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Sample records for male-female dating cohabitating

  1. Tehran metropolis and the emergence of symptoms of new form of the Male-Female Relationships; The study of the fields, processes and consequences of cohabitation

    M. Golchin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, we can see a new form of relationships between males and females, called non-marital cohabitation (concubinage that is known as”white marriage” in Journalistic literature and Speaking Some youth . It seems that such a new lifestyle emerges from most of the large metropolitan areas. In this article we have tried to obtain more understanding about the effective reasons and backgrounds in the couple’s decision, who attempted to form such a relationship (non-marital cohabitation, the process that is involved in, and finally the consequences that they have actually experienced or confronted. Using the free and depth-interview techniques as well as grounded theory, data were gathered and analyzed from 16 cohabited couples. After analyzing the research findings, categories that are consequences of this lifestyle are as follow: “reduction in family’s function and importance”, “migration”, “Tehran city without supervision” as a contextual conditions, “Negative attitudes to customary marriage”, “feminist beliefs” and  “lack of faith and adherence to religious values” as a Caused conditions, “Involved in romance”, “become familiar with cohabitation” as an interferer conditions,  “cohabitation as an equal relationship”, “cohabitation as a relationship with an open end”, “satisfactory experience of this lifestyle”, “internal obstacles relations”, “external limitation of the relationship” as an interactions, “endure the disadvantage of relation’s termination” and "marriage or promise to marry in order to overcome the external obstacles". Finally, the concept of " cohabitation fleeting relationship of modern conflict with traditional values in the context of the Tehran metropolis" was chosen as a core category".

  2. Risk factors for dating violence versus cohabiting violence: Results from the third generation of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development.

    Theobald, Delphine; Farrington, David P; Ttofi, Maria M; Crago, Rebecca V

    2016-10-01

    Dating violence is an important problem. Evidence suggests that women are more likely to perpetrate dating violence. The present study investigates the prevalence of dating violence compared with cohabiting violence in a community sample of men and women and assesses to what extent child and adolescent explanatory factors predict this behaviour. A secondary aim is to construct a risk score for dating violence based on the strongest risk factors. The Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development is a prospective longitudinal survey of 411 men (generation 2) born in the 1950s in an inner London area. Most recently, their sons and daughters [generation 3 (G3)] have been interviewed regarding their perpetration of dating and cohabiting violence, utilising the Conflict Tactics Scale. Risk factors were measured in four domains (family, parental, socio-economic and individual). A larger proportion of women than men perpetrated at least one act of violence towards their dating partner (36.4 vs 21.7%). There was a similar pattern for cohabiting violence (39.6 vs 21.4%). A number of risk factors were significantly associated with the perpetration of dating violence. For G3 women, these included a convicted father, parental conflict, large family size and poor housing. For G3 men, these included having a young father or mother, separation from the father before age 16, early school leaving, frequent truancy and having a criminal conviction. A risk score for both men and women, based on 10 risk factors, significantly predicted dating violence. Risk factors from four domains were important in predicting dating violence, but they were different for G3 men and women. It may be important to consider different risk factors and different risk assessments for male compared with female perpetration of dating violence. Early identification and interventions are recommended. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Cohabitation and Child Wellbeing.

    Manning, Wendy D

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, writes Wendy Manning, cohabitation has become a central part of the family landscape in the United States-so much so that by age 12, 40 percent of American children will have spent at least part of their lives in a cohabiting household. Although many children are born to cohabiting parents, and cohabiting families come in other forms as well, the most common cohabiting arrangement is a biological mother and a male partner. Cohabitation, Manning notes, is associated with several factors that have the potential to reduce children's wellbeing. Cohabiting families are more likely than married families to be poor, and poverty harms children in many ways. Cohabiting parents also tend to have less formal education-a key indicator of both economic and social resources-than married parents do. And cohabiting parent families don't have the same legal protections that married parent families have. Most importantly, cohabitation is often a marker of family instability, and family instability is strongly associated with poorer outcomes for children. Children born to cohabiting parents see their parents break up more often than do children born to married parents. In this way, being born into a cohabiting family sets the stage for later instability, and children who are born to cohabiting parents appear to experience enduring deficits of psychosocial wellbeing. On the other hand, stable cohabiting families with two biological parents seem to offer many of the same health, cognitive, and behavioral benefits that stable married biological parent families provide. Turning to stepfamilies, cohabitation's effects are tied to a child's age. Among young children, living in a cohabiting stepfamily rather than a married stepfamily is associated with more negative indicators of child wellbeing, but this is not so among adolescents. Thus the link between parental cohabitation and child wellbeing depends on both the type of cohabiting parent family and the age of the

  4. Risk, cohabitation and marriage

    Rao Sahib, P.; Gu, X.

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces imperfect information,learning,and risk aversion in a two sided matching model.The modelprovides a theoreticalframework for the com- monly occurring phenomenon of cohabitation followed by marriage,and is con- sistent with empirical findings on these institutions.The paper has

  5. Male/Female Salary Disparity for Professors of Educational Administration.

    Pounder, Diana G.

    The earnings gap between male and female workers across all occupational groups has been well documented; full-time women workers earn, on average, approximately 65 percent of men's salaries. Although male/female salary disparity is largest across occupational groups, salary disparity within occupational groups still prevails. For example, the…

  6. The Hispanic family and male-female relationships: an overview.

    Galanti, Geri-Ann

    2003-07-01

    An overview of the traditional Hispanic family and male-female relationships is presented, with an emphasis on issues relevant to providing health care to Hispanic populations. Aspects of the family presented include visitation, decision making, self-care, and emotional problems. Male-female relationships stem from traditional gender roles. Machismo and patriarchal authority characterize the male role; the roles of a traditional woman are housewife and mother. Women are expected to defer to the authority of their husbands. The negative aspects of machismo can result in heavy drinking and the pursuit of high-risk activities, leading to domestic violence and HIV/AIDS. These health risks are exacerbated by such cultural factors as male dominance, female modesty, and the practice of keeping problems within the family. The importance of personalism in patient-provider encounters is emphasized.

  7. Marriage and separation risks among German cohabiters: Differences between types of cohabiter.

    Hiekel, Nicole; Liefbroer, Aart C; Poortman, Anne-Rigt

    2015-01-01

    We propose a typology of different meanings of cohabitation that combines cohabiters' intentions to marry with a general attitude toward marriage, using competing risk analyses to examine whether some cohabiters are more prone than others to marry or to separate. Using data (N = 1,258) from four waves of the German Family Panel (PAIRFAM) and a supplementary study (DEMODIFF), we compared eastern and western German cohabiters of the birth cohorts 1971-73 and 1981-83. Western Germans more frequently view cohabitation as a step in the marriage process, whereas eastern Germans more often cohabit as an alternative to marriage. Taking into account marital attitudes reveals that cohabiters without marriage plans differ from those with plans in their relationship careers, and also shows that cohabiters who plan to marry despite holding a less favourable view of marriage are less likely to realize their plans than cohabiters whose intentions and attitudes are more congruent.

  8. Cohabiting with the harmonic pollution

    Garcia C, Antonio A

    1999-01-01

    The Norm IEEE 519 tries of the permissible limits of harmonic distortion in the point of common joining between the energy supplier company and the industry. However fulfilling these limits of distortion doesn't guarantee that the problem for the company has finished, on the contrary will have to counteract the effects created by the harmonic distortion toward the interior of its electric system and to cohabit with this distortion

  9. Cohabitation: parents following in their children's footsteps?

    McClain, Lauren Rinelli

    2011-01-01

    As cohabitation has risen dramatically in the past few decades among adults of all ages, it is possible that middle-and older-aged parents are “learning” cohabitation from their young adult children. The present study uses this theory as a guiding framework to determine if parents are more likely to cohabit themselves following the start of a young adult child’s cohabitation. Using three waves of the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 275), results show that union formation patterns are influenced by young adult children among parents who are single at their child’s 18th birthday. Parents are less likely to marry than remain single and are much more likely to cohabit than marry if they have a young adult child who cohabits. These results show support for the hypotheses.

  10. Cohabitation, nonmarital childbearing, and the marriage process

    Kelly Musick

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Past work on the relationship between cohabitation and childbearing shows that cohabitation increases fertility compared to being single, and does so more for intended than unintended births. Most work in this area, however, does not address concerns that fertility and union formation are joint processes, and that failing to account for the joint nature of these decisions can bias estimates of cohabitation on childbearing. For example, cohabitors may be more likely to plan births because they see cohabitation as an acceptable context for childbearing; alternatively, they may be more likely to marry than their single counterparts. In this paper, I use a modeling approach that accounts for the stable, unobserved characteristics of women common to nonmarital fertility and union formation as a way of estimating the effect of cohabitation on nonmarital fertility net of cohabitors' potentially greater likelihood of marriage. I distinguish between intended and unintended fertility to better understand variation in the perceived acceptability of cohabitation as a setting for childbearing. I find that accounting for unmeasured heterogeneity reduces the estimated effect of cohabitation on intended childbearing outside of marriage by up to 50%, depending on race/ethnicity. These results speak to cohabitation's evolving place in the family system, suggesting that cohabitation may be a step on the way to marriage for some, but an end in itself for others.

  11. Reassessing Differences in Work and Income in Cohabitation and Marriage

    Kuperberg, Arielle

    2012-01-01

    Are cohabiters different than married couples who cohabited before marriage? This study used the 2002 wave of the National Survey of Families and Households to determine how work behavior might differ for 4 relationship types: (a) cohabiters with uncertain marriage plans, (b) cohabiters with definite marriage plans, (c) premarital cohabiters who…

  12. The Stability of Same-Sex Cohabitation, Different-Sex Cohabitation, and Marriage

    Lau, Charles Q.

    2012-01-01

    This study contributes to the emerging demographic literature on same-sex couples by comparing the level and correlates of union stability among 4 types of couples: (a) male same-sex cohabitation, (b) female same-sex cohabitation, (c) different-sex cohabitation, and (d) different-sex marriage. The author analyzed data from 2 British birth cohort…

  13. Attitudes about Male-Female Relations among Black Adolescents.

    Rubin, Roger H.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the relationship of family structure, peer group affiliation, social class, and sex with five dependent variables concerned with attitudes toward dating values, marriage, romanticism, premarital pregnancy, and premarital sexual permissiveness among 85 rural, Black adolescent males and females. Findings suggest general community norms and…

  14. Intercultural Communication and Active Cohabitation

    Vasile Burtea

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis from which we initiate our approach is that the socio-cultural identity of the Romanian nation is configured by involving all participants to the act of coexistence, the Romany people having in turn a significant participation. In order to highlight this contribution, we propose in this paper operationalizing the concept of active cohabitation and the presentation of some Romany personalities, who have added value through their national culture. If, in our view, multiculturalism is none other but simply living together in the same area of two or more ethnic groups, two or more cultures, or two or more religions, between which there are established and produced relations of certain types, at certain times, the interculturalism being beyond the static or contemplative nature thereof, and basing on multiculturalism, it requires knowledge, appreciation, and mutual learning and conscious use of norms, values, customs, processes or technologies, leading to a common patrimony, each usable according to the moments, situations and circumstances, which increases the stock of mutual appreciation.

  15. Grasping the diversity of cohabitation: Fertility intentions among cohabiters across Europe

    Hiekel, N.; Castro-Martin, T.

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined the association between different meanings of cohabitation and fertility intentions. Using data from the Generations and Gender Surveys on 5,565 cohabiters from 9 European countries (Austria, Bulgaria, France, Germany, Hungary, Lithuania, Norway, Romania, and Russia), they

  16. Marriage and separation risks among German cohabiters: Differences between types of cohabiter

    Hiekel, N.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Poortman, A.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a typology of different meanings of cohabitation that combines cohabiters’ intentions to marry with a general attitude toward marriage, using competing risk analyses to examine whether some cohabiters are more prone than others to marry or to separate. Using data (N = 1,258) from four

  17. Cohabitation among older adults: a national portrait.

    Brown, Susan L; Lee, Gary R; Bulanda, Jennifer Roebuck

    2006-03-01

    Older adults are increasingly likely to experience cohabitation, or living together unmarried in an intimate, heterosexual union. In order to begin building a conceptual framework, we provide a descriptive portrait of older adult cohabitors, emphasizing how they compare to older remarrieds and unpartnereds. We used data from both Census 2000 and the 1998 Health and Retirement Study ( HRS; Health and Retirement Study, 1998) to estimate the size and composition of the cohabiting population aged 51 and older. Also, using HRS data, we estimated multinomial logistic regression models to identify the correlates associated with cohabitation and remarriage (vs being unpartnered) among women and men who were previously married. More than 1 million older adults, composing 4% of the unmarried population, currently cohabit. About 90% of these individuals were previously married. We identify significant differences among cohabitors, remarrieds, and unpartnereds across several dimensions, including sociodemographic characteristics, economic resources, physical health, and social relationships. Cohabitors appear to be more disadvantaged than remarrieds, and this is especially evident for women. Older cohabitors differ from individuals of other marital statuses, and therefore future work on marital status should explicitly incorporate cohabitation.

  18. Male-female differences in upregulation of vasoconstrictor responses in human cerebral arteries

    Ahnstedt, Hilda; Cao, Lei; Krause, Diana N

    2013-01-01

    Male-female differences may significantly impact stroke prevention and treatment in men and women, however underlying mechanisms for sexual dimorphism in stroke are not understood. We previously found in males that cerebral ischemia upregulates contractile receptors in cerebral arteries, which...

  19. Understanding diversity in the meaning of cohabitation across Europe

    Hiekel, Nicole; Liefbroer, Aart C.; Poortman, Anne Rigt

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the diversity in the meanings attached to cohabitation across Europe. Utilizing a sample of 9,113 cohabiters between ages 18 and 79 from 10 European countries that participated in the Generations and Gender Surveys, we develop a typology of different meanings of cohabitation

  20. Towards a Geography of Unmarried Cohabitation in the Americas

    Antonio Lopez-Gay

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: As the incidence of cohabitation has been rising in many parts of the world, efforts to determine the forces driving the cohabitation boom have also been intensifying. But most of the analyses of this issue conducted so far were carried out at a national level, and did not account for regional heterogeneity within countries. Objective: This paper presents the geography of unmarried cohabitation in the Americas. We offer a large-scale, cross-national perspective, together with small-area estimates of cohabitation. We created this map for several reasons. (i First, our examination of the geography of cohabitation reveals considerable spatial heterogeneity, and challenges the explanatory frameworks which may work at the international level, but which have low explanatory power with regard to intra-national variation. (ii Second, we argue that historical pockets of cohabitation can still be identified by examining the current geography of cohabitation. (iii Finally, our map serves as an initial step in efforts to determine whether the recent increase in cohabitation is an intensification of pre-existing traditions, or whether it has different roots that suggest that a new geography may be evolving. Methods: Census microdata from 39 countries and 19,000 local units have been pooled together to map the prevalence of cohabitation among women. Results: The results show inter- and intra-national regional contrasts. The highest rates of cohabitation are found in areas of Central America, the Caribbean, Colombia, and Peru. The lowest rates are mainly found in the United States and Mexico. In all of the countries, the spatial autocorrelation statistics indicate that there is substantial spatial heterogeneity. Conclusions: Our results lead us to ask what forces may have shaped these patterns, and they remind us that these forces need to be taken into account when seeking to explain recent cohabitation patterns, and especially the rise in

  1. Traditional and modern cohabitation in Latin America: A comparative typology

    Maira Covre-Sussai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The existence of cohabitation is a historical feature of nuptiality in Latin America. Traditionally, cohabitation was common in less developed regions, among the lower social classes. But today its occurrence is increasing and in social groups and regions in which it was not common. The features of this latter type of cohabitation remain unclear. Objective: We differentiate types of cohabitation in Latin America on the basis of relationship context at its outset and its outcomes in terms of childbearing. The comparability of these types over countries is attested, as well as their evolution over time and the educational and age profiles of cohabitants. Methods: Demographic and Health Survey data for the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s for up to eight countries are analyzed by means of Multiple Group Latent Class Analysis. Results: Three types of cohabitation are found. The traditional type includes young and lower-educated women who start to cohabit during adolescence. They have more children at younger ages. The remaining two types of cohabitation included higher-educated women and are considered modern. The innovative type groups women from all age groups, with fewer children born at a higher age and never as a single woman. Blended cohabitation refers to older women, who could negotiate a marriage, but do not. They start to cohabit during adulthood, but always after single pregnancy. Conclusions: The persistence of historical trends is attested. Traditional cohabitation is related to socioeconomic deprivation and prevails in Central American and Caribbean countries.However, two modern types of cohabitation are emerging in the region. They are concentrated in the South and related to women's independence.

  2. Young Pioneers: Cohabitation and Family Life Pathways in Denmark

    Loft, Lisbeth Trille Gylling

    2011-01-01

    logistic regression and latent class clusteranalysis to examine the likelihood of ever forming a cohabiting union, to situate cohabitation inthe larger context of family life pathways, and to explore social circumstances as well aspersonal aspirations as determinants of the identified family life pathways......Using a life course perspective, I examine cohabitation in a cohort of Danish women and menborn in 1954, whom formed families as cohabitation became normative in the Danish context. Inaddition, this cohort was among the first cohorts to come of age in a well-established Danishwelfare state, which...

  3. Review: magnetic resonance imaging of male/female differences in human adolescent brain anatomy

    Giedd Jay N

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Improvements in neuroimaging technologies, and greater access to their use, have generated a plethora of data regarding male/female differences in the developing brain. Examination of these differences may shed light on the pathophysiology of the many illnesses that differ between the sexes and ultimately lead to more effective interventions. In this review, we attempt to synthesize the anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI literature of male/female brain differences with emphasis on studies encompassing adolescence – a time of divergence in physical and behavioral characteristics. Across all ages total brain size is consistently reported to be about 10% larger in males. Structures commonly reported to be different between sexes include the caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum – all noted to have a relatively high density of sex steroid receptors. The direction and magnitude of reported brain differences depends on the methodology of data acquisition and analysis, whether and how the subcomponents are adjusted for the total brain volume difference, and the age of the participants in the studies. Longitudinal studies indicate regional cortical gray matter volumes follow inverted U shaped developmental trajectories with peak size occurring one to three years earlier in females. Cortical gray matter differences are modulated by androgen receptor genotyope and by circulating levels of hormones. White matter volumes increase throughout childhood and adolescence in both sexes but more rapidly in adolescent males resulting in an expanding magnitude of sex differences from childhood to adulthood.

  4. How Do Cohabiting Couples with Children Spend Their Money?

    Deleire, Thomas; Kalil, Ariel

    2005-01-01

    Increasing rates of cohabitation in the United States raise important questions about how cohabitation fits in with the definition of family. Answers to this question depend in part upon the extent to which cohabitors behavior differs from that of other family types. Using data from the Consumer Expenditure Survey, we compare the expenditure…

  5. Disagreements among cohabiting and married couples in 22 European countries

    van der Lippe, Tanja; Voorpostel, Marieke; Hewitt, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cross-national research suggests that married people have higher levels of well-being than cohabiting people. However, relationship quality has both positive and negative dimensions. Researchers have paid little attention to disagreements within cohabiting and married couples. OBJECTIVE

  6. Typologies of Cohabitation: Implications for Clinical Practice and Research

    Gold, Joshua M.

    2012-01-01

    This article will explore the current evolution in the practice of cohabitation. The intent of this literature- and web-based article is to acquaint counselors with three typologies of cohabitation. These categories can be utilized in the development of psychoeducational and remedial interventions and in the identification of areas of future…

  7. Partner Killing by Men in Cohabiting and Marital Relationships

    Shackelford, Todd K.; Mouzos, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    Using a national-level U.S. database, T. K. Shackelford (2001) calculated rates of uxoricide (the murder of a woman by her romantic partner) by relationship type (cohabiting or marital), by ages of the partners, and by the age difference between partners. Women in cohabiting relationships were 9 times more likely to be killed by their partner than…

  8. Pathways into Marriage: Cohabitation and the Domestic Division of Labor

    Baxter, Janeen; Haynes, Michele; Hewitt, Belinda

    2010-01-01

    Does time spent in a cohabiting relationship prior to marriage lead to more egalitarian housework arrangements after marriage? Previous research has shown that housework patterns within cohabiting relationships are more egalitarian than in marital relationships. But do these patterns remain when couples marry? The findings from previous studies…

  9. Sexual Intimacy in Dating Relationships

    Peplau, Letitia Anne; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The patterning of sexual interaction in male-female dyads and the links between sexual behavior and emotional intimacy were investigated as part of a two-year study of college dating couples. Traditional sexual role playing was found to be common. (Author/AM)

  10. A Geography of Unmarried Cohabitation in the Americas.

    López-Gay, Antonio; Esteve, Albert; López-Colás, Julian; Permanyer, Iñaki; Turu, Anna; Kennedy, Sheela; Laplante, Benoît; Lesthaeghe, Ron

    2014-05-22

    In the context of increasing cohabitation and growing demand for understanding the driving forces behind the cohabitation boom, most analyses have been carried out at a national level, not accounting for regional heterogeneity within countries. This paper presents the geography of unmarried cohabitation in the Americas. We offer a large-scale, cross-national perspective together with small-area estimates of cohabitation. We decided to produce this map because: (i) geography unveils spatial heterogeneity and challenges explanatory frameworks that may work at the international level but have low explanatory power in regard to intra-national variation. (ii) we argue that historical pockets of cohabitation can still be identified by examining the current geography of cohabitation. (iii) our map is a first step toward understanding whether the recent increase in cohabitation is an intensification of pre-existing traditions or whether it has different roots that also imply a new geography. Census microdata from 39 countries and 19,000 local units have been pulled together to map the prevalence of cohabitation among women. The results show inter- and intra-national regional contrasts. The highest rates of cohabitation are found in areas of Central America, the Caribbean, Colombia and Peru. The lowest rates are mainly found in the United States and Mexico. In all countries the spatial autocorrelation statistics indicates substantial spatial heterogeneity. Our results raise the question as to which forces have shaped these patterns and remind us that such forces need to be taken into account to understand recent patterns, particularly increases, in cohabitation.

  11. Red-cockaded woodpecker male/female foraging differences in young forest stands.

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E.

    2010-07-01

    ABSTRACT The Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is an endangered species endemic to pine (Pinus spp.) forests of the southeastern United States. I examined Red-cockaded Woodpecker foraging behavior to learn if there were male/female differences at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The study was conducted in largely young forest stands (,50 years of age) in contrast to earlier foraging behavior studies that focused on more mature forest. The Redcockaded Woodpecker at the Savannah River site is intensively managed including monitoring, translocation, and installation of artificial cavity inserts for roosting and nesting. Over a 3-year period, 6,407 foraging observations covering seven woodpecker family groups were recorded during all seasons of the year and all times of day. The most striking differences occurred in foraging method (males usually scaled [45% of observations] and females mostly probed [47%]),substrate used (females had a stronger preference [93%] for the trunk than males [79%]), and foraging height from the ground (mean 6 SE foraging height was higher for males [11.1 6 0.5 m] than females [9.8 6 0.5 m]). Niche overlap between males and females was lowest for substrate (85.6%) and foraging height (87.8%), and highest for tree species (99.0%), tree condition (98.3%), and tree height (96.4%). Both males and females preferred to forage in older, large pine trees. The habitat available at the Savannah River Site was considerably younger than at most other locations, but the pattern of male/female habitat partitioning observed was similar to that documented elsewhere within the range attesting to the species’ ability to adjust behaviorally.

  12. Intergenerational family ties and the diffusion of cohabitation in Italy

    Alessandro Rosina

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Cohabitation has been spreading in the population during the last thirty years, and this is one of the most striking aspects of wider social changes that have taken place throughout the industrialized world. However, this change did not take place uniformly across Europe. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the current debate around the compatibility of cohabitation experiences with the Italian cultural context. Using an individual-level diffusion approach we obtain results that are consistent with the crucial role that family ties play in the choice of cohabitation in place of (or before marriage.

  13. Does More Mean Less? The Male/Female Wage Gap and the Proportion of Females at the Establishment Level

    Reilly, Kevin T.; Wirjanto, Tony S.

    1998-01-01

    of the gap in log wages between men and women. Due to an inadequacy of the traditional method of decomposing wages when examining an affirmative action program, a new method of decomposition is developed: the characteristic wage decomposition. The results suggest that an employment equity program will reduce......This paper examines the effect of the proportionof females in the establishment on the male/female wage gap and the effectiveness of an affirmaive action program in reducing this gap. A unique data set makes this paper possible since it has information on both individuals and the establishments...... the male/female log wage gap by 20 percent....

  14. A gender perspective on preferences for marriage among cohabitating couples

    Anne Reneflot

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the sex differences in cohabiters' marriage preferences, which have received very little attention in the family literature. According to Norwegian survey data from 1996, cohabiting men are more hesitant to marry than cohabiting women. For example, childless male cohabiters are more worried than their female partner that another lifestyle will be expected after a marriage, and they voice more doubt about the value of the relationship. This could mean that the men generally are more individualistically oriented and therefore more attracted to single life than the women. In-depth interviews support this, and also suggest that men are less willing to yield to a normative pressure to marry. On the other hand, women were more concerned with the costs of the wedding.

  15. The Sex Determination Gene transformer Regulates Male-Female Differences in Drosophila Body Size.

    Rideout, Elizabeth J; Narsaiya, Marcus S; Grewal, Savraj S

    2015-12-01

    Almost all animals show sex differences in body size. For example, in Drosophila, females are larger than males. Although Drosophila is widely used as a model to study growth, the mechanisms underlying this male-female difference in size remain unclear. Here, we describe a novel role for the sex determination gene transformer (tra) in promoting female body growth. Normally, Tra is expressed only in females. We find that loss of Tra in female larvae decreases body size, while ectopic Tra expression in males increases body size. Although we find that Tra exerts autonomous effects on cell size, we also discovered that Tra expression in the fat body augments female body size in a non cell-autonomous manner. These effects of Tra do not require its only known targets doublesex and fruitless. Instead, Tra expression in the female fat body promotes growth by stimulating the secretion of insulin-like peptides from insulin producing cells in the brain. Our data suggest a model of sex-specific growth in which body size is regulated by a previously unrecognized branch of the sex determination pathway, and identify Tra as a novel link between sex and the conserved insulin signaling pathway.

  16. The Sex Determination Gene transformer Regulates Male-Female Differences in Drosophila Body Size.

    Elizabeth J Rideout

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Almost all animals show sex differences in body size. For example, in Drosophila, females are larger than males. Although Drosophila is widely used as a model to study growth, the mechanisms underlying this male-female difference in size remain unclear. Here, we describe a novel role for the sex determination gene transformer (tra in promoting female body growth. Normally, Tra is expressed only in females. We find that loss of Tra in female larvae decreases body size, while ectopic Tra expression in males increases body size. Although we find that Tra exerts autonomous effects on cell size, we also discovered that Tra expression in the fat body augments female body size in a non cell-autonomous manner. These effects of Tra do not require its only known targets doublesex and fruitless. Instead, Tra expression in the female fat body promotes growth by stimulating the secretion of insulin-like peptides from insulin producing cells in the brain. Our data suggest a model of sex-specific growth in which body size is regulated by a previously unrecognized branch of the sex determination pathway, and identify Tra as a novel link between sex and the conserved insulin signaling pathway.

  17. Disagreements among cohabiting and married couples in 22 European countries

    Tanja Van der Lippe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cross-national research suggests that married people have higher levels of well-being than cohabiting people. However, relationship quality has both positive and negative dimensions. Researchers have paid little attention to disagreements within cohabiting and married couples. Objective: This study aims to improve our understanding of the meaning of cohabitation by examining disagreements within marital and cohabiting relationships. We examine variations in couples' disagreements about housework, paid work and money by country and gender. Methods: The data come from the 2004 European Social Survey. We selected respondents living in a heterosexual couple relationship and aged between 18 and 45. In total, the study makes use of data from 22 European countries and 9,657 people. Given that our dependent variable was dichotomous, we estimated multilevel logit models, with (1 disagree and (0 never disagree. Results: We find that cohabitors had more disagreements about housework, the same disagreements about money, but fewer disagreements about paid work than did married people. These findings could not be explained by socio-economic or demographic measures, nor did we find gender or cross-country differences in the association between union status and conflict. Conclusions: Cohabiting couples have more disagreements about housework but fewer disagreements about paid work than married people. There are no gender or cross-country differences in these associations. The results provide further evidence that the meaning of cohabitation differs from that of marriage, and that this difference remains consistent across nations.

  18. Non-marital cohabitation in the Republic of Serbia

    Ranđelović Dragana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-marital cohabitation, as a community of life of two people connected only by the feeling of love and desire for living together, without form and registration, is an institution as old as marriage. Throughout history, attitude of the legislator has been changing from forbidding to ignoring it. In our society there is a negative attitude towards non-marital cohabitations, which is the result of patriarchal ideas and customs. However, the Constitution of the Republic of Serbia and the Family Law equate marriage and non-marital cohabitation. In this paper, the author will try to determine to what extent in terms of effects the marital and non-marital cohabitation are equal, or to what extent the rights of non-marital partners are recognized. The subject of analysis are primarily the Constitution and Family law, but also many other regulations governing the issues relating to the rights and obligations of non-marital cohabitation partners. In fact, although Family law equalizes marriage and non-marital cohabitation, they are not equal either de facto or de jure. The author will try to point out the deficiencies in the legal regulations, the practical problems and suggest possible and better solutions.

  19. Defining Subpopulations of Arcuate Nucleus GABA Neurons in Male, Female, and Prenatally Androgenized Female Mice.

    Marshall, Christopher J; Desroziers, Elodie; McLennan, Timothy; Campbell, Rebecca E

    2017-01-01

    Arcuate nucleus (ARN) γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons are implicated in many critical homeostatic mechanisms, from food intake to fertility. To determine the functional relevance of ARN GABA neurons, it is essential to define the neurotransmitters co-expressed with and potentially co-released from ARN GABA neurons. The present study investigated the expression of markers of specific signaling molecules by ARN GABA neurons in brain sections from male, female, and, in some cases, prenatally androgen-treated (PNA) female, vesicular GABA transporter (VGaT)-ires-Cre/tdTomato reporter mice. Immunofluorescence for kisspeptin, β-endorphin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) was detected by confocal microscopy, and co-localization with tdTomato VGaT reporter expression throughout the ARN was quantified. GABA neurons rarely co-localized with kisspeptin (95%) co-localized with VGaT across groups. Both TH and nNOS labeling was co-localized with ∼10% of ARN GABA neurons. The proportion of TH neurons co-localized with VGaT was significantly greater in males than either control or PNA females, and the proportion of nNOS neurons co-localizing VGaT was higher in control and PNA females compared with males. These data highlight NPY as a significant subpopulation of ARN GABA neurons, demonstrate no significant impact of PNA on signal co-expression, and, for the first time, show sexually dimorphic co-expression patterns of TH and nNOS with ARN GABA neurons. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Male-female differences in upregulation of vasoconstrictor responses in human cerebral arteries.

    Hilda Ahnstedt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Male-female differences may significantly impact stroke prevention and treatment in men and women, however underlying mechanisms for sexual dimorphism in stroke are not understood. We previously found in males that cerebral ischemia upregulates contractile receptors in cerebral arteries, which is associated with lower blood flow. The present study investigates if cerebral arteries from men and women differ in cerebrovascular receptor upregulation. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Freshly obtained human cerebral arteries were placed in organ culture, an established model for studying receptor upregulation. 5-hydroxtryptamine type 1B (5-HT1B, angiotensin II type 1 (AT1 and endothelin-1 type A and B (ETA and ETB receptors were evaluated using wire myograph for contractile responses, real-time PCR for mRNA and immunohistochemistry for receptor expression. KEY RESULTS: Vascular sensitivity to angiotensin II and endothelin-1 was markedly lower in cultured cerebral arteries from women as compared to men. ETB receptor-mediated contraction occurred in male but not female arteries. Interestingly, there were similar upregulation in mRNA and expression of 5-HT1B, AT1, and ETB receptors and in local expression of Ang II after organ culture. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: In spite of receptor upregulation after organ culture in both sexes, cerebral arteries from women were significantly less responsive to vasoconstrictors angiotensin II and endothelin-1 as compared to arteries from men. This suggests receptor coupling and/or signal transduction mechanisms involved in cerebrovascular contractility may be suppressed in females. This is the first study to demonstrate sex differences in the vascular function of human brain arteries.

  1. Diet Segregation between Cohabiting Builder and Inquiline Termite Species.

    Daniela Faria Florencio

    Full Text Available How do termite inquilines manage to cohabit termitaria along with the termite builder species? With this in mind, we analysed one of the several strategies that inquilines could use to circumvent conflicts with their hosts, namely, the use of distinct diets. We inspected overlapping patterns for the diets of several cohabiting Neotropical termite species, as inferred from carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures for termite individuals. Cohabitant communities from distinct termitaria presented overlapping diet spaces, indicating that they exploited similar diets at the regional scale. When such communities were split into their components, full diet segregation could be observed between builders and inquilines, at regional (environment-wide and local (termitarium scales. Additionally, diet segregation among inquilines themselves was also observed in the vast majority of inspected termitaria. Inquiline species distribution among termitaria was not random. Environmental-wide diet similarity, coupled with local diet segregation and deterministic inquiline distribution, could denounce interactions for feeding resources. However, inquilines and builders not sharing the same termitarium, and thus not subject to potential conflicts, still exhibited distinct diets. Moreover, the areas of the builder's diet space and that of its inquilines did not correlate negatively. Accordingly, the diet areas of builders which hosted inquilines were in average as large as the areas of builders hosting no inquilines. Such results indicate the possibility that dietary partitioning by these cohabiting termites was not majorly driven by current interactive constraints. Rather, it seems to be a result of traits previously fixed in the evolutionary past of cohabitants.

  2. The Evolution of the First Cohabitation of Women in Spain: Change or Stability?

    Thaís García-Pereiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Spain cohabitation the prevalence of cohabiting couples is no longer marginal. Not only the incidence but also the nature of cohabiting couples is diverse: in Spain cohabitation is considered a temporal alternative that generally ends with the legalization of the union (marriage. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the incidence, duration and development of cohabitation using a life course comparative approach, identifying also the profi les of women who split up against those who decide to marry. Results show the prevalence of the transition from cohabitation to marriage in Spain, establishing this type of union as a prelude and not as a definitive alternative to marriage

  3. Cohabitation and children's living arrangements: New estimates from the United States

    Larry Bumpass

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the 1995 and 2002 waves of the National Survey of Family Growth to examine recent trends in cohabitation in the United States. We find increases in both the prevalence and duration of unmarried cohabitation. Cohabitation continues to transform children's family lives, as children are increasingly likely to be born to a cohabiting mother (18Å  during 1997-2001 or to experience their mother's entry into a cohabiting union. Consequently, we estimate that two-fifths of all children spend some time in a cohabiting family by age 12. Because of substantial missing data in the 2002 NSFG, we are unable to produce new estimates of divorce and children's time in single-parent families. Nonetheless, our results point to the steady growth of cohabitation and to the evolving role of cohabitation in U.S. family life.

  4. Marriage and Cohabitation: Qualitative Differences in Partnership Arrangements

    Hamplová, Dana

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 6 (2002), s. 771-788 ISSN 0038-0288 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA7028101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7028912 Keywords : cohabitation * marriage * social exchange Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.113, year: 2002

  5. Cohabitants' perspective on housing adaptations: a piece of the puzzle.

    Granbom, Marianne; Taei, Afsaneh; Ekstam, Lisa

    2017-12-01

    As part of the Swedish state-funded healthcare system, housing adaptations are used to promote safe and independent living for disabled people in ordinary housing through the elimination of physical environmental barriers in the home. The aim of this study was to describe the cohabitants' expectations and experiences of how a housing adaptation, intended for the partner, would impact their everyday life. In-depth interviews were conducted with cohabitants of nine people applying for a housing adaptation, initially at the time of the application and then again 3 months after the housing adaptation was installed. A longitudinal analysis was performed including analysis procedures from Grounded Theory. The findings revealed the expectations and experiences in four categories: partners' activities and independence; cohabitants' everyday activities and caregiving; couples' shared recreational/leisure activities; and housing decisions. A core category putting the intervention into perspective was called 'Housing adaptations - A piece of the puzzle'. From the cohabitants' perspective, new insights on housing adaptations emerged, which are important to consider when planning and carrying out successful housing adaptations. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  6. Effects of Divorce and Cohabitation Dissolution on Preschoolers' Literacy

    Fagan, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey--Birth cohort ("N" = 6,450), the present study hypothesized that 48-month-old children of divorced mothers would score lower on emerging literacy than the children of formerly cohabiting mothers, compared with the children of mothers in stable marriage. The children of mothers who…

  7. Better Parents, More Stable Partners: Union Transitions among Cohabiting Parents

    McClain, Lauren Rinelli

    2011-01-01

    Data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 1,702 couples) are employed to examine the association between mother- and father-reported parenting characteristics (father involvement and coparenting) and transitions out of cohabitation through marriage or separation in the 5 years after a child is born. Father involvement and…

  8. The Economic Foundations of Cohabiting Couples' Union Transitions.

    Ishizuka, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    In recent decades, cohabitation has become an increasingly important relationship context for U.S. adults and their children, a union status characterized by high levels of instability. To understand why some cohabiting couples marry but others separate, researchers have drawn on theories emphasizing the benefits of specialization, the persistence of the male breadwinner norm, low income as a source of stress and conflict, and rising economic standards associated with marriage (the marriage bar). Because of conflicting evidence and data constraints, however, important theoretical questions remain. This study uses survival analysis with prospective monthly data from nationally representative panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation from 1996-2013 to test alternative theories of how money and work affect whether cohabiting couples marry or separate. Analyses indicate that the economic foundations of cohabiting couples' union transitions do not lie in economic specialization or only men's ability to be good providers. Instead, results for marriage support marriage bar theory: adjusting for couples' absolute earnings, increases in wealth and couples' earnings relative to a standard associated with marriage strongly predict marriage. For dissolution, couples with higher and more equal earnings are significantly less likely to separate. Findings demonstrate that within-couple earnings equality promotes stability, and between-couple inequalities in economic resources are critical in producing inequalities in couples' relationship outcomes.

  9. How Do Cohabiting Couples with Children Spend Their Money? JCPR Working Paper.

    DeLeire, Thomas; Kalil, Ariel

    Cohabitation is an increasingly prevalent living arrangement in the United States. Although the effects of living in a cohabiting arrangement on child wellbeing are not fully understood, the literature on children growing up in cohabiting families suggests that they have poorer developmental outcomes than do those growing up in married-parent…

  10. Effects of Union Type on Division of Household Labor: Do Cohabiting Men Really Perform More Housework?

    Davis, Shannon N.; Greenstein, Theodore N.; Marks, Jennifer P. Gerteisen

    2007-01-01

    Using data from 17,636 respondents in 28 nations, this research uses multilevel modeling to compare the reported division of household labor and factors affecting it for currently married and currently cohabiting couples. Cohabiting men report performing more household labor than do married men, and cohabiting women report performing less…

  11. Investments in Marriage and Cohabitation: The Role of Legal and Interpersonal Commitment

    Poortman, Anne-Rigt; Mills, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    Cohabiters have been shown to invest less in their relationship than married couples. This study investigated the role of legal and interpersonal commitment by examining heterogeneity within marital and cohabiting unions. Going beyond the dichotomy of cohabitation versus marriage, different union types were distinguished by their level of legal…

  12. Continuity and change of cohabitation in Mexico: Same as before or different anew

    Julieta Pérez Amador

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mexico experienced a boom in cohabitation during the 2000s, which has sparked a debate about whether the nature of cohabitation has changed along with its increasing overall rates and diffusion to diverse social groups. Objective: We examine continuity and change in the dynamics of cohabitation in Mexico to address whether it has largely hewed to prior patterns or taken on new forms. Methods: We analyze the marital histories of 99,387 female respondents in the 2009 National Survey of Demographic Dynamics using multistate event-history techniques. Results: Mexico's cohabitation boom of the 2000s was driven by cohorts born after 1975, whose cohabiting unions are less likely to transition to marriage than those formed by earlier cohorts. However, the tendency of cohabiters to marry is greater among the higher educated. Conclusions: Cohabitation in Mexico used to be rare, concentrated among less-educated women, and mostly a prelude to marriage. As it became more common in the 2000s it also took on at least two distinct patterns. Among the less educated, cohabitation became a common union-formation option, shifting to a longer-term substitute for marriage. Cohabitation also grew, from a lower baseline, among the upper educated; but for them, it is usually a short stage, either transitioning to marriage or ending in separation. Contribution: Our findings contribute to the literature on international family change by providing an additional case study, different in geographical and cultural setting, of the global rise of cohabitation.

  13. Climate change is associated with male:female ratios of fetal deaths and newborn infants in Japan

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    . INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Yearly sex ratios of fetal deaths and newborn infants and monthly fetal death rates and sex ratios of newborn infants. RESULT(S): A statistically significant positive association was found between yearly temperature differences and sex ratios of fetal deaths......; a statistically significant negative association was found between temperature differences and sex ratios of newborn infants from 1968 to 2012, and between sex ratios of births and of fetal deaths. The sex ratios of fetal deaths have been increasing steadily along with temperature differences, whereas the sex......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether climate change is associated with male:female ratios (sex ratios) of fetal deaths and births in Japan. DESIGN: A population-based cohort study. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): Newborn infants and fetuses spontaneously aborted after 12 weeks of gestation...

  14. Free to stay, free to leave: Insights from Poland into the meaning of cohabitation

    Monika Mynarska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have shown that in Poland cohabitation is most of all a transitory step or a testing period before marriage. Polish law does not recognize this living arrangement and it has been portrayed as uncommitted and short-lived. However, few studies have investigated what cohabitation means for relationships, especially with respect to freedom. Objective: We explore how young people in Poland understand and evaluate freedom in cohabitation. We investigate how they view the role freedom plays in couple dynamics and in relationship development. Methods: We analyze data from focus group interviews conducted in Warsaw with men and women aged 25-40. We identify passages in which opinions on cohabitation and marriage are discussed, and use bottom-up coding and the constant comparative method to reconstruct different perspectives on the issue of freedom in cohabitation. Results: The respondents argued that cohabitation offers the partners freedom to leave a union at any time with few repercussions. On the negative side, the freedom related to cohabitation brings insecurity, especially for young mothers. On the positive side, it offers relaxed conditions for testing a relationship, grants partners independence, and encourages cohabitors to keep their relationship interesting, precisely because it is fragile and easy to dissolve. Conclusions: The open nature of cohabitation offers benefits to partners, but does not provide secure conditions for childbearing. As long as the couple is not planning to have children, however, the benefits of cohabitation are likely to be seen as outweighing the disadvantages.

  15. Marital Quality and Divorce Decisions: How Do Premarital Cohabitation and Nonmarital Childbearing Matter?

    Tach, Laura M.; Halpern-Meekin, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This study used the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,481) to test whether the association between marital quality and divorce is moderated by premarital cohabitation or nonmarital childbearing status. Prior research identified lower marital quality as a key explanation for why couples who cohabit or have children…

  16. The Timing of Cohabitation and Engagement: Impact on First and Second Marriages

    Stanley, Scott M.; Rhoades, Galena K.; Amato, Paul R.; Markman, Howard J.; Johnson, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    Using a multistate sample of marriages that took place in the 1990s, this study examined associations between premarital cohabitation history and marital quality in first (N = 437) and second marriages (N = 200) and marital instability in first marriages (intact N = 521, divorced N = 124). For first marriages, cohabiting with the spouse without…

  17. Towards a new understanding of cohabitation: Insights from focus group research across Europe and Australia

    Brienna Perelli-Harris

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Across the industrialized world, more couples are living together without marrying. Although researchers have compared cohabitation cross-nationally using quantitative data, few have compared union formation using qualitative data. Objective: We use focus group research to compare social norms of cohabitation and marriage in Australia and nine countries in Europe. We explore questions such as: what is the meaning of cohabitation? To what extent is cohabitation indistinguishable from marriage, a prelude to marriage, or an alternative to being single? Are the meanings of cohabitation similar across countries? Methods: Collaborators conducted seven to eight focus groups in each country using a standardized guideline. They analyzed the discussions with bottom-up coding in each thematic area. They then collated the data in a standardized report. The first and second authors systematically analyzed the reports, with direct input from collaborators. Results: The results describe a specific picture of union formation in each country. However, three themes emerge in all focus groups: commitment, testing, and freedom. The pervasiveness of these concepts suggests that marriage and cohabitation have distinct meanings, with marriage representing a stronger level of commitment. Cohabitation is a way to test the relationship, and represents freedom. Nonetheless, other discourses emerged, suggesting that cohabitation has multiple meanings. Conclusions: This study illuminates how context shapes partnership formation, but also presents underlying reasons for the development of cohabitation. We find that the increase in cohabitation has not devalued the concept of marriage, but has become a way to preserve marriage as an ideal for long-term commitment.

  18. Income pooling strategies among cohabiting and married couples: A comparative perspective

    Nicole Hiekel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies explaining why cohabiters are more likely to keep money separate than spouses have mainly focused on selection processes, without taking into account the heterogeneity within both union types in levels of commitment. Cross-national studies are rare and have predominantly included Northern and Western European countries, the United States, and Canada. Objective: This study explains the higher likelihood of cohabiters to keep income separate by selection as well as commitment factors and explores country differences, including countries from Central and Eastern Europe. Methods: Using data from the Generations and Gender Surveys of Bulgaria, France, Georgia, Germany, Romania, and Russia, N=41,456 cohabiting and married individuals are studied. Binary logistic regression models of the likelihood that respondents keep money separate are calculated. Results: Across countries, higher education, female labor market participation, both partners being employed, short union duration, absence of joint children, presence of separation thoughts, and (for cohabiters a lack of marital intentions are the most persistent correlates of keeping money separate. Differences between cohabiters and married couples are reduced when selection and commitment are taken into account, but are still significant. Cross-national variation in the effect of cohabitation on keeping separate purses is persistent. Conclusions: Different money management strategies of cohabiters and spouses can be explained to some extent by selection processes and inherent differences in the level of commitment within cohabitation and marriage. Countries also differ in the socio-economic context and norms concerning the way intimate relationships are organized which might lead to persistent differences in the way cohabiting and married couples organize their income.

