicular carcinoma with cervical lymph node and lung metastasis was given. FNAC leads to prompt and definitive diagnosis, so that therapy can be initiated as soon as possible for better outcome. Multimodality therapy (surgery, external beam radiation, and chemotherapy) is the mainstay of treatment.

  4. Characterisation of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours in neurofibromatosis-1 using heterogeneity analysis of {sup 18}F-FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Gary J.R.; Siddique, Muhammad; Goh, Vicky; Warbey, Victoria S. [King' s College London, Cancer Imaging Department, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Lovat, Eitan [King' s College London, Guy' s, Kings and St Thomas' Medical School, London (United Kingdom); Ferner, Rosalie [Guys and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, National Neurofibromatosis Service, Department of Neurology, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-15

    Measurement of heterogeneity in {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) images is reported to improve tumour phenotyping and response assessment in a number of cancers. We aimed to determine whether measurements of {sup 18}F-FDG heterogeneity could improve differentiation of benign symptomatic neurofibromas from malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNSTs). {sup 18}F-FDG PET data from a cohort of 54 patients (24 female, 30 male, mean age 35.1 years) with neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1), and clinically suspected malignant transformation of neurofibromas into MPNSTs, were included. Scans were performed to a standard clinical protocol at 1.5 and 4 h post-injection. Six first-order [including three standardised uptake value (SUV) parameters], four second-order (derived from grey-level co-occurrence matrices) and four high-order (derived from neighbourhood grey-tone difference matrices) statistical features were calculated from tumour volumes of interest. Each patient had histological verification or at least 5 years clinical follow-up as the reference standard with regards to the characterisation of tumours as benign (n = 30) or malignant (n = 24). There was a significant difference between benign and malignant tumours for all six first-order parameters (at 1.5 and 4 h; p < 0.0001), for second-order entropy (only at 4 h) and for all high-order features (at 1.5 h and 4 h, except contrast at 4 h; p < 0.0001-0.047). Similarly, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves was high (0.669-0.997, p < 0.05) for the same features as well as 1.5-h second-order entropy. No first-, second- or high-order feature performed better than maximum SUV (SUVmax) at differentiating benign from malignant tumours. {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in MPNSTs is higher than benign symptomatic neurofibromas, as defined by SUV parameters, and more heterogeneous, as defined by first- and high-order heterogeneity parameters. However, heterogeneity analysis

  5. Sialyl Lewis x expression in canine malignant mammary tumours: correlation with clinicopathological features and E-Cadherin expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinho, Salomé S; Matos, Augusto JF; Lopes, Célia; Marcos, Nuno T; Carvalheira, Júlio; Reis, Celso A; Gärtner, Fátima

    2007-01-01

    Sialyl Lewis x (sLe x ) antigen is a carbohydrate antigen that is considered not only a marker for cancer but also implicated functionally in the malignant behaviour of cancer cells. Overexpression of sLe x is associated with enhanced progression and metastases of many types of cancer including those of the mammary gland. Canine mammary tumours can invade and give rise to metastases via either lymphatic or blood vessels. E-Cadherin is specifically involved in epithelial cell-to-cell adhesion. In cancer, E-Cadherin underexpression is one of the alterations that characterizes the invasive phenotype and is considered an invasion/tumour suppressor gene. Partial or complete loss of E-Cadherin expression correlates with poor prognosis in canine malignant mammary cancer. The aim of this study was to analyse the sLe x expression in canine malignant mammary tumours and to evaluate if the presence of sLe x correlates with the expression of E-Cadherin and with clinicopathological features. Fifty-three cases of canine mammary carcinomas were analysed immunohistochemically using monoclonal antibodies against sLe x (IgM) and E-Cadherin (IgG). The clinicopathological data were then assessed to determine whether there was a correlation with sLe x tumour expression. Double labelled immunofluorescence staining was performed to analyse the combined expression of sLe x and E-Cadherin. sLe x expression was consistently demonstrated in all cases of canine mammary carcinomas with different levels of expression. We found a significant relationship between the levels of sLe x expression and the presence of lymph node metastases. We also demonstrated that when E-Cadherin expression was increased sLe x was reduced and vice-versa. The combined analysis of both adhesion molecules revealed an inverse relationship. In the present study we demonstrate the importance of sLe x in the malignant phenotype of canine malignant mammary tumours. Our results support the use of sLe x as a prognostic tumour

  6. Interphase ribosomal RNA cistron staining in thyroid epithelial cells in Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and benign and malignant tumours of the thyroid gland

    OpenAIRE

    Mamaev, N N; Grynyeva, E N; Blagosklonnaya, Y V

    1996-01-01

    Aim—To evaluate the expression of ribosomal cistrons in human thyroid epithelial cells (TECs) of patients with Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and benign and malignant tumours of the thyroid gland.

  7. Inverse relationship between tumour proliferation markers and connexin expression in a malignant cardiac tumour originating from mesenchymal stem cell engineered tissue in a rat in-vivo model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathleen eSpath

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, we demonstrated the beneficial effects of engineered heart tissues for the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy in rats. For further development of this technique we started to produce engineered tissue (ET from mesenchymal stem cells. Interestingly, we observed a malignant tumour invading the heart with an inverse relationship between proliferation markers and connexin-expression.Methods: Commercial CD54+/CD90+/CD34-/CD45- bone marrow derived mesenchymal rat stem cells (cBM-MSC, characterized were used for production of mesenchymal stem-cell-ET (MSC-ET by suspending them in a collagen-I, matrigel-mixture and cultivating for 14 days with electrical stimulation. 3 MSC-ET were implanted around the beating heart of adult rats for days. Another 3 MSC-ET were produced from freshly isolated rat bone marrow derived stem cells (sBM-MSC.Results: 3 weeks after implantation of the MSC-ETs the hearts were surgically excised. While in 5/6 cases the ET was clearly distinguishable and was found as a ring containing mostly connective tissue around the heart, in 1/6 the heart was completely surrounded by a huge, undifferentiated, pleomorphic tumour originating from the cMSC-ET (cBM-MSC, classified as a high grade malignant sarcoma. Quantitatively we found a clear inverse relationship between cardiac connexin-expression (Cx43, Cx40 or Cx45 and increased Ki-67 expression (Cx43: p<0.0001, Cx45: p<0.03, Cx40: p<0.014. At the tumour-heart border there were significantly more Ki-67 positive cells (p=0.001, and only 2% Cx45 and Ki-67-expressing cells, while the other connexins were nearly completely absent (p<0.0001.Conclusions and hypothesis: These observations strongly suggest the hypothesis, that invasive tumour growth is accompanied by reduction in connexins. This implicates that gap junction communication between tumour and normal tissue is reduced or absent, which could mean that growth and differentiation signals can not be exchanged.

  8. Tumour associated antigen CA-50, CA-242 immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) in genitourinary malignancy and gastrointestinal carcinoma early diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhizhou.

    1992-04-01

    Tumour markers CA-50 and CA-242 were measured by immunometric assay (IRMA) to investigate their usefulness in the diagnosis of cancer of the pancreas, biliary tract, liver, breast, lung, gastrointestinal and genitourinary systems. The cutoff points, derived from studies on normal subjects and those with proven benign disease, were 20 u/ml and 12 u/ml for CA-50 and CA-242 respectively. Both markers were found to be generally useful with significant differences between malignant and non malignant disease. The highest positive rates, were found in cancers of the pancreas and gall bladder. The overall rate of false positives was low. It is concluded that measurements of CA-50 and CA-242 are useful in the detection of malignancy, particularly of the pancreas and biliary tract. 2 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Usefulness of diffusion-weighted MR imaging for differentiating between benign and malignant superficial soft tissue tumours and tumour-like lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ji Young; Lee, Min Hee; Lee, Sang Hoon; Shin, Myung Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of adding diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping to conventional 3.0-T MRI to differentiate between benign and malignant superficial soft-tissue masses (SSTMs). Methods: The institutional review board approved this study and informed consent was waived. The authors retrospectively analyzed conventional MR images including diffusion-weighted images (b-values: 0, 400, 800 s mm−2) in 60 histologically proven SSTMs (35 benign and 25 malignant) excluding lipomas. Two radiologists independently evaluated the conventional MRI alone and again with the additional DWI for the evaluation of malignant masses. The mean ADC values measured within an entire mass and the contrast-enhancing solid portion were used for quantitative analysis. Diagnostic performances were compared using receiver-operating characteristic analysis. Results: For an inexperienced reader, using only conventional MRI, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 84%, 80% and 81.6%, respectively. When combining conventional MRI and DWI, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 96%, 85.7% and 90%, respectively. Additional DWI influenced the improvement of the rate of correct diagnosis by 8.3% (5/60). For an experienced reader, additional DWI revealed the same accuracy of 86.7% without added value on the correct diagnosis. The group mean ADCs of malignant SSTMs were significantly lower than that of benign SSTMs (p benign and malignant SSTMs. Advances in knowledge: Because the imaging characteristics of many malignant superficial soft-tissue lesions overlap with those of benign ones, inadequate surgical resection due to misinterpretation of MRI often occurs. Adding DWI to conventional MRI yields greater diagnostic performances [area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC), 0.83–0.99] than does the use of conventional MRI alone (AUC, 0.71–0.93) in the evaluation of malignant superficial masses by

  10. Self-perception and quality of life in adolescents during treatment for a primary malignant bone tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riel, Christel A H P; Meijer-van den Bergh, Esther E M; Kemps, Hennie L M; Feuth, Ton; Schreuder, Hendrik W B; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M; De Groot, Imelda J M; Mavinkurve-Groothuis, Annelies M C

    2014-06-01

    Adolescents experience physical and psychosocial changes as part of their normal development. It can be hypothesized that they have lower scores on Quality of Life (QoL) and self-perception when additional changes occur due to cancer treatment. The purpose of our study was to assess self-perception and QoL of adolescents during or up to three months after adjuvant treatment for a primary malignant bone tumour. Ten adolescent patients (median age of 15 years) were included. Every patient was matched with two healthy peers. Participants completed the dutch version of the Self Perception Profile of Adolescents (SPPA) to measure self-perception and the KIDSCREEN-52 questionnaire for QoL. For both instruments, normative data were available. Adolescents with a bone tumour had consistently lower scores on QoL as compared to healthy peers. Significantly on domains: physical well-being (P self-perception in this group were similar in both the study and control group. Adolescents with a primary malignant bone tumour during or up to three months after adjuvant treatment had lower scores on QoL (KIDSCREEN-52), significantly on domains of physical well-being and social functioning. Unlike most other quality of life instruments, the KIDSCREEN-52 contains different areas of social functioning and has shown to be a useful instrument in our patient group. Scores on self-perception in this group were similar in both study and control group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A pipeline to quantify serum and cerebrospinal fluid microRNAs for diagnosis and detection of relapse in paediatric malignant germ-cell tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Murray (Matthew); E. Bell (Emma); K.L. Raby (Katie L.); M.A. Rijlaarsdam (Martin); A.J.M. Gillis (Ad); L.H.J. Looijenga (Leendert); H. Brown (Helen); B. Destenaves (Benoit); J.C. Nicholson (James); N. Coleman (Nicholas)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground:The current biomarkers alpha-fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotropin have limited sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing malignant germ-cell tumours (GCTs). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) from the miR-371-373 and miR-302/367 clusters are overexpressed in all malignant GCTs, and

  12. The first clinical application of planning software for laparoscopic microwave thermosphere ablation of malignant liver tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Eren

    2015-07-01

    Liver tumour ablation is an operator-dependent procedure. The determination of the optimum needle trajectory and correct ablation parameters could be challenging. The aim of this study was to report the utility of a new, procedure planning software for microwave ablation (MWA) of liver tumours. This was a feasibility study in a pilot group of five patients with nine metastatic liver tumours who underwent laparoscopic MWA. Pre-operatively, parameters predicting the desired ablation zones were calculated for each tumour. Intra-operatively, this planning strategy was followed for both antenna placement and energy application. Post-operative 2-week computed tomography (CT) scans were performed to evaluate complete tumour destruction. The patients had an average of two tumours (range 1-4), measuring 1.9 ± 0.4 cm (range 0.9-4.4 cm). The ablation time was 7.1 ± 1.3 min (range 2.5-10 min) at 100W. There were no complications or mortality. The patients were discharged home on post-operative day (POD) 1. At 2-week CT scans, there were no residual tumours, with a complete ablation demonstrated in all lesions. This study describes and validates pre-treatment planning software for MWA of liver tumours. This software was found useful to determine precisely the ablation parameters and needle placement to create a predicted zone of ablation. © 2015 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  13. Targeted radiotherapy with {sup 177} Lu-DOTA-TATE in athymic mice with induced pancreatic malignant tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez C, J.; Murphy, C.A. de; Pedraza L, M. [Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, 14000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ferro F, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Murphy S, E. [Hospital Santelena, 06000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    Malignant pancreas tumours induced in athymic mice are a good model for peptide receptor targeted radiotherapy. The objective of this research was to estimate pancreatic tumour absorbed radiation doses after administration of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE in mice as a therapeutic radiopharmaceutical that could be used in humans. AR42J murine pancreas cancer cells expressing somatostatin receptors, were implanted in athymic mice (n=18) to obtain the {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE biokinetics and dosimetry. To estimate its therapeutic efficacy 87 MBq were injected in a tail vein of 3 mice and 19 days p.i. there were a partial relapse. There was an epithelial and sarcoma mixed tumour in the kidneys of mouse III. The absorbed dose to tumour, kidney and pancreas was 50.5 {+-} 7.2 Gy, 17.5 {+-} 2.5 Gy and 12.6 {+-} 2.3 Gy respectively. These studies justify further therapeutic and dosimetry estimations to ensure that {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE will act as expected in man considering its kidney radiotoxicity. (Author)

  14. Biokinetics and dosimetry with 177Lu-DOTA-TATE in athymic mice with induced pancreatic malignant tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cortés, J.; de Murphy, C. Arteaga; Ferro-Flores, Ge; Pedraza-López, M.; Murphy-Stack, E.

    Malignant pancreatic tumours induced in athymic mice are a good model for peptide receptor targeted radiotherapy. The objective of this research was to determine biokinetic parameters in mice, in order to estimate the induced pancreatic tumour absorbed doses and to evaluate an `in house' 177Lu-DOTA-TATE radiopharmaceutical as part of preclinical studies for targeted therapy in humans. AR42J murine pancreas cancer cells expressing somatostatin receptors, were implanted in athymic mice (nD22) to obtain biokinetic and dosimetric data of 177Lu-DOTA-TATE. The mean tumour uptake 2 h post injection was 14.76±1.9% I.A./g; kidney and pancreas uptake, at the same time, were 7.27±1.1% I.A./g (1.71±0.90%/organ) and 4.20±0.98% I.A./g (0.42±0.03%/organ), respectively. The mean absorbed dose to tumour, kidney and pancreas was 0.58±0.02 Gy/MBq; 0.23±0.01 Gy/MBq and 0.14±0.01 Gy/MBq, respectively. These studies justify further dosimetric estimations to ensure that 177Lu-DOTA-TATE will act as expected in humans.

  15. Non-invasive quantification of tumour heterogeneity in water diffusivity to differentiate malignant from benign tissues of urinary bladder: a phase I study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huyen T; Shah, Zarine K; Mortazavi, Amir; Pohar, Kamal S; Wei, Lai; Jia, Guang; Zynger, Debra L; Knopp, Michael V

    2017-05-01

    To quantify the heterogeneity of the tumour apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) using voxel-based analysis to differentiate malignancy from benign wall thickening of the urinary bladder. Nineteen patients with histopathological findings of their cystectomy specimen were included. A data set of voxel-based ADC values was acquired for each patient's lesion. Histogram analysis was performed on each data set to calculate uniformity (U) and entropy (E). The k-means clustering of the voxel-wised ADC data set was implemented to measure mean intra-cluster distance (MICD) and largest inter-cluster distance (LICD). Subsequently, U, E, MICD, and LICD for malignant tumours were compared with those for benign lesions using a two-sample t-test. Eleven patients had pathological confirmation of malignancy and eight with benign wall thickening. Histogram analysis showed that malignant tumours had a significantly higher degree of ADC heterogeneity with lower U (P = 0.016) and higher E (P = 0.005) than benign lesions. In agreement with these findings, k-means clustering of voxel-wise ADC indicated that bladder malignancy presented with significantly higher MICD (P bladder cancer. • Heterogeneity is an intrinsic characteristic of tumoral tissue. • Non-invasive quantification of tumour heterogeneity can provide adjunctive information to improve cancer diagnosis accuracy. • Histogram analysis and k-means clustering can quantify tumour diffusion heterogeneity. • The quantification helps differentiate malignant from benign urinary bladder tissue.

  16. Changing pattern of malignancies: analysis of histopathology based tumour registry data and comparison of three decades at armed forces institute of pathology rawalpindi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamal, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the pattern of malignancies from tumour registry data and to find any changing pattern by comparing corresponding data from earlier periods. Methods: The descriptive study was carried out at the Department of Histopathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, Pakistan. All malignant tumours from 2002-2011 were analysed for age groups, gender distribution, and type of tumour with relation to the site. Tumours of paediatric age group were also assessed separately. Comparison with national and international studies and the data of previous decades - 1977-1988 and 1992-2001 was done to find any changing pattern. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 32718 malignant tumours were analysed. Of them, males were 19191 and 13527 were females (M:F ratio: 1.4:1). Majority of the patients were between 50-70 years of age. In males, urinary bladder tumours 2153 (11.2%), followed by combined lymphoma/leukaemia 2020 (10.5%) and prostate 1825 (9.5%) were top three malignancies, whereas in females breast 4178 (30.9%) was the commonest. Comparison of different decades showed that in males in the first monograph lymphoma was the commonest, then it was prostatic carcinoma in the second monograph, and now tumours of urinary bladder were on top position. In females, carcinoma cervix, which was at number 5 and 9 in the two earlier monographs was not found in the list of current 10 common tumours. Conclusion: The study showed some interesting features, particularly in male malignancies and those related to urinary bladder tumours. The persistent increasing frequency of breast carcinoma in females is also alarming, and requires extensive efforts of awareness, screening and early detection programmes. (author)

  17. Advance care planning in patients with primary malignant brain tumours: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystal Song

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Advance care planning (ACP is a process of reflection and communication of a person’s future health care preferences, and has been shown to improve end-of-life care for patients. The aim of this systematic review is to present an evidence-based overview of ACP in patients with primary malignant brain tumours (pmBT. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using medical and health science electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, MEDLINE, ProQuest, Social Care Online, Scopus and Web of Science up to July 2016. Manual search of bibliographies of articles and grey literature search were also conducted. Two independent reviewers selected studies, extracted data and assessed the methodologic quality of the studies using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program’s appraisal tools. All studies were included irrespective of the study design. A meta-analysis was not possible due to heterogeneity amongst included studies; therefore, a narrative analysis was performed for best evidence synthesis. Overall, 19 studies were included (1 RCT, 17 cohort studies, 1 qualitative study with 4686 participants. All studies scored low to moderate on the methodological quality assessment, implying high risk of bias. A single RCT evaluating a video decision support tool in facilitating ACP in pmBT patients showed a beneficial effect in promoting comfort care and gaining confidence in decision–making. However, the effect of the intervention on quality of life and care at the end-of-life were unclear. There was a low rate of use of ACP discussions at the end-of-life. Advance Directive completion rates and place of death varied between different studies. Positive effects of ACP included lower hospital readmission rates, and intensive care unit utilization. None of the studies assessed mortality outcomes associated with ACP. In conclusion, this review found some beneficial effects of ACP in pmBT. The literature still remains limited in this area, with lack of

  18. Diagnostic performance of MR imaging findings and quantitative values in the differentiation of seromucinous borderline tumour from endometriosis-related malignant ovarian tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurata, Yasuhisa; Kido, Aki; Moribata, Yusaku; Kameyama, Kyoko; Himoto, Yuki; Togashi, Kaori [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyoku, Kyoto (Japan); Minamiguchi, Sachiko [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Pathology, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyoku, Kyoto (Japan); Konishi, Ikuo [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyoku, Kyoto (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of quantitative values and MRI findings for differentiating seromucinous borderline tumours (SMBTs) from endometriosis-related malignant ovarian tumours (MT). This retrospective study examined 19 lesions from SMBT and 84 lesions from MT. The following quantitative values were evaluated using receiver-operating characteristic analysis: overall and solid portion sizes, fluid signal intensity (SI), degree of contrast-enhancement, and mean and minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the solid portion. Two radiologists independently evaluated four MRI findings characteristic of SMBT, fluid SI on the T1-weighted image and SI of the solid portion on diffusion-weighted image. The diagnostic values of these findings and interobserver agreement were assessed. For diagnosing SMBT, the mean ADC value of the solid portion showed the greatest area under the curve (0.860) (cut-off value: 1.31 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, sensitivity: 1.00, specificity: 0.61). The T2-weighted image (T2WI) high SI solid portion was the most useful finding, with high specificity and interobserver agreement (sensitivity, 0.58; specificity, 0.95-0.96, kappa = 0.96), followed by T2WI low SI core (sensitivity, 0.48-0.63; specificity, 0.98, kappa = 0.68). Mean ADC values of the solid portion, T2WI high SI solid portion, and T2WI low SI core were useful for differentiating SMBT from MT. (orig.)

  19. Bevacizumab plus irinotecan in the treatment patients with progressive recurrent malignant brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, H.S.; Grunnet, K.; Sorensen, M.

    2009-01-01

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively determined the efficacy and safety of a combination of bevacizumab and irinotecan in a consecutive series of 52 heavily pre-treated patients with recurrent high-grade brain tumours. Patients received bevacizumab (10 mg/kg) and irinotecan [340 mg/m(2...... acceptable safety and is a clinically relevant choice of therapy in heavily pre-treated patients with recurrent high-grade brain tumours Udgivelsesdato: 2009...

  20. Relationship of computed tomography perfusion and positron emission tomography to tumour progression in malignant glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeung, Timothy P C [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Robarts Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5C1 (Canada); Yartsev, Slav [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5C1 (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, London Regional Cancer Program, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Lee, Ting-Yim [Robarts Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5C1 (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, London Regional Cancer Program, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Medical Imaging, The University of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, Victoria Hospital, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5W9 (Australia); Lawson Health Research Institute, St. Joseph' s Health Care London, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4V2 (Canada); Wong, Eugene [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, London Regional Cancer Program, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada, N6A 3K7 (Canada); He, Wenqing [Department of Statistical and Actuarial Sciences, The University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Fisher, Barbara; VanderSpek, Lauren L [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, London Regional Cancer Program, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Macdonald, David [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, London Regional Cancer Program, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, The University of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, University Hospital, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5A5 (Canada); Bauman, Glenn, E-mail: glenn.bauman@lhsc.on.ca [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5C1 (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, London Regional Cancer Program, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada)

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: This study aimed to explore the potential for computed tomography (CT) perfusion and 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in predicting sites of future progressive tumour on a voxel-by-voxel basis after radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Methods: Ten patients underwent pre-radiotherapy magnetic resonance (MR), FDG-PET and CT perfusion near the end of radiotherapy and repeated post-radiotherapy follow-up MR scans. The relationships between these images and tumour progression were assessed using logistic regression. Cross-validation with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to assess the value of these images in predicting sites of tumour progression. Results: Pre-radiotherapy MR-defined gross tumour; near-end-of-radiotherapy CT-defined enhancing lesion; CT perfusion blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV) and permeability-surface area (PS) product; FDG-PET standard uptake value (SUV); and SUV:BF showed significant associations with tumour progression on follow-up MR imaging (P < 0.0001). The mean sensitivity (±standard deviation), specificity and area under the ROC curve (AUC) of PS were 0.64 ± 0.15, 0.74 ± 0.07 and 0.72 ± 0.12 respectively. This mean AUC was higher than that of the pre-radiotherapy MR-defined gross tumour and near-end-of-radiotherapy CT-defined enhancing lesion (both AUCs = 0.6 ± 0.1, P ≤ 0.03). The multivariate model using BF, BV, PS and SUV had a mean AUC of 0.8 ± 0.1, but this was not significantly higher than the PS only model. Conclusion: PS is the single best predictor of tumour progression when compared to other parameters, but voxel-based prediction based on logistic regression had modest sensitivity and specificity.

  1. Relationship of computed tomography perfusion and positron emission tomography to tumour progression in malignant glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeung, Timothy P C; Yartsev, Slav; Lee, Ting-Yim; Wong, Eugene; He, Wenqing; Fisher, Barbara; VanderSpek, Lauren L; Macdonald, David; Bauman, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed to explore the potential for computed tomography (CT) perfusion and 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in predicting sites of future progressive tumour on a voxel-by-voxel basis after radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Methods: Ten patients underwent pre-radiotherapy magnetic resonance (MR), FDG-PET and CT perfusion near the end of radiotherapy and repeated post-radiotherapy follow-up MR scans. The relationships between these images and tumour progression were assessed using logistic regression. Cross-validation with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to assess the value of these images in predicting sites of tumour progression. Results: Pre-radiotherapy MR-defined gross tumour; near-end-of-radiotherapy CT-defined enhancing lesion; CT perfusion blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV) and permeability-surface area (PS) product; FDG-PET standard uptake value (SUV); and SUV:BF showed significant associations with tumour progression on follow-up MR imaging (P < 0.0001). The mean sensitivity (±standard deviation), specificity and area under the ROC curve (AUC) of PS were 0.64 ± 0.15, 0.74 ± 0.07 and 0.72 ± 0.12 respectively. This mean AUC was higher than that of the pre-radiotherapy MR-defined gross tumour and near-end-of-radiotherapy CT-defined enhancing lesion (both AUCs = 0.6 ± 0.1, P ≤ 0.03). The multivariate model using BF, BV, PS and SUV had a mean AUC of 0.8 ± 0.1, but this was not significantly higher than the PS only model. Conclusion: PS is the single best predictor of tumour progression when compared to other parameters, but voxel-based prediction based on logistic regression had modest sensitivity and specificity

  2. DMBT1, a new member of the SRCR superfamily, on chromosome 10q25.3-26.1 is deleted in malignant brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollenhauer, J; Wiemann, S; Scheurlen, W

    1997-01-01

    Loss of sequences from human chromosome 10q has been associated with the progression of human cancer. Medulloblastoma and glioblastoma multiforme are the most common malignant brain tumours in children and adults, respectively. In glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive form, 80% of the tumo......Loss of sequences from human chromosome 10q has been associated with the progression of human cancer. Medulloblastoma and glioblastoma multiforme are the most common malignant brain tumours in children and adults, respectively. In glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive form, 80....... Intragenic homozygous deletions has been detected in 2/20 medulloblastomas and in 9/39 glioblastomas multiformes. Lack of DMBT1 expression has been demonstrated in 4/5 brain-tumour cell lines. We suggest that DMBT1 is a putative tumour-suppressor gene implicated in the carcinogenesis of medulloblastoma...

  3. Methylator phenotype of malignant germ cell tumours in children identifies strong candidates for chemotherapy resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyapalan, J N; Noor, D A Mohamed; Lee, S-H; Tan, C L; Appleby, V A; Kilday, J P; Palmer, R D; Schwalbe, E C; Clifford, S C; Walker, D A; Murray, M J; Coleman, N; Nicholson, J C; Scotting, P J

    2011-08-09

    Yolk sac tumours (YSTs) and germinomas are the two major pure histological subtypes of germ cell tumours. To date, the role of DNA methylation in the aetiology of this class of tumour has only been analysed in adult testicular forms and with respect to only a few genes. A bank of paediatric tumours was analysed for global methylation of LINE-1 repeat elements and global methylation of regulatory elements using GoldenGate methylation arrays. Both germinomas and YSTs exhibited significant global hypomethylation of LINE-1 elements. However, in germinomas, methylation of gene regulatory regions differed little from control samples, whereas YSTs exhibited increased methylation at a large proportion of the loci tested, showing a 'methylator' phenotype, including silencing of genes associated with Caspase-8-dependent apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that the methylator phenotype of YSTs was coincident with higher levels of expression of the DNA methyltransferase, DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3B, suggesting a mechanism underlying the phenotype. Epigenetic silencing of a large number of potential tumour suppressor genes in YSTs might explain why they exhibit a more aggressive natural history than germinomas and silencing of genes associated with Caspase-8-dependent cell death might explain the relative resistance of YSTs to conventional therapy.

  4. The value of intratumoral heterogeneity of (18)F-FDG uptake to differentiate between primary benign and malignant musculoskeletal tumours on PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajo, Masatoyo; Nakajo, Masayuki; Jinguji, Megumi; Fukukura, Yoshihiko; Nakabeppu, Yoshiaki; Tani, Atsushi; Yoshiura, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The cumulative standardized uptake value (SUV)-volume histogram (CSH) was reported to be a novel way to characterize heterogeneity in intratumoral tracer uptake. This study investigated the value of fluorine-18 fludeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) intratumoral heterogeneity in comparison with SUV to discriminate between primary benign and malignant musculoskeletal (MS) tumours. The subjects comprised 85 pathologically proven MS tumours. The area under the curve of CSH (AUC-CSH) was used as a heterogeneity index, with lower values corresponding with increased heterogeneity. As 22 tumours were indiscernible on (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography, maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean) and AUC-CSH were obtained in 63 positive tumours. The Mann-Whitney U test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were used for analyses. The difference between benign (n = 35) and malignant tumours (n = 28) was significant in AUC-CSH (p = 0.004), but not in SUVmax (p = 0.168) and SUVmean (p = 0.879). The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for diagnosing malignancy were 61%, 66% and 64% for SUVmax (optical threshold value, >6.9), 54%, 60% and 57% for SUVmean (optical threshold value, >3) and 61%, 86% and 75% for AUC-CSH (optical threshold value, ≤0.42), respectively. The area under the ROC curve was significantly higher in AUC-CSH (0.71) than SUVmax (0.60) (p = 0.018) and SUVmean (0.51) (p = 0.005). The heterogeneity index, AUC-CSH, has a higher diagnostic accuracy than SUV analysis in differentiating between primary benign and malignant MS tumours, although it is not sufficiently high enough to obviate histological analysis. AUC-CSH can assess the heterogeneity of (18)F-FDG uptake in primary benign and malignant MS tumours, with significantly greater heterogeneity associated with malignant MS tumours. AUC-CSH is more diagnostically accurate than SUV analysis in differentiating between benign and

  5. Outcome of bone recycling using liquid nitrogen as bone reconstruction procedure in malignant and recurrent benign aggressive bone tumour of distal tibia: A report of four cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gede, Eka Wiratnaya I; Ida Ayu, Arrisna Artha; Setiawan I Gn, Yudhi; Aryana Ign, Wien; I Ketut, Suyasa; I Ketut, Siki Kawiyana; Putu, Astawa

    2017-01-01

    Amputation still considered as primary choice of malignancy treatment in distal tibia. Bone recycling with liquid nitrogen for reconstruction following resection of malignant bone tumours offers many advantages. We presented four patients with osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, adamantinoma and recurrent giant cell tumour over distal tibia. All of the patients underwent wide excision and bone recycling using liquid nitrogen as bone reconstruction. The mean functional Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) score was 75% with no infection and local recurrent. The reconstruction provides good local control and functional outcome.

  6. Slow-neutron capture therapy for malignant tumours: its history and recent development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatanaka, H.

    1975-01-01

    Slow-neutron capture therapy was first suggested in 1936. The early clinical trials were performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory and Massachusetts Institute of Technology reactors. In the last series of treatments in 1960 and 1961, none of the 17 glioblastoma patients lived longer than a year and the clinical trial was discontinued, particularly because the was pathological evidence that normal tissue had been seriously damaged. Hatanaka, who worked first with Sweet between 1964 and 1967, continued intensive basic research and organized a collaborating team of chemists, physicists and physicians in Japan where he resumed treatment of brain tumour patients in 1968. The rationale of the revised therapy included: (1) use of promising compounds such as mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate, which has a high tumour binding property, (2) use of adrenocorticoid to minimize vascular damage, (3) intra-arterial infusion of boron to obtain a higher concentration in the tumour, (4) restriction of excessive neutron intensity, (5) and some technical improvements. New research techniques were also introduced, such as alpha autoradiography, electron microscopy, and immunotherapy. With the mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate compound an absolute concentration of 30 μg per gram of tumour is easily attainable, while the blood level of the isotope can be lowered to at least half of the tumour concentration. Normal dog brains were able to tolerate this therapy. Among the 15 patients so far treated, 13 were treated at the Hitachi Training Reactor. Patients, who had undergone repeated surgery as well as excessive irradiation before they came for the therapy, could not recover their full activities, but proved they could enjoy a significant prolongation of their lives. The only two fresh cases of glioblastoma responded so well to the therapy that one has been working as an engineer and the other as a farmer for 3 years without neurological deficits. Recent progress and future potentials of the

  7. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for detection of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours in neurofibromatosis type 1: tumour-to-liver ratio is superior to an SUV{sub max} cut-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamon, Johannes [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Veldhoen, Simon [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); University Medical Centre Wuerzburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Apostolova, Ivayla [Otto-von-Guericke University, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Magdeburg (Germany); Bannas, Peter; Yamamura, Jin; Herrmann, Jochen; Adam, Gerhard; Derlin, Thorsten [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Friedrich, Reinhard E. [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hamburg (Germany); Mautner, Victor F. [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neurology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of normalising intra-tumour tracer accumulation on {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to reference tissue uptake for characterisation of peripheral nerve sheath tumours (PNSTs) in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) compared with the established maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax) cut-off of >3.5. Forty-nine patients underwent FDG PET/CT. Intra-tumour tracer uptake (SUVmax) was normalised to three different reference tissues (tumour-to-liver, tumour-to-muscle and tumour-to-fat ratios). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were used out to assess the diagnostic performance. Histopathology and follow-up served as the reference standard. Intra-tumour tracer uptake correlated significantly with liver uptake (r{sub s} = 0.58, P = 0.016). On ROC analysis, the optimum threshold for tumour-to-liver ratio was >2.6 (AUC = 0.9735). Both the SUVmax cut-off value of >3.5 and a tumour-to-liver ratio >2.6 provided a sensitivity of 100 %, but specificity was significantly higher for the latter (90.3 % vs 79.8 %; P = 0.013). In patients with NF1, quantitative {sup 18}F-FDG PET imaging may identify malignant change in neurofibromas with high accuracy. Specificity could be significantly increased by using the tumour-to-liver ratio. The authors recommend further evaluation of a tumour-to-liver ratio cut-off value of >2.6 for diagnostic intervention planning. (orig.)

  8. Treatment of non-resectable malignant iris tumours with custom designed plaque radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, C.L.; Shields, J.A.; Potter, P. De; Singh, A.D.; Hernandez, C.; Brady, L.W.

    1995-01-01

    Background- Plaque radiotherapy is the most common method of managing posterior uveal melanoma but its use for iris melanoma and iris metastases has not yet been evaluated. Methods -Fourteen patients with non-resectable iris melanoma and four with iris metastasis were treated with plaque radiotherapy. The tumour response to treatment and the local side effects of the radioactive plaque were evaluated. Results -In the iris melanoma group over a mean follow up of 26 (range 6-75) months, the tumour regressed in 13 of the 14 patients (93%) and recurred as diffuse seeding in one patient (7%). Despite large doses of radiation given transcorneally, the cornea developed epitheliopathy, abraxion, and oedema in only one case each. The major radiation side effects were localised iris vasculopathy without glaucoma in two cases, posterior synechiae in five cases, and cataract in six cases. In the iris metastasis group, tumour regression was observed in all four patients (100%) and radiation side effects were not evident over the relatively short mean follow up period of 8 (range 4-9) months. All of the 14 patients with irradiated iris melanoma have remained systemically healthy without metastasis while three of the four patients with irradiated iris metastases have died of metastases from the primary neoplasm. Conclusion - Custom designed plaque radiotherapy appears to be an effective alternative method of controlling non-resectable diffuse iris melanoma and solitary iris metastasis and has relatively few side effects. (author)

  9. Malignant round cell tumours of bone: atypical clinical and imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saifuddin, A.; Whelan, J.; Pringle, J.A.S.; Cannon, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To describe the clinical, radiological and MRI features of six atypical cases of histologically proven appendicular Ewing sarcoma/ primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET). Design. Retrospective review of case notes and available imaging was carried out. Patients. Six patients (4 male, 2 female; mean age 27 years, range 19-44 years), presenting over a 77-month period, were identified from the Bone Tumour Register. All had unusual clinical and imaging features for Ewing sarcoma/PNET.Results and conclusions. Four tumours were centred on the distal femoral metaphysis, one in the proximal tibial metaphysis and one in the distal tibial metaphysis. Plain radiographs were available in four cases and showed minor cortical changes. MRI demonstrated a relatively small, eccentrically located intraosseous component with a large, eccentric extraosseous component. Extension into the epiphysis was seen in three cases and into the adjacent joint in two cases. Intraosseous ''skip'' metastases were present in three cases. The clinical and imaging features were atypical for conventional intraosseous Ewing sarcoma/PNET and the exact site of origin (intraosseous, periosteal or soft-tissue) was unclear. (orig.)

  10. ADM3, TFF3 and LGALS3 are discriminative molecular markers in fine-needle aspiration biopsies of benign and malignant thyroid tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karger, S; Krause, K; Gutknecht, M; Schierle, K; Graf, D; Steinert, F; Dralle, H; Führer, D

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previously, we reported a six-marker gene set, which allowed a molecular discrimination of benign and malignant thyroid tumours. Now, we evaluated these markers in fine-needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB) in a prospective, independent series of thyroid tumours with proven histological outcome. Methods: Quantitative RT–PCR was performed (ADM3, HGD1, LGALS3, PLAB, TFF3, TG) in the needle wash-out of 156 FNAB of follicular adenoma (FA), adenomatous nodules, follicular and papillary thyroid cancers (TC) and normal thyroid tissues (NT). Results: Significant expression differences were found for TFF3, HGD1, ADM3 and LGALS3 in FNAB of TC compared with benign thyroid nodules and NT. Using two-marker gene sets, a specific FNAB distinction of benign and malignant tumours was achieved with negative predictive values (NPV) up to 0.78 and positive predictive values (PPV) up to 0.84. Two FNAB marker gene combinations (ADM3/TFF3; ADM3/ACTB) allowed the distinction of FA and malignant follicular neoplasia with NPV up to 0.94 and PPV up to 0.86. Conclusion: We demonstrate that molecular FNAB diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid tumours including follicular neoplasia is possible with recently identified marker gene combinations. We propose multi-centre FNAB studies on these markers to bring this promising diagnostic tool closer to clinical practice. PMID:22223087

  11. [A study on the relationship between drinking water with high arsenic content and incidence of malignant tumour in Heihe Village, western part of Huhehot, Inner Mongolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, F J; Luo, Z D; Ma, L

    1995-10-01

    Since 1991, it has been repeatedly reported that endemic arsenism was noticed in the large areas in the middle and west parts of Inne Mongolian Autonomous Region. Heihe village is located in a geological area with rich natural arsenic. The inhabitants of the village have drunk the water with high arsenic content for a long time and many people have died of malignant tumours. A historical prospective method has been used in the study. The research has been carried out chronologically on the statistical relationship between drinking water with high arsenic content consumed by local inhabitants for 22 years and the mortality of malignant tumours. This study has confirmed that the accumulated mortality rate and the average mortality rate of Heihe villagers who had drunk the water with high arsenic content for a number of total 22 years (from January 1971 to January 1993) were 13 590/10(5) person-year and 642.01/10(5) person-year. In terms of the portion among all malignant tumour deaths, cancer for the lung takes the lead, followed by liver cancer and then bladder cancer. The risk of death of malignant tumours in the villagers who drink water with high arsenic content was 9.38 times to the risk in the inhabitants who do not drink water with high arsenic content.

  12. Strain Elastography for Prediction of Malignancy in Soft Tissue Tumours--Preliminary Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riishede, I; Ewertsen, C; Carlsen, J

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the ability of strain elastography to predict malignancy in patients with soft tissue tumors, and to compare three evaluation methods of strain elastography: strain ratios, strain histograms and visual scoring. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 60 patients with 61 tumors were analyzed...

  13. Primary malignant head and neck tumours in Ghana: a survey of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine the incidence of primary head and neck cancers seen at Korle Bu Teaching hospital, Ghana. Methods: A retrospective study of histopathological records of diagnosed head and neck cancers from 1989-2008. Results: 2,041 of 4,546 reports were malignant. 1342 were primary cancers. These were studied ...

  14. STUDY OF PAEDIATRIC SOLID TUMOURS FOR A PERIOD OF 5 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basumitra Das

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Paediatric Solid Neoplasms (PSN are a global problem. There is significant variation of incidence of paediatric solid neoplasms in various regions of the world. Benign tumours are more common than cancer. In an effort to better understand the prevalence of paediatric solid tumours in our region, a retrospective review of the tumours diagnosed histopathologically was carried out. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a retrospective study undertaken in a tertiary care hospital for a period of five years. All the benign and malignant paediatric solid tumours of children below 14 years from January 2012 to December 2016 were retrieved and analysed according to age, sex and histopathological diagnosis. Leukaemias were excluded from our study. All tumours were diagnosed on conventional haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. RESULTS A total of 109 cases of solid paediatric tumours were received during this period. Of these, maximum of 30 tumours were of soft tissue tumours followed by Central Nervous System (CNS and bone tumours with 24 and 23 cases, respectively. 7 cases of blastomas were also observed. CONCLUSION This study showed benign and malignant tumours to be of near-equal prevalence. Soft tissue tumours were the most common. Ratio of benign tumours to malignant were almost equal below 4 years. Malignant tumours were higher in 5-9 years group.

  15. Multiparametric PET imaging in thyroid malignancy characterizing tumour heterogeneity: somatostatin receptors and glucose metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traub-Weidinger, Tatjana [Medical University of Vienna, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Putzer, Daniel; Bale, Reto [Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Guggenberg, Elisabeth von; Dobrozemsky, Georg; Nilica, Bernhard; Kendler, Dorota; Virgolini, Irene Johanna [Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2015-12-15

    Radiolabelled somatostatin (SST) analogues have proven useful in diagnosing tumours positive for SST receptor (SSTR). As different subtypes of SSTR are expressed on the tumour cell surface, the choice of appropriate therapeutic SST analogue is crucial. We evaluated the SSTR status of thyroid cancer patients who had signs of progressive disease comparing different SSTR ligands for PET imaging to evaluate possible further therapeutic options. PET with {sup 68}Ga-radiolabelled SSTR ligands DOTA lanreotide (DOTA-LAN), DOTA-Tyr{sup 3} octreotide (DOTA-TOC) and {sup 18}F-FDG was performed in 31 patients with thyroid cancer (TC). These 31 patients comprised 18 with radioiodine non-avid differentiated TC (DTC) including 6 papillary TC (PTC), 8 follicular TC (FTC) and 4 oxyphilic TC (oxyTC), 5 with anaplastic TC (ATC), and 8 with medullary TC (MTC). The PET results were compared in a region-based evaluation. All patients underwent a PET study with {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-LAN, 28 patients with {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TOC and 28 patients with {sup 18}F-FDG. A lack of SSTR expression was found in 13 of the 31 patients (42 %) with negative results with both SSTR tracers in 12 patients. Ambiguous results with both SSTR tracers were observed in one patient. High tracer uptake in SSTR PET images was seen in seven DTC patients (39 %; two PTC, three FTC, two oxyTC), in four ATC patients (80 %) and in six MTC patients (75 %). Lesions showing aerobic glycolysis on {sup 18}F-FDG PET were found in 24 of 28 patients (86 %) with corresponding positive results with {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-LAN in 35 % and with {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TOC in 29 %. The heterogeneous SSTR profile of TC tumour lesions needs to be evaluated using different SSTR PET tracers to characterize more closely the SSTR subtype affinities in patients with progressive TC in order to further stratify therapy with SSTR therapeutics. (orig.)

  16. Is it safe to preserve the deltoid when resecting the proximal humerus for a primary malignant bone tumour? A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cladière-Nassif, V; Bourdet, C; Audard, V; Babinet, A; Anract, P; Biau, D

    2017-09-01

    Resection of the proximal humerus for the primary malignant bone tumour sometimes requires en bloc resection of the deltoid. However, there is no information in the literature which helps a surgeon decide whether to preserve the deltoid or not. The aim of this study was to determine whether retaining the deltoid at the time of resection would increase the rate of local recurrence. We also sought to identify the variables that persuade expert surgeons to choose a deltoid sparing rather than deltoid resecting procedure. We reviewed 45 patients who had undergone resection of a primary malignant tumour of the proximal humerus. There were 29 in the deltoid sparing group and 16 in the deltoid resecting group. Imaging studies were reviewed to assess tumour extension and soft-tissue involvement. The presence of a fat rim separating the tumour from the deltoid on MRI was particularly noted. The cumulative probability of local recurrence was calculated in a competing risk scenario. There was no significant difference (adjusted p = 0.89) in the cumulative probability of local recurrence between the deltoid sparing (7%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1 to 20) and the deltoid resecting group (26%, 95% CI 8 to 50). Patients were more likely to be selected for a deltoid sparing procedure if they presented with a small tumour (p = 0.0064) with less bone involvement (p = 0.032) and a continuous fat rim on MRI (p = 0.002) and if the axillary nerve could be identified (p = 0.037). A deltoid sparing procedure can provide good local control after resection of the proximal humerus for a primary malignant bone tumour. A smaller tumour, the presence of a continuous fat rim and the identification of the axillary nerve on pre-operative MRI will persuade surgeons to opt for a deltoid resecting procedure. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1244-9. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  17. The frequency and cause of anxiety and depression amongst patients with malignant brain tumours between surgery and radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbride, Lynn; Smith, Graeme; Grant, Robin

    2007-09-01

    Between surgery and radiotherapy patients with a malignant glioma may encounter a number of psychosocial issues that could invoke an anxious or depressive response. This study explored the frequency, severity and cause of anxiety and depression in patients with presumed malignant brain tumours in the period between their surgery and radiotherapy. A prospective study of 51 patients used mixed methods to measure anxiety and depression at three time points; post surgery, three weeks post surgery and pre radiotherapy. Analysis was undertaken using statistical and content analysis of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scores and unstructured interviews respectively. Analysis of HAD scores indicated a heightened level of anxiety in patients pre radiotherapy. This anxiety is more prevalent in younger patients and is not related to the patients change in functional state. Five patients had a significant depression at one or more time points between surgery and radiotherapy. Four of the five patients who reported scores consistent with depression had past histories of depression. Content analysis of unstructured interviews indicated that the HAD scores underestimated the presence of anxiety and depression amongst this group of patients. Anxiety was more common in younger patients. Anxiety was slightly more frequent pre-radiotherapy. A past medical history of depression is a predictor of significant depression in the post-operative period. The HAD scale although useful is not an adequate measurement tool for detecting anxiety and depression amongst all patients and health care professionals should adopt other means to monitor for these signs and symptoms.

  18. Analysis of Obesity-Related Factors and their Association with Aromatase Expression in Canine Malignant Mammary Tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J-I; Lim, H-Y; Kim, H-W; Seung, B-J; Ju, J-H; Sur, J-H

    2016-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of obesity in canine malignant mammary tumours (CMMTs), by assessing aromatase expression and the regulatory roles of immune mediators such as cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB), hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and adipokines (i.e. leptin) in lean, optimal body weight, overweight and obese animals. Clinicopathological data, including the breed, body weight, body condition score and age and neutering status, were collected, together with histopathological characteristics (i.e. histological types, grading and lymphatic invasion). To determine the expression of each factor, immunohistochemistry was conducted with 60 samples of malignant CMMTs. CMMTs from overweight and obese animals had significantly elevated levels of PGE2, and aromatase expression correlated significantly with PGE2, NF-κB and leptin expression. However, no significant difference was observed in terms of histopathological characteristics. The results suggest that PGE2, a known obesity-related immune mediator, could be upregulated in CMMTs from overweight and obese animals. In addition, PGE2, NF-κB and leptin influenced the expression of aromatase, as observed in women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigation of the biophysical dose planning for radiotherapy of malignant tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendhausen, H.

