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Sample records for male volunteer subjects

  1. The irradiation of human volunteer subjects in research

    Rosen, R.

    1980-01-01

    In medical research radiation is sometimes used to obtain data from healthy individuals. These subjects gain no specific benefit from the research. To safeguard their welfare, constraints are imposed on the dose to be received, on the selection of volunteer subjects, on ensuring their understanding of the procedures and risks, and on obtaining their free consent to participate. The research proposals are assessed by peer review prior to being approved by the host institution. The first example presented describes the use of diagnostic radiography to obtain in vivo data on the femur bone. Conservative dosimetry indicates an expected dose-equivalent per film of 0.5 mSv in bone and 0.18 mSv in bone marrow and gonad tissue. The critical organ total dose-equivalent is estimated to be 7% of the dose-equivalent limit for a volunteer. The second example involves the internal administration of radioactive tracers. Dosimetric calculations indicate an expected whole-body dose-equivalent of 0.5 mSv in the case of C-14 and 0.37 mSv in the case of H-3, these values bejng 10% and 7% of the relevant dose-equivalent limit. Both proposals were given conditional approval. In the generalized research use of volunteer human subjects the rights of the subject, the investigator and the institution need to be protected. At the University of New South Wales procedures have been introduced to govern all experjmental procedures involving human subjects. Some interesting problems which have arisen are discussed. (author)

  2. Population pharmacokinetics of olprinone in healthy male volunteers

    Kunisawa T

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Takayuki Kunisawa,1 Hidefumi Kasai,2 Makoto Suda,2 Manabu Yoshimura,3 Ami Sugawara,3 Yuki Izumi,3 Takafumi Iida,3 Atsushi Kurosawa,3 Hiroshi Iwasaki3 1Surgical Operation Department, Asahikawa Medical University Hospital, Hokkaido, Japan; 2Clinical Study Management Division, Bell Medical Solutions Inc, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, Hokkaido, Japan Background: Olprinone decreases the cardiac preload and/or afterload because of its vasodilatory effect and increases myocardial contractility by inhibiting phosphodiesterase III. Purpose: The objective of this study was to characterize the population pharmacokinetics of olprinone after a single continuous infusion in healthy male volunteers. Methods: We used 500 plasma concentration data points collected from nine healthy male volunteers for the study. The population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using the nonlinear mixed effect model (NONMEM® software. Results: The time course of plasma concentration of olprinone was best described using a two-compartment model. The final pharmacokinetic parameters were total clearance (7.37 mL/minute/kg, distribution volume of the central compartment (134 mL/kg, intercompartmental clearance (7.75 mL/minute/kg, and distribution volume of the peripheral compartment (275 mL/kg. The interindividual variability in the total clearance was 12.4%, and the residual error variability (exponential and additive were 22.2% and 0.129 (standard deviation. The final pharmacokinetic model was assessed using a bootstrap method and visual predictive check. Conclusion: We developed a population pharmacokinetic model of olprinone in healthy male adults. The bootstrap method and visual predictive check showed that this model was appropriate. Our results might be used to develop the population pharmacokinetic model in patients. Keywords: phosphodiesterase III inhibitor, men, pharmacokinetic model

  3. Quantification of toy sword kinematics with male pediatric volunteers.

    Beeman, Stephanie M; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

    2014-01-01

    While extensive research in toy safety has been performed, data is unavailable with regard to the kinematics of toy swords. To improve upon design criteria, knowledge of a child’s physical capacity is essential. The purpose of this study was to quantify the linear and angular velocities generated by children swinging toy swords. A total of 36 male subjects, ages 4-14 years old, each participated in one trial. Subjects were instructed to swing a toy sword as fast and hard as possible for ~10 seconds. A Vicon motion analysis system was used to capture subject and sword kinematics. Peak linear and angular sword velocities were calculated. A strong correlation was identified between age and velocity. The 8-14 year old males were not significantly different. The 4 year old males generated significantly lower velocities than the 8-14 year old males. The 6 year old males produced significantly lower velocities than the 10- 14 year old males. It was concluded that age had a significant effect on the linear and angular velocities generated by children. The trends observed within this study likely result from typical pediatric and adolescent development. By accounting for the physical capabilities of a specific population, toys can be designed with decreased inherent risks of injury.