  19. The influence of parents on cohabitation in Italy - Insights from two regional contexts

    Christin Schröder

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In view of the demographic changes that affect all European countries, the diffusion of new living arrangements such as non-marital cohabitation is particularly interesting. In this article we concentrate on Italy, a country that is characterized by a low pace in the diffusion of cohabitation. Earlier studies found statistical evidence of the impact of parents' characteristics on young adults' decisions for cohabitation. However, there is only limited empirical knowledge about the actual mechanism through which parents influence the choices of their children. We employ qualitative research methods and focus on two regional contexts in order to analyze if and how parents intervene in the choices of young adults.

  20. Same-sex marriage, civil marriage and cohabitation: the law, the ...

    Same-sex marriage, civil marriage and cohabitation: the law, the rights and responsibilities. ... Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence ... This paper examined the law surrounding marriage rights and ...

  1. Progesterone transfer among cohabitating female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus).

    Greville, Lucas J; Pollock, Tyler; Salter, Joseph C; Faure, Paul A; deCatanzaro, Denys

    2017-06-01

    Experiments using female mice and bats have demonstrated that tritium-labeled 17β-estradiol ( 3 H-E 2 ) can be absorbed via cutaneous and intranasal routes and distributed to reproductive and neural tissues. Radioactivity has also been measured in tissues of untreated females after 48h cohabitation with 3 H-E 2 injected males. The present study was designed to quantify steroid transfer among female bats. Radioactive quantification via liquid scintillation counting revealed absorption of tritium-labeled progesterone ( 3 H-P 4 ) in adult females 1h after cutaneous and intranasal application (10μCi). Subsequently, pairs of mature females were each housed for 48h with a single mature female that had been administered 3 H-P 4 (50μCi) via intraperitoneal injection. Radioactivity was observed in all collected tissues of all non-injected females at levels significantly greater than the control group. Following the same paradigm, radioactivity was not observed in the tissues of untreated female bats that were housed with stimulus females treated with 3 H-E 2 (50μCi). Enzyme immunoassays revealed measurable levels of unconjugated progesterone and estradiol in the urine of female bats, suggesting urine as a vector for steroid transfer. Given that bats of this species live in predominantly female roosts in very close contact, progesterone transfer among individuals is likely to occur in natural roosts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The social geography of unmarried cohabitation in the USA, 2007–2011

    Lesthaeghe, Ron J.

    2016-01-01

    US studies of marriage and cohabitation have mainly highlighted the social and racial differentials as they were observed in cross-sections, and have as a result essentially focused on the “pattern of disadvantage”. The evolution of such social differentials over time and space reveals that this pattern of disadvantage has clearly persisted, but that it is far from covering the whole story. Historically, there has been a major contribution to the rise of cohabitation by white college students...

  3. Risk-avoidance or utmost commitment. : Dutch focus group research on views on cohabitation and marriage.

    Renske Keizer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dutch adults grew up in a highly individualized country, characterized by high divorce rates, which may have influenced their views on cohabitation and marriage. Objective: We examine Dutch adults' perceptions of how similar or different cohabitation and marriage are, whether they believe that cohabitation would be a strategy to avoid the risk of divorce, as well as their views on why people marry in individualized societies. Methods: We analyze seven focus group interviews with 40 Dutch participants, collected in 2012 in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Results: Many participants discussed differences and similarities between cohabitation and marriage in a context of high divorce rates, and frequently viewed cohabitation as a risk-reduction strategy. At the same time, marriage was often seen as ―the real deal‖, in terms of legal arrangements, but also as a symbol of utmost commitment. Less educated participants viewed more financial advantages in cohabitation compared to marriage, and felt more strongly about the symbolic value of marriage than their highly educated counterparts. There was strong consensus that there is not, and should not be, a social norm to marry. Conclusions: In a context of high relationship instability, cohabitation has become a risk-reduction strategy. When norms to marry are weak, people may marry in order to emphasize the uniqueness of their relationship. However, the individualistic nature of Dutch society is mirrored in respondents' reluctance to set standards or proscribe norms on why and when to marry and their emphasis that cohabitation can also imply high levels of commitment.

  4. Committing to marriage? The role of marriage attitudes and gender equality among young cohabiters in Sweden

    Wijk, Sofi Ohlsson; Brandén, Maria; Duvander, Ann-Zofie

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: Marriage is commonly perceived as a more committed form of union than cohabitation. Individualization perspectives suggest that this makes couples refrain from marriage, while gender perspectives propose that gender equality within couples may increase the willingness to commit to a partner through marriage. We address these differing standpoints by studying the role of commitment and gender equality for marriage formation among cohabiting men and women born in Swe...

  5. Dating Violence

    ... for Teens / Dating Violence Bulletins for Teens: Dating Violence What is it? If you are a victim ... often. If You Are a Victim of Dating Violence, You Might… Think it's your fault. Feel angry, ...

  6. Two period measures for comparing the fertility of marriage and cohabitation

    Benoît Laplante

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The diffusion of cohabitation and, presumably, of childbearing within cohabitation, inspires interest in measuring the respective contribution of childbearing within marriage and within cohabitation to overall fertility. However, there is no consensus on a proper way to do so. Objective: Contribute to the development of tools for assessing the relative importance of marriage and cohabitation to overall fertility by developing period measures closely related to age-specific fertility rates and the total fertility rate. Methods: We introduce two measures: 1 the contribution of the conjugal state (living alone, living in a cohabiting union, being married to age-specific fertility rates (CASFR and 2 the contribution of the conjugal state to the TFR (CTFR. These measures are similar in construction to the marital (legitimate fertility rates and marital (legitimate TFR, but they are weighted by the proportion of women living alone, cohabiting, or being married at each age, so that their sum is the overall TFR. Taken together, they represent the fertility of the average woman of a synthetic cohort who moves across the various conjugal states (living alone, cohabiting, being married over her life course. They provide "realistic" estimates of completed fertility within each conjugal state. Conclusions: CASFRs provide a description of the fertility, over her life course, of a synthetic woman who would have spent her reproductive years living alone, cohabiting, and being married as the average woman of the synthetic cohort. CTFR provides a decomposition of the cumulative fertility of this synthetic woman. Over her life course, she would have had exactly the number of children computed using the overall TFR, but CTFR details the proportion of these children she would have had while living alone, while cohabiting, and while being married. Comments: Despite being defined as a conditional ASR weighted by the age-specific proportion of women living

  7. Exploring social norms around cohabitation: The life course, individualization, and culture: Introduction to Special Collection: "Focus on Partnerships: Discourses on cohabitation and marriage throughout Europe and Australia"

    Brienna Perelli-Harris

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Explanations of the increase in cohabitation often rely on the concept of ideational change and shifting social norms. While researchers have investigated cohabitation and the role of social norms from a quantitative perspective, few studies have examined how people discuss the normative context of cohabitation, especially in cross-national comparison. Objective: This article introduces a Special Collection that uses focus group research to compare social norms relating to cohabitation and marriage in 8 countries in Europe. The Introduction explicates the concept of social norms, describes the focus group project, reflects on the method's advantages and limitations, and summarizes the theoretical and methodological contributions of the project. Methods: Collaborators conducted 7−8 focus groups in each country using a standardized questionnaire. They coded each discussion, analyzed the results, and produced a country-specific chapter on a particular theme. They also collaborated on an overview paper that synthesized the overall findings of the project. Results: The articles provide insights into the meanings of partnership formation in each country. In addition, their findings contribute to three main theoretical themes: 1 life courses, sequencing, and intersections; 2 individualization, freedom, and commitment; and 3 culture, religion, and the persistence of the past. Conclusions: This Special Collection contributes to and challenges current explanations of family change by pointing out how social norms shape partnership behavior. The project informs quantitative research by emphasizing the need for a culturally informed interpretation of demographic behavior. We urge researchers to recognize the multiple meanings of cohabitation within each context and across countries.

  8. Same-Sex and Different-Sex Cohabiting Couple Relationship Stability.

    Manning, Wendy D; Brown, Susan L; Stykes, J Bart

    2016-08-01

    Relationship stability is a key indicator of well-being, but most U.S.-based research has been limited to different-sex couples. The 2008 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) provides an untapped data resource to analyze relationship stability of same-sex cohabiting, different-sex cohabiting, and different-sex married couples (n = 5,701). The advantages of the SIPP data include the recent, nationally representative, and longitudinal data collection; a large sample of same-sex cohabitors; respondent and partner socioeconomic characteristics; and identification of a state-level indicator of a policy stating that marriage is between one man and one woman (i.e., DOMA). We tested competing hypotheses about the stability of same-sex versus different-sex cohabiting couples that were guided by incomplete institutionalization, minority stress, relationship investments, and couple homogamy perspectives (predicting that same-sex couples would be less stable) as well as economic resources (predicting that same-sex couples would be more stable). In fact, neither expectation was supported: results indicated that same-sex cohabiting couples typically experience levels of stability that are similar to those of different-sex cohabiting couples. We also found evidence of contextual effects: living in a state with a constitutional ban against same-sex marriage was significantly associated with higher levels of instability for same- and different-sex cohabiting couples. The level of stability in both same-sex and different-sex cohabiting couples is not on par with that of different-sex married couples. The findings contribute to a growing literature on health and well-being of same-sex couples and provide a broader understanding of family life.

  9. Economic well-being among elderly couples in marriage and cohabitation in Mexico

    Brenes Camacho, Gilbert

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In Latin America, the proportion of people in middle and late age who are cohabiting is higher than in industrialized countries. Some scholars consider cohabitation as an “incomplete” institution, where couples fare worse in economic and social well-being compared to marriage. The paper’s goal is to analyze whether cohabiting couples in old age face a different economic situation than married couples, and whether this difference is due to the fact that cohabiters might be a selected group from the general population . The analysis focuses on Mexican couples where at least one of the partners was older than 49, by using the first wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Survey (MHAS 2001 dataset, and part of the 2003 second wave. After controlling for compositional variables (related to selection into consensual unions, the paper finds no significant difference in net worth, change in net worth (from 2001 to 2003, and perceived financial situation between married and cohabiting couples, but there is on the likelihood of owning a house.

  10. Economic well-being among elderly couples in marriage and cohabitation in Mexico.

    Camacho, Gilbert Brenes

    In Latin America, the proportion of people in middle and late age who are cohabiting is higher than in industrialized countries. Some scholars consider cohabitation as an "incomplete" institution, where couples fare worse in economic and social well-being compared to marriage. The paper's goal is to analyze whether cohabiting couples in old age face a different economic situation than married couples, and whether this difference is due to the fact that cohabiters might be a selected group from the general population. The analysis focuses on Mexican couples where at least one of the partners was older than 49, by using the first wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Survey (MHAS) 2001 dataset, and part of the 2003 second wave. After controlling for compositional variables (related to selection into consensual unions), the paper finds no significant difference in net worth, change in net worth (from 2001 to 2003), and perceived financial situation between married and cohabiting couples, but there is on the likelihood of owning a house.

  11. The association between living through a prolonged economic depression and the male:female birth ratio--a longitudinal study from Cuba, 1960-2008.

    Venero Fernández, Silvia Josefina; Medina, Ramon Suárez; Britton, John; Fogarty, Andrew W

    2011-12-15

    The Trivers-Willard hypothesis suggests that populations respond to scarcity by decreasing the ratio of males to females at livebirth. Cuba experienced an extreme economic depression in the 1990s called the "special period." Using time-series analysis, the authors studied the impact of this event on the male:female sex ratio at birth in Cuba from 1960 to 2008. From 1990 to 1993, the per capita gross domestic product in Cuba decreased by 36%. By use of a definition of the special period from 1991 to 1998, there was a prolonged increase in the male:female ratio of livebirths during this period of economic depression (P Cuba, contrary to the Trivers-Willard hypothesis, the human population responded to conditions of scarcity by increasing the ratio of males to females at livebirth. These data may be relevant in the modeling of demographic projections in countries that experience prolonged economic depression and in understanding adaptive human reproductive responses to environmental change.

  12. Marital status as a candidate moderator variable of male-female differences in sexual jealousy: the need for representative population samples.

    Voracek, M

    2001-04-01

    Evolutionary psychological theories predict pronounced and universal male-female differences in sexual jealousy. Recent cross-cultural research, using the forced-choice jealousy items pioneered by Buss, et al., 1992, repeatedly found a large sex differential on these self-report measures: men significantly more often than women choose their mate's imagined sexual infidelity to be more distressing or upsetting to them than an imagined emotional infidelity. However, this body of evidence is solely based on undergraduate samples and does not take into account demographic factors. This study examined male-female differences in sexual jealousy in a community sample (N = 335, Eastern Austria). Within a logistic regression model, with other variables controlled for, marital status was a stronger predictor for sexual jealousy than respondents' sex. Contrary to previous research, the sex differential's effect size was only modest. These findings stress the pitfalls of prematurely generalizing evidence from undergraduate samples to the general population and the need for representative population samples in this research area.

  13. Dating Violence

    Stader, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Dating violence is a form of student-on-student victimization and is a serious school safety issue. Research indicates that at a minimum, 10 percent of high school students are victims of dating violence in one form or another. Among female high school students that date, some data indicate that as many as 30 percent may be victims of dating…

  14. Male-female differences in the number of reported incident dengue fever cases in six Asian countries

    Martha Anker

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Demographic factors, such as age and sex, are associated with the likelihood of exposure to Aedes aegypti, the vector for dengue. However, dengue date disaggregated by both sex and ageare not routinely reported or analyzed by national surveillance systems. This study analysed the reported number of incident dengue cases by age and sex for six countries in Asia. Methods. Data for the Lao People's Democratic Republic, the Philippines, Singapore and Sri Lanka were obtained from DengueNet; the number of male and female dengue cases was available for four age groups ( 15 years over a cumulative period of six to 10 years. Data for Cambodia (2010 and Malaysia (1997–2008 were obtained from their respective ministries of health. Results. An excess of males was found among reported dengue cases > 15 years of age. This pattern was observed consistently over several years across six culturally and economically diverse countries. Discussion. These data indicated the importance of reporting data stratified by both sex and age since collapsing the data over all ages would have masked some of the observed differences. In order to target preventive measures appropriately, assessment of gender by age is important for dengue because biological or gender-related factors can change over the human lifespan and gender-related factors may differ across countries.

  15. Gender and time allocation of cohabiting and married women and men in France, Italy, and the United States.

    Bianchi, Suzanne; Lesnard, Laurent; Nazio, Tiziana; Raley, Sara

    2014-07-11

    Women, who generally do more unpaid and less paid work than men, have greater incentives to stay in marriages than cohabiting unions, which generally carry fewer legal protections for individuals that wish to dissolve their relationship. The extent to which cohabitation is institutionalized, however, is a matter of policy and varies substantially by country. The gender gap in paid and unpaid work between married and cohabiting individuals should be larger in countries where cohabitation is less institutionalized and where those in cohabiting relationships have relatively fewer legal protections should the relationship dissolve, yet few studies have explored this variation. Using time diary data from France, Italy, and the United States, we assess the time men and women devote to paid and unpaid work in cohabiting and married couples. These three countries provide a useful diversity in marital regimes for examining these expectations: France, where cohabitation is most "marriage like" and where partnerships can be registered and carry legal rights; the United States, where cohabitation is common but is short-lived and unstable and where legal protections vary across states; and Italy, where cohabitation is not common and where such unions are not legally acknowledged and less socially approved than in either France or the United States. Cohabitating men's and women's time allocated to market and nonmarket work is generally more similar than married men and women. Our expectations about country differences are only partially borne out by the findings. Greater gender differences in the time allocated to market and nonmarket work are found in Italy relative to either France or the U.S.

  16. Earnings and Expenditures on Household Services in Married and Cohabiting Unions

    Treas, Judith; de Ruijter, Esther

    2008-01-01

    Despite the rise in women's paid employment, little is known about how women and their partners allocate money to outsource domestic tasks, especially in unmarried unions. Tobit analyses of 6,170 married and cohabiting couples in the 1998 Consumer Expenditure Survey test hypotheses that recognize gender inequality between partners, gender typing…

  17. Income pooling strategies among cohabiting and married couples: A comparative perspective

    Hiekel, N.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Poortman, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Studies explaining why cohabiters are more likely to keep money separate than spouses have mainly focused on selection processes, without taking into account the heterogeneity within both union types in levels of commitment. Cross-national studies are rare and have predominantly included

  18. Cohabiting Couple, Filing Jointly? Resource Pooling and U.S. Poverty Policies

    Kenney, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    Social policy in the United States is inconsistent in its treatment of cohabiting-parent households. For example, although welfare policy generally assumes that marital status should not affect the extent to which children benefit from each adult's income, tax policy and the poverty classification assume income pooling among married but not…

  19. Income pooling strategies among cohabiting and married couples: A comparative perspective

    Hiekel, N.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Poortman, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Studies explaining why cohabiters are more likely to keep money separate than spouses have mainly focused on selection processes, without taking into account the heterogeneity within both union types in levels of commitment. Cross-national studies are rare and have predominantly included

  20. Income pooling strategies among cohabiting and married couples : A comparative perspective

    Hiekel, Nicole; Liefbroer, Aart C.; Poortman, Anne Rigt

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Studies explaining why cohabiters are more likely to keep money separate than spouses have mainly focused on selection processes, without taking into account the heterogeneity within both union types in levels of commitment. Cross-national studies are rare and have predominantly included

  1. Positive Parenting of Young Adolescents by Male Cohabiting Partners: The Roles of Coparenting Conflict and Support

    Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Fathers have often been ignored in the parenting literature. The current study focused on male cohabiting partners (MCPs) who can serve as "social stepfathers" and examined the association of coparent support and conflict with their positive parenting behavior (i.e., acceptance, firm control, and monitoring) of adolescents. Participants…

  2. Relatievormen in Nederland, 1984 ( ORIN ) [Ways of cohabitation in the Netherlands, 1984

    Klijzing, F.K.H.; Kaa, D.J.; Keilman, N.W.; Moors, H.G.; Kuijsten, A.C.; Leeuwen, van L.Th.; Akker, P.A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Background and characteristics of various ways of cohabitation in the Netherlands. R's nr. of marriages / having lived together with partner before marriage / nr. of times of having lived together with a partner / having an intimate relationship without living together / plans about going to live

  3. Marriage, Cohabitation, and Happiness: A Cross-National Analysis of 27 Countries

    Lee, Kristen Schultz; Ono, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated how the reported happiness of married and cohabiting individuals varies cross-nationally with societal gender beliefs and religious context. They used the 2002 International Social Survey Programme data from 27 countries (N = 36,889) and specified hierarchical linear models with macro-micro level interactions in order to…

  4. Luminescence dating

    Rieser, U.

    2009-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materals in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Luminescence dating

    Rieser, U.

    2008-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materals in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs

  6. Luminescence dating

    Rieser, U.

    2012-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materials in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Luminescence dating

    Rieser, U.

    2009-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materals in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs

  8. Luminescence dating

    Rieser, U.

    2013-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materials in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Mechanisms of social synchrony between circadian activity rhythms in cohabiting marmosets.

    Bessa, Zoélia Camila Moura; Melo, Paula Rocha De; Gonçalves, Bruno S B; Azevedo, Carolina V M De

    2018-01-26

    In marmosets, social synchrony between circadian profiles of activity is stronger in animals that cohabit in a family. The activity of three breeding pairs was recorded by actiwatches to investigate the mechanisms involved in the synchrony between the circadian activity profiles during cohabitation in marmoset reproductive pairs. The dyads were submitted to LD 12:12 (21 days) and LL: 1) cohabitation (24 days), 2) removal of the cage mate (20 days), 3) reintroduction of the mate into the cage of the 1 st situation (30 days) and 4) removal of the cage mate (7 days). Next, they were rejoined and maintained in LD 12:12 (11 days). In conditions involving cohabitation of pair, the general and maximum correlation indexes between circadian profiles were higher in cage mates compared to animals of the same or different sex with which they maintain only acoustic and olfactive contact. This strong synchrony between rhythms was accompanied by a stable phase relationship at the activity onset and offset, with identical circadian periods between mates. When the pairs were separated, there was a break in stability in the phase relationships between activity profiles with different circadian periods and a greater phase angle difference between rhythms of cage mates. During separation, two females and one male progressively anticipated the activity onset and offset in a phase similar to that in previous conditions, expressing entrainment to the mate. During the first reintroduction, two pairs exhibited signs of masking in rhythm. Although modulation in the rhythm of some animals has been observed through acoustic cues from animals outside the colony, we suggest that cohabitation favors strong synchrony between the circadian activity profiles of marmoset reproductive pairs involving synchronization by entrainment and masking. Further studies in the absence of external social cues are necessary to clarify the role of these mechanisms on social synchronization in marmosets.

  10. Cohabitation with farm animals in urban households with and without occupational farm work: associations between participation in educational activities and good hygiene practices in at-risk households cohabiting with farm animals.

    Somphou, Phoupasong; Takano, Takehito; Nakamura, Keiko

    2008-11-01

    This study was performed to investigate patterns of cohabitation with farm animals in urban households in Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic, with regard to animal-to-human disease transmission. We also investigated the association between participation in hygiene-related educational activities and good hygiene practices in households with or without cohabitation with animals. A survey regarding cohabitation with animals, socioeconomic characteristics and participation in educational activities was conducted among 1,497 households randomly sampled from urban districts of Vientiane in 2001. Rates of satisfactory performance of recommended good hygiene practices according to a program commencing in 1996 were compared among households cohabiting with animals with or without participation in educational activities (reference group). Even among households not engaged in agriculture as a major source of income, 54.4, 34.9, 7.9, 3.1 and 35.7% cohabited with chickens, ducks, cattle, buffaloes and dogs, respectively. The percentage of households fulfilling the recommendations for good hygiene practices was 56.7%. The rates of satisfactory hygiene practices among households participating in health education and cohabitating with chickens, ducks or cattle were greater than those in the reference group (OR = 1.7, 95%CI = 1.2, 2.3; OR = 2.0, 95%CI = 1.3, 3.0; OR = 2.3, 95%CI = 1.0, 4.9) regardless of socioeconomic factors. Households cohabiting with animals showed poorer rates of satisfactory hygiene practices than those without animals. Cohabitation with farm animals is common in urban Vientiane regardless of household involvement in agriculture. Further effort is required to improve hygiene conditions, despite some positive effects of health education even in households cohabiting with animals.

  11. The Effect of Premarital Cohabitation on Marital Stability over the Duration of Marriage

    Budinski, Ronald A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishResearch has shown that premarital cohabitors who eventually marry are morelikely to divorce or separate than persons who do not cohabit prior to marriage.This study investigates the possibility that the difference in marital stabilitybetween cohabitors and non-cohabitors may change with increasing duration ofmarriage. Using Canadian 1995 General Social Survey data, variousProportional Hazards Models were specified to compare the marital dissolutionrisks of cohabitors and non-cohabitors, while controlling for a set of relevantfactors. Initially, it was found that both groups had virtually identical dissolutionrisks. However, further specification of the hazards model indicated that indeedcohabitors have a greater risk of marital dissolution than noncohabitors. Furthertests to differentiate between short- and long-term unions indicated thatpremarital cohabitors have a greater dissolution risk in the first ten years of theirunion, while non-cohabitors have a greater hazard after ten years of marriage.We discuss these findings in the context of the North American based literatureon cohabitation and marriage dissolution, and offer suggestions for furtherstudy.FrenchPlusieurs recherches ont démontré que les couples qui cohabitent avant lemariage et qui finissent par se marier courent un risque plus élevé de divorce oude séparation que les couples qui ne cohabitent pas avant le mariage. Cetteétude examine l’hypothèse que cette différence dans la stabilité des mariagesentre les couples cohabitant et les couples non-cohabitant pourrait changersuivant la durée du mariage. En s’appuyant sur les données de l’Enquête socialegénérale canadienne de 1995, différents modèles de régression à effetproportionnel ont été spécifiés pour comparer les risques de dissolution desmariages dans les couples cohabitant et les couples non-cohabitant. D’autresétudes qui ont été menées pour déterminer s’il y avait des diff

  12. The male-female earnings gap for nurses in Germany: A pooled cross-sectional study of the years 2006 and 2012.

    Muench, Ulrike; Dietrich, Hans

    2017-07-14

    Nursing is one of the largest occupations for women in every country. Evidence suggests a substantial male-female pay gap for registered nurses in the U.S., possibly contributing to disparities between genders more broadly. Differences in motivation and skills between men and women have long been considered important factors in the gender earnings gap, but these factors are difficult to measure. Because of country specific educational pathways and limited upward job mobility in Germany, nurses tend to be more homogenous in their motivation to work and their work skills compared to the U.S. To study male-female earnings in the nursing labor market in Germany. This is a pooled cross-sectional study of survey data collected for the years 2006 and 2012. We used a representative survey of nurses (n=828) who are active labor force participants. In a multivariate ordinary least squares regression, the analysis estimated the log of monthly earnings for male and female nurses. The full model accounted for demographic, human capital, and geographic characteristics, in addition to employment characteristics, such as hours worked, additional education obtained, years of nursing experience, years of labor market experience, career inactivity, years with the employer, and responsibilities at work, among other factors. We conducted follow-up analyses to test alternative explanations for the pay gap, examining earnings for nurses who no longer worked in nursing and testing potential differences in motivation with the likelihood of working nightshifts and length of time with current employer. Unadjusted monthly earnings for full-time male nurses were 30% higher, or 700 Euros more, than monthly earnings for full-time female nurses. In the fully adjusted analysis, male nurses out-earned female nurses by approximately 9.3%, or 260 Euros per month. Follow-up analyses suggested that better outside options exist for male than female nurses in the German labor market, while we found no

  13. Male-female differences in households' resource allocation and decision to seek healthcare in south-eastern Nigeria: Results from a mixed methods study.

    Onah, Michael Nnachebe; Horton, Susan

    2018-05-01

    Ability to influence household decision-making has been shown to increase with improved social capital and power and is linked to better access to household financial resources and other services outside the household including healthcare. To examine the male-female differences in household custody of financial resources, decision-making, and type of healthcare utilised, we used a mixed methods approach of cross-sectional household surveys and focus-group discussions (FGDs). Data was collected between 10 January-28 February 2011. We analyzed a sample of 411 households and a sub-sample of 223 households with a currently married head. We conducted six single-sex FGDs in 3 communities (1 urban, 2 rural) among a random sub-sample of participants in the survey. We performed univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression analyses with a 95% confidence interval. For the qualitative data, we performed thematic analysis where broad themes relevant to the research objective were abstracted. In all households and in those with a married head, sick male members were less likely to forgo healthcare (aOR all 0.87, 95% CI 0.80-0.90; aOR married 0.52, 95% CI 0.18-0.83) and more likely to utilise formal healthcare relative to female sick members (aOR all 3.36, 95% CI 3.20-3.87; aOR married 19.50, 95% CI 9.62-39.52). Formal healthcare providers are medically trained while informal providers are untrained vendors that dispense medications for profit. There were more reports of sole custody of household resources among men within households with married heads. Joint decision-making on healthcare expenditure improved women's access to healthcare but is not reflective of unhindered access to household financial resources. Qualitatively, women spoke of seeking permission from male household head before expenditure was incurred, while male heads spoke of concealing household financial resources from their spouse. Gender constructs and male-female differences have important effects on

  14. Radiometric dating

    Das, N.R.

    2017-01-01

    Since the discovery of natural radioactivity in uranium, in the last decade of the nineteenth century, the nuclear property of radioactive decay of radionuclides at immutable rates has been effectively utilized in dating of varieties of naturally occurring geological matrices and the organisms which constantly replenish their "1"4C supply through respiration when alive on earth. During the period, applications of radiometric dating techniques have been extensively diversified and have enabled the geologists to indicate the absolute time scales of geological formations and the evolution of the solar system, the earth, meteorites, lunar rocks, etc. and the archaeologists to record the facts of history of several important events like dinosaur era, Iceman, the Shroud in Turin and many other ancient artefacts. In the development of dating methods, varieties of naturally occurring radio-isotopic systems with favorable half-lives ranging from about 10 years to over 100 billion years have been used as radiometric clocks. (author)

  15. Attitudes towards family formation in cohabiting and single childless women in their mid- to late thirties

    Petersen, Kathrine Birch; Lykke-Sylvest, Randi; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore attitudes towards family formation in single or cohabiting childless women of advanced age. The design comprised semi-structured qualitative interviews of 20 women aged 34–39 years attending the Fertility Assessment and Counselling Clinic, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen....... A sample of 10 single women and 10 cohabiting women was chosen with equal distribution of postgraduate education length. Data were analysed using content analysis following the method of Graneheim and Lundman and consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ). The general attitude towards...... and showed an increasing awareness of solo motherhood as a possible solution to advanced age, the wish of a child and single status compared to earlier studies. Our study contributes to knowledge and understanding of personal considerations related to childbearing in nullipara women in their mid- to late 30s...

  16. Cohabitation status and onset of disability among older Danes: is social participation a possible mediator?

    Nilsson, Charlotte Juul; Lund, Rikke; Avlund, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of cohabitation status in older men and women on (a) onset of disability at 3- and 4.5-year follow-up and (b) changes in functional ability between 3- and 4.5-year follow-up, and to analyze whether this effect was mediated by social participation. METHOD...... of disability (T3 OR = 1.60[1.06-2.43], T4 OR = 1.74[1.22-2.47]) and the risk of sustained poor functional ability (OR = 2.35[1.44-3.84]) among men, but not among single-living women. Social participation mediated only a small part of the effect of cohabitation status on functional ability. DISCUSSION: Our...

  17. Breadwinning women: Economic contribution of married and cohabiting women to Costa Rican households

    Camila Salazar Mayorga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the economic contribution of married and cohabiting women to the household income, in comparison to the income their partners generate, in Costa Rica.  From a perspective of gender roles, human capital theory and female labor participation, this paper examines what variables influence the probability of contribution.  Based on data by the 2014 National Household Survey, this study found that 51% percent of married or cohabiting women do not generate any income, which shows there is an unequal economic relationship in half of Costa Rican households and the males assume the breadwinning role.  Household chores and the number of children reduce the probability of economic contribution.  On the other hand, women with more years of schooling have a higher probability to contribute equally to the couple’s total income.

  18. Contemporary Work and Family Issues Affecting Marriage and Cohabitation Among Low-Income Single Mothers.

    Joshi, Pamela; Quane, James M; Cherlin, Andrew J

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, we advance and test an integrative model of the effects of employment status, nonstandard work schedules, male employment, and women's perceptions of economic instability on union formation among low-income single mothers. Based on longitudinal data from 1,299 low-income mothers from the 3-city Welfare Study, results indicate that employment status alone is not significantly associated with whether women marry or cohabit. We find that nonemployed mothers and mothers working nonstandard schedules were less likely to marry compared to those working standard schedules. Mothers' perceptions of economic well-being were associated with marriage at Wave 2. In contrast, cohabitation outcomes were not explained by economic factors, but were related to the perception of child care support. The policy implications of these results are discussed, in particular, as they relate to welfare reform's work and family goals.

  19. Differentiating the evolution of female song and male-female duets in the New World blackbirds: can tropical natural history traits explain duet evolution?

    Odom, Karan J; Omland, Kevin E; Price, J Jordan

    2015-03-01

    Female bird song and combined vocal duets of mated pairs are both frequently associated with tropical, monogamous, sedentary natural histories. Little is known, however, about what selects for duetting behavior versus female song. Female song likely preceded duet evolution and could drive apparent relationships between duets and these natural histories. We compared the evolution of female song and male-female duets in the New World blackbirds (Icteridae) by investigating patterns of gains and losses of both traits and their relationships with breeding latitude, mating system, nesting pattern, and migratory behavior. We found that duets evolved only in lineages in which female song was likely ancestral. Both female song and duets were correlated with tropical breeding, social monogamy, territorial nesting, and sedentary behavior when all taxa were included; however, correlations between duets and these natural history traits disappeared when comparisons were limited to taxa with female song. Also, likelihood values supported stronger relationships between the natural history traits and female song than between these traits and duets. Our results suggest that the natural histories thought to favor the evolution of duetting may in fact be associated with female song and that additional selection pressures are responsible for the evolution of duets. © 2015 The Author(s).

  20. SECULAR TRENDS AND LATITUDE GRADIENTS IN THE MALE-FEMALE RATIO AT BIRTH IN YUGOSLAVIA AND THE EX-YUGOSLAVIAN STATES

    Victor Grech

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Latitude gradients and secular trends in Europe and North America have been found in the male-female ratio at birth (M/F: male births divided by total births which approximates 0.515. Methods: Annual national data for Yugoslavia and the post-Yugoslavia States for male and female live births were obtained from the World Health Organisation and analysed with contingency tables. Results: This study analysed 22,020,729 live births. There was a increasing trend in M/F prior to the breakup of the former Yugoslavia (1950–1990, p = 0.002, followed by a decreasing trend after 1990 (p = 0.02. A latitude gradient was also noted, with more males being born in southern, warmer latitudes (p < 0.0001. There was an overall excess of 42,753 male births based on an anticipated M/F of 0.515. Conclusion: M/F is decreasing in this region, similar to the rest of Europe and North America. A latitude gradient is also present with more males being born in warmer (more Southern latitudes (p < 0.0001, even in this small region and over the short time-frame studied.

  1. The male-female health-survival paradox and sex differences in cohort life expectancy in Utah, Denmark, and Sweden 1850-1910.

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Hanson, Heidi A; Oksuzyan, Anna; Mineau, Geraldine P; Christensen, Kaare; Smith, Ken R

    2013-04-01

    In Utah, the prevalence of unhealthy male risk behaviors are lower than in most other male populations, whereas women experience higher mortality risk because of higher fertility rates. Therefore, we hypothesize that the Utah sex differential in mortality would be small and less than in Sweden and Denmark. Life tables from Utah, Denmark, and Sweden were used to calculate cohort life expectancies for men and women born in 1850-1910. The sex difference in cohort life expectancy was similar or larger in Utah when compared with Denmark and Sweden. The change over time in the sex differences in cohort life expectancy was approximately 2 years smaller for active Mormons in Utah than for other groups suggesting lifestyle as an important component for the overall change seen in cohort life expectancy. Sex differences in cohort life expectancy at the age of 50 years were similar for individuals actively affiliated with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and for Denmark and Sweden. The hypothesis that a smaller sex difference in cohort life expectancies in Utah would be detected in relation to Denmark and Sweden was not supported. In Utah, the male-female differences in life expectancy remain substantial pointing toward biological mechanisms or other unmeasured risk factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cohabitating Partners and Domestic Labor in Low-Income Black Families

    Reid, Megan; Golub, Andrew; Vazan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the division of domestic labor in low-income cohabiting Black stepfamilies. We analyze survey data collected from 136 such families in order to understand how stepparent gender and relationship length impact the distribution of domestic labor. We hypothesize that women do more domestic work than men across all three family types, and that stepfathers are more involved in domestic labor in established relationships compared to new relationships. Findings indicate that coh...

  3. Colony size, sex ratio and cohabitation in roosts of Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae

    LM. Costa

    Full Text Available Phyllostomus hastatus bat is species broadly distributed over the Neotropical region, which uses as diurnal roosts caves, hollow trees, palm leaves and human buildings. Thirteen diurnal roosts of P. hastatus were analysed from 1990 to 2009 in several localities of Rio de Janeiro State, regarding environment (rural, urban or protected area, type of roost (hollow tree, basement or roof, sex ratio and cohabitation. A nocturnal roost was also analysed. Sex ratio of P. hastatus varied considerably among roosts what may be explained by the fact this species can roost alone, in couples, in harems or in groups of bachelor males. Phyllostomus hastatus was observed in cohabitation with three other species: Molossus rufus, Molossus molossus and Myotis nigricans. Due to the frequency of cohabitation observed between P. hastatus and species of the genus Molossus, one or more advantages for the members of this association may be expected. The simultaneous usage of a feeding roost by a group of bachelor males is unknown information in the literature, and may suggest that this kind of group may interact with each other even when away from their diurnal roosts.

  4. Trends in the economic consequences of marital and cohabitation dissolution in the United States.

    Tach, Laura M; Eads, Alicia

    2015-04-01

    Mothers in the United States use a combination of employment, public transfers, and private safety nets to cushion the economic losses of romantic union dissolution, but changes in maternal labor force participation, government transfer programs, and private social networks may have altered the economic impact of union dissolution over time. Using nationally representative panels from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) from 1984 to 2007, we show that the economic consequences of divorce have declined since the 1980s owing to the growth in married women's earnings and their receipt of child support and income from personal networks. In contrast, the economic consequences of cohabitation dissolution were modest in the 1980s but have worsened over time. Cohabiting mothers' income losses associated with union dissolution now closely resemble those of divorced mothers. These trends imply that changes in marital stability have not contributed to rising income instability among families with children, but trends in the extent and economic costs of cohabitation have likely contributed to rising income instability for less-advantaged children.

  5. Wo(men) at work? The impact of cohabiting and married partners' earning on women's work hours

    Triebe, Doreen

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the determinants of women's labor supply in the household context. The main focus is on the effect of a change in male partner's wages on women's work hours. This is linked to the broader question of whether married and cohabiting women make different economic decisions and respond differently to changes in their partners' wages. In addition, this study seeks to connect the working behavior of married and cohabiting individuals to the "tax-splitting" benefit for marrie...

  6. Big wigs and small wigs: Time, sex, size and shelter affect cohabitation in the maritime earwig (Anisolabis maritima.

    Nicole L Hack

    Full Text Available Animal aggregations can occur for a variety of abiotic factors, such as resource limitation, or biotic factors, including group foraging and protection from predators. In our study, we examined whether time, sex, body size or shelter availability affected aggregation behavior of the maritime earwig, Anisolabis maritima (Order Dermaptera, an insect found globally at high densities under driftwood. Specifically, we monitored the distribution of two individuals in arenas with either two shelters (no habitat limitation or one shelter (habitat limitation to determine their propensity for cohabitation at times of peak activity and times of quiescence. Females, whose high levels of aggression are often associated with maternal care, were particularly averse to cohabitation, whereas males were generally more tolerant of other earwigs. Females initially preferred not to cohabitate when placed with a male, but were more tolerant of cohabitation later, regardless of the number of shelters. Same-sex pairs, on the other hand, were less likely to cohabitate with only one shelter present, but males were again more tolerant of conspecifics than females regardless of habitat limitation. When competition for one shelter did not lead to cohabitation, the lone occupant was more likely to be the larger individual in same-sex trials and females in mixed-sex trials. Understanding the tolerance for close proximity under these varying conditions may provide insight into aggregative behavior and spatial distribution patterns in the maritime earwig.

  7. Radiocarbon dating

    Lazos R, L.

    2005-01-01

    The application of the radiocarbon dating in archaeology has not served only to solve problems related with the establishment of chronologies, but also in the development of archaeological methods of excavation and interpretation. This has been possible because the dating method by radiocarbon provides a common temporary scale that transcends the cultural and regional frontiers. It is even spoken of the revolution that has meant the fact that the application of this method has allowed to the archaeologist to pass from the construction of chronologies until the evaluation and dynamic interpretation of the archaeological data to build theories. This work explains and compares methods for the detection of 14 C, as the gas counting, the liquid scintillation counting and the mass spectrometry with accelerators. (Author)

  8. Thermoluminescence dating

    Price, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating of sediments depends upon the acquisition and long term stable storage of TL energy by crystalline minerals contained within a sedimentary unit. This energy is stored in the form of trapped electrons and quartz sand is the most commonly used mineral employed in the dating process. Prior to the final depositional episode it is necessary that any previously acquired TL is removed by exposure to sunlight. After burial the TL begins to build up again at a rate dependent upon the radiation flux delivered by long-lived isotopes of uranium, thorium and potassium. The presence of rubidium and cosmic radiation generally play a lesser but contributory roll, and the total radiation dose delivered to the TL phosphor is modified by the presence of water. The period since deposition is therefore measured by determining the total amount of stored TL energy, the palaeodose (P), and the rate at which this energy is acquired, the annual radiation dose (ARD). TL dating may be applied to eolian, fluvial, coastal and in some cases, marine sediments. the technique is also successfully applied to volcanic materials and to a certain extent to archeological specimens

  9. Sexual behavior experiences and characteristics of male-female partnerships among HIV positive adolescent girls and young women: Qualitative findings from Zimbabwe.

    Mavhu, Webster; Rowley, Elizabeth; Thior, Ibou; Kruse-Levy, Natalie; Mugurungi, Owen; Ncube, Getrude; Leclerc-Madlala, Suzanne

    2018-01-01

    New HIV infections among sub-Saharan Africa's adolescent girls and young women (AGYW, ages 15-24) greatly exceed those of their male peers. In addition, AGYW tend to acquire HIV at a much earlier age. Understanding the factors associated with HIV infection in AGYW could inform effective prevention and treatment interventions for these populations and their male sexual partners. This qualitative study, conducted October-November 2016, was a follow on to a quantitative survey that sought to characterize male sexual partners and sexual behaviors of sexually active HIV positive AGYW in Zimbabwe. The qualitative study explored sexual behavior experiences and characteristics of male-female partnerships among the same participants. We conducted in-depth interviews with purposively sampled AGYW (16-24 years). Audio recorded qualitative data were transcribed, translated into English, and thematically coded using NVivo. 28 AGYW (n = 14 urban, n = 14 rural) took part in the in-depth interviews. 50% were 16-19 years old. Discussions with 10/11 (91%) AGYW who were reportedly infected through sex suggested that they had acquired HIV from their husbands or romantic partners. Accounts also suggested that the age difference between respondents and their male sexual partners was ≥5 years. Overall, respondents described two types of male partners: those older (''sugar daddies'', men ≥35 years old) and younger (characteristics of relationships between AGYW and their male sexual partners. Findings could inform interventions to engender risk perception among AGYW, promote female-controlled HIV prevention efforts and, foster risk-reduction among men.

  10. Cohabitation among secular Jews in Israel: How ethnicity, education, and employment characteristics are related to young adults' living arrangements

    Avital Manor

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Economic and ideational theories offer various explanations for the roles of ethnicity, education, and employment characteristics in determining cohabitation behavior in various contexts. Objective: We focus on young, native-born secular Jewish adults in Israel, a subpopulation that has been shown to display Second Demographic Transition behaviors. Within this group we investigate whether a person's ethnicity, education, and employment characteristics are associated with their current living arrangements. Methods: We employ multinomial logit regression on a series of five annual data files from the Israeli Social Survey (ISS, 2005-2009. We consider the association between various explanatory variables and the odds of cohabitation vs. being married as well as the odds of cohabitation vs. being unpartnered. Results: Higher odds of cohabiting vs. being married are significantly associated with (1 tertiary education and student status, among men and women; (2 having accumulated fewer than five years of work experience, among men; (3 working full-time, among women; and (4 European-American ethnicity and being third-generation Israeli, among women. Higher odds of cohabiting vs. being unpartnered are significantly associated with (1 tertiary education and student status, among men; and (2 working full-time, among men. Conclusions: We suggest that in Israel a multicausal model that accounts for both economic and ideational factors is appropriate. While limited work experience among men encourages cohabitation as an alternative to marriage, as suggested by some economic theories, associations between cohabitation and educational characteristics (among men and women as well as ethnicity (among women are more consistent with ideational theories.

  11. Cohabitation and marital status as predictors of mortality--an eight year follow-up study

    Lund, Rikke; Due, Pernille; Modvig, Jens

    2002-01-01

    .25(0.93-1.69), adjusted for the same covariates. Inclusion of the health behaviour variables--smoking, diet and physical activity--one by one to a model with functional ability, self-rated health and one of the three determinants (cohabitation status, living with/without partner, marital status) showed no effect...... compared to individuals living with somebody HR = 1.42(1.04-1.95) adjusted for functional ability, self-rated health, having children, smoking, diet and physical activity. Similar analyses were performed for the variable living with/without a partner HR = 1.38(1.01-1.88) and marital status HR = 1...

  12. Is the fact of parenting couples cohabitation affecting the serum levels of persistent organohalogen pollutants?

    Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Struciński, Paweł; Wojtyniak, Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    Organohalogen compounds constitute one of the important groups of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Among them, due to their long-term health effects, one should pay attention on organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs). This paper...... is an attempt to answer the question about relation between the fact of cohabitation by couples expecting a child and the level of the organohalogen compounds in the blood serum of both parents. The study was done on a population of parent couples from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine, from whom blood samples were...

  13. Sociodemographic characteristics and attitudes towards motherhood among single women compared with cohabiting women treated with donor semen

    Salomon, Maria; Sylvest, Randi; Hansson, Helena

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine sociodemographic characteristics, family backgrounds, reproductive histories, and attitudes towards motherhood in single vs. cohabiting women seeking treatment with donor semen. DESIGN: Baseline data collection in a multicenter cohort study. SETTING: All nine public fertility...... clinics in Denmark. SAMPLE: In total n = 311 childless women initiating assisted reproduction using donor semen. METHODS: Self-reported questionnaire responses from n = 184 single women seeking treatment by using donor semen were compared with responses from n = 127 cohabiting women. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES......: Sociodemographic characteristics, family backgrounds, reproductive histories, attitudes towards motherhood. RESULTS: Single women were 3.5 years older on average when initiating treatment compared with cohabiting women. No significant differences were found regarding sociodemographic characteristics, previous long...

  14. Attitudes towards family formation in cohabiting and single childless women in their mid- to late thirties.

    Birch Petersen, Kathrine; Sylvest, Randi; Nyboe Andersen, Anders; Pinborg, Anja; Westring Hvidman, Helene; Schmidt, Lone

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to explore attitudes towards family formation in single or cohabiting childless women of advanced age. The design comprised semi-structured qualitative interviews of 20 women aged 34-39 years attending the Fertility Assessment and Counselling Clinic, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen. A sample of 10 single women and 10 cohabiting women was chosen with equal distribution of postgraduate education length. Data were analysed using content analysis following the method of Graneheim and Lundman and consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ). The general attitude towards family formation was characterized by a fear of the consequences of choosing motherhood on one hand, and a 'ticking biological clock' and a wish to establish a nuclear family on the other. The women idealized the perception of perfect mothering in terms of uncompromising expectations of child rearing and showed an increasing awareness of solo motherhood as a possible solution to advanced age, the wish of a child and single status compared to earlier studies. Our study contributes to knowledge and understanding of personal considerations related to childbearing in nullipara women in their mid- to late 30s and may be useful in a fertility assessment and counselling setting.

