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  1. Inverse odds ratio-weighted estimation for causal mediation analysis.

    Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J

    2013-11-20

    An important scientific goal of studies in the health and social sciences is increasingly to determine to what extent the total effect of a point exposure is mediated by an intermediate variable on the causal pathway between the exposure and the outcome. A causal framework has recently been proposed for mediation analysis, which gives rise to new definitions, formal identification results and novel estimators of direct and indirect effects. In the present paper, the author describes a new inverse odds ratio-weighted approach to estimate so-called natural direct and indirect effects. The approach, which uses as a weight the inverse of an estimate of the odds ratio function relating the exposure and the mediator, is universal in that it can be used to decompose total effects in a number of regression models commonly used in practice. Specifically, the approach may be used for effect decomposition in generalized linear models with a nonlinear link function, and in a number of other commonly used models such as the Cox proportional hazards regression for a survival outcome. The approach is simple and can be implemented in standard software provided a weight can be specified for each observation. An additional advantage of the method is that it easily incorporates multiple mediators of a categorical, discrete or continuous nature. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Odds ratio of dystocia in Holstein cows in Iraq

    Al-Samarai Firas Rashad

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the effect of some factors on dystocia in Holstein cows. The analysis consist of 19090 records of parturitions belonged to 3181 cows from 1990 to 2004 in the Nasr Dairy Cattle Station in Iraq. A logistic regression model was used to predict dystocia. The model included effects of year of birth, season (winter or other seasons), parity (first or later), birth weight (kg), and sex of calf. Results revealed that odds of dystocia decreas...

  3. Practical Guidance for Conducting Mediation Analysis With Multiple Mediators Using Inverse Odds Ratio Weighting

    Nguyen, Quynh C.; Osypuk, Theresa L.; Schmidt, Nicole M.; Glymour, M. Maria; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the recent flourishing of mediation analysis techniques, many modern approaches are difficult to implement or applicable to only a restricted range of regression models. This report provides practical guidance for implementing a new technique utilizing inverse odds ratio weighting (IORW) to estimate natural direct and indirect effects for mediation analyses. IORW takes advantage of the odds ratio's invariance property and condenses information on the odds ratio for the relationship be...

  4. Clinical trials: odds ratios and multiple regression models--why and how to assess them

    Sobh, Mohamad; Cleophas, Ton J.; Hadj-Chaib, Amel; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

    2008-01-01

    Odds ratios (ORs), unlike chi2 tests, provide direct insight into the strength of the relationship between treatment modalities and treatment effects. Multiple regression models can reduce the data spread due to certain patient characteristics and thus improve the precision of the treatment

  5. WASP (Write a Scientific Paper) using Excel - 12: Odds ratio and relative risk.

    Grech, Victor

    2018-07-01

    The calculation of odds ratios and relative risks may be required as part of a data analysis exercise. This paper explains how to set up these calculations in Microsoft Excel from a two by two contingency table. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Practical guidance for conducting mediation analysis with multiple mediators using inverse odds ratio weighting.

    Nguyen, Quynh C; Osypuk, Theresa L; Schmidt, Nicole M; Glymour, M Maria; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J

    2015-03-01

    Despite the recent flourishing of mediation analysis techniques, many modern approaches are difficult to implement or applicable to only a restricted range of regression models. This report provides practical guidance for implementing a new technique utilizing inverse odds ratio weighting (IORW) to estimate natural direct and indirect effects for mediation analyses. IORW takes advantage of the odds ratio's invariance property and condenses information on the odds ratio for the relationship between the exposure (treatment) and multiple mediators, conditional on covariates, by regressing exposure on mediators and covariates. The inverse of the covariate-adjusted exposure-mediator odds ratio association is used to weight the primary analytical regression of the outcome on treatment. The treatment coefficient in such a weighted regression estimates the natural direct effect of treatment on the outcome, and indirect effects are identified by subtracting direct effects from total effects. Weighting renders treatment and mediators independent, thereby deactivating indirect pathways of the mediators. This new mediation technique accommodates multiple discrete or continuous mediators. IORW is easily implemented and is appropriate for any standard regression model, including quantile regression and survival analysis. An empirical example is given using data from the Moving to Opportunity (1994-2002) experiment, testing whether neighborhood context mediated the effects of a housing voucher program on obesity. Relevant Stata code (StataCorp LP, College Station, Texas) is provided. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Odds Ratio Product of Sleep EEG as a Continuous Measure of Sleep State

    Younes, Magdy; Ostrowski, Michele; Soiferman, Marc; Younes, Henry; Younes, Mark; Raneri, Jill; Hanly, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To develop and validate an algorithm that provides a continuous estimate of sleep depth from the electroencephalogram (EEG). Design: Retrospective analysis of polysomnograms. Setting: Research laboratory. Participants: 114 patients who underwent clinical polysomnography in sleep centers at the University of Manitoba (n = 58) and the University of Calgary (n = 56). Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Power spectrum of EEG was determined in 3-second epochs and divided into delta, theta, alpha-sigma, and beta frequency bands. The range of powers in each band was divided into 10 aliquots. EEG patterns were assigned a 4-digit number that reflects the relative power in the 4 frequency ranges (10,000 possible patterns). Probability of each pattern occurring in 30-s epochs staged awake was determined, resulting in a continuous probability value from 0% to 100%. This was divided by 40 (% of epochs staged awake) producing the odds ratio product (ORP), with a range of 0–2.5. In validation testing, average ORP decreased progressively as EEG progressed from wakefulness (2.19 ± 0.29) to stage N3 (0.13 ± 0.05). ORP sleep and ORP > 2.0 predicted wakefulness in > 95% of 30-s epochs. Epochs with intermediate ORP occurred in unstable sleep with a high arousal index (> 70/h) and were subject to much interrater scoring variability. There was an excellent correlation (r2 = 0.98) between ORP in current 30-s epochs and the likelihood of arousal or awakening occurring in the next 30-s epoch. Conclusions: Our results support the use of the odds ratio product (ORP) as a continuous measure of sleep depth. Citation: Younes M, Ostrowski M, Soiferman M, Younes H, Younes M, Raneri J, Hanly P. Odds ratio product of sleep EEG as a continuous measure of sleep state. SLEEP 2015;38(4):641–654. PMID:25348125

  8. Misuse of odds ratios in obesity literature: an empirical analysis of published studies.

    Tajeu, Gabriel S; Sen, Bisakha; Allison, David B; Menachemi, Nir

    2012-08-01

    Odds ratios (ORs) are widely used in scientific research to demonstrate the associations between outcome variables and covariates (risk factors) of interest, and are often described in language suitable for risks or probabilities, but odds and probabilities are related, not equivalent. In situations where the outcome is not rare (e.g., obesity), ORs no longer approximate the relative risk ratio (RR) and may be misinterpreted. Our study examines the extent of misinterpretation of ORs in Obesity and International Journal of Obesity. We reviewed all 2010 issues of these journals to identify all articles that presented ORs. Included articles were then primarily reviewed for correct presentation and interpretation of ORs; and secondarily reviewed for article characteristics that may have been associated with how ORs are presented and interpreted. Of the 855 articles examined, 62 (7.3%) presented ORs. ORs were presented incorrectly in 23.2% of these articles. Clinical articles were more likely to present ORs correctly than social science or basic science articles. Studies with outcome variables that had higher relative prevalence were less likely to present ORs correctly. Overall, almost one-quarter of the studies presenting ORs in two leading journals on obesity misinterpreted them. Furthermore, even when researchers present ORs correctly, the lay media may misinterpret them as relative RRs. Therefore, we suggest that when the magnitude of associations is of interest, researchers should carefully and accurately present interpretable measures of association--including RRs and risk differences--to minimize confusion and misrepresentation of research results.

  9. Likelihood ratio and posterior odds in forensic genetics: Two sides of the same coin.

    Caliebe, Amke; Walsh, Susan; Liu, Fan; Kayser, Manfred; Krawczak, Michael

    2017-05-01

    It has become widely accepted in forensics that, owing to a lack of sensible priors, the evidential value of matching DNA profiles in trace donor identification or kinship analysis is most sensibly communicated in the form of a likelihood ratio (LR). This restraint does not abate the fact that the posterior odds (PO) would be the preferred basis for returning a verdict. A completely different situation holds for Forensic DNA Phenotyping (FDP), which is aimed at predicting externally visible characteristics (EVCs) of a trace donor from DNA left behind at the crime scene. FDP is intended to provide leads to the police investigation helping them to find unknown trace donors that are unidentifiable by DNA profiling. The statistical models underlying FDP typically yield posterior odds (PO) for an individual possessing a certain EVC. This apparent discrepancy has led to confusion as to when LR or PO is the appropriate outcome of forensic DNA analysis to be communicated to the investigating authorities. We thus set out to clarify the distinction between LR and PO in the context of forensic DNA profiling and FDP from a statistical point of view. In so doing, we also addressed the influence of population affiliation on LR and PO. In contrast to the well-known population dependency of the LR in DNA profiling, the PO as obtained in FDP may be widely population-independent. The actual degree of independence, however, is a matter of (i) how much of the causality of the respective EVC is captured by the genetic markers used for FDP and (ii) by the extent to which non-genetic such as environmental causal factors of the same EVC are distributed equally throughout populations. The fact that an LR should be communicated in cases of DNA profiling whereas the PO are suitable for FDP does not conflict with theory, but rather reflects the immanent differences between these two forensic applications of DNA information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Interpretation of genetic association studies: markers with replicated highly significant odds ratios may be poor classifiers.

    Johanna Jakobsdottir

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent successful discoveries of potentially causal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs for complex diseases hold great promise, and commercialization of genomics in personalized medicine has already begun. The hope is that genetic testing will benefit patients and their families, and encourage positive lifestyle changes and guide clinical decisions. However, for many complex diseases, it is arguable whether the era of genomics in personalized medicine is here yet. We focus on the clinical validity of genetic testing with an emphasis on two popular statistical methods for evaluating markers. The two methods, logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis, are applied to our age-related macular degeneration dataset. By using an additive model of the CFH, LOC387715, and C2 variants, the odds ratios are 2.9, 3.4, and 0.4, with p-values of 10(-13, 10(-13, and 10(-3, respectively. The area under the ROC curve (AUC is 0.79, but assuming prevalences of 15%, 5.5%, and 1.5% (which are realistic for age groups 80 y, 65 y, and 40 y and older, respectively, only 30%, 12%, and 3% of the group classified as high risk are cases. Additionally, we present examples for four other diseases for which strongly associated variants have been discovered. In type 2 diabetes, our classification model of 12 SNPs has an AUC of only 0.64, and two SNPs achieve an AUC of only 0.56 for prostate cancer. Nine SNPs were not sufficient to improve the discrimination power over that of nongenetic predictors for risk of cardiovascular events. Finally, in Crohn's disease, a model of five SNPs, one with a quite low odds ratio of 0.26, has an AUC of only 0.66. Our analyses and examples show that strong association, although very valuable for establishing etiological hypotheses, does not guarantee effective discrimination between cases and controls. The scientific community should be cautious to avoid overstating the value of association findings in terms

  11. Assessing neural activity related to decision-making through flexible odds ratio curves and their derivatives.

    Roca-Pardiñas, Javier; Cadarso-Suárez, Carmen; Pardo-Vazquez, Jose L; Leboran, Victor; Molenberghs, Geert; Faes, Christel; Acuña, Carlos

    2011-06-30

    It is well established that neural activity is stochastically modulated over time. Therefore, direct comparisons across experimental conditions and determination of change points or maximum firing rates are not straightforward. This study sought to compare temporal firing probability curves that may vary across groups defined by different experimental conditions. Odds-ratio (OR) curves were used as a measure of comparison, and the main goal was to provide a global test to detect significant differences of such curves through the study of their derivatives. An algorithm is proposed that enables ORs based on generalized additive models, including factor-by-curve-type interactions to be flexibly estimated. Bootstrap methods were used to draw inferences from the derivatives curves, and binning techniques were applied to speed up computation in the estimation and testing processes. A simulation study was conducted to assess the validity of these bootstrap-based tests. This methodology was applied to study premotor ventral cortex neural activity associated with decision-making. The proposed statistical procedures proved very useful in revealing the neural activity correlates of decision-making in a visual discrimination task. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Single nucleotide polymorphism barcoding to evaluate oral cancer risk using odds ratio-based genetic algorithms

    Cheng-Hong Yang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Cancers often involve the synergistic effects of gene–gene interactions, but identifying these interactions remains challenging. Here, we present an odds ratio-based genetic algorithm (OR-GA that is able to solve the problems associated with the simultaneous analysis of multiple independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are associated with oral cancer. The SNP interactions between four SNPs—namely rs1799782, rs2040639, rs861539, rs2075685, and belonging to four genes (XRCC1, XRCC2, XRCC3, and XRCC4—were tested in this study, respectively. The GA decomposes the SNPs sets into different SNP combinations with their corresponding genotypes (called SNP barcodes. The GA can effectively identify a specific SNP barcode that has an optimized fitness value and uses this to calculate the difference between the case and control groups. The SNP barcodes with a low fitness value are naturally removed from the population. Using two to four SNPs, the best SNP barcodes with maximum differences in occurrence between the case and control groups were generated by GA algorithm. Subsequently, the OR provides a quantitative measure of the multiple SNP synergies between the oral cancer and control groups by calculating the risk related to the best SNP barcodes and others. When these were compared to their corresponding non-SNP barcodes, the estimated ORs for oral cancer were found to be great than 1 [approx. 1.72–2.23; confidence intervals (CIs: 0.94–5.30, p < 0.03–0.07] for various specific SNP barcodes with two to four SNPs. In conclusion, the proposed OR-GA method successfully generates SNP barcodes, which allow oral cancer risk to be evaluated and in the process the OR-GA method identifies possible SNP–SNP interactions.

  13. Beta-binomial model for meta-analysis of odds ratios.

    Bakbergenuly, Ilyas; Kulinskaya, Elena

    2017-05-20

    In meta-analysis of odds ratios (ORs), heterogeneity between the studies is usually modelled via the additive random effects model (REM). An alternative, multiplicative REM for ORs uses overdispersion. The multiplicative factor in this overdispersion model (ODM) can be interpreted as an intra-class correlation (ICC) parameter. This model naturally arises when the probabilities of an event in one or both arms of a comparative study are themselves beta-distributed, resulting in beta-binomial distributions. We propose two new estimators of the ICC for meta-analysis in this setting. One is based on the inverted Breslow-Day test, and the other on the improved gamma approximation by Kulinskaya and Dollinger (2015, p. 26) to the distribution of Cochran's Q. The performance of these and several other estimators of ICC on bias and coverage is studied by simulation. Additionally, the Mantel-Haenszel approach to estimation of ORs is extended to the beta-binomial model, and we study performance of various ICC estimators when used in the Mantel-Haenszel or the inverse-variance method to combine ORs in meta-analysis. The results of the simulations show that the improved gamma-based estimator of ICC is superior for small sample sizes, and the Breslow-Day-based estimator is the best for n⩾100. The Mantel-Haenszel-based estimator of OR is very biased and is not recommended. The inverse-variance approach is also somewhat biased for ORs≠1, but this bias is not very large in practical settings. Developed methods and R programs, provided in the Web Appendix, make the beta-binomial model a feasible alternative to the standard REM for meta-analysis of ORs. © 2017 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2017 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Male lifespan and the secondary sex ratio.

    Catalano, Ralph; Bruckner, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Literature speculating on the fetal origins of later life morbidity often invokes the "damaged cohort" theory, i.e., that maternal responses to exogenous shocks induce "stress reactivity" in fetuses and thereby shorten the lifespan of males in utero during stressful times. A rival, or "culled cohort," theory posits that exogenous shocks to gravid females induce spontaneous abortions of frail male fetuses, leaving relatively hardy survivors who enjoy, on average, lifespans longer than males in less stressed birth cohorts. A recent test based on archival data from Sweden supported the culled cohort theory. Several characteristics of the Swedish data, however, raise questions regarding the external validity of the findings. We repeat the test with data from Denmark, Iceland, and England and Wales. We use time-series methods that control for trends, seasonal cycles, and other forms of autocorrelation that could confound the test. None of the results supports the "damaged cohort" theory. Consistent with the Swedish findings and with evolutionary theory, we find support in Iceland and England and Wales for the "culled cohort" theory. We discuss the implications of our findings for basic research as well as for public health.

  15. The Overall Odds Ratio as an Intuitive Effect Size Index for Multiple Logistic Regression: Examination of Further Refinements

    Le, Huy; Marcus, Justin

    2012-01-01

    This study used Monte Carlo simulation to examine the properties of the overall odds ratio (OOR), which was recently introduced as an index for overall effect size in multiple logistic regression. It was found that the OOR was relatively independent of study base rate and performed better than most commonly used R-square analogs in indexing model…

  16. Media attention and the influence on the reporting odds ratio in disproportionality analysis : an example of patient reporting of statins

    van Hunsel, Florence; van Puijenbroek, Eugene; van den Berg, Lolkje de Jong; van Grootheest, Kees

    Aim To study the influence of media attention about statins and ADRs on the level of disproportionality, expressed as the reporting odds ratio (ROR) for statins in the Lareb database, based on patients' reports. Methods Patient reports about statins, before and after the broadcast of a consumer

  17. Predictors of positive health in disability pensioners: a population-based questionnaire study using Positive Odds Ratio

    Edén Lena

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determinants of ill-health have been studied far more than determinants of good and improving health. Health promotion measures are important even among individuals with chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to find predictors of positive subjective health among disability pensioners (DPs with musculoskeletal disorders. Methods Two questionnaire surveys were performed among 352 DPs with musculoskeletal disorders. Two groups were defined: DPs with positive health and negative health, respectively. In consequence with the health perspective in this study the conception Positive Odds Ratio was defined and used in the logistic regression analyses instead of the commonly used odds ratio. Results Positive health was associated with age ≥ 55 years, not being an immigrant, not having fibromyalgia as the main diagnosis for granting an early retirement, no regular use of analgesics, a high ADL capacity, a positive subjective health preceding the study period, and good quality of life. Conclusion Positive odds ratio is a concept well adapted to theories of health promotion. It can be used in relation to positive outcomes instead of risks. Suggested health promotion and secondary prevention efforts among individuals with musculoskeletal disorders are 1 to avoid a disability pension for individuals

  18. E2,M1 Multipole mixing ratios in odd-mass nuclei, 59< or =A< or =149

    Krane, K.S.

    1977-01-01

    A survey is presented of the E2,M1 mxing ratios of gamma-ray transitions in odd-mass nuclei with 59< or =A< or =149. Angular distribution and correlation data from the literature are analyzed in terms of a consistent choice of the phase relationship between the E2 and M1 matrix elements. A set of recommended values of the mixing ratios is included, based on averages of results from various studies. The survey includes data available in the literature up to September 1976

  19. Odds ratios for hip- and lower forearm fracture using peripheral bone densitometry; a case-control study of postmenopausal women

    Saleh, M M A; Jørgensen, H L; Lauritzen, J B

    2002-01-01

    concern when using peripheral densitometry is the poor correlation with the central measurements. The main aim of this study is, therefore, to assess the possibility of expressing ultrasound measurements at the heel and bone mineral density (BMD) measured at the distal forearm as fracture odds ratios...... rather than an absolute measure of bone mass. METHODS: A total of 76 women with lower forearm fracture, 47 women with hip fracture and 231 age-matched women (controls) were included. All had broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS) measured at the heel using the DTU-one ultrasound.......8; 5.2) for heel-BUA (T-score cutoff: -2.3), 4.1 (2.3; 7.4) for heel-SOS (-2.1) and 2.2 (1.3; 3.7) for lower forearm BMD (-2.7). The odds ratio for hip fracture was 3.4 (1.5-7.7) for heel-BUA (-2.7), 3.6 (1.6; 8.1) for heel-SOS (-2.6) and 3.2 (1.4; 7.4) for lower forearm BMD (-2.9). CONCLUSION...

  20. Odd Structures Are Odd

    Markl, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2017), s. 1567-1580 ISSN 0188-7009 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : graded vector space * monoidal structure * Odd endomorphism operad Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.643, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00006-016-0720-8

  1. Potential misinterpretation of treatment effects due to use of odds ratios and logistic regression in randomized controlled trials.

    Mirjam J Knol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In randomized controlled trials (RCTs, the odds ratio (OR can substantially overestimate the risk ratio (RR if the incidence of the outcome is over 10%. This study determined the frequency of use of ORs, the frequency of overestimation of the OR as compared with its accompanying RR in published RCTs, and we assessed how often regression models that calculate RRs were used. METHODS: We included 288 RCTs published in 2008 in five major general medical journals (Annals of Internal Medicine, British Medical Journal, Journal of the American Medical Association, Lancet, New England Journal of Medicine. If an OR was reported, we calculated the corresponding RR, and we calculated the percentage of overestimation by using the formula . RESULTS: Of 193 RCTs with a dichotomous primary outcome, 24 (12.4% presented a crude and/or adjusted OR for the primary outcome. In five RCTs (2.6%, the OR differed more than 100% from its accompanying RR on the log scale. Forty-one of all included RCTs (n = 288; 14.2% presented ORs for other outcomes, or for subgroup analyses. Nineteen of these RCTs (6.6% had at least one OR that deviated more than 100% from its accompanying RR on the log scale. Of 53 RCTs that adjusted for baseline variables, 15 used logistic regression. Alternative methods to estimate RRs were only used in four RCTs. CONCLUSION: ORs and logistic regression are often used in RCTs and in many articles the OR did not approximate the RR. Although the authors did not explicitly misinterpret these ORs as RRs, misinterpretation by readers can seriously affect treatment decisions and policy making.

  2. Odds Ratio or Prevalence Ratio? An Overview of Reported Statistical Methods and Appropriateness of Interpretations in Cross-sectional Studies with Dichotomous Outcomes in Veterinary Medicine

    Brayan Alexander Fonseca Martinez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most commonly observational study designs employed in veterinary is the cross-sectional study with binary outcomes. To measure an association with exposure, the use of prevalence ratios (PR or odds ratios (OR are possible. In human epidemiology, much has been discussed about the use of the OR exclusively for case–control studies and some authors reported that there is no good justification for fitting logistic regression when the prevalence of the disease is high, in which OR overestimate the PR. Nonetheless, interpretation of OR is difficult since confusing between risk and odds can lead to incorrect quantitative interpretation of data such as “the risk is X times greater,” commonly reported in studies that use OR. The aims of this study were (1 to review articles with cross-sectional designs to assess the statistical method used and the appropriateness of the interpretation of the estimated measure of association and (2 to illustrate the use of alternative statistical methods that estimate PR directly. An overview of statistical methods and its interpretation using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines was conducted and included a diverse set of peer-reviewed journals among the veterinary science field using PubMed as the search engine. From each article, the statistical method used and the appropriateness of the interpretation of the estimated measure of association were registered. Additionally, four alternative models for logistic regression that estimate directly PR were tested using our own dataset from a cross-sectional study on bovine viral diarrhea virus. The initial search strategy found 62 articles, in which 6 articles were excluded and therefore 56 studies were used for the overall analysis. The review showed that independent of the level of prevalence reported, 96% of articles employed logistic regression, thus estimating the OR. Results of the multivariate models

  3. Transformation of Summary Statistics from Linear Mixed Model Association on All-or-None Traits to Odds Ratio.

    Lloyd-Jones, Luke R; Robinson, Matthew R; Yang, Jian; Visscher, Peter M

    2018-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified thousands of loci that are robustly associated with complex diseases. The use of linear mixed model (LMM) methodology for GWAS is becoming more prevalent due to its ability to control for population structure and cryptic relatedness and to increase power. The odds ratio (OR) is a common measure of the association of a disease with an exposure ( e.g. , a genetic variant) and is readably available from logistic regression. However, when the LMM is applied to all-or-none traits it provides estimates of genetic effects on the observed 0-1 scale, a different scale to that in logistic regression. This limits the comparability of results across studies, for example in a meta-analysis, and makes the interpretation of the magnitude of an effect from an LMM GWAS difficult. In this study, we derived transformations from the genetic effects estimated under the LMM to the OR that only rely on summary statistics. To test the proposed transformations, we used real genotypes from two large, publicly available data sets to simulate all-or-none phenotypes for a set of scenarios that differ in underlying model, disease prevalence, and heritability. Furthermore, we applied these transformations to GWAS summary statistics for type 2 diabetes generated from 108,042 individuals in the UK Biobank. In both simulation and real-data application, we observed very high concordance between the transformed OR from the LMM and either the simulated truth or estimates from logistic regression. The transformations derived and validated in this study improve the comparability of results from prospective and already performed LMM GWAS on complex diseases by providing a reliable transformation to a common comparative scale for the genetic effects. Copyright © 2018 by the Genetics Society of America.

  4. The male handicap: male-biased mortality explains skewed sex ratios in brown trout embryos.

    Morán, P; Labbé, L; Garcia de Leaniz, C

    2016-12-01

    Juvenile sex ratios are often assumed to be equal for many species with genetic sex determination, but this has rarely been tested in fish embryos due to their small size and absence of sex-specific markers. We artificially crossed three populations of brown trout and used a recently developed genetic marker for sexing the offspring of both pure and hybrid crosses. Sex ratios (SR = proportion of males) varied widely one month after hatching ranging from 0.15 to 0.90 (mean = 0.39 ± 0.03). Families with high survival tended to produce balanced or male-biased sex ratios, but SR was significantly female-biased when survival was low, suggesting that males sustain higher mortality during development. No difference in SR was found between pure and hybrid families, but the existence of sire × dam interactions suggests that genetic incompatibility may play a role in determining sex ratios. Our findings have implications for animal breeding and conservation because skewed sex ratios will tend to reduce effective population size and bias selection estimates. © 2016 The Authors.

  5. Opinion Paper: 'Likelihood-ratio' and 'odds' applied to monitoring of patients as a supplement to 'reference change value' (RCV)

    Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Sandberg, Sverre; Iglesias, Natàlia

    2007-01-01

    and odds used for diagnostic test evaluations is applied to monitoring by substituting measured concentrations with measured differences. Thus, two frequency distributions of differences are assumed, one for a stable, steady-state, situation and one for a certain change. Values exceeding a measured...

  6. High selenium exposure lowers the odds ratios for hypertension, stroke, and myocardial infarction associated with mercury exposure among Inuit in Canada.

    Hu, Xue Feng; Eccles, Kristin M; Chan, Hing Man

    2017-05-01

    Selenium (Se) has been reported to protect against the neurotoxicity of mercury (Hg). However, the effect of Se against Hg on cardiovascular diseases remains unclear. Inuit living in the Arctic have high exposure to both Se and Hg through their marine mammal and fish rich traditional diet. To characterize the co-exposure of Hg and Se among Inuit in Canada and to assess the associations between Hg, Se and cardiovascular health outcomes, including stroke, hypertension, and myocardial infarction (MI). Data was collected from the International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey (IHS) conducted in 2007 and 2008. Blood Se and Hg were measured, and self-report cardiovascular health outcomes were collected through a questionnaire interview from 2169 adults aged 18 and above. The mean age was 42.4years, and 38.7% of the participants were male. The geometric means (GM) of blood Se and total Hg were 319.5μg/L and 7.0μg/L, respectively. The crude prevalence of heart attack, stroke and hypertension were 3.55%, 2.36%, and 24.47% respectively. Participants were categorized into 4 exposure groups according to blood Hg (high: ≥7.8μg/L; low: <7.8μg/L), and Se (high: ≥280μg/L; low: <280μg/L). The odds ratio (OR) of cardiovascular outcomes were estimated using general linearized models. Results showed the low Se and high Hg group had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease (OR=1.76 for hypertension, 1.57 for stroke, and 1.26 for MI. However, the prevalence was decreased in both the high Se and low Hg group (OR=0.57 for hypertension, 0.44 for stroke, and 0.27 for MI) and the high Se and high Hg group (OR=1.14 for hypertension, 0.31 for stroke, and 0.80 for MI). The high Se and low Hg group had the lowest prevalence of cardiovascular outcomes, except for stroke. These results provide evidence that Se may exhibit a protective effect against Hg on cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Opium and bladder cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the odds ratios for opium use and the risk of bladder cancer.

    Afshari, Mahdi; Janbabaei, Ghasem; Bahrami, Mohammad Amin; Moosazadeh, Mahmood

    2017-01-01

    The association between opium use and bladder cancer has been investigated in many studies, with varying reporting results reported. This study aims to estimate the total odds ratio for the association between bladder cancer and opium consumption using meta-analysis. The study was designed according to PRISMA guidelines. Two independent researchers searched for the relevant studies using PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, OVID, Embase, and Google Scholar. After systematic screening of the studies identified during the first step, Cochrane risk of bias tool was determined for the selected studies. The case-control and the cohort studies were investigated to assess risk of bladder cancer due to opium use. In addition, the cross-sectional studies were analysed separately to assess frequency of opium consumption. These estimates were combined using the inverse variance method. Fixed or random effect models were applied to combine the point odds ratios. The heterogeneity between the primary results was assessed using the Cochran test and I-square index. The suspected factors for heterogeneity were investigated using meta-regression models. An Egger test was conducted to identify any probable publication bias. Forest plots illustrated the point and pooled estimates. All analyses were performed using Stata version 14 software and RevMan version 5.3. We included 17 primary studies (11 case-control, one cohort and five cross-sectional) in the final meta-analysis. The total odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for developing bladder cancer by opium use alone, and concurrent use of opium and cigarettes were estimated as 3.85 (3.05-4.87) and 5.7 (1.9-16.3) respectively. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for opium use with or without cigarette smoking was estimated as 5.3 (3.6-7.7). This meta-analysis showed that opium use similar to cigarette smoking and maybe with similar mechanisms can be a risk factor for bladder cancer. It is therefore expected to be a risk factor

  8. Serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) and the A163G polymorphism in the OPG promoter region are related to peripheral measures of bone mass and fracture odds ratios

    Jørgensen, Henrik L; Kusk, Philip; Madsen, Bente Elmfelt

    2004-01-01

    66 women with lower forearm fracture, 41 women with hip fracture, and 206 age-matched controls. All had broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS) measured at the heel as well as bone mineral density (BMD) measured by DXA at the distal forearm. S-OPG was measured by ELISA. The A......163G genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP analysis. S-OPG levels correlated positively with age ( r = 0.45; P heel BUA ( r = -0.23; P heel SOS ( r = -0.22; P ...-OPG to the lowest, the odds ratio for osteoporotic fracture was 2.5 (95% CI, 1.3-4.7; P = 0.006). The G allele of the A163G was associated with significantly lower t-scores of both lower forearm BMD, heel BUA, and heel SOS as well as being significantly more frequent in the fracture patients compared...

  9. Interpreting the concordance statistic of a logistic regression model: relation to the variance and odds ratio of a continuous explanatory variable.

    Austin, Peter C; Steyerberg, Ewout W

    2012-06-20

    When outcomes are binary, the c-statistic (equivalent to the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve) is a standard measure of the predictive accuracy of a logistic regression model. An analytical expression was derived under the assumption that a continuous explanatory variable follows a normal distribution in those with and without the condition. We then conducted an extensive set of Monte Carlo simulations to examine whether the expressions derived under the assumption of binormality allowed for accurate prediction of the empirical c-statistic when the explanatory variable followed a normal distribution in the combined sample of those with and without the condition. We also examine the accuracy of the predicted c-statistic when the explanatory variable followed a gamma, log-normal or uniform distribution in combined sample of those with and without the condition. Under the assumption of binormality with equality of variances, the c-statistic follows a standard normal cumulative distribution function with dependence on the product of the standard deviation of the normal components (reflecting more heterogeneity) and the log-odds ratio (reflecting larger effects). Under the assumption of binormality with unequal variances, the c-statistic follows a standard normal cumulative distribution function with dependence on the standardized difference of the explanatory variable in those with and without the condition. In our Monte Carlo simulations, we found that these expressions allowed for reasonably accurate prediction of the empirical c-statistic when the distribution of the explanatory variable was normal, gamma, log-normal, and uniform in the entire sample of those with and without the condition. The discriminative ability of a continuous explanatory variable cannot be judged by its odds ratio alone, but always needs to be considered in relation to the heterogeneity of the population.

  10. The relationships between odd- and branched-chain fatty acids to ruminal fermentation parameters and bacterial populations with different dietary ratios of forage and concentrate.

    Zhang, Y; Liu, K; Hao, X; Xin, H

    2017-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of different dietary ratios of forage and concentrate (F:C) on ruminal odd- and branched-chain fatty acids (OBCFAs) contents and to evaluate the relationships between OBCFA and ruminal fermentation parameters as well as bacterial populations tested by real-time PCR technique. The experimental design was a 3 × 3 Latin square. Three rumen-fistulated dry Holstein cows were fed three rations with different dietary F:C ratios (F:C; 30:70, 50:50 and 70:30). The rumen samples were collected every two hours (0600, 0800, 1000, 1200, 1400, 1600, 1800, 2000, 2200, 2400, 0200 and 0400 h) over three consecutive days in each sampling period. The results showed that rumen OBCFA profiles are significantly (p ruminal OBCFAs had strong relationships with ruminal fermentation parameters and bacterial populations. In particular, the iso-fatty acids had potential power to predict butyrate and isoacids metabolized in the rumen, whereas the fatty acids with 17 carbon atoms correlated with ruminal NH 3 -N content. The OBCFA contents have different relationships with fibrolytic and starch bacteria in the rumen. C17:0 and its isomers might be used to predict populations of fibrolytic bacteria. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. What Is the Male-to-Female Ratio in Autism Spectrum Disorder? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Loomes, Rachel; Hull, Laura; Mandy, William Polmear Locke

    2017-06-01

    To derive the first systematically calculated estimate of the relative proportion of boys and girls with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) through a meta-analysis of prevalence studies conducted since the introduction of the DSM-IV and the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. The Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO databases were searched, and study quality was rated using a risk-of-bias tool. Random-effects meta-analysis was used. The pooled outcome measurement was the male-to-female odds ratio (MFOR), namely the odds of being male in the group with ASD compared with the non-ASD group. In effect, this is the ASD male-to-female ratio, controlling for the male-to-female ratio among participants without ASD. Fifty-four studies were analyzed, with 13,784,284 participants, of whom 53,712 had ASD (43,972 boys and 9,740 girls). The overall pooled MFOR was 4.20 (95% CI 3.84-4.60), but there was very substantial between-study variability (I 2  = 90.9%). High-quality studies had a lower MFOR (3.32; 95% CI 2.88-3.84). Studies that screened the general population to identify participants regardless of whether they already had an ASD diagnosis showed a lower MFOR (3.25; 95% CI 2.93-3.62) than studies that only ascertained participants with a pre-existing ASD diagnosis (MFOR 4.56; 95% CI 4.10-5.07). Of children meeting criteria for ASD, the true male-to-female ratio is not 4:1, as is often assumed; rather, it is closer to 3:1. There appears to be a diagnostic gender bias, meaning that girls who meet criteria for ASD are at disproportionate risk of not receiving a clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Talking on a Wireless Cellular Device While Driving: Improving the Validity of Crash Odds Ratio Estimates in the SHRP 2 Naturalistic Driving Study

    Richard A. Young

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dingus and colleagues (Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2016, 113, 2636–2641 reported a crash odds ratio (OR estimate of 2.2 with a 95% confidence interval (CI from 1.6 to 3.1 for hand-held cell phone conversation (hereafter, “Talk” in the SHRP 2 naturalistic driving database. This estimate is substantially higher than the effect sizes near one in prior real-world and naturalistic driving studies of conversation on wireless cellular devices (whether hand-held, hands-free portable, or hands-free integrated. Two upward biases were discovered in the Dingus study. First, it selected many Talk-exposed drivers who simultaneously performed additional secondary tasks besides Talk but selected Talk-unexposed drivers with no secondary tasks. This “selection bias” was removed by: (1 filtering out records with additional tasks from the Talk-exposed group; or (2 adding records with other tasks to the Talk-unexposed group. Second, it included records with driver behavior errors, a confounding bias that was also removed by filtering out such records. After removing both biases, the Talk OR point estimates declined to below 1, now consistent with prior studies. Pooling the adjusted SHRP 2 Talk OR estimates with prior study effect size estimates to improve precision, the population effect size for wireless cellular conversation while driving is estimated as 0.72 (CI 0.60–0.88.

  13. Distributional justice in Swedish wind power development – An odds ratio analysis of windmill localization and local residents’ socio-economic characteristics

    Liljenfeldt, Johanna; Pettersson, Örjan

    2017-01-01

    With a fast rise in large-scale wind power development in Sweden and other countries in recent years, issues related to energy justice generally and distributional justice specifically have become concerns in windmill siting. Some research, for instance, has indicated that it is easier to build windmills in economically marginalized communities. The evidence for this, however, is still limited. Thus, this study aims to statistically evaluate the extent to which the decisions to approve or reject windmill proposals in Sweden can be explained by factors related to the socio-economic characteristics of people living in the areas surrounding windmill sites. The study is based on an odds ratio analysis of decisions on all windmill proposals in Sweden, in which geo-referenced socio-economic data on an individual level for all inhabitants within 3 and 10 km of the windmill sites are studied. The results show skewness in the distribution of windmills, with a higher likelihood of rejection in areas with more highly educated people and people working in the private sector, compared to a higher likelihood of approval in areas with more unemployed people. This skewness, while not necessarily unjust, warrants further policy and research attention to distributional justice issues when developing wind power. - Highlights: • The distributional justice of windmill siting in Sweden is statistically evaluated. • Windmill siting decisions are related to people's socio-economic characteristics. • The results indicate some distributional skewness for wind power development. • The study gives statistical rigour and generalisability to energy justice findings. • The results warrant follow-ups and policy guides for how to handle benefit-sharing.

  14. Behavioral tactics of male sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) under varying operating sex ratios

    Quinn, Thomas P.; Adkison, Milo D.; Ward, Michael B.

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated several reproductive-behavior patterns in male salmon, including competitive and sneaking tactics, the formation of hierarchies, and non-hierarchical aggregations around ripe females. Through behavioral observations at varying spatial and temporal scales, we examined the hypothesis that operational sex ratio (OSR) determines male sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) distribution and breeding tactics. Patterns of male distribution and behavior varied over both coarse and fine scales, associated with apparent shifts in reproductive opportunities, the physical characteristics of the breeding sites, and the deterioration of the fish as they approached death. Females spawned completely within a few days of arriving on the spawning grounds, whereas males courted the available ripe females from the date of their arrival on the spawning ground until their death. This difference in reproductive lifespans tended to elevate late-season OSRs but was partially counterbalanced by male departures and the arrival of other ripe females. The proportion of males able to dominate access to ripe females decreased and the number of large courting groups increased over the course of the season, apparently related to both increasing OSR and the deteriorating physical condition of males. However, great variation in OSR was observed within the spawning sites on a given day. OSRs were generally higher in shallow than in deep water, perhaps because larger females or more desirable breeding sites were concentrated in shallow water. The aggregations of males courting females were not stable (i.e. many arrivals and departures took place) and male aggression varied with group size. Aggression was most frequent at low OSRs and in groups of intermediate size (2–4 males per female), and much less frequent in larger groups, consistent with the needs of maximizing reproductive opportunities while minimizing unproductive energy expenditure. These results indicate

  15. Association between serum triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and sarcopenia in elderly Korean males: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Chung, Tae-Ha; Kwon, Yu-Jin; Shim, Jae-Yong; Lee, Yong-Jae

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the association between the triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL) ratio and sarcopenia in elderly Korean males. We examined the relationship between the TG/HDL ratio and sarcopenia in 879 elderly males ≥60years who participated in the 2010-2011 KNHANES. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) divided by the weight (%), which is >1 SD below the mean for young adults. The odds ratios (ORs) for sarcopenia were calculated using multiple logistic regression across the TG/HDL ratio quartiles (Q1: ≤1.4, Q2: 1.5-2.4, Q3: 2.5-3.8 and Q4: ≥3.9) after adjusting for confounding variables. The prevalence of sarcopenia significantly increased in accordance with TG/HDL ratio quartiles. Compared with the lowest quartile of the TG/HDL ratio, the corresponding OR (95% CI) of the highest quartile of the TG/HDL ratio for sarcopenia was 2.10 (1.12-3.91) after adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), cigarette smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity. TG/HDL ratio was positively related with a higher risk of sarcopenia in elderly Korean males. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Can persistence hunting signal male quality? A test considering digit ratio in endurance athletes.

    Daniel Longman

    Full Text Available Various theories have been posed to explain the fitness payoffs of hunting success among hunter-gatherers. 'Having' theories refer to the acquisition of resources, and include the direct provisioning hypothesis. In contrast, 'getting' theories concern the signalling of male resourcefulness and other desirable traits, such as athleticism and intelligence, via hunting prowess. We investigated the association between androgenisation and endurance running ability as a potential signalling mechanism, whereby running prowess, vital for persistence hunting, might be used as a reliable signal of male reproductive fitness by females. Digit ratio (2D:4D was used as a proxy for prenatal androgenisation in 439 males and 103 females, while a half marathon race (21km, representing a distance/duration comparable with that of persistence hunting, was used to assess running ability. Digit ratio was significantly and positively correlated with half-marathon time in males (right hand: r = 0.45, p<0.001; left hand: r = 0.42, p<0.001 and females (right hand: r = 0.26, p<0.01; left hand: r = 0.23, p = 0.02. Sex-interaction analysis showed that this correlation was significantly stronger in males than females, suggesting that androgenisation may have experienced stronger selective pressure from endurance running in males. As digit ratio has previously been shown to predict reproductive success, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that endurance running ability may signal reproductive potential in males, through its association with prenatal androgen exposure. However, further work is required to establish whether and how females respond to this signalling for fitness.

  17. Aedes albopictus (Skuse) males in laboratory and semi-field cages: release ratios and mating competitiveness.

    Madakacherry, Odessa; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Gilles, Jeremie Roger Lionel

    2014-04-01

    To control the container-breeding mosquito and major vector of dengue and chikungunya Aedes albopictus, the sterile insect technique (SIT) is proposed as a component of integrated vector management programs in endemic areas. For the technique to be successful, released males, sterilized with 35 Gy of ionizing radiation during the pupal stage, must be able to compete for mating opportunities with wild counterparts and successfully copulate with wild females to induce sterility in the population. Any reduction in competitiveness can be compensated for by increasing the ratio of released sterile to wild males, a ratio which must be optimized for effectiveness and efficiency. Fruit fly SIT programs use field enclosures to test the competitiveness of sterile males to monitor the quality of the colony and adjust release ratios. This is laborious and time consuming, and for mosquito programs it would be advantageous if similarly useful results could be obtained by smaller scale laboratory tests, conducted on a more regular basis. In the present study we compared the competitiveness, as measured by hatching rate of resulting egg batches, of irradiated males measured in small and large laboratory cages and semi-field enclosures in a greenhouse setting, when competing in a 1:1, 3:1, and 5:1 ratio with fertile males. The sterile males were found to be equally competitive when compared to unirradiated counterparts, and a 5:1 ratio was sufficient to reduce, but not eliminate, the fertility of the female populations, irrespective of cage size. Variability in hatch rate in eggs laid by individual females and so-called indeterminate matings, when we could not be certain whether a female had mated a fertile or a sterile male, could be investigated by closer investigation of mating status and the frequency of multiple matings in Ae. albopictus. The laboratory results are encouraging for the effectiveness of the SIT using irradiated males of this species, and we support further

  18. Mortality of tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) females exposed to a high ratio of gamma-irradiated males as an index of radiation impact on sexual vigor of males

    Ignatowicz, S.

    1990-01-01

    A 40 or 60 krad dose of gamma radiation reduce slightly sexual activity of the males but male activity is greatly reduced as the radiation dose increases from 60 to 120 krad. Females of the mold mite, Tyrophagus, putrescentiae (Schrank), molested by males present at a 3:1 or 5:1 ratio live shorter than females kept with one male. The SAG test can be applied to compare sexual activity of males treated with different dosage of gamma irradiation

  19. The Great Recession of 2007 in the United States and the male: female ratio at birth

    Grech, Victor

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Male live births slightly exceed female live births by approximately 3%. The ratio of male to total live births is conventionally represented as M/F. Many factors have been shown to affect M/F, mainly privation, toxins, and stress, all of which reduce M/F. Population stress may be engendered by natural phenomena such as earthquakes and man-made events such as short wars, terrorist attacks, and contracting economies. This study was conducted to ascertain whether the onset of the "Gr...

  20. Sex ratio meiotic drive as a plausible evolutionary mechanism for hybrid male sterility.

    Linbin Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological diversity on Earth depends on the multiplication of species or speciation, which is the evolution of reproductive isolation such as hybrid sterility between two new species. An unsolved puzzle is the exact mechanism(s that causes two genomes to diverge from their common ancestor so that some divergent genes no longer function properly in the hybrids. Here we report genetic analyses of divergent genes controlling male fertility and sex ratio in two very young fruitfly species, Drosophila albomicans and D. nasuta. A majority of the genetic divergence for both traits is mapped to the same regions by quantitative trait loci mappings. With introgressions, six major loci are found to contribute to both traits. This genetic colocalization implicates that genes for hybrid male sterility have evolved primarily for controlling sex ratio. We propose that genetic conflicts over sex ratio may operate as a perpetual dynamo for genome divergence. This particular evolutionary mechanism may largely contribute to the rapid evolution of hybrid male sterility and the disproportionate enrichment of its underlying genes on the X chromosome--two patterns widely observed across animals.

  1. Sex ratio meiotic drive as a plausible evolutionary mechanism for hybrid male sterility.

    Zhang, Linbin; Sun, Tianai; Woldesellassie, Fitsum; Xiao, Hailian; Tao, Yun

    2015-03-01

    Biological diversity on Earth depends on the multiplication of species or speciation, which is the evolution of reproductive isolation such as hybrid sterility between two new species. An unsolved puzzle is the exact mechanism(s) that causes two genomes to diverge from their common ancestor so that some divergent genes no longer function properly in the hybrids. Here we report genetic analyses of divergent genes controlling male fertility and sex ratio in two very young fruitfly species, Drosophila albomicans and D. nasuta. A majority of the genetic divergence for both traits is mapped to the same regions by quantitative trait loci mappings. With introgressions, six major loci are found to contribute to both traits. This genetic colocalization implicates that genes for hybrid male sterility have evolved primarily for controlling sex ratio. We propose that genetic conflicts over sex ratio may operate as a perpetual dynamo for genome divergence. This particular evolutionary mechanism may largely contribute to the rapid evolution of hybrid male sterility and the disproportionate enrichment of its underlying genes on the X chromosome--two patterns widely observed across animals.

  2. Male sexual strategies modify ratings of female models with specific waist-to-hip ratios.

    Brase, Gary L; Walker, Gary

    2004-06-01

    Female waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) has generally been an important general predictor of ratings of physical attractiveness and related characteristics. Individual differences in ratings do exist, however, and may be related to differences in the reproductive tactics of the male raters such as pursuit of short-term or long-term relationships and adjustments based on perceptions of one's own quality as a mate. Forty males, categorized according to sociosexual orientation and physical qualities (WHR, Body Mass Index, and self-rated desirability), rated female models on both attractiveness and likelihood they would approach them. Sociosexually restricted males were less likely to approach females rated as most attractive (with 0.68-0.72 WHR), as compared with unrestricted males. Males with lower scores in terms of physical qualities gave ratings indicating more favorable evaluations of female models with lower WHR. The results indicate that attractiveness and willingness to approach are overlapping but distinguishable constructs, both of which are influenced by variations in characteristics of the raters.

  3. Influence of electromagnetic pulse on the offspring sex ratio of male BALB/c mice.

    Li, Jin-Hui; Jiang, Da-Peng; Wang, Ya-Feng; Yan, Jia-Jia; Guo, Qi-Yan; Miao, Xia; Lang, Hai-Yang; Xu, Sheng-Long; Liu, Jun-Ye; Guo, Guo-Zhen

    2017-09-01

    Public concern is growing about the exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and its effect on male reproductive health. Detrimental effect of EMF exposure on sex hormones, reproductive performance and sex-ratio was reported. The present study was designed to clarify whether paternal exposure to electromagnetic pulse (EMP) affects offspring sex ratio in mice. 50 male BALB/c mice aged 5-6 weeks were exposed to EMP daily for 2 weeks before mated with non-exposed females at 0d, 7d, 14d, 21d and 28d after exposure. Sex hormones including total testosterone, LH, FSH, and GnRH were detected using radioimmunoassay. The sex ratio was examined by PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis. The results of D0, D21 and D28 showed significant increases compared with sham-exposed groups. The serum testosterone increased significantly in D0, D14, D21, and D28 compared with sham-exposed groups (p<0.05). Overall, this study suggested that EMP exposure may lead to the disturbance of reproductive hormone levels and affect the offspring sex ratio. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Birth order, sibling sex ratio, handedness, and sexual orientation of male and female participants in a BBC internet research project.

    Blanchard, Ray; Lippa, Richard A

    2007-04-01

    This study investigated the relations among sexual orientation, fraternal birth order (number of older brothers), and hand-preference. The participants were 87,798 men and 71,981 women who took part in a Web-based research project sponsored by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). The results yielded some evidence confirming prior findings that non-right-handedness is associated with homosexuality in men and women, that older brothers increase the odds of homosexuality in men, and that the effect of older brothers on sexual orientation is limited to right-handed men. The evidence was weaker than in previous studies, however, probably because the usual relations among the variables of interest were partially obscured by the effects of other factors. Thus, the homosexual men and women had higher rates of non-right-handedness than their heterosexual counterparts, but the strongest handedness finding for both sexes was a marked tendency for participants who described themselves as ambidextrous also to describe themselves as bisexual. The birth order data were strongly affected by a tendency for the male participants to report an excess of older sisters, and the female participants to report an excess of older brothers. Statistical analyses confirmed that this was an artifact of the parental stopping rule, "Continue having children until you have offspring of both sexes." In subsequent analyses, participants were divided into those who did and did not have younger siblings, on the grounds that the data of the former would be less contaminated by the stopping rule. In the former subsample, the right-handed homo/bisexual males showed the typical high ratio of older brothers to older sisters, whereas the non-right-handed homo/bisexual males did not.

  5. The association between male-biased sex ratio and indicators of stress in red-spotted newts.

    Aspbury, Andrea S; Grayson, Kristine L; Fantaye, Selamawit; Nichols, Ian; Myers-Burton, Miranda; Ortiz-Mangual, Xavier; Gabor, Caitlin R

    2017-05-01

    In populations with a male-biased operational sex ratio, coercive mating by males can have fitness consequences for females. One component of reduced fitness for females in populations with a male-biased OSR may be greater activation of the stress response, resulting in higher corticosterone release rates (CORT; a glucocorticoid stress hormone in amphibians). We test the hypothesis that a male-biased sex ratio affects female activity and release rates of CORT and testosterone (T) in male and female red-spotted newts (Notophthalmus viridescens). First, we evaluated if chemical cues from a male-biased sex ratio affect activity and CORT release rates in females. We predicted that females exposed to chemical cues of three males would be less active and have higher CORT release rates than those exposed to chemical cues of one male. Second, we measured CORT release rates of red-spotted newts in field enclosures with either a male-biased or a female-biased sex ratio. We predicted that females in the male-biased treatment would have higher CORT and T release rates than those in a female-biased treatment, owing to higher levels of male harassment. We also predicted that males would have higher CORT and T release rates in male-biased treatments due to higher levels of male-male competition. Females were not less active in response to chemical cues from more males over fewer males, but there was a positive relationship between female activity and CORT when they were exposed to the cues of three males. We also found that females, but not males, in the male-biased sex ratio treatment had higher CORT and T release rates than those in the female-biased treatment. Our results support the hypothesis that a male-biased sex ratio leads to a higher stress response, which may underlie the observed decrease in immune function and body condition in previous work exposing female red-spotted newts to a male-biased sex ratio. This study furthers our understanding of the mechanistic basis

  6. Different male versus female breeding periodicity helps mitigate offspring sex ratio skews in sea turtles

    Graeme Clive Hays

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The implications of climate change for global biodiversity may be profound with those species with little capacity for adaptation being thought to be particularly vulnerable to warming. A classic case of groups for concern are those animals exhibiting temperature-dependent sex-determination (TSD, such as sea turtles, where climate warming may produce single sex populations and hence extinction. We show that, globally, female biased hatchling sex ratios dominate sea turtle populations (exceeding 3:1 in >50% records, which, at-a-glance, reiterates concerns for extinction. However, we also demonstrate that more frequent breeding by males, empirically shown by satellite tracking 23 individuals and supported by a generalized bio-energetic life history model, generates more balanced operational sex ratios (OSRs. Hence, concerns of increasingly skewed hatchling sex ratios and reduced population viability are less acute than previously thought for sea turtles. In fact, in some scenarios skewed hatchling sex ratios in groups with TSD may be adaptive to ensure optimum OSRs.

  7. Association Between Cortisol to DHEA-s Ratio and Sickness Absence in Japanese Male Workers.

    Hirokawa, Kumi; Fujii, Yasuhito; Taniguchi, Toshiyo; Takaki, Jiro; Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2017-11-21

    This study aimed to investigate the association between serum levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-s) and sickness absence over 2 years in Japanese male workers. A baseline survey including questions about health behavior, along with blood sampling for cortisol and DHEA-s, was conducted in 2009. In total, 429 men (mean ± SD age, 52.9 ± 8.6 years) from whom blood samples were collected at baseline were followed until December 31, 2011. The hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for sickness absence were calculated using a Cox proportional hazard model, adjusted for potential confounders. Among 35 workers who took sickness absences, 31 had physical illness. A high cortisol to DHEA-s ratio increased the risk of sickness absence (crude HR = 2.68, 95% CI 1.12-6.41; adjusted HR = 3.33, 95% CI 1.35-8.20). The cortisol to DHEA-s ratio was linearly associated with an increased risk of sickness absence (p for trend sickness absences. This trend did not change when limited to absences resulting from physical illness. Hormonal conditions related to the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and adrenal function should be considered when predicting sickness absence. The cortisol to DHEA-s ratio may be more informative than single effects of cortisol and DHEA-s levels.

  8. The Chernobyl accident, the male to female ratio at birth and birth rates.

    Grech, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The male:female ratio at birth (male births divided by total live births - M/T) has been shown to increase in response to ionizing radiation due to gender-biased fetal loss, with excess female loss. M/T rose sharply in 1987 in central-eastern European countries following the Chernobyl accident in 1986. This study analyses M/T and births for the former Soviet Republics and for the countries most contaminated by the event. Annual birth data was obtained from the World Health Organisation. The countries with the highest exposure levels (by ¹³⁷Cs) were identified from an official publication of the International Atomic Energy Agency. All of the former Soviet states were also analysed and the periods before and after 1986 were compared. Except for the Baltic States, all regions in the former USSR showed a significant rise in M/T from 1986. There were significant rises in M/T in the three most exposed (Belarus, Ukraine and the Russian Federation). The birth deficit in the post-Soviet states for the ten years following Chernobyl was estimated at 2,072,666, of which 1,087,924 are accounted by Belarus and Ukraine alone. Chernobyl has resulted in the loss of millions of births, a process that has involved female even more than male fetuses. This is another and oft neglected consequence of widespread population radiation contamination.

  9. THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT, THE MALE TO FEMALE RATIO AT BIRTH AND BIRTH RATES

    Victor Grech

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The male:female ratio at birth (male births divided by total live births – M/T has been shown to increase in response to ionizing radiation due to gender-biased fetal loss, with excess female loss. M/T rose sharply in 1987 in central-eastern European countries following the Chernobyl accident in 1986. This study analyses M/T and births for the former Soviet Republics and for the countries most contaminated by the event. Methods: Annual birth data was obtained from the World Health Organisation. The countries with the highest exposure levels (by 137Cs were identified from an official publication of the International Atomic Energy Agency. All of the former Soviet states were also analysed and the periods before and after 1986 were compared. Results: Except for the Baltic States, all regions in the former USSR showed a significant rise in M/T from 1986. There were significant rises in M/T in the three most exposed (Belarus, Ukraine and the Russian Federation. The birth deficit in the post-Soviet states for the ten years following Chernobyl was estimated at 2,072,666, of which 1,087,924 are accounted by Belarus and Ukraine alone. Discussion: Chernobyl has resulted in the loss of millions of births, a process that has involved female even more than male fetuses. This is another and oft neglected consequence of widespread population radiation contamination.

  10. The President Kennedy assassination and the male to female birth ratio.

    Grech, Victor; Zammit, Dorota

    2016-12-01

    Male live births occur slightly in excess of female. This ratio is expressed as M/F. Terrorist attacks induce stress which transiently lowers M/F three to five months later due to increased male foetal losses. A previous study had shown that the assassination of President John F. Kennedy in November 1963 was associated with a significant dip in M/F in the United States for 1964 due to a dip confined to March 1964. This study was carried out in order to ascertain whether the assassination influenced M/F in the rest of the world. Annual male and female live births were obtained from a World Health Organisation Mortality database for all countries reporting. Comparisons were made between 1964, the year after the assassination, and the preceding five years (1959-1963) and following five years (1965-1969). Monthly data was only available for Malta, for the period 1958-1968. There were 159,339,564 live births (82,066,005 males, 77,273,559 females, M/F 0.5150; 95% CI 0.5150-0.5151). No dip was present for 1964 for any country, nor for the amalgamation of European countries, for the Far East, the North American continent, or for the amalgamation of the total. Data for Malta showed a significant decline in March 1964 (M/F 0.4661, p=0.0175), translating to a loss of 56 boys (estimated at 6.3/1000 births). These findings replicate the findings for the United States following the assassination of President Kennedy. The March M/F dip transiently exceeded the modern expected rate for perinatal mortality, making terrorist attacks Public Health issues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynamical symmetries for odd-odd nuclei

    Balantekin, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    Recent work for developing dynamical symmetries and supersymmetries is reviewed. An accurate description of odd-odd nuclei requires inclusion of the fermion-fermion force (the residual interaction) and the distinguishing of fermion configurations which are particle like and those which are hole like. A parabolic dependence of the proton-neutron multiplet in odd-odd nuclei is demonstrated. It is shown that a group structure for Bose-Fermi symmetries can be embedded in a supergroup. These methods are used to predict level schemes for Au-196 and Au-198. 11 refs., 3 figs

  12. Postzygotic incompatibilities between the pupfishes, Cyprinodon elegans and Cyprinodon variegatus: hybrid male sterility and sex ratio bias.