  4. Effect of tamsulosin on the pharmacokinetics of dutasteride in Chinese male healthy volunteers.

    Li, Huafang; Yang, Jiansong; Zhao, Hongxin; Fossler, Michael J; Wang, Chunrong

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of tamsulosin (0.2 mg) on the pharmacokinetics of dutasteride (0.5 mg) in a group of healthy Chinese male volunteers. This was an open-label, single-sequence, 3-period, drug-drug interaction phase 1 study. Twenty-four healthy Chinese male volunteers were enrolled and administered a single dose of 0.5 mg dutasteride and, following a 28- to 30-day washout period, 0.2 mg tamsulosin once daily for 7 days. On day 5, subjects received 0.2 mg tamsulosin coadministered with 0.5 mg dutasteride. Serum dutasteride and tamsulosin concentrations were monitored. In the presence or absence of tamsulosin, there were no apparent changes in dutasteride AUC and Cmax . Adverse events reported were mild to moderate in intensity and resolved by the end of the study. In healthy Chinese male volunteers, tamsulosin 0.2 mg at steady state had no apparent effect on dutasteride pharmacokinetics. Dutasteride and tamsulosin when administered alone or in combination were well tolerated. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  5. Characteristics of volunteers and non-volunteers for voluntary counseling and HIV testing among unmarried male undergraduates.

    Adewole, D A; Lawoyin, T O

    2004-06-01

    The 2001 HIV sero-prevalence survey in Nigeria revealed a rate of 5.8 percent with those under the age of 25 years having the highest prevalence rate. Most University students fall within this age group. This study is part of a larger study on the sexual behavior of youths and young adults and was designed to compare the characteristics of volunteers and non-volunteers for voluntary confidential counseling and HIV testing (VCT) among males. Six hundred and nine male undergraduate students were randomly selected and enrolled for the study. Data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Of the 609, 51 (8.3%) volunteered to have their blood screened for HIV. All volunteers who received pre-test counseling went for the HIV test. Volunteers were significantly older than the non-volunteers (Pmarriage pattern of their parents with regard to polygyny was similar, and fewer volunteers had fathers in the higher socio-economic class and mothers who had completed secondary education (Pcounseling. One of the three was positive for HIV. Of those who tested positive, 3 (37.5%) reported not using the condom at all, while the rest were using it only occasionally. VCT among the youths is possible however, small numbers encountered in the study is a limitation and there is a need to replicate this study using larger numbers. Tertiary institutions should provide VCT services for the students where they can be counseled appropriately and continuously throughout their stay in the institution. This hopefully will reduce the number of new HIV cases seen.

  6. The gastrointestinal absorption and urinary excretion of plutonium in male volunteers

    Ham, G.J.; Harrison, J.D.

    2000-01-01

    The gastrointestinal absorption and urinary excretion of 244 Pu have been measured in five healthy adult males in a two-stage study. Firstly, the volunteers ingested about 10 14 atoms of 244 Pu in citrate solution with a mid-day meal and urinary excretion was measured for the following 7-9 days. After a period of at least six months, the same volunteers were given an intravenous injection of 2x10 12 atoms of 244 Pu in citrate solution. Urinary excretion was then measured for the following 7-9 days and subsequently at intervals over periods up to 5-6 years. Fractional absorption of Pu from the gastrointestinal tract, calculated by comparing excretion for the two routes of administration, averaged 6x10 -4 , consistent with the ICRP value of 5x10 -4 . The results show a positive correlation between increasing age of the subjects, between 36 and 64 years of age, and increasing absorption of ingested Pu from 10 -4 to 10 -3 . In general, results for urinary excretion after injection are consistent with prediction of the current ICRP model although daily excretion after 5-6 years (3 subjects) averages 0.005% of the administered amount, about twice the predicted value. (author)