    1980-01-01

    The physical part, the calculation of a purely geometrical distribution of the radiation dose in the human body, is solved nearly completely and is applicable for frequently-used types of radiation in the computer with error rates below 1%. The biomedical section consists of two partial sections, the protection of the healthy tissue and the distruction of the tumour tissue. The unavoidable radiation exposure of healthy organs is to be kept as low as possible and should not exceed the limit to an irreversible damage at any point. For the tolerance limit of various organs of the ''average patient'' we could derive a mathematical function which allows to calculate the dose distribution before starting therapy, protecting critical organs or organ section from too much exposure. Another set of formulas allows, by authomatical calculation with exactly prescribed therapy dose, to estimate the radiation exposure of healthy sections in the subtolerance region and to choose the geometrical dose distribution in a way keeping the total exposure of a healthy person as low as possible. This dose depends on a big number of factors such as sensitivity to radiation, oxygen supply, anoxic share of cells, growth speed, and reoxygenization. Provided that the sensitivity of the tumour to radiation remains stronger than that of the normal tissue the formalism developed here can be used as a criterion for forecasting the success of the therapy. The calculation scheme introduced here can be regarded as a clinical tool which must be further developed in the following time. (orig./MG) [de

  20. Perfusion pattern and time of vascularisation with CEUS increase accuracy in differentiating between benign and malignant tumours in 216 musculoskeletal soft tissue masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Marchi, Armanda, E-mail: armanda.demarchi@tiscali.it [Department of Imaging, Azienda Ospedaliera Città della Salute e della Scienza, CTO Hospital, Via Zuretti 29, 10126 Torino (Italy); Prever, Elena Brach del, E-mail: elena.brach@unito.it [Department of OrthopaedicOncology and ReconstructiveSurgery, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Città della Salute e della Scienza, CTO Hospital, Via Zuretti 29, 10126 Torino (Italy); Cavallo, Franco, E-mail: franco.cavallo@unito.it [Department of Public health and Paediatrics, University of Turin, Via Santena 5-bis, 10126 Torino (Italy); Pozza, Simona, E-mail: simona.pozza@tin.it [Department of Imaging, Azienda Ospedaliera Città della Salute e della Scienza, CTO Hospital, Via Zuretti 29, 10126 Torino (Italy); Linari, Alessandra, E-mail: linaralessandra@libero.it [Department of Pathology, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Città della Salute e della Scienza, Regina Margherita Hospital, Piazza Polonia, 10126 Torino (Italy); Lombardo, Paolo, E-mail: pao.lombardo82@gmail.com [Department of DiagnosticImaging and Radiotherapy of the University of Turin, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Via Genova 3, 10126 Torino (Italy); Comandone, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.comandone@gradenigo.it [Department of Oncology, Gradenigo Hospital, Corso Regina Margherita, 8/10.10153 Torino (Italy); Piana, Raimondo, E-mail: raimondo.piana@libero.it [Department of OrthopaedicOncology and ReconstructiveSurgery, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Città della Salute e della Scienza, CTO Hospital, Via Zuretti 29, 10126 Torino (Italy); Faletti, Carlo [Department of Imaging, Azienda Ospedaliera Città della Salute e della Scienza, CTO Hospital, Via Zuretti 29, 10126 Torino (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    Introduction: Musculoskeletal Soft Tissue Tumours (STT) are frequent heterogeneous lesions. Guidelines consider a mass larger than 5 cm and deep with respect to the deep fascia potentially malignant. Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) can detect both vascularity and tumour neoangiogenesis. We hypothesised that perfusion patterns and vascularisation time could improve the accuracy of CEUS in discriminating malignant tumours from benign lesions. Materials and methods: 216 STT were studied: 40% benign lesions, 60% malignant tumours, 56% in the lower limbs. Seven CEUS perfusion patterns and three types of vascularisation (arterial-venous uptake, absence of uptake) were applied. Accuracy was evaluated by comparing imaging with the histological diagnosis. Univariate and multivariate analysis, Chi-square test and t-test for independent variables were applied; significance was set at p < 0.05 level, 95% computed CI. Results: CEUS pattern 6 (inhomogeneous perfusion), arterial uptake and location in the lower limb were associated with high risk of malignancy. CEUS pattern has PPV 77%, rapidity of vascularisation PPV 69%; location in the limbs is the most sensitive indicator, but NPV 52%, PPV 65%. The combination of CEUS-pattern and vascularisation has 74% PPV, 60% NPV, 70% sensitivity. No correlation with size and location in relation to the deep fascia was found. Conclusion: US with CEUS qualitative analysis could be an accurate technique to identify potentially malignant STT, for which second line imaging and biopsy are indicated in Referral Centers. Intense inhomogeneous enhancement with avascular areas and rapid vascularisation time could be useful in discriminating benign from malignant SST, overall when the lower limbs are involved.

  1. Radiobiological aspects of application of BR-10 reactor neutrons for radiotherapy of malignant tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ul'yanenko, S.E.; Kuznetsova, M.N.; Obaturov, G.M.

    1992-01-01

    Possibilities to increase the factor of therapeutical gain (FTG) by optimizing irradiation conditions and using hyperglycemia were studied. It is shown that relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons in fission spectrum of the BR-10 reactor in the dose range from 10 Gy used one time is 4.2-4.5 for tumours and 4.0-4.2 for normal skin; in case of fractionated irradiation by neutrons (1-8 fractions in the range of 6-10 Gy) RBE increases practically 1.5 fold; employment of neutron beam filters and hyperglycemia in conditions of combined gamma-neutron procedures of irradiation permits a considerable increase in FTG. 3 refs

  2. Microrna-31 mediates radiation induced apoptosis selectively in malignant tumour cells with dysfunctional P53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ashish; Mukherjee, Prabuddho; Babu, Bincy; Chandna, Sudhir

    2016-01-01

    The protein p53 has been recognized as an important radio-responsive protein which functions mainly through transcriptional control of its target genes and microRNAs that target multiple response pathways. In this study, we investigate a putative link between p53 functionality and microRNA-31 expression that largely contributes to cellular transformation/malignancy and also establishes the role of miR-31 in radiation-induced cell death. The expression of miR-31 is found to be attenuated in cells in successive stages of cancer progression

  3. Prospective 1-year follow-up pilot study of CT-guided microwave ablation in the treatment of bone and soft-tissue malignant tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubry, Sebastien; Kastler, Bruno [University Hospital of Besancon, Department of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Besancon (France); University of Franche-Comte, I4S laboratory, INSERM EA4268, Besancon (France); Dubut, Jonathan; Nueffer, Jean-Philippe [University Hospital of Besancon, Department of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Besancon (France); Chaigneau, Loic [University Hospital of Besancon, Department of Oncology, Besancon (France); Vidal, Chrystelle [University Hospital of Besancon, Clinical Investigation Center, INSERM CIT808, Besancon (France)

    2017-04-15

    The aims of this work were to assess the feasibility, efficacy, short-term outcome and safety of microwave ablation (MWA) in the treatment of malignant musculoskeletal tumours. Sixteen bone and soft-tissue malignant tumours were prospectively included and were treated by CT-guided MWA. The percentage and size of necrosis of the lesions were measured by contrast-enhanced MRI before the procedure and after 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. mRECIST criteria were used to assess tumour response. Procedural success was defined as ≥80 % necrosis. Patient pain (as assessed using a numeric visual scale (NVS)) and side effects were noted. Six osteolytic metastases, five osteoblastic metastases and five soft tissue sarcomas were treated. At 1 month, 40 % were treated completely, the percentage of necrosis was 85 ± 30.4 %, and the success rate was 80 %. At 3, 6 and 12 months the success rate was 80 %, 76.9 % and 63.6 %, respectively. At 12 months, four lesions (36.3 %) still had no recurrence. Mean NVS during the procedure was 3.5 ± 2.8. One patient had transitory sciatica without neurological deficit that was treated medically. CT-guided MWA of bone and soft-tissue malignant tumours is efficient, well tolerated and has good short-term anti-cancer effects. (orig.)

  4. Intra-operative cerebrospinal fluid sampling versus post-operative lumbar puncture for detection of leptomeningeal disease in malignant paediatric brain tumours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Y Y Low

    Full Text Available Leptomeningeal disease is a feared sequelae of malignant paediatric brain tumours. Current methods for its detection is the combined use of cranio-spinal MRI, and CSF cytology from a post-operative lumbar puncture. In this study, the authors hypothesize that CSF taken at the start of surgery, either from an external ventricular drain or neuroendoscope will have equal sensitivity for positive tumour cells, in comparison to lumbar puncture. Secondary hypotheses include positive correlation between CSF cytology and MRI findings of LMD. From a clinical perspective, the key aim of the study was for affected paediatric patients to avoid an additional procedure of a lumbar puncture, often performed under anaesthesia after neurosurgical intervention.This is single-institution, retrospective study of paediatric patients diagnosed with malignant brain tumours. Its main aim was to compare cytological data from CSF collected at the time of surgery versus data from an interval lumbar puncture. In addition, MRI imaging of the same cohort of patients was examined for leptomeningeal disease and corroborated against CSF tumour cytology findings.Thirty patients are recruited for this study. Data analysis demonstrates a statistically significant association between our intra-operative CSF and LP sampling. Furthermore, our results also show for significant correlation between evidence of leptomeningeal disease on MRI findings versus intra-operative CSF positivity for tumour cells.Although this is a retrospective study with a limited population, our data concurs with potential to avoid an additional procedure for the paediatric patient diagnosed with a malignant brain tumour.

  5. Intercalary defects reconstruction of the femur and tibia after primary malignant bone tumour resection. A series of 13 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, O; Anract, P; Bouabid, S; Babinet, A; Dumaine, V; Toméno, B; Biau, D

    2011-09-01

    Performing intercalary segment reconstruction after malignant bone tumour resection results in both mechanical and biological challenges. Fixation must be solid enough to avoid short-term or mid-term mechanical failure. The use of an allograft or autograft must ensure long-term survival of the reconstruction. The goal of this study was to analyse the clinical and radiological outcomes of these reconstructions. Thirteen patients were operated on eight femurs and five tibias. The median age was 20 years old (range 14-50). The most common diagnosis was osteosarcoma. The median resection length was 15cm (Q1-Q3: 6-26). A plate was used for fixation in nine cases and an intramedullary locked nail in four cases. An isolated bone autograft was used in two cases, an isolated bone allograft in one case, a dual autograft-allograft composite in six cases, and vascularised fibula and allograft combination in four cases. The cumulative probability of union was 46% (95% CI: 0-99%) at 1 year; at the final follow-up, union was achieved in 12 patients (92%). Because of non-unions, 13 iterative procedures were needed to obtain these results. A non-displaced fracture of a cuboid-shaped tibial graft occurred in one patient, which was treated conservatively. Three infections occurred. The results of intercalary segmental defects reconstruction after bone tumour resection were good, both from an oncologic and radiological point-of-view. One or more iterative procedures are sometimes needed to finally obtain bone union. We prefer to use a free rectangular cuboidal tibial graft since reconstruction with a vascularised autograft is technically more difficult. The choice of fixation methods is still controversial and no approach was found to be superior. Level IV. Retrospective study. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  6. Non-functioning parathyroid cystic tumour: malignant or not? Report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocorullo, G; Scerrino, G; Melfa, G; Raspanti, C; Rotolo, G; Mannino, V; Richiusa, P; Cabibi, D; Giannone, A G; Porrello, C; Gulotta, G

    2017-01-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a very rare endocrine tumour, usually characterized by symptoms such as a neck mass, dysphonia, severe hypercalcemia exceeding 140 mg/L and elevated serum parathyroid hormone levels, even more than 5 times the upper limit of normal. Non-functioning parathyroid cancer is extremely rare and, in this case, its pre-operative diagnosis is often difficult. A 54-year old female patient, referring dysphagia and dysphonia, underwent neck ultrasound and neck CT. A left thyroid nodule, probably cystic, was found. It presented caudal extent on anterior mediastinum causing compression of the left lateral wall of the trachea. The preoperative calcemia was into the normal range. The patient underwent left thyroid lobectomy. Histological exam showed a cystic lesion, immunohistochemically originating from parathyroid that oriented for carcinoma. The 18 months follow-up did not show a residual-recurrent disease. The parathyroid origin of a neck lesion could not be suspected before surgery when specific laboratory tests are not available and clinical effects of hyperparathyroidism syndrome are not present. Histological features are not always sufficient for the differential diagnosis between the parathyroid adenoma and carcinoma. The immunohistochemistry is an useful tool that can aid to reach the definite diagnosis.

  7. Male gynecomastia and risk for malignant tumours – a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, H; Bladstrom, A; Alm, P

    2002-01-01

    Background Men with gynecomastia may suffer from absolute or relative estrogen excess and their risk of different malignancies may be increased. We tested whether men with gynecomastia were at greater risk of developing cancer. Methods A cohort was formed of all the men having a histopathological diagnosis of gynecomastia at the Department of Pathology, University of Lund, following an operation for either uni- or bilateral breast enlargement between 1970–1979. All possible causes of gynecomastia were accepted, such as endogenous or exogenous hormonal exposure as well as cases of unknown etiology. Prior to diagnosis of gynecomastia eight men had a diagnosis of prostate carcinoma, two men a diagnosis of unilateral breast cancer and one had Hodgkin's disease. These patients were included in the analyses. The final cohort of 446 men was matched to the Swedish Cancer Registry, Death Registry and General Population Registry. Results At the end of the follow up in December 1999, the cohort constituted 8375.2 person years of follow-up time. A total of 68 malignancies versus 66.07 expected were observed; SIR = 1.03 (95% CI 0.80–1.30). A significantly increased risk for testicular cancer; SIR = 5.82 (95% CI 1.20–17.00) and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin; SIR = 3.21 (95% CI 1.71–5.48) were noted. The increased risk appeared after 2 years of follow-up. A non-significantly increased risk for esophageal cancer was also seen while no new cases of male breast cancer were observed. However, in the prospective cohort, diagnostic operations for gynecomastia may substantially have reduced this risk Conclusions There is a significant increased risk of testicular cancer and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in men who have been operated on for gynecomastia. PMID:12383352

  8. Male gynecomastia and risk for malignant tumours – a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bladstrom A

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Men with gynecomastia may suffer from absolute or relative estrogen excess and their risk of different malignancies may be increased. We tested whether men with gynecomastia were at greater risk of developing cancer. Methods A cohort was formed of all the men having a histopathological diagnosis of gynecomastia at the Department of Pathology, University of Lund, following an operation for either uni- or bilateral breast enlargement between 1970–1979. All possible causes of gynecomastia were accepted, such as endogenous or exogenous hormonal exposure as well as cases of unknown etiology. Prior to diagnosis of gynecomastia eight men had a diagnosis of prostate carcinoma, two men a diagnosis of unilateral breast cancer and one had Hodgkin's disease. These patients were included in the analyses. The final cohort of 446 men was matched to the Swedish Cancer Registry, Death Registry and General Population Registry. Results At the end of the follow up in December 1999, the cohort constituted 8375.2 person years of follow-up time. A total of 68 malignancies versus 66.07 expected were observed; SIR = 1.03 (95% CI 0.80–1.30. A significantly increased risk for testicular cancer; SIR = 5.82 (95% CI 1.20–17.00 and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin; SIR = 3.21 (95% CI 1.71–5.48 were noted. The increased risk appeared after 2 years of follow-up. A non-significantly increased risk for esophageal cancer was also seen while no new cases of male breast cancer were observed. However, in the prospective cohort, diagnostic operations for gynecomastia may substantially have reduced this risk Conclusions There is a significant increased risk of testicular cancer and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in men who have been operated on for gynecomastia.

  9. Endothelial markers in malignant vascular tumours of the liver: superiority of QB-END/10 over von Willebrand factor and Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, P P; Ramani, P

    1991-01-01

    A new monoclonal antibody, QB-END/10, raised against the CD34 antigen in human endothelial cell membranes and haemopoietic progenitor cells, was studied for its usefulness as a marker of neoplastic vascular cells in 21 angiosarcomas and seven malignant haemangioendotheliomas of the liver. QB-END/10 was both more sensitive and more specific than Von Willebrand factor (VWF) and Ulex europaeus 1 agglutinin (UEA-1) in labelling endothelial cells and it did not cross react with epithelia as UEA-1 often does. Staining was uniformly strong and clear in all histological variants of these two tumours. QB-END/10 should prove particularly useful in the differential diagnosis of malignant vascular tumours of the liver.

  10. Characterisation of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours in neurofibromatosis-1 using heterogeneity analysis of "1"8F-FDG PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, Gary J.R.; Siddique, Muhammad; Goh, Vicky; Warbey, Victoria S.; Lovat, Eitan; Ferner, Rosalie

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of heterogeneity in "1"8F-fluorodeoxyglucose ("1"8F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) images is reported to improve tumour phenotyping and response assessment in a number of cancers. We aimed to determine whether measurements of "1"8F-FDG heterogeneity could improve differentiation of benign symptomatic neurofibromas from malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNSTs). "1"8F-FDG PET data from a cohort of 54 patients (24 female, 30 male, mean age 35.1 years) with neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1), and clinically suspected malignant transformation of neurofibromas into MPNSTs, were included. Scans were performed to a standard clinical protocol at 1.5 and 4 h post-injection. Six first-order [including three standardised uptake value (SUV) parameters], four second-order (derived from grey-level co-occurrence matrices) and four high-order (derived from neighbourhood grey-tone difference matrices) statistical features were calculated from tumour volumes of interest. Each patient had histological verification or at least 5 years clinical follow-up as the reference standard with regards to the characterisation of tumours as benign (n = 30) or malignant (n = 24). There was a significant difference between benign and malignant tumours for all six first-order parameters (at 1.5 and 4 h; p < 0.0001), for second-order entropy (only at 4 h) and for all high-order features (at 1.5 h and 4 h, except contrast at 4 h; p < 0.0001-0.047). Similarly, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves was high (0.669-0.997, p < 0.05) for the same features as well as 1.5-h second-order entropy. No first-, second- or high-order feature performed better than maximum SUV (SUVmax) at differentiating benign from malignant tumours. "1"8F-FDG uptake in MPNSTs is higher than benign symptomatic neurofibromas, as defined by SUV parameters, and more heterogeneous, as defined by first- and high-order heterogeneity parameters. However, heterogeneity analysis does not improve on

  11. Intraprocedural blood volume measurement using C-arm CT as a predictor for treatment response of malignant liver tumours undergoing repetitive transarterial chemoembolization (TACE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, Thomas J.; Schaefer, Patrik; Lehnert, Thomas; Mbalisike, Emmanuel; Hammerstingl, Renate; Eichler, Katrin; Zangos, Stephan; Nour-Eldin, Nour-Eldin A.; Ackermann, Hanns; Naguib, Nagy N.N.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate feasibility of measuring parenchymal blood volume (PBV) of malignant hepatic tumours using C-arm CT, test the changes in PBV following repeated transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and correlate these changes with the change in tumour size in MRI. 111 patients with liver malignancy were included. Patients underwent MRI and TACE in a 4- to 6-week interval. During intervention C-arm CT was performed. Images were post-processed to generate PBV maps. Blood volume data in C-arm CT and change in size in MRI were evaluated. The correlation between PBV and size was tested using Spearman rank test. Pre-interventional PBV maps showed a mean blood volume of 84.5 ml/1000 ml ± 62.0, follow-up PBV maps after multiple TACE demonstrated 61.1 ml/1000 ml ± 57.5. The change in PBV was statistically significant (p = 0.02). Patients with initial tumour blood volume >100 ml/1000 ml dropped 7.1 % in size and 47.2 % in blood volume; 50-100 ml/1000 ml dropped 4.6 % in size and 25.7 % in blood volume; and <50 ml/1000 ml decreased 2.8 % in size and increased 82.2 % in blood volume. PBV measurement of malignant liver tumours using C-arm CT is feasible. Following TACE PBV decreased significantly. Patients with low initial PBV show low local response rates and further increase in blood volume, whereas high initial tumour PBV showed better response to TACE. (orig.)

  12. A role for the malignant brain tumour (MBT domain protein LIN-61 in DNA double-strand break repair by homologous recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M Johnson

    Full Text Available Malignant brain tumour (MBT domain proteins are transcriptional repressors that function within Polycomb complexes. Some MBT genes are tumour suppressors, but how they prevent tumourigenesis is unknown. The Caenorhabditis elegans MBT protein LIN-61 is a member of the synMuvB chromatin-remodelling proteins that control vulval development. Here we report a new role for LIN-61: it protects the genome by promoting homologous recombination (HR for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs. lin-61 mutants manifest numerous problems associated with defective HR in germ and somatic cells but remain proficient in meiotic recombination. They are hypersensitive to ionizing radiation and interstrand crosslinks but not UV light. Using a novel reporter system that monitors repair of a defined DSB in C. elegans somatic cells, we show that LIN-61 contributes to HR. The involvement of this MBT protein in HR raises the possibility that MBT-deficient tumours may also have defective DSB repair.

  13. Interphase ribosomal RNA cistron staining in thyroid epithelial cells in Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and benign and malignant tumours of the thyroid gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamaev, N N; Grynyeva, E N; Blagosklonnaya, Y V

    1996-01-01

    Aim—To evaluate the expression of ribosomal cistrons in human thyroid epithelial cells (TECs) of patients with Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and benign and malignant tumours of the thyroid gland. Methods—TEC nucleoli were investigated in fine needle biopsy specimens from 10 controls, 39 patients with Grave's disease, 15 with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 56 with benign, and 15 with malignant tumours of the thyroid. A one step silver staining method was applied. In most cases serum concentrations of thyroxine and triiodothyronine as well as goitre size were determined. In every case 100 TECs were evaluated for the mean numbers of nucleoli and for the average number of argyrophilic nucleolar organiser regions (AgNORs) per nucleus. Results—NORs were activated in all patients, but not in controls. The numbers of AgNORs in patients with Grave's disease were closely correlated with thyroxine or triiodothyronine, or both, concentrations and with the size of the thyroid. In patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis about 30% of TECs nucleoli did not contain AgNORs, whereas others were heavily impregnated with silver. Compared with controls and benign tumours, the nucleoli of carcinomatous TECs were larger and irregular in shape. The mean number of AgNORs per nucleus in malignant cells was higher than that in their benign counterparts. Conclusions—The mechanism by which NORs are activated in TECs varies depending on the type of lesion. The higher AgNOR score in TECs from malignant tumours can be used to distinguish them from their benign counterparts. Images PMID:16696083

  14. Positron emission tomography of malignant tumours at head and neck. Evaluation of the diagnostic value of positron emission tomography by comparison with computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettler, Nele

    2011-01-01

    Imaging methods for early, accurate diagnosis and aftercare of malignant growths is currently one of the most important research topics. The objective of this thesis is to evaluate the diagnostic value of FDG-positron emission tomography by comparison with computed tomography for patients with squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma or sarcoma at head and neck. Measurement criteria are sensitivity and specificity. A retrospective evaluation of 100 examinations on 85 patients of University clinic Aachen was performed. The examination reports were supported by reports from histology, positron emission tomography and computed tomography. In each case, the histological results were assumed to provide a reliable benchmark. Sensitivity and specificity for the primary tumour site, metastatic lymphatic nodes and defined anatomic structures were compared across all patients. Comparisons were also performed on sub groups separated by gender, cancer type and the time and frequency at which tumours arose. The statistic analysis was done with MedCalc. Results: The results for sensitivity and specificity of the primary tumour site were 86.42% and 42.86%, and 64.71% and 66.07%, for positron emission tomography and computed tomography respectively. The results for the lymphatic nodes were 51.52% and 92.86% and 64.71% and 66.07%. When the constituent anatomic structures were evaluated separately, the specificity was significantly higher. The separation by gender showed no difference. Because the classification by tumor type resulted in samples that were of varying size, a comparison was difficult. For the diagnosis of primary tumours, the examination with positron emission tomography was superior, whereas computed tomography proved more effective for the diagnosis of recurrent tumours. For the diagnosis of the main tumour site, both methods were shown to be equally suitable. For the assessment of lymphatic nodes, positron emission tomography was superior to computed tomography

  15. Diagnostic performance of conventional MRI parameters and apparent diffusion coefficient values in differentiating between benign and malignant soft-tissue tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y; Yoon, Y C; Chong, Y; Seo, S W; Choi, Y-L; Sohn, I; Kim, M-J

    2017-08-01

    To compare the abilities of conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in differentiating between benign and malignant soft-tissue tumours (STT). A total of 123 patients with STT who underwent 3 T MRI, including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), were retrospectively analysed using variate conventional MRI parameters, ADC mean and ADC min . For the all-STT group, the correlation between the malignant STT conventional MRI parameters, except deep compartment involvement, compared to those of benign STT were statistically significant with univariate analysis. Maximum diameter of the tumour (p=0.001; odds ratio [OR], 8.97) and ADC mean (p=0.020; OR, 4.30) were independent factors with multivariate analysis. For the non-myxoid non-haemosiderin STT group, signal heterogeneity on axial T1-weighted imaging (T1WI; p=0.017), ADC mean , and ADC min (p=0.001, p=0.001), showed significant differences with univariate analysis between malignancy and benignity. Signal heterogeneity in axial T1WI (p=0.025; OR, 12.64) and ADC mean (p=0.004; OR, 33.15) were independent factors with multivariate analysis. ADC values as well as conventional MRI parameters were useful in differentiating between benign and malignant STT. The ADC mean was the most powerful diagnostic parameter in non-myxoid non-haemosiderin STT. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Three-dimensional ultrasound image-guided robotic system for accurate microwave coagulation of malignant liver tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Jia, Zhen-zhong; Song, Zhang-jun; Yang, Xiang-dong; Chen, Ken; Liang, Ping

    2010-09-01

    The further application of conventional ultrasound (US) image-guided microwave (MW) ablation of liver cancer is often limited by two-dimensional (2D) imaging, inaccurate needle placement and the resulting skill requirement. The three-dimensional (3D) image-guided robotic-assisted system provides an appealing alternative option, enabling the physician to perform consistent, accurate therapy with improved treatment effectiveness. Our robotic system is constructed by integrating an imaging module, a needle-driven robot, a MW thermal field simulation module, and surgical navigation software in a practical and user-friendly manner. The robot executes precise needle placement based on the 3D model reconstructed from freehand-tracked 2D B-scans. A qualitative slice guidance method for fine registration is introduced to reduce the placement error caused by target motion. By incorporating the 3D MW specific absorption rate (SAR) model into the heat transfer equation, the MW thermal field simulation module determines the MW power level and the coagulation time for improved ablation therapy. Two types of wrists are developed for the robot: a 'remote centre of motion' (RCM) wrist and a non-RCM wrist, which is preferred in real applications. The needle placement accuracies were robot with the RCM wrist was improved to 1.6 +/- 1.0 mm when real-time 2D US feedback was used in the artificial-tissue phantom experiment. By using the slice guidance method, the robot with the non-RCM wrist achieved accuracy of 1.8 +/- 0.9 mm in the ex vivo experiment; even target motion was introduced. In the thermal field experiment, a 5.6% relative mean error was observed between the experimental coagulated neurosis volume and the simulation result. The proposed robotic system holds promise to enhance the clinical performance of percutaneous MW ablation of malignant liver tumours. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Direct conversion from tramadol to tapentadol prolonged release for moderate to severe, chronic malignant tumour-related pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, H G; Koch, E D; Kosturski, H; Steup, A; Karcher, K; Dogan, C; Etropolski, M; Eerdekens, M

    2016-10-01

    A recent randomized-withdrawal, active- and placebo-controlled, double-blind phase 3 study showed that tapentadol prolonged release (PR) was effective and well tolerated for managing moderate to severe, chronic malignant tumour-related pain in patients who were opioid naive or dissatisfied with current treatment (Pain Physician, 2014, 17, 329-343). This post hoc, subgroup analysis evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of tapentadol PR in patients who previously received and were dissatisfied with tramadol for any reason and who had a pain intensity ≥5 (11-point numerical rating scale) before converting directly to tapentadol PR. In the original study, eligible patients had been randomized (2:1) and titrated to their optimal dose of tapentadol PR (100-250 mg bid) or morphine sulphate-controlled release (40-100 mg bid) over 2 weeks. The present report focuses on results during the titration period for a subgroup of patients randomized to tapentadol PR after having been on tramadol treatment prior to randomization in the study (n = 129). Results for this subgroup are compared with results for all 338 patients who received tapentadol PR during titration (overall tapentadol PR group). Responder rates (responders: completed titration, mean pain intensity pain could safely switch from prior treatment with the weak centrally acting analgesic tramadol directly to the strong centrally acting analgesic tapentadol PR, for an improved analgesic therapy for severe pain. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?: Results of this post hoc analysis show that patients who had received prior tramadol therapy could switch directly to tapentadol PR, with the majority (˜70%) experiencing improved efficacy. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Pain published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  18. Improvement effect on the depth-dose distribution by CSF drainage and air infusion of a tumour-removed cavity in boron neutron capture therapy for malignant brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Ono, Koji; Miyatake, Shin-ichi; Maruhashi, Akira

    2006-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) without craniotomy for malignant brain tumours was started using an epi-thermal neutron beam at the Kyoto University Reactor in June 2002. We have tried some techniques to overcome the treatable-depth limit in BNCT. One of the effective techniques is void formation utilizing a tumour-removed cavity. The tumorous part is removed by craniotomy about 1 week before a BNCT treatment in our protocol. Just before the BNCT irradiation, the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) in the tumour-removed cavity is drained out, air is infused to the cavity and then the void is made. This void improves the neutron penetration, and the thermal neutron flux at depth increases. The phantom experiments and survey simulations modelling the CSF drainage and air infusion of the tumour-removed cavity were performed for the size and shape of the void. The advantage of the CSF drainage and air infusion is confirmed for the improvement in the depth-dose distribution. From the parametric surveys, it was confirmed that the cavity volume had good correlation with the improvement effect, and the larger effect was expected as the cavity volume was larger

  19. Improvement effect on the depth-dose distribution by CSF drainage and air infusion of a tumour-removed cavity in boron neutron capture therapy for malignant brain tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Ono, Koji; Miyatake, Shin-ichi; Maruhashi, Akira

    2006-03-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) without craniotomy for malignant brain tumours was started using an epi-thermal neutron beam at the Kyoto University Reactor in June 2002. We have tried some techniques to overcome the treatable-depth limit in BNCT. One of the effective techniques is void formation utilizing a tumour-removed cavity. The tumorous part is removed by craniotomy about 1 week before a BNCT treatment in our protocol. Just before the BNCT irradiation, the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) in the tumour-removed cavity is drained out, air is infused to the cavity and then the void is made. This void improves the neutron penetration, and the thermal neutron flux at depth increases. The phantom experiments and survey simulations modelling the CSF drainage and air infusion of the tumour-removed cavity were performed for the size and shape of the void. The advantage of the CSF drainage and air infusion is confirmed for the improvement in the depth-dose distribution. From the parametric surveys, it was confirmed that the cavity volume had good correlation with the improvement effect, and the larger effect was expected as the cavity volume was larger.

  20. Adnexal Tumours Of Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parate Sanjay N

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A total 120 cases of epidermal appendage tumours of skin were analysed and classified according to the classification provided by WHO’. Epidermal appendage tumours accounted for 12.87% of all skin tumours, of which 29.17% were benign and 70.83% were malignant. Most of the tumours (75.83% were in the head and face region. The most common tumour was basal cell epithelioma (55%.

  1. Differential expression of microRNA-675, microRNA-139-3p and microRNA-335 in benign and malignant adrenocortical tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwig, J; Bertram, S; Sheu, S Y; Suttorp, A C; Seggewiß, J; Willscher, E; Walz, M K; Worm, K; Schmid, K W

    2011-01-01

    Background For the clinical management of adrenocortical neoplasms it is crucial to correctly distinguish between benign and malignant tumours. Even histomorphologically based scoring systems do not allow precise separation in single lesions, thus novel parameters are desired which offer a more accurate differentiation. The tremendous potential of microRNAs (miRNAs) as diagnostic biomarkers in surgical pathology has recently been shown in a broad variety of tumours. Methods In order to elucidate the diagnostic impact of miRNA expression in adrenocortical neoplasms, a cohort of 20 adrenocortical specimens including normal adrenal tissue (n=4), adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs) (n=9), adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) (n=4) and metastases (n=3) was analysed using TaqMan low density arrays to identify specific miRNA profiles in order to distinguish between benign and malignant adrenocortical lesions. Results were validated in a validation cohort (n=16). Results Concerning the differential diagnosis of ACAs and ACCs, 159 out of 667 miRNAs were up- and 89 were down-regulated in ACAs. Using real-time PCR analysis of three of the most significantly expressed single key miRNAs allowed separation of ACAs from ACCs. ACCs exhibited significantly lower levels of miR-139-3p (up to 8.49-fold, p<0.001), miR-675 (up to 23.25-fold, p<0.001) and miR-335 (up to 5.25-fold, p<0.001). A validation cohort of 16 specimen with known Weiss score showed up-regulation of miR-335 and miR-675 in the majority of cases with probable malignant course, although overlapping values exist. Conclusion miRNA profiling of miR-675 and miR-335 helps in discriminating ACCs from ACAs. miRNA analysis may indicate malignant behaviour in cases with indeterminate malignant potential. PMID:21471143

  2. Effects of low-dose cyclophosphamide with piroxicam on tumour neovascularization in a canine oral malignant melanoma-xenografted mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choisunirachon, N; Jaroensong, T; Yoshida, K; Saeki, K; Mochizuki, M; Nishimura, R; Sasaki, N; Nakagawa, T

    2015-12-01

    Low-dose cyclophosphamide (CyLD) has shown promise in the treatment of several cancers; however, the effect of CyLD on canine oral malignant melanoma has never been explored. In this study, we investigated the effects of CyLD with or without piroxicam (Px) on tumour neovascularization and vascular normalization in a canine oral malignant melanoma-xenografted mice model. After treatment with CyLD, Px or a combination of both (CyPx), the growth of the tumour in the treatment groups was significantly suppressed compared to the control group at 30 days of treatment. Proliferation index was also significantly reduced by all treatments, only CyPx significantly lowered microvessel density and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels. Additionally, CyLD significantly reduced the proportion of normal vessels and caused an imbalance between VEGF and thrombospondin-1. These results suggested that CyPx has potent anti-angiogenic effects in terms of both the number and quality of blood vessels in xenografted canine oral malignant melanoma. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Paediatric parotid neoplasms: a 10 year retrospective imaging and pathology review of these rare tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamlouk, M.D.; Rosbe, K.W.; Glastonbury, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the relative incidence of benign and malignant paediatric parotid gland tumours and whether particular presenting symptoms or imaging characteristics were more likely to predict malignancy. Materials and methods: Hospital records were reviewed for all patients <18 years with histopathology-proven parotid neoplasms over the 10 year period from 2003–2013. Infantile haemangiomas and patients with neurofibromatosis type I were excluded. The presenting clinical symptoms for each patient were recorded. All available CT and MRI examinations for these patients were evaluated for tumour imaging characteristics. Results: Seventeen patients (nine boys, eight girls; age range 2–17 years) were identified with neoplastic parotid masses; 11 tumours were malignant (65%) and six were benign (35%). The malignant tumours consisted of three acinic cell carcinomas, two mucoepidermoid carcinomas, one alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, one poorly differentiated carcinoma, one low-grade adenocarcinoma, and three metastases (two melanoma, one orbital medulloepithelioma). The benign tumours consisted of five pleomorphic adenomas and one schwannoma. Presenting clinical symptoms were similar between benign and malignant tumours. Twelve MRI and six CT examinations were available for review with five patients undergoing both techniques. MRI features commonly identified with malignant tumours included: hypointense T2 signal, restricted diffusion, ill-defined borders, and focal necrosis. Only four of the six tumours imaged at CT were visualized, and of those, the margins were indeterminate in three patients. Conclusion: Paediatric parotid masses are more likely to be malignant than benign. Presenting clinical symptoms and CT are not helpful for distinguishing benign and malignant disease. MRI features such as T2 hypointensity, restricted diffusion, ill-defined borders, and focal necrosis, although not specific, should raise concern for malignancy. - Highlights: • Pediatric parotid

  4. Outcome of secondary high-grade glioma in children previously treated for a malignant condition: A study of the Canadian Pediatric Brain Tumour Consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carret, Anne-Sophie; Tabori, Uri; Crooks, Bruce; Hukin, Juliette; Odame, Isaac; Johnston, Donna L.; Keene, Daniel L.; Freeman, Carolyn; Bouffet, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Reports of secondary high-grade glioma (HGG) in survivors of childhood cancer are scarce. The aim of this study was to review the pattern of diagnosis, the treatment, and outcome of secondary pediatric HGG. Patients and methods: We performed a multi-center retrospective study among the 17 paediatric institutions participating in the Canadian Pediatric Brain Tumour Consortium (CPBTC). Results: We report on 18 patients (14 males, 4 females) treated in childhood for a primary cancer, who subsequently developed a HGG as a second malignancy. All patients had previously received radiation therapy +/- chemotherapy for either acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (n = 9) or solid tumour (n = 9). All HGG occurred within the previous radiation fields. At the last follow-up, 17 patients have died and the median survival time is 9.75 months. Conclusion: Although aggressive treatment seems to provide sustained remissions in some patients, the optimal management is still to be defined. Further documentation of such cases is necessary in order to better understand the pathogenesis, the natural history and the prevention of these tumours

  5. Quantification of gross tumour volume changes between simulation and first day of radiotherapy for patients with locally advanced malignancies of the lung and head/neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishan, Amar U; Cui, Jing; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Daly, Megan E; Purdy, James A; Chen, Allen M

    2014-10-01

    To quantify changes in gross tumour volume (GTV) between simulation and initiation of radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced malignancies of the lung and head/neck. Initial cone beam computed tomography (CT) scans from 12 patients with lung cancer and 12 with head/neck cancer (head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC)) treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy with image guidance were rigidly registered to the simulation CT scans. The GTV was demarcated on both scans. The relationship between percent GTV change and variables including time interval between simulation and start, tumour (T) stage, and absolute weight change was assessed. For lung cancer patients, the GTV increased a median of 35.06% (range, -16.63% to 229.97%) over a median interval of 13 days (range, 7-43), while for HNSCC patients, the median GTV increase was 16.04% (range, -8.03% to 47.41%) over 13 days (range, 7-40). These observed changes are statistically significant. The magnitude of this change was inversely associated with the size of the tumour on the simulation scan for lung cancer patients (P lung cancer cases) did not correlate with degree of GTV change (P > 0.1). While the observed changes in GTV were moderate from the time of simulation to start of radiotherapy, these findings underscore the importance of image guidance for target localisation and verification, particularly for smaller tumours. Minimising the delay between simulation and treatment initiation may also be beneficial. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  6. Decrease of deleted in malignant brain tumour-1 (DMBT-1) expression is a crucial late event in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, M; Huang, S-F; Chen, M-F

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the participation of DMBT-1, a candidate tumour suppressor gene, in the development of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma via intraductal papillary neoplasm of the liver (IPN-L) arising in hepatolithiasis. DMBT-1 plays a role in mucosal immune defence. METHODS AND RESULTS: The e...

  7. Case-control study of the association between malignant brain tumours diagnosed between 2007 and 2009 and mobile and cordless phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael; Söderqvist, Fredrik; Mild, Kjell Hansson

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have shown a consistent association between long-term use of mobile and cordless phones and glioma and acoustic neuroma, but not for meningioma. When used these phones emit radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) and the brain is the main target organ for the handheld phone. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified in May, 2011 RF-EMF as a group 2B, i.e. a 'possible' human carcinogen. The aim of this study was to further explore the relationship between especially long-term (>10 years) use of wireless phones and the development of malignant brain tumours. We conducted a new case-control study of brain tumour cases of both genders aged 18-75 years and diagnosed during 2007-2009. One population-based control matched on gender and age (within 5 years) was used to each case. Here, we report on malignant cases including all available controls. Exposures on e.g. use of mobile phones and cordless phones were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusting for age, gender, year of diagnosis and socio-economic index using the whole control sample. Of the cases with a malignant brain tumour, 87% (n=593) participated, and 85% (n=1,368) of controls in the whole study answered the questionnaire. The odds ratio (OR) for mobile phone use of the analogue type was 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.04‑3.3, increasing with >25 years of latency (time since first exposure) to an OR=3.3, 95% CI=1.6-6.9. Digital 2G mobile phone use rendered an OR=1.6, 95% CI=0.996-2.7, increasing with latency >15-20 years to an OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.2-3.6. The results for cordless phone use were OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.1-2.9, and, for latency of 15-20 years, the OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.2-3.8. Few participants had used a cordless phone for >20-25 years. Digital type of wireless phones (2G and 3G mobile phones, cordless phones) gave increased risk with latency >1-5 years, then a lower risk in the following

  8. The effect of 6 and 15 MV on intensity-modulated radiation therapy prostate cancer treatment: plan evaluation, tumour control probability and normal tissue complication probability analysis, and the theoretical risk of secondary induced malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, M; Aldridge, S; Guerrero Urbano, T; Nisbet, A

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 6 and 15-MV photon energies on intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) prostate cancer treatment plan outcome and to compare the theoretical risks of secondary induced malignancies. Methods Separate prostate cancer IMRT plans were prepared for 6 and 15-MV beams. Organ-equivalent doses were obtained through thermoluminescent dosemeter measurements in an anthropomorphic Aldersen radiation therapy human phantom. The neutron dose contribution at 15 MV was measured using polyallyl-diglycol-carbonate neutron track etch detectors. Risk coefficients from the International Commission on Radiological Protection Report 103 were used to compare the risk of fatal secondary induced malignancies in out-of-field organs and tissues for 6 and 15 MV. For the bladder and the rectum, a comparative evaluation of the risk using three separate models was carried out. Dose–volume parameters for the rectum, bladder and prostate planning target volume were evaluated, as well as normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) and tumour control probability calculations. Results There is a small increased theoretical risk of developing a fatal cancer from 6 MV compared with 15 MV, taking into account all the organs. Dose–volume parameters for the rectum and bladder show that 15 MV results in better volume sparing in the regions below 70 Gy, but the volume exposed increases slightly beyond this in comparison with 6 MV, resulting in a higher NTCP for the rectum of 3.6% vs 3.0% (p=0.166). Conclusion The choice to treat using IMRT at 15 MV should not be excluded, but should be based on risk vs benefit while considering the age and life expectancy of the patient together with the relative risk of radiation-induced cancer and NTCPs. PMID:22010028

  9. Application of the Moving Strip Technique of Fletcher in the radiation treatment of primary malignant tumours of the ovary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dana, M.; Louppe, C.; Koskas, Y.; Chotin, G.; Briot, E.

    1977-01-01

    The Moving Strip Technique for irradiation of the abdomen perfected by Fletcher and Delclos represents considerable progress in terms of radiotherapy for carcinomas of the ovary by virtue of its simplicity, good tolerance, the homogeneous dose delivered to the entire abdominal cavity and the absence of sequelae. It is possible to deliver a dose of the order of 2,500 rads in 10 days to each abdominal segment, this being equivalent to 3,500 rads in 3,5 weeks. This moderate dose is aimed only at dealing with micromodular invasion and the superimposition of added local doses is required for residual tumour, marked using clips. From a histological standpoint, the worst group seems to be adenocarcinomas. Systematic sequential surgery for excision or reduction, chemotherapy to dry out ascites, moving strip irradiation with superimposed doses locally and long term chemotherapy should make it possible to improve the prognostic results of this tumour, for which the outlook remains poor [fr

  10. Experimental and clinical radiotherapy of malignant tumours in FRG (scientific records of Soviet specialists professional business trip)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarmonenko, S.P.; Berdov, B.A.; Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Obninsk. Nauchno-Issledovatel'skij Inst. Meditsinskoj Radiologii)

    1986-01-01

    A report is made on the business trip of Soviet radiologists in the FRG to study the experience in the organization and realization of radiologic and radiobiologic researches in oncology. Clinico-radiobiological studies in the FRG on radiobiology of human tumours are pointed out. Efficiency of the extencive use of computer-tomography equipment is emphasized. The methods of local electromagnetic hyperthermia are actively used

  11. Deleted in malignant brain tumour 1 (DMBT1) is secreted in the oviduct and involved in the mechanism of fertilization in equine and porcine species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambruosi, Barbara; Accogli, Gianluca; Douet, Cecile

    2013-01-01

    fertilization rate, and that this effect is cancelled by the addition of antibodies, in both porcine and equine species. Moreover, pre-incubation of oocytes with recombinant DMBT1 induces an increase of the monospermic fertilization rate in the pig, confirming an involvement of DMBT1 in the fertilization...... allowed us to identify the DMBT1 protein as well as a DMBT1-like protein in several mammals. Our results strongly suggest an important role of DMBT1 in the process of fertilization.......Oviductal environment affects preparation of gametes for fertilization, fertilization itself, and the subsequent embryo development. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of oviductal fluid and the possible involvement of Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumours 1 (DMBT1) on in vitro...

  12. Dependence of serum hormones (T, FSH, LH) on morphometric testicular findings recorded from patients after chemotherapy and radiotherapy for malignant testicular tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, V.; Schoenfelder, M.

    1990-01-01

    Correlations which exist between morphometric parameters of remaining testicular tissue, on the one hand, and serum hormones on the other (testosterone = T, follicle-stimulating hormone = FSH, luteinising hormone = LH), depending on therapeutic action taken on patients for malignant testicular tumours, seem to suggest that decline in epithelial thickness together with increase in wall thickness leads to rise in FSH. No unambiguous relations, on the other hand, were found to exist between testosterone or luteotrophic hormone and morphometric findings. Hence, FSH seems to characterize the severity of damage to germ epithelium and thus the degree of impairment to spermatogenesis. FSH may be accepted as a criterion for fertility disorders in sexually active men. (author)

  13. Femoral nerve compression syndrome with paresis of the quadriceps muscle caused by radiotherapy of malignant tumours. A report of four cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, L E [Orthopaedic Hospital of the Invalid Foundation, Helsinki, Finland

    1975-01-01

    Four patients showed signs of femoral nerve compression with subsequent paresis of the quadriceps muscle, after radiation therapy of malignant tumours. The compression was caused by scar tissue due to radiation treatment of the inguinal region. The first symptom was radiating pain in the front of the thigh and lower leg which appeared 12-16 months after X-ray treatment. A decrease in the strength of quadriceps muscle occurred some months later. In one case the femoral nerve was decompressed, another patient was treated by an intradural phenolglycerin injection and one patient was treated with cortisone and oxiphenbutanzone. In these cases the pain decreased considerably, but in one case only the paresis of the quadriceps muscle improved after treatment.

  14. Some Molecular and Clinical Aspects of Genetic Predisposition to Malignant Melanoma and Tumours of Various Site of Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dębniak Tadeusz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Based on epidemiological data we can assume that at least some malignant melanoma (MM and breast cancer cases can be caused by the same genetic factors. CDKN2A, which encodes the p16 protein, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor suppressing cell proliferation, is regarded as a major melanoma susceptibility gene and the literature has also implicated this gene in predisposition to breast cancer. Genes also known to predispose to MM include XPD and MC1R. We studied CDKN2A/ARF, XPD and MC1R for their associations with melanoma and breast cancer risk in Polish patients and controls. We found that CDKN2A and ARF do not contribute significantly to either familial melanoma or malignant melanoma within the context of a cancer familial aggregation of disease with breast cancer. However, the common variant of the CDKN2A gene A148T, previously regarded as non-pathogenic, may predispose to malignant melanoma, early-onset breast cancer and lung cancer. Compound carriers of common XPD variants may be at slightly increased risk of breast cancer or late–onset malignant melanoma. Common recurrent variants of the MC1R gene (V60L, R151C, R163Q and R160W may predispose to malignant melanoma. In general, the establishment of surveillance protocols proposed as an option for carriers of common alterations in CDKN2A, XPD or MC1R variants requires additional studies. It is possible that missense variants of genes for which truncating mutations are clearly pathogenic may also be deleterious, but with reduced penetrance. This may be overlooked unless large numbers of patients and controls are studied. A registry that includes 2000 consecutive breast cancer cases, 3500 early onset breast cancer patients, 500 unselected malignant melanoma and over 700 colorectal cancer patients has been established in the International Hereditary Cancer Centre and can contribute to these types of large association studies.

  15. Tumour exosomes display different differential mechanical and complement activation properties dependent on malignant state: implications in endothelial leakiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitehead, Bradley Joseph; Wu, Linping; Hvam, Michael Lykke

    2015-01-01

    (QNM AFM) to determine size and nanomechanical properties. Effect of HCV-29, T24 and FL3 exosomes on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayer integrity was determined by transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurements and transport was determined by flow cytometry. Complement......). Malignant cell-derived exosomes activated complement through calcium-sensitive pathways in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusions : Malignant (metastatic and non-metastatic) cell line exosomes display a markedly reduced stiffness and adhesion but an increased complement activation compared to non...

  16. SPECTRUM OF NEUROENDOCRINE TUMOURS- A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasupuleti Prathima

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Neuroendocrine tumours occur at various sites in the human body. They are considered as one of the close differentials for many tumours. Various benign and malignant tumours undergo neuroendocrine differentiation. Its incidence is slightly increasing due to advanced imaging modalities. Although rare, they can be seen in breast, gallbladder and skin. The aim of the study is to study the spectrum of neuroendocrine tumours from various sites, their clinical presentation, histomorphological features with immunohistochemistry and review of literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a retrospective study for a period of 3 years (June 2013-June 2016. Surgical resection specimens were included in the study. Out of the total specimens received, 24 cases were of neuroendocrine tumours. Differential diagnosis of small round cell tumours also was considered and a panel of immunohistochemical markers were included to rule out them. Biopsy specimens were excluded from the study. RESULTS Out of the 24 cases, 18 cases were benign lesions. 6 cases were malignant lesions. Female preponderance was noted. Peak incidence was seen in 20-30 years of age group. CONCLUSION Neuroendocrine tumours can occur anywhere in the body and it should be considered in one of the differential diagnosis. Diagnosis must be accurately made.

  17. The intestinal leiomyoblastoma and its classification as benign or malignant neoplasm; Report on a rare case of benign multiple leiomyosarcoma finally developing into a malignant tumour. Intestinales Leiomyoblastom - gutartig oder boesartig; Der seltene Fall eines gutartigen Leiomyoblastoms mit dreifacher Lokalisation und einer protrahierten malignen Entartung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, A. (Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik und Nuklearmedizin, Krankenanstalten Konstanz (Germany)); Lieke, M. (Abt. Roentgendiagnostik, Freiburg Univ. (Germany)); Mundinger, A. (Abt. Roentgendiagnostik, Freiburg Univ. (Germany)); Adler, H.P. (Pathologisches Inst., Freiburg Univ. (Germany))

    1993-04-01

    A symptom-causing duodenal stenosis diagnosed in a 47-year-old patient was found to be attributable to a malignant leiomyoblastoma. Ultrasonography, computerized tomography and MRI permitted a space-occupying process to be detected in the duodenum and a further tumour in the jejunum could be revealed by examinations of gastrointestinal transit. The presence of a total of three substantial tumours, one each in duodenum, jejunum and ileum, was however proven by angiography alone. (orig./MG)

  18. 2003 update of standards, options and recommendations for radiotherapy for patients with salivary gland malignant tumors (excluding lymphoma, sarcoma and melanoma)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensadoun, R.J.; Chauvel, P.; Dassonville, O.; Demard, F.; Ettore, F.; Marcy, P.Y.; Allavena, C.; Dieu-Bosquet, L.; Gory-Delabaere, G.; Lacau St Guilly, J.; Reyt, E.