    Tech, C

    2006-11-01

    I examined the intrinsic postzygotic incompatibilities between two pupfishes, Cyprinodon elegans and Cyprinodon variegatus. Laboratory hybridization experiments revealed evidence of strong postzygotic isolation. Male hybrids have very low fertility, and the survival of backcrosses into C. elegans was substantially reduced. In addition, several crosses produced female-biased sex ratios. Crosses involving C. elegans females and C. variegatus males produced only females, and in backcrosses involving hybrid females and C. elegans males, males made up approximately 25% of the offspring. All other crosses produced approximately 50% males. These sex ratios could be explained by genetic incompatibilities that occur, at least in part, on sex chromosomes. Thus, these results provide strong albeit indirect evidence that pupfish have XY chromosomal sex determination. The results of this study provide insight on the evolution of reproductive isolating mechanisms, particularly the role of Haldane's rule and the 'faster-male' theory in taxa lacking well-differentiated sex chromosomes.

  13. The Great Recession of 2007 in the United States and the male: female ratio at birth.

    Grech, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Male live births slightly exceed female live births by approximately 3%. The ratio of male to total live births is conventionally represented as M/F. Many factors have been shown to affect M/F, mainly privation, toxins, and stress, all of which reduce M/F. Population stress may be engendered by natural phenomena such as earthquakes and man-made events such as short wars, terrorist attacks, and contracting economies. This study was conducted to ascertain whether the onset of the "Great Recession" (2007) was associated with changes in M/F in the United States (US). Annual monthly live births by gender for January 2006 to December 2008 were obtained from United States Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. In 2007, there were 4316233 live births [M/F: 0.51157; 95% confidence intervals: 0.51110-0.51205). M/F rose between January and June, and then fell sharply between August and December. M/F was statistically significantly lower in the second half of 2007 (p=0.007). The dip in M/F from June to July was also significant (p=0.02). These findings were not replicated in the amalgamated data for 2006 and 2008. The United States housing boom of the mid-2000s was fueled by rising house prices and cheap mortgages given to credit-poor buyers. A halt in rising house prices resulted in defaults and foreclosures, triggering the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression. The associated stress appears to have decreased M/F in the US.

  14. Low reproductive skew despite high male-biased operational sex ratio in a glass frog with paternal care.

    Mangold, Alexandra; Trenkwalder, Katharina; Ringler, Max; Hödl, Walter; Ringler, Eva

    2015-09-03

    Reproductive skew, the uneven distribution of reproductive success among individuals, is a common feature of many animal populations. Several scenarios have been proposed to favour either high or low levels of reproductive skew. Particularly a male-biased operational sex ratio and the asynchronous arrival of females is expected to cause high variation in reproductive success among males. Recently it has been suggested that the type of benefits provided by males (fixed vs. dilutable) could also strongly impact individual mating patterns, and thereby affecting reproductive skew. We tested this hypothesis in Hyalinobatrachium valerioi, a Neotropical glass frog with prolonged breeding and paternal care. We monitored and genetically sampled a natural population in southwestern Costa Rica during the breeding season in 2012 and performed parentage analysis of adult frogs and tadpoles to investigate individual mating frequencies, possible mating preferences, and estimate reproductive skew in males and females. We identified a polygamous mating system, where high proportions of males (69 %) and females (94 %) reproduced successfully. The variance in male mating success could largely be attributed to differences in time spent calling at the reproductive site, but not to body size or relatedness. Female H. valerioi were not choosy and mated indiscriminately with available males. Our findings support the hypothesis that dilutable male benefits - such as parental care - can favour female polyandry and maintain low levels of reproductive skew among males within a population, even in the presence of direct male-male competition and a highly male-biased operational sex ratio. We hypothesize that low male reproductive skew might be a general characteristic in prolonged breeders with paternal care.

  15. Climate change is associated with male:female ratios of fetal deaths and newborn infants in Japan

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    . INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Yearly sex ratios of fetal deaths and newborn infants and monthly fetal death rates and sex ratios of newborn infants. RESULT(S): A statistically significant positive association was found between yearly temperature differences and sex ratios of fetal deaths......; a statistically significant negative association was found between temperature differences and sex ratios of newborn infants from 1968 to 2012, and between sex ratios of births and of fetal deaths. The sex ratios of fetal deaths have been increasing steadily along with temperature differences, whereas the sex......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether climate change is associated with male:female ratios (sex ratios) of fetal deaths and births in Japan. DESIGN: A population-based cohort study. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): Newborn infants and fetuses spontaneously aborted after 12 weeks of gestation...

  16. Birth Order and Sibling Sex Ratio in Homosexual Male Adolescents and Probably Prehomosexual Feminine Boys.

    Blanchard, Ray; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined the hypothesis that male homosexuals have a greater than average proportion of male siblings and a later than average birth order, by comparing a group of prehomosexual boys (individuals exhibiting cross-gender behaviors) and homosexual adolescents with a control group. Both predicted results were confirmed. (MDM)

  17. Differences in Movement Pattern and Detectability between Males and Females Influence How Common Sampling Methods Estimate Sex Ratio.

    João Fabrício Mota Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Sampling the biodiversity is an essential step for conservation, and understanding the efficiency of sampling methods allows us to estimate the quality of our biodiversity data. Sex ratio is an important population characteristic, but until now, no study has evaluated how efficient are the sampling methods commonly used in biodiversity surveys in estimating the sex ratio of populations. We used a virtual ecologist approach to investigate whether active and passive capture methods are able to accurately sample a population's sex ratio and whether differences in movement pattern and detectability between males and females produce biased estimates of sex-ratios when using these methods. Our simulation allowed the recognition of individuals, similar to mark-recapture studies. We found that differences in both movement patterns and detectability between males and females produce biased estimates of sex ratios. However, increasing the sampling effort or the number of sampling days improves the ability of passive or active capture methods to properly sample sex ratio. Thus, prior knowledge regarding movement patterns and detectability for species is important information to guide field studies aiming to understand sex ratio related patterns.

  18. Differences in Movement Pattern and Detectability between Males and Females Influence How Common Sampling Methods Estimate Sex Ratio.

    Rodrigues, João Fabrício Mota; Coelho, Marco Túlio Pacheco

    2016-01-01

    Sampling the biodiversity is an essential step for conservation, and understanding the efficiency of sampling methods allows us to estimate the quality of our biodiversity data. Sex ratio is an important population characteristic, but until now, no study has evaluated how efficient are the sampling methods commonly used in biodiversity surveys in estimating the sex ratio of populations. We used a virtual ecologist approach to investigate whether active and passive capture methods are able to accurately sample a population's sex ratio and whether differences in movement pattern and detectability between males and females produce biased estimates of sex-ratios when using these methods. Our simulation allowed the recognition of individuals, similar to mark-recapture studies. We found that differences in both movement patterns and detectability between males and females produce biased estimates of sex ratios. However, increasing the sampling effort or the number of sampling days improves the ability of passive or active capture methods to properly sample sex ratio. Thus, prior knowledge regarding movement patterns and detectability for species is important information to guide field studies aiming to understand sex ratio related patterns.

  19. Effects of ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol supplementation on basal testosterone cortisol ratio in male sprague dawley rats

    Lodhi, G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Basal testosterone cortisol ratio is considered very important to maintain homeostasis. Increase in this ratio has various beneficial effects on body. In this study we determined the effects of ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol supplementation on basal testosterone cortisol ratio in male Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: It was quasi experimental study carried out in department of Physiology, Army Medical College Rawalpindi in collaboration with National Institute of Health, Islamabad during October 2006 to September 2007. Forty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups with ten rats in each group and above mentioned antioxidants supplementation were given along with standard diet for one month. After this, blood samples were taken and analyzed for serum testosterone and cortisol by ELISA and malondialdehyde levels colorimetrically. Data were analysed on SPSS version 13 and p<0.05 was considered significant. Results: There was no significant rise in testosterone cortisol ratio in rats supplemented with single antioxidant; however rats supplemented with combination of ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol revealed significant rise in testosterone cortisol ratio with a fall in malondialdehyde levels. Conclusions: Synergistic effects of ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol resulted in a decline in reactive oxygen species induced lipid peroxidation and rise of testosterone cortisol ratio. (author)

  20. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)

    ... Antisocial behavior Impulse control problems Substance use disorder Suicide Many children and teens with ODD also have other mental health disorders, such as: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Conduct disorder Depression Anxiety Learning and communication disorders Treating these other ...

  1. Democracy against the odds

    Seeberg, Michael

    Why have a number of poor countries sustained electoral democracy against the odds? The extant literature on democracy and democratization consistently points to the importance of socioeconomic development and democratic neighboring countries, in particular, as important prerequisites for a stable...... demonstrates the enormous potential of political parties and civil society in processes of democratization. ------------------------------------------------------------------- Hvorfor opretholder en række fattige lande en demokratisk styreform imod alle odds? Demokratiforskere forventer, at et land må have et...

  2. Power and type I error results for a bias-correction approach recently shown to provide accurate odds ratios of genetic variants for the secondary phenotypes associated with primary diseases.

    Wang, Jian; Shete, Sanjay

    2011-11-01

    We recently proposed a bias correction approach to evaluate accurate estimation of the odds ratio (OR) of genetic variants associated with a secondary phenotype, in which the secondary phenotype is associated with the primary disease, based on the original case-control data collected for the purpose of studying the primary disease. As reported in this communication, we further investigated the type I error probabilities and powers of the proposed approach, and compared the results to those obtained from logistic regression analysis (with or without adjustment for the primary disease status). We performed a simulation study based on a frequency-matching case-control study with respect to the secondary phenotype of interest. We examined the empirical distribution of the natural logarithm of the corrected OR obtained from the bias correction approach and found it to be normally distributed under the null hypothesis. On the basis of the simulation study results, we found that the logistic regression approaches that adjust or do not adjust for the primary disease status had low power for detecting secondary phenotype associated variants and highly inflated type I error probabilities, whereas our approach was more powerful for identifying the SNP-secondary phenotype associations and had better-controlled type I error probabilities. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Birth Order and Sibling Sex Ratio in a Population with High Fertility: Are Turkish Male to Female Transsexuals Different?

    Bozkurt, Ali; Bozkurt, Ozlem Hekim; Sonmez, Ipek

    2015-07-01

    Western studies have consistently found that androphilic (sexually attracted to men) male-to-female transsexuals have a later birth order and a relative excess of brothers compared with appropriate control participants. However, non-Western studies on birth order and sibling sex ratio in androphilic males (transsexual or non-transsexual) are rare. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that androphilic male-to-female transsexuals have a late birth order and a relative excess of brothers in a non-Western culture with a higher fertility rate. The participants were 60 androphilic male-to-female transsexuals and 61 male heterosexual controls. The transsexual participants had significantly more older brothers than the control participants, but the groups did not differ in their numbers of older sisters, younger brothers, or younger sisters. The foregoing pattern is usually referred to as the "fraternal birth order effect." Slater's and Berglin's Indexes both showed that the mean birth order of the control participants was very close to that expected from a random sample drawn from a demographically stable population whereas the mean birth order of the transsexual participants was later. A measure of sibship composition, brothers/all siblings, showed that the transsexual group had a higher proportion of male siblings compared with the control group. In conclusion, the present study found that Turkish androphilic male-to-female transsexuals show the same high fraternal birth order that has been found in comparable androphilic samples in Western Europe, North America, and the South Pacific, which suggests a common underlying biological causal mechanism.

  4. Genomics and relative expression analysis identifies key genes associated with high female to male flower ratio in Jatropha curcas L.

    Gangwar, Manali; Sood, Hemant; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2016-04-01

    Jatropha curcas, has been projected as a major source of biodiesel due to high seed oil content (42 %). A major roadblock for commercialization of Jatropha-based biodiesel is low seed yield per inflorescence, which is affected by low female to male flower ratio (1:25-30). Molecular dissection of female flower development by analyzing genes involved in phase transitions and floral organ development is, therefore, crucial for increasing seed yield. Expression analysis of 42 genes implicated in floral organ development and sex determination was done at six floral developmental stages of a J. curcas genotype (IC561235) with inherently higher female to male flower ratio (1:8-10). Relative expression analysis of these genes was done on low ratio genotype. Genes TFL1, SUP, AP1, CRY2, CUC2, CKX1, TAA1 and PIN1 were associated with reproductive phase transition. Further, genes CUC2, TAA1, CKX1 and PIN1 were associated with female flowering while SUP and CRY2 in female flower transition. Relative expression of these genes with respect to low female flower ratio genotype showed up to ~7 folds increase in transcript abundance of SUP, TAA1, CRY2 and CKX1 genes in intermediate buds but not a significant increase (~1.25 folds) in female flowers, thereby suggesting that these genes possibly play a significant role in increased transition towards female flowering by promoting abortion of male flower primordia. The outcome of study has implications in feedstock improvement of J. curcas through functional validation and eventual utilization of key genes associated with female flowering.

  5. Number of evaluated lymph nodes and positive lymph nodes, lymph node ratio, and log odds evaluation in early-stage pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: numerology or valid indicators of patient outcome?

    Lahat, G; Lubezky, N; Gerstenhaber, F; Nizri, E; Gysi, M; Rozenek, M; Goichman, Y; Nachmany, I; Nakache, R; Wolf, I; Klausner, J M

    2016-09-29

    We evaluated the prognostic significance and universal validity of the total number of evaluated lymph nodes (ELN), number of positive lymph nodes (PLN), lymph node ratio (LNR), and log odds of positive lymph nodes (LODDS) in a relatively large and homogenous cohort of surgically treated pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients. Prospectively accrued data were retrospectively analyzed for 282 PDAC patients who had pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) at our institution. Long-term survival was analyzed according to the ELN, PLN, LNR, and LODDS. Of these patients, 168 patients (59.5 %) had LN metastasis (N1). Mean ELN and PLN were 13.5 and 1.6, respectively. LN positivity correlated with a greater number of evaluated lymph nodes; positive lymph nodes were identified in 61.4 % of the patients with ELN ≥ 13 compared with 44.9 % of the patients with ELN < 13 (p = 0.014). Median overall survival (OS) and 5-year OS rate were higher in N0 than in N1 patients, 22.4 vs. 18.7 months and 35 vs. 11 %, respectively (p = 0.008). Mean LNR was 0.12; 91 patients (54.1 %) had LNR < 0.3. Among the N1 patients, median OS was comparable in those with LNR ≥ 0.3 vs. LNR < 0.3 (16.7 vs. 14.1 months, p = 0.950). Neither LODDS nor various ELN and PLN cutoff values provided more discriminative information within the group of N1 patients. Our data confirms that lymph node positivity strongly reflects PDAC biology and thus patient outcome. While a higher number of evaluated lymph nodes may provide a more accurate nodal staging, it does not have any prognostic value among N1 patients. Similarly, PLN, LNR, and LODDS had limited prognostic relevance.

  6. Odd Shape Out

    Cady, Jo Ann; Wells, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The Odd Shape Out task was an open-ended problem that engaged students in comparing shapes based on their properties. Four teachers submitted the work of 116 students from across the country. This article compares various student's responses to the task. The problem allowed for differentiation, as shown by the many different ways that students…

  7. A diagnostic-ratio approach to measuring beliefs about the leadership abilities of male and female managers.

    Martell, R F; Desmet, A L

    2001-12-01

    This study departed from previous research on gender stereotyping in the leadership domain by adopting a more comprehensive view of leadership and using a diagnostic-ratio measurement strategy. One hundred and fifty-one managers (95 men and 56 women) judged the leadership effectiveness of male and female middle managers by providing likelihood ratings for 14 categories of leader behavior. As expected, the likelihood ratings for some leader behaviors were greater for male managers, whereas for other leader behaviors, the likelihood ratings were greater for female managers or were no different. Leadership ratings revealed some evidence of a same-gender bias. Providing explicit verification of managerial success had only a modest effect on gender stereotyping. The merits of adopting a probabilistic approach in examining the perception and treatment of stigmatized groups are discussed.

  8. Vibrational-rotational model of odd-odd nuclei

    Afanas'ev, A.V.; Guseva, T.V.; Tamberg, Yu.Ya.

    1988-01-01

    The rotational vibrational (RV) model of odd nuclei is generalized to odd-odd nuclei. The hamiltonian, wave functions and matrix elements of the RV-model of odd-odd nuclei are obtained. The expressions obtained for matrix elements of the RV-model of odd-odd nuclei can be used to study the role of vibrational additions in low-lying two-particle states of odd-odd deformed nuclei. Such calculations permit to study more correctly the residual neutron-proton interaction of valent nucleons with respect to collectivization effects

  9. Increased Risk of Progression of Coronary Artery Calcification in Male Subjects with High Baseline Waist-to-Height Ratio: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Oh, Hyung Geun; Nallamshetty, Shriram; Rhee, Eun Jung

    2016-02-01

    The waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) is an easy and inexpensive adiposity index that reflects central obesity. In this study, we examined the association of baseline WHtR and progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) over 4 years of follow-up in apparently healthy Korean men. A total of 1,048 male participants (mean age, 40.9 years) in a health-screening program in Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul, Korea who repeated a medical check-up in 2010 and 2014 were recruited. Baseline WHtR was calculated using the value for the waist in 2010 divided by the value for height in 2010. The CAC score (CACS) of each subject was measured by multi-detector computed tomography in both 2010 and 2014. Progression of CAC was defined as a CACS change over 4 years greater than 0. During the follow-up period, progression of CAC occurred in 278 subjects (26.5%). The subjects with CAC progression had slightly higher but significant baseline WHtR compared to those who did not show CAC progression (0.51±0.04 vs. 0.50±0.04, P<0.01). The proportion of subjects with CAC progression significantly increased as the baseline WHtR increased from the 1st quartile to 4th quartile groups (18.3%, 18.7%, 28.8%, and 34.2%; P<0.01). The risk for CAC progression was elevated with an odds ratio of 1.602 in the 4th quartile group of baseline WHtR even after adjustment for confounding variables (95% confidence interval, 1.040 to 2.466). Increased baseline WHtR was associated with increased risk for CAC progression. WHtR might be a useful screening tool to identify individuals at high risk for subclinical atherosclerosis.

  10. The effect of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction on hamstring and quadriceps muscle function outcome ratios in male athletes

    Kadija Marko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Maximal strength ratios such as the limb symmetry index (LSI and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio (HQ may be considered the main outcome measures in the monitoring of recovery after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction. Although explosive strength is much more important than maximal strength, it is generally disregarded in the follow-up of muscle function recovery. Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare ratios between maximal (Fmax and explosive strength (rate of force development - RFD in individuals with ACL reconstruction. Methods. Fifteen male athletes were enrolled and had maximum voluntary isometric quadriceps and hamstring contractions tested (4.0 ± 0.1 months post reconstruction. In addition to Fmax, RFD was estimated (RFDmax, as well as RFD at 50, 100, and 200 ms from onset of contraction and LSI and HQ ratios were calculated. Results. The involved leg demonstrated significant hamstring and quadriceps deficits compared to uninvolved leg (p < 0.01. Deficits were particularly significant in the involved quadriceps, causing higher HQ ratios (average 0.63, compared to the uninvolved leg (0.44. LSI was significantly lower for RFD variables (average 55% than for Fmax (66%. Conclusion. The assessment of RFD may be considered an objective recovery parameter for one’s readiness to return to sports and should be an integral part of standard follow-up protocol for athletes after ACL reconstruction. Moreover, the combination of indices derived from maximal and explosive strength may provide better insight in muscle strength balance, as well as a clear picture of functional implications. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175012 i br. 175037

  11. Conflicting coupling of unpaired nucleons in odd-odd nuclei

    Volkov, D.A.; Levon, A.I.

    1990-01-01

    Phenomenological approach is described, using it, energy spectra of odd-odd nucleus collective bands based on conflicting state of unpaired nucleons can be calculated. It is ascertained that in a conflicting bond unpaired nucleon acts as a spectator, i.e. energy spectra of collective bands in odd-odd nuclei are similar to the spectra of collective bands in heighbouring odd nuclei, which are based on the state of a strongly bound nucleon is included in the conflicting configuration

  12. Effects of ambient temperature, arginine-to-lysine ratio, and electrolyte balance on performance, carcass and blood parameters in commercial male turkeys

    Veldkamp, T.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Ferket, P.R.; Simons, P.C.M.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Pijpers, A.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of ambient temperature (T; 15 C vs. 30 C from 6 wk of age onwards), dietary Arg:Lys ratio (Arg:Lys ratio; 1.00 vs. 1.25), dietary electrolyte balance (DEB: 164 vs. 254 meq/kg), and their interactions on growth performance and carcass yields of male turkeys were studied. The experiment

  13. The influence of late-stage pupal irradiation and increased irradiated: un-irradiated male ratio on mating competitiveness of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis Patton.

    Helinski, M E H; Knols, B G J

    2009-06-01

    Competitiveness of released males in genetic control programmes is of critical importance. In this paper, we explored two scenarios to compensate for the loss of mating competitiveness after pupal stage irradiation in males of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis. First, competition experiments with a higher ratio of irradiated versus un-irradiated males were performed. Second, pupae were irradiated just prior to emergence and male mating competitiveness was determined. Males were irradiated in the pupal stage with a partially or fully-sterilizing dose of 70 or 120 Gy, respectively. Pupae were irradiated aged 20-26 h (young) as routinely performed, or the pupal stage was artificially prolonged by cooling and pupae were irradiated aged 42-48 h (old). Irradiated males competed at a ratio of 3:1:1 to un-irradiated males for mates in a large cage design. At the 3:1 ratio, the number of females inseminated by males irradiated with 70 Gy as young pupae was similar to the number inseminated by un-irradiated males for the majority of the replicates. At 120 Gy, significantly fewer females were inseminated by irradiated than by un-irradiated males. The irradiation of older pupae did not result in a significantly improved male mating competitiveness compared to the irradiation of young pupae. Our findings indicate that the loss of competitiveness after pupal stage irradiation can be compensated for by a threefold increase of irradiated males, but only for the partially-sterilizing dose. In addition, cooling might be a useful tool to facilitate handling processes of large numbers of mosquitoes in genetic control programmes.

  14. On the difficulties of discriminating between major and minor hybrid male sterility factors in Drosophila by examining the segregation ratio of sterile and fertile sons in backcrossing experiments.

    Maside, X R; Naveira, H F

    1996-10-01

    The observation of segregation ratios of sterile and fertile males in offspring samples from backcrossed hybrid females is, in principle, a valid method to unveil the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility in Drosophila. When the female parent is heterozygous (hybrid) for a sterility factor with major effects, equal proportions of fertile and sterile sons are expected in her offspring. However, intact (not recombined) chromosome segments of considerable length are expected to give segregation ratios that can not be easily differentiated from the 1:1 ratio expected from a single factor. When the phenotypic character under analysis can be determined by combinations of minor factors from the donor species spanning a certain chromosome length, very large offspring samples may be needed to test this alternative hypothesis against the null hypothesis of a single major factor. This is particularly the case of hybrid male sterility determinants in Drosophila.

  15. Tilted axis rotation in odd-odd {sup 164}Tm

    Reviol, W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Wang, X.Z.; Zhang, J.Y. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Ten band structures are observed in {sup 164}Tm, among them sets of parallel and anti-parallel couplings of the proton and neutron spins. The Tilted Axis Cranking scheme is applied for the first time to an odd-odd nucleus in a prominent region of nuclear deformation.

  16. Influence of fat/carbohydrate ratio on progression of fatty liver disease and on development of osteopenia in male rats fed alcohol via total enteral nutrition (TEN)

    Alcohol abuse is associated with the development of fatty liver disease and also with significant bone loss in both genders. In this study, we examined ethanol (EtOH)-induced pathology in response to diets with differing fat/carbohydrate ratios. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed intragastrically wit...

  17. The association between living through a prolonged economic depression and the male:female birth ratio--a longitudinal study from Cuba, 1960-2008.

    Venero Fernández, Silvia Josefina; Medina, Ramon Suárez; Britton, John; Fogarty, Andrew W

    2011-12-15

    The Trivers-Willard hypothesis suggests that populations respond to scarcity by decreasing the ratio of males to females at livebirth. Cuba experienced an extreme economic depression in the 1990s called the "special period." Using time-series analysis, the authors studied the impact of this event on the male:female sex ratio at birth in Cuba from 1960 to 2008. From 1990 to 1993, the per capita gross domestic product in Cuba decreased by 36%. By use of a definition of the special period from 1991 to 1998, there was a prolonged increase in the male:female ratio of livebirths during this period of economic depression (P Cuba, contrary to the Trivers-Willard hypothesis, the human population responded to conditions of scarcity by increasing the ratio of males to females at livebirth. These data may be relevant in the modeling of demographic projections in countries that experience prolonged economic depression and in understanding adaptive human reproductive responses to environmental change.

  18. Odd things, in odd places, in odd races | Ferndale | South African ...

    Odd things, in odd places, in odd races. L Ferndale, R Wise, S R Thomson. Abstract. No Abstract. South African Gastroenterology Vol. 5 (3) 2007: pp. 9-12. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sagr.v5i3.30737 · AJOL African Journals ...

  19. Random interactions, isospin, and the ground states of odd-A and odd-odd nuclei

    Horoi, Mihai; Volya, Alexander; Zelevinsky, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    It was recently shown that the ground state quantum numbers of even-even nuclei have a high probability to be reproduced by an ensemble of random but rotationally invariant two-body interactions. In the present work we extend these investigations to odd-A and odd-odd nuclei, considering in particular the isospin effects. Studying the realistic shell model as well as the single-j model, we show that random interactions have a tendency to assign the lowest possible total angular momentum and isospin to the ground state. In the sd shell model this reproduces correctly the isospin but not the spin quantum numbers of actual odd-odd nuclei. An odd-even staggering effect in probability of various ground state quantum numbers is present for even-even and odd-odd nuclei, while it is smeared out for odd-A nuclei. The observed regularities suggest the underlying mechanism of bosonlike pairing of fermionic pairs in T=0 and T=1 states generated by the off-diagonal matrix elements of random interactions. The relation to the models of random spin interactions is briefly discussed

  20. Quasiparticle features and level statistics of odd-odd nucleus

    Cheng Nanpu; Zheng Renrong; Zhu Shunquan

    2001-01-01

    The energy levels of the odd-odd nucleus 84 Y are calculated by using the axially symmetric rotor plus quasiparticles model. The two standard statistical tests of Random-Matrix Theory such as the distribution function p(s) of the nearest-neighbor level spacings (NNS) and the spectral rigidity Δ 3 are used to explore the statistical properties of the energy levels. By analyzing the properties of p(s) and Δ 3 under various conditions, the authors find that the quasiparticle features mainly affect the statistical properties of the odd-odd nucleus 84 Y through the recoil term and the Coriolis force in this theoretical mode, and that the chaotic degree of the energy levels decreases with the decreasing of the Fermi energy and the energy-gap parameters. The effect of the recoil term is small while the Coriolis force plays a major role in the spectral structure of 84 Y

  1. Magnetic dipole moments of odd-odd lanthanides

    Sharma, S.D.; Gandhi, R.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic dipole moments of odd-odd lanthanides. Collective model of odd-odd nuclei is applied to predict the magnetic dipole moments, (μ) of odd-odd lanthanides. A simplified version of expression for μ based on diagonalisation of Hamiltonian (subsequent use of eigenvectors to compute μ) is developed for cases of ground state as well as excited states using no configuration mixing and is applied to the cases of odd-odd lanthanides. The formulae applied to the eleven (11) cases of ground states show significant improvement over the results obtained using shell model. Configuration mixing and coriolis coupling is expected to cause further improvement in the results. On comparing the earlier work in this direction the present analysis has clarified that in the expression μ the projection factors have different signs for the case I=Ωp - Ωn and I=Ωn - Ωp, and sign of μ is negative in general in the second case while it is positive in all others of spin projection alignments. Although the general expression holds for excited states as well but in lanthanide region, the experimental reports of magnetic dipole moments of excite states (band heads of higher rational sequences) are not available except in case of five (5) neutron resonance states which cannot be handled on the basis of the present approach with no configuration mixing. Although in the present discussion, the model could not be applied to excited states but the systematics of change in its magnitude with increasing spin at higher rational states is very well understood. The particle part supressed under faster rotation of the nuclear core and thus finally at higher spin I, the value μ is given by μ=g c I (same as in case of even-even nuclei). These systematics are to be verified whenever enough data for higher excited states are available. (author). 11 refs

  2. Survey of odd-odd deformed nuclear spectroscopy

    Hoff, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we survey the current experimental data that support assignment of rotational bands in odd-odd deformed nuclear in the rare earth and actinide regions. We present the results of a new study of 170 Mt nuclear structure. In a comparing experimental and calculated Gallagher-Moszkowski matrix elements for rare earth-region nuclei, we have developed a new approach to the systematics of these matrix elements

  3. The enigmatic Otway odd-clawed spider (Progradungula otwayensis Milledge, 1997, Gradungulidae, Araneae: Natural history, first description of the female and micro-computed tomography of the male palpal organ

    Peter Michalik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The recently described cribellate gradungulid Progradungula otwayensis Milledge, 1997 is endemic to the Great Otway National Park (Victoria, Australia and known from only one male and a few juvenile specimens. In a recent survey we recorded 47 specimens at several localities across the western part of the Great Otway National park. Our field data suggest that this species is dependant on the microclimate in the hollows of old myrtle beech trees since other hollow trees were very much less inhabited. Furthermore, we describe the female for the first time and study the male palpal organ by using X-ray microtomography. The female genitalia are characterized by eight spermathecae which are grouped in two quartets. The spermophor resembles the general organization of gradungulids, but is similar to Kaiya Gray, 1987 by a convoluted appearance within the embolus. The muscle 30 is located in the cymbium and resembles the organization of other non-entelegyne Araneomorphae.

  4. SECULAR TRENDS AND LATITUDE GRADIENTS IN THE MALE-FEMALE RATIO AT BIRTH IN YUGOSLAVIA AND THE EX-YUGOSLAVIAN STATES

    Victor Grech

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Latitude gradients and secular trends in Europe and North America have been found in the male-female ratio at birth (M/F: male births divided by total births which approximates 0.515. Methods: Annual national data for Yugoslavia and the post-Yugoslavia States for male and female live births were obtained from the World Health Organisation and analysed with contingency tables. Results: This study analysed 22,020,729 live births. There was a increasing trend in M/F prior to the breakup of the former Yugoslavia (1950–1990, p = 0.002, followed by a decreasing trend after 1990 (p = 0.02. A latitude gradient was also noted, with more males being born in southern, warmer latitudes (p < 0.0001. There was an overall excess of 42,753 male births based on an anticipated M/F of 0.515. Conclusion: M/F is decreasing in this region, similar to the rest of Europe and North America. A latitude gradient is also present with more males being born in warmer (more Southern latitudes (p < 0.0001, even in this small region and over the short time-frame studied.

  5. Modeling level structures of odd-odd deformed nuclei

    Hoff, R.W.; Kern, J.; Piepenbring, R.; Boisson, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei has been applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation were derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd-mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings were used. Calculated and experimental level structures for 238 Np, 244 Am, and 250 Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earth region. The agreement for the actinide species is excellent, with bandhead energies deviating 22 keV and rotational parameters 5%, on the average. Corresponding average deviations for five rare-earth nuclei are 47 keV and 7%. Several applications of this modeling technique are discussed. 18 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Terrorist attacks and the male-to-female ratio at birth: The Troubles in Northern Ireland, the Rodney King riots, and the Breivik and Sandy Hook shootings.

    Grech, Victor

    2015-12-01

    Males are usually born in excess of females. The ratio is often expressed as M/F (male divided by total births). A wide variety of factors have been shown to influence M/F. Terrorist attacks reduce M/F. This study was carried out in order to ascertain whether individual terrorist attacks influenced M/F in relevant populations. The following events were studied: the Troubles in Northern Ireland, the Los Angeles Riots (the Rodney King affair), the Breivik shooting (Norway), and the Sandy Hook shooting (Connecticut). Northern Ireland M/F was significantly lower during the Troubles (1969-1998) than during the period before (p=0.0006). There was a very sharp dip in 1978 (p≤0.004) during this particular year of renewed violence and heavy civilian attacks. Rodney King riots-late April 1992 M/F dipped significantly in August 1992, 4months after the riots (p=0.044). Breivik Shooting-22/07/2011 M/F dipped significantly in December 2011, 5months after the event (p=0.004). Sandy Hook Shooting-14/12/2012 M/F dipped significantly in April 2013, 4months after the event (p=0.009). M/F dips follow catastrophic or tragic events if these are felt to be momentous enough by a given population. All of the above events caused significant population stress. The M/F dips noted may have been caused by population stress which is known to lead to the culling of frail/small male foetuses. The dips noted are comparable to a substantial proportion of quoted values for perinatal mortality, potentially elevating this a public health issue. 1. The male-to-female ratio at birth is decreased by stressful events. 2. This is due to an excess of male foetal losses in established pregnancies. 3. Such losses in response to acute events are transient. 4. This ratio may be a useful indicator of population stress. RESEARCH DIRECTIONS: 1. Gender ratios in populations could be routinely monitored in order to assess the impact of stressful events that may reduce the male-to-female birth ratio. Copyright

  7. The Correlation between the Triglyceride to High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio and Computed Tomography-Measured Visceral Fat and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Local Adult Male Subjects

    Park, Hye-Rin; Shin, Sae-Ron; Han, A Lum; Jeong, Yong Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background We studied the association between the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and computed tomography-measured visceral fat as well as cardiovascular risk factors among Korean male adults. Methods We measured triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat among 372 Korean men. The visceral fat and sub...

  8. The diagnostic odds ratio: a single indicator of test performance

    Glas, Afina S.; Lijmer, Jeroen G.; Prins, Martin H.; Bonsel, Gouke J.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.

    2003-01-01

    Diagnostic testing can be used to discriminate subjects with a target disorder from subjects without it. Several indicators of diagnostic performance have been proposed, such as sensitivity and specificity. Using paired indicators can be a disadvantage in comparing the performance of competing

  9. Inherited Sterility Induced in Progeny of Gamma Irradiated Males Spiny Bollworm, Earias insulana Boisd. II. Effect on Larval and Pupal Mortality, Development and Sex Ratio

    Amin, A.R.H.; Sallam, H.A.; Mohamed, H.F.

    2010-01-01

    Spiny bollworm, Earias insulana Boisd. adult males were irradiated with sub sterilizing doses of 50,80,100 and 150 Gray (Gy) of gamma radiation. The number of surviving larvae was dose dependant and larval/pupal mortality increased as the dose applied to P1 males was increased. The larval mortality among F3 was reduced compared with that of the F1 and F2. The average developmental time from egg hatch to adult emergence at the four tested doses was slightly affected among the progeny descendant of irradiated P1 males through the three successive generations. The percentage of adult emergence was evidently reduced among F1 and F2 progeny resulting from parental males exposed to the three higher irradiation doses (80,100 and 150 Gy).The sex ratio was slightly altered in favor of males among the majority of all treatments. Raman studies of irradiated and unirradiated stones at different temperatures and irradiation times showed a relation between the bands of scattered peaks corresponding to (OH) stretching modes of vibration with the color changes

  10. Weight-to-height ratio and aerobic capacity in 15-year-old male taekwondo martial artists.

    Poliszczuk, Tatiana; Jankowska, Ewa; Poliszczuk, Dmytro

    2013-01-01

    Martial arts are growing in popularity throughout the whole world. Their beneficial influence on physical development and fitness is noteworthy. Martial arts are an attractive form of physical recreation, constitute a perfect means for combating stress, and have a positive effect on general health, including during rehabilitation. The aim of this study is to assess physical development and aerobic capacity in boys who practice taekwondo and to determine the relationships between results of a fitness test and particular parameters of physical development. Study participants comparised 51 boys aged 15 years who practiced taekwondo (with training experience ranging from 1 to 6 years). Volkov´s modification of the Harvard Step Test was used to assess body height and body mass. BMI was also calculated. Centile charts were used to assess weight-to-height ratio and the level of measured parameters. BMI was analyzed according to the Cole classification system. Dispersion was calculated using a coefficient of variation. The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient between selected parameters was also calculated. Most study participants had normal BMI, but 30% showed overweight and 13% showed underweight or emaciation. Weight-to-height ratio differed significantly from the norm in 33% of the boys when compared to centile charts. All participants had average aerobic capacity. However, when weight-to-height ratio was compared to the results of the Harvard Step Test, boys with normal body proportions performed much better in the test than boys with abnormal body mass (p<0.05). Study participants showed abnormal weight-to-height ratio mainly in terms of overweight. The boys had greater body height and body mass compared to the general Polish population. Aerobic capacity differed considerably between participants.

  11. "Dealing" with Incidence, Prevalence, and Odds Concepts in Undergraduate Epidemiology

    Senchina, David S.; Laurson, Kelly R.

    2009-01-01

    Concepts and associated statistical formulae of incidence, prevalence, and odds/odds ratios are core knowledge in epidemiology yet can be confusing for students. The purpose of this project was to develop, validate, and share one possible pedagogical technique using playing cards that could be employed to improve undergraduate understanding of…

  12. Structure and symmetries of odd-odd triaxial nuclei

    Palit, R. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Colaba, Mumbai (India); Bhat, G.H. [University of Kashmir, Department of Physics, Srinagar (India); Govt. Degree College Kulgam, Department of Physics, Kulgam (India); Sheikh, J.A. [University of Kashmir, Department of Physics, Srinagar (India); Cluster University of Srinagar, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir (India)

    2017-05-15

    Rotational spectra of odd-odd Rh and Ag isotopes are investigated with the primary motivation to search for the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking phenomenon in these nuclei. The experimental results obtained on the degenerate dipole bands of some of these isotopes using a large array of gamma detectors are discussed and studied using the triaxial projected shell (TPSM) approach. It is shown that, first of all, to reproduce the odd-even staggering of the known yrast bands of these nuclei, large triaxial deformation is needed. This large triaxial deformation also gives rise to doublet band structures in many of these studied nuclei. The observed doublet bands in these isotopes are shown to be reproduced reasonably well by the TPSM calculations. Further, the TPSM calculations for neutron-rich nuclei indicate that the ideal manifestation of the chirality can be realised in {sup 106}Rh and {sup 112}Ag, where the doublet bands have similar electromagnetic properties along with small differences in excitation energies. (orig.)

  13. A systematic study of odd-odd Gallium nuclei

    Allegro, P.R.P.; Medina, N.H.; Oliveira, J.R.B.; Ribas, R.V.; Cybulska, E.W.; Seale, W.A.; Zagatto, V.A.B.; Zahn, G.S.; Genezini, F.A.; Silveira, M.A.G.; Tabor, S.; Bender, P.; Tripathi, V.; Baby, L.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Recently, many studies have been published attempting to explain the role of the 0g 9/2 orbital in the high spin excited states of nuclei in the region of the mass A=50-80, especially very neutron rich nuclei like, for example 59-66 Fe [1], 65,67 Cu [2], 70,80 Ge [3,4] nuclei and those with odd mass number like As, Ge and Ga [5]. Stefanescu et al. [6] demonstrated the presence of bands in the neutron-rich isotopes Ga formed from excitation of a proton to the 0g 9/2 orbital and Cheal et al. [7] revealed, from the study of the spins and moments of the ground state, changes in nuclear structure of the odd Ga isotopes between N = 40 and N 50, indicating a change in the energy gap between the 0g 9/2 orbital and the pf shell. In this work, we have performed a systematic study of odd-odd 64,66,68,70 Ga nuclei to examine the behavior of the 0g 9/2 orbital with an increasing number of neutrons. We have compared the predictions of the Large Scale Shell Model, obtained using the Antoine code [8] with the FPG [9] and JUN45 [10] effective interactions, with the experimental results obtained with in-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy experiments performed at University of Sao Paulo using SACI-PERERE spectrometer and at Florida State University using the Clover Array System. We have also performed calculations to study 67 Ge, an odd nucleus in the same mass region, in order to verify the behavior of the effective interactions in a nucleus without the proton-neutron interaction. [1] S. Lunardi. et al., Phys. Rev. C 76, 034303 (2007). [2] C. J. Chiara et al., Phys. Rev. C 85, 024309 (2012). [3] M. Sugawara et al., Phys. Rev. C 81, 024309 (2010). [4] H. Iwasaki.et al., Phys. Rev. C 78, 021304(R) (2008). [5] N. Yoshinaga et al. Phys. Rev. C 78, 044320 (2008). [6] I. Stefanescu et al., Phys. Rev. C 79, 064302 (2009). [7] B. Cheal et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 252502 (2010). [8] E. Caurier and F. Nowacki, Acta Phys. Polonica B 30, 705 (1999). [9] O. Sorlin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett

  14. Preconception maternal polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and the secondary sex ratio

    Taylor, Kira C.; Jackson, Leila W.; Lynch, Courtney D.; Kostyniak, Paul J.; Buck Louis, Germaine M.

    2007-01-01

    The secondary sex ratio is the ratio of male to female live births and historically has ranged from 102 to 106 males to 100 females. Temporal declines have been reported in many countries prompting authors to hypothesize an environmental etiology. Blood specimens were obtained from 99 women aged 24-34 prior to attempting pregnancy and quantified for 76 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners using dual column gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Women were prospectively followed until pregnancy or 12 cycles of trying. The odds of a male birth for three PCB groupings (total, estrogenic, anti-estrogenic) controlling for maternal characteristics were estimated using logistic regression. Among the 50 women with live births and PCB data, 26 female and 24 male infants were born (ratio 0.92). After adjusting for age and body mass index, odds of a male birth were elevated among women in the second (OR=1.29) and third (OR=1.48) tertiles of estrogenic PCBs; odds (OR=0.70) were reduced among women in the highest tertile of anti-estrogenic PCBs. All confidence intervals included one. The direction of the odds ratios in this preliminary study varied by PCB groupings, supporting the need to study specific PCB patterns when assessing environmental influences on the secondary sex ratio

  15. Odd nitrogen production by meteoroids

    Park, C.; Menees, G. P.

    1978-01-01

    The process by which odd nitrogen species (atomic nitrogen and nitric oxide) are formed during atmospheric entry of meteoroids is analyzed theoretically. An ablating meteoroid is assumed to be a point source of mass with a continuum regime evolving in its wake. The amounts of odd nitrogen species, produced by high-temperature reactions of air in the continuum wake, are calculated by numerical integration of chemical rate equations. Flow properties are assumed to be uniform across the wake, and 29 reactions involving five neutral species and five singly ionized species are considered, as well as vibrational and electron temperature nonequilibrium phenomena. The results, when they are summed over the observed mass, velocity, and entry-angle distribution of meteoroids, provide odd-nitrogen-species annual global production rates as functions of altitude. The peak production of nitric oxide is found to occur at an altitude of about 85 km; atomic nitrogen production peaks at about 95 km. The total annual rate for nitric oxide is 40 million kg; for atomic nitrogen it is 170 million kg.

  16. Calculation of {beta}-ray spectra. Odd-odd nuclei

    Tachibana, Takahiro [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Advanced Research Center for Science and Engineering

    1996-05-01

    In order to study {beta}-ray of atomic nucleus, it is natural to consider {beta}-ray data fundamental and important. In a recent experiment, Rudstam measured {beta}-ray spectra from short term nuclear fission product species in 1990. It is an important check point in theoretical study on {beta}-ray to investigate if these experimental data can be reproduced by any theoretical calculation. As there are several spectrum studies of {beta}-ray through decay heat for its various properties due to the general theory of the {beta}-decay, little descriptions can be found. In even such studies, spectra under high excitation state of daughter species difficult to measure and apt to short experimental results were treated with combination spectra composed of experimental and calculated values such as substitution of a part of the general theory with calculated value. In this paper, the {beta} spectra supposed by only the general theory was reported without using such data combination in order to confirm effectiveness of the theory. In particular, this report was described mainly on the results using recent modification of odd-odd nucleus species. (G.K.)

  17. Calculation of β-ray spectra. Odd-odd nuclei

    Tachibana, Takahiro

    1996-01-01

    In order to study β-ray of atomic nucleus, it is natural to consider β-ray data fundamental and important. In a recent experiment, Rudstam measured β-ray spectra from short term nuclear fission product species in 1990. It is an important check point in theoretical study on β-ray to investigate if these experimental data can be reproduced by any theoretical calculation. As there are several spectrum studies of β-ray through decay heat for its various properties due to the general theory of the β-decay, little descriptions can be found. In even such studies, spectra under high excitation state of daughter species difficult to measure and apt to short experimental results were treated with combination spectra composed of experimental and calculated values such as substitution of a part of the general theory with calculated value. In this paper, the β spectra supposed by only the general theory was reported without using such data combination in order to confirm effectiveness of the theory. In particular, this report was described mainly on the results using recent modification of odd-odd nucleus species. (G.K.)

  18. High spin states in odd-odd {sup 132}Cs

    Hayakawa, Takehito [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Lu, J; Furuno, K [and others

    1998-03-01

    Excited states with spin larger than 5 {Dirac_h} were newly established in the {sup 132}Cs nucleus via the {sup 124}Sn({sup 11}B,3n) reaction. Rotational bands built on the {nu}h{sub 11/2} x {pi}d{sub 5/2}, {nu}h{sub 11/2} x {pi}g{sub 7/2} and {nu}h{sub 11/2} x {pi}h{sub 11/2} configurations were observed up to spin I {approx} 16 {Dirac_h}. The {nu}h{sub 11/2} x {pi}h{sub 11/2} band shows inverted signature splitting below I < 14 {Dirac_h}. A dipole band was firstly observed in doubly odd Cs nuclei. (author)

  19. Antidepressant-like effects of guanfacine and sex-specific differences in effects on c-fos immunoreactivity and paired-pulse ratio in male and female mice.

    Mineur, Yann S; Bentham, Matthew P; Zhou, Wen-Liang; Plantenga, Margreet E; McKee, Sherry A; Picciotto, Marina R

    2015-10-01

    The a2A-noradrenergic agonist guanfacine can decreases stress-induced smoking in female, but not male, human smokers. It is not known whether these effects are due to effects on mood regulation and/or result from nicotinic-cholinergic interactions. The objective of the study was to determine whether there are sex differences in the effect of guanfacine in tests of anxiolytic and antidepressant efficacy in mice at baseline and in a hypercholinergic model of depression induced by the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine. The effects of guanfacine were measured in the light/dark box, tail suspension, and the forced swim test in female and male C57BL/6J mice. In parallel, electrophysiological properties were evaluated in the prefrontal cortex, a critical brain region involved in stress responses. c-fos immunoreactivity was measured in other brain regions known to regulate mood. Despite a baseline sex difference in behavior in the forced swim test (female mice were more immobile), guanfacine had similar, dose-dependent, antidepressant-like effects in mice of both sexes (optimal dose, 0.15 mg/kg). An antidepressant-like effect of guanfacine was also observed following pre-treatment with physostigmine. A sex difference in the paired-pulse ratio in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) (male, 1.4; female, 2.1) was observed at baseline that was normalized by guanfacine. Other brain areas involved in cholinergic control of depression-like behaviors, including the basolateral amygdala and lateral septum, showed sex-specific changes in c-fos expression. Guanfacine has a robust antidepressant-like effect and can reverse a depression-like state induced by increased acetylcholine (ACh) signaling. These data suggest that different brain areas are recruited in female and male mice, despite similar behavioral responses to guanfacine.

  20. Maternal and postnatal high-fat diets with high ?6:?3 ratios affect the reproductive performance of male offspring in the mouse.

    Bianconi, S; Stutz, G; Solís, M R; Martini, A C; Vincenti, L M; Ponzio, M F; Luque, E; Avendaño, C; Quiroga, P; Santillán, M E

    2018-05-24

    High-fat diets (HFDs) are an acknowledged risk factor for male subfertility, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study we compared the effects of two HFDs with different ω6:ω3 ratios, one enriched with soy oil (SOD; ω6:ω3=9.62) and another enriched with sunflower oil (SFOD; ω6:ω3=51.55), with those of a commercial diet (CD; ω6:ω3=19.87), supplied from pregnancy to adulthood, on morphometric parameters and reproductive performance in adult male mice (recommended ω6:ω3 for rodents=1-6). Bodyweight was significantly higher in the SFOD than CD group, and relative testicular weight was significantly lower in the SFOD than the other two groups. SFOD altered sperm performance: it reduced sperm viability (mean±s.e.m.; 76.00±1.35% vs 82.50±1.45% and 80.63±1.00% in the SFOD vs CD and SOD groups respectively; P<0.05) and increased the percentage of immature spermatozoa (71.88±7.17% vs 51.38±5.87% and 48.00±5.72% in the SFOD vs CD and SOD groups respectively; P<0.05). The epididymal ω6:ω3 ratio was higher in the SFOD versus CD and SOD groups, whereas the unsaturation index was higher in the SOD and SFOD groups than in CD group. Sperm membrane integrity was diminished in both the SOD and SFOD groups, but there was no difference in sperm reactive oxygen species production in these two groups compared with the CD group. The fertilisation rate was lower in the SFOD compared with the CD and SOD groups. In conclusion, although both HFDs affected sperm quality, the fertilising ability was more altered by the excessive dietary ω6:ω3 ratio than by the net ω6 content.

  1. Sex ratios

    West, Stuart A; Reece, S E; Sheldon, Ben C

    2002-01-01

    Sex ratio theory attempts to explain variation at all levels (species, population, individual, brood) in the proportion of offspring that are male (the sex ratio). In many cases this work has been extremely successful, providing qualitative and even quantitative explanations of sex ratio variation. However, this is not always the situation, and one of the greatest remaining problems is explaining broad taxonomic patterns. Specifically, why do different organisms show so ...

  2. Lifetimes and magnetic moments in odd-odd 70 As

    Pantelica, D.; Negoita, F.; Stanoiu, M.

    1998-01-01

    The extensive experimental and theoretical work on the structure of N∼Z, A = 60-80 nuclei revealed many interesting features: large prolate deformations (β = 0.4), strong shape variations as a function of particle number, excitation energy, spin and shape coexistence effects. They are related with drastic changes of properties observed in nuclei with Z≥33 when going from spherical nuclei with N = 50 to neutron deficient nuclei with N = 38 or 40. Both the rapid changes in structure and the shape coexistence appear to reflect the competition between the shell gaps which occur at large oblate and prolate deformations near nucleon numbers 36 and 38 for both protons and neutrons. For N∼Z nuclei the same shell gaps appear simultaneously for both protons and neutrons and reinforce each other. The microscopic structure of the nuclei in the mass region A = 60-80 is essentially determined by the 1g 9/2 , 2p 1/2 , 1f 5/2 and 2p 3/2 orbitals. Because no unique interpretation of the unusual features discovered in these nuclei exists, the systematic experimental study of structure of these nuclei is still an interesting subject. As part of a systematic experimental study undertaken to investigate the structure of neutron deficient, odd-odd As nuclei, 68,70,72 As, the level scheme of 70 As was investigated using heavy ion induced reactions and in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy techniques. At energies between 500 and 900 keV a multiplet of negative parity levels has been observed. At higher energies a high-spin positive parity sequence of levels starting with a E x = 1676 keV, J π 8 + level is strongly populated. Additional information is required in order to establish the structure of low and high-spin levels of both parities. The magnetic moments of the 8 + and 9 + levels have been measured using the time-integral perturbed angular distribution technique and the lifetimes of four levels have been determined using the recoil-distance method. From the measured lifetime for the 9

  3. The proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks

    Eriksson, Frank; Li, Jianing; Scheike, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We suggest an estimator for the proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks data. The key advantage of this model is that the regression parameters have the simple and useful odds ratio interpretation. The model has been considered by many authors, but it is rarely used...... in practice due to the lack of reliable estimation procedures. We suggest such procedures and show that their performance improve considerably on existing methods. We also suggest a goodness-of-fit test for the proportional odds assumption. We derive the large sample properties and provide estimators...

  4. Odds of observing the multiverse

    Dahlen, A.

    2010-01-01

    Eternal inflation predicts that our observable universe lies within a bubble (or pocket universe) embedded in a volume of inflating space. The interior of the bubble undergoes inflation and standard cosmology, while the bubble walls expand outward and collide with other neighboring bubbles. The collisions provide either an opportunity to make a direct observation of the multiverse or, if they produce unacceptable anisotropy, a threat to inflationary theory. The probability of an observer in our bubble detecting the effects of collisions has an absolute upper bound set by the odds of being in the part of our bubble that lies in the forward light cone of a collision; in the case of collisions with bubbles of identical vacua, this bound is given by the bubble nucleation rate times (H O /H I ) 2 , where H O is the Hubble scale outside the bubbles and H I is the scale of the second round of inflation that occurs inside our bubble. Similar results were obtained by Freigovel et al. using a different method for the case of collisions with bubbles of much larger cosmological constant; here, it is shown to hold in the case of collisions with identical bubbles as well.

  5. High-spin states in the transitional odd-odd nuclei 150Eu and 152Tb

    Barneoud, D.; Foin, C.; Pinston, J.A.; Monnand, E.

    1983-06-01

    The ( 7 Li, 5n) and ( 11 B, 5n) reactions have been used to study the high-spin states in the two odd-odd nuclei 150 Eu and 152 Tb. Three decoupled bands have been evidenced in each nucleus belonging to the same configurations [f 7/2]sub(n) [h 11/2]sub(p), [h 9/2]sub(n) [h 11/2 ]sub(p) and [i 13/2]sub(n) [h 11/2]sub(p). The latter one is well developped and improves our knowledge of this system between the spherical and deformed region. The analysis of the collective moment of inertia and transition ratios strongly suggests an increase of the deformation when the rotational frequency increases in these two transitional nuclei 150 Eu and 152 Tb

  6. Fighting Oxidative Stress: Increased Resistance of Male Rat Cerebellum at Weaning Induced by Low Omega 6/Omega 3 Ratio in a Protein-Deficient Diet.

    Augusto, Ricielle Lopes; Isaac, Alinny Rosendo; Silva-Júnior, Ivanildo Inácio da; Santana, David Filipe de; Ferreira, Diorginis José Soares; Lagranha, Claudia Jacques; Gonçalves-Pimentel, Catarina; Rodrigues, Marcelo Cairrão Araujo; Andrade-da-Costa, Belmira Lara da Silveira

    2017-02-01

    The cerebellum is vulnerable to malnutrition effects. Notwithstanding, it is able to incorporate higher amount of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) than the cerebral cortex (Cx) when low n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio is present in a multideficient diet. Considering importance of DHA for brain redox balance, we hypothesize that this cerebellum feature improves its antioxidant status compared to the Cx. A chronic malnutrition status was induced on dams before mating and kept until weaning or adulthood (offspring). A group nutritionally rehabilitated from weaning was also analyzed. Morphometric parameters, total-superoxide dismutase (t-SOD) and catalase activities, lipoperoxidation (LP), nitric oxide (NO), reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/phosphate levels were assessed. Both ROS and LP levels were increased (∼53 %) in the Cx of malnourished young animals while the opposite was seen in the cerebellum (72 and 20 % of the control, respectively). Consistently, lower (∼35 %) and higher t-SOD (∼153 %) and catalase (CAT) (∼38 %) activities were respectively detected in the Cx and cerebellum compared to the control. In malnourished adult animals, redox balance was maintained in the cerebellum and recovered in the Cx (lower ROS and LP levels and higher GSH/GSSG ratio). NO production was impaired by malnutrition at either age, mainly in the cerebellum. The findings suggest that despite a multinutrient deficiency and a modified structural development, a low dietary n-6/n-3 ratio favors early antioxidant resources in the male cerebellum and indicates an important role of astrocytes in the redox balance recovery of Cx in adulthood.

  7. Conflicting Coupling of Unpaired Nucleons and the Structure of Collective Bands in Odd-Odd Nuclei

    Levon, A.I.; Pasternak, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The conflicting coupling of unpaired nucleons in odd-odd nuclei is discussed. A very simple explanation is suggested for the damping of the energy spacing of the lowest levels in the rotational bands in odd-odd nuclei with the 'conflicting' coupling of an odd proton and an odd neutron comparative to those of the bands based on the state of a strongly coupled particle in the neighboring odd nucleus entering the 'conflicting' configuration.

  8. BOOK REVIEW: The Odd Quantum

    Reynolds, Helen

    2000-03-01

    The Odd Quantum is aiming to be odd. Falling between being a quantum mechanics textbook and a `popular' science book, it aims to convey something of the substance of quantum mechanics without being overly technical or professional. It does not shy away from the mathematics of the subject or resort solely to analogy and metaphor, as so often is the case. Books aimed at the lay reader tend to take on a particular aspect of quantum mechanics, for example, wave-particle duality, and can do little more than hint at the complexity of the subject. This book is more than a textbook on quantum mechanics; it gives the reader a comprehensive account of history and an appreciation of the nature of quantum mechanics. The introductory chapters deal with the earlier part of the century and the thinking of that time. The approach is familiar, as are the stories that Treiman tells, but he also manages to convey the speed with which ideas changed and the excitement this brought to the physics community. Classical ideas of force and energy are dealt with succinctly but with sufficient depth to set up the reader for what is to come; Maxwell's equations and a brief glimpse at relativity are included. This is followed by a brief description of what the author terms the `old' quantum mechanics, in effect a highly readable tour around black body radiation and spectroscopy and the models of the atom that emerged from them. The `new' quantum mechanics begins about a third of the way through the book, and in a chapter entitled `Foundations' starts gently but rapidly moves into a detailed mathematical treatment. This section, of necessity, relapses into the style of a textbook and covers a lot of ground quickly. It is at this point that the non-specialist popular science readers for whom Treiman has written this book may become a little bemused. Concepts such as non-degeneracy and operators come thick and fast. It is difficult to imagine an educated non-physicist with little mathematical

  9. Contrasting female-male mortality ratios after routine vaccinations with pentavalent vaccine versus measles and yellow fever vaccine. A cohort study from urban Guinea-Bissau.