  15. Excessive drinking and history of unemployment and cohabitation in Danish men born in 1953

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Christensen, Ulla; Osler, Merete

    2011-01-01

    Background: Few studies exist on social inequality of excessive drinking in Denmark and differences seem to be less pronounced than in other European countries. The aims of this study were to investigate how history of employment and cohabitation is associated with excessive drinking and to study...... interaction between both. Methods: Birth-cohort study of 6112 Danish men born in 1953 with follow-up in 2004 on excessive drinking at age 51 years. RESULTS: Excessive drinking (between 22 and 35 units of alcohol per week) differed little depending on history of unemployment and cohabitation. Risk of very......-ranging from 6 to 9 years (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.30-2.29) to =10 years (OR 2.55, 95% CI 2.04-3.55). We found an interaction between the number of job-losses and of broken partnerships in relation to very excessive drinking. CONCLUSIONS: Very excessive drinking is related to number of job-losses, broken...

  16. Socio-economic homogamy and its effects on the stability of cohabiting unions

    Elina Mäenpää

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The tendency towards socio-economic homogamy – partner similarity in terms of socio-economic status – is of great interest to social scientists, for two reasons. First, socio-economic homogamy is an indicator of social closure between status groups in a society. Second, given that homogamy leads to the accumulation of advantageous and disadvantageous socio-economic conditions within couples, it also intensifies social and economic inequalities between families. The objective of this thesis is to enhance knowledge of socio-economic homogamy and its consequences for union stability in Finland. The first aim was to analyse the strength and patterns of socio-economic homogamy in partner choice. The second aim was to determine whether and, if so, how homogamy is associated with the likelihood of ending non-marital cohabitation – through separation on the one hand, or marriage on the other. In addition, two dimensions of socio-economic status, individual educational attainment and social class of the family of origin, were analysed to find out whether matching on individually achieved status or on the status of the parental family had a bigger effect on union dynamics. The analyses were based on sets of register data compiled at Statistics Finland. Log-linear models were applied to study homogamy tendencies and their changes in marriages and cohabitations of women born in 1957–1979 at the age of 30. The effects of homogamy and heterogamy on the likelihood of separation and marriage were analysed with Cox proportional hazards model in cohabitations formed in the period 1995–2002 by women born in 1960–1977. An elaborate approach was adopted: marriage and separation rates were examined in each possible combination of partner status. The results imply that people tend to choose partners who are similar to them in terms of educational attainment and class background. However, homogamy was stronger with regard to education than to social

  17. Transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) among cohabiting cats in two cat rescue shelters.

    Litster, Annette L

    2014-08-01

    Conflicting accounts have been published in the veterinary literature regarding transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) between cohabiting cats in mixed households, and the mechanics of possible casual transmission, if it occurs, are poorly understood. Similarly, there are conflicting reports of vertical transmission of FIV. The aim of the present study was to document the FIV serological status of cats taken into two rescue shelters. At rescue shelter 1 (Rescue 1), cats cohabited in a multi-cat household of FIV-negative and naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats. A study was performed that combined a retrospective review of records of FIV serological status at intake (Test 1) and prospective FIV serological testing (Tests 2 and 3). Retrospective records were analyzed at rescue shelter 2 (Rescue 2), where FIV-positive queens with litters of nursing kittens were taken into the shelter, before being rehomed. FIV serology was performed on all kittens after weaning. Initial test results (Test 1) for 138 cohabiting cats from Rescue 1 showed that there were 130 FIV-negative cats and eight FIV-positive cats (six male neutered and two female spayed). A second test (Test 2), performed in 45 of the FIV-negative and five of the FIV-positive cats at median 28 months after Test 1 (range, 1 month to 8.8 years) showed that results were unchanged. Similarly, a third test (Test 3), performed in four of the original FeLV-negative cats and one remaining FIV-positive cat at median 38 months after Test 1 (range, 4 months to 4 years), also showed that results were unchanged. These results show a lack of evidence of FIV transmission, despite years of exposure to naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats in a mixed household. At Rescue 2, records were available from five FIV-positive queens with 19 kittens. All 19 kittens tested FIV-negative, suggesting that vertical transmission had not occurred. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Patterns of resistance and transgression in Eastern Indonesia: single women's practices of clandestine courtship and cohabitation.

    Bennett, Linda Rae

    2005-03-01

    This paper explores how single women in the regional Indonesian city of Mataram express sexual desire in a social, cultural and political climate that idealizes the confinement of female sexuality within marriage. It is based on 21 months of ethnographic fieldwork conducted with single women, their families and health care providers. Success for young women in negotiating sexual desire is dependent upon their ability to maintain a faultless public reputation and mediate between their desires and those of men. Many single women find ways to pursue their desires by bending the rules of courtship conventions, performing sexual purity in public, while resisting from within the hegemonic sexual culture. However, women who visibly transgress dominant sexual ideals (and in doing so offend the status quo) are stigmatized and ostracized. Single women's practice of resistance and sexual transgression in premarital relationships are represented using the examples of pacaran backstreet (clandestine courtship) and cohabitation prior to marriage.

  19. Imported family models? Cohabitation patterns of Latin American women in Spain

    Clara CORTINA TRILLA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, international immigration flows have undergone a dramatic growth in Spain. In this particular context, the purpose of this article is to analyze whether Latin American female migrants residing in Spain largely maintain nuptial and reproductive patterns from their countries of origin. To analyze the prevalence of consensual unions we use three different databases: the Spanish Immigration Survey, the Spanish Labour Force Survey and birth records, all of them corresponding to 2007 and collected by the Spanish Statistical Institute. The study documents the high prevalence of consensual unions among Latin American migrants. Regarding the socio-demographic factors influencing cohabitation, our results show important similarities between Spanish and Latin American women, except for educational attainment.

  20. Acetylcholinesterase activity, cohabitation with floricultural workers, and blood pressure in Ecuadorian children.

    Suarez-Lopez, Jose R; Jacobs, David R; Himes, John H; Alexander, Bruce H

    2013-05-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are commonly used pesticides that can effect hemodynamic changes through increased cholinergic stimulation. Children of agricultural workers are likely to have paraoccupational exposures to pesticides, but the potential physiological impact of such exposures is unclear. We investigated whether secondary pesticide exposures were associated with blood pressure and heart rate among children living in agricultural Ecuadorian communities. This cross-sectional study included 271 children 4-9 years of age [51% cohabited with one or more flower plantation workers (mean duration, 5.2 years)]. Erythrocyte AChE activity was measured using the EQM Test-mate system. Linear regression models were used to estimate associations of systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate with AChE activity, living with flower workers, duration of cohabitation with a flower worker, number of flower workers in the child's home, and number of practices that might increase children's exposure to pesticides. Mean (± SD) AChE activity was 3.14 ± 0.49 U/mL. A 1-U/mL decrease in AChE activity was associated with a 2.86-mmHg decrease in SBP (95% CI: -5.20, -0.53) and a 2.89-mmHg decrease in DBP (95% CI: -5.00, -0.78), after adjustment for potential confounders. Children living with flower workers had lower SBP (-1.72 mmHg; 95% CI: -3.53, 0.08) than other children, and practices that might increase exposure also were associated with lower SBP. No significant associations were found between exposures and heart rate. Our findings suggest that subclinical secondary exposures to pesticides may affect vascular reactivity in children. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings.

  1. Dating and Sexual Feelings

    ... Home Body Your sexuality Dating and sexual feelings Dating and sexual feelings Thinking about romance, starting to ... you learn how to stay healthy and strong. Dating older guys top If you date someone even ...

  2. The Effect of Elevated CO2 and Increased Temperature on in Vitro Fertilization Success and Initial Embryonic Development of Single Male:Female Crosses of Broad-Cast Spawning Corals at Mid- and High-Latitude Locations

    Miriam Schutter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of global climate change on coral reefs is expected to be most profound at the sea surface, where fertilization and embryonic development of broadcast-spawning corals takes place. We examined the effect of increased temperature and elevated CO2 levels on the in vitro fertilization success and initial embryonic development of broadcast-spawning corals using a single male:female cross of three different species from mid- and high-latitude locations: Lyudao, Taiwan (22° N and Kochi, Japan (32° N. Eggs were fertilized under ambient conditions (27 °C and 500 μatm CO2 and under conditions predicted for 2100 (IPCC worst case scenario, 31 °C and 1000 μatm CO2. Fertilization success, abnormal development and early developmental success were determined for each sample. Increased temperature had a more profound influence than elevated CO2. In most cases, near-future warming caused a significant drop in early developmental success as a result of decreased fertilization success and/or increased abnormal development. The embryonic development of the male:female cross of A. hyacinthus from the high-latitude location was more sensitive to the increased temperature (+4 °C than the male:female cross of A. hyacinthus from the mid-latitude location. The response to the elevated CO2 level was small and highly variable, ranging from positive to negative responses. These results suggest that global warming is a more significant and universal stressor than ocean acidification on the early embryonic development of corals from mid- and high-latitude locations.

  3. Setting a date

    Moore, Glenis.

    1987-01-01

    Dating techniques are discussed and explained. The age range and sensitivity of different techniques are given. Potassium/argon dating, amino-acid dating, radiocarbon dating, dendrochronology, thermoluminescence and geomagnetic field dating are all mentioned. Each technique is explained and a brief history given. The techniques and equipment used by the British Museum, and some examples of archaeological articles dated are mentioned. (UK)

  4. Dataset reporting the perceiver identification rates of basic emotions expressed by male, female and ambiguous gendered walkers in full-light, point-light and synthetically modelled point-light walkers.

    Halovic, Shaun; Kroos, Christian

    2017-12-01

    This data set describes the experimental data collected and reported in the research article "Walking my way? Walker gender and display format confounds the perception of specific emotions" (Halovic and Kroos, in press) [1]. The data set represent perceiver identification rates for different emotions (happiness, sadness, anger, fear and neutral), as displayed by full-light, point-light and synthetic point-light walkers. The perceiver identification scores have been transformed into H t rates, which represent proportions/percentages of correct identifications above what would be expected by chance. This data set also provides H t rates separately for male, female and ambiguously gendered walkers.

  5. Testing the economic independence hypothesis: the effect of an exogenous increase in child support on subsequent marriage and cohabitation.

    Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R

    2014-06-01

    We examine the effects of an increase in income on the cohabitation and marriage of single mothers. Using data from an experiment that resulted in randomly assigned differences in child support receipt for welfare-receiving single mothers, we find that exogenous income increases (as a result of receiving all child support that was paid) are associated with significantly lower cohabitation rates between mothers and men who are not the fathers of their child(ren). Overall, these results support the hypothesis that additional income increases disadvantaged women's economic independence by reducing the need to be in the least stable type of partnerships. Our results also show the potential importance of distinguishing between biological and social fathers.

  6. Apparatus for measurement of the electric dipole moment of the neutron using a cohabiting atomic-mercury magnetometer

    Baker, C.A. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Chibane, Y.; Chouder, M. [University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Geltenbort, P. [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Green, K. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Harris, P.G., E-mail: p.g.harris@sussex.ac.uk [University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Heckel, B.R. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Iaydjiev, P.; Ivanov, S.N.; Kilvington, I. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Lamoreaux, S.K. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); May, D.J.; Pendlebury, J.M.; Richardson, J.D.; Shiers, D.B.; Smith, K.F. [University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Grinten, M. van der [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-01

    A description is presented of apparatus used to carry out an experimental search for an electric dipole moment of the neutron, at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), Grenoble. The experiment incorporated a cohabiting atomic-mercury magnetometer in order to reduce spurious signals from magnetic field fluctuations. The result has been published in an earlier letter [1]; here, the methods and equipment used are discussed in detail.

  7. A comparison of intimate partner violence and associated physical injuries between cohabitating and married women: a 5-year medical chart review

    Janet Yuen-Ha Wong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cohabitation, referring to a co-residential romantic relationship between two intimate partners without a marriage license, has become widely accepted in contemporary societies. It has been found that cohabitating women have a higher risk of experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV than married women. However, as yet, no studies have investigated the level and pattern of IPV-associated physical injuries and its mental health impact on cohabitating women. Therefore, we aim to compare IPV-associated physical injuries between cohabitating and married women by conducting a review of 5-year medical records from the emergency departments of two major public hospitals in Hong Kong. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study. Using two computerized systems, we identified the medical charts of 1011 women who had experienced IPV and presented at emergency departments between 2010 and 2014, of which, 132 were cohabitating and 833 were married. Results Cohabitating women were significantly younger (p-value < .0001 and had obtained a higher educational level (p-value = .008 than married women. After adjusting for those two variables, the logistic regression models showed that cohabitating women were approximately 2.1 times more likely than married women to present with head, neck, or facial injuries (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.30–3.40, p = .002, and the risk of having multiple injuries in different locations (head, neck, face, torso, limbs was almost twice that for cohabitating women compared with married women (OR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.25–2.65, p = .001. Furthermore, cohabitating women were almost two times as likely as married women to experience more than one method of physical violence (OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.18–2.51, p = .005. There were no significant differences regarding mental health, police reporting, and discharge plans. Conclusions Owing to recent social changes to the family

  8. Partners in health? Exploring resemblance in health between partners in married and cohabiting couples.

    Monden, Christiaan

    2007-04-01

    Sociological theories on family formation and families and health suggest that married and cohabiting partners will resemble each other in health status, positively or negatively. The family is often seen as a health-enhancing agent for individuals. However, there are large health differences among families. This study aims to answer the question whether it is the case that the healthy live with the healthy and individuals with poor health have partners who are also in poor health. Moreover, it examines whether resemblance in health is a consequence of partner choice--educational homogamy in particular--behaviour or shared circumstances. Younger and older couples are compared to investigate whether health resemblance increases over the lifecourse. Analyses of a nationally representative sample of almost 12,000 Dutch couples show that partners are indeed significantly alike with regard to several health indicators. Respondents whose partner reports poor health are almost three times more likely to report poor health than respondents whose partner is in good health. There is a strong accumulation of health problems within households. Partner selection with regard to education causes part of the partner resemblance in health. Less support is found for the hypotheses that risk behaviour, mutual influence or the effects of shared circumstances cause similarity between partners' health status. Surprisingly, partners in older couples, who have been together for a longer time, do not resemble each other significantly more than partners in younger couples. The implications of these findings for sociological theory and social inequalities in health are discussed.

  9. Understanding Teen Dating Violence

    Understanding Teen Dating Violence Fact Sheet 2014 Dating violence is a type of intimate partner violence. It occurs between two people in a close relationship. The nature of dating violence can be physical, emotional, or sexual. • Physical— This ...

  10. Teen Dating Violence

    ... Room Social Media Publications Injury Center Teen Dating Violence Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... serious forms of violence. What is teen dating violence? Teen Dating Violence [550 KB, 2 Pages, 508] ...

  11. The Enduring Significance of Skin Tone: Linking Skin Tone, Attitudes Toward Marriage and Cohabitation, and Sexual Behavior

    Landor, Antoinette M.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2016-01-01

    Past evidence has documented that attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation are related to sexual behavior in adolescence and young adulthood. This study extends prior research by longitudinally testing these associations across racial/ethnic groups and investigating whether culturally relevant variations within racial/ethnic minority groups, such as skin tone (i.e., lightness/darkness of skin color), are linked to attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation and sex. Drawing on family and public health literatures and theories, as well as burgeoning skin tone literature, it was hypothesized that more positive attitudes toward marriage and negative attitudes toward cohabitation would be associated with less risky sex, and that links differed for lighter and darker skin individuals. The sample included 6872 respondents (49.6 % female; 70.0 % White; 15.8 % African American; 3.3 % Asian; 10.9 % Hispanic) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. The results revealed that marital attitudes had a significantly stronger dampening effect on risky sexual behavior of lighter skin African Americans and Asians compared with their darker skin counterparts. Skin tone also directly predicted number of partners and concurrent partners among African American males and Asian females. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these findings for adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:26979445

  12. The Enduring Significance of Skin Tone: Linking Skin Tone, Attitudes Toward Marriage and Cohabitation, and Sexual Behavior.

    Landor, Antoinette M; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2016-05-01

    Past evidence has documented that attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation are related to sexual behavior in adolescence and young adulthood. This study extends prior research by longitudinally testing these associations across racial/ethnic groups and investigating whether culturally relevant variations within racial/ethnic minority groups, such as skin tone (i.e., lightness/darkness of skin color), are linked to attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation and sex. Drawing on family and public health literatures and theories, as well as burgeoning skin tone literature, it was hypothesized that more positive attitudes toward marriage and negative attitudes toward cohabitation would be associated with less risky sex, and that links differed for lighter and darker skin individuals. The sample included 6872 respondents (49.6 % female; 70.0 % White; 15.8 % African American; 3.3 % Asian; 10.9 % Hispanic) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. The results revealed that marital attitudes had a significantly stronger dampening effect on risky sexual behavior of lighter skin African Americans and Asians compared with their darker skin counterparts. Skin tone also directly predicted number of partners and concurrent partners among African American males and Asian females. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these findings for adolescence and young adulthood.

  13. Progress in radiocarbon dating

    Hedges, R.E.M.

    1985-01-01

    The article concerns radiocarbon dating, the most important method for dating in archaeology. The principles and practice of the dating method are described. Recent developments in radiocarbon dating due to technical advances, are discussed, and include radiometric counting of small samples and accelerator mass spectrometry. Carbon isotopes and the environment are also discussed. (U.K.)

  14. Analysis of the Arabidopsis superman allelic series and the interactions with other genes demonstrate developmental robustness and joint specification of male-female boundary, flower meristem termination and carpel compartmentalization.

    Breuil-Broyer, Stéphanie; Trehin, Christophe; Morel, Patrice; Boltz, Véronique; Sun, Bo; Chambrier, Pierre; Ito, Toshiro; Negrutiu, Ioan

    2016-04-01

    SUPERMAN is a cadastral gene controlling the sexual boundary in the flower. The gene's functions and role in flower development and evolution have remained elusive. The analysis of a contrasting SUP allelic series (for which the names superman, superwoman and supersex have been coined) makes it possible to distinguish early vs. late regulatory processes at the flower meristem centre to which SUP is an important contributor. Their understanding is essential in further addressing evolutionary questions linking bisexuality and flower meristem homeostasis. Inter-allelic comparisons were carried out and SUP interactions with other boundary factors and flower meristem patterning and homeostasis regulators (such as CLV, WUS, PAN, CUC, KNU, AG, AP3/PI, CRC and SPT) have been evaluated at genetic, molecular, morphological and histological levels. Early SUP functions include mechanisms of male-female (sexual) boundary specification, flower mersitem termination and control of stamen number. A SUP-dependent flower meristem termination pathway is identified and analysed. Late SUP functions play a role in organ morphogenesis by controlling intra-whorl organ separation and carpel medial region formation. By integrating early and late SUP functions, and by analyzing in one single experiment a series of SUP genetic interactions, the concept of meristematic 'transference' (cascade) - a regulatory bridging process redundantly and sequentially co-ordinating the triggering and completion of flower meristem termination, and carpel margin meristem and placenta patterning - is proposed. Taken together, the results strongly support the view that SUP(-type) function(s) have been instrumental in resolving male/female gradients into sharp male and female identities (whorls, organs) and in enforcing flower homeostasis during evolution. This has probably been achieved by incorporating the meristem patterning system of the floral axis into the female/carpel programme. © The Author 2016

  15. Sociodemographic characteristics and attitudes towards motherhood among single women compared with cohabiting women treated with donor semen - a Danish multicenter study.

    Salomon, Maria; Sylvest, Randi; Hansson, Helena; Nyboe Andersen, Anders; Schmidt, Lone

    2015-05-01

    To examine sociodemographic characteristics, family backgrounds, reproductive histories, and attitudes towards motherhood in single vs. cohabiting women seeking treatment with donor semen. Baseline data collection in a multicenter cohort study. All nine public fertility clinics in Denmark. In total n = 311 childless women initiating assisted reproduction using donor semen. Self-reported questionnaire responses from n = 184 single women seeking treatment by using donor semen were compared with responses from n = 127 cohabiting women. Sociodemographic characteristics, family backgrounds, reproductive histories, attitudes towards motherhood. Single women were 3.5 years older on average when initiating treatment compared with cohabiting women. No significant differences were found regarding sociodemographic characteristics, previous long-term relationships, previous pregnancies, or attitudes towards motherhood between single women and cohabiting women. The vast majority of single women wanted to achieve parenthood with a partner, 85.8% wished to have a partner in the future, and approximately half of them preferred for a partner to take parental responsibilities. In this study single women seeking treatment with donor semen in the public health system did not differ from cohabiting women, except that they were older. To be a single mother by choice is not their preferred way of parenthood, but a solution they needed to accept. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Involvement in Child Rearing and Firm Control Parenting by Male Cohabiting Partners in Black Low-Income Stepfamilies: Forecasting Adolescent Problem Behaviors.

    Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan; Lafko, Nicole

    2015-09-01

    Cohabitation is a family structure that is rapidly increasing in the United States. The current longitudinal study examined the interplay of involvement in a youth's daily activities and firm control parenting by male cohabiting partners (MCPs) on change in adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems. In a sample of 111 inner-city African American families, adolescents reported on involvement and parenting by MCPs at Wave 1 and biological mothers reported on adolescent problem behaviors at Waves 1 and 2. A significant interaction indicated that low involvement and low firm control by MCPs at Wave 1 were associated with the highest level of internalizing problems at Wave 2. An interaction did not emerge when externalizing problems served as the outcome. The findings indicate that male partners play an important role in parenting adolescents in cohabiting families and should be considered potential participants in prevention and intervention programs. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Reported reasons for breakdown of marriage and cohabitation in Britain: Findings from the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3.

    Kirsten Gravningen

    Full Text Available Breakdown of marriage and cohabitation is common in Western countries and is costly for individuals and society. Most research on reasons for breakdown has focused on marriages ending in divorce and/or have used data unrepresentative of the population. We present prevalence estimates of, and differences in, reported reasons for recent breakdown of marriages and cohabitations in Britain.Descriptive analyses of data from Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3, a probability sample survey (15,162 people aged 16-74 years undertaken 2010-2012, using computer-assisted personal interviewing. We examined participants' reported reasons for live-in partnership breakdown in the past 5 years and how these varied by gender and partnership type (married vs. cohabitation.Overall, 10.9% (95% CI: 9.9-11.9% of men and 14.1% (13.2-15.0% of women reported live-in partnership breakdown in the past 5 years. Mean duration of men's marriages was 14.2 years (95% CI: 12.8-15.7 vs. cohabitations; 3.5 years (3.0-4.0, and for women: 14.6 years (13.5-15.8 vs. 4.2 years (3.7-4.8. Among 706 men and 1254 women reporting experience of recent breakdown, the reasons 'grew apart' (men 39%, women 36%, 'arguments' (27%, 30%, 'unfaithfulness/adultery' (18%, 24%, p<0.05, and 'lack of respect/appreciation' (17%, 25%, p<0.05 were the most common, irrespective of partnership type. A total of 16% of women vs. 4% of men cited domestic violence. After adjusting for age at interview and duration of partnership, there were no significant differences in reasons given for breakup by partnership type, except that men more commonly cited 'moving due to changing circumstances' as a reason for a cohabitation ending than for a marriage (AOR = 3.78, 95% CI: 1.08-13.21; and among women, 'not sharing housework' (0.54, 0.35-0.83 and 'sexual difficulties' (0.45, 0.25-0.84 were less commonly cited as reasons for cohabitation ending than marriage.These representative

  18. Correlates of minimal dating.

    Leck, Kira

    2006-10-01

    Researchers have associated minimal dating with numerous factors. The present author tested shyness, introversion, physical attractiveness, performance evaluation, anxiety, social skill, social self-esteem, and loneliness to determine the nature of their relationships with 2 measures of self-reported minimal dating in a sample of 175 college students. For women, shyness, introversion, physical attractiveness, self-rated anxiety, social self-esteem, and loneliness correlated with 1 or both measures of minimal dating. For men, physical attractiveness, observer-rated social skill, social self-esteem, and loneliness correlated with 1 or both measures of minimal dating. The patterns of relationships were not identical for the 2 indicators of minimal dating, indicating the possibility that minimal dating is not a single construct as researchers previously believed. The present author discussed implications and suggestions for future researchers.

  19. Dating of cremated bones

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process. We developed a method of dating cremated bone by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), using this carbonate fraction. Here we present results for a variety of prehistoric sites and ages, showing a r...

  20. Carbon 14 dating method

    Fortin, Ph.

    2000-01-01

    This document gives a first introduction to 14 C dating as it is put into practice at the radiocarbon dating centre of Claude-Bernard university (Lyon-1 univ., Villeurbanne, France): general considerations and recalls of nuclear physics; the 14 C dating method; the initial standard activity; the isotopic fractioning; the measurement of samples activity; the liquid-scintillation counters; the calibration and correction of 14 C dates; the preparation of samples; the benzene synthesis; the current applications of the method. (J.S.)

  1. Irradiation of dates

    Farkas, J.; Al-Charchafchy, F.; Al-Shaikhaly, M.H.; Mirjan, J.; Auda, H.

    1974-01-01

    Testing of the technical feasibility of radurization of fresh dates was attempted. In addition preliminary studies were carried out to investigate the applicability of gamma rays to date syrup manufacture. The varieties Zahdi, Lelwi and Tabarzel were studied at different stages of ripening. The eating quality of fresh dates was not affected significantly by irradiation even with doses of 270 and 540 krad. The duration of the softening process, after-ripening, of dates was prolonged by low doses of 10-30 krad in the majority of the experimental batches. The time period of after-ripening was reduced with 270 krad, as well as with 540 krad as a result of shortening of the induction period, i.e. the time after which the date begins to soften. The microbial spoilage of khalaal Lelwi dates was considerably reduced by irradiation with doses above 90 krad. The dibis yield of fully rutab dates was highly increased by the radiation doses of 375 to 2000 krad. The darkness and viable cell count of dibis pressed from irradiated dates were significantly lower than that of untreated dates. (F.J.)

  2. S K Date

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. S K Date. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 23 Issue 2 April 2000 pp 97-101 Magnetic Materials. Comparison of the irreversible thermomagnetic behaviour of some ferro- and ferrimagnetic systems · P S Anil Kumar P A Joy S K Date · More Details Abstract ...

  3. Second Quaternary dating workshop

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The second Quaternary dating methods workshop was held at Lucas Heights and sponsored by ANSTO and AINSE. Topics covered include, isotope and thermoluminescence dating, usage of accelerator and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry in environmental studies emphasizing on the methodologies used and sample preparation

  4. Dating of cremated bones

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process.

  5. Second Quaternary dating workshop

    1999-01-01

    The second Quaternary dating methods workshop was held at Lucas Heights and sponsored by ANSTO and AINSE. Topics covered include, isotope and thermoluminescence dating, usage of accelerator and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry in environmental studies emphasizing on the methodologies used and sample preparation

  6. Quaternary dating methods

    Mahaney, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    The papers in this book cover absolute, relative and multiple dating methods, and have been written by specialists from a number of different earth sciences disciplines - their common interest being the dating of geological materials within the Quaternary. Papers on absolute dating methods discuss radiocarbon, uranium-series, potassium argon, 40 Ar/ 39 Ar, paleomagnetic, obsidian hydration, thermoluminescence, amino acid racemization, tree rings, and lichenometric techniques. Those on relative dating include discussions on various geomorphic relative age indicators such as drainage density changes, hypsometric integrals, bifurcation ratios, stream junction angles, spur morphology, hillslope geometry, and till sheet characteristics. The papers on multiple dating cite examples from the Rocky Mountains, Australia, Lake Agassiz Basin, and the Southern Andes. Also included is the panel discussion which reviews and assesses the information presented, and a field trip guide which discusses the sequences of Wisconian tills and interlayered lacustrine and fluvial sediments. (orig.)

  7. Family Structure, Maternal Dating, and Sexual Debut: Extending the Conceptualization of Instability.

    Zito, Rena Cornell; De Coster, Stacy

    2016-05-01

    Family structure influences the risk of early onset of sexual intercourse. This study proposes that the family structures associated with risk-single-mother, step-parent, and cohabiting-influence early sexual debut due to family instability, including shifts in family structure and maternal dating, which can undermine parental control and transmit messages about the acceptability of nonmarital sex. Previous research has not considered maternal dating as a component of family instability, assuming single mothers who date and those who do not date experience comparable levels of family disruption and transmit similar messages about the acceptability of nonmarital sex. Hypotheses are assessed using logistic regression models predicting the odds of early onset of sexual intercourse among 9959 respondents (53 % female, 47 % male) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Respondents were ages 12-17 at the first wave of data collection and 18-26 at the third wave, when respondents reported the age at which they first had sexual intercourse. Results show that maternal dating is a source of family instability with repercussions for early sexual debut. Parental control and permissive attitudes towards teenage sex and pregnancy link at-risk family structures and maternal dating to early sexual initiation among females, though these variables do not fully explain family structure and maternal dating effects. Among males, the influence of maternal dating on early sexual debut is fully explained by the learning of permissive sexual attitudes.

  8. De-standardization of family trajectories: Childbearing in unmarried cohabitation not only as an alternative but also as a pathway to marriage

    Vítečková, M.; Klímová Chaloupková, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2014), e138-e148 ISSN 1804-7122 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP404/11/0145 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : Unmarried cohabitation * Parenthood * Family trajectories Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kontakt.2014.05.001

  9. Luminescence dating in archaeology

    Wintle, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating is routinely applied to burnt lithic material. Simple fires are capable of enabling stones weighing a few hundred grams to reach 450 o C, thus zeroing the TL signal. TL dates have been obtained for Upper and Lower Paleolithic sites in Europe and the Near East. TL dating continues to be used for dating pottery and for authentification of ceramic works of art. Some recent studies report the use of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) (also know as photoluminescence) for dating very small samples of quartz, e.g. from small pieces of pottery or frm metallurgical slag The major recent advance has been in the development of a reliable laboratory procedure for using the OSL signal from quartz to obtain the past radiation exposure. The quartz OSL signal is extremely sensitive to light and is reduced to a negligible level on exposure to direct sunlight for radionuclides during burial, signal to date san.sized quartz grains extracted from sediments, The OSL signal is stimulated by 470 nm light from emitting diodes and the detected using flirters centred on 340 nm A similar signal can be obtained from feldspar grain when are exposed to infrared wavelengths around 880 nm. The infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals is also rapidly depleted by exposure to sunlight, and dating of colluvial deposits from archaeological sites has been reported

  10. Date Rape (For Teens)

    ... owe" someone sex, even if you're a couple. Rape is not always violent. If you say " ... date rape" drugs like: rohypnol , called roofies, lunch money, or mind erasers GHB (gamma hydroxybutyric acid), called ...

  11. Methods of dating

    Gatty, B

    1986-04-01

    Scientific methods of dating, born less than thirty years ago, have recently improved tremendously. First the dating principles will be given; then it will be explained how, through natural radioactivity, we can have access to the age of an event or an object; the case of radiocarbon will be especially emphasized. The principle of relative methods such as thermoluminescence or paleomagnetism will also be shortly given. What is the use for dating. The fields of its application are numerous; through these methods, relatively precise ages can be given to the major events which have been keys in the history of universe, life and man; thus, dating is a useful scientific tool in astrophysics, geology, biology, anthropology and archeology. Even if certain ages are still subject to controversies, we can say that these methods have confirmed evolution's continuity, be it on a cosmic, biologic or human scale, where ages are measured in billions, millions or thousands of years respectively.

  12. Radiometric dating methods

    Bourdon, B.

    2003-01-01

    The general principle of isotope dating methods is based on the presence of radioactive isotopes in the geologic or archaeological object to be dated. The decay with time of these isotopes is used to determine the 'zero' time corresponding to the event to be dated. This paper recalls the general principle of isotope dating methods (bases, analytical methods, validation of results and uncertainties) and presents the methods based on natural radioactivity (Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, U-Pb, Re-Os, K-Ar (Ar-Ar), U-Th-Ra- 210 Pb, U-Pa, 14 C, 36 Cl, 10 Be) and the methods based on artificial radioactivity with their applications. Finally, the methods based on irradiation damages (thermoluminescence, fission tracks, electron spin resonance) are briefly evoked. (J.S.)

  13. NAIP 2012 Image Dates

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — This map is produced by the Aerial Phtography Field Office (APFO) to show the image acquisition dates for the 2012 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  14. NAIP 2014 Image Dates

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — This map is produced by the Aerial Phtography Field Office (APFO) to show the image acquisition dates for the 2014 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  15. Food Product Dating

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices ... Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Food Product Dating "Best if Used By" is a ...

  16. NAIP 2013 Image Dates

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — This map is produced by the Aerial Phtography Field Office (APFO) to show the image acquisition dates for the 2013 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  17. NAIP 2011 Image Dates

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — This map is produced by the Aerial Phtography Field Office (APFO) to show the image acquisition dates for the 2011 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  18. Cultural practices, gender inequality and inconsistent condom use increase vulnerability to HIV infection: narratives from married and cohabiting women in rural communities in Mpumalanga province, South Africa

    Madiba, Sphiwe; Ngwenya, Nomsa

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Women in sub-Saharan Africa bear the brunt of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, and older married women and those in cohabiting relationships are regarded as the largest HIV risk group. Although preventing HIV infection in married or stable relationships is an international HIV prevention priority, little is known about the influence of sociocultural contexts on safe-sex practice by women, particularly older women in rural communities in South Africa. Objectives: This study aimed to examine how older women in a rural patriarchal society negotiate safer sex within marital and long-term cohabitation relationships, and their perceptions and experiences of barriers that influence condom use. Methods: Focus group discussions were conducted with married and cohabiting women aged 40–60 years recruited from primary health facilities in a rural district in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. A thematic analysis approach was used to analyse the data. Results: We found that although women reported negotiating safe sex in their relationships, they dreaded the possible consequences of suggesting condom use with their partners. Many factors made negotiating safe sex complex for these women: living in a patriarchal society where women play no part in sexual decision making, the fear of possible consequences of insisting on condom use, women’s inferior social position in marital relationships, cultural practices such as bride price, and gender inequality were the main barriers to practising safer sex. Conclusions: Older married and cohabiting women dreaded negotiating safer sex in this patriarchal society where women’s subordination is legitimized. The findings suggest that the women were at high risk of HIV infection because of their inability to negotiate condom use, or to reject forced sex and non-consensual sex. There is a need for interventions targeting older married and cohabiting couples and key stakeholders within communities to

  19. Cultural practices, gender inequality and inconsistent condom use increase vulnerability to HIV infection: narratives from married and cohabiting women in rural communities in Mpumalanga province, South Africa.

    Madiba, Sphiwe; Ngwenya, Nomsa

    Women in sub-Saharan Africa bear the brunt of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, and older married women and those in cohabiting relationships are regarded as the largest HIV risk group. Although preventing HIV infection in married or stable relationships is an international HIV prevention priority, little is known about the influence of sociocultural contexts on safe-sex practice by women, particularly older women in rural communities in South Africa. This study aimed to examine how older women in a rural patriarchal society negotiate safer sex within marital and long-term cohabitation relationships, and their perceptions and experiences of barriers that influence condom use. Focus group discussions were conducted with married and cohabiting women aged 40-60 years recruited from primary health facilities in a rural district in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. A thematic analysis approach was used to analyse the data. We found that although women reported negotiating safe sex in their relationships, they dreaded the possible consequences of suggesting condom use with their partners. Many factors made negotiating safe sex complex for these women: living in a patriarchal society where women play no part in sexual decision making, the fear of possible consequences of insisting on condom use, women's inferior social position in marital relationships, cultural practices such as bride price, and gender inequality were the main barriers to practising safer sex. Older married and cohabiting women dreaded negotiating safer sex in this patriarchal society where women's subordination is legitimized. The findings suggest that the women were at high risk of HIV infection because of their inability to negotiate condom use, or to reject forced sex and non-consensual sex. There is a need for interventions targeting older married and cohabiting couples and key stakeholders within communities to create awareness about cultural practices and beliefs that undermine

  20. Dating fossil opal phytoliths

    Lentfer, C.; Boyd, B.; Torrence, R.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Opal phytoliths are microscopic silica bodies formed by the precipitation of hydrated silica dioxide (SiO 2 nH 2 0) in, around and between cell walls. They are relatively resistant to degradation in most environments and thus, can occur in large quantities in palaeosediments. Consequently, they are valuable tools for environmental reconstruction. Furthermore, phytoliths are often the only recoverable organic material in well oxidised sediments, the occluded carbon provides the opportunity for dating sediment whose ages have previously been difficult to determine, and thus, increase the potential for fine resolution determination of environmental change. This poster describes the results of an investigation assessing the viability of AMS radiocarbon dating of fossil phytolith inclusions using samples from Garua Island, West New Britain, PNG. Thirteen phytolith samples, isolated from sediments previously dated using tephrastratigraphy and C14 dating of macroremains of nutshells and wood charcoal, were used in the analysis. As a control measure, thirteen parallel samples of microscopic charcoal were also dated using AMS. The results show that the AMS dates for the microscopic charcoal samples are consistent with ages anticipated from the other dating methods, for all but one sample. However, the dates for eight of the thirteen phytolith samples are considerably younger than expected. This bias could be explained by several factors, including downwashing of phytolith through soils, bioturbation, carbon exchange through the siliceous matrix of the phytolith bodies, and contamination from extraneous sources of modern carbon retained in the samples. Research is currently focusing on the investigation of these issues and selected samples are in the process of being retreated with strong oxidising agents to clear contaminants prior to re-dating. Further to this, a full investigation of one profile with a long sequence is underway. High concentrations of

  1. History of radiocarbon dating

    Libby, W F [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Geophysics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1967-08-15

    The development is traced of radiocarbon dating from its birth in curiosity regarding the effects of cosmic radiation on Earth. Discussed in historical perspective are: the significance of the initial measurements in determining the course of developments; the advent of the low-level counting technique; attempts to avoid low-level counting by the use of isotopic enrichment; the gradual appearance of the environmental effect due to the combustion of fossil fuel (Suess effect); recognition of the atmosphere ocean barrier for carbon dioxide exchange; detailed understanding of the mixing mechanism from the study of fallout radiocarbon; determination of the new half-life; indexing and the assimilation problem for the massive accumulation of dates; and the proliferation of measurement techniques and the impact of archaeological insight on the validity of radiocarbon dates. (author)

  2. Determinants of fertility desire among married or cohabiting individuals in Rakai, Uganda: a cross-sectional study.

    Matovu, Joseph K B; Makumbi, Fredrick; Wanyenze, Rhoda K; Serwadda, David

    2017-01-10

    Recent trends in fertility rates indicate declines in total fertility rate (TFR) in some sub-Saharan African countries. However, countries such as Uganda continue to have a persistently high TFR partly attributed to strong preferences for large family sizes. We explored the factors that influence fertility desire among married or cohabiting individuals in Rakai, a rural district in southwestern Uganda. This cross-sectional study of fertility desire (desire to have another child) was nested in a cluster-randomized demand-creation intervention trial for the promotion of couples' HIV counseling and testing uptake among married or cohabiting individuals that was conducted in Rakai district between March 1 and April 30, 2015. A total of 1490 married or cohabiting individuals, resident in three study regions with differing background HIV prevalence, were enrolled into the study. Data were collected on socio-demographic, behavioral and fertility-related characteristics. We used a modified Poisson regression model to generate prevalence ratio (PR) as a measure of association for factors that were independently associated with fertility desire. We adjusted for clustering at community level and used STATA version 14.0 for all analyses. Overall, fertility desire was high (63.1%, n = 940); higher in men (69.9%, n = 489) than women (57.1%, n = 451). More than three-quarters (78.8%, n = 1174) had 3+ biological children while slightly more than two-thirds (68.5%, n = 1020) reported an ideal family size of 5+ children. Only 30% (n = 452) reported that they had attained their desired family size. After adjusting for potential and suspected confounders, the factors that were negatively associated with fertility desire were: age 30-39 (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.78, 0.86) and 40+ years (aPR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.60, 0.71); having six or more biological children (aPR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.80, 0.97); being HIV-positive (aPR = 0

  3. Obsidian dating prospects

    Ambrose, W.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Developments in the nuclear industry have shown that some of the problems related to the glassification of waste for long term storage are centred on the rate of glass weathering in various repositories. Long term weathering of artificial glasses is paralleled by the archaeological problem of determining hydration rates in obsidian artefacts as a means of dating their manufacture. Figures available for sites in Papua New Guinea indicate that the weathering rate is sufficiently fast to render conventional hydration measurement completely unreliable. This follows from the range of calculated surface reduction rates which range between .0002μ to .004μ per year depending on the site's location and the obsidian source. Hydration rates for key Papua New Guinea obsidians have been determined from long term experimental laboratory exposure and these are used to evaluate the age of obsidians from selected archaeological sites. By adopting a strategy of measuring hydration in concealed fissures both the weathering rate and the dating of the Papua New Guinea obsidians have been successfully achieved. The dissolution rates of natural obsidians could be useful in considering weathering rates for artificial glasses. An improved system for calculating the annual effective hydration temperature is presented which gives a better control of micro-environmental temperature in its crucial rate determining role. The combined result of these developments gives obsidian hydration dating an enhanced capacity to be a useful and independent dating system

  4. Confronting Dating Violence.

    McNulty, Raymond J.; Heller, Daniel A.; Binet, Tracy

    1997-01-01

    To be safe havens for children, schools cannot address the intellect only. Brattleboro (Vermont) Union High School went beyond academics by sponsoring a performance of "The Yellow Dress," a powerful one-woman play about a teenage victim of dating violence. The production challenged participants to unite school and community, intellect…

  5. The Realities of Date Rape.

    Presley, Cara; Watson, Jennifer; Williams, Audrey R.

    This poster presentation addresses the issue of date rape, specifically in the college environment. Highlighted are date rape statistics, demographics, and date rape drugs. Also discussed are date rape warnings and prevention strategies. It is concluded that college and university administrators must place the issue of date rape and acquaintance…

  6. Thermoluminescence dating of pottery

    Higashimura, Takenobu; Ichikawa, Yoneta.

    1978-01-01

    This report is divided into two parts. The first half describes on the history of thermoluminescence dating, and the latter half, the principle and measurement examples. It was in late 1955 that the measurement of radiation dose using thermoluminescence began. The method to thermoluminescence dating was developed when it was found that most natural stones emit the thermoluminescence. About Greek earthen wares, the study of which was presented in 1961 by G. Kennedy of University of California, the dating was able to be made within the standard deviation of 10%. Since then, this dating method progressed rapidly, and a number of laboratories are now forwarding the investigation. In the samples of natural materials, intensity of thermoluminescence I is proportional to natural radiation dose D which has been absorbed by the samples, i.e. I = kD, where k is the susceptibility of thermoluminescence of the samples. Since k is different in each sample, D can be determined by irradiating the sample with β or γ ray of known dose D 0 , measuring its luminescence I 0 , and eliminating k through these two equations, because i 0 = kD 0 . Next, if t is assumed to be the time passed since a pottery was made, D is expressed as Rt, where R is the natural radiation dose per year absorbed by the pottery. Thus t is determined if R is known. The report describes on the method of measuring R. As an example, the results of measurement of the potteries excavated at Iwakura remains, Yorikura, Taishaku-kyo, are listed. Results by 14 C dating are also described for reference. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  7. Physical activity and cohabitation status moderate the link between diabetes mellitus and cognitive performance in a community-dwelling elderly population in Germany

    Buchmann, Nikolaus; Tegeler, Christina; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis The increasing number of people with dementia and cognitive impairments makes it essential to detect and prevent modifiable risk factors of dementia. This study focuses on type 2 diabetes mellitus, especially on undiagnosed cases and their increased risk of cognitive impairment. Furthermore, the potential of physical activity and social integration to moderate the relation between diabetes and cognitive impairment is assessed. Methods We used cross-sectional data from 1299 participants of the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II) aged between 60 to 84 years and performed logistic regression models to analyze the association of diabetes status, physical activity, and cohabitation status with poor cognitive performance. Cognitive performance was measured with the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD)-Plus test battery. Results Undiagnosed diabetes (odds ratio (OR) = 2.12, p = 0.031), physical inactivity (OR = 1.43, p = 0.008) and non-cohabiting (OR = 1.58, p = 0.002) were associated with an increased likelihood of poor cognitive performance. The highest odds were observed in participants who suffered from undiagnosed or insulin-dependent diabetes and, in addition, were inactive (undiagnosed diabetes: OR = 3.44, p = 0.003; insulin-dependent diabetes: OR = 6.19, p = 0.019) or lived alone (undiagnosed diabetes: OR = 4.46, p = 0.006; insulin-dependent diabetes: OR = 6.46 p = 0.052). Physical activity and cohabiting appeared to be beneficial. Conclusions/Interpretation Physical activity and cohabitation status moderate the link between diabetes mellitus and cognitive performance. Special attention should be paid to undiagnosed and insulin-dependent diabetes cases, which have a particularly high risk of poor cognitive performance. PMID:29073237

  8. Do co-residence and intentions make a difference? Relationship satisfaction in married, cohabiting, and living apart together couples in four countries

    Tsui-o Tai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: A large body of research has compared relationship satisfaction and quality in cohabiting versus married relationships. Despite increased recognition of couples in living apart together (LAT relationships, very little research has examined the experiences of couples in LAT relationships compared to co-residential unions. Objective: Our aim is to develop knowledge about the experiences of different union types by investigating relationship satisfaction of people in LAT, cohabiting, and marital relationships. We differentiate those with intentions to marry for cohabiters, and those with intentions to marry or live together in LAT relationships. We also examine differences by gender and country. Methods: Using data from Wave 1 of the Generations and Gender Survey in France, Germany, Australia, and Russia (n = 9,604, OLS regressions are estimated to investigate a differences in relationship satisfaction across relationship types, and b across countries. Results: Married people have the highest levels of relationship satisfaction. People in non-marital unions with intentions to marry or live together are significantly more satisfied than those without marriage or cohabitation intentions. Those in LAT relationships with no intentions to live together have the lowest levels of relationship satisfaction. There is evidence of cross-national variation with differences in relationship satisfaction by union type most pronounced in Australia and Russia. Gender differences are found with women reporting lower levels of relationship satisfaction than men. Conclusions: LAT relationships are qualitatively different to co-residential unions. It is important to further develop our understanding of the experiences of couples in these relationships.