    2003-01-01

    Context. - The Standards, Options and Recommendations (SOR) project, which started in 1993, is a collaboration between the Federation of French Cancer Centers (FNCLCC), the 20 French Regional Cancer Centers, and specialists from French public universities, general hospitals and private clinics. The main objective is the development of clinical practice guidelines to improve the quality of health care and the outcome of cancer patients. Objectives. - To update clinical practice guidelines for the management of patients with salivary gland malignant tumors previously validated in 1997. These recommendations cover diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of patients with these tumors. Methods. - The methodology is based on a literature review and critical appraisal by a multidisciplinary group of experts who define the CPGs according to the definitions of the Standards, Options and Recommendations project. Once the guidelines have been defined, the document is submitted for review by independent reviewers. Results. - This article presents the updated clinical practice guidelines concerning irradiation of patient with salivary gland tumors. The main recommendations are: - 3 dimensional conformal radiotherapy (with or without intensity modulation) or 2-D irradiation can be used; - for surgical complete resected patients, postoperative photon radiotherapy should not be used in case of low grade stage I and II tumors (standard, level of evidence B2) but should be used for high grade stage II, II and IV tumors and for low grade stage III and IV tumors (standard, level of evidence B2). Neutron therapy should not be used in all of these cases (standard, level of evidence D); o for patients presenting an incomplete macroscopic or microscopic surgical residual disease, postoperative irradiation must be delivered (standard). Neutron or photon therapy can be either delivered (options); for non operable patients neutron or photon therapy can be either delivered (options, level of

  19. Malignant Tumours Mimicking Complicated Appendicitis and Discovered upon Follow-Up after Percutaneous Drainage: A Case of Two Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharandran Chandra Mohan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The conservative management of periappendiceal abscesses is gaining favour due to decreased morbidity and improved clinical outcomes for patients. Occasionally however an abscess can mask underlying sinister pathology. In this article, we highlight two cases of appendiceal adenocarcinoma that were initially diagnosed as periappendiceal abscesses and managed conservatively with percutaneous drainage. We also discuss clinical and imaging features that may assist with identifying a hidden malignancy when presented in these situations.

  20. Imaging of sacral tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, S.; Ollivier, L.; Brisse, H.; Neuenschwander, S.; Leclere, J.; Vanel, D.; Missenard, G.; Pinieux, G. de

    2008-01-01

    All components of the sacrum (bone, cartilage, bone marrow, meninges, nerves, notochord remnants, etc.) can give rise to benign or malignant tumours. Bone metastases and intraosseous sites of haematological malignancies, lymphoma and multiple myeloma are the most frequent aetiologies, while primary bone tumours and meningeal or nerve tumours are less common. Some histological types have a predilection for the sacrum, especially chordoma and giant cell tumour. Clinical signs are usually minor, and sacral tumours are often discovered in the context of nerve root or pelvic organ compression. The roles of conventional radiology, CT and MRI are described and compared with the histological features of the main tumours. The impact of imaging on treatment decisions and follow-up is also reviewed. (orig.)

  1. Imaging of sacral tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, S.; Ollivier, L.; Brisse, H.; Neuenschwander, S. [Institut Curie, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Leclere, J. [Institut Gustave Roussy, Department of Radiology, Villejuif (France); Vanel, D. [The Rizzoli Institute, Department of Radiology, Bologna (Italy); Missenard, G. [Institut Gustave Roussy, Comite de pathologie tumorale de l' appareil locomoteur, Villejuif (France); Pinieux, G. de [CHRU de Tours, Department of Pathology, Hopital Trousseau, Tours (France)

    2008-04-15

    All components of the sacrum (bone, cartilage, bone marrow, meninges, nerves, notochord remnants, etc.) can give rise to benign or malignant tumours. Bone metastases and intraosseous sites of haematological malignancies, lymphoma and multiple myeloma are the most frequent aetiologies, while primary bone tumours and meningeal or nerve tumours are less common. Some histological types have a predilection for the sacrum, especially chordoma and giant cell tumour. Clinical signs are usually minor, and sacral tumours are often discovered in the context of nerve root or pelvic organ compression. The roles of conventional radiology, CT and MRI are described and compared with the histological features of the main tumours. The impact of imaging on treatment decisions and follow-up is also reviewed. (orig.)

  2. Wavelet-packet-based texture analysis for differentiation between benign and malignant liver tumours in ultrasound images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Casalino, David D; Keserci, Bilgin; Coskun, Abdulhakim; Ozturk, Omer; Savranlar, Ahmet

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply a novel method of multiscale echo texture analysis for distinguishing benign (hemangiomas) from malignant (hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and metastases) focal liver lesions in B-mode ultrasound images. In this method, regions of interest (ROIs) extracted from within the lesions were decomposed into subimages by wavelet packets. Multiscale texture features that quantify homogeneity of the echogenicity were calculated from these subimages and were combined by an artificial neural network (ANN). A subset of the multiscale features was selected that yielded the highest performance in the classification of lesions measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (A z ). In an analysis of 193 ROIs consisting of 50 hemangiomas, 87 hepatocellular carcinomas and 56 metastases, the multiscale features yielded a high A z value of 0.92 in distinguishing benign from malignant lesions, 0.93 in distinguishing hemangiomas from HCCs and 0.94 in distinguishing hemangiomas from metastases. Our new multiscale texture analysis method can effectively differentiate malignant from benign lesions, and thus has the potential to increase the accuracy of diagnosis of focal liver lesions in ultrasound images

  3. Diffusion-weighted imaging for the cellularity assessment and matrix characterization of soft tissue tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robba, Tiziana; Chianca, Vito; Albano, Domenico; Clementi, Valeria; Piana, Raimondo; Linari, Alessandra; Comandone, Alessandro; Regis, Guido; Stratta, Maurizio; Faletti, Carlo; Borrè, Alda

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate whether apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is able to investigate the histological features of soft tissue tumours. We reviewed MRIs of soft tissue tumours performed from 2012 to 2015 to calculate the average ADCs. We included 46 patients (27 male; mean age: 57 years, range 12-85 years) with histologically proven soft tissue tumours (10 benign, 2 intermediate 34 malignant) grouped into eight tumour type classes. An experienced pathologist assigned a semi-quantitative cellularity score (very high, high, medium and low) and tumour grading. The t test, ANOVA and linear regression were used to correlate ADC with clinicopathological data. Approximate receiver operating characteristic curves were created to predict possible uses of ADC to differentiate benign from malignant tumours. There was a significant difference (p < 0.01) in ADCs between these three groups excluding myxoid sarcomas. A significant difference was also evident between the tumour type classes (p < 0.001), grade II and III myxoid lesions (p < 0.05), tumour grading classes (p < 0.001) and cellularity scores classes (p < 0.001), with the lowest ADCs in the very high cellularity. While the linear regression analysis showed a significant relationship between ADC and tumour cellularity (r = 0.590, p ≤ 0.05) and grading (r = 0.437, p ≤ 0.05), no significant relationship was found with age, gender, tumour size and histological subtype. An optimal cut-off ADC value of 1.45 × 10 -3 mm 2 /s with 76.8% accuracy was found to differentiate benign from malignant tumours. DWI may offer adjunctive information about soft tissue tumours, but its clinical role is still to be defined.

  4. Therapeutical effect on blood-flow in three-phase scanning in primary malignant tumours and acute osteomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacic, K; Kusic, Z [Clinical Hospital Sestre Milosrdnice, Zagreb (Croatia). Dept. of Oncology and Nuclear Medicine; Cepulic, M [Children` s Hospital, Zagreb (Croatia)

    1994-10-01

    In the studies where the bone scan was limited only to the late static image, the main disadvantage was its nonspecifity. With three-phase bone scan the number of false positive findings was reduced by some peculiar diseases; for instance, acute hematogenous osteomyelitis. It is well known that various diseases, such as nonunion of the fracture, some surgical interventions, avascular necrosis... can imitate acute osteomyelitis on the static image. These diseases can only be differentiated from inflammation by blood-flow. Therefore, in all patients with the diagnosis of primary bone disease tumor, inflammation, trauma, aseptic necrosis... three-phase bone scintigraphy is performed. Here, only the patients with acute osteomyelitis and primary malignant bone tumors will be presented: the basic scintigram was done before the therapy started, and the second one as a part of the follow-up - in some patients during the therapy and in some after its ending. We noticed that the most reliable part of three-phase bone scan responding to the therapy is angioscintigraphy (blood-flow) and in some cases early static (blood-pool) image. These two phases, especially the first one, are in good correlation with the clinic, in contrast to the third phase which is delayed. From the presented cases it could be concluded that in acute osteomyelitis and primary malignant tumors, blood-flow and blood-pool images are unavoidable phases of the bone scanning when we want to correctly evaluate the effects of the therapy. (author).

  5. An Intelligent System Prototype to support and sharing diagnoses of maligned tumours, based on personalized medicine philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Flores Fonseca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Circulatory systems diseases are one of the most important causes of death in Chilean population according to a report presented by the Chilean National Bureau of Statistics (INE. Undoubtedly, these sad numbers arise an opportunity to analyse ways to improve this situation. Personalized Medicine is a new approach used to adapt standard medical treatments to individual characteristics of patients. Currently, several kinds of personalized-medicine software applications are building using Artificial Intelligent techniques and supported by techniques as Cloud Computing and Big Data. This architecture provides complex and varied information access, such as clinical data, genome data, patients’ treatment or drugs information, among others. This document describes a proposal to produce a method for generating and sharing medical information, particularly of maligned tumors in Chile. The prototype will be developed within the framework of the personalized medicine.

  6. Ovarian yolk sac tumour in a girl - case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Charu; Shah, Hemanshi; Sisodiya Shenoy, Neha; Makhija, Deepa; Waghmare, Mukta

    2017-01-01

    Yolk sac tumours are rare ovarian malignancies accounting for less than 1% of malignant ovarian germ cell tumours. They are mostly seen in adolescents and young women and are usually unilateral making fertility preservation imperative. Raised alpha-feto protein level is the hallmark of this tumour. We describe stage III yolk sac tumour in a girl child.

  7. Quantitative skeletal scintiscanning of the skull using sup(99m)Tc-Sn-pyrophosphate in patients with malignant tumours of the cranial cavities, the base of the skull, and the visceral cranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidenz, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    Scintigrams and tomograms were obtained after injection of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-pyrophosphate in 18 patients with malignant tumours of the skull. The examinations were carried out in 3-month intervals over a period of 2 1/2 years. Quantitative evaluations were carried out in 19 points (frontal projection) and 13 points (lateral projection) using a densitometer. The data obtained were compared with those of healthy subjects and sinusitis patients. The advantages of reproducible figures were demonstrated in follow-up examinations. The quantitative evaluation of scintiscans gives a clear picture of tumour progression and spread. Further, inflammatory and neoplastic processes can be distinguished. The time required for the evaluation can be shortened by means of modern data processing equipment and a gamma camera, so that quantitative evaluation can be clearly said to be superior to qualitative evaluation. (orig./MG) [de

  8. Primary bone tumours in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.; Beluffi, G.; Cohen, D.H.; Padovani, J.; Tamaela, L.; Azouz, M.; Bale, P.; Martin, H.C.; Nayanar, V.V.; Arico, M.

    1985-09-01

    Ten cases of primary bone tumours in infants (1 osteosarcoma, 3 Ewing's sarcoma, 1 chondroblastoma and 5 angiomastosis) are reported. All cases of angiomatosis showed characteristic radiographic findings. In all the other tumours the X-ray appearances were different from those usually seen in older children and adolescents. In the auhtors' opinion the precise diagnosis of malignant bone tumours in infancy is very difficult as no characteristic X-ray features are present in this age period.

  9. [Malignant pheochromocytoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mornex, R; Berthezene, F; Peyrin, L; Tran Minh, V; Martin, J P; Fulchiron, D

    1979-11-01

    The reported incidence of malignant pheochromocytoma varies from series to series. In this series 4 cases (7.2 p. 100) were observed out of a total of 55. In two cases the tumour progressed rapidly but in the other two cases, metastases were detected 3 to 12 years after the apparent cure of a histologically benign pheochromocytoma. The urinary levels of catecholamines and their metabolites gave no indication of the underlying malignancy. The diagnosis was only made from the clinical and radiological detection of metastases (2 hepatic, 2 bone). There is no satisfactory treatment and various therapeutic methods have to be used in succession; surgery for a single metastasis, radiotherapy and antiadrenergic agents to combat clinical manifestations. The natural history of this tumour is relatively long.

  10. Putting tumours in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissell, M J; Radisky, D

    2001-10-01

    The interactions between cancer cells and their micro- and macroenvironment create a context that promotes tumour growth and protects it from immune attack. The functional association of cancer cells with their surrounding tissues forms a new 'organ' that changes as malignancy progresses. Investigation of this process might provide new insights into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and could also lead to new therapeutic targets.

  11. SOLID PSEUDOPAPILLARY TUMOUR OF THE PANCREAS: A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingam Aruna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Solid pseudopapillary tumour of the pancreas is a rare tumour of low malignant potential occurring predominantly in young females. Its incidence has been increasing due to advanced imaging modalities. As this tumour offers a good prognosis, it is important to make a proper diagnosis to offer better treatment and reduce morbidity. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a prospective study for a period of 2 years (From May 2014 to April 2016. Of the 52 pancreatic specimens we received after surgery, 9 cases had a prior radiological diagnosis of solid pseudopapillary tumour of the pancreas. The clinical and histopathological characteristics of SPT were studied along with review of literature. Whipple resection specimens which were radiologically diagnosed as adenocarcinoma of the periampullary region were excluded. RESULTS Nine cases were reported radiologically as papillary neoplasm of pancreas. On histopathology, 8 of them were confirmed as solid pseudopapillary tumours of the pancreas. One was a case of serous cystadenoma and other one was pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour. One case which was suspected as pancreatic endocrine tumour radiologically was diagnosed as SPT. CONCLUSION SPT typically is limited to the pancreas at the time of diagnosis, and even with metastasis, an extended complete surgical excision offers good prognosis. Hence, it is important to distinguish it from other tumours of similar morphology. In this study, we discuss the process of establishing the diagnosis accurately of SPN in young patients presenting with pancreatic mass.

  12. In vivo characterisation of soft tissue tumours by 1.5-T proton MR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, F.; Mazzetti, S.; Grignani, G.; Rosa, G.De; Aglietta, M.; Anselmetti, G.C.; Stasi, M.; Regge, D. [Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment (IRCC), Candiolo, Torino (Italy)

    2012-05-15

    To determine whether proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) can help differentiate between benign and malignant soft tissue lesions, and to assess if there is a correlation between 1H-MRS data and the mitotic index. MR measurements were performed in 43 patients with soft tissue tumours >15 mm in diameter. Six cases were excluded for technical failure. Examinations were performed at 1.5 T using a single-voxel point resolved spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) with TR/TE = 2000/150 ms. The volume of interest was positioned within the lesion avoiding inclusion of necrotic regions. In all patients, a histological diagnosis was obtained and the corresponding mitotic index was also computed. 1H-MRS results and histopathological findings were compared using the chi-squared test and correlation coefficient. Choline was detected in 18/19 patients with malignant tumours and in 3/18 patients with benign lesions. The three benign lesions included one desmoid tumour, one ossificans myositis and one eccrine spiradenoma. Choline was not detected in 15 patients with benign lesions or in one patient with dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Resulting 1H-MRS sensitivity and specificity were 95% and 83% respectively. Absence of choline peak is highly predictive of benign tumours suggesting that 1H-MRS can help to differentiate malignant from benign tumours. (orig.)

  13. In vivo characterisation of soft tissue tumours by 1.5-T proton MR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, F.; Mazzetti, S.; Grignani, G.; Rosa, G.De; Aglietta, M.; Anselmetti, G.C.; Stasi, M.; Regge, D.

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) can help differentiate between benign and malignant soft tissue lesions, and to assess if there is a correlation between 1H-MRS data and the mitotic index. MR measurements were performed in 43 patients with soft tissue tumours >15 mm in diameter. Six cases were excluded for technical failure. Examinations were performed at 1.5 T using a single-voxel point resolved spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) with TR/TE = 2000/150 ms. The volume of interest was positioned within the lesion avoiding inclusion of necrotic regions. In all patients, a histological diagnosis was obtained and the corresponding mitotic index was also computed. 1H-MRS results and histopathological findings were compared using the chi-squared test and correlation coefficient. Choline was detected in 18/19 patients with malignant tumours and in 3/18 patients with benign lesions. The three benign lesions included one desmoid tumour, one ossificans myositis and one eccrine spiradenoma. Choline was not detected in 15 patients with benign lesions or in one patient with dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Resulting 1H-MRS sensitivity and specificity were 95% and 83% respectively. Absence of choline peak is highly predictive of benign tumours suggesting that 1H-MRS can help to differentiate malignant from benign tumours. (orig.)

  14. Benefits of maxillectomy with internal dissection of the masticator space by transmandibular approach in the surgical management of malignant tumours of the upper gingiva and hard palate: a clinical review of 10 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamoto, S; Yamada, S; Takahashi, H; Naruse, T; Shigeta, T; Minamikawa, T; Shibuya, Y; Komori, T; Umeda, M

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to review patients with tumours extending to the posterior portion of the upper gingiva and hard palate, and to evaluate the postoperative outcomes. Ten consecutive patients with tumours in the upper gingiva and hard palate, who underwent maxillectomy with internal dissection of the masticator space by the transmandibular approach, were reviewed retrospectively. Among the 10 patients, the pathological diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma in seven, adenoid cystic carcinoma in one, malignant melanoma in one, and osteosarcoma in one. Loco-regional control was achieved in eight of nine patients (88.9%). Three patients had residual moderate trismus. Cosmetic issues were not noted in any patient. En bloc resection of the maxilla with the internal portion of the masticator space and neck through the parapharyngeal space by the transmandibular approach is a useful and satisfactory technique for the excision of a tumour with involvement of the posterior portion of the upper gingiva and hard palate. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. CYP3A isoforms in Ewing's sarcoma tumours: an immunohistochemical study with clinical correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Hamid; Murray, Graeme I; Vyhlidal, Carrie A; Leeder, J Steven; Anwar, Ahmed E; Bui, Marilyn M; Ahmed, Atif A

    2015-04-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is an aggressive malignancy of bone and soft tissue with high incidence of metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases are a family of enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of exogenous and endogenous compounds, including anti-cancer drugs, and have been implicated in the aggressive behaviour of various malignancies. Tumour samples and clinical information including age, sex, tumour site, tumour size, clinical stage and survival were collected from 36 adult and paediatric patients with Ewing's sarcoma family tumours. Tissue microarrays slides were processed for immunohistochemical labelling for CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and CYP3A7 using liver sections as positive control. The intensity of staining was scored as negative, low or high expression and was analysed statistically for any association with patients' clinical information. Four cases were later excluded due to inadequate viable tissue. CYP3A4 staining was present in 26 (81%) cases with high expression noted in 13 (40%) of 32 cases. High expression was significantly associated with distant metastases (P Ewing's sarcoma tumours and high CYP3A4 expression may be associated with metastasis. Additional studies are needed to further investigate the role of CYP3A4 in the prognosis of these tumours. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2015 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  16. Histopathological pattern of soft tissues tumors and tumour like lesions in the pathology department of lady reading hospital peshawar, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajjad, M.; Ahmad, F.

    2016-01-01

    Soft tissues tumours are tumours of mesenchymal origin excluding epithelial, skeletal tissue, reticuloendothelial system, brain coverings and solid viscera of the body. The objective of this study was to know the histopathological pattern of soft tissues tumours in the Pathology Department of Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on retrospective data from January 2009 to December 2013. All the soft tissues biopsy specimens were received in 10% formalin, labelled, gross performed, sections processed in alcohol, xylene, wax, block prepared, frozen, microtome sections taken and processed for H and E staining, mounted and reported by a Histopathologist. The inclusion criteria was any sufficient soft tissue tumour biopsy specimen of any age, sex, location in body whereas the exclusion criteria was autolysed biopsy specimen. A minimum of four and maximum of eight sections and 5 micron thick were taken from each specimen. Results: A total of 267 soft tissues tumours biopsy specimens were received in the pathology laboratory with age range of 01 to 75 years, with mean age of 30.68+-17.71 years. Male to female ratio was 1.13:1. Amongst the total, benign tumours were 176 (65.91%). Haemangioma, 73 (27.3%) was the commonest tumours followed by lipomas 41 (15.4%) cases. Amongst the total malignant tumours, i.e., 91 (34.08%), rhabdomyosarcoma, 35 (13.1%) was the commonest tumour followed by angiosarcoma 14 (5.2%) cases. Conclusion: Haemangioma is the commonest benign tumour and rhabdomyosarcoma is the commonest malignant tumour in this study. (author)

  17. Electrochemotherapy of tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sersa, G.; Cemazar, M.; Rudolf, Z.; Miklavcic, D.

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemotherapy consists of chemotherapy followed by local application of electric pulses to the tumour to increase drug delivery into cells. Drug uptake can be increased by electroporation for only those drugs whose transport through the plasma membrane is impeded. Among many drugs that have been tested so far, only bleomycin and cisplatin found their way from preclinical testing to clinical trials. In vitro studies demonstrated several fold increase of their cytotoxicity after electroporation of cells. In vivo, electroporation of tumours after local or systemic administration of either of the drugs, i.e. electrochemotherapy, proved to be an effective antitumour treatment. In preclinical studies on several tumour models, electrochemotherapy either with bleomycin or cisplatin was elaborated and parameters for effective local tumour control were determined. In veterinary medicine, electrochemotherapy also proved to be effective in the treatment of primary tumours in cats, dogs and horses. In human clinical studies, electrochemotherapy was performed on the patients with progressive disease and accessible tumour nodules of different malignancies. All clinical studies demonstrated that electrochemotherapy is an effective treatment for local tumour control in cancer patients. (author)

  18. Deregulated expression of p16INK4a and p53 pathway members in benign and malignant myoepithelial tumours of the salivary glands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vékony, H.; Röser, K.; Löning, T.; Raaphorst, F.M.; Leemans, C.R.; van der Waal, I.; Bloemena, E.

    2008-01-01

    Aims: Myoepithelial salivary gland tumours are uncommon and follow an unpredictable biological course. The aim was to examine their molecular background to acquire a better understanding of their clinical behaviour. Methods and results: Expression of protein (E2F1, p16INK4a, p53, cyclin D1, Ki67 and

  19. Surgical management of epithelial parotid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaid, M.A.; Yusuf, A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinicopathological presentation and treatment options in epithelial parotid tumours with emphasis on surgery. Subjects and Methods: Epithelial parotid tumours diagnosed and operated by an ENT surgeon and a general surgeon in 10 years during their posting in different teaching hospitals were included in the study. Clinical presentation, preoperative investigations, operative procedure, histopathology report, postoperative complications and further management were recorded. The data was collected and reviewed from the records of all the patients maintained by the authors. Results: Fifty-two patients presented with parotid tumour. Average age was 38 years. Commonest presentation was painless lump over the parotid region (85%), pain (15%), facial palsy, and enlarged neck nodes. Majority of tumours were benign, only two were recurrent. Parotid pleomorphic Adenoma (PPA) was the commonest benign tumour, others being Warthin's tumour and monomorphic adenoma. Adenoid cystic carcinoma was the commonest malignant tumour 29% followed by mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Others were carcinoma in PPA squamous cell carcinoma, malignant mixed tumour, malignant Iymphoepithelioma and undifferentiated carcinoma. Superficial parotidectomy (SP) was the commonest operation performed in 69%. Other procedures were total conservative parotidectomy in 11%, total radical surgery in 9% and enucleation in only one patient earliest in the series. Neck node dissection was done in 2 patients. Except for one child, rest of the 13 patients received postoperative radiotherapy and one patient of Iymphoepithelioma received chemotherapy in addition. Commonest postoperative complication was temporary facial weakness in 35% (18/52). Permanent facial palsy occurred in 08 patients. Of these 07 had a malignant process and only one patient had excision biopsy. Conclusion: Benign and malignant epithelial parotid tumours can be diagnosed by there clinical presentation . supplemented with

  20. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the kidney: radiologic-pathological correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chea, Y W; Agrawal, Rashi; Poh, Angeline C C

    2008-06-01

    A primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the kidney is a rare malignancy. We report the computed tomographic features and the histopathological correlation of such a tumour occurring in a middle-aged man. Although the radiological appearance has significant overlap with other renal tumours, this tumour should be included in the differential diagnosis of a large renal mass in younger patients.

  1. Perfusion imaging of parotid gland tumours: usefulness of arterial spin labeling for differentiating Warthin's tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Hiroki; Watanabe, Haruo [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gifu (Japan); Kanematsu, Masayuki [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gifu (Japan); Gifu University Hospital, High-level Imaging Diagnosis Center, Gifu (Japan); Kajita, Kimihiro [Gifu University Hospital, High-level Imaging Diagnosis Center, Gifu (Japan); Mizuta, Keisuke; Aoki, Mitsuhiro [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Gifu (Japan); Okuaki, Tomoyuki [Philips Healthcare, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    To assess prospectively the efficacy of arterial spin labelling (ASL) against conventional and diffusion-weighted (DW) MR imaging for differentiating parotid gland tumours. We included 10 pleomorphic adenomas, 12 Warthin's tumours, and nine malignant tumours of the parotid glands. Only tumours larger than 10 mm were included in this study. All parotid gland tumours underwent T1-weighted, T2-weighted, DW, and ASL imaging. Tumour-to-parotid gland signal intensity ratios (SIRs) and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of solid components were correlated with these pathologies. SIRs on T2-weighted images and ADCs were higher in pleomorphic adenomas than in Warthin's tumours (p <.01) and malignant tumours (p <.01). SIRs on ASL were higher in Warthin's tumours than in pleomorphic adenomas (p <.01) and malignant tumours (p <.05). Az value of SIRs on ASL for differentiating Warthin's tumours from the other pathologies was 0.982. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of SIRs on ASL for the diagnosis of Warthin's tumours at an optimal SIR threshold of over 8.70 were 91.7 %, 94.7 %, and 93.5 %, respectively. ASL with SIR measurements could non-invasively evaluate tumour blood flow of parotid gland tumours and differentiate Warthin's tumours from pleomorphic adenomas and malignant tumours. (orig.)

  2. CT and MRI characteristica of tumours of the temporal bone and the cerebello-pontine angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imhof, H.; Henk, C.B.; Dirisamer, A.; Czerny, C.; Gstoettner, W.

    2003-01-01

    Tumours lesions of the temporal bone and of the cerebello-pontine angle are rare.This tumours can be separated into benign and malignant lesions. In this paper the CT and MRI characteristica of tumours of the temporal bone and the cerebello-pontane angle will be demonstrated. High resolution CT (HRCT) as usually performed in the axial plane are using a high resolution bone window level setting, coronal planes are the reconstructed from the axial data set or will be obtained directly. With the MRI FLAIR sequence in the axial plane the whole brain will be scanned either to depict or exclude a tumour invasion into the brain. After this,T2-weighted fast spin echo sequences or fatsuppressed inversion recovery sequences in high resolution technique in the axial plane will be obtained from the temporal bone and axial T1-weighted spinecho sequences before and after the intravenous application of contrast material will be obtained of this region. Finally T1-weighted spinecho sequences in high resolution technique with fatsuppression after the intravenous application of contrast material will be performed in the coronal plane. HRCT and MRI are both used to depict the most exact tumorous borders. HRCT excellently depicts the osseous changes for example exostosis of the external auditory canal, while also with HRCT osseous changes maybe characterized into more benign or malignant types. MRI has a very high soft tissue contrast and may therefore either characterize vascular space-occupying lesions for example glomus jugulare tumours or may differentiate between more benign or malignant lesions. In conclusion HRCT and MRI of the temporal bone are excellent methods to depict and mostly characterize tumour lesions and can help to differentiate between benign and malignant lesion. These imaging methods shall be used complementary and may have a great impact for the therapeutic planning. (orig.) [de

  3. TUMOUR VACCINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, Ernst; Kircheis, Ralf; Crommelin, D.; Van Slooten, Maaike; Storm, Gert

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a tumour vaccine with a tumour antigen base. In addition to a source of tumour antigens, the vaccine contains a release system for the delayed release of the active agent IFN- gamma , the active dose of IFN- gamma being 50 ng to 5 mu g. The IFN- gamma is released over a

  4. MRI of primary meningeal tumours in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, H.K.; Na, D.G.; Byun, H.S.; Han, B.K.; Kim, S.S.; Kim, I.O.; Shin, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Childhood meningeal tumours are uncommon and mostly meningiomas. We reviewed the histological and radiological findings in meningeal tumours in six children aged 12 years or less (four benign meningiomas, one malignant meningioma and one haemangiopericytoma). Compared to the adult counterpart, childhood meningiomas showed atypical features: cysts, haemorrhage, aggressiveness and unusual location. MRI features varied according to the site of the tumour, histology, haemorrhage, and presence of intra- or peritumoral cysts. Diagnosis of the extra-axial tumour was relatively easy in two patients with meningiomas, one malignant meningioma and one haemangiopericytoma. MRI findings strongly suggested an intra-axial tumour in two patients with benign meningiomas, because of severe adjacent edema. Awareness of the variable findings of childhood meningiomas and similar tumours may help in differentiation from brain tumours. (orig.)

  5. Detection of benign hilar bile duct stenoses - A retrospective analysis in 250 patients with suspicion of Klatskin tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuermann, Uwe; Widyaningsih, Rizky; Hoppe-Lotichius, Maria; Heise, Michael; Otto, Gerd

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify clinical, laboratory and radiological parameters to distinguish benign from malignant stenoses of the proximal bile duct. Between 1997 and 2011, 250 patients were referred to our clinic with hilar bile duct stenoses suspicious for Klatskin tumour. Medical histories, clinical data, pre-interventional laboratory tests, imaging findings, as well as therapeutic approach and patient outcome were compared to final histological results. All data were retrieved from our prospectively maintained database and analysed retrospectively. We found benign bile duct lesions in 34 patients (13.6%). Among the entire study population, uni- and multivariate analyses of 18 clinicopathological parameters revealed that patient age, serum alkaline phosphatase, tumour marker CA19-9 and presence of tumour mass in computed tomography were independent predictors for malignant biliary stenoses (p hilar biliary stenoses of 74.6%, 80.0% and 83.5%, respectively. Surgical resection could be avoided by preoperative work-up and surgical exploration in 10 out of 34 patients with benign lesions. Rates of major liver resections performed were 66.7% in the benign lesion group and 90.7% in the Klatskin tumour group. Despite improvements of preoperative diagnostics, it remains difficult to differentiate between benign and malignant hilar bile duct stenosis. Even explorative laparotomy was not able to safely exclude Klatskin tumour in all cases and therefore major liver resection was inevitable.

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology in hepatic tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazir, R.T.; Sharif, M.A.; Iqbal, M.; Amin, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in liver masses to isolate malignant from benign tumours and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from metastatic tumours. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Histopathology, Combined Military Hospital, Peshawar, from June 2004 to June 2005. Methodology: All the patients with liver masses confirmed by ultrasonography, irrespective of age and gender, were included. Patients with inflammatory lesions were excluded from the study. Selected patients underwent fine-needle aspiration under ultrasound guidance followed by needle biopsy. The cytological slides were stained by haematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stain, while Papanicolaou's stain was employed in selective cases. Needle biopsy fragments were fixed in formalin followed by paraffin embedding and staining with H and E stain. Sensitivity and specificity of FNAC in the diagnosis of liver masses was determined using histological diagnosis on liver biopsy as gold standard. Results: There were one hundred subjects. The mean age at presentation was 55 +- 12 years with male to female ratio of 1.7:1. Cytological diagnosis in 19 cases was benign/non-neoplastic and 81 was malignant. Out of the latter, 49 (60.49%) were HCC and 32 (39.51%) were metastatic tumours on cytology. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of FNAC in the diagnosis of malignant lesions was 95.2%, 100% and 96% respectively using histological diagnosis on liver biopsy as gold standard. Sensitivity of FNAC to differentiate HCC from metastatic tumours in liver was 96% while specificity was 100% having a diagnostic accuracy of 97.5%. The discrepancy in cyto-histological comparison was mainly seen in well differentiated and poorly-differentiated HCCs. Conclusion: FNAC of the liver masses is a simple, safe, accurate, economical screening test without significant morbidity that can be used to identify the vast majority of

  7. Pathology outcomes in patients with transurethral bladder tumour resection in a Turkish population: A retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Budak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Transurethral bladder tumour resection (TURBT is the common surgical method used in the diagnosis, staging and treatment of patients with bladder tumour. Most of the rare tumours other than the urothelial carcinomas of the bladder are in advanced stage on diagnosis and necessitate aggressive treatment. In our study, we aimed to the histologic types of bladder cancer and to determine the regional incidence of rare bladder cancer types in our region. Materials and methods: We retrospectively evaluated 815 patients who underwent TURBT surgery between January 2010 and March 2016 in our clinic with a diagnosis of bladder cancer and at least 1 year follow-up. Patients with tumour histopathological examination including histological tumour type, grade and were reported. Thirty-nine patients with an unclear pathology report (neighboring organ invasion, cautery artifact, etc and 17 patients whose data could not be accessed were excluded from the study. The patients who had received chemotherapy or radiotherapy due to any type of malignancy (23 were also excluded from the study. Results: The outcomes of 736 patients operated in our clinics due to bladder tumour were evaluated. The mean age was 65.2 ± 8.4; 135 were female and 601 were male. Among them 711 patients with urothelial carcinoma were reported (94.2%. According to TNM classification, stage Ta was observed in 270 patients (37.9%, stage T1 in 297 (41.7%, and stage T2 in 144 (20.3%. Non-urothelial cancers were reported in 25 cases (3.3%. Conclusion: The incidence of bladder carcinoma varies between regions. The results of our study are similar to those of the western countries. Increased smoking and exposure to environmental carcinogenetic agents may lead to altered incidences and histological types of bladder tumours. Revision of regional tumour records may be useful to develop and evaluate future treatment strategies.

  8. Renal angiomyoadenomatous tumour: Imaging features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, V. Anik; Hirsch, Michelle S.; Silverman, Stuart G.

    2012-01-01

    Renal angiomyoadenomatous tumour is a rare, recently described neoplasm with a distinctive histological appearance. Although reported in the pathology literature, to our knowledge, no prior reports have described its imaging appearance. We describe the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging features of an incidentally detected renal angiomyoadenomatous tumour that appeared as a well-marginated, solid T2-hypointense enhancing mass, in a 50-year-old woman. It is indistinguishable from a variety of benign and malignant renal neoplasms. PMID:23093565

  9. Paediatric laryngeal granular cell tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauda Ayuba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular cell tumour (GCT affecting the larynx is not common, especially in children. Most cases are apt to be confused with respiratory papilloma and may even be mistaken for a malignant neoplasia. We present a case of laryngeal GCT in a 12-year-old child to emphasize that the tumour should be regarded in the differential of growths affecting the larynx in children.

  10. Simultaneous application of high energy electron and photon beams in the radiotherapy of malignant tumours: problems of clinical irradiation-planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petranyi, J.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of the work was to elaborate a new procedure of radiotherapy of neoplasms of the head and neck, fulfilling the following requirements: 1. the dose-maximum should be 1-6 cm below the skin, 2. in the tumour-volume the dose-decrease should not exceed 10%, 3. towards the environment the dose should sharply decrease so that the radiation burden of the healthy tissues should not exceed their tolerance. These criteria were met by the simultaneous application of 5-25 MeV energy electron beam (produced by B5M25 Betatron) and 29 MeV Bremsstrahlung or by the latter plus 60 Co gamma-radiation. In the case of irradiation of inhomogeneous tissues only the combination of the high energy photon radiations was successfull. The alteration of the ratio and/or the energy of the components results in the change of the maximal dose point. The thesis provides irradiation-plans for radiotherapy of unilateral cerebral, oral and sinus maxillaris tumours and cervical, supra- and infraclavicular and axillary lymph nodes. (L.E.)

  11. Utility of the tetrophosmine-99mTc in the determination of malignant tumours located in the muscle-skeletal system, preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia R, J.C.; Gonzalez, I.F.; Rico, G.; Linares, L.M.; Delgado C, E.; Baena, L.; Adame, G.; Gonzalez R, D.; Perez C, J.P.; Valencia, S.

    2005-01-01

    From its authorization by the FDA, as radiopharmaceutical to be used in studies of myocardial perfusion, multiple articles have appeared in the literature it prescribes that its validate the use of the tetrophosmine- 99m Tc in the valuation of different tumors, so much in the determination of malignancy, like in the evolution and in the response to the treatment. For that reason the objective of this protocol is to evaluate the utility of the tetrophosmine- 99m Tc in the determination of malignancy in non treated tumors located in the skeletal muscle system, in a population of 40 patients coming from the service of bony tumors of the National Center of Rehabilitation. For the time being its report the discoveries in 27 studies. (Author)

  12. Tumours of the fetal body: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avni, Fred E.; Massez, Anne; Cassart, Marie [University Clinics of Brussels - Erasme Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Brussels (Belgium)

    2009-11-15

    Tumours of the fetal body are rare, but lesions have been reported in all spaces, especially in the mediastinum, the pericardial space, the adrenals, the kidney, and the liver. Lymphangioma and teratoma are the commonest histological types encountered, followed by cardiac rhabdomyoma. Adrenal neuroblastoma is the commonest malignant tumour. Imaging plays an essential role in the detection and work-up of these tumours. In addition to assisting clinicians it also helps in counselling parents. Most tumours are detected by antenatal US, but fetal MRI is increasingly used as it brings significant additional information in terms of tumour extent, composition and complications. (orig.)

  13. Primary vertebral tumours in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.; Beluffi, G.; Masel, J.; Diard, F.; Ferrari-Ciboldi, F.; Le Dosseur, P.; Labatut, J.

    1984-03-01

    20 cases of primary benign and malignant bone tumours in children were reported. The most common tumours were Ewing's sarcoma, aneurismal bone cyst, benign osteoblastoma and osteoid osteoma. Some rare primary bone tumours in children (osteochondroma, chondroblastoma 6F, primary lymphoma of bone and neurofibromatosis with unusual cervical spinal changes) were also reported. The authors believe that radiographic findings together with clinical history and clinical examination may yield a high percentage of accurate diagnoses. Although microscopy is essential in the final diagnosis, the microscopic report should be also accepted with caution.

  14. Conservative approach in localised rhabdomyosarcoma of the bladder and prostate: results from International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) studies: malignant mesenchymal tumour (MMT) 84, 89 and 95.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenney, Meriel; Oberlin, Odile; Audry, Georges; Stevens, Michael C G; Rey, Annie; Merks, Johannes H M; Kelsey, Anna; Gallego, Soledad; Haie-Meder, Christine; Martelli, Hélène

    2014-02-01

    The three sequential SIOP MMT studies provide the largest dataset available to date, to define the patient and tumour characteristics, treatment modalities and event-free and overall survival for children with non metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) of the bladder and/or prostate (BP). The combined dataset of 172 patients with BP RMS treated on the SIOP MMT 84, 89 and 95 studies was reviewed to determine tumour characteristics, details of treatment and outcome. Median age at diagnosis was 2.5 years (range 2 months-17.8 years) and 138 (79%) were males. Median follow-up was 11.4 years (range 3 months-22 years). The 5-year overall survival of the combined cohort was 77% (CI 70-83%). The 5-year event-free survival was 63% and included 7 patients (4%) who did not achieve complete remission (CR), and 57 (33%) who relapsed. Age ≥ 10 years (RR 3.7) and alveolar pathology (RR 3.3) were identified as independent prognostic factors on multivariate analysis. Fifty-nine (50%) of the 119 survivors were cured without significant local therapy, improving from 31% in MMT84 study to 61% in MMT95 study. The clinical strategy of the MMT studies aims to minimise the burden of therapy whilst maintaining survival rates. Overall survival is comparable to that of other international groups, despite the lower use of radiotherapy and or radical surgery, although number of events experienced is higher. Further assessment of the late effects of therapy is required to confirm whether this approach results in lower morbidity in the long-term. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Introduction of Hypermatrix and Operator Notation into a Discrete Mathematics Simulation Model of Malignant Tumour Response to Therapeutic Schemes In Vivo. Some Operator Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios S. Stamatakos

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The tremendous rate of accumulation of experimental and clinical knowledge pertaining to cancer dictates the development of a theoretical framework for the meaningful integration of such knowledge at all levels of biocomplexity. In this context our research group has developed and partly validated a number of spatiotemporal simulation models of in vivo tumour growth and in particular tumour response to several therapeutic schemes. Most of the modeling modules have been based on discrete mathematics and therefore have been formulated in terms of rather complex algorithms (e.g. in pseudocode and actual computer code. However, such lengthy algorithmic descriptions, although sufficient from the mathematical point of view, may render it difficult for an interested reader to readily identify the sequence of the very basic simulation operations that lie at the heart of the entire model. In order to both alleviate this problem and at the same time provide a bridge to symbolic mathematics, we propose the introduction of the notion of hypermatrix in conjunction with that of a discrete operator into the already developed models. Using a radiotherapy response simulation example we demonstrate how the entire model can be considered as the sequential application of a number of discrete operators to a hypermatrix corresponding to the dynamics of the anatomic area of interest. Subsequently, we investigate the operators’ commutativity and outline the “summarize and jump” strategy aiming at efficiently and realistically address multilevel biological problems such as cancer. In order to clarify the actual effect of the composite discrete operator we present further simulation results which are in agreement with the outcome of the clinical study RTOG 83–02, thus strengthening the reliability of the model developed.

  16. Introduction of hypermatrix and operator notation into a discrete mathematics simulation model of malignant tumour response to therapeutic schemes in vivo. Some operator properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakos, Georgios S; Dionysiou, Dimitra D

    2009-10-21

    The tremendous rate of accumulation of experimental and clinical knowledge pertaining to cancer dictates the development of a theoretical framework for the meaningful integration of such knowledge at all levels of biocomplexity. In this context our research group has developed and partly validated a number of spatiotemporal simulation models of in vivo tumour growth and in particular tumour response to several therapeutic schemes. Most of the modeling modules have been based on discrete mathematics and therefore have been formulated in terms of rather complex algorithms (e.g. in pseudocode and actual computer code). However, such lengthy algorithmic descriptions, although sufficient from the mathematical point of view, may render it difficult for an interested reader to readily identify the sequence of the very basic simulation operations that lie at the heart of the entire model. In order to both alleviate this problem and at the same time provide a bridge to symbolic mathematics, we propose the introduction of the notion of hypermatrix in conjunction with that of a discrete operator into the already developed models. Using a radiotherapy response simulation example we demonstrate how the entire model can be considered as the sequential application of a number of discrete operators to a hypermatrix corresponding to the dynamics of the anatomic area of interest. Subsequently, we investigate the operators' commutativity and outline the "summarize and jump" strategy aiming at efficiently and realistically address multilevel biological problems such as cancer. In order to clarify the actual effect of the composite discrete operator we present further simulation results which are in agreement with the outcome of the clinical study RTOG 83-02, thus strengthening the reliability of the model developed.

  17. Håndens maligne tumorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Britt Mejer; Rasmussen, Per Joen Svabo; Lausten, Gunnar Schwarz

    2011-01-01

    Malignant tumours of the hand are rare and are often misdiagnosed. A painful swelling of the hand or digits are often diagnosed with an infection, benign tumours such as ganglion cysts, or arthritis. Wounds that do not heal despite adequate treatment should be biopsied to rule out malignancy....... A correct diagnosis without delay is important because the life expectancy, due to a metastasis on the hand or fingers is approximately six months....

  18. Angiographic appearances of rare renal tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.; Taenzer, V.

    1980-01-01

    Oncocytomas, called oxyphil proximal tubular adenomas in the Anglo Saxon literature, and benign hypernephromas are non-malignant, usually symptomless, rare tumours belonging to the renal adenomas. Oncocytomas have angiographic appearances sufficiently uniform to permit a tentative diagnosis. Histologically benign hypernephromas do not possess characteristic angiographic appearances and, in the presence of tumour in the renal vein or necrotic avascular areas, must be regarded as potentially malignant. (orig.) [de

  19. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... community politics. On the one hand, their mobility and decision-making powers decrease with the increase in the labor mobility of men and their newly gained education is politically devalued when compared to the informal education that men gain through mobility, but on the other hand, schooling strengthens...

  20. Tumour markers in gynaecological practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adewole, I.F.

    1999-02-01

    Gynaecological cancers are fairly common in developing countries and represent about 26 % f all cancers. Application of cervical cytology screening nationally has made cervical cancer one of the most preventable malignant diseases thus eliminating the challenges of advanced cancer management. Tumour markers has played a most crucial role in this respect

  1. Xeroderma Pigmentosum With Early And Rapid Development Of Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Arghyaprasum

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of xeroderma pigmentosum in a 9 year old developing multiple tumours over a short period of 6 months is reported. The tumours showed two different types of malignancies-squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma. Two other siblings exhibited cutaneous lesions of xeroderma pigmentosum without any malignant change.

  2. Histopathological review of breast tumours in children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of all tumours followed by tubular adenoma (n = 11; 8.2%) and adenosis (n = 10; 7.4%). No case of malignancy was recorded in this study. Conclusion: Fibroadenoma is the most common breast tumour in children and adolescents in our environment. Key words: Adolescents, breast tumours, childhood, fi broadenoma ...

  3. [Granulomatous lobular mastitis: a benign abnormality that mimics malignancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingerhoedt, N M; Janssen, S; Mravunac, M; Wauters, C A P; Strobbe, L J A

    2008-05-03

    A palpable abnormality of the breast was found in three women, one aged 57 and two aged 41. The first two patients predominantly showed the characteristics of a purulent inflammation, and on mammogram the third patient appeared to have mastitis carcinomatosa. Histopathological investigation revealed a lobular, non-caseating granulomatous inflammation. They were treated with prednisone and the first and third patients also received azathioprine. After some time, the condition recurred in the contralateral breast in the second and third patients. Once again, medicinal treatment was given. When a palpable tumour of the breast is found the primary goal is to exclude malignancy. Granulomatous lobular mastitis is a rare and benign tumour of the breast that clinically mimics carcinoma. Often, conventional imaging does not lead to the diagnosis. A histological needle biopsy is the best way to reach a diagnosis. Immunosuppressive therapy is effective and is preferred over surgery.

  4. Radiodiagnosis of tumours of gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, Yu.N.; Antonovich, V.B.

    1981-01-01

    Systematic description of X-ray picture of tumours of gastrointestinal tract organs is given. The possibilities of contemporary methods of X-ray examination in their revealing are shown. Clinical and X-ray trend of tumour diagnosis is underlined. The basic and accessory symptoms are analyzed from which X-ray semiotics of tumours is turned out. The expressiveness of X-ray symptoms is shown in relation to morphological forms and localization of the tumours. Much attention is given to radiodiagnosis of early tumours of stomach. Differential diagnosis of tumours with non-tumoural diseases is given. X-ray semiotics of lesions of gastrointestinal tract organs in malignant diseases of blood system is presented [ru

  5. Malignant priapism: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P

    2011-12-01

    Metastatic involvement of the penis is most commonly from a primary malignant genitourinary tumour. It is a rare phenomenon usually reflecting disseminated malignancy associated with a poor prognosis. Metastasis to the penis mimicking priapism is extremely rare, particularly in the absence of disseminated disease.

  6. Low tumour cell content in a lung tumour bank: implications for molecular characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Felicia; Duhig, Edwina E; Clarke, Belinda E; McCaul, Elizabeth; Passmore, Linda; Courtney, Deborah; Windsor, Morgan; Naidoo, Rishendren; Franz, Louise; Parsonson, Kylie; Yang, Ian A; Bowman, Rayleen V; Fong, Kwun M

    2017-10-01

    Lung cancer encompasses multiple malignant epithelial tumour types, each with specific targetable, potentially actionable mutations, such that precision management mandates accurate tumour typing. Molecular characterisation studies require high tumour cell content and low necrosis content, yet lung cancers are frequently a heterogeneous mixture of tumour and stromal cells. We hypothesised that there may be systematic differences in tumour cell content according to histological subtype, and that this may have implications for tumour banks as a resource for comprehensive molecular characterisation studies in lung cancer. To investigate this, we estimated tumour cell and necrosis content of 4267 samples resected from 752 primary lung tumour specimens contributed to a lung tissue bank. We found that banked lung cancer samples had low tumour cell content (33%) generally, although it was higher in carcinoids (77.5%) than other lung cancer subtypes. Tumour cells comprise a variable and often small component of banked resected tumour samples, and are accompanied by stromal reaction, inflammation, fibrosis, and normal structures. This has implications for the adequacy of unselected tumour bank samples for diagnostic and molecular investigations, and further research is needed to determine whether tumour cell content has a significant impact on analytical results in studies using tissue from tumour bank resources. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Adaptive Evolution Coupled with Retrotransposon Exaptation Allowed for the Generation of a Human-Protein-Specific Coding Gene That Promotes Cancer Cell Proliferation and Metastasis in Both Haematological Malignancies and Solid Tumours: The Extraordinary Case of MYEOV Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyros I. Papamichos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of cancer in human is high as compared to chimpanzee. However previous analysis has documented that numerous human cancer-related genes are highly conserved in chimpanzee. Till date whether human genome includes species-specific cancer-related genes that could potentially contribute to a higher cancer susceptibility remains obscure. This study focuses on MYEOV, an oncogene encoding for two protein isoforms, reported as causally involved in promoting cancer cell proliferation and metastasis in both haematological malignancies and solid tumours. First we document, via stringent in silico analysis, that MYEOV arose de novo in Catarrhini. We show that MYEOV short-isoform start codon was evolutionarily acquired after Catarrhini/Platyrrhini divergence. Throughout the course of Catarrhini evolution MYEOV acquired a gradually elongated translatable open reading frame (ORF, a gradually shortened translation-regulatory upstream ORF, and alternatively spliced mRNA variants. A point mutation introduced in human allowed for the acquisition of MYEOV long-isoform start codon. Second, we demonstrate the precious impact of exonized transposable elements on the creation of MYEOV gene structure. Third, we highlight that the initial part of MYEOV long-isoform coding DNA sequence was under positive selection pressure during Catarrhini evolution. MYEOV represents a Primate Orphan Gene that acquired, via ORF expansion, a human-protein-specific coding potential.