    Fisker, Ane B; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Lund, Najaaraq; Djana, Queba; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Martins, Cesario L; Benn, Christine S

    2016-08-31

    In addition to protection against the target diseases, vaccines may have non-specific effects (NSEs). Measles vaccine (MV) has beneficial NSEs, providing protection against non-measles deaths, most so for girls. By contrast, though protecting against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis, DTP vaccine is associated with increased female mortality relative to male mortality. In 2008, Guinea-Bissau replaced DTP with the DTP-containing pentavalent vaccine (Penta; DTP-H. influenza type B-Hepatitis B) at 6, 10 and 14weeks and yellow fever vaccine (YF) was to be given with MV. We investigated possible sex-differential mortality rates following Penta and MV+YF vaccination. Bandim Health Project (BHP) registers vaccines given by the three government health centres in the study area and vital status through demographic surveillance. We assessed the association between sex and mortality by vaccination status in Cox proportional hazards models with age as underlying timescale. Follow-up was censored at a subsequent vaccination contact or after 6months of follow-up. Between September 2008 and April 2011, we registered 23,448 vaccination contacts for children aged 42-365days; 17,313 were for Penta and 3028 for MV (2907 co-administered with YF). During follow-up 112 children died. The female/male mortality rate ratio was 1.73 (1.11-2.70) following Penta and 0.38 (0.12-1.19) after MV (p=0.02 for same effect). Adjusting for maternal education or weight-for-age at the time of vaccination did not change the estimates. Penta appears to have the same negative effects on mortality as those seen for DTP. Assessing post-vaccination mortality for boys and girls is necessary to improve the vaccination programme. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. The Trend Odds Model for Ordinal Data‡

    Capuano, Ana W.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    Ordinal data appear in a wide variety of scientific fields. These data are often analyzed using ordinal logistic regression models that assume proportional odds. When this assumption is not met, it may be possible to capture the lack of proportionality using a constrained structural relationship between the odds and the cut-points of the ordinal values (Peterson and Harrell, 1990). We consider a trend odds version of this constrained model, where the odds parameter increases or decreases in a monotonic manner across the cut-points. We demonstrate algebraically and graphically how this model is related to latent logistic, normal, and exponential distributions. In particular, we find that scale changes in these potential latent distributions are consistent with the trend odds assumption, with the logistic and exponential distributions having odds that increase in a linear or nearly linear fashion. We show how to fit this model using SAS Proc Nlmixed, and perform simulations under proportional odds and trend odds processes. We find that the added complexity of the trend odds model gives improved power over the proportional odds model when there are moderate to severe departures from proportionality. A hypothetical dataset is used to illustrate the interpretation of the trend odds model, and we apply this model to a Swine Influenza example where the proportional odds assumption appears to be violated. PMID:23225520

  11. The trend odds model for ordinal data.

    Capuano, Ana W; Dawson, Jeffrey D

    2013-06-15

    Ordinal data appear in a wide variety of scientific fields. These data are often analyzed using ordinal logistic regression models that assume proportional odds. When this assumption is not met, it may be possible to capture the lack of proportionality using a constrained structural relationship between the odds and the cut-points of the ordinal values. We consider a trend odds version of this constrained model, wherein the odds parameter increases or decreases in a monotonic manner across the cut-points. We demonstrate algebraically and graphically how this model is related to latent logistic, normal, and exponential distributions. In particular, we find that scale changes in these potential latent distributions are consistent with the trend odds assumption, with the logistic and exponential distributions having odds that increase in a linear or nearly linear fashion. We show how to fit this model using SAS Proc NLMIXED and perform simulations under proportional odds and trend odds processes. We find that the added complexity of the trend odds model gives improved power over the proportional odds model when there are moderate to severe departures from proportionality. A hypothetical data set is used to illustrate the interpretation of the trend odds model, and we apply this model to a swine influenza example wherein the proportional odds assumption appears to be violated. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The Effect of Testosterone Administration and Digit Ratio (2D:4D on Implicit Preference for Status Goods in Healthy Males

    Yin Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone has been linked to social status seeking in humans. The present study investigated the effects of testosterone administration on implicit and explicit preferences for status goods in healthy male participants (n = 64, using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design. We also investigated the interactive effect between second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D; i.e., a proximal index of prenatal testosterone and testosterone treatment on status preferences. Results showed that testosterone administration has no discernable influence on self-reported willingness-to-pay (i.e., the explicit measure or implicit attitudes towards status goods. Individuals with lower 2D:4D (i.e., more masculine had more positive attitudes for high-status goods on an Implicit Association Task, and this association was abolished with testosterone administration. These data suggest interactive effects of acute testosterone administration and prenatal testosterone exposure on human social status seeking, and highlight the utility of implicit methods for measuring status-related behavior.

  13. Odds of fault and factors for out-of-state drivers in crashes in four states of the USA.

    Harootunian, Kristine; Lee, Brian H Y; Aultman-Hall, Lisa

    2014-11-01

    Drivers outside their country of residence are at a safety disadvantage when compared to native counterparts. This research aimed to (1) investigate if out-of-state drivers in the United States experienced the same vulnerabilities as foreign drivers, and (2) examine the relations of out-of-state crashes to various human and environmental factors. Crash data from Florida, Maine, Minnesota, and Nevada was analyzed to model fault using logistic regressions. Univariate regressions showed that out-of-state drivers had increased odds of fault, ranging from 17% to 92%, for a single-vehicle crash compared to in-state drivers in all states except Florida, where there was no difference between groups. Odds were elevated for out-of-state drivers in two-vehicle crashes by 3% to 19% in all states except Florida and Minnesota, where, again, there was no difference between groups. Human and environmental factors such as age, sex, driving conditions, and seasons were examined with multivariate regressions for in- and out-of-state groups separately, and their odds ratios were compared. For single-vehicle crashes age, sex, road grade, surface condition, light conditions, and day of week were factors that increased at least one of the two groups' odds of fault in all states. Sex, surface condition, and light conditions increased the odds of fault for at least one of the groups in two-vehicle crashes in all four states. Factors that consistently increased odds of fault for both single- and two-vehicle crashes were males, non-vehicle owners, curves, and inclement weather. Although there were several factors in each state that increased odds of fault for out-of-state drivers, no factors consistently increased odds of fault for out-of-state drivers across all four states. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Coulomb Excitation of Odd-Mass and Odd-Odd Cu Isotopes using REX-ISOLDE and Miniball

    Lauer, M; Iwanicki, J S

    2002-01-01

    We propose to study the properties of the odd-mass and the odd-odd neutron-rich Cu nuclei applying the Coulomb excitation technique and using the REX-ISOLDE facility coupled to the Miniball array. The results from the Coulex experiments accomplished at REX-ISOLDE after its upgrade to 3 MeV/u during the last year have shown the power of this method and its importance in order to obtain information on the collective properties of even-even nuclei. Performing an experiment on the odd-mass and on the odd-odd neutron-rich Cu isotopes in the vicinity of N=40 should allow us to determine and interpret the effective proton and neutron charges in the region and to unravel the lowest proton-neutron multiplets in $^{68,70}$Cu. This experiment can take the advantage of the unique opportunity to accelerate isomerically separated beams using the RILIS ion source at ISOLDE.

  15. Discussion about different cut-off values of conventional hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio used in hamstring injury prediction among professional male football players.

    Monika Grygorowicz

    Full Text Available To measure the sensitivity and specificity of differences cut-off values for isokinetic Hcon/Qcon ratio in order to improve the capacity to evaluate (retrospectively the injury of hamstring muscles in professional soccer screened with knee isokinetic tests.Retrospective study.Medical and biomechanical data of professional football players playing for the same team for at least one season between 2010 and 2016 were analysed. Hamstring strain injury cases and the reports generated via isokinetic testing were investigated. Isokinetic concentric(con hamstring(H and quadriceps(Q absolute strength in addition with Hcon/Qcon ratio were examined for the injured versus uninjured limbs among injured players, and for the injured and non-injured players. 2 x 2 contingency table was used for comparing variables: predicted injured or predicted uninjured with actual injured or actual uninjured. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratio were calculated for three different cut-off values (0.47 vs. 0.6 vs. 0.658 to compare the discriminative power of an isokinetic test, whilst examining the key value of Hcon/Qcon ratio which may indicate the highest level of ability to predispose a player to injury. McNemar's chi2 test with Yates's correction was used to determine agreement between the tests. PQStat software was used for all statistical analysis, and an alpha level of p <0.05 was used for all statistical comparisons.340 isokinetic test reports on both limbs of 66 professional soccer players were analysed. Eleven players suffered hamstring injuries during the analysed period. None of these players sustained recurrence of hamstring injury. One player sustained hamstring strain injury on both legs, thus the total number of injuries was 12. Application of different cut-off values for Hcon/Qcon significantly affected the sensitivity and specificity of isokinetic test used as a tool for

  16. Degenerate odd Poisson bracket on Grassmann variables

    Soroka, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    A linear degenerate odd Poisson bracket (antibracket) realized solely on Grassmann variables is proposed. It is revealed that this bracket has at once three Grassmann-odd nilpotent Δ-like differential operators of the first, second and third orders with respect to the Grassmann derivatives. It is shown that these Δ-like operators, together with the Grassmann-odd nilpotent Casimir function of this bracket, form a finite-dimensional Lie superalgebra

  17. Isomeric structures in neutron-rich odd-odd Pm (Z = 61) isotopes

    Sood, P.C.; Singh, B.; Jain, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    Each of the heavier odd-odd isotopes, namely, 152 Pm, 154 Pm and 156 Pm, have multiple low-lying isomers, almost all of them with undefined configuration and also undefined energy placement. Present investigations attempt credible characterization of the isomers using a simplified two-quasiparticle rotor model which has been widely employed for description of odd-odd deformed nuclei

  18. Odd-frequency pairing in superconducting heterostructures

    Golubov, A A [Faculty of Science and Technology and MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Tanaka, Y [Department of Applied Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya, 464-8603 (Japan); Asano, Y [Department of Applied Physics, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Tanuma, Y [Institute of Physics, Kanagawa University, 3-7-1, Rokkakubashi, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama 221-8686 (Japan)], E-mail: a.golubov@utwente.nl

    2009-04-22

    We review the theory of odd-frequency pairing in superconducting heterostructures, where an odd-frequency pairing component is induced near interfaces. A general description of the superconducting proximity effect in a normal metal or a ferromagnet attached to an unconventional superconductor (S) is given within quasiclassical kinetic theory for various types of symmetry state in S. Various possible symmetry classes in a superconductor are considered which are consistent with the Pauli principle: even-frequency spin-singlet even-parity (ESE) state, even-frequency spin-triplet odd-parity (ETO) state, odd-frequency spin-triplet even-parity (OTE) state and odd-frequency spin-singlet odd-parity (OSO) state. As an example, we consider a junction between a diffusive normal metal (DN) and a p-wave superconductor (even-frequency spin-triplet odd-parity symmetry), where the pairing amplitude in DN belongs to an odd-frequency spin-triplet even-parity symmetry class. We also discuss the manifestation of odd-frequency pairing in conventional superconductor/normal (S/N) proximity systems and its relation to the classical McMillan-Rowell oscillations.

  19. The odd side of torsion geometry

    Conti, Diego; Madsen, Thomas Bruun

    2014-01-01

    We introduce and study a notion of `Sasaki with torsion structure' (ST) as an odd-dimensional analogue of Kähler with torsion geometry (KT). These are normal almost contact metric manifolds that admit a unique compatible connection with 3-form torsion. Any odd-dimensional compact Lie group is sho...

  20. Linear odd Poisson bracket on Grassmann variables

    Soroka, V.A.

    1999-01-01

    A linear odd Poisson bracket (antibracket) realized solely in terms of Grassmann variables is suggested. It is revealed that the bracket, which corresponds to a semi-simple Lie group, has at once three Grassmann-odd nilpotent Δ-like differential operators of the first, the second and the third orders with respect to Grassmann derivatives, in contrast with the canonical odd Poisson bracket having the only Grassmann-odd nilpotent differential Δ-operator of the second order. It is shown that these Δ-like operators together with a Grassmann-odd nilpotent Casimir function of this bracket form a finite-dimensional Lie superalgebra. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  1. H-Y antibody titers are increased in unexplained secondary recurrent miscarriage patients and associated with low male : female ratio in subsequent live births

    Nielsen, H S; Wu, F; Aghai, Z

    2010-01-01

    The birth of a boy is significantly more common than a girl prior to secondary recurrent miscarriage (SRM) and is associated with a poorer chance of a subsequent live birth. Children born after SRM are more likely to be girls. High-titer antisera specific for male antigens (H-Y) have been shown t...... to arrest development of male bovine embryos efficiently. We consequently questioned the role of H-Y antibodies in women with SRM....

  2. Signature inversion of the semi-decoupled band in the odd-odd nucleus 170Ta

    Deng Fuguo; Yang Chunxiang; Zhou Hongyu; Sun Huibin; Lu Jingbin; Zhao Guangyi; Yin Lichang; Liu Yunzuo

    2001-01-01

    The high-spin states of the odd-odd nucleus 170 Ta have been studied by the 155 Gd( 19 F, 4n) 170 Ta reaction at the beam energy of 97 MeV. The α = 1 sequence of the semi-decoupled band has been pushed to higher-spin states and the signature inversion point was observed at 19.5 ℎ. the results are compared with those of the neighbouring odd-odd nuclei

  3. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  4. Repeated in utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure affects male gonads in offspring, leading to sex ratio changes in F2 progeny

    Ikeda, Masahiko; Tamura, Masashi; Yamashita, Junko; Suzuki, Chinatsu; Tomita, Takako

    2005-01-01

    The effects of in utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on the reproductive system of male rat offspring (F 1 ) and the sex ratio of the subsequent generation (F 2 ) were examined. Female Holtzman rats were gavaged with an initial loading dose of 400 ng/kg TCDD prior to mating, followed by weekly maintenance doses of 80 ng/kg during mating, pregnancy, and the lactation period. Maternal exposure to TCDD had no significant effects on fetus/pup (F 1 ) mortality, litter size, or sex ratio on gestation day (GD) 20 or postnatal day (PND) 2. The TCDD concentration in maternal livers and adipose tissue on GD20 was 1.21 and 1.81 ng/kg, respectively, and decreased at weaning to 0.72 in the liver and 0.84 in the adipose tissue. In contrast, the TCDD concentration in pup livers was 1.32 ng/kg on PND2 and increased to 1.80 ng/kg at weaning. Ventral prostate weight of male offspring was significantly decreased by TCDD exposure on PND28 and 120 compared with that of controls. Weight of the testes, cauda epididymides, and seminal vesicle, and sperm number in the cauda epididymis were not changed by TCDD exposure at PND120. TCDD- or vehicle-exposed male offspring were mated with unexposed females. The sex ratio (percentage of male pups) of F 2 offspring was significantly reduced in the TCDD-exposed group compared with controls. These results suggest that in utero and lactational TCDD exposures affect the development of male gonads in offspring (F 1 ), leading to changes in the sex ratio of the subsequent generation (F 2 )

  5. Alpha-cluster preformation factor within cluster-formation model for odd-A and odd-odd heavy nuclei

    Saleh Ahmed, Saad M.

    2017-06-01

    The alpha-cluster probability that represents the preformation of alpha particle in alpha-decay nuclei was determined for high-intensity alpha-decay mode odd-A and odd-odd heavy nuclei, 82 CSR) and the hypothesised cluster-formation model (CFM) as in our previous work. Our previous successful determination of phenomenological values of alpha-cluster preformation factors for even-even nuclei motivated us to expand the work to cover other types of nuclei. The formation energy of interior alpha cluster needed to be derived for the different nuclear systems with considering the unpaired-nucleon effect. The results showed the phenomenological value of alpha preformation probability and reflected the unpaired nucleon effect and the magic and sub-magic effects in nuclei. These results and their analyses presented are very useful for future work concerning the calculation of the alpha decay constants and the progress of its theory.

  6. Odd-frequency pairing in superconducting heterostructures .

    Golubov, A. A.; Tanaka, Y.; Yokoyama, T.; Asano, Y.

    2007-03-01

    We present a general theory of the proximity effect in junctions between unconventional superconductors and diffusive normal metals (DN) or ferromagnets (DF). We consider all possible symmetry classes in a superconductor allowed by the Pauli principle: even-frequency spin-singlet even-parity state, even-frequency spin-triplet odd-parity state, odd-frequency spin-triplet even-parity state and odd-frequency spin-singlet odd-parity state. For each of the above states, symmetry and spectral properties of the induced pair amplitude in the DN (DF) are determined. The cases of junctions with spin-singlet s- and d-wave superconductors and spin-triplet p-wave superconductors are adressed in detail. We discuss the interplay between the proximity effect and midgap Andreev bound states arising at interfaces in unconventional (d- or p-wave) junctions. The most striking property is the odd-frequency symmetry of the pairing amplitude induced in DN (DF) in contacts with p-wave superconductors. This leads to zero-energy singularity in the density of states and to anomalous screening of an external magnetic field. Peculiarities of Josephson effect in d- or p-wave junctions are discussed. Experiments are suggested to detect an order parameter symmetry using heterostructures with unconventional superconductors.

  7. On chiral-odd Generalized Parton Distributions

    Wallon, Samuel [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique d' Orsay - LPT, Bat. 210, Univ. Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); UPMC Univ. Paris 6, Paris (France); Pire, Bernard [Centre de Physique Theorique - CPHT, UMR 7644, Ecole Polytechnique, Bat. 6, RDC, F91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Szymanowski, Lech [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00691, Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    The chiral-odd transversity generalized parton distributions of the nucleon can be accessed experimentally through the exclusive photoproduction process {gamma} + N {yields} {pi} + {rho} + N', in the kinematics where the meson pair has a large invariant mass and the final nucleon has a small transverse momentum, provided the vector meson is produced in a transversally polarized state. Estimated counting rates show that the experiment is feasible with real or quasi real photon beams expected at JLab at 12 GeV and in the COMPASS experiment. (Phys Letters B688,154,2010) In addition, a consistent classification of the chiral-odd pion GPDs beyond the leading twist 2 is presented. Based on QCD equations of motion and on the invariance under rotation on the light-cone of any scattering amplitude involving such GPDs, we reduce the basis of these chiral-odd GPDs to a minimal set. (author)

  8. How Good Is Your Rule of Thumb? Validating Male-to-Female Case Ratio as a Proxy for Men Who Have Sex With Men Involvement in N. gonorrhoeae Incidence at the County Level.

    Stenger, Mark; Bauer, Heidi; Klingler, Ellen; Bell, Teal; Donnelly, Jennifer; Eaglin, Margaret; Jespersen, Megan; Madera, Robbie; Mattson, Melanie; Torrone, Elizabeth

    2018-03-01

    Lacking information on men who have sex with men (MSM) for most reported cases, sexually transmitted disease (STD) programs in the United States have used crude measures such as male-to-female case ratios (MFCR) as a rule of thumb to gauge MSM involvement at the local level, primarily with respect to syphilis cases in the past. Suitability of this measure for gonorrhea incidence has not previously been investigated. A random sample of gonorrhea cases reported from January 2010 through June 2013 were interviewed in selected counties participating in the STD Surveillance Network to obtain gender of sex partners and history of transactional sex. Weighted estimates of proportion of cases among MSM and proportion reporting transactional sex were developed; correlation between MFCR and proportion MSM was assessed. Male-to-female case ratio ranged from 0.66 to 8.7, and the proportion of cases occurring among MSM varied from 2.5% to 62.3%. The MFCR was strongly correlated with proportion of cases among MSM after controlling for transactional sex (Pearson partial r = 0.754, P < 0.0001). Male-to-female case ratio for gonorrhea at the county level is a reliable proxy measure indicating MSM involvement in gonorrhea case incidence and should be used by STD programs to tailor their programmatic mix to include MSM-specific interventions.

  9. Non-adiabatic description of proton emission from the odd-odd nucleus 130Eu

    Patial Monika

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the non-adiabatic quasiparticle approach for calculating the rotational spectra and decay width of odd-odd proton emitters. The Coriolis effects are incorporated in both the parent and daughter wave functions. Results for the two probable ground states (1+ and 2+ of the proton emitter 130Eu are discussed. With our calculations, we confirm the proton emitting state to be the Iπ = 1+ state, irrespective of the strength of the Coriolis interaction. This study provides us with an opportunity to look into the details of wave functions of deformed odd-odd nuclei to which the proton emission halflives are quite sensitive.

  10. PARITY ODD BUBBLES IN HOT QCD

    KHARZEEV, D.; PISARSKI, R.D.; TYTGAT, M.H.G.

    1998-01-01

    We consider the topological susceptibility for an SU(N) gauge theory in the limit of a large number of colors, N r a rrow ∞. At nonzero temperature, the behavior of the topological susceptibility depends upon the order of the deconfining phase transition. The most interesting possibility is if the deconfining transition, at T = T d , is of second order. Then we argue that Witten's relation implies that the topological susceptibility vanishes in a calculable fashion at Td. As noted by Witten, this implies that for sufficiently light quark masses, metastable states which act like regions of nonzero θ--parity odd bubbles--can arise at temperatures just below T d . Experimentally, parity odd bubbles have dramatic signatures: the ηprime meson, and especially the η meson, become light, and are copiously produced. Further, in parity odd bubbles, processes which are normally forbidden, such as η r a rrow π 0 π 0 , are allowed. The most direct way to detect parity violation is by measuring a parity odd global asymmetry for charged pions, which we define

  11. PARITY ODD BUBBLES IN HOT QCD.

    KHARZEEV,D.; PISARSKI,R.D.; TYTGAT,M.H.G.

    1998-04-16

    We consider the topological susceptibility for an SU(N) gauge theory in the limit of a large number of colors, N {r_arrow} {infinity}. At nonzero temperature, the behavior of the topological susceptibility depends upon the order of the deconfining phase transition. The most interesting possibility is if the deconfining transition, at T = T{sub d}, is of second order. Then we argue that Witten's relation implies that the topological susceptibility vanishes in a calculable fashion at Td. As noted by Witten, this implies that for sufficiently light quark masses, metastable states which act like regions of nonzero {theta}--parity odd bubbles--can arise at temperatures just below T{sub d}. Experimentally, parity odd bubbles have dramatic signatures: the {eta}{prime} meson, and especially the {eta} meson, become light, and are copiously produced. Further, in parity odd bubbles, processes which are normally forbidden, such as {eta} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, are allowed. The most direct way to detect parity violation is by measuring a parity odd global asymmetry for charged pions, which we define.

  12. Confusion between Odds and Probability, a Pandemic?

    Fulton, Lawrence V.; Mendez, Francis A.; Bastian, Nathaniel D.; Musal, R. Muzaffer

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript discusses the common confusion between the terms probability and odds. To emphasize the importance and responsibility of being meticulous in the dissemination of information and knowledge, this manuscript reveals five cases of sources of inaccurate statistical language imbedded in the dissemination of information to the general…

  13. The Alleged Oddness of Ethical Egoism

    Marietta, Don E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    There are some critics of ethical egoism who treat it seriously as an ethical doctrine, but consider it an odd approach. Examines this doctrine and suggests that if we are to have the benefit of egoism as a sound ethical approach, or rightly assess its inadequacies, we must first see it fairly. (Author/RK)

  14. Supplementation of Eurycoma longifolia Jack Extract for 6 Weeks Does Not Affect Urinary Testosterone: Epitestosterone Ratio, Liver and Renal Functions in Male Recreational Athletes

    Chee Keong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Supplementation of ElJ i.e. Physta ® at a dosage of 400 mg/day for 6 weeks did not affect the urinary T:E ratio and hence will not breach any doping policies of the International Olympic Committee for administration of exogenous testosterone or its precursor. In addition, the supplementation of ElJ at this dosage and duration was safe as it did adversely affect the liver and renal functions.

  15. Inverted spin sequences in the spectra of odd-odd nuclei in the 2S-1d and 2P-1f shells

    Sharma, Arvind; Sharma, S.D.

    1990-01-01

    In case of odd-odd nuclei, near magic numbers, there are found inverted sequences as well as few rotational members. In order to explain the unique feature of the spectra of odd-odd nuclei, we have applied modified form of rotational-vibrational model with two parameters A and B. It is found that level orders in inverted as well as in rotational sequences are very well reproduced on the basis of this model. In case of inverted spin sequences, the sign of B is found to be positive. The ratio of B/A is ≅ 10 -2 as compared to its value of the order of 10 -3 in case of even-even and odd-A nuclei. We infer that pair correlations are responsible for these invertions. The simple model applied here worked well to predict these inverted spectra. (author)

  16. Gamow-Teller decay of T = 1 nuclei to odd-odd N = Z nuclei

    Lisetskiy, A F [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, MSU, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Gelberg, A [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Cologne, 50937 Cologne (Germany); Institute of Physical and Chemical Reasearch (RIKEN), Wako, 351-0198 (Japan); Brentano, P von [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Cologne, 50937 Cologne (Germany)

    2005-01-01

    Transition strengths of Gamow-Teller decay of T{sub z} = {+-}1 nuclei to N = Z odd-odd nuclei have been calculated in a two-nucleon approximation for spherical and deformed nuclei. The results obtained for the latter are quite close to the values obtained by full-space shell-model calculations and to the experiment.

  17. Contrasting female-male mortality ratios after routine vaccinations with pentavalent vaccine versus measles and yellow fever vaccine. A cohort study from urban Guinea-Bissau

    Fisker, Ane B; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Lund, Najaaraq

    2016-01-01

    , DTP vaccine is associated with increased female mortality relative to male mortality. In 2008, Guinea-Bissau replaced DTP with the DTP-containing pentavalent vaccine (Penta; DTP-H. influenza type B-Hepatitis B) at 6, 10 and 14weeks and yellow fever vaccine (YF) was to be given with MV. We investigated......BACKGROUND: In addition to protection against the target diseases, vaccines may have non-specific effects (NSEs). Measles vaccine (MV) has beneficial NSEs, providing protection against non-measles deaths, most so for girls. By contrast, though protecting against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis...... possible sex-differential mortality rates following Penta and MV+YF vaccination. METHODS: Bandim Health Project (BHP) registers vaccines given by the three government health centres in the study area and vital status through demographic surveillance. We assessed the association between sex and mortality...

  18. Odd-parity baryons: progress and problems

    Cutkosky, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    The odd-parity baryons have provided a graveyard for many cherished ideas about hadrons. The simple quark shell model, with QCD-inspired phenomenological perturbations, is the only model able to describe the states with even partial qualitative success. There are also important unexplained residual dynamical effects. Resonance decays can be accounted for, provided the usual spectator model is abandoned. Better experimental data could help to sort out the many remaining puzzles

  19. Discussion about different cut-off values of conventional hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio used in hamstring injury prediction among professional male football players.

    Grygorowicz, Monika; Michałowska, Martyna; Walczak, Tomasz; Owen, Adam; Grabski, Jakub Krzysztof; Pyda, Andrzej; Piontek, Tomasz; Kotwicki, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    To measure the sensitivity and specificity of differences cut-off values for isokinetic Hcon/Qcon ratio in order to improve the capacity to evaluate (retrospectively) the injury of hamstring muscles in professional soccer screened with knee isokinetic tests. Retrospective study. Medical and biomechanical data of professional football players playing for the same team for at least one season between 2010 and 2016 were analysed. Hamstring strain injury cases and the reports generated via isokinetic testing were investigated. Isokinetic concentric(con) hamstring(H) and quadriceps(Q) absolute strength in addition with Hcon/Qcon ratio were examined for the injured versus uninjured limbs among injured players, and for the injured and non-injured players. 2 x 2 contingency table was used for comparing variables: predicted injured or predicted uninjured with actual injured or actual uninjured. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratio were calculated for three different cut-off values (0.47 vs. 0.6 vs. 0.658) to compare the discriminative power of an isokinetic test, whilst examining the key value of Hcon/Qcon ratio which may indicate the highest level of ability to predispose a player to injury. McNemar's chi2 test with Yates's correction was used to determine agreement between the tests. PQStat software was used for all statistical analysis, and an alpha level of p hamstring injuries during the analysed period. None of these players sustained recurrence of hamstring injury. One player sustained hamstring strain injury on both legs, thus the total number of injuries was 12. Application of different cut-off values for Hcon/Qcon significantly affected the sensitivity and specificity of isokinetic test used as a tool for muscle injury detection. The use of 0.47 of Hcon/Qcon as a discriminate value resulted in significantly lower sensitivity when compared to 0.658 threshold (sensitivity of 16.7% vs

  20. Magnetic dipole moments of deformed odd-odd nuclei up to 2p-1f shells

    Garg, V P; Verma, A K; Gandhi, R; Sharma, S D [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1981-02-01

    The expression for magnetic moments for the states comprising ground state configurations of odd-odd nuclei has been simplified by excluding mixing of other nucleonic configurations. This is contrary to Sharma's and Davidson's results which had been obtained by diagonalizing state matrices for a set of parameters using Davidov and Filippov's non-axial rotor model. According to the relative directions of spins of unpaired odd nucleons, the nuclei have been classified under four categories-an exercise not attempted till now. The calculations have been done with various quenching factors depending upon the relative spin orientations of odd nucleons. For most of the nuclei, the results show considerable improvement over those of Gallagher and Moszkowski and of Sharma.

  1. Independence, Odd Girth, and Average Degree

    Löwenstein, Christian; Pedersen, Anders Sune; Rautenbach, Dieter

    2011-01-01

      We prove several tight lower bounds in terms of the order and the average degree for the independence number of graphs that are connected and/or satisfy some odd girth condition. Our main result is the extension of a lower bound for the independence number of triangle-free graphs of maximum...... degree at most three due to Heckman and Thomas [Discrete Math 233 (2001), 233–237] to arbitrary triangle-free graphs. For connected triangle-free graphs of order n and size m, our result implies the existence of an independent set of order at least (4n−m−1) / 7.  ...

  2. Study on rotational bands in odd-odd nuclei 102,l04Nb by using PSM

    Dong Yongsheng; Hu Wentao; Feng Youliang; Wang Jinbao; Yu Shaoying; Shen Caiwan

    2012-01-01

    The Projected Shell Model (PSM) is used to study the low energy scheme of the neutron-rich normal-deformed isotopes of odd-odd nuclei 102,104 Nb. The quasiparticle configuration is assigned. The theoretical calculations of the energy band of 102,104 Nb could well reproduce the experimental data. It is shown that PSM is a valid method for studying the low energy scheme of heavy nuclei. (authors)

  3. High-Spin States in Odd-Odd N=Z {sup 46}V

    O' Leary, C.D.; Bentley, M.A.; Appelbe, D.E.; Bark, R.A.; Cullen, D.M.; Erturk, S.; Maj. A.; Sheikh, J.A.; Warner, D.D.

    1999-12-31

    High-spin states up to the F{sub 7/2}-shell band termination at J{pi}=15+ have been observed for the first time in the odd-odd N=Z=23 nucleous {sup 46}V. The new level scheme has two separate structures corresponding to spherical and prolate shapes. A rotational band has very similar energies to the yrast sequence in {sup 46}Ti and is therefore assumed to be a T=1 configuration.

  4. Increased odds and predictive rates of MMPI-2-RF scale elevations in patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures and observed sex differences.

    Del Bene, Victor A; Arce Rentería, Miguel; Maiman, Moshe; Slugh, Mitch; Gazzola, Deana M; Nadkarni, Siddhartha S; Barr, William B

    2017-07-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) is a self-report instrument, previously shown to differentiate patients with epileptic seizures (ES) and psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES). At present, the odds of MMPI-2-RF scale elevations in PNES patients, as well as the diagnostic predictive value of such scale elevations, remain largely unexplored. This can be of clinical utility, particularly when a diagnosis is uncertain. After looking at mean group differences, we applied contingency table derived odds ratios to a sample of ES (n=92) and PNES (n=77) patients from a video EEG (vEEG) monitoring unit. We also looked at the positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV), as well as the false discovery rate (FDR) and false omission rate (FOR) for scales found to have increased odds of elevation in PNES patients. This was completed for the overall sample, as well as the sample stratified by sex. The odds of elevations related to somatic concerns, negative mood, and suicidal ideation in the PNES sample ranged from 2 to 5 times more likely. Female PNES patients had 3-6 times greater odds of such scale elevations, while male PNES patients had odds of 5-15 times more likely. PPV rates ranged from 53.66% to 84.62%, while NPV rates ranged from 47.52% to 90.91%. FDR across scales ranged from 15.38% to 50%, while the FOR ranged from 9.09% to 52.47%. Consistent with prior research, PNES patients have greater odds of MMPI-2-RF scale elevations, particularly related to somatic concerns and mood disturbance. Female PNES patients endorsed greater emotional distress, including endorsement of suicide related items. Elevations of these scales could aid in differentiating PNES from ES patients, although caution is warranted due to the possibility of both false positives and the incorrect omissions of PNES cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. ADHD, ODD, and CD: Do They Belong to a Common Psychopathological Spectrum? A Case Series

    Sayanti Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of Research. Numerous studies have reported comorbidities, overlapping symptoms, and shared risk factors among cases of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD and conduct disorder (CD. We present three adolescent males aged 13–16 years with conduct disorder having past history of ADHD and ODD. Principal Result. The symptom profile especially in domains of aggression, hostility, and emotionality as well as the manner of progression from ADHD to ODD and CD in the above cases shows a similar pattern. Conclusion. These common developmental pathways and overlapping symptoms suggest the possibility of a common psychopathological spectrum encompassing the three externalizing disorders.

  6. The evens and odds of CMB anomalies

    Gruppuso, A.; Kitazawa, N.; Lattanzi, M.; Mandolesi, N.; Natoli, P.; Sagnotti, A.

    2018-06-01

    The lack of power of large-angle CMB anisotropies is known to increase its statistical significance at higher Galactic latitudes, where a string-inspired pre-inflationary scale Δ can also be detected. Considering the Planck 2015 data, and relying largely on a Bayesian approach, we show that the effect is mostly driven by the even - ℓ harmonic multipoles with ℓ ≲ 20, which appear sizably suppressed in a way that is robust with respect to Galactic masking, along with the corresponding detections of Δ. On the other hand, the first odd - ℓ multipoles are only suppressed at high Galactic latitudes. We investigate this behavior in different sky masks, constraining Δ through even and odd multipoles, and we elaborate on possible implications. We include low- ℓ polarization data which, despite being noise-limited, help in attaining confidence levels of about 3 σ in the detection of Δ. We also show by direct forecasts that a future all-sky E-mode cosmic-variance-limited polarization survey may push the constraining power for Δ beyond 5 σ.

  7. Sigma decomposition: the CP-odd Lagrangian

    Hierro, I.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Galilei”, Università di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua (Italy); Merlo, L. [Instituto de Física Teórica, IFT-UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Rigolin, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Galilei”, Università di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua (Italy)

    2016-04-04

    In Alonso et al., http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP12(2014)034, the CP-even sector of the effective chiral Lagrangian for a generic composite Higgs model with a symmetric coset has been constructed, up to four momenta. In this paper, the CP-odd couplings are studied within the same context. If only the Standard Model bosonic sources of custodial symmetry breaking are considered, then at most six independent operators form a basis. One of them is the weak-θ term linked to non-perturbative sources of CP violation, while the others describe CP-odd perturbative couplings between the Standard Model gauge bosons and an Higgs-like scalar belonging to the Goldstone boson sector. The procedure is then applied to three distinct exemplifying frameworks: the original SU(5)/SO(5) Georgi-Kaplan model, the minimal custodial-preserving SO(5)/SO(4) model and the minimal SU(3)/(SU(2)×U(1)) model, which intrinsically breaks custodial symmetry. Moreover, the projection of the high-energy electroweak effective theory to the low-energy chiral effective Lagrangian for a dynamical Higgs is performed, uncovering strong relations between the operator coefficients and pinpointing the differences with the elementary Higgs scenario.

  8. Signature inversion in doubly odd 124La

    Chantler, H.J.; Paul, E.S.; Boston, A.J.; Choy, P.T.W.; Nolan, P.J.; Carpenter, M.P.; Davids, C.N.; Seweryniak, D.; Charity, R.; Devlin, M.; Sarantites, D.G.; Chiara, C.J.; Fossan, D.B.; Koike, T.; LaFosse, D.R.; Starosta, K.; Fletcher, A.M.; Smith, J.F.; Jenkins, D.G.; Kelsall, N.S.

    2002-01-01

    High-spin states have been studied in neutron-deficient 57 124 La 67 , populated through the 64 Zn( 64 Zn,3pn) reaction at 260 MeV. The Gammasphere γ-ray spectrometer has been used in conjunction with the Microball charged-particle detector, the Neutron Shell, and the Argonne Fragment Mass Analyzer, in order to select evaporation residues of interest. The known band structures have been extended and new bands found. Most of the bands are linked together, allowing more consistent spin and parity assignments. Comparison of band properties to cranking calculations has allowed configuration assignments to be made and includes the first identification of the g 9/2 proton-hole in an odd-odd lanthanum isotope. Two bands have been assigned a πh 11/2 xνh 11/2 structure; the yrast one exhibits a signature inversion in its level energies below I=18.5(ℎ/2π), while the excited one exhibits a signature inversion above I=18.5(ℎ/2π)

  9. Soil clay content underlies prion infection odds

    David, Walter W.; Walsh, D.P.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; Winkelman, D.L.; Miller, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental factors-especially soil properties-have been suggested as potentially important in the transmission of infectious prion diseases. Because binding to montmorillonite (an aluminosilicate clay mineral) or clay-enriched soils had been shown to enhance experimental prion transmissibility, we hypothesized that prion transmission among mule deer might also be enhanced in ranges with relatively high soil clay content. In this study, we report apparent influences of soil clay content on the odds of prion infection in free-ranging deer. Analysis of data from prion-infected deer herds in northern Colorado, USA, revealed that a 1% increase in the clay-sized particle content in soils within the approximate home range of an individual deer increased its odds of infection by up to 8.9%. Our findings suggest that soil clay content and related environmental properties deserve greater attention in assessing risks of prion disease outbreaks and prospects for their control in both natural and production settings. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhanced T-odd, P-odd electromagnetic moments in reflection asymmetric nuclei

    Spevak, V.; Auerbach, N.; Flambaum, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    Collective P- and T-odd moments produced by parity and time invariance violating forces in reflection asymmetric nuclei are considered. The enhanced collective Schiff, electric dipole, and octupole moments appear due to the mixing of rotational levels of opposite parity. These moments can exceed single-particle moments by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The enhancement is due to the collective nature of the intrinsic moments and the small energy separation between members of parity doublets. In turn these nuclear moments induce enhanced T- and P-odd effects in atoms and molecules. A simple estimate is given and a detailed theoretical treatment of the collective T-, P-odd electric moments in reflection asymmetric, odd-mass nuclei is presented. In the present work we improve on the simple liquid drop model by evaluating the Strutinsky shell correction and include corrections due to pairing. Calculations are performed for octupole deformed long-lived odd-mass isotopes of Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, and Pa and the corresponding atoms. Experiments with such atoms may improve substantially the limits on time reversal violation. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  11. Possible Odd Parity State in 128Xe

    Broman, L.; Malmskog, S.G.

    1966-07-01

    Gamma lines in the decay of I have been measured by means of a Ge(Li) detector. The following gamma ray energies have been obtained: 442.5 ± 0.05, 526.5 ± 0.5, 742.4 ±1.0, 969.0 ± 1.0, and 1136.5 ±2.0 keV. The 1136.5 keV transition defines a level in 128 Xe at 1579 ± 2 keV. From the log ft = 7.8 ± 0.3 of the (β - feeding, this level is believed to have an odd parity. Upper limits of gamma ray intensities for transitions around eV are used to set a limit for the population of the expected 0 + level originating from the two-phonon quadrupole vibration

  12. Adult sex ratio effects on male survivorship of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera, Drosophilidae Efeito da razão sexual de adultos na curva de sobrevivência de machos de Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera, Drosophilidae

    Marcelo Costa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavioral biology has a central role in evolutionary biology mainly because the antagonistic relations that occur in the sexual reproduction. One involves the effect of reproduction on the future life expectation. In this scenario, changes in male operational sex ratio could lead to an increase in mortality due to costs associated with excessive courtship and mating displays. Thus, this work experimentally altered the male sex ratio of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830, to determine its impact on mortality. The results indicated that mortality increases as the sex ratio changes, including modifications in the survivorship curve type and in the curve concavity, measured by entropy.A biologia comportamental tem um papel central na biologia evolutiva principalmente pelas relações antagônicas que ocorrem na reprodução sexuada. Uma destas relações envolve o efeito da reprodução sobre a expectativa de vida futura. Neste cenário, alterações na razão sexual operacional de machos podem levar a um aumento na mortalidade por causa dos custos associados com o excesso de displays de corte e cópulas. Neste sentido este trabalho alterou experimentalmente a razão sexual em machos de Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830, para determinar os efeitos em termos de mortalidade. Os resultados indicam que a mortalidade aumenta a medida que a razão sexual se enviesa incluindo alterações no tipo de curva de sobrevivência e da concavidade da curva, medida pela entropia.

  13. First observation of yrast band in odd-odd 162Lu

    Zhang, Y.H.; Yuan, G.J.; Liu, X.A.

    1996-01-01

    High spin states of the odd-odd 162 Lu nucleus have been studied via 147 Sm( 19 F, 4nγ) 162 Lu reaction at 95MeV beam energy. Level scheme for yrast band based on π[h 11/2 ] υ[i 13/2 ] quasiparticle configuration was established up to I π =(23 - ) for the first time. This band shows the signature inversion in energy before backbending generally appeared in this mass region. It is stressed that the signature splitting in 162 Lu is larger than that in the 160 Tm nucleus. (orig.)

  14. Odd-odd neutron-excess nuclei from the magicity region close to 132Sn

    Erokhina, K.I.; Isakov, V.I.

    1994-01-01

    This is the second publication in a series devoted to theoretical study of neutron-excess nuclei close to the doubly magic nuclide 132 Sn. Odd-odd nuclei from this region are considered by using the quasi-boson approximation. Energy level spectra, electromagnetic transition probabilities, and β-decay properties of nuclei are analyzed. Among other things, the renormalization of the axial-vector constant in the nucleus is determined. Numerical calculations are made for 134 Sb, 130 In, 132 Sb, and 132 In nuclides. Whenever possible, the results are compared with experimental data. 33 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  15. High-spin states in odd-odd 106,108,110,112Rh

    Fotiades, N.; Cizewski, J.A.; Kruecken, R.; McNabb, D.P.; Becker, J.A.; Bernstein, L.A.; Younes, W.; Clark, R.M.; Fallon, P.; Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.O.

    2003-01-01

    The level structures of 106,108,110,112 Rh have been studied in the fission of the compound system formed in three different heavy-ion induced reactions. Sequences of five transitions, together with weak crossover transitions, have been assigned to each isotope based on coincidences with known transitions in the complementary fragments. Comparison with the lighter odd-odd Rh isotopes supports assignment of these sequences as the yrast bands built on the πg 9/2 xνh 11/2 configuration

  16. Influence of triaxiality on the signature inversion in odd-odd nuclei

    Zheng, R.R.; Luo, X.D.; Timar, J.; Sohler, S.; Nyako, B.M.; Zolnai, L.; Paul, E.S.

    2004-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Signature inversion in the A ∼ 100 region has been reported earlier only in the case of the odd-odd 98 Rh nucleus. Our studies on the 100-103 Rh isotopes and a close inspection of the known πg 9/2 νh 11/ 2 bands of the Rh (Z = 45) and Ag (Z = 47) isotopes revealed that the signature splitting effects, earlier considered as quenchings of signature splitting, are not only quenchings but signature inversions. Indeed, the energetically favored signature at low spins in these πg 9/2 νh 11/2 bands is the α = 1 branch (odd spins) instead of the expected α = 0 branch (even spins). The systematic occurrence of signature inversion in this mass region is discussed in Refs. together with attempts to understand its behavior qualitatively. Among many attempts for interpreting the mechanism of signature inversion in odd-odd nuclei, a model using an axially symmetric rotor plus two quasi-particles has already been successfully applied to describe the observed signature inversions in the A ∼ 80 and A ∼ 160 mass regions. According to this model the signature inversion is caused by the competition between the Coriolis and the proton-neutron residual interactions in low K space. Such calculations have been also successfully applied to the π g9/2 νh 11/2 bands in the odd-odd 98 Rh and 102 Rh nuclei. Recent observations of chiral band structures in the nearby Rh nuclei suggest a possibility of triaxiality in these nuclei, too. In the present work we examined the possible influence of triaxiality on the signature inversion using a triaxial rotor plus two-quasiparticle model and compared the results with the experimental data of 98 Rh and 102 Rh. The calculations provided a better agreement with the experiment than the axially symmetric calculations. Compared to the axially symmetric case, the triaxiality applied in the Hamiltonian enlarges the amplitudes of high-spin signature zigzags at small triaxial deformation and might push the

  17. Odd-parity light baryon resonances

    Gamermann, D.; Garcia-Recio, C.; Salcedo, L. L.; Nieves, J.

    2011-01-01

    We use a consistent SU(6) extension of the meson-baryon chiral Lagrangian within a coupled channel unitary approach in order to calculate the T matrix for meson-baryon scattering in the s wave. The building blocks of the scheme are the π and N octets, the ρ nonet and the Δ decuplet. We identify poles in this unitary T matrix and interpret them as resonances. We study here the nonexotic sectors with strangeness S=0, -1, -2, -3 and spin J=(1/2), (3/2) and (5/2). Many of the poles generated can be associated with known N, Δ, Σ, Λ, Ξ and Ω resonances with negative parity. We show that most of the low-lying three and four star odd-parity baryon resonances with spin (1/2) and (3/2) can be related to multiplets of the spin-flavor symmetry group SU(6). This study allows us to predict the spin-parity of the Ξ(1620), Ξ(1690), Ξ(1950), Ξ(2250), Ω(2250) and Ω(2380) resonances, which have not been determined experimentally yet.

  18. Mother-Teacher Agreement on Preschoolers' Symptoms of ODD and CD: Does Context Matter?

    Strickland, Jennifer; Hopkins, Joyce; Keenan, Kate

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine mother-teacher agreement on oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and diagnoses in preschool children; to determine if context is a source of disagreement; and to explore if sex, referral status, and age moderated agreement rates. Participants included 158 male and 139 female…

  19. High-Spin Structure in Odd-Odd 160Lu Nucleus

    Wang Lie-Lin; Lu Jing-Bin; Yang Dong; Ma Ke-Yan; Yin Li-Chang; Zhou Yin-Hang; Wu Xiao-Guang; Wen Shu-Xian; Li Guang-Sheng; Yang Chun-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    The high-spin states of 160 Lu are populated by the fusion-evaporation reaction 144 Sm( 19 F,3n) 160 Lu at beam energies of 90 and 106 MeV. A new level scheme of 160 Lu is established. A possible isomeric state based on the πh 11/2 νh 9/2 configuration is observed. The new decoupled band with the configuration of πd 3/2 [411]1/2 + νi 13/2 [660]1/2 + is established, and the configurations of these similar decoupled bands in the neighboring odd-odd 162−166 Lu nuclei are suggested. A positive parity coupled band is assigned as the πd 5/2 [402]5/2 + νi 13/2 [660]1/2 + configuration. (nuclear physics)

  20. Searches for possible T-odd and P-odd short range interactions using polarized nuclei

    Chu P. H.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Various theories predict the possible existence of T-odd and P-odd shortrange forces between spin ½ fermions, proportional to S・r where S is the fermion spin and r is the separation between particles. We use ensembles of polarized nuclei and an un-polarized mass to search for such a force over sub-mm ranges. We established an improved upper bound on the product gsgpn of the scalar coupling to particles in the un-polarized mass and the pseudo-scalar coupling of polarized neutrons for force ranges from 10−4 to 10−2 m, corresponding to a mass range of 2・10−3 to 2・10−5 eV for the exchange boson [1].

  1. Influence of triaxiality on the signature inversion in odd-odd nuclei

    Zheng Renrong; Zhu Shunquan; Luo Xiangdong; Gizon, A.; Gizon, J.; Paul, E.S.

    2004-01-01

    The nature of signature inversion in the πg 9/2 νh 11/2 bands of odd-odd 98,102 Rh nuclei is studied. Calculations are performed by using a triaxial rotor plus two-quasiparticle model and are compared with the experimentally observed signature inversions. The calculations reproduce well the observations and suggest that, in these bands, the signature inversion can be interpreted mainly as a competition between the Coriolis and the proton-neutron residual interactions in low K space. The triaxiality applied in the Hamiltonian enlarges the amplitudes of high spin signature zigzags at small triaxial deformation and might push the signature inversion point to higher spin at large triaxial deformation

  2. Effective neutron-proton interaction in rare earth odd-odd nuclei

    Boisson, Jean-Paul.

    1975-01-01

    The effective neutron-proton interaction V(np) in the rare earth odd-odd deformed nuclei is studied. The parameters of the effective interaction are determined from least square fits of calculated matrix elements compared to the ones extracted from experiment. These fits show the existence of a long range repulsive component as well the importance of the even term of the tensor part of V(np). Some informations are obtained concerning the influence of the choice of the sample of experimental data, of the average field and finally, of the radial shape of the effective interaction. Some predictions are made concerning as yet unconfirmed V(np) matrix elements [fr

  3. Quartetting in even-even and odd-odd N=Z nuclei

    Sambataro, M.; Sandulescu, N.

    2018-02-01

    We report on a microscopic description of even-even N = Z nuclei in a formalism of quartets. Quartets are four-body correlated structures characterized by isospin T and angular momentum J. We show that the ground state correlations induced by a realistic shell model interaction can be well accounted for in terms of a restricted set of T = 0 low-J quartets, the J = 0 one playing by far a leading role among them. A conceptually similar description of odd-odd self-conjugate nuclei is given in terms of two distinct families of building blocks, one formed by the same T = 0 quartets employed for the even-even systems and the other by collective pairs with either T = 0 or T = 1. Some applications of this formalism are discussed for nuclei in the sd shell.

  4. Energy of the 4(+) isomer and new bands in the odd-odd nucleus 74Br

    Doering, J.; Holcomb, J.W.; Johnson, T.D.; Riley, M.A.; Tabor, S.L.; Womble, P.C.; Winter, G.

    1993-01-01

    High-spin states of the odd-odd nucleus 74 Br were investigated via the reactions 58 Ni ( 19 F,2pn) 74 Br and 65 Cu( 12 C,3n) 74 Br at beam energies of 62 and 50 MeV, respectively. On the basis of coincidence data new levels have been introduced and partly grouped into rotational bands. Some of these new states decay to known levels of negative-parity bands built on both the ground state and the long-lived 4 (+) isomer. Thus, an excitation energy of 13.8 keV has been deduced for the long-lived isomer in 74 Br. The level sequences observed are interpreted in terms of Nilsson configurations in conjunction with collective excitations

  5. The effects of concentrate added to pineapple (Ananas comosus Linn. Mer.) waste silage in differing ratios to form complete diets, on digestion, excretion of urinary purine derivatives and blood metabolites in growing, male, Thai swamp buffaloes.

    Jetana, T; Suthikrai, W; Usawang, S; Vongpipatana, C; Sophon, S; Liang, J B

    2009-04-01

    Four, male, growing Thai swamp buffaloes (197 +/- 5.3 kg and all 1 year old) were used to evaluate the effects of concentrate added to pineapple waste silage in differing ratios, to form a complete diet, studying in vivo digestion, the rate of passage, microbial protein synthesis and blood metabolites. Animals were fed ad libitum with 4 diets, using four combinations of pineapple waste silage (P) and concentrate (C), in the proportions (on a dry matter basis) of 0.8:0.2 (P80:C20), 0.6:0.4 (P60:C40), 0.4:0.6 (P40:C60) and 0.2:0.8 (P20:C80). The results showed that the intakes of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), nitrogen (N), the N-balance, urinary purine derivatives (PD) excretion, the ratios of allantoin to creatinine (CR), PD to CR, the plasma urea-N (PUN) and insulin increased in the animals, but the intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), the coefficient of whole tract, apparent digestibility of NDF, the transit time (TT) and the mean retention time (TMRT) decreased, when the proportion of concentrate in the diet increased. This study indicated that the proportion of P40:C60 in the diet produced the best efficiency of urinary PD excretion (mmol) per digestible OM intake (kg DOMI).

  6. Golden Ratio

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers.In this article, we explore this ...

  7. Golden Ratio

    Keywords. Fibonacci numbers, golden ratio, Sanskrit prosody, solar panel. Abstract. Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany ...

  8. Golden Ratio

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is sym- metrical and in proportion. If a face or a structure is in pro- portion, we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful. The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found in many structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers. In this article, we explore this ...

  9. High-spin level scheme of odd-odd 142Pm

    Liu Minliang; Zhang Yuhu; Zhou Xiaohong; He Jianjun; Guo Yingxiang; Lei Xiangguo; Huang Wenxue; Liu Zhong; Luo Yixiao; Feng Xichen; Zhang Shuangquan; Xu Xiao; Zheng Yong; Luo Wanju

    2002-01-01

    The level structure of doubly odd nucleus 142 Pm has been studied via the 128 Te( 19 F, 5nγ) 142 Pm reaction in the energy region from 75 to 95 MeV. In-beam γ rays were measured including the excited function, γ-ray singles and γ-γ coincidences in experiment. The level scheme of 142 Pm has been extended up to excitation energy of 7030.0 keV including 25 new γ rays and 13 new levels. Based on the measured γ-ray anisotropies, the level spins in 142 Pm have been suggested

  10. O sexo masculino vulnerável: razão de masculinidade entre os óbitos fetais brasileiros The vulnerable male, or the sex ratio among fetal deaths in Brazil

    Alexandre Dias Porto Chiavegatto Filho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Alguns estudos apontam para a existência de vulnerabilidades biológicas inatas masculinas, especialmente no período perinatal. Foi realizada uma análise transversal da mortalidade fetal brasileira segundo sexo, entre 2000 e 2009 (inclusive, conforme características maternas (idade, escolaridade e duração da gestação, utilizando-se dados disponibilizados pelos sistema DATASUS do Ministério da Saúde. Todos os óbitos fetais do período foram incluídos na análise, excetuando-se os casos em que o sexo do feto não foi declarado. A razão de masculinidade (RM encontrada para os óbitos fetais foi de 1,188. As categorias mais relacionadas com maior risco (idade entre 10 e 14 anos, nenhuma escolaridade e gestação com menos de 22 semanas apresentaram maior RM, sendo esses valores, em todos os casos, estatisticamente maiores do que os observados nas outras categorias analisadas (p Some studies indicate the existence of innate male vulnerabilities, especially during the perinatal period. The current study is a cross-sectional analysis of fetal mortality in Brazil according to sex from 2000 to 2009, stratified by maternal characteristics (age, schooling, and gestational age, using Ministry of Health data (DATASUS. The analysis included all fetal deaths from 2000 to 2009, except when the sex of the fetus was not recorded. The male/female sex ratio (SR for all fetal deaths was 1.188. Analysis of maternal characteristics showed that the SR was statistically higher (p < 0.01 in mothers that were younger (10-14 years, had no formal schooling, and with gestational age < 22 weeks. The study showed a statistically higher-than-expected SR (p < 0.01 for 13 underlying causes of death and a lower SR for two others. The results suggest a potential innate male vulnerability.

  11. Highly-distorted and doubly-decoupled rotational bands in odd-odd nuclei

    McHarris, W.C.; Olivier, W.A.; Rios, A.; Hampton, C.; Chou, Wentsae; Aryaeinejad, R.

    1991-01-01

    Heavy-ion reactions induce large amounts of angular momentum; hence, they selectively populate rotationally-aligned particle states in compound nuclei. Such states tend to deexcite through similar states connected by large coriolis matrix elements, resulting in relatively few - but highly distorted - bands in the lower-energy portions of odd-odd spectra. The extreme cases of this are doubly-decoupled, K ∼ 1 (π 1/2 x ν 1/2) bands, whose γ transitions are the most intense in spectra from many light Re and Ir nuclei. The authors made a two-pronged assault on such bands, studying them via different HI reactions at different laboratories and using interacting-boson (IBFFA) calculations to aid in sorting them out. The authors are beginning to understand the types of (primarily coriolis) distortions involved and hope to grasp a handle on aspects of the p-n residual interaction, although the coriolis distortions are large enough to mask much of the latter. They also discuss similar but complementary effects in the light Pr region

  12. Coulomb excitation of the odd-odd isotopes $^{106, 108}$In

    Ekstrom, A; Blazhev, A; Van de Walle, J; Weisshaar, D; Zielinska, M; Tveten, G M; Marsh, B A; Siem, S; Gorska, M; Engeland, T; Hurst, A M; Cederkall, J; Finke, F; Iwanicki, J; Hjorth-Jensen, M; Davinson, T; Eberth, J; Sletten, G; Mierzejewski, J; Reiter, P; Warr, N; Butler, P A; Fahlander, C; Stefanescu, I; Koester, U; Ivanov, O; Wenander, F; Voulot, D

    2010-01-01

    The low-lying states in the odd-odd and unstable isotopes In-106,In-108 have been Coulomb excited from the ground state and the first excited isomeric state at the REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN. With the additional data provided here the pi g(9/2)(-1) circle times nu d(5/2) and pi g(9/2)(-1) circle times nu g7/2 multiplets have been re-analyzed and are modified compared to previous results. The observed gamma-ray de-excitation patterns were interpreted within a shell model calculation based on a realistic effective interaction. The agreement between theory and experiment is satisfactory and the calculations reproduce the observed differences in the excitation pattern of the two isotopes. The calculations exclude a 6(+) ground state in In-106. This is in agreement with the conclusions drawn using other techniques. Furthermore, based on the experimental results, it is also concluded that the ordering of the isomeric and ground state in In-108 is inverted compared to the shell model prediction. Limits on B(E2) val...