  7. Effects of temperature on bleeding time and clotting time in normal male and female volunteers.

    Valeri, C R; MacGregor, H; Cassidy, G; Tinney, R; Pompei, F

    1995-04-01

    This study was done to assess the effects of temperature on bleeding time and clotting time in normal male and female volunteers. Open study utilizing normal volunteers. University research laboratory. Fifty-four healthy male and female volunteers, ranging in age from 19 to 35 yrs, who were not receiving medications. The study was done and the samples of venous blood and shed blood collected at the template bleeding time site were obtained at a convenient time for each volunteer. Skin temperature was changed from +20 degrees to +38 degrees C and blood samples were obtained from the antecubital vein of each volunteer. The effect of local skin temperature ranging from +20 degrees to +38 degrees C on bleeding time was evaluated in 38 normal volunteers (19 male and 19 female). Skin temperature was maintained at +20 degrees to +38 degrees C by cooling or warming the forearm. At each temperature, measurements were made of complete blood count, bleeding time, and thromboxane B2 concentrations in shed blood collected at the template bleeding time site and in serum and plasma isolated from blood collected from the antecubital vein. Clotting time studies were measured in 16 normal volunteers (eight male and eight female) at temperatures ranging from +22 degrees to +37 degrees C. At +32 degrees C, the bleeding time was longer and hematocrit was lower in female than in male volunteers. However, at local skin temperatures of < +32 degrees C, both the males and females exhibited significantly increased bleeding times, which were associated with a reduction in shed blood thromboxane B2. Each 1 degree C decrease in temperature was associated with a 15% decrease in the shed blood thromboxane B2 concentration. Clotting times were three times longer at +22 degrees C than at +37 degrees C. Each 1 degree C reduction in the temperature of the clotted blood was associated with a 15% reduction in the serum thromboxane B2 concentration. Our data indicate that during surgical procedures, it

  8. In-vivo Kinetics of Silymarin (Milk Thistle) on Healthy Male Volunteers

    ... as the test product while another silymarin tablet brand, Silliver® (Abbott Laboratories Pak Ltd) was the reference product. The tablets were administered to healthy male volunteers orally at a dose of 200 mg following an overnight fast according to a randomized cross-over design. Scheduled blood samples were collected ...

  9. Comparative pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of branded and generic formulations of meloxicam in healthy male volunteers

    Del Tacca M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mario Del Tacca,1,2 Giuseppe Pasqualetti,3 Giovanni Gori,1 Pasquale Pepe,1 Antonello Di Paolo,2 Marianna Lastella,2 Ferdinando De Negri,1 Corrado Blandizzi2 1Clinical Pharmacology Centre for Drug Experimentation, Pisa University Hospital, 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 3Geriatrics Unit, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy Purpose: The primary aim of the present study was to assess the pharmacokinetic bioequivalence between a generic formulation of meloxicam 15 mg tablets (Meloxicam Hexal and its respective brand product (Mobic, in order to verify whether the generic product conforms to the regulatory standards of bioequivalence in the postmarketing setting. As a secondary exploratory aim, the pharmacodynamic effects of the two formulations were also evaluated by means of rating scales following hyperalgesia induced by cutaneous freeze injury. Subjects and methods: A single 15 mg dose of generic or branded meloxicam tablets was administered to 24 healthy male volunteers in a crossover fashion. Plasma samples, collected for 24 hours after dosing, were assayed for meloxicam concentration by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. Results: The analysis of pharmacokinetic parameters did not show any significant difference between the two meloxicam formulations: the 90% confidence intervals fell within the acceptance range of 80%–125% (0.84–1.16 for area under the curve [0–24], and 0.89–1.23 for peak concentration. No difference in the pharmacodynamic end point was observed between the two groups. Conclusion: The pharmacokinetic profiles of the two meloxicam formulations confirm the regulatory criteria for bioequivalence; pharmacodynamic data indicate a similar antihyperalgesic effect. The two formulations can be used interchangeably in the clinical setting. Keywords: meloxicam, pharmacokinetics, healthy volunteers, generic drug, bioequivalence, postmarketing

  10. Volunteering and Subjective Well-Being in Later Adulthood: Is Self-Efficacy the Key?

    Muller, Doreen; Ziegelmann, Jochen P.; Simonson, Julia; Tesch-Römer, Clemens; Huxhold, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated age differences in longitudinal effects of volunteering on three facets of subjective well-being (SWB), i.e. positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), and life satisfaction (LS). Both direct and indirect effects with self-efficacy as mediator were tested. Longitudinal structural equation modeling was used on 5,564…

  11. Safety of a New Compact Male Intermittent Catheter: Randomized, Cross-Over, Single-Blind Study in Healthy Male Volunteers

    Bagi, Per; Hannibalsen, Jane; Permild, Rikke

    2011-01-01

    in hematuria (p = 0.54) or discomfort/stinging/pain at first micturition (p = 0.56). During insertion, handling was easier (p = 0.0001) and touching the coating was necessary less often (2.2 vs. 81.3% of catheterizations; p catheter; it was preferred by nurses for 20 of 23......Introduction: A new compact male intermittent catheter was compared with a regular intermittent male catheter in terms of safety and acceptability. Methods: In this randomized, single-blind, cross-over study, healthy male volunteers were catheterized twice with a compact catheter and twice...... with a regular catheter. Results: 28 participants were enrolled. Mean ± SD discomfort (visual analogue scale; primary objective) was 2.25 ± 1.5 and 2.52 ± 1.8 for the compact and regular catheters, respectively (difference -0.27; 95% confidence interval -0.73 to 0.19); there was no significant difference...