  8. Parotid gland tumours: a six years experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, K.A.

    2006-01-01

    To find out the different types of Parotid tumours in out setup and their prevalence in different age groups. All patients admitted with Parotid swellings, irrespective of age and sex. The detailed data of the patients was collected and analyzed. A total of 27 patients, 15 males and 12 females, with ages ranging from 15 to 65 years were included in the study. Most of the patients were in the 31-50 years of age group. Pleomorphic adenoma was the commonest benign tumour with an incidence of 66.6%, while Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma with an incidence of 11.11% was the most common malignant tumour. Parotid gland is the principal site of salivary gland tumours. Males are affected more and Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign and Mucoepidermoid carcinoma the most common malignant tumour. (author)

  9. The role of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of cancer Cachexia and tumour growth in patients with malignant diseases: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Symington

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies show that ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have the capacity to modulate cancer outcomes. The body responds to cancer in the same way that it responds to inflammation and wound healing. Nutrients with anti-inflammatory effects could therefore be expected to play a role in cancer treatment. This review focuses on the role of ω-3 PUFAs in tumourigenesis and cancer cachexia. Studies indicate that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA supplementation may promote arrest of tumour growth and reduce cell proliferation. Patients need to consume at least 2 g of EPA per day for it to have a therapeutic effect. Positive outcomes related to cachexia include diminished weight loss, increased appetite, improved quality of life and prolonged survival, although there is controversy regarding these clinical outcomes. The effects of ω-3 PUFAs on tumourigenesis and cachexia are viewed in the context of altered lipid and protein metabolism. This altered metabolism usually experienced by cancer patients results in increased formation of proinflammatory eicosanoids and cytokines. Cytokines play an indirect role by stimulating the production of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids, which support inflammation, cell proliferation and angiogenesis, and inhibit apoptosis. It can be concluded that ω-3 PUFA supplementation offers a means of augmenting cancer therapy, inhibiting tumourigenesis and possibly contributing to cachexia alleviation. Opsomming Onlangse studies toon dat ω-3-poli-onversadigde vetsure (POVSe oor die vermoë beskik om kankeruitkomste te moduleer. Die liggaam reageer op kanker op dieselfde wyse as wat dit op inflammasie en wondgenesing reageer. Daar kan dus verwag word dat voedingstowwe met ‘n anti-inflammatoriese uitwerking ‘n rol in die behandeling van kanker kan speel. In hierdie oorsig word daar op die rol van ω-3-POVSe in tumorigenese en kankerkageksie gefokus. Studies dui daarop dat eikosapentanoënsuur- (EPS

  10. Askin Tumour: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Carolina; Ramirez, Sandra Milena; Quesada, Diana Constanza; Unigarro Luz Adriana

    2011-01-01

    In this article we report a case of a 19 year-old woman with a final diagnosis of an extra skeletal Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor/Ewing sarcoma of the chest, also known as Askin tumour. The histologic features and the immunohistochemical profile were consistent with this aggressive malignancy of the chest wall that affects young people. Because the low incidence of this entity, as well as the clear radiological findings, we considered it interesting to describe this documented case and undertake a review of the literature.

  11. Positron emission tomography of malignant tumours at head and neck. Evaluation of the diagnostic value of positron emission tomography by comparison with computed tomography; Positronenemissionstomographie bei malignen Tumoren im Kopf- und Halsbereich. Beurteilung der diagnostischen Wertigkeit der Positronenemissionstomographie im Vergleich zur Computertomographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettler, Nele

    2011-12-02

    Imaging methods for early, accurate diagnosis and aftercare of malignant growths is currently one of the most important research topics. The objective of this thesis is to evaluate the diagnostic value of FDG-positron emission tomography by comparison with computed tomography for patients with squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma or sarcoma at head and neck. Measurement criteria are sensitivity and specificity. A retrospective evaluation of 100 examinations on 85 patients of University clinic Aachen was performed. The examination reports were supported by reports from histology, positron emission tomography and computed tomography. In each case, the histological results were assumed to provide a reliable benchmark. Sensitivity and specificity for the primary tumour site, metastatic lymphatic nodes and defined anatomic structures were compared across all patients. Comparisons were also performed on sub groups separated by gender, cancer type and the time and frequency at which tumours arose. The statistic analysis was done with MedCalc. Results: The results for sensitivity and specificity of the primary tumour site were 86.42% and 42.86%, and 64.71% and 66.07%, for positron emission tomography and computed tomography respectively. The results for the lymphatic nodes were 51.52% and 92.86% and 64.71% and 66.07%. When the constituent anatomic structures were evaluated separately, the specificity was significantly higher. The separation by gender showed no difference. Because the classification by tumor type resulted in samples that were of varying size, a comparison was difficult. For the diagnosis of primary tumours, the examination with positron emission tomography was superior, whereas computed tomography proved more effective for the diagnosis of recurrent tumours. For the diagnosis of the main tumour site, both methods were shown to be equally suitable. For the assessment of lymphatic nodes, positron emission tomography was superior to computed tomography

  12. Imaging of solid kidney tumours in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugosson, C.; Nyman, R.; Jacobsson, B.; Jorulf, H.; Sackey, K.; McDonald, P.

    1995-01-01

    Eighteen children aged 6 months to 12 years with 20 solid renal tumours; 13 Wilms' tumours (WT), 2 clear cell sarcomas of the kidney, 1 malignant rhabdoid tumour of the kidney and 2 cases of bilateral nephroblastomatosis with Wilms' tumour underwent evaluation with US, CT and MR imaging. Contrast-enhanced CT and non-enhanced MR were equally accurate in determining the size and origin of the tumour but were unreliable in separation of stages I, II and III. US could only accurately assess the size of the tumours. MR characteristics varied somewhat between WTs and non-WTs but contrast-enhanced MR imaging might be useful for separation of WTs from nephroblastomatosis. (orig.)

  13. Clinicopathological features of liver tumours: a ten-year study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahir, S.T.; Aalipour, E.

    2015-01-01

    Various diseases affect the liver, among them, malignant and benign tumours with hepatic nodules are the most important. We aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological findings related to hepatic tumours and nodules. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out during November 2014 to August 2015 by reviewing the hospital medical records of 164 registered patients with liver biopsies referred to Shahid Sadoughi educational General Hospital, Yazd, Iran, between 2004 and 2014. The samples were selected through the census method. Age, gender, clinical symptoms, initial clinical diagnosis, pathology reports and ultrasound results were considered as variables. Data were analysed by using SPSS-17. Results: There were 87 (53%) men and 77 (47%) women. The mean ages of presentation for malignant and benign tumours were 57.9 ±17.2 and 44.9±19.4 years, respectively. Seventy benign tumours and 147 malignant tumours were recorded. The most frequent chief complaint was abdominal pain (54.9%) in both malignant (56.50%) and benign tumours (41.20%). Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hemangioma were the most prevalent malignant and benign hepatic tumours, respectively. In our study, correlation between pathology reports and primary diagnoses was 40.9%, and a significant relationship was found between sonography and pathological findings (p=0.038). Conclusions: We found that only when primary clinical diagnosis and sonography were in favour of malignancy, they were correlated with pathology results. Clinicopathological assessments can help physicians in their diagnosis in order to facilitate the management of hepatic tumours. (author)

  14. Surgical approach to pineal tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluchino, F; Broggi, G; Fornari, M; Franzini, A; Solero, C L; Allegranza, A

    1989-01-01

    During a period of 10 years (1977-1986) 40 cases of tumour of the pineal region have been treated at the Istituto Neurologico "C. Besta"-of Milan. Out of these 40 cases, 27 (67.5%) were in the paediatric (10-15 years) or juvenile (15-20 years) age at the time of operation. Since 1983 a specific diagnostic and therapeutic protocol has been adopted and thereafter direct surgical removal of the tumour was performed only when the neuroradiological investigations were highly suggestive of a benign extrinsic lesion. Sixteen cases in this series underwent direct surgical removal; in the remaining 24 cases stereotactic biopsy of the tumour was performed in the first instance. On the basis of the histological diagnosis obtained by this procedure surgical excision of the tumour (9 cases) or radiotherapy (15 cases) was then performed. 25 cases underwent surgical removal of the lesion. In all the cases the infratentorial supracerebellar approach as introduced by Krause and then modified by Stein was adopted. On analysis of the data of this series it was observed that in 25% of the cases completely benign resectable tumours were found; in 25% of the cases astrocytoma (grade I-II) which could be treated at least by partial removal were present; in 30% of the cases radiosensitive lesions were encountered. In the remaining 20% of the cases highly malignant tumours were found which should be treated only by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.

  15. Recent advances and opportunities in proteomic analyses of tumour heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Nicholas W; Conrads, Thomas P

    2018-04-01

    Solid tumour malignancies comprise a highly variable admixture of tumour and non-tumour cellular populations, forming a complex cellular ecosystem and tumour microenvironment. This tumour heterogeneity is not incidental, and is known to correlate with poor patient prognosis for many cancer types. Indeed, non-malignant cell populations, such as vascular endothelial and immune cells, are known to play key roles supporting and, in some cases, driving aggressive tumour biology, and represent targets of emerging therapeutics, such as antiangiogenesis and immune checkpoint inhibitors. The biochemical interplay between these cellular populations and how they contribute to molecular tumour heterogeneity remains enigmatic, particularly from the perspective of the tumour proteome. This review focuses on recent advances in proteomic methods, namely imaging mass spectrometry, single-cell proteomic techniques, and preanalytical sample processing, that are uniquely positioned to enable detailed analysis of discrete cellular populations within tumours to improve our understanding of tumour proteomic heterogeneity. This review further emphasizes the opportunity afforded by the application of these techniques to the analysis of tumour heterogeneity in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archival tumour tissues, as these represent an invaluable resource for retrospective analyses that is now routinely accessible, owing to recent technological and methodological advances in tumour tissue proteomics. Copyright © 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Benign chondroblastoma - malignant radiological appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, K.; Treugut, H.; Mueller, G.E.

    1980-04-01

    The very rare benign chondroblastoma occasionally invades soft tissues and may grow beyond the epiphysis into the metaphysis. In the present case such a tumour did not show the typical radiological appearances, but presented malignant features both on plain films and on the angiogram. The importance of biopsy of tumours which cannot be identified with certainty must be stressed before radical surgery is carried out.

  17. The Askin tumour. Neuroactodermic tumour of the thoracic wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez, P.; Nicolas, A. I.; Vivas, I.; Damaso Aquerreta, J.; Martinez-Cuesta, A.

    1999-01-01

    The Askin tumours is an extremely rare and malignant process in the thoracic pulmonary region during infancy and youth. The differential diagnosis has to be considered with other thoracic wall tumours that are more common in pediatrics like the undifferentiated neuroblastoma, the embionic rabdomiosarcoma, the Ewing sarcoma and the linfoma. A retrospective examination was carried out on 473 thoracic wall tumours from 1994 to 1997 at our centre, resulting in 4 patients with an anatomopathologically tested Askin tumour (ages from 13-21). All the cases were studied using simple radiography and CT. In two cases MRI was also used. The most common clinical manifestation was a palpable painful mass in the thoracic wall. In the simple radiograph the main finding was a large mass of extrapleural soft material, with costal destruction ( n=3) and a pleural effusion (n=2). In the CT study the mass was heterogeneous, with internal calcifications in one case. CT and MRI showed invasion in the mediastinum (n=1), medular channel (n=1) and phrenic and sulphrenic extension (n=1). The Askin tumour should be included in the differential diagnosis of thoracic wall masses in infant-youth ages. There are no specific morphological characteristics. Both CT and MRI are useful for the diagnosis, staging and follow up. (Author) 11 refs

  18. Elevated tumour marker: an indication for imaging?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMahon, Colm J

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of imaging examinations in patients with elevated tumour markers when (a) the tumour marker is not validated for as a primary diagnostic test; (b) the patient had no personal history of cancer and (c) the patient had no other imaging indication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients without known cancer who had abnormal carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9, CA125 and\\/or CA15-3 serology over a one-year period were included. A retrospective medical record review was performed to assess the number of these cases who underwent imaging because of \\'elevated tumour marker\\' in the absence of a clinical indication for imaging. The number and result of these imaging studies were evaluated. RESULTS: Eight hundred and nineteen patients were included. Of those, 25 patients (mean age: 67.8 [range 41-91] y), were imaged to evaluate: \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. They underwent 29 imaging studies (mean [+\\/-standard deviation (SD)] per patient = 1.2 [+\\/-0.4]), and had 42 elevated tumour marker serology tests (mean [+\\/-SD] per patient = 1.7 [+\\/-0.7]). Four patients had >1 imaging test. No patient had an imaging study which diagnosed a malignancy or explained the elevated tumour marker. CONCLUSION: The non-judicious use of tumour markers can prompt further unnecessary investigations including imaging. In this study, there was no positive diagnostic yield for imaging performed for investigation of \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. \\'Elevated tumour marker\\

  19. Primary malignant intramedullary lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orrego P, E.; Heinicke Y, H.; Arbaiza A, D.; Yepez R, V.

    1999-01-01

    A case of primary malignant intramedullary lymphoma, localized in the dorsal part of the spinal cord is presented. The clinical symptoms were associated with motor and sensitive deficit. Clinical investigations excluded the presence of lymphoma in other locations in the central nervous system and the extra neural organs. Postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy improved relict neurological symptoms. (authors)

  20. Imaging in unilateral Wilms tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisse, Herve J.; Smets, Anne M.; Kaste, Sue C.; Owens, Catherine M.

    2008-01-01

    Wilms tumour is one of the most common malignancies in children, with an excellent prognosis after therapy. There is a very diverse approach to treatment according to geographical location. This variation in therapeutic attitude toward Wilms tumour, particularly between the United States and Europe, has consequences for the choice of imaging modality at diagnosis. In Europe, the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) treatment protocol is based on chemotherapy followed by surgery. Imaging (US, CT and MRI), clinical history and examination will help predict whether the findings are consistent with Wilms tumour. Furthermore, in the UK preoperative image-guided biopsy is advised to help identify the small group of patients who, despite typical imaging features of Wilms tumour, have other types of neoplasia that require alternative management. In the United States, the National Wilms Tumor Study (NWTS) advises surgery prior to chemo- and radiotherapy. Hence imaging must provide detailed anatomical information for surgical planning. This article discusses the role of imaging at diagnosis and the relative strengths and weaknesses of the available radiological techniques. We also focus on imaging the lung for metastatic disease and the consequences (to the patient's ultimate outcome) of CT-diagnosed small pulmonary nodules and discuss the radiological diagnosis and consequences of tumour rupture present at diagnosis. (orig.)

  1. Gastric Calcifying Fibrous Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Attila

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Intramucosal gastric tumours are most commonly found to be gastrointestinal stromal tumours or leiomyomas (smooth muscle tumours; however, a variety of other uncommon mesenchymal tumours can occur in the stomach wall. A rare benign calcifying fibrous tumour is reported and the endoscopic appearance, ultrasound findings and morphology are documented. A review of the literature found only two similar cases.

  2. Radioiodinated (I{sup 131} and I{sup 125}) Fibrinogen for the Detection of Malignant Tumours in Man; Emploi de Fibrinogene Marque avec {sup 131}I ou {sup 125}I pour la Detection de Tumeurs Malignes chez l'Homme; Primenenie mechennogo radioaktivnym Jodom-131 i Jodom-125 fibrinogena dlya obnaruzheniya zlokachestvennykh opukholej u cheloveka; Empleo el Fibrinogeno Radioyodado ({sup 131}I y {sup 125}I) para la Deteccion de Tumores Malignos en el Hombre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monasterio, G.; Becchini, M. F.; Riccioni, N. [Centre of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Clinic, University of Pisa (Italy)

    1964-10-15

    A high fibrin content has been shown in a large number of malignant tumours, both experimental and human; this finding has been referred to the high thromboplastin content within the tumour, inducing the polymerization of fibrinogen into fibrin. On the basis of these data, human fibrinogen labelled with I{sup 131} and I{sup 125} has been tested as a possible agent for detecting malignant tumours in man. The uptake of radioiodinate fibrinogen has been studied in malignant and benign tumours, as well as non-neoplastic space-occupying lesions. Seventy-three cases have been so far examined; 53 of these were represented by malignant tumours localized in the skeleton, lungs, brain, abdominal organs etc. The I{sup 131}- fibrinogen uptake test gave correct results in 79% of the cases examined; no false positive results were obtained in the whole series. The technique and the results are briefly discussed. From the data obtained, it seems that fibrinogen-I{sup 131} may be usefully applied for the early detection of malignancies in man; possible improvements of the detection technique may markedly increase the diagnostic value of the method. (author) [French] Une teneur elevee en fibrine a ete mise en evidence dans un grand nombre de tumeurs malignes, tant chez l'homme que chez des animaux de laboratoire; on a impute ce phenomene au fait que la tumeur contient une forte proportion de thromboplastine qui provoque la formation de fibrine par polymerisation du fibrinogene. Sur cette base, les auteurs ont utilise du fibrinogene humain marque avec {sup 1}'3{sup 1}I ou {sup 125}I pour la detection de tumeurs malignes chez l'homme. Ils ont etudie la fixation du fibrinogene marque dans des tumeurs malignes et des tumeurs benignes, ainsi que dans des lesions en volume non-neoplastiques. Sur les 73 cas examines jusqu'a present, 53 etaient constitues par des tumeurs malignes localisees dans le squelette, les poumons, le cerveau, les organes abdominaux, etc. Le test de fixation du

  3. Gastric neuroendocrine tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, David A; Donohoe, Claire L; Fitzgerald, Louise; Muldoon, Cian; Hayes, Brian; O'Toole, Dermot; Reynolds, John V

    2012-01-01

    Gastric neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are increasingly recognised, and management decisions may be difficult due to an incomplete understanding of aetiology, natural history and optimum therapy. This article presents a current understanding based on recent advances in epidemiology, classification, molecular profiling, and treatment. Relevant medical literature was identified from searches of PubMed and references cited in appropriate articles identified. Selection of articles was based on peer review, journal and relevance. Gastric NETs may be divided into three clinical prognostic groups: type I is associated with autoimmune atrophic gastritis and hypergastrinaemia, type II is associated with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, and type III lesions are gastrin-independent, have the greatest metastatic potential and poorest prognosis. There has been an increased frequency of gastric NETs reported. Management approaches have evolved in parallel with advances in endoscopic staging and surgery, as well as improved understanding of the biology and natural history of NETs. Gastric NETs present a spectrum of activity from indolent tumours to metastatic malignancy. Treatment decisions for patients must be individualised and are best managed by a multidisciplinary team approach. The current evidence base is limited to small series and efforts to treat patients within clinical networks of expertise are warranted. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Tumour location within the breast: Does tumour site have prognostic ability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Seth; Hueman, Matthew T; Costantino, Nick; Shriver, Craig D; Ellsworth, Rachel E

    2015-01-01

    Tumour location within the breast varies with the highest frequency in the upper outer quadrant (UOQ) and lowest frequency in the lower inner quadrant (LIQ). Whether tumour location is prognostic is unclear. To determine whether tumour location is prognostic, associations between tumour site and clinicopathological characteristics were evaluated. All patients enrolled in the Clinical Breast Care Project whose tumour site-UOQ, upper inner quadrant (UIQ), central, LIQ, lower outer quadrant (LOQ)-was determined by a single, dedicated breast pathologist were included in this study. Patients with multicentric disease (n = 122) or tumours spanning multiple quadrants (n = 381) were excluded from further analysis. Clinicopathological characteristics were analysed using chi-square tests for univariate analysis with multivariate analysis performed using principal components analysis (PCA) and multiple logistic regression. Significance was defined as P location, 30 had bilateral disease. Tumour location in the UOQ (51.5%) was significantly higher than in the UIQ (15.6%), LOQ (14.2%), central (10.6%), or LIQ (8.1%). Tumours in the central quadrant were significantly more likely to have higher tumour stage (P = 0.003) and size (P location as a prognostic factor revealed that although tumours in the central region are associated with less favourable outcome, these associations are not independent of location but rather driven by larger tumour size. Tumours in the central region are more difficult to detect mammographically, resulting in larger tumour size at diagnosis and thus less favourable prognosis. Together, these data demonstrate that tumour location is not an independent prognostic factor.

  5. Childhood vascular Tumours in Benin City, Nigeria | Igbe | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Biomedical Sciences ... The patterns of these tumours in Benin City, however, are not known. ... This comprised 71 benign cases (56 haemangiomas, 15 lymphangiomas), 7 tumours of intermediate grade (5 haemangioendodethelioma and 2 haemangiopericytoma) and 4 malignant cases (Kaposi sarcoma).

  6. RESEARCH Osteosarcoma presentation stages at a tumour unit in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant primary bone tumour in children and ... in treatment, the diagnosis must be made prior to progression beyond localised .... Typical radiographic findings of an aggressive bone-forming tumour ... however, can often be overlooked or mistaken for benign lesions.12. Table 1. Patient ...

  7. Tumour and tumour-like lesions of the patella - a multicentre experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.; James, S.L.; Davies, A.M.; Kroon, H.M.; Woertler, K.; Anderson, S.E.

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-nine cases of lesions presenting in the patella were identified after review of the databases of four European bone tumour registries. Of the 59 cases, 46% were non neoplastic, 39% were benign and 15% were malignant. The commonest benign neoplasm was giant cell tumour (GCT) (11 cases). Younger patients were more likely to have a benign neoplasm. Lesions in patients less than 40 years of age included giant cell tumour, chondroblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC), osteomyelitis, osteoid osteoma and solitary bone cyst. In patients older than 40 years, the following were common lesions: intra-osseous gout, metastasis and intra-osseous ganglion. Expansion of the patella with thinning of cortex was seen more commonly in GCT and brown tumour in hyperparathyroidism. There was associated soft tissue extension in gout and malignant lesions. (orig.)

  8. Tumour and tumour-like lesions of the patella - a multicentre experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J.; James, S.L.; Davies, A.M. [The Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Kroon, H.M. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, C-2-S, P. O Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands); Woertler, K. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Anderson, S.E. [Knochentumor- Referenzzentrum der Schweizerischen Gesellschaft fuer Pathologie, Basel (Switzerland)

    2009-03-15

    Fifty-nine cases of lesions presenting in the patella were identified after review of the databases of four European bone tumour registries. Of the 59 cases, 46% were non neoplastic, 39% were benign and 15% were malignant. The commonest benign neoplasm was giant cell tumour (GCT) (11 cases). Younger patients were more likely to have a benign neoplasm. Lesions in patients less than 40 years of age included giant cell tumour, chondroblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC), osteomyelitis, osteoid osteoma and solitary bone cyst. In patients older than 40 years, the following were common lesions: intra-osseous gout, metastasis and intra-osseous ganglion. Expansion of the patella with thinning of cortex was seen more commonly in GCT and brown tumour in hyperparathyroidism. There was associated soft tissue extension in gout and malignant lesions. (orig.)

  9. Salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample. A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Montes, C; Garces-Ortiz, M

    2002-01-01

    Salivary gland tumours are an important part of the Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, unfortunately, only few studies on these tumours have been done in Latin-American population. The aim of this study was to compare demographic data on salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample with those previously published from Latin American and non-Latin American countries. All cases of salivary gland tumours or lesions diagnosed in our service were reviewed. Of the reviewed cases,67 were confirmed as salivary gland tumours. Out of these 64.2% were benign neoplasms, 35.8% were malignant and a slight female predominance (56.7%) was found. The most common location was palate followed by lips and floor of the mouth. Mean age for benign tumours was 40.6 years with female predominance (60.5%). Mean age for malignant tumours was 41 years and female predominance was found again. Palate followed by retromolar area were the usual locations. Pleomorphic adenoma (58.2%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (17.9%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (11.9%) were the more frequent neoplasms. All retromolar cases were malignant and all submandibular gland tumours were benign. We found a high proportion of salivary gland neoplasms in children. Our results showed that differences of the studied tumours among our sample and previously reported series exist. These differences can be related to race and geographical location.

  10. MHC class II molecules and tumour immunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oven, I.

    2005-01-01

    Background. Tumour immunotherapy attempts to use the specificity and capability of the immune system to kill malignant cells with a minimum damage to normal tissue. Increasing knowledge of the identity of tumour antigens should help us design more effective therapeutic vaccines. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that MHC class II molecules and CD4+ T cells play important roles in generating and maintaining antitumour immune responses in animal models. These data suggest that it may be necessary to involve both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells for more effective antitumour therapy. Novel strategies have been developed for enhancing T cell responses against cancer by prolonging antigen presentation of dendritic cells to T cells, by the inclusion of MHC class II-restricted tumour antigens and by genetically modifying tumour cells to present antigen to T lymphocytes directly. Conclusions. Vaccines against cancers aim to induce tumour-specific effector T cells that can reduce tumour mass and induce development of tumour-specific T cell memory, that can control tumour relapse. (author)

  11. Epithelial tumours of the lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein, Sarah Linéa; Coupland, Sarah E; Briscoe, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    of the lacrimal gland, displacement of the eyeball, reduced eye motility and diplopia. Pain and symptoms of short duration before the first ophthalmic consultation are characteristic of malignant tumours. The histological diagnosis determines the subsequent treatment regimen and provides important clues regarding...

  12. Tumour microembolism presenting as "primary pulmonary hypertension"

    OpenAIRE

    Hibbert, M.; Braude, S.

    1997-01-01

    Pulmonary tumour microembolism is a rare cause of pulmonary hypertension. A case of rapidly progressive pulmonary hypertension in a patient with a past history of breast carcinoma is presented. Despite active consideration and investigation for malignancy as a cause, correct diagnosis was only made at necropsy. 




  13. Establishment and characterization of human uveal malignant melanoma xenografts in nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, S; Spang-Thomsen, M; Prause, J U

    2003-01-01

    the characteristic properties of malignant melanoma. However, the transplanted cells demonstrated vimentin reactivity, whereas the primary tumour cells were negative for vimentin. It can be concluded that a new experimental model of malignant uveal melanoma with tumours that were easy to observe and access...... model. Tumour tissue blocks (2 x 2 x 2 mm) from enucleated eyes with choroidal malignant melanoma were transplanted subcutaneously into the flanks of nude mice. The growing tumours were measured and serially transplanted. The tumour samples were investigated by histology, immunohistochemistry....... The transplanted tumour cells were epithelioid and slightly larger than the primary tumour cells and had prominent nucleoli. However, the transplanted tumour retained a morphological appearance similar to that of the primary tumour. Immunohistochemical examinations demonstrated that the cells preserved...

  14. Giant hydronephrosis mimicking progressive malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Andres Jan; Anderer, Georgia; von Knobloch, Rolf; Heidenreich, Axel; Hofmann, Rainer

    2003-01-01

    Background Cases of giant hydronephroses are rare and usually contain no more than 1–2 litres of fluid in the collecting system. We report a remarkable case of giant hydronephrosis mimicking a progressive malignant abdominal tumour. Case presentation A 78-year-old cachectic woman presented with an enormous abdominal tumour, which, according to the patient, had slowly increased in diameter. Medical history was unremarkable except for a hysterectomy >30 years before. A CT scan revealed a giant cystic tumour filling almost the entire abdominal cavity. It was analysed by two independent radiologists who suspected a tumour originating from the right kidney and additionally a cystic ovarian neoplasm. Subsequently, a diagnostic and therapeutic laparotomy was performed: the tumour presented as a cystic, 35 × 30 × 25 cm expansive structure adhesive to adjacent organs without definite signs of invasive growth. The right renal hilar vessels could finally be identified at its basis. After extirpation another tumourous structure emerged in the pelvis originating from the genital organs and was also resected. The histopathological examination revealed a >15 kg hydronephrotic right kidney, lacking hardly any residual renal cortex parenchyma. The second specimen was identified as an ovary with regressive changes and a large partially calcified cyst. There was no evidence of malignant growth. Conclusion Although both clinical symptoms and the enormous size of the tumour indicated malignant growth, it turned out to be a giant hydronephrosis. Presumably, a chronic obstruction of the distal ureter had caused this extraordinary hydronephrosis. As demonstrated in our case, an accurate diagnosis of giant hydronephrosis remains challenging due to the atrophy of the renal parenchyma associated with chronic obstruction. Therefore, any abdominal cystic mass even in the absence of other evident pathologies should include the differential diagnosis of a possible hydronephrosis. Diagnostic

  15. Analysis of the progression of fibroepithelial tumours of the breast by PCR-based clonality assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, Arno; Buerger, H.; Simon, R.; Schaefer, K-L.; Croonen, A.; Boecker, W.; Wall, E. van der; Diest, P.J. van

    2002-01-01

    Fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumour of the breast are both fibroepithelial tumours. Although progression to epithelial malignancy has been described, the behaviour of most fibroadenomas is benign. Phyllodes tumours, on the other hand, can display locally destructive growth and can even metastasize. A

  16. Perinatal tumours: the contribution of radiology to management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, Veronica; Ryan, Stephanie; Twomey, Eilish [Children' s University Hospital, Radiology Department, Dublin (Ireland)

    2008-06-15

    A formal classification does not exist and they are probably best classified by their location. Overall the most common neoplasms are - Extracranial teratoma - Neuroblastoma - Soft-tissue tumours - Brain tumours - Leukaemia - Renal tumours - Liver tumours - Retinoblastoma. The prognosis is generally poor, although there are some exceptions such as congenital neuroblastoma and hepatoblastoma. These tumours have a tendency to regress and have a benign clinical course despite a clear malignant histological picture. Other tumours, though histologically benign, may be fatal because of their size and location. Large benign masses may cause airway or cardiovascular compromise and death. Others may cause significant mass effect preventing normal organ development. As normal embryonic cells have a high mitotic rate it is not surprising that perinatal tumours may have a rapid growth rate and become enormous in size. (orig.)

  17. Ovarian tumours in children : A review of 18 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelouhab Ammor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : To review the experience of Children′s Hospital of Rabat in managing ovarian tumours in children. Materials and Methods: There were 18 patients between 2 and 15 years of age who presented with an ovarian tumour at Children′s Hospital of Rabat between January 2000 and December 2008. Data collected from the hospital medical records included age at diagnosis, patient′s history, presenting complaints, radiological examination, tumour markers, management, operative procedure, histopathological examination and outcome of the patients. Results : The most common presenting complaint was abdominal pain in 10 (55% patient. 77% of ovarian tumours were germ cell tumours; 71% of these were teratomas which were benign in 66% of cases. Unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was the most common surgical procedure performed in 15 patients (83% through laparotomy. Laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy was carried out in 2 (11% patients with benign cystic teratoma. Of the 7 (39% patients with malignant tumours, three received postoperative chemotherapy. Outcome was good in most cases. There were no cases of resistance to treatment, or death. Conclusion : Early diagnosis of ovarian tumours in children and adolescents is important. Since most of these tumours are benign, surgical treatment should be conservative to minimise the risk of subsequent infertility, while the treatment of malignant tumours should include complete staging, resection of the tumour, postoperative chemotherapy when indicated, to give the patient a chance for future childbearing.

  18. The epidemiology of neonatal tumours. Report of an international working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S W; Satgé, D; Sasco, A J; Zimmermann, A; Plaschkes, J

    2003-09-01

    Neonatal tumours occur every 12,500-27,500 live births and comprise 2% of childhood malignancies, but there is little clarity as to their real prevalence, sites of origin and pathological nature as reported series vary. As an entity, neonatal tumours provide a unique window of opportunity to study tumours in which minimal environmental interference has occurred. The majority of tumours present with a mass at birth (e.g., teratomas, neuroblastomas, mesoblastic nephroma, fibromatosis), which are not infrequently identified on antenatal ultrasound. Histologically, teratoma and neuroblastoma remain the two main tumour types encountered with soft tissue sarcoma, renal tumours, CNS tumours and leukaemia being the next most common tumour types identified. Malignant tumours are uncommon in the neonatal period per se and benign tumours may have malignant potential. A particular problem exists in clinical classification, as histological features of malignancy do not always correlate with clinical behaviour. Benign tumours may also be life threatening because of their size and location. Other tumours may demonstrate local invasiveness, but no metastatic potential, and tumours that are clearly malignant may demonstrate unpredictable or uncertain behaviour. Screening programmes have brought more tumours to light, but do not appear to affect the overall prognosis. They may provide clues to the stage at which tumours develop in foetu. The aetiology of cancer in children is multifactorial and includes both genetic and environmental factors. The association between congenital abnormalities and tumours is well established (15% of neonatal tumours). Genetic defects are highly likely in neonatal tumours and include those with a high risk of malignancy (e.g., retinoblastoma), but also genetically determined syndromes with an increased risk of malignancy and complex genetic rearrangements. Tumours are mostly genetically related at a cellular level and factors influencing cellular

  19. Morphological patterns of malignant cercival lessons in Warri, Niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of this, 77 cases (43.7%) were malignant and 99 cases (56.3%) were either benign neoplasm, pseudoneoplastic and inflammatory lesions. The patients' age range for all malignant cervical lesions was 30-87 years. The peak age and mean age incidence for all malignant cervical tumours were 40-49 years and 49.6±8.4 ...

  20. The hypoxic tumour cell in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.; Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung m.b.H., Neuherberg/Muenchen

    1976-01-01

    In most tumours there is a disproportion between the tumour cells and vascular connective tissue. A lack of oxygen depending on extent and duration, leads to changes of the metabolism and of the proliferative properties of the cells, to an increase of radiation resistance and to a reduction of the ability to recover from radiation injuries. Finally with longer duration, hypoxy leads to cell killing. As a result of irradiation, a reoxygenation of a part of the previous hypoxic tumour cell occurs more or less quickly. The time and topographic changes of these factors are involved in a complex manner in the radiotherapy of malignant tumours and essentially share the responsibility regarding the curative success of radiotherapy. (orig./LH) [de

  1. Bilateral primary malignant lymphoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpitz, B; Witz, M; Kaufman, Z; Griffel, B; Manor, Y; Dinbar, A

    1985-08-01

    A rare case of bilateral primary malignant lymphoma of breast in a 76 year old woman is presented. The lesion was examined by electron microscopy and immunochemistry. The diagnosis of primary malignant lymphoma remains a diagnosis by exclusion and requires extensive work-up to exclude widespread malignant process. The behaviour of this malignancy tends to be an aggressive one and the prognosis is generally poor.

  2. Tumour sleuths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyers, M.; Springolo, E.; Conradie, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is a common disease in South Africa and its identification difficult. Methods for the diagnosis of this disease includes the production of hybridoma cell lines by inoculating laboratory mice with a purified human tumour-associated antigen or the antigen-containing surface membranes or the intact cells. In the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma, high concentrations of serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP) can be measured by means of radioimmunoassay techniques. The need for specific methods of diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma led to the investigation by the Isotope Production Centre at Pelindaba into the possibility of using radiolabelled monoclonal anti-AFP for diagnosis, and later, therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. The monoclonal antibodies can also be labelled with 131 I. Recently the Department of Nuclear Medicine of the University of the Witwatersrand is conducting diagnostic trials on patients who have given their informed consent, to assess the specificity of 131 I radiolabelled anti-AFP monoclonal antibodies to hepatocellular carcinoma cells in humans. Although the investigation is still in its infancy, monoclonal antibodies may prove to be successful non-invasive agents for detecting tumors in early stages

  3. Reconstructive options in pelvic tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayilvahanan N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pelvic tumours present a complex problem. It is difficult to choose between limb salvage and hemipelvectomy. Method: Forty three patients of tumours of pelvis underwent limb salvage resection with reconstruction in 32 patients. The majority were chondrosarcomas (20 cases followed by Ewing sarcoma. Stage II B was the most common stage in malignant lesions and all the seven benign lesions were aggressive (B3. Surgical margins achieved were wide in 31 and marginal in 12 cases. Ilium was involved in 51% of cases and periacetabular involvement was seen in 12 patients. The resections done were mostly of types I &II of Enneking′s classification of pelvic resection. Arthrodesis was attempted in 24 patients. Customized Saddle prosthesis was used in seven patients and no reconstruction in 12 patients. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given to all high-grade malignant tumours, combined with radiotherapy in 7 patients. Results: With a mean follow up of 48.5 months and one patient lost to follow up, the recurrence rate among the evaluated cases was 16.6%. Oncologically, 30 patients were continuously disease free with 7 local recurrences and 4 deaths due to disseminated disease and 2 patients died of other causes. During the initial years, satisfactory functional results were achieved with prosthetic replacement. Long-term functional result of 36 patients who were alive at the time of latest follow up was satisfactory in 75% who underwent arthrodesis and in those where no reconstruction was used. We also describe a method of new classification of pelvic resections that clarifies certain shortcomings of the previous systems of classification. Conclusion: Selection of a procedure depends largely on the patient factors, the tumour grade, the resultant defect and the tissue factors. Resection with proper margins gives better functional and oncological results

  4. Juvenile Granulosa Cell Tumour: Anaplastic Variant with Omental Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Anuradha C.K.; Monappa, Vidya

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile Granulosa Cell Tumour (JGCT) of ovary represents a small fraction of all primary ovarian malignancies. It is a subtype of granulosa cell tumour that is almost always found during the first three decades of life. Histologically, it differs from the typical adult type of granulosa cell tumour. It accounts for 5-15% of all granulosa cell tumours, majority being unilateral. Herein, we describe an unusual histopathological variant of JGCT with numerous large cystic spaces, anaplasia and focal syncytiotrophoblast like giant cells. PMID:27042471

  5. Tumours of the head and neck induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daal, W.A.J. van.

    1979-01-01

    Reference is made to the cases of two patients who between 20 and 45 years after irradiation for tuberculous lymphomas in the neck developed malignant and benign tumours in the skin, the thyroid and the larynx-hypopharynx. The literature on induction of tumours by ionizing radiation is reviewed. So far, only one patient has been described in whome tumours in three organs may have been induced by irradiation. In the course of the examination of patients who have been irradiated for benign conditions, the possibility of tumours developing in several organs should be kept in mind. (Auth.)

  6. The value of 18-FDG PET in the diagnosis of tumours associated with paraneoplastic neurological syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyngkaran, Guru; Chatterton, Barry; Schultz, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Several studies have shown the value of PET in diagnosing occult tumours in patients with paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS). Objective: To audit our experience with PET in the diagnosis of occult tumours in PNS. Methods: A retrospective analysis of all PET and PET/CT scans done for PNS in South Australia from the time the PET/CT was installed (2002) till September 2008. Results of antibody tests, imaging, final diagnosis and outcome were obtained with a mean follow up of 8I9 days. Results: 24 patients (15 women), mean age 62 (range 36-80) were included. The mean interval between symptom onset and PET was 19 days (range 3-29). There were a variety of PNS including subacute sensory neuropathy, cerebellar syndrome. encephalitis, Lambert Eaton myasthenic syndrome, myopathy, transverese myelitis and subacute global neurological deterioration. Abnormal FDG uptake was seen in eight but malignancy was only confirmed in 2 patients. One patient died shortly after PET/CT likely because of lung malignancy. There were 5 false positives. At follow up 14 had no formal diagnosis, 4 had autoimmune illness and in 3 the diagnosis of PNS was revised. The sensitivity was 100%, specificity 76%, positive predictive value 37.5% and negative predictive value 100%. Conclusion: PET was positive in only 12.5% of these patients. When the 3 patients without PNS are excluded the diagnostic yield of PET is 43%. PET is a useful tool in PNS but patient selection is important.

  7. Incidence of tumours of the skeleton in 224Ra-treated ankylosing spondylitis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wick, R.R.; Goessner, W.

    1983-01-01

    We are following 1426 ankylosing spondylitis (a.sp.) patients treated with 224 Ra and 1556 control patients with a.sp. not treated with any form of ionizing radiation. The average follow-up time of the exposure group is 16 years and the average α-dose to the skeleton is 65 rad, resulting from intravenous injection of 4.8μCi/kg 224 Ra on average within a medium injection span of 12 weeks. Injections normally have been performed once a week, and in some cases also half-weekly with a correspondingly shorter injection span. Since 1970 three cases of malignant tumours in the skeleton have been observed in the exposure group in patients with skeletal α-doses below 90 rad compared with 0.6 expected. (No bone tumour has occurred in the control group.) Two of the three cases observed were tumours of the bone marrow. The incidence of leukaemias in both exposure and control groups is discussed with respect to phenylbutazone treatment and α-radiation from 224 Ra. An effect of 224 Ra on the bone marrow not yet detected in the Spiess series of patients treated with higher amounts of 224 Ra cannot be excluded. (author)

  8. Recognition of malignant processes with neural nets from ESR spectra of serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, P. [Inst. of Medical Physics and Biophysics, Univ. Leipzig (Germany); Gurachevsky, A.; Muravsky, V.; Schnurr, K.; Seibt, G. [Medinnovation GmbH, Wildau (Germany); Matthes, G. [Inst. of Transfusion Medicine, Univ. Hospital Leipzig (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Cancer diseases are the focus of intense research due to their frequent occurrence. It is known from the literature that serum proteins are changed in the case of malignant processes. Changes of albumin conformation, transport efficiency, and binding characteristics can be determined by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR). The present study analysed the binding/dissociation function of albumin with an ESR method using 16-doxyl stearate spin probe as reporter molecule and ethanol as modifier of hydrophobic interactions. Native and frozen plasma of healthy donors (608 samples), patients with malignant diseases (423 samples), and patients with benign conditions (221 samples) were analysed. The global specificity was 91% and the sensitivity 96%. In look-back samples of 27 donors, a malignant process could be detected up to 30 months before clinical diagnosis. To recognise different entities of malignant diseases from the ESR spectra, Artificial neural networks were implemented. For 48 female donors with breast cancer, the recognition specificity was 85%. Other carcinoma entities (22 colon, 18 prostate, 12 stomach) were recognised with specificities between 75% and 84%. Should these specificity values be reproduced in larger studies, the described method could be used as a new specific tumour marker for the early detection of malignant processes. Since transmission of cancer via blood transfusion cannot be excluded as yet, the described ESR method could also be used as a quality test for plasma products. (orig.)

  9. Recognition of malignant processes with neural nets from ESR spectra of serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, P.; Gurachevsky, A.; Muravsky, V.; Schnurr, K.; Seibt, G.; Matthes, G.

    2005-01-01

    Cancer diseases are the focus of intense research due to their frequent occurrence. It is known from the literature that serum proteins are changed in the case of malignant processes. Changes of albumin conformation, transport efficiency, and binding characteristics can be determined by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR). The present study analysed the binding/dissociation function of albumin with an ESR method using 16-doxyl stearate spin probe as reporter molecule and ethanol as modifier of hydrophobic interactions. Native and frozen plasma of healthy donors (608 samples), patients with malignant diseases (423 samples), and patients with benign conditions (221 samples) were analysed. The global specificity was 91% and the sensitivity 96%. In look-back samples of 27 donors, a malignant process could be detected up to 30 months before clinical diagnosis. To recognise different entities of malignant diseases from the ESR spectra, Artificial neural networks were implemented. For 48 female donors with breast cancer, the recognition specificity was 85%. Other carcinoma entities (22 colon, 18 prostate, 12 stomach) were recognised with specificities between 75% and 84%. Should these specificity values be reproduced in larger studies, the described method could be used as a new specific tumour marker for the early detection of malignant processes. Since transmission of cancer via blood transfusion cannot be excluded as yet, the described ESR method could also be used as a quality test for plasma products. (orig.)

  10. Maligne adnekstumorer i huden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Anders; Hærskjold, Ann; Lei, Ulrikke

    2016-01-01

    types entirely on their clinical appearance. The histologic diagnosis is troublesome, and the lesions are often mistaken for their benign counterpart, basal cell carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma. The lesions are treated with surgery. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy may play a role in treatment......Malignant adnexal carcinomas of the skin are rare but associated with high propensity for local recurrence, and for some of the distinct subgroups they are known to metastasize regionally or distant. Biopsy is necessary for correct diagnosis, as the lesions cannot be separated from other tumour...

  11. Malignant peritoneal pseudomyxona: Combined treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.; Alvarado, E.; Marcos, A.; Palacios, E.; Gomez, A.

    1993-01-01

    We describe a special treatment for the malignant peritoneal pseudomyxoma as suggested by Sugarbaker. Shortly, it is a combination of surgical cytoreduction with a curative aim, completed with inmediate postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Having in mind the lack of metastasic danger of these tumours, as well as its lack of infiltrative character, by this surgical technique which consists in five different ''peritonectomies'', one may be able to free the patient of macroscopic tumour. The additional intraperitoneal chemotherapy might contribute to increase the survival of these patients and, perhaps, even to cure them. (Author) 12 refs

  12. Patient Survival Periods and Death Causes Following Surgical Treatment of Mammary Gland Tumours Depending on Histological Type of Tumour: Retrospective Study of 221 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Lorenzová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study evaluated a canine patient group operated on for mammary neoplasms (221 females. After surgical treatment, the animals were divided based on histological findings into groups and subgroups according to the WHO system. In the individual groups and subgroups the length of their survival following a mammary tumour surgery and death causes were followed. Of their total number, 164 tumours were malignant, 39 were benign and 18 were mammary hyperplasias. With regard to malignant tumours, invasive tubular carcinoma (20.81% was identified most frequently; fibroadenoma reached the highest occurrence (10.41% as regards benign tumours. The length of survival in females with malignant tumours ranged from 12 to 37.4 months, depending on histological subtypes. In females with benign mammary neoplasms the length of survival ranged from 39.1 to 59.3 months and in animals with hyperplasia it was 50.2 months. As a result of mammary tumour, 41 females (25% died in the malignant tumour group, none died in the benign tumour group and 2 females (11.1% died in the hyperplasia group. The survival periods in surgically treated patients with mammary tumours were shorter for solid and complex carcinomas, compared to patients affected with the remainder of the histological subtypes. The longest survival period following operation was recorded in the group suffering from adenoma. The least favourable illness prognosis for patients with mammary tumours in respect to linking the death cause to the mammary tumour was for those having invasive papillary carcinoma. The most favourable illness prognosis was for patients with benign tumours and non-invasive tubular carcinoma. A frequent death cause in females with mammary tumours was another illness unrelated to mammary tumours.

  13. MRI appearances of borderline ovarian tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, C.L. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, West Smithfield, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: clare.bent@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk; Sahdev, A.; Rockall, A.G. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, West Smithfield, London (United Kingdom); Singh, N. [Department of Pathology, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, West Smithfield, London (United Kingdom); Sohaib, S.A. [Department of Radiology, Royal Marsden Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Reznek, R.H. [Cancer Imaging, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, West Smithfield, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    This review was performed to describe the range of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of borderline ovarian tumours. The MRI findings in 26 patients with 31 borderline ovarian tumours (mean age: 40.1 years, range: 14-85 years) were retrospectively reviewed. For each tumour, site, size, MRI characteristics, and enhancement following gadolinium administration were recorded. There were 20 serous and 11 mucinous borderline ovarian subtypes. Nine of 26 patients demonstrated bilateral disease on MRI; synchronous contralateral ovarian disease included three benign, five serous borderline, and one serous invasive tumour. A history of a metachronous mucinous borderline tumour was identified in one patient. MRI appearances were classified into four morphological categories: group 1 (6/31, 19%), unilocular cysts; group 2 (6/31, 19%), minimally septate cysts with papillary projections; group 3 (14/31, 45%), markedly septate lesions with plaque-like excrescences; and group 4 (5/31, 16%), predominantly solid with exophytic papillary projections, all of serous subtype. There was a significant difference in mean volume between serous (841.5 cm{sup 3}) and mucinous (6358.2 cm{sup 3}) subtypes (p = 0.009). All tumours demonstrated at least one MRI feature suggestive of malignancy. The present review demonstrates the variable MRI appearances of borderline ovarian tumours along with imaging features suggestive of tumour subtype. In patients in whom the clinical features are suggestive of a borderline ovarian tumour (young age and normal or minimally elevated CA125), the ability to predict a borderline disease using morphological features observed on MRI would be extremely helpful in surgical planning, with the potential to offer fertility or ovary-preserving surgery. Future studies are required to further this aim.

  14. Malignant mesothelioma in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churg, Andrew; Hwang, Harry; Tan, Larry; Qing, Gefei; Taher, Altaf; Tong, Amy; Bilawich, Ana M; Dacic, Sanja

    2018-05-01

    The existence of malignant mesothelioma in situ (MIS) is often postulated, but there are no accepted morphological criteria for making such a diagnosis. Here we report two cases that appear to be true MIS on the basis of in-situ genomic analysis. In one case the patient had repeated unexplained pleural unilateral effusions. Two thoracoscopies 9 months apart revealed only visually normal pleura. Biopsies from both thoracoscopies showed only a single layer of mildly reactive mesothelial cells. However, these cells had lost BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) and showed loss of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2 (CDKN2A) (p16) by fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (FISH). NF2 was not deleted by FISH but 28% of the mesothelial cells showed hyperploidy. Six months after the second biopsy the patient has persisting effusions but no evidence of pleural malignancy on imaging. The second patient presented with ascites and minimal omental thickening on imaging, but no visual evidence of tumour at laparoscopy. Omental biopsy showed a single layer of minimally atypical mesothelial cells with rare tiny foci of superficial invasion of fat. BAP1 immunostain showed loss of nuclear BAP1 in all the surface mesothelial cells and the invasive cells. There was CDKN2A deletion, but no deletion of NF2 by FISH. These cases show that morphologically bland single-layered surface mesothelial proliferations with molecular alterations seen previously only in invasive malignant mesotheliomas exist, and presumably represent malignant MIS. More cases are need to understand the frequency of such changes and the time-course over which invasive tumour develops. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Value of skeletal scintiscanning in cases of primary bone tumours and tumourous alterations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolowski, U.