  13. Level structures in odd-odd deformed nucleus {sup 184}Ta

    Gowrishankar, R.; Sood, P.C. [Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Department of Physics, Prasanthinilayam (India)

    2016-02-15

    A detailed low-energy level scheme of the odd-odd n-rich nucleus {sub 73}{sup 184}Ta{sub 111} is constructed using the well tested Two-Quasiparticle Rotor Model (TQRM) for calculating the bandhead energies of physically admissible 2qp configurations with the inclusion of residual n-p interaction contribution. The presently available data on this level scheme from {sup 184}Hf decay are shown to be in agreement with these calculations. Our analysis concludes that {sup 184}Hf (Q{sub β} = 1340(30) keV) decay admits of 7 additional (to the 3 presently reported) β -branches to {sup 184}Ta with J = 0 or 1 and 8 more physically admissible weak (1f{sup u}) β -branches populating J{sup π} = 2{sup -} levels in {sup 184}Ta. Further, a close examination of our level scheme clearly indicates the existence of a low-lying (E{sub x} = 260(40) keV) high-spin (J{sup π} = 10{sup -}) long-lived isomer in this nucleus. (orig.)

  14. Coulomb excitation of the odd-odd isotopes {sup 106,108}In

    Ekstroem, A.; Fahlander, C. [University of Lund, Physics Department, Box 118, Lund (Sweden); Cederkaell, J. [University of Lund, Physics Department, Box 118, Lund (Sweden); CERN, PH Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Engeland, T. [University of Oslo, Physics Department and Center of Mathematics for Applications, Oslo (Norway); Blazhev, A.; Eberth, J.; Finke, F.; Reiter, P.; Warr, N.; Weisshaar, D. [University of Cologne, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cologne (Germany); Butler, P.A.; Hurst, A.M. [University of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Davinson, T. [University of Edinburgh, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Goergen, A. [Service de Physique Nucleaire, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gorska, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Ivanov, O.; Stefanescu, I. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, K.U. Leuven (Belgium); Iwanicki, J. [University of Warsaw, Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw (Poland); Koester, U. [CERN, PH Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble (France); Marsh, B.A. [University of Manchester, Department of Physics, Manchester (United Kingdom); CERN, AB Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Mierzejewski, J. [University of Warsaw, Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw (Poland); University of Warsaw, Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Siem, S. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Oslo (Norway); Sletten, G. [University of Copenhagen, Physics Department, Copenhagen (Denmark); Tveten, G.M. [CERN, PH Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Oslo (Norway); Van de Walle, J. [CERN, PH Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, K.U. Leuven (Belgium); Voulot, D.; Wenander, F. [CERN, AB Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2010-06-15

    The low-lying states in the odd-odd and unstable isotopes {sup 106,108}In have been Coulomb excited from the ground state and the first excited isomeric state at the REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN. With the additional data provided here the {pi}g{sub 9/2}{sup -1} x {nu}d{sub 5/2} and {pi}g{sub 9/2}{sup -1} x {nu} g{sub 7/2} multiplets have been re-analyzed and are modified compared to previous results. The observed {gamma} -ray de-excitation patterns were interpreted within a shell model calculation based on a realistic effective interaction. The agreement between theory and experiment is satisfactory and the calculations reproduce the observed differences in the excitation pattern of the two isotopes. The calculations exclude a 6{sup +} ground state in {sup 106}In. This is in agreement with the conclusions drawn using other techniques. Furthermore, based on the experimental results, it is also concluded that the ordering of the isomeric and ground state in {sup 108}In is inverted compared to the shell model prediction. Limits on B(E2) values have been extracted where possible. A previously unknown low-lying state at 367keV in {sup 106}In is also reported. (orig.)

  15. 3,3′,4,4′,5-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) Decreases Hepatic and Systemic Ratios of Epoxide to Diol Metabolites of Unsaturated Fatty Acids in Male Rats

    Wu, Xianai; Yang, Jun; Morisseau, Christophe; Robertson, Larry W.; Hammock, Bruce; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Disruption of the homeostasis of oxygenated regulatory lipid mediators (oxylipins), potential markers of exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, such as 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126), is associated with a range of diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Here we test the hypothesis that PCB 126 exposure alters the levels of oxylipins in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (5-weeks old) were treated over a 3-month period every 2 weeks with intraperitoneal injections of PCB 126 in corn oil (cumulative doses of 0, 19.8, 97.8, and 390 µg/kg b.w.; 6 injections total). PCB 126 treatment caused a reduction in growth rates at the highest dose investigated, a dose-dependent decrease in thymus weights, and a dose-dependent increase in liver weights. Liver PCB 126 levels increased in a dose-dependent manner, while levels in plasma were below or close to the detection limit. The ratios of several epoxides to diol metabolites formed via the cytochrome P450 (P450) monooxygenase/soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) pathway from polyunsaturated fatty acids displayed a dose-dependent decrease in the liver and plasma, whereas levels of oxylipins formed by other metabolic pathways were generally not altered by PCB 126 treatment. The effects of PCB 126 on epoxide-to-diol ratios were associated with an increased CYP1A activity in liver microsomes and an increased sEH activity in liver cytosol and peroxisomes. These results suggest that oxylipins are potential biomarkers of exposure to PCB 126 and that the P450/sEH pathway is a therapeutic target for PCB 126-mediated hepatotoxicity that warrants further attention. PMID:27208083

  16. Non-proportional odds multivariate logistic regression of ordinal family data.

    Zaloumis, Sophie G; Scurrah, Katrina J; Harrap, Stephen B; Ellis, Justine A; Gurrin, Lyle C

    2015-03-01

    Methods to examine whether genetic and/or environmental sources can account for the residual variation in ordinal family data usually assume proportional odds. However, standard software to fit the non-proportional odds model to ordinal family data is limited because the correlation structure of family data is more complex than for other types of clustered data. To perform these analyses we propose the non-proportional odds multivariate logistic regression model and take a simulation-based approach to model fitting using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods, such as partially collapsed Gibbs sampling and the Metropolis algorithm. We applied the proposed methodology to male pattern baldness data from the Victorian Family Heart Study. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Study on the high-spin states and signature inversion of odd-odd nucleus 170Ta

    Deng Fuguo; Zhou Hongyu; Sun Huibin; Lu Jingbin; Zhao Guangyi; Yin Lichang; Liu Yunzuo

    2002-01-01

    The high-spin states of odd-odd nucleus 170 Ta were populated via the 155 Gd( 19 F, 4n) 170 Ta reaction with beam energy of 97 MeV provided by the HI-13 tandem accelerator of China Institute of Atomic Energy. Three rotational bands have been pushed to higher spin states and the signature inversion point of the semidecoupled band based on the πh 9/2 1/2 - [541] direct x νi 13/2 configuration has been observed to be 19.5 ℎ. The systematic features of the signature inversion in semidecoupled bands in odd-odd rare earth nuclei were summarized. The systematic differences of signature inversion, especially the difference in the energy splitting between the yrast hands and the semidecoupled hands in odd-odd rare earth nuclei are pointed out and discussed for the first time. It seems that p-n interaction between the odd proton and odd neutron in the odd-odd nuclei plays an important role

  18. Is higher risk sex common among male or female youths?

    Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres

    2015-01-01

    There are several studies that showed the high prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors among youths, but little is known how significant the proportion of higher risk sex is when the male and female youths are compared. A meta-analysis was done using 26 countries' Demographic and Health Survey data from and outside Africa to make comparisons of higher risk sex among the most vulnerable group of male and female youths. Random effects analytic model was applied and the pooled odds ratios were determined using Mantel-Haenszel statistical method. In this meta-analysis, 19,148 male and 65,094 female youths who reported to have sexual intercourse in a 12-month period were included. The overall OR demonstrated that higher risk sex was ten times more prevalent in male youths than in female youths. The practice of higher risk sex by male youths aged 15-19 years was more than 27-fold higher than that of their female counterparts. Similarly, male youths in urban areas, belonged to a family with middle to highest wealth index, and educated to secondary and above were more than ninefold, eightfold and sixfold at risk of practicing higher risk sex than their female counterparts, respectively. In conclusion, this meta-analysis demonstrated that the practice of risky sexual intercourse by male youths was incomparably higher than female youths. Future risky sex protective interventions should be tailored to secondary and above educated male youths in urban areas.

  19. Superdeformation studies in the odd-odd nucleus {sup 192}Tl

    Fischer, S.; Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The study of yrast and near-yrast structures of odd-odd nuclei to high spins is somewhat limited due to the complexity of the spectra resulting from the many proton-neutron couplings near the Fermi surface. In superdeformed nuclei, the number of available protons and neutrons near the Fermi surface is somewhat limited due to the presence of large-shell gaps which stabilize the nuclear shape. A relatively small number of available neutron and proton configurations can lead to fragmentation of the SD intensity into a number of different bands. Two good examples of this phenomenon were found in {sup 192}Tl and {sup 194}Tl where the presence of six superdeformed bands were reported in both nuclei. We reexamined {sup 192}Tl at Gammasphere using the {sup 160}Gd({sup 37}Cl,5n) reaction at 178 MeV to populate states in the superdeformed well of this nucleus. While our previous study on {sup 192}Tl at ATLAS was very successful, a number of questions remained which formed the basis of our objectives in this experiment: obtain better {gamma}-ray energies for the known transitions and identify higher spin members in each band; determine how the bands feed the known yrast states in {sup 192}Tl as well as determine the complete spectrum in coincidence with the SD bands; look for M1 transitions connecting proposed signature partners; and attempt to identify other excitations in the superdeformed well. Analysis is underway and four of the six bands were confirmed. The reasons that two of the reported bands were not observed in this latest work is still under investigation. As of this time, no other superdeformed bands were identified in the data. Two of the confirmed SD bands have a constant moment of inertia and show indications of cross-talk between each other. This observation is not unexpected since the calculated M1 rates for the proposed configuration of the band, {pi}{sub 13/2} x {upsilon}j{sub 15/2}, indicate that M1 transitions linking the two SD bands should be observed.

  20. Against all odds: genocidal trauma is associated with longer life-expectancy of the survivors.

    Abraham Sagi-Schwartz

    Full Text Available Does surviving genocidal experiences, like the Holocaust, lead to shorter life-expectancy? Such an effect is conceivable given that most survivors not only suffered psychosocial trauma but also malnutrition, restriction in hygienic and sanitary facilities, and lack of preventive medical and health services, with potentially damaging effects for later health and life-expectancy. We explored whether genocidal survivors have a higher risk to die younger than comparisons without such background. This is the first population-based retrospective cohort study of the Holocaust, based on the entire population of immigrants from Poland to Israel (N = 55,220, 4-20 years old when the World War II started (1939, immigrating to Israel either between 1945 and 1950 (Holocaust group or before 1939 (comparison group; not exposed to the Holocaust. Hazard of death - a long-term outcome of surviving genocidal trauma - was derived from the population-wide official data base of the National Insurance Institute of Israel. Cox regression yielded a significant hazard ratio (HR = 0.935, CI (95% = 0.910-0.960, suggesting that the risk of death was reduced by 6.5 months for Holocaust survivors compared to non-Holocaust comparisons. The lower hazard was most substantial in males who were aged 10-15 (HR = 0.900, CI (95% = 0.842-0.962, i.e., reduced by 10 months or 16-20 years at the onset of the Holocaust (HR = 0.820, CI (95% = 0.782-0.859, i.e., reduced by18 months. We found that against all odds genocidal survivors were likely to live longer. We suggest two explanations: Differential mortality during the Holocaust and "Posttraumatic Growth" associated with protective factors in Holocaust survivors or in their environment after World War II.

  1. Even and odd symplectic and Kaehlerian structures on projective superspaces

    Khudaverdyan, O.M.; Nersessyan, A.P.

    1992-01-01

    Supergeneralization of CP(N) provided by even and odd Kaehlerian structures from Hamiltonian reduction are construct. Operator Δ which used in Batalin - Vilkovsky quantization formalism and mechanics which are bi-Hamiltonian under corresponding even and odd Poisson brackets are considered. 21 refs

  2. Formulation of Hamiltonian mechanics with even and odd Poisson brackets

    Khudaverdyan, O.M.; Nersesyan, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    A possibility is studied as to constrict the odd Poisson bracket and odd Hamiltonian by the given dynamics in phase superspace - the even Poisson bracket and even Hamiltonian so the transition to the new structure does not change the equations of motion. 9 refs

  3. Regression Tests and the Efficiency of Fixed Odds Betting Markets

    Koning, Ruud H.

    The informational content of odds posted in sports betting market has been an ongoing topic of research. In this paper, I test whether fixed odds betting markets in soccer are informationally efficient. The contributions of the paper are threefold: first, I propose a simple yet flexible statistical

  4. Melham's conjecture on odd power sums of fibonacci numbers | Sun ...

    Ozeki and Prodinger showed that the odd power sum of the first several consecutive Fibonacci numbers of even order is equal to a polynomial evaluated at a certain Fibonacci number of odd order. We prove that this polynomial and its derivative both vanish at 1, and will be an integer polynomial after multiplying it by a ...

  5. Interpersonal polyvictimization and mental health in males.

    Burns, Carol Rhonda; Lagdon, Susan; Boyda, David; Armour, Cherie

    2016-05-01

    A consistent conclusion within the extant literature is that victimization and in particular polyvictimization leads to adverse mental health outcomes. A large body of literature exists as it pertains to the association between victimisation and mental health in studies utilising samples of childhood victims, female only victims, and samples of male and female victims; less research exists as it relates to males victims of interpersonal violence. The aim of the current study was therefore to identify profiles of interpersonal victimizations in an exclusively male sample and to assess their differential impact on a number of adverse mental health outcomes. Using data from 14,477 adult males from Wave 2 of the NESARC, we identified interpersonal victimization profiles via Latent Class Analysis. Multinomial Logistic Regression was subsequently utilized to establish risk across mental health disorders. A 4-class solution was optimal. Victimisation profiles showed elevated odds ratios for the presence of mental health disorders; suggesting that multiple life-course victimisation typologies exists, and that victimization is strongly associated with psychopathology. Several additional notable findings are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Covariant Density Functionals: time-odd channel investigated

    Afanasjev, A. V.; Abusara, H.

    2009-01-01

    The description of exotic nuclear systems and phenomena requires a detailed understanding of all channels of density functional theories. The role of time-odd mean fields, their evidence in experiment, and an accurate description of these fields are subject of current interest. Recent studies advanced the understanding of these fields in energy density functional theories based on the Skyrme force [1,2]. Time-odd mean fields are related to nuclear magnetism in covariant density functional (CDF) theories [3]. They arise from space-like components of vector mesons and Lorentz invariance requires that their coupling strengths are identical to that of time-like components. There were only few limited efforts to understand the role of time-odd mean fields in covariant density functional theory [4,5]. For example, the microscopic role of nuclear magnetism and its impact on rotational properties of nuclei has been studied in Ref. [5]. It is known that time-odd mean fields modify the angular momentum content of the single-particle orbitals and thus the moments of inertia, effective alignments, alignment gains at the band crossings and other physical observables. We aim on more detailed and systematic understanding of the role of time-odd mean fields in covariant density functional theory. This investigation covers both rotating and non-rotating systems. It is shown that contrary to the Skyrme energy density functionals time-odd mean fields of CDF theory always provide additional binding in the systems with broken time-reversal symmetry (rotating nuclei, odd mass nuclei). This additional binding increases with spin and has its maximum exactly at the terminating state [6], where it can reach several MeV. The impact of time-odd mean fields on the properties of rotating systems has been studied in a systematic way (as a function of particle number and deformation) across the nuclear chart [7]. In addition, this contribution extends these studies to non-rotating systems such as

  7. Level Density In Interacting Boson-Fermion-Fermion Model (IBFFM) Of The Odd-Odd Nucleus 196Au

    Kabashi, Skender; Bekteshi, Sadik

    2007-01-01

    The level density of the odd-odd nucleus 196Au is investigated in the interacting boson-fermion-fermion model (IBFFM) which accounts for collectivity and complex interaction between quasiparticle and collective modes.The IBFFM total level density is fitted by Gaussian and its tail is also fitted by Bethe formula and constant temperature Fermi gas model

  8. A Meta-Analysis of Risky Sexual Behaviour among Male Youth in Developing Countries

    Yifru Berhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the association between risky sexual behaviour and level of education and economic status in male youth. Previous tests of the association of risky sexual behaviour with levels of education and economic status have yielded inconsistent results. Using data from 26 countries, from both within and outside Africa, we performed a meta-analysis with a specific focus on male youths’ risky sexual behaviour. We applied a random effects analytic model and calculated a pooled odds ratio. Out of 19,148 males aged 15–24 years who reported having sexual intercourse in the 12 months preceding the survey, 75% engaged in higher-risk sex. The proportion of higher-risk sex among male youth aged 15–19 years was nearly 90% in 21 of the 26 countries. The pooled odds ratio showed a statistically significant association of higher-risk sex with male youth younger than 20 years, living in urban centers, well educated, and of a high economic status. The overall proportion of condom use during youths’ most recent higher-risk sexual encounter was 40% and 51% among 15–19-year-olds and 20–24-year-olds, respectively. Our findings suggest that male youth’s socioeconomic status is directly related to the likelihood that they practice higher-risk sex. The relationship between income and sexual behaviour should be explored further.

  9. Cirrus Airframe Parachute System and Odds of a Fatal Accident in Cirrus Aircraft Crashes.

    Alaziz, Mustafa; Stolfi, Adrienne; Olson, Dean M

    2017-06-01

    General aviation (GA) accidents have continued to demonstrate high fatality rates. Recently, ballistic parachute recovery systems (BPRS) have been introduced as a safety feature in some GA aircraft. This study evaluates the effectiveness and associated factors of the Cirrus Airframe Parachute System (CAPS) at reducing the odds of a fatal accident in Cirrus aircraft crashes. Publicly available Cirrus aircraft crash reports were obtained from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database for the period of January 1, 2001-December 31, 2016. Accident metrics were evaluated through univariate and multivariate analyses regarding odds of a fatal accident and use of the parachute system. Included in the study were 268 accidents. For CAPS nondeployed accidents, 82 of 211 (38.9%) were fatal as compared to 8 of 57 (14.0%) for CAPS deployed accidents. After controlling for all other factors, the adjusted odds ratio for a fatal accident when CAPS was not deployed was 13.1. The substantial increased odds of a fatal accident when CAPS was not deployed demonstrated the effectiveness of CAPS at providing protection of occupants during an accident. Injuries were shifted from fatal to serious or minor with the use of CAPS and postcrash fires were significantly reduced. These results suggest that BPRS could play a significant role in the next major advance in improving GA accident survival.Alaziz M, Stolfi A, Olson DM. Cirrus Airframe Parachute System and odds of a fatal accident in Cirrus aircraft crashes. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(6):556-564.

  10. BKP and CKP revisited: the odd KP system

    Dimakis, Aristophanes; Müller-Hoissen, Folkert

    2009-01-01

    By restricting a linear system for the KP hierarchy to those independent variables t n with odd n, its compatibility (Zakharov-Shabat conditions) leads to the 'odd KP hierarchy'. The latter consists of pairs of equations for two dependent variables, taking values in an (typically noncommutative) associative algebra. If the algebra is commutative, the odd KP hierarchy is known to admit reductions to the BKP and the CKP hierarchy. We approach the odd KP hierarchy and its relation to BKP and CKP in different ways, and address the question of whether noncommutative versions of the BKP and the CKP equation (and some of their reductions) exist. In particular, we derive a functional representation of a linear system for the odd KP hierarchy, which in the commutative case produces functional representations of the BKP and CKP hierarchies in terms of a tau function. Furthermore, we consider a functional representation of the KP hierarchy that involves a second (auxiliary) dependent variable and features the odd KP hierarchy directly as a subhierarchy. A method to generate large classes of exact solutions to the KP hierarchy from solutions to a linear matrix ODE system, via a hierarchy of matrix Riccati equations, then also applies to the odd KP hierarchy, and this in turn can be exploited, in particular, to obtain solutions to the BKP and CKP hierarchies

  11. Study of band structure of some odd proton Eu isotopes

    Pandit, Rakesh K.; Rani Devi; Khosa, S.K.

    2016-01-01

    Much work has been done on the odd-Z, odd-A nuclei in the rare earth region because of occurrence of fascinating variety of structures of nuclei in this mass region. The Eu nuclei are in the transitional deformation region and it provides an opportunity to investigate theoretically the deformation changes with mass number and excitation energy besides to study the structure of their excited states. The 153 Eu nucleus has been well studied over the last two decades. The aim of the present work is to study in detail the band structure of some odd-Z nuclei

  12. Single Particle energy levels in ODD-A Nuclei

    Lasijo, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Singe particle energies for atomic nuclei with odd-A number of nucleons, i.e. nuclei possessing odd number of protons or odd number of neutrons, were calculated based on Nilsson's theory, and then the diagrams were made. the energy diagram is in the from of plot of energies as function of deformations, entities identifying the deviations from the spherical shape. The energy calculations were done using FORTRAN 77 language of PC (Personal Computer) version with Microsoft Fortran Power Station compiler, which was then combined with WORD version 6.0 and EXCEL version 5.0 of WINDOWS WORKGROUP to make the plot

  13. Sex ratios in the two Germanies: a test of the economic stress hypothesis.

    Catalano, Ralph A

    2003-09-01

    Literature describing temporal variation in the secondary sex ratio among humans reports an association between population stressors and declines in the odds of male birth. Explanations of this phenomenon draw on reports that stressed females spontaneously abort male more than female fetuses, and that stressed males exhibit reduced sperm motility. This work has led to the argument that population stress induced by a declining economy reduces the human sex ratio. No direct test of this hypothesis appears in the literature. Here, a test is offered based on a comparison of the sex ratio in East and West Germany for the years 1946 to 1999. The theory suggests that the East German sex ratio should be lower in 1991, when East Germany's economy collapsed, than expected from its own history and from the sex ratio in West Germany. The hypothesis is tested using time-series modelling methods. The data support the hypothesis. The sex ratio in East Germany was at its lowest in 1991. This first direct test supports the hypothesis that economic decline reduces the human sex ratio.

  14. Thermodynamics and CP-odd transport in holographic QCD with finite magnetic field

    Drwenski, Tara; Gürsoy, Umut [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University,Leuvenlaan 4, 3584 CE Utrecht (Netherlands); Iatrakis, Ioannis [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University,Stony Brook, New York 11794-3800 (United States)

    2016-12-13

    We consider a bottom-up holographic model of QCD at finite temperature T and magnetic field B, and study dependence of thermodynamics and CP-odd transport on these variables. As the magnetic field couples to the flavor sector only, one should take the Veneziano limit where the number of flavors and colors are large while their ratio is kept fixed. We investigate the corresponding holographic background in the approximation where the ratio of flavors to colors is finite but small. We demonstrate that B-dependence of the entropy of QCD is in qualitative agreement with the recent lattice studies. Finally we study the CP-odd transport properties of this system. In particular, we determine the Chern-Simons decay rate at finite B and T, that is an important ingredient in the Chiral Magnetic Effect.

  15. LOFT advanced control room operator diagnostic and display system (ODDS)

    Larsen, D.G.; Robb, T.C.

    1980-01-01

    The Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Reactor Facility in Idaho includes a highly instrumented nuclear reactor operated by the Department of Energy for the purpose of establishing nuclear safety requirements. The results of the development and installation into LOFT of an Operator Diagnostic and Display System (ODDS) are presented. The ODDS is a computer-based graphics display system centered around a PRIME 550 computer with several RAMTEK color graphic display units located within the control room and available to the reactor operators. Use of computer-based color graphics to aid the reactor operator is discussed. A detailed hardware description of the LOFT data system and the ODDS is presented. Methods and problems of backfitting the ODDS equipment into the LOFT plant are discussed

  16. Construction of an odds model of coronary heart disease using published information: the Cardiovascular Health Improvement Model (CHIME

    Potts Henry WW

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need for a new cardiovascular disease model that includes a wider range of relevant risk factors, in particular lifestyle factors, to aid targeting of interventions and improve population models of the impact of cardiovascular disease and preventive strategies. The model needs to be applicable to a wider population including different ethnic groups, different countries and to those with and without cardiovascular disease. This paper describes the construction of the Cardiovascular Health Improvement Model that aims to meet these requirements. Method An odds model is used. Information was taken from 2003 mortality statistics for England and Wales, the Health Survey for England 2003 and published data on relative risk in those with and without CVD and mean blood pressure values in hypertensives. The odds ratios used were taken from the INTERHEART study. Results A worked example is given calculating the 10-year coronary heart disease risk for a 57 year-old non-diabetic male with no personal or family history of cardiovascular disease, who smokes 30 cigarettes a day and has a systolic blood pressure of 137 mmHg, a total cholesterol (TC of 6.2 mmol/l, a high density lipoprotein (HDL of 1.3 mol/l, and a body mass index of 21. He neither drinks regularly nor exercises. He can give no reliable information about his mental health or fruit and vegetable intake. His 10-year risk of CHD death is 2.47%. Conclusion This paper demonstrates a method for developing a CHD risk model. Further improvements could be made to the model with additional information. The method is applicable to other causes of death.

  17. Constraints on a parity-even/time-reversal-odd interaction

    Oers, Willem T.H. van

    2000-01-01

    Time-Reversal-Invariance non-conservation has for the first time been unequivocally demonstrated in a direct measurement, one of the results of the CPLEAR experiment. What is the situation then with regard to time-reversal-invariance non-conservation in systems other than the neutral kaon system? Two classes of tests of time-reversal-invariance need to be distinguished: the first one deals with parity violating (P-odd)/time-reversal-invariance non-conserving (T-odd) interactions, while the second one deals with P-even/T-odd interactions (assuming CPT conservation this implies C-conjugation non-conservation). Limits on a P-odd/T-odd interaction follow from measurements of the electric dipole moment of the neutron. This in turn provides a limit on a P-odd/T-odd pion-nucleon coupling constant which is 10 -4 times the weak interaction strength. Limits on a P-even/T-odd interaction are much less stringent. The better constraint stems also from the measurement of the electric dipole moment of the neutron. Of all the other tests, measurements of charge-symmetry breaking in neutron-proton elastic scattering provide the next better constraint. The latter experiments were performed at TRIUMF (at 477 and 347 MeV) and at IUCF (at 183 MeV). Weak decay experiments (the transverse polarization of the muon in K + →π 0 μ + ν μ and the transverse polarization of the positrons in polarized muon decay) have the potential to provide comparable or possibly better constraints

  18. T-odd polarization observables in deuteron electrodisintegration

    Rekalo, M.P.; Gakh, G.I.; Rekalo, A.P.

    1996-01-01

    It is considered such simplest T-odd polarization observables of the deuteron disintegration as proton polarization in d(e, e' p-bar)n and the asymmetry in the scattering of unpolarized electrons by a vector-polarized target, d-bar (e, e' p)n. The θ dependence of theses observables has been studied. The procedure of making the conserved electromagnetic current has an essential influence on the final θ dependence of the T-odd polarization observables [ru

  19. The odd-proton effects on the potential energy surfaces of odd mass Tl, Au, Ir and Re isotopes

    De Wieclawik, W; Larsson, S E; Leander, G; Vieu, C; Dionisio, J S

    1976-01-01

    The total potential energy surfaces of thallium, gold, iridium and rhenium odd mass isotopes are calculated microscopically as functions of the quadrupole deformation, epsilon /sub 2/, when the odd protons occupy definite orbitals. The nuclear shapes and the static equilibrium deformations of these nuclei are deduced from the results of these calculations for the proton orbitals nearest to the Fermi level. The influence of the hexadecapole deformation, epsilon /sub 4/, on these results is investigated too. Finally, a few experimental data available for these odd mass nuclei are correlated to the corresponding theoretical results. (16 refs).

  20. The Association Between Male Circumcision and Condom Use Behavior – a Meta-Analysis

    Kabwama, Steven Ndugwa; Ssewanyana, Derrick; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The protective benefit of male circumcision against spreading HIV is well established. Aim: The objective of this Meta-analysis was to investigate behavioral risk compensation measured as the change in condom use behavior in light of knowledge of the benefits of circumcision. Material...... does not influence condom use behavior in the medium and short term. Keywords: Condom use, behavioral change, circumcision, sexual health....... and Methods: A systematic search was conducted from 6 bibliographic databases for studies that quantitatively assessed a link between male circumcision and condom use behavior. Pooled odd ratios (OR) of condom use during any sexual activity were generated from three cohort studies and two Randomized Control...

  1. Quantifying diagnostic performance: The log odds method as a practical option

    Haslam, Maxine; Manning, David

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the most practical option available when statistically analysing small sample size studies. Method: The log odds ratio was applied to a study which took a retrospective approach and involved 50 patients who had undergone a ventilation and perfusion scan in the period between 01 January 2002 and 31 December 2002. Radiology reports and the patients' medical records were obtained, so that the clinical indications for the examination and the patients' medical history could be transferred onto the report form. Four radiographers who are routinely rotated into the Nuclear Medicine Department independently reported the same 50 ventilations and perfusion scans under identical conditions to the reporting radiologist. Results: Taking the radiologist reports as the gold standard the radiographers had an accuracy rate of 78%. The radiographers recorded an average sensitivity value of 94% and specificity value of 63%, with an A z reading of 0.71. Conclusion: As the sample size was too small for a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to be drawn, the log odds ratio provided a value, which represents an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, which in turn ensured the results were statistically reliable. The log odds ratio enables researchers to carry out small-scale research without harbouring the data collected by unreliable analysis

  2. Projected shell model study of odd-odd f-p-g shell proton-rich nuclei

    Palit, R.; Sheikh, J.A.; Sun, Y.; Jain, H.C.

    2003-01-01

    A systematic study of two-quasiparticle bands of the proton-rich odd-odd nuclei in the mass A∼70-80 region is performed using the projected shell model approach. The study includes Br, Rb, and Y isotopes with N=Z+2 and Z+4. We describe the energy spectra and electromagnetic transition strengths in terms of the configuration mixing of the angular-momentum projected multi-quasiparticle states. Signature splitting and signature inversion in the rotational bands are discussed and are shown to be well described. A preliminary study of the odd-odd N=Z nucleus 74 Rb, using the concept of spontaneous symmetry breaking is also presented

  3. Spin-dependent level density in interacting Boson-Fermion-Fermion model of the Odd-Odd Nucleus 196Au

    Kabashi, S.; Bekteshi, S.; Ahmetaj, S.; Shaqiri, Z.

    2009-01-01

    The level density of the odd-odd nucleus 196 Au is investigated in the interacting boson-fermion-fermion model (IBFFM) which accounts for collectivity and complex interaction between quasiparticle and collective modes.The IBFFM spin-dependent level densities show high-spin reduction with respect to Bethe formula.This can be well accounted for by a modified spin-dependent level density formula. (authors)

  4. The Lowest Spin and Parity Levels on Two Particle System for Odd-oddNuclei 60Co and 46K

    Wardhani, VIS; Siagian, Toga

    2000-01-01

    For obtaining the lowest spin and parity levels of odd-odd nuclei, theanalyzing of the nuclei 60 Co and 46 K has been done using delta forcemodel. The calculation is done by theoretically and compared with experiment.To get a result optimally, the data analyzed using least square method. It isshown that the lowest spin and parity level from calculation result and theexperiment result are similar. (author)

  5. Magnetic dipole moments of deformed odd-odd nuclei in 2s-1d and 2p-1f shells

    Verma, A K; Garg, V P; Sharma, S D [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1979-01-01

    A simple expression is derived for the computation of the magnetic moments of odd-odd nuclei. The computation of magnetic dipole moments is done with and without quenching factors for the last proton and neutron. The results are found to improve for /sup 22/Na, /sup 24/Na, sup(82m)Rb, /sup 14/N, /sup 68/Gd, /sup 54/Mn and /sup 86/Rb with extreme coupling of angular moments.

  6. Boson and fermion degrees of freedom in the orthosymplectic extension of the IVBM: Odd-odd nuclear spectra

    Ganev, H. G.; Georgieva, A. I.

    2008-01-01

    The dynamical symmetry group Sp(12, R) of the Interacting Vector Boson Model (IVBM) is extended to the orthosymplectic group OSp(2Ω/12, R) in order to incorporate fermion degrees of freedom. The structure of even-even nuclei is used as a core on which the collective excitations of the neighboring odd-mass and odd-odd nuclei are build on. Hence, the spectra of odd-mass and odd-odd nuclei arise as a result of the coupling of the fermion degrees of freedom, specified by the fermion sector SOF (2Ω) to the boson core, whose states belong to an Sp(12, R) irreducible representation. The orthosymplectic dynamical symmetry is applied for the simultaneous description of the spectra of some neighboring nuclei from rare earth region. The theoretical predictions for different low-lying collective bands with positive and negative parity are compared with the experiment. The obtained results reveal the applicability of the model and its boson-fermion extension.

  7. Gamow-Teller transitions and proton-neutron pair correlation in N =Z odd-odd p -shell nuclei

    Morita, Hiroyuki; Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko

    2017-10-01

    We have studied the Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions from N =Z +2 neighbors to N =Z odd-odd nuclei in the p -shell region by using isospin-projected and β γ -constraint antisymmetrized molecular dynamics combined with the generator coordinate method. The calculated GT transition strengths from 0+1 states to 1+0 states such as 6He(01+1 ) →6Li(11+0 ) , 10Be(01+1 ) →10B(11+0 ) , and 14C(01+1 ) →14N(12+0 ) exhaust more than 50% of the sum rule. These N =Z +2 initial states and N =Z odd-odd final states are found to dominantly have S =0 ,T =1 n n pairs and S =1 ,T =0 p n pairs, respectively. Based on the two-nucleon (N N ) pair picture, we can understand the concentration of the GT strengths as the spin-isospin-flip transition n n (S =0 ,T =1 )→p n (S =1 ,T =0 ) in L S coupling. The GT transition can be a good probe to identify the spin-isospin partner states with n n pairs and p n pairs of N =Z +2 and N =Z odd-odd nuclei, respectively.

  8. The core-quasiparticle model for odd-odd nuclei and applications to candidates for gamma-ray lasers

    Strottman, D.D.

    1988-01-01

    A reliable estimate of the properties of isomers that may be viable candidates for a gamma-ray laser requires the use of the most accurate save functions possible. The majority of models that have been used to estimate the properties of isomers are applicable to only selected regions of the nuclear mass table. In particular, the Bohr-Mottelson model of odd-A and odd-odd nuclei will fail if the even-even core is not strongly deformed or if the deformations are changing strongly as a function of mass. This paper reports how the problem is overcome in a new core- quasiparticle model for odd-odd nuclei. The model introduces the pairing interaction ab initio; the odd-A states are mixtures of particle and hole states. The core may be soft towards deformation or axial asymmetry and may change rapidly as a function of mass. Thus, the model is ideally suited for application to the region of transitional nuclei such as the Te, La, and Os regions

  9. Higher (odd dimensional quantum Hall effect and extended dimensional hierarchy

    Kazuki Hasebe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate dimensional ladder of higher dimensional quantum Hall effects by exploiting quantum Hall effects on arbitrary odd dimensional spheres. Non-relativistic and relativistic Landau models are analyzed on S2k−1 in the SO(2k−1 monopole background. The total sub-band degeneracy of the odd dimensional lowest Landau level is shown to be equal to the winding number from the base-manifold S2k−1 to the one-dimension higher SO(2k gauge group. Based on the chiral Hopf maps, we clarify the underlying quantum Nambu geometry for odd dimensional quantum Hall effect and the resulting quantum geometry is naturally embedded also in one-dimension higher quantum geometry. An origin of such dimensional ladder connecting even and odd dimensional quantum Hall effects is illuminated from a viewpoint of the spectral flow of Atiyah–Patodi–Singer index theorem in differential topology. We also present a BF topological field theory as an effective field theory in which membranes with different dimensions undergo non-trivial linking in odd dimensional space. Finally, an extended version of the dimensional hierarchy for higher dimensional quantum Hall liquids is proposed, and its relationship to quantum anomaly and D-brane physics is discussed.

  10. Consanguinity and family clustering of male factor infertility in Lebanon.

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Kobeissi, Loulou; Nassar, Zaher; Lakkis, Da'ad; Fakih, Michael H

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the influence of consanguineous marriage on male factor infertility in Lebanon, where rates of consanguineous marriage remain high (29.6% among Muslims, 16.5% among Christians). Clinic-based, case-control study, using reproductive history, risk factor interview, and laboratory-based semen analysis. Two IVF clinics in Beirut, Lebanon, during an 8-month period (January-August 2003). One hundred twenty infertile male patients and 100 fertile male controls, distinguished by semen analysis and reproductive history. None. Standard clinical semen analysis. The rates of consanguineous marriage were relatively high among the study sample. Patients (46%) were more likely than controls (37%) to report first-degree (parental) and second-degree (grandparental) consanguinity. The study demonstrated a clear pattern of family clustering of male factor infertility, with patients significantly more likely than controls to report infertility among close male relatives (odds ratio = 2.58). Men with azoospermia and severe oligospermia showed high rates of both consanguinity (50%) and family clustering (41%). Consanguineous marriage is a socially supported institution throughout the Muslim world, yet its relationship to infertility is poorly understood. This study demonstrated a significant association between consanguinity and family clustering of male factor infertility cases, suggesting a strong genetic component.

  11. Nuclear structure of the N = Z odd - odd nuclei around N=28 closed shell interpreted with IBFFM

    Dragulescu, E.; Serbanut, G. C.; Serbanut, I.

    2001-01-01

    In the very recent years the knowledge of the level structure at lower and higher energies in the fpg shell N=Z nuclei has renewed a growing interest due to major improvements in the theoretical techniques. Going away from closed shell, the shell model calculations rapidly exhaust computer capabilities and we must resort to the model observed on collective phenomena. The fpg odd-odd N = Z nuclei close to the doubly magic 56 Ni nucleus are good candidates to investigate the competition between collective and single-particle excitations. Here part of the results obtained from an exhaustive systematic study of the self conjugate doubly-odd nuclei with A > 62: 62 Ga and 66 As nuclei using the interacting - boson - fermion - fermion - model (IBFFM) is presented. The odd-odd nuclei are described in the framework of the IBFFM by coupling valence shell proton and neutron quasiparticles to even-even core described in the interacting - boson model. In the first step of the calculations the core parameters for 60 Zn and 64 Ge cores were fitted to the energies of their excited states. In the second step of calculations, we have adjusted the IBFM proton Hamiltonian to the low - lying levels of 63 Ga and 67 As nuclei and IBFM neutron Hamiltonian of low - lying levels of 61 Zn and 65 Ge nuclei involved in the cases of the structure of odd-odd 62 Ga and 66 As nuclei. We have finally calculated the level spectra and electromagnetic properties of above mentioned nuclei. The IBFFM positive - parity energy spectra are compared with experimental ones. The calculations show a reasonable agreement with experimental data and existing shell - model calculations. (authors)

  12. Iron-Based Superconductors as Odd-Parity Superconductors

    Jiangping Hu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Parity is a fundamental quantum number used to classify a state of matter. Materials rarely possess ground states with odd parity. We show that the superconducting state in iron-based superconductors is classified as an odd-parity s-wave spin-singlet pairing state in a single trilayer FeAs/Se, the building block of the materials. In a low-energy effective model constructed on the Fe square bipartite lattice, the superconducting order parameter in this state is a combination of an s-wave normal pairing between two sublattices and an s-wave η pairing within the sublattices. The state has a fingerprint with a real-space sign inversion between the top and bottom As/Se layers. The results suggest that iron-based superconductors are a new quantum state of matter, and the measurement of the odd parity can help to establish high-temperature superconducting mechanisms.

  13. Memory effect for particle scattering in odd spacetime dimensions

    Satishchandran, Gautam; Wald, Robert M.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the gravitational memory effect for linearized perturbations off of Minkowski space in odd spacetime dimensions d by examining the effects of gravitational radiation from classical point particle scattering. We also investigate analogous memory effects for electromagnetic and scalar radiation. We find that there is no gravitational memory effect in all odd dimensions. For scalar and electromagnetic fields, there is no memory effect for d ≥7 ; for d =3 there is an infinite momentum memory effect, whereas for d =5 there is no momentum memory effect but the displacement of a test particle will grow unboundedly with time. Our results are further elucidated by analyzing the memory effect for any slowly moving source of compact spatial support in odd dimensions.

  14. Low-spin identical bands in odd-A nuclei

    Baktash, C; Garrett, J D; Winchell, D F; Smith, A [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-08-01

    A comprehensive study of odd-A rotational bands in normally-deformed rare-earth nuclei indicates that a large number of seniority-one configurations (30% for odd-Z nuclei) at low spin have moments of inertia nearly identical to that of the seniority-zero configuration of the neighboring even-even nucleus with one less nucleon. It is difficult to reconcile these results with conventional models, based on the traditional picture of nuclear pair correlation in vogue for more than three decades, which predict variations of about 15% in the moments of inertia of configurations differing by one unit in seniority. (author). 18 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  15. Odd-flavor Simulations by the Hybrid Monte Carlo

    Takaishi, Tetsuya; Takaishi, Tetsuya; De Forcrand, Philippe

    2001-01-01

    The standard hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm is known to simulate even flavors QCD only. Simulations of odd flavors QCD, however, can be also performed in the framework of the hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm where the inverse of the fermion matrix is approximated by a polynomial. In this exploratory study we perform three flavors QCD simulations. We make a comparison of the hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm and the R-algorithm which also simulates odd flavors systems but has step-size errors. We find that results from our hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm are in agreement with those from the R-algorithm obtained at very small step-size.

  16. Low-spin identical bands in odd-A nuclei

    Baktash, C.; Garrett, J.D.; Winchell, D.F.; Smith, A.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive study of odd-A rotational bands in normally-deformed rare-earth nuclei indicates that a large number of seniority-one configurations (30% for odd-Z nuclei) at low spin have moments of inertia nearly identical to that of the seniority-zero configuration of the neighboring even-even nucleus with one less nucleon. It is difficult to reconcile these results with conventional models, based on the traditional picture of nuclear pair correlation in vogue for more than three decades, which predict variations of about 15% in the moments of inertia of configurations differing by one unit in seniority

  17. Low-spin identical bands in odd-A nuclei

    Baktash, C.; Garrett, J.D.; Winchell, D.F.; Smith, A.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive study of odd-A rotational bands in normally-deformed rare-earth nuclei indicates that a large number of seniority-one configurations (30% for odd-Z nuclei) at low spin have moments of inertia nearly identical to that of the seniority-zero configuration of the neighboring even-even nucleus with one less nucleon. It is difficult to reconcile these results with conventional models, based on the traditional picture of nuclear pair correlation in vogue for more than three decades, which predict variations of about 15% in the moments of inertia of configurations differing by one unit in seniority. (author). 18 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  18. Energy spectra of odd nuclei in the generalized model

    I. O. Korzh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the generalized nuclear model, energy spectra of the odd nuclei of such elements as 25Mg, 41K, and 65Cu are determined, and the structure of wave functions of these nuclei in the excited and normal states is studied. High quality in determining the energy spectra is possible due to the accurate calculations of all elements of the energy matrix. It is demonstrated that the structure of the wave functions so determined provides the possibility to more accurately select the nuclear model and the method for calculating the nucleon cross-sections of the inelastic scattering of nucleons by odd nuclei.

  19. Social Smoking and Mental Health Among Chinese Male College Students.

    Cai, Long-Biao; Xu, Fang-Rong; Cheng, Qing-Zhou; Zhan, Jian; Xie, Tao; Ye, Yong-Ling; Xiong, Shang-Zhi; McCarthy, Kayne; He, Qi-Qiang

    2017-05-01

    China has a high prevalence of smoking, but the characteristics of social smoking in Chinese college students have not been investigated. We examined the pattern of social smoking and explored the association between social smoking and personal cessation efforts and mental health factors among Chinese male college students. Study design was a cross-sectional survey. P. R. China was the setting of the study. Participants were a random sample of 1327 male college students. All participants completed a self-administered questionnaire that examined their smoking behaviors and a group of specific mental health factors (loneliness, self-harm, suicide, depression, and anxiety). Analysis was conducted using descriptive statistics, χ 2 analysis, and multivariate logistic regression. Of a total of 207 current smokers, 102 (49.3%) were identified as social smokers. Compared with nonsmokers, social smokers had increased risks for depression (odds ratio, 1.74; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-2.65). Among daily smokers, social smokers were less likely to have an intention to quit smoking than nonsocial smokers (odds ratio, .08; 95% confidence interval, .01-.57). This study reveals unique psychologic characteristics related to social smoking. College students are a particular group of interest because unhealthy behaviors initiated during adolescence may continue through adulthood. Our findings provide evidence for future tobacco control intervention among this population.

  20. Correlates of Male Condom Use Skills among High-Risk Women in South Africa

    Browne, Felicia A.; Wechsberg, Wendee M.; Bowling, J. Michael; Luseno, Winnie K.

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the performance of 295 South African women—who recently traded sex for goods or had unprotected sex—on a male condom use mastery index. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether age, marital status, highest education obtained, male condom use at first penetrative sex, receiving prior demonstration of male condom use, recent sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptoms, and recently trading sex were significantly associated with index scores. Adjusted odds ratios indicated that age and STI symptoms were negatively associated with condom skills; women who were older and had a higher number of recent STI symptoms were more likely to have lower scores. Furthermore, participants executed, on average, approximately one-third of condom use steps correctly. These findings suggest a need for increased behavioral skills training for women engaging in sexual risk behaviors because many lack the skills required to use a male condom properly. PMID:21660835

  1. Isokinetic Hamstrings: Quadriceps Ratios in Intercollegiate Athletes.

    Rosene, John M.; Fogarty, Tracey D.; Mahaffey, Brian L.

    2001-01-01

    Compared the differences in the concentric hamstrings to quadriceps (H:Q) ratio among athletes in different sports at three velocities. Measurement of H:Q ratio of both knees among male and female college athletes indicated that the H:Q ratio increased as velocity increased. No differences existed for the H:Q ratio for sport or side of body. (SM)

  2. CP-odd phase correlations and electric dipole moments

    Olive, Keith A.; Pospelov, Maxim; Ritz, Adam; Santoso, Yudi

    2005-01-01

    We revisit the constraints imposed by electric dipole moments (EDMs) of nucleons and heavy atoms on new CP-violating sources within supersymmetric theories. We point out that certain two-loop renormalization group corrections induce significant mixing between the basis-invariant CP-odd phases. In the framework of the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model, the CP-odd invariant related to the soft trilinear A-phase at the grand unified theory (GUT) scale, θ A , induces nontrivial and distinct CP-odd phases for the three gaugino masses at the weak scale. The latter give one-loop contributions to EDMs enhanced by tanβ, and can provide the dominant contribution to the electron EDM induced by θ A . We perform a detailed analysis of the EDM constraints within the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model, exhibiting the reach, in terms of sparticle spectra, which may be obtained assuming generic phases, as well as the limits on the CP-odd phases for some specific parameter points where detailed phenomenological studies are available. We also illustrate how this reach will expand with results from the next generation of experiments which are currently in development

  3. Decay properties of certain odd-Z SHE

    Carmel Vigila Bai, G.M.; Santhosh Kumar, S.

    2004-01-01

    In this work the well known Cubic plus Yukawa plus Exponential model (CYEM) in two sphere approximation and incorporating deformation effects to parents and daughter was used to study the alpha decay properties of certain odd-Z super heavy elements

  4. Covariant heterotic strings and odd self-dual lattices

    Lerche, W.; Luest, D.

    1987-01-01

    We investigate the implications of modular invariance for covariantly formulated heterotic strings. It is shown that modular invariant heterotic strings are characterized by odd self-dual lorentzian lattices which include charges of the bosonized superconformal ghosts. The proof of modular invariance involves the anomaly in the ghost number current in a crucial way. (orig.)

  5. Totally odd K-4-subdivisions in 4-chromatic graphs

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2001-01-01

    We prove the conjecture made by Bjarne Toft in 1975 that every 4-chromatic graph contains a subdivision of K-4 in which each edge of K-4 corresponds to a path of odd length. As an auxiliary result we characterize completely the subspace of the cycle space generated by all cycles through two fixed...

  6. RENORMALIZATION FACTOR AND ODD-OMEGA GAP SINGLET SUPERCONDUCTIVITY

    DOLGOV, OV; LOSYAKOV, VV

    1994-01-01

    Abrahams et al. [Phys. Rev. B 47 (1993) 513] have considered the possibility of a nonzero critical temperature of the superconductor transition to the state with odd-omega pp function and shown that the condition for it is the following inequality for the renormalization factor. Z (k, omega(n)) <1.

  7. Odd Couples : A History of Gay Marriage in Scandinavia

    Rydström, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Odd Couples. A History of Gay Marriage in Scandinavia is het eerste omvangrijke boek over de geschiedenis van het geregistreerd partnerschap en het homohuwelijk in Scandinavië. Dit boek presenteert een grondig onderzoek naar de wisselwerking tussen het homoactivisme en traditionele partijpolitiek.

  8. Fission barriers of two odd-neutron heavy nuclei

    Koh, Meng-Hock; Bonneau, L.; Nhan Hao, T. V.; Duc, Dao Duy; Quentin, P.

    2015-01-01

    The fission barriers of two odd-neutron heavy odd nuclei,namely the 235 U and 239 Pu isotopes have been calculated within a self-consistent Hartree-Fock-plus-BCS approach with blocking. A Skyrme nucleon-nucleon effective interaction has been used together with a seniority force to describe pairing correlations. A full account of the genuine time-reversal symmetry breaking due to the presence of an unpaired nucleon has been incorporated at the mean field level. The SIII and SkM* parametrizations of the Skyrme interaction have been retained as well as for a part a newer parametrization, SLy5*. The seniority force parameters have been fitted to reproduce experimental odd-even mass differences in the actinide region. To assess the relevance of our calculated fission barrier distribution (as a function of the quantum numbers), we have studied the quality of our results with respect to the spectroscopy of band heads (for configurations deemed to be a pure single particle character) in the ground and fission isomeric states. Fission barriers of the considered odd nuclei have been compared with what is obtained for their even-even neighbouring isotopes (namely 234 U and 236 U, 238 Pu and 240 Pu respectively) to determine the so-called specialization energies. Various corrections and associated uncertainties have been discussed in order to compare our results with available data

  9. Efficient estimation for high similarities using odd sketches

    Mitzenmacher, Michael; Pagh, Rasmus; Pham, Ninh Dang

    2014-01-01

    . This means that Odd Sketches provide a highly space-efficient estimator for sets of high similarity, which is relevant in applications such as web duplicate detection, collaborative filtering, and association rule learning. The method extends to weighted Jaccard similarity, relevant e.g. for TF-IDF vector...... and web duplicate detection tasks....

  10. CP-odd Phase Correlations and Electric Dipole Moments

    Olive, Keith A; Ritz, A; Santoso, Y; Olive, Keith A.; Pospelov, Maxim; Ritz, Adam; Santoso, Yudi

    2005-01-01

    We revisit the constraints imposed by electric dipole moments (EDMs) of nucleons and heavy atoms on new CP-violating sources within supersymmetric theories. We point out that certain two-loop renormalization group corrections induce significant mixing between the basis-invariant CP-odd phases. In the framework of the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model (CMSSM), the CP-odd invariant related to the soft trilinear A-phase at the GUT scale, theta_A, induces non-trivial and distinct CP-odd phases for the three gaugino masses at the weak scale. The latter give one-loop contributions to EDMs enhanced by tan beta, and can provide the dominant contribution to the electron EDM induced by theta_A. We perform a detailed analysis of the EDM constraints within the CMSSM, exhibiting the reach, in terms of sparticle spectra, which may be obtained assuming generic phases, as well as the limits on the CP-odd phases for some specific parameter points where detailed phenomenological studies are available. We also i...

  11. The Antarctic ozone minimum - Relationship to odd nitrogen, odd chlorine, the final warming, and the 11-year solar cycle

    Callis, L. B.; Natarajan, M.

    1986-01-01

    Photochemical calculations along 'diabatic trajectories' in the meridional phase are used to search for the cause of the dramatic springtime minimum in Antarctic column ozone. The results indicate that the minimum is principally due to catalytic destruction of ozone by high levels of total odd nitrogen. Calculations suggest that these levels of odd nitrogen are transported within the polar vortex and during the polar night from the middle to upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere to the lower stratosphere. The possibility that these levels are related to the 11-year solar cycle and are increased by enhanced formation in the thermosphere and mesosphere during solar maximum conditions is discussed.

  12. Redundant prepuce increases the odds of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS

    Yu-Yang Zhao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Some published evidence has revealed that the dendritic cells can interact with pathogens that exist in the inner foreskin. This information provides a new vision that pathogens could play a role through the redundant prepuce; numerous studies have failed to find pathogens in prostates of patients who had chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS. However, no studies have reported an association between foreskin length and CP/CPPS. Hence, we conducted a retrospective case-control study of clinical data from 322 CP/CPPS patients (case group and 341 nonCP/CPPS patients (control group. Demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and foreskin lengths were collected and analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was adopted to calculate the odds of foreskin length for CP/CPPS. According to the multivariate logistic regression results, when the foreskin length covered up more than half of the glans penis, the odds for CP/CPPS were higher with an increased foreskin (odds ratio (OR: 1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.04-2.66. In comparison, when the glans penis was completely covered by the foreskin, the OR value increased to 1.86 (95% CI, 1.2-2.88. The study results showed an association between foreskin length and the odds of CP/CPPS. When the foreskin length covered up more than half of the glans penis, there were greater odds for CP/CPPS. This possible mechanism might result from interaction between pathogens and DCs in the inner foreskin, consequently activating T-cells to mediate allergic inflammation in the prostate and producing the autoimmunizations causing CP/CPPS.

  13. Redundant prepuce increases the odds of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS).

    Zhao, Yu-Yang; Xu, Dong-Liang; Zhao, Fu-Jun; Han, Bang-Min; Shao, Yi; Zhao, Wei; Xia, Shu-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Some published evidence has revealed that the dendritic cells can interact with pathogens that exist in the inner foreskin. This information provides a new vision that pathogens could play a role through the redundant prepuce; numerous studies have failed to find pathogens in prostates of patients who had chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). However, no studies have reported an association between foreskin length and CP/CPPS. Hence, we conducted a retrospective case-control study of clinical data from 322 CP/CPPS patients (case group) and 341 nonCP/CPPS patients (control group). Demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and foreskin lengths were collected and analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was adopted to calculate the odds of foreskin length for CP/CPPS. According to the multivariate logistic regression results, when the foreskin length covered up more than half of the glans penis, the odds for CP/CPPS were higher with an increased foreskin (odds ratio (OR): 1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-2.66). In comparison, when the glans penis was completely covered by the foreskin, the OR value increased to 1.86 (95% CI, 1.2-2.88). The study results showed an association between foreskin length and the odds of CP/CPPS. When the foreskin length covered up more than half of the glans penis, there were greater odds for CP/CPPS. This possible mechanism might result from interaction between pathogens and DCs in the inner foreskin, consequently activating T-cells to mediate allergic inflammation in the prostate and producing the autoimmunizations causing CP/CPPS.

  14. Male Infertility

    ... hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands. Low testosterone (male hypogonadism) and other hormonal problems have a number of possible underlying causes. Defects of tubules that transport sperm. Many ... syndrome — in which a male is born with two X chromosomes and one ...

  15. Pattern of comorbidity among anxious and odd personality disorders: the case of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

    Rossi, A; Marinangeli, M G; Butti, G; Kalyvoka, A; Petruzzi, C

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of comorbidity among obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and other personality disorders (PDs) in a sample of 400 psychiatric inpatients. PDs were assessed using the Semistructured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders (SCID-II). Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to determine significant comorbidity among OCPD and other axis II disorders. The most elevated odds ratios were found for the cooccurrence of OCPD with cluster A PDs (the "odd" PDs, or paranoid and schizoid PDs). These results are consistent with those of previous studies showing a higher cooccurrence of OCPD with cluster A than with cluster C ("anxious") PDs. In light of these observations, issues associated with the nosologic status of OCPD within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders clustering system remain unsettled.

  16. Impact of race on male predisposition to birth asphyxia.

    Mohamed, M A; Aly, H

    2014-06-01

    To examine the associations of: (a) neonatal sex with mild-to-moderate and severe birth asphyxia, (b) fetal sex with mortality due to birth asphyxia and (c) neonatal race with severe birth asphyxia. We used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) Database including the years 1993 to 2008 or its pediatric sub portion Kid's Inpatient Database (KID) for the years 1997, 2000, 2003 and 2006. NIS database is collected annually from more than 1000 hospitals across the United States for millions of inpatient discharge summaries. We included newborns older than 36 weeks gestational age or more than 2500 g at birth. We excluded newborns with congenital heart disease, major congenital anomalies and chromosomal disorders. We compared birth asphyxia in males to females, and in each race compared with whites, and examined effect of sex in association with birth asphyxia within each race/ethnicity. There were 9 708 251 term infants (51.8% males) included in the study. There were 15 569 newborns diagnosed with severe birth asphyxia (1.6 in 1000); of them 56.1% were males. Odds ratio (OR)to have severe birth asphyxia in male newborns was 1.16 (confidence interval (CI): 1.12 to 1.20, Psex was associated with increased birth asphyxia in all races but Native American. Male sex and African-American race were associated with increased prevalence of birth asphyxia.

  17. J/ψ dissociation in parity-odd bubbles

    Tuchin, Kirill

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the quarkonium dissociation rate in the P and CP-odd domains (bubbles) that were possibly created in heavy-ion collisions. In the presence of the magnetic field produced by the valence quarks of colliding ions, parity-odd domains generate electric field. Quarkonium dissociation is the result of quantum tunneling of quark or antiquark through the potential barrier in this electric field. The strength of the electric field in the quarkonium comoving frame depends on the quarkonium velocity with respect to the background magnetic field. We investigate momentum, electric field strength and azimuthal dependence of the dissociation rate. Azimuthal distribution of quarkonia surviving in the electromagnetic field is strongly anisotropic; the form of anisotropy depends on the relation between the electric and magnetic fields and quarkonium momentum P ⊥ . These features can be used to explore the properties of the electromagnetic field created in heavy ion collisions.