  12. Pharmacokinetic drug interaction between gemfibrozil and sitagliptin in healthy Indian male volunteers.

    K P, Arun; Meda, Venkata Subbaiah; Kucherlapati, V S P Raj; Dubala, Anil; M, Deepalakshmi; P R, Anand VijayaKumar; K, Elango; B, Suresh

    2012-05-01

    To study the impact of gemfibrozil co-administration on the pharmacokinetics of sitagliptin in healthy Indian male volunteers. A randomized open label two-period crossover study involving 12 healthy Indian male volunteers was conducted at a single center. In each phase, the volunteers were administered sitagliptin as 100 mg tablets, either alone or co-administered with gemfibrozil as 600 mg tablets twice daily for 3 days. There was a 2-week washout period between phases. The venous blood samples were serially collected at 0-12 h post-dose, and plasma concentrations of the study drugs were estimated by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet method. Relative to the administration of sitagliptin alone, co-administration with gemfibrozil increased the AUC₀₋₁₂ (2,167 ± 82.9 vs. 2,970 ± 76.4 ng h/ml; p gemfibrozil, this interaction may not have any clinical significance as sitagliptin has a wide therapeutic index. Hence, in clinical practice, sitagliptin as 100 mg tablets and gemfibrozil as 600 mg tablets may be co-prescribed without much threat of sitagliptin toxicity. However, these results may not hold if the dose of sitagliptin is increased or if is co-prescribed with other antidiabetic drugs and/or cytochrome P450 2C8/human organic anion transporter-3 inhibitors. Further studies are needed to confirm these results in patients.

  13. Influence of kinnow juice on the bioavailability of carbamazepine in healthy male volunteers.

    Garg, S K; Bhargava, V K; James, H; KuJan-Mar, N; Prabhakar, S; Naresh, Ku

    1998-01-01

    Kinnow juice produces a marked and variable increase in carbamazepine bioavailability. The pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine was studied after drug administration with 300 ml water or kinnow juice in a randomized cross over trial on nine healthy male volunteers. With kinnow juice peak serum concentration (Cmax) and area under the serum concentration time curve (AUC) was significantly (P kinnow juice enhances carbamazepine bioavailability could be due to inhibition of cytochrome P-450 enzyme, since kinnow juice contains naringin which is considered to be inhibitor of liver microsomal dihydropyridine oxidation.

  14. Brain correlates of the intrinsic subjective cost of effort in sedentary volunteers.

    Bernacer, J; Martinez-Valbuena, I; Martinez, M; Pujol, N; Luis, E; Ramirez-Castillo, D; Pastor, M A

    2016-01-01

    One key aspect of motivation is the ability of agents to overcome excessive weighting of intrinsic subjective costs. This contribution aims to analyze the subjective cost of effort and assess its neural correlates in sedentary volunteers. We recruited a sample of 57 subjects who underwent a decision-making task using a prospective, moderate, and sustained physical effort as devaluating factor. Effort discounting followed a hyperbolic function, and individual discounting constants correlated with an indicator of sedentary lifestyle (global physical activity questionnaire; R=-0.302, P=0.033). A subsample of 24 sedentary volunteers received a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan while performing a similar effort-discounting task. BOLD signal of a cluster located in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex correlated with the subjective value of the pair of options under consideration (Z>2.3, Preward correlated with the signal of a cluster in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (Z>2.3, Pintrinsic subjective cost of effort and its neural correlates in sedentary individuals. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Digestibility, palatability and emotional status after ingestion of an iced dessert: analysis of subjective responses in 100 healthy volunteers.