    1982-01-01

    In the course of an investigation on the storage behaviour of primary bone tumours and tumourous bone alterations the skeletal scintigrams of a total of 26 patients were evaluated. Bone scintiscanning was done according to current practice after injection of an average amount of 10mCi sup(99m)Tc-MDP, followed by a semiquantitative evaluation. In all cases of malignant bone tumours there was fond to be increased storage of radionuclide; with benign bone alterations this was so in 70 per cent of cases. To differentiate between benign and malignant tumours respectively inflammatory bone diseases was not as a rule possible; however, the investigation yielded additional information completing the X-ray findings essentially. Thus very high storage of radioactivity was established for all osteosarcomas, whereas benign bone growths exhibited more circumscribed accumulations of activity. Skeletal scintiscanning for diagnostical purposes is particularly informative as to the early detection of bone foci evading X-ray diagnosis, more accurate delimitation of tumourous processes, and course control of tumours tending to degenerate. (orig./MG) [de

  16. [Occurrence of associated tumours in chronic lymphocytic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szerafin, László; Jakó, János; Varju, Lóránt

    2016-10-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is one of the most common hematologic malignancy. The aim of the authors was to investigate the characteristics of malignancies associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia in patients diagnozed between 2000 and 2015. Data of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who had other associated tumours were analysed using the Leukemia/Lymphoma Registry of the Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County, Hungary and patient records. Between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2015, 526 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia were diagnosed. 95 patients of the 526 patients (18.06%) were diagnosed as having associated other tumours. In 48/95 patients (50.5%) the first diagnosed tumour was chronic lymphocytic leukemia, in 23/95 patients (24.2%) the first recognized malignancy was the associated tumour, whereas in 24/95 patients (25.3%) synchron tumours were diagnosed. The number of patients with more than one associated tumour was 10/95 (10.5%). The total number of tumours was 107. The incidence of chronic lymphoid leukemia increased in the period between 2000 and 2015 as compared to the period between 1983 and 1999 (3.19 vs 5.65/100 000 person/year). The occurrence of associated malignancies increased as well (8.06% vs 18.06%). In addition to the most common tumours (colorectal, breast, lung, prostate), skin squamous cell carcinoma (17/95 patients; 17.9%) and melanoma (6/95 patients; 6.3%) also frequently occurred. The second malignancies were most frequently discovered after the diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and synchron tumours accounting for 78.5% (84/107) of all associated tumours. The incidence of second malignancies decreased 10 years after the diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The possible reasons for the high frequency of other tumours associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia are elderly age of patients, immunsuppressed state and, presumably, chemotherapy of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. During the follow up

  17. Lymphoscintigraphy and SPECT/CT in multicentric and multifocal breast cancer: does each tumour have a separate drainage pattern? Results of a Dutch multicentre study (MULTISENT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, O. R.; Vermeeren, L.; van der Ploeg, I. M. C.; Valdés Olmos, R. A.; Loo, C. E.; Pereira-Bouda, L. M.; Smit, F.; Neijenhuis, P.; Vrouenraets, B. C.; Sivro-Prndelj, F.; Jap-A-Joe, S. M.; Borgstein, P. J.; Rutgers, E. J. Th; Oldenburg, H. S. A.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether lymphoscintigraphy and SPECT/CT after intralesional injection of radiopharmaceutical into each tumour separately in patients with multiple malignancies in one breast yields additional sentinel nodes compared to intralesional injection of the largest tumour only. Patients were

  18. Allograft in bone tumour surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, S.

    1999-01-01

    In the last twenty years, there has been a vast improvement in the prognosis of primary malignant tumours of bone. This is due to many factors including early detection, staging and classification of tumours as a result of better staining and imaging techniques, better surgical technology, e.g. endoprosthesis and most importantly adjuvant treatment with cytotoxic drugs. As a result of long term survival, amputation of limb has more or less been replaced by limb salvage surgery. This procedure consists of two parts. Primary objective is of course complete removal of the tumour by adequate soft tissue cover and secondarily by reconstruction of the locomotor system, If possible with retention of the function of the limb. These procedures include endo-prosthetic replacement or arthroplasty and arthrodesis using autologus grafts, allograft or combination. With the development of bone banks and assured safety of preserved bones, reconstructive limb salvage surgery using massive allograft is gradually replacing prosthetic implants. The advantages include replacement of articular surfaces, incorporation of the graft to the host bone, attachment of bone tissue and increased probably permanent survival. Allograft can be used for intercalary replacement, osteo-articular arthroplasty arthrodesis or filling large cavities. Inherent complication of massive allograft are disease transmission, infection, delayed and non-union, pathological fractures, mechanical failure and joint destruction. Several limb salvage procedures using allografts have been carried out in our institution with one failure due to infection. Paucity of available allograft has restricted more such procedures to be carried out

  19. of brain tumours

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    outline of the important clinical issues related to brain tumours and psychiatry. ... Left-sided, frontal tumours also seem to be associated with higher rates of depression, while those in the frontal lobe of the right .... Oxford: Blackwell Science,.

  20. Immunity to tumour antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Geng; Ali, Selman A; McArdle, Stephanie E B; Mian, Shahid; Ahmad, Murrium; Miles, Amanda; Rees, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    During the last decade, a large number of human tumour antigens have been identified. These antigens are classified as tumour-specific shared antigens, tissue-specific differentiation antigens, overexpressed antigens, tumour antigens resulting from mutations, viral antigens and fusion proteins. Antigens recognised by effectors of immune system are potential targets for antigen-specific cancer immunotherapy. However, most tumour antigens are self-proteins and are generally of low immunogenicity and the immune response elicited towards these tumour antigens is not always effective. Strategies to induce and enhance the tumour antigen-specific response are needed. This review will summarise the approaches to discovery of tumour antigens, the current status of tumour antigens, and their potential application to cancer treatment.

  1. Syndromes and constitutional chromosomal abnormalities associated with Wilms tumour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R H; Stiller, C A; Walker, L; Rahman, N

    2006-01-01

    Wilms tumour has been reported in association with over 50 different clinical conditions and several abnormal constitutional karyotypes. Conclusive evidence of an increased risk of Wilms tumour exists for only a minority of these conditions, including WT1 associated syndromes, familial Wilms tumour, and certain overgrowth conditions such as Beckwith‐Wiedemann syndrome. In many reported conditions the rare co‐occurrence of Wilms tumour is probably due to chance. However, for several conditions the available evidence cannot either confirm or exclude an increased risk, usually because of the rarity of the syndrome. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that an increased risk of Wilms tumour occurs only in a subset of individuals for some syndromes. The complex clinical and molecular heterogeneity of disorders associated with Wilms tumour, together with the apparent absence of functional links between most of the known predisposition genes, suggests that abrogation of a variety of pathways can promote Wilms tumorigenesis. PMID:16690728

  2. Aqp 9 and Brain Tumour Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guri Fossdal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have implicated the aquaporins (aqp 1, 4, and 9 in the pathogenesis of malignant brain tumours, suggesting that they contribute to motility, invasiveness, and oedema formation and facilitate metabolism in tumour cells under hypoxic conditions. We have studied the expression of aqp1, 4, and 9 in biopsies from glioblastomas, isolated tumour stem cells grown in a tumoursphere assay and analyzed the progenitor and differentiated cells from these cultures. We have compared these to the situation in normal rat brain, its stem cells, and differentiated cells derived thereof. In short, qPCR in tumour tissue showed presence of aqp1, 4, and 9. In the tumour progenitor population, aqp9 was markedly more highly expressed, whilst in tumour-derived differentiated cells, aqp4 was downregulated. However, immunostaining did not reveal increased protein expression of aqp9 in the tumourspheres containing progenitor cells; in contrast, its expression (both mRNA and protein was high in differentiated cultures. We, therefore, propose that aquaporin 9 may have a central role in the tumorigenesis of glioblastoma.

  3. Radioimmunotherapy for malignant diseases. Current contributions and future options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahe, M.A.; Chatal, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    Radioimmunotherapy is based on the use of radioactive agents (iodine 131, yttrium 90), murine-derived monoclonal antibodies and specific tumour-related membrane antigens. This new treatment modality was applied in 800 patients with different types of malignant tumours which had not responded to traditional therapy. Among the haematologic tumours, the most promising results were obtained in B phenotype non-Hodgkin lymphoma. More modest results were obtained for solid tumours although good results were observed after intraperitoneal administration in patients with cancer of the ovary. The main side effects are acute reversible anaphylactic shock, haematologic toxicity and development of anti-murine human antibodies. Several methods are currently under study to increase irradiation dose delivered at the tumoural site since less than 1% of the injected radioactive dose is absorbed by tumoural cells. Several clinical studies are to be conducted in France, particularly for malignant non-Hodgkin lymphoma and cancer of the ovary. (authors). 31 refs

  4. Paediatric and adult malignant glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Chris; Perryman, Lara; Hargrave, Darren

    2012-01-01

    Gliomas in children differ from their adult counterparts by their distribution of histological grade, site of presentation and rate of malignant transformation. Although rare in the paediatric population, patients with high-grade gliomas have, for the most part, a comparably dismal clinical outcome...... to older patients with morphologically similar lesions. Molecular profiling data have begun to reveal the major genetic alterations underpinning these malignant tumours in children. Indeed, the accumulation of large datasets on adult high-grade glioma has revealed key biological differences between...... the adult and paediatric disease. Furthermore, subclassifications within the childhood age group can be made depending on age at diagnosis and tumour site. However, challenges remain on how to reconcile clinical data from adult patients to tailor novel treatment strategies specifically for paediatric...

  5. The role of endoscopy in the management of paranasal sinus tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorissen, M

    1995-01-01

    Only recently management of benign as well as malignant nasal and paranasal sinus tumours by endoscopy, including endoscopic removal, has been introduced. The most important contribution of the endoscope in the management of these tumours is diagnostic, primarily as well as during follow-up. Although, in general, endoscopic sinus surgery has many advantages over classical external surgery, disadvantages are present when tumours are concerned. Some agreement already exists on the role and limitations of endoscopic sinus surgery in benign tumours, but in malignant processes usually more mutilating procedures are needed and only in selected cases might endoscopic removal be used.

  6. Malignant mesothelioma

    OpenAIRE

    Parker Robert J; Moore Alastair J; Wiggins John

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Malignant mesothelioma is a fatal asbestos-associated malignancy originating from the lining cells (mesothelium) of the pleural and peritoneal cavities, as well as the pericardium and the tunica vaginalis. The exact prevalence is unknown but it is estimated that mesotheliomas represent less than 1% of all cancers. Its incidence is increasing, with an expected peak in the next 10–20 years. Pleural malignant mesothelioma is the most common form of mesothelioma. Typical presenting featu...

  7. Pattern Of Paediatric Malignancies Seen At The Radiotherapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    23 tumour types were seen with retinoblastoma accounting for about 45% of all the patients reviewed. Burkitt\\'s lymphoma accounted for only about 2.5%. Conclusion: Retinoblastoma, nephroblastoma, intracranial malignancies and rhabdomyosarcoma are the tumours most commonly seen at the Radiotherapy Department ...

  8. Imaging of gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, S.; Tam, K.F.; Kam, C.K.; Lui, C.Y.; Siu, C.W.; Lam, H.S.; Mak, K.L.

    2004-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) represents the most common kind of mesenchymal tumour that arises from the alimentary tract. GIST is currently defined as a gastrointestinal tract mesenchymal tumour containing spindle cells (or less commonly epithelioid cells or rarely both) and showing CD117 (c-kit protein) positivity. Targeted molecular therapy of non-resectable GIST using imatinib, a specific tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor, represents a real milestone in the management of solid malignancy. Imaging studies, both anatomical and functional, are playing an increasingly important role in management of patients with GIST. This review illustrates the radiological appearance of GISTs and the site-specific roles of each imaging tool. Clinical features and radiological differential diagnosis of GIST are also discussed

  9. Characterisation of musculoskeletal tumours by multivoxel proton MR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patni, Ruchi S.; Gogoi, Nripen [Assam Medical College, Department of Radio-diagnosis, Dibrugarh, Assam (India); Boruah, Deb K. [Assam Medical College, Department of Radio-diagnosis, Dibrugarh, Assam (India); M-Lane, RCC-4, Assam Medical College Campus, Dibrugarh, Assam (India); Sanyal, Shantiranjan [Airedale General Hospital, Consultant Radiologist, West Yorkshire (United Kingdom); Gogoi, Bidyut B. [NEIGHRMS, Department of Pathology, Shillong, Meghalaya (India); Patni, Maninder [Geetanjali Medical College, Department of Anesthesiology, Udaipur, Rajasthan (India); Khandelia, Rosy [Assam Medical College, Department of Pathology, Dibrugarh, Assam (India)

    2017-04-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of multi-voxel proton MR spectroscopy in differentiating benign and malignant musculoskeletal tumours in a more objective way and to correlate the MRS data parameters with histopathology. A hospital-based prospective study was carried out comprising 42 patients who underwent MRI examinations from 1 July 2013 to 30 June 2014. After routine sequences, single-slice multi-voxel proton MR spectroscopy was included at TE-135 using the PRESS sequence. The voxel with the maximum choline/Cr ratio was used for analysis of data in 32 patients. The strength of association between the MR spectroscopy findings and the nature of tumour and histopathological grading were assessed. Of the 42 patients, the MR spectra were not of diagnostic quality in 10. In the remaining 32 patients, 12 (37.5%) had benign and 20 (62.5%) malignant tumours. The mean choline/Cr ratio was 6.97 ± 5.95 (SD) for benign tumours and 25.39 ± 17.72 (SD) for malignant tumours. In our study statistical significance was noted between the choline/Cr ratio and the histological nature of musculoskeletal tumours (p = 0.002) assessed by unpaired t-test. The choline/Cr ratio and histological grading were also found to be significant (p = 0.001) when assessed by one-way ANOVA test. Multi-voxel MR spectroscopy showed a higher choline/Cr ratio in malignant musculoskeletal tumours than in benign ones (p = 0.002). The choline/Cr ratio and histological grading of musculoskeletal tumours also showed statistical significance (p = 0.001). (orig.)

  10. 24 CFR 3280.7 - Excluded structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded structures. 3280.7 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.7 Excluded structures. Certain structures may be excluded from these Standards as modular homes under 24 CFR 3282.12. [52 FR 4581, Feb. 12...

  11. 42 CFR 409.49 - Excluded services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Home Health Services Under Hospital Insurance § 409.49 Excluded services. (a... individual's dialysis, are excluded from coverage under the Medicare home health benefit. (f) Prosthetic... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excluded services. 409.49 Section 409.49 Public...

  12. Malignant mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Alkul

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Seventy percent of patients with malignant mesothelioma have had exposure to asbestos fibers. Other patients without this exposure have had chronic pleural inflammation or received radiation to the thorax. Occasionally patients present with no obvious exposure history relevant to the development of malignant mesothelioma. This diagnosis needs to be in the differential diagnosis of all patients with unexplained pleural disease.

  13. Radiation-induced brain tumours: potential late complications of radiation therapy for brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, S.; Morioka, T.; Inamura, T.; Takeshita, I.; Fukui, M.; Sasaki, M.; Nakamura, K.; Wakisaka, S.

    1998-01-01

    The development of neoplasms subsequent to therapeutic cranial irradiation is a rare but serious and potentially fatal complication. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical and pathological aspects of 11 patients who underwent cranial irradiation (range, 24-110 cGy) to treat their primary disease and thereafter developed secondary tumours within a span of 13 years. All tumours arose within the previous radiation fields, and satisfied the widely used criteria for the definition of radiation-induced neoplasms. There was no sex predominance (M: 5, F: 6) and the patients tended to be young at irradiation (1.3 - 42 years; median age: 22 years). The median latency period before the detection of the secondary tumour was 14.5 years (range: 6.5 - 24 years). Meningiomas developed in 5 patients, sarcomas in 4, and malignant gliomas in 2. A pre-operative diagnosis of a secondary tumour was correctly obtained in 10 patients based on the neuro-imaging as well as nuclear medicine findings. All patients underwent a surgical removal of the secondary tumour, 3 underwent additional chemotherapy, and one received stereotactic secondary irradiation therapy. During a median of 2 years of follow-up review after the diagnosis of a secondary tumour, 3 patients died related to the secondary tumours (2 sarcomas, 1 glioblastoma), one died of a recurrent primary glioma, while the remaining 7 have been alive for from 10 months to 12 years after being treated for the secondary tumours (median: 3 years). Based on these data, the clinicopathological characteristics and possible role of treatment for secondary tumours are briefly discussed. (author)

  14. Preoperative estimation of the pathological breast tumour size by physical examination, mammography and ultrasound: a prospective study on 105 invasive tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosch, Anne M.; Kessels, Alfons G.H.; Beets, Geerard L.; Rupa, Jan D.; Koster, Dick; Engelshoven, Jos M.A. van; Meyenfeldt, Maarten F. von

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The clinical breast tumour size can be assessed preoperatively by physical examination, mammography and ultrasound. At present it is not clear which modality correlates best with the histological invasive breast tumour size. This prospective study aims to determine the most accurate clinical method (physical examination, mammography or ultrasound) to predict the histological invasive tumour size preoperatively. Methods and patients: Between October 1999 and August 2000, 96 women with 105 invasive malignant breast tumours were included in this study. All patients underwent excision and the tumour size was measured on histology. Tumour size was measured by all three modalities in 73 cases. Results were evaluated by calculating correlation coefficients. The examination modalities presenting the best estimation of the pathological tumour size were used in a stepwise linear regression analysis to construct a formula predicting the pathological tumour size from the result of the various diagnostic modalities. Results: The correlation coefficient between ultrasound and pathological size (r=0.68) was significantly better than the correlations between physical examination and pathological size (r=0.42) and mammographic and pathological size (r=0.44). Physical examination overestimates and ultrasound underestimates breast tumour classification. The most accurate prediction formula was: Pathological tumour size (mm) equals sonographic tumour size (mm)+3 mm. Conclusion: When comparing physical examination, mammography and ultrasound for the prediction of the pathological size of a malignant breast tumour, ultrasound is the best predictor. The ensuing regression formula determines pathological size as tumour size by ultrasound+3 mm. However, with the wide 95% confidence interval of ±11 mm, it remains difficult to predict the exact pathological size for an individual invasive breast tumour. A small deviation in millimetres of the tumour size could lead to a change in

  15. New approaches to targeted drug delivery to tumour cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severin, E S

    2015-01-01

    Basic approaches to the design of targeted drugs for the treatment of human malignant tumours have been considered. The stages of the development of these approaches have been described in detail and theoretically substantiated, and basic experimental results have been reported. Considerable attention is paid to the general characteristic of nanopharmacological drugs and to the description of mechanisms of cellular interactions with nanodrugs. The potentialities and limitations of application of nanodrugs for cancer therapy and treatment of other diseases have been considered. The use of nanodrugs conjugated with vector molecules seems to be the most promising trend of targeted therapy of malignant tumours. The bibliography includes 122 references

  16. Oral Squamomelanocytic Tumour in a Dog: a Unique Biphasic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, L V; Avallone, G; Benazzi, C; Sarli, G; Porcellato, I; Brachelente, C; Brunetti, B

    2016-01-01

    In human medicine, squamomelanocytic tumour is a malignant cutaneous neoplasm composed of closely intermingled neoplastic squamous cells and melanocytes. A multinodular gingival tumour in a 16-year-old, mixed breed neutered female dog was examined microscopically. Two populations of neoplastic cells, melanocytic and squamous epithelial cells were intermingled. The melanocytic cells were melan-A positive and cytokeratin AE1-AE3 negative and the squamous component was cytokeratin AE1-AE3 positive and melan-A negative. Bovine papillomavirus was not identified by immunohistochemistry or polymerase chain reaction. A diagnosis of squamomelanocytic tumour was made. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Approaches to the management of antenatally diagnosed congenital tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahony, Rhona; McParland, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Congenital fetal tumours are rare, but current imaging modalities including US and MRI facilitate antenatal diagnosis and investigation, allowing a presumptive diagnosis and management strategy. Although the prevalence of fetal tumours is difficult to ascertain, an incidence of 7.2 per 100,000 live births has previously been reported, with the incidence of neonatal malignancy estimated at 36.5 per million births. Teratomas and neuroblastomas are the most common solid tumours described. Tumours may be very large or associated with severe hydrops leading to significant dystocia with the potential for difficult vaginal or caesarean delivery. Once the diagnosis of a fetal tumour is made, optimal management incorporates a multidisciplinary approach including obstetrician, neonatologist, paediatric surgeon and paediatric oncologist so that counselling is appropriate and a clear management plan is in place for parents. (orig.)

  18. Approaches to the management of antenatally diagnosed congenital tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahony, Rhona; McParland, Peter [National Maternity Hospital, Department of Fetal and Maternal Medicine, Dublin (Ireland)

    2009-11-15

    Congenital fetal tumours are rare, but current imaging modalities including US and MRI facilitate antenatal diagnosis and investigation, allowing a presumptive diagnosis and management strategy. Although the prevalence of fetal tumours is difficult to ascertain, an incidence of 7.2 per 100,000 live births has previously been reported, with the incidence of neonatal malignancy estimated at 36.5 per million births. Teratomas and neuroblastomas are the most common solid tumours described. Tumours may be very large or associated with severe hydrops leading to significant dystocia with the potential for difficult vaginal or caesarean delivery. Once the diagnosis of a fetal tumour is made, optimal management incorporates a multidisciplinary approach including obstetrician, neonatologist, paediatric surgeon and paediatric oncologist so that counselling is appropriate and a clear management plan is in place for parents. (orig.)

  19. Irradiation-induced tumours of the head and neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aanesen, J P; Olofsson, J [Linkoepings Hoegskola (Sweden)

    1979-09-01

    Though irradiation-induced tumours are uncommon, they represent a well defined entity. At this Hospital, 14 irradiation-induced head and neck tumours were encountered in 11 patients over a 10-year period. The irradiation had been given for tuberculous lymphadenitis in 6 of the patients, for lupus vulgaris in one, and thyrotoxicosis in another; the other 3 patients had received radiotherapy for malignant tumours. The interval between the treatment and the diagnosis of the tumour disease ranged from 9 to 48 years (mean 32). Three of the patients had multiple tumours. In view of the risk of cancer-albeit a small one-associated with radiological diagnosis and radiotherapy, these should be performed only on strict indications, expecially in young patients.

  20. Prolonged retainment of contrast media in renal tumours by oily X-ray contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryzkov, V.K.; Anisimov, V.N.

    1990-01-01

    In 194 patients with renal tumours an angiographic investigation with the oily X-ray contrast medium Iodolipol was carried out. A selective tropism of oily X-ray contrast media was found in the malignant zones only. The application of the preparation caused no complications. The oily X-ray contrast medium persisted in the tumours over several weeks or months. After embolization of the renal arteria a moderate size reduction of malign tumours in the first 10-14 d was seen. The ability of Iodolipol for a lasting retainment in malign tumour tissue allows a follow-up of the involution of the pathologic focus after arterial embolization of the tumour vessels. (author)

  1. Radiopharmaceutical therapy of brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, P.; Franceschi, G.; Frattarelli, M.; Casi, M.; Santimaria, M.; Cremonini, A.M.; Guiducci, G.; Riva, N.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The loco-regional radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of high-grade malignant glioma may represent a further favourable therapeutic approach, able to ameliorate the ominous prognosis of these diseases. The anti-tenascin monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are directly injected in the tumoral bed after the operation. In the first pilot study, 81 glioblastoma patients received the MAbs (BC2 and BC4) labelled with 131 I (mean dose 2035 MBq). The toxicity was absent. The median survival was prolonged up to 25 months and the response rate (PR + CR + NED: no evidence of disease in cases with minimal lesions after customary treatments) was 44%. More recently, 90 Y instead of 131 I was employed. The benzyl-DTPA chelator was utilized for 90 Y conjugation. A phase I study was performed in 20 glioblastoma patients, who previously received all conventional regimens, but with progressive tumour. They were intralesionally given escalating 90 Y doses (185, 370, 555, 740, 925 MBq), 4 cases were included in each incremental level. No change in haematology, liver and renal parameters were encountered. The brain MTD was 925 MBq. The radiopharmaceutical remained in high amount only in the neoplastic area and did not diffuse in normal brain region nor in normal organs. The radiation dose to the tumour was, on average, 0.54 Gy per MBq of 90 Y administered (about 4 times higher in comparison to 131 I). Now a phase II study has been initiated. 30 evaluable patients (23 glioblastoma and 7 anaplastic astrocytoma; 8 newly diagnosed and 22 recurrent tumours) who have been already treated with surgery and radiotherapy, underwent loco-regional RIT, by administering a mean 90 Y dose of 740 MBq; in many cases multiple cycles were given. The median survival of patients who had the antibody infusion when their tumour burden was reduced was 28 months. The objective response consisted of 8 PD, 5 SD, 11 PR, 1 CR and 4 NED. The global response rate (PR + CR + NED) was 53.3% (47.8% in glioblastoma and 75.7% in

  2. Total antioxidative capacity and zinc concentration in dogs suffering from perianal tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodzki Adam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine total antioxidative capacity (TAC and zinc concentration in serum of dogs suffering from perianal tumours just before the start of the antihormonal treatment (AHT and one and six months later. The study was performed on 45 dogs divided into two groups: control group suffering from non-malignant tumours (N = 24 and a group with malignant neoplastic changes (N = 21. Serum TAC and zinc concentrations were measured using photometric and atomic absorption spectrophotometric methods. Six months after the start of the AHT, TAC was significantly lower by 10.6% in dogs with malignant tumours when compared to controls (P = 0.03. In the non-malignant group, serum zinc concentration was higher before the treatment than in the malignant group, while the opposite results were observed six months later (P < 0.001. In the non-malignant group, gradually decreasing values of serum zinc concentration at each stage of the investigation were observed, while the opposite results were obtained in the malignant group (P < 0.05. The obtained results indicate that malignant neoplastic process is associated with significantly reduced TAC. Determination of serum zinc concentration in dogs with non-malignant and malignant perianal tumours may have practical diagnostic and prognostic values and may serve towards increasing the effectiveness of AHT monitoring.

  3. Radiation biology of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rofstad, E.K.; Norwegian Cancer Society, Oslo)

    1986-01-01

    The survival curves for melanoma cells exposed to single radiation doses in vitro and the specific growth delays for melanoma xenografts irradiated with single doses in vivo were found to differ considerably among individual cell lines and tumours. In fact, the differences could be almost as large as the largest differences observed among cell lines and xenografts from tumours of different histology with very different clinical radiocurability. Moreover, radiobiologic parameters that may have significant influence on tumour response to fractionated irradiation, e.g. growth rate, hypoxic fraction, reoxygenation ability, PLD-repair capacity and contact repair capacity, were found to differ greatly in magnitude among individual melanomas. This review therefore concludes that malignant melanoma is a tumour type that is very heterogeneous in radioresponsiveness, i.e. malignant melanomas should no longer be considered to be radiation resistant in general. The values of the α/β ratio derived from cell survival curves for melanoma cells irradiated in vitro and melanoma xenografts irradiated in vivo were found to cover a wide range relative to those for acutely and late responding normal tissues. Although these α/β ratios are no more than estimates of the effective α/β ratios in a clinical situation, they still indicated that hyperfractionation may be beneficial in the treatment of some melanomas, whereas others may be more efficiently treated by use of conventional fractionation regimes, either based on 2 Gy or higher doses per fraction. Consequently, optimum radiation therapy of malignant melanoma will probably require an individualized treatment strategy. In vitro assays for prediction of radiocurability and choice of treatment strategy for individual melanoma patients seem therefore highly warranted. (orig.)

  4. Eye disorders in newborn infants (excluding retinopathy of prematurity).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Michael J; VanderVeen, Deborah K

    2015-05-01

    A screening eye examination is an essential part of the newborn assessment. The detection of many ocular disorders in newborn infants can be achieved through careful observation of the infant's visual behaviour and the use of a direct ophthalmoscope to assess the ocular structures and check the red reflex. Early diagnosis and subspecialty referral can have a critical impact on the prognosis for many ocular conditions, including potentially blinding but treatable conditions such as congenital cataracts, life-threatening malignancies such as retinoblastoma and harbingers of disease elsewhere such as sporadic aniridia and its association with the development of Wilms tumour. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Positive malignant margins in clinically diagnosed and excised be ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at utilizing retrospective descriptive data to evaluate the percentage of clini-cally benign breast lumps that turned out to be histologically malignant and the prevalence of posi-tive tumour margins among the malignant cases. A total of 2,917 registered cases of excised breast lump at the Department of ...

  6. primary malignant amelanotic melanoma arising from a vitiligo patch

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-05

    May 5, 2014 ... Malignant melanoma is a rare tumour in people of. African descent including those affected by albinism. (1). The incidence of malignant melanoma in Africans is estimated to ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 per 100,000 people (2). Acrolentiginous melanoma is the most common type of melanoma in this population.

  7. A case of clear cell sarcoma-A rare malignancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Jacob; Ibrahim, Rami Mossad

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare tumour of the soft tissue often misdiagnosed, as it shares characteristics with malignant melanoma (MM). Previously, CCS has been characterised, as malignant melanoma of the soft tissue, contemporary immunohistochemical techniques, however, have made...

  8. Tumours associated with medical X-ray therapy exposure in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colman, M.; Kirsch, M.; Creditor, M.

    1978-01-01

    A total of 5166 persons who were exposed to limited field (80-100 cm 2 ) X-ray irradiation to the head, neck and upper chest region during childhood and adolescence have provided an outstanding opportunity for the study of tumour incidence following medical X-ray therapy. More than 3254 subjects have been traced, 3108 have completed questionnaires eliciting information on tumour incidence, and 1539 of these were subjected to a thorough clinical screening procedure that included a thyroid scintigram. The prevalence of thyroid tumours in the 1539 clinically screened subjects and the prevalence of all other tumours in the 3254 subjects traced can therefore be assumed to reflect the risks in the group of irradiated subjects as a whole. Median age at irradiation was 3.5 years, and median radiation dose 790 rads (7.9 Gy). Thyroid tumour was diagnosed in 413 subjects. Of those undergoing surgery (273) 30.3% were found to have thyroid cancer. A total of 366 surgical pathology specimens of the thyroid, including 93 from subjects who were diagnosed at other hospitals, were examined revealing 73 papillary carcinomas, 12 follicular carcinomas and 26 microscopic papillary carcinomas. One hundred and eighty-seven other (non-thyroid) neoplasmas identified included 27 benign and 10 malignant salivary gland tumours, 16 benign and seven malignant tumours of neural origin (brain, spinal cord, cranial and peripheral nerves), 37 skin tumours, 9 lymphomas, 8 gonadal tumours, 45 breast tumours and 28 tumours of miscellaneous sites. The incidence of thyroid tumours, salivary gland tumours and primary brain tumours was considerably in excess of the expected incidence (p values<0.0001), and a radiation dose-effect correlation was observed for thyroid and brain tumours. Gonadal tumours and lymphomas did not occur in excess of the expected incidence

  9. Tumour-induced osteomalacia’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Javier; Michel Ortega, Rosa; Celzo, Florence; Donthireddy, Vijayalakshmi

    2012-01-01

    A 60-year-old man presented 2 years before his diagnosis with long-standing muscle cramping, progressive generalised weakness and chronic hip pain. The patient was found to have bilateral femoral neck pathologic fractures therefore, underwent reamed intramedullary nailing of both femurs. Laboratory studies showed hypophosphataemia. Bone marrow biopsy was negative for malignancy. Positron emission tomography demonstrated fludeoxyglucose uptake only in the posterior neck. Bone scan showed innumerable foci of increased activity throughout the skeleton consistent with pseudofractures seen in osteomalacia. Fine needle aspiration from the mass in the neck revealed a phosphaturic mesenchymal tumour of mixed connective tissue type. Resection of the mass in the neck resulted in resolution of generalised complaints with no evidence of recurrence with a follow-up of 12 months. PMID:22736784

  10. Malignant astrocytoma following radiotherapy for craniopharyngioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maat-Schieman, M.L.C.; Bots, G.T.A.M.; Thomeer, T.W.M.; Vielvoye, G.J. (Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands). Hospital)

    1985-05-01

    The case report describes a boy with a malignant astrocytoma in the mid-line of the cerebellum 14 years after X-ray therapy for craniopharyngioma. In Leiden University Hospital this is the first case of a suspected radiation-induced brain tumour in 66 patients treated for cranial lesions by radiotherapy between 1969 and 1979 who have survived more than 5 years.

  11. Oesphageal Stenting for palliation of malignant mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahamim Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dyspahgia in patients with malignant mesothelioma is usually due to direct infiltration of the eosophagus by the tumour. It can be distressing for the patient and challenging for the physician to treat. We describe three cases in which this condition has been successfully palliated with self expanding esophageal stents.

  12. Lymphatic vessels assessment in feline mammary tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarli, Giuseppe; Sassi, Francesco; Brunetti, Barbara; Rizzo, Antonio; Diracca, Laura; Benazzi, Cinzia

    2007-01-01

    The lymphatic vessels play a crucial role in a variety of human cancers since tumour cell lymphatic invasion significantly influences prognosis. It is not known if pre-existing lymphatics are enough for tumour dissemination or de novo development is necessary. VEGFR-3 is an angiogenetic mediator for both lymphatic and blood vessels during embryonic development, and only for lymphatics after birth. VEGF is a mediator of both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, regulates the growth of lymphatics in various experimental models, and is produced in many solid tumours. CD44 mediates hyaluronic acid (HA)-dependent cell adhesion: besides promoting invasion, this interaction also supports neoangiogenesis that indirectly stimulates tumour cell proliferation. The expression of VEGF-C (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor – C), its receptor VEGFR-3 and CD44, were studied on feline mammary samples to assess the importance of lymphangiogenesis and lymphangiotrophism in neoplasia. Samples were taken from six normal mammary glands (NMG), ten benign (BT) and 32 malignant (MT) tumours. Immunohistochemical laminin/VEGFR-3 double stain, VEGF-C and CD44 stains were applied to 4 μm-thick sections, and their expression evaluated in intratumoral/extratumoral and intramammary/extramammary fields. All groups revealed a higher number of lymphatics in the extratumoral/extramammary areas. VEGF-C expression in the epithelium paralleled the number of positive vessels in the NMG, BT and MT, whereas VEGF-C higher expression was noted in the intratumoral fields only in infiltrating MT. CD44 score was lower in extratumoral than intratumoral fields in tumours and showed a significant increase in extramammary/extratumoral fields from NMG to MT. Pearson test showed a significant and inversely proportional correlation between CD44 expression and the number of lymphatic vessels with VEGFR-3 in malignant infiltrating tumours. The number of both VEGFR-3 positive and negative lymphatics in the extratumoral

  13. Malignant acanthosis nigricans: an early diagnostic clue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjad, M.; Shah, A.A.; Bari, A.U.

    2010-01-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is characterized by velvety, hyper pigmented, verrucosus, symmetric and occasionally pruritic plaques along with papillomatous lesions which have a special predilection for neck, axillae, groin, umbilicu and mucosal regions. Rarely, it presents as a para neoplastic syndrome and prompts a thorough search for an internal malignancy. We present here a case of malignant acanthosis nigricans seen in an elderly patient who was found to have underlying adenocarcinoma of the lower end of esophagus. After diagnosing associated malignancy, he was referred for further evaluation and subsequent surgical resection of tumour. (author)

  14. Extracellular matrix in tumours as a source of additional neoplastic lesions - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madej Janusz A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The review describes the role of cells of extracellular matrix (ECM as a source of neoplastic outgrowths additional to the original tumour. The cells undergo a spontaneous transformation or stimulation by the original tumour through intercellular signals, e.g. through Shh protein (sonic hedgehog. Additionally, cells of an inflammatory infiltrate, which frequently accompany malignant tumours and particularly carcinomas, may regulate tumour cell behaviour. This is either by restricting tumour proliferation or, inversely, by induction and stimulation of the proliferation of another tumour cell type, e.g. mesenchymal cells. The latter type of tumour may involve formation of histologically differentiated stromal tumours (GIST, which probably originate from interstitial cells of Cajal in the alimentary tract. Occasionally, e.g. in gastric carcinoma, proliferation involves lymphoid follicles and lymphocytes of GALT (gut-associated lymphoid tissue, which gives rise to lymphoma. The process is preceded by the earlier stage of intestinal metaplasia, or is induced by gastritis alone. This is an example of primary involvement of inflammatory infiltrate cells in neoplastic progression. Despite the numerous histogenetic classifications of tumours (zygotoma benignum et zygotoma malignum, or mesenchymomata maligna et mesenchymomata benigna, currently in oncological diagnosis the view prevails that the direction of tumour differentiation and its degree of histologic malignancy (grading are more important factors than the histogenesis of the tumour.

  15. Spectrum of central nervous system tumours-a single center histopathological review of 761 cases over 5 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahsan, J.; Hashmi, S.N.; Din, H.U.; Masood, A.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of central nervous system (CNS) tumours has rapidly increased over the past few years. There is no accurate nationwide CNS tumour epidemiology in Pakistan that makes policy making for tumour screening and early treatment difficult. The purpose of this study was to provide the spectrum of CNS tumours in a premier diagnostic and referral centre of Pakistan. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out at Histopathology Department, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology over a period of 5 years. A total of 761 cases patients who were diagnosed with CNS tumours on histopathology, both benign and malignant, belonging to both genders, between the ages of 1-85 years, from 11.2009 to 31.12.2013 were included in the study. Results: Seven CNS tumour categories were as follows; tumours of neuroepithelial tissue (56.0%), tumours of the meninges (28.3%), tumour of the sellar region (2.6%), germ cell tumour (0.1), tumour of cranial and paraspinal nerves (5.4%), lymphomas and haematopoietic neoplasm (2.4%), metastatic tumours (4.9%), where histological types by age and gender showed great variability. Astrocytic tumours were the commonest neuroepithelial tumours (69.4%). Glioblastoma multiform forming the largest subtype of neuroepithelial tumours (40.4%) with a mean age at diagnosis being 47.1 years. Overall, males exceeded females in number of most of the CNS tumour types, however meningeal tumours were more frequently noted in females. Conclusions: Neuroepithelial tumours are commonest tumour and comprise more than half of all operated CNS tumours in our setup, followed by meningeal tumours. Glioblastoma multiforme is largest subtype of neuroepithelial tumour, and comprising 40.4% of all. (author)

  16. Immunoscintigraphy of malignant melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, L.; Sandron, A.; Herry, J.Y.; Chevrant-Breton, J.

    1990-01-01

    This work is part of a multicentric European evaluation of the monoclonal antibody 225.28s targeted against malignant melanoma and its metastases. Twenty-eight patients (12 males, 16 females, mean age: 53 yrs), who had initially been treated by resection of the primary tumour, were included in the study. Twenty-three of the 26 metastases more than 1 cm in diameter were visualized by immunoscintigraphy. The sensitivity of the procedure (88%) is limited however by the small size of the lesions and their depth, as well as by background noise caused by circulating antibodies. Immunoscintigraphy enables non-invasive investigation of the whole body and can detect lesions that other conventional complementary explorations fail to identify [fr

  17. Classification of tubulo-papillary renal cortical tumours using estimates of nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, B; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Olsen, S

    1993-01-01

    The classification of renal cortical tumours is problematic, with no clear division of benign from malignant tumours. Unbiased stereological estimates of volume-weighted nuclear volume (nuclear vv) were obtained by point sampling of nuclear intercepts in a retrospective study of 36 variably sized...

  18. Presentation of a salivary tumour si mil primitive lung with metastases of carcinoid tumour of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldi, S.; Ximenez; Carzoglio, J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Colon carcinoid tumors are primary tumors in the colon, a rare histology. The lung tumour Si mil - Amyloid is within primary lung tumours, infrequent histology and often behaves like a benign tumour. In this paper we present the case of a patient with a history of having undergone colon surgery for a malignant carcinoid. Two years after developing a lung salivary tumour simile initially presented as metastasis Colonic carcinoid lung tumour. Clinical case: It is about a female patient of 64 years, who in September 2008 he makes a right hemicolectomy extended by an occlusive syndrome sub. Anatomic Pathology (A P) accounted for Carcinoid Tumor Malignant one that committed the entire wall and 50 lymph nodes are resected, all free metastasis. The patient does not receive complementary treatments and an imaging over in December 2009 is evident in a tomographic study a bulky upper lobe pulmonary parenchymal process right. The fiberoptic bronchoscopy (Fob) showed complete obstruction of the right upper lobe bronchus by a vegetating process whose biopsy reported a malignant lung tumor commitment carcinoid support primitive colonic confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The March 23, 2010 takes place the right upper lobectomy with lymphadenectomy. The A P and IHC study confirmed adenosquamous carcinoma with stroma simile amiloide low degree of malignancy. This injury can be approved to a salivary tumour early lung simile. Bronchial compromised by tumor margin and 22 negative lymph nodes. The patient is referred for additional radiation treatment. Discussion: Tumours of salivary gland type of primitive lung is a very rare condition and diagnosis is a r arity . Usually they originate in the bronchial epithelium submucosal gland. Endo luminal lesions usually occur as infrequently and develop in outlying areas. The development of lung tumours unrelated bronchial structure has been explained by a possible origin from a primitive stem cell that can differentiate a

  19. [About the signs of malignant pheochromocytoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonenko, V B; Makanin, M A; Dulin, P A; Vasilchenko, M I; Lesovik, V S

    2012-01-01

    Morphological criteria for malignant pheochromocytoma remain to be developed According to the WHO recommendations, the sole absolute criteria is the presence of metastases in the organs normally containing no chromaffin tissue. Such signs as cellular and nuclear polymorphism, mytotic activity, vascular invasion, capsular ingrowth are not sufficient to describe a pheochromocytoma as malignant. It is equally dfficult to differentiate between malignant and benign tumours based on histological data since histologically mature neoplasms can produce metastases. Based on the results of original studies, the authors believe that such histological features as vascular and capsular invasion do not necessarily suggest unfavourable prognosis. Therefore, the conclusion of malignancy based on such features can not be regarded as absolute. Probably such neoplasms should be called "pheochromocytomas with morphological signs of malignant growths". They should be referred to the tumours with uncertain malignancy potential based on the known discrepancy between morphological structure and biological activity of neoplasms. Comparative studies of clinical and morphological features of pheochromocytomas showed that their histological type (alveolar; solid, dyscomplexed, trabecular) and morphological signs of malignant growth influence both the clinical picture and arterial hypertension. There are no significant relationship between the above morphological signs, timour mass and clinical manifestations of pheochromocytomas.

  20. Wilms' tumour (nephroblastoma)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wilms' tumour or nephroblastoma is a cancer of the kidney that ... It may be noticed by parents or it may be an incidental finding ... patients. It may lead to iron deficiency anaemia. Rarely Wilms' tumour may present with acquired von Willebrand's ... the best treatment approach. ... with multimodality therapy in paediatric.

  1. Time sequential single photon emission computed tomography studies in brain tumour using thallium-201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Takashi; Kaji, Yasuhiro; Wakisaka, Shinichiro; Watanabe, Katsushi; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Futami, Shigemi

    1993-01-01

    Time sequential single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies using thallium-201 were performed in 25 patients with brain tumours to evaluate the kinetics of thallium in the tumour and the biological malignancy grade preoperatively. After acquisition and reconstruction of SPECT data from 1 min post injection to 48 h (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 15-20 min, followed by 4-6, 24 and 48 h), the thallium uptake ratio in the tumour versus the homologous contralateral area of the brain was calculated and compared with findings of X-ray CT, magnetic resonance imaging, cerebral angiography and histological investigations. Early uptake of thallium in tumours was related to tumour vascularity and the disruption of the blood-brain barrier. High and rapid uptake and slow reduction of thallium indicated a hypervascular malignant tumour; however, high and rapid uptake but rapid reduction of thallium indicated a hypervascular benign tumour, such as meningioma. Hypovascular and benign tumours tended to show low uptake and slow reduction of thallium. Long-lasting retention or uptake of thallium indicates tumour malignancy. (orig.)

  2. Breast tumours of adolescents in an African population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umanah Ivy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tumours of the breast are uncommon in childhood and adolescence. Patients in this age group often require a different approach to diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this study is to highlight the clinicopathologic features of breast tumours in adolescents in a Nigerian city. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four breast tumour materials from patients aged 10-19 years were analyzed over a 10-year period at the Department of Pathology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH, Benin City, Edo State, Benin City, Nigeria. Results: A majority of the breast tumours were benign. Fibroadenoma was the most common tumour with 46 cases (54.8%, followed by fibrocystic changes with 15 cases (17%. Malignancy was extremely rare in this group, with only one case (1.2% of an invasive ductal carcinoma. Histologically, most tumours were indistinguishable from the adult types. Conclusion: Fibroadenoma is the most common breast tumour in adolescents in Benin City, Nigeria. Breast cancer and male breast tumours are rare in this age group. Routine complete physical examination of children and adolescents should include breast examination.

  3. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per ml...

  4. Small Intestinal Tumours: An Overview on Classification, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Notaristefano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The small intestinal neoplasia group includes different types of lesions and are a relatively rare event, accounting for only 3-6% of all gastrointestinal (GI neoplasms and 1-3% of all GI malignancies. These lesions can be classified as epithelial and mesenchymal, either benign or malignant. Mesenchymal tumours include stromal tumours (GIST and other neoplasms that might arise from soft tissue throughout the rest of the body (lipomas, leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas, fibromas, desmoid tumours, and schwannomas. Other lesions occurring in the small bowel are carcinoids, lymphomas, and melanomas. To date, carcinoids and GIST are reported as the most frequent malignant lesions occurring in the small bowel. Factors that predispose to the development of malignant lesions are different, and they may be hereditary (Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, neuroendocrine neoplasia Type 1, von Hippel-Lindau disease, and neurofibromatosis Type 1, acquired (sporadic colorectal cancer and small intestine adenomas, coeliac disease, Crohn’s disease, or environmental (diet, tobacco, and obesity. Small bowel tumours present with different and sometimes nonspecific symptoms, and a prompt diagnosis is not always so easily performed. Diagnostic tools, that may be both radiological and endoscopic, possess specificity and sensitivity, as well as different roles depending on the type of lesion. Treatment of these lesions may be different and, in recent years, new therapies have enabled an improvement in life expectancy.

  5. A case of multiple cardiac calcified amorphous tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrit Chowdhary

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac calcified amorphous tumours of the heart are rare non-neoplastic cardiac masses that can present like a malignant mass or an intra-cardiac thrombus. We report an extremely unusual case of a 73 year old man who presented to hospital with dyspnoea and subsequent investigations revealed multiple cardiac CATs.

  6. Common tumour, uncommon presentation: massive lipoma in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    b. Retroperitoneal masses are notoriously malignant. Although they are seen commonly in adults, they have ... gastrointestinal symptoms. A detailed examination re- vealed an ill-defined mass in the abdomen, involving the ... that occurs in adolescents and young adults [7]. As these tumours have variable proportions of fat ...

  7. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: A rare salivary gland tumour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salivary gland malignancy is rare, with a global annual incidence of. 3 per 100 000 people.[1,2] A rare salivary gland tumour, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC), has only recently been described.[3] The few reports and studies concerning MASC have been published in several pathology journals. We report ...

  8. Clinical and genetic aspects of testicular germ cell tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzik, Martijn F. Lutke; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Sleijfer, Dirk Th.; Hoekstra, Harald J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we review clinical and genetic aspects of testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs). TGCT is the most common type of malignant disorder in men aged 15-40 years. Its incidence has increased sharply in recent years. Fortunately, survival of patients with TGCT has improved enormously, which

  9. Sacrococcygeal germ-cell tumours - the Red Cross War Memorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first of these 2 neonates, with a malignant teratoma, was not given chemotherapy and remains well 10 years later. The second, with a yolk-sac tumour, also received no initial chemotherapy. He relapsed at the age of 9 months and was successfully treated with repeat excision and chemotherapy. All 5 patients first ...

  10. Malignant Catatonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayca Ozkul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Catatonia is a syndrome characterized by mutism, immobility, negativism, stereotypy, mannerisms, echophenomena, perseveration and passive obedience. The underlying causes can be psychiatric or may be associated with general medical status or neurological diseases. Additionally catatonia has two subtypes as malignant and nonmalignant catatonia. Main symptoms of malignant catatonia are hyperthermia and autonomic symptoms such as tachycardia, tachypnea and hyperhidrosis. It is important to make the diagnosis as early as possible for an appropriate medical treatment. Clinicians should be aware of the fatal outcome of the disease.

  11. Classification of tubulo-papillary renal cortical tumours using estimates of nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, B; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Olsen, S

    1993-01-01

    The classification of renal cortical tumours is problematic, with no clear division of benign from malignant tumours. Unbiased stereological estimates of volume-weighted nuclear volume (nuclear vv) were obtained by point sampling of nuclear intercepts in a retrospective study of 36 variably sized...... = 241 microns 3) and 15 tumours classified as renal cell carcinomas with diameters > 3 cm, or aggressive histological pattern (average nuclear vv = 229 microns 3) (2p = 0.68). In this subtype of renal cortical tumours, estimates of nuclear vv do not support the historical convention of using a 3 cm...... tumour diameter as the dividing line between adenomas and carcinomas, but support the theory of a single group of tumours. As most of the truly incidental renal cortical tumours are less than 1 cm in diameter, this limit could be considered. Such small benign cortical nodules have never been reported...

  12. Tumour-induced osteomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minisola, Salvatore; Peacock, Munro; Fukumoto, Seijii; Cipriani, Cristiana; Pepe, Jessica; Tella, Sri Harsha; Collins, Michael T

    2017-07-13

    Tumour-induced osteomalacia (TIO), also known as oncogenic osteomalacia, is a rare paraneoplastic disorder caused by tumours that secrete fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). Owing to the role of FGF23 in renal phosphate handling and vitamin D synthesis, TIO is characterized by decreased renal tubular reabsorption of phosphate, by hypophosphataemia and by low levels of active vitamin D. Chronic hypophosphataemia ultimately results in osteomalacia (that is, inadequate bone mineralization). The diagnosis of TIO is usually suspected when serum phosphate levels are chronically low in the setting of bone pain, fragility fractures and muscle weakness. Locating the offending tumour can be very difficult, as the tumour is often very small and can be anywhere in the body. Surgical removal of the tumour is the only definitive treatment. When the tumour cannot be located or when complete resection is not possible, medical treatment with phosphate salts or active vitamin D is necessary. One of the most promising emerging treatments for unresectable tumours that cause TIO is the anti-FGF23 monoclonal antibody KRN23. The recent identification of a fusion of fibronectin and fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) as a molecular driver in some tumours not only sheds light on the pathophysiology of TIO but also opens the door to a better understanding of the transcription, translocation, post-translational modification and secretion of FGF23, as well as suggesting approaches to targeted therapy. Further study will reveal if the FGFR1 pathway is also involved in tumours that do not harbour the translocation.

  13. Acetyltransferases and tumour suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, A C; Vousden, Karen H

    2000-01-01

    The acetyltransferase p300 was first identified associated with the adenoviral transforming protein E1A, suggesting a potential role for p300 in the regulation of cell proliferation. Direct evidence demonstrating a role for p300 in human tumours was lacking until the recentl publication by Gayther et al, which strongly supports a role for p300 as a tumour suppressor. The authors identify truncating mutations associated with the loss or mutation of the second allele in both tumour samples and cell lines, suggesting that loss of p300 may play a role in the development of a subset of human cancers

  14. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) for the evaluation of treatment of brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houkin, K.; Kamada, K.; Sawamura, Y.; Iwasaki, Y.; Abe, H.; Kashiwaba, T.