  18. Gravitational lens produces an odd number of images

    McKenzie, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Rigorous results are given to the effect that a transparent gravitational lens produces an odd number of images. Suppose that p is an event and T the history of a light source in a globally hyperbolic space-time (M,g). Uhlenbeck's Morse theory of null geodesics is used to show under quite general conditions that if there are at most a finite number n of future-directed null geodesics from T to p, then M is contractible to a point. Moreover, n is odd and 1/2 (n-1) of the images of the source seen by an observer at p have the opposite orientation to the source. An analogous result is noted for Riemannian manifolds with positive definite metric

  19. Fermions in odd space-time dimensions: back to basics

    Anguiano Jesus de, Ma.; Bashir, A.

    2005-01-01

    It is a well-known feature of odd space-time dimensions d that there exist two inequivalent fundamental representations A and B of the Dirac gamma matrices. Moreover, the parity transformation swaps the fermion fields living in A and B. As a consequence, a parity-invariant Lagrangian can only be constructed by incorporating both the representation. Based upon these ideas and contrary to long-held belief, we show that in addition to a discrete exchange symmetry for the massless case, we can also define chiral symmetry provided the Lagrangian contains fields corresponding to both the inequivalent representations. We also study the transformation properties of the corresponding chiral currents under parity and charge-conjugation operations. We work explicitly in 2 + 1 dimensions and later show how some of these ideas generalize to an arbitrary number of odd dimensions. (author)

  20. Investigation of odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in atomic vapors

    Yan, Yaqi [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Teaching and Research Section of Maths and Physics, Guangzhou Commanding Academy of Chinese People’s Armed Police Force, Guangzhou, 510440 (China); Wu, Zhenkun; Si, Jinhai; Yan, Lihe; Zhang, Yiqi; Yuan, Chenzhi; Sun, Jia [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Zhang, Yanpeng, E-mail: ypzhang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2013-06-15

    We theoretically deduce the macroscopic symmetry constraints for arbitrary odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in homogeneous media including atomic vapors for the first time. After theoretically calculating the expressions using a semiclassical method, we demonstrate that the expressions for third- and fifth-order nonlinear susceptibilities for undressed and dressed four- and six-wave mixing (FWM and SWM) in atomic vapors satisfy the macroscopic symmetry constraints. We experimentally demonstrate consistence between the macroscopic symmetry constraints and the semiclassical expressions for atomic vapors by observing polarization control of FWM and SWM processes. The experimental results are in reasonable agreement with our theoretical calculations. -- Highlights: •The macroscopic symmetry constraints are deduced for homogeneous media including atomic vapors. •We demonstrate that odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities satisfy the constraints. •We experimentally demonstrate the deduction in part.

  1. Common pitfalls in statistical analysis: Odds versus risk

    Ranganathan, Priya; Aggarwal, Rakesh; Pramesh, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    In biomedical research, we are often interested in quantifying the relationship between an exposure and an outcome. “Odds” and “Risk” are the most common terms which are used as measures of association between variables. In this article, which is the fourth in the series of common pitfalls in statistical analysis, we explain the meaning of risk and odds and the difference between the two. PMID:26623395

  2. Fluorinated monovacancies in graphene: Even-odd effect

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2012-11-01

    The electronic and structural properties of fluorinated monovacancies in graphene are studied using density functional theory. Our calculations show that an odd number of F atoms adsorbed on a monovacancy gives rise to a p-type metallic state with a local magnetic moment of 1μ B. In contrast, an even number of F atoms leads to a non-magnetic semiconducting state. We explain the behaviour in terms of local structure properties. © Copyright EPLA, 2012.

  3. gamma -transition rates in transitional odd gold nuclei

    Berg, V; Oms, J

    1981-01-01

    The results of two half-life measurements of excited states in /sup 185/Au are presented. One supports the proposed interpretation of the ground state configuration, the other one calls attention to the h 9/2 to h 11/2 M1 transitions in odd mass gold nuclei, which, in spite of considerable deformation changes of the h 9/2 state, all show the same retardation. (5 refs).

  4. Fluorinated monovacancies in graphene: Even-odd effect

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2012-01-01

    The electronic and structural properties of fluorinated monovacancies in graphene are studied using density functional theory. Our calculations show that an odd number of F atoms adsorbed on a monovacancy gives rise to a p-type metallic state with a local magnetic moment of 1μ B. In contrast, an even number of F atoms leads to a non-magnetic semiconducting state. We explain the behaviour in terms of local structure properties. © Copyright EPLA, 2012.

  5. Gamma band odd-even staggering in some deformed nuclei

    Khairy, M.K.; Talaat, SH.M.; Morsy, M.

    2005-01-01

    A complete investigation was carried out in studying the odd-even staggering (OES) of gamma bands energy levels in some deformed nuclei up to angular momentum L=13 . With the help of Minkov treatment in the framework of a collective Vector Boson Model (VBM) with broken SU (3) symmetry. The OES behavior of deformed isotopes 162 E r, 164 E r, 166 E r, 156 G d, 170 Y b and 232 T h was studied and discussed

  6. Fraternal Birth Order, Family Size, and Male Homosexuality: Meta-Analysis of Studies Spanning 25 Years.

    Blanchard, Ray

    2018-01-01

    The fraternal birth order effect is the tendency for older brothers to increase the odds of homosexuality in later-born males. This study compared the strength of the effect in subjects from small versus large families and in homosexual subjects with masculine versus feminine gender identities. Meta-analyses were conducted on 30 homosexual and 30 heterosexual groups from 26 studies, totaling 7140 homosexual and 12,837 heterosexual males. The magnitude of the fraternal birth order effect was measured with a novel variable, the Older Brothers Odds Ratio, computed as (homosexuals' older brothers ÷ homosexuals' other siblings) ÷ (heterosexuals' older brothers ÷ heterosexuals' other siblings), where other siblings = older sisters + younger brothers + younger sisters. An Older Brothers Odds Ratio of 1.00 represents no effect of sexual orientation; values over 1.00 are positive evidence for the fraternal birth order effect. Evidence for the reliability of the effect was consistent. The Older Brothers Odds Ratio was significantly >1.00 in 20 instances, >1.00 although not significantly in nine instances, and nonsignificantly <1.00 in 1 instance. The pooled Older Brothers Odds Ratio for all samples was 1.47, p < .00001. Subgroups analyses showed that the magnitude of the effect was significantly greater in the 12 feminine or transgender homosexual groups than in the other 18 homosexual groups. There was no evidence that the magnitude of the effect differs according to family size.

  7. Magnetic dipole moments of deformed odd-A nuclei

    Garg, V P; Sharma, S D; Mahesh, P S [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1976-12-01

    Using an extended version of A S Davydov and G F Filippov's model (1958), B E Chi and J P Davidson have calculated magnetic moments of odd-A nuclei in 2s-ld shell, diagonalizing the state matrices for a set of parameters giving the best fit for nuclear spectra (1966). To study the failure of this model in case of nuclear moments, instead of diagonalizing an attempt has been made to simplify the expression for magnetic dipole moment for single nucleonic states without configuration mixing. The model takes care of the proper sign of spin projections. On replacing the total angular momentum j of odd particle (proton or neutron) by its projection ..cap omega.., the expression reduces to that of Mottelson and Nilsson for spin-up nuclei. The Coriolis coupling calculations also have been performed for those odd-A nuclei with K = 1/2. The results are found in better agreement with experimental report in comparison with those of other models.

  8. Male Hypogonadism

    ... the hormone that plays a key role in masculine growth and development during puberty — or has an ... Adulthood In adult males, hypogonadism may alter certain masculine physical characteristics and impair normal reproductive function. Signs ...

  9. Male Infertility

    ... to have a baby? If treatment doesn’t work, what are our other options? Resources National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, What Causes Male Infertility? Last Updated: May 30, 2017 This ...

  10. Male contraception.

    Amory, John K

    2016-11-01

    Although female contraceptives are very effective at preventing unintended pregnancy, some women can not use them because of health conditions or side-effects, leaving some couples without effective contraceptive options. In addition, many men wish to take active responsibility for family planning. Thus, there is a great need for male contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancies, of which 80-90 million occur annually. At present, effective male contraceptive options are condoms and vasectomy, which are not ideal for all men. Therefore, efforts are under way to develop novel male contraceptives. This paper briefly reviews the advantages and disadvantages of condoms and vasectomies and then discusses the research directed toward development of novel methods of male contraception. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Condoms - male

    Prophylactics; Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... your health care provider or pharmacy about emergency contraception ("morning-after pills"). PROBLEMS WITH CONDOM USE Some ...

  12. Male contraception

    Mathew, Vivek; Bantwal, Ganapathi

    2012-01-01

    Contraception is an accepted route for the control of population explosion in the world. Traditionally hormonal contraceptive methods have focused on women. Male contraception by means of hormonal and non hormonal methods is an attractive alternative. Hormonal methods of contraception using testosterone have shown good results. Non hormonal reversible methods of male contraception like reversible inhibition of sperm under guidanceare very promising. In this article we have reviewed the curren...

  13. Search for very light CP-odd Higgs Boson in radiative decays of Upsilon(1S).

    Love, W; Savinov, V; Mendez, H; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Khalil, S; Li, J; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sultana, N; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, L M; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Naik, P; Rademacker, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Reed, J; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Hunt, J M; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Ledoux, J; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Mehrabyan, S; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Libby, J; Martin, L; Powell, A; Wilkinson, G; Ecklund, K M

    2008-10-10

    We search for a non-SM-like CP-odd Higgs boson (a(1)(0)) decaying to tau(+)tau(-) or mu(+)mu(-) in radiative decays of the Upsilon(1S). No significant signal is found, and upper limits on the product branching ratios are set. Our tau(+)tau(-) results are almost 2 orders of magnitude more stringent than previous upper limits. Our data provide no evidence for a Higgs state with a mass of 214 MeV decaying to mu(+)mu(-), previously proposed as an explanation for 3 Sigma(+)-->pmu(+)mu(-) events observed by the HyperCP experiment. Our results constrain NMSSM models.

  14. Male sexuality.

    Ginsberg, Terrie B

    2010-05-01

    It should be recognized that sexuality in the aging male is of such import that a complete sexual history must be performed. By taking a complete sexual history, facts can be obtained that will allow for appropriate focus relating to a holistic evaluation and will enable us to dispel antiquated sexual myths pertaining to the aging male. If initiated by the history taker, questions concerning sexuality may be discussed more comfortably by the patient. Erectile dysfunction, male sexual response cycle, testosterone, sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, long-term illness, along with religion and culture are explored in this article with the aim of improving one's knowledge base, self reflection, and awareness of the importance of male sexuality. A complete understanding and appreciation of the aging male's medical history, surgical history, social history, and emotional history as well as his sexual, cultural, and religious concepts will allow the health care provider to better analyze information, and to recommend and provide appropriate advice and treatment to the aging male patient. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. History of postpartum depression and the odds of maternal corporal punishment.

    Knox, Michele; Rosenberger, Ryan; Sarwar, Sajjad; Mangewala, Vikas; Klag, Natalie

    2015-12-01

    Corporal punishment is closely related to physical abuse of children and is associated with several negative characteristics and experiences in children and youths. This study examined the relative unique contribution of 6 variables (social support, socioeconomic status, depression, self-efficacy, knowledge of child development, and history of postpartum depression) to maternal corporal punishment of children. A sample of 76 mothers was dichotomized into those who never spanked or hit with an object and those who have spanked or hit with an object. The mothers were recruited from a community mental health agency, an urban community center, and a court of common pleas. The measures in the present study were administered prior to mothers' participation in a parent training program. Mothers referred by the court of common pleas were mandated to participate in the parent training program, and the mothers from the community mental health agency and the urban community center volunteered to participate in the parent training program. However, all participants voluntarily completed the research measures. Binary logistic regression identified postpartum depression as the only variable to significantly increase the odds of corporal punishment (odds ratio = 6.307, 95% confidence interval = 1.098-36.214, p = .039). The findings demonstrate increased odds of corporal punishment among a high-risk sample of women with postpartum depression. The generalizability of these findings may be limited to low socioeconomic class and White and African American mothers enrolled in parent-training programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Secondary sex ratio in relation to exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene and methylmercury

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Choi, Anna L.; Petersen, Maria Skaalum

    2017-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the potential impact of maternal exposures to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) and methylmercury on the secondary sex ratios (the ratio of male to female live births) over a span of 23 years. The study includes prospective...... data from three Faroese birth cohorts, with a total of 2,152 healthy mother-child dyads recruited between 1986 and 2009. The Faroe Islands is a subarctic fishing community, where pilot whale meat and blubber are part of the traditional marine diet. Exposures were measured in maternal hair, serum...... or umbilical cord blood. Confounder adjusted logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between maternal exposures and the secondary sex ratio. A doubling in ΣPCB, p,p'-DDE and mercury concentrations were associated with increased odds by 8% (95% CI = 0-16%), 7% (95% CI = 0-14%) and 9% (95...

  17. Pseudo-spin band in the odd-odd nucleus sup 1 sup 7 sup 2 Lu

    Venkova, T; Gast, W; Podsvirova, E O; Jäger, H M; Mihailescu, L; Bazzacco, D; Menegazzo, R; Lunardi, S; Alvarez, C R; Ur, C; Martínez, T; Angelis, G D; Axiotis, M; Napoli, D; Urban, W; Rzaca-Urban, T; Frauendorf, S

    2003-01-01

    High-spin states in the odd-odd nucleus sup 1 sup 7 sup 2 Lu have been populated in a sup 1 sup 7 sup 0 Er( sup 7 Li,5n) reaction and the emitted gamma-radiation was detected with the GASP array. Two sequences of a new identical band have been observed with the transition energies in the favoured and unfavoured sequences being identical within approx 3 keV at low spins and approx 1 keV at high spins over the whole observed spin range. An interpretation as a pseudo-spin singlet band of pi 1/2 sup - [541] x nu 1/2 sup - [420] configuration is proposed. It represents the best example of a pseudo-spin singlet band in normal deformed nuclei known until now.

  18. Coital frequency and infertility: which male factors predict less frequent coitus among infertile couples?

    Perlis, Nathan; Lo, Kirk C; Grober, Ethan D; Spencer, Leia; Jarvi, Keith

    2013-08-01

    To determine the coital frequency among infertile couples and which factors are associated with less frequent coitus. Cross-sectional study. Tertiary-level male infertility clinic. A total of 1,298 infertile men. Administration of computer-based survey, semen analysis, and serum hormone evaluation. Monthly coital frequency. A total of 1,298 patients presented to clinic for infertility consultation and completed the computer-based survey. The median male age was 35 years (interquartile range [IQR] 32-39 years) and the median duration of infertility was 2 years (IQR 1-4 years) before consultation. Median monthly coital frequency was seven (IQR 5-10; range 0-40); 24% of couples were having intercourse ≤ 4 times per month. Overall, 0.6%, 2.7%, 4.8%, 5.8%, and 10.8% of the men reported having intercourse 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 times per month, respectively. When simultaneously taking into account the influence of age, libido, erectile function, and semen volume on coital frequency, older patients had 1.05 times higher odds (per year of age) of less frequent coitus (odds ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.08). In addition, patients with better erectile function had 1.12 times higher odds (per point on Sexual Health Inventory for Men scale) of more frequent coitus (odds ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval 1.09-1.18). Similar to the general population, most infertile couples report having coitus more than four times per month. Older male age and erectile dysfunction are independent risk factors for less frequent coitus among infertile men, which could have an impact on fertility. Coital frequency should be considered in infertility assessments. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Monolayer structures of alkyl aldehydes: Odd-membered homologues

    Phillips, T.K.; Clarke, S.M.; Bhinde, T.; Castro, M.A.; Millan, C.; Medina, S.

    2011-01-01

    Crystalline monolayers of three aldehydes with an odd number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain (C 7 , C 9 and C 11 ) at low coverages are observed by a combination of X-ray and neutron diffraction. Analysis of the diffraction data is discussed and possible monolayer crystal structures are proposed; although unique structures could not be ascertained for all molecules. We conclude that the structures are flat on the surface, with the molecules lying in the plane of the layer. The C 11 homologue is determined to have a plane group of either p2, pgb or pgg, and for the C 7 homologue the p2 plane group is preferred.

  20. Even and odd combinations of nonlinear coherent states

    De los Santos-Sanchez, O; Recamier, J

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present some statistical properties of even and odd combinations of nonlinear coherent states associated with two nonlinear potentials; one supporting a finite number of bound states and the other supporting an infinite number of bound states, within the framework of an f-deformed algebra. We calculate their normalized variance and the temporal evolution of their dispersion relations using nonlinear coherent states defined as (a) eigensates of the deformed annihilation operator and (b) those states created by the application of a deformed displacement operator upon the ground state of the oscillator.

  1. Oddness of least energy nodal solutions on radial domains

    Christopher Grumiau

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we consider the Lane-Emden problem $$displaylines{ Delta u(x + |{u(x}mathclose|^{p-2}u(x=0, quad hbox{for } xinOmega,cr u(x=0, quad hbox{for } xinpartialOmega, }$$ where $2 < p < 2^{*}$ and $Omega$ is a ball or an annulus in $mathbb{R}^{N}$, $Ngeq 2$. We show that, for p close to 2, least energy nodal solutions are odd with respect to an hyperplane -- which is their nodal surface. The proof ingredients are a constrained implicit function theorem and the fact that the second eigenvalue is simple up to rotations.

  2. Single proton transfer reactions on odd-even nuclei

    Blasi, N.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of one proton transfer reactions, performed with the use of the magnetic spectrograph QMG/2 of the KVI, in two regions of the mass table. Stripping and pickup reactions on the odd-A target nuclei 193 Ir and 197 Au are described in the first part. The experimental spectroscopic factors obtained are used to test several collective models that are based on coupling between bosons (phonons) and fermions. In the second part, the proton stripping reactions on 113 In and 115 In are studied. Shell model calculations are performed and applied to the experimental results. (Auth.)

  3. Gamma bands in doubly odd rhenium and iridium nuclei

    Balodis M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Structure of the |K ± 2| bands in doubly-odd nuclei belonging to the transitional deformation region at A∼190 is discussed. Relation of these quasi gamma-bands with the non-axial deformation of the parent two-quasiparticle configurations is studied. Using available experimental information, new tentative |K ± 2| bands are proposed in 188Re, and 192,194Ir nuclei. Coexistence of two-quasiparticle states with different deformation modes is considered in the case of 188Re and 194Ir.

  4. New even and odd parity levels of neutral praseodymium

    Syed, T I; Siddiqui, I; Shamim, K; Uddin, Z; Guthöhrlein, G H; Windholz, L

    2011-01-01

    The hyperfine (hf) structure of some spectral lines of the praseodymium atom has been investigated by the laser-induced fluorescence method in a hollow cathode discharge lamp. We report the discovery of 18 new energy levels of even parity and 22 new energy levels of odd parity and their magnetic dipole hf interaction constants A. Using these newly discovered levels, 268 lines were classified by means of laser spectroscopy, 97 of them by laser excitation and 171 via laser-induced fluorescence. In addition, 23 lines, observed in a Fourier transform spectrum, were classified by means of their wavenumbers and their hf patterns.

  5. Even-Odd Differences and Shape Deformation of Metal Clusters

    Hidetoshi, Nishioka; Yoshio, Takahashi; Department of Physics, Konan University; Faculty of General Education, Yamagata University

    1994-01-01

    The relation between even-odd difference of metal cluster and the deformation of equilibrium shape is studied in terms of two different models; (i) tri-axially deformed harmonic oscillator model, (ii) rectangular box model. Having assumed the matter density ρ kept constant for different shapes of a cluster, we can determine the equilibrium shape both for the two models. The enhancement of HOMO-LUMO gap is obtained and it is ascribed to Jahn-Teller effect. Good agreement of the calculated resu...

  6. The classification of p-compact groups for p odd

    Andersen, Kasper K. S.; Grodal, Jesper Kragh; Møller, Jesper Michael

    2008-01-01

    A p-compact group, as defined by Dwyer and Wilkerson, is a purely homotopically defined p-local analog of a compact Lie group. It has long been the hope, and later the conjecture, that these objects should have a classification similar to the classification of compact Lie groups. In this paper we...... groups are uniquely determined as p-compact groups by their Weyl groups seen as finite reflection groups over the p-adic integers. Our approach in fact gives a largely self-contained proof of the entire classification theorem for p odd....

  7. Male baldness.

    Clarke, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Male baldness is very common. Its effect on individuals is extremely variable, and in some people it will have a significant adverse effect on their quality of life. The objectives of this article are to help general practitioners (GPs) be aware of potential health problems related to male baldness, to have an approach to assessing hair loss and to be aware of treatment options. Male baldness is, most often, a normal occurrence, but it may have significant effects on a man's health. It may also be a pointer to other potential health issues. The GP is in the ideal position to conduct an initial evaluation, consider other health issues and advise on treatment options.

  8. A complex interaction of imprinted and maternal-effect genes modifies sex determination in Odd Sex (Ods) mice.

    Poirier, Christophe; Qin, Yangjun; Adams, Carolyn P; Anaya, Yanett; Singer, Jonathan B; Hill, Annie E; Lander, Eric S; Nadeau, Joseph H; Bishop, Colin E

    2004-11-01

    The transgenic insertional mouse mutation Odd Sex (Ods) represents a model for the long-range regulation of Sox9. The mutation causes complete female-to-male sex reversal by inducing a male-specific expression pattern of Sox9 in XX Ods/+ embryonic gonads. We previously described an A/J strain-specific suppressor of Ods termed Odsm1(A). Here we show that phenotypic sex depends on a complex interaction between the suppressor and the transgene. Suppression can be achieved only if the transgene is transmitted paternally. In addition, the suppressor itself exhibits a maternal effect, suggesting that it may act on chromatin in the early embryo.

  9. Predictive value of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in diabetic wound healing.

    Vatankhah, Nasibeh; Jahangiri, Younes; Landry, Gregory J; McLafferty, Robert B; Alkayed, Nabil J; Moneta, Gregory L; Azarbal, Amir F

    2017-02-01

    The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been used as a surrogate marker of systemic inflammation. We sought to investigate the association between NLR and wound healing in diabetic wounds. The outcomes of 120 diabetic foot ulcers in 101 patients referred from August 2011 to December 2014 were examined retrospectively. Demographic, patient-specific, and wound-specific variables as well as NLR at baseline visit were assessed. Outcomes were classified as ulcer healing, minor amputation, major amputation, and chronic ulcer. The subjects' mean age was 59.4 ± 13.0 years, and 67 (66%) were male. Final outcome was complete healing in 24 ulcers (20%), minor amputation in 58 (48%) and major amputation in 16 (13%), and 22 chronic ulcers (18%) at the last follow-up (median follow-up time, 6.8 months). In multivariate analysis, higher NLR (odds ratio, 13.61; P = .01) was associated with higher odds of nonhealing. NLR can predict odds of complete healing in diabetic foot ulcers independent of wound infection and other factors. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. All rights reserved.

  10. Generalized seniority scheme for bands in odd-A nuclei

    Gai, M.; Arima, A.; Strottman, D.

    1980-01-01

    The microscopic generalized seniority scheme is applied for the description of bands in odd-A nuclei. A perturbation expansion in terms of the core-particle interaction is performed. The first-order correction for the band head and the first member of the band is discussed. The specific band structure of a given nucleus, as well as the systematic trend of bands, is described in an explicit N-dependent analytical formula. This formula involves a linear dependence on N which arises from the first-order perturbation expansion. This term is shown responsible for the large deviation of the 11/2 - ΔJ=2 band spacing in I isotopes from the spacing of the Te core. All observed band structures of an odd-A nucleus arise from one simple core-particle coupling. Hence decoupled-E2 bands and strongly coupled ΔJ=1 bands, particle or hole bands of low-spin or high-spin orbits, all follow one simple N-dependence. This uniformity of bands is manifested in E2 bands in 53 I isotopes and deltaJ=1 bands in 51 Sb that have the same 52 Te cores. For the calculations a particle-particle force with a large contribution from a g delta force is used with a coupling constant that is deduced from 210 Pb. 1 figure

  11. The odds of duplicate gene persistence after polyploidization

    Chain Frédéric JJ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene duplication is an important biological phenomenon associated with genomic redundancy, degeneration, specialization, innovation, and speciation. After duplication, both copies continue functioning when natural selection favors duplicated protein function or expression, or when mutations make them functionally distinct before one copy is silenced. Results Here we quantify the degree to which genetic parameters related to gene expression, molecular evolution, and gene structure in a diploid frog - Silurana tropicalis - influence the odds of functional persistence of orthologous duplicate genes in a closely related tetraploid species - Xenopus laevis. Using public databases and 454 pyrosequencing, we obtained genetic and expression data from S. tropicalis orthologs of 3,387 X. laevis paralogs and 4,746 X. laevis singletons - the most comprehensive dataset for African clawed frogs yet analyzed. Using logistic regression, we demonstrate that the most important predictors of the odds of duplicate gene persistence in the tetraploid species are the total gene expression level and evenness of expression across tissues and development in the diploid species. Slow protein evolution and information density (fewer exons, shorter introns in the diploid are also positively correlated with duplicate gene persistence in the tetraploid. Conclusions Our findings suggest that a combination of factors contribute to duplicate gene persistence following whole genome duplication, but that the total expression level and evenness of expression across tissues and through development before duplication are most important. We speculate that these parameters are useful predictors of duplicate gene longevity after whole genome duplication in other taxa.

  12. Shadow of domestic violence and extramarital sex cohesive with spousal communication among males in Nepal

    2014-01-01

    Background Public health and human right issues are challenging in low and middle income countries. The main objectives of this paper were to determine the prevalence and factors associated with domestic violence, extramarital sex, and spousal communication among male. Methods A cross-sectional study among 2466 married males in Kathmandu, Nepal was conducted using random sampling method. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of associated factors were estimated by stepwise backward likelihood ratio method. Results Prevalence of domestic violence was 63.14% (95% CI 61.20-65.05), extramarital sex was 32.12% (95% CI 30.27-34.00), and spousal communication was 48.87% (95% CI 46.85-50.90). Nearly one in five male (18.20%) had not used condom during extramarital sex. Interestingly, male who had more than three or equal children were less likely to have perpetrated domestic violence compared with those who had less children. Older male aged 25 and above were more likely (AORs = 1.55, 95% CI 1.19-2.03) to have extramarital sex compared with male aged 24 or below. Those male who had studied secondary or higher level of education were less likely to have extramarital sex compared to those who had primary level or no education. Male who had higher income were more likely to have spousal communication compared to those who had less income. Surprisingly, those male who had extramarital sex were less likely to have spousal communication compared with those was not involved in extramarital sex. Conclusion Practice of domestic violence and extramarital sex is quite common among married male in Nepal, where spousal communication is sparse. These findings can be used to advocate for immediate attention and activities needs to be endorsed by policymakers and programmers. PMID:24924872

  13. Long-range activation of Sox9 in Odd Sex (Ods) mice.

    Qin, Yangjun; Kong, Ling-kun; Poirier, Christophe; Truong, Cavatina; Overbeek, Paul A; Bishop, Colin E

    2004-06-15

    The Odd Sex mouse mutation arose in a transgenic line of mice carrying a tyrosinase minigene driven by the dopachrome tautomerase (Dct) promoter region. The minigene integrated 0.98 Mb upstream of Sox9 and was accompanied by a deletion of 134 kb. This mutation causes female to male sex reversal in XX Ods/+ mice, and a characteristic eye phenotype of microphthalmia with cataracts in all mice carrying the transgene. Ods causes sex reversal in the absence of Sry by upregulating Sox9 expression and maintaining a male pattern of Sox9 expression in XX Ods/+ embryonic gonads. This expression, which begins at E11.5, triggers downstream events leading to the formation of a testis. We report here that the 134 kb deletion, in itself, is insufficient to cause sex reversal. We demonstrate that in Ods, the Dct promoter is capable of acting over a distance of 1 Mb to induce inappropriate expression of Sox9 in the retinal pigmented epithelium of the eye, causing the observed microphthalmia. In addition, it induces Sox9 expression in the melanocytes where it causes pigmentation defects. We propose that Ods sex reversal is due to the Dct promoter element interacting with gonad-specific enhancer elements to produce the observed male pattern expression of Sox9 in the embryonic gonads.

  14. A major locus on mouse chromosome 18 controls XX sex reversal in Odd Sex (Ods) mice.

    Qin, Yangjun; Poirier, Christophe; Truong, Cavatina; Schumacher, Armin; Agoulnik, Alexander I; Bishop, Colin E

    2003-03-01

    We have previously reported a dominant mouse mutant, Odd sex (Ods), in which XX Ods/+ mice on the FVB/N background show complete sex reversal, associated with expression of Sox9 in the fetal gonads. Remarkably, when crossed to the A/J strain approximately 95% of the (AXFVB) F(1) XX Ods/+ mice developed as fully fertile, phenotypic females, the remainder developing as males or hermaphrodites. Using a (AXFVB) F(2) population, we conducted a genome-wide linkage scan to identify the number and chromosomal location of potential Ods modifier genes. A single major locus termed Odsm1 was mapped to chromosome 18, tightly linked to D18Mit189 and D18Mit210. Segregation at this locus could account for the presence of sex reversal in 100% of XX Ods/+ mice which develop as males, for the absence of sex reversal in approximately 92% of XX Ods/+ mice which develop as females, and for the mixed sexual phenotype in approximately 72% of XX Ods/+ mice that develop with ambiguous genitalia. We propose that homozygosity for the FVB-derived allele strongly favors Ods sex reversal, whereas homozygosity for the A/J-derived allele inhibits it. In mice heterozygous at Odsm1, the phenotypic outcome, male, female or hermaphrodite, is determined by a complex interaction of several minor modifying loci. The close proximity of Smad2, Smad7 and Smad4 to D18Mit189/210 provides a potential mechanism through which Odsm1 might act.

  15. Anabolic-androgenic steroid use among young Finnish males.

    Mattila, V M; Rimpelä, A; Jormanainen, V; Sahi, T; Pihlajamäki, H

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the lifetime occurrence and associated factors of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) among young Finnish males. Of the 10 829 male conscripts (median age 19), 10 396 (96%) answered a questionnaire during the first days of their conscription in the years 2001-2007. The main outcome was lifetime AAS use. We also studied associations between 13 socioeconomic, health, and health behavioral background variables and AAS use by logistic regression. Eighty-nine (0.9%) respondents reported having used AAS. In addition, 26 (0.3%) respondents reported that they would use AAS if they could obtain them. In multivariate analysis, which included all significant variables and age, the strongest associated factors were weight training at fitness centers more than three times a week [odds ratio (OR) 11.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 7.1-19.6], low educational status (OR 3.7; 95% CI: 2.0-7.0), and weekly drunkenness as drinking style (OR 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4-4.5). Sports other than weight training were not associated with AAS in our sample. The use of AAS is relatively uncommon among Finnish males. It is strongly associated with weight training at fitness centers but also with lower educational status and a drunkenness-oriented lifestyle. Prevention should be targeted at those males participating in weight training.

  16. Moderate consumption of white and fortified wine is associated with reduced odds of diabetic retinopathy.

    Fenwick, Eva K; Xie, Jing; Man, Ryan Eyn Kidd; Lim, Lyndell L; Flood, Victoria M; Finger, Robert P; Wong, Tien Y; Lamoureux, Ecosse L

    2015-01-01

    To explore the association between alcohol consumption and the severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR). In this cross-sectional study, patients with type 2 diabetes answered questions on consumption of low and full-strength beer, white wine/champagne, red wine, fortified wines, and spirits. Never, moderate and high consumption of each alcoholic beverage, and overall alcoholic beverage consumption, were defined as 14 standard drinks/week, respectively. DR was categorized into none; non vision-threatening DR (VTDR) and VTDR. Multivariable logistic regression determined the associations between alcohol consumption and DR. Of the 395 participants (mean age±SD [standard deviation] 65.9±10.4years; males=253), 188 (47.6%) consumed alcohol and 235 (59.5%) had any DR. Compared to no alcohol consumption, moderate alcohol consumption (overall) was significantly associated with reduced odds of any DR (OR=0.47, 95% CI [confidence interval] 0.26-0.85). Moderate consumption of white wine/champagne or fortified wine was also associated with reduced odds of any DR (OR=0.48, 95% CI 0.25-0.91, and OR=0.15, 95% CI 0.04-0.62, respectively). Similar results were observed for non-VTDR and VTDR. The amount and type of alcohol are associated with risk of DR in patients with type 2 diabetes. A longitudinal study is needed to assess the protective effect of alcohol consumption and DR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. C P -odd sector and θ dynamics in holographic QCD

    Areán, Daniel; Iatrakis, Ioannis; Järvinen, Matti; Kiritsis, Elias

    2017-07-01

    The holographic model of V-QCD is used to analyze the physics of QCD in the Veneziano large-N limit. An unprecedented analysis of the C P -odd physics is performed going beyond the level of effective field theories. The structure of holographic saddle points at finite θ is determined, as well as its interplay with chiral symmetry breaking. Many observables (vacuum energy and higher-order susceptibilities, singlet and nonsinglet masses and mixings) are computed as functions of θ and the quark mass m . Wherever applicable the results are compared to those of chiral Lagrangians, finding agreement. In particular, we recover the Witten-Veneziano formula in the small x →0 limit, we compute the θ dependence of the pion mass, and we derive the hyperscaling relation for the topological susceptibility in the conformal window in terms of the quark mass.

  18. Nuclear orientation experiments concerning odd-A gold isotopes

    Ligthart, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis describes nuclear spectroscopy aspects of nuclear orientation in the odd-A gold isotopes 191 Au, 193 Au, 195 Au and 197 Au. These isotopes lie in a transitional region between the spherical nuclei in the lead region and the strongly deformed rare earth isotopes. Following a general introduction to nuclear orientation, the experimental arrangement is described. A new technique is presented that applies in-beam recoil implantation inside the refrigerator itself and this was applied to the case of 191 Au. The three other gold isotopes were oriented using a conventional dilution refrigerator. The nuclear orientation experiments concerning 11/2 - isomers of the isotopes are described. The long-lived isomeric states were oriented using the large hyperfine field of gold in iron. Higher lying levels were studied by nuclear orientation of the Hg parent states. (Auth./C.F.)

  19. Subcoulomb fusion of 16O in odd Sm isotopes

    Pacheco, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Cross sections for the formation of evaporation residues were measured for the reaction of 16 O with the odd 147 Sm and 149 Sm nuclei at near barrier energies. The results are well described by statistical model calculations. Fusion cross sections as a function of energy do not show any unusual behaviour that could be attributed to the presence of unpaired nucleons. An analysis based on a one-dimensional penetration model that includes the effect of permanent quadrupolar deformations shows that the extracted values of the parameter β 2 follow the systematics established by the rest of the even samarium isotopes. The dependence of β 2 on the mass of the target nucleus indicates that the influence exerted by collective aspects upon the subbarrier fusion process increases rapidly as a function of the number of neutrons added to the spherical semimagic 144 Sm nucleus. (Author) [es

  20. Possible Odd Parity State in {sup 128}Xe

    Broman, L [Department of Physics, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Malmskog, S G [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1966-07-15

    Gamma lines in the decay of I have been measured by means of a Ge(Li) detector. The following gamma ray energies have been obtained: 442.5 {+-} 0.05, 526.5 {+-} 0.5, 742.4 {+-}1.0, 969.0 {+-} 1.0, and 1136.5 {+-}2.0 keV. The 1136.5 keV transition defines a level in {sup 128}Xe at 1579 {+-} 2 keV. From the log ft = 7.8 {+-} 0.3 of the ({beta}{sup -} feeding, this level is believed to have an odd parity. Upper limits of gamma ray intensities for transitions around eV are used to set a limit for the population of the expected 0{sup +} level originating from the two-phonon quadrupole vibration.

  1. An Overview of Modeling Middle Atmospheric Odd Nitrogen

    Jackman, Charles H.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Odd nitrogen (N, NO, NO2, NO3, N2O5, HNO3, HO2NO2, ClONO2, and BrONO2) constituents are important components in the control of middle atmospheric ozone. Several processes lead to the production of odd nitrogen (NO(sub y)) in the middle atmosphere (stratosphere and mesosphere) including the oxidation of nitrous oxide (N2O), lightning, downflux from the thermosphere, and energetic charged particles (e.g., galactic cosmic rays, solar proton events, and energetic electron precipitation). The dominant production mechanism of NO(sub y) in the stratosphere is N2O oxidation, although other processes contribute. Mesospheric NO(sub y) is influenced by N2O oxidation, downflux from the thermosphere, and energetic charged particles. NO(sub y) is destroyed in the middle atmosphere primarily via two processes: 1) dissociation of NO to form N and O followed by N + NO yielding N2 + O to reform even nitrogen; and 2) transport to the troposphere where HNO3 can be rapidly scavenged in water droplets and rained out of the atmosphere. There are fairly significant differences among global models that predict NO(sub y). NO(sub y) has a fairly long lifetime in the stratosphere (months to years), thus disparate transport in the models probably contributes to many of these differences. Satellite and aircraft measurement provide modeling tests of the various components of NO(sub y). Although some recent reaction rate measurements have led to improvements in model/measurement agreement, significant differences do remain. This presentation will provide an overview of several proposed sources and sinks of NO(sub y) and their regions of importance. Multi-dimensional modeling results for NO(sub y) and its components with comparisons to observations will also be presented.

  2. A cohort study of the association between secondary sex ratio and parental exposure to polybrominated biphenyl (PBB and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB

    Terrell Metrecia L

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polybrominated biphenyl (PBB, a brominated flame retardant, was accidently mixed into animal feed in Michigan (1973–1974 resulting in human exposure through consumption of contaminated meat, milk and eggs. Beginning in 1976 individuals who consumed contaminated products were enrolled in the Michigan Long-Term PBB Study. This cohort presents a unique opportunity to study the association between parental exposures to PBB and offspring sex ratio. Methods We identified offspring of female PBB cohort participants (born 1975–1988 and obtained electronic birth records for those born in the state of Michigan. We linked this information to parental serum PBB and PCB concentrations collected at enrollment into the cohort. We modeled the odds of a male birth with generalized estimating equations accounting for the non-independence of siblings born to the same parents. We explored potential confounders: parental age and education at offspring's birth, parental body mass index at cohort enrollment, birth order, gestational age and year of offspring's birth. Results The overall proportion of male offspring among 865 live births to cohort mothers was 0.542. This was higher than the national male proportion of 0.514 (binomial test: p = 0.10. When both parents were in the cohort (n = 300, we found increased odds of a male birth with combined parents' enrollment PBB exposure ≥ the median concentrations (3 μg/L for mothers; 6 μg/L for fathers compared to combined parents' PBB exposure Conclusion This study adds to the body of literature on secondary sex ratio and exposure to environmental contaminants. In this population, combined parental exposure to PBBs or PCBs increased the odds of a male birth. Further research is needed to corroborate these findings and shed light on the biological mechanisms by which these types of chemicals may influence the secondary sex ratio.

  3. Sex Ratio Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex Ratio Strategy

    Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan

    2016-12-01

    There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature—male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton’s local mate competition (LMC) and Clark’s local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex ratio elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex ratio elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC & LRC) in the field of SRS research.

  4. Type of Diabetes Mellitus and the Odds of Gleason Score 8 to 10 Prostate Cancer

    Kang, Josephine; Chen Minghui; Zhang Yuanye; Moran, Brian J.; Dosoretz, Daniel E.; Katin, Michael J.; Braccioforte, Michelle H.; Salenius, Sharon A.; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: It has been recently shown that diabetes mellitus (DM) is significantly associated with the likelihood of presenting with high-grade prostate cancer (PCa) or Gleason score (GS) 8 to 10; however, whether this association holds for both Type 1 and 2 DM is unknown. In this study we evaluated whether DM Type 1, 2, or both are associated with high-grade PCa after adjusting for known predictors of high-grade disease. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2010, a total of 15,330 men diagnosed with PCa and treated with radiation therapy were analyzed. A polychotomous logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate whether Type 1 or 2 DM was associated with odds of GS 7 or GS 8 to 10 compared with 6 or lower PCa, adjusting for African American race, age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, and digital rectal examination findings. Results: Men with Type 1 DM (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28–3.27; p = 0.003) or Type 2 DM (AOR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.26–1.99; p < 0.001) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with GS 8 to 10 PCa compared with nondiabetic men. However this was not true for GS 7, for which these respective results were AOR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.93–1.82; p = 0.12 and AOR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.98–1.32; p = 0.10. Conclusion: Type 1 and 2 DM were associated with a higher odds of being diagnosed with Gleason score 8 to 10 but not 7 PCa. Pending validation, men who are diagnosed with Type I DM with GS 7 or lower should be considered for additional workup to rule out occult high-grade disease.

  5. Type of Diabetes Mellitus and the Odds of Gleason Score 8 to 10 Prostate Cancer

    Kang, Josephine, E-mail: jkang3@partners.org [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, MA (United States); Chen Minghui; Zhang Yuanye [Department of Statistics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Moran, Brian J. [Prostate Cancer Foundation of Chicago, Westmont, IL (United States); Dosoretz, Daniel E.; Katin, Michael J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, 21 Century Oncology, Inc., Fort Myers, FL (United States); Braccioforte, Michelle H. [Prostate Cancer Foundation of Chicago, Westmont, IL (United States); Salenius, Sharon A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, 21 Century Oncology, Inc., Fort Myers, FL (United States); D' Amico, Anthony V. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: It has been recently shown that diabetes mellitus (DM) is significantly associated with the likelihood of presenting with high-grade prostate cancer (PCa) or Gleason score (GS) 8 to 10; however, whether this association holds for both Type 1 and 2 DM is unknown. In this study we evaluated whether DM Type 1, 2, or both are associated with high-grade PCa after adjusting for known predictors of high-grade disease. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2010, a total of 15,330 men diagnosed with PCa and treated with radiation therapy were analyzed. A polychotomous logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate whether Type 1 or 2 DM was associated with odds of GS 7 or GS 8 to 10 compared with 6 or lower PCa, adjusting for African American race, age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, and digital rectal examination findings. Results: Men with Type 1 DM (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-3.27; p = 0.003) or Type 2 DM (AOR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.26-1.99; p < 0.001) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with GS 8 to 10 PCa compared with nondiabetic men. However this was not true for GS 7, for which these respective results were AOR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.93-1.82; p = 0.12 and AOR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.98-1.32; p = 0.10. Conclusion: Type 1 and 2 DM were associated with a higher odds of being diagnosed with Gleason score 8 to 10 but not 7 PCa. Pending validation, men who are diagnosed with Type I DM with GS 7 or lower should be considered for additional workup to rule out occult high-grade disease.

  6. Specific plasma oxylipins increase the odds of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in patients with peripheral artery disease.

    Caligiuri, Stephanie P B; Aukema, Harold M; Ravandi, Amir; Lavallée, Renée; Guzman, Randy; Pierce, Grant N

    2017-08-01

    Oxylipins and fatty acids may be novel therapeutic targets for cardiovascular disease. The objective was to determine if plasma oxylipins or fatty acids can influence the odds of cardiovascular/cerebrovascular events. In 98 patients (25 female, 73 male) with peripheral artery disease, the prevalence of transient ischemic attacks, cerebrovascular accidents, stable angina, and acute coronary syndrome was n = 16, 10, 16, and 24, respectively. Risk factors such as being male, diagnosed hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia were not associated with events. Plasma fatty acids and oxylipins were analyzed with gas chromatography and HPLC-MS/MS, respectively. None of 24 fatty acids quantified were associated with events. In contrast, 39 plasma oxylipins were quantified, and 8 were significantly associated with events. These 8 oxylipins are known regulators of vascular tone. For example, every 1 unit increase in Thromboxane B 2 /Prostaglandin F 1 α and every 1 nmol/L increase in plasma 16-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, thromboxane B2, or 11,12-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (DiHETrE) increased the odds of having had ≥2 events versus no event (p < 0.05). The greatest predictor was plasma 8,9-DiHETrE, which increased the odds of acute coronary syndrome by 92-fold. In conclusion, specific oxylipins were highly associated with clinical events and may represent specific biomarkers and (or) therapeutic targets of cardiovascular disease.

  7. THE EFFECT OF A MALE SURPLUS ON INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE IN INDIA.

    Bose, Sunita; Trent, Katherine; South, Scott J

    2013-08-31

    Theories of the social consequences of imbalanced sex ratios posit that men will exercise extraordinarily strict control over women's behaviour when women's relationship options are plentiful and men's own options are limited. We use data from the third wave of the Indian National Family and Health Survey, conducted in 2005-06, to explore this issue, investigating the effect of the community sex ratio on women's experience of intimate partner violence in India. Multilevel logistic regression models show that a relative surplus of men in a community increases the likelihood of physical abuse by husbands even after adjusting for various other individual, household, and geographic characteristics. Further evidence of control over women when there is a sex ratio imbalance is provided by the increased odds of husbands distrusting wives with money when there is a male surplus in the local community.

  8. T-odd momentum correlation in radiative {beta} decay

    Gardner, Susan, E-mail: gardner@pa.uky.edu; He, Daheng [University of Kentucky, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States)

    2013-03-15

    The triple-product correlations observable in ordinary neutron or nuclear beta decay are all naively T violating and can connect, through an assumption of CPT invariance, to constraints on sources of CP violation beyond the Standard Model. They are also spin dependent. In this context the study of radiative beta decay opens a new possibility, in that a triple-product correlation can be constructed from momenta alone. Consequently its measurement would constrain new spin-independent sources of CP violation. We will describe these in light of the size of the triple momentum correlation in the decay rate arising from electromagnetic final-state interactions in the Standard Model. Our expression for the corresponding T-odd asymmetry is exact in O({alpha}) up to terms of recoil order, and we evaluate it numerically under various kinematic conditions. We consider the pattern of the asymmetries in nuclear {beta} decays and show that the asymmetry can be suppressed in particular cases, facilitating searches for new sources of CP violation in such processes.

  9. [Using log-binomial model for estimating the prevalence ratio].

    Ye, Rong; Gao, Yan-hui; Yang, Yi; Chen, Yue

    2010-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence ratios, using a log-binomial model with or without continuous covariates. Prevalence ratios for individuals' attitude towards smoking-ban legislation associated with smoking status, estimated by using a log-binomial model were compared with odds ratios estimated by logistic regression model. In the log-binomial modeling, maximum likelihood method was used when there were no continuous covariates and COPY approach was used if the model did not converge, for example due to the existence of continuous covariates. We examined the association between individuals' attitude towards smoking-ban legislation and smoking status in men and women. Prevalence ratio and odds ratio estimation provided similar results for the association in women since smoking was not common. In men however, the odds ratio estimates were markedly larger than the prevalence ratios due to a higher prevalence of outcome. The log-binomial model did not converge when age was included as a continuous covariate and COPY method was used to deal with the situation. All analysis was performed by SAS. Prevalence ratio seemed to better measure the association than odds ratio when prevalence is high. SAS programs were provided to calculate the prevalence ratios with or without continuous covariates in the log-binomial regression analysis.

  10. E2 and M1 Transition Probabilities in Odd Mass Hg Nuclei

    Berg, V; Baecklin, A; Fogelberg, B; Malmskog, S G

    1969-10-15

    L- and M-subshell ratios have been measured for the 39.5 keV transition in {sup 193}Hg and the 37.1 and 16.2 keV transitions in {sup 195}Hg yielding 0.38 {+-} 0.12 , <0.02 and 0.08 {+-} 0.03 per cent E2, respectively. The half-lives of the 39.5 keV level in {sup 193}Hg and the 53.3 and 37.1 keV levels in {sup 195}Hg have been measured by the delayed coincidence method, yielding values of 0.63 {+-} 0.03, 0.72 {+-} 0.03 and <0.05 nsec respectively. A systematic compilation of reduced E2 and M1 transition probabilities in odd mass Pt, Hg and Pb nuclei is given and compared to theoretical predictions.

  11. Electromagnetic properties of some odd-odd nuclei in the A≈ 100 region and IBFFM description of 106Ag

    Andrejtscheff, W.; Kostov, L. K.; Petkov, P.; Brant, S.; Paar, V.; Lopac, V.; Boehm, G.; Eberth, J.; Wirowski, R.; Zell, K. O.

    1990-09-01

    Electromagnetic properties of odd-odd transitional nuclei with A≈ 100 are investigated experimentally and theoretically. Nanosecond isomers are studied in-beam by means of delayed γγ-coincidences and the generalized centroid-shift method. The reactions 98Mo+30MeV 7Li and 92,94Mo+ 50 MeV 12C are utilized. Following half-lives are determined: T {1}/{2} (547.2 keV in 102Rh) = 0.25±0.07ns, T {1}/{2} (243.1 keV in 102Rh) = 0.30±0.10ns, T {1}/{2}(181.1 keV in 99Tc) = 3.8 ± 0.3ns, T {1}/{2} (2902.0keV in 104Cd) = 0.6±0.1 ns, T {1}/{2} (118.7keV in 103Pd) =0.8±0.2 ns, T {1}/{2} (131.1 keV in 105Cd) = 1.5 ±0.3 ns, T {1}/{2} (211.8 keV in 104Ag) = 1.4±0.1 ns, T {1}/{2} (181.0 keV in 102Ag) = 3.5±0.2 ns. Additionally, several upper limits of level lifetimes are derived. The systematics of E1, M1 and E2 transition rates in 100,102,104Rh and 102,104,106Ag is presented and discussed. Fast M1 transitions within the 2qp π g˜{9}/{2}ν h˜{1}/{2} band appear to be associated with the strong coupling of the π g˜{9}/{2} proton and the rotational alignment of the h˜{11}/{2} neutron. Extensive IBFFM calculations of level energies and electromagnetic properties of 106Ag as a typical case demonstrate that this model could account for the complex structural pattern of this type of nuclei. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 98Mo( 7Li, 3n), ( 7Li2nα), E=30 MeV; 92,94Mo( 12C, pn), 94Mo( 12C, 2n), ( 12C, 2pn), E = 50 MeV; measured Eγ, Iγ, γγ( t). 102Rh, 99Tc, 102,104Ag, 104Cd,

  12. Research-active clinical nurses: against all odds.

    Siedlecki, Sandra L; Albert, Nancy M

    2017-03-01

    To develop a theoretical understanding of factors that impact decisions of clinical nurses to conduct a research study. Only a small percentage of all nurses are research-active and even fewer clinical nurses are research-active. Several researchers have explored barriers to research activity by clinical nurses, but few have examined why, in spite of all odds, some clinical nurses are research-active. As the purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical understanding of the research-active nurse, a grounded theory approach was used. The sample interviewed for this study consisted of registered nurses (n = 26) who worked in a hospital or ambulatory setting, had daily direct patient contact and had participated as principal investigator on at least one completed clinical nursing research study that was not in fulfilment of an educational requirement. The interviews were digitally recorded and analysed by two researchers using the constant comparative method. The findings from this study suggest that the conduct of research by clinical nurses was the direct result of a clinical trigger, characteristics and beliefs of the nurse about research and their role in generating knowledge, and the presence of support conditions, such as a research mentor. Clinical nurses can and do conduct research, in spite of constraints due to a lack of time, money and/or knowledge, if they have access to research mentors and are practising in a research-supportive environment. Nurses at the bedside are in a unique position to identify problems most in need of solutions. Findings from this study provide a foundation upon which to develop and test various programmes that seek to increase the number of clinical nurses who are research-active. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Sexual Function in Males After Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    Bruheim, Kjersti; Guren, Marianne G.; Dahl, Alv A.; Skovlund, Eva; Balteskard, Lise; Carlsen, Erik; Fossa, Sophie D.; Tveit, Kjell Magne

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Knowledge of sexual problems after pre- or postoperative radiotherapy (RT) with 50 Gy for rectal cancer is limited. In this study, we aimed to compare self-rated sexual functioning in irradiated (RT+) and nonirradiated (RT-) male patients at least 2 years after surgery for rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients diagnosed with rectal cancer from 1993 to 2003 were identified from the Norwegian Rectal Cancer Registry. Male patients without recurrence at the time of the study. The International Index of Erectile Function, a self-rated instrument, was used to assess sexual functioning, and serum levels of serum testosterone were measured. Results: Questionnaires were returned from 241 patients a median of 4.5 years after surgery. The median age was 67 years at survey. RT+ patients (n = 108) had significantly poorer scores for erectile function, orgasmic function, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction with sex life compared with RT- patients (n = 133). In multiple age-adjusted analysis, the odds ratio for moderate-severe erectile dysfunction in RT+ patients was 7.3 compared with RT- patients (p <0.001). Furthermore, erectile dysfunction of this degree was associated with low serum testosterone (p = 0.01). Conclusion: RT for rectal cancer is associated with significant long-term effects on sexual function in males.

  14. Risk factors for lower extremity injuries among male marathon runners.

    Van Middelkoop, M; Kolkman, J; Van Ochten, J; Bierma-Zeinstra, S M A; Koes, B W

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study is to identify risk factors for lower extremity injuries in male marathon runners. A random sample of 1500 recreational male marathon runners was drawn. Possible risk factors were obtained from a baseline questionnaire 1 month before the start of the marathon. Information on injuries sustained shortly before or during the marathon was obtained using a post-race questionnaire. Of the 694 male runners who responded to the baseline and post-race questionnaire, 28% suffered a self-reported running injury on the lower extremities in the month before or during the marathon run. More than six times race participation in the previous 12 months [odds ratio (OR) 1.66; confidence interval (CI) 1.08-2.56], a history of running injuries (OR 2.62; CI 1.82-3.78), high education level (OR 0.73; CI 0.51-1.04) and daily smoking (OR 0.23; CI 0.05-1.01) were associated with the occurrence of lower extremity injuries. Among the modifiable risk factor studies, a training distance training is a strong protective factor for knee injuries. Other training characteristics appear to have little or no effect on future injuries.

  15. Pure odd-order oscillators with constant excitation

    Cveticanin, L.

    2011-02-01

    In this paper the excited vibrations of a truly nonlinear oscillator are analyzed. The excitation is assumed to be constant and the nonlinearity is pure (without a linear term). The mathematical model is a second-order nonhomogeneous differential equation with strong nonlinear term. Using the first integral, the exact value of period of vibration i.e., angular frequency of oscillator described with a pure nonlinear differential equation with constant excitation is analytically obtained. The closed form solution has the form of gamma function. The period of vibration depends on the value of excitation and of the order and coefficient of the nonlinear term. For the case of pure odd-order-oscillators the approximate solution of differential equation is obtained in the form of trigonometric function. The solution is based on the exact value of period of vibration. For the case when additional small perturbation of the pure oscillator acts, the so called 'Cveticanin's averaging method' for a truly nonlinear oscillator is applied. Two special cases are considered: one, when the additional term is a function of distance, and the second, when damping acts. To prove the correctness of the method the obtained results are compared with those for the linear oscillator. Example of pure cubic oscillator with constant excitation and linear damping is widely discussed. Comparing the analytically obtained results with exact numerical ones it is concluded that they are in a good agreement. The investigations reported in the paper are of special interest for those who are dealing with the problem of vibration reduction in the oscillator with constant excitation and pure nonlinear restoring force the examples of which can be found in various scientific and engineering systems. For example, such mechanical systems are seats in vehicles, supports for machines, cutting machines with periodical motion of the cutting tools, presses, etc. The examples can be find in electronics

  16. Blood Cadmium Is Associated with Osteoporosis in Obese Males but Not in Non-Obese Males: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011.

    Choi, Won-Jun; Han, Sang-Hwan

    2015-09-28

    Osteoporosis in males is becoming an important health concern in an aging society. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between cadmium exposure and osteoporosis by considering the effect of obesity in aged males using a representative sample of the Korean population. Using the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, 1098 males over 50 years of age were analyzed. The blood cadmium concentration was measured. The bone mineral density in the total hip, femur neck, and lumbar spine was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. T-scores to determine the presence of osteoporosis were calculated using a Korean reference. Subjects were stratified into two groups according to obesity status (body mass index obese subjects with blood cadmium 1.50 μg/L had odds ratios of 4.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-14.01) and 5.71 (95% CI 1.99-16.38) at the femur neck and any site, respectively, after adjusting for potential confounders such as age, serum creatinine, vitamin D deficiency, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity level. However, this association was not significant in non-obese males. In conclusion, the effect of cadmium on osteoporosis was different by obesity status in aged males.

  17. Blood Cadmium Is Associated with Osteoporosis in Obese Males but Not in Non-Obese Males: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2011

    Choi, Won-Jun; Han, Sang-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis in males is becoming an important health concern in an aging society. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between cadmium exposure and osteoporosis by considering the effect of obesity in aged males using a representative sample of the Korean population. Using the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, 1089 males over 50 years of age were analyzed. The blood cadmium concentration was measured. The bone mineral density in the total hip, femur neck, and lumbar spine was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. T-scores to determine the presence of osteoporosis were calculated using a Korean reference. Subjects were stratified into two groups according to obesity status (body mass index obese subjects with blood cadmium 1.50 μg/L had odds ratios of 4.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49–14.01) and 5.71 (95% CI 1.99–16.38) at the femur neck and any site, respectively, after adjusting for potential confounders such as age, serum creatinine, vitamin D deficiency, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity level. However, this association was not significant in non-obese males. In conclusion, the effect of cadmium on osteoporosis was different by obesity status in aged males. PMID:26426028

  18. Blood Cadmium Is Associated with Osteoporosis in Obese Males but Not in Non-Obese Males: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2011

    Won-Jun Choi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis in males is becoming an important health concern in an aging society. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between cadmium exposure and osteoporosis by considering the effect of obesity in aged males using a representative sample of the Korean population. Using the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, 1098 males over 50 years of age were analyzed. The blood cadmium concentration was measured. The bone mineral density in the total hip, femur neck, and lumbar spine was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. T-scores to determine the presence of osteoporosis were calculated using a Korean reference. Subjects were stratified into two groups according to obesity status (body mass index <25 kg/m2 and ≥25 kg/m2. In comparison with obese subjects with blood cadmium <1.00 μg/L, those with blood cadmium >1.50 μg/L had odds ratios of 4.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49–14.01 and 5.71 (95% CI 1.99–16.38 at the femur neck and any site, respectively, after adjusting for potential confounders such as age, serum creatinine, vitamin D deficiency, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity level. However, this association was not significant in non-obese males. In conclusion, the effect of cadmium on osteoporosis was different by obesity status in aged males.