    Garzaro, M; Raimondo, L; Pecorari, G; Sensini, M; Riva, G; Palmo, A; Giordano, C

    2011-01-01

    Food choices are influenced by many factors, perhaps the most important being availability. However, the desire to consume one item over another may be viewed as an outcome of sensory hedonic likes, situation and current internal state. In a previous preliminary report, an improvement of joy and mood, associated with good data of digestibility and palatability, was observed in a group of 30 healthy female subjects who consumed a coffee-flavoured iced dessert immediately after a standardized meal. The aim of this study is to confirm the results previously obtained in a smaller population and to investigate whether any differences between male and female subjects could be observed concerning the digestive process and emotional status. One hundred volunteers, after ENT and psychological assessment, were asked to fill out a Psycho-Emotional Questionnaire to assess their basal emotional pattern before the consumption of an iced coffee-flavoured dessert after a standard meal. After the meal they completed an Organoleptic-Sensory questionnaire, a Dynamic Digestibility questionnaire and again the Psycho-Emotional Questionnaire. In our study, most of the 100 subjects found the tested coffee-flavoured iced dessert pleasant according to the Organoleptic-Sensorial Questionnaire (OSQ), in terms of taste, aspect, texture and smell; moreover, the Dynamic Digestibility Questionnaire (DDQ) showed a good digestive experience in 71 subjects. According to the Psycho-Emotional Questionnaire (PEQ), an improvement of joy, activation and mood, associated with good data of digestibility and palatability was recorded. All these observations are statistically significant and the results seem to show a positive correlation between pleasure in eating such a product and emotional status. No statistically significant differences were recorded between male and female subjects.

  16. A Phase I clinical trial of lodenafil carbonate, a new phosphodiesterase Type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, in healthy male volunteers.

    Mendes, Gustavo D; dos Santos Filho, Hilton Oliveira; dos Santos Pereira, Alberto; Mendes, Fabiana D; Ilha, Jaime O; Alkharfy, Khalid M; De Nucci, Gilberto

    2012-12-01

    Lodenafil carbonate is a new phosphodiesterase Type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor used in treatment of erectile dysfunction. The present study was conducted to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of lodenafil carbonate after administering ascending (1 - 100 mg) single oral doses to healthy male volunteers (n = 33). The study was an open label, dose-escalation, Phase I clinical trial involving the administration of single oral doses of lodenafil carbonate. Lodenafil carbonate was administered sequentially, escalating in single doses of 1 mg - 100 mg with a washout period of at least 1 week between each dose. The progression to the next dose was allowed after clinical and laboratory exams, Ambulatory Monitoring of Arterial Pressure (AMAP) without relevant clinical modifications and adverse events without clinical relevancy. Blood samples were collected at pre-dose, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 20 and 24 h post-dosing. Plasma samples for measurement of lodenafil carbonate and lodenafil were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. No serious adverse events were observed, and none of the subjects discontinued the study due to intolerance. The AMAP measurements, clinical and laboratory exams and ECG revealed no significant changes even at higher doses. Lodenafil carbonate was not detected in any samples, indicating that it acts as a prodrug. The mean lodenafil pharmacokinetic parameters for tmax and t1/2 were 1.6 ( ± 0.4) h and 3.3 ( ± 1.1) h, respectively. This study demonstrated that lodenafil carbonate was well tolerated and showed a good safety profile in healthy male volunteers.

  17. Volunteering and subjective well-being in midlife and older adults: the role of supportive social networks.

    Pilkington, Pamela D; Windsor, Tim D; Crisp, Dimity A

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the extent to which associations between volunteering and subjective well-being (SWB) could be related to volunteers having more supportive social networks relative to nonvolunteers. The sample consisted of 561 midlife and older adults (aged 55-94 years) from the TRAnsitions In Later Life study. Multiple mediation analyses examined associations between hours spent volunteering per week; availability of social support from friends, relatives, and neighbors; positive and negative social exchanges; and SWB. The results indicated that the higher life satisfaction and positive affect reported by those who volunteer at moderate levels (up to 7 hr per week) are related to their higher levels of positive social exchanges and greater availability of social support from friends and family, relative to nonvolunteers. Those who volunteer at higher levels (7 hr or more per week) also reported greater levels of positive affect in comparison to nonvolunteers, and this was related to their greater availability of social support from friends. Availability of support from friends accounted for the greatest proportion of the volunteering-SWB associations. The findings suggest that the positive SWB associated with volunteering is related to volunteers' more extensive friend and family networks.

  18. Pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence study of two brands of valsartan tablets in healthy male volunteers.