    1995-01-01

    We investigated metabolic changes in brain tumours following treatment, using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In meningiomas, effective therapeutic embolisation led to an acute increase in lactate. In radiosensitive tumours such as malignant lymphoma, a decrease in lactate and in increase in N-acetyl-aspartate occurred after radiotherapy, which preceded changes observed on magnetic resonance imaging. On the other hand, no significant changes in spectral patterns were observed in malignant gliomas resistant to therapy. Tissue characterisation of brain tumours by spectral patterns on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy remains controversial. However, we have shown it to be sensitive to metabolic changes following treatment, which may reflect the efficacy of the therapy. (orig.)

  15. Diagnostic value of quantitative scintiscanning in tumours and tumour-like lesions of the skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt-Orlewicz, C.

    1986-01-01

    Following administration of 99mTc phosphate compounds quantitative scintiscanning and, in particular, the 'region of interest' technique were used in 277 patients investigated for tumours and tumour-like lesions of the extremities. The following results were obtained: 1) In primary malignant bone tumours of the extremities tracer accumulation is increased by a factor of more than 2.5 as compared to that observed in normal bone tissue (the only exception here being plasmacytoma and histiocytoma). 2) In metastatic and benign bone tumours this tendency towards increased tracer accumulation generally is less pronounced so that the values calculated here remained below a factor of 2.5. 3) The accumulation behaviour of tumour-like bone changes of the extremities did not follow a uniform pattern. 4) As a general rule, the values measured in the region of the vertebral column were increased by a factor of less than 2.5. Quantitative scintiscanning, even though being a step towards a more sophisticated radiopharmaceutical method of examination, may occasionally not provide all the information required to establish a firm diagnosis or to evaluate the severity of a disease. One important domaine of this technique is the medical surveillance of patients, both before and after treatment. (TRV) [de

  16. Sperm protein 17 is expressed in human nervous system tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grizzi, Fabio; Baena, Riccardo Rodriguez y; Dioguardi, Nicola; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio; Gaetani, Paolo; Franceschini, Barbara; Di Ieva, Antonio; Colombo, Piergiuseppe; Ceva-Grimaldi, Giorgia; Bollati, Angelo; Frezza, Eldo E; Cobos, E

    2006-01-01

    Human sperm protein 17 (Sp17) is a highly conserved protein that was originally isolated from a rabbit epididymal sperm membrane and testis membrane pellet. It has recently been included in the cancer/testis (CT) antigen family, and shown to be expressed in multiple myeloma and ovarian cancer. We investigated its immunolocalisation in specimens of nervous system (NS) malignancies, in order to establish its usefulness as a target for tumour-vaccine strategies. The expression of Sp17 was assessed by means of a standardised immunohistochemical procedure [(mAb/antigen) MF1/Sp17] in formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded surgical specimens of NS malignancies, including 28 neuroectodermal primary tumours (6 astrocytomas, 16 glioblastoma multiforme, 5 oligodendrogliomas, and 1 ependymoma), 25 meningeal tumours, and five peripheral nerve sheath tumours (4 schwannomas, and 1 neurofibroma),. A number of neuroectodermal (21%) and meningeal tumours (4%) were found heterogeneously immunopositive for Sp17. None of the peripheral nerve sheath tumours was immunopositive for Sp17. The expression pattern was heterogeneous in all of the positive samples, and did not correlate with the degree of malignancy. The frequency of expression and non-uniform cell distribution of Sp17 suggest that it cannot be used as a unique immunotherapeutic target in NS cancer. However, our results do show the immunolocalisation of Sp17 in a proportion of NS tumour cells, but not in their non-pathological counterparts. The emerging complex function of Sp17 makes further studies necessary to clarify the link between it and immunopositive cells

  17. Inflamed Phylloides Tumour in a Girl: A Challenging Diagnosis in Paediatric Breast Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Testa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phylloides tumours (PTs are rare fibroepithelial neoplasms that account for 0.3–0.9% of all breast tumours. These tumours typically occur in women aged 30–70 years. The occurrence of these tumours in older children and adolescents poses particular diagnostic and therapeutic problems. However, early diagnosis is mandatory because although most of the cases of PTs in children are benign, the borderline and malignant cases with potential negative outcomes cannot be excluded. Case presentation: A 12-year-old girl presented at the Paediatric Emergency Department for hyperaemia and warmth of the left breast that occurred a few days prior without fever. The girl experienced menarche 8 months previously. She experienced no previous trauma and she had no family history of breast cancer. On physical examination, the left breast was painful, enlarged and tender. The overlying skin was erythematous and warm. A breast ultrasonography (US revealed a large mass with features of an abscess, including a hyperechoic wall, scattered internal echoes and hypoechoic peripheral lacunae of apparent colliquative nature. After 4 days of unsuccessful antibiotic therapy, surgical drainage was performed due to the suspicion of a mammary abscess. At the surgical incision site, the lesion was not-well circumscribed and lacked a capsule. In addition, purulent material was not detected. Histological examination revealed that the tissue alterations were compatible with benign PT. With this diagnosis, the girl underwent definitive surgical removal of the lesion. The postoperative period passed without negative events. An US performed 6 months later revealed that no new mass was present at this time, suggesting no recurrence of the tumour. Conclusion: This case shows that in the presence of a clinical picture suggesting the inflammation of the breast in adolescent females, PT should be considered as a possible diagnosis and US-guided core biopsy should be

  18. Inflamed Phylloides Tumour in a Girl: A Challenging Diagnosis in Paediatric Breast Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Ilaria; Salvatori, Cristina; Prestipino, Marco; Laurenti, Maria Elena; Gerli, Paolo; Di Cara, Giuseppe; Principi, Nicola; Esposito, Susanna; Bertozzi, Mirko

    2018-05-11

    Introduction : Phylloides tumours (PTs) are rare fibroepithelial neoplasms that account for 0.3⁻0.9% of all breast tumours. These tumours typically occur in women aged 30⁻70 years. The occurrence of these tumours in older children and adolescents poses particular diagnostic and therapeutic problems. However, early diagnosis is mandatory because although most of the cases of PTs in children are benign, the borderline and malignant cases with potential negative outcomes cannot be excluded. Case presentation : A 12-year-old girl presented at the Paediatric Emergency Department for hyperaemia and warmth of the left breast that occurred a few days prior without fever. The girl experienced menarche 8 months previously. She experienced no previous trauma and she had no family history of breast cancer. On physical examination, the left breast was painful, enlarged and tender. The overlying skin was erythematous and warm. A breast ultrasonography (US) revealed a large mass with features of an abscess, including a hyperechoic wall, scattered internal echoes and hypoechoic peripheral lacunae of apparent colliquative nature. After 4 days of unsuccessful antibiotic therapy, surgical drainage was performed due to the suspicion of a mammary abscess. At the surgical incision site, the lesion was not-well circumscribed and lacked a capsule. In addition, purulent material was not detected. Histological examination revealed that the tissue alterations were compatible with benign PT. With this diagnosis, the girl underwent definitive surgical removal of the lesion. The postoperative period passed without negative events. An US performed 6 months later revealed that no new mass was present at this time, suggesting no recurrence of the tumour. Conclusion : This case shows that in the presence of a clinical picture suggesting the inflammation of the breast in adolescent females, PT should be considered as a possible diagnosis and US-guided core biopsy should be considered to confirm

  19. Excluded Volume Effects in Gene Stretching

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Pui-Man

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the effects excluded volume on the stretching of a single DNA in solution. We find that for small force F, the extension h is not linear in F but proportion to F^{\\chi}, with \\chi=(1-\

  20. Targeting radiation to tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheldon, T.E.; Greater Glasgow Health Board, Glasgow

    1994-01-01

    Biologically targeted radiotherapy entails the preferential delivery of radiation to solid tumours or individual tumour cells by means of tumour-seeking delivery vehicles to which radionuclides can be conjugated. Monoclonal antibodies have attracted attention for some years as potentially selective targeting agents, but advances in tumour and molecular biology are now providing a much wider choice of molecular species. General radiobiological principles may be derived which are applicable to most forms of targeted radiotherapy. These principles provide guidelines for the appropriate choice of radionuclide in specific treatment situations and its optimal combination with other treatment modalities. In future, the availability of gene targeting agents will focus attention on the use of Auger electron emitters whose high potency and short range selectivity makes them attractive choices for specific killing of cancer cells whose genetic peculiarities are known. (author)

  1. [Gastric mesenchymal tumours (GIST)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivach, Arrigo; Fezzi, Margherita; Sartori, Alberto; Belgrano, Manuel; Rimondini, Alessandra; Cuttin-Zernich, Roberto; Covab, Maria Assunta; Bonifacio, Daniela; Buri, Luigi; Pagani, Carlo; Zanconati, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) has increased in recent years. A number of authors have attempted to define the actual nature of these tumours. Immunohistochemistry highlighting the positivity of tyrosine-kinase (CD117/c-Kit) has revealed the difference between gastrointestinal stromal tumours and other mesenchymal tumours and, therefore, the possibility of medical rather than surgical therapy. We retrospectively reviewed 19 patients affected by primary gastric GIST, who underwent surgery in recent years with subsequent follow-up. Gastroscopy and gastrointestinal tract radiography were used not only to obtain the diagnosis but also to establish the size, density, contours, ulceration, regional lymphadenopathy, mesenteric infiltration and the presence of metastases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the roles of endoscopy and radiology in this pathology and the advantages and limitations of each individual technique.

  2. Hepatic tumours in children with biliary atresia: Single-centre experience in 13 cases and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, H.J.; Jeon, T.Y.; Yoo, S.-Y.; Kim, J.H.; Eo, H.; Lee, S.-K.; Kim, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To establish the risks of developing of hepatic tumours and to investigate their clinical and imaging findings in children with biliary atresia (BA) after Kasai portoenterostomy (Kasai). Materials and methods: Among 157 children who had undergone Kasai for BA over an 18 year period, patients who had newly developed hepatic tumours were identified. Patient demographics, clinical features, and imaging findings were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Three male and 10 female patients (mean age 3.9 years) all (8%, of 157) had single hepatic tumours, which were confirmed in 10 explanted and three non-explanted livers. Ten (77%) were benign and three (23%) were malignant. Of the benign hepatic tumours, focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH; n = 6) was the most common, followed by regenerative nodules (n = 3) and adenoma (n = 1). All FNH appeared in young children <1 year of age and showed a subcapsular location, bulging contour, and lack of central scar. Malignant tumours included two hepatocellular carcinomas and one cholangiocarcinoma. Conclusion: Hepatic tumours developed in approximately 8% of children with BA after Kasai. Although benign tumours, including FNHs and regenerative nodules, were more common than malignant tumours, screening with alpha-foetoprotein (AFP) levels and regular imaging studies are the mainstay of malignant tumour detection

  3. Genomic aberrations in spitzoid tumours and their implications for diagnosis, prognosis and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Thomas; Kutzner, Heinz; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Mihm, Martin J.; Busam, Klaus J.; Murali, Rajmohan

    2016-01-01

    Summary Histopathological evaluation of melanocytic tumours usually allows reliable distinction of benign melanocytic naevi from melanoma. More difficult is the histopathological classification of Spitz tumours, a heterogeneous group of tumours composed of large epithelioid or spindle-shaped melanocytes. Spitz tumours are biologically distinct from conventional melanocytic naevi and melanoma, as exemplified by their distinct patterns of genetic aberrations. Whereas conventional naevi and melanoma often harbour BRAF mutations, NRAS mutations, or inactivation of NF1, Spitz tumours show HRAS mutations, inactivation of BAP1 (often combined with BRAF mutations), or genomic rearrangements involving the kinases ALK, ROS1, NTRK1, BRAF, RET, and MET. In Spitz naevi, which lack significant histological atypia, all of these mitogenic driver aberrations trigger rapid cell proliferation, but after an initial growth phase, various tumour suppressive mechanisms stably block further growth. In some tumours, additional genomic aberrations may abrogate various tumour suppressive mechanisms, such as cell-cycle arrest, telomere shortening, or DNA damage response. The melanocytes then start to grow in a less organised fashion, may spread to regional lymph nodes, and are termed atypical Spitz tumours. Upon acquisition of even more aberrations, which often activate additional oncogenic pathways or reduce and alter cell differentiation, the neoplastic cells become entirely malignant and may colonise and take over distant organs (spitzoid melanoma). The sequential acquisition of genomic aberrations suggests that Spitz tumours represent a continuous biological spectrum, rather than a dichotomy of benign versus malignant, and that tumours with ambiguous histological features (atypical Spitz tumours) might be best classified as low-grade melanocytic tumours. The number of genetic aberrations usually correlates with the degree of histological atypia and explains why existing ancillary genetic

  4. Somatostatin receptor subtype expression in human thyroid tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klagge, A; Krause, K; Schierle, K; Steinert, F; Dralle, H; Fuhrer, D

    2010-04-01

    Somatostatin receptors (SSTR) are expressed in various endocrine tumours. The expression of SSTR at the tumour cell surface confers the possibility for diagnostic imaging and therapy of tumours using radiolabeled somatostatin analogues. The majority of currently available somatostatin analogues show a higher binding affinity for the SSTR2 subtype. To date, the precise expression pattern of the SSTR subtypes 1-5 in thyroid epithelial tumours remains to be determined. We investigated the mRNA expression of SSTR1-5 in benign and malignant epithelial thyroid tumours [20 cold thyroid nodules (CTNs), 20 toxic thyroid nodules (TTNs), 20 papillary, 20 follicular, and 5 anaplastic carcinomas (PTCs, FTCs, ATCs, respectively)] and compared them to normal surrounding thyroid tissues. Four out of five SSTR subtypes were detected in malignant thyroid tumours, benign neoplasia, and normal surrounding tissue with a predominant expression of SSTR2 and SSTR5, and a weak expression of SSTR1 and SSTR3. Weak SSTR4 mRNA expression was detected in some PTCs. Compared to normal thyroid tissue, SSTR2 was significantly upregulated in PTC and ATC. In addition significant upregulation of SSTR3 was found in PTC. SSTR5 mRNA expression was increased in PTC and FTC and significantly decreased in CTN and TTN compared to normal thyroid tissue. SSTR2 is the predominant subtype in thyroid epithelial tumours with a high expression pattern, in particular, in PTC . Perspectively, the expression of distinct SSTR in thyroid epithelial tumours might represent a promising avenue for diagnostics and therapy of advanced thyroid cancer with somatostatin analogues. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

  5. COX-2, VEGF and tumour angiogenesis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toomey, D P

    2009-06-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests a protective effective of regular NSAID use against developing cancer. Cyclooxygenase-2, a target of NSAIDs, is upregulated in many cancers and has been associated with increased VEGF production and angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is the formation of new vessels from existing vasculature and as an essential process for tumour development represents an important therapeutic target. Following an extensive review of the literature this article details the current knowledge on the role of COX-2 in tumorigenesis focusing on its relationship to angiogenesis and VEGF production by tumour cells. While COX-2 is clearly detrimental to prognosis and NSAIDs have a beneficial effect, the possibility of COX-2 independent effects being partly or wholly responsible for this benefit cannot be excluded.

  6. Breast spindle cell tumours: about eight cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El All Howayda S

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast spindle cell tumours (BSCTs, although rare, represent a heterogeneous group with different treatment modalities. This work was undertaken to evaluate the utility of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC in differentiating BSCTs. Methods FNAC of eight breast masses diagnosed cytologically as BSCTs was followed by wide excision biopsy. IHC using a panel of antibodies against vimentin, pan-cytokeratin, s100, desmin, smooth muscle actin, CD34, and CD10 was evaluated to define their nature. Results FNAC defined the tumors as benign (n = 4, suspicious (n = 2 and malignant (n = 3, based on the cytopathological criteria of malignancy. Following wide excision biopsy, the tumors were reclassified into benign (n = 5 and malignant (n = 3. In the benign group, the diagnosis was raised histologically and confirmed by IHC for 3 cases (one spindle cell lipoma, one myofibroblastoma and one leiomyoma. For the remaining two cases, the diagnosis was set up after IHC (one fibromatosis and one spindle cell variant of adenomyoepithelioma. In the malignant group, a leiomyosarcoma was diagnosed histologically, while IHC was crucial to set up the diagnosis of one case of spindle cell carcinoma and one malignant myoepithelioma. Conclusion FNAC in BSCTs is an insufficient tool and should be followed by wide excision biopsy. The latter technique differentiate benign from malignant BSCTs and is able in 50% of the cases to set up the definite diagnosis. IHC is of value to define the nature of different benign lesions and is mandatory in the malignant ones for optimal treatment. Awareness of the different types of BSCTs prevents unnecessary extensive therapeutic regimes.

  7. Head and neck tumours: combined MRI assessment based on IVIM and TIC analyses for the differentiation of tumors of different histological types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumi, Misa; Nakamura, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the combined use of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and time-signal intensity curve (TIC) analyses to diagnose head and neck tumours. We compared perfusion-related parameters (PP) and molecular diffusion values (D) determined from IVIM theory and TIC profiles among 92 tumours with different histologies. IVIM parameters (f and D values) and TIC profiles in combination were distinct among the different types of head and neck tumours, including squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), lymphomas, malignant salivary gland tumours, Warthin's tumours, pleomorphic adenomas and schwannomas. A multiparametric approach using both IVIM parameters and TIC profiles differentiated between benign and malignant tumours with 97 % accuracy and diagnosed different tumour types with 89 % accuracy. Combined use of IVIM parameters and TIC profiles has high efficacy in diagnosing head and neck tumours. (orig.)

  8. Cartilaginous tumours; MR appearance and correlation with histopathology. Chondromatoese Tumoren in der MRT; Erscheinungsbild in Abhaengigkeit von Lokalisation und Histopathologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiglbauer, R. (Vienna Univ. (Austria). MR-Institut der Medizinischen Fakultaet und Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik); Boehm, G. (Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Klinische Pathologie)

    1993-02-01

    19 patients with histologically verified cartilaginous tumours (chondromas, chondrosarcomas) were examined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to assess differences regarding the MR appearance of these tumours which would provide information on the biological behaviour of these lesions. MR findings were then correlated with histopathology. With regard to the signal behaviour of cartilaginous tumours a good correlation with histopathology could be established insofar as the relatively hypocellular tumours composed of hyaline cartilage exhibited a high signal level on T[sub 2]-weighted images. There were no significant differences regarding signal characteristics of cartilaginous tumours in various anatomical locations. However, lesions located in the pelvis and the long bones showed predominantly peripheral enhancement whereas tumours of the skull base and larynx exhibited diffuse enhancement patterns in the majority of cases. 10 tumours (6 benign, 4 malignant) exhibited a lobular appearance. No relevant information in respect of tumour grading could be obtained. (orig.)

  9. Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein as markers of bacterial infection in patients with solid tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Laura V; Maraldo, Maja V; Mortensen, Christiane E

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The diagnosis of bacterial infections in patients with solid tumours can be difficult as both the tumour and its treatment can cause symptoms and signs similar to those of infections. Many patients with solid tumours therefore receive antibiotic treatment without having a bacterial......, but with no signs of infection. RESULTS: Of the 41 admitted patients, 25 were classified as having an infection (either microbiologically or radioo-gically verified). Among the 25 cases with infection, PCT was within the normal range in 11 cases and only elevated in 14. As nearly half of the patients with infection...... had PCT within the normal range, PCT is not suited to exclude an infection. CRP was elevated in 20 patients out of the 25. CONCLUSION: PCT within the normal range cannot exclude an infection and does not appear to be superior to CRP to exclude an infection in patients with solid tumours. FUNDING...

  10. Development of a novel method to enhance the therapeutic effect on tumours by simultaneous action of radiation and heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosterev, Vladimir V.; Kramer-Ageev, Evgeny A.; Mazokhin, Vladimir N.; van Rhoon, Gerard C.; Crezee, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a new type of electromagnetic hyperthermia applicator delivering dose control within large application fields and increased effectiveness by providing simultaneous action of radiation and heating (SRH) in malignant tumours, and development of a dosimetric

  11. What is the Right to Exclude Immigrants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2010-01-01

    It is normally taken for granted that states have a right to control immigration into their territory. When immigration is raised as a normative issue two questions become salient, one about what the right to exclude is, and one about whether and how it might be justified. This paper considers...... the first question. The paper starts by noting that standard debates about immigration have not addressed what the right to exclude is. Standard debates about immigration furthermore tend to result either in fairly strong cases for open borders or in denials that considerations of justice apply...... to immigration at all, which results in state discretion positions. This state of debate is both theoretically unsatisfactory and normatively implausible. The paper therefore explores an alternative approach to the right to exclude immigrants from the perspective of recent debates about the territorial rights...

  12. Skin lesion resembling malignant atrophic papulosis in lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doutre, M S; Beylot, C; Bioulac, P; Busquet, M; Conte, M

    1987-01-01

    This case demonstrates, as do the 3 others reported in literature, that a diagnosis of malignant atrophic papulosis can only be made once the possibility of a lupus erythematosus has been totally excluded.

  13. Experimental tumour treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report of 1984 is the seventh in a series and presents that year's results of continuous studies in the domain of experimental tumour radiotherapy. In the year under review, more personnel has been available for the studies, and the scientific programmes for the assessment of acute and chronic side effects of radiotherapies have been extended. New models have been developed, among them a first system based on animal experiments, for quantifying the mucositis of the oral and pharyngeal mucosa, a limiting condition in the radiotherapy of head and throat tumours. Another significant advancement is a model for quantification of chronical damage to the ureter, which still is a serious problem in the radiotherapy of gynaecological tumours. The 1984 experimental tumour studies have been mainly devoted to the repopulation and split-dose recovery in various tumours, concentrating on dose fractionation as one of the major problems studies. Particular interest has been attached to the processes involved in treatments over several weeks with a daily effective dose of 2 Gy. (orig./MG) [de

  14. Distinguishing benign and malignant pelvic masses : The value of different diagnostic methods in everyday clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, Mirjam J. A.; Bongaerts, Alphons H. H.; Sluiter, Wim J.; De Haan, Harm H.; Bogchelman, Dick H.; TenVergert, Els M.; Willemse, Pax H. B.; van der Zee, Ate G. J.

    Objective: To optimize referral to specialized gynaecologists for surgical treatment of ovarian cancer by improving preoperative discrimination between benign and malignant pelvic tumours. Study design: In a prospective multicentre study 143 patients with a pelvic mass were included. At several

  15. Radiolabelled aptamers for tumour imaging and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, A.C.; Missailidis, S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The growth in biotechnology has led to new techniques for the design, selection and production of ligands capable of molecular recognition. One promising approach is the production of specific receptor binding molecules based on specific nucleic acid sequences that are capable of recognising a wide array of target molecules. These oligonuclide ligands are known as aptamers. The technology that allows production of aptamer molecules is known as systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). We have used combinatorial chemistry techniques coupled with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to rapidly select aptamers from degenerate libraries that bind with high affinity and specificity to the protein core of the MUC1 antigen, a tumour marker previously extensively used in tumour imaging and therapy. MUC1 is widely expressed by normal glandular epithelial cells, however this expression is dramatically increased when the cells become malignant. This has been well documented for breast and ovarian cancer, as well as some lung, pancreatic and prostate cancers. Recently it has also been shown that MUC1 is a valuable marker for bladder and has been used for the imaging and targeted therapy of bladder cancer. The aptamer selection process was performed on affinity chromatography matrices. After ten rounds of selection and amplification, aptamers were cloned and sequenced. Post SELEX amino modifications have been used to confer nuclease resistance and coupling potential. The aptamers bound to MUC1 antigen with a Kd of 5nm and high specificity, demonstrated by fluorescent microscopy on MUC1-expressing tumour cells. Using peptide coupling reactions, we have successfully attached chelators for Tc-99m radiolabelling. Two of the constructs tested were based on mono-aptamer chelator complexes, one with commercially available MAG3 and one with a novel designed cyclen-based chelator. The other two constructs were based on the use of multi-aptamer complexes

  16. Palliative embolisation of renal tumours with iodine-marked Ethibloc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.; Kaufmann, J.; Kult, K.; Allgemeines Krankenhaus Altona, Hamburg

    1984-01-01

    In 59 patients having non-operable malignant renal tumours, palliative trans-catheter embolization was performed. In 42 of them follow-up observations were realized over 18 months. The average survival rate was then 43% of cases. Local tumour growth was documented in 9 patients (23%) due to recanalization of the embolized arteries (13%) and to non-occluded collateral vessels (10%). The choice of suitable embolizing materials mainly influences the therapeutic result: Oily contrast labeled amino-acid Ethibloc is considered to be the material of choice for safe application and reliable vascular distribution causing persisting occlusion of the renal arteries. (orig.) [de

  17. Our grandmothers, excluded from history, preservers and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our grandmothers, excluded from history, preservers and transmitters of indegenous values: ecomaternalistic approach. ... Journal of Religion and Human Relations ... It further calls for the retrieval of the said hidden histories of women which would hopefully be a lesson for the contemporary and future women.

  18. 21 CFR 1310.08 - Excluded transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded transactions. 1310.08 Section 1310.08 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECORDS AND REPORTS OF LISTED...) Colombia (6) Ecuador (7) French Guiana (8) Guyana (9) Panama (10) Paraguay (11) Peru (12) Suriname (13...

  19. 42 CFR 403.768 - Excluded services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... a RNHCI. (c) A nurse who is not providing RNHCI home nursing services under arrangement with a RNHCI... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excluded services. 403.768 Section 403.768 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL...

  20. The Janus face of death receptor signalling during tumour immunoediting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eimear O' Reilly

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer immune-surveillance is essential for the inhibition of carcinogenesis. Malignantly transformed cells can be recognised by both the innate and adaptive immune systems through different mechanisms. Immune effector cells induce extrinsic cell death in the identified tumour cells by expressing death ligand cytokines of the tumour necrosis factor ligand family. However, some tumour cells can escape immune elimination and progress. Acquisition of resistance to the death-ligand induced apoptotic pathway can be obtained through cleavage of effector-cell expressed death-ligands into a poorly active form, mutations or silencing of the death receptors or overexpression of decoy receptors and pro-survival proteins. Although the immune system is highly effective in the elimination of malignantly transformed cells, abnormal/ dysfunctional death-ligand signalling curbs its cytotoxicity. Moreover, death receptors can also transmit pro-survival and pro-migratory signals. Consequently, dysfunctional death receptor-mediated apoptosis/necroptosis signalling does not only give a passive resistance against cell death, but actively drives tumour cell motility, invasion and contributes to consequent metastasis. This dual contribution of the death ligand-death receptor signalling in both the early, elimination phase and then in the late, escape phase of the tumour immunoediting process is discussed in this review. Death receptor agonists still hold potential for cancer therapy since they can execute the tumour-eliminating immune-effector function even in the absence of activation of the immune system against the tumour. The opportunities and challenges of developing death receptor agonists into effective cancer therapeutics are also discussed.

  1. Epidemiological study of paediatric germ cell tumours revealed the incidence and distribution that was expected, but a low mortality rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evers, Madeline; Rechnitzer, Catherine; Graem, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Germ cell tumours (GCTs) are a rare heterogeneous tumour group derived from primordial germ cells, which can be benign or malignant and occur in the gonads or extragonadally. This study mapped the paediatric GCTs in Denmark from 1984 to 2013 to study the incidence and outcome. Methods: We...

  2. Elevated EGF Levels in the Blood Serum of Dogs with Periodontal Diseases and Oral Tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczyńska-Rak, Aleksandra; Żylińska, Beata; Polkowska, Izabela; Szponder, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    Paradontopathy and neoplasms of the oral cavity represent one of the greatest challenges in human and animal dentistry. EGF plays a key role in maintaining the integrity and proper rate of cell proliferation in normal oral epithelium. The aim of the present study was to study serum levels of EGF in dogs diagnosed with periodontal diseases and oral cavity tumours. The samples comprised of cancerous tissue sections and serum obtained from dogs of various breeds, aged between 5-13 years. Serum EGF concentrations were measured by an immunoenzymatic method. The median for EGF concentration in serum of dogs suffered from severe periodontal diseases was greater when compared to the control group. EGF concentration in dogs with malignant tumours was significantly higher than in those with non-malignant growths. A positive correlation between EGF concentration and tumour size was also observed. EGF level in dogs diagnosed with benign tumours was comparable to the control group. The blood serum level of EGF increases significantly in patients with malignant oral tumours and advanced periodontal disease. In malignant tumours, the high level of EGF correlates with the size and invasiveness of the neoplasm. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  3. Tumour response and morphological changes of acoustic neurinomas after radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentino, V.; Raimondi, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-seven of the 1560 patients treated by radiosurgery during the period 1984-1993 had acoustic neurinomas. Four cases were excluded from this study because they had a follow-up of less than 2 years. There were 24 neurinomas treated in 23 patients as one patient had a bilateral tumour. Seven patients underwent radiosurgery for a recurrent tumour (already operated on once or twice), while it was the first treatment for 16 patients. The tumour volume ranged from 1.99 cm 3 to 18.30 cm 3 , and the patient follow-up was from 2 to 8 years. To determine the target on CT/NMR for linear accelerator stereotactic irradiation, the Greitz-Bergstroem non-invasive head fixation device was used. It was again adopted for subsequent serial imaging, and for repeat radiosurgery when necessary. The total peripheral tumour dose ranged from 12 to 45 Gy. In 9 patients there was a reduction in tumour volume varying from 39 to 100% , while 14 of the neurinomas appeared stable after an average follow-up of 3 years. In one patient there was an increase in size of the tumour. Variable morphological changes were present in 66% of the neurinomas treated. Radiosurgery is indicated as an alternative to microsurgery for inoperab1e patients and for those who refuse surgery, for recurrent tumours, and as a post-operative complementary treatment for partially removed tumours. A gradual approach to radiosurgery, depending on tumour response, allows a greater efficacy with minimal risk. In the present series no complications were observed. Hearing was preserved at almost the same level as that prior to radiosurgery in all patients. (author)

  4. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the kidney with vena caval and atrial tumour thrombus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong Poh

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Renal primitive neuroectodermal tumour is an extremely rare malignancy. Case presentation A 21-year-old woman presented with microscopic haematuria, a palpable right loin mass, dyspnoea, dizziness and fatigue. Initial ultrasound scan of the kidneys revealed an 11 cm right renal mass with venous extension into the inferior vena cava. Computed tomography of the thorax and abdomen revealed an extension of the large renal mass into the right renal vein, inferior vena cava and up to the right atrium. A small paracaval lymph node was noted and three small metastatic nodules were identified within the lung parenchyma. The patient underwent a radical nephrectomy and inferior vena caval tumour (level IV thrombectomy with cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Immunohistochemical staining of the specimen showed a highly specific cluster of differentiation (CD 99, thus confirming the diagnosis of a primitive neuroectodermal tumour. Conclusion It is important that a renal primitive neuroectodermal tumour be considered, particularly in young patients with a renal mass and extensive thrombus.

  5. Malignant astrocytoma following radiotherapy for craniopharyngioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maat-Schieman, M.L.C.; Bots, G.T.A.M.; Thomeer, T.W.M.; Vielvoye, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    The case report describes a boy with a malignant astrocytoma in the mid-line of the cerebellum 14 years after X-ray therapy for craniopharyngioma. In Leiden University Hospital this is the first case of a suspected radiation-induced brain tumour in 66 patients treated for cranial lesions by radiotherapy between 1969 and 1979 who have survived more than 5 years. (author)

  6. Intraoperative diagnosis of nonpigmented nail tumours with ex vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy: 10 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debarbieux, S; Gaspar, R; Depaepe, L; Dalle, S; Balme, B; Thomas, L

    2015-04-01

    Ex vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy (FCM) permits real-time imaging of freshly excised skin tissues. Its usefulness as a time-sparing alternative to frozen sections in Mohs surgery of basal cell carcinoma is well documented. The purpose of this study was to describe the ex vivo FCM features of a series of benign and malignant nonpigmented tumours of the nail unit, and to correlate them with conventional histopathology. Nail apparatus tumours from 10 patients were imaged during surgical exploration using ex vivo FCM after immersion in acridine orange. Confocal mosaics of the freshly performed biopsies were evaluated in real time and retrospectively compared with haematoxylin and eosin sections. Our series included two invasive epithelial tumours (Group 1), four in situ or minimally invasive squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) (Group 2), three benign epithelial tumours (Group 3) and one nodular melanoma (Group 4). The correlation was excellent for malignant epithelial tumours exhibiting marked cytological and architectural atypias (Bowen disease, invasive SCC and onycholemmal carcinoma). Onychomatricomas exhibited a very peculiar aspect with densely cellular papillae. The correlation was less favourable for minimally invasive well-differentiated SCCs with slight cytological atypias. The correlation was poor for our case of amelanotic invasive subungual melanoma. Ex vivo FCM could be a useful tool to shorten management of nonpigmented nail tumours: in the case of a malignant tumour, it could indeed lead to performing wide excision during the same surgical procedure and possibly assessing the surgical margins. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  7. Tumour imaging with non specific substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompe, W.B. van der.

    1978-01-01

    A short introduction concerning tumour imaging in nuclear medicine is given as well as the formulation of the problem treated in this thesis. In a literature review the most important tumour imaging radiopharmaceuticals used until now are described together with their clinical significance in the diagnosis of malignancy. The mechanism of uptake and subcellular distribution of most of the radiopharmaceuticals reviewed are discussed in chapter three with special reference to gallium-citrate. An ionic model to explain the distribution patterns of a number of these tumour imaging radiopharmaceuticals in normal and pathological tissues has been proposed. Evidence for the validity of this model is presented with specific reference to the ionic state of the reagents concerned. EXperimental evidence to support the proposed model is presented, with reference to the biologic behaviour of the radiopharmaceuticals in normal and pathological tissues. A limited number of selected case reports demonstrate how the results of the earlier described investigations can be applied to explain phenomena observed in clinical studies with ionic substances. The results obtained are discussed and the validity of the data with respect to the proposed model has been investigated. (Auth.)

  8. Effective treatment for malignant mediastinal teratoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, D; Holford, C P; Begent, R H; Newlands, E S; Rustin, G J; Makey, A R; Bagshawe, K D

    1983-12-01

    Primary malignant mediastinal teratoma is a rare tumour previously regarded as inevitably fatal. In a series of eight male patients with a mean age of 24 years five remain alive and well. All patients showed raised serum concentrations of human chorionic gonadotrophin or alpha fetoprotein. The patients were treated with intermittent combination chemotherapy that included cisplatin. Six patients responded to chemotherapy with a fall in human chorionic gonadotrophin or alpha fetoprotein to near normal levels and they then had radical excision of the remaining tumour. Living malignant tumour was found in four of the specimens and these patients received postoperative chemotherapy. One patient died after eight months and the remaining five patients are alive and well 13-136 months after the start of treatment. The two patients who did not undergo surgery died at one month and 15 months. Intermittent combination chemotherapy and carefully timed radical excision of these tumours would appear to have produced better results than have been reported in other series.

  9. Genetically modified tumour vaccines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 3, Suppl. 1 (2005), S7 ISSN 1214-021X. [Cells VI - Biological Days /18./. 24.10.2005-26.10.2005, České Budějovice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : tumour vaccines * HPV16 Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  10. Uterus and vagina. TNM classification of malignant tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmer, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    Cervix uteri and Corpus uteri were amongst the first sites to be classified by the TNM system. The ''League of Nations'' Stages for carcinoma of the cervix have been used with minor modifications for nearly fifty years and because these are accepted by the Federation Internationale de Gynecologie et d'Obstetrique (FIGO), the TNM categories have been defined to correspond to the FIGO stages. Some amendments have been made in collaboration with FIGO and the classifications now published will remain unchanged until at least 1986

  11. Ovary and abdomen. TNM classification of malignant tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmer, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    Cervix uteri and Corpus uteri were amongst the first sites to be classified by the TNM system. The ''League of Nations'' Stages for carcinoma of the cervix have been used with minor modifications for nearly fifty years and because these are accepted by the Federation Internationale de Gynecologie et d'Obstetrique (FIGO), the TNM categories have been defined to correspond to the FIGO stages. Some amendments have been made in collaboration with FIGO and the classifications now published will remain unchanged until at least 1986

  12. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumour Associated With Von ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examination revealed a middle aged woman with generalized subcutaneous nodules of various sizes (3mm - 2.5cm), multiple café-au-lait spots (2cm-4.5cm), a plexiform neurofibroma on the left side of the forehead measuring 6cm x 5cm x 5cm. There was a firm, non-pulsatile and non-tender mass (11.5cm x 9cm x 5cm) on ...

  13. Superselective intracerebral chemotherapy of malignant tumours with BCNU. Neuroradiological considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theron, J.; Villemure, J.G.; Worthington, C.; Tyler, J.L.

    1986-03-01

    Early experience shows that: Superselective intra-arterial catherization above the ophthalmic artery minimizes the orbital complications. Catheterization in a distal branch may lead to the non-infusion of a part of the tumor territory. A much higher concentration on the drug is achieved by superselective intra-aterial infusion than by intravenous injection. Longer infusions seem more efficacious than bolus injection. Early trapping of the drug appears to be essential for therapeutic efficacy.

  14. A THREE YEAR RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF OVARIAN NEOPLASMS WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON SURFACE EPITHELIAL TUMOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Bharathi Yarlagadda

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Ovarian tumours being second most common gynaecological cancer in India account for 30% of all cancers of female genital tract. Study conducted to determine relative frequencies of various histological types based on WHO classification and their age distribution with particular emphasis on surface epithelial tumours. This study is undertaken to find out the frequency of incidence of different histopathological subtypes with particular emphasis on surface epithelial tumours and age distribution of ovarian tumours in our institute located in coastal Andhra Pradesh. METHODS This is a retrospective study of 100 cases of ovarian neoplasms collected during a period of 3 years from June 2013 to May 2016 from the Department of Pathology, Katuri Medical College and Hospital, Chinakondrupadu, Guntur, A. P, India. The patients attending our hospital are mostly from rural areas around. Paraffin blocks of all 100 ovarian neoplasms retrieved. Complete clinical and radiological findings analysed from our records. RESULTS The tumours are grouped according to the nature of tumour whether benign or borderline or malignant according to cell of origin, histological subtyping, and age group. Surface epithelial tumours are the most common. Benign tumours outnumber the malignant tumours. Benign ovarian tumours showed a peak in 21-40 Yrs. age group and malignant in the age group of 41- 60 Yrs. Results of our study compared with other studies. CONCLUSION Because of the geographic location, poverty, and illiteracy, patients seek medical advice late. So, awareness among public by health education, passive surveillance, and community screening facility will be helpful in early detection of ovarian neoplasms.

  15. Androgen deprivation results in time-dependent hypoxia in LNCaP prostate tumours: informed scheduling of the bioreductive drug AQ4N improves treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Louise; Byrne, Niall M; Camac, Sarah Nicole; Mitchell, Christopher A; Ward, Claire; Waugh, David J; McKeown, Stephanie R; Worthington, Jenny

    2013-03-15

    Androgen withdrawal induces hypoxia in androgen-sensitive tissue; this is important as in the tumour microenvironment, hypoxia is known to drive malignant progression. Our study examined the time-dependent effect of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) on tumour oxygenation and investigated the role of ADT-induced hypoxia on malignant progression in prostate tumours. LNCaP xenografted tumours were treated with anti-androgens and tumour oxygenation measured. Dorsal skin fold (DSF) chambers were used to image tumour vasculature in vivo. Quantitative PCR (QPCR) identified differential gene expression following treatment with bicalutamide. Bicalutamide-treated and vehicle-only-treated tumours were re-established in vitro, and invasion and sensitivity to docetaxel were measured. Tumour growth delay was calculated following treatment with bicalutamide combined with the bioreductive drug AQ4N. Tumour oxygenation measurements showed a precipitate decrease following initiation of ADT. A clinically relevant dose of bicalutamide (2 mg/kg/day) decreased tumour oxygenation by 45% within 24 hr, reaching a nadir of 0.09% oxygen (0.67 ± 0.06 mmHg) by Day 7; this persisted until Day 14 when it increased up to Day 28. Using DSF chambers, LNCaP tumours treated with bicalutamide showed loss of small vessels at Days 7 and 14 with revascularisation occurring by Day 21. QPCR showed changes in gene expression consistent with the vascular changes and malignant progression. Cells from bicalutamide-treated tumours were more malignant than vehicle-treated controls. Combining bicalutamide with AQ4N (50 mg/kg, single dose) caused greater tumour growth delay than bicalutamide alone. Our study shows that bicalutamide-induced hypoxia selects for cells that show malignant progression; targeting hypoxic cells may provide greater clinical benefit. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  16. Excluding joint probabilities from quantum theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Danageozian, Arshag

    2018-03-01

    Quantum theory does not provide a unique definition for the joint probability of two noncommuting observables, which is the next important question after the Born's probability for a single observable. Instead, various definitions were suggested, e.g., via quasiprobabilities or via hidden-variable theories. After reviewing open issues of the joint probability, we relate it to quantum imprecise probabilities, which are noncontextual and are consistent with all constraints expected from a quantum probability. We study two noncommuting observables in a two-dimensional Hilbert space and show that there is no precise joint probability that applies for any quantum state and is consistent with imprecise probabilities. This contrasts with theorems by Bell and Kochen-Specker that exclude joint probabilities for more than two noncommuting observables, in Hilbert space with dimension larger than two. If measurement contexts are included into the definition, joint probabilities are not excluded anymore, but they are still constrained by imprecise probabilities.

  17. An imbalance in progenitor cell populations reflects tumour progression in breast cancer primary culture models

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donatello, Simona

    2011-04-26

    Abstract Background Many factors influence breast cancer progression, including the ability of progenitor cells to sustain or increase net tumour cell numbers. Our aim was to define whether alterations in putative progenitor populations could predict clinicopathological factors of prognostic importance for cancer progression. Methods Primary cultures were established from human breast tumour and adjacent non-tumour tissue. Putative progenitor cell populations were isolated based on co-expression or concomitant absence of the epithelial and myoepithelial markers EPCAM and CALLA respectively. Results Significant reductions in cellular senescence were observed in tumour versus non-tumour cultures, accompanied by a stepwise increase in proliferation:senescence ratios. A novel correlation between tumour aggressiveness and an imbalance of putative progenitor subpopulations was also observed. Specifically, an increased double-negative (DN) to double-positive (DP) ratio distinguished aggressive tumours of high grade, estrogen receptor-negativity or HER2-positivity. The DN:DP ratio was also higher in malignant MDA-MB-231 cells relative to non-tumourogenic MCF-10A cells. Ultrastructural analysis of the DN subpopulation in an invasive tumour culture revealed enrichment in lipofuscin bodies, markers of ageing or senescent cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that an imbalance in tumour progenitor subpopulations imbalances the functional relationship between proliferation and senescence, creating a microenvironment favouring tumour progression.

  18. Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404) and those regulations that implement the statutes and appear to be most relevant to US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  19. Extended Excluded Volume: Its Origin and Consequences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nezbeda, Ivo; Rouha, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 1 (2013), s. 201-210 ISSN 0033-4545. [International Conference on Solution Chemistry (ICSC-32) /32./. La Grande Motte, 28.08.2011-02.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400720802 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : excluded volume * partial molar volume * primitive models Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.112, year: 2013

  20. Pleomorphic Hyalinizing Angiectatic Tumour: A Rare Case Report and Discussion of Differential Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmeti, Ambica; Arakeri, Surekha U; Javalgi, Anita P; Goyal, Shefali

    2017-08-01

    Pleomorphic Hyalinizing Angiectatic Tumour (PHAT) is one of the rare soft tissue tumour which is non-metastasizing. The origin of this tumour is yet uncertain. It occurs in adults as a slow growing subcutaneous mass mimicking clinically and histologically to various benign and malignant soft tissue tumours such as schwannoma, haemangioma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma. The microscopic features of this tumour include clusters of ectatic, fibrin containing, hyalinized blood vessels with pleomorphic and spindle shaped tumour cells showing intranuclear inclusions, stromal haemosiderin pigment and a variable inflammatory infiltrate. Despite marked pleomorphism, the lesion behaves as a low grade neoplasm, with frequent recurrences, but no metastases. The incidence of this tumour is very rare with less than 100 cases being published. Hence, awareness of this entity is must for proper management of the patient and to avoid misdiagnosis of the lesion. We report a case of pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumour in a 50-year-old man who presented with a slow growing mass in the left calf region since two years.

  1. Robotic versus laparoscopic resection of liver tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Eren; Akyildiz, Hizir Yakup; Aucejo, Federico; Gunasekaran, Ganesh; Chalikonda, Sricharan; Fung, John

    2010-01-01

    Background There are scant data in the literature regarding the role of robotic liver surgery. The aim of the present study was to develop techniques for robotic liver tumour resection and to draw a comparison with laparoscopic resection. Methods Over a 1-year period, nine patients underwent robotic resection of peripherally located malignant lesions measuring <5 cm. These patients were compared prospectively with 23 patients who underwent laparoscopic resection of similar tumours at the same institution. Statistical analyses were performed using Student's t-test, χ2-test and Kaplan–Meier survival. All data are expressed as mean ± SEM. Results The groups were similar with regards to age, gender and tumour type (P = NS). Tumour size was similar in both groups (robotic −3.2 ± 1.3 cm vs. laparoscopic −2.9 ± 1.3 cm, P = 0.6). Skin-to-skin operative time was 259 ± 28 min in the robotic vs. 234 ± 17 min in the laparoscopic group (P = 0.4). There was no difference between the two groups regarding estimated blood loss (EBL) and resection margin status. Conversion to an open operation was only necessary in one patient in the robotic group. Complications were observed in one patient in the robotic and four patients in the laparoscopic groups. The patients were followed up for a mean of 14 months and disease-free survival (DFS) was equivalent in both groups (P = 0.6). Conclusion The results of this initial study suggest that, for selected liver lesions, a robotic approach provides similar peri-operative outcomes compared with laparoscopic liver resection (LLR). PMID:20887327

  2. A PROSPECTIVE HISTOPATHOLOGICAL-BASED STUDY OF BRAIN TUMOURS IN A REFERRAL CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathima Gujjaru

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Brain neoplasms occur at all ages and account for around 2-3 percent of all deaths in adults. In children, the frequency increases to more than twenty percent. In children, it forms the second most common type of malignancy. Most of the tumours encountered are not related to any identifiable risk factors except for irradiation and some hereditary syndromes like subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme, cerebellar haemangioblastoma, meningioma, Schwannoma of 7 th cranial nerve. Gliomas constitute fifty percent of the brain tumours and sixty percent of all gliomas are glioblastoma multiforme. Meningiomas constitute twenty percent and cerebral metastasis is seen in fifteen percent of the cases. Seventy percent of supratentorial tumours are found in adults and seventy percent of brain tumours in children are infratentorial. The three common tumours of cerebellum are medulloblastoma, haemangioblastoma and juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma. Brain tumours are space occupying lesions and cause compression and destruction of adjacent structures, brain oedema (Peritumoural tissue, infarction and ischaemia of brain by compressing/infiltrating cerebral blood vessels, obstruction of CSF flow causing hydrocephalus, and rise in intracranial pressure with herniations. Tumours can undergo ischaemic necrosis and necrotic tumours tend to bleed. Brain tumours generally do not metastasise. Schwannoma and meningioma are benign tumours. Medulloblastoma of childhood may have drop metastasis via CSF. A sincere effort has been put in this study to identify the incidence of each variety of brain tumour among the fifty confirmed and identified cases of brain tumours. METHODS The age range of the cases in present study was 5-72 years with a mean age of occurrence of 44.11 years and the peak age group affected were in the 3 rd and 4 th decades. Cerebral hemisphere was the commonest site for intracranial tumours. RESULT In the present study, fifty

  3. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in diagnosis of pleural effusion of malignant origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorelli, Alfonso; Ricci, Serena; Feola, Antonia; Mazzella, Antonio; D'Angelo, Luigi; Santini, Mario; Di Domenico, Marina; Di Carlo, Angelina

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in differentiating benign from malignant exudative pleural effusions. This is a unicentre observational study including 97 consecutive patients with exudative pleural effusions. Metalloproteinase-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, lactate dehydrogenase, ferritin, carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 15-3 were measured in pleural effusion and serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The activity of metalloproteinase-9 was also evaluated by substrate zymography. The data were correlated with final diagnosis of pleural effusions to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy. Of the 97 eligible patients, 6 were excluded. Of the 91 patients included in the study, 70 had malignant pleural effusions and 21 had benign pleural effusions. Both in sera and pleural effusions, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (P effusion (P effusion metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 levels showed higher value of sensitivity (97 and 91%, respectively) and specificity (90 and 95%, respectively) compared with other standard markers. Serum metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 levels showed similar results. Among 70 neoplastic patients, 29 had negative pleural cytology. Of these, 25 presented elevated levels of metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, whereas 4 patients had elevated levels of one of the two markers. Our results showed that metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 might be valuable markers in differentiating benign from malignant pleural effusions. Their levels are neither influenced by the histology and tumour origin nor by the presence of tumour cells in pleural effusions. Thus, their use in clinical practice could help in the selection of patients needing more invasive procedures, such as thoracoscopic biopsy. © The Author 2016

  4. Is there a role for pre-operative contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for radical surgery in malignant pleural mesothelioma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Duncan; Waller, David; Edwards, John; Jeyapalan, Kanagaratnam; Entwisle, James

    2003-12-01

    To assess the use of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CEMRI) in addition to computed tomography in the pre-operative assessment of patients for radical surgery in malignant pleural mesothelioma. Over a 45-month period, 51 of 76 patients assessed (69 men and seven women), underwent extra-pleural pneumonectomy or radical pleurectomy/decortication. Post-operative pathological stage was correlated with radiological staging, with particular emphasis on tumour resectability. Seventeen (22%) patients were found on CEMRI to have unresectable, but histologically unconfirmed disease, not previously seen on CT. Fifty-one (67%) patients proceeded to radical surgery, but pathological nodal data were incomplete in three, so excluding these patients from further analyses. The median pre-operative interval after CEMRI was 17 days. Two patients were found to have unexpectedly extensive disease at thoracotomy, thus the sensitivity of CEMRI for prediction of resectability was 97%. Using the International Mesothelioma Interest Group system, tumour stage was correctly predicted by CEMRI in 48% of patients, but understaged in 50% of cases, largely due to the underestimation of pericardial involvement, but this did not affect resectability and had no significant effect on prognosis. Nodal stage was correctly identified in 60% of patients. CEMRI was successful in predicting pathological tumour stage T3 or less (sensitivity of 85%; specificity of 100%), but less so in identifying tumour stage T2 or less (sensitivity of 23%; specificity of 96%) or N2 nodal disease (sensitivity 66%; specificity 73%). CEMRI is most useful in the differentiation of T3 and T4 disease and may be unnecessary at earlier stages. Its multiplanar tumour localisation abilities are of value in the assessment of resectability. It is unlikely to contribute significantly to nodal staging, but it remains a valuable adjunct in the selection of patients for radical surgery.