  9. Amino acid racemisation dating

    Murray-Wallace, C.V.

    1999-01-01

    The potential of the time-dependent amino acid racemisation reaction as a method of age assessment was first reported by Hare and Abelson (1968). They noted that in specimens of the bivalve mollusc Mercenaria sp., greater concentrations of amino acids in the D-configuration with increasing fossil age. Hare and Abelson (1968) also reported negligible racemisation in a modern specimen of Mecanaria sp. On this basis they suggested that the extent of amino acid racemisation (epimerisation in the case of isoleucine) may be used to assess the age of materials within and beyond the range of radiocarbon dating. For the past thirty years amino acid racemisation has been extensively applied in Quaternary research as a method of relative and numeric dating, and a particularly large literature has emerged on the subject

  10. Dating fractures in infants

    Halliday, K.E., E-mail: kath.halliday@nuh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Broderick, N J; Somers, J M [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Hawkes, R [Department of Radiology, Paul O' Gorman Building, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Aim: To document the timing of the appearance of the radiological features of fracture healing in a group of infants in which the date of injury was known and to assess the degree of interobserver agreement. Materials and methods: Three paediatric radiologists independently assessed 161 images of 37 long bone fractures in 31 patients aged 0-44 months. The following features were assessed: soft-tissue swelling, subperiosteal new bone formation (SPNBF), definition of fracture line, presence or absence of callus, whether callus was well or ill defined, and the presence of endosteal callus. Results: Agreement between observers was only moderate for all discriminators except SPNBF. SPNBF was invariably seen after 11 days but was uncommon before this time even in the very young. In one case SPNBF was seen at 4 days. Conclusion: With the exception of SPNBF, the criteria relied on to date fractures are either not reproducible or are poor discriminators of fracture age.

  11. Dating fractures in infants

    Halliday, K.E.; Broderick, N.J.; Somers, J.M.; Hawkes, R.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To document the timing of the appearance of the radiological features of fracture healing in a group of infants in which the date of injury was known and to assess the degree of interobserver agreement. Materials and methods: Three paediatric radiologists independently assessed 161 images of 37 long bone fractures in 31 patients aged 0-44 months. The following features were assessed: soft-tissue swelling, subperiosteal new bone formation (SPNBF), definition of fracture line, presence or absence of callus, whether callus was well or ill defined, and the presence of endosteal callus. Results: Agreement between observers was only moderate for all discriminators except SPNBF. SPNBF was invariably seen after 11 days but was uncommon before this time even in the very young. In one case SPNBF was seen at 4 days. Conclusion: With the exception of SPNBF, the criteria relied on to date fractures are either not reproducible or are poor discriminators of fracture age.

  12. Thermoluminescence dating method

    Zink, A.

    2004-01-01

    A crystal that is submitted to radiation stores energy and releases this energy under the form of light whenever it is heated. These 2 properties: the ability to store energy and the ability to reset the energy stored are the pillars on which time dating methods like thermoluminescence are based. A typical accuracy of the thermoluminescence method is between 5 to 7% but an accuracy of 3% can be reached with a sufficient number of measurement. This article describes the application of thermoluminescence to the dating of a series of old terra-cotta statues. This time measurement is absolute and does not require any calibration, it represents the time elapsed since the last heating of the artifact. (A.C.)

  13. Radiocarbon dating for contributors

    Jansen, H.S.

    1984-06-01

    This report describes the radiocarbon facility at the Institute of Nuclear Sciences, and is written for potential contributors, current users, and for those who advise others. The report briefly outlines the principles and practices of C-14 dating; with emphasis on factors that enable contributors to judge whether C-14 work is appropriate, and to assist them with the procedures to be followed in order to get the best results. Age determinations, being the main requirements by contributors, have been discussed in detail

  14. Sediment dating in review

    Prescott, J.R.; Robertson, G.B.

    1997-01-01

    The paper will comment on a few issues of particular relevance to Australasia. Thermoluminescent (TL) methods applied to open sites have been demonstrated to be effective. A particularly good example of this is to be found in the South East of South Australia, where a sequence of low ranges runs roughly parallel with the coast. They represent relict sand dunes left behind, on a slowly rising land surface by successive interglacial incursions of the sea at roughly 120 ka intervals. Comparison with ages established on independent geological grounds allows a test of quartz TL and IRSL ages that is believable back to 500 ka. Older than this, we do not yet understand the physics of the quartz well enough to go unequivocally forward (backward?). Similar results are emerging elsewhere. With dating limits being pushed ever further back, the time variation of the environmental radiation giving rise to the stored luminescent energy needs to be addressed. Particularly at wet sites, radioactive disequilibrium must be considered. In any case, a time profile of the radiation dose rate needs to be determined.In dating a given site or sites the value of ages obtained by any dating method,including C-14, is enhanced by parallel measurements with an different method

  15. Dating Violence among College Students

    Iconis, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Dating violence is a significant problem on college campuses. More than one-fifth of the undergraduate dating population are physically abused by their dating partners and an even greater percentage are psychologically abused. Researchers have identified risk factors for college student dating violence. Preventive interventions are strongly…

  16. Flirting in Online Dating

    Mortensen, Kristine Køhler

    2017-01-01

    Various fields have examined the activity of flirting, predominantly based on experimental and reported data; the interactional workings are therefore often overlooked. Based on emails and chats from two Danish online dating sites, this article investigates how users negotiate romantic connections...... through the flirting strategy of ‘imagined togetherness’, linguistically constructing imagery of a shared future. Using the notion of the chronotope, turn-by-turn analysis demonstrates how users, embedded in the activity of getting to know each other, tenuously communicate romantic interest by alluding...

  17. Bomb pulse radiocarbon dating

    Tuniz, C.; Zoppi, U.; Hotchkis, M.A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Modern forensic science has to deal not only with homicides and other traditional crimes but also with more global threats such as the smuggling of nuclear materials, clandestine production of weapons of mass destruction, stockpiling of illicit drugs by state controlled groups and war crimes. Forensic applications have always benefited from the use of advanced analytical tools that can characterize materials found at crime scenes. In this paper we will discuss the use of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) as an ultrasensitive tool for the crime laboratories of the third millennium. An important objective in forensic science is to order past events chronologically by analysing materials associated with criminal actions. Radiocarbon dating is known to the general public for its application to historical and prehistorical investigations. Examples of forensic significance include the assassination of the Inca Atahualpa by Francisco Pizarro in the early 1530s, the possible murder of the Tyrolean Ice Man (Oetzi) 5300 years ago and the analysis of the burial cloths allegedly associated with the crucifixion of Jesus Christ . Recent murders, including those associated with war crimes in the Balkans during the 1990s, can be studied using 14 C bomb pulse dating. This method has other forensic applications, including investigation of frauds related to food and wine counterfeiting, dating of opium crops and dating of substances used in biological warfare. AMS extends the applicability of the radiocarbon method, allowing the analysis of 14 C in submilligram organic samples. Specific molecular compounds extracted from bones, hair, skin and other carbon bearing substances of forensic significance can now be dated, enhancing the sensitivity and reliability of chronological determinations. AMS can also be used to analyse rare actinide isotopes released into the environment during the clandestine production of nuclear weapons or associated with the smuggling of nuclear materials. In

  18. Updating dating down under

    Bristow, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The article deals with the Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP), Australia's only microprobe and its applications for geochronology. SHRIMP has the ability to analyse tiny areas (less than 30μm across) within crystals directly, the only sample preparation required being polishing of the crystal surface. Most analyses so far have been done on separated crystals prepared as grain mounts, although an increasing number of analyses are now being made of crystals in rock thin sections where their textural associations can be established. Important features of SHRIMP are its double-focusing mass spectrometer and great physical size, more than 8 meters long, employing a magnet weighing six tons. This enables the machine to distinguish ions with atomic masses differing by less than one part in ten thousand while at the same time having a very great sensitivity. SHRIMP was used for dating crustal zircons from southern African Kimberlites. Although low U and Pb abundances presents problems in peak selection and focusing on SHRIMP its was found that kimberlitic zircons could be dated successfully

  19. Decomposition of BOLD Activity into Tuned and Untuned Components Reveals Cohabitation of Stimulus and Choice Information in V1

    Kyoung Whan Choe

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on V1 report top-down modulation of input-driven responses of sensory neurons, implying that exogenous sensory drives and endogenous top-down drives jointly determine V1 responses. By measuring fMRI responses in conjunction with a classification task on ambiguous ring stimuli, we sought to understand how V1 carries out its encoding operation on afferent currents while being adaptively modulated by top-down currents associated with perceptual tasks. Population activity of V1, as in its raw eccentricity profiles, failed to resolve the threshold differences between the ring stimuli due to large moment-to-moment fluctuations. The analysis of variance indicated that stimulus-evoked responses explain only one-fifth of the total variance and fMRI responses were highly correlated among eccentricity-bins, implying that a substantial fraction of V1 responses fluctuate as a whole. This led us to decompose the raw fMRI responses into untuned and tuned components: average response across eccentricity-bins and residual responses from the average, respectively, the former varying only in time and the latter varying in both space and time. The tuned responses revealed the veridical encoding operation of V1 by readily distinguishing between the ring stimuli, which was impossible with the raw fMRI responses. In contrast, the untuned were correlated with two major aspects of choice behavior—inter-trial variability in response time and inter-subject variability in response bias. We propose that this cohabitation of stimulus and choice information in V1 indicates the presence of top-down exertion of gain modulation on the early processing stage by the high-tier stage that accumulates evidence for perceptual choices.

  20. Experimental Transmission of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus from the Blue Mussel, Mytilus edulis, to Cohabitating Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Smolts

    Pietrak, Michael R.; Bricknell, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA) reduces the environmental impacts of commercial aquaculture systems by combining the cultivation of fed species with extractive species. Shellfish play a critical role in IMTA systems by filter-feeding particulate-bound organic nutrients. As bioaccumulating organisms, shellfish may also increase disease risk on farms by serving as reservoirs for important finfish pathogens such as infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). The ability of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) to bioaccumulate and transmit IPNV to naive Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts was investigated. To determine the ability of mussels to filter and accumulate viable IPNV, mussels were held in water containing log 4.6 50% tissue culture infective dose(s) (TCID50) of the West Buxton strain of IPNV ml−1. Viable IPNV was detected in the digestive glands (DGs) of IPNV-exposed mussels as early as 2 h postexposure. The viral load in mussel DG tissue significantly increased with time and reached log 5.35 ± 0.25 TCID50 g of DG tissue−1 after 120 h of exposure. IPNV titers never reached levels that were significantly greater than that in the water. Viable IPNV was detected in mussel feces out to 7 days postdepuration, and the virus persisted in DG tissues for at least 18 days of depuration. To determine whether IPNV can be transmitted from mussels to Atlantic salmon, IPNV-exposed mussels were cohabitated with naive Atlantic salmon smolts. Transmission of IPNV did occur from mussels to smolts at a low frequency. The results demonstrate that a nonenveloped virus, such as IPNV, can accumulate in mussels and be transferred to naive fish. PMID:23872575

  1. Prevalence, risk factors, and problems associated with dating violence: A literature review

    César Armando Rey Anacona

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The physical, psychological and sexual violence among the couples of adolescents and young adults that are not married neither cohabiting (well-known generally as “dating violence”, has been object of a vast number of investigations in the last two decades that show a high prevalence inside the adolescent and juvenile population. The objective of this work was to carry out an analysis of the literature in connection with the prevalence, risk factors and difficulties associated with this partner violence type. This analysis allowed to elaborate an outline of the factors that could favor the acts of violence, including the previous experiences of victimization inside and outside the family, the acceptance of the violence toward the couple, and the relationship with pairs that have exercised this form of violence.

  2. Radiocarbon dates XXI

    Lowdon, J.A.; Blake, W. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    This list includes 105 radiocarbon age determinations on 104 geological samples made by the Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory. They are on samples from various areas as follows: Labrador Shelf (2); Newfoundland (12); Nova Scotia (2); New Brunswick (1); Quebec (3); Ontario (1); Manitoba (1); Alberta (2); British Columbia (15); Yukon Territory (35); Northwest Territories, Mainland (10); Northwest Territories, Arctic Archipelago (21). Details of background and standard for the 2 L and 5 L counters during the period from November 4, 1980 to October 31, 1981 are summarized in Tables 1 and 2; Table 3 gives the number of counts used to determine the average background and standard counting rates; and Table 4 lists the number of different background and standard gas preparations used for counting

  3. Dates fruits classification using SVM

    Alzu'bi, Reem; Anushya, A.; Hamed, Ebtisam; Al Sha'ar, Eng. Abdelnour; Vincy, B. S. Angela

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we used SVM in classifying various types of dates using their images. Dates have interesting different characteristics that can be valuable to distinguish and determine a particular date type. These characteristics include shape, texture, and color. A system that achieves 100% accuracy was built to classify the dates which can be eatable and cannot be eatable. The built system helps the food industry and customer in classifying dates depending on specific quality measures giving best performance with specific type of dates.

  4. Dating technique tested

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical technique for dating ground water and polar ice up to a million years old has been successfully tested by scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The system, known as a rare gas atom counter, extends the capabilities of resonance ionization mass spectrometry to include counting single atoms of krypton-81. The counter is composed of a pulsed dye laser operated in tandem with a mass spectrometer to separate the various isotopes of krypton. In a collaborative study, ORNL scientists recently used the method for the first time to count krypton-81 in a liter of ground water removed from a sandstone aquifer near Zurich. Fewer than 1000 krypton-81 atoms were isolated from the ground water samples. According to Bernard Lehman, a collaborating geochemist at the University of Bern, this first test proved that counting the small numbers of krypton-81 atoms necessary to make an estimate of the age of water could actually be done. Among the applications of this method, Lehman says, could be improved siting of locations for the disposal of radioactive wastes

  5. Prevalence and social drivers of HIV among married and cohabitating heterosexual adults in south-eastern Tanzania: analysis of adult health community cohort data

    Sally M. Mtenga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In sub-Saharan Africa, the prevalence of HIV among married and cohabiting couples is substantial. Information about the underlying social drivers of HIV transmission in couples is critical for the development of structural approaches to HIV prevention, but not readily available. We explored the association between social drivers, practices, and HIV status among stable couples in Ifakara, Tanzania. Design: Using a cross-sectional design, we analyzed data from a sample of 3,988 married or cohabiting individuals, aged 15 years and older from the MZIMA adult health community cohort study of 2013. Sociodemographic factors (sex, income, age, and education, gender norms (perceived acceptability for a wife to ask her partner to use a condom when she knows he is HIV positive, marriage characteristics (being in a monogamous or a polygamous marriage, being remarried, sexual behavior practices (lifetime number of sexual partners and concurrent sexual partners, health system factors (ever used voluntary HIV counseling and testing, and lifestyle patterns (alcohol use were used to explore the odds of being HIV positive, with 95% confidence intervals. Results: Prevalence of HIV/AIDS was 6.7% (5.9% males and 7.1% females. Gender norms, that is, perception that a woman is not justified to ask her husband to use a condom even when she knows he has a disease (adjusted odds ratio AOR=1.51, 95% CI 1.06–2.17, marital characteristics, that is, being remarried (AOR=1.49, 95% CI 1.08–2.04, and sexual behavior characteristics, that is, lifetime number of sexual partners (2–4: AOR=1.47, 95% CI 1.02–2.11; 5+: AOR=1.61, 95% CI 1.05–2.47 were the main independent predictors of HIV prevalence. Conclusions: Among married or cohabiting individuals, the key social drivers/practices that appeared to make people more vulnerable for HIV are gender norms, marriage characteristics (being remarried, and sexual behavior practices (lifetime number of sexual partners

  6. Sweeping Changes in Marriage, Cohabitation, and Childbearing in Central and Eastern Europe: New Insights from the Developmental Idealism Framework.

    Thornton, Arland; Philipov, Dimiter

    2009-01-01

    In Central and Eastern Europe following the political transformations of the late 1980s and early 1990s there were dramatic declines in marriage and childbearing, significant increases in nonmarital cohabitation and childbearing, and a movement from reliance on abortion to a reliance on contraception for fertility limitation. Although many explanations have been offered for these trends, we offer new explanations based on ideational influences and the intersection of these ideational influences with structural factors. We focus on the political, economic, social, and cultural histories of the region, with particular emphasis on how countries in the region have interacted with and been influenced by Western European and North American countries. Our explanations emphasize the role of developmental models in guiding change in the region, suggesting that developmental idealism influenced family and demographic changes following the political transformations. Developmental idealism provides beliefs that modern family systems help to produce modern political and economic accomplishments and helps to establish the importance of freedom and equality as human rights in both the public and private spheres. The disintegration of the governments and the fall of the iron curtain in the late 1980s and early 1990s brought new understanding about social, economic, and family circumstances in the West, increasing consumption aspirations and expectations which clashed with both old economic realities and the dramatic declines in economic circumstances. In addition, the dissolution of the former governments removed or weakened systems supporting the bearing and rearing of children, and, the legitimacy of the former governments and their programs was largely destroyed, removing government support for old norms and patterns of behavior. In addition, the attacks of previous decades on the religious institutions in the region had in many places left these institutions weak. During this

  7. Optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating

    Banerjee, D.

    1999-01-01

    Since the pioneering work by Huntley et al. (1985), optical dating is being increasingly recognised as an important technique for establishing a time frame of deposition of sediments (Aitken, 1998). Optical dating differs from thermoluminescence (TL) dating in that visible/infrared light from lasers or LEDs (light-emitting-diodes) is used as a means of stimulation, in contrast to thermal stimulation. It has several advantages over TL dating: (i) the resetting of the OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) clock is more effective than that of TL clock; for sediments transported under water or in other situations where the sediment grains have undergone inhomogeneous bleaching, this property ensures that ages based on optical dating are generally more reliable than TL ages, (ii) the optical dating technique is non-destructive, and multiple readouts of the optical signal is possible; this feature has resulted in the development of single-aliquot and single-grain protocols (Murray and Wintle, 1999; Banerjee et al. 1999), (iii) the sample is not heated as in TL; thus, spurious luminescence is avoided and there is a significant reduction in blackbody radiation. Dating of materials which change phase on heating is also practical, and finally, (iv) thermal quenching of luminescence is negligible, allowing accurate estimation of kinetic parameters using standard techniques and providing access to deep OSL traps. This characteristic may be helpful in extending the limits of optical dating beyond the last 150 ka from a global point of view

  8. Luminescence dating of Netherland's sediments

    Wallinga, J.; Davids, F.; Dijkmans, J.W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decades luminescence dating techniques have been developed that allow earth scientists to determine the time of deposition of sediments. In this contribution we revity: 1) the development of the methodology, 2) tests of the reliability of luminescence dating on Netherlands' sediments;

  9. The isotopic dating of crystals

    Giuliani, G.; Cheilletz, A.

    1995-01-01

    The first part of this work deals with the answer to the question : why are the crystals dated ? Then, some isotopic dating methods are described : U-Th-Pb, K-Ar, 40 Ar/ 39 Ar, Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, fission traces, carbon 14 methods. Examples concerning emeralds and diamonds are given. (O.L.). 12 refs., 2 figs

  10. The comparison of absolute dating (Radiocarbon dating) and relative dating of Pringapus and Gondosuli temples

    Faisal, W; Arumbinang, H; Taftazani, A; Widayati, S; Sumiyatno; Suhardi

    1996-01-01

    The absolute dating (radiocarbon, 14 C dating) and relative dating of Pringapus and Gondosuli temples in Temanggung regency (district) of Central Java Province have been carried out. The field sampling was done especially with the purpose to obtain vertical data, so that excavation method was adopted in the case. The main data were the ecofacts of organic habitation such as bones, woods, charcoals, shells, and paper artefacts. The artefacts data were used as a comparison. The comparative data analysis were conducted at Yogyakarta archaeological Department Laboratory, thus included dating of artefacts which were performed according to archaeological analysis procedures, generally based on the attributes attached to the artefacts, whereas the absolute dating of charcoal samples were performed in the Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory at Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Centre. Based on the relative dating of epigraphy content on the andesit rock from Gondosuli Temple which showed the year of 754 Saka or 832 AD, the Pringapus Temple was estimated to be built in the 850 AD. According to the absolute dating (Radiocarbon Dating with delta 13 C and tree ring corrections) the age for Gondosuli temple based on GDS/LU-2/Spit-7 samples is (384 -602) AD and from GDS/LU-2/Spit-8 = (452 - 652) AD. With these significant differences in the results obtained, it can be concluded that culture environment where the sample were collected already existed before the temple was built. Further investigation is still required

  11. AHP 47: A NIGHT DATE

    Phun tshogs dbang rgyal ཕུན་ཚོགས་དབང་རྒྱལ།

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The author was born in 1993 in Ska chung (Gaqun Village, Nyin mtha' (Ningmute Township, Rma lho (Henan Mongolian Autonomous County, Rma lho (Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sngon (Qinghai Province, PR China. Night dating was popular for teenage boys some years ago. They rode horses and yaks when they went night dating. They generally rode yaks, because horses were important for their families and used for such important tasks as pursuing bandits and going to the county town for grain and supplies. An early experience with night dating is described.

  12. Gender differences in the association between cohabitation with parents and stress among married adults: A propensity score-matched analysis from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    Kim, Dae-Hwan; Mak, Kwok-Kei

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the gender-specific associations between cohabitation with parents and stress using an econometric approach. A total of 13,565 (41.7% men and 58.3% women) Korean adults aged 20-59 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008 to 2011 were pooled. They reported their gender, age, marital status, education level, employment status, income, home ownership, and cohabitation status with their parents. The association of living with parents and stress, as well as the gender difference in the association, was investigated using propensity score matching and the average treatment effect on the treated. Adults with higher education and income, not owning a house, or living in larger cities were less likely to live with parents. Stress was associated with having children and participating in the labor market for both married men and women. Moreover, living with parents was a protective factor for stress among husbands, but a risk factor for wives in Korea. Gender differences existed in the association between cohabitation with parents and stress. Greater stress was related to cohabiting with parents and working for married women.

  13. Family intentions and personal considerations on postponing childbearing in childless cohabiting and single women aged 35-43 seeking fertility assessment and counselling

    Birch Petersen, K; Hvidman, H W; Sylvest, R

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What characterizes childless women aged 35 years and above seeking fertility assessment and counselling in relation to their reproduction and are there significant differences between single and cohabiting women? SUMMARY ANSWER: Despite the women's advanced age and knowledge...... of the age-related decline in fecundity, 70% of the single women sought fertility assessment and counselling to gain knowledge regarding the possibility of postponing pregnancy. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Recent studies have indicated an increasing demand for ovarian reserve testing in women without any known......, smaller families than desired and declining fertility rates. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, AND DURATION: Baseline data from a cross-sectional cohort study of 340 women aged 35-43 years examined at the Fertility Assessment and Counselling (FAC) Clinic at Copenhagen University Hospital from 2011 to 2014. The FAC...

  14. Dating the humans by radiocarbon

    Fedi, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Radiocarbon has become a very powerful tool used for dating. This paper deals with a specific application of 1 4C i.e. dating of humans. Attention is focused on those aspects that, if neglected, might lead to a misinterpretation of the results or to an unsatisfying accuracy of the measurement. After a brief description of the main principles on which the radiocarbon method is based and of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, examples taken from the research activity of INFN-LABEC (Laboratorio di Tecniche Nucleari per I Beni Culturali) in Florence are presented. The case of the relic of St. Francis represents an example of dating not directly human remains but other objects that can be associated to them. The case of two burials from the archaeological area of Baratti-Populonia, in Tuscany, gives the possibility to show the importance of estimating the human palaeodiet when dating bone samples.

  15. Dating by electron paramagnetic resonance

    Poupeau, G.; Rossi, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    Some natural materials behave like dosimeters in front of the ionizing particle flux coming from environmental radioactivity and the cosmic radiation. This property is used for the dating by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). Before presenting the basic principles of the EPR analysis and the dating method which uses such a phenomenous, it is reviewed several types of application currently in course of development. (L.C.) [pt

  16. Radiocarbon dating of lake sediments

    Pocevičius, Matas

    2016-01-01

    Matas Pocevičius, Radiocarbon dating of lake sediments, bachelor thesis, Vilnius University, Faculty of Physics, Department of General Physics and Spectroscopy, physics, Vilnius, 45 p., 2016. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possibility of radiocarbon dating application for Tapeliai lake bottom sediments. The literature review discusses topics related to accelerator mass spectrometry, principles of radiocarbon formation, importance of nuclear fallout for 14C, possible applications of ...

  17. Radiocarbon dating of iron artefacts

    Cresswell, R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Physics

    1997-12-31

    Iron artefacts are generally dated by association or on stylistic grounds. This may not give a true indication of the date of manufacture, or may not be possible if the piece is out of context, ambiguous in style, or a copy. Obtaining a direct date on the artefact would be preferable. During the processes of manufacture, carbon is incorporated into the iron from the fuel source. If the fuel is of a material containing contemporaneous carbon, i.e. has an ambient radiocarbon signature, e.g. charcoal, then we may reliably radiocarbon date the artefact by extracting this carbon. Care must be taken, however, to ensure that re-working has not introduced multiple sources of carbon that would give an erroneous date. Detailed chemical analysis must precede radiocarbon analysis. Sample size is determined by carbon content, and before the advent of accelerator mass spectrometry, several tens of grams of carbon were required for radiocarbon dating (van der Merwe, 1969), prohibiting this method except for high-carbon cast-irons and bulk samples, e.g. caches of nails. AMS permits the analysis of sub-gram pieces of iron (Cresswell, 1991), thereby permitting the analysis of museum pieces with only minimal loss of material, and small fragments of iron recovered from archaeological sites. A few examples are given to illustrate these points. Paper no. 41; Extended abstract. 6 refs.

  18. Radiocarbon dating of iron artefacts

    Cresswell, R.

    1997-01-01

    Iron artefacts are generally dated by association or on stylistic grounds. This may not give a true indication of the date of manufacture, or may not be possible if the piece is out of context, ambiguous in style, or a copy. Obtaining a direct date on the artefact would be preferable. During the processes of manufacture, carbon is incorporated into the iron from the fuel source. If the fuel is of a material containing contemporaneous carbon, i.e. has an ambient radiocarbon signature, e.g. charcoal, then we may reliably radiocarbon date the artefact by extracting this carbon. Care must be taken, however, to ensure that re-working has not introduced multiple sources of carbon that would give an erroneous date. Detailed chemical analysis must precede radiocarbon analysis. Sample size is determined by carbon content, and before the advent of accelerator mass spectrometry, several tens of grams of carbon were required for radiocarbon dating (van der Merwe, 1969), prohibiting this method except for high-carbon cast-irons and bulk samples, e.g. caches of nails. AMS permits the analysis of sub-gram pieces of iron (Cresswell, 1991), thereby permitting the analysis of museum pieces with only minimal loss of material, and small fragments of iron recovered from archaeological sites. A few examples are given to illustrate these points

  19. Microscale radiocarbon dating of paintings

    Hendriks, Laura; Hajdas, Irka; McIntyre, Cameron; Kueffner, Markus; Ferreira, Ester S.B.; Scherrer, Nadim C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, radiocarbon dating of paintings using minimal sample sizes has been investigated, in an effort to address the problem of limited access to sample material in paintings. 14 C analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the twentieth century. The selected paintings dated from the 1930s and 1960s, provided the opportunity to evaluate the dating accuracy on paintings realized before and after 1950 AD when the 14 C bomb peak was created, as a result of the nuclear tests conducted in the 1950/1960s. The work focused on the one hand on minimizing the size of the canvas sample required for accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurement on the gas ion source of the MICADAS and, on the other hand, on testing the possibility of dating the organic binder of the paint. Following careful characterization of the paint composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, paints containing no other carbon source than the natural organic binder were identified and dated. (orig.)

  20. Direct dating of human fossils.

    Grün, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    The methods that can be used for the direct dating of human remains comprise of radiocarbon, U-series, electron spin resonance (ESR), and amino acid racemization (AAR). This review gives an introduction to these methods in the context of dating human bones and teeth. Recent advances in ultrafiltration techniques have expanded the dating range of radiocarbon. It now seems feasible to reliably date bones up to 55,000 years. New developments in laser ablation mass spectrometry permit the in situ analysis of U-series isotopes, thus providing a rapid and virtually non-destructive dating method back to about 300,000 years. This is of particular importance when used in conjunction with non-destructive ESR analysis. New approaches in AAR analysis may lead to a renaissance of this method. The potential and present limitations of these direct dating techniques are discussed for sites relevant to the reconstruction of modern human evolution, including Florisbad, Border Cave, Tabun, Skhul, Qafzeh, Vindija, Banyoles, and Lake Mungo. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Microscale radiocarbon dating of paintings

    Hendriks, Laura; Hajdas, Irka; McIntyre, Cameron [ETH Zurich, Ion Beam Physics, Zurich (Switzerland); Kueffner, Markus; Ferreira, Ester S.B. [SIK-ISEA, Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Scherrer, Nadim C. [Bern University of Applied Sciences, HKB, Bern (Switzerland)

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, radiocarbon dating of paintings using minimal sample sizes has been investigated, in an effort to address the problem of limited access to sample material in paintings. {sup 14}C analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the twentieth century. The selected paintings dated from the 1930s and 1960s, provided the opportunity to evaluate the dating accuracy on paintings realized before and after 1950 AD when the {sup 14}C bomb peak was created, as a result of the nuclear tests conducted in the 1950/1960s. The work focused on the one hand on minimizing the size of the canvas sample required for accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurement on the gas ion source of the MICADAS and, on the other hand, on testing the possibility of dating the organic binder of the paint. Following careful characterization of the paint composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, paints containing no other carbon source than the natural organic binder were identified and dated. (orig.)

  2. Linguistic Dating of Biblical Texts

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2003-01-01

    For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed the chronol......For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed...... the chronology of the texts established by other means: the Hebrew of Genesis-2 Kings was judged to be early and that of Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles to be late. In the current debate where revisionists have questioned the traditional dating, linguistic arguments in the dating of texts have...... come more into focus. The study critically examines some linguistic arguments adduced to support the traditional position, and reviewing the arguments it points to weaknesses in the linguistic dating of EBH texts to pre-exilic times. When viewing the linguistic evidence in isolation it will be clear...

  3. Kimberley rock art dating project

    Walsh, G.L.; Morwood, M.

    1997-01-01

    The art's additional value, unequalled by traditionally recognised artefacts, is its permanent pictorial documentation presenting a 'window' into the otherwise intangible elements of perceptions, vision and mind of pre-historic cultures. Unfortunately it's potential in establishing Kimberley archaeological 'big picture' still remains largely unrecognised. Some of findings of the Kimberley Rock Art Dating Project, using AMS and optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating techniques, are outlined. It is estimated that these findings will encourage involvement by a greater diversity of specialist disciplines to tie findings into levels of this art sequence as a primary reference point. The sequence represents a sound basis for selecting specific defined images for targeting detailed studies by a range of dating technique. This effectively removes the undesirable ad hoc sampling of 'apparently old paintings'; a process which must unavoidably remain the case with researchers working on most global bodies of rock art

  4. ESR dating of fault rocks

    Lee, Hee Kwon

    2002-03-01

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then trow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size : these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected from the Yangsan fault system. ESR dates from the this fault system range from 870 to 240 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity continued into the pleistocene

  5. ESR dating of fault rocks

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then trow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size : these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected from the Yangsan fault system. ESR dates from the this fault system range from 870 to 240 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity continued into the pleistocene.

  6. 32Si dating of sediments

    Morgenstern, U.

    2004-01-01

    Brief explanation of the use of 32 Si in the dating of sediments. 32 Si , with a half-life of c.140 years, can be applied in the age range 30-1000 years. An appropriate dating tool for that time range is essential because it includes three very important epochs: the impact of human colonisation and industrialisation during the last 150 years, the Little Ice Age between about 1650 AD and 1850 AD, and the last part of the Medieval Climatic Optimum. 23 refs

  7. The complexity behind the date

    2009-01-01

    For the waiting world, and indeed for most of us here at CERN, ‘the LHC schedule’ simply means the date that the LHC will restart - and we only take notice when that end-date changes. But in fact the schedule is a constantly evolving intricate document coordinating all the repairs, consolidation and commissioning in every part of the machine. So, what actually goes on behind the scenes in timing and planning all the work on one of the most complex scientific instruments ever built?

  8. Karl Barth's male-female order as asymmetrical theoethics | Dreyer ...

    including early Christianity) on his theology. The aim of the second article is to explain Barth's dogmatic disparity as the product of his neoorthodox understanding of Reformed tradition. HTS Theological Studies Vol. 63 (4) 2007: pp. 1493-1521 ...

  9. Navy Job-Related Male-Female Differences: Annotated Bibliography.

    1982-04-01

    and 50 female Caucasian South African healing sciences students and 44 male and 43 female American medical, dental, physiotherapy students were...lesser extent, even the primary differences. The subjects used in the cited research, especially in the cognitive areas, were usually college students ...that may make college students atypical of and noncomparable to Navy enlisted personnel of the same general age. This appears more likely for males

  10. Panel Estimates of Male-Female Earnings Functions.

    Kim, Moon-Kak; Polachek, Solomon W.

    1994-01-01

    Application of single and simultaneous equation fixed-effects and random-effects shows that earnings appreciation with experience and depreciation with labor market interruptions are comparable for men and women. Adjusting for heterogeneity reduces the wage gap to 20%; adjusting for endogeneity reduces it nearly to zero. (SK)

  11. Estimating the Effect of Personality on Male-Female Earnings

    G. Mueller; E.J.S. Plug (Erik)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper uses the Five-Factor Model of personality structure as an organizing framework to explore the effects of personality on earnings. Using data from a longitudinal survey of American high school graduates, we find that extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism

  12. Recent advances in thermoluminescence dating

    Aitken, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Initially the application of thermoluminescent dating was to ancient pottery and other baked clay, the detection of forgeries in art ceramics having a particularly powerful impact. In recent years there has been a growing extension of TL into non-pottery materials. Heated flints from paleolithic fire-places is one application. Another is in the dating of igneous rocks from recent volcanic events; formerly this had been impossible on account of the malign phenomenon of non-thermal ('anomalous') fading exhibited by volcanic minerals but this is now being circumvented by utilising TL in the 600 0 C region of the glow curve. TL dating has also been extended to unburnt calcite, one application being stalagmitic floors in paleolithic caves. Another recent development is the use of TL for dating aeolian sediment and some types of waterborne sediment. These developments give prospect of establishing a TL-based chronology, both for archaeology and quaternary research, extending back well beyond the range of radiocarbon, perhaps reaching a million years ago. (author)

  13. Online Dating and Conjugal Bereavement

    Young, Dannagal Goldthwaite; Caplan, Scott E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined self-presentation in the online dating profiles of 241 widowed and 280 divorced individuals between 18 and 40 years old. A content analysis of open-ended user-generated profiles assessed the presence or absence of various themes, including the user's marital status, the backstory of their lost relationship, and whether they…

  14. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  15. Comparative study of radioimmunoassay dates

    Venegas Sanchez, Ruth.

    1986-01-01

    The radioimmunoassay is frequently used in clinical chemistry for the concentration determination of several substances like hormones as thyrotropine and thyroxine. In this experiment the dates of tyroxine radioimmunoassay are processed by three methods: a) like the recommendation of the IAEA, b) Dr. G. Chase method, c) according to the provider. The best method was Dr. Chase's. (author)

  16. Peer Group Influences on Adolescent Dating Aggression

    Connolly, Jennifer; Friedlander, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The peer group is a critical social context for dating and romantic relationships. Peer groups provide opportunities to meet potential dating partners and set norms for acceptable dating behaviors. This article explores how peer groups influence dating and dating aggression, as well as how they can be used in prevention efforts. It also reviews…

  17. De uma morada à outra: processos de re-coabitação entre as gerações From one dwelling to another: intergenerational cohabitation processes

    Clarice Ehlers Peixoto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Desemprego, divórcio, viuvez, filhos que não saem nunca da casa dos pais são as razões que explicam porque, no Brasil, as gerações mais velhas coabitam cada vez mais com as mais jovens. Retornar para a casa familiar, ou ir morar na casa de um(a filho(a introduz uma nova dinâmica na organização doméstica: a reorganização do espaço - abrir, criar lugares para receber o novo(s membro(s; a adaptação das regras, horários e tarefas às necessidades e atividades de cada um, e do grupo em particular. Morar com três ou quatro gerações implica em uma contribuição material e financeira, mas, também, em um suporte moral e afetivo no apoio logístico do cotidiano doméstico. A vida em comum só é possível se existir este circuito de reciprocidades, senão a coabitação pode quebrar a harmonia familiar e tornar-se violenta.Unemployment, divorce, widowhood, children who never leave their parents' house, these are the reasons that explain why the older generations in Brazil cohabit with the younger generations more than before. Returning to one’s parents’ house, or moving to the children's house introduces a new dynamic into the domestic organization: the reorganization of space - the creation of places to receive new family members; the adaptation of rules, schedules and tasks, to the necessities and activities of each member and to the group's in particular. Living with three or four generations implies a material contribution as well as emotional and moral support for the logistics of daily domestic life. Living together is only possible when there is a circuit of reciprocities; otherwise, cohabitation can provoke violent rupture in the family’s harmony.

  18. 31 CFR 596.302 - Effective date.

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the...

  19. Linguistic dating of biblical texts

    Young, Ian; Rezetko, Robert; Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    Since the beginning of critical scholarship biblical texts have been dated using linguistic evidence. In recent years this has become a controversial topic, especially with the publication of Ian Young (ed.), Biblical Hebrew: Studies in Chronology and Typology (2003). However, until now there has...... been no introduction and comprehensive study of the field. Volume 1 introduces the field of linguistic dating of biblical texts, particularly to intermediate and advanced students of biblical Hebrew who have a reasonable background in the language, having completed at least an introductory course...... in this volume are: What is it that makes Archaic Biblical Hebrew archaic , Early Biblical Hebrew early , and Late Biblical Hebrew late ? Does linguistic typology, i.e. different linguistic characteristics, convert easily and neatly into linguistic chronology, i.e. different historical origins? A large amount...

  20. Fission tracks dating for obsidian

    Picon, C.

    1991-01-01

    Obsidian from South America are dated by fission tracks methods. Samples are irradiated in a nuclear reactor with a flux of 10 15 n/cm 2 . Results, corrected by 'Plateau' methods, are the following: obsidian from Bolivia: 4.14 x 10 6 yr., Ecuador: 8.79 x 10 5 yr., Colombia: 3.52 x 10 6 yr., Peru: 6.55 x 10 6 yr., Chile: 1.13 x 10 6 yr. (MMZ). 5 refs., 3 tabs

  1. Radiokrypton dating coming of age

    Zheng-Tian Lu

    2016-01-01

    The dream of radiokrypton dating began in 1969 when Heinz Hugo Loosli and Hans Oeschger of the University of Bern first detected the decay of81Rr(half-life=230 000 yr)in krypton gas extracted from air[1].This isotope is produced in the upper atmosphere by cosmic-ray-induced spallation and neutron-activation of stable krypton.Due to its long residence time(105 yr)in the atmosphere,81Rr is uniformly

  2. Current topics in ESR dating

    Skinner, Anne R.

    2011-01-01

    After over 25 years, the use of electron spin resonance (ESR) is well-established in dating sites of geological, paleontological and archaeological interest. Like any scientific technique, there have been changes in understanding and in methodology. Improvements have not, however, changed the observation that external dose calculations are still a significant source of uncertainty in ages. Examples from Europe, Africa and the Americans illustrate this point. For Pradayrol Cave (France), the occupation age, 330 ka, is unchallenged, making this the oldest known Neanderthal site in France. For Roc de Marsal, also in France, on the other hand, discrepancies between TL and sedimentary dose rates imply substantial differences in interpretation. In the Western Egyptian Desert, where artifacts and datable material are not well-correlated, the dating results show consistency with expectations based on global climate change, even in deflated sites. Climate change is also the question in geological studies in the Bahamas where, despite concerns about cosmic dose history, ESR dates confirm other evidence for sea level changes. We show that an uncertain age is not the same as an impossible one.

  3. ESR dating of fault rocks

    Lee, Hee Kwon

    2003-02-01

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then grow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs. grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size; these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the Gori nuclear reactor. Most of the ESR signals of fault rocks collected from the basement are saturated. This indicates that the last movement of the faults had occurred before the Quaternary period. However, ESR dates from the Oyong fault zone range from 370 to 310 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity of the Oyong fault zone continued into the Pleistocene

  4. ESR dating of fault rocks

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-15

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then grow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs. grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size; these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the Gori nuclear reactor. Most of the ESR signals of fault rocks collected from the basement are saturated. This indicates that the last movement of the faults had occurred before the Quaternary period. However, ESR dates from the Oyong fault zone range from 370 to 310 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity of the Oyong fault zone continued into the Pleistocene.

  5. Bacterial Diversity Associated with Cinachyra cavernosa and Haliclona pigmentifera, Cohabiting Sponges in the Coral Reef Ecosystem of Gulf of Mannar, Southeast Coast of India.

    C Jasmin

    Full Text Available Sponges are abundant, diverse and functionally important organisms of coral reef ecosystems. Sponge-associated microorganisms have been receiving greater attention because of their significant contribution to sponge biomass, biogeochemical cycles and biotechnological potentials. However, our understanding of the sponge microbiome is limited to a few species of sponges from restricted geographical locations. Here, we report for the first time the bacterial diversity of two cohabiting sponges, viz. Cinachyra cavernosa and Haliclona pigmentifera, as well as that in the ambient water from the coral reef ecosystems of the Gulf of Mannar, located along the southeast coast of India. Two hundred and fifty two clones in the 16S rRNA gene library of these sponges were grouped into eight distinct phyla, of which four belonged to the core group that are associated only with sponges. Phylogenetic analysis of the core bacteria showed close affinity to other sponge-associated bacteria from different geographical locations. γ-Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes and Deferribacter were the core groups in C. cavernosa while β and δ-Proteobacteria performed this role in H. pigmentifera. We observed greater OTU diversity for C. cavernosa (Hǀ 2.07 compared to H. pigmentifera (Hǀ 1.97. UniFrac analysis confirmed the difference in bacterial diversity of the two sponge species and also between the sponges and the reef water (p<0.001. The results of our study restate the existence of a host driven force in shaping the sponge microbiome.

  6. School Counselors' Role in Dating Violence Intervention

    Craigen, Laurie M.; Sikes, April; Healey, Amanda; Hays, Danica

    2009-01-01

    Dating violence among adolescents is a major public health concern. The purpose of this paper is to examine five factors of which school counselors must be aware in order to recognize, intervene, and report incidence of dating violence. These factors are (a) understanding the diverse definitions of dating violence, (b) recognizing dating violence…

  7. Thermoluminescence dating of pleistocene sediments

    Poupeau, G.; Souza, J.H.; Rivera, A.

    1984-01-01

    After a short introduction on recent trends in quaternary geochronology, this article focuses on the thermoluminescence dating of sediments, whose principles and present limits and prospects are discussed. Results are presented for the TL behaviour of sands from various geological contexts in Brazil. They show that the coarse (approx. 100-200μm) quartz fraction of coastal and intra continental, eolian and fluvial-type deposits, might be datable by TL from the upper Holocene to at least the basis of the upper Pleistocene, with a precision of + - 10-15%. (Author) [pt

  8. Thermoluminescence dating of pleistocene sediments

    Poupeau, G.; Souza, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    After a short introduction on recent trends in quaternary geochronology, this article focuses on the thermoluminescence (TL) dating of sediments, whose principles, present limits and prospects are discussed. Results are presented for TL behavior of sands from various geological contexts in Brazil. They show that the coarse (approx. 100-200 μm) quartz fraction of coastal and intracontinental, eolian and fluvial - type deposits, might be datable by TL from the upper Holocene to at least the base of the upper Pleistocene, with a precision of +- 10-15%. (Author) [pt

  9. Substitution of Sugar with Dates Powder and Dates Syrup in Cookies Making

    W.A. Alsenaien; R.A. Alamer; Zhen-Xing Tang; S.A. Albahrani; M.A. Al-Ghannam; S.M. Aleid

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effects of dates powder and dates syrup as a sugar substitution, on the physical properties and sensory attributes of cookies were studied. An increase in firmness and moisture content of cookies supplemented with dates was obtained. The diameter and spread ratio of cookies showed a decrease with increasing levels of date powder or date syrup. Partial replacement of sugar with date powder or date syrup produced cookies with more dark and red color. Sensory evaluation result...

  10. 85Kr dating of groundwater

    Rozanski, K.; Florkowski, T.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility of 85 Kr dating of groundwater is being investigated. The method of gas extraction from 200 to 300 litres of water sample has been developed. The Argon and Krypton mixture, separated from the gas extracted from water, was counted in a 1.5 ml volume proportional counter. The amount of krypton gas in the counter was determined by mass spectrometry. A number of surface and groundwater samples were analyzed indicating an 85 Kr concentration ranging from present atmospheric content (river water) to zero values. 85 Kr 'blank value' was determined to be about 5 per cent of present 85 Kr atmospheric content. For groundwater samples, the mean residence time in the system was calculated assuming the exponential model and known 85 Kr input function. Further improvement of the method should bring higher yield of krypton separation and lower volume of water necessary for analysis. (orig.) [de

  11. Blind-date Conversation Joining

    Luca Cesari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We focus on a form of joining conversations among multiple parties in service-oriented applications where a client may asynchronously join an existing conversation without need to know in advance any information about it. More specifically, we show how the correlation mechanism provided by orchestration languages enables a form of conversation joining that is completely transparent to clients and that we call 'blind-date joining'. We provide an implementation of this strategy by using the standard orchestration language WS-BPEL. We then present its formal semantics by resorting to COWS, a process calculus specifically designed for modelling service-oriented applications. We illustrate our approach by means of a simple, but realistic, case study from the online games domain.

  12. Making a date with radiocarbon

    Gribbin, J.