    Zakeri-Milani, Parvin; Valizadeh, Hadi; Islambulchilar, Ziba; Nemati, Mahboob

    2010-01-01

    Valsartan (CAS 137862-53-4) is an antihypertensive drug belonging to the family of angiotensin II receptor antagonists acting at the AT1 receptor, which mediates all known effects of angiotensin II on the cardiovascular system. In the present study, the pharmacokinetic parameters of two oral formulations of valsartan tablets were compared in a randomized, single oral dose, two-treatment crossover design in 24 healthy male volunteers under fasting conditions. After an overnight fast, the volunteers received 80 mg valsartan. Blood samples were collected up to 48 h and drug concentrations were determined by a reverse-phase HPLC method with fluorescence detection. Various pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from the plasma concentration-time curves of both formulations. The obtained values for test and reference products were 3067.7 +/- 1,281.7 and 3,304.3 +/- 1,196.4 ng/ml for Cmax; 17,834.4 +/- 7,083.8 and 18,319.1 +/- 7,800.7 ng x h/ml for AUC0-48; 18,825.7 +/- 7,553.2 and 19,172.2 +/- 8,307.2 ng x h/ml for AUC0-infinity, respectively. The 90% confidence intervals obtained by analysis of variance were 86.84-100.87% for Cmax and 93.43-115.54% for AUC0-t, which are within the acceptance range of 80-125%. Therefore it can be concluded that both products are bioequivalent in terms of rate and extent of drug absorption and therefore interchangeable.

  19. Motion of the head and neck of female and male volunteers in rear impact car-to-car impacts.

    Carlsson, Anna; Siegmund, Gunter P; Linder, Astrid; Svensson, Mats Y

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to quantify and compare dynamic motion responses between 50th percentile female and male volunteers in rear impact tests. These data are fundamental for developing future occupant models for crash safety development and assessment. High-speed video data from a rear impact test series with 21 male and 21 female volunteers at 4 and 8 km/h, originally presented in Siegmund et al. (1997), were used for further analysis. Data from a subset of female volunteers, 12 at 4 km/h and 9 at 8 km/h, were extracted from the original data set to represent the 50th percentile female. Their average height was 163 cm and their average weight was 62 kg. Among the male volunteers, 11 were selected, with an average height of 175 cm and an average weight of 73 kg, to represent the 50th percentile male. Response corridors were generated for the horizontal and angular displacements of the head, T1 (first thoracic vertebra), and the head relative to T1. T-tests were performed with the statistical significance level of .05 to quantify the significance of the differences in parameter values for the males and females. Several differences were found in the average motion response of the male and female volunteers at 4 and 8 km/h. Generally, females had smaller rearward horizontal and angular motions of the head and T1 compared to the males. This was mainly due to shorter initial head-to-head restraint distance and earlier head-to-head restraint contact for the females. At 8 km/h, the female volunteers showed 12 percent lower horizontal peak rearward head displacement (P = .018); 22 percent lower horizontal peak rearward head relative to T1 displacement (P = .018); and 30 percent lower peak head extension angle (P = .001). The females also had more pronounced rebound motion. This study indicates that there may be characteristic differences in the head-neck motion response between 50th percentile males and females in rear impacts. The exclusive use of 50th

  20. Effect of Misoprostol on the Pharmacokinetics of Sustained Release Diclofenac in Myanmar Healthy Male Volunteers

    Htet Htet Aung

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sustained release diclofenac (diclofenac SR is the commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug for chronic inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Misoprostol, prostaglandin analogue, is the agent that enhances gastrointestinal mucosal defense. Concomitant administration of misoprostol with diclofenac SR can prevent the gastrointestinal side effects of diclofenac SR. Objective: The purpose of the study was to explore the effect of misoprostol on the pharmacokinetics of diclofenac SR in healthy volunteers. Methods: Crossover study was evaluated in 14 male volunteers. Single oral dose of 100 mg diclofenac SR was concomitantly administered with 200 μg misoprostol with one-week wash out period. Plasma concentrations at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 6 and 10 hrs were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Pharmacokinetic parameters such as area under concentration-time curve (AUC0-α, peak plasma concentration (Cmax, time to achieve peak plasma concentration (Tmax, absorption half-life (T½(ab, elimination half-life (T1/2(el, absorption rate constant (Kab, and elimination rate constant (Kel were determined. Results: With misoprostol, the mean AUC0-α of diclofenac SR was significantly reduced from 12.11±5.25μg/ mL×hr to 4.17±2.72μg/mL×hr (p0.05. The mean T½(ab was decreased from 0.56±0.23hr to 0.54±0.19hr (p>0.05. The mean Kab were almost the same 1.43±0.54hr-1 and 1.43±0.48hr-1. The mean T1/2(el was decreased from 3.68±1.64hr to 3.03±1.08hr (p>0.05. The mean Kel was increased from 0.21±0.09hr-1 to 0.25±0.09hr-1 (p>0.05. Conclusion: There was a significant reduction in the extent of absorption of diclofenac SR when concomitantly administered with misoprostol. Therefore, the dose of diclofenac SR may need to be increased to avoid therapeutic failure of diclofenac SR or concurrent use with misoprostol may need to be changed to other gastroprotective agents.