  19. Sex ratios at birth after induced abortion.

    Urquia, Marcelo L; Moineddin, Rahim; Jha, Prabhat; O'Campo, Patricia J; McKenzie, Kwame; Glazier, Richard H; Henry, David A; Ray, Joel G

    2016-06-14

    Skewed male:female ratios at birth have been observed among certain immigrant groups. Data on abortion practices that might help to explain these findings are lacking. We examined 1 220 933 births to women with up to 3 consecutive singleton live births between 1993 and 2012 in Ontario. Records of live births, and induced and spontaneous abortions were linked to Canadian immigration records. We determined associations of male:female infant ratios with maternal birthplace, sex of the previous living sibling(s) and prior spontaneous or induced abortions. Male:female infant ratios did not appreciably depart from the normal range among Canadian-born women and most women born outside of Canada, irrespective of the sex of previous children or the characteristics of prior abortions. However, among infants of women who immigrated from India and had previously given birth to 2 girls, the overall male:female ratio was 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75-2.21) for the third live birth. The male:female infant ratio after 2 girls was 1.77 (95% CI 1.26-2.47) times higher if the current birth was preceded by 1 induced abortion, 2.38 (95% CI 1.44-3.94) times higher if preceded by 2 or more induced abortions and 3.88 (95% CI 2.02-7.50) times higher if the induced abortion was performed at 15 weeks or more gestation relative to no preceding abortion. Spontaneous abortions were not associated with male-biased sex ratios in subsequent births. High male:female ratios observed among infants born to women who immigrated from India are associated with induced abortions, especially in the second trimester of pregnancy. © 2016 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  20. Anomalous Josephson Effect between Even-and Odd-Frequency Superconductors

    Tanaka, Yukio; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Kashiwaya, Satoshi; Ueda, Masahito

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate that, contrary to standard wisdom, the lowest-order Josephson coupling is possible between odd- and even-frequency superconductors. The origin of this effect is the induced odd- (even-)frequency pairing component at the interface of bulk even- (odd-)frequency superconductors. The

  1. Male and female sterility in Zambia

    Athena Pantazis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population measures of sterility are traditionally constructed for women, despite fertility and sterility being conditions of the couple. Estimates of male sterility provide insight into population-level sterility, and complement estimates based solely on women. Objective: This study seeks to estimate male sterility for the Gwembe Tonga of Zambia using male birth histories collected by the Gwembe Tonga Research Project from 1957 to 1995, while providing context by estimating female sterility for the Gwembe Tonga, as well as female sterility in all of Zambia, from Zambian DHS data (1992, 1997, 2001-02, and 2007. Methods: Sterility is measured using the Larson-Menken subsequently infertile indicator. Estimates are produced using discrete time event history analysis. Results: The odds of sterility were higher for women than men, though women's odds of sterility were only 1.5 times that of men's in the middle reproductive years. The odds of sterility increased steadily with age for both men and women, and across all datasets. However, women's sterility increased much more sharply with age than men's did, and women's odds of sterility were higher than men's at all reproductive ages.

  2. Investigation of the correlation between odd oxygen and secondary organic aerosol in Mexico City and Houston

    E. C. Wood

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Many recent models underpredict secondary organic aerosol (SOA particulate matter (PM concentrations in polluted regions, indicating serious deficiencies in the models' chemical mechanisms and/or missing SOA precursors. Since tropospheric photochemical ozone production is much better understood, we investigate the correlation of odd-oxygen ([Ox]≡[O3]+[NO2] and the oxygenated component of organic aerosol (OOA, which is interpreted as a surrogate for SOA. OOA and Ox measured in Mexico City in 2006 and Houston in 2000 were well correlated in air masses where both species were formed on similar timescales (less than 8 h and not well correlated when their formation timescales or location differed greatly. When correlated, the ratio of these two species ranged from 30 μg m−3/ppm (STP in Houston during time periods affected by large petrochemical plant emissions to as high as 160 μg m−3/ppm in Mexico City, where typical values were near 120 μg m−3/ppm. On several days in Mexico City, the [OOA]/[Ox] ratio decreased by a factor of ~2 between 08:00 and 13:00 local time. This decrease is only partially attributable to evaporation of the least oxidized and most volatile components of OOA; differences in the diurnal emission trends and timescales for photochemical processing of SOA precursors compared to ozone precursors also likely contribute to the observed decrease. The extent of OOA oxidation increased with photochemical aging. Calculations of the ratio of the SOA formation rate to the Ox production rate using ambient VOC measurements and traditional laboratory SOA yields are lower than the observed [OOA]/[Ox] ratios by factors of 5 to 15, consistent with several other models' underestimates of SOA. Calculations of this ratio using emission factors for organic compounds from gasoline and diesel exhaust do not reproduce the observed

  3. Gastroesophageal reflux disease and odds of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in North Carolina.

    Busch, Evan L; Zevallos, Jose P; Olshan, Andrew F

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to excess gastric acid resulting from gastroesophageal reflux disease, also known as acid reflux or heartburn, might contribute to initiation of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, particularly laryngeal cancer. Prior epidemiologic studies have reported inconsistent results. We sought to clarify this relationship using an observational study with a larger available sample size and better-characterized exposure information than most prior studies. A population-based case-control study of head and neck cancer in North Carolina with 1,340 newly diagnosed cases and 1,378 controls matched on age, race, and sex. We used unconditional logistic regression to examine associations between self-reported heartburn and development of overall head and neck cancer as well as development of cancer at specific tumor sites. Subgroup analysis by smoking and alcoholic drinking status was used to make comparisons with a previous study that used a similar study design. Overall, an increased odds of head and neck cancer was not associated with either self-reported history of heartburn symptoms (odds ratio = 0.85; 95% confidence interval 0.68, 1.06) or self-reported medical diagnosis of GERD (OR = 0.89; 95% CI 0.71, 1.11). These patterns held for specific tumor sites. For laryngopharyngeal cancer, we did not detect any associations regardless of joint smoking and alcoholic drinking status. Gastroesophageal reflux does not appear to play a role in development of head and neck cancer. 3b. Laryngoscope, 126:1091-1096, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. Is the relationship between cigarette smoking and male erectile dysfunction independent of cardiovascular disease? Findings from a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Chew, Kew-Kim; Bremner, Alexandra; Stuckey, Bronwyn; Earle, Carolyn; Jamrozik, Konrad

    2009-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has been implicated in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and as a risk factor for erectile dysfunction (ED). However, various aspects of the associations between cigarette smoking, ED, and CVD need further elucidation. We explored the relationship between cigarette smoking, ED, and CVD using data from a population-based cross-sectional study of 1,580 participants. Postal questionnaires were sent to randomly selected age-stratified male population samples obtained from the Western Australia Electoral Roll. In addition to items covering sociodemographic and self-reported clinical information and smoking habits, the 5-item International Index of Erectile Function was used to assess erectile function. Compared with never smokers, the odds of ED, adjusted for age, square of age, and CVD, were significantly higher among current smokers (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02, 1.92) and ever smokers (OR = 1.57; 95% CI 1.02, 2.42). Similarly, the adjusted odds of severe ED were significantly higher among former smokers. Albeit not statistically significant, the age-adjusted odds of ED among current smokers increased with the number of cigarettes smoked. Among former smokers, the age-adjusted odds of ED were significantly higher 6-10 years following cessation of smoking than 10 years. Compared with never smokers without CVD, the age-adjusted odds of ED among former smokers and ever smokers without CVD were about 1.6. Regardless of smoking, these odds were significantly higher among participants with CVD. Compared with never smokers, former smokers and ever smokers have significantly higher odds of ED. The relationship between smoking and ED is independent of that between smoking and CVD, and not because of confounding by CVD. Patterns of ED in former smokers suggest that there may be a latent interval between active smoking and symptomatic ED, involving a process initially triggered by smoking.

  5. Road trauma in teenage male youth with childhood disruptive behavior disorders: a population based analysis.

    Donald A Redelmeier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Teenage male drivers contribute to a large number of serious road crashes despite low rates of driving and excellent physical health. We examined the amount of road trauma involving teenage male youth that might be explained by prior disruptive behavior disorders (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of consecutive male youth between age 16 and 19 years hospitalized for road trauma (cases or appendicitis (controls in Ontario, Canada over 7 years (April 1, 2002 through March 31, 2009. Using universal health care databases, we identified prior psychiatric diagnoses for each individual during the decade before admission. Overall, a total of 3,421 patients were admitted for road trauma (cases and 3,812 for appendicitis (controls. A history of disruptive behavior disorders was significantly more frequent among trauma patients than controls (767 of 3,421 versus 664 of 3,812, equal to a one-third increase in the relative risk of road trauma (odds ratio  =  1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.22-1.54, p<0.001. The risk was evident over a range of settings and after adjustment for measured confounders (odds ratio 1.38, 95% confidence interval 1.21-1.56, p<0.001. The risk explained about one-in-20 crashes, was apparent years before the event, extended to those who died, and persisted among those involved as pedestrians. CONCLUSIONS: Disruptive behavior disorders explain a significant amount of road trauma in teenage male youth. Programs addressing such disorders should be considered to prevent injuries.

  6. Time does not heal all wounds: older adults who experienced childhood adversities have higher odds of mood, anxiety, and personality disorders.

    Raposo, Sarah M; Mackenzie, Corey S; Henriksen, Christine A; Afifi, Tracie O

    2014-11-01

    We aimed to examine the prevalence of several types of childhood adversity across adult cohorts, whether age moderates the effect of childhood adversity on mental health, the relationship between childhood adversity and psychopathology among older adults, the dose-response relationship between number of types of childhood adversities and mental disorders in later life, and whether lifetime mental health treatment reduces the odds of psychopathology among older survivors of childhood adversity. In a population-based, cross-sectional study on a nationally representative U.S. sample, we studied 34,653 community-dwelling Americans 20 years and older, including 7,080 adults 65 years and older from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Trained lay interviewers assessed past-year mood and anxiety disorders and lifetime personality disorders. Participants self-reported childhood adversity based on questions from the Adverse Childhood Experiences Study. Childhood adversity was prevalent across five age cohorts. In our adjusted models, age did not moderate the effect of childhood adversity on mental disorders. Older adults who experienced childhood adversity had higher odds of having mood (odds ratio: 1.73; 95% confidence interval: 1.32-2.28), anxiety (odds ratio: 1.48; 95% confidence interval: 1.20-1.83), and personality disorders (odds ratio: 2.11; 95% confidence interval: 1.75-2.54) after adjusting for covariates. An increasing number of types of childhood adversities was associated with higher odds of personality disorders and somewhat higher odds of anxiety disorders. Treatment-seeking was associated with a reduced likelihood of anxiety and, especially, mood disorders in older adult childhood adversity survivors. These results emphasize the importance of preventing childhood adversity and intervening once it occurs to avoid the negative mental health effects that can last into old age. Copyright © 2014 American Association for

  7. Child Sexual Abuse and HIV-Related Substance Use and Sexual Risk Across the Life Course Among Males and Females.

    Scheidell, Joy D; Kumar, Pritika C; Campion, Taylor; Quinn, Kelly; Beharie, Nisha; McGorray, Susan P; Khan, Maria R

    2017-07-01

    Child sexual abuse is associated with substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence and adulthood, but no known studies have documented associations across the life course in a nationally representative U.S. We used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to measure associations between child sexual abuse and substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence, young adulthood, and adulthood among males and females (n = 11,820). Approximately 10% of females and 7% of males reported child sexual abuse. Associations with substance use were strongest during adolescence and lessened over time. Increased odds of sexual risk among those with a history of child sexual abuse remained consistent through the life course. Significant gender differences existed for some associations (e.g., adulthood multiple partners: males adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.73, 95%CI:1.18, 2.53; females AOR = 1.11, 95%CI:0.79, 1.56). Trauma-informed prevention interventions should address child sexual abuse among both males and females to prevent substance use and sexual risk behavior throughout the life course.

  8. Perceptions about HIV and condoms and consistent condom use among male clients of commercial sex workers in the Philippines.

    Regan, Rotrease; Morisky, Donald E

    2013-04-01

    Because consistent condom use is an effective strategy in the prevention of sexually transmitted infections and HIV transmission, it is important to examine social cognitive influences of consistent condom use not only among female sex workers (FSWs) but also among their male clients, for whom less is known. Because little is known about how HIV knowledge and condom attitudes affect condom use among male clients of FSWs in the Philippines, the main objective was to determine what characteristics (age, education, HIV knowledge, marital status) as well as attributes taken from protection motivation theory (perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, response efficacy) are significantly associated with consistent condom use among male clients of FSWs. Logistic regression analyses showed that the odds of using condoms consistently with an FSW are 13% higher for those with more years of education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.23), higher versus lower perception of severity of HIV/AIDS (AOR = 1.97; 95% CI = 1.04, 3.73), and had a higher score for response efficacy of condoms (AOR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.27). Future HIV/AIDS prevention interventions that address condom use among male clients should promote educational attainment and focus on awareness of the enduring negative health consequences of acquiring HIV/AIDS, as well as cultivate positive attitudes toward the efficacy of condom use, using creative social marketing strategies.

  9. Male pattern baldness and risk of colorectal neoplasia.

    Keum, N; Cao, Y; Lee, D H; Park, S M; Rosner, B; Fuchs, C S; Wu, K; Giovannucci, E L

    2016-01-12

    Male pattern baldness is positively associated with androgens as well as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin, all of which are implicated in pathogenesis of colorectal neoplasia. From 1992 through 2010, we prospectively followed participants in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Hair pattern at age 45 years was assessed at baseline with five image categories (no baldness, frontal-only baldness, frontal-plus-mild-vertex baldness, frontal-plus-moderate-vertex baldness, and frontal-plus-severe-vertex baldness). Cancer analysis included 32 782 men and used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Restricted to men who underwent at least one endoscopy over the study period, adenoma analysis included 29 770 men and used logistic regressions for clustered data to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs. Over the mean follow-up of 15.6 years, 710 cases of colorectal cancer (478 for colon, 152 for rectum, and 80 unknown site) developed. Significantly increased risks associated with frontal-only baldness and frontal-plus-mild-vertex baldness relative to no baldness were observed for colon cancer with respective HR being 1.29 (95% CI, 1.03-1.62) and 1.31 (95% CI, 1.01-1.70). Over the 19-year study period, 3526 cases of colorectal adenoma were detected. Evidence for an increased risk of colorectal adenoma relative to no baldness was significant with frontal-only baldness (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.06-1.26) and borderline insignificant with frontal-plus-severe-vertex baldness (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.98-1.33). Subtypes of male pattern baldness at age 45 years were positively associated with colorectal neoplasia. Future studies are warranted to confirm our results and to determine the predictive value of male pattern baldness to identify those at high risk for colorectal neoplasia.

  10. Higher body mass index is associated with greater severity of alopecia in men with male-pattern androgenetic alopecia in Taiwan: a cross-sectional study.

    Yang, Chao-Chun; Hsieh, Fu-Nien; Lin, Li-Yu; Hsu, Chao-Kai; Sheu, Hamm-Ming; Chen, WenChieh

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for multiple health problems, but its association with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) remains controversial. We sought to determine the association between body mass index (BMI) and alopecia severity in men with AGA and early-onset AGA. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The medical charts and photographs of men with a clinical diagnosis of AGA were reviewed. In all, 189 men were enrolled with a mean age of 30.8 years. In male-pattern AGA (n = 142), men with severe alopecia (grade V-VII) had higher BMI than those with mild to moderate alopecia (grade I-IV) (25.1 vs 22.8 kg/m(2), P = .01). After multivariate adjustments, the risk for severe alopecia was higher in the overweight or obese (BMI ≥24 kg/m(2)) subjects with male-pattern AGA (odds ratio 3.52, P < .01). In early-onset male-pattern AGA (n = 46), the risk for having severe alopecia was also higher in the overweight or obese subjects (odds ratio 4.97, P = .03). Parameters used to evaluate obesity were limited because of the retrospective nature of the study. Higher BMI was significantly associated with greater severity of hair loss in men with male-pattern AGA, especially in those with early-onset AGA. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of reactor-neutrino spectra fully based on gross theory of beta-decay emphasizing the special role of odd-odd FP nuclides

    Yoshida, Tadashi; Tachibana, Takahiro; Chiba, Satoshi

    2017-09-01

    We applied the gross theory of β-decay to calculate the reactor antineutrino (νe) spectra emitted from 235,238U and 239,241Pu samples under neutron irradiation by summing up all the contributions from a large number of decaying fission-products (FPs). Considering the special role of the odd(Z)-odd(N) FPs in spectrum-shaping, we utilized the experimentally-known spin-parity of each odd-odd FP through the treatment proposed by Nakata, Tachibana and Yamada. Owing to this treatment, the consistency between calculated and experimental spectra was remarkably improved in a way expected from the nature of the gross theory of β-decay.

  12. Resonance spin memory in low-energy gamma-ray spectra from Sb, Tb, Ho and Ta odd-odd compound nuclei

    Olejniczak, U.; Gundorin, N.A.; Pikelner, L.B.; Serov, D.G.; Przytula, M.

    2002-01-01

    The low-energy gamma-ray spectra from neutron resonance capture with natural samples of Sb, Tb, Ho and Ta were measured using a HPGe detector at the IBR-30 pulsed reactor (JINR, Dubna). The resonance spin memory effect in the spectra from the odd-odd compound nuclei of 122 Sb, 160 Tb and 166 Ho was found to be quite distinct. For the 182 Ta compound nucleus it proved to be rather weak

  13. Financial Key Ratios

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  14. Parental correlates of offspring sex ratio in Eurasian Oystercatchers

    Heg, D.; Dingemanse, NJ; Lessells, CM; Mateman, AC

    2000-01-01

    We investigated hatchling and fledgling sex ratios in Eurasian Oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus) using random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. The overall hatchling (53% males, n = 374 hatchlings from 177 broods) and fledgling (49% males, n = 51) sex ratio did not differ significantly from

  15. School bus travel is associated with bullying victimization among Canadian male, but not female, middle and high school students.

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Hamilton, Hayley A; Larouche, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Previous research has found a link between active school transportation and bullying victimization among school-aged children. However, the link with other school travel modes (such as car, school bus, and public transportation) and bullying victimization is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between school travel mode and report of bullying victimization among Canadian middle and high school students. The sample consisted of 5065 students aged 11-20 years (mean age: 15.2±1.9 years; 56% females) who participated in the 2013 Ontario Students Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS). Overall, 24.7% of students reported school bullying victimization in the past year. Females (27.2%) were more likely than males (22.3%) to be victims of school bullying (ptravel to (adjusted odd ratio (OR)=1.83; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.25-2.68) and from (OR=1.79; 95% CI=1.70-2.67) school was associated with greater odds of bullying victimization among males, but not females. However, the use of public transportation to get to school was associated with lower odds of bullying victimization compared to active transportation among females only (OR=0.59; 95% CI=0.36-0.97). These findings suggest that school travel mode should be considered when considering risks for bullying victimization. Bullying prevention efforts should target school buses to make children's commute a safe and enjoyable experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Glutamate/GABA+ ratio is associated with the psychosocial domain of autistic and schizotypal traits.

    Talitha C Ford

    Full Text Available The autism and schizophrenia spectra overlap to a large degree in the social and interpersonal domains. Similarly, abnormal excitatory glutamate and inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA neurotransmitter concentrations have been reported for both spectra, with the interplay of these neurotransmitters important for cortical excitation to inhibition regulation. This study investigates whether these neurotransmitter abnormalities are specific to the shared symptomatology, and whether the degree of abnormality increases with increasing symptom severity. Hence, the relationship between the glutamate/GABA ratio and autism and schizophrenia spectrum traits in an unmedicated, subclinical population was investigated.A total of 37 adults (19 female, 18 male aged 18-38 years completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ and Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ, and participated in the resting state proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study in which sequences specific for quantification of glutamate and GABA+ concentration were applied to a right and left superior temporal voxel.There were significant, moderate, positive relationships between right superior temporal glutamate/GABA+ ratio and AQ, SPQ and AQ+SPQ total scores (p<0.05, SPQ subscales Social Anxiety, No Close Friend, Constricted Affect, Odd Behaviour, Odd Speech, Ideas of Reference and Suspiciousness, and AQ subscales Social Skills, Communication and Attention Switching (p<0.05; increased glutamate/GABA+ coinciding with higher scores on these subscales. Only the relationships between glutamate/GABA+ ratio and Social Anxiety, Constricted Affect, Social Skills and Communication survived multiple comparison correction (p< 0.004. Left superior temporal glutamate/GABA+ ratio reduced with increasing restricted imagination (p<0.05.These findings demonstrate evidence for an association between excitatory/inhibitory neurotransmitter concentrations and symptoms that are shared between the autism and

  17. Process oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL®) marginally effects student achievement measures but substantially increases the odds of passing a course.

    Walker, Lindsey; Warfa, Abdi-Rizak M

    2017-01-01

    While the inquiry approach to science teaching has been widely recommended as an epistemic mechanism to promote deep content understanding, there is also increased expectation that process and other transferable skills should be integral part of science pedagogy. To test the hypothesis that coupling process skills to content teaching impacts academic success measures, we meta-analyzed twenty-one studies (n = 21) involving 7876 students that compared Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL), a pedagogy that provides opportunities for improving process skills during content learning through guided-inquiry activities, to standard lecture conditions. Based on conventional measures of class performance, POGIL had a small effect on achievement outcomes (effect size = 0.29, [95% CI = 0.15-0.43]) but substantially improved the odds of passing a class (odds ratio = 2.02, [95% CI: 1.45-2.83]). That is, participants in the POGIL pedagogy had higher odds of passing a course and roughly performed 0.3 standard deviations higher on achievement measures than participants in standard lectures. In relative risk terms, POGIL reduced the risk of failing a course by 38%. These findings suggest providing opportunities to improve process skills during class instruction does not inhibit content learning but enhances conventional success measures. We compare these findings with those of recent large meta-analysis that examined the effects of global active learning methods on achievement outcomes and course failure rates in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields.

  18. High HIV Prevalence and Risk Among Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Nadol, Patrick; Hoang, Tran Vu; Le, Linh-Vi; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Kaldor, John; Law, Matthew

    2017-08-01

    In Vietnam's concentrated HIV epidemic, female sex workers (FSWs) are at increased risk for acquiring and transmitting HIV, largely through their male clients. A high proportion of males in Vietnam report being clients of FSWs. Studying HIV-related risk factors and prevalence among male clients is important, particularly given the potential for male clients to be a 'bridge' of HIV transmission to the more general population or to sex workers. Time-location sampling was used to identify FSW in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam's largest cities, in 2013-2014. Recruited FSWs were asked to refer one male client to the study. Demographic and risk behavior data were collected from FSWs and male clients by administered questionnaires. Biologic specimens collected from male clients were tested for HIV and opiates. Sampling weights, calculated based on the FSWs probability of being selected for enrolment, were applied to prevalence estimates for both FSWs and male clients. Logistic regression models were developed to obtain odds ratios for HIV infection among male clients. A total of 804 male clients were enrolled. Overall, HIV prevalence among male clients was 10.2%; HIV prevalence was 20.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 15.0-27.9%) among those reporting a history of illegal drug use and 32.4% (95% CI 20.2-47.7%) among those with opioids detected in urine. HIV prevalence among male clients did not differ across 'bridging' categories defined by condom use with FSWs and regular partners over the previous 6 months. HIV among male clients was associated with a reported history of illegal drug use (OR 3.76; 95% CI 1.87-7.56), current opioid use (OR 2.55; 95% CI 1.02-6.36), and being referred by an FSW who self-reported as HIV-positive (OR 5.37; 95% CI 1.46-19.75). Self-reported HIV prevalence among enrolled FSWs was 2.8%. Based on HIV test results of male clients and self-reported status from FSWs, an estimated 12.1% of male client-FSW pairs were sero-discordant. These

  19. Obesity and the Odds of Weight Gain following Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Lior Z. Braunstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Increasing body mass index (BMI is associated with increased risk of mortality; however, quantifying weight gain in men undergoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT for prostate cancer (PC remains unexplored. Methods. Between 1995 and 2001, 206 men were enrolled in a randomized trial evaluating the survival difference of adding 6 months of ADT to radiation therapy (RT. BMI measurements were available in 171 men comprising the study cohort. The primary endpoint was weight gain of ≥10 lbs by 6-month followup. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess whether baseline BMI or treatment received was associated with this endpoint adjusting for known prognostic factors. Results. By the 6-month followup, 12 men gained ≥10 lbs, of which 10 (83% received RT + ADT and, of these, 7 (70% were obese at randomization. Men treated with RT as compared to RT + ADT were less likely to gain ≥10 lbs (adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 0.18 [95% CI: 0.04–0.89]; P=0.04, whereas this risk increased with increasing BMI (AOR: 1.15 [95% CI: 1.01–1.31]; P=0.04. Conclusions. Consideration should be given to avoid ADT in obese men with low- or favorable-intermediate risk PC where improved cancer control has not been observed, but shortened life expectancy from weight gain is expected.

  20. Pairing correlations. I. Description of odd nuclei in mean-field theories

    Duguet, T.; Bonche, P.; Heenen, P.-H.; Meyer, J.

    2002-01-01

    In order to extract informations on pairing correlations in nuclei from experimental masses, the different contributions to odd-even mass differences are investigated within the Skyrme Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) method. In this part of the paper, the description of odd nuclei within HFB is discussed since it is the key point for the understanding of the above mentioned contributions. To go from an even nucleus to an odd one, the advantage of a two steps process is demonstrated and its physical content is discussed. New results concerning time-reversal symmetry breaking in odd nuclei are also reported

  1. Teacher ratings of ODD symptoms: measurement equivalence across Malaysian Malay, Chinese and Indian children.

    Gomez, Rapson

    2014-04-01

    The study examined the measurement equivalence for teacher ratings across Malaysian Malay, Chinese and Indian children. Malaysian teachers completed ratings of the ODD symptoms for 574 Malay, 247 Chinese and 98 Indian children. The results supported the equivalences for the configural, metric, and error variances models, and the equivalences for ODD latent variances and mean scores. Together, these findings suggest good support for measurement and structural equivalences of the ODD symptoms across these ethnic groups. The theoretical and clinical implications of the findings for cross-cultural equivalence of the ODD symptoms are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The sex ratio of offspring is associated with the mothers' age at menarche

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Early menarcheal age is a risk factor for breast and ovarian cancers and is also associated with an increased spontaneous abortion rate. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a link between early menarcheal age and the offspring sex ratio. METHODS We recorded the sex...... of 21208 live born infants, all singletons, born to 10 847 premenopausal women (mean attending age: 37.5 ± 7.2 years, range 22-54) who attended our clinics for obstetrical and gynaecological assessment. We calculated the sex ratio of newborn infants in relation to the mothers' age of menarche (from 9 to 18...... years) and to the number of infants per woman (i.e. fertility index). RESULTS A low offspring sex ratio (males/females) of 0.800 was observed in mothers who entered menarche at the age of 9 years; the odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence intervals) compared with those of control group with menarche at age 14...

  3. Prevalence of consensual male-male sex and sexual violence, and associations with HIV in South Africa: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Kristin L Dunkle

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa the population prevalence of men who have sex with men (MSM is unknown, as is the population prevalence of male-on-male sexual violence, and whether male-on-male sexual violence may relate to HIV risk. This paper describes lifetime prevalence of consensual male-male sexual behavior and male-on-male sexual violence (victimization and perpetration in two South African provinces, socio-demographic factors associated with these experiences, and associations with HIV serostatus.In a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008, men aged 18-49 y from randomly selected households in the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal provinces provided anonymous survey data and dried blood spots for HIV serostatus assessment. Interviews were completed in 1,737 of 2,298 (75.6% of enumerated and eligible households. From these households, 1,705 men (97.1% provided data on lifetime history of same-sex experiences, and 1,220 (70.2% also provided dried blood spots for HIV testing. 5.4% (n = 92 of participants reported a lifetime history of any consensual sexual activity with another man; 9.6% (n = 164 reported any sexual victimization by a man, and 3.0% (n = 51 reported perpetrating sexual violence against another man. 85.0% (n = 79 of men with a history of consensual sex with men reported having a current female partner, and 27.7% (n = 26 reported having a current male partner. Of the latter, 80.6% (n = 21/26 also reported having a female partner. Men reporting a history of consensual male-male sexual behavior are more likely to have been a victim of male-on-male sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 7.24; 95% CI 4.26-12.3, and to have perpetrated sexual violence against another man (aOR = 3.10; 95% CI 1.22-7.90. Men reporting consensual oral/anal sex with a man were more likely to be HIV+ than men with no such history (aOR = 3.11; 95% CI 1.24-7.80. Men who had raped a man were more likely to be HIV+ than non

  4. Níveis de Energia e Relações Energia: Proteína para Frangos de Corte de 22 a 42 dias de Idade Energy Levels and Metabolizable Energy: Protein Ratio for Male Broiler Chicks from 22 to 42 Days of Age

    José Humberto Vilar da Silva

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Níveis de energia metabolizável (EM de 2900, 3100 e 3300 kcal e relações energia: proteína (EM: PB de 128, 148, 168 e 188 kcal/%PB foram avaliados em frangos de corte machos de 22 a 42 dias de idade, distribuídos ao acaso em um esquema fatorial 3 x 4, com quatro repetições de 18 aves por tratamento. O aumento da relação EM: PB apresentou efeito linear decrescente sobre consumo de ração, peso vivo aos 42 dias, ganho de peso, consumo de proteína, consumo de energia metabolizável, peso da carcaça, peso da carne de peito, peso de pernas (coxa+sobrecoxa e elevou linearmente a porcentagem de gordura abdominal na carcaça em todos os níveis de energia. A relação EM: PB de 148 (20,95% PB dentro do nível de EM de 3100 kcal atende às exigências de ótimo crescimento de frangos de corte de 22 a 42 dias de idade, enquanto a relação EM: PB de 188 dentro de todos os níveis de energia estudados se mostrou inadequada. Em virtude do aumento do custo da ração, a redução da relação EM: PB, em rações práticas, deve ser avaliada para otimizar o modelo de produção em que a qualidade da carcaça também deve ser considerada.Levels of metabolizable energy (ME of 2,900, 3,100 and 3,300 kcal and energy to protein ratio (EM: PB of 128, 148, 168 and 188 kcal/%CP were evaluated with male broiler chicks from 22 to 42 days of age, assigned to a completely randomized 3 x 4 factorial design, where each treatment had four replications of 18 birds. Increasing the ME: CP ratio resulted in linear decreasing effect on feed intake, live weight, weight gain, crude protein intake, energy intake, carcass weight, breast meat weight, drumsticks weight and linearly increased abdominal fat percentage within each level of energy. The 148 ME:CP ratio (20,95% CP in the level of 3100 kcal ME met the broilers requirements to optimum growth from 22 to 42 days of age, while 188 ME:CP ratio was inadequate. Because of the high costs, decreasing EM: PB ratio must be

  5. Male pattern baldness

    Alopecia in men; Baldness - male; Hair loss in men; Androgenetic alopecia ... Male pattern baldness is related to your genes and male sex hormones. It usually follows a pattern of receding hairline and ...

  6. Genital sores - male

    Sores - male genitals; Ulcers - male genitals ... A common cause of male genital sores are infections that are spread through sexual contact, such as: Genital herpes (small, painful blisters filled with clear ...

  7. Motor Impairments in Transient Ischemic Attack Increase the Odds of a Subsequent Stroke: A Meta-Analysis

    Neha Lodha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and purposeTransient ischemic attack (TIA increases the risk for a subsequent stroke. Typical symptoms include motor weakness, gait disturbance, and loss of coordination. The association between the presence of motor impairments during a TIA and the chances of a subsequent stroke has not been examined. In the current meta-analysis, we examine whether the odds of a stroke are greater in TIA individuals who experience motor impairments as compared with those who do not experience motor impairments.MethodsWe conducted a systematic search of electronic databases as well as manual searches of the reference lists of retrieved articles. The meta-analysis included studies that reported an odds ratio relating motor impairments to a subsequent stroke, or the number of individuals with or without motor impairments who experienced a subsequent stroke. We examined these studies using rigorous meta-analysis techniques including random effects model, forest and funnel plots, I2, publication bias, and fail-safe analysis.ResultsTwenty-four studies with 15,129 participants from North America, Australia, Asia, and Europe qualified for inclusion. An odds ratio of 2.11 (95% CI, 1.67–2.65, p = 0.000 suggested that the chances of a subsequent stroke are increased by twofolds in individuals who experience motor impairments during a TIA compared with those individuals who have no motor impairments.ConclusionThe presence of motor impairments during TIA is a significantly high-risk clinical characteristic for a subsequent stroke. The current evidence for motor impairments following TIA relies exclusively on the clinical reports of unilateral motor weakness. A comprehensive examination of motor impairments in TIA will enhance TIA prognosis and restoration of residual motor impairments.

  8. VVER-1000 dominance ratio

    Gorodkov, S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (author)

  9. WWER-1000 dominance ratio

    Gorodkov, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (Authors)

  10. Sharpening Sharpe Ratios

    William N. Goetzmann; Jonathan E. Ingersoll Jr.; Matthew I. Spiegel; Ivo Welch

    2002-01-01

    It is now well known that the Sharpe ratio and other related reward-to-risk measures may be manipulated with option-like strategies. In this paper we derive the general conditions for achieving the maximum expected Sharpe ratio. We derive static rules for achieving the maximum Sharpe ratio with two or more options, as well as a continuum of derivative contracts. The optimal strategy has a truncated right tail and a fat left tail. We also derive dynamic rules for increasing the Sharpe ratio. O...

  11. Some considerations of the energy spectrum of odd-odd deformed nuclei; Quelqes considerations sur le spectre d'energie des noyaux impair-impair deformes

    Alceanu-G, Pinho de; Picard, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The odd-odd deformed nuclei are described as a rotator plus two odd nucleons moving in orbitals {omega}{sub p} and {omega}{sub n} of the deformed potential. We investigate the energies and wave functions of the various states of the ({omega}{sub p}, {omega}{sub n}) configurations by calculating and numerically diagonalizing the Hamiltonian matrix (with R.P.C. and residual interactions). The Gallagher-Mosskowski coupling rules ana the abnormal K equals 0 rotational bands are discussed. (authors) [French] Les noyaux impair-impairs deformes sont decrits comme un rotateur plus deux nucleons non apparies dans les orbites {omega}{sub p} et {omega}{sub n} du potentiel deforme. Nous etudions le spectre d'energie et les fonctions d'onde des configurations ({omega}{sub p}, {omega}{sub n}) en tenant compte de l'interaction particule-rotation et de la force residuelle entre les deux nucleons celibataires.

  12. Facing Aggression: Cues Differ for Female versus Male Faces

    Geniole, Shawn N.; Keyes, Amanda E.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Carr?, Justin M.; McCormick, Cheryl M.

    2012-01-01

    The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judge...

  13. Quantum information with even and odd states of orbital angular momentum of light

    Perumangatt, Chithrabhanu, E-mail: chithrabhanu@prl.res.in [Physical Research laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad, 380009 (India); Lal, Nijil [Physical Research laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad, 380009 (India); IIT Gandhinagar, Palaj, Ahmedabad, 382355 (India); Anwar, Ali [Physical Research laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad, 380009 (India); Gangi Reddy, Salla [University of Electro-communications, Chofu, Tokyo, 1828585 (Japan); Singh, R.P. [Physical Research laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad, 380009 (India)

    2017-06-15

    We address the possibility of using even/odd states of orbital angular momentum (OAM) of photons for the quantum information tasks. Single photon qubit states and two photon entangled states in even/odd basis of OAM are considered. We present a method for the tomography and general projective measurement in even/odd basis. With the general projective measurement, we show the Bell violation and quantum cryptography with Bell's inequality. We also describe hyper and hybrid entanglement of even/odd OAM states along with polarization, which can be applied in the implementation of quantum protocols like super dense coding. - Highlights: • We propose to use even and odd states of orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light for quantum information tasks. • We describe the OAM qubits and entangled states in even/odd basis and the corresponding projective operators. • We present a method for the tomography and the Bell's inequality violation for photons entangled in even/odd OAM states. • We also describe hyper and hybrid entanglement of even/odd OAM states along with polarization and their applications.

  14. The even and the odd spectral flows on the N=2 superconformal algebras

    Gato-Rivera, B.

    1998-01-01

    There are two different spectral flows on the N=2 superconformal algebras (four in the case of the topological algebra). The usual spectral flow, first considered by Schwimmer and Seiberg, is an even transformation, whereas the spectral flow previously considered by the author and Rosado is an odd transformation. We show that the even spectral flow is generated by the odd spectral flow, and therefore only the latter is fundamental. We also analyze thoroughly the four ''topological'' spectral flows, writing two of them here for the first time. Whereas the even and the odd spectral flows have quasi-mirrored properties acting on the antiperiodic or the periodic algebras, the topological even and odd spectral flows have drastically different properties acting on the topological algebra. The other two topological spectral flows have mixed even and odd properties. We show that the even and the even-odd topological spectral flows are generated by the odd and the odd-even topological spectral flows, and therefore only the latter are fundamental. (orig.)

  15. Functional outcomes of child and adolescent ODD symptoms in young adult men

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Rowe, Richard; Boylan, Khrista

    2013-01-01

    Background ODD is considered to be a disorder of childhood, yet evidence suggests that prevalence rates of the disorder are stable into late adolescence and trajectories of symptoms persist into young adulthood. Functional outcomes associated with ODD through childhood and adolescence include conflict within families, poor peer relationships, peer rejection and academic difficulties. Little examination of functional outcomes in adulthood associated with ODD has been undertaken. Method Data for the present analyses come from a clinic referred sample of 177 boys aged 7 to 12 followed up annually to age 18 and again at age 24. Annual parental report of psychopathology through adolescence was used to predict self-reported functional outcomes at 24. Results Controlling for parent reported symptoms of ADHD, CD, depression and anxiety, ODD symptoms from childhood through adolescence predicted poorer age 24 functioning with peers, poorer romantic relationships, a poorer paternal relationship, and having nobody who would provide a recommendation for a job. CD symptoms predicted workplace problems, poor maternal relationship, lower academic attainment and violent injuries. Only parent reported ODD symptoms and child reported CD symptoms predicted a composite of poor adult outcomes. Conclusion ODD is a disorder that significantly interferes with functioning, particularly in social or interpersonal relationships. The persistence of impairment associated with ODD into young adulthood calls for a reconsideration of ODD as a disorder limited to childhood. PMID:24117754

  16. Investigation of Cool and Hot Executive Function in ODD/CD Independently of ADHD

    Hobson, Christopher W.; Scott, Stephen; Rubia, Katya

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) have shown deficits in "cool" abstract-cognitive, and "hot" reward-related executive function (EF) tasks. However, it is currently unclear to what extent ODD/CD is associated with neuropsychological deficits, independently of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder…

  17. Fingerprint states of odd mass 115I nuclei in the framework of particle rotor model

    Goswami, R.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Sen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Extensive theoretical as well as experimental investigation of the nuclear structure of odd-mass iodine nuclei have revealed systematic presence of strongly coupled bands in all neutron deficient as well as neutron rich odd-mass iodine isotopes. The present work shows that the positive as well as the negative parity are fairly well reproduced in the framework of particle rotor model

  18. The Short Supply of Saints: Limits on Replication of Models that "Beat the Odds"

    Wilder, Tamara; Jacobsen, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have identified effective practices that allow schools to "beat the odds" and close the reading achievement gap. Although identifying these practices is important, researchers have paid little attention to the work it takes to implement them. Through interviews with teachers who work at schools identified as beating the odds, this…

  19. Why Some Schools with Latino Children Beat the Odds...and Others Don't

    Waits, Mary Jo; Campbell, Heather E.; Gau, Rebecca; Jacobs, Ellen; Rex, Tom; Hess, Robert K.

    2006-01-01

    Throughout Arizona and the Southwest, the odds are against high achievement in schools with a mostly Latino, mostly poor student enrollment. Some schools, however, "beat the odds" and achieve consistently high results or show steady gains. Why do these schools succeed where others fail? Using the methodology of business guru Jim Collins…

  20. Into the Cuckoo's Nest: "Silver Linings Playbook" and Movies about Odd People

    Beck, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Odd people have always been identified and often treated differently in human societies. In modern times, they have been described as being afflicted with a psychological condition to be treated by specialists and assigned to a "crazy" category by general society. Movies about such odd people have a long history. A recent movie,…

  1. Association of Anxiety and ODD/CD in Children with and without ADHD

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Aguirre, Vincent P.; Lee, Steve S.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine levels of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) in four groups of children: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) only, anxiety only, ADHD and anxiety, and controls (i.e., non-ADHD youth). Although children with ADHD exhibit more ODD and CD than non-ADHD youth, it is unknown if…

  2. Gender difference of alanine aminotransferase elevation may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels among male adolescents.

    Solomon Chih-Cheng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the gender difference of ALT elevation and its association with high hemoglobin levels. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 3547 adolescents (2005 females, mean age of 16.5?.3 years who were negative for hepatitis B surface antigen received health checkups in 2006. Body mass index (BMI, levels of hemoglobin, ALT and cholesterol were measured. ALT >42 U/L was defined as elevated ALT. Elevated ALT levels were detected in 112 of the 3547 participants (3.3%, more prevalent in males than in females (5.4% vs. 1.4%, p11 g/dl in females or >13.5 g/dl in males, but the cumulative cases of elevated ALT increased more quickly in males. Proportion of elevated ALT increased as either the BMI or hemoglobin level rise, more apparent in male adolescents. Logistic regression modeling showed odds ratio (95% confidence interval were 24.7 (15.0-40.6 for BMI ≥27 kg/m(2; 5.5 (2.9-10.4 for BMI 24-27 kg/m(2; 2.7 (1.3-5.5 for Q5 (top 20th percentile hemoglobin level; and 2.6 (1.6-4.1 for male gender. Further separately fitting the logistic models for two genders, the significance of Q5 hemoglobin level only appeared in the males. CONCLUSIONS: High hemoglobin level is a significant risk factor of ALT elevation after control hepatitis B, obesity and gender. Males have greater risk of abnormal liver function which may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels.

  3. Description of low-lying states in odd-odd deformed nuclei taking account of the coupling with core rotations and vibrations. 1

    Kvasil, J.; Hrivnacova, I.; Nesterenko, V.O.

    1990-01-01

    The microscopic approach for description of low-lyinig states in deformed odd-odd nuclei is formulated as a generalization of the quasiparticle-phonon model (QPM) with including the rotational degrees of freedom and n-p interaction between external nucleons into the QPM. In comparison with other models, the approach proposed includes all three the most important effects coupling with rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom of doubly-even core and p-n interaction mentioned above even treates them on the microscopic base. 36 refs

  4. The SPO11-C631T gene polymorphism and male infertility risk: a meta-analysis.

    Ren, Zheng-Ju; Ren, Peng-Wei; Yang, Bo; Liao, Jian; Liu, Sheng-Zhuo; Fang, Kun; Ren, Shang-Qing; Liu, Liang-Ren; Dong, Qiang

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the association between the SPO11 gene C631T polymorphism and the risk of male infertility. We conducted a search on PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China biology medical literature database (CBM), VIP, and Chinese literature database (Wan Fang) on 31 March 2016. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were used to assess the strength of associations. A total of five studies including 542 cases and 510 controls were involved in this meta-analysis. The pooled results indicated that the SPO11 gene C631T polymorphism was significantly associated with increased risk of male infertility (TT + CT vs. CC: OR = 4.14, 95%CI = 2.48-6.89; CT vs. CC: OR = 4.34, 95%CI = 2.56-7.34; T vs. C: OR = 4.35, 95%CI = 2.58-7.34). Subgroup analysis of different countries proved the relationship between SPO11 gene C631T polymorphism and male infertility risk in Chinese, but not in Iranian peoples. In conclusion, this study suggested that SPO11 gene C631T polymorphism may contribute as a genetic factor susceptible to cause male infertility. Furthermore, more large sample and representative population-based cases and well-matched controls are needed to validate our results.

  5. Mycoplasma and ureaplasma infection and male infertility: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Huang, C; Zhu, H L; Xu, K R; Wang, S Y; Fan, L Q; Zhu, W B

    2015-09-01

    The relationship between mycoplasma and ureaplasma infection and male infertility has been studied widely; however, results remain controversial. This meta-analysis investigated the association between genital ureaplasmas (Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum) and mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium), and risk of male infertility. Differences in prevalence of ureaplasma and mycoplasma infection between China and the rest of the world were also compared. Study data were collected from PubMed, Embase and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure. Summary odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was applied to assess the relationship. Heterogeneity testing and publication bias testing were also performed. A total of 14 studies were used: five case-control studies with 611 infertile cases and 506 controls featuring U. urealyticum infection, and nine case-control studies with 2410 cases and 1223 controls concerning M. hominis infection. Two other infection (U. parvum and M. genitalium) were featured in five and three studies, respectively. The meta-analysis results indicated that U. parvum and M. genitalium are not associated with male infertility. However, a significant relationship existed between U. urealyticum and M. hominis and male infertility. Comparing the global average with China, a significantly higher positive rate of U. urealyticum, but a significantly lower positive rate of M. hominis, was observed in both the infertile and control groups in China. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  6. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    Bayne, C. K.; Smith, D. H.

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers.

  8. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers

  9. Exposure to psychosocial job strain during pregnancy and odds of asthma and atopic dermatitis among 7-year old children – a prospective cohort study

    Larsen, Ann Dyreborg; Schlünssen, Vivi; Christensen, Berit Hvass

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Few epidemiological studies have studied maternal stress exposure during pregnancy and odds of asthma and atopic dermatitis (AD) among offspring, and none have extended the focus to psychosocial job strain. The aim of this study was to assess the association between maternal job strain...... during pregnancy and asthma as well as AD among 7-year-old children. METHODS: The study is based on the Danish National Birth Cohort and includes prospective data from 32 104 pregnancies. Job strain was assessed early in pregnancy by use of two questions on demands and control. We categorized...... regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) adjusted for several covariates. RESULTS: Maternal exposure to self-reported high strain during pregnancy was associated with 15% higher odds of atopic dermatitis among 7-year-old children (OR adj1.15, 95% CI 1...

  10. " Odd, Watson–Very Odd!

    life. This automatically leads to the question as to how it arose in the first place. Here, one ... living system. The basic molecular processes to happen in the absence of a scaffold. such as ... without a support as the whole structure will collapse.

  11. Impact of night-shift work on the prevalence of erosive esophagitis in shipyard male workers.

    Chung, Tae Heum; Lee, Jiho; Kim, Moon Chan

    2016-08-01

    Whether night-shift work is a risk factor for gastroesophageal reflux disease is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between night-shift work and other factors, and erosive esophagitis. A cross-sectional study with 6040 male shipyard workers was performed. Esophagogastroduodenoscopic examination and a survey about night-shift work status, lifestyle, medical history, educational status, and marital status were conducted in all workers. The odds ratios of erosive esophagitis according to night-shift work status were calculated by using the logistic regression model. The prevalence of erosive esophagitis increased in the night-shift workers [odds ratio, 95 % confidence interval: 1.41 (1.03-1.94)]. According to multiple logistic regression models, night-shift work, obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption of ≥140 g/week were significant risk factors for erosive esophagitis. By contrast, Helicobacter pylori infection was negatively associated with erosive esophagitis. Night-shift work is suggested to be a risk factor for erosive esophagitis. Avoidance of night-shift work and lifestyle modification should be considered for prevention and management of gastroesophageal reflux disease.

  12. Systemic lupus erythematosus in Spanish males: a study of the Spanish Rheumatology Society Lupus Registry (RELESSER) cohort.

    Riveros Frutos, A; Casas, I; Rúa-Figueroa, I; López-Longo, F J; Calvo-Alén, J; Galindo, M; Fernández-Nebro, A; Pego-Reigosa, J M; Olivé Marqués, A

    2017-06-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to describe the demographic, clinical, and immunological manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in male patients. Methods A cross-sectional, multicenter study was carried out of 3651 patients (353 men, 9.7%, and 3298 women, 90.2%) diagnosed with SLE, included in the Spanish Rheumatology Society SLE Registry (RELESSER). Results Mean ages (18-92 years) of symptom onset were 37 (SD 17) years (men) and 32 (SD 14) years (women). Male/female ratio was 1/9. Age of onset of symptoms and age at diagnosis were higher in men than in women ( p lupus nephritis was more common in men, being present in 155 (44.8%) of males versus 933 (29%) of females ( p  50 years had a higher mortality (odds ratios 3.6 and 2.1, respectively). Furthermore, SLE patients who developed pulmonary hemorrhage, pulmonary hypertension, psychiatric involvement, complement deficiency, and hemophagocytic syndrome also had higher mortality, regardless of gender. Conclusion Patients with SLE over the age of 50 years have an increased risk of mortality. In Caucasians, age at diagnosis and symptom onset is higher in men than in women. The diagnostic delay is shorter in men. Male SLE patients present more cardiovascular comorbidities, and also more serositis, adenopathies, splenomegaly, renal involvement, convulsion, thrombosis, and lupus anticoagulant positivity than women.

  13. Construct Validity of ADHD/ODD Rating Scales: Recommendations for the Evaluation of Forthcoming DSM-V ADHD/ODD Scales

    Burns, G. Leonard; Walsh, James A.; Servera, Mateu; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Cardo, Esther; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Exploratory structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to a multiple indicator (26 individual symptom ratings) by multitrait (ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI and ODD factors) by multiple source (mothers, fathers and teachers) model to test the invariance, convergent and discriminant validity of the Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Inventory with 872…

  14. Effects of smoking and alcohol consumption on lipid profile in male adults in northwest rural China.

    Li, X X; Zhao, Y; Huang, L X; Xu, H X; Liu, X Y; Yang, J J; Zhang, P J; Zhang, Y H

    2018-04-01

    To determine the individual and combined influences of smoking and alcohol consumption on lipid profile in male adults in northwest rural China. Cross-sectional study. In total, 4614 subjects were enrolled in the cross-sectional study, performed between 2008 and 2012. The present study examined males aged ≥18 years from northwest rural China (n = 707). Data on current smoking and drinking status were collected. Logistic regression was used to estimate the individual and combined influences of smoking and alcohol consumption on lipid profile. Age, ethnic group, educational background, smoking (or alcohol consumption), waist circumference, body mass index, blood pressure and fasting blood glucose were adjusted as confounders. Total cholesterol (TC)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, triglycerides (TG)/HDL-C ratio, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)/HDL-C ratio and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers, whereas HDL-C was lower in smokers. TG/HDL-C ratio, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, TG, lipid accumulation product and VAI were significantly higher in drinkers than non-drinkers. After adjustment for confounders, significant relationships were observed between smoking status and any dyslipidemia, low HDL-C and high VAI (odds ratios [ORs]: 2.53 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.25-5.15], 6.13 [95% CI: 2.84-13.25] and 4.39 [95% CI: 2.02-9.54], respectively). The OR for any dyslipidaemia was 1.94 (95% CI: 1.09-3.48) for subjects who smoke and drank alcohol compared with subjects who did not smoke or drink alcohol. Abnormalities in lipid profile are correlated with smoking and alcohol consumption, which calls for intervention strategies to prevent dyslipidaemia and control risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. ODD irritability is associated with obsessive-compulsive behavior and not ADHD in chronic tic disorders.

    Thériault, Marie-Claude G; Lespérance, Paul; Achim, André; Tellier, Geneviève; Diab, Sabrina; Rouleau, Guy A; Chouinard, Sylvain; Richer, Francois

    2014-12-15

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS) and chronic tic disorder (CT) are often associated with a variety of behavioral comorbidities including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive behavior (OCB), oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) and temper outbursts. ODD is often associated with ADHD but its links to other symptoms of TS/CT is not as clear. This study examined whether the various symptoms of ODD were differentially linked to the various comorbidities in TS. A clinical sample of 135 children diagnosed with TS was evaluated through parent questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Regressions and structural equation modeling confirmed that ODD is multidimensional in a TS/CT sample and showed that OCB was associated with the irritability symptoms of ODD whereas ADHD was associated with the Headstrong symptoms of ODD. Results suggest that increased attention to the different facets of ODD may help improve our understanding of emotional symptoms in TS/CT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Betting Odds Rating System: Using soccer forecasts to forecast soccer.

    Wunderlich, Fabian; Memmert, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Betting odds are frequently found to outperform mathematical models in sports related forecasting tasks, however the factors contributing to betting odds are not fully traceable and in contrast to rating-based forecasts no straightforward measure of team-specific quality is deducible from the betting odds. The present study investigates the approach of combining the methods of mathematical models and the information included in betting odds. A soccer forecasting model based on the well-known ELO rating system and taking advantage of betting odds as a source of information is presented. Data from almost 15.000 soccer matches (seasons 2007/2008 until 2016/2017) are used, including both domestic matches (English Premier League, German Bundesliga, Spanish Primera Division and Italian Serie A) and international matches (UEFA Champions League, UEFA Europe League). The novel betting odds based ELO model is shown to outperform classic ELO models, thus demonstrating that betting odds prior to a match contain more relevant information than the result of the match itself. It is shown how the novel model can help to gain valuable insights into the quality of soccer teams and its development over time, thus having a practical benefit in performance analysis. Moreover, it is argued that network based approaches might help in further improving rating and forecasting methods.

  17. Impact of Sexual Orientation Identity on Medical Morbidities in Male-to-Female Transgender Patients.

    Gaither, Thomas W; Awad, Mohannad A; Osterberg, E Charles; Romero, Angelita; Bowers, Marci L; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2017-02-01

    We aim to describe the relationship between sexual orientation identity and medical morbidities in a large sample of male-to-female (MTF) transgender patients. We reviewed medical records of patients presenting for MTF sex reassignment surgery (SRS) by a single, high-volume surgeon from 2011 to 2015. Sexual attraction to men (heterosexual), women (lesbian), or both (bisexual) was asked of each patient. We examined 16 medical morbidities for this analysis. During the study period, 330 MTF transgender patients presented for SRS. The average age at the time of surgery was 38.9 (range 18-76). One hundred and one patients (32%) reported being heterosexual, 110 patients (34%) reported being lesbian, and 108 patients (34%) reported being bisexual. Lesbian patients presented for SRS at older ages (mean = 43 years old) compared with heterosexual patients (mean = 36 years old) and bisexual patients (mean = 37), P sexual orientation identity. Lesbian patients had greater odds of having a history of depression, age-adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-4.40, compared with heterosexual patients. Lesbian patients had higher odds of being married or partnered, aOR = 2.31, 95% CI (1.27-4.19), compared with heterosexual patients. Heterosexual patients had higher odds of having human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), aOR = 9.07, 95% CI (1.08-76.5) compared with lesbian patients. Sexual orientation identity in MTF transgender patients is variable. The majority of medical morbidities are not associated with sexual orientation identity. Although HIV and depression are common morbidities among MTF patients seeking SRS, the prevalence of these morbidities differs by sexual orientation identity, but these findings need replication. Counseling and future research initiatives in transgender care should incorporate sexual orientation identity and associated risk behavior.

  18. The decline in Australian young male suicide.

    Morrell, Stephen; Page, Andrew N; Taylor, Richard J

    2007-02-01

    Since the late 1990s there has been a sharp downward trend in Australian young male suicide. It is possible that a major government youth suicide prevention initiative, the National Youth Suicide Prevention Strategy (NYSPS), implemented during 1995-1999 may have influenced the decline. In this article, we examine time trends in age- and means-specific male and female Australian suicide rates in relation to unemployment rates and the NYSPS. Based on Australian suicide data over the period 1966-2003, we assess secular changes in the 20-24 year male suicide to total (crude) male suicide rate ratio in relation to the NYSPS, using interrupted time series analysis (ARIMA), since this was previously found to be significantly associated with the 20-24 year male unemployment to total employment ratio. Results show that a dramatic reduction in Australian young male (aged 20-34 years) suicide has occurred since 1997-1998, declining from approximately 40 per 100,000 in 1997-1998 to approximately 20 per 100,000 in 2003. Most of the decline is due to a decrease in suicide by hanging and to a lesser extent from motor vehicle carbon monoxide and other gases. Further, the previously established strong secular association (lasting over 3 decades from 1966) between the rate ratio of 20-24 year male suicide to total (crude) male suicide, and the rate ratio of 20-24 year male unemployment to total unemployment, appears to have been disrupted. ARIMA modelling of the suicide ratio against the initiative indicates a highly significant statistical association between the NYSPS and the suicide ratio reduction but not between the NYSPS and the unemployment indicator trend, suggesting a break in the link between young male suicide and unemployment. The recent sudden turnaround in Australian young male suicide trends and its extent appears to preclude explanations centring on slow-moving social indices traditionally associated with suicide, or on possible cohort effects. This sudden decrease

  19. Positive parity states and some electromagnetic transition properties of even-odd europium isotopes

    Yazar, Harun Resit, E-mail: yazar@nevsehir.edu.tr [Nevsehir University, Faculty of Art and Science (Turkey)

    2013-06-15

    The positive-parity low-spin states of even-odd Europium isotopes ({sup 151-155}Eu) were studied within the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model. The calculated positive low-spin state energy spectra of the odd Eu isotope were found to agree quite well with the experimental data. The B(E2) values were also calculated and it was found that the calculated positive-parity low-spin state energy spectra of the odd-A Eu isotopes agree quite well with the experimental data.