    1979-01-01

    The use of 14 C dating techniques for samples of organic materials up to 50,000 years old is discussed with especial reference to adjustment necessary to take account of both the most recent figure for the 14 C half-life and also the natural fluctuations in the production of 14 C over 50,000 years. Methods of detection and the accuracy of the measurements are considered. It is hoped that future developments including both the possibility of counting 14 C ions directly using an accelerator as a mass spectrometer, and also the use of laser enrichment techniques will not only push back the radiocarbon calendar to 100,000 years but will also allow the use of much smaller samples than before. (U.K.)

  13. Make a date with a tree

    Baillie, M.; Pilcher, J.

    1988-01-01

    The paper concerns the use of dendrochronology to check the accuracy of radiocarbon dating. The Belfast chronology is described - this involves wood samples precisely dated by tree ring analysis and analysed by high-precision radiocarbon analysis. The analysis resulted in the first continuous high-precision calibration of the radiocarbon time-scale, and confirmed the relationship between radiocarbon dates and tree-ring dates. The use of radiocarbon dating to reveal the age of wood samples that have too few rings to produce an accurate date, is also outlined. (U.K.)

  14. The scientific dating of standing buildings.

    Alcock, Nathaniel W

    2017-11-17

    The techniques of dendrochronology (tree-ring dating) and radiocarbon (14C) dating are described, as they are applied to historic buildings. Both rely on determining the felling dates of the trees used in their construction. For dendrochronology, the construction of master chronologies and the matching of individual ring-width sequences to them is described and, for radiocarbon dating, the use of tree-ring results in calibration. Results of dating are discussed, ranging from the cathedrals of Peterborough and Beauvais and the development of crown-post roof structures, to the dating and identification of standing medieval peasant houses, particularly those built using cruck construction.

  15. 17 CFR 248.128 - Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application.

    2010-04-01

    ... Affiliate Marketing § 248.128 Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application. (a) Effective date. This subpart is effective September 10, 2009. (b) Mandatory compliance date. Compliance with this... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date, compliance...

  16. Radiocarbon dates for Rangitoto and Motutapu, a consideration of dating accuracy

    Law, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    The carbon dates for the eruptions of Rangitoto and the occupation of Maori sites on Motutapu contain inconsistencies which are explicable only after the dates have been corrected to allow for the nature of the dating method. The only date which is reasonably established is a 14th or 15th century dating for the ash shower covering Motutapu. (auth.)

  17. Geophysical Insights from Archaeomagnetic Dating

    Holme, R.; Lodge, A.; Suttie, N.; Shaw, J.; Hill, M. J.; Linford, P.

    2009-12-01

    We report on work which has been undertaken towards developing an improved methodology for archaeomagnetic dating of archaeological samples through the use of a dedicated field model. In this talk, we focus on the more general (non-archaeological) implications of our results. Our work has focused on Europe, taking advantage of the better spatial and temporal coverage of available samples. Nevertheless, we model the field globally, using an a priori model (such as, for example, CALS7K) to constrain the field away from the regions of available data. This is advantageous over the use of a local field modelling methodology, as it allows us to examine the physical consequences of structure in our model (for example, in terms of the spectra of the field and secular variation at the core-mantle boundary), and to control possible edge effects in the model, which in a local model might produce an unphysical solution. By focusing on one particular region, we produce models that may not be optimal in terms of global structure, but allow us to investigate the data content in the region where it may provide the most information on core-field evolution. In parallel, we have been expanding the archaeointensity record for Great Britain, towards producing an archaeointensity curve for the UK which could ultimately be used for dating of unoriented samples (such as pot sherds). This new record, combined with other recently acquired high-quality intensity data, allows us to consider the evolution of global geomagnetic field strength in parallel with a good model of directional measurements; from 1590, the GUFM model is appropriate. Recent attempts to determine global intensity variation have used all available data (some of uncertain quality) to quantify variations in field strength. By instead focusing on a more limited dataset of known quality, we are able to examine intensity trends in greater detail. We present evidence that the intensity of the field was higher prior to 1840 than

  18. Dates and Times Made Easy with lubridate

    Garrett Grolemund

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the lubridate package for R, which facilitates working with dates and times. Date-times create various technical problems for the data analyst. The paper highlights these problems and oers practical advice on how to solve them using lubridate. The paper also introduces a conceptual framework for arithmetic with date-times in R.

  19. Reservoir effects in radiocarbon dating

    Head, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: The radiocarbon dating technique depends essentially on the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide containing the cosmogenic radioisotope 14 C enters into a state of equilibrium with all living material (plants and animals) as part of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Terrestrial reservoir effects occur when the atmospheric 14 C signal is diluted by local effects where systems depleted in 14 C mix with systems that are in equilibrium with the atmosphere. Naturally, this can occur with plant material growing close to an active volcano adding very old CO 2 to the atmosphere (the original 14 C has completely decayed). It can also occur in highly industrialised areas where fossil fuel derived CO 2 dilutes the atmospheric signal. A terrestrial reservoir effect can occur in the case of fresh water shells living in rivers or lakes where there is an input of ground water from springs or a raising of the water table. Soluble bicarbonate derived from the dissolution of very old limestone produces a 14 C dilution effect. Land snail shells and stream carbonate depositions (tufas and travertines) can be affected by a similar mechanism. Alternatively, in specific cases, these reservoir effects may not occur. This means that general interpretations assuming quantitative values for these terrestrial effects are not possible. Each microenvironment associated with samples being analysed needs to be evaluated independently. Similarly, the marine environment produces reservoir effects. With respect to marine shells and corals, the water depth at which carbonate growth occurs can significantly affect quantitative 14 C dilution, especially in areas where very old water is uplifted, mixing with top layers of water that undergo significant exchange with atmospheric CO 2 . Hence, generalisations with respect to the marine reservoir effect also pose problems. These can be exacerbated by the mixing of sea water with either terrestrial water in estuaries, or ground water where

  20. Radiocarbon dating of soils, a review

    Scharpenseel, H.W.; Schiffmann, H.

    1977-01-01

    The application of radiocarbon dating techniques for pedological purposes is reviewed in chronological sequence of its phases of introduction. Initially dating of charcoal and buried paleosols was dominating and accompanied by few soil dating attempts of recent soil formations on the basis of extracted humic acid-C. The following controversy regarding the potentialities and limitations of recent soil dating, still being involved in the intact turnover processes of modern biodynamics, led to intensive search for the relatively oldest, most favorable C-fraction, particularly a biologically inert C-fraction of the organic C-pool. Inclusion of C-14 dating in pedogenetic working concepts required soil profile date-scanning in order to reveal the age versus depth interdependence. (orig./HK) [de

  1. Sample processing procedures and radiocarbon dating

    Svetlik, Ivo; Tomaskova, Lenka; Dreslerova, Dagmar

    2010-01-01

    The article outlines radiocarbon dating routines and highlights the potential and limitations of this method. The author's institutions have been jointly running a conventional radiocarbon dating laboratory using the international CRL code. A procedure based on the synthesis of benzene is used. Small samples are sent abroad for dating because no AMS instrumentation is available in the Czech Republic so far. Our laboratory plans to introduce routines for the processing of milligram samples and preparation of graphitized targets for AMS

  2. Thermoluminescence dating of Indian archaeological sites

    Singhvi, A.K.; Sharma, Y.P.; Agrawal, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    In an attempt to provide a chronology for Indian archaeological sites, an extensive pottery dating programme was initiated during 1978-1979. So far we have provided a chronology for seven important Indian archaeological sites. The dated cultures include: 1) the Ochre Colour Ware culture, 2) the Pre-Harappan culture, 3) the megalithic culture and 4) the Painted Grey Ware culture. A complete survey of recently measured TL dates are presented in a model format similar to that used in Radiocarbon. (author)

  3. Impact of the HIV epidemic on population and household structure: the dynamics and evidence to date.

    Heuveline, Patrick

    2004-06-01

    HIV is contracted most frequently at birth and during early adulthood. The epidemic may thus impact the demographic structure and the household structure of affected populations. This paper reviews earlier evidence of such an impact, uses demographic theory to anticipate its changes over time, and reviews the most recent evidence for indications of these changes. Modest increases in the male : female ratio are beginning to show within certain age groups only (approximately 15% among 25-34 year olds). Similarly sized increases in the proportion of 15-29 year olds relative to 30-54 year olds are observed in some age pyramids. These 'youth bulges' are expected to fade out, whereas an aging effect phases in with the fertility impact of the epidemic. In the longer run, the size of all age groups will be reduced, but relatively less so for middle-aged adults. Proportions of orphans and widows have increased in the most affected countries. Fewer remarriage probabilities for widows were observed. Resulting increases in the proportion of female-headed households should only be temporary, as female mortality is catching up with male mortality. The number of double orphans is beginning to increase, but overall, orphans continue to live predominantly with a family member, most often the grandparents if not with the surviving parent. To date, the epidemic's impact on the population and household structure has been limited by demographic (aging) and social (adaptive movements of kin across households) processes that contribute to diffuse the epidemic throughout the entire population and all households.

  4. How AMS dating changed my life

    Spriggs, M.

    2001-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating was developed in the late 1970s. Remembering back to a time before AMS dating was available to archaeologists is a bit like trying to remember how we ever survived without desktop computers, email or automatic teller machines. My own particular interest in AMS dating was an inevitable offshoot from my long-established interest in chronometric hygiene, or 'getting the dates right'. In this paper I attempt to illustrate that accurate dating matters, by discussing some examples of AMS dating projects with which I have been involved over the last six years or so. In relation to these projects, AMS has given us the ability to date sites which we could not before. It has enabled us to provide more detailed stratigraphies when datable materials are rare. It has allowed us to date materials we could not date before, such as rock art pigments. It has been able to provide indications of the degree of site disturbance in the absence of other obvious forms of evidence. And it has allowed us to assess claims for the antiquity of particular material cultural types and faunal introductions. (author). 41 refs

  5. AMS Radiocarbon Dating at Notre Dame

    Howard, Sean

    2014-09-01

    Current development of a local radiocarbon dating method using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at the University of Notre Dame seeks to provide sensitive, reproducible, and accurate measurements for future interdisciplinary projects. While AMS has been the premier radiocarbon dating method for a few decades, repurposing Notre Dame's FN Tandem accelerator for radiocarbon dating has provided many unique challenges. Experiments have shown radiocarbon dating possible and reproducible using the FN Tandem accelerator, found optimal settings for said accelerator, and established sensitivity limits comparable to dedicated radiocarbon dating facilities. In addition, there is ongoing work to create a local chemistry lab to convert organic artifacts into graphite samples to be dated locally. Once the chemistry side has been completed, several artifacts from the IAEA's radiocarbon intercomparison have been procured. Dating these previously studied artifacts will provide an additional measure on the accuracy and repeatability of both the accelerator and chemical treatment. Provided that these IAEA artifacts are dated successfully, exciting projects will ensue, such as the authentication of artwork and dating of anthropological samples.

  6. NERC radiocarbon dating: 1975-1985

    Bowen, D.Q.; Harkness, D.D.

    1986-06-01

    The paper reviews the work of the Natural Environment Research Council Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory in connection with Quaternary research, over the last decade. A description is given of the development of the dating service and in-house research. Quaternary research investigations aided by radiocarbon dating are described under the topic headings: The late Devensian glacial maximum, late glacial, middle Devensian, palaeomagnetic secular variation in lake sediments, vegetational history, faunal history, palaeolimnology, ground water, volcanology, periglacial research, palaoeohydrology, geomorphology, quaternary events in low-latitudes, environmental archaeology, archaeology, deep sea sediments, continental shelf, coastal geomorphology, and radiocarbon dating in Antarctica. (U.K.)

  7. Using microwaves in Disinsection of dates

    Zouba, Anis

    2008-01-01

    The date palm plays a very significant role in Tunisia in term of culture as well as social, economic and ecological aspects. The production of the dates which is estimated to 120.000 tons/year ensures the principal income for the majority of the oasis population of the South of Tunisia and constitutes the basis for agricultural, industrial, commercial and tourist activities, offering million of working days. The date palm is cultivated mainly for the production of dates which are consumed locally or also exported abroad but for its by-products (food of the cattle, wind breaks, fuel, construction) which are marketed and/ or used in the everyday life thus taking part in the sedentarisation of the populations and the maintenance of a fragile socio-economic balance. The date moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zell. ( L will epidoptera, Pyralidae) is without question the most significant problem of the Tunisian date palm. The infestation of dates in the field and in the storage and packing houses enormously depreciates the marketable quality of dates and risk to compromise exports in particular those of the variety Deglet Nour. rates of infestations of about 20% are often recorded in Tunisia where as the European standards require rates lower than 5%. In Tunisia the desinsectisation of dates is done until now by the use of methyl bromide, its high toxicity substantially reduces the duration of date treatment, and consequently the treated volumes. The replacement of this product becomes an urgent need its use will not be authorized by 2015. Within the framework of a agreement between the Regional Research Center in Oasis Agriculture (CRRAO), The Interprofessional Grouping of Fruits (GIF), and the Italian Company IMETEC, the use one of micro-waves as a desinsectisation method of dates was evaluated. The results of this present work showed that total desinsectisation of dates by microwaves can be obtained only with homogeneous dates in term of water content. Total

  8. Chromatographic separation of fructose from date syrup.

    Al Eid, Salah M

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a process for separating fructose from a mixture of sugars containing essentially fructose and glucose, obtained from date palm fruits. The extraction procedure of date syrup from fresh dates gave a yield of 86.5% solids after vacuum drying. A process for separating fructose from an aqueous solution of date syrup involved adding the date syrup solutions (20, 30 and 40% by weight) to a chromatographic column filled with Dowex polystyrene strong cation exchange gel matrix resin Ca2 + and divinylbenzene, a functional group, sulfonic acid, particle size 320 microm, with a flow rate of 0.025 and 0.05 bed volume/min, under 30 and 70 degrees C column temperature. After the date sugar solution batch, a calculated quantity of water was added to the column. Glucose was retained by the resin more weakly than fructose and proceeded faster into the water batch flowing ahead. Three fractions were collected: a glucose-rich fraction, a return fraction, and a fructose-rich fraction. The return fraction is based on when the peaks of fructose and glucose were reached, which could be determined by means of an analyzer (polarimeter) based on the property of glucose and fructose solutions to turn the polarization level of polarized light. A high yield of fructose is obtained at 70 degrees C column temperature with a flow rate of 0.025 bed volume/min and date syrup solution containing 40% sugar concentration. The low recovery by weight obtained using date syrup solutions having a sugar concentration of 20 and 30%, encourages the use of a concentration of 40%. However, with the 40% date syrup supply the average concentrations of glucose and fructose in the return fractions were more than 40%, which can be used for diluting the thick date syrup solution extracted from dates.

  9. 75 FR 57252 - Designated Transfer Date

    2010-09-20

    ..., as the date for the transfer of functions to the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection (``CFPB... other laws. After consulting with the heads of the agencies whose functions will transfer to the CFPB... July 21, 2011, as the transfer date will advance the mission of the CFPB and promote an orderly and...

  10. 12 CFR 563g.6 - Effective date.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective date. 563g.6 Section 563g.6 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 563g.6 Effective date. (a) Except as provided for in paragraph (d) of this section, an offering circular filed by a...

  11. 40 CFR 425.05 - Compliance dates.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance dates. 425.05 Section 425.05 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions § 425.05 Compliance dates...

  12. Jealousy during Dating among Female College Students

    Khanchandani, Laveena; Durham, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between several situational and personality variables and jealousy in dating relationships among 100 college women volunteers who completed a series of questionnaires about themselves and their dating situations. Six research questions were examined. Results showed that jealousy was lower for women in a steady…

  13. 21 CFR 211.137 - Expiration dating.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expiration dating. 211.137 Section 211.137 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... § 211.137 Expiration dating. (a) To assure that a drug product meets applicable standards of identity...

  14. ESR dating of marine fossil shells

    Radtke, U.; Mangini, A.; Gruen, R.

    1985-01-01

    In order to establish the relatively new ESR dating method for marine shells a detailed comparison with the independent U-series technique was carried out. Agreement of both dating methods with the geological classification is strongly dependent on the species investigated and environmental conditions. Several problems encountered in the determination of the accumulated dose as well as the annual dose are discussed. (author)

  15. ESR dating of marine fossil shells

    Radtke, U; Mangini, A; Gruen, R

    1985-01-01

    In order to establish the relatively new ESR dating method for marine shells a detailed comparison with the independent U-series technique was carried out. Agreement of both dating methods with the geological classification is strongly dependent on the species investigated and environmental conditions. Several problems encountered in the determination of the accumulated dose as well as the annual dose are discussed.

  16. 16 CFR 314.5 - Effective date.

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective date. 314.5 Section 314.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS STANDARDS FOR SAFEGUARDING CUSTOMER INFORMATION § 314.5 Effective date. (a) Each financial institution subject to the...

  17. 7 CFR 1421.101 - Maturity dates.

    2010-01-01

    ... filed and disbursed except, for transferred marketing assistance loan collateral. The maturity date for transferred marketing assistance loan collateral will be the maturity date applicable to the original loan... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRAINS AND SIMILARLY HANDLED COMMODITIES-MARKETING...

  18. Dating violence and suicidal behavior in adolescents.

    Holmes, Kristin; Sher, Leo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the possible consequences of adolescent physical, emotional and sexual dating violence through a review of the literature on the topic. An electronic search of major biomedical bibliographic databases (Pubmed, ISI, PsycINFO) was used to retrieve articles providing information on the prevalence rates, risk factors, associated consequences and possible preventive measures for adolescent dating violence across different populations. Currently, there have been few longitudinal studies conducted to identify potential risk factors for entering a violent dating relationship in adolescence. Risky behaviors such as early sexual intercourse may predispose someone for victimization. Dating violence itself is also a predictor of future dating violence. Adolescent dating violence was associated with an increase in other violence-related behaviors, substance use, depression, poorer educational outcomes, posttraumatic stress, unhealthy weight control and risky sexual behavior. The association between adolescent dating violence and an increase in suicidal behavior is a major public health concern. Future research should focus on longitudinal studies so that a causal relationship between dating violence and suicidality may be better understood.

  19. Peer Involvement in Adolescent Dating Violence

    Stephenson, Pam S.; Martsolf, Donna; Draucker, Claire Burke

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the ways in which peers are involved in adolescent dating violence. Eighty-eight young adults aged 18-21 were interviewed and asked to reflect on aggressive dating relationships they experienced as teens. The researchers used grounded theory to analyze the data. Findings showed that male and female peers were involved in…

  20. Teen Dating Violence Prevention Program Assessment

    Lucas, Quincy Arrianna Rose

    2013-01-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA) has identified the prevention of and intervention in relationship violence as a top priority (APA, n.d.). According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's 2012 Teen Dating Violence Fact Sheet, dating violence is a serious problem in the United States. In accordance with Foshee et al. (1998):…

  1. 46 CFR 308.552 - Effective date.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective date. 308.552 Section 308.552 Shipping... Cargo Insurance Iv-General § 308.552 Effective date. This subpart shall be effective as and when the... commerce of the United States cannot be obtained on reasonable terms and conditions from companies...

  2. 38 CFR 3.54 - Marriage dates.

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marriage dates. 3.54..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Relationship § 3.54 Marriage dates. A surviving spouse may qualify for pension, compensation, or dependency and indemnity compensation if the marriage to the...

  3. Ambiguity and violence in adolescent dating relationships.

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna; Stephenson, Pam Shockey

    2012-08-01

    Little is known about dyadic processes that lead to adolescent dating violence. The purpose of this study was to examine the phenomenon of relationship ambiguity in adolescent dating relationships to better understand how ambiguity contributes to violence and aggression between dating partners. Data were drawn from 88 narratives of young adults who had participated in a study on adolescent dating violence. Interpretive phenomenology was used to produce an in-depth description of the phenomenon of relationship ambiguity. Relationship ambiguity results in differing expectations between partners regarding closeness and intimacy, fidelity, and obligation. These differences lead to conflicts that set the stage for violence and aggression in adolescent dating relationships. A series of recommendations for clinicians working with adolescents are presented. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Record date in Serbian company law

    Arsić Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The right of the shareholder to participate in and vote at the general meeting is determined based on the shares he holds on a certain date prior to the general meeting (record date. However, the rules regulating the record date deviate from the principle of indivisibility of shares. In extreme cases it is possible to have persons, none of which are shareholders at a given time, to participate in and vote at the general meeting. Hence, it is possible to have persons with no investment interest in the company to decide, for example, on adoption of financial reports, or on disposal of high-value assets. This issue, by its virtue, is not put forward in cases where there was no transfer of shares in the period between the record date and the date of the general meeting.

  5. 12 CFR 41.28 - Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application.

    2010-01-01

    ... TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 41.28 Effective date, compliance date, and prospective... an affiliate to make solicitations to a consumer if the bank receives such information prior to...

  6. 16 CFR 680.28 - Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application.

    2010-01-01

    ... REPORTING ACT AFFILIATE MARKETING § 680.28 Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application. (a... part shall not prohibit you from using eligibility information that you receive from an affiliate to...

  7. 12 CFR 571.28 - Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application.

    2010-01-01

    ... THE TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 571.28 Effective date, compliance date, and... receive from an affiliate to make solicitations to a consumer if you receive such information prior to...

  8. Longitudinal relationships between individual and class norms supporting dating violence and perpetration of dating violence.

    Taylor, Katherine A; Sullivan, Terri N; Farrell, Albert D

    2015-03-01

    Dating violence is commonly perpetrated in adolescence, making it imperative to understand risk factors in order to inform prevention efforts. Although individual norms supporting dating violence are strongly related to its perpetration, few studies have examined their longitudinal impact. Moreover, the influence of class norms (i.e., norms for students in the same grade, cohort, and school) supporting dating violence on perpetration has rarely been studied. The current study examined longitudinal relationships between individual and class norms supporting dating violence and perpetration of physical and psychological dating violence. Participants were two cohorts of sixth graders from 37 schools who were in dating relationships at Wave 1 and 6 months later at Wave 2 (N = 2,022; 43% female; 52% African American, 21% Latino/a, 20% White, and 7% other). The analyses used a multilevel approach, with students represented at Level 1 and classes (n = 74) at Level 2. The models tested direct effects of Wave 1 individual and class norms supporting dating violence on subsequent changes in perpetration of dating violence at Wave 2 and the extent to which gender moderated these relationships. The findings indicated that greater individual norms supporting male dating violence predicted greater change in perpetration of physical and psychological dating violence and greater individual norms supporting female dating violence predicted greater change in perpetration of psychological dating violence. Greater class norms supporting male dating violence predicted greater change in perpetration of physical dating violence; whereas greater class norms supporting female dating violence predicted less change in perpetration of physical dating violence. These findings highlight the need to address norms in early adolescence.

  9. Dating of fossil hominid: problems and perspectives

    Poupeau, G.; Danon, J.; Baksi, A.K.

    1984-01-01

    The hominid dating anterior to the Homo Erectus has been based up to now on the rocks and minerals geochronology of vulcanic origem in stratigraphic relation with the fossils. Two methods are widely used, potassium-argon and uranium fission track dating. The vulcanic material dating; lava, lephra, associated with the hominid leavings show big difficults essentially connected to several types of contamination and modification. Two available examples inside the east-african rift show the probelms linked to these dating. The current progresses in the dating methods can contribute by one hand to a better utilization of the K-Ar and fisson track methods for the vulcanic materials. By other hand, with the introduction of new dating methods (thermoluminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance) will be possible to date directly whether the fossil bone itself or the associated sedimentar material. This open new perspectives in particular for every sites which are not inter-stratified with the vulcanic material. (L.C.) [pt

  10. A Phenomenological Investigation of Adolescent Dating Relationships and Dating Violence Counseling Interventions

    Hays, Danica G.; Michel, Rebecca E.; Cole, Rebekah F.; Emelianchik, Kelly; Forman, Julia; Lorelle, Sonya; McBride, Rebecca; Sikes, April

    2011-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of dating violence, incidences often go unreported due to a lack of awareness among students as to appropriate dating behaviors. This phenomenology investigated how adolescents conceptualize and experience dating relationships. We explored adolescent females' definitions of healthy and abusive relationships, experiences with…

  11. 20 CFR 404.630 - Use of date of written statement as filing date.

    2010-04-01

    ... data on the Internet Social Security Benefit Application to us, we will use the date of the... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of date of written statement as filing date. 404.630 Section 404.630 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE...

  12. Development of thermoluminescence dating techniques at Oxford

    Fleming, S.J.

    1977-01-01

    The two-decade long history of thermoluminescene as a pottery dating method is surveyed with particular reference to the various problems that have been encountered in the Oxford Laboratory's research programme. Effects, such as supralinearity and radon emanation, are explained in terms of how they are measured and how their existence influences thermoluminescence (TL) dating accuracy (currently close to plus minus 7% per analysis). Illustrations of Thermoluminescence (TL) applications include a Nok culture terracotta from Nigeria and a Cambodia bronze Buddha figure of the Khmer period, dated ising the ceramic-like casting-core retained within it. (author)

  13. ESR dating of tooth enamel samples

    Chen Tiemei; Yang quan; Wu En

    1993-01-01

    Five tooth samples from the palaeoanthropological site of Jinniushan were dated with both electron-spin-resonance (ESR) and uranium-series techniques. The ESR age of about 230 ka is in good agreement with the U-series dating result, which confirms the hypothesis of possible coexistence of Homo erect us and Homo sapiens in China. Problems in ESR dating are discussed such as: 1) inappropriate of simple exponential extrapolation for accumulated dose determination; 2)experimental measurement of alpha detection efficiency and radon emanation and 3)selection of U-uptake model

  14. Some wholesomeness studies on irradiated Iraqi dates

    Al Rawi, A.M.; Hamoudi, H.I.

    1981-01-01

    Iraqi dates (Zahdi and Khestawi) were irradiated at different dose levels (0 to 1500 krad) to extend their shelf-lives. Samples irradiated at 150 krad showed no change in the behaviour studies of tested Swiss albino mice. Fungi were found to have a constant rate of growth on the syrup irradiated dates. Chemical products such as malondialdehyde, deoxy sugars, acids and reducing sugars were quantified. In conclusion, 150 krad is a convenient dose to extend the shelf-lives of the tested dates and is therefore recommended. (author)

  15. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of young sediments

    Madsen, Anni Tindahl; Murray, Andrew S.

    2009-01-01

    of OSL dating, outlines the problems specific to the dating of young material, and then uses recent applications to young sediments to illustrate the greatly increased scope and potential of the method in geomorphology and the geology of recent deposits. The overall reliability of this new generation...... for determining the time of deposition of water-lain sediments from the coastal zone, and aeolian deposits from both coastal and inland environments. Our conclusion is supported by the growing popularity of OSL dating in geomorphology and geology...

  16. TL and EPR dating: some applications

    Watanabe, S. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The intensity of thermoluminescence light emitted by a crystal is a function of radiation dose. The number of defects or of radicals in a crystal or organic substances is also a function of radiation dose. Since such defects or radicals present EPR signals, the EPR intensity is also a function of radiation dose. These facts are basis for radiation dosimetry and can be applied in dating of archaeological potteries or other materials, as well as in dating geological substances such as sediments, caves speleothemes, animal teeth and bones. Recent investigation on sensitized quartz based dosimeters and dating calcite covering ancient wall painting to find early settlers in Brazil will be presented. (Author)

  17. Annual radiation dose in thermoluminescence dating

    Li Huhou

    1988-01-01

    The annual radiation dose in thermoluminescence dating has been discussed. The autor gives an entirely new concept of the enviromental radiation in the thermoluminescence dating. Methods of annual dose detemination used by author are dating. Methods of annual dose determination used by author are summed up, and the results of different methods are compared. The emanium escapiug of three radioactive decay serieses in nature has been considered, and several determination methods are described. The contribution of cosmic rays for the annual radiation dose has been mentioned

  18. Annual radiation dose in thermoluminescence dating

    Huhou, Li [Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing, BJ (China). Inst. of Archaeology

    1988-11-01

    The annual radiation dose in thermoluminescence dating has been discussed. The autor gives an entirely new concept of the enviromental radiation in the thermoluminescence dating. Methods of annual dose detemination used by author are dating. Methods of annual dose determination used by author are summed up, and the results of different methods are compared. The emanium escapiug of three radioactive decay serieses in nature has been considered, and several determination methods are described. The contribution of cosmic rays for the annual radiation dose has been mentioned.

  19. Amtrak's strategic business plan : progress to date

    1996-07-24

    To address its financial crisis and make its operations more efficient, in 1995 : Amtrak undertook a major corporate restructuring, along with developing its : Strategic Business Plan. This report (1) reviews Amtrak's success to date in : achieving f...

  20. Potassium-argon dating in archaeology

    McDougall, I. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences)

    1990-01-01

    The potassium-argon (K-Ar) isotopic dating method can provide precise and accurate numerical ages on suitable rocks, especially igneous rocks, over a wide range of age from less than 100,000 years old, with no older limit. Together with its variants, the {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar technique, the K-Ar method is very useful for the numerical age calibration of stratigraphic sequences, including those containing archaeological or fossil material, in cases where appropriate rocks for dating are present. This brief review of the basis of the K-Ar dating method and the underlying assumptions, concludes with an example of its application to the Plio-Pleistocene stratigraphic sequence in the Turkana Basin, northern Kenya. By dating alkali feldspars separated from pumice blocks in tuffaceous beds, excellent age control has been obtained for the wealth of vertebrate fossils, including hominids, as well as archaeological materials that has been found in the sequence. (author).

  1. Coconut, date and oil palm genomics

    A review of genomics research is presented for the three most economically important palm crops, coconut (Cocos nucifera), date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), encompassing molecular markers studies of genetic diversity, genetic mapping, quantitative trait loci discovery...

  2. Bullying: a stepping stone to dating aggression?

    Josephson, Wendy L; Pepler, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Bullying is the use of power and aggression to control and distress another. In this paper, we review research to explore whether the lessons learned in bullying provide a stepping stone to aggressive behavior in dating relationships. We start by considering definitions and a relationship framework with which to understand both bullying and dating aggression. We consider bullying from a developmental-contextual perspective and consider risk factors associated with the typical developmental patterns for bullying and dating aggression, including developmental and sociodemographic, individual attributes, and family, peer group, community, and societal relationship contexts that might lead some children and youths to follow developmental pathways that lead to bullying and dating aggression. We conclude by discussing implications for intervention with a review of evidence-based interventions.

  3. 38 CFR 21.4135 - Discontinuance dates.

    2010-07-01

    ... not leading to a standard college degree is not timely received, payments will be terminated date of... withdraws from correspondence, flight, farm cooperative, cooperative or job training, benefits will be...

  4. Chlorine-36 dating of continental evaporites

    Huang Qi

    1990-01-01

    Teh chloring-36 production, principle and experimental method of 36 Cl dating are briefly described. The ages calculated from the 36 Cl/Cl ratios are generally concordant with those obtained by using 14 C, 230 Th and magnetostratigraphic techniques. It confirms the constancy of the chlorine input ratio over the last million years and implys that 36 Cl can provide accurate dates on continental saline sediments

  5. Reduction of date microbial load with ozone

    Farajzadeh, Davood; Qorbanpoor, Ali; Rafati, Hasan; Isfeedvajani, Mohsen Saberi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Date is one of the foodstuffs that are produced in tropical areas and used worldwide. Conventionally, methyl bromide and phosphine are used for date disinfection. The toxic side effects of these usual disinfectants have led food scientists to consider safer agents such as ozone for disinfection, because food safety is a top priority. The present study was performed to investigate the possibility of replacing common conventional disinfectants with ozone for date disinfection and microbial load reduction. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, date samples were ozonized for 3 and 5 hours with 5 and 10 g/h concentrations and packed. Ozonized samples were divided into two groups and kept in an incubator which was maintained at 25°C and 40°C for 9 months. During this period, every 3 month, microbial load (bacteria, mold, and yeast) were examined in ozonized and non-ozonized samples. Results: This study showed that ozonization with 5 g/h for 3 hours, 5 g/h for 5 hours, 10 g/h for 3 hours, and 10 g/h for 5 hours leads to about 25%, 25%, 53%, and 46% reduction in date mold and yeast load and about 6%, 9%, 76%, and 74.7% reduction in date bacterial load at baseline phase, respectively. Appropriate concentration and duration of ozonization for microbial load reduction were 10 g/h and 3 hours. Conclusion: Date ozonization is an appropriate method for microbial load reduction and leads to an increase in the shelf life of dates. PMID:24124432

  6. REPORT ON THE DATING THE ODYSSEY

    r.e. Schmid

    2012-01-01

    STUDY SUPPORTS ACCURACY OF GREEK POET HOMER, SETS DATE FOR ODYSSEUS’ RETURN FROM TROJAN WAR

    Using clues from star and sun positions mentioned by the ancient Greek poet Homer, scholars think they have determined the date when King Odysseus returned from the Trojan War and slaughtered a group of suitors who had been pressing his wife to marry one of them.

  7. Correction procedures for C-14 dates

    McKerrell, H.

    1975-01-01

    There are two quite separate criteria to satisfy before accepting as valid the corrections to C-14 dates which have been indicated for some years now by the bristlecone pine calibration. Firstly the correction figures have to be based upon all the available tree-ring data and derived in a manner that is mathematically sound, and secondly the correction figures have to produce accurate results on C-14 dates from archaeological test samples of known historical date, these covering as wide a period as possible. Neither of these basic prerequisites has yet been fully met. Thus the two-fold purpose of this paper is to bring together, and to compare with an independently based procedure, the various correction curves or tables that have been published up to Spring 1974, as well as to detail the correction results on reliable, historically dated Egyptian, Helladic and Minoan test samples from 3100 B.C. The nomenclature followed is strictly that adopted by the primary dating journal Radiocarbon, all C-14 dates quoted thus relate to the 5568 year half-life and the standard AD/BC system. (author)

  8. Dating ancient monuments by nuclear radiation

    Goedicke, C.

    2000-01-01

    In the fifties and sixties several disciplines dealing with chronologies but lacking precise methods of measurements (geology, biology, archaeology and art history) became aware of the radioactive decay as a tool of measuring elapsed time. Among the disciplines that benefit most from physical methods archaeology has to be named first. So was archaeological work revolutionised by the introduction of the C-14 dating method. A wider selection of material became datable after the introduction of luminescence techniques using the effect of nuclear radiation on semiconductors. These minerals are widespread among archaeological materials. In ancient monuments, the objective of this paper, semiconductors almost exclusively form the material basis. Over the last four millennia wood, stone, mortar and fired bricks have been used for the construction of buildings. After discussing methods taking wood as a dating material, a broader view will be given on the results achieved by luminescence dating of fired bricks, mortar and stone. For many years brick dating was performed by thermoluminescence, the recipes followed those of ceramic dating. Preferably multiple aliquot additive dose protocols were used on polymineral fine grain fractions (1-10 μm). It was expected that the error in dating monuments would be smaller compared to ceramic dating, because of the constancy of the environmental conditions which a brick experiences during its lifetime. However, the variability of firing temperatures in brick kilns overthrows this advantage. Therefore, the demands of art historians to fall short of an error margin of 5% could generally not be fulfilled. Especially in medieval or renaissance times the temporal resolution of thermoluminescence is inferior to traditional stylistic dating as long as specific stylistic forms are present. New optical luminescence techniques and a new philosophy of dose evaluation, based on single aliquot regeneration protocols, produce less scatter, and in

  9. Development of BASIC program for radiocarbon dating

    Omoto, Kunio

    1982-01-01

    The continuous improvement of the system and the needs have produced the successful radiocarbon dating system of today to detect very low energy β-radioactivity. However, it still takes longer than 1,000 minutes for a sample counting. In a gas counting system, it is very difficult to keep the drift of impressed high voltage for a proportional counter less than 5 volts throughout the counting time. The temperature and the characteristics of gas itself also change during experiment. The accumulation of the above drift and errors are closely concerned with the accuracy and reliability of the radiocarbon date. The detection and reduction of the errors are only possible by using a ''fully automatic radiocarbon dating system'' linked to a personal computer system. In this paper, the author presents the BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) program for a fully automatic radiocarbon dating system. In this paper, the outline of the system and software development are described. The details of the program include the description for gas-collection, gas-enclosing, plateau counting, β-ray counting, age calculation and data file maintenance. The author wrote numerous remark statements into the program so that it can be understood by users without detailed knowledge of the operation of a personal computer system or of the radiocarbon dating. Using this system, the author found that the radiocarbon dating has greatly progressed in speed and labour-saving, and that the accuracy and reliability of the date itself has also improved much than former manual systems. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  10. Bullying Predicts Reported Dating Violence and Observed Qualities in Adolescent Dating Relationships.

    Ellis, Wendy E; Wolfe, David A

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between reported bullying, reported dating violence, and dating relationship quality measured through couple observations was examined. Given past research demonstrating similarity between peer and dating contexts, we expected that bullying would predict negative dating experiences. Participants with dating experience (n = 585; 238 males, M(age) = 15.06) completed self-report assessments of bullying and dating violence perpetration and victimization. One month later, 44 opposite-sex dyads (M(age) = 15.19) participated in behavioral observations. In 10-min sessions, couples were asked to rank and discuss areas of relationship conflict while being video-recorded. Qualities of the relationship were later coded by trained observers. Regression analysis revealed that bullying positively predicted dating violence perpetration and victimization. Self-reported bullying also predicted observations of lower relationship support and higher withdrawal. Age and gender interactions further qualified these findings. The bullying of boys, but not girls, was significantly related to dating violence perpetration. Age interactions showed that bullying was positively predictive of dating violence perpetration and victimization for older, but not younger adolescents. Positive affect was also negatively predicted by bullying, but only for girls. These findings add to the growing body of evidence that adolescents carry forward strategies learned in the peer context to their dating relationships. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese documents

    Oda, H.

    2001-01-01

    History is a reconstruction of past human activity, evidence of which is remained in the form of documents or relics. For the reconstruction of historic period, the radiocarbon dating of ancient documents provides important information. Although radiocarbon age is converted into calendar age with the calibration curve, the calibrated radiocarbon age is still different from the historical age when the document was written. The difference is known as 'old wood effect' for wooden cultural property. The discrepancy becomes more serious problem for recent sample which requires more accurate age determination. Using Tandetron accelerator mass spectrometer at Nagoya University, we have measured radiocarbon ages of Japanese ancient documents, sutras and printed books written dates of which are clarified from the paleographic standpoint. The purpose is to clarify the relation between calibrated radiocarbon age and historical age of ancient Japanese document by AMS radiocarbon dating. This paper reports 23 radiocarbon ages of ancient Japanese documents, sutras and printed books. The calibrated radiocarbon ages are in good agreement with the corresponding historical ages. It was shown by radiocarbon dating of the ancient documents that Japanese paper has little gap by 'old wood effect'; accordingly, ancient Japanese paper is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating of recent historic period. (author)

  12. Date Attachable Offline Electronic Cash Scheme

    Chun-I Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cash (e-cash is definitely one of the most popular research topics in the e-commerce field. It is very important that e-cash be able to hold the anonymity and accuracy in order to preserve the privacy and rights of customers. There are two types of e-cash in general, which are online e-cash and offline e-cash. Both systems have their own pros and cons and they can be used to construct various applications. In this paper, we pioneer to propose a provably secure and efficient offline e-cash scheme with date attachability based on the blind signature technique, where expiration date and deposit date can be embedded in an e-cash simultaneously. With the help of expiration date, the bank can manage the huge database much more easily against unlimited growth, and the deposit date cannot be forged so that users are able to calculate the amount of interests they can receive in the future correctly. Furthermore, we offer security analysis and formal proofs for all essential properties of offline e-cash, which are anonymity control, unforgeability, conditional-traceability, and no-swindling.

  13. Auspicious birth dates among Chinese in California.

    Almond, Douglas; Chee, Christine Pal; Sviatschi, Maria Micaela; Zhong, Nan

    2015-07-01

    The number eight is considered lucky in Chinese culture, e.g. the Beijing Olympics began at 8:08 pm on 8/8/2008. Given the potential for discretion in selecting particular dates of labor induction or scheduled Cesarean section (C-section), we consider whether Chinese-American births in California occur disproportionately on the 8th, 18th, or 28th day of the month. We find 2.3% "too many" Chinese births on these auspicious birth dates, whereas Whites show no corresponding increase. The increase in Chinese births is driven by higher parity C-sections: the number of repeat C-sections is 6% "too high" on auspicious birth dates. Sons born to Chinese parents account for the entire increase; daughter deliveries do not seem to be timed to achieve "lucky" birth dates. We also find avoidance of repeat C-section deliveries on the 4th, 14th, and 24th of the month, considered unlucky in Chinese culture. Finally, we replicate earlier work finding that Friday the 13th delivery dates are avoided and document a particularly large decrease among Chinese. For Whites and Chinese in California, mothers with higher levels of education are particularly likely to avoid delivering on the 13th. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Date attachable offline electronic cash scheme.

    Fan, Chun-I; Sun, Wei-Zhe; Hau, Hoi-Tung

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cash (e-cash) is definitely one of the most popular research topics in the e-commerce field. It is very important that e-cash be able to hold the anonymity and accuracy in order to preserve the privacy and rights of customers. There are two types of e-cash in general, which are online e-cash and offline e-cash. Both systems have their own pros and cons and they can be used to construct various applications. In this paper, we pioneer to propose a provably secure and efficient offline e-cash scheme with date attachability based on the blind signature technique, where expiration date and deposit date can be embedded in an e-cash simultaneously. With the help of expiration date, the bank can manage the huge database much more easily against unlimited growth, and the deposit date cannot be forged so that users are able to calculate the amount of interests they can receive in the future correctly. Furthermore, we offer security analysis and formal proofs for all essential properties of offline e-cash, which are anonymity control, unforgeability, conditional-traceability, and no-swindling.

  15. ESR dating of the fault rocks

    Lee, Hee Kwon

    2005-01-01

    We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the nuclear reactor. The Upcheon fault zone is exposed close to the Ulzin nuclear reactor. The space-time pattern of fault activity on the Upcheon fault deduced from ESR dating of fault gouge can be summarised as follows : this fault zone was reactivated between fault breccia derived from Cretaceous sandstone and tertiary volcanic sedimentary rocks about 2 Ma, 1.5 Ma and 1 Ma ago. After those movements, the Upcheon fault was reactivated between Cretaceous sandstone and fault breccia zone about 800 ka ago. This fault zone was reactivated again between fault breccia derived form Cretaceous sandstone and Tertiary volcanic sedimentary rocks about 650 ka and after 125 ka ago. These data suggest that the long-term(200-500 k.y.) cyclic fault activity of the Upcheon fault zone continued into the Pleistocene. In the Ulzin area, ESR dates from the NW and EW trend faults range from 800 ka to 600 ka NE and EW trend faults were reactivated about between 200 ka and 300 ka ago. On the other hand, ESR date of the NS trend fault is about 400 ka and 50 ka. Results of this research suggest the fault activity near the Ulzin nuclear reactor fault activity continued into the Pleistocene. One ESR date near the Youngkwang nuclear reactor is 200 ka

  16. Date Attachable Offline Electronic Cash Scheme

    Sun, Wei-Zhe; Hau, Hoi-Tung

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cash (e-cash) is definitely one of the most popular research topics in the e-commerce field. It is very important that e-cash be able to hold the anonymity and accuracy in order to preserve the privacy and rights of customers. There are two types of e-cash in general, which are online e-cash and offline e-cash. Both systems have their own pros and cons and they can be used to construct various applications. In this paper, we pioneer to propose a provably secure and efficient offline e-cash scheme with date attachability based on the blind signature technique, where expiration date and deposit date can be embedded in an e-cash simultaneously. With the help of expiration date, the bank can manage the huge database much more easily against unlimited growth, and the deposit date cannot be forged so that users are able to calculate the amount of interests they can receive in the future correctly. Furthermore, we offer security analysis and formal proofs for all essential properties of offline e-cash, which are anonymity control, unforgeability, conditional-traceability, and no-swindling. PMID:24982931

  17. OU3 sediment dating and sedimentation rates

    Blair, R.B.; Wolaver, H.A.; Burger, V.M.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental Technologies at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFS) investigated the sediment history of Standley Lake, Great Western Reservoir, and Mower Reservoir using 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu global fall-out as dating indicators. These Colorado Front Range reservoirs have been the subject of study by various city, state and national agencies due to suspected Department of Energy Rocky Flats Plant impacts. We performed sediment dating as part of the RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report for Operable Unit 3. A sediment chronology profile assists scientist in determining the year of sedimentation for a particular peak concentration of contaminants. Radioisotope sediment dating for the three reservoirs indicated sedimentation rates of 0.7 to 0.8 in./yr. for Standley Lake (SL), 0.9 in./yr. for Great Western Reservoir (GWR), and 0.3 in./yr. in Mower Reservoir (MR). RFS sediment dating for Operable Unit 3 compared favorably with the Hardy, Livingston, Burke, and Volchok Standley Lake study. This report describes the cesium/plutonium sediment dating method, estimates sedimentation rates for Operable Unit 3 reservoirs, and compares these results to previous investigations

  18. Thermoluminescence of laterites: applicability in dating

    Sankaran, A.V.; Nambi, K.S.V.; Sunta, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The northward drift of the Indian subcontinent during the past geological periods brought it under the spell of humid tropical climate in post-mesozoic times which initiated chemical weathering processes (lateritization) of the ancient crustal rocks leading to neomineralization. In the present study, thermoluminescence (TL) of these 'later-formed minerals' has been used to date laterites from a number of localities in India. While the TL emission of most of the laterite samples was poor, three from Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka states, each derived from mineralogically dissimilar parent rock, yielded measurable TL and provided dates in the range of 2 to 3.6 x 10 5 yr. It is suggested that TL dating can be a promising tool for such samples, and especially those with low alpha activity (U, Th at sub-ppm levels). (author)

  19. Thermoluminescence of laterites: applicability in dating

    Sankaran, A V; Nambi, K S.V.; Sunta, C M

    1985-01-01

    The northward drift of the Indian subcontinent during the past geological periods brought it under the spell of humid tropical climate in post-mesozoic times which initiated chemical weathering processes (lateritization) of the ancient crustal rocks leading to neomineralization. In the present study, thermoluminescence (TL) of these 'later-formed minerals' has been used to date laterites from a number of localities in India. While the TL emission of most of the laterite samples was poor, three from Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka states, each derived from mineralogically dissimilar parent rock, yielded measurable TL and provided dates in the range of 2 to 3.6 x 10/sup 5/ yr. It is suggested that TL dating can be a promising tool for such samples, and especially those with low alpha activity (U, Th at sub-ppm levels).