  5. A 22-year Northern Irish experience of carotid body tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Stephen; O'Donnell, Mark; Harkin, Denis; Loughrey, Maurice; Lee, Bernard; Blair, Paul

    2011-09-01

    Carotid body tumours (CBTs) are rare vascular neoplasms originating in paraganglionic cells of the carotid bifurcation. The aim of this study was to review all patients diagnosed with CBTs in Northern Ireland. A retrospective review was performed of all patients who had CBTs treated at our institutions between 1987 and 2009. Patient demographics, clinical symptomatology, investigative modality, therapeutic intervention, pathological analysis and long-term outcomes were assessed. Twenty-nine patients were identified with 33 CBTs and three glomus intravagale tumours (GITs). Six patients had bilateral CBTs (21%), one of whom had a synchronous GIT. Twenty-six patients underwent a total of 30 operative procedures for the resection of 28 CBTs and 3 GITs. Conventional operative treatment included subadventitial tumour excision. A vascular shunt facilitated arterial reconstruction following the removal of seven (23%) tumours and on six of these occasions (19%) continuity was restored with an interposition vein graft. For access the external carotid artery was ligated during the removal of four tumours (13%). Two tumours were considered malignant. No peri-operative mortalities were recorded. Immediate complications included peri-operative stroke secondary to an occluded vein graft (n=1), requirement of tracheostomy (n=2), emergency haematoma drainage (n=2) and transient cranial nerve damage (n=8). Late complications included pseudoaneurysm of vein graft with subsequent stoke (n=1), permanent cranial nerve damage (n=9), Horner's syndrome (n=1) and an asymptomatic vein graft occlusion (n=1). One patient had tumour recurrence two years post-operatively and died due to pulmonary metastases. Two other patients died of unrelated causes. All other patients remain well with no evidence of tumour recurrence at mean followup of 1801 days (range 159-9208 days). Our long-term experience is comparable with other reported case series where surgical intervention conferred a long

  6. A Rare Cutaneous Adnexal Tumour with a Rare Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalaxmi S. Patil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Proliferating Trichilemmal Tumour (PTT is a rapidly growing large cutaneous adnexal neoplasm. Although biologically considered as benign, it may be locally aggressive. Malignant transformation of these lesions, known as Malignant Proliferating Trichilemmal Tumour (MPTT has rarely been reported. So far in the literature, only 39 well-documented cases of MPTT have been reported. MPTT has been stated to be a neoplasm of the older age group according to review of the literature. We present a case of MPTT in a young male. A 25 year old male presented with a scalp swelling of 2 years duration with a recent rapid enlargement. The swelling was excised and histopathological examination of the excised specimen revealed features of MPTT. The differential diagnosis of MPTTis squamous cell carcinoma as both share common features. Accurate diagnosis of MPTT is essential since it has a tendency to metastasize and recur more frequently than squamous cell carcinoma.

  7. Immunohistochemical expression of tenascin in melanocytic tumours of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevastre, B; van Ederen, A M; Terlou, M; Gruys, E; Nederbragt, H

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate tenascin-C (TN) immunolabelling and labelling for endothelium by von Willebrand Factor (vWF) in melanocytic tumours of dogs as compared with normal tissues, to evaluate the TN distribution in these types of tumours and to investigate whether a relation could be established between TN and angiogenesis in different types of tumour. Samples of normal dog skin (n=8), benign skin melanocytomas (n=10), malignant oral melanomas (n=9) and malignant toe melanomas (n=5) were studied. The percentages of TN and vWF immunolabelling per total microscopical area were analysed by morphometric methods. In normal skin, TN was found at dermo-epidermal junctions, around hair follicles, in the smooth muscles of hair follicles, and in the walls of blood vessels. TN immunolabelling (distribution and intensity) in melanocytomas was comparable with that found in normal skin. In melanomas, TN expression was considerably increased, its intensity in toe melanomas being twice that observed in oral melanomas. The degree of TN immunolabelling was not related to the histological malignancy of the melanomas. In melanomas, TN was found in the connective tissue surrounding the tumour cell nests and in narrow stromal strands inside the tumour. Regions infiltrated with lymphocytes were devoid of TN. The presence of TN around capillaries in melanocytomas and melanomas was investigated by double-immunolabelling (for TN and vWF). The intensity of vWF and TN immunolabelling was higher in melanomas than in melanocytomas, and higher in toe melanomas than in oral melanomas; however, no clear relation between TN expression and immunolabelling for vWF was found.

  8. Metastatic tumours to the thyroid gland: report of 3 cases and brief review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardar, Enver; Erkan, Nazif; Bayol, Umit; Yılmaz, Cengiz; Dogan, Murat

    2010-01-01

    Metastases to the thyroid are encountered rarely in clinical practice, but the number of cases seems to have increased in recent years. The reason of this increase may be a more frequent use of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and the use of more sophisticated, complicated imaging techniques in patients with thyroid masses. Also, in addition to these reasons, the use of more organo-specific immunohistochemical antibodies in the examination of surgical specimens may affect the differential diagnosis of malignant tumours. Three metastatic tumours to thyroid were found in the retrospective review of malignant thyroid tumours diagnosed between January 1993 and December 2007. The primary tumours were clear cell carcinoma of the kidney, squamous cell carcinoma of the lung and breast carcinoma-ductal type. A detailed clinical history, careful histological examination and essential immunohistochemistry helped in attaining the correct diagnosis

  9. The potential of proton beam radiation therapy in intracranial and ocular tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomquist, Erik [Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology; Bjelkengren, Goeran [Univ. Hospital, Malmoe (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology; Glimelius, Bengt [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology and Pathology; Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology

    2005-12-01

    A group of oncologists and hospital physicists have estimated the number of patients in Sweden suitable for proton beam therapy. The estimations have been based on current statistics of tumour incidence, number of patients potentially eligible for radiation treatment, scientific support from clinical trials and model dose planning studies and knowledge of the dose-response relations of different tumours and normal tissues. In intracranial benign and malignant tumours, it is estimated that between 130 and 180 patients each year are candidates for proton beam therapy. Of these, between 50 and 75 patients have malignant glioma, 30-40 meningeoma, 20-25 arteriovenous malformations, 20-25 skull base tumours and 10-15 pituitary adenoma. In addition, 15 patients with ocular melanoma are candidates.

  10. Second malignancies in children: the usual suspects?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moppett, John; Oakhill, Anthony E-mail: anthony.oakhill@nildram.co.uk; Duncan, Andrew W

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an up to date review of second malignant neoplasms (SMN's) following treatment for childhood cancer, referring to their incidence, the role of genetic factors, and how the primary malignancy and treatment received influence the type, site and prognosis of SMN's. The role of genetic factors will be discussed as far as they impact upon a predisposition to later development of SMN's. The primary malignancies that have important associations with SMN's will then be discussed, in particular Hodgkin's disease, retinoblastoma and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. The important second malignancies will be highlighted, including tumours of the CNS and thyroid, osteosarcoma, secondary acute myeloid leukaemia and melanoma. Emphasis will be put upon identifying which patients are most likely to suffer from these tumours. An important part of the article are case histories. These are provided in combination with illustrations as a useful adjunct to the text, with a particular emphasis on radiological features, diagnosis and screening. Finally, the important but different roles of causal agents, in particular chemotherapy and radiotherapy are highlighted.

  11. Tumour cell heterogeneity maintained by cooperating subclones in Wnt-driven mammary cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Allison S; Leonard, Travis L; Gestl, Shelley A; Gunther, Edward J

    2014-04-03

    Cancer genome sequencing studies indicate that a single breast cancer typically harbours multiple genetically distinct subclones. As carcinogenesis involves a breakdown in the cell-cell cooperation that normally maintains epithelial tissue architecture, individual subclones within a malignant microenvironment are commonly depicted as self-interested competitors. Alternatively, breast cancer subclones might interact cooperatively to gain a selective growth advantage in some cases. Although interclonal cooperation has been shown to drive tumorigenesis in fruitfly models, definitive evidence for functional cooperation between epithelial tumour cell subclones in mammals is lacking. Here we use mouse models of breast cancer to show that interclonal cooperation can be essential for tumour maintenance. Aberrant expression of the secreted signalling molecule Wnt1 generates mixed-lineage mammary tumours composed of basal and luminal tumour cell subtypes, which purportedly derive from a bipotent malignant progenitor cell residing atop a tumour cell hierarchy. Using somatic Hras mutations as clonal markers, we show that some Wnt tumours indeed conform to a hierarchical configuration, but that others unexpectedly harbour genetically distinct basal Hras mutant and luminal Hras wild-type subclones. Both subclones are required for efficient tumour propagation, which strictly depends on luminally produced Wnt1. When biclonal tumours were challenged with Wnt withdrawal to simulate targeted therapy, analysis of tumour regression and relapse revealed that basal subclones recruit heterologous Wnt-producing cells to restore tumour growth. Alternatively, in the absence of a substitute Wnt source, the original subclones often evolve to rescue Wnt pathway activation and drive relapse, either by restoring cooperation or by switching to a defector strategy. Uncovering similar modes of interclonal cooperation in human cancers may inform efforts aimed at eradicating tumour cell communities.

  12. Blue Cell Tumour at Unusual Site: Retropritoneal Ewings Sarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Javalgi, Anita P; Karigoudar, Mahesh H; Palur, Katyayani

    2016-01-01

    Ewing’s sarcoma is a highly malignant tumour of osseous or non-osseous origin, tremed as extra-skeletal Ewings sarcoma if arising from soft tissue. It is rare occurrence tumor most commonly occurring in paravertebral area, chest wall, head & neck and retroperitoneum. Reporting an interesting case of retroperitoneal Ewing’s sarcoma in 39 years old female. Patient had complains of abdominal discomfort & vague pain since 2 months, following weakness in lower limb and loss of weight. On detail hi...

  13. PALLIATIVE BRONCHOSCOPIC TREATMENT OF TUMOUR CENTRAL AIRWAYS STENOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Debeljak

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. This article presents our three year experience with bronchoscopic management of central bronchial tumours stenosis.Methods. In the years 2000, 2001, and 2002, 52 patients (43 men, 9 women, aged 62.3 ± 10.8 years with central airway obstruction because of primary or secondary malignant tumours in 47 cases (90% and benign diseases in 5 (10% were treated. Topical anaesthesia with Lidocaine in all 52 patients where flexible bronchoscopes Olympus were applied was used. Additionally, Fentanyl or Diprivane were used in 25 patients where rigid bronchoscopy (Storz was performed. Mechanical removal and electrocautery resection (Olympus were used for tumour resection. In 2 patients Polyflex stent (Rüsch was introduced into the trachea.Results. We treated 17 (33% tumours in the trachea, 14 (27% in the right, 15 (29% in the left main bronchi and 6 (11% in more peripheral bronchi. The combination of mechanical removal and electrocautery was applied in 32 (61%, mechanical removal alone in 4 (8% and electrocautery alone in 16 (31% of patients. Symptomatic relief was achieved in 41 (79% patients. In 47 patients with malignant tumours bronchoscopic intervention was applied during the first diagnostic procedure 28 times (60%, after additional surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy 14 times (30% and between additional therapeutic interventions 5 times (10%. The procedure had to be terminated in one patient due to hypoxemia. There was no immediate mortality.Conclusions. Mechanical desobstruction in combination with electrocautery through the flexible and/or rigid bronchoscopes and stent introduction in patients with central airways tumours are efficient and rather safe palliative procedures.

  14. Sleep disorders in children after treatment for a CNS tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verberne, Lisa M; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Grootenhuis, Martha A; Van Santen, Hanneke M; Schouten-Van Meeteren, Antoinette Y N

    2012-08-01

    The long-term survival of children with a central nervous system (CNS) tumour is improving. However, they experience late effects, including altered habits and patterns of sleep. We evaluated the presence and type of sleep disorders and daytime sleepiness in these children, and its associations with clinical characteristics and daily performance (fatigue and psychosocial functioning). In a cross-sectional study at the outpatient clinic of the Emma Children's Hospital AMC (February-June 2010), sleep, fatigue and psychosocial functioning were analysed in 31 CNS tumour patients (mean age: 11.8years; 20 boys) and compared with 78 patients treated for a non-CNS malignancy (mean age: 9.7years; 41 boys) and norm data. Questionnaires applied were the Sleep Disorder Scale for Children, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Sleeping habits and endocrine deficiencies were assessed with a self-developed questionnaire. Increased somnolence was found in CNS tumour patients compared with those with a non-CNS malignancy (8.8±2.8 versus 7.5±2.7; Psleep. No specific risk factors were identified for a sleep disorder in CNS tumour patients, but their excessive somnolence was correlated with lower fatigue related quality of life (QoL) (r=-0.78, Psleep quality and diminish fatigue. © 2011 European Sleep Research Society.

  15. Haemorrhagic pituitary tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, C.M.; Philippine General Hospital, Manila; Guo, W.Y.; Sami, M.; Hindmarsch, T.; Ericson, K.; Hulting, A.L.; Wersaell, J.

    1994-01-01

    In a group of 69 patients with pituitary tumours, 12 were found to have evidence of intratumoral haemorrhage on MRI, characterized by high signal intensity on short TR/TE sequences. This was verified in all but 1 patient. The majority of the bleedings occurred in macroadenomas. Five (42%) were prolactinomas and 4 (33%) were non-functioning adenomas. There were 2 GH- and 1 ACTH-secreting tumours. All 5 patients with prolactinomas were on bromocriptine medication. Two of the patients had a clinical picture of pituitary apoplexy. The haemorrhage was not large enough to prompt surgery in any of the patients. However, surgical verification of the diagnosis was obtained in 5 cases, while 6 patients were examined with follow-up MRI. (orig.)

  16. Tumours following retinoblastoma radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollot, J.-P.

    1978-01-01

    Radioinduced tumours in young patients irradiated in childhood for retinoblastoma take on a particularly deadly aspect. The onset of this true clinical entity characterized by a long post-irradiation latency period induced by a dose above 6000 rads is a real tragedy. The vast majority of patients then enter into a long martyrdom ending in death. The only cure is surgical, but seldom possible. Treatment is limited to palliative radiotherapy, effective for a while, and chemiotherapy as a last resort but often difficult to prescribe. Prevention alone is the answer. The quality and reliability of the radiotherapeutic treatment depend not only on the personal talent of the radiotherapist but above all on the standard of the equipment. A strong reduction in the doses employed as well as recent technological progress improving the material, its precision and reproducibility appear already to have lowered the frequency curve of these fatal radioinduced tumours [fr

  17. Skull base tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil, Servico de Radiologia, Rua Professor Lima Basto, 1093 Lisboa Codex (Portugal)], E-mail: borgesalexandra@clix.pt

    2008-06-15

    With the advances of cross-sectional imaging radiologists gained an increasing responsibility in the management of patients with skull base pathology. As this anatomic area is hidden to clinical exam, surgeons and radiation oncologists have to rely on imaging studies to plan the most adequate treatment. To fulfil these endeavour radiologists need to be knowledgeable about skull base anatomy, about the main treatment options available, their indications and contra-indications and needs to be aware of the wide gamut of pathologies seen in this anatomic region. This article will provide a radiologists' friendly approach to the central skull base and will review the most common central skull base tumours and tumours intrinsic to the bony skull base.

  18. Skull base tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    With the advances of cross-sectional imaging radiologists gained an increasing responsibility in the management of patients with skull base pathology. As this anatomic area is hidden to clinical exam, surgeons and radiation oncologists have to rely on imaging studies to plan the most adequate treatment. To fulfil these endeavour radiologists need to be knowledgeable about skull base anatomy, about the main treatment options available, their indications and contra-indications and needs to be aware of the wide gamut of pathologies seen in this anatomic region. This article will provide a radiologists' friendly approach to the central skull base and will review the most common central skull base tumours and tumours intrinsic to the bony skull base

  19. Merkel cell tumour of the face successfully treated with radical radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pople, I.K.

    1988-01-01

    A case of Merkel cell tumour of the face and its dramatic response to a course of radical radiotherapy is presented below. The patient has been free of recurrence for 18 months and has suffered minimal side-effects from the treatment. This suggests that radical radiotherapy, as opposed to the standard wide excision, may be preferred first-line treatment for at least some of these rare, but highly malignant tumours. (author)

  20. Reproductive tract tumours: the scourge of woman reproduction ails Indian rhinoceroses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hermes

    Full Text Available In Indian rhinoceros, extensive leiomyoma, a benign smooth muscle tumour, was sporadically diagnosed post mortem and commonly thought of as contributing factor for reduced fecundity of this species in captivity. However, to date, the prevalence of reproductive tract tumours and their relevance for fecundity are unknown. Our analysis of the international studbook now reveals that females cease reproducing at the age of 18.1±1.2 years; equivalent to a reproductive lifespan of just 9.5±1.3 years. This short reproductive life is in sharp contrast to their longevity in captivity of over 40 years. Here we show, after examining 42% of the captive female population, that age-related genital tract tumours are highly prevalent in this endangered species. Growth and development of these tumours was found to be age-related, starting from the age of 10 years. All females older than 12 years had developed genital tumours, just 7-9 years past maturity. Tumour sizes ranged from 1.5-10 cm. With age, tumours became more numerous, sometimes merging into one large diffuse tumour mass. These tumours, primarily vaginal and cervical, presumably cause widespread young-age infertility by the age of 18 years. In few cases, tumour necrosis suggested possible malignancy of tumours. Possible consequences of such genital tract tumour infestation are hindered intromission, pain during mating, hampered sperm passage, risk of ascending infection during pregnancy, dystocia, or chronic vaginal bleeding. In humans, leiomyoma affect up to 80% of pre-menopause women. While a leading cause for infertility, pregnancy is known to reduce the risk of tumour development. However, different from human, surgical intervention is not a viable treatment option in rhinoceroses. Thus, in analogy to humans, we suggest early onset and seamless consecutive pregnancies to help reduce prevalence of this disease, better maintain a self-sustained captive population and improve animal welfare.

  1. Imaging brain tumour microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Markus; Englund, Elisabet; Szczepankiewicz, Filip; van Westen, Danielle; Sundgren, Pia C

    2018-05-08

    Imaging is an indispensable tool for brain tumour diagnosis, surgical planning, and follow-up. Definite diagnosis, however, often demands histopathological analysis of microscopic features of tissue samples, which have to be obtained by invasive means. A non-invasive alternative may be to probe corresponding microscopic tissue characteristics by MRI, or so called 'microstructure imaging'. The promise of microstructure imaging is one of 'virtual biopsy' with the goal to offset the need for invasive procedures in favour of imaging that can guide pre-surgical planning and can be repeated longitudinally to monitor and predict treatment response. The exploration of such methods is motivated by the striking link between parameters from MRI and tumour histology, for example the correlation between the apparent diffusion coefficient and cellularity. Recent microstructure imaging techniques probe even more subtle and specific features, providing parameters associated to cell shape, size, permeability, and volume distributions. However, the range of scenarios in which these techniques provide reliable imaging biomarkers that can be used to test medical hypotheses or support clinical decisions is yet unknown. Accurate microstructure imaging may moreover require acquisitions that go beyond conventional data acquisition strategies. This review covers a wide range of candidate microstructure imaging methods based on diffusion MRI and relaxometry, and explores advantages, challenges, and potential pitfalls in brain tumour microstructure imaging. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. [Adrenal tumours in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos-Moreno, G A; Pozo-Román, J; Argente, J

    2013-09-01

    This special article aims to summarise the current knowledge regarding the two groups of tumours with their origin in the adrenal gland: 1) adrenocortical tumours, derived from the cortex of the adrenal gland and 2) phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas, neuroendocrine tumours derived from nodes of neural crest derived cells symmetrically distributed at both sides of the entire spine (paragangliomas [PG]). These PGs can be functioning tumors that secrete catecholamines, which confers their typical dark colour after staining with chromium salts (chromaffin tumors). Among these, the term phaeochromocytoma (PC) is restricted to those PGs derived from the chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla (intra-adrenal PGs), whereas the term PG is used for those sympathetic or parasympathetic ones in an extra-adrenal location. We analyse the state of the art of their pathogenic and genetic bases, as well as their clinical signs and symptoms, the tests currently available for performing their diagnosis (biochemical, hormonal, imaging and molecular studies) and management (surgery, pre- and post-surgical medical treatment), considering the current and developing strategies in chemo- and radiotherapy. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Maligne intracerebrale kiemceltumor behandeld met chemotherapie en radiotherapie zonder histopathologische diagnose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervenne, W. L.; Bakker, P. J.; Stalpers, L. J.; Bosch, D. A.

    2000-01-01

    In two men aged 19 and 24 years, a rare malignant intracranial germ cell tumour was diagnosed in the pineal gland region and in the second patient in a suprasellar position as well. Although histological confirmation is required in general to diagnose a malignancy, obtaining it can be difficult and

  4. Childhood orofacial malignancies in Nigerians: a 19 year review in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tumour types were mostly lymphomas (n=35, 77.8%), with the Burkitt's type accounting for 26 (57.8%) cases of the lymphomas; followed by sarcomas (n=5, 11.1%) and carcinomas (n=8.9%). Orofacial malignancies constitute about a fifth of the childhood malignant lesions studied, with Burkitt's lymphoma accounting for ...

  5. Wilms tumour: prognostic factors, staging, therapy and late effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaste, Sue C.; Dome, Jeffrey S.; Babyn, Paul S.; Graf, Norbert M.; Grundy, Paul; Godzinski, Jan; Levitt, Gill A.; Jenkinson, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Wilms tumour is the most common malignant renal tumour in children. Dramatic improvements in survival have occurred as the result of advances in anaesthetic and surgical management, irradiation and chemotherapy. Current therapies are based on trials and studies primarily conducted by large multi-institutional cooperatives including the Societe Internationale d'Oncologie Pediatrique (SIOP) and the Children's Oncology Group (COG). The primary goals are to treat patients according to well-defined risk groups in order to achieve the highest cure rates, to decrease the frequency and intensity of acute and late toxicity and to minimize the cost of therapy. The SIOP trials and studies largely focus on the issue of preoperative therapy, whereas the COG trials and studies start with primary surgery. This paper reviews prognostic factors and staging systems for Wilms tumour and its current treatment with surgery and chemotherapy. Surgery remains a crucial part of treatment for nephroblastoma, providing local primary tumour control and adequate staging and possibly controlling the metastatic spread and central vascular extension of the disease. Partial nephrectomy, when technically feasible, seems reasonable not only in those with bilateral disease but also in those with unilateral disease where the patient has urological disorders or syndromes predisposing to malignancy. Partial nephrectomy, however, is frequently not sufficient for an anaplastic variant of tumour. The late effects for Wilms tumour and its treatment are also reviewed. The treatment of Wilms tumour has been a success story, and currently in excess of 80% of children diagnosed with Wilms tumour can look forward to long-term survival, with less than 20% experiencing serious morbidity at 20 years from diagnosis. The late complications are a consequence of the type and intensity of treatment required, which in turn reflects the nature and extent of the original tumour. Continual international trial development

  6. Wilms tumour: prognostic factors, staging, therapy and late effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaste, Sue C. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Memphis, TN (United States); Dome, Jeffrey S. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Oncology, Memphis, TN (United States); Babyn, Paul S. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Radiology, Toronto (Canada); Graf, Norbert M. [University Hospital of the Saarland, Clinic for Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, Homburg (Germany); Grundy, Paul [University of Alberta, Division of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Palliative Care, and Northern Alberta Children' s Cancer Program, Edmonton (Canada); Godzinski, Jan [Mother and Child Institute, Department of Oncological Surgery for Children and Adolescents, Warsaw (Poland); Levitt, Gill A. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Sick Children NHS Trust, Paediatric Oncology, London (United Kingdom); Jenkinson, Helen [Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Trust, Oncology Department, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-15

    Wilms tumour is the most common malignant renal tumour in children. Dramatic improvements in survival have occurred as the result of advances in anaesthetic and surgical management, irradiation and chemotherapy. Current therapies are based on trials and studies primarily conducted by large multi-institutional cooperatives including the Societe Internationale d'Oncologie Pediatrique (SIOP) and the Children's Oncology Group (COG). The primary goals are to treat patients according to well-defined risk groups in order to achieve the highest cure rates, to decrease the frequency and intensity of acute and late toxicity and to minimize the cost of therapy. The SIOP trials and studies largely focus on the issue of preoperative therapy, whereas the COG trials and studies start with primary surgery. This paper reviews prognostic factors and staging systems for Wilms tumour and its current treatment with surgery and chemotherapy. Surgery remains a crucial part of treatment for nephroblastoma, providing local primary tumour control and adequate staging and possibly controlling the metastatic spread and central vascular extension of the disease. Partial nephrectomy, when technically feasible, seems reasonable not only in those with bilateral disease but also in those with unilateral disease where the patient has urological disorders or syndromes predisposing to malignancy. Partial nephrectomy, however, is frequently not sufficient for an anaplastic variant of tumour. The late effects for Wilms tumour and its treatment are also reviewed. The treatment of Wilms tumour has been a success story, and currently in excess of 80% of children diagnosed with Wilms tumour can look forward to long-term survival, with less than 20% experiencing serious morbidity at 20 years from diagnosis. The late complications are a consequence of the type and intensity of treatment required, which in turn reflects the nature and extent of the original tumour. Continual international trial

  7. Malignant Melanoma in an Albino | Efem | Sudan Journal of Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oculocutaneous albinism is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterised by generalised depigmentation, photophobia, decreased visual acuity, and nystagmus. Malignant melanoma is rare in patients with albinism. We report a case of a large advanced fumigating tumour on the right forearm of a male Nigerian albino ...

  8. Pattern of childhood malignancies at combined military hospital, rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.Z.; Haq, M.Z.U.; Badsha, S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To document distribution of childhood malignancies among Paediatric Oncology patients. Study design: Descriptive study Place and duration of study: Department of Paediatric Oncology, Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi from June 2006 to May 2007. Methodology: We collected data of 141 consecutive newly diagnosed paediatric oncology patients. Demographics (age and gender) and types of malignancy (diagnosed on histopathology) were collected in all cases. Results: Of the total patients 90 were male, 51 female with a male to female ratio of 1.76. Childhood malignancies found were leukaemia (60.3%) lymphomas (11.3%), bone tumours (4.3%), brain tumours (2.8%), germ cell tumours (3.5%), retinoblastoma (7.1%), neuroblastoma (3.5%), Wilms tumour (2.8%), rhabdomyosarcoma (2.1%), hepatoblastoma (1.4%) and synovial sarcoma(0.7%).Mean age at diagnosis was 5.4 +- 3.05 years. 24 (17%) patients were from Punjab, 9 (6.4%) from Sindh, 82 (58.2%) from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 5 (3.5%) from Baluchistan and 21 (14.9%) from Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK). Conclusion: This study showed that distribution varies according to gender, age and geography. Leukemia is the commonest childhood malignancy. Our research findings are useful for prioritizing future childhood cancer research needs. (author)

  9. Malignant pilomatricoma in a dog with local and distant metastases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dog had a malignant pilomatricoma removed from the left lateral thigh 6 months earlier. Histopathology review of the cutaneous and scapular mass identified the same tumour type, confirming metastatic disease; additional metastases to the inguinal lymph node, liver and lungs were identified. Chemotherapy resulted in ...

  10. A comparative study between mixed-type tumours from human salivary and canine mammary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genelhu, Marisa CLS; Cardoso, Sérgio V; Gobbi, Helenice; Cassali, Geovanni D

    2007-01-01

    In comparative pathology, canine mammary tumours have special interest because of their similarities with human breast cancer. Mixed tumours are uncommon lesions in the human breast, but they are found most frequently in the mammary gland of the female dogs and in the human salivary glands. The aim of the study was to compare clinical, morphological and immunohistochemical features of human salivary and canine mammary gland mixed tumours, in order to evaluate the latter as an experimental model for salivary gland tumours. Ten examples of each mixed tumour type (human pleomorphic adenoma and carcinomas ex-pleomorphic adenomas and canine mixed tumour and metaplastic carcinoma) were evaluated. First, clinical and morphologic aspects of benign and malignant variants were compared between the species. Then, streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression of cytokeratins, vimentin, p63 protein, estrogen receptor, β-catenin, and E-cadherin. After standardization, similar age and site distributions were observed in human and canine tumours. Histological similarities were identified in the comparison of the benign lesions as well. Metaplastic carcinomas also resembled general aspects of carcinomas ex-pleomorphic adenomas in morphological evaluation. Additionally, immunohistochemical staining further presented similar antigenic expression between lesions. There are many similar features between human salivary and canine mammary gland mixed tumours. This observation is of great relevance for those interested in the study and management of salivary gland tumours, since canine lesions may constitute useful comparative models for their investigations

  11. Clear cell hidradenocarcinoma--a case report with unusual in situ malignant changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Irhayim, B

    1984-05-01

    Clear cell hidradenocarcinoma is a rare tumour, the histogenesis of which has been much debated in the past. However, it is now considered a tumour of sweat gland origin. Presented herewith is a report of a case with unusual histological features of in situ malignant changes within sweat glands. These changes very closely simulate lobular cancerisation of the breast. On reviewing the English literature on the histopathology of sweat gland tumours, we have not found similar histological findings. These histological findings provide supportive evidence of the sweat gland origin of these tumours.

  12. New evidence for the origin of intracranial germ cell tumours from primordial germ cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoei-Hansen, C E; Sehested, A; Juhler, M

    2006-01-01

    that it is not required for the initiation of malignant germ cell transformation. The expression of genes associated with embryonic stem cell pluripotency in CNS germ cell tumours strongly suggests that these tumours are derived from cells that retain, at least partially, an embryonic stem cell-like phenotype, which...... germ cell tumours and analysed expression of a wide panel of stem cell-related proteins (C-KIT, OCT-3/4 (POU5F1), AP-2gamma (TFAP2C), and NANOG) and developmentally regulated germ cell-specific proteins (including MAGE-A4, NY-ESO-1, and TSPY). Expression at the protein level was analysed in 21 children...... and young adults with intracranial germinomas and non-germinomas, contributing to a careful description of these unusual tumours and adding to the understanding of pathogenesis. Stem cell related proteins were highly expressed in intracranial germ cell tumours, and many similarities were detected...

  13. Tumour-initiating cells vs. cancer 'stem' cells and CD133: What's in the name?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuzil, Jiri; Stantic, Marina; Zobalova, Renata; Chladova, Jaromira; Wang, Xiufang; Prochazka, Lubomir; Dong, Lanfeng; Andera, Ladislav; Ralph, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that a subset of cells within a tumour have 'stem-like' characteristics. These tumour-initiating cells, distinct from non-malignant stem cells, show low proliferative rates, high self-renewing capacity, propensity to differentiate into actively proliferating tumour cells, resistance to chemotherapy or radiation, and they are often characterised by elevated expression of the stem cell surface marker CD133. Understanding the molecular biology of the CD133 + cancer cells is now essential for developing more effective cancer treatments. These may include drugs targeting organelles, such as mitochondria or lysosomes, using highly efficient and selective inducers of apoptosis. Alternatively, agents or treatment regimens that enhance sensitivity of these therapy-resistant 'tumour stem cells' to the current or emerging anti-tumour drugs would be of interest as well

  14. Identification of genes involved in the biology of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumours using Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeibmann, Astrid; Eikmeier, Kristin; Linge, Anna; Kool, Marcel; Koos, Björn; Schulz, Jacqueline; Albrecht, Stefanie; Bartelheim, Kerstin; Frühwald, Michael C.; Pfister, Stefan M.; Paulus, Werner; Hasselblatt, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumours (AT/RT) are malignant brain tumours. Unlike most other human brain tumours, AT/RT are characterized by inactivation of one single gene, SMARCB1. SMARCB1 is a member of the evolutionarily conserved SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex, which has an important role in the control of cell differentiation and proliferation. Little is known, however, about the pathways involved in the oncogenic effects of SMARCB1 inactivation, which might also represent targets for treatment. Here we report a comprehensive genetic screen in the fruit fly that revealed several genes not yet associated with loss of snr1, the Drosophila homologue of SMARCB1. We confirm the functional role of identified genes (including merlin, kibra and expanded, known to regulate hippo signalling pathway activity) in human rhabdoid tumour cell lines and AT/RT tumour samples. These results demonstrate that fly models can be employed for the identification of clinically relevant pathways in human cancer.

  15. Aftercare of malignant thyroid growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, W.; Reiners, C.

    1982-01-01

    The 'standard programme of aftercare for patients with malignant thyroid growths' practised in our department comprises the following measures: - Searching for residual tissues and recurrences in the neck/throat region and for metastases by means of physical examination, scintigraphy, x-ray diagnosis and laboratory tests (including determination of tumour markers); - monitoring and treatment of side effects by thyroidectomy (recurrent paresis, parathyroprival tetany); - prevention, detection and treatment of side effects of high-dosed radio-iodine therapy (on salivary glands and bone marrow) or those of cytostatic treatment (on heart muscle and bone marrow); - monitoring substitutive and suppressive treatment with thyroxines; - psychological guidance and genetic counselling. Corresponding to therapeutic approach, the overall aftercare programme is aimed primarily at papillary and follicular carcinoma and C-cell carcinoma. However, aftercare is hardly effective with anaplastic carcinoma owing to its persistently bad prognosis and its 50% survival time of some three months. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Thymic epithelial tumours: from basic principles to individualised treatment strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Girard

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Thymic epithelial tumours represent a wide range of anatomical, clinical, histological and molecular malignant entities that may be aggressive and difficult to treat. The histopathological classification distinguishes thymomas from thymic carcinomas. Thymomas may be associated with autoimmune disorders. The management of thymic epithelial tumours is a paradigm of co-operation between clinicians, surgeons and pathologists, from establishing the diagnosis to organising the multimodal therapeutic strategy. Surgery is the mainstay of the curative-intent treatment, as complete resection represents the most significantly favourable prognostic factor on overall survival. In case of invasion of intra-thoracic structures and/or dissemination to the pleura and the pericardium, precluding complete resection to be achieved, primary chemotherapy has been used to reduce the tumour burden, possibly allowing subsequent surgery and/or radiotherapy. Novel strategies are needed, especially for refractory, recurrent tumours and thymic carcinomas, which carry a poor prognosis. Personalised approaches are currently being developed, as potentially “druggable” molecular targets are emerging from recent integrated genomic analyses. Along with the large variety of questions relative to the treatment strategy, thymic epithelial tumours represent a model of therapeutic implementation and achievement in orphan thoracic oncology, showing how the advent of new results induces new questions, as well as diversifies further clinical research directions and international collaborative initiatives.

  17. Non-invasive vascular imaging: assessing tumour vascularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, S.; Knopp, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    Non-invasive assessment of vascularity is a new diagnostic approach to characterise tumours. Vascular assessment is based on the pathophysiology of tumour angiogenesis and its diagnostic implications for tumour biology, prognosis and therapy response. Two current techniques investigating vascular features in addition to morphology are Doppler ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced MRI. Diagnostic differentiation has been shown to be possible with Doppler, and a high degree of observed vascularity could be linked to an aggressive course of the disease. Dynamic MRI using gadolinium chelates is already used clinically to detect and differentiate tumours. The histological correlation shows that capillary permeability is increased in malignant tumours and is the best criterion for differentiation from benign processes. Permeability and perfusion factors seem to be more diagnostic than overall vessel density. New clinical applications are currently being established for therapy monitoring. Further instrumental developments will bring harmonic imaging in Doppler, and faster imaging techniques, higher spatial resolution and novel pharmacokinetic concepts in MRI. Upcoming contrast agents for both Doppler and MRI will further improve estimation of intratumoural blood volume and vascular permeability. (orig.)

  18. Salivary gland anlage tumour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    developmental midline nasal lesions such as a meningo-encephalocele or glioma. Neoplastic lesions are usually benign, and include dermoids, hamartomas, teratomas and haemangiomas. Malignant lesions such as neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma or lymphoma may be seen, but are extremely rare, and metastatic ...

  19. Malignant hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollock Neil

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malignant hyperthermia (MH is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle that presents as a hypermetabolic response to potent volatile anesthetic gases such as halothane, sevoflurane, desflurane and the depolarizing muscle relaxant succinylcholine, and rarely, in humans, to stresses such as vigorous exercise and heat. The incidence of MH reactions ranges from 1:5,000 to 1:50,000–100,000 anesthesias. However, the prevalence of the genetic abnormalities may be as great as one in 3,000 individuals. MH affects humans, certain pig breeds, dogs, horses, and probably other animals. The classic signs of MH include hyperthermia to marked degree, tachycardia, tachypnea, increased carbon dioxide production, increased oxygen consumption, acidosis, muscle rigidity, and rhabdomyolysis, all related to a hypermetabolic response. The syndrome is likely to be fatal if untreated. Early recognition of the signs of MH, specifically elevation of end-expired carbon dioxide, provides the clinical diagnostic clues. In humans the syndrome is inherited in autosomal dominant pattern, while in pigs in autosomal recessive. The pathophysiologic changes of MH are due to uncontrolled rise of myoplasmic calcium, which activates biochemical processes related to muscle activation. Due to ATP depletion, the muscle membrane integrity is compromised leading to hyperkalemia and rhabdomyolysis. In most cases, the syndrome is caused by a defect in the ryanodine receptor. Over 90 mutations have been identified in the RYR-1 gene located on chromosome 19q13.1, and at least 25 are causal for MH. Diagnostic testing relies on assessing the in vitro contracture response of biopsied muscle to halothane, caffeine, and other drugs. Elucidation of the genetic changes has led to the introduction, on a limited basis so far, of genetic testing for susceptibility to MH. As the sensitivity of genetic testing increases, molecular genetics will be used for identifying those at risk with

  20. Characterisation of intra-articular soft tissue tumours and tumour-like lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Matthew E. [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, The Department of Radiology, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, Asif [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, The Department of Radiology, Middlesex (United Kingdom); The London Bone and Soft Tissue Tumour Service, London (United Kingdom); University College London, The Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Sciences, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-04-15

    The aim of this study was to describe a new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) classification system for intra-articular soft tissue tumours based on the morphology of the lesion, with the aim to aid the differential diagnosis. We performed a retrospective review of 52 consecutive patients presenting to a specialist musculoskeletal oncology unit with a suspected intra-articular tumour. Lesions were categorised into one of four groups according to a simple classification system based on their morphological features on MRI. Distinct groupings of pathologies emerged corresponding to each of the morphological categories. Particularly when combined with radiographic features of calcification and bone erosion, certain patterns were found to be characteristic of specific diagnoses. For example multifocal, calcified lesions were found exclusively in synovial osteochondromatosis and diffuse synovitis with hypointense T2-weighted signal intensity was typical of pigmented villonodular synovitis. Certain combinations of imaging features such as diffuse solid lesions and focal lesions with bone erosion were commonly associated with malignant lesions. We suggest that by classifying intra-articular masses according to their morphological features on MRI, particularly when combined with simple radiographic features, an additional parameter may be generated to aid the radiologist in making a diagnosis. In addition, particular combinations of features provide 'red flags' to increase the index of suspicion for malignancy. (orig.)

  1. Characterisation of intra-articular soft tissue tumours and tumour-like lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Matthew E.; Saifuddin, Asif

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) classification system for intra-articular soft tissue tumours based on the morphology of the lesion, with the aim to aid the differential diagnosis. We performed a retrospective review of 52 consecutive patients presenting to a specialist musculoskeletal oncology unit with a suspected intra-articular tumour. Lesions were categorised into one of four groups according to a simple classification system based on their morphological features on MRI. Distinct groupings of pathologies emerged corresponding to each of the morphological categories. Particularly when combined with radiographic features of calcification and bone erosion, certain patterns were found to be characteristic of specific diagnoses. For example multifocal, calcified lesions were found exclusively in synovial osteochondromatosis and diffuse synovitis with hypointense T2-weighted signal intensity was typical of pigmented villonodular synovitis. Certain combinations of imaging features such as diffuse solid lesions and focal lesions with bone erosion were commonly associated with malignant lesions. We suggest that by classifying intra-articular masses according to their morphological features on MRI, particularly when combined with simple radiographic features, an additional parameter may be generated to aid the radiologist in making a diagnosis. In addition, particular combinations of features provide 'red flags' to increase the index of suspicion for malignancy. (orig.)

  2. Vaginal haemangioendothelioma: an unusual tumour.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohan, H

    2012-02-01

    Vaginal tumours are uncommon and this is a particularly rare case of a vaginal haemangioendothelioma in a 38-year-old woman. Initial presentation consisted of symptoms similar to uterovaginal prolapse with "something coming down". Examination under anaesthesia demonstrated a necrotic anterior vaginal wall tumour. Histology of the lesion revealed a haemangioendothelioma which had some features of haemangiopericytoma. While the natural history of vaginal haemangioendothelioma is uncertain, as a group, they have a propensity for local recurrence. To our knowledge this is the third reported case of a vaginal haemangioendothelioma. Management of this tumour is challenging given the paucity of literature on this tumour. There is a need to add rare tumours to our "knowledge bank" to guide management of these unusual tumours.

  3. Anti-tumour activity in RAS-driven tumours by blocking AKT and MEK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolcher, Anthony W.; Khan, Khurum; Ong, Michael; Banerji, Udai; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki; Gandara, David R.; Patnaik, Amita; Baird, Richard D.; Olmos, David; Garrett, Christopher R.; Skolnik, Jeffrey M.; Rubin, Eric H.; Smith, Paul D.; Huang, Pearl; Learoyd, Maria; Shannon, Keith A.; Morosky, Anne; Tetteh, Ernestina; Jou, Ying-Ming; Papadopoulos, Kyriakos P.; Moreno, Victor; Kaiser, Brianne; Yap, Timothy A.; Yan, Li; de Bono, Johann S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose KRAS is the most commonly mutated oncogene in human tumours. KRAS-mutant cells may exhibit resistance to the allosteric MEK1/2 inhibitor selumetinib (AZD6244; ARRY-142886) and allosteric AKT inhibitors (such as MK-2206), the combination of which may overcome resistance to both monotherapies. Experimental Design We conducted a dose/schedule-finding study evaluating MK-2206 and selumetinib in patients with advanced treatment-refractory solid tumours. Recommended dosing schedules were defined as MK-2206 135 mg weekly and selumetinib 100 mg once-daily. Results Grade 3 rash was the most common dose-limiting toxicity (DLT); other DLTs included grade 4 lipase increase, grade 3 stomatitis, diarrhoea, and fatigue, and grade 3 and grade 2 retinal pigment epithelium detachment. There were no meaningful pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions. Clinical anti-tumour activity included RECIST 1.0-confirmed partial responses in non-small cell lung cancer and low-grade ovarian carcinoma. Conclusion Responses in KRAS-mutant cancers were generally durable. Clinical co-targeting of MEK and AKT signalling may be an important therapeutic strategy in KRAS-driven human malignancies (Trial NCT number NCT01021748). PMID:25516890

  4. Extrarenal rhabdoid tumours outside the central nervous system in infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garces-Inigo, Enrique F. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete, Radiology Department, Hermanos Falco, Albacete (Spain); Leung, Rebecca; McHugh, Kieran [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    Malignant rhabdoid tumours (RT) are increasingly recognized in young children, probably as a consequence of advances in accurate histological diagnosis rather than a true increase in frequency. Although typically presenting as renal tumours in infancy, extrarenal tumours outside the central nervous system (CNS) in children less than 12 months of age are now well recognized, but previous literature on their imaging features is very limited. To demonstrate the imaging features of extrarenal RTs outside the CNS. A retrospective database review was made from 1989 to 2007 of patients diagnosed with extrarenal RT in infancy, i.e. below 12 months of age. There were nine patients (six boys and three girls). The age at presentation varied from 1 to 11 months (average 6 months). Tumours were located in the thorax/mediastinum (n=3), liver (n=3), neck (n=1), shoulder (n=1) and axilla (n=1). The imaging modalities used included US (n=8), CT (n=7) and MRI (n=6). Bone scan was positive in one patient, while metastases at the time of diagnosis occurred in four patients. On MRI the tumours tended to show nonspecific hypointensity on T1-W images and heterogeneous hyperintensity on T2-W images, with heterogeneous enhancement. This is the largest radiological series of extrarenal RTs outside the CNS in infancy. In our series no imaging features were found specific to the diagnosis. A tendency towards large size and mediastinal/paravertebral location were noted. A hypodense solid component on CT and a heterogeneous hyperintensity on T2-W MR images suggest that this tumour should be considered in the routine differential diagnosis of soft-tissue tumours in infancy, in addition to rhabdomyosarcoma. (orig.)

  5. Laparoscopic resection of large gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Smolarek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs are a rare class of neoplasms that are seen most commonly in the stomach. Due to their malignant potential, surgical resection is the recommended method for management of these tumours. Many reports have described the ability to excise small and medium sized GISTs laparoscopically, but laparoscopic resection of GISTs greater than 5 cm is still a matter of debate. Aim: To investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of laparoscopic surgical techniques for management of large gastric GISTs greater than 4 cm and to detail characteristics of this type of tumour. Material and methods: The study cohort consisted of 11 patients with suspected gastric GISTs who were treated from 2011 to April 2014 in a single institution. All patients underwent laparoscopic resection of a gastric GIST. Results : Eleven patients underwent laparoscopic resection of a suspected gastric GIST between April 2011 and April 2014. The cohort consisted of 6 males and 5 females. Mean age was 67 years (range: 43–92 years. Sixty-four percent of these patients presented with symptomatic tumours. Four (36.4% patients underwent laparoscopic transgastric resection (LTR, 3 (27.3% laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG, 3 (27.3% laparoscopic wedge resection (LWR and 1 (9% laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (LDG. The mean operative time was 215 min. The mean tumour size was 6 cm (range: 4–9 cm. The mean tumour size for LTR was 5.5 cm (range: 4–6.3 cm, for LWR 5.3 cm (range: 4.5–7 cm, for LSG 6.5 cm (range: 4–9 cm and for LDG 9 cm. We experienced only minor postoperative complications. Conclusions : Laparoscopic procedures can be successfully performed during management of large gastric GISTs, bigger than 4 cm, and should be considered for all non-metastatic cases. The appropriate approach can be determined by assessing the anatomical location of each tumour.

  6. Radiological diagnosis of liver tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundstedt, C.

    1987-01-01

    Sixty patients treated with an intra-arterial cytostatic drug for metastases from colo-rectal carcinoma were evaluated with angiography to determine prognostic parameters. The extent of tumour in the liver and an unchanged or diminished tumour volume following treatment, as demonstrated with angiography, were associated with significant prolongation of survival. Patients who developed occlusion of the hepatic artery or of branches of the portal vein, also survived longer. 189 patients examined with angiography, 161 with computed tomography (CT), 95 with computed tomographic arteriography (CTA) and 71 with ultrasound (US) were subjected to liver evaluation at laparotomy consisting of inspection and palpation. The result of this surgical liver evaluation was for the purpose of the study regarded as completely accurate and was used to assess the accuracy of the different radiological methods. The location of tumour in the liver lobes or segments was analysed, with a separate evaluation of the right and left liver lobes. The rate of detection of individual tumour nodules was also determined. Angiography detected 55% of liver areas affected by tumour and 47% of individual tumour nodules. CT detected 83% of liver lobes or segments containing tumour, and 70% of the tumour nodules. US detected 69% of the portions of liver holding tumour, and also 69% of the tumour nodules. CTA detected 85% of tumours areas and 74% of separate tumour nodules. Some lesions detected with CT were not seen with CTA and vice versa. More false-positive results were recorded with CTA than with CT using intravenous contrast enhancement. (orig.)