  20. What do You Need to Get Male Partners of Pregnant Women Tested for HIV in Resource Limited Settings? The Baby Shower Cluster Randomized Trial.

    Ezeanolue, Echezona E; Obiefune, Michael C; Yang, Wei; Ezeanolue, Chinenye O; Pharr, Jennifer; Osuji, Alice; Ogidi, Amaka G; Hunt, Aaron T; Patel, Dina; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Ehiri, John E

    2017-02-01

    Male partner involvement has the potential to increase uptake of interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). Finding cultural appropriate strategies to promote male partner involvement in PMTCT programs remains an abiding public health challenge. We assessed whether a congregation-based intervention, the Healthy Beginning Initiative (HBI), would lead to increased uptake of HIV testing among male partners of pregnant women during pregnancy. A cluster-randomized controlled trial of forty churches in Southeastern Nigeria randomly assigned to either the HBI (intervention group; IG) or standard of care referral to a health facility (control group; CG) was conducted. Participants in the IG received education and were offered onsite HIV testing. Overall, 2498 male partners enrolled and participated, a participation rate of 88.9%. Results showed that male partners in the IG were 12 times more likely to have had an HIV test compared to male partners of pregnant women in the CG (CG = 37.71% vs. IG = 84.00%; adjusted odds ratio = 11.9; p HIV testing and counseling among male partners of pregnant women.

  1. Difference and ratio plots

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Bro, Peter

    1995-01-01

    and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....... hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...

  2. Oppositional defiant disorder dimensions and subtypes among detained male adolescent offenders.

    Aebi, Marcel; Barra, Steffen; Bessler, Cornelia; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Walitza, Susanne; Plattner, Belinda

    2016-06-01

    In adolescent offenders, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and its dimensions/subtypes have been frequently ignored due to the stronger focus on criminal behaviours. The revised criteria of the DSM-5 now allow diagnosing ODD in older youths independent of conduct disorder (CD). This study aimed at analysing ODD dimensions/subtypes and their relation to suicidality, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and criminal behaviours after release from detention in a sample of detained male adolescents. Suicidality and psychiatric disorders (including ODD symptoms) were assessed in a consecutive sample of 158 male adolescents (Mage  = 16.89 years) from the Zurich Juvenile Detention Centre. Based on previous research findings, an irritable ODD dimension and a defiant/vindictive ODD dimension based on ODD symptoms were defined. Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to identify distinct subtypes of adolescent offenders according to their ODD symptom profiles. Logistic regression and Cox regression were used to analyse the relations of ODD dimensions/ODD subtypes to comorbid psychopathology and criminal reoffenses from official data. The ODD-irritable dimension, but not the ODD defiant/vindictive dimension predicted comorbid anxiety, suicidality and violent reoffending. LCA identified four subtypes, namely, a no-ODD subtype, a severe ODD subtype and two moderate ODD subtypes with either defiant or irritable symptoms. The irritable ODD subtype and the severe ODD subtype were related to suicidality and comorbid affective/anxiety disorders. The irritable ODD subtype was the strongest predictor of criminal (violent) reoffending even when controlling for CD. The present findings confirm the presence of ODD dimensions/subtypes in a highly disturbed adolescent offender sample. Irritable youths were at risk of suicide and persistent criminal behaviours. Due to the severe consequences of irritability, a standardized assessment approach and a specific treatment is needed in prison to

  3. The Joint Effects of Smoking and Alcohol Drinking on Lipid-Related Indices among Chinese Males-Comparing Exercise and Non-Exercise Groups.

    Yang, Jian; Ye, Jun; Guo, Qiao; Sun, Yining; Zheng, Yansong; Zhang, Yongliang

    2018-06-11

    Smoking and drinking are two predisposing factors for dyslipidemia. Exercise has been proposed as a strategy to improve the blood lipids. However, it remains unclear how smoking and drinking jointly affect blood lipids and whether exercise influences their effects. To evaluate the effects of smoking and drinking, either alone or in combination, on lipid-related indices in both exercise and non-exercise groups among Chinese men. This study was conducted in a health examination center between 2015 and 2016. A sample of 6,179 male subjects was divided into exercise and non-exercise groups. Logistic and linear regression analyses were used to calculate the odds ratios for abnormal lipid-related indices and correlation coefficients between smoking/drinking and lipid-related indices. In the study population, the percentage of stable smokers and stable drinkers was 46.3% (2,860/6,179) and 77.6% (4,795/6,179), respectively. An increased smoking amount was significantly associated with an elevated triglyceride (TG) level and a decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level. Heavier smokers had higher odds ratios for high TG and low HDL-C. Heavier drinkers had higher levels of total cholesterol (TC), TG, and HDL-C and higher odds ratios for high TC and high TG but lower odds ratio for low HDL-C. The exercise group had lower TG levels and higher HDL-C levels than did the non-exercise group. Both heavier smoking and heavier drinking were associated with poorer TG levels, and the results suggest that drinking may be helpful for HDL-C. Exercise may relieve the negative effects of smoking and drinking.

  4. Emotional memory in ADHD patients with and without comorbid ODD/CD

    Krauel, Kerstin; Duzel, Emrah; Hinrichs, Hermann; Rellum, Thomas; Santel, Stephanie; Baving, Lioba

    The present study investigated whether children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD) show a memory bias for negative emotional pictures. Subjects participated in an incidental memory paradigm

  5. Broodyear Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Data is collected by broodyear on % survival to adult, % maturity as two...

  6. Production Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Information on the number of smolts received into the program is...

  7. Fish Health Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. All fresh mortalities larger than 100 mm are sent to Fish Health for...

  8. Odd time formulation of the Batalin-Vilkovisky method of quantization

    Dayi, O.F.

    1988-08-01

    By using a Grassmann odd parameter which behaves like time, it is shown that the main features of the Batalin-Fradkin method of quantization of reducible gauge theories can be formulated systematically. (author). 6 refs

  9. Moduli of mathematical instanton vector bundles with odd c2 on projective space

    Tikhomirov, Aleksandr S

    2012-01-01

    We study the moduli space I n of mathematical instanton vector bundles of rank 2 with second Chern class n≥1 on the projective space P 3 , and prove the irreducibility of I n for arbitrary odd n≥1.

  10. Growth Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. The fork length to the nearest mm and weight to the nearest gram of a...

  11. Revisiting the even-odd staggering in fission-fragment yields

    Caamano, M.; Rejmund, F.; Schmidt, K. H.

    2010-01-01

    The even-odd staggering observed in the experimental fission-fragment nuclear-charge yields is investigated over a wide systematics of fission fragments measured at Lohengrin in direct kinematics and at GSI in inverse kinematics. The general increase of the even-odd staggering in the fission-fragment charge yields towards asymmetric charge splits is explained by the absorption of the unpaired nucleons by the heavy fragment. As a consequence, the well established trend of even-odd staggering in the fission fragment charge yields to decrease with the fissility is attributed in part to the asymmetry evolution of the charge distribution. This interpretation is strongly supported by the data measured at GSI, which cover the complete charge distribution and include precise yields at symmetry. They reveal that the even-odd effect around symmetry remains constant over a large range of fissility. (authors)

  12. Fish Culture Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Raw data on rearing density, loading density, water temperature, ration,...

  13. Limits on CP-odd four-fermion operators containing the strange quark field

    Hamzaoui, C.; Pospelov, M.

    1999-01-01

    The bounds on the neutron electric dipole moment and T-odd nucleon-nucleon interaction are used to extract the limits on the effective CP-odd four-fermion operators containing a strange quark field. This completes the study of the dim=5,6 CP-odd operators built from light-quark fields. The limits are very strong and comparable to those obtained previously for operators containing up and down flavors. We also analyze the shift of the axionic vacuum, θ eff , induced by four-fermion operators in the presence of the PQ mechanism and conclude that this gives subleading contributions to CP-odd observables as compared with the direct ones. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  14. Changing the Odds A North Carolina family's search to help those with TBI

    ... Issue Past Issues Cover Story: Traumatic Brain Injury Changing the Odds A North Carolina family's search to ... his mother, Carolyn. "But we had an unshakable belief that Phillip would have hope and a future." ...

  15. Burnout correlations for even- and odd-numbered peripheral rod clusters over low pressure range

    Akaho, E.H.K.

    1995-01-01

    Burnout data with low pressure Freon-113 for even- and odd- numbered peripheral rod clusters with relatively large spacings were used to derive equations in terms of dimensionless parameters suggested by Barnett. The equations which are for three different flow regimes for each rod geometry (even or odd) were found to predict burnout data with maximum RMS deviation being 3.8%. (author). 11 figs., 3 tabs., 15 refs

  16. Effect of the Pauli principle on the nonrotational states in odd-A deformed nuclei

    Bastrukov, S.I.; Nesterenko, V.O.; Soloviev, V.G.

    1982-01-01

    The commutation relations between the quasiparticle and phonon operators are used to obtain the equations allowing a correct accounting of the Pauli principle for the description of the states of odd-A deformed nuclei. It is shown, that if in the quasiparticle plus phonon component the Pauli principle is not violated or is slightly violated, then a relevant vibrational state may exist in an odd-A deformed nucleus

  17. Possibility of investigating P- and T-odd nuclear forces in atomic and molecular experiments

    Sushkov, O.P.; Flambaum, V.V.; Khriplovich, I.B.

    1984-01-01

    The P- and T-odd nucleon-nucleon potentials are found in the Kobayashi-Maskawa scheme. Analytic expressions for T-odd nuclear multipoles are obtained in the shell model. The electric dipole moments of the nuclei exceed that of the neutron by two to three orders of magnitude. The electric dipole moments are calculated for a number of atoms and molecules. The feasibility of experimental detection of T-invariance violation is discussed

  18. A semi-classical approach to signature splitting and signature inversion in odd–odd nuclei

    Kumar, Vinod; Kumar, Suresh; Kumar, Sushil; Hasan, Zafrul; Koranga, B.S.; Kumar, Deepak; Negi, D.; Angus, Lee

    2011-01-01

    The signature inversion observed in rotational bands belonging to high-j configurations of odd–odd deformed nuclei has been analyzed within the framework of an axially symmetric rotor plus two-particle model. The Coriolis and n–p interaction are considered the main cause of energy staggering. However, γ-triaxial deformation and the numbers of valence protons, N p , and neutrons, N n also contribute to the energy staggering between odd- and even-spin states. (author)

  19. Job strain and male fertility.

    Hjollund, Niels Henrik I; Bonde, Jens Peter E; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Giwercman, Aleksander; Olsen, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    Job strain, defined as high job demands and low job control, has not previously been explored as a possible determinant of male fertility. We collected prospective data on job strain among men, and describe the associations with semen quality and probability of conceiving a clinical pregnancy during a menstrual cycle. Danish couples (N = 399) who were trying to become pregnant for the first time were followed for up to 6 menstrual periods. All men collected semen samples, and a blood sample was drawn from both partners. Job demand and job control were measured by a self-administered questionnaire at entry, and in each cycle the participants recorded changes in job control or job demand during the previous 30 days. In adjusted analyses, no associations were found between any semen characteristic or sexual hormones and any job strain variable. The odds for pregnancy were not associated with job strain. Psychologic job strain encountered in normal jobs in Denmark does not seem to affect male reproductive function.

  20. Anomalous signature splitting of the πh11/2direct x νi13/2 band in A-160 odd-odd nuclei

    Yang Chunxiang; Zhou Hongyu

    2003-01-01

    Systematic features of anomalous signature splitting of the πh 11/2 direct x νi 13/2 band in A-160 odd-odd nuclei have been investigated. It is shown that the mechanism of anomalous signature splitting is similar to that of the normal signature splitting which is essentially caused by the Coriolis mixing of Ω=1/2 components into the nuclear wavefunction and the anomalous splitting in signature is mainly caused by the definition. The extensively observed anomalous signature splitting in this band might be an indication that the interaction between the h 11/2 proton and the i 13/2 neutron cannot be neglected. The new observation of high- and low-K bands based on the same πh 11/2 direct x νi 13/2 configuration in 164 Tm is also discussed

  1. Comparisons between shell-model calculations, seniority truncation, and quasiparticle approximations: Application to the odd Ni isotopes and odd N = 82 isotones

    Losano, L.; Dias, H.; Krmpotic, F.; Wildenthal, B.H.

    1988-01-01

    A detailed study of the results of correcting BCS approximation for the effects of particle-number projection and blocking has been carried out. A low-seniority shell-model approximation was used as the frame of reference for investigating the mixing of one- and three-quasiparticle states in odd-mass Ni isotopes and in odd-mass N = 82 isotones. We discuss the results obtained for the energy spectra and electromagnetic decay properties. Effects of seniority-five configurations on the low-lying states have also been studied through the comparison of the low-seniority shell-model results with those which arose from the corresponding full shell-model calculations

  2. Patterns of Family Formation in Response to Sex Ratio Variation.

    Schacht, Ryan; Kramer, Karen L

    2016-01-01

    The impact that unbalanced sex ratios have on health and societal outcomes is of mounting contemporary concern. However, it is increasingly unclear whether it is male- or female-biased sex ratios that are associated with family and social instability. From a socio-demographic perspective, male-biased sex ratios leave many men unable to find a mate, elevating competition among males, disrupting family formation and negatively affecting social stability. In contrast, from a mating-market perspective, males are expected to be less willing to marry and commit to a family when the sex ratio is female-biased and males are rare. Here we use U.S. data to evaluate predictions from these competing frameworks by testing the relationship between the adult sex ratio and measures of family formation. We find that when women are rare men are more likely to marry, be part of a family and be sexually committed to a single partner. Our results do not support claims that male-biased sex ratios lead to negative family outcomes due to a surplus of unmarried men. Rather, our results highlight the need to pay increased attention to female-biased sex ratios.

  3. The when and how of male circumcision and the risk of HIV

    Rasmussen, Dlama Nggida; Wejse, Christian; Larsen, Olav

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Male circumcision (MC) reduces the risk of HIV, and this risk reduction may be modified by socio-cultural factors such as the timing and method (medical and traditional) of circumcision. Understanding regional variations in circumcision practices and their relationship to HIV...... is crucial and can increase insight into the HIV epidemic in Africa. Methods: We used data from two retrospective HIV surveys conducted in Guinea- Bissau from 1993 to 1996 (1996 cohort) and from 2004 to 2007 (2006 cohort). Multivariate logistical models were used to investigate the relationships between HIV...... risk and circumcision status, timing, method of circumcision, and socio-demographic factors. Results: MC was protective against HIV infection in both cohorts, with adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of 0.28 (95% CI 0.12-0.66) and 0.30 (95% CI 0.09-0.93), respectively. We observed that post-pubertal (≥13 years...

  4. An intron 1 polymorphism in the cholecystokinin-A receptor gene associated with schizophrenia in males

    Koefoed, P; Hansen, T V O; Woldbye, D P D

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify whether a genetic variation (rs1800857; IVS1-5T>C) in the neuropeptide cholecystokinin-A receptor (CCKAR) gene is a risk factor in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. METhod: The variation was analysed in a case-control design comprising 508 patients with schizophrenia...... and 1619 control subjects. A possible functional impact of this variant on CCKAR protein synthesis through alterations in splicing was analysed in an exon-trapping assay. RESULTS: In males only, the risk variant, IVS1-5C, was associated with a significantly increased risk of schizophrenia. Carrying one...... risk allele was associated with an increased risk of 1.74 (Odds Ratio, OR) and homozygosity (CC) was associated with an OR of 3.19. The variation had no impact on protein synthesis of CCKAR. CONCLUSION: This is the first report associating the CCKAR gene variant with schizophrenia specifically in men...

  5. Efficient odd straight medium chain free fatty acid production by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.

    Wu, Hui; San, Ka-Yiu

    2014-11-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) can be used as precursors for the production of biofuels or chemicals. Different composition of FFAs will be useful for further modification of the biofuel/biochemical quality. Microbial biosynthesis of even chain FFAs can be achieved by introducing an acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene into E. coli. In this study, odd straight medium chain FFAs production was investigated by using metabolic engineered E. coli carrying acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE, Ricinus communis), propionyl-CoA synthase (Salmonella enterica), and β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III (four different sources) with supplement of extracellular propionate. By using these metabolically engineered E. coli, significant quantity of C13 and C15 odd straight-chain FFAs could be produced from glucose and propionate. The highest concentration of total odd straight chain FFAs attained was 1205 mg/L by the strain HWK201 (pXZ18, pBHE2), and 85% of the odd straight chain FFAs was C15. However, the highest percentage of odd straight chain FFAs was achieved by the strain HWK201 (pXZ18, pBHE3) of 83.2% at 48 h. This strategy was also applied successfully in strains carrying different TE, such as the medium length acyl-ACP thioesterase gene from Umbellularia californica. C11 and C13 became the major odd straight-chain FFAs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Time-odd mean fields in covariant density functional theory: Rotating systems

    Afanasjev, A. V.; Abusara, H.

    2010-01-01

    Time-odd mean fields (nuclear magnetism) and their impact on physical observables in rotating nuclei are studied in the framework of covariant density functional theory (CDFT). It is shown that they have profound effect on the dynamic and kinematic moments of inertia. Particle number, configuration, and rotational frequency dependencies of their impact on the moments of inertia have been analyzed in a systematic way. Nuclear magnetism can also considerably modify the band crossing features such as crossing frequencies and the properties of the kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia in the band crossing region. The impact of time-odd mean fields on the moments of inertia in the regions away from band crossing only weakly depends on the relativistic mean-field parametrization, reflecting good localization of the properties of time-odd mean fields in CDFT. The moments of inertia of normal-deformed nuclei considerably deviate from the rigid-body value. On the contrary, superdeformed and hyperdeformed nuclei have the moments of inertia which are close to rigid-body value. The structure of the currents in rotating frame, their microscopic origin, and the relations to the moments of inertia have been systematically analyzed. The phenomenon of signature separation in odd-odd nuclei, induced by time-odd mean fields, has been analyzed in detail.

  7. A model study of the effects of intermittent loss on odd nitrogen concentrations in the lower troposphere

    Stewart, R. W.; Hameed, S.; Matloff, G.

    1983-01-01

    A time-dependent box model of the lower troposphere which includes a description of photochemical and physical processes has been developed. This model has been applied to the calculation of nitric acid and NO(x)(NO + NO2) concentrations over a diurnal cycle which includes precipitation. Nitric acid concentrations and the HNO3/NO(x) ratio are found to be highly variable under the assumptions regarding the frequency, duration, and intensity of precipitation employed in this model. The chemistry of odd nitrogen compounds during the night is potentially important in establishing the level of nitric acid in the lower troposphere. These calculations also indicate that relatively large errors may occur when the continuity equation describing nitric acid variations is averaged over a diurnal cycle which includes precipitation. Interpretation of simultaneous measurements of HNO3 and NO(x) will require some knowledge of the history of the observed air mass and may require an improved understanding of nighttime odd nitrogen chemistry.

  8. Some considerations of the energy spectrum of odd-odd deformed nuclei; Quelqes considerations sur le spectre d'energie des noyaux impair-impair deformes

    Alceanu-G, Pinho de; Picard, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The odd-odd deformed nuclei are described as a rotator plus two odd nucleons moving in orbitals {omega}{sub p} and {omega}{sub n} of the deformed potential. We investigate the energies and wave functions of the various states of the ({omega}{sub p}, {omega}{sub n}) configurations by calculating and numerically diagonalizing the Hamiltonian matrix (with R.P.C. and residual interactions). The Gallagher-Mosskowski coupling rules ana the abnormal K equals 0 rotational bands are discussed. (authors) [French] Les noyaux impair-impairs deformes sont decrits comme un rotateur plus deux nucleons non apparies dans les orbites {omega}{sub p} et {omega}{sub n} du potentiel deforme. Nous etudions le spectre d'energie et les fonctions d'onde des configurations ({omega}{sub p}, {omega}{sub n}) en tenant compte de l'interaction particule-rotation et de la force residuelle entre les deux nucleons celibataires.

  9. Sex ratios of Mountain Plovers from egg production to fledging

    Margaret M. Riordan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Skewed sex ratios can have negative implications for population growth if they do not match a species' life history. A skewed tertiary sex ratio has been detected in a population of Mountain Plover (Charadrius montanus, a grassland shorebird experiencing population declines. To study the cause of the observed male skew, we examined three early life stages between egg and fledgling in eastern Colorado from 2010 to 2012. This allows us to distinguish between egg production and chick survival as an explanation for the observed skew. We examined the primary sex ratio in eggs produced and the secondary sex ratio in hatched chicks to see if the sex ratio bias occurs before hatching. We also determined the sex ratio at fledging to reveal sex-specific mortality of nestlings. The primary sex ratio was 1.01 (± 0.01 males per female. The secondary sex ratio consisted of 1.10 (± 0.02 males per female. The probability of a chick surviving to fledging differed between males (0.55 ± 0.13 and females (0.47 ± 0.15, but the precision of these survival estimates was low. Sex ratios in early life stages of the Mountain Plover do not explain the skewed sex ratio observed in adults in this breeding population.

  10. Do Workplace Sex Ratios Affect Partnership Formation and Dissolution?

    Svarer, Michael

    In this paper, I analyse the association between workplace sex ratios and partnership formation and dissolution. I find that the risk of dissolution increases with the fraction of coworkers of the opposite sex at both the female and male workplace. On the other hand, workplace sex ratios are not ......In this paper, I analyse the association between workplace sex ratios and partnership formation and dissolution. I find that the risk of dissolution increases with the fraction of coworkers of the opposite sex at both the female and male workplace. On the other hand, workplace sex ratios...

  11. Male pattern baldness (image)

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  12. [Male urinary incontinence

    Boer, T.A. de; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2008-01-01

    *Urinary incontinence in males is gaining increasingly more attention. *Male urinary incontinence can be classified as storage incontinence due to overactive bladder syndrome or stress incontinence due to urethral sphincter dysfunction. *Most patients benefit from the currently available treatment

  13. Self catheterization - male

    ... male; CIC - male Images Catheterization References Davis JE, Silverman MA. Urologic procedures. In: Roberts JR, ed. Roberts ... provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial ...

  14. Interaction of Sleep Duration and Sleep Quality on Hypertension Prevalence in Adult Chinese Males.

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Jia; Wu, Shouling; Chen, Ji; Hu, Dayi

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated conflicting results about the association of sleep duration and hypertension. Given the potential relationship between sleep quality and hypertension, this study aimed to investigate the interaction of self-reported sleep duration and sleep quality on hypertension prevalence in adult Chinese males. We undertook a cross-sectional analysis of 4144 male subjects. Sleep duration were measured by self-reported average sleep time during the past month. Sleep quality was evaluated using the standard Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure level ≥140/90 mm Hg or current antihypertensive treatment. The association between hypertension prevalence, sleep duration, and sleep quality was analyzed using logistic regression after adjusting for basic cardiovascular characteristics. Sleep duration shorter than 8 hours was found to be associated with increased hypertension, with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of 1.25 (95% CI, 1.03-1.52) for 7 hours, 1.41 (95% CI, 1.14-1.73) for 6 hours, and 2.38 (95% CI, 1.81-3.11) for quality as the reference, good, poor, and very poor sleep quality were associated with hypertension, with odds ratios of 1.20 (95% CI, 1.01-1.42), 1.67 (95% CI, 1.32-2.11), and 2.32 (95% CI, 1.67-3.21), respectively. More importantly, further investigation of the association of different combinations of sleep duration and quality in relation to hypertension indicated an additive interaction. There is an additive interaction of poor sleep quality and short sleep duration on hypertension prevalence. More comprehensive measurement of sleep should be performed in future studies.

  15. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and obesity in US males and females, age 8-15 years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2004.

    Byrd, H C M; Curtin, C; Anderson, S E

    2013-12-01

    Youth with ADHD may be at increased risk for obesity. Medications used to treat ADHD can affect weight. Few studies have investigated possible gender differences in associations between ADHD and obesity. Nationally representative of US youth aged 8-15 years. Height and weight were measured, and ADHD assessed by structured diagnostic interview and parent report. Associations between ADHD and obesity are reported for males and females to enable gender comparisons. To investigate how associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity differ by gender and medication use in a nationally representative sample of US youth in which height and weight were measured. Youth age 8-15 (n = 3050) studied in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2004. Obesity was defined as ≥95th percentile of US body mass index-for-age reference. ADHD was determined by asking parents if child had been diagnosed and using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children IV. Gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds of obesity for youth with ADHD (medicated and unmedicated) relative to youth without ADHD. Males with ADHD who were medicated had lower odds of obesity compared to males without ADHD (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.23-0.78). Unmedicated males with ADHD were as likely as males without ADHD to be obese (adjusted OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.43-2.42). The odds of obesity for females taking medication for ADHD did not differ statistically from those of females without ADHD (adjusted OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.52-2.81). Females with ADHD not taking medication had odds of obesity 1.54 times those of females without ADHD; however, the 95% CI (0.79-2.98) was wide and not statistically significant at α = 0.05. Associations between ADHD and obesity are influenced by treatment of ADHD with medication and may differ by gender. Youth with ADHD who are not

  16. Associations Between Sex Education and Contraceptive Use Among Heterosexually Active, Adolescent Males in the United States.

    Jaramillo, Nicole; Buhi, Eric R; Elder, John P; Corliss, Heather L

    2017-05-01

    This study examined associations between reports of receiving education on topics commonly included in sex education (e.g., abstinence only, comprehensive) prior to age 18 years and contraceptive use at the last sex among heterosexually active, 15- to 20-year-old males in the United States. Cross-sectional data from 539 males participating in the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth were analyzed. Bivariate and multinomial logistic regression analyses adjusting for confounding estimated associations between receipt of seven sex education topics (e.g., information on HIV/AIDS, how to say no to sex) and contraceptive use at the last sex (i.e., dual barrier and female-controlled effective methods, female-controlled effective method only, barrier method only, and no method). Nearly, all participants (99%) reported receiving sex education on at least one topic. Education on sexually transmitted diseases (94.7%) and HIV/AIDS (92.0%) were the most commonly reported topics received; education on where to get birth control was the least common (41.6%). Instruction about birth control methods (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32-6.87) and how to say no to sex (AOR = 3.39; CI = 1.33-8.64) were positively associated with dual contraception compared to no use. For each additional sex education topic respondents were exposed to, their odds of using dual methods compared to no method was 47% greater (AOR = 1.47; CI = 1.16-1.86). Exposure to a larger number of sex education topics is associated with young men's report of dual contraception use at the last sex. Comprehensive sex education, focusing on a range of topics, may be most effective at promoting safer sex among adolescent males. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Prostatitis and male infertility.

    Alshahrani, Saad; McGill, John; Agarwal, Ashok

    2013-11-01

    The prostate gland plays an important role in male reproduction. Inflammation of the prostate gland (prostatitis) is a common health problem affecting many young and middle aged men. Prostatitis is considered a correctable cause of male infertility, but the pathophysiology and appropriate treatment options of prostatitis in male infertility remain unclear. This literature review will focus on current data regarding prostatitis and its impact on male infertility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The rectilinear Steiner ratio

    PO de Wet

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The rectilinear Steiner ratio was shown to be 3/2 by Hwang [Hwang FK, 1976, On Steiner minimal trees with rectilinear distance, SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, 30, pp. 104– 114.]. We use continuity and introduce restricted point sets to obtain an alternative, short and self-contained proof of this result.

  19. The relationship between odd- and branched-chain fatty acids and microbial nucleic acid bases in rumen

    Keyuan Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aims to identify the relationship between odd- and branched-chain fatty acids (OBCFAs and microbial nucleic acid bases in the rumen, and to establish a model to accurately predict microbial protein flow by using OBCFA. Methods To develop the regression equations, data on the rumen contents of individual cows were obtained from 2 feeding experiments. In the first experiment, 3 rumen-fistulated dry dairy cows arranged in a 3×3 Latin square were fed diets of differing forage to concentration ratios (F:C. The second experiment consisted of 9 lactating Holstein dairy cows of similar body weights at the same stage of pregnancy. For each lactation stage, 3 cows with similar milk production were selected. The rumen contents were sampled at 4 time points of every two hours after morning feeding 6 h, and then to analyse the concentrations of OBCFA and microbial nucleic acid bases in the rumen samples. Results The ruminal bacteria nucleic acid bases were significantly influenced by feeding diets of differing forge to concentration ratios and lactation stages of dairy cows (p<0.05. The concentrations of OBCFAs, especially odd-chain fatty acids and C15:0 isomers, strongly correlated with the microbial nucleic acid bases in the rumen (p<0.05. The equations of ruminal microbial nucleic acid bases established by ruminal OBCFAs contents showed a good predictive capacity, as indicated by reasonably low standard errors and high R-squared values. Conclusion This finding suggests that the rumen OBCFA composition could be used as an internal marker of rumen microbial matter.

  20. Varicocele and male infertility

    Jensen, Christian Fuglesang S.; Østergren, Peter; Dupree, James M.

    2017-01-01

    The link between varicoceles and male infertility has been a matter of debate for more than half a century. Varicocele is considered the most common correctable cause of male infertility, but some men with varicoceles are able to father children, even without intervention. In addition, improvements...... if the male partner has a clinically palpable varicocele and affected semen parameters....

  1. ALGORITMA PARALEL ODD EVEN TRANSPOSITION PADA MODEL JARINGAN NON-LINIER

    Ernastuti .

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Odd-even-transposition adalah suatu algoritma paralel yang merupakan pengembangan dari algoritma sekuensial “bubble sort”. Algoritma odd-even-transposition ini didesain khusus untuk model jaringan array linier (homogen. Untuk n elemen data, kompleksitas waktu dari algoritma bubble sort adalah O(n2, sedangkan pada odd-even-transposition yang bekerja di atas n prosesor adalah (n. Ada peningkatan kecepatan waktu pada kinerja algoritma paralel ini sebesar n kali dibanding algoritma sekuensialnya. Hypercube dimensi k adalah model jaringan non-linier (non-homogen terdiri dari n = 2k prosesor, di mana setiap prosesor berderajat k. Model jaringan Fibonacci cube dan extended Lucas cube masing-masing merupakan model subjaringan hypercube dengan jumlah prosesor < 2k prosesor dan maksimum derajat prosesornya adalah k. Pada paper ini, diperlihatkan bagaimana algoritma odd-even-transposition dapat dijalankan juga pada model jaringan komputer cluster non-linier hypercube, Fibonacci cube, dan extended Lucas cube dengan kompleksitas waktu O(n. Odd-even-transposition is a parallel algorithm which is the development of sequential algorithm “bubble sort”. Odd-even transposition algorithm is specially designed for linear array network model (homogeneous. For n data elements, the time complexity of bubble sort algorithm is O(n2, while the odd-even-transposition that works with n processor is (n. There in an increase in the speed of time on the performance of this parallel algorithms for n times than its sequential algorithm. K-dimensional hypercube is a non-linear network model (non-homogeneous consists of n = 2k processors, where each processor has k degree . Network model of Fibonacci cube and extended Lucas cube are the hypercube sub-network model with the number of processors

  2. Syndemics and gender affirmation: HIV sexual risk in female-to-male trans masculine adults reporting sexual contact with cisgender males.

    Reisner, Sari L; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Pardee, Dana; Sevelius, Jae

    2016-10-01

    Female-to-male trans masculine adults who have sex with cisgender (non-transgender) males (TMSM) represent an understudied population in relation to HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk. This study examined the role of syndemic conditions and social gender affirmation processes (living full-time in one's identified gender) in potentiating sexual risk among TMSM adults in Massachusetts, US. Cross-sectional data were restricted to TMSM who reported lifetime sexual behaviour with a cisgender male (n = 173; mean age = 29.4, SD = 9.6; 18.5% people of colour; 93.1% non-heterosexual identity; 56.1% hormones/surgery). Sexual risk outcomes were: lifetime STI diagnoses, three or more sexual partners in the previous six months, and condomless anal/vaginal sex at last encounter with a cisgender male. Age- and survey mode-adjusted logistic regression models regressed sexual risk outcomes on the main effect of syndemics (six indicators summed: binge drinking, substance use, depression, anxiety, childhood abuse, intimate partner violence), followed by the interaction of syndemics and social gender affirmation. Syndemics were associated with increased odds of all sexual risk indicators (adjusted odds ratios [aORs] = 1.32-1.55; p < 0.0001). Social gender affirmation moderated the association between syndemics and condomless anal/vaginal sex at last encounter with a cisgender male (p < 0.0001). Syndemics were associated with sexual risk in TMSM who had socially affirmed their gender (aOR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.42-2.25; p < 0.001), but not among those TMSM who had not (aOR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.63-1.19; p = 0.37). Findings suggest that syndemic pathways to sexual risk are similar for TMSM who have socially gender affirmed as for cisgender MSM. Integration of syndemics and gender affirmation frameworks is recommended in interventions to address TMSM sexual risk. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Male pattern baldness and the risk of prostate cancer.

    Yassa, M; Saliou, M; De Rycke, Y; Hemery, C; Henni, M; Bachaud, J M; Thiounn, N; Cosset, J M; Giraud, P

    2011-08-01

    Androgens play a role in the development of both androgenic alopecia, commonly known as male pattern baldness, and prostate cancer. We set out to study if early-onset androgenic alopecia was associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer later in life. A total of 669 subjects (388 with a history of prostate cancer and 281 without) were enrolled in this study. All subjects were asked to score their balding pattern at ages 20, 30 and 40. Statistical comparison was subsequently done between both groups of patients. Our study revealed that patients with prostate cancer were twice as likely to have androgenic alopecia at age 20 [odds ratio (OR) 2.01, P = 0.0285]. The pattern of hair loss was not a predictive factor for the development of cancer. There was no association between early-onset alopecia and an earlier diagnosis of prostate cancer or with the development of more aggressive tumors. This study shows an association between early-onset androgenic alopecia and the development of prostate cancer. Whether this population can benefit from routine prostate cancer screening or systematic use of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors as primary prevention remains to be determined.

  4. Relationship between Occupational Stress and Gastric Disease in Male Workers.

    Lihm, Ho-Seob; Park, Sang-Hyun; Gong, Eun-Hee; Choi, Jong-Soon; Kim, Jung-Won

    2012-09-01

    Physical and mental health of workers is threatened due to various events and chronic occupational stress. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between occupational stress and gastric disease in male workers of the shipbuilding industry. Occupational stress measured among a total of 498 workers of a shipbuilding firm who visited the hospital for health examination using the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS)-short form, and the relationship between sociodemographic factors, health-related behaviors, occupational stress, and gastric disease, and the distribution of occupational stress by sociodemographic factors in the gastric disease group was examined. There was no significant association between gastric disease and total occupational stress score and its seven sub-factors. The analysis showed that risk of gastric disease was significantly higher in the Q1 group in which the stress caused by occupational discomfort among seven sub-factors was lowest than that in the Q4 group (odds ratio, 2.819; 95% confidence interval, 1.151 to 6.908). Analysis only on the gastric disease group showed that the stress score of laborers was higher in the four sub-factors than that of office workers (P occupational stress in the low-educated and laborers. It is recommended for future studies to confirm the causal relationship between occupational stress and gastric disease by large scale studies using a KOSS which appropriately reflects workplace culture.

  5. Relationship between Occupational Stress and Gastric Disease in Male Workers

    Lihm, Ho-Seob; Park, Sang-Hyun; Gong, Eun-Hee; Kim, Jung-Won

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical and mental health of workers is threatened due to various events and chronic occupational stress. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between occupational stress and gastric disease in male workers of the shipbuilding industry. Methods Occupational stress measured among a total of 498 workers of a shipbuilding firm who visited the hospital for health examination using the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS)-short form, and the relationship between sociodemographic factors, health-related behaviors, occupational stress, and gastric disease, and the distribution of occupational stress by sociodemographic factors in the gastric disease group was examined. Results There was no significant association between gastric disease and total occupational stress score and its seven sub-factors. The analysis showed that risk of gastric disease was significantly higher in the Q1 group in which the stress caused by occupational discomfort among seven sub-factors was lowest than that in the Q4 group (odds ratio, 2.819; 95% confidence interval, 1.151 to 6.908). Analysis only on the gastric disease group showed that the stress score of laborers was higher in the four sub-factors than that of office workers (P occupational stress in the low-educated and laborers. It is recommended for future studies to confirm the causal relationship between occupational stress and gastric disease by large scale studies using a KOSS which appropriately reflects workplace culture. PMID:23115706

  6. Parental influences on sperm banking attempts among adolescent males newly diagnosed with cancer.

    Klosky, James L; Flynn, Jessica S; Lehmann, Vicky; Russell, Kathryn M; Wang, Fang; Hardin, Robin N; Eddinger, Jasmine R; Zhang, Hui; Schenck, Lauren A-M; Schover, Leslie R

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the influence of parental sociodemographic, communication, and psychological factors on sperm collection attempts among at-risk adolescent males newly diagnosed with cancer. Prospective, single group, observational study design. Pediatric oncology centers. Parents (N = 144) of 122 newly diagnosed adolescent males at increased risk for infertility secondary to cancer therapy. Survey-based assessment of parent factors associated with adolescent collection attempts. Attempt of manual collection of sperm. Parental recommendation to bank sperm (odds ratio [OR] 3.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-11.76) and perceived self-efficacy to facilitate banking (OR 1.20; 95% CI 1.02-1.41) were associated with an increased likelihood of making a collection attempt. Parental recommendation to bank is a critical influence for sperm banking among adolescent males newly diagnosed with cancer. These findings highlight the importance of effective communication between parents, patients, and health-care teams when discussing preservation options. Parent perceptions of their ability to facilitate sperm banking at the time of diagnosis should also be targeted in future interventions. NCT01152268. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), the forerunner of alcohol dependence: a controlled study.

    Ghosh, Abhishek; Malhotra, Savita; Basu, Debasish

    2014-10-01

    There are common genetic, neurobiological and psycho-social substrates for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and substance dependence. ODD can be regarded as the mildest and earliest form of disruptive behavioral disorder and also represents the threshold of vulnerability for substance dependence. But it is a less researched area. The aim of this research was to study any possible association between childhood ODD and adult alcohol dependence. Data are presented from a non probability sample of 100 adult alcohol dependent subjects and equal number of biologically unrelated control subjects. Assessment was conducted by the instrument Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism for both the assessment of ODD and alcohol dependence. The results of this study demonstrated significant association between childhood ODD and adult alcohol dependence. The association remained significant even after the exclusion of the possible confounding effects of the presence of conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Our study should encourage further research in this area and is expected to open up an opportunity for preventive research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in milk fat--characteristic and health properties].

    Adamska, Agata; Rutkowska, Jarosława

    2014-08-22

    This review analyzes the current state of knowledge on odd- and branched-chain fatty acids present in milk fat. Special attention is devoted to the characteristic, synthesis in ruminants, factors affecting their content in milk fat and pro-health properties of these compounds. The group of odd- and branched-chain fatty acids includes mainly saturated fatty acids with one or more methyl branches in the iso or anteiso position. These fatty acids are largely derived from ruminal bacteria and they have been transferred to ruminant tissue (milk and meat). For that reason they have been used as biomarkers of rumen fermentation. Odd- and branched-chain fatty acids are exogenous products for humans, and therefore have specific properties. The results of research from recent decades show that odd- and branched-chain fatty acids have anti-cancer activity. Branched-chain fatty acids may reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis. Additionally, these compounds have a beneficial effect on proper tissue function and on functioning and development of the infant gut, whereas odd-chain fatty acids are considered as biomarkers of milk fat intake by humans. So far, not all the mechanisms of activity of these compounds are known thoroughly. They should be more carefully studied for application of their biological effects in prevention and treatment.

  9. Odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in milk fat – characteristic and health properties

    Agata Adamska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This review analyzes the current state of knowledge on odd- and branched-chain fatty acids present in milk fat. Special attention is devoted to the characteristic, synthesis in ruminants, factors affecting their content in milk fat and pro-health properties of these compounds. The group of odd- and branched-chain fatty acids includes mainly saturated fatty acids with one or more methyl branches in the iso or anteiso position. These fatty acids are largely derived from ruminal bacteria and they have been transferred to ruminant tissue (milk and meat. For that reason they have been used as biomarkers of rumen fermentation. Odd- and branched-chain fatty acids are exogenous products for humans, and therefore have specific properties. The results of research from recent decades show that odd- and branched-chain fatty acids have anti-cancer activity. Branched-chain fatty acids may reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis. Additionally, these compounds have a beneficial effect on proper tissue function and on functioning and development of the infant gut, whereas odd-chain fatty acids are considered as biomarkers of milk fat intake by humans. So far, not all the mechanisms of activity of these compounds are known thoroughly. They should be more carefully studied for application of their biological effects in prevention and treatment.

  10. Transformer ratio enhancement experiment

    Gai, W.; Power, J. G.; Kanareykin, A.; Neasheva, E.; Altmark, A.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, a multibunch scheme for efficient acceleration based on dielectric wakefield accelerator technology was outlined in J.G. Power, W. Gai, A. Kanareykin, X. Sun. PAC 2001 Proceedings, pp. 114-116, 2002. In this paper we present an experimental program for the design, development and demonstration of an Enhanced Transformer Ratio Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator (ETR-DWA). The principal goal is to increase the transformer ratio R, the parameter that characterizes the energy transfer efficiency from the accelerating structure to the accelerated electron beam. We present here an experimental design of a 13.625 GHz dielectric loaded accelerating structure, a laser multisplitter producing a ramped bunch train, and simulations of the bunch train parameters required. Experimental results of the accelerating structure bench testing and ramped pulsed train generation with the laser multisplitter are shown as well. Using beam dynamic simulations, we also obtain the focusing FODO lattice parameters

  11. Intake to Production Ratio

    Nazaroff, William; Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data are available to assess human exposure to thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. Information that relates human intake of a chemical to its production and use can help inform understanding of mechanisms and pathways that control exposure and support efforts...... to protect public health.OBJECTIVES: We introduce the intake-to-production ratio (IPR) as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical production results in human exposure.METHODS: The IPR was evaluated as the ratio of two terms: aggregate rate of chemical uptake in a human......(n-butyl) phthalate, 1,040 ppm for para-dichlorobenzene, 6,800 ppm for di(isobutyl) phthalate, 7,700 ppm for diethyl phthalate, and 8,000-24,000 ppm (range) for triclosan.CONCLUSION: The IPR is well suited as an aggregate metric of exposure intensity for characterizing population-level exposure to synthesized...

  12. A father effect explains sex-ratio bias.

    Malo, Aurelio F; Martinez-Pastor, Felipe; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; Garde, Julián; Ballou, Jonathan D; Lacy, Robert C

    2017-08-30

    Sex ratio allocation has important fitness consequences, and theory predicts that parents should adjust offspring sex ratio in cases where the fitness returns of producing male and female offspring vary. The ability of fathers to bias offspring sex ratios has traditionally been dismissed given the expectation of an equal proportion of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm (CBS) in ejaculates due to segregation of sex chromosomes at meiosis. This expectation has been recently refuted. Here we used Peromyscus leucopus to demonstrate that sex ratio is explained by an exclusive effect of the father, and suggest a likely mechanism by which male-driven sex-ratio bias is attained. We identified a male sperm morphological marker that is associated with the mechanism leading to sex ratio bias; differences among males in the sperm nucleus area (a proxy for the sex chromosome that the sperm contains) explain 22% variation in litter sex ratio. We further show the role played by the sperm nucleus area as a mediator in the relationship between individual genetic variation and sex-ratio bias. Fathers with high levels of genetic variation had ejaculates with a higher proportion of sperm with small nuclei area. This, in turn, led to siring a higher proportion of sons (25% increase in sons per 0.1 decrease in the inbreeding coefficient). Our results reveal a plausible mechanism underlying unexplored male-driven sex-ratio biases. We also discuss why this pattern of paternal bias can be adaptive. This research puts to rest the idea that father contribution to sex ratio variation should be disregarded in vertebrates, and will stimulate research on evolutionary constraints to sex ratios-for example, whether fathers and mothers have divergent, coinciding, or neutral sex allocation interests. Finally, these results offer a potential explanation for those intriguing cases in which there are sex ratio biases, such as in humans. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Beyond Body Mass Index: Using Anthropometric Measures and Body Composition Indicators to Assess Odds of an Endometriosis Diagnosis.

    Backonja, Uba; Hediger, Mary L; Chen, Zhen; Lauver, Diane R; Sun, Liping; Peterson, C Matthew; Buck Louis, Germaine M

    2017-09-01

    Body mass index (BMI) and endometriosis have been inversely associated. To address gaps in this research, we examined associations among body composition, endometriosis, and physical activity. Women from 14 clinical sites in the Salt Lake City, Utah and San Francisco, California areas and scheduled for laparoscopy/laparotomy were recruited during 2007-2009. Participants (N = 473) underwent standardized anthropometric assessments to estimate body composition before surgery. Using a cross-sectional design, odds of an endometriosis diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]; 95% confidence interval [CI]) were calculated for anthropometric and body composition measures (weight in kg; height in cm; mid upper arm, waist, hip, and chest circumferences in cm; subscapular, suprailiac, and triceps skinfold thicknesses in mm; arm muscle and fat areas in cm 2 ; centripetal fat, chest-to-waist, chest-to-hip, waist-to-hip, and waist-to-height ratios; arm fat index; and BMI in kg/m 2 ). Physical activity (metabolic equivalent of task-minutes/week) and sedentariness (average minutes sitting on a weekday) were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form. Measures were modeled continuously and in quartiles based on sample estimates. Adjusted models were controlled for age (years, continuous), site (Utah/California), smoking history (never, former, or current smoker), and income (below, within 180%, and above of the poverty line). Findings were standardized by dividing variables by their respective standard deviations. We used adjusted models to examine whether odds of an endometriosis diagnosis were moderated by physical activity or sedentariness. Inverse relationships were observed between endometriosis and standardized: weight (aOR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.57-0.88); subscapular skinfold thickness (aOR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.98); waist and hip circumferences (aOR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.64-0.98 and aOR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.61-0.94, respectively); total

  14. Correlation of Secondary Organic Aerosol with Odd Oxygen in Mexico City

    Herndon, Scott C.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Wood, Ezra C.; Kroll, Jesse H.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Jayne, John T.; Zavala, Miguel A.; Knighton, W. Berk; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Ulbrich, Ingrid M.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Seila, Robert; de Gouw, Joost A.; de Foy, B.; Fast, Jerome D.; Molina, Luisa T.; Kolb, C. E.; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2008-08-05

    Data collected from a mountain location within the Mexico City limits are used to demonstrate a correlation between secondary organic aerosol and odd-oxygen (O3 + NO2). Positive matrix factorization techniques are employed to separate organic aerosol components: hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol; oxidized-organic aerosol; and biomass burning organic aerosol. The measured hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol is correlated with urban CO (8±1) µg m-3 ppmv-1. The measured oxidized-organic aerosol is associated with photochemical oxidation products and correlates with odd-oxygen with an apparent slope of (70-120) µg m-3 ppmv-1. The dependence of the oxidized-organic aerosol to odd-oxygen correlation on the nature of the gas-phase hydrocarbon profile is discussed.

  15. SU(6) quadrupole phonon model for even and odd nuclei and the SU(3) limit

    Paar, V; Brant, S [Zagreb Univ. (Yugoslavia). Prirodoslovno Matematicki Fakultet; Canto, L F [Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Leander, G [Lund Inst. of Tech. (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematical Physics; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Vouk, M [Zagreb Univ. (Yugoslavia). Computing Centre SRCE

    1982-04-05

    Analogous to the equivalence between the SU(6) quadrupole-phonon model (TQM) and the interacting boson model (IBM), the equivalence is pointed out for odd systems between the SU(6) particle quadrupole-phonon coupling model (PTQM) and the interacting boson-fermion model (IBFM). PTQM is formulated starting from the Dyson representation for the odd system. Different aspects of the SU(3) limit of TQM and PTQM are studied; the quadrupole-phonon block structure of rotational bands in even and odd nuclei and analytic expressions based on the coherent state; signature effects generated in PTQM; electromagnetic properties and correction factors for PTQM; overlaps of the PTQM analogs of Nilsson states with Coriolis-coupled Nilsson states and the relation to the rotational model representation.

  16. Dynamical interplay between pairing and quadrupole correlations in odd-mass nuclei

    Kaneko, Kazunari; Takada, Kenjiro; Sakata, Fumihiko; Tazaki, Shigeru.

    1982-01-01

    Study of the dynamical interplay between pairing and quadrupole correlations in odd-mass nuclei has been developed. One of the purposes of this paper is to predict that the new collective excited states may exist system-atically in odd-mass nuclei. Other purpose is to discuss a new collective band structure on the top of a unique-parity one-quasiparticle state. Through the numerical calculations, it has been clarified that the dynamical mutual interplay between the pairing and the quadrupole degrees of freedom played an important role in the odd-mass transitional nuclei to bring about the new type of collective states. The results of calculation were compared with the experimental data. (Kato, T.)

  17. On supergroups with odd Clifford parameters and non-anticommutative supersymmetry

    Kuznetsova, Z.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate super groups with Grassmann parameters replaced by odd Clifford parameters. The connection with non-anti commutative supersymmetry is discussed. A Berezin-like calculus for odd Clifford variables is introduced. Fermionic covariant derivatives for super groups with odd Clifford variables are derived. Applications to supersymmetric quantum mechanics are made. Deformations of the original supersymmetric theories are encountered when the fermionic covariant derivatives do not obey the graded Leibniz property. The simplest non-trivial example is given by the N = 2 SQM with a real (1, 2, 1) multiplet and a cubic potential. The action is real. Depending on the overall sign ('Euclidean' or 'Lorentzian') of the deformation, a Bender-Boettcher pseudo-hermitian Hamiltonian is encountered when solving the equation of motion of the auxiliary field. A possible connection of our framework with the Drinfeld twist deformation of supersymmetry is pointed out. (author)

  18. Factors influencing elementary school teachers' ratings of ADHD and ODD behaviors.

    Stevens, J; Quittner, A L; Abikoff, H

    1998-12-01

    Examined factors that influence teachers' ratings of children with either attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). 105 teachers watched 2 videotapes--1 depicting a normal child and the other a child with either ADHD or ODD--and rated each child using 2 different questionnaires. Results indicated that teachers accurately rated the child on the ADHD versus ODD tape as having significantly more inattention and hyperactivity but significantly less oppositionality. However, effect sizes indicated the presence of a unidirectional, negative halo effect of oppositional behaviors on ratings of hyperactivity and inattention. Teachers appeared less biased in their judgments when using a well-operationalized rating scale. Finally, knowledge, education, and experience with children with ADHD generally had no effect on the accuracy of teachers' ratings.

  19. High-harmonic spectroscopy of oriented OCS molecules: emission of even and odd harmonics.

    Kraus, P M; Rupenyan, A; Wörner, H J

    2012-12-07

    We study the emission of even and odd high-harmonic orders from oriented OCS molecules. We use an intense, nonresonant femtosecond laser pulse superimposed with its phase-controlled second harmonic field to impulsively align and orient a dense sample of molecules from which we subsequently generate high-order harmonics. The even harmonics appear around the full revivals of the rotational dynamics. We demonstrate perfect coherent control over their intensity through the subcycle delay of the two-color fields. The odd harmonics are insensitive to the degree of orientation, but modulate with the degree of axis alignment, in agreement with calculated photorecombination dipole moments. We further compare the shape of the even and odd harmonic spectra with our calculations and determine the degree of orientation.

  20. Smoking prevalence and seizure control in Chinese males with epilepsy.

    Gao, Hui; Sander, Josemir W; Du, Xudong; Chen, Jiani; Zhu, Cairong; Zhou, Dong

    2017-08-01

    Smoking has a negative effect on most diseases, yet it is under-investigated in people with epilepsy; thus its role is not clear in the general population with epilepsy. We performed a retrospective pilot study on males with epilepsy to determine the smoking rate and its relationship with seizure control using univariate analysis to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and also used a multi-variate logistic regression model. The smoking rate in our sample of 278 individuals was 25.5%, which is lower than the general Chinese population smoking rate among males of 52.1%. We used two classifications: the first classified epilepsy as generalized, or by presumed topographic origin (temporal, frontal, parietal and occipital). The second classified the dominant seizure type of an individual as generalized tonic clonic seizure (GTCS), myoclonic seizure (MS), complex partial seizure (CPS), simple partial seizure (SPS), and secondary GTCS (sGTCS). The univariable analysis of satisfactory seizure control profile and smoking rate in both classifications showed a trend towards a beneficial effect of smoking although most were not statistically significant. Considering medication is an important confounding factor that would largely influence seizure control, we also conducted multi-variable analysis for both classifications with drug numbers and dosage. The result of our model also suggested that smoking is a protective factor. Our findings seem to suggest that smoking could have a potential role in seizure control although confounders need exploration particularly in view of the potential long term health effects. Replication in a much larger sample is needed as well as case control studies to elucidate this issue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Odd sensation induced by moving-phantom which triggers subconscious motor program.

    Fukui, Takao; Kimura, Toshitaka; Kadota, Koji; Shimojo, Shinsuke; Gomi, Hiroaki

    2009-06-03

    Our motor actions are sometimes not properly performed despite our having complete understanding of the environmental situation with a suitable action intention. In most cases, insufficient skill for motor control can explain the improper performance. A notable exception is the action of stepping onto a stopped escalator, which causes clumsy movements accompanied by an odd sensation. Previous studies have examined short-term sensorimotor adaptations to treadmills and moving sleds, but the relationship between the odd sensation and behavioral properties in a real stopped-escalator situation has never been examined. Understanding this unique action-perception linkage would help us to assess the brain function connecting automatic motor controls and the conscious awareness of action. Here we directly pose a question: Does the odd sensation emerge because of the unfamiliar motor behavior itself toward the irregular step-height of a stopped escalator or as a consequence of an automatic habitual motor program cued by the escalator itself. We compared the properties of motor behavior toward a stopped escalator (SE) with those toward moving escalator and toward a wooden stairs (WS) that mimicked the stopped escalator, and analyzed the subjective feeling of the odd sensation in the SE and WS conditions. The results show that moving escalator-specific motor actions emerged after participants had stepped onto the stopped escalator despite their full awareness that it was stopped, as if the motor behavior was guided by a "phantom" of a moving escalator. Additionally, statistical analysis reveals that postural forward sway that occurred after the stepping action is directly linked with the odd sensation. The results suggest a dissociation between conscious awareness and subconscious motor control: the former makes us perfectly aware of the current environmental situation, but the latter automatically emerges as a result of highly habituated visual input no matter how unsuitable

  2. Which Executive Functioning Deficits Are Associated with AD/HD, ODD/CD and Comorbid AD/HD+ODD/CD? (Attention Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder)(Oppositional Defiant Disorder)

    Oosterlaan, Jaap; Scheres, Anouk; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated (1) whether attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is associated with executive functioning (EF) deficits while controlling for oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD), (2) whether ODD/CD is associated with EF deficits while controlling for AD/HD, and (3) whether a combination of AD/HD and ODD/CD…

  3. Haemorrhagic SLE In A Young Male

    Rajagopal R

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematous (SLE is a systemic autoimmune disease that tends to occur in early adult life. The peak age of onset of the first symptom or sign in females is about 38 years and later in men, at about 44 years. Females outnumber men in this illness in a ratio of about 8 : 1. Cutaneous lesions in male have not been properly investigated and some studies in male with SLE have shown that the illness may present with atypical skin lesions. A case of SLE in a 20 year male who developed sudden onset of haemorrhagic vesiculobullous butterfly rash is described.

  4. The CP-odd nucleon interaction and the value of T-violation in nuclei

    Gudkov, V.P.

    1997-01-01

    The relations between the value of T- and P-violating correlations in neutron scattering and different models of CP violation are discussed. It is shown that a specific structure of CP-odd nucleon interactions gives the possibility to obtain the essential information about CP-odd interaction at the quark-gluon level from nuclear experimental data. The up-to-date estimations for CP-violating nucleon coupling constants show that each class of CP-violating models can give a measurable effect for the neutron scattering experiments. 57 refs

  5. T-odd correlations in radiative K+l3 decays and chiral perturbation theory

    Mueller, E.H.; Kubis, B.; Meissner, U.G.

    2006-01-01

    The charged kaon decay channel K + l3γ allows for studies of direct CP violation, possibly due to non-standard mechanisms, with the help of T-odd correlation variables. In order to be able to extract a CP-violating signal from experiment, it is necessary to understand all possible standard model phases that also produce T-odd asymmetries. We complement earlier studies by considering strong interaction phases in hadronic structure functions that appear at higher orders in chiral perturbation theory, and we compare our findings to other potential sources of asymmetries. (orig.)

  6. Low-spin identical bands in neighboring odd-A and even-even nuclei

    Baktash, C.; Winchell, D.F.; Garrett, J.D.; Smith, A.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive study of odd-A rotational bands in normally deformed rare-earth nuclei indicates that a large number of seniority-one configurations (21% for odd-Z nuclei) at low spin have moments of inertia nearly identical to that of the seniority-zero configuration of the neighboring even-even nucleus with one less nucleon. It is difficult to reconcile these results with conventional models of nuclear pair correlation, which predict variations of about 15% in the moments of inertia of configurations differing by one unit in seniority

  7. Continuous-variable quantum teleportation of even and odd coherent states through varied gain channels

    Li Ying; Zhang Jing; Zhang Jun-Xiang; Zhang Tian-Cai

    2006-01-01

    This paper has investigated quantum teleportation of even and odd coherent states in terms of the EPR entanglement states for continuous variables. It discusses the relationship between the fidelity and the entanglement of EPR states, which is characterized by the degree of squeezing and the gain of classical channels. It shows that the quality of teleporting quantum states also depends on the characteristics of the states themselves. The properties of teleporting even and odd coherent states at different intensities are investigated. The difference of teleporting two such kinds of quantum states are analysed based on the quantum distance function.