  20. Geological Survey of Canada radiocarbon dates XXIX

    McNeely, R.; McCuaig, S.

    1991-01-01

    This list presents 622 radiocarbon age determinations made by the Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory. All samples dated more than two years ago have now been reported in date lists. The total number (609) of samples from various areas are as follows: Offshore (43); Newfoundland (42); Labrador (11); Nova Scotia (39); New Brunswick (7); Champlain Sea (38); Quebec (54); Ontario (23); Manitoba (3); Saskatchewan (9); Alberta (6); British Columbia (92); Yukon Territory (71); Northwest Territories, mainland (33); Northwest Territories, Arctic Archipelago (126); U.S.A. - New York (6); Washington (1); Denmark Greenland (3). Tables 1 and 2 summarize the details of background and standard counts for the 2 L and 5 L counters during the period from December 6, 1988 to January 9, 1990. (author). Refs

  1. Geological Survey of Canada radiocarbon dates XXIX

    McNeely, R; McCuaig, S

    1992-12-31

    This list presents 622 radiocarbon age determinations made by the Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory. All samples dated more than two years ago have now been reported in date lists. The total number (609) of samples from various areas are as follows: Offshore (43); Newfoundland (42); Labrador (11); Nova Scotia (39); New Brunswick (7); Champlain Sea (38); Quebec (54); Ontario (23); Manitoba (3); Saskatchewan (9); Alberta (6); British Columbia (92); Yukon Territory (71); Northwest Territories, mainland (33); Northwest Territories, Arctic Archipelago (126); U.S.A. - New York (6); Washington (1); Denmark Greenland (3). Tables 1 and 2 summarize the details of background and standard counts for the 2 L and 5 L counters during the period from December 6, 1988 to January 9, 1990. (author). Refs.

  2. Radiocarbon dating with accelerator mass spectrometry

    Blake, W. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has two great advantages over conventional dating: 1) much smaller samples can be handled and 2) counting time is significantly shorter. Three examples are given for Holocene-age material from east-central Ellesmere Island. The results demonstrate the potential use of this technique as a powerful research tool in studies of Quaternary chronology. Individual fragments of marine shells as small as 0.1 g have been dated successfully at the IsoTrace Laboratory, University of Toronto. In the case of an aquatic moss from a lake sediment core, an increment 0.5 cm thick could be used instead of a 5 cm-thick slice, thus allowing a much more precise estimate of the onset of organic sedimentation

  3. Disinfestation of Date Fruits by Gamma Radiation and Its Effect on the Nutritional Contents of Dates

    Ahmed, Z.A.; Boshra, S.A.; Mikhaiel, A.A.; Hassan, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    Irradiation dis infestations of Siwa date fruits seems to be a very promising method. Considerations of the health safety of irradiated date fruits involve nutritional contents has been investigated by chemical analysis. The dose of 400 and 1000 Gy were lethal for the different stages of oases date moth, Ephestia calidella. Dates are a good source of iron and potassium, they also contain calcium, magnesium, copper and other minerals. The radiation dose 1000 Gy had mostly affected the carbohydrates content, some minerals as Fe, Ca and Na partially changed by the treatment. Protein and vitamin contents were slightly affected

  4. An assessment of variability in radiocarbon dating

    Scott, E.M.; Baxter, M.S.; Aitchison, T.C.

    1981-01-01

    A series of replicate experiments, involving analysis of homogenized wood and identical tree-ring sections, suggests that the 14 C counting error in radiocarbon dating quantifies only part of the total variability of measurement. Statistical modelling implies that a more realistic assessment of error is provided by a value approximately three times the counting error. The incorporation of this more realistic measure of variability into an appropriate procedure for calibrating a single date and for matching a floating chronology to a master chronology is described. (author)

  5. Dating Petroglyphs from Fugoppe Cave, Japan

    Masaru Ogawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For over 20 years, I have tried to establish a relative date for petroglyphs in Fugoppe Cave, Japan. Unsuspected amidst debris accumulating from about 1300 years ago, the petroglyphs were rediscovered accidentally in 1950. From an analysis of petroglyphs on fallen rocks scattered randomly on the site floor, I argue that the artworks date from ca.1900 years ago. The cave itself, formed by wave action, saw its main occupation by pottery-making people from 1700–1500 years ago; although the petroglyphs on the rock walls predated their occupation, it seems unlikely that the occupants attached any meaning to them.

  6. The TL dating of ancient porcelain

    Leung, P.L.; Stokes, M.J.; Wang Weida; Xia Junding; Zhou Zhixin

    1997-01-01

    The age determination of ancient porcelain using the pre-dose technique in TL dating was reported. The variation of beta dose with depth below the surface of the porcelain slice, the thermal activation characteristic (TAC) for 110 degree C peak, the measurement of paleodose and the estimation of annual dose were studied. The results show that this technique is suitable for authenticity testing of ancient porcelain, but both accuracy and precision for porcelain dating are worse than those for pottery, because porcelain differs from pottery on composition, structure and firing temperature. Besides, some complicated factors in the pre-dose technique would be the possible cause of the greater errors

  7. Obsidian Hydration Dating in the Undergraduate Curriculum.

    Manche, Emanuel P.; Lakatos, Stephen

    1986-01-01

    Provides an overview of obsidian hydration dating for the instructor by presenting: (1) principles of the method; (2) procedures; (3) applications; and (4) limitations. The theory of the method and one or more laboratory exercises can be easily introduced into the undergraduate geology curriculum. (JN)

  8. 29 CFR 1910.98 - Effective dates.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective dates. 1910.98 Section 1910.98 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... section, if any standard in 41 CFR part 50-204, other than a national consensus standard incorporated by...

  9. Use of radiocarbon technique for archaelogic dating

    Chausson, Y.

    1986-01-01

    The nuclear technique based on the beta radiation measurements emitted by the radiocarbon is applied an the geochronologycal dating of organic samples of prehistoric fires and sambaqui shells. This paper describes the origin of the method, the technique used and its applications, the analysis method, the equipments and the experiences performed. (Author) [pt

  10. 77 FR 30928 - Target Date Disclosure

    2012-05-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employee Benefits Security Administration 29 CFR Part 2550 RIN 1210-AB38 Target Date Disclosure AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security Administration, Labor. ACTION: Proposed rule; reopening of comment period. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor's Employee Benefits Security Administration is...

  11. When Pregnancy Goes Past Your Due Date

    ... due date determined? • What is postterm pregnancy? • What causes a postterm pregnancy? • What are the risks associated with postterm pregnancy? • ... longer than 42 weeks is called “postterm.” What causes a postterm pregnancy? The causes of postterm pregnancy are unknown, but ...

  12. Radiocarbon dating of interlaboratory check samples

    Blake, W.

    1983-01-01

    This note presents the results of a series of interlaboratory age determinations in which the Geological Survey of Canada's Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory has been involved. There is good agreement between laboratories, although there may be other problems related to the interpretation of individual samples

  13. Physical Dating Aggression Growth during Adolescence

    Nocentini, Annalaura; Menesini, Ersilia; Pastorelli, Concetta

    2010-01-01

    The development of Physical Dating Aggression from the age of 16 to 18 years was investigated in relation to time-invariant predictors (gender, parental education, family composition, number of partners) and to time-varying effects of delinquent behavior and perception of victimization by the partner. The sample consisted of 181 adolescents with a…

  14. 31 CFR 595.302 - Effective date.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 595.302 Section 595.302 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions...

  15. 50 CFR 216.212 - Effective dates.

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Explosive Severance Activities Conducted During Offshore Structure Removal Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico § 216.212 Effective dates...

  16. Date change and safeguards at Dounreay

    Anderson, A.; Gregory, C.V.

    1999-01-01

    The paper briefly describes the arrangements in Dounreay for tackling the Millennium problem and for managing the accountancy of fissile material. The impact of the date change upon safeguards at Dounreauy has been assessed and the paper shows the problems which have been identified and are being tackled with

  17. Historical Analysis of College Campus Interracial Dating

    Firmin, Michael W.; Firebaugh, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Interracial dating on American campuses has had a relatively stormy past. Until the past three decades or so, it was outlawed in some states. Southern institutions, in particular, such as the infamous Bob Jones University have made this issue divisive even among their own constituencies. Age and generation seem to be cogent factors with younger…

  18. ESR dating of the fault rocks

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-01-15

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then grow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs, grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size : these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the Ulzin nuclear reactor. ESR signals of quartz grains separated from fault rocks collected from the E-W trend fault are saturated. This indicates that the last movement of these faults had occurred before the quaternary period. ESR dates from the NW trend faults range from 300ka to 700ka. On the other hand, ESR date of the NS trend fault is about 50ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity near the Ulzin nuclear reactor continued into the pleistocene.

  19. Radiocarbon dating of ancient rock paintings

    Ilger, W.A.; Hyman, M.; Rowe, M.W. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Southon, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-06-20

    This report presents progress made on a technique for {sup 14}C dating pictographs. A low-temperature oxygen plasma is used coupled with high-vacuum technologies to selectively remove C-containing material in the paints without contamination from inorganic carbon from rock substrates or accretions.

  20. 38 CFR 21.7135 - Discontinuance dates.

    2010-07-01

    ...; Pub. L. 98-525) (c) Divorce. If the veteran becomes divorced, the effective date of reduction of his or her educational assistance is the last day of the month in which the divorce occurs. (Authority...) If the veteran or servicemember, for reasons other than being called or ordered to active duty...

  1. Radiocarbon dating of ancient rock paintings

    Ilger, W.A.; Hyman, M.; Rowe, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents progress made on a technique for 14 C dating pictographs. A low-temperature oxygen plasma is used coupled with high-vacuum technologies to selectively remove C-containing material in the paints without contamination from inorganic carbon from rock substrates or accretions

  2. The unexpected truth about dates and hypoglycemia

    Mohammed I Yasawy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dates are a concentrated source of essential nutrients, vitamins, minerals, and carbohydrates (CHOs, which are necessary for the maintenance of optimum health. Most of the CHOs in dates come from sugars including glucose and fructose. Dates are commonly consumed in Saudi Arabia, particularly at the time of breaking the fast to provide instant energy and maintain blood sugar level. However, dates may cause hypoglycemia in a rare condition named as heredity fructose intolerance (HFI, and a few families have been to see us with a history of that nature. This is to report the preliminary results of an on-going study of a group of patients who get symptoms of hypoglycemia following the ingestion of dates and have suffered for years without an accurate diagnosis. Methodology: This report is based on three patients, from the same family, living in a date growing region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. The patients had been to several medical centers without getting any definite answers or diagnosis until they were referred to the Gastroenterology Clinic of King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, KSA. The data were obtained by careful history and laboratory investigations, and a final diagnosis of HFI made on fructose intolerance test (FIT. Results: The patients reported that they had avoided eating dates because of various symptoms, such as bloating, nausea, and even hypoglycemia when larger amounts were consumed. Their other symptoms included sleepiness, sweating, and shivering. After full examinations and necessary laboratory tests based on the above symptoms, FIT was performed and the patients were diagnosed with HFI. They were referred to a dietitian who advised a fructose-free diet. They felt well and were free of symptoms. Conclusion: HFI may remain undiagnosed until adulthood and may lead to disastrous complications and even death. The diagnosis can only be suspected after a careful dietary history is taken supported by

  3. Single-machine scheduling with release dates, due dates and family setup times

    Schutten, Johannes M.J.; van de Velde, S.L.; van de Velde, S.L.; Zijm, Willem H.M.

    1996-01-01

    We address the NP-hard problem of scheduling n independent jobs with release dates, due dates, and family setup times on a single machine to minimize the maximum lateness. This problem arises from the constant tug-of-war going on in manufacturing between efficient production and delivery

  4. Single-machine scheduling with release dates, due dates, and family setup times

    J.M.J. Schutten (Marco); S.L. van de Velde (Steef); W.H.M. Zijm

    1996-01-01

    textabstractWe address the NP-hard problem of scheduling n independent jobs with release dates, due dates, and family setup times on a single machine to minimize the maximum lateness. This problem arises from the constant tug-of-war going on in manufacturing between efficient production and delivery

  5. Internet dating as a project: the commodification and rationalisation of online dating

    Tjaša Žakelj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on qualitative empirical data from two studies on Internet dating in Slovenia, this paper discusses the social contexts of the Internet dating of heterosexual men and women and homosexual men. Special attention is given to different aspects of the commodification and rationalisation of dating in the process of forming potential (romantic partnerships. First, we discuss our respondents’ reasons for using the Internet to get in touch with potential (romantic partners. Second, we focus on the demands and strategies of targeted market- ing in personal profile writing and, finally, on the process of selecting potential partners. Our study shows that the primary understanding of Internet dating among people who engage in it is its economic nature. Together with targeted marketing and the predeter- mined criteria for choosing interesting others, Internet dating can thus be understood as a market that encourages rationalisation and commodification in the process of forming intimate relationships.

  6. Witnessing Interparental Violence and Acceptance of Dating Violence as Predictors for Teen Dating Violence Victimization.

    Karlsson, Marie E; Temple, Jeff R; Weston, Rebecca; Le, Vi Donna

    2016-04-01

    We examined the association between witnessing interparental violence, attitudes about dating violence, and physical and psychological teen dating violence (TDV) victimization. Participants were 918 teens with dating experience. Witnessing interparental violence and acceptance of dating violence were significant predictors of TDV victimization. Acceptance of dating violence was also a partial mediator between witnessing interparental violence and TDV victimization. Witnessing mother-to-father violence and acceptance of female-perpetrated violence were the most consistent predictors. TDV programs aiming to prevent victimization could benefit from targeting youth exposed to father-to-mother and mother-to-father violence, targeting attitudes about violence, and tailoring interventions to gender-specific risk factors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Up-Dating: Ratings of Perceived Dating Success Are Better Online than Offline.

    Fullwood, Chris; Attrill-Smith, Alison

    2018-01-01

    The primary aims of this study were to test whether perceived dating success would differ between offline and online zero-acquaintance dating contexts and to investigate the role that self-esteem might play in these evaluations. Participants were presented with the same photos of targets in either an offline or online dating scenario and rated their chances of dating success along with their perceptions of how attractive they thought the target would consider them. Higher self-esteem individuals believed they would be rated as more attractive. There was an overall perception that, irrespective of self-esteem level, meeting online would lead to better chances of dating success. These findings are considered in relation to an increased ability to more precisely manage impressions and develop an image of the self which would be evaluated more positively online.

  8. Mercury in dated Greenland marine sediments

    Asmund, G.; Nielsen, S.P.

    2000-01-01

    Twenty marine sediment cores from Greenland were analysed for mercury, and dated by the lead-210 method. In general the cores exhibit a mercury profile with higher mercury concentrations in the upper centimetres of the core. The cores were studied by linear regression of In Hg vs, age of the sedi......Twenty marine sediment cores from Greenland were analysed for mercury, and dated by the lead-210 method. In general the cores exhibit a mercury profile with higher mercury concentrations in the upper centimetres of the core. The cores were studied by linear regression of In Hg vs, age...... indicating that the mercury mainly originates from atmospheric washout. But the large variability indicates that other processes also influence the mercury flux to Arctic marine sediments. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  9. 210Pb dating of Baltic Sea sediments

    Gellermann, R.

    1990-01-01

    The paper reports on the results of 210 Pb measurement in sediment cores from the Baltic Sea. The models used for the interpretation are derived and discussed. In general, the sedimentation parameters calculated with different models are consistent. However, parameters of cores independently taken on same partly show clearly differing values. The reasons of this observation have to be analysed by further studies. An essential problem considered in this paper is the dating of disturbed sediments. The use of such cores for the reconstruction of the input history of chemical indicators requires a deconvolution of data. The response function necessary for this procedure can be derived from 210 Pb measurements. The results of such a reconstruction considerably differ from those obtained by conventional dating models. The analysis of the measuring uncertainty of the indicator (e.g. lead) in the deconvolution procedure unveals the limits of the method and prevents it from overinterpretation. (orig.) [de

  10. Dating methods and their relevance in physics

    Schneider, H.

    1981-01-01

    The article describes some of the most important radiometric clocks. It is pointed out how much the chronological interpretation of isotopic ratios depends on preconceived models about origin and history of investigated minerals. A number of physico-chemical effects are discussed, which give rise to fictitious datings. The possibility is considered that all the radiometric ages used for establishing the geologic time scale might be due to such effects. The history and foundations of the latter are reviewed, and the possibility of a wrong decision is mentioned. Several results from fossil objects indicate very young ages. The usual treatment of anomalous results is criticised. Long-time clocks fails to reproduce documented young ages. It is suggested that in the age interpretation of isotopic ratios much younger than conventional ages be also taken into consideration. The importance of directly dating fossils is stressed. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Radiocarbon dating development and practices at MINT

    Kamisah Alias; Bashillah Baharuddin; Juhari Mohd Yusof; Ahmad Raduan Ujang

    2002-01-01

    The MINT radiocarbon dating technique was introduced and a very well-designed vacuum line was developed to generate benzene from samples containing carbon. A liquid scintillation counter provides a very good prerequisite for precise measurement of the C-14 activity in the benzene. From time to time, assessment on the status of the analytical capabilities of the system and advice on improvement and upgrading required was made. For routine analysis, standard sampling, pretreatment, carbon dioxide conversion and measurement procedures were adopted. Radiocarbon dating is now, one of the most important developments of the twenties century in the comprehension of the history of human development, a quick, easy, reliable and scientifically acceptable method to determine the age of historical artefacts and archaeological samples. (Author)

  12. Perspectives in radiocarbon dating by radiometry

    Polach, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    Opportunities for individual contributions to the technology of radiocarbon dating over the past 40 years have been large. Meaningful developments are traced in this review of C-14 dating by gas proportional (GP) and liquid scintillation (LS) spectrometry. The performance of characteristic as well as state of the art GP and LS systems is tabulated and their merit for low-level counting of C-14 is evaluated. Future developments in radiometry will lie in the updating of existing systems to incorporate new technologies and the refinement of resolution and identification of extreme low-level signals. Parallel development with AMS, sharing on merit the ever widening applied C-14 research field, and enhanced interdisciplinary collaboration are foreseen as the scenario leading to the year 2000

  13. Perspectives in radiocarbon dating by radiometry

    Polach, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    Opportunities for individual contributions to the technology of radiocarbon dating over the past 40 years have been large. Meaningful developments are traced in this review of C-14 dating by gas proportional (GP) and liquid scintillation (LS) spectrometry. The performance of characteristic as well as state of the art GP and LS systems is tabulated and their merit for low-level counting of C-14 is evaluated. Future developments in radiometry will lie in the updating of existing systems to incorporate new technologies and the refinement of resolution and identification of extreme low-level signals. Parallel development with AMS, sharing on merit the ever widening applied C-14 research field, and enhanced interdisciplinary collaboration are foreseen as the scenario leading to the year 2000. (orig.)

  14. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating

    Philippsen, Bente

    case studies will show the degree of variability of the freshwater reservoir effect over short and long timescales. Radiocarbon dating of recent water samples, aquatic plants and animals, shows that age differences of up to 2000 years can occur within one river. In the Limfjord, freshwater influence......The freshwater reservoir effect can result in too high radiocarbon ages of samples from lakes and rivers, including the bones of people whose subsistence was based on freshwater fish, and pottery in which fish was cooked. In my talk, I will explain the causes and consequences of this effect. Two...... caused reservoir ages to vary between 250 and 700 years during the period 5400 BC - AD 700. Finally, I will discuss the implications of the freshwater reservoir effect for radiocarbon dating of Mesolithic pottery from inland sites of the Ertebølle culture in Northern Germany....

  15. Towards Luminescence Dating Of Mosaic Glass

    Galli, A.; Martini, M.; Sibila, E.; Villa, I.

    The possibility of dating archaeological glass by means of luminescent techniques has been investigated in recent years, despite the difficulties of this application, mainly linked to the amorphous structure of the material. We focused in particular on mosaic glass, after the encouraging results obtained on byzantine and medieval samples. Further studies were devoted to the comprehension of the luminescent mechanisms in silica glasses, and to the investigation of the relationships between luminescence, colouring or opacifier ions and crystalline phase of the vitreous matrix. The results of a study on the dosimetric characteristics of thermoluminescence (TL) and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) of a few medieval blue-green mosaic glasses from the San Lorenzo church (Milan) are presented, and the experimental protocols established to identify their suitability for dating are discussed.

  16. AGAR PENULISAN RESEP TETAP UP TO DATE

    Rahmatini Rahmatini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakResep adalah suatu permintaan tertulis dari dokter, dokter gigi atau dokter hewan kepada apoteker untuk membuatkan obat dalam bentuk sediaan tertentu dan menyerahkannya kepada pasien. Resep merupakan perwujudan akhir dari kompetensi, pengetahuan dan keahlian dokter dalam menerapkan pengetahuannya dalam bidang farmakologi dan terapi.Penulisan resep harus ditulis dengan jelas sehingga dapat dibaca oleh petugas di apotek. Resep yang ditulis dengan tidak jelas akan menimbulkan terjadinya kesalahan saat peracikan / penyiapan obat dan penggunaan obat yang diresepkan.Ilmu pengetahuan tentang obat selalu berubah, obat – obat baru selalu muncul di pasaran.Secara umum, seorang dokter harus mengikuti perkembangan dalam terapi obat. Bila muncul efek samping akibat obat yang seharusnya diketahui dan dapat dicegah oleh dokter, maka dokter akan berhadapan dengan hukum.Agar penulisan resep tetap up to date, seorang dokter harus mengumpulkan berbagai informasi yang tersedia. Sumber informasi yang dapat digunakan adalah : Buku acuan, Kompendium obat, Daftar Obat Esensial Nasional (DOEN dan Pedoman terapi, Buletin obat, Jurnal Kedokteran, Pusat informasi obat,Informasi melalui komputer, Sumber informasi dari industri farmasi, dan informasi lisan.Bandingkan kelebihan dan kekurangan berbagai sumber informasi. Tugas seorang dokter adalah melakukan cara terbaik untuk tetap up to date dengan mendaftar sumber informasi yang dapat dimanfaatkan. Carilah sedikitnya satu dari yang berikut ini : (1 jurnal kedokteran: (2 buletin obat; (3 buku acuan farmakologi atau acuan klinis; (4 komisi terapi maupun konsultan, atau lulusan pasca sarjana farmakologi. Dengan bekal pengetahuan dan kemampuan untuk melakukan penilaian secara kritis setiap bentuk informasi, diharapkan dokter tetap up to date dalam menulis resepKata kunci : Resep – up to- date.Abstract Prescription is a written request from a doctor, dentist or veterinarian to the pharmacist to make a particular drug

  17. Radiocarbon dating methods using benzene liquid scintillation

    Togashi, Shigeko; Matsumoto, Eiji

    1983-01-01

    The radiocarbon dating method using benzene liquid scintillation is reported in detail. The results of measurement of NBS oxalic acid agree with the recommended value, indicating that isotopic fractionation during benzene synthesis can be negligible. Ten samples which have been already measured by gas counter are dated by benzene liquid scintillation. There is no significant difference in age for the same sample between benzene liquid scintillation and gas counters. It is shown that quenching has to be corrected for the young sample. Memory effect in stainless steel reaction vessel can be removed by using an exchangeable inner vessel and by baking it in the air. Using this method, the oldest age that can be measured with 2.3 g carbon is 40,000 years B.P. (author)

  18. William Crabtree and the date of Easter

    Sellers, D.

    2014-04-01

    A previously unknown treatise by William Crabtree (c.1603-c.1644) has recently been unearthed in the Lancashire Record Office. The treatise, in manuscript form and written in 1640, deals with the controversy over the long-term impact of the Julian Calendar - then in use in England - upon the ecclesiastical dating of Easter. By Crabtree's time, the timing of the Easter celebration in England was often several weeks adrift of the intentions of the early Church Fathers. The Gregorian Calendar, which Roman Catholic countries had adopted as long ago as 1582 in order to resolve the problem, was still vehemently resisted by the English state. This is possibly the only surviving manuscript in Crabtree's own hand. In it, he displays noteworthy dispassionate objectivity as he outlines the astronomical basis for the Easter date and explains why it has gone awry.

  19. Evaluation of the commercial FBR introduction date

    White, M.K.; Merrill, E.T.

    1981-09-01

    This report examines one criterion for introducing a commercial FBR: economic competitiveness with a Light Water Reactor (LWR). For this analysis, the commercial FBR is assumed to be the fifth-of-a kind replicate which represents an economically mature plant. This FBR is deemed economically competitive when its life-cycle energy cost is less than or equal to that of an LWR. Results of this analysis are used in a comparative analysis of alternative FBR development stategies. The strategies evaluated in these studies assume both 1000- and 1457-MWe FBRs. Since the capital costs per kilowatt, and therefore the energy costs, for these two FBR sizes are different, they will become economically competitive at different times. The probability density function for the 1457-MW(e) FBR has an expected value date or weighted average date of 2030, compared with 2033 for the probability density function for the 1000-MW(e) FBR

  20. Carbon-14 Bomb-Pulse Dating

    Buchholz, B A

    2007-12-16

    Atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons during the 1950s and early 1960s doubled the concentration of carbon-14 atmosphere and created a pulse that labeled everything alive in the past 50 years as carbon moved up the food chain. The variation in carbon-14 concentration in time is well-documented and can be used to chronologically date all biological materials since the mid-1950s.

  1. Radiocarbon dating for the Quaternary scientist

    Pilcher, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The accuracy of many conventional and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates is not adequate for the sort of questions now being asked in Quaternary studies. The need for, and effects of, radiocarbon calibration are discussed and guide-lines offered for the selection of a laboratory. High precision laboratories and the use of wiggle matching will go a long way to answering the critical questions of rates of change and durations of events in the Holocene. (Author)

  2. Progress and problems with automated TL dating

    McKerrell, H.; Mejdahl, V.

    1981-01-01

    A number of basic problems connected with the measurement of beta and gamma dose-rates are discussed, and the possibility of using low-temperature peaks in quartz and feldspar for dose-rate measurements is examined. Preliminary results of TL measurements on individual grains of quartz and feldspar are presented. A TL dating method based on the difference in the archaeological dose received by potassium feldspar and quartz grains is proposed. (author)

  3. {sup 14}C AMS dating Yongcheon cave

    Lee, J.H., E-mail: jefflee@snu.ac.kr [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, K. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.C. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Song, Y.M. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, J.G. [Jeju National Museum, Jeju 690-782 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    The biggest island in South Korea is Jeju Island, which lies 80 km south of the mainland and has one shield volcano, Mt. Halla. The volcanic island and its lava tubes were added to the world heritage list by UNESCO in 2007. Among the many lava tubes on the island, a unique cave had been accidentally found in 2005 while some workers were replacing a telephone pole. Until the discovery, it had been completely isolated from the outside by naturally-built sand blocks. Yongcheon cave is a lime-decorated lava tube showing both the properties of a volcanic lava tube and a limestone cave. This cave, about 3 km in length, is acknowledged to be the best of this type in the world and includes a large clean-water lake, lava falls, and richly developed speleothems inside it. Even though there is archaeological evidence from well preserved pottery that ancient people entered this place, the preservation of artifacts was ensured by a geological change that made later entrance difficult. We have collected charcoal samples scattered around the cave and dated them using AMS. Ages were in the range of ca. 1570-1260 BP (A.D. 340-880) and this corresponds to the Ancient Three Kingdoms and the Unified Silla era in Korean history. The {sup 14}C AMS measurement results presented in this paper on wood charcoal provide precise dates which will be very useful not only to clarify the nature of human activities in this cave but also to provide reference dates when comparing other dating methods.

  4. 14C AMS dating Yongcheon cave

    Lee, J.H.; Choe, K.; Kim, J.C.; Choi, S.H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Song, Y.M.; Jang, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    The biggest island in South Korea is Jeju Island, which lies 80 km south of the mainland and has one shield volcano, Mt. Halla. The volcanic island and its lava tubes were added to the world heritage list by UNESCO in 2007. Among the many lava tubes on the island, a unique cave had been accidentally found in 2005 while some workers were replacing a telephone pole. Until the discovery, it had been completely isolated from the outside by naturally-built sand blocks. Yongcheon cave is a lime-decorated lava tube showing both the properties of a volcanic lava tube and a limestone cave. This cave, about 3 km in length, is acknowledged to be the best of this type in the world and includes a large clean-water lake, lava falls, and richly developed speleothems inside it. Even though there is archaeological evidence from well preserved pottery that ancient people entered this place, the preservation of artifacts was ensured by a geological change that made later entrance difficult. We have collected charcoal samples scattered around the cave and dated them using AMS. Ages were in the range of ca. 1570-1260 BP (A.D. 340–880) and this corresponds to the Ancient Three Kingdoms and the Unified Silla era in Korean history. The 14 C AMS measurement results presented in this paper on wood charcoal provide precise dates which will be very useful not only to clarify the nature of human activities in this cave but also to provide reference dates when comparing other dating methods.

  5. Dating cremated bone: the scientific background

    Lanting, J. N.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A new method of obtaining absolute chronology dates out of burnt or cremated bone is presented. The authors explain their recent experiments and give promising results.

    Los autores presentan un nuevo método para obtener fechas de datación absoluta a partir de restos de hueso sometidos a diferentes grados de combustión y explican algunas de sus recientes experiencias y los resultados obtenidos.

  6. Violence in dating: An update for adolescence

    Valdivia Peralta, Maruzzella Paola; González Bravo, Luis Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This literature review updates evidence about intimate partner violence in dating relationships, revealing a particular phenomenon, emphasizing issues such as the prevalence for both sexes, which according to various reviewed studies may range from 0.8% for sexual violence to 98% for psychological aggression. Factors associated with abuse or early sexual initiation, temporal extent of the relationship, role of parents and peers, among others; and the consequences as dropouts: teenage pregnanc...

  7. Date Sensitive Computing Problems: Understanding the Threat

    1998-08-29

    equipment on Earth.3 It can also interfere with electromagnetic signals from such devices as cell phones, radio, televison , and radar. By itself, the ...spacecraft. Debris from impacted satellites will add to the existing orbital debris problem, and could eventually cause damage to other satellites...Date Sensitive Computing Problems Understanding the Threat Aug. 17, 1998 Revised Aug. 29, 1998 Prepared by: The National Crisis Response

  8. Progress in ESR dating of fossils

    Ikeya, M.

    1983-01-01

    In this review the progress of ESR dating is briefly described together with its historical development. Examples of fossil dating include shells and corals in geological sediments, fossil bones and teeth in anthropology and fossil woods in geology. The total dose of natural radiation (TD) equivalent to the archaeological dose in TL dating was obtained by the additive dose method. Initially, the TDs were plotted against the known ages; using the apparent annual dose-rate thus obtained gives the ESR age within a factor of 2 or 3 for a fossil. Precise assessment of the radiation environment was made later taking the disequilibrium of uranium series disintegration into account. ESR ages of corals agreed well with those obtained by radiocarbon and uranium-thorium methods. The time-independent accumulation rate or a linear accumulation or uranium was adopted as a first sensible model for the opensystem fossil bones: the relation between the TD and the age explains the ages of anthropologically important bones. Lastly, geological assessment of fossil woods was made by ESR based on the organic radicals and electron traps in the silicified part. (author)

  9. Dates as raw material for agricultural distilleries

    Laczynski, B

    1971-01-01

    Pit-containing dates had 88.0 to 89.2% dry matter, 41.7 to 47.5% sucrose, and 2.1 to 2.9% total protein. The mechanical broken charges of raw material were steamed, dispersed to a suspension of 15 to 17/sup 0/ Balling and pH 4.8 to 5.0, enriched with P and N, inoculated with 5 to 7 % of yeast suspension, and acidified to pH > 3.5. Thermophilic yeast cultivated at 27/sup 0/ and fermented below 30/sup 0/ for 2 days gave best results. The fermented liquor had a pH > 3.5, apparent density of 2.0/sup 0/, and contained 7.5 to 9.0 EtOH. From 100 kg dates were obtained 280 t0 340 l of the 15 to 17/sup 0/ dispersion and 320 to 360 l residue containing (per l) 6.0 to 8.5 g protein and 0.04 oat units. EtOH yield (l/quintal) was 914 for potatoes, 28.54 for molasses, 36.29 for cereals, 25.15 for dates, and 18.53 for malt.

  10. Preference Versus Choice in Online Dating.

    Whyte, Stephen; Torgler, Benno

    2017-03-01

    This study explores factors that influence matches of online dating participants' stated preference for particular characteristics in a potential partner and compares these with the characteristics of the online daters actually contacted. The nature of online dating facilitates exploration of the differences between stated preference and actual choice by participants, as online daters willingly provide a range of demographics on their ideal partner. Using data from the Australian dating website RSVP, we analyze 219,013 contact decisions. We conduct a multivariate analysis using the number of matched variables between the participants' stated preference and the characteristics of the individuals contacted. We find that factors such as a person's age, their education level, and a more social personality all increase the number of factors they choose in a potential partner that match their original stated preference. Males (relative to females) appear to match fewer characteristics when contacting potential love interests. Conversely, age interaction effects demonstrate that males in their late 60's are increasingly more selective (than females) regarding who they contact. An understanding of how technology (the Internet) is impacting human mating patterns and the psychology behind the participants informs the wider social science of human behavior in large-scale decision settings.

  11. Radiocarbon C-14 dating - MINT experience

    Kamisah Alias

    2002-01-01

    The measurement of a radiocarbon date is a complex process which involved all the stages from advice given prior to submission of samples right through to reporting of results. The aim of our radiocarbon dating is to determine the residual 14 C content of a sample, the value of which is translated into an age that is an estimate of the time elapsed since the given sample was removed from the environment in which it had formed in equilibrium with respect to 14-C radioactive decay and metabolic assimilation. Carbon is obtained from carbon containing samples in the form of carbon dioxide, which is then reacted with lithium forming lithium carbide. The carbide is then hydrolysed to acetylene before it was polymerised to benzene using a high-efficiency vanadium-alumina-silica catalyst to produce benzene with up to 96% yield. Sample, background and modem standard activities are measured with a coincidence scintillation counter using in glass vials of 21 ml capacity. An improved chemical procedure was used to obtain and purify the benzene from the samples for measurement using a liquid scintillation counter. Radiocarbon dating measurements of samples collected reveal some results. The validity of the data have yet to be confirmed by the results of the measurements on two international control samples. (Author)

  12. Low energy cyclotron for radiocarbon dating

    Welch, J.J.

    1984-12-01

    The measurement of naturally occurring radioisotopes whose half lives are less than a few hundred million years but more than a few years provides information about the temporal behavior of geologic and climatic processes, the temporal history of meteoritic bodies as well as the production mechanisms of these radioisotopes. A new extremely sensitive technique for measuring these radioisotopes at tandem Van de Graaff and cyclotron facilities has been very successful though the high cost and limited availability have been discouraging. We have built and tested a low energy cyclotron for radiocarbon dating similar in size to a conventional mass spectrometer. These tests clearly show that with the addition of a conventional ion source, the low energy cyclotron can perform the extremely high sensitivity 14 C measurements that are now done at accelerator facilities. We found that no significant background is present when the cyclotron is tuned to accelerate 14 C negative ions and the transmission efficiency is adequate to perform radiocarbon dating on milligram samples of carbon. The internal ion source used did not produce sufficient current to detect 14 C directly at modern concentrations. We show how a conventional carbon negative ion source, located outside the cyclotron magnet, would produce sufficient beam and provide for quick sampling to make radiocarbon dating milligram samples with a modest laboratory instrument feasible

  13. Environmental history and dating of coastal dunefields

    Illenberger, W.K.; Verhagen, B.T.

    1990-01-01

    Sand pulses can be inferred from the geomorphologic evolution of coastal dunefields over the last 6500 years in the eastern Cape Province, South Africa. These pulses correlate with erosion cycles and variation in sea-level, temperature and effective moisture. The concept that sand dunes have a wind memory and represent a record of the wind that blew to produce them can be modified and applied to dunefields: the morphology of dunefields represents an environmental record, going back thousands of years. The carbonate content of eastern Cape coastal sands is biogenic with young coarse carbonate grains constantly being added to the system, resulting in a pronounced negative correlation of radiocarbon age with grain size. It takes thousands of years for an average mollusc shell to be broken to 1-mm-diameter fragments, and a further couple of thousand years to break these sizes down to 0.2-0.3 mm diameter. Eastern Cape coastal dunefields have for the first time been dated definitively via the radiocarbon ages of the carbonate component of the sand. These dunefields have been forming during the past 5000 years or so. Dating wind-blown sand transport is feasible, and correlates with dates inferred from the dunefield morphology. 5 figs., 1 tab., 18 refs

  14. Production of baker's yeast using date juice.

    Beiroti, A; Hosseini, S N

    2007-07-01

    Baker's yeast is an important additive among the products which improves bread quality and for present time is being produced in different countries by batch, fed batch or continuous cultures. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used in fermentation of starch in dough, giving a favourable taste and produces a variety of vitamins and proteins. The main ingredient in yeast production is carbon source such as beet molasses, cane molasses, and so on. Since beet molasses has other major function as in high yield alcohol production and also due to the bioenvironmental issues and related wastewater treatment, the use of other carbohydrate sources may be considered. One of these carbohydrate sources is date which is wasted a great deal annually in this country (Iran) . In this study, the capability of date to act as a suitable carbon sources was investigated. The waste date turned into juice and consequently production and growth rate of Sacchromyces cervisiae were studied with this juice. A maximum possible yield of 50% was obtained by the optimum medium (P3), at pH 3.4, 30 degrees C, 1.4 vvm aeration rate and agitation of 500 r/min.

  15. 17 CFR 232.13 - Date of filing; adjustment of filing date.

    2010-04-01

    ..., shall not affect the date of filing. (2) If the conditions of paragraph (a)(1) of this section are... and consistent with the public interest and the protection of investors. (c) Payment of fees. Fees...

  16. 12 CFR 717.28 - Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application.

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 717.28 Effective date... eligibility information that you receive from an affiliate to make solicitations to a consumer if you receive...

  17. 12 CFR 334.28 - Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application.

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 334.28 Effective date... eligibility information that you receive from an affiliate to make solicitations to a consumer if you receive...

  18. Date canning: a new approach for the long time preservation of date.

    Homayouni, Aziz; Azizi, Aslan; Keshtiban, Ata Khodavirdivand; Amini, Amir; Eslami, Ahad

    2015-04-01

    Dramatic growth in date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) production, makes it clear to apply proper methods to preserve this nutritious fruit for a long time. Numerous methods have been used to gain this goal in recent years that can be classified into non-thermal (fumigation, ozonation, irradiation, and packaging) and thermal (heat treatment, cold storage, dehydration, jam etc.) processing methods. In this paper these methods were reviewed and novel methods for date preservation were presented.

  19. Fission track dating of kimberlitic zircons

    Haggerty, S.E.

    1983-01-01

    The only reliable method for dating kimberlites at present is the lengthy and specialized hydrothermal procedure that extracts 206 Pb and 238 U from low-uranium zircons. This paper describes a second successful method by fission track dating of large single-crystal zircons, 1.0-1.5 cm in dimension. The use of large crystals overcomes the limitations imposed in conventional fission track analysis which utilizes crushed fragments. Low track densities, optical track dispersion, and the random orientation of polished surfaces in the etch and irradiation cycle are effectively overcome. Fission track ages of zircons from five African kimberlites are reported, from the Kimberley Pool (90.0 +- 6.5 m.y.), Orapa (87.4 +- 5.7 and 92.4 +- 6.1 m.y.), Nzega (51.1 +- 3.8 m.y.), Koffiefontein (90.9 +- 8.2 m.y.), and Val do Queve (133.4 +- 11.5 m.y.). In addition we report the first radiometric ages (707.9 +- 59.6 and 705.5 +- 61.0 m.y.) of crustal zircons from kimberlites in northwest Liberia. The fission track ages agree well with earlier age estimates. Most of the zircons examined in this study are zoned with respect to uranium but linear correlations are established (by regression analysis) between zones of variable uranium content, and within zones of constant uranium content (by analysis of variance). Concordance between the fission track method and the U/Pb technique is established and we concluded that track fading from thermal annealing has not taken place. Kimberlitic zircons dated in this study, therefore, record the time of eruption. (orig.)

  20. 24 CFR 220.811 - Date of default.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Date of default. 220.811 Section... and Obligations-Projects Insured Project Improvement Loans § 220.811 Date of default. For the purposes of §§ 220.800 et seq., the date of default shall be considered as: (a) The date of the first...

  1. Date fruit: chemical composition, nutritional and medicinal values, products.

    Tang, Zhen-Xing; Shi, Lu-E; Aleid, Salah M

    2013-08-15

    Date fruit has served as a staple food in the Arab world for centuries. Worldwide production of date fruit has increased almost threefold over the last 40 years, reaching 7.68 million tons in 2010. Date fruit can provide many essential nutrients and potential health benefits to the consumer. Date fruit goes through four ripening stages named kimri, khalal, rutab and tamer. The main chemical components of date fruit include carbohydrates, dietary fibre, enzymes, protein, fat, minerals, vitamins, phenolic acids and carotenoids. The chemical composition of date fruit varies according to ripening stage, cultivar, growing environment, postharvest conditions, etc. The nutritional and medicinal activities of date fruit are related to its chemical composition. Many studies have shown that date fruit has antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anticancer and immunostimulant activities. Various date fruit-based products such as date syrup, date paste, date juice and their derived products are available. Date by-products can be used as raw materials for the production of value-added products such as organic acids, exopolysaccharides, antibiotics, date-flavoured probiotic-fermented dairy produce, bakery yeasts, etc. In this paper the chemical composition and nutritional and medicinal values of date fruit as well as date fruit-based products are reviewed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Dating Violence among High School Students in Southeastern North Carolina

    Kim-Godwin, Yeoun Soo; Clements, Carrie; McCuiston, Ashley M.; Fox, Jane A.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents are a high-risk group for dating violence. Using the Youth Risk Behavior Survey data, this study examined the associations among dating violence (including physical dating violence [PDV] and sexual dating violence [SDV]) and selected health risk behaviors among 375 and 372 high school students, in 2005 and 2007, respectively, in…

  3. 7 CFR 35.8 - Date of export.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Date of export. 35.8 Section 35.8 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Definitions § 35.8 Date of export. Date of export means the date of loading on board the...

  4. 21 CFR 610.50 - Date of manufacture.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Date of manufacture. 610.50 Section 610.50 Food... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Dating Period Limitations § 610.50 Date of manufacture. The date of manufacture shall be determined as follows: (a) For products for which an official standard of potency is...

  5. Uses of radiocarbon dating in archaeology

    Purohit, Anila; Bishnoi, Indra; Charan, Sumitra

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dating is one of the mist effective tools in the archaeologist's kit. It has provided illumination where none was once thought possible. The historians of one hundred years ago could only dream of such a wonderful, albeit frightening atomic clock ticking away, helping to mark the passing of the years and the ages of man. It is a vital part in the investigation and preservation of our past and a lovely bit of analysis to compliment digital records of monuments. It places the plants, animals, and people of yore into an understandable and verifiable context

  6. Dating method with /sup 39/Ar

    Loosli, H H [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Physikalisches Inst.

    1983-04-01

    The principles of a dating method based on the cosmic-ray-produced radioisotope /sup 39/Ar are given. Technical requirements such as background and standard gas samples and gas proportional counting systems are described. With samples extracted from Greenland ice it can be demonstrated that /sup 39/Ar ages agree with ages obtained by other methods. First results on ocean water samples show that with this isotope valuable information on ocean mixing and circulation can be expected. /sup 39/Ar results on groundwater samples disagree for some aquifers with conventional /sup 14/C ages; possible explanations are discussed, especially underground production of /sup 39/Ar.

  7. Radiocarbon dating prehistoric pottery from Northern Europe

    Philippsen, Bente; Craig, Oliver; Heron, Carl

    2012-01-01

    , such as when aquatic products have been prepared in the pottery. Soot can derive from old wood that was used for the hearth fire, or from (potentially aquatic) food that boiled over. Plant remains may have been present in the clay for a long time before manufacture of the pottery. Post......-depositional contamination with organic carbon, such as humic acids, may also be problematic. We present these data with radiocarbon datings of contemporaneous terrestrial and aquatic samples to find out the true age of the pottery and estimate the reservoir age. Lipid analysis and bulk carbon and nitrogen stable isotope...

  8. Suitability of Ostrich eggshell for radiocarbon dating

    Vogel, JC

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available deposits cannot be guaranteed. A more direct approach would be to ana- lyze modern ostrich eggs of which the date of laying is known. It is necessary to know exactly when the eggs were laid because the elevated 14C content of the environment caused... sample we also analyzed the organic contents of the egg—a mixture of the egg white and yolk. Also given is the 14C content of the carbon dioxide of the atmosphere in the month in which the eggs were laid. This closely reflects the 14C content...

  9. Zechariah and the Dating of Biblical Hebrew

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2006-01-01

    The data presented in the article indicate clearly that the ability to write proper EBH did not end with the exile; but when did it end? In the course of the fifth century, or the fourth century, or even later? This is difficult to resolve, on linguistic grounds. On linguistic grounds, can we say...... conclusions of most biblical scholars. Considering only linguistic data, texts in EBH could have been composed after the exile. Other, non-linguistic considerations can make this unlikely, but we can raise no objections from a linguistic viewpoint to such a dating....

  10. Thermoluminescence dating of some Hungarian medieval churches

    Kasa, I.; Bajnoczy, G.

    1984-01-01

    Thermoluminescence dating of three Hungarian historic churches was performed using the quarz inclusion technique and sup(60)Co gamma irradiation. Quarz grains obtained from the bricks were irradiated and the radiation doses were measured by CaSOsub(4):Dy TL dosemeters. Glow curves of irradiated and non-irradiated samples were also measured. From the results it was concluded that the ages of two churches were 10 and 30 percent less, respectively, than the ages estimated earlier. The age of the third church proved to be correct. (R.P.)