  7. Impact of tumour volume on prediction of progression-free survival in sinonasal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennersdorf, Florian; Mauz, Paul-Stefan; Adam, Patrick; Welz, Stefan; Sievert, Anne; Ernemann, Ulrike; Bisdas, Sotirios

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to analyse potential prognostic factors, with emphasis on tumour volume, in determining progression free survival (PFS) for malignancies of the nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses. Retrospective analysis of 106 patients with primary sinonasal malignancies treated and followed-up between March 2006 and October 2012. Possible predictive parameters for PFS were entered into univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Kaplan-Meier curve analysis included age, sex, baseline tumour volume (based on MR imaging), histology type, TNM stage and prognostic groups according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) classification. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis concerning the predictive value of tumour volume for recurrence was also conducted. The main histological subgroup consisted of epithelial tumours (77%). The majority of the patients (68%) showed advanced tumour burden (AJCC stage III–IV). Lymph node involvement was present in 18 cases. The mean tumour volume was 26.6 ± 21.2 cm 3 . The median PFS for all patients was 24.9 months (range: 2.5–84.5 months). The ROC curve analysis for the tumour volume showed 58.1% sensitivity and 75.4% specificity for predicting recurrence. Tumour volume, AJCC staging, T- and N- stage were significant predictors in the univariate analysis. Positive lymph node status and tumour volume remained significant and independent predictors in the multivariate analysis. Radiological tumour volume proofed to be a statistically reliable predictor of PFS. In the multivariate analysis, T-, N- and overall AJCC staging did not show significant prognostic value

  8. Neurohypophysis granular cell tumours. Upon neurohypophysis rare tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrande, G.; Kujas, M.; Gancel, A.; Turpin, G.; Bruckert, E.; Kuhn, J.M.; Luton, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Granular cell tumours of neurohypophysis are rare. These tumours are more often encountered as incidental autopsy findings seen in up to 17 % of unselected adult autopsy cases. There are few reports of para-sellar granular cell tumours large enough to cause symptoms. We present three cases of neurohypophysis granular cell tumour and a review of the literature. In one patient, the asymptomatic granular cell tumour was incidentally discovered at surgical removal of a corticotrophic micro-adenoma. The remaining 2 patients had a symptomatic tumour which caused neurological symptoms such as visual disturbance and headaches and endocrine disorders such as hypopituitarism or hyper-prolactinaemia. In these 2 cases, computerized tomography showed a well-circumscribed, contrast-enhanced, intra-sellar and supra-sellar mass. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an isointense gadolinium-enhanced mass in T1-weighted-images. Trans-sphenoidal partial resection was performed and histology was interpreted as a granular cell tumour. The immunohistochemical study was positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GEAP) and neuron specific enolase (NSE) in 1 of the 2 tumours and positive for S100 protein and vimentin in both tumours but negative for CD68. The histogenesis of neurohypophysis granular cell tumours is still controversial but ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies support the theory that may arise from pituicytes, the glial cells of neurohypophysis. Management of these benign, slow growing, tumours is based mainly on neurosurgical resection. Data from the literature do not support a beneficial effect of post operative radiation therapy on postoperative recurrences. (authors). 23 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  9. Tumour cell–derived extracellular vesicles interact with mesenchymal stem cells to modulate the microenvironment and enhance cholangiocarcinoma growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Haga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The contributions of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs to tumour growth and stroma formation are poorly understood. Tumour cells can transfer genetic information and modulate cell signalling in other cells through the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs. We examined the contribution of EV-mediated inter-cellular signalling between bone marrow MSCs and tumour cells in human cholangiocarcinoma, highly desmoplastic cancers that are characterized by tumour cells closely intertwined within a dense fibrous stroma. Exposure of MSCs to tumour cell–derived EVs enhanced MSC migratory capability and expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin mRNA, in addition to mRNA expression and release of CXCL-1, CCL2 and IL-6. Conditioned media from MSCs exposed to tumour cell–derived EVs increased STAT-3 phosphorylation and proliferation in tumour cells. These effects were completely blocked by anti-IL-6R antibody. In conclusion, tumour cell–derived EVs can contribute to the generation of tumour stroma through fibroblastic differentiation of MSCs, and can also selectively modulate the cellular release of soluble factors such as IL-6 by MSCs that can, in turn, alter tumour cell proliferation. Thus, malignant cells can “educate” MSCs to induce local microenvironmental changes that enhance tumour cell growth.

  10. Management of parapharyngeal space tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, F.; Waqar-Uddin; Khan, M.S.; Khawar, A.; Bangush, W.; Aslam, J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the role of clinical features, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and computed tomography (CT) scan in diagnosing Para pharyngeal space (PPS) tumours and treatment options. Design: A descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: From July 2000 to July 2002 at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad. Patients and Methods: Patients diagnosed as having PPS tumours were studied. The medical record of patients was reviewed for their age, gender, clinical features, investigations (FNAC and CT scan) and treatment. The mean age, percentage of different clinical features and the sensitivity and specificity of FNAC was determined. Results: The mean age of patients presenting with PPS tumours was 33.6 years. The most common clinical features were neck mass (93%) and bulge in lateral pharyngeal wall (80%). The CT scan showed exact location and extent of tumour in 11 out of 15 cases. The sensitivity and specificity of FNAC was 70% and 85% respectively. The most common tumours were neurogenic tumours and salivary gland tumours. Surgery was performed in all except 2 patients with lymphoma in whom radiation and chemotherapy was recommended. Conclusion: This study indicates that PPS tumours are usually benign neurosurgeon and salivary gland tumours presenting with neck mass and bulge in or oropharynx. FNAC and CT scan are important in diagnostic work up and treatment planning. Surgery has the best results in most cases. (author)

  11. The Askin tumour. Neuroactodermic tumour of the thoracic wall; Tumor de Askin: tumor neuroectodermico de la pared toracica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez, P.; Nicolas, A. I.; Vivas, I.; Damaso Aquerreta, J.; Martinez-Cuesta, A. [Clinica Universitaria de Navarra. Pamplona (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    The Askin tumours is an extremely rare and malignant process in the thoracic pulmonary region during infancy and youth. The differential diagnosis has to be considered with other thoracic wall tumours that are more common in pediatrics like the undifferentiated neuroblastoma, the embionic rabdomiosarcoma, the Ewing sarcoma and the linfoma. A retrospective examination was carried out on 473 thoracic wall tumours from 1994 to 1997 at our centre, resulting in 4 patients with an anatomopathologically tested Askin tumour (ages from 13-21). All the cases were studied using simple radiography and CT. In two cases MRI was also used. The most common clinical manifestation was a palpable painful mass in the thoracic wall. In the simple radiograph the main finding was a large mass of extrapleural soft material, with costal destruction ( n=3) and a pleural effusion (n=2). In the CT study the mass was heterogeneous, with internal calcifications in one case. CT and MRI showed invasion in the mediastinum (n=1), medular channel (n=1) and phrenic and sulphrenic extension (n=1). The Askin tumour should be included in the differential diagnosis of thoracic wall masses in infant-youth ages. There are no specific morphological characteristics. Both CT and MRI are useful for the diagnosis, staging and follow up. (Author) 11 refs.

  12. The role of choline (Cho) in the diagnostics and differentiation of brain tumours with HMRS technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobiecka, B.; Urbanik, A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aim of the research was a comprehensive analysis of Cho concentration and Cho/Cr, NAA/Cho, NAA/Cho+Cr ratios for the purposes of the diagnostics and differentiation of brain tumours (the type of the pathological lesion in patients with brain tumours) with the use of HMRS technique. Material/Methods: The HMRS examinations were performed with the use of the MRI Signa Excite 1.5 T system, in PRESS technique (TR = 1500 ms, TE = 35 ms) and involved 100 patients with brain tumours (age range: 18 to 81 yrs, mean age 50.61). Spectra were taken from three different locations: tumour centre, the tumour edge and contralateral unchanged cerebral tissue. All patients underwent surgery followed by histopathological analysis, on the basis of which two groups were separated (benign tumours, malignant tumours - 50 cases each). Additionally, 30 healthy volunteers in the age of 20 to 79 years (mean age 40.8) were examined. Results: The comparison of the examined patients with the control group revealed significantly higher Cho concentrations in patients with brain tumours. The analysis of Cho concentration was also performed with consideration of the age factor (under and over 60 years of age). Significantly lower mean Cho concentrations were discovered in a group of patients under 60 years of age. The analysis of Cho concentrations and Cho/Cr ratios reveled statistical significance for two factors: voxel location factor and the type of the pathological lesion. The average of Cho concentration and Cho/Cr ratios were higher in the group of patients with malignant tumours. The highest Cho concentrations and Cho/Cr ratios were observed in the tumour centre. The relative NAA/Cho and NAA/Cho+Cr ratios were statistically significant when taking into consideration the voxel location factor only. The results received from contralateral normal cerebral tissue (the internal model) were compared with control group (the external model). Mean values of Cho concentration were

  13. The war and its influence on the malignant tumors’ incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Blažičević

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available We have observed the incidence of malignant tumours among 254 patients of Osijek University Hospital in the pre-war period (1990-92 and 255 patients after the war (June 1992-93. After the war there has been a significant decrease of well differentiated malignant tumors incidence: 84 cases (33,07% before the war, 30 cases (11,76% after the war, however, there has been a significantly increased incidence of anaplastic tumours: 9 cases (3,54% before the war, 21 cases (8,24% after the war. There has been statistically significant increase of stomach, ovaries and testis malignant neoplasm incidence in the observed period (2=76,559, p<0,0001.

  14. Malignant melanomas of the meninges (MR and CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuknecht, B.; Nadjmi, M.; Mueller, J.

    1990-01-01

    Malignant melanoma of the meninges is a rare neoplasm derived from melanocytes of the cranial or spinal meninges. Histologically classified as grade IV tumours, malignant melanoma may present either as a diffuse meningeal neoplasm, first described by Virchow in 1859, or as a circumscribed tumour attached to the meninges. Although diagnosis is rarely established prior to surgery or autopsy, MR and CT may provide indispensable information probably leading to earlier diagnosis. In 4 patients, diagnosis of a primary meningeal melanoma was based on MR and CT findings and histology. Histology was obtained in 3 cases by surgery, in one patient by autopsy and showed a melanotic and an amelanotic malignant melanoma in 2 patients each. Autopsy was carried out in 3 cases after survival of 4, 5, and 18 months; in a single case, the follow-up period is almost 3 years. (orig.) [de

  15. Malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas - the importance of a multidisciplinary approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Francis; Altaf, Rahim; Krarup-Hansen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    -secreted with catecholamines, may indicate tumour mass and malignancy and can be used to monitor response and relapse. The secretory and non-secretory tumours can be visualised with functional (specific and non-specific) imaging as SPECT and PET using ¹²³I-MIBG, somatostatin analogues, ¹8F-DOPA, and ¹8F-FDG. These modalities...... imaging with somatostatin analogues generally has high sensitivity in malignant disease. There are no curative therapeutic options for malignant, metastatic pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas, wherefore consolidation of quality of life is essential. Adjuvant radionuclide treatment with beta......-emitting isotopes coupled to MIBG or somatostatin analogues have shown response in approximately 30%. Chemotherapy is restricted to patients not accessible for surgery and resistant to radionuclide therapy. Novel targeted therapies, which mainly through a cytostatic effect interfere with specific targeted molecules...

  16. Pentavalent 99Tcm - DMSA SPECT in primary brain tumours of glial cell origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, D.K.; Evans, S.G.; Larcos, G.; Gruenewald, S.; Kumar, V.; Barton, M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: 99 Tc m (V)-DMSA [DMSA(V)] has shown promise in brain tumour imaging. This study aimed to assess the role of DMSA(V) brain SPET in glioma for: (1) predicting the histopathological grade of malignancy, (2) monitoring response to therapy and (3) discriminating recurrent tumour from post-radiotherapy necrosis. Twenty-three patients (pts) (14 men, 9 women) of mean age 57 years (range 20-79) were referred with a lesion on CT/MRI (14 new presentations, 5 known and 4 suspected tumour recurrence). Up to 555 MBq of 99 Tc m (V)DMSA were administered and SPET was acquired at 3 h. Tumour uptake ratio (UR) was calculated by the ratio of activity in the tumour to a region in the contralateral brain. All 19 pts with known tumour showed DMSA(V) uptake. The 14 pts with new tumours (10 grade IV, I grade III, 2 grade II and 1 necrotic tumour) had a pre-therapy mean UR of 7.7 (range 2.8-13.6). The 3 lower-grade tumours were scattered widely within this range. Four pts completed radiotherapy and returned for a post-therapy scan, where the UR was less than the pre-therapy UR in 2, unchanged in 1 and greater in 1. The 5 known recurrent tumours had a mean UR of 13.5 (range 7.3-24.9). In the 4 pts with suspected recurrence, the DMSA(V) scan result agreed with clinical course or PET in 3 but was falsely positive in 1. In summary, 99 Tc m (V)-DMSA: (1) showed uptake in all known glial cell tumours in this series, however the UR did not correlate with the histopathological grade; (2) may be useful for discriminating tumour recurrence from post-radiotherapy necrosis; and (3) may have a role in predicting post-therapy prognosis

  17. Staging of Klatskin tumours (hilar cholangiocarcinomas): comparison of MR cholangiography, MR imaging, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, Thomas J.; Schwarz, Wolfram O.; Heller, Matthias; Herzog, Christopher; Zangos, Stephan; Hammerstingl, Renate M.; Hintze, Rainer E.; Neuhaus, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare prospectively magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) in the diagnosis and staging of Klatskin tumours of the biliary tree (hilar cholangiocarcinomas). Forty-six patients with suspected Klatskin tumours of the biliary tract underwent MRI and heavily T2-weighted, non-breathhold, respiratory-triggered fast spin-echo MRC. Forty-two patients underwent ERC within 24 h; in four patients, ERC was not feasible, and percutaneous trans-hepatic cholangiography (PTC) was carried out instead. Two independent investigators evaluated imaging results for the presence of tumour, bile duct dilatation, and stenosis. Clinical and histopathological correlation revealed Klatskin tumours in 33 patients. MRI revealed a slightly hyperintense signal of infiltrated bile ducts in T2-weighted fast spin-echo sequences. The malignant lesion was regularly visualized as a hypointense area in T1-weighted gradient-echo sequences with substantial contrast enhancement along the involved bile duct walls. MRC revealed the location and extension of the tumour in 31 of 33 cases correctly (sensitivity 94%, specificity 100%, diagnostic accuracy 95%). In 27 of 31 cases, ERC enabled accurate staging and diagnosis of Klatskin tumours with a sensitivity of 87%. ERC and PTC combined yielded a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 97%. Tumours were grouped according to the Bismuth classification, with MRC allowing correct identification of type I tumour in seven patients, type II tumour in four patients, type III tumour in 12 patients, and type IV tumour in ten patients. MRC provided superior visualization of completely obstructed peripheral systems. MRC in combination with MRI is a reliable non-invasive diagnostic method for the pre-therapeutic staging of Klatskin tumours. (orig.)

  18. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH isoenzymes patterns in ocular tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Rajendra

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH isoenzymes in the serum and aqueous humor was carried out in 15 cases of benign ocular tumour, 15 cases of malignant tumor and 15 normal cases. Cases of both sexes aged between 1 year and 75 years were included. LDH, isoenzymes specially LDH4 and LDH5 are higher and LDH1 and LDH2 lower in sera of patients with malignant tumor specially retinoblastoma as compared to benign tumor cases and control cases. LDH isoenzymes in aqueous humor are significantly higher and show a characteristic pattern in retinoblastoma cases, the concentration was presumably too low in the control, malignant tumor other than retinoblastoma and benign tumor cases as its fractionation was not possible.

  19. Renal malignancies with normal excretory urograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kass, D.A.; Hricak, H.; Davidson, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    Four patients with malignant renal masses showed no abnormality of excretory urograms with tomography. Of the four lesions, two were primary renal cell carcinomas, one was a metastatic focus from a contralateral renal cell carcinoma, and one was a metastatic lesion from rectal adenocarcinoma. A normal excretory urogram should not be considered sufficient to exclude a clinically suspected malignant renal mass. In such an instance, diagnostic evaluation should be pursued using a method capable of topographic anatomic display, such as computed tomography or sonography

  20. MRI of intracranial germ-cell tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, L.; Korogi, Y.; Sugahara, T.; Ikushima, I.; Shigematsu, Y.; Okuda, T.; Takahashi, M.; Kochi, M.; Ushio, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Abstract. Our aim was to review the MRI appearances of primary intracranial germ-cell tumours (GCT). We reviewed the MRI studies of 32 patients: 19 with germinomas, five with teratomas, one with an embryonal carcinoma, five with mixed and two with malignant nongerminomatous GCT. Eleven were in the pineal region, 12 suprasellar, five in the both sites, two in the basal ganglia and two in the corpus callosum. Contrast-enhanced images were available for 27 patients. The solid parts of GCT were nearly isointense with grey matter on both T1- and T2-weighted images. In seven patients with nongerminomatous GCT high-signal components were found on T1-weighted images, representing haemorrhage, high-protein fluid or fat. Cystic components were detected in 17 of 27 patients; eight germinomas and all nine nongerminomatous GCT had cysts. The solid components of germinomas enhanced homogeneously in eight cases and heterogeneously in 10, while all nongerminomatous GCT showed heterogeneous enhancement. MRI features tumours can facilitate correct diagnosis of GCT, including histological subtypes. (orig.)

  1. Unilateral testicular tumour associated to congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Failure of specific tumoral molecular markers to discriminate between adrenal rest and leydigioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, P; Bstandig, B; Roger, C; Chevallier, D; Michels, J-F; Sadoul, J-L; Hieronimus, S; Brucker-Davis, F

    2008-11-01

    Testicular adrenal rest tumours are frequently associated with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). These ACTH-dependent tumours cannot be easily distinguished histologically from Leydig-cell tumours. We report the case of a 30-year-old man who was explored for infertility, azoospermia and unilateral testicular tumour. High levels of 17-OH progesterone and ACTH, low cortisol and undetectable gonadotropins levels, associated to bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, led to the diagnosis of CAH by 21-OH deficiency with a composite heterozygoty. The testicular tumour was first considered as adrenal rest. However, histological analysis of this unilateral painful tumour showed a steroid-hormone-secreting cell proliferation with atypical and frequent mitosis. To discriminate between a benign adrenal rest tumour and a possible malignant leydigioma, tumoral expression of specific gene products was analyzed by RT-PCR. No 11-beta-hydroxylase nor ACTH receptor mRNAs could be found in the tumour, which did not behave like usual adrenal rest cells. For this unilateral testicular tumour, the lack of adrenal-specific markers associated with a high rate of mitosis and pleiomorphism supported a leydigian origin with malignant potential. However, lack of tumoral LH-R mRNA expression and a tumour-free 3-year follow-up led us to retain the diagnosis of adrenal rest tumour with loss of adrenal gene expression and progressive autonomous behaviour.

  2. Radiotherapy in ocular tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Ocular tumours at the Tata Memorial Hospital, Bombay, form about 0.14% of all the proved cancer cases. In case of unilateral retinoblastoma with the other eye being not non-seeing for any reason, enucleation is advised, as the diagnosis may sometimes be in doubt. If after enucleation, optic nerve and/or peribulbar tissues are found to be involved, post-operative irradiation is given to the whole orbit. In bilateral retinoblastoma the more affected eye is enucleated and an attempt is made to preserve vision in the other eye. A tumour dose of 3500 to 4000 rad in about 4 weeks is given with a cobalt beam using a direct anterior field. A cataract that may develop has to be taken care of. Lateral and/or medial fields are used with deep X-rays. In certain cases, an implant of cobalt-60 or gold-198 grain is done. For carcinoma of conjuctiva, small lesions or early lesions are excised and a beta radiation dose of 2000 rad weekly for about 4 to 5 weeks is given; larger lesions require enucleation or exenteration followed by irradiation with super-voltage radiation. Post-irradiation sarcomas may develop many years later. Irradiation is repeated for recurrences. (M.G.B.)

  3. Lack of relationship between TIMP-1 tumour cell immunoreactivity, treatment efficacy and prognosis in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Karina Dahl; Waldstrøm, Marianne; Christensen, Rikke Kølby

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) is a natural inhibitor of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which are proteolytic enzymes involved in degradation of extracellular matrix thereby favoring tumour cell invasion and metastasis. TIMP-1 activity in tumour tissue may ther...... immunoreactivity in tumour tissue from patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer did not correlate with patient survival or response to combination platinum/cyclophosphamide therapy.......BACKGROUND: Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) is a natural inhibitor of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which are proteolytic enzymes involved in degradation of extracellular matrix thereby favoring tumour cell invasion and metastasis. TIMP-1 activity in tumour tissue may...... therefore play an essential role in the progression of a malignant tumour.The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate TIMP-1 protein immunoreactivity in tissue from primary ovarian cancer patients and associate these findings with the course of the disease including response to treatment...

  4. Subdural enhancement on postoperative spinal MRI after resection of posterior cranial fossa tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmuth-Metz, M.; Solymosi, L. [Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Klinikum der Bayerischen Julius Maximilians Universitaet, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 11, 97080, Wuerzburg (Germany); Kuehl, J. [Paediatric Oncology, Klinikum der Bayerischen Julius Maximilians Universitaet, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 11, 97080, Wuerzburg (Germany); Krauss, J. [Paediatric Neurosurgery, Klinikum der Bayerischen Julius Maximilians Universitaet, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 11, 97080, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2004-03-01

    In malignant brain tumours which may disseminate staging, usually by cranial and spinal MRI is necessary. If MRI is performed in the postoperative period pitfalls should be considered. Nonspecific subdural contrast enhancement on spinal staging MRI is rarely reported after resection of posterior fossa tumours, which may be mistaken for dissemination of malignancy. We investigated the frequency of spinal subdural enhancement after posterior cranial fossa neurosurgery in children. We reviewed 53 postoperative spinal MRI studies performed for staging of paediatric malignant brain tumours, mainly infratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours 2-40 days after surgery. There was contrast enhancement in the spinal subdural space in seven cases. This was not seen in any of eight patients who had been operated upon for a supratentorial tumour. After resection of 45 posterior cranial fossa tumours the frequency of subdural enhancement was 15.5%. MRI showing subdural enhancement was obtained up to 25 days postoperatively. No patient with subdural enhancement had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examinations positive for tumour cells or developed dissemination of disease in the CSF. Because the characteristic appearances of subdural contrast enhancement, appropriate interpretation is possible; diagnosis of neoplastic meningitis should rarely be impeded. Because of the striking similarity to that in patients with a low CSF-pressure syndrome and in view of the fact that only resection of tumours of the posterior cranial fossa, usually associated with obstructive hydrocephalus, was followed by this type of enhancement one might suggest that rapid changes in CSF pressure are implicated, rather the effects of blood introduced into the spinal canal at surgery. (orig.)

  5. Subdural enhancement on postoperative spinal MRI after resection of posterior cranial fossa tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warmuth-Metz, M.; Solymosi, L.; Kuehl, J.; Krauss, J.

    2004-01-01

    In malignant brain tumours which may disseminate staging, usually by cranial and spinal MRI is necessary. If MRI is performed in the postoperative period pitfalls should be considered. Nonspecific subdural contrast enhancement on spinal staging MRI is rarely reported after resection of posterior fossa tumours, which may be mistaken for dissemination of malignancy. We investigated the frequency of spinal subdural enhancement after posterior cranial fossa neurosurgery in children. We reviewed 53 postoperative spinal MRI studies performed for staging of paediatric malignant brain tumours, mainly infratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours 2-40 days after surgery. There was contrast enhancement in the spinal subdural space in seven cases. This was not seen in any of eight patients who had been operated upon for a supratentorial tumour. After resection of 45 posterior cranial fossa tumours the frequency of subdural enhancement was 15.5%. MRI showing subdural enhancement was obtained up to 25 days postoperatively. No patient with subdural enhancement had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examinations positive for tumour cells or developed dissemination of disease in the CSF. Because the characteristic appearances of subdural contrast enhancement, appropriate interpretation is possible; diagnosis of neoplastic meningitis should rarely be impeded. Because of the striking similarity to that in patients with a low CSF-pressure syndrome and in view of the fact that only resection of tumours of the posterior cranial fossa, usually associated with obstructive hydrocephalus, was followed by this type of enhancement one might suggest that rapid changes in CSF pressure are implicated, rather the effects of blood introduced into the spinal canal at surgery. (orig.)

  6. The role of radiology in head and neck tumours in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Kieran

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Head and neck malignancy is rare in children. However, distinguishing malignant tumours from the more common and numerous benign causes of neck masses in childhood is crucial as many malignant conditions have an excellent prognosis with appropriate oncological management. Ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging all have crucial roles in the diagnosis of head and neck malignancy in children and there is an emerging role for positron emission tomography, particularly in the management and follow-up of lymphoma. We describe the imaging appearances of the common malignant tumours arising in the extracranial head and neck in children, focusing on lymphoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The clinical presentation and radiological appearances of benign tumours in the head and neck in children may overlap with those seen in malignant disease. We describe the imaging appearances of juvenile angiofibroma, vascular abnormalities involving the extracranial head and neck and cervical teratomas. Advances in both imaging techniques and cancer staging systems, many of the latter aimed at avoiding over-treatment and treatment-related complications, will lead to an increasingly central role for imaging in childhood head and neck cancer. PMID:20199940

  7. Carcinoid Tumour of the Ovary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. A case of bilateral carcinoid tumour of the ovary, with benign cystic teratoma in one ovary, in a 38 year old woman is presented. She had total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingoophorectomy, infracolic omentectomy and appendectomy. There was no macroscopic tumour in the vermiform appendix and the ...

  8. Accuracy and role of contrast-enhanced CT in diagnosis and surgical planning in 88 soft tissue tumours of extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verga, Lucia; Robiati, Sara; De Marchi, Armanda; Martorano, Domenico; Faletti, Carlo; Brach del Prever, Elena Maria; Linari, Alessandra; Boffano, Michele; Piana, Raimondo

    2016-01-01

    Soft tissue tumours (STT) require accurate diagnosis in order to identify potential malignancies. Preoperative planning is fundamental to avoid inadequate treatments. The role of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) for local staging remains incompletely assessed. Aims of the study were to evaluate CT accuracy in discriminating active from aggressive tumours compared to histology and evaluate the role of CT angiography (CTA) in surgical planning. This retrospective cohort series of 88 cases from 1200 patients (7 %) was locally studied by contrast-enhanced CT and CTA in a referral centre: 74 malignant tumours, 14 benign lesions. Contrast-enhancement patterns and relationship of the mass with major vessels and bone were compared with histology on surgically excised samples. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) were evaluated in discriminating active from aggressive tumours. Sensitivity in differentiating aggressive tumours from active lesions was 89 %, specificity 84 %, PPV 90 %, NPV 82 %. The relationship between mass and major vessels/bone was fundamental for surgical strategy respectively in 40 % and in 58 % of malignant tumours. Contrast-enhanced CT and CTA are effective in differentiating aggressive masses from active lesions in soft tissue and in depicting the relationship between tumour and adjacent bones and major vessels. (orig.)

  9. [Neonatal tumours and congenital malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbel Tornero, O; Ortega García, J A; Ferrís i Tortajada, J; García Castell, J; Donat i Colomer, J; Soldin, O P; Fuster Soler, J L

    2008-06-01

    The association between pediatric cancer and congenital abnormalities is well known but, there is no exclusive data on the neonatal period and the underlying etiopathogenic mechanisms are unknown. First, to analyze the frequency of neonatal tumours associated with congenital abnormalities; and second, to comment on the likely etiopathogenic hypotheses of a relationship between neonatal tumours and congenital abnormalities. Historical series of neonatal tumours from La Fe University Children's Hospital in Valencia (Spain), from January 1990 to December 1999. Histological varieties of neonatal tumours and associated congenital abnormalities were described. A systematic review of the last 25 years was carried out using Medline, Cancerlit, Index Citation Science and Embase. The search profile used was the combination of "neonatal/congenital-tumors/cancer/neoplasms" and "congenital malformations/birth defects". 72 neonatal tumours were identified (2.8% of all pediatric cancers diagnosed in our hospital) and in 15 cases (20.8%) there was some associated malformation, disease or syndrome. The association between congenital abnormalities and neonatal tumours were: a) angiomas in three patients: two patients with congenital heart disease with a choanal stenosis, laryngomalacia; b) neuroblastomas in two patients: horseshoe kidney with vertebral anomalies and other with congenital heart disease; c) teratomas in two patients: one with cleft palate with vertebral anomalies and other with metatarsal varus; d) one tumour of the central nervous system with Bochdaleck hernia; e) heart tumours in four patients with tuberous sclerosis; f) acute leukaemia in one patient with Down syndrome and congenital heart disease; g) kidney tumour in one case with triventricular hydrocephaly, and h) adrenocortical tumour: hemihypertrophy. The publications included the tumours diagnosed in different pediatric periods and without unified criteria to classify the congenital abnormalities. Little data

  10. Adapting radiotherapy to hypoxic tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinen, Eirik; Søvik, Åste; Hristov, Dimitre; Bruland, Øyvind S.; Rune Olsen, Dag

    2006-10-01

    In the current work, the concepts of biologically adapted radiotherapy of hypoxic tumours in a framework encompassing functional tumour imaging, tumour control predictions, inverse treatment planning and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were presented. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCEMRI) of a spontaneous sarcoma in the nasal region of a dog was employed. The tracer concentration in the tumour was assumed related to the oxygen tension and compared to Eppendorf histograph measurements. Based on the pO2-related images derived from the MR analysis, the tumour was divided into four compartments by a segmentation procedure. DICOM structure sets for IMRT planning could be derived thereof. In order to display the possible advantages of non-uniform tumour doses, dose redistribution among the four tumour compartments was introduced. The dose redistribution was constrained by keeping the average dose to the tumour equal to a conventional target dose. The compartmental doses yielding optimum tumour control probability (TCP) were used as input in an inverse planning system, where the planning basis was the pO2-related tumour images from the MR analysis. Uniform (conventional) and non-uniform IMRT plans were scored both physically and biologically. The consequences of random and systematic errors in the compartmental images were evaluated. The normalized frequency distributions of the tracer concentration and the pO2 Eppendorf measurements were not significantly different. 28% of the tumour had, according to the MR analysis, pO2 values of less than 5 mm Hg. The optimum TCP following a non-uniform dose prescription was about four times higher than that following a uniform dose prescription. The non-uniform IMRT dose distribution resulting from the inverse planning gave a three times higher TCP than that of the uniform distribution. The TCP and the dose-based plan quality depended on IMRT parameters defined in the inverse planning procedure (fields

  11. Adapting radiotherapy to hypoxic tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinen, Eirik; Soevik, Aste; Hristov, Dimitre; Bruland, Oeyvind S; Olsen, Dag Rune

    2006-01-01

    In the current work, the concepts of biologically adapted radiotherapy of hypoxic tumours in a framework encompassing functional tumour imaging, tumour control predictions, inverse treatment planning and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were presented. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCEMRI) of a spontaneous sarcoma in the nasal region of a dog was employed. The tracer concentration in the tumour was assumed related to the oxygen tension and compared to Eppendorf histograph measurements. Based on the pO 2 -related images derived from the MR analysis, the tumour was divided into four compartments by a segmentation procedure. DICOM structure sets for IMRT planning could be derived thereof. In order to display the possible advantages of non-uniform tumour doses, dose redistribution among the four tumour compartments was introduced. The dose redistribution was constrained by keeping the average dose to the tumour equal to a conventional target dose. The compartmental doses yielding optimum tumour control probability (TCP) were used as input in an inverse planning system, where the planning basis was the pO 2 -related tumour images from the MR analysis. Uniform (conventional) and non-uniform IMRT plans were scored both physically and biologically. The consequences of random and systematic errors in the compartmental images were evaluated. The normalized frequency distributions of the tracer concentration and the pO 2 Eppendorf measurements were not significantly different. 28% of the tumour had, according to the MR analysis, pO 2 values of less than 5 mm Hg. The optimum TCP following a non-uniform dose prescription was about four times higher than that following a uniform dose prescription. The non-uniform IMRT dose distribution resulting from the inverse planning gave a three times higher TCP than that of the uniform distribution. The TCP and the dose-based plan quality depended on IMRT parameters defined in the inverse planning procedure

  12. Adenomyoepithelial tumours and myoepithelial carcinomas of the breast – a spectrum of monophasic and biphasic tumours dominated by immature myoepithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbst Hermann

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adenomyoepithelial tumours and myoepithelial carcinomas of the breast are primarily defined by the presence of neoplastic cells with a myoepithelial immunophenotype. Current classification schemes are based on purely descriptive features and an assessment of individual prognosis is still problematic. Methods A series of 27 adenomyoepithelial tumours of the breast was analysed immunohistochemically with antibodies directed against various cytokeratins, p63, smooth muscle alpha-actin (SMA and vimentin. Additionally, double immunofluorescence and comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH was performed. Results Immunohistochemically, all the tumours showed a constant expression of high molecular weight cytokeratins (Ck Ck5 and Ck14, p63, SMA and vimentin. With exception of one case diagnosed as myoepithelial carcinoma, all tested tumours expressed low molecular weight cytokeratin Ck18 in variable proportions of cells. Even in monophasic tumours lacking obvious glandular differentiation in conventional staining, a number of neoplastic cells still expressed those cytokeratins. Double immunofluorescence revealed tumour cells exclusively staining for Ck5/Ck14 in the presence of other cell populations that co-expressed high molecular weight Ck5/Ck14 as well as either low molecular weight Ck8/18 or SMA. Based on morphology, we assigned the series to three categories, benign, borderline and malignant. This classification was supported by a stepwise increase in cytogenetic alterations on CGH. Conclusion Adenomyoepithelial tumours comprise a spectrum of neoplasms consisting of an admixture of glandular and myoepithelial differentiation patterns. As a key component SMA-positive cells co-expressing cytokeratins could be identified. Although categorisation of adenomyoepithelial tumours in benign, borderline and malignant was supported by results of CGH, any assessment of prognosis requires to be firmly based on morphological grounds. At present

  13. Improving tumour response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, S.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation oncology is in the middle of the most exciting developments in its 100-year history. Progress in treatment planning and delivery, in medical imaging and in basic cancer and normal tissue biology is likely to change the indication for radiotherapy as well as the way it is prescribed and delivered. Technological and conceptual advances, in particular the development of the multi-leaf collimator and the concept of inverse treatment planning, have led to the introduction of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with its capability to plan and deliver non-uniform dose distributions in the clinic. This has forced us to re-think radiation oncology: refining the indication for radiotherapy, optimizing the prescription of dose distributions and considering how, based on clinical evidence, radiation can best be combined with other treatment modalities, surgery, cytotoxic chemotherapy and biologically targeted therapies. The attraction of radiation therapy as an element of multi-modality cancer therapy is that it induces DNA damage that can be modulated in space and time. Progress in basic cancer biology, genomics and proteomics, as well as biological imaging provides novel avenues for individualization of cancer therapy and for biological optimization of radiotherapy. In improving cancer care, it is the therapeutic ratio, rather than tumour control per se, that must be optimised. Interestingly, the two main avenues for improving the effectiveness of radiotherapy currently being actively pursued in the clinic generally aim at different sides of the therapeutic ratio: 3D conformal radiotherapy and IMRT predominantly aim to reduce normal-tissue side effects - and by doing this, open the way for dose escalation that may lead to increased tumour control rates - whereas combined radio-chemotherapy aims to improve tumour response - while keeping the fingers crossed that this will not increase normal-tissue complications to the same extent. In parallel with these

  14. Cancer and tumour markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osifo, B.

    1999-02-01

    Cancer has been a major cause of death world wide and in Nigeria there are six commonest forms of manifestation of cancer known. Of these prostrate cancer is the highest with 16% occurrence of all known cancers according to a study by the Histopathology Department of the UCH. Many factors, amongst them dietary, environmental, lifestyle, age and sedentary work are possible causes. With the global rise in incidents, the IAEA initiated the Tumour Marker Project as a means of screening cancers in 15 African countries including Nigeria. In Nigeria, 4 groups of the commonest cancers have been chosen for screening. These are prostrate cancer, primary liver cancer, cancer of the GI tract and trophoblastic cancer

  15. Immunotherapy for recurrent malignant glioma: an interim report on survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M; Buckwalter, J G; Jacques, D B; Freshwater, D B; Abts, R M; Techy, G B; Miyagi, K; Shelden, C H; Rand, R W; English, L W

    1990-12-01

    We present interim survival data for a group of 83 adult patients with recurrent malignant glioma treated by implanting stimulated autologous lymphocytes into the tumour bed following surgical debulking. The patients were treated 6 months or more prior to data analysis. Fifty-nine patients were male and 24 female. The mean age for the entire group was 48.4 years and the mean Karnofsky rating (KR) was 67.2. Eight of the patients had grade II tumours, 33 had grade III tumours and 42 had grade IV tumours. Statistical analysis focuses on tumour grade, KR and patient age, factors that have been shown to affect survival in previous studies. Multifactorial analyses are employed to identify interrelationships among factors related to survival. Seven patients (8%) did not respond to immunotherapy, 76 (92%) had a good initial response. Twenty-five patients (30.1%) are living and 18 (22%) have shown no evidence of recurrence. Results are evaluated in the light of those obtained in trials of other experimental therapies for recurrent malignant gliomas. It is concluded that the present protocol offers a safe and comparatively effective treatment option.

  16. Tumour seeding following percutaneous needle biopsy: The real story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, E.G. [Department of Radiology, Western Infirmary, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Baxter, G., E-mail: grant.baxter@ggc.scot.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Western Infirmary, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    The demand for percutaneous needle biopsy is greater than ever before and with the majority of procedures requiring imaging guidance, radiologists have an increasingly important role in the diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected malignancy. All invasive procedures incur potential risks; therefore, clinicians should be aware of the most frequently encountered complications and have a realistic idea of their likelihood. Tumour seeding, whereby malignant cells are deposited along the tract of a biopsy needle, can have disastrous consequences particularly in patients who are organ transplant candidates or in those who would otherwise expect good long-term survival. Fortunately, tumour seeding is a rare occurrence, yet the issue invariably receives a high profile and is often regarded as a major contraindication to certain biopsy procedures. Although its existence is in no doubt, realistic insight into its likelihood across the spectrum of biopsy procedures and multiple anatomical sites is required to permit accurate patient counselling and risk stratification. This review provides a comprehensive overview of tumour seeding and examines the likelihood of this much feared complication across the range of commonly performed diagnostic biopsy procedures. Conclusions have been derived from an extensive analysis of the published literature, and a number of key recommendations should assist practitioners in their everyday practice.

  17. Ethical frameworks for obtaining informed consent in tumour profiling: an evidence-based case for Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylstra, Yasmin; Lysaght, Tamra; Thrivikraman, Jyothi; Watson, Sangeetha; Tan, Patrick

    2017-12-08

    Genomic profiling of malignant tumours has assisted clinicians in providing targeted therapies for many serious cancer-related illnesses. Although the characterisation of somatic mutations is the primary aim of tumour profiling for treatment, germline mutations may also be detected given the heterogenous origin of mutations observed in tumours. Guidance documents address the return of germline findings that have health implications for patients and their genetic relations. However, the implications of discovering a potential but unconfirmed germline finding from tumour profiling are yet to be fully explored. Moreover, as tumour profiling is increasingly applied in oncology, robust ethical frameworks are required to encourage large-scale data sharing and data aggregation linking molecular data to clinical outcomes, to further understand the role of genetics in oncogenesis and to develop improved cancer therapies. This paper reports on the results of empirical research that is broadly aimed at developing an ethical framework for obtaining informed consent to return results from tumour profiling tests and to share the biomolecular data sourced from tumour tissues of cancer patients. Specifically, qualitative data were gathered from 36 semi-structured interviews with cancer patients and oncology clinicians at a cancer treatment centre in Singapore. The interview data indicated that patients had a limited comprehension of cancer genetics and implications of tumour testing. Furthermore, oncology clinicians stated that they lacked the time to provide in depth explanations of the tumour profile tests. However, it was accepted from both patients and oncologist that the return potential germline variants and the sharing of de-identified tumour profiling data nationally and internationally should be discussed and provided as an option during the consent process. Findings provide support for the return of tumour profiling results provided that they are accompanied with an

  18. Pasteurization of bone for tumour eradication prior to reimplantation – An in vitro & pre-clinical efficacy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kode, Jyoti; Taur, Prasad; Gulia, Ashish; Jambhekar, Nirmala; Agarwal, Manish; Puri, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: In current era of limb-salvage therapy, pasteurization of bone sarcomas is receiving growing attention as a potential extracorporeal treatment and cost-effective alternative to allografts and radiation before surgical reimplantation. Detailed in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical study to evaluate efficacy of pasteurization to eradicate malignant cells has not been reported yet. The present study was carried out to assess the efficacy of pasteurization to kill tumour cells both in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Surgically resected specimens of osteosarcomas (n=4) were cut into equal halves and one section was pasteurized by heating at 60°C to 65°C for 40 min. Paired samples before and after pasteurization were studied in vitro for DNA ploidy, evaluation of histological change and elimination of mitotic activity. These tissues were transplanted in immune-deficient NOD-SCID mice to evaluate effect on tumour-generating ability, presence of human nuclei, osteopontin and cytokine/chemokines released in tumour-transplanted mice. Results: Non-pasteurized tumour samples had viable tumour cells which exhibited significant growth in culture, increased proliferative ability and clonogenic potential while respective pasteurized tumour tissues did not grow in culture and did not exhibit clonogenicity. Flow cytometry revealed that propidium iodide positive dead cells increased significantly (Ppasteurization. Seven of 12 non-pasteurized tumour transplanted mice demonstrated tumour-forming ability as against 0 of 12 in pasteurized tumour transplanted mice. Solid tumour xenografts exhibited strong expression of anti-human nuclei and osteopontin by immunohistochemistry as well as secretary human interluekin-6 (IL-6) while pasteurized mice failed to express these markers. Interpretation & conclusions: This study has provided a basis to establish pasteurization as being efficacious in ensuring tumour eradication from resected bone tumour specimens. Pasteurized

  19. [Cranial nerve palsy caused by tumours of the head and neck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsing, C.P.; Verbist, B.M.; Hoogen, F.J.A. van den

    2013-01-01

    Cranial nerve palsy is a diagnostic guiding symptom, but often goes unrecognized. The differential diagnosis includes a variety of diseases, including malignant tumours of the head and neck. Here we describe three cases of cranial nerve palsy. In two of the cases the palsy was recognized following

  20. Deregulation of the RB pathway in human testicular germ cell tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartkova, Jirina; Lukas, Claudia; Sørensen, Claus S

    2003-01-01

    Deregulation of the RB pathway is shared by most human malignancies. Components upstream of the retinoblastoma tumour suppressor (pRB), namely the INK4 family of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors, the D-type cyclins, their partner kinases CDK4/CDK6, and pRB as their critical substrate...

  1. Mesothelioma and anti-Ma paraneoplastic syndrome; heterogeneity in immunogenic tumours increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Hilary Anne; Panopoulou, Aikaterini; Bhatt, Nidhi; Edey, Anthony James; Giffin, Nicola Jane

    2014-02-01

    We present a patient with opsoclonus and diffuse cerebellar signs who had an anti-Ma2 antibody-associated paraneoplastic syndrome secondary to a sarcomatoid mesothelioma. This case highlights the importance of early tumour detection, instigation of therapeutic measures, and the heterogeneity of underlying malignancies in neurological paraneoplastic syndromes.

  2. A critical role of platelet TGF-β release in podoplanin-mediated tumour invasion and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Ai; Okitaka, Mina; Takagi, Satoshi; Takami, Miho; Sato, Shigeo; Nishio, Makoto; Okumura, Sakae; Fujita, Naoya

    2017-02-08

    The tumour microenvironment is critical for various characteristics of tumour malignancies. Platelets, as part of the tumour microenvironment, are associated with metastasis formation via increasing the rate of tumour embolus formation in microvasculature. However, the mechanisms underlying the ability of tumour cells to acquire invasiveness and extravasate into target organs at the site of embolization remain unclear. In this study, we reported that platelet aggregation-inducing factor podoplanin expressed on tumour cell surfaces were found to not only promote the formation of tumour-platelet aggregates via interaction with platelets, but also induced the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of tumour cells by enhancing transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) release from platelets. In vitro and in vivo analyses revealed that podoplanin-mediated EMT resulted in increased invasiveness and extravasation of tumour cells. Treatment of mice with a TGF-β-neutralizing antibody statistically suppressed podoplanin-mediated distant metastasis in vivo, suggesting that podoplanin promoted haematogenous metastasis in part by releasing TGF-β from platelets that was essential for EMT of tumour cells. Therefore, our findings suggested that blocking the TGF-β signalling pathway might be a promising strategy for suppressing podoplanin-mediated haematogenous metastasis in vivo.

  3. Malignant bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zedgenidze, G.A.; Kishkovskij, A.N.; Elashov, Yu.G.

    1984-01-01

    Clinicoroentgenologic semiotics of malignant bone tumors as well as metastatic bone tumors are presented. Diagnosis of malignant and metastatic bone tumors should be always complex, representing a result of cooperation of a physician, roentgenologist, pathoanatomist

  4. Radiotherapy of malignant lymphomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kujawska, J [Instytut Onkologii, Krakow (Poland)

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses current views on the role of radiotherapy in the treatment of patients with malignant lymphomas. Principles of radiotherapy employed in the Institute of Oncology in Cracow in case of patients with malignant lymphomas are also presented.

  5. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Much of this research focuses on finding ways to prevent and treat the disorder. Show More Show Less Search Disorders SEARCH SEARCH Definition Treatment Prognosis Clinical Trials Organizations Publications Definition Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is ...

  6. Spectral identification of tissue's malignant changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruia, I.; Gruia, M.I.; Gavrila, C.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Early detection of malignant transformation is a goal of modern medicine and to this end there is an impressive number of approaches from the scientific field that tries to identify early changes preceding malignant transformation in order to establish a correct diagnosis. This work aims is to combine the optical and biochemical techniques for identifying the changes in membrane dynamics of growth and development of experimental solid tumours. During the purpose has been used experimental Walker 256 carcinoma graft in Wistar rats, followed from day 7 up to day 24 from inoculation of tumour cells. Optical techniques were used fractalometry laser polarization in the preclinical diagnosis of pathological changes and degenerative-dystrophy of experimental tissue, and in terms of biochemical tumour tissue was determined the reaction of lipid peroxidation monitored by the malondialdehyde (MDA), the end product assays of reaction. In addition were followed also the total antioxidants as a response of the endogenous defences systems. The results indicate a rising profile of the processes investigated by the 14th day after tumour graft, following a decrease due to lack of substrate enzymatic reactions, specifically the double links of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the membranes change during tumour development. These data are consistent with the changes of the optical investigated parameters. It is shown that in all the cases the linear dichroism appears in bio tissues with the cancer disease the magnitude of which depends on the tumour growth of the cancer process development. The phenomenon of the linear dichroism formation has a selective character: maximum values Δ are observed in the area λ = 410 / 430 nm and in the area λ = 500 / 530 nm, for the wavelength λ < 750 nm Δ is almost zero or zero. The linear dichroism magnitude depends on the thickness of samples that's why at thicknesses d = 10 / 12 μm when the transmission is

  7. Cytological Punctures in the Diagnosis of Renal Tumours: A Study on Accuracy and Reproducibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kümmerlin, Intan P E D; Smedts, Frank; ten Kate, Fiebo J W

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is under consideration as an auxiliary preoperative diagnostic technique in the diagnosis of renal masses. However, reports for FNA are contradictory with regard to diagnostic accuracy and applicability. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic...... accuracy and reproducibility of FNA from renal masses. DESIGN: FNAs performed in-bench (hematoxylin and eosin [H&E] stains) from 66 consecutive renal tumours (58 malignant and 8 benign tumours) were presented twice with a 6-mo interval to five pathologists with little experience in renal cytology...... benignity. CONCLUSION: Despite the lack of experience in renal cytology, all pathologists showed a high diagnostic yield and good overall accuracy in distinguishing between malignant and benign tumours. Concordance in subtyping varied widely among pathologists and was reliable only for clear cell renal cell...

  8. VIP secreting tumours in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, R.P.; Slavotinek, J.P.; Dorney, S.F.A.

    1990-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) secreting neural crest tumours are an uncommon but important treatable cause of intractable childhood diarrhoea. The radiological appearances of two cases are presented with a review of radiological findings in childhood VIP secreting neural crest tumours. Twenty eight cases of childhood VIP secreting neural crest tumours were reviewed. Nineteen (68%) were ganglioneuroblastomas and nine (32%) were ganglioneuromas. The majority of tumours (66%) were in a paravertebral location in the abdomen indicating that a search for such a tumour should be initiated at this site. Eighteen of the twenty eight cases reviewed discussed relevant radiological investigations. Calcification was detected in 50% of abdominal radiographs. Gut dilatation was often a prominent feature. A mass was detected in 5 of 5 cases where ultrasound findings were reported, and seven of seven cases with CT findings reported. Prior to the availability of CT and ultrasound the most useful investigation was IVU which demonstrated evidence of a mass in 5 of 9 cases. The presence of paravertebral calcification and gut dilatation on the plain radiograph of a child with intractable diarrhoea suggests the presence of a VIP secreting neural crest tumour. If an abdominal tumour is not found in the appropriate clinical setting and VIP levels are elevated, a widespread search of the paravertebral region is indicated. (orig.)

  9. 31 CFR 19.950 - Excluded Parties List System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excluded Parties List System 19.950 Section 19.950 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.950 Excluded Parties List System Excluded Parties...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1012 - Work excluded from employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Work excluded from employment. 404.1012... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1012 Work excluded from employment. Certain kinds of work performed by an...

  11. 29 CFR 778.225 - Talent fees excludable under regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Talent fees excludable under regulations. 778.225 Section... Payments That May Be Excluded From the âRegular Rateâ Talent Fees in the Radio and Television Industry § 778.225 Talent fees excludable under regulations. Section 7(e)(3) provides for the exclusion from the...

  12. Oral and maxillofacial tumours in children and adolescents: Clinicopathologic audit of 75 cases in an academic medical centre, Sokoto, Northwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrazaq Olanrewaju Taiwo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maxillofacial tumours in children and adolescents have been documented worldwide; however, few studies were reported from Africa, especially sub-Saharan Africa. In Nigeria, most of the studies emanated from the Southwest region. Aim: To present an audit of clinicopathologic features and treatment of orofacial tumours in children and adolescents in Sokoto, Northwest Nigeria. Patients and Methods: Clinicopathologic records of the Departments of Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery, Paediatrics and Histopathology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria, were reviewed for all the oral and maxillofacial tumours managed in children <19 years from January 2011 to December 2015. Results: Two hundred and twenty-two tumours were noted in all age groups during the study duration and 75 (33.8% of these occurred in children and adolescents. A total of 45 (60% males and thirty (40% females constitute the patient population with a male to female ratio of 1.5:1. There are 32 (42.7% benign tumours and 43 (57.3% malignant tumours. Burkitt's lymphoma was the most common malignant tumour in 24 cases (55.8%, whereas pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign soft tissue tumour in 4 cases (30.8% and fibro-osseous lesions were the most common benign jaw tumours in 10 cases (52.6%. Chemotherapy alone was the treatment modality in 24 cases of malignant tumour whereas 13 cases had combination chemotherapy and irradiation. Conclusions: Our findings established that oral and maxillofacial tumours in children and adolescents are quite common in Sokoto, Northwest region of Nigeria, particularly the malignant types. There is a need for improved universal healthcare insurance for all citizens to adequately manage these children effectively.

  13. Malignant transformation of superficial peritoneal endometriosis lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Eva; Hequet, Delphine; Thoury, Anne; Barranger, Emmanuel

    2013-08-26

    A 63-year-old woman with no medical history underwent an ab