  1. Epidemiological aspects of recruitment of male volunteers for non-invasive urodynamics

    V. Avagyan (Vardan); R. van Mastrigt (Ron); J.W.N.C. Huang Foen Chung (John); A.M. Bohnen (Arthur); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul); J.L.H.R. Bosch (Ruud)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractWe studied epidemiological aspects of recruitment of volunteers for a non-invasive urodynamic study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 9,236 volunteers were invited by 20 general practitioners (GPs), using two different recruitment methods, i.e. by mail only, or during a

  2. Effect of oral D-tagatose on liver volume and hepatic glycogen accumulation in healthy male volunteers.

    Boesch, C; Ith, M; Jung, B; Bruegger, K; Erban, S; Diamantis, I; Kreis, R; Bär, A

    2001-04-01

    Standard toxicity tests with high levels of D-tagatose showed a reversible enlargement of the liver in Sprague-Dawley rats without increase of liver enzymes. The present study tests the hypotheses that partial substitution of dietary sucrose by D-tagatose for 28 days increases the volume of human liver and the concentration of liver glycogen. Twelve healthy, male volunteers were studied in a double-blind crossover study with ingestion of D-tagatose (3x15 g daily) and placebo (sucrose, 3x15 g daily) for periods of 28 days each. Liver volume and glycogen concentration have been determined by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and spectroscopy, which were accompanied by routine medical examinations. MR examinations before and after the treatments revealed no effects (P>0.05) of treatment, period, or subject for changes in liver volume or glycogen concentration. A steady increase of liver volumes, independent of the D-tagatose or placebo intake, has been observed over the study in parallel with a slight increase in body weight. The treatment with D-tagatose was not associated with clinically relevant changes of the examined clinico-chemical and hematological parameters, including liver enzymes and uric acid. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  3. Disposition in male volunteers of a subanaesthetic intravenous dose of an oil in water emulsion of 14C-propofol.

    Simons, P J; Cockshott, I D; Douglas, E J; Gordon, E A; Hopkins, K; Rowland, M

    1988-04-01

    1. An intravenous dose of 14C-propofol (0.47 mg/kg) administered to six male volunteers was rapidly eliminated with 88% recovered in the urine in 5 days and less than 2% in faeces. 2. The dose was cleared by metabolism with less than 0.3% excreted unchanged. The major metabolites were the glucuronic acid conjugate of propofol and the glucuronic acid and sulphate conjugates of its hydroxylated derivative, 2,6-diisopropyl-1,4-quinol. Propofol glucuronide accounted for about 53% of the urinary radioactivity and was the major metabolite in plasma from 30 min post dose. 3. The blood concentration of propofol declined in a biphasic manner from a maximum mean value of 0.44 microgram/ml, 2 min after injection. The half-lives of the first and second exponential phases, mean values 5 min and 97 min respectively, varied widely among subjects. A proportion of the dose was cleared slowly, probably due to slow release from less well perfused tissues. Propofol accounted for 94% of the total blood radioactivity at 2 min but only about 6% from 3 to 8 h post dose. 4. Propofol has a volume of distribution equivalent to about 3 to 4 times body weight, and a mean total body clearance of 2.2 1/min.

  4. Serum testosterone levels of HbSS (sickle cell disease male subjects in Lagos, Nigeria

    Adediran Adewumi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infertility is a major problem in sickle cell disease patients, especially in males. In addition to low serum testosterone, other abnormalities involving the accessory sex organs, such as the seminal vesicles and the prostate gland, as well as marked decrease in ejaculate volume may be observed in male HbSS patients. Hence, the need to study the role of sex hormones as a cause of infertility in male HbSS patients. Methods An unmatched case-control study was performed using seventy-five consenting subjects from Lagos University Teaching Hospital. These included 47 patients with haemoglobin phenotype SS from the Sickle cell clinic and 28 volunteered medical students and members of staff with haemoglobin phenotype AA. Demographic data were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 5 mls of blood was collected from each subject between 9.00 am & 11.am, and assayed for serum testosterone concentration. Results The concentrations of serum testosterone in HbSS patients ranged from 0.2 to 4.3 ng/ml with a mean of 1.28 ± 0.72 ng/ml whilst the values in HbAA controls ranged from 1.2 to 6.9 ng/ml with a mean of 2.63 ± 1.04 ng/ml. Seven (25.0% of the 28 controls had serum testosterone concentration lower than the quoted reference (normal range whereas 44 (93.6% of the 47 HbSS subjects had serum testosterone concentration lower than the reference range. Conclusion Overall, subjects with HbSS have significantly lower mean serum testosterone than HbAA controls.