  11. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of rock surfaces

    Sohbati, Reza

    There are many examples of rock surfaces, rock art and stone structures whose ages are of great importance to the understanding of various phenomena in geology, climatology and archaeology. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating is a well-established chronological tool that has successfully...... to include the effects of the environmental dose rate. By fitting the model to the dose-depth variation from a single clast, four events (two light exposures of different durations each followed by a burial period) in the history of a single cobble are identified and quantified. However, the use of model...

  12. K/Ar dating of diagenetic illites

    Mizusaki, A.M.P.; Anjos, S.M.C. dos; Costa, M.G.F. da; Silva, O.B. da; Kawashita, K.

    1990-01-01

    Ascertaining the potassium/argon (K/Ar) age of diagenetic illites yields important information for hydrocarbon exploration since the growth of this mineral in the pores of sandstone reservoir and oil migration are interlinked events in the diagenetic evolution of rocks. Illite growth ceases as soon as hydrocarbons completely fill in rock pores, displacing interstitial water. By providing an estimate of the period when the illite formed, K/Ar dating can indirectly tells us when hydrocarbons entered the reservoir. Samples of oil-saturated sandstones collected from Carboniferous reservoirs of the Solimoes Basin reveal a diagenetic evolution consisting predominantly of quartz, calcite, and illite overgrowths. In the present study, illite was mechanically separated by repeating a series of ultrasonic baths and ultrasonic probes followed by high-speed centrifuging. Resultant fractions were analyzed by X-ray diffractometry to measure the illite content of each sample. The separated illite material was found to be composed of illite and ordered mixed layer illite-smectite with 80% illite layers. Separated fractions were dated radiometrically by the K/Ar method. Preliminary results indicate an average age of some 200 m.y., which marks the end of the diagenetic development of the illites of this area. (author)

  13. Comparison of gestational dating methods and implications ...

    OBJECTIVES: Estimating gestational age is usually based on date of last menstrual period (LMP) or clinical estimation (CE); both approaches introduce potential bias. Differences in methods of estimation may lead to misclassificat ion and inconsistencies in risk estimates, particularly if exposure assignment is also gestation-dependent. This paper examines a'what-if' scenario in which alternative methods are used and attempts to elucidate how method choice affects observed results.METHODS: We constructed two 20-week gestational age cohorts of pregnancies between 2000 and 2005 (New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, USA) using live birth certificates : one defined preterm birth (PTB) status using CE and one using LMP. Within these, we estimated risk for 4 categories of preterm birth (PTBs per 106 pregnancies) and risk differences (RD (95% Cl s)) associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM2. 5).RESULTS: More births were classified preterm using LMP (16%) compared with CE (8%). RD divergences increased between cohorts as exposure period approached delivery. Among births between 28 and 31 weeks, week 7 PM2.5 exposure conveyed RDs of 44 (21 to 67) for CE and 50 (18 to 82) for LMP populations, while week 24 exposure conveyed RDs of 33 (11 to 56) and -20 (-50 to 10), respectively.CONCLUSIONS: Different results from analyses restricted to births with both CE and LMP are most likely due to differences in dating methods rather than selection issues. Results are sensitive t

  14. Palaeo-poo: date from rat scats

    Pearson, S.; Department of Geography.

    1997-01-01

    AMS dating has allowed a detailed study of the stratigraphy of stick-nest rat (Leporillus spp.) middens. The results of multiple dates on apparently the same layers of the middens show that the taphonomy of the midden is complex. Nevertheless, the information recovered from this source is an exciting addition to understanding arid ecosystems. Information about the local and regional vegetation, possible CO 2 -induced changes in stomata, distribution of mammals and their predator-prey relations has been recovered from the middens. Palaeoecological information coming from the arid zone has been limited but this source provides a breakthrough in providing direct and detailed ecological information. This helps contextualise the late Holocene increase in arid zone archaeological site visibility. It emphasises the pattern of arid zone mammal losses. It provides important corroborating evidence to other palaeoecological records. It is emphasised that the deposits containing pollen and macrofossils are datable using radiocarbon but there are some serious problems in providing ecological information from stick-nest rat middens

  15. The Rate of Cyber Dating Abuse among Teens and How It Relates to Other Forms of Teen Dating Violence

    Zweig, Janine M.; Dank, Meredith; Yahner, Jennifer; Lachman, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    To date, little research has documented how teens might misuse technology to harass, control, and abuse their dating partners. This study examined the extent of cyber dating abuse--abuse via technology and new media--in youth relationships and how it relates to other forms of teen dating violence. A total of 5,647 youth from ten schools in three…

  16. Dating Norms and Dating Violence among Ninth Graders in Northeast Georgia: Reports from Student Surveys and Focus Groups

    Reeves, Patricia M.; Orpinas, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    This mixed-methods study describes the norms supporting male-to-female and female-to-male dating violence in a diverse sample of ninth graders. The quantitative study, based on student surveys (n = 624), compared norms supporting dating violence by sex, race/ethnicity, and dating status, and it examined the relation between dating violence norms…

  17. New dates reignite human evolution debate

    Nolch, G.

    2000-01-01

    Australian research into the Asian fossil record is unearthing controversial evidence with implications for the evolution of humans. Dr Jian-xin Zhao and Prof Ken Collerson from the University of Queensland's Department of Earth Sciences have been studying the fossil record in East Asia for clues to the early migration of hominids out of Africa in collaboration with Chinese archaeologists Dr Kai Hu of Nanjing University and Hankui Xu of Nanjing Institute of Palaeontology, Academia Sinica. Together they have been studying the remains of Nanjing Man, the name given to two Homo erectus skulls and the tooth of a third individual discovered in Tangshan Cave 250 km north-west of Shanghai. Dr Zhao and Prof Collerson have now employed more accurate dating techniques and materials, using a mass spectrometer to analyse the amounts of thorium-230 and uranium-234 in a calcite flowstone above the Nanjing Man fossil bed. Unlike fossil teeth, uranium and thorium became locked into the flowstone's crystal lattice when the calcite became crystallised. Because of this, the U-series decay in the calcite reliably records when the calcite crystallised. Taking into account the half-lives of uranium-234 and thorium-230, Dr Zhao and Prof Collerson determined the age of the calcite flowstone to be 577,000 years old (+44,000/-34,000 years). As the flowstone overlies the fossil bed, this date only defines the minimum age of the Nanjing Man fossil bed. For comparison, the dentine and enamel components of one fossil deer tooth collected from the Nanjing Man fossil bed yielded discordant mass spectrometric U-series ages of 388,000 and 130,100 years, respectively. Dr Zhao says that this 'strongly demonstrates the unreliability of fossil teeth as a chronometer'. Other evidence in the sediments surrounding the fossils has been the presence of flora and fauna that are typical of a glacial period. Dr Zhao therefore believes that the skulls could have been deposited during a glacial period

  18. Dating mortars: three medieval Spanish architectures

    Quirós Castillo, Juan Antonio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the major issues in building archaeology is finding the age of elements and structures discovered. Mortars represent a class of material basically constituted by a mixture of different phases (i.e. binder, aggregates, water and are widely used for constructive uses and artworks. Current scientific literature regarding the possibility of accurate radiocarbon dating for mortars reports different and still contradictory results. In this study, a new protocol for radiocarbon dating of mortar developed at the Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental heritage (CIRCE is used to perform 14C measurements on archaeological mortars coming from three medieval architectures of northern Spain (two churches and the walls of a castle. Results observed will be discussed and compared with independent age estimations (i.e. radiocarbon dating performed on organic materials found in the same study site, archaeological analyses in order to frame experimental observations in the actual site knowledge by means of a multidisciplinary approach.Una de las principales problemáticas a las que se enfrenta la arqueología de la arquitectura es datar los elementos y las estructuras. Las argamasas son un tipo de material constituido por una mezcla de diferentes elementos (agregados, agua y empleadas en muchos tipos de construcciones. Los estudios realizados hasta la actualidad en torno a la posibilidad de realizar dataciones radiocarbónicas precisas han proporcionado resultados contradictorios. El objetivo de este artículo es el de presentar un nuevo protocolo para datar la arquitectura histórica desarrollado por el Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Enviromental Heritage (CIRCE, basado en la realización de dataciones radiocarbónicas de argamasas a partir del análisis de tres arquitecturas medievales del norte del España, dos iglesias y la muralla de un castillo. Los resultados obtenidos han sido confrontados y comparados con otros

  19. Obsidian hydration dating of volcanic events

    Friedman, I.; Obradovich, J.

    1981-01-01

    Obsidian hydration dating of volcanic events had been compared with ages of the same events determined by the 14C and KAr methods at several localities. The localities, ranging in age from 1200 to over 1 million yr, include Newberry Craters, Oregon; Coso Hot Springs, California; Salton Sea, California; Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming; and Mineral Range, Utah. In most cases the agreement is quite good. A number of factors including volcanic glass composition and exposuretemperature history must be known in order to relate hydration thickness to age. The effect of composition can be determined from chemical analysis or the refractive index of the glass. Exposure-temperature history requires a number of considerations enumerated in this paper. ?? 1981.

  20. Temporary Immersion System for Date Palm Micropropagation.

    Othmani, Ahmed; Bayoudh, Chokri; Sellemi, Amel; Drira, Noureddine

    2017-01-01

    The temporary immersion system (TIS) is being used with tremendous success for automation of micropropagation of many plant species. TIS usually consists of a culture vessel comprising two compartments, an upper one with the plant material and a lower one with the liquid culture medium and an automated air pump. The latter enables contact between all parts of the explants and the liquid medium by setting overpressure to the lower part of the container. These systems are providing the most satisfactory conditions for date palm regeneration via shoot organogenesis and allow a significant increase of multiplication rate (5.5-fold in comparison with that regenerated on agar-solidified medium) and plant material quality, thereby reducing production cost.

  1. AMS radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese sutras

    Oda, H; Nakamura, T; Fujita, K

    2000-01-01

    Radiocarbon ages of ancient Japanese sutras whose historical ages were known paleographically were measured by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Calibrated radiocarbon ages of five samples were consistent with the corresponding historical ages; the 'old wood effect' is negligible for ancient Japanese sutras. Japanese paper has been made from fresh branches grown within a few years and the interval from trimming off the branches to writing sutra on the paper is within one year. The good agreement between the calibrated radiocarbon ages and the historical ages is supported by such characteristics of Japanese paper. It is indicated in this study that Japanese sutra is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating in the historic period because of little gap by 'old wood effect'.

  2. The automated Risoe TL dating reader system

    Boetter-Jensen, L.

    1988-01-01

    The features of the new modified Riso TL dating reader system are described. A vacuum chamber that accommodates the entire 24-position sample changer unit has been designed. The vacuum and N 2 -gas functions are software-controlled. A newly designed heater system is capable of repeated heating cycles to 700 0 C. The sample changer system accommodates fine-grain discs as well as planchettes for coarse grains. Two software-controlled beta irradiators can be attached to the reader, e.g. for predose measurement. The software allows a user without programming expertise to create any desired measuring sequence, and to store and recall data and glow curves for making analyses. (author)

  3. AMS radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese sutras

    Oda, Hirotaka; Yoshizawa, Yasukazu; Nakamura, Toshio; Fujita, Keiko

    2000-01-01

    Radiocarbon ages of ancient Japanese sutras whose historical ages were known paleographically were measured by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Calibrated radiocarbon ages of five samples were consistent with the corresponding historical ages; the 'old wood effect' is negligible for ancient Japanese sutras. Japanese paper has been made from fresh branches grown within a few years and the interval from trimming off the branches to writing sutra on the paper is within one year. The good agreement between the calibrated radiocarbon ages and the historical ages is supported by such characteristics of Japanese paper. It is indicated in this study that Japanese sutra is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating in the historic period because of little gap by 'old wood effect'

  4. Application of krypton-85 in groundwater dating

    Rozanski, K.

    1979-01-01

    The method for determination 85 Kr activity in groundwater and its application in isotope hydrology is presented. Various aspects of 85 Kr presence in the earth's ecosphere are discussed in the first part of the paper. The method for 85 Kr activity measurement in groundwater is presented in the second part of the paper. Analytical procedure consists of the following steps: extraction of the gases dissolved in water sample, separation of the Ar+Kr mixture from the gases, 85 Kr activity measurement in miniature proportional counter, mass spectrometry determination of the krypton gas volume in the proportional counter. About 7 days is necessary for complete analysis of one sample - the error of analysis not exceeds 10 per cent. The results of 85 Kr activity measurements (together with tritium and carbon 14 C determinations) in 14 different water samples allowed to verify usefulness of 85 Kr dating of young water. (author)

  5. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating

    Philippsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    of magnitude and degree of variability of the freshwater reservoir effect over short and long timescales. Radiocarbon dating of recent water samples, aquatic plants, and animals, shows that age differences of up to 2000 14C years can occur within one river. The freshwater reservoir effect has also implications......The freshwater reservoir effect can result in anomalously old radiocarbon ages of samples from lakes and rivers. This includes the bones of people whose subsistence was based on freshwater fish, and pottery in which fish was cooked. Water rich in dissolved ancient calcium carbonates, commonly known...... as hard water, is the most common reason for the freshwater reservoir effect. It is therefore also called hardwater effect. Although it has been known for more than 60 years, it is still less well-recognized by archaeologists than the marine reservoir effect. The aim of this study is to examine the order...

  6. Radiocarbon dating of Irish Sea sediments

    Kershaw, P. J.

    1986-09-01

    Radiocarbon dating has been carried out on three cores from areas of muddy sediments in the N. Irish Sea to estimate rates of sediment accumulation. 14C age profiles of the two eastern basin cores revealed a near-constant age from the sediment surface to the base of the core (12 500±1000 years bp). The 14C age profile of the western basin core revealed a zone of apparent mixing to a depth of 55 cm, underlain by a zone of constant sedimentation rate (0·018 cm y -1) to 160 cm. These data are discussed in relation both to previously reported sedimentological studies of the area and to the authorised discharges of low-level radioactive waste from the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant.

  7. Dating oxalate minerals in rock surface deposits

    Watchman, A.

    2001-01-01

    Oxalate minerals are found associated with rocks, mineral coatings, micro-organisms, plants and animals. They are important in archaeology because they have been found intimately associated with organic binders in prehistoric paints. Oxalate minerals also accumulate in the coatings on rock shelter walls and fallen ceiling slabs where they form the natural backing supports for painting and opaque laminates covering engravings. Though the relationship between anthropogenic activity in a rock shelter and oxalate formation is often uncertain, the radiocarbon age of the oxalate may provide the only means for determining the antiquity of a rock painting or engraving. This paper examines the history of dating oxalate minerals at archaeological sites and provides insights into achieving reliable age estimates. (author). 37 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  8. Optimization of laboratory illumination in optical dating

    Sohbati, Reza; Murray, Andrew; Lindvold, Lars René

    2017-01-01

    As part of the development of new laboratory lighting, we present a methodological approach applicable to the characterization of any light source intended for illumination in optical dating laboratories. We derive optical absorption cross-sections for quartz and feldspar from published data......-emitting diodes (LEDs); this comparison demonstrates the significant advantage of the LED sources over the filtered light sources, because essentially all of the reduction of both OSL and IRSL signals by the LEDs occurs at wavelengths to which the human eye is most sensitive. We conclude that exposure of quartz...... and feldspar extracts from various samples to the light from an LED with emission peak at 594 nm results in a 1% OSL or IRSL signal loss for a 48-h exposure at a power density of ~0.2 mW.cm-2....

  9. Role of radiation dating technique - one example

    Watanabe, Shigueo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Etchevarne, Carlos A. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Fac. de Filosofia e Ciencias Humanas. Dept. Antropologia e Etnologia; Cano, Nilo F.; Munita, C.S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The great majority of archaeological or geological dating technique is based on radiation effect. The so called radioactivity method uses radioactive decays of elements. This is the case of the well known radiocarbon or carbon-14 method. Also the method of relating daughter nucleus to decaying nucleus, as in K-40/Ar-40, Th- 230/U-234, etc. Here we will concentrate in the method based on energy deposition in a solid by radiation from the disintegration of U-series and Th-series. {beta}-rays emitted by the decay of K-40 into Ca-40 (80%) and Ar-40 (11%) also contributes. The role of {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma} radiation emitted by radionuclides in the U-238 and Th-232 series and of {beta} rays from the decay of K-40, all of them in the soil irradiate anything in their course. For dating, we can have sediments as well as potteries produced by ancient people and became buried. The important process consists in transferring a fraction of the energy of radiation to the solid, mainly liberating electrons from valence band to conduction band and from there to traps. In many case the energy of the radiation is used to create defects which in turn create energy levels (traps) in the forbidden gap (or energy gap). There are three ways to recover the energy stored in the solid: (1) by emission of light optically stimulated (OSL), (2) by emission of light thermally stimulated (TL), (3) by microwave absorption (EPR or ESR). Using these techniques among several applications, we will present one to find the first settlers in the northeaster region of Brazil. (author)

  10. Role of radiation dating technique - one example

    Watanabe, Shigueo

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The great majority of archaeological or geological dating technique is based on radiation effect. The so called radioactivity method uses radioactive decays of elements. This is the case of the well known radiocarbon or carbon-14 method. Also the method of relating daughter nucleus to decaying nucleus, as in K-40/Ar-40, Th- 230/U-234, etc. Here we will concentrate in the method based on energy deposition in a solid by radiation from the disintegration of U-series and Th-series. β-rays emitted by the decay of K-40 into Ca-40 (80%) and Ar-40 (11%) also contributes. The role of α, β and γ radiation emitted by radionuclides in the U-238 and Th-232 series and of β rays from the decay of K-40, all of them in the soil irradiate anything in their course. For dating, we can have sediments as well as potteries produced by ancient people and became buried. The important process consists in transferring a fraction of the energy of radiation to the solid, mainly liberating electrons from valence band to conduction band and from there to traps. In many case the energy of the radiation is used to create defects which in turn create energy levels (traps) in the forbidden gap (or energy gap). There are three ways to recover the energy stored in the solid: (1) by emission of light optically stimulated (OSL), (2) by emission of light thermally stimulated (TL), (3) by microwave absorption (EPR or ESR). Using these techniques among several applications, we will present one to find the first settlers in the northeaster region of Brazil. (author)

  11. Dating methods enter high-school physics curriculum

    Beck, L.

    2002-01-01

    The new curriculum of physics of the upper forms in French grammar schools includes a part dedicated to ''nuclear transformations''. One of the applications most often considered in manuals is isotopic dating and generally several methods are explained to pupils: carbon 14 dating, potassium-argon dating (used for dating ancient lava layers) and uranium-thorium dating (used for dating corals). The author reviews with a critical eye the content of manuals and laments through concrete examples the lack of exactness and accuracy of some presentations. (A.C.)

  12. Dating by fission tracks in archaeology. 3. Tephrochronology and Hominid dating

    Poupeau, G.; Zuleta, E.

    1984-01-01

    Tephras (or volcanic ashes) are excellent stratigraphic tracers. Its utilization in this domain, or tephrochronology, is shortly presented. The main archaeological utilization of the tephrochronology is related with the dating of fossil hominids, there where exist the volcano-fossil sedimentar series, at Ceylon or at East-African Rift. (L.C.) [pt

  13. Astronomical dating in the 19th century

    Hilgen, Frederik J.

    2010-01-01

    Today astronomical tuning is widely accepted as numerical dating method after having revolutionised the age calibration of the geological archive and time scale over the last decades. However, its origin is not well known and tracing its roots is important especially from a science historic perspective. Astronomical tuning developed in consequence of the astronomical theory of the ice ages and was repeatedly used in the second half of the 19th century before the invention of radio-isotopic dating. Building upon earlier ideas of Joseph Adhémar, James Croll started to formulate his astronomical theory of the ice ages in 1864 according to which precession controlled ice ages occur alternatingly on both hemispheres at times of maximum eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. The publication of these ideas compelled Charles Lyell to revise his Principles of Geology and add Croll's theory, thus providing an alternative to his own geographical cause of the ice ages. Both Croll and Lyell initially tuned the last glacial epoch to the prominent eccentricity maximum 850,000 yr ago. This age was used as starting point by Lyell to calculate an age of 240 million years for the beginning of the Cambrium. But Croll soon revised the tuning to a much younger less prominent eccentricity maximum between 240,000 and 80,000 yr ago. In addition he tuned older glacial deposits of late Miocene and Eocene ages to eccentricity maxima around 800,000 and 2,800,000 yr ago. Archibald and James Geikie were the first to recognize interglacials during the last glacial epoch, as predicted by Croll's theory, and attempted to tune them to precession. Soon after Frank Taylor linked a series of 15 end-moraines left behind by the retreating ice sheet to precession to arrive at a possible age of 300,000 yr for the maximum glaciation. In a classic paper, Axel Blytt (1876) explained the scattered distribution of plant groups in Norway to precession induced alternating rainy and dry periods as recorded by the

  14. Comportamentos violentos de adolescentes e coabitação parento-filial Comportamientos violentos de adolescentes y co-habitabilidad parental-filial Violent behavior in adolescents and parent-child cohabitation

    Rogério Lessa Horta

    2010-12-01

    para edad, sexo, nivel socioeconómico relato de uso en la vida y reciente de alcohol, tabaco o drogas ilícitas. RESULTADOS: El envolvimiento en peleas en el último año fue referido por 23% de los sujetos y el uso de armas por 9,6%. La tasa de prevalencia de ocurrencia de estos comportamientos fue de 1,38 (IC 95%: 0,71;2,68, p=0,34 para envolvimiento en peleas y de 1,68 (IC 95%: 1,06;2,67, p=0,03 para uso de armas, teniendo como referencia sujetos que co-habitaban con padre, con madre o con ambos. CONCLUSIONES: La co-habitabilidad parental-filial debe ser considerada en políticas de prevención al uso de armas por niños y adolescentes, pero se recomienda el cuidado de no estigmatizar niños y adolescentes que no co-habitan con padres y madres.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between violent behavior in adolescents and parent-child cohabitation. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study with multiple-stage sampling was performed in the urban area of the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 2002. A total of 960 adolescents were interviewed using a self-applied questionnaire. The dependent variables (use of weapons and involvement in fights in the previous year were reported by adolescents and the independent variable (parent-child cohabitation were analyzed with the chi-square test and prevalence ratios, adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic level and reporting of alcohol, tobacco or illicit drug use, both recently and throughout life. RESULTS: Involvement in fights in the previous year was reported by 23% of participants and use of weapons by 9.6%. Prevalence ratios of occurrence of such behaviors was 1.38 (95% CI: 0.71; 2.68, p=0.34 for involvement in fights and 1.68 (95% CI: 1.06; 2.67, p=0.03 for use of weapons, including "adolescents living with the father, mother or both" as reference. CONCLUSIONS: Parent-child cohabitation must be considered in policies aimed at preventing the use of weapons by children and adolescents, although it is recommended

  15. Luminescence dating at Rose cottage cave: a progress report

    Woodborne, S

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Deal with infrared-stimulated luminescence and thermoluminescence dates from Rose Cottage Cave in South Africa. Discrepancy between luminescence and radiocarbon dates; Concentration of radioactive elements in sediments before and after leaching...

  16. Functional properties and Solubility of date seed proteins as ...

    Med ali

    2013-03-06

    Mar 6, 2013 ... Key words: Phoenix dactylifera L, date palm seed, fibre, protein, functional properties. INTRODUCTION. The date .... was employed to perform dynamic measurements. ... are likely to be composed of high-molecular weight.

  17. 10 CFR 76.43 - Date for decision.

    2010-01-01

    ... decision. The Director will render a decision on an application within 6 months of the receipt of the application unless the Director alters the date for decisions and publishes notice of the new date in the...

  18. Combination of archaeomagnetism and thermoluminescence for precision dating

    Becker, H.; Göksu, H. Y.; Regulla, D. F.

    Archaeomagnetic dating was applied to two chalk-burning ovens from an early medieval noble-cemetery. Usually this method allows dating by the investigation of the geomagnetic declination and inclination through the thermoremanent magnetisation of baked clay in situ. However, in this case the method resulted in multiple dates since it was not possible to distinguish the brainching of the geomagnetic secular variation curve. Thermoluminescence dating was applied to the same samples to overcome the problem of multiple dates. This first combined application of archaeomagnetism and thermoluminescence for dating yielded A.D. 670±30 for the two ovens, which dates the first stone-church at the site after a wooden predecessor archeologically dated A.D. 620-630.

  19. Development of a new medium containing date syrup for production ...

    USER

    2010-08-16

    Aug 16, 2010 ... A confirmatory experiment of the optimal medium composition ... product of date industry; it is rich in carbohydrates (75% w/w) and small ... producers at cheap prices. ... date syrup using a combination of statistical strategies.

  20. Dating of archaeological objects using Carbon-14 facilities

    Kamisah Hj Alias; Noraishah Othman; Nasasni Nasrol

    2004-01-01

    Dating is the key to organising all archaeological evidence. Furthermore, the development of dating methods, whether traditional or scientific, illustrates the ingenuity and lateral thinking that make archaeological problem-solving such a fascinating exercise. The development of MINT radiocarbon dating procedures is reviewed. Basic principles and counting techniques are discussed. A sample is converted by chemical methods into a suitable form, such as carbon dioxide followed by the acetylene gas, and the benzene end-product is placed inside a proportional counter to measure the radioactivity of 14 C. Not until some years ago did absolute dates by radiocarbon dating become a reality for prehistoric archaeology in Malaysia where thermoluminescence and fission-track dating had begun to provide a locally applicable dating method some decades earlier. Applications of radiocarbon dating procedures in the fields of archaeology are also discussed. (Author)

  1. Constructing deposition chronologies for peat deposits using radiocarbon dating

    N. Piotrowska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiocarbon dating is one of the main methods used to establish peat chronologies. This article reviews the basis of the method and its application to dating of peat deposits. Important steps in the radiocarbon dating procedure are described, including selection and extraction of material (and fractions for dating, chemical and physical preparation of media suitable for measurements, measurements of 14C activity or concentration, calculations, calibration of results and age-depth modelling.

  2. An improved technique for fission track dating

    Zhao Yunlong; Wu Zhaohui; Xia Yuliang

    1996-01-01

    The necessity of improving the fission track dating (FTD) technique both at home and abroad is illustrated. The ways of making such improvement are also proposed. It is suggested to calibrate the constant b value of the uranium standard glass by using the method of fission products activity. The 3 kinds of uranium standard glass which have been calibrated are NBS SRM962a, UB 1 and UB 2 . An established new method σ·Φ ρ d /b, to measure neutron fluence, avoids the influence of the varying neutron spectrum on measuring neutron fluence. The improved etching technique for fission tracks in zircon adopted a two-step method which includes the molten alkali system etching using NaOH + KOH and the mixed acid system etching using HNO 3 + HF; this technique results in adequate track etching, increased track clarity and less interference. In this way the intensity of tracks is authentically reflected. Dividing angular zone in accordance with the angular distribution of spontaneous fission track on the crystal surface of minerals to count the tracks and using the improved etching technique to remove the non-uniform angular distribution of spontaneous fission tracks in zircon, ensure the accuracy of tracks count. The improved FTD techniques were used to finish Laboratory Standardized Calibration. The tests using international FTD age standards samples have proved that above mentioned techniques are reliable and practical in obtaining the accurate FTD data. (8 tabs.; 3 figs.)

  3. Ages of the solar system: Isotopic dating

    Turner, G.

    1982-01-01

    The major concern of this section will be to outline the ways in which measurements of isotope abundances have been used to determine the chronology of the origin and evolution of the solar system. In passing it should be remembered that the use of isotopic information is by no means restricted simply to the measurement of time scales and, particularly in recent years, isotope abundances have been used to investigate problems as diverse as the heat sources in the early solar nebula and the chemical evolution of the Earth's mantle. The fundamental property of isotopes which makes them especially useful for dating and other applications is the fact that, apart from a limited amount of mass fractionation, the composition of an isotopic mixture is unaffected by chemical processes. In those cases where mass fractionation does occur this effect may itself be useful, particularly as a source of information on temperatures. Since our main theme is time the events discussed in this section will be most conveniently presented as a chronological sequence, progressing from some time before the solar system existed down to the present day. (orig./WL)

  4. Air pollutants targeted by radiocarbon dating

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Chemists at the Commerce Department's National Bureau of Standards (NBS) are answering questions about where certain atmospheric contaminants originate by refining a method best known for determining the age of archeological objects. Called radiocarbon dating, the method allows NBS scientists to examine air samples and determine whether contaminants come from naturally occurring or manmade sources-or a combination of the two. Making these distinctions is important to federal and state environmental agencies, which identify industrial sources of pollution for regulatory action. An overbalance of atmospheric carbon can cause a number of environmental problems. In methane's case, high levels are of concern to environmental agencies because of greenhouse properties. Methane also has been implicated as a possible contributor to changes in the ozone layer that protects the Earth from excessive ultraviolet light. Levels of methane have been increasing at an annual rate of about one percent over the last decade. This has caused concern in the environmental community, which hopes to determine just where the elevated levels are coming from. The NBS research is aimed at definitively pinpointing sources of methane and other atmospheric contaminants

  5. Thermoluminescence dating of Brazilian indigenous ceramics

    Farias, T. M. B.; Gennari, R. F.; Etchevarne, C.; Watanabe, S.

    2009-01-01

    Two indigenous ceramics fragments, one from Lagoa Queimada (LQ) and another from Barra dos Negros (BN), both sites located on Bahia state (Brazil), were dated by thermoluminescence (TL) method. Each fragment was physically prepared and divided into two fractions, one was used for TL measurement and the other for annual dose determination. The TL fraction was chemically treated, divided in sub samples and irradiated with several doses. The plot extrapolation from TL intensities as function of radiation dose enabled the determination of the accumulated dose (D ac ), 3.99 Gy and 1.88 Gy for LQ and BN, respectively. The annual dose was obtained through the uranium, thorium and potassium determination by ICP-MS. The annual doses (D an) obtained were 2.86 and 2.26 mGy/year. The estimated ages were ∼1375 and 709 y for BN and LQ ceramics, respectively. The ages agreed with the archaeologists' estimation for the Aratu and Tupi tradition periods, respectively. (authors)

  6. The dates of publication of Blume’s Flora Javae

    Danser, B.H.

    1939-01-01

    The actual dates of publication of the greater part of BLUME’s Flora Javae (lit. 1) appear to be unknown among taxonomists. The title-page of the first volume is dated 1828, and we find the same year at the base of the preface. The volume containing the Orchideae (lit. 2) is dated 1858, but further

  7. Genetic comparisons of Egyptian date palm cultivars (Phoenix ...

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA technique was used to compare genetic material from four females date palm and four unknown male trees of Egyptian date palm. The genetic similarity between the four females date palm (Zaghloul, Amhat, Samany and Siwi) ranged from 87.5 to 98.9%. The banding profiles obtained ...

  8. From Romance to Rocket Science: Speed Dating in Higher Education

    Muurlink, Olav; Poyatos Matas, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    This article is the first comprehensive review of speed dating in the tertiary sector. While speed dating has its origins as a networking technique to connect singles, it has only more recently made its way into the academy. Since 2005 universities world-wide have begun to adopt speed dating protocols as a tool for building research culture. An…

  9. 24 CFR 232.840 - Date of default.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Date of default. 232.840 Section 232.840 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued....840 Date of default. In computing loan insurance benefits, the date of default shall be considered as...

  10. 24 CFR 241.840 - Date of default.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Date of default. 241.840 Section... § 241.840 Date of default. In computing loan insurance benefits, the date of default shall be considered... of the lender's acceleration of the debt because of the borrower's default under the first...

  11. 17 CFR 230.417 - Date of financial statements.

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Date of financial statements... RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General Requirements § 230.417 Date of financial statements. Whenever financial statements of any person are required to be furnished as of a date within a...

  12. 75 FR 78155 - Uniform Compliance Date for Food Labeling Regulations

    2010-12-15

    .... FDA-2000-N-0011] Uniform Compliance Date for Food Labeling Regulations AGENCY: Food and Drug... 1, 2014, as the uniform compliance date for food labeling regulations that are issued between... established January 2, 2012, as the uniform compliance date for food labeling regulations issued between...

  13. 77 FR 70885 - Uniform Compliance Date for Food Labeling Regulations

    2012-11-28

    .... FDA-2000-N-0011] Uniform Compliance Date for Food Labeling Regulations AGENCY: Food and Drug... January 1, 2016, as the uniform compliance date for food labeling regulations that are issued between... established January 1, 2014, as the uniform compliance date for food labeling regulations issued between...

  14. A Survey of Archaeological Samples Dated in 1985

    Mejdahl, Vagn

    1986-01-01

    A survey is given of archaeological samples received for dating in 1985 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 66 samples were dated, 42 of which were burnt stones. All results were corrected for short-term fading as measured for samples stored at room temperature...

  15. A Survey of Archaeological Samples Dated in 1984

    Mejdahl, Vagn

    A survey is given of archaeological samples dated in 1984 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 79 samples were dated, 49 of which were burnt stones. All results were corrected for fading as measured for samples stored for four weeks at room temperature. The alpha dose...

  16. The Role of Perceptions in Dating Violence among Young Adolescents

    Prospero, Moises

    2006-01-01

    The high prevalence of dating violence and the severity of its aftermath warrant the collaboration between research and practice for the development of prevention and intervention programs. This study investigates young adolescents' perceptions of dating partner's behaviors in common dating situations and their behavioral reaction to these dating…

  17. A comparison of due-date selection rules

    Baker, K.R.; Bertrand, J.W.M.

    1981-01-01

    In sequencing and scheduling models it is usually assumed that due dates represent exogeneous information. In many practical settings, however, due dates can be discretionary, or at least negotiable. Relatively few studies have incorporated discretionary due dates, and even then the rules proposed

  18. 5 CFR 880.206 - Date of death.

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Date of death. 880.206 Section 880.206...) RETIREMENT AND INSURANCE BENEFITS DURING PERIODS OF UNEXPLAINED ABSENCE Procedures § 880.206 Date of death... OPM, the date of death of a missing annuitant who has been determined to be dead by an authorized...

  19. 17 CFR 248.18 - Effective date; transition rule.

    2010-04-01

    ... Safeguarding Personal Information Relation to Other Laws; Effective Date § 248.18 Effective date; transition... customers on the compliance date. By July 1, 2001, you must have provided an initial notice, as required by § 248.4, to consumers who are your customers on July 1, 2001. (2) Example. You provide an initial notice...

  20. European dendrochronoloy and C-14 dating of timber

    Fletcher, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    An account is given of the development of dendrochronology and C-14 dating in Europe. Corrections to raw C-14 dates, sampling and the uncertainty of C-14 ages of wood, and correlation of dates obtained by the two methods, are discussed. (U.K.)

  1. Laboratory Intercomparison of Pleistocene Bone Radiocarbon Dating Protocols

    Huels, Matthias; van der Plicht, Johannes; Brock, Fiona; Matzerath, Simon; Chivall, David

    2017-01-01

    Since its invention in the late 1940s, radiocarbon (14C) dating has become an important tool for absolute dating. A prerequisite for the acceptance of this method is consistency between, and compatibility of, 14C dates from different laboratories. To meet these requirements, international laboratory

  2. Depressive Symptoms Moderate Dating Violence Prevention Outcomes Among Adolescent Girls.

    Collibee, Charlene; Rizzo, Christie J; Kemp, Kathleen; Hood, Erik; Doucette, Hannah; Gittins Stone, Daniel I; DeJesus, Brett

    2018-04-01

    Few dating violence prevention programs assess how variations in initial violence risk affects responsiveness. This study examines the efficacy of Date SMART, a dating violence and sexual risk prevention program designed to target high-risk adolescent girls, in preventing dating violence in the context of varying initial levels of depressive symptoms. A diverse sample of N = 109 female adolescents with a history of physical dating violence participated in a randomized controlled trial of the Date SMART program and a knowledge only (KO) comparison. Using baseline depression level as a primary risk factor, a series of multilevel models revealed significant main effects of baseline depression such that higher baseline depression was associated with greater physical dating violence perpetration and victimization. Results also showed a three-way interaction for assessment point, depressive symptoms, and condition for physical dating violence perpetration. Specifically, those with higher baseline depression in Date SMART showed significantly less physical dating violence perpetration at follow-ups compared with those with higher baseline depression in the KO group. This difference in violence reduction between conditions was not observed for those with lower baseline depression. Date SMART appears to effectively reduce physical dating violence perpetration in those with higher levels of initial risk. Current findings support that adolescents with different risk profiles respond differently to violence prevention programs.

  3. Acculturation and Dating Violence Victimization among Filipino and Samoan Youths

    Chung-Do, Jane J.; Goebert, Deborah A.

    2009-01-01

    Dating violence victimization is an important public health issue. Recent studies on minority youths have found higher risks of dating violence victimization compared to White youths. This study examined the influence of acculturation components on youths' experiences of dating violence by utilizing data from a survey of 193 Samoan and Filipino…

  4. Date Fighting and Sexual Risk Behaviours among Adolescents ...

    The study seeks to examine the prevalence of date fighting and its role in sexual risk behaviours among 1079 boys and 1211 girls in 22 public secondary schools in Ibadan Nigeria. About 60% (1367) reported to have ever experienced at least a form of date fighting. Risk factors for date fighting in boys include, non use of ...

  5. 16 CFR 700.2 - Date of manufacture.

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Date of manufacture. 700.2 Section 700.2... MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT INTERPRETATIONS OF MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT § 700.2 Date of manufacture... after July 4, 1975. When a consumer purchases repair of a consumer product the date of manufacture of...

  6. Dating hapuka otoliths using 210 Pb/226 Ra, with comments on dating orange roughy otoliths

    Whitehead, N.E.; Ditchburn, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that Hapuka otoliths cannot be reliably dated using the 210 Pb/ 226 Ra method because contrary to previous assumptions, excess 210 Pb is incorporated into the outer layers of otoliths which have been taken from old fish, though the 226 Ra incorporation remains normal. This is shown to apply also to Orange Roughy otoliths. Ages based on calculations using previously published methods will be artificially old. (author). 13 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  7. Thermoluminescence dates for the Lake Mungo aboriginal fireplaces and the implications for radiocarbon dating

    Bell, W.T.

    1991-01-01

    During the Quaternary period in Australia large areas of western New South Wales and northern Victoria were covered by hundreds of lakes, both large and small. Nearly all are dry today but some may still be recognized by the long low dunes that follow the eastern shorelines. Many traces of early human occupation have been found along the shorelines of nearly all the major lakes and some of the best exposures have occurred on the lunette along the eastern shore of Lake Mungo. This lunette, has suffered massive erosion in recent times and this has uncovered the sites of many ancient fireplaces. Charcoal from some of these fireplaces has been dated by Barbetti and Polach (1973) using the radiocarbon method and the ages place the lakeside dwellers at Mungo in an area of Australian prehistory around 30 000 years ago. The baked sediment from below the fireplaces appears to have been heated to a temperature in excess of 400 o C according to archaeomagnetic studies carried out by Barbetti (1973) and this indicated that the fireplaces might lend themselves to the technique of thermoluminescence (TL) dating. The results of the TL dating programme are described elsewhere. (author)

  8. Thermoluminescence dates for the Lake Mungo aboriginal fireplaces and the implications for radiocarbon dating

    Bell, W T [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia)

    1991-02-01

    During the Quaternary period in Australia large areas of western New South Wales and northern Victoria were covered by hundreds of lakes, both large and small. Nearly all are dry today but some may still be recognized by the long low dunes that follow the eastern shorelines. Many traces of early human occupation have been found along the shorelines of nearly all the major lakes and some of the best exposures have occurred on the lunette along the eastern shore of Lake Mungo. This lunette, has suffered massive erosion in recent times and this has uncovered the sites of many ancient fireplaces. Charcoal from some of these fireplaces has been dated by Barbetti and Polach (1973) using the radiocarbon method and the ages place the lakeside dwellers at Mungo in an area of Australian prehistory around 30 000 years ago. The baked sediment from below the fireplaces appears to have been heated to a temperature in excess of 400{sup o}C according to archaeomagnetic studies carried out by Barbetti (1973) and this indicated that the fireplaces might lend themselves to the technique of thermoluminescence (TL) dating. The results of the TL dating programme are described elsewhere. (author).

  9. Dating sediment cores from Hudson River marshes

    Robideau, R.; Bopp, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    There are several methods for determining sediment accumulation rates in the Hudson River estuary. One involves the analysis of the concentration of certain radionuclides in sediment core sections. Radionuclides occur in the Hudson River as a result of: natural sources, fallout from nuclear weapons testing and low level aqueous releases from the Indian Point Nuclear Power Facility. The following radionuclides have been studied in the authors work: Cesium-137, which is derived from global fallout that started in the 1950's and has peaked in 1963. Beryllium-7, a natural radionuclide with a 53 day half-life and found associated with very recently deposited sediments. Another useful natural radionuclide is Lead-210 derived from the decay of Radon-222 in the atmosphere. Lead-210 has a half-life of 22 years and can be used to date sediments up to about 100 years old. In the Hudson River, Cobalt-60 is a marker for Indian Point Nuclear Reactor discharges. The author's research involved taking sediment core samples from four sites in the Hudson River Estuarine Research Reserve areas. These core samples were sectioned, dried, ground and analyzed for the presence of radionuclides by the method of gamma-ray spectroscopy. The strength of each current pulse is proportional to the energy level of the gamma ray absorbed. Since different radionuclides produce gamma rays of different energies, several radionuclides can be analyzed simultaneously in each of the samples. The data obtained from this research will be compared to earlier work to obtain a complete chronology of sediment deposition in these Reserve areas of the river. Core samples may then by analyzed for the presence of PCB's, heavy metals and other pollutants such as pesticides to construct a pollution history of the river

  10. Paleomagnetic dating: Methods, MATLAB software, example

    Hnatyshin, Danny; Kravchinsky, Vadim A.

    2014-09-01

    A MATLAB software tool has been developed to provide an easy to use graphical interface for the plotting and interpretation of paleomagnetic data. The tool takes either paleomagnetic directions or paleopoles and compares them to a user defined apparent polar wander path or secular variation curve to determine the age of a paleomagnetic sample. Ages can be determined in two ways, either by translating the data onto the reference curve, or by rotating it about a set location (e.g. sampling location). The results are then compiled in data tables which can be exported as an excel file. This data can also be plotted using variety of built-in stereographic projections, which can then be exported as an image file. This software was used to date the giant Sukhoi Log gold deposit in Russia. Sukhoi Log has undergone a complicated history of faulting, folding, metamorphism, and is the vicinity of many granitic bodies. Paleomagnetic analysis of Sukhoi Log allowed for the timing of large scale thermal or chemical events to be determined. Paleomagnetic analysis from gold mineralized black shales was used to define the natural remanent magnetization recorded at Sukhoi Log. The obtained paleomagnetic direction from thermal demagnetization produced a paleopole at 61.3°N, 155.9°E, with the semi-major axis and semi-minor axis of the 95% confidence ellipse being 16.6° and 15.9° respectively. This paleopole is compared to the Siberian apparent polar wander path (APWP) by translating the paleopole to the nearest location on the APWP. This produced an age of 255.2- 31.0+ 32.0Ma and is the youngest well defined age known for Sukhoi Log. We propose that this is the last major stage of activity at Sukhoi Log, and likely had a role in determining the present day state of mineralization seen at the deposit.

  11. Dating the Lascaux cave gour formation

    Genty, D.; Touma, M.; Konik, S.; Konik, S.; Valladas, H.; Hellstrom, J.; Moreau, C.; Dumoulin, J.P.; Nouet, J.; Dauphin, Y.; Weil, R.

    2011-01-01

    Lascaux Cave is renowned for its outstanding prehistoric paintings, strikingly well-preserved over about 18,000 yr. While stalagmites and stalactites are almost absent in the cave, there is an extensive calcite flow-stone that covered a large part of the cave until its opening for tourists during the 1950's. The deposit comprises a succession of calcite rims, or 'gours', which allowed seepage water to pond in large areas in the cave. Their possible role in preservation of the cave paintings has often been evoked, but until now this deposit has not been studied in detail. Here, we present 24 new radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and 6 uranium-thorium (U-Th) analyses from the calcite of the gours, 4 AMS 14 C dates from charcoals trapped in the calcite, and 4 AMS 14 C analyses on organic matter extracted from the calcite. Combining the calibrated 14 C ages obtained on charcoals and organic matter and U-Th ages from 14 C analyses made on the carbonate, has allowed the calculation of the dead carbon proportion (dcp) of the carbonate deposits. The latter, used with the initial atmospheric 14 C activities reconstructed with the new IntCal09 calibration data, allows high-resolution age estimation of the gour calcite samples and their growth rates. The carbonate deposit grew between 9530 and 6635 yr cal BP (for dcp = 10.7 ± 1.8%; 2 s) or between 8518 and 5489 yr cal BP (for dcp = 20.5 ± 1.9%; 2 s). This coincides with humid periods that can be related to the Atlantic period in Europe and to Sapropel 1 in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. However, geomorphological changes at the cave entrance might also have played a role in the gour development. In the 1940's, when humans entered the cave for the first time since its prehistoric occupation, the calcite gours had already been inactive for several thousand years. (authors)

  12. Positives and negatives of online dating according to women 50.

    Vandeweerd, Carla; Myers, Jaime; Coulter, Martha; Yalcin, Ali; Corvin, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    To understand the positives and negatives of online dating according to the lived experience of older women, telephone interviews were conducted with 45 women ages 50+ who date online. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically team coded. The opportunity to expand one's social network for both friendships and romantic partners, the ability to control dating risks and pace of relationship formation, and knowing more about one's partner were significant reported benefits of online dating. Dating online also includes unique risks, such as pervasive lying, attempted financial exploitation in the form of scammers, and unwanted electronic sexual aggression.

  13. Double the dates and go for Bayes - Impacts of model choice, dating density and quality on chronologies

    Blaauw, Maarten; Christen, J. Andrés; Bennett, K. D.; Reimer, Paula J.