  8. Where is the Scissors Mode Strength in Odd-Mass Nuclei?

    Enders, J.; Huxel, N.; von Neumann-Cosel, P.; Richter, A.

    1997-01-01

    It is demonstrated by a fluctuation analysis based on the assumption of a Wigner distribution for the nuclear level spacings and of a Porter-Thomas distribution for the transition strengths that significant parts of the dipole strength excited in photon scattering experiments in heavy, deformed odd-mass nuclei are hidden in the background of the experimental spectra. With this additional strength, the heretofore claimed severe reduction of the B(M1) scissors mode strength in odd-mass nuclei compared to the one in neighboring even-even nuclei disappears. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  9. Second proton and neutron alignments in the doubly-odd nuclei 154,156Tb

    Hartley, D.J.; Allen, J.L.; Brown, T.B.; Kondev, F.G.; Pfohl, J.; Riley, M.A.; Fischer, S.M.; Janssens, R.V.; Nisius, D.T.; Fallon, P.; Ma, W.C.; Simpson, J.

    1999-01-01

    High-spin states in the doubly-odd nuclei 154,156 Tb have been populated in two separate experiments using the 36 S+ 124 Sn reaction at different beam energies (160 and 175 MeV). The yrast structures of both nuclei were extended to much higher spin (I≤48ℎ) than previously known and several quasiparticle alignments have been identified. These include the second neutron alignment and a clear delineation of the second proton crossing in 156 Tb. Systematics of these crossings for odd-Z nuclei and comparisons with results of cranked shell model calculations are discussed. thinsp copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  10. Low-spin identical bands in neighboring odd-A and even-even nuclei

    Baktash, C.; Winchell, D.F.; Garrett, J.D.; Smith, A.

    1993-01-01

    A comprehensive study of odd-A rotational bands in normally deformed rare-earth nuclei indicates that a large number of seniority-one configurations (21 % for odd-Z nuclei) at low spin have moments of inertia nearly identical to that of the seniority-zero configuration of the neighboring even-even nucleus with one less nucleon. It is difficult to reconcile these results with conventional models of nuclear pair correlation, which predict variations of about 15% in the moments of inertia of configurations differing by one unit in seniority. (orig.)

  11. Beliefs and attitudes of male and female adolescents and the risk of smoking behavior.

    Kasim, K; Al-Zalabani, A; Abd El-Moneim, E S; Abd El-Moneim, S

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent smoking relates to numerous risk factors, of which beliefs and attitudes toward smoking may play a role. The study aimed to investigate the association between beliefs and attitudes and the risk of adolescent smoking. In a school-based cross-sectional study, 3,400 students were recruited from 34 intermediate and secondary schools in Madinah City, Al Madinah Region, Saudi Arabia. Data about sociodemographics, smoking-related factors, and beliefs and attitudes toward smoking were collected using a valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence of smoking was estimated and the studied beliefs and attitudes were compared by smoking status and sex using appropriate statistical analyses including multivariate logistic regression. Of the 3,322 respondents, 33.02% (38.9% males and 26.4% females) were current smokers. Beliefs and attitudes toward smoking significantly differed between smokers and nonsmokers in the studied male and female students. The adjusted risk of smoking was significantly increased among female adolescents who believed that male smokers were more attractive [odds ratio (OR) = 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.6-2.9] and among male smokers who believed that female smokers are more attractive (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.2-2.2). The risk was also increased among all adolescents who believed that smoking lent comfort in social gatherings. Belief that smoking is harmful, however, was negatively associated with the risk of smoking, particularly among females (OR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.35-0.91). The study revealed a considerable high prevalence of smoking among male and female adolescents. Addressing the beliefs and knowledge about smoking during childhood is crucial in any antismoking program.

  12. Beliefs and attitudes of male and female adolescents and the risk of smoking behavior

    K Kasim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent smoking relates to numerous risk factors, of which beliefs and attitudes toward smoking may play a role. The study aimed to investigate the association between beliefs and attitudes and the risk of adolescent smoking. Materials and Methods: In a school-based cross-sectional study, 3,400 students were recruited from 34 intermediate and secondary schools in Madinah City, Al Madinah Region, Saudi Arabia. Data about sociodemographics, smoking-related factors, and beliefs and attitudes toward smoking were collected using a valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence of smoking was estimated and the studied beliefs and attitudes were compared by smoking status and sex using appropriate statistical analyses including multivariate logistic regression. Results: Of the 3,322 respondents, 33.02% (38.9% males and 26.4% females were current smokers. Beliefs and attitudes toward smoking significantly differed between smokers and nonsmokers in the studied male and female students. The adjusted risk of smoking was significantly increased among female adolescents who believed that male smokers were more attractive [odds ratio (OR = 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.6-2.9] and among male smokers who believed that female smokers are more attractive (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.2-2.2. The risk was also increased among all adolescents who believed that smoking lent comfort in social gatherings. Belief that smoking is harmful, however, was negatively associated with the risk of smoking, particularly among females (OR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.35-0.91. Conclusions: The study revealed a considerable high prevalence of smoking among male and female adolescents. Addressing the beliefs and knowledge about smoking during childhood is crucial in any antismoking program.

  13. The Reference Return Ratio

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new journal impact measure called The Reference Return Ratio (3R). Unlike the traditional Journal Impact Factor (JIF), which is based on calculations of publications and citations, the new measure is based on calculations of bibliographic investments (references) and returns...... (citations). A comparative study of the two measures shows a strong relationship between the 3R and the JIF. Yet, the 3R appears to correct for citation habits, citation dynamics, and composition of document types - problems that typically are raised against the JIF. In addition, contrary to traditional...

  14. Potential support ratios

    Kjærgaard, Søren; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    The ‘prospective potential support ratio’ has been proposed by researchers as a measure that accurately quantifies the burden of ageing, by identifying the fraction of a population that has passed a certain measure of longevity, for example, 17 years of life expectancy. Nevertheless......, the prospective potential support ratio usually focuses on the current mortality schedule, or period life expectancy. Instead, in this paper we look at the actual mortality experienced by cohorts in a population, using cohort life tables. We analyse differences between the two perspectives using mortality models...

  15. Sex ratio variation and sex determination in Urtica dioica

    Glawe, Grit Anja

    2006-01-01

    This thesis will first document on variation in progeny sex ratios among individual female plants of Urtica dioica at our field site in Meijendel (Chapter 2). Next, we show that there is also considerable sex ratio variation among male and female flowering shoots in 26 natural populations studied

  16. Human sex ratio at amniocentesis and at birth in Taiwan

    I-Wen Lee

    2012-12-01

    Conclusions: The results showed that sex ratio was already skewed toward male at midtrimester. Our data imply that artificial sex selection, if it were present, might have already emerged prior to the timing of amniocentesis. However, more large nationwide studies on sex ratios in Taiwan are warranted.

  17. Sex Dimorphism of the Heart Diameters and Cardiothoracic Ratios ...

    Objective: To determine gender associated differences in the cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) and heart diameters in a normal Nigerian population. Subject and Method: The normal heart diameters and cardiothoracic ratios were measured from posteroanterior (PA) chest radiographs of healthy 510 male and 508 female ...

  18. Sex ratio, gonadal development and fecundity of the grunt ...

    The sex ratio, gonadosomatic index, stages of gonadal development and fecundity of the grunt, Pomadasys jubelini in the New Calabar-Bonny River were investigated. P. jubelini had a sex ratio of 1: 2.1 (male to female). Gonadosomatic index ranged from 0.33 to 7.29% with a mean of 2.89+0.08%. High gonadosomatic ...

  19. Association between IRS1 Gene Polymorphism and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Case-Control Study in Korean Males

    Hae Jeong Park

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The insulin-like growth factor (IGF pathway is thought to play an important role in brain development. Altered levels of IGFs and their signaling regulators have been shown in autism spectrum disorder (ASD patients. In this study, we investigated whether coding region single-nucleotide polymorphisms (cSNPs of the insulin receptor substrates (IRS1 and IRS2, key mediators of the IGF pathway, were associated with ASD in Korean males. Two cSNPs (rs1801123 of IRS1, and rs4773092 of IRS2 were genotyped using direct sequencing in 180 male ASD patients and 147 male control subjects. A significant association between rs1801123 of IRS1 and ASD was shown in additive (p = 0.022, odds ratio (OR = 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.46–0.95 and dominant models (p = 0.013, OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.37–0.89. Allele frequency analysis also showed an association between rs1801123 and ASD (p = 0.022, OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.46–0.94. These results suggest that IRS1 may contribute to the susceptibility of ASD in Korean males.

  20. Why is digit ratio correlated to sports performance?

    Kim, Tae Beom; Kim, Khae Hawn

    2016-12-01

    Second to fourth digit ratio is the ratio of second to fourth digit length. It has been known that digit ratio is sexually dimorphic in humans, such that males tend to have lower digit ratio (longer fourth digits relative to second digits) than females. Digit ratio is thought to be a biomarker of the balance between fetal testosterone (FT) and fetal estrogen (FE) in a relatively narrow developmental window at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy. On the contrary, the relationships between digit ratio and levels of sex steroids in adults are not clear. Most correlational studies between digit ratio and adult sex steroids have revealed that this association is statistically not significant. However, for many years, a lot of researches showed negative relationships between digit ratio and sports performance such as rugby, surfing, rowing, sprinting, endurance, and hand grip strength. Here, we discuss possible mechanisms about the relationships between digit ratio and sports performance.

  1. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  2. The relationship between odd- and branched-chain fatty acids and microbial nucleic acid bases in rumen.

    Liu, Keyuan; Hao, Xiaoyan; Li, Yang; Luo, Guobin; Zhang, Yonggen; Xin, Hangshu

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to identify the relationship between odd- and branched-chain fatty acids (OBCFAs) and microbial nucleic acid bases in the rumen, and to establish a model to accurately predict microbial protein flow by using OBCFA. To develop the regression equations, data on the rumen contents of individual cows were obtained from 2 feeding experiments. In the first experiment, 3 rumen-fistulated dry dairy cows arranged in a 3×3 Latin square were fed diets of differing forage to concentration ratios (F:C). The second experiment consisted of 9 lactating Holstein dairy cows of similar body weights at the same stage of pregnancy. For each lactation stage, 3 cows with similar milk production were selected. The rumen contents were sampled at 4 time points of every two hours after morning feeding 6 h, and then to analyse the concentrations of OBCFA and microbial nucleic acid bases in the rumen samples. The ruminal bacteria nucleic acid bases were significantly influenced by feeding diets of differing forge to concentration ratios and lactation stages of dairy cows (pacids and C15:0 isomers, strongly correlated with the microbial nucleic acid bases in the rumen (pacid bases established by ruminal OBCFAs contents showed a good predictive capacity, as indicated by reasonably low standard errors and high R-squared values. This finding suggests that the rumen OBCFA composition could be used as an internal marker of rumen microbial matter.

  3. An improvement of an inequality of Ochem and Rao concerning odd perfect numbers

    Zelinsky, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Let $\\Omega(n)$ denote the total number of prime divisors of $n$ (counting multiplicity) and let $\\omega(n)$ denote the number of distinct prime divisors of $n$. Various inequalities have been proved relating $\\omega(N)$ and $\\Omega(N)$ when $N$ is an odd perfect number. We improve on these inequalities. In particular, we show that if $3 \

  4. Time reversal odd effects in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering

    Schlegel, M.

    2006-04-01

    In this thesis the semi-iclusive deep inelastic scattering l+h→l'+h+X is studied in the framework of the parton model. Especially sum rules are checked which contain transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions. Furthermore the influence of T-odd effects on the subleading order of a twist expansion are investigated. (HSI)

  5. Why the Faulhaber Polynomials Are Sums of Even or Odd Powers of (n + 1/2)

    Hersh, Reuben

    2012-01-01

    By extending Faulhaber's polynomial to negative values of n, the sum of the p'th powers of the first n integers is seen to be an even or odd polynomial in (n + 1/2) and therefore expressible in terms of the sum of the first n integers.

  6. Perspectives on the Aetiology of ODD and CD: A Grounded Theory Approach

    McFarland, Patrick; Sanders, James; Hagen, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD), are common reasons for youth to be seen for clinical intervention. The intent of this constructivist grounded theory study was to evaluate clinicians' perspectives on the aetiology of antisocial disorders. Six professionals from various professional…

  7. Learning in the Home and at School: How Working Class Children "Succeed against the Odds"

    Siraj-Blatchford, Iram

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents data collected in individual case studies that aimed to investigate children and their families who succeeded against the usual "odds" of disadvantage. Funded as an extension of EPPE 3-11 by the Cabinet Office for the Equalities Review, the study focused particularly closely upon the performance of disadvantaged…

  8. Stability and Change of ODD, CD and ADHD Diagnosis in Referred Preschool Children

    Bunte, Tessa L.; Schoemaker, Kim; Hessen, David J.; van der Heijden, P.G.M.; Matthys, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal studies have shown that preschool children's diagnosis of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Conduct Disorder (CD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are likely to persist into school age. However, limited attention has been paid to instability of diagnosis. The aim

  9. Empowerment Zone: Texas School Beats the Odds with a Shared Commitment to Student Learning

    Berkey, Timothy; Dow, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    The odds were stacked against the new elementary school from the beginning. In its favor, the school was a beautiful building with an established principal. Beyond that, anyone would predict that the first year would be tough. The staff consisted of new teachers and transfers from across the district. The students were reassigned from two…

  10. Wellness Factors Decrease the Odds of Drinking and Driving among College Students

    Lewis, Todd F.; Myers, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined holistic wellness factors and drinking and driving behaviors among undergraduate students. Two factors of the Indivisible Self Wellness Model, the Coping Self and the Physical Self, decreased the odds of engaging in drinking and driving behavior. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  11. Free energy on a cycle graph and trigonometric deformation of heat kernel traces on odd spheres

    Kan, Nahomi; Shiraishi, Kiyoshi

    2018-01-01

    We consider a possible ‘deformation’ of the trace of the heat kernel on odd dimensional spheres, motivated by the calculation of the free energy of a scalar field on a discretized circle. By using an expansion in terms of the modified Bessel functions, we obtain the values of the free energies after a suitable regularization.

  12. Odd number of coupled antiferromagnetic anisotropic Heisenberg chains: Spin wave theory

    Benyoussef, A.

    1996-10-01

    The effect of the chain and perpendicular anisotropies on the energy gap for odd number of coupled quantum spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic anisotropic Heisenberg chains is investigated using a spin wave theory. The energy gap opens above a critical anisotropic value. The known results of the isotropic case have been obtained. (author). 11 refs, 4 figs

  13. On the correspondence between the dynamics with odd and even brackets and generalized Nambu's mechanics

    Makhaldiani, N.; Voskresenskaya, O.

    1998-01-01

    We consider selected problems of Hamiltonization and integrability of a general dynamical system described by a system of ordinary differential equations; odd and even symplectic structures; a new approach to the linearization of non-linear systems by the extended Hamiltonian and Nambu's mechanics

  14. The numerology of gender: gendered perceptions of even and odd numbers.

    Wilkie, James E B; Bodenhausen, Galen V

    2015-01-01

    Do numbers have gender? Wilkie and Bodenhausen (2012) examined this issue in a series of experiments on perceived gender. They examined the perceived gender of baby faces and foreign names. Arbitrary numbers presented with these faces and names influenced their perceived gender. Specifically, odd numbers connoted masculinity, while even numbers connoted femininity. In two new studies (total N = 315), we further examined the gendering of numbers. The first study examined explicit ratings of 1-digit numbers. We confirmed that odd numbers seemed masculine while even numbers seemed feminine. Although both men and women showed this pattern, it was more pronounced among women. We also examined whether this pattern holds for automatic as well as deliberated reactions. Results of an Implicit Association Test showed that it did, but only among the women. The implicit and explicit patterns of numerical gender ascription were moderately correlated. The second study examined explicit perceptions of 2-digit numbers. Again, women viewed odd numbers as more masculine and less feminine than even numbers. However, men viewed 2-digit numbers as relatively masculine, regardless of whether they were even or odd. These results indicate that women and men impute gender to numbers in different ways and to different extents. We discuss possible implications for understanding how people relate to and are influenced by numbers in a variety of real-life contexts.

  15. Proportional Odds Logistic Regression - Effective Means of Dealing with Limited Uncertainty in Dichotomizing Clinical Outcomes

    Valenta, Zdeněk; Pitha, J.; Poledne, R.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 24 (2006), s. 4227-4234 ISSN 0277-6715 R&D Projects: GA MZd NA7512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : proportional odds logistic regression * dichotomized outcomes * uncertainty Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.737, year: 2006

  16. The numerology of gender: Gendered perceptions of even and odd numbers

    James eWilkie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Do numbers have gender? Wilkie and Bodenhausen (2012 examined this issue in a series of experiments on perceived gender. They examined the perceived gender of baby faces and foreign names. Arbitrary numbers presented with these faces and names influenced their perceived gender. Specifically, odd numbers connoted masculinity, while even numbers connoted femininity. In two new studies (total N = 315, we further examined the gendering of numbers. The first study examined explicit ratings of 1-digit numbers. We confirmed that odd numbers seemed masculine while even numbers seemed feminine. Although both men and women showed this pattern, it was more pronounced among women. We also examined whether this pattern holds for automatic as well as deliberated reactions. Results of an Implicit Association Test showed that it did, but only among the women. The implicit and explicit patterns of numerical gender ascription were moderately correlated. The second study examined explicit perceptions of 2-digit numbers. Again, women viewed odd numbers as more masculine and less feminine than even numbers. However, men viewed 2-digit numbers as relatively masculine, regardless of whether they were even or odd. These results indicate that women and men impute gender to numbers in different ways and to different extents. We discuss possible implications for understanding how people relate to and are influenced by numbers in a variety of real-life contexts.

  17. The CP-odd sector and $θ$ dynamics in holographic QCD

    Arean, Daniel; Iatrakis, Ioannis; Jarvinen, Matti; Kiritsis, Elias

    2017-01-01

    The holographic model of V-QCD is used to analyze the physics of QCD in the Veneziano large-N limit. An unprecedented analysis of the CP-odd physics is performed going beyond the level of effective field theories. The structure of holographic saddle-points at finite $\\theta$ is determined, as well

  18. Building and Solving Odd-One-Out Classification Problems: A Systematic Approach

    Ruiz, Philippe E.

    2011-01-01

    Classification problems ("find the odd-one-out") are frequently used as tests of inductive reasoning to evaluate human or animal intelligence. This paper introduces a systematic method for building the set of all possible classification problems, followed by a simple algorithm for solving the problems of the R-ASCM, a psychometric test derived…

  19. Symptom Prevalence of ADHD and ODD in a Pediatric Population in Argentina

    Michanie, Claudio; Kunst, Gabriel; Margulies, Daniel S.; Yakhkind, Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of DSM III-R symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in an outpatient pediatric population; to compare oppositional behavior and grade retention rates; and to establish local means and standard deviations (SD) for the ADHD rating scale. Method: 300…

  20. Re-appraisal of the P, T-odd interaction constant Wd in YbF ...

    ... Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 73; Issue 3. Re-appraisal of the , -odd interaction constant d in YbF: Relativistic configuration interaction approach. Malaya K Nayak Rajat K Chaudhuri. Volume 73 Issue 3 September 2009 ...

  1. The asymmetric rotator model applied to odd-mass iridium isotopes

    Piepenbring, R.

    1980-04-01

    The method of inversion of the eigenvalue problem previously developed for nuclei with axial symmetry is extended to asymmetric equilibrium shapes. This new approach of the asymmetric rotator model is applied to the odd-mass iridium isotopes. A satisfactory and coherent description of the observed energy spectra is obtained, especially for the lighter isotopes

  2. Comparing the odds of postpartum haemorrhage in planned home birth against planned hospital birth: results of an observational study of over 500,000 maternities in the UK

    Nove Andrea

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to compare the odds of postpartum haemorrhage among women who opt for home birth against the odds of postpartum haemorrhage for those who plan a hospital birth. It is an observational study involving secondary analysis of maternity records, using binary logistic regression modelling. The data relate to pregnancies that received maternity care from one of fifteen hospitals in the former North West Thames Regional Health Authority Area in England, and which resulted in a live or stillbirth in the years 1988–2000 inclusive, excluding ‘high-risk’ pregnancies, unplanned home births, pre-term births, elective Caesareans and medical inductions. Results Even after adjustment for known confounders such as parity, the odds of postpartum haemorrhage (≥1000ml of blood lost are significantly higher if a hospital birth is intended than if a home birth is intended (odds ratio 2.5, 95% confidence interval 1.7 to 3.8. The ‘home birth’ group included women who were transferred to hospital during labour or shortly after birth. Conclusions Women and their partners should be advised that the risk of PPH is higher among births planned to take place in hospital compared to births planned to take place at home, but that further research is needed to understand (a whether the same pattern applies to the more life-threatening categories of PPH, and (b why hospital birth is associated with increased odds of PPH. If it is due to the way in which labour is managed in hospital, changes should be made to practices which compromise the safety of labouring women.

  3. Comparing the odds of postpartum haemorrhage in planned home birth against planned hospital birth: results of an observational study of over 500,000 maternities in the UK.

    Nove, Andrea; Berrington, Ann; Matthews, Zoë

    2012-11-19

    The aim of this study is to compare the odds of postpartum haemorrhage among women who opt for home birth against the odds of postpartum haemorrhage for those who plan a hospital birth. It is an observational study involving secondary analysis of maternity records, using binary logistic regression modelling. The data relate to pregnancies that received maternity care from one of fifteen hospitals in the former North West Thames Regional Health Authority Area in England, and which resulted in a live or stillbirth in the years 1988-2000 inclusive, excluding 'high-risk' pregnancies, unplanned home births, pre-term births, elective Caesareans and medical inductions. Even after adjustment for known confounders such as parity, the odds of postpartum haemorrhage (≥1000ml of blood lost) are significantly higher if a hospital birth is intended than if a home birth is intended (odds ratio 2.5, 95% confidence interval 1.7 to 3.8). The 'home birth' group included women who were transferred to hospital during labour or shortly after birth. Women and their partners should be advised that the risk of PPH is higher among births planned to take place in hospital compared to births planned to take place at home, but that further research is needed to understand (a) whether the same pattern applies to the more life-threatening categories of PPH, and (b) why hospital birth is associated with increased odds of PPH. If it is due to the way in which labour is managed in hospital, changes should be made to practices which compromise the safety of labouring women.

  4. Odds of death after glioblastoma diagnosis in the United States by chemotherapeutic era

    Wachtel, Mitchell S; Yang, Shengping

    2014-01-01

    Bevacizumab (BZM) and temozolomide (TMZ) have been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of patients with glioblastoma. We sought evidence for the benefit of BZM in the general patient population at large. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results SEER database was queried for patients diagnosed with glioblastoma between 2000 and 2009, divided into a pre-TMZ era (January 2000–June 2003), a transitional era (July 2003–March 2005), a TMZ era (April 2005–October 2007), and a BZM-TMZ era (November 2007–December 2009). Binomial logit regression analyzed odds of death, taking into account age at diagnosis, tumor size, gender, race, marital status, radiotherapy, and extensive surgery. Compared with the pre-TMZ era, odds of death were decreased in the TMZ era by 12% (97.5% CI [confidence interval] 3–20%) 6 months after diagnosis and 36% (30–42%) a year after diagnosis; corresponding values for BZM-TMZ were 31% (24–37%) and 50% (45–55%). For era comparisons, decreases in odds of death were larger at 12 than 6 months; the opposite was true for extensive surgery and radiotherapy (P < 0.025, Wald χ 2 test, for each analysis). For both 6 and 12 month comparisons, odds of death in the BZM-TMZ era were lower than in the TMZ era (P < 0.025, Wald χ 2 test, for each analysis). The results provide evidence that TMZ positively impacted survival of glioblastoma patients and that the addition of BZM further improved survival, this lends support to the addition of BZM to the chemotherapeutic armamentarium. Evaluation of odds of death is an attractive alternative to Cox regression when proportional hazards assumptions are violated and follow-up is good

  5. Peak power ratio generator

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  6. Cannabis Use is Associated with Lower Odds of Prescription Opioid Analgesic Use Among HIV-Infected Individuals with Chronic Pain.

    Sohler, Nancy L; Starrels, Joanna L; Khalid, Laila; Bachhuber, Marcus A; Arnsten, Julia H; Nahvi, Shadi; Jost, John; Cunningham, Chinazo O

    2018-01-17

    Chronic pain is common in the United States and prescribed opioid analgesics use for noncancer pain has increased dramatically in the past two decades, possibly accounting for the current opioid addiction epidemic. Co-morbid drug use in those prescribed opioid analgesics is common, but there are few data on polysubstance use patterns. We explored patterns of use of cigarette, alcohol, and illicit drugs in HIV-infected people with chronic pain who were prescribed opioid analgesics. We conducted a secondary data analysis of screening interviews conducted as part of a parent randomized trial of financial incentives to improve HIV outcomes among drug users. In a convenience sample of people with HIV and chronic pain, we collected self-report data on demographic characteristics; pain; patterns of opioid analgesic use (both prescribed and illicit); cigarette, alcohol, and illicit drug use (including cannabis, heroin, and cocaine) within the past 30 days; and current treatment for drug use and HIV. Almost half of the sample of people with HIV and chronic pain reported current prescribed opioid analgesic use (N = 372, 47.1%). Illicit drug use was common (N = 505, 63.9%), and cannabis was the most commonly used illicit substance (N = 311, 39.4%). In multivariate analyses, only cannabis use was significantly associated with lower odds of prescribed opioid analgesic use (adjusted odds ratio = 0.57; 95% confidence interval: 0.38-0.87). Conclusions/Importance: Our data suggest that new medical cannabis legislation might reduce the need for opioid analgesics for pain management, which could help to address adverse events associated with opioid analgesic use.

  7. Adequate vitamin D status is associated with the reduced odds of prevalent diabetic retinopathy in African Americans and Caucasians.

    Millen, Amy E; Sahli, Michelle W; Nie, Jing; LaMonte, Michael J; Lutsey, Pamela L; Klein, Barbara E K; Mares, Julie A; Meyers, Kirstin J; Andrews, Christopher A; Klein, Ronald

    2016-09-01

    Vitamin D status has been hypothesized to protect against development of diabetic retinopathy via its anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic properties. Additionally, in vitro and in vivo studies suggest vitamin D favorably influences blood pressure and blood glucose control, strong risk factors for diabetic retinopathy. We examined the association between vitamin D status and prevalent diabetic retinopathy in participants with diabetes from a population-based cohort. Among participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study with diabetes at visit 3 (1993-1995), 1339 (906 Caucasians, 433 African Americans) had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin (25[OH]D) concentrations assessed at visit 2 (1989-1992) and nonmydriatic retinal photographs taken at visit 3. Dietary intake of vitamin D was assessed at visit 1 (1987-1989). Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for diabetic retinopathy by categories of season-adjusted 25(OH)D (diabetes. We further adjusted for HBA1c and hypertension to examine if 25(OH)D influenced diabetic retinopathy via its effects on either glycemic control or blood pressure. ORs (95 % CIs) for retinopathy, adjusted for race and duration, were 0.77 (0.45-1.32), 0.64 (0.37-1.10), and 0.39 (0.20-0.75), p for trend = 0.001, for participants with 25(OH)D of 30-retinopathy. 25(OH)D concentrations ≥75 nmol/L were associated with lower odds of any retinopathy assessed 3 years later. We speculate this may be due in part to vitamin D's influence on blood glucose control.

  8. Sexual Violence Among Male Inmates.

    Hilinski-Rosick, Carly M; Freiburger, Tina L

    2018-04-01

    Inmate misconduct has been a widely studied topic for many decades. General studies of misconduct have found that there are certain factors that contribute to misconduct, including age, gender, sentence length, and facility type. Few studies, however, have examined the factors predicting sexual offenses in a prison conduct. Although many studies of victims of sexual offenses in prison have been conducted, there is a lack of studies examining the perpetrators of prison sexual violence. The current study attempted to expand this body of literature by examining the correlates of sexual misconduct among a sample of male inmates incarcerated in the state of North Carolina during 2010. Deprivation and importation theories of inmate behavior were used to guide the analysis, and measures of deprivation and importation factors were both included in the analytical models. Findings indicate that Black, nonmarried, younger inmates, who had more previous incarcerations and had been incarcerated longer, had greater odds of having a sexual infraction. Additional findings, as well as policy implications, are discussed.

  9. India’s Distorted Sex Ratio: Dire Consequences for Girls

    Roberts, Lisa R.; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2017-01-01

    Female gender discrimination related to cultural preference for males is a common global problem, especially in Asian countries. Numerous laws intended to prevent discrimination on the basis of gender have been passed in India, yet the distorted female-to-male sex ratio seems to show worsening tendencies. Using detailed, two-year longitudinal chart abstraction data about delivery records of a private mission hospital in rural India, we explored if hospital birth ratio data differed in comparison to regional data, and what demographic and contextual variables may have influenced these outcomes. Using quantitative chart abstraction and qualitative contextual data, study results showed the female-to-male ratio was lower than the reported state ratio at birth. In the context of India’s patriarchal structure, with its strong son preference, women are under tremendous pressure or coerced to access community-based, sex-selective identification and female fetus abortion. Nurses may be key to turning the tide. PMID:28286369

  10. India's Distorted Sex Ratio: Dire Consequences for Girls.

    Roberts, Lisa R; Montgomery, Susanne B

    2016-01-01

    Female gender discrimination related to cultural preference for males is a common global problem, especially in Asian countries. Numerous laws intended to prevent discrimination on the basis of gender have been passed in India, yet the distorted female-to-male sex ratio seems to show worsening tendencies. Using detailed, two-year longitudinal chart abstraction data about delivery records of a private mission hospital in rural India, we explored if hospital birth ratio data differed in comparison to regional data, and what demographic and contextual variables may have influenced these outcomes. Using quantitative chart abstraction and qualitative contextual data, study results showed the female-to-male ratio was lower than the reported state ratio at birth. In the context of India's patriarchal structure, with its strong son preference, women are under tremendous pressure or coerced to access community-based, sex-selective identification and female fetus abortion. Nurses may be key to turning the tide.

  11. Radiative capture of neutrons by deuterons n+d → 3H+γ and P-odd nuclear forces

    Rekalo, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    P odd polarization phenomena in neutron radiative capture with deuterons, n+d → 3 H+γ have been studied. It is shown, that in a general case during collisions of arbitrarily polarized neutrons with a deuteron target characterized with vector and tensor polarizations, 18 different P odd asymmetries of gamma quanta angular distribution appear. P odd contribution to density matrix of gamma quanta produced in polarized neutron capture with nonpolarized deuterons is determined by 8 substantial structural functions and P odd dependence of photon Stokes parameters on deuteron tensor polarization is characterized in a general case with ten structure functions. The number of P odd correlations decreases when capturing slow neutrons

  12. Correction the Bias of Odds Ratio resulting from the Misclassification of Exposures in the Study of Environmental Risk Factors of Lung Cancer using Bayesian Methods

    Alireza Abadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Inability to measure exact exposure in epidemiological studies is a common problem in many studies, especially cross-sectional studies. Depending on the extent of misclassification, results may be affected. Existing methods for solving this problem require a lot of time and money and it is not practical for some of the exposures. Recently, new methods have been proposed in 1:1 matched case–control studies that have solved these problems to some extent. In the present study we have aimed to extend the existing Bayesian method to adjust for misclassification in matched case–control Studies with 1:2 matching. Methods: Here, the standard Dirichlet prior distribution for a multinomial model was extended to allow the data of exposure–disease (OR parameter to be imported into the model excluding other parameters. Information that exist in literature about association between exposure and disease were used as prior information about OR. In order to correct the misclassification Sensitivity Analysis was accomplished and the results were obtained under three Bayesian Methods. Results: The results of naïve Bayesian model were similar to the classic model. The second Bayesian model by employing prior information about the OR, was heavily affected by these information. The third proposed model provides maximum bias adjustment for the risk of heavy metals, smoking and drug abuse. This model showed that heavy metals are not an important risk factor although raw model (logistic regression Classic detected this exposure as an influencing factor on the incidence of lung cancer. Sensitivity analysis showed that third model is robust regarding to different levels of Sensitivity and Specificity. Conclusion: The present study showed that although in most of exposures the results of the second and third model were similar but the proposed model would be able to correct the misclassification to some extent.

  13. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  14. Male mating biology

    Howell, Paul I.; Knols, Bart G. J.

    2009-01-01

    Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings

  15. Male breast cancer

    Lautrup, Marianne D; Thorup, Signe S; Jensen, Vibeke

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Describe prognostic parameters of Danish male breast cancer patients (MBCP) diagnosed from 1980-2009. Determine all-cause mortality compared to the general male population and analyze survival/mortality compared with Danish female breast cancer patients (FBCP) in the same period...

  16. The estimated reduction in the odds of loss-of-control type crashes for sport utility vehicles equipped with electronic stability control.

    Green, Paul E; Woodrooffe, John

    2006-01-01

    Using data from the NASS General Estimates System (GES), the method of induced exposure was used to assess the effects of electronic stability control (ESC) on loss-of-control type crashes for sport utility vehicles. Sport utility vehicles were classified into crash types generally associated with loss of control and crash types most likely not associated with loss of control. Vehicles were then compared as to whether ESC technology was present or absent in the vehicles. A generalized additive model was fit to assess the effects of ESC, driver age, and driver gender on the odds of loss of control. In addition, the effects of ESC on roads that were not dry were compared to effects on roads that were dry. Overall, the estimated percentage reduction in the odds of a loss-of-control crash for sport utility vehicles equipped with ESC was 70.3%. Both genders and all age groups showed reduced odds of loss-of-control crashes, but there was no significant difference between males and females. With respect to driver age, the maximum percentage reduction of 73.6% occurred at age 27. The positive effects of ESC on roads that were not dry were significantly greater than on roads that were dry.

  17. Male depression in females?

    Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Yücel, Mete

    2010-02-01

    Scientific evidence for a male-typed depression ("male depression") is still limited, but mainly supports this concept with respect to single externalizing symptoms or symptom clusters. In particular, studies on non-clinical populations including males and females are lacking. The present study aims at assessing general well-being, the risk and the symptoms of male depression dependent on biological sex and gender-role orientation on instrumental (masculine) and expressive (feminine) personality traits in an unselected community sample of males and females. Students (518 males, 500 females) of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Germany, were asked to participate in a "stress study" and complete the following self-report questionnaires: the WHO-5 Well-being Index [Bech, P., 1998. Quality of Life in the Psychiatric Patient. Mosby-Wolfe, London], the Gotland Scale for Male Depression [Walinder, J., Rutz, W., 2001. Male depression and suicide. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 16 (suppl 2), 21-24] and the German Extended Personal Attribute Questionnaire [Runge, T.E., Frey, D., Gollwitzer, P.M., et al., 1981. Masculine (instrumental) and feminine (expressive) traits. A comparison between students in the United States and West Germany. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 12, 142-162]. General well-being of the students was significantly lower compared to population norms. Contrary to expectations, female students had a greater risk of male depression than male students (28.9% vs. 22.4%; p<0.05). Overall, prototypic depressive symptoms as well as externalizing symptoms were more pronounced in females. In the subgroup of those at risk for male depression, biological sex and kind of symptoms were unrelated. Principal component analyses revealed a similar symptom structure for males and females. Low scores on masculinity/instrumentality significantly predicted higher risk of male depression, independent of biological sex. The study sample is not

  18. Standardized binomial models for risk or prevalence ratios and differences.

    Richardson, David B; Kinlaw, Alan C; MacLehose, Richard F; Cole, Stephen R

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiologists often analyse binary outcomes in cohort and cross-sectional studies using multivariable logistic regression models, yielding estimates of adjusted odds ratios. It is widely known that the odds ratio closely approximates the risk or prevalence ratio when the outcome is rare, and it does not do so when the outcome is common. Consequently, investigators may decide to directly estimate the risk or prevalence ratio using a log binomial regression model. We describe the use of a marginal structural binomial regression model to estimate standardized risk or prevalence ratios and differences. We illustrate the proposed approach using data from a cohort study of coronary heart disease status in Evans County, Georgia, USA. The approach reduces problems with model convergence typical of log binomial regression by shifting all explanatory variables except the exposures of primary interest from the linear predictor of the outcome regression model to a model for the standardization weights. The approach also facilitates evaluation of departures from additivity in the joint effects of two exposures. Epidemiologists should consider reporting standardized risk or prevalence ratios and differences in cohort and cross-sectional studies. These are readily-obtained using the SAS, Stata and R statistical software packages. The proposed approach estimates the exposure effect in the total population. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  19. Demand for male contraception.

    Dorman, Emily; Bishai, David

    2012-10-01

    The biological basis for male contraception was established decades ago, but despite promising breakthroughs and the financial burden men increasingly bear due to better enforcement of child support policies, no viable alternative to the condom has been brought to market. Men who wish to control their fertility must rely on female compliance with contraceptives, barrier methods, vasectomy or abstinence. Over the last 10 years, the pharmaceutical industry has abandoned most of its investment in the field, leaving only nonprofit organisations and public entities pursuing male contraception. Leading explanations are uncertain forecasts of market demand pitted against the need for critical investments to demonstrate the safety of existing candidate products. This paper explores the developments and challenges in male contraception research. We produce preliminary estimates of potential market size for a safe and effective male contraceptive based on available data to estimate the potential market for a novel male method.

  20. Male depression and suicide.

    Wålinder, J; Rutzt, W

    2001-03-01

    Based on the experiences of the Gotland Study that education of general practitioners about depressive illness resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the number of female suicides, leaving the rate of male suicides almost unaffected, we propose the concept of a male depressive syndrome. This syndrome comprises a low stress tolerance, an acting-out behavior, a low impulse control, substance abuse and a hereditary loading of depressive illness, alcoholism and suicide. This notion is supported by data from The Amish study as well as the concept of van Praag of a stress-precipitated, cortisol-induced, serotonin-related and anxiety-driven depressive illness most often seen in males. In order to identify depressed males, the Gotland Male Depression Scale has been developed. Some preliminary data using the scale in a group of alcohol-dependant patients are presented.

  1. Male fertility and its association with occupational and mobile phone towers hazards: An analytic study

    Ola Faris Al-Quzwini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study is to determine the association of male fertility with the occupational and mobile phone towers hazards. Background: Male reproductive ability is likely to have multiple genetic and environmental determinants. A seminal fluid analysis is clinical marker of male reproductive potential. Aim: To find out whether environmental hazard such as mobile phone tower has an effect on male reproductive ability. Methods: Two hundred couples were enrolled, one hundred subfertile couples as a study group (n = 100, and one hundred fertile couples as a control group (n = 100. Environmental exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone towers and occupational state was assessed by standard questionnaire. Semen analysis was done for the subfertile males, because the fertile males (control group refused to give semen samples. Results: The occupational hazard expressed significant difference between the subfertile and the control groups (38% versus 12% (p < 0.05, with odds ratio (OR = 4.5 and 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 2.175–9.288, and also the environmental factor (mobile tower within fifty meters from their house showed significant difference (29% versus 12% (p < 0.05, with OR = 3; 95% CI: 1.426–6.290. SFA of the subfertile males was 40% abnormal versus 60% normal semen analysis. These abnormalities were classified into 35% oligozoospermia, 55% asthenospermia, and 10% teratozoospermia. Oligozoospermia was associated with more occupational hazard (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 0.569–5.527. Teratozoospermia was associated with more occupational hazard (OR = 5.23, 95% CI: 0.524–52.204, and with exposure to environmental hazard (OR = 2.6, 95% CI: 0.342–19.070, and associated with smoking hazard (OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 0.225–12.353. Conclusions: Male fertility represented by quality of semen might be affected by occupational and environmental exposures, so it seems that prevention of occupational and

  2. Mating competitiveness of sterile male Anopheles coluzzii in large cages.

    Maïga, Hamidou; Damiens, David; Niang, Abdoulaye; Sawadogo, Simon P; Fatherhaman, Omnia; Lees, Rosemary S; Roux, Olivier; Dabiré, Roch K; Ouédraogo, Georges A; Tripet, Fréderic; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2014-11-26

    Understanding the factors that account for male mating competitiveness is critical to the development of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Here, the effects of partial sterilization with 90 Gy of radiation on sexual competitiveness of Anopheles coluzzii allowed to mate in different ratios of sterile to untreated males have been assessed. Moreover, competitiveness was compared between males allowed one versus two days of contact with females. Sterile and untreated males four to six days of age were released in large cages (~1.75 sq m) with females of similar age at the following ratios of sterile males: untreated males: untreated virgin females: 100:100:100, 300:100:100, 500:100:100 (three replicates of each) and left for two days. Competitiveness was determined by assessing the egg hatch rate and the insemination rate, determined by dissecting recaptured females. An additional experiment was conducted with a ratio of 500:100:100 and a mating period of either one or two days. Two controls of 0:100:100 (untreated control) and 100:0:100 (sterile control) were used in each experiment. When males and females consort for two days with different ratios, a significant difference in insemination rate was observed between ratio treatments. The competitiveness index (C) of sterile males compared to controls was 0.53. The number of days of exposure to mates significantly increased the insemination rate, as did the increased number of males present in the untreated: sterile male ratio treatments, but the number of days of exposure did not have any effect on the hatch rate. The comparability of the hatch rates between experiments suggest that An. coluzzii mating competitiveness experiments in large cages could be run for one instead of two days, shortening the required length of the experiment. Sterilized males were half as competitive as untreated males, but an effective release ratio of at least five sterile for one untreated male has the potential to impact the fertility of

  3. The Liquidity Coverage Ratio: the need for further complementary ratios?

    Ojo, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers components of the Liquidity Coverage Ratio – as well as certain prevailing gaps which may necessitate the introduction of a complementary liquidity ratio. The definitions and objectives accorded to the Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) and Net Stable Funding Ratio (NSFR) highlight the focus which is accorded to time horizons for funding bank operations. A ratio which would focus on the rate of liquidity transformations and which could also serve as a complementary metric gi...

  4. Factors associated with the acceptability of male circumcision among men in Jamaica.

    Melonie M Walcott

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of male circumcision (MC among men in the western region of Jamaica, and to identify factors associated with acceptability of MC for self, infants (<1 year and older sons (1-17 years.A cross-sectional, interviewer-administered questionnaire survey of 549 men aged 19-54 years was conducted in the western region of Jamaica. The survey included questions about the acceptance of MC for self, infants, and sons before and after an information session about the benefits of MC in preventing HIV/STI transmission. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors that were associated with acceptability of MC. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated from the models.Fourteen percent of the men reported that they were circumcised. In the multivariable model, which adjusted for age, education, religion and income, there were increased odds of accepting MC for infants/sons among uncircumcised men who accepted MC for self (AOR=8.1; 95% CI = 4.1-15.9, believed they would experience more pleasure during sex if circumcised (AOR=4.0; 95% CI = 2.0-8.2, and reported having no concerns regarding MC (AOR=3.0; 95% CI = 1.8-4.8. Similarly, uncircumcised men who reported no concerns about MC or who believed that they would experience more pleasure during sex if circumcised were more likely to accept MC for self.Providing men with information about MC increased acceptance of MC for self, infants (<17 years and sons (1-17 years. Since targeted education on the benefits of male circumcision for prevention of HIV/STI can be effective in increasing acceptability of MC, health professionals should be trained, and willing to discuss MC with men in healthcare facilities and in the community.

  5. Male Body Practices.

    Lefkowich, Maya; Oliffe, John L; Hurd Clarke, Laura; Hannan-Leith, Madeline

    2017-03-01

    The pressure on boys and men to engage in extensive body practices (e.g., closely monitored eating and exercise habits) and achieve ideal male bodies has grown significantly over the past 20 years. Central to the depiction of ideal male bodies and body practices are both the pursuit and achievement of lean and well-defined muscles. The labels "pitches," "purchases," and "performativities" were inductively derived from the literature, and used to describe the multifaceted connections between masculinities, muscularity, and idealized male body practices. "Pitches" distil how popular culture posture norms of masculinity, and manly bodies and behaviors attainable and necessary. "Purchases" refer to men's diverse buy-in to dominant discourses about acceptable male bodies and practices. "Performativities" chronicle how men embody and navigate gender norms as they evaluate their own bodies, behaviors, and eating habits and those of their peers. Based on findings from the current scoping review, future research could benefit from fully linking masculinities with the drive for muscularity to address health and social risks associated with the pursuit of the idealized male body. In highlighting the plurality of masculinities and the complexity of men's diverse identities, health care providers can better reach and support men. Focusing on, and celebrating, a wider range of male bodies could help recenter dominant discourses about how and whose bodies and experiences are idealized. The current scoping review article offers an overview of how masculinities and muscularity have been linked to male body practices, and recommendations to advance this emergent field.

  6. Digit ratio predicts sense of direction in women.

    Xiaoqian J Chai

    Full Text Available The relative length of the second-to-fourth digits (2D:4D has been linked with prenatal androgen in humans. The 2D:4D is sexually dimorphic, with lower values in males than females, and appears to correlate with diverse measures of behavior. However, the relationship between digit ratio and cognition, and spatial cognition in particular, has produced mixed results. In the present study, we hypothesized that spatial tasks separating cue conditions that either favored female or male strategies would examine this structure-function correlation with greater precision. Previous work suggests that males are better in the use of directional cues than females. In the present study, participants learned a target location in a virtual landscape environment, in conditions that contained either all directional (i.e., distant or compass bearing cues, or all positional (i.e., local, small objects cues. After a short delay, participants navigated back to the target location from a novel starting location. Males had higher accuracy in initial search direction than females in environments with all directional cues. Lower digit ratio was correlated with higher accuracy of initial search direction in females in environments with all directional cues. Mental rotation scores did not correlate with digit ratio in either males or females. These results demonstrate for the first time that a sex difference in the use of directional cues, i.e., the sense of direction, is associated with more male-like digit ratio.

  7. Digit ratio predicts sense of direction in women.

    Chai, Xiaoqian J; Jacobs, Lucia F

    2012-01-01

    The relative length of the second-to-fourth digits (2D:4D) has been linked with prenatal androgen in humans. The 2D:4D is sexually dimorphic, with lower values in males than females, and appears to correlate with diverse measures of behavior. However, the relationship between digit ratio and cognition, and spatial cognition in particular, has produced mixed results. In the present study, we hypothesized that spatial tasks separating cue conditions that either favored female or male strategies would examine this structure-function correlation with greater precision. Previous work suggests that males are better in the use of directional cues than females. In the present study, participants learned a target location in a virtual landscape environment, in conditions that contained either all directional (i.e., distant or compass bearing) cues, or all positional (i.e., local, small objects) cues. After a short delay, participants navigated back to the target location from a novel starting location. Males had higher accuracy in initial search direction than females in environments with all directional cues. Lower digit ratio was correlated with higher accuracy of initial search direction in females in environments with all directional cues. Mental rotation scores did not correlate with digit ratio in either males or females. These results demonstrate for the first time that a sex difference in the use of directional cues, i.e., the sense of direction, is associated with more male-like digit ratio.

  8. Exploring Topsnut-Graphical Passwords by Twin Odd-elegant Trees

    Wang Hong-yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphical passwords are facing a good opportunity as 2-dimension codes are accepted by many people, since it has been applied in mobile devices, electronic equipments with touch screen, and so on. QR codes can be considered as a type of graphical passwords. Topsnut-graphical password differs from the existing graphical passwords, and has been investigated and developed. In this article, a new type of Topsnut-graphical passwords has been designed by technique of graph theory, called twin odd-elegant labelling. We make the twin odd-elegant graphs for one-key vs two or more locks (conversely, one-lock vs two or more keys. These Topsnut-GPWs show perfect matching characteristics of locks (TOE-lock-models and keys (TOE-key-models. We show examples for testing our methods which can be easily transformed into effective algorithms.

  9. CP-odd Higgs boson production in eγ collisions

    Sasaki, Ken; Uematsu, Tsuneo

    2018-06-01

    We investigate the CP-odd Higgs boson production via two-photon processes in eγ collisions. The CP-odd Higgs boson, which we denote as A0, is expected to appear in the Two-Higgs Doublet Models (2HDM) as a minimal extension of Higgs sector for which the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) is a special case. The scattering amplitude for eγ → eA0 is evaluated at the electroweak one-loop level. The dominant contribution comes from top-quark loops when A0 boson is rather light and tan ⁡ β is not large. There are no contributions from the W-boson and Z-boson loops nor the scalar top-quark (stop) loops. The differential cross section for the A0 production is analyzed.

  10. CP-even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the electron in muon decay

    Kuznetsov, A.

    1981-01-01

    A model of the weak interaction which contains intermediate vector bosons of the most general form and which admits CP violation in muon decay is used to calculate the CP-even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the μ-decay electrons with inclusion of radiative corrections. It is shown that these corrections are important only at the beginning of the spectrum, and their contribution reduces the observed effects of the transverse polarization. The transverse polarization grows appreciably at electron energies close to the maximum energy and at small emission angles. It is expedient to search for the CP-even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the electrons at energies E/sub e/ = 0.975E/sup max//sub e/ and emission angles theta = 25--35 0

  11. Wigner functions and tomograms of the photon-depleted even and odd coherent states

    Wang Jisuo; Meng Xiangguo

    2008-01-01

    Using the coherent state representation of Wigner operator and the technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of operators, this paper derives the Wigner functions for the photon-depleted even and odd coherent states (PDEOCSs). Moreover, in terms of the Wigner functions with respect to the complex parameter α the nonclassical properties of the PDEOCSs are discussed. The results show that the nonclassicality for the state |β, m) o (or |β, m) e ) is more pronounced when m is even (or odd). According to the marginal distributions of the Wigner functions, the physical meaning of the Wigner functions is given. Further, the tomograms of the PDEOCSs are calculated with the aid of newly introduced intermediate coordinate-momentum representation in quantum optics

  12. An investigation of the solar cycle response of odd-nitrogen in the thermosphere

    Rusch, David W.; Solomon, Stanley C.

    1992-01-01

    This annual report covers the first year of funding for the study of the solar cycle variations of odd-nitrogen (N((sup 2)D), N((sup 4)S), NO) in the Earth's thermosphere. The study uses the extensive data base generated by the Atmosphere Explorer (AE) satellites, and the Solar Mesosphere Explorer Satellite. The AE data are being used, for the first time, to define the solar variability effect on the odd-nitrogen species through analysis of the emissions at 520 nano-m from N((sup 2)D) and the emission from O(+)((sup 2)P). Additional AE neutral and ion density data are used to help define and quantify the physical processes controlling the variations. The results from the airglow study will be used in the next two years of this study to explain the solar cycle changes in NO measured by the Solar Mesosphere Explorer.

  13. The global distribution of thermospheric odd nitrogen for solstice conditions during solar cycle minimum

    Gerard, J.-C.; Roble, R. G.; Rusch, D. W.; Stewart, A. I.

    1984-01-01

    A two-dimensional model of odd nitrogen in the thermosphere and upper mesosphere is described. The global distributions of nitric oxide and atomic nitrogen are calculated for the solstice period for quiet and moderate magnetic activity during the solar minimum period. The effect of thermospheric transport by winds is investigated along with the importance of particle-induced ionization in the auroral zones. The results are compared with rocket and satellite measurements, and the sensitivity of the model to eddy diffusion and neutral winds is investigated. Downward fluxes of NO into the mesosphere are given, and their importance for stratospheric ozone is discussed. The results show that the summer-to-winter pole meridional circulation transports both NO and N(S-4) across the solar terminator into the polar night region where there is a downward vertical transport toward the mesosphere. The model shows that odd nitrogen densities at high winter latitudes are entirely controlled by particle precipitation and transport processes.

  14. Pairing correlations. II. Microscopic analysis of odd-even mass staggering in nuclei

    Duguet, T.; Bonche, P.; Heenen, P.-H.; Meyer, J.

    2002-01-01

    The odd-even mass staggering in nuclei is analyzed in the context of self-consistent mean-field calculations, for spherical as well as for deformed nuclei. For these nuclei, the respective merits of the energy differences Δ (3) and Δ (5) to extract both the pairing gap and the time-reversal symmetry breaking effect at the same time are extensively discussed. The usual mass formula Δ (3) is shown to contain additional mean-field contributions when realistic pairing is used in the calculation. A simple tool is proposed in order to remove the time-reversal symmetry breaking effects from Δ (5) . Extended comparisons with the odd-even mass staggering obtained in the zero-pairing limit (schematic model and self-consistent calculations) show the nonperturbative contribution of pairing correlations on this observable

  15. Food Insecurity Increases the Odds of Obesity Among Young Hispanic Children.

    Papas, Mia A; Trabulsi, Jillian C; Dahl, Alicia; Dominick, Gregory

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is a growing public health concern and is more prevalent among low-income and minority populations. Food insecurity may increase the odds of obesity in children. We investigated the association between food insecurity and obesity among low-income, Hispanic, mother-child dyads (n = 74). The United States Department of Agriculture 18-item Household Food Security Survey was used to determine food security status. The majority of households were food insecure (74 %) and one-third (30 %) of children were obese. Food insecurity increased the odds of childhood obesity (OR 10.2; 95 % CI 1.2, 85.5) with stronger associations found within households where mothers were also overweight/obese compared to normal weight (p-for interaction food insecurity and childhood obesity were high among this low-income Hispanic sample. Future studies should elucidate the mechanisms through which food insecurity impacts childhood obesity.

  16. Time reversal odd fragmentation functions in semi-inclusive deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering

    Mulders, P.J. [National Inst. for Nuclear Physics and High Energy Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Levelt, J. [Univ. of Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)

    1994-04-01

    In semi-inclusive scattering of polarized leptons from unpolarized hadrons, one can measure a time reversal odd structure function. It shows up as a sin({phi}) asymmetry of the produced hadrons. This asymmetry can be expressed as the product of a twist-three {open_quotes}hadron {r_arrow} quark{close_quotes} profile function and a time reversal odd twist-two {open_quotes}quark {r_arrow} hadron{close_quotes} fragmentation function. This fragmentation function can only be measured for nonzero transverse momenta of the produced hadron. Its appearance is a consequence of final state interactions between the produced hadron and the rest of the final state.

  17. Hyperfine structure of the odd parity level system in the terbium atom

    Stefanska, D; Furmann, B

    2017-01-01

    Within this work new experimental results concerning the hyperfine structure ( hfs ) in the terbium atom are presented, concerning the odd parity levels system, hitherto only scarcely investigated (apart from the ground term). hfs constants A and B for 113 levels were determined for the first time, and for another 16 levels, which already occurred in our earlier works, supplementary results were obtained; additionally, our earlier results for 93 levels were compiled. The hfs of the odd parity levels was investigated using the method of laser induced fluorescence in a hollow cathode discharge. The hfs of 165 spectral lines, where the levels in question were involved as the upper levels, was recorded. Literature values of hfs constants of the even-parity lower levels (including our own earlier results) greatly facilitated the present data evaluation. (paper)

  18. Nuclear quantum shape-phase transitions in odd-mass systems

    Quan, S.; Li, Z. P.; Vretenar, D.; Meng, J.

    2018-03-01

    Microscopic signatures of nuclear ground-state shape-phase transitions in odd-mass Eu isotopes are explored starting from excitation spectra and collective wave functions obtained by diagonalization of a core-quasiparticle coupling Hamiltonian based on energy density functionals. As functions of the physical control parameter—the number of nucleons—theoretical low-energy spectra, two-neutron separation energies, charge isotope shifts, spectroscopic quadrupole moments, and E 2 reduced transition matrix elements accurately reproduce available data and exhibit more-pronounced discontinuities at neutron number N =90 compared with the adjacent even-even Sm and Gd isotopes. The enhancement of the first-order quantum phase transition in odd-mass systems can be attributed to a shape polarization effect of the unpaired proton which, at the critical neutron number, starts predominantly coupling to Gd core nuclei that are characterized by larger quadrupole deformation and weaker proton pairing correlations compared with the corresponding Sm isotopes.

  19. CP-even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the electron in the muon decay

    Kuznetsov, A.V.

    1981-01-01

    In the most general weak interaction model with intermediate vector bosons, allowing CP breaking in the muon decay, CP- even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the μ-decay electrons is calculated taking into account the radiative corrections. It is shown that such corrections are essential only at the beginning of the spectrum reducing the observed transverse polarization effects. When the electron energy is close to its maximum and the emission angles are small, the transverse polarization considerably grows. Search for CP-even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the electrons should be carried out at energies Esub(e) approximately equal to O.975 Esub(e)sup(max) and emission angles THETA approximately equal to 25+35 deg [ru

  20. Alcohol and Exercise Affect Declining Kidney Function in Healthy Males Regardless of Obesity: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Kanda, Eiichiro; Muneyuki, Toshitaka; Suwa, Kaname; Nakajima, Kei

    2015-01-01

    Although lifestyle is associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases, there has been no sufficient evidence of lifestyles on incident chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this prospective cohort study is to investigate the effects of lifestyles on kidney function in healthy people. A total of 7473 healthy people were enrolled in this Saitama Cardiometabolic Disease and Organ Impairment Study, Japan. Data on alcohol consumption, exercise frequency, and sleep duration were collected. The outcome event was incident CKD or decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by >25% in 3 years. Subjects were classified into four groups according to body mass index and gender. Mean ± standard deviation of age was 38.8±10.5 years; eGFR, 78.1±15.2 ml/min/1.73 m2. In the male groups, multivariate logistic regression models showed that the outcome events were associated with a small amount of alcohol consumed (20 to 140 g of alcohol/week) (ref. more than 140 g of alcohol/week); non-obese male, adjusted odds ratio 1.366 (95% confidence interval, 1.086, 1.718); obese male (body mass index ≥25), 1.634 (1.160, 2.302); and with frequent exercise (twice a week or more) (ref. no exercise); non-obese male, 1.417 (1.144, 1.754); obese male, 1.842 (1.317, 2.577). Sleep duration was not associated with the outcome events. These findings suggest that, regardless of obesity, a small amount of alcohol consumed and high exercise frequency were associated with the increased risk of loss of kidney function in the male groups.