  5. Bioequivalence study of a generic Risperidone (Iperdal® in healthy Thai male volunteers

    Werawath Mahatthanatrakul

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the rate and extent of absorption of a generic risperidone (Iperdal® with a reference formulation (Risperdal® when given orally. The study was an open label, randomized, two-period, two-sequence,single dose cross-over design with a 2 weeks washout period in 16 healthy Thai male volunteers. Single oral dose of two 2-mg tablets of risperidone were administered and serial blood samples were collected from the antecubital vein before and at0.17, 0.33, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 12, 24 and 48 hours post dose. Risperidone plasma concentrations were assayed using a validated High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC-UV method modified from Avenosoet al. (2000. Pharamcokinetic parameters i.e. Cmax, AUC0à48 and Tmax were analyzed by noncompartment analysis. Variations of the data were analyzed by “Two Way Analysis of Variance” (ANOVA. Statistics were tested as stated in USP 28 guidelinefor bioequivalence study. The maximum concentration (Cmax, ng/ml of risperidone for the innovator and the generic product were 31.11±17.24 (range 5.64-56.78 and 32.58±19.77 (range 5.29-84.56 ng/ml, respectively. The area under theplasma concentration-time curve (AUC0®48 of the innovator and the generic product were 160.64±152.89 (range 18.57- 550.32 and 144.03±127.37 (range 16.27-456.0 ng.hr/ml, respectively. The time to maximum concentration (Tmax of theinnovator and the generic product were 0.97±0.41(range 0.5-2 and 1.02±0.32 (range 0.5-1.5 hr, respectively. The 90% confidence interval of the ratio of the ln-transformed of Cmax and AUC0à48 of both preparations were 89.39-112.99% and80.02-107.28% respectively which were within the acceptance range of 80.00-125.00%. Therefore, it can be concluded that both preparations used in this study are bioequivalent in terms of both the rate and extent of absorption.

  6. Whole eye wavefront aberrations in Mexican male subjects.

    Cantú, Roberto; Rosales, Marco A; Tepichín, Eduardo; Curioca, Andrée; Montes, Victor; Bonilla, Julio

    2004-01-01

    To analyze the characteristics, incidence, and appearance of wavefront aberrations in undilated, normal, unoperated eyes. Eighty-eight eyes of 44 healthy male Mexican subjects (mean age 25.32 years, range 18 to 36 yr) were divided into three groups based on uncorrected visual acuity of greater than or equal to 20/20, 20/30, or 20/40. UCVA measurements were obtained using an Acuity Max computer screen chart. Wavefront aberrations were measured with the Nidek OPD-Scan ARK 10000, Ver. 1.11b. All measurements were carried out at the same center by the same technician during a single session, following manufacturer instructions. Background illumination was 3 Lux. Wavefront aberration measurements for each group were statistically analyzed using StatView; an average eye was characterized and the resulting aberrations were simulated using MATLAB. We obtained wavefront aberration maps for the 20/20 undilated normal unoperated eyes for total, low, and high order aberration coefficients. Wavefront maps for right eyes were practically the same as those for left eyes. Higher aberrations did not contribute substantially to total wavefront analysis. Average aberrations of this "normal eye" will be used as criteria to decide the necessity of wavefront-guided ablation in our facilities. We will focus on the nearly zero average of high order aberrations in this normal whole eye as a reference to be matched.

  7. A randomised trial of the effect of the glycine reuptake inhibitor Org 25935 on cognitive performance in healthy male volunteers.

    Christmas, David; Diaper, Alison; Wilson, Sue; Rich, Ann; Phillips, Suzanne; Udo de Haes, Joanna; Sjogren, Magnus; Nutt, David

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive impairment is integral to many neurological illnesses. Specific enhancement of glutamatergic transmission may improve memory and learning. Org 25935 increases the synaptic availability of glycine, an obligate co-agonist with glutamate at N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. We hypothesised that Org 25935 would acutely improve the learning and memory of healthy volunteers. A randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, single-dose study of Org 25935 and placebo was carried out. Thirty-two healthy male volunteers took either 12-mg Org 25935 or matching placebo and were later assessed with the manikin task, digit span and verbal memory tests. Systematic assessments of cardiovascular and adverse events were also taken. There was no effect of Org 25935 on reaction time, number of correct responses or learning (greater or slower improvement over