    2018-05-01

    Reliable chronologies are essential for most Quaternary studies, but little is known about how age-depth model choice, as well as dating density and quality, affect the precision and accuracy of chronologies. A meta-analysis suggests that most existing late-Quaternary studies contain fewer than one date per millennium, and provide millennial-scale precision at best. We use existing and simulated sediment cores to estimate what dating density and quality are required to obtain accurate chronologies at a desired precision. For many sites, a doubling in dating density would significantly improve chronologies and thus their value for reconstructing and interpreting past environmental changes. Commonly used classical age-depth models stop becoming more precise after a minimum dating density is reached, but the precision of Bayesian age-depth models which take advantage of chronological ordering continues to improve with more dates. Our simulations show that classical age-depth models severely underestimate uncertainty and are inaccurate at low dating densities, and also perform poorly at high dating densities. On the other hand, Bayesian age-depth models provide more realistic precision estimates, including at low to average dating densities, and are much more robust against dating scatter and outliers. Indeed, Bayesian age-depth models outperform classical ones at all tested dating densities, qualities and time-scales. We recommend that chronologies should be produced using Bayesian age-depth models taking into account chronological ordering and based on a minimum of 2 dates per millennium.

  14. A Protection Motivation Theory application to date rape education.

    Singh, Shweta; Orwat, John; Grossman, Susan

    2011-12-01

    Date rape risk communication is a key component of education-based Date Rape Prevention Programs, common across colleges. In such programs, risk assessment in date rape is approached cautiously in order to avoid a tone of "victim blaming." Since it is important in the assessment of any risk to understand the surrounding social context of the risky situation and the individual's unique relationship with that social context, this study examines Protection Motivation Theory as it applies to handling the risk of date rape without victim blaming. The paper links individual personality and social contexts with risk communication. The study sample comprised 367 undergraduate women enrolled in a large Southern Public University. The study examines the relationships between dating activity, social competency, and type of information provided with the dependents variables of date rape related protection behavior (intent), belief, and knowledge. A factorial multiple analysis of covariance analysis found that the dependent variables had a significant relationship with aspects of social competency and dating activity. The exposure to varying information about date rape was not significantly related to the dependent variables of date rape-related protection behavior (intent), belief, and knowledge. The identification of social competency and dating activity status as protective factors in this study makes a significant contribution to the practice and research efforts in date rape education.

  15. Friends First? The Peer Network Origins of Adolescent Dating

    Kreager, Derek A.; Molloy, Lauren E.; Moody, James; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    The proximity of dating partners in peer friendship networks has important implications for the diffusion of health-risk behaviors and adolescent social development. We derive two competing hypotheses for the friendship-romance association. The first predicts that daters are proximally positioned in friendship networks prior to dating and that opposite-gender friends are likely to transition to dating. The second predicts that dating typically crosses group boundaries and opposite-gender friends are unlikely to later date. We test these hypotheses with longitudinal friendship data for 626 9th grade PROSPER heterosexual dating couples. Results primarily support the second hypothesis: romantic partners are unlikely to be friends in the previous year or share the same cohesive subgroup, and opposite-gender friends are unlikely to transition into dating. PMID:27134511

  16. Groundwater dating by means of isotopes

    Johansson, Barbro

    1980-08-01

    A short review is given of method for dating old groundwater by isotopetechniques. The carbon-14 method is then treated in detail; Carbon dioxide, released by root respiration of plants, and by decomposition of organic matter in the soil, is dissolved in soil water. The production of carbon dioxide in the root zone is high and the 14 C/ 12 C ratio is therefore assumed to be the same as in the plants. The residence time of water in the groundwater zone may then be computed, according to the laws of radioactive decay. No attempts have been made to compute the changes in the carbon-14 content of the soil air due to weathering. To do this, one would need to consider diffusion of gaseous carbon dioxide into and out of the soil. The amount of carbon entering the water through weathering in the groundwater zone may be compute if certain assumptions are made. To know if these assumptions are valid for the water of a special area, detailed knowledge about the area is required. In this report, an attempt is made to follow the changes in the composition of the water as the water moves through the ground. The differentiated equilibrium equations of the carbon dioxide system and the ionic balance are used for the calculations. It is assumed that when calcite is present in the ground, weathering of other minerals may be neglected. In order to test its usefulness, the method has been tried on groundwater from a borehole in Kraakemaala, Sweden. The results are very much dependent on the values of some of the parameters used in the calculations. The σ 13 C values especially have a great influence on the calculated age. As long as additional information on conditions at different depth remains unavailable, it seems impossible to determine the age of water with any accuracy. Only a range, which sometimes embraces several thousand years, can be given. A good aid to a better estimate of the age would be obtained if samples of water along a flow path were available. One way to get such

  17. REIMEP-22 inter-laboratory comparison: "U Age Dating - Determination of the production date of a uranium certified test sample"

    VENCHIARUTTI CELIA; VARGA ZSOLT; RICHTER Stephan; JAKOPIC Rozle; MAYER Klaus; AREGBE Yetunde

    2015-01-01

    The REIMEP-22 inter-laboratory comparison aimed at determining the production date of a uranium certified test sample (i.e. the last chemical separation date of the material). Participants in REIMEP-22 on "U Age Dating - Determination of the production date of a uranium certified test sample" received one low-enriched 20 mg uranium sample for mass spectrometry measurements and/or one 50 mg uranium sample for D-spectrometry measurements, with an undisclosed value for the production date. They ...

  18. Strategy of valid 14C dates choice in syngenetic permafrost

    Vasil'chuk, Y. K.; Vasil'chuk, A. C.

    2014-11-01

    The main problem of radiocarbon dating within permafrost is the uncertain reliability of the 14C dates. Syngenetic sediments contain allochthonous organic deposit that originated at a distance from its present position. Due to the very good preservation of organic materials in permafrost conditions and numerous re-burials of the fossils from ancient deposits into younger ones the dates could be both younger and older than the true age of dated material. The strategy for the most authentic radiocarbon date selection for dating of syncryogenic sediments is considered taking into account the fluvial origin of the syngenetic sediments. The re-deposition of organic material is discussed in terms of cyclic syncryogenic sedimentation and also the possible re-deposition of organic material in subaerial-subaqueous conditions. The advantages and the complications of dating organic micro-inclusions from ice wedges by the accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) method are discussed applying to true age of dated material search. Radiocarbon dates of different organic materials from the same samples are compared. The younger age of the yedoma from cross-sections of Duvanny Yar in Kolyma River and Mamontova Khayata in the mouth of Lena River is substantiated due to the principle of the choice of the youngest 14C date from the set.

  19. ¿Modelos familiares de aquí o de allá? Pautas de cohabitación entre las mujeres latinoamericanas en España Imported family models? Cohabitation patterns of Latin American women in Spain

    Xiana BUENO GARCÍA

    2010-09-01

    Institute. The study documents the high prevalence of consensual unions among Latin American migrants. Regarding the socio-demographic factors influencing cohabitation, our results show important similarities between Spanish and Latin American women, except for educational attainment.

  20. Relationship Quality in Interethnic Marriages and Cohabitations

    Hohmann-Marriott, Bryndl E.; Amato, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on the factors underlying differences in relationship quality between interethnic and same-ethnic couples. Using the National Survey of Families and Households and the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, we examine relationship satisfaction, interpartner conflict and subjective assessments of relationship instability in…

  1. A World Where All Worlds Cohabit

    Teamey, Kelly; Mandel, Udi

    2016-01-01

    In response to Stefan Bengtsson's search for alternatives to Education for Sustainable Development practices outside the mainstream of the state and its policy formulations, this response outlines how our journey, experiences, and approaches reflect a de-professionalizing encounter with autonomous places of learning emerging from indigenous…

  2. Karl Barth's male-female order: A kingpin of dogmatic disparity ...

    theoethics” or “creational theology”. This perspective perpetuates an asymmetry in gender relations that was prevalent in Biblical times, throughout Christianity and to some extent still is visible today. He based his view on the subordination of ...

  3. Male-female crosstalk during pollen germination, tube growth and guidance, and double fertilization.

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Franklin-Tong, Noni

    2013-07-01

    Sperm cells of flowering plants are non-motile and thus require transportation to the egg apparatus via the pollen tube to execute double fertilization. During its journey, the pollen tube interacts with various sporophytic cell types that support its growth and guide it towards the surface of the ovule. The final steps of tube guidance and sperm delivery are controlled by the cells of the female gametophyte. During fertilization, cell-cell communication events take place to achieve and maximize reproductive success. Additional layers of crosstalk exist, including self-recognition and specialized processes to prevent self-fertilization and consequent inbreeding. In this review, we focus on intercellular communication between the pollen grain/pollen tube including the sperm cells with the various sporophytic maternal tissues and the cells of the female gametophyte. Polymorphic-secreted peptides and small proteins, especially those belonging to various subclasses of small cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs), reactive oxygen species (ROS)/NO signaling, and the second messenger Ca(2+), play center stage in most of these processes.

  4. The Great Recession of 2007 in the United States and the male: female ratio at birth.

    Grech, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Male live births slightly exceed female live births by approximately 3%. The ratio of male to total live births is conventionally represented as M/F. Many factors have been shown to affect M/F, mainly privation, toxins, and stress, all of which reduce M/F. Population stress may be engendered by natural phenomena such as earthquakes and man-made events such as short wars, terrorist attacks, and contracting economies. This study was conducted to ascertain whether the onset of the "Great Recession" (2007) was associated with changes in M/F in the United States (US). Annual monthly live births by gender for January 2006 to December 2008 were obtained from United States Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. In 2007, there were 4316233 live births [M/F: 0.51157; 95% confidence intervals: 0.51110-0.51205). M/F rose between January and June, and then fell sharply between August and December. M/F was statistically significantly lower in the second half of 2007 (p=0.007). The dip in M/F from June to July was also significant (p=0.02). These findings were not replicated in the amalgamated data for 2006 and 2008. The United States housing boom of the mid-2000s was fueled by rising house prices and cheap mortgages given to credit-poor buyers. A halt in rising house prices resulted in defaults and foreclosures, triggering the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression. The associated stress appears to have decreased M/F in the US.

  5. Male-female differences in Scoliosis Research Society-30 scores in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Roberts, David W; Savage, Jason W; Schwartz, Daniel G; Carreon, Leah Y; Sucato, Daniel J; Sanders, James O; Richards, Benjamin Stephens; Lenke, Lawrence G; Emans, John B; Parent, Stefan; Sarwark, John F

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal cohort study. To compare functional outcomes between male and female patients before and after surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). There is no clear consensus in the existing literature with respect to sex differences in functional outcomes in the surgical treatment of AIS. A prospective, consecutive, multicenter database of patients who underwent surgical correction for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis was analyzed retrospectively. All patients completed Scoliosis Research Society-30 (SRS-30) questionnaires before and 2 years after surgery. Patients with previous spine surgery were excluded. Data were collected for sex, age, Risser grade, previous bracing history, maximum preoperative Cobb angle, curve correction at 2 years, and SRS-30 domain scores. Paired sample t tests were used to compare preoperative and postoperative scores within each sex. Independent sample t tests were used to compare scores between sexes. A P value of Self-image/appearance had the greatest relative improvement. Males had better self-image/appearance scores preoperatively, better pain scores at 2 years, and better mental health and total scores both preoperatively and at 2 years. Both males and females were similarly satisfied with surgery. Males treated with surgery for AIS report better preoperative self-image, less postoperative pain, and better mental health than females. These differences may be clinically significant. For both males and females, the most beneficial effect of surgery is improved self-image/appearance. Overall, the benefits of surgery for AIS are similar for both sexes.

  6. Female Stereotyping in Advertising: An Experiment on Male-Female Perceptions of Leadership.

    Kilbourne, William E.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the impact of sex role stereotyping in advertising on the perception of the degree to which women possess managerial attributes considered requisite for success in business. Finds that depicting women in professional roles in magazine ads results in higher evaluations by male subjects of the degree to which the nonrole female possessed…

  7. No credit where credit is due: attributional rationalization of women's success in male-female teams.

    Heilman, Madeline E; Haynes, Michelle C

    2005-09-01

    In 3 experimental studies, the authors explored how ambiguity about the source of a successful joint performance outcome promotes attributional rationalization, negatively affecting evaluations of women. Participants read descriptions of a mixed-sex dyad's work and were asked to evaluate its male and female members. Results indicated that unless the ambiguity about individual contribution to the dyad's successful joint outcome was constrained by providing feedback about individual team member performance (Study 1) or by the way in which the task was said to have been structured (Study 2) or unless the negative expectations about women's performance were challenged by clear evidence of prior work competence (Study 3), female members were devalued as compared with their male counterparts-they were rated as being less competent, less influential, and less likely to have played a leadership role in work on the task. Implications of these results, both theoretical and practical, are discussed. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Male/female differences in neuroprotection and neuromodulation of brain dopamine.

    Mélanie eBourque

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a sex difference in Parkinson’s disease is observed in several variables, including susceptibility of the disease, age at onset and symptoms. These differences between men and women represent a significant characteristic of Parkinson’s disease which suggests that estrogens may exert beneficial effects against the development and the progression of the disease. This paper reviews the neuroprotective and neuromodulator effect of 17β-estradiol and progesterone as compared to androgens in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system of both female and male rodents. The 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP mice model of Parkinson’s disease and methamphetamine toxicity faithfully reproduce the sex differences of Parkinson’s disease in that endogenous estrogen levels appear to influence the vulnerability to toxins targeting the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. Exogenous 17β-estradiol and/or progesterone treatments show neuroprotective properties against nigrostriatal dopaminergic toxins while androgens fail to induce beneficial effect. Sex steroids treatments show males and females difference in their neuroprotective action against methamphetamine toxicity. Nigrostriatal dopaminergic structure and function, as well as the distribution of estrogen receptors, show sex difference and may influence the susceptibility to the toxins and the response to sex steroids. Genomic and non-genomic actions of 17β-estradiol converge to promote survival factors and the presence of both estrogen receptors α and β are critical to 17β-estradiol neuroprotective action against MPTP toxicity.

  9. Seasonality of workload of women in rural areas of Bangladesh: some male-female comparison.

    Rahman, R I

    1986-12-01

    This paper discusses sex differences in the seasonality of domestic and productive work among males and females in Bangladesh. The greater fluctuation in productive work done by women is most likely due to the seasonal demand by agricultural processing activities rather than by voluntary withdrawal of women from work. In the case of housework, the amount of work done by men is more variable. This again may be understood in terms of the type of work performed by each. Women are engaged in the essential chores like cooking, cleaning, and in the essential part of child care such as feeding. Housework done by men consists mostly of shopping, some maintenance of the house and household goods, and looking after children, which mainly consists of playing with them. Given such a division of work, which is always to the advantage of men, they have more flexibility in being able to postpone housework when productive work peaks. In periods without employment, men spend longer hours at the market. Women from the richer classes work more hours than do women from the poorer classes, while the opposite is true for men. This study suggests that women's seasonal workload deserves attention because it creates a greater pressure on them than it does on men. Moreover, the pressure of the seasonal workload falls disproportionately on women from various landholding groups. Women from large landholding groups are overburdened in the peak season, whereas males in this group are comfortably underemployed even in the busy season. The structural factors which hinder the lowering of the wealthier women's workload by hiring women from landless and land-poor groups need to be studied carefully.

  10. Karl Barth’s male-female order: A kingpin of dogmatic disparity

    Yolanda Dreyer

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Karl Barth’s gender perspective is often analysed with reference to his so-called “theoethics” or “creational theology”. This perspective perpetuates an asymmetry in gender relations that was prevalent in Biblical times, throughout Christianity and to some extent still is visible today. He based his view on the subordination of women on an exegesis of Genesis 1:27 as “intertext” of Ephesians 5:22-23. Barth’s asymmetrical gender perspective is a product of his embedment in Western Christian tradition which in turn, is rooted in early Christian patriarchal theology. The aim of this article is to focus on Barth’s ontological reframing of the traditional understanding of the Biblical notion of human beings as created in the “image of God”. The article consists of four sections: (a Luther’s and Calvin’s gender perspectives; (b the Enlightenment failure to achieve emancipation; (c gender disparity in Reformed theology; and (d a feminist alternative.

  11. The Male-Female Wage Gap: Lifetime Earnings Losses. Briefing Paper.

    Hartmann, Heidi; Whittaker, Julie

    Currently, the median full-time woman worker earns 74.4 percent of the annual earnings of the median man. Over their lifetime, young women stand to lose a great deal of money due to differences in the wages for women and men. Estimates are that the average 25-year-old woman who works full time year round for 40 years will earn $523,000 less than…

  12. Male/Female Differential Encoding and Intercultural Differential Decoding of Nonverbal Affective Communication.

    St. Martin, Gail McAllister

    In order to investigate the process of nonverbal communication of emotions in a simulated intercultural context, videotapes were made in which two white Americans (one male and one female) responded to paragraphs which evoked the following emotions: sadness, disgust, anger, surprise, happiness, and fear. These portrayals were then viewed by male…

  13. The Great Recession of 2007 in the United States and the male: female ratio at birth

    Grech, Victor

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Male live births slightly exceed female live births by approximately 3%. The ratio of male to total live births is conventionally represented as M/F. Many factors have been shown to affect M/F, mainly privation, toxins, and stress, all of which reduce M/F. Population stress may be engendered by natural phenomena such as earthquakes and man-made events such as short wars, terrorist attacks, and contracting economies. This study was conducted to ascertain whether the onset of the "Gr...

  14. Using lod scores to detect sex differences in male-female recombination fractions.

    Feenstra, B; Greenberg, D A; Hodge, S E

    2004-01-01

    Human recombination fraction (RF) can differ between males and females, but investigators do not always know which disease genes are located in genomic areas of large RF sex differences. Knowledge of RF sex differences contributes to our understanding of basic biology and can increase the power of a linkage study, improve gene localization, and provide clues to possible imprinting. One way to detect these differences is to use lod scores. In this study we focused on detecting RF sex differences and answered the following questions, in both phase-known and phase-unknown matings: (1) How large a sample size is needed to detect a RF sex difference? (2) What are "optimal" proportions of paternally vs. maternally informative matings? (3) Does ascertaining nonoptimal proportions of paternally or maternally informative matings lead to ascertainment bias? Our results were as follows: (1) We calculated expected lod scores (ELODs) under two different conditions: "unconstrained," allowing sex-specific RF parameters (theta(female), theta(male)); and "constrained," requiring theta(female) = theta(male). We then examined the DeltaELOD (identical with difference between maximized constrained and unconstrained ELODs) and calculated minimum sample sizes required to achieve statistically significant DeltaELODs. For large RF sex differences, samples as small as 10 to 20 fully informative matings can achieve statistical significance. We give general sample size guidelines for detecting RF differences in informative phase-known and phase-unknown matings. (2) We defined p as the proportion of paternally informative matings in the dataset; and the optimal proportion p(circ) as that value of p that maximizes DeltaELOD. We determined that, surprisingly, p(circ) does not necessarily equal (1/2), although it does fall between approximately 0.4 and 0.6 in most situations. (3) We showed that if p in a sample deviates from its optimal value, no bias is introduced (asymptotically) to the maximum likelihood estimates of theta(female) and theta(male), even though ELOD is reduced (see point 2). This fact is important because often investigators cannot control the proportions of paternally and maternally informative families. In conclusion, it is possible to reliably detect sex differences in recombination fraction. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. From Machiavelli to Ms: differences in male-female power styles.

    Van Wagner, K; Swanson, C

    1979-01-01

    While the concept of power has always been a concern to students of political science and public administration, it has been examined only peripherally in the last few years. Recent work by McClelland has indicated that power may be a very important variable in explaining managerial behavior and organizational effectiveness. Starting with a definition of power provided by McClelland, this paper develops a conceptual framework for analyzing power-related behavior in an organizational setting. The framework is then applied to a problem area of particular interest to the authors--the question of whether or not women managers can be expected to behave differently than their male counterparts because of possible differences in their orientations toward power. We conclude that differences in power needs will not impede the effectiveness of female managers, but women may be at a disadvantage in the work environment due to possible differences in the way they express these needs.

  16. Changes in the Male/Female Wage Gap, 1976-85.

    Wellington, Alison J.

    1993-01-01

    Data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics showed a 4% decrease in the gender wage gap for whites between 1976 and 1985. White men tend to have higher earnings because of more tenure in areas with greater rewards; women tend to have more part-time experience, which has fewer such rewards. (SK)

  17. Male-female discrimination: an analysis of gender gap and its determinants

    Claudio Quintano

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the occupational dynamics have brought in significant innovations in Italy, as the increased participation of women in the labour market, that have stimulated studies about the gender wage gap, concerning the different remuneration reserved to male and female workers. In this work the Authors, following Oaxaca and Blinder approach, estimate the gap for Italian employers and proceed to its decomposition, one part due to differences in individual characteristics (endowment effect and another part due to the different returns on the same characteristics (coefficient effect, related to discrimination. Then, the gender wage gap and its decomposition is analyzed with reference to Italian macro-areas considered separately with the aim to highlight the different fundamental dynamics. The model has also been modified using the Heckmann correction to eliminate the bias due to self-selection; i.e. the different propensity to work for men and women.

  18. Chemical Communication of Fear : A Case of Male-Female Asymmetry

    de Groot, Jasper H. B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/373435754; Semin, Gun R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072830409; Smeets, Monique A. M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/141926600

    Previous research has documented sex differences in nonverbal communication. What has remained unknown is whether similar sex differences would exist with regard to olfactory communication via chemosignals, a relatively neglected nonverbal communication medium. Because women generally have a better

  19. The Impact of Gender Segregation on Male-Female Wage Differentials

    Amuedo Dorantes, Catalina; De la Rica Goiricelaya, Sara

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents new evidence on the role of gender segregation and pay structure in explaining gender wage differentials of full-time salaried workers in Spain. Data from the 1995 and 2002 Wage Structure Surveys reveal that raw gender wage gaps decreased from 0.24 to 0.14 over the seven-year period. Average differences in the base wage and wage complements decreased from 0.09 to 0.05 and from 0.59 to 0.40, respectively. However, the gender wage gap is still large after accounting for work...

  20. Male, female and management risk factors for non-return to service in Dutch mares.

    Buiten, van A.; Westers, P.; Colenbrander, B.

    2003-01-01

    The "effect" of stallion, mare and management-related factors on the odds of pregnancy per cycle in the horse were identified and quantified from the breeding records of Dutch Warmblood (n=4491), Friesian (n=1467) and Shetland-pony mares (n=3267) mated either naturally or by artificial insemination

  1. Male-Female Differences in Hourly Wages: The Role of Human Capital, Working Conditions, and Housework.

    Hersch, Joni

    1991-01-01

    Data from a survey of 414 male and 217 female workers assessed the effects of human capital, household responsibilities, working conditions, and on-the-job training on wages. Household responsibilities had a negative effect on women's earnings; the presence of children positively affected wages of both sexes. (SK)

  2. Dating violence among college students: the risk and protective factors.

    Kaukinen, Catherine

    2014-10-01

    The research review synthesizes the knowledge base on risk and protective factors for dating violence while highlighting its relevance to violence against college women. In particular, the review highlights the personal, family, relationship, and behavioral factors that heighten the risk of dating violence victimization and perpetration while also noting the methodological limitations of the current body of empirical research and identifying directions for future academic work. Researchers have identified the correlation between risky health and behavioral factors and dating violence, most often modeling these as part of the etiology of dating violence among college students. Less often have scholars explored these as co-occurring risk factors. This approach to dating violence may be used to develop meaningful and impactful interventions to reduce the incidence and prevalence of college dating violence while also addressing the other health risk behaviors that impact academic success and place students' well-being at risk. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Adolescent dating violence: an overview of foreign studies

    Lukovtseva Z.V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of foreign researches of adolescent dating violence is presented in article. Terminological difficulties which overcoming represents a relevant scientific and practical task are discussed. Adolescent dating violence is treated as a specific phenomenon which should be distinguished from bullying, school violence, etc. The data characterizing frequency of violence in the teenage romantic relations are systematized; it is established that up to 2/3 teenagers in foreign countries have experience of adolescent dating violence either as offenders, or as victims, in structure of the discussed phenomenon into the forefront psychological violence acts. Biographic, individual and psychological and social and environmental predictors of adolescent dating violence are considered. Process of transformation of behavior within adolescent dating violence with transition to more mature, partner or marriage, to the relations is tracked. Special attention is paid to sexual differences in predisposition to commission of adolescent dating violence and also his influence on character of the subsequent "adult" relations.

  4. TL dating of vases with elephant ears in Yuan Dynasty

    Xia Junding; Wang Weida; Leung, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating using an activation method in pre-dose technique was described. Three vases in underglaze blue with elephant ears and one vase in underglaze red with elephant ears in Yuan Dynasty were dated by this method. The results show that the TL ages are all less than 100 a B.P., and in which sbc 648 and sbc 649 were imitated in recent years. This method is quick, convenient and reliable for porcelain dating with the age of less than 1000 a B.P.. As a comparison, a porcelain sample with underglaze blue in Yuan Dynasty was dated too, and its TL age is 620 ± 140 B.P.. In addition, some complex factors associated with dating have been discussed and a resolution has been raised, which will help improve the accuracy of TL dating. (authors)

  5. ESR Dating Research of Glacial Tills in Tibetan Plateau

    Bi, W.; Yi, C.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, Quaternary Glacial-chronology has been made remarkable progress in the Tibetan Platean(TP) with the development of several numeric dating techniques, such as cosmogenic nuclides(NC), optically stimulated luminescence(OSL) and 14C. In constrast, the dating of Quaternary glacial tills in 100,000 years even more than million-year has been a challenge, just because the techniques has defects themselves and the sediments were stransformed during the geological and geomorphology progress later. Electron Spin Resonance(ESR) has been becoming one of the key methods of Quaternary Glacial-chronology with wide range of dating, expecially for the sample older than 100,000 years up to million-year scale. The accurate measurement of equivalent dose significantly impacts on accuracy and reliability of ESR dating method. Therefore, the study of the mechanisms of resetting processes is fundamental for accurate and reliable ESR dating. To understand the mechanism and characteristics of quartz ESR signal resetting of different samples, a series of laboratory simulation and field observation studies were carried out, which made lots of important breakthrough. But the research in quartz ESR signal of moraines is less and the test of ESR dating method is still in the qualitative investigation. Therefor, we use ESR dating and study on the mechanism and characteristics of quartz ESR signals in tills in the Tibetan Platean. In the adjust method of Modern, the quartz ESR signals in Modern glacial tills represent residual values which can be adjusted signals in the older glacial tills. As a consequence, ESR dating of the quartz in moraines needs to be explored in deep with building models to adjust ages which are measured by ESR dating. Therefore, ESR dating will become the trusted one of the cross dating methods in Quaternary Glacial-chronology with the adjust mothod improving the accuracy of ESR dating ages.

  6. Adolescent Perceptions of Dating Violence: A Qualitative Study.

    Taylor, Sarah; Calkins, Carrie A; Xia, Yan; Dalla, Rochelle L

    2017-08-01

    Scholars have identified dating violence as a public health issue among adolescents. Yet, minimal research has detailed adolescents' perceptions of dating violence, specifically gender differences in perceptions. Research suggests that in order for dating violence prevention and intervention to be effective, services need to be delivered in a manner that is understood by adolescents. Therefore, this study used a qualitative phenomenology study to investigate adolescents' perceptions of dating violence, including gender differences in adolescents' perceptions. Thirty adolescents between the ages of 14 and 19 from a Midwest public high school participated in focus groups. Focus group participants were asked semistructured interview questions regarding the definition of dating violence, risk and protective factors for dating violence, support for victims and perpetrators, and prevention efforts. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis methods, and common themes were identified. Adolescents' language revealed gender differences in perceptions toward dating violence. Males perceive dating violence through action, perpetration, and physical consequences. Females discuss dating violence by relating to the victim and the victim's emotions. Although gender differences existed in participants' perceptions, both males and females explained that dating violence is more often perpetrated by females, despite the view from society that males are more likely to perpetrate dating violence. Findings suggest that schools, practitioners, and policy makers are not meeting the needs of adolescents in regard to dating violence prevention and intervention. Prevention and intervention efforts could be improved by delivering education and services using language that adolescents find relevant. Findings also suggest that adolescents may benefit from prevention and intervention with gender specific components.

  7. A survey of archaeological samples dated in 1984

    Mejdahl, V.

    1985-10-01

    A survey is given of archaeological samples dated in 1984 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 79 samples were dated, 49 of which were burnt stones. All results were corrected for fading as measured for samples stored for four weeks at room temperature. The alpha dose contribution from uranium in the quartz and feldspar grains was included assuming an alpha efficiency facotr of 0.1 for quartz and 0.2 for feldspars. (author)

  8. PENENTUAN RECEIVED DATE DENGAN LOAD-ORIENTED MANUFACRURING CONTROL

    Sri Hartini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu kunci kompetitif sebuah perusahaan make to order adalah ketepatan dalam pemenuhan waktu penerimaan pesanan pada konsumen yang telah dijanjikan perusahaan ( received date. Penentuan received date yang selama ini dilakukan oleh JI  kurang tepat karena hanya memperkirakan waktu sekitar 10 – 12 minggu tanpa mempertimbangkan faktor produksi. Penelitian ini merancang received date dengan model load-oriented manufacturing control dimana penentuan received date didasarkan pada perhitungan manufacturing lead time yang mempertimbangkan waktu pengiriman order ke konsumen, kapasitas yang tersedia pada tiap stasiun kerja, waktu proses pada stasiun kerja dan aliran produksi di lantai produksi. Hasil validasi perhitungan  penentuan received date order sesuai  dengan sistem produksi PT JI dan lebih valid dibanding sistem awal. Kata kunci : make to order, received date, manufacturing leadtime, load-oriented manufacturing control   One of the competitive key of a make to order company is the accuracy in fulfilling orders which has been promised by the company towards the consumers (received date. Determining received date which has been applied by JI recently is not sufficient because it only predicts 10-12 weeks of time without considering production factors. This research designs received date with load-oriented manufacturing control model where determining received date is based on calculating manufacturing lead time that considers the time needed to deliver orders to the consumer, capacity available for each work station, work station process time, and production flow within the production floor.  Validation results from the calculations for determining received date order is adjusted to PT JI  production system and is more valid than the first system. Keywords : make to order, received date, manufacturing leadtime, load-oriented manufacturing control

  9. Assessment of the lower ESR dating range in Greek speleothems

    Bassiakos, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Pilot ESR dating studies on geologically young calcitic sinters were carried out, aiming at assessment of the lower ESR dating range in characteristic Greek speleoenvironments. Five stalactites were dated, coming from an ancient mining gallery, idle for the last 2,500 years, found on Siphnos island (Aegean). The calculated ages range between 1,7-2,0 ka. Medium to low measured external dose rates (aprox. 900 μGy/a) and very low measured radioelement concentration in samples are very usual in the Mediterranean environments. The study concludes that ESR dating of speleothems younger than two millenia is practically unattainable. Some geoarchaeological implications of the obtained ages are discussed. (author)

  10. Date Fiber as a Constituent of Broiler Starter Diets

    W. AI-Marzooki

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In Oman, efforts are underway to find alternative sources of fwd to support domestic livestock. The date industry thrives in Oman and one of its by-products is date fiber, a by-product of date syrup production. Although the product contains some free sugars, an evaluation of its potential in broiler diets has never been undertaken. Therefore, we conducted an experiment to investigate the value of date fiber in broiler chick diets. The experimental diets consisted of four graded levels of date fiber: 0, 15, 30 and 45 % in a broiler-starter ration replacing corn as an energy source. The diets were isonitrogenous. There were five replicates for each of the four diets and each replicate contained six broiler chicks. As date fiber percent increased in the dietary treatment, there were linear reductions in body weight gain, calculated apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn content, and apparent protein digestibility (P < 0.05. Poor feed utilization (i .e., reduced feed efficiency was observed in birds fed date fiber diets compared to the control group (P < 0.05. The poor performance of birds fed date fiber may be attributed to protein and energy limitations. We conclude that date fiber has no value in growing broiler diets. However, it may have utility in diets where a stable body weight is desirable.

  11. Gender Identification in Date Palm Using Molecular Markers.

    Awan, Faisal Saeed; Maryam; Jaskani, Muhammad J; Sadia, Bushra

    2017-01-01

    Breeding of date palm is complicated because of its long life cycle and heterozygous nature. Sexual propagation of date palm does not produce true-to-type plants. Sex of date palms cannot be identified until the first flowering stage. Molecular markers such as random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), sequence-characterized amplified regions (SCAR), and simple sequence repeats (SSR) have successfully been used to identify the sex-linked loci in the plant genome and to isolate the corresponding genes. This chapter highlights the use of three molecular markers including RAPD, SCAR, and SSR to identify the gender of date palm seedlings.

  12. Molecular research on the genetic diversity of Tunisian date palm ...

    Molecular research on the genetic diversity of Tunisian date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera L.) using the random amplified microsatellite polymorphism (RAMPO) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) methods.

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on sugars from Iraqi dates

    Jaddou, H; Al-Hakim, M; Mhaisen, M D [Iraq Atomic Energy Commission, Baghdad. Nuclear Research Inst.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of using gamma-irradiation for date preservation had been considered as an alternative method to fumigation. Two varieties of Iraqi dates (Zahdi and Sayer) had been used in the study, and three doses of 50, 100 and 150 krads. A combination of treatments of heat plus irradiation were also applied and tests were conducted at three maturation stages. Gas chromatographic analysis was used to fractionate sugars from dates after converting to their TMS - ether derivatives. No qualitative or quantitative changes were observed in sugar components in either Zahdi or Sayer dates within the doses used in the experiments.

  14. Social Information Processing in Dating Conflicts: Reciprocal Relationships With Dating Aggression in a One-Year Prospective Study.

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Gamez-Guadix, Manuel; López de Arroyabe, Elena

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the reciprocal associations among social information processing (SIP) in dating conflicts and the perpetration of dating aggression. A first step involved the development of a measure (The Social Information Processing Questionnaire in Dating Conflicts, SIPQ-DC) to assess social information in scenarios of conflict with dating partners. A sample of 1,272 adolescents (653 girls, 619 boys; Mage = 14.74 years, SD = 1.21) completed measures of SIP and dating aggression perpetration in two different times, which were spaced 1 year apart. Confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a model with five correlated factors for the SIPQ-DC, namely, hostile attribution, anger, aggressive response access, anticipation of positive consequences for oneself, and anticipation of negative consequences for partners. Although the perpetration of dating aggression at T1 was cross-sectionally associated with all the SIP components, anger was the only component that predicted the residual increase in dating aggression behavior over time. The perpetration of dating aggression predicted a worsening of cognitive-emotional processes involved in dating conflicts. Some longitudinal paths were significant only in male adolescents. In conclusion, relationships among SIP and aggression are reciprocal. Gender differences in longitudinal paths can contribute to explaining men's higher perpetration of violence in adulthood. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Establishing the date of Maori environmental impact in New Zealand through pollen analysis and radiocarbon dating

    McGlone, M.S.; Wilmshurst, J.M. [Landcare Research, Lincoln, (New Zealand)

    1997-12-31

    Full text: Over the last decade there has been an intense debate about whether New Zealand prehistory is long ( > 1500 years) or short ( < 800 years). Pollen and charcoal analyses have played a key role in this debate by helping to pinpoint the transition from relatively undisturbed environments to those deforested by anthropogenic fires. Problems with in situ contamination, reworking of sediments, confusion of natural with anthropogenic impacts, and different theoretical expectations of growth, spread and impact of early Maori populations have led to disparate conclusions. We review pollen based studies carried out on a variety of fossil sites, including peat bogs, swamps, estuaries and lakes, and contribute new results. Different sedimentary environments show varying susceptibilities to contamination and have resulted in a wide spread of ages for initial Maori impact. Datable materials least susceptible to contamination by old or young carbon are pure peat and macrofossils, whereas lake, swamp and silty sediments are most susceptible. Analysis of the radiocarbon ages obtained for the start of Maori deforestation show that ages falling in the `long` prehistory period are exclusively derived from lake sediments and swamps. In contrast, the bulk of the ages falling in the `short` prehistory period are from pure peat and selected plant fragments. We conclude from our analysis of radiocarbon ages for pollen based deforestation that the first evidence of Maori environmental impact began about 700-550 calendar years BP (1250-1400 AD). Finer age resolution is limited by dating techniques, site limitations and the uncertainty associated with identifying the first signs of human impact. The period we have identified corresponds with the oldest dated archaeological sites and supports the short prehistory hypothesis. We discuss how to distinguish reliable fossil sites from those that have a high risk of giving misleading results.

  16. Establishing the date of Maori environmental impact in New Zealand through pollen analysis and radiocarbon dating

    McGlone, M.S.; Wilmshurst, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Over the last decade there has been an intense debate about whether New Zealand prehistory is long ( > 1500 years) or short ( < 800 years). Pollen and charcoal analyses have played a key role in this debate by helping to pinpoint the transition from relatively undisturbed environments to those deforested by anthropogenic fires. Problems with in situ contamination, reworking of sediments, confusion of natural with anthropogenic impacts, and different theoretical expectations of growth, spread and impact of early Maori populations have led to disparate conclusions. We review pollen based studies carried out on a variety of fossil sites, including peat bogs, swamps, estuaries and lakes, and contribute new results. Different sedimentary environments show varying susceptibilities to contamination and have resulted in a wide spread of ages for initial Maori impact. Datable materials least susceptible to contamination by old or young carbon are pure peat and macrofossils, whereas lake, swamp and silty sediments are most susceptible. Analysis of the radiocarbon ages obtained for the start of Maori deforestation show that ages falling in the 'long' prehistory period are exclusively derived from lake sediments and swamps. In contrast, the bulk of the ages falling in the 'short' prehistory period are from pure peat and selected plant fragments. We conclude from our analysis of radiocarbon ages for pollen based deforestation that the first evidence of Maori environmental impact began about 700-550 calendar years BP (1250-1400 AD). Finer age resolution is limited by dating techniques, site limitations and the uncertainty associated with identifying the first signs of human impact. The period we have identified corresponds with the oldest dated archaeological sites and supports the short prehistory hypothesis. We discuss how to distinguish reliable fossil sites from those that have a high risk of giving misleading results

  17. Date rape among undergraduates in southwestern Nigeria federal ...

    The increasing number of date rapes occurring on University campuses and the need to decrease rape supportive attitudes point to the need for continued research on this field. Correlational survey design was adopted to examine the extent to which attitude towards date rape is associated with the respondents' emotional ...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1160 - Compliance dates and maintenance requirements.

    2010-07-01

    ... corrective action within 1 working day of detection; and (iii) Maintenance of a daily record, signed by a... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance dates and maintenance... Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1160 Compliance dates and maintenance requirements...

  19. Thermoluminescence dating of late Devensian loesses in southern England

    Wintle, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    The results are reported of thermoluminescence dating of six relatively recent deposits of loess-like material from southern Britiain between the Scilly Isles and Kent. The dates have been obtained on the loess itself and confirm the ages as being late Devensian. (U.K.)

  20. Inflorescence rot disease of date palm caused by Fusarium ...

    Date palm is one of the important income sources for many farmers in different parts of several countries, including Iraq, Iran, Saudi Arabia, North Africa etc. Inflorescence rot is a serious disease of date palm which limits its yield. The identification of the causal organism is a key step to tackling this disease, and such studies ...

  1. 17 CFR 200.507 - Declassification dates on derivative documents.

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Declassification dates on derivative documents. 200.507 Section 200.507 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... of National Security Information and Material § 200.507 Declassification dates on derivative...

  2. 44 CFR 19.100 - Purpose and effective date.

    2010-10-01

    ... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 19.100 Purpose and effective date. The... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose and effective date. 19.100 Section 19.100 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY...

  3. 40 CFR 63.304 - Standards for compliance date extension.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for compliance date extension. 63.304 Section 63.304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.304 Standards for compliance date extension. (a...

  4. 37 CFR 360.4 - Compliance with statutory dates.

    2010-07-01

    ... dates. 360.4 Section 360.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS SUBMISSION OF ROYALTY CLAIMS FILING OF CLAIMS TO ROYALTY FEES COLLECTED UNDER COMPULSORY LICENSE Cable Claims § 360.4 Compliance with statutory dates. (a) Claims filed with the Copyright Royalty Board...

  5. 37 CFR 360.24 - Compliance with statutory dates.

    2010-07-01

    ... dates. 360.24 Section 360.24 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS SUBMISSION OF ROYALTY CLAIMS FILING OF CLAIMS TO ROYALTY FEES COLLECTED UNDER COMPULSORY LICENSE Digital Audio Recording Devices and Media Royalty Claims § 360.24 Compliance with statutory dates. (a...

  6. 37 CFR 360.13 - Compliance with statutory dates.

    2010-07-01

    ... dates. 360.13 Section 360.13 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS SUBMISSION OF ROYALTY CLAIMS FILING OF CLAIMS TO ROYALTY FEES COLLECTED UNDER COMPULSORY LICENSE Satellite Claims § 360.13 Compliance with statutory dates. (a) Claims filed with the Copyright Royalty Board...

  7. Dating Violence in High School: A Profile of the Victims.

    Reuterman, Nicholas A.; Burcky, William D.

    1989-01-01

    Attempted to develop profile of victims of dating violence based on individual characteristics of female high school students (N=123). Found significant differences between subjects who had and had not experienced dating violence on urban/rural residency, suspension or expulsion from schools; type of academic program; family discipline techniques;…

  8. The Economics of Online Dating: A Course in Economic Modeling

    Monaco, Andrew J.

    2018-01-01

    The author discusses the development of a unique course, The Economics of Online Dating. The course is an upper-level undergraduate course that combines intensive discussion, peer review, and economic theory to teach modeling skills to undergraduates. The course uses the framework of "online dating," interpreted broadly, as a point of…

  9. 12 CFR 308.158 - Filing papers and effective date.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing papers and effective date. 308.158 Section 308.158 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE... Section 19 of the FDIA § 308.158 Filing papers and effective date. (a) Filing with the regional office...

  10. Chemical properties of 11 date cultivars and their corresponding ...

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... Results showed that date fruits were rich in sugar (79.93 - 88.02 g/100 g dry matter), ... properties such as water holding capacity (WHC) and oil holding capacity (OHC). ...... composition and quality of date syrup as affected by.

  11. Inflorescence rot disease of date palm is caused by Fusarium ...

    Zulfiqar-Ali

    2012-05-01

    May 1, 2012 ... Key words: Fusarium proliferatum, ITS1, ITS4, pathogenecity, PCR, isolates, phylogeny. INTRODUCTION. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the important income sources for many farmers in different parts of. Iraq, Iran and North Africa. Date palm trees are infected by several pathogens like fungi, ...

  12. Archaeomagnetic Dating in Europe Using a Global Geomagnetic Field Model

    Lodge, A.; Suttie, N.; Holme, R.; Shaw, J.; Hill, M. J.; Linford, P.

    2009-12-01

    Using up-to-date archaeomagnetic data from Europe and CALS7K.2 as an apriori model, we produce a global geomagnetic field model to be used for archaeomagnetic dating in Europe. More details on the modelling process will be presented elsewhere (in session GP12, abstract: Geophysical insights from archaeomagnetic dating). Here we apply the global geomagnetic field model to a series of test cases from both recently published data and unpublished data to demonstrate its application to archaeomagnetic dating. We compare the results produced using our model with those from the spherical cap harmonic model, SCHA.DIF.3K (Pavón-Carrasco et al., 2009), the global geomagnetic field model, ARCH3K.1 (Korte et al., 2009) and those produced using the palaeosecular variation curves generated using Bayesian statistics (Lanos, 2004). We include examples which emphasise the importance of using three component data (declination, inclination and intensity) to produce an improved archaeomagnetic date. In addition to the careful selection of an appropriate model for archaeomagnetic dating, the choice of errors on the model curves is vital for providing archaeologists with an age range of possible dates. We discuss how best to constrain the errors on the model curves and alternative ways to the mathematical method of Lanos (2004) for producing an archaeomagnetic date for archaeologists.

  13. Middle School Students' Aggressive Reactions to Dating Situations

    Prospero, Moises

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated age differences in reactions to the perceptions of dating violence using both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Focus groups were conducted to develop age and culturally appropriate questionnaires for each age group (college and middle school). The questionnaires consisted of common dating scenarios that…

  14. 30 CFR 256.50 - Dating of leases.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dating of leases. 256.50 Section 256.50 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Issuance of Leases § 256.50 Dating of leases. All leases issued under...

  15. Dating and Sex among Emerging Adults in Nepal

    Regmi, Pramod R.; van Teijlingen, Edwin R.; Simkhada, Padam; Acharya, Dev R.

    2011-01-01

    Social and cultural changes in Nepal, including better communication facilities and transport, more urbanization and a rising age at which people marry, have created more opportunities for young people for "dating." Our qualitative study explores whether the existence of dating cultures influences young people's sexual behavior in Nepal.…

  16. 42 CFR 456.128 - Initial continued stay review date.

    2010-10-01

    ... norms to assign the initial continued stay review date, the number of days between the individual's... and criteria required to be described under § 456.129; (2) The individual's condition; and (3) The individual's projected discharge date; (c)(1) The committee uses any available appropriate regional medical...

  17. Earliness-tardiness scheduling around almost equal due dates

    Hoogeveen, J.A.; Velde, van de S.L.

    1997-01-01

    The just-in-time concept in manufacturing has aroused interest in machine scheduling problems with earliness-tardiness penalties. In particular, common due date problems, which are structurally less complicated than problems with general due dates, have emerged as an interesting and fruitful field

  18. 7 CFR 201.30a - Date of test.

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.30a Date of test. When the percentage of germination is required to be shown, the label shall show the month and year in which the germination test was completed. No... germination test was completed and the date of transportation or delivery for transportation in interstate...

  19. 7 CFR 201.22 - Date of test.

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.22 Date of test. (a) The label shall show the month and year in which the germination test was completed. No more than 5 calendar months shall have elapsed between the last day of the month in which the germination test was completed and the date of transportation or...

  20. Separation of uranium in bone rest for their dating

    Garcia R, G.; Ordonez R, E.; Tenorio, D.; Cordoba, L.

    2001-01-01

    The uranium (U) and thorium (Th) recovery, as fundamental part of the 'uranium serie' technique is an alternative method for dating of bone rests in Mexico. That so is how it has been possible its application for dating geological material and in this research it has been determined the age of some mammoth samples from the basin of Mexico valley. (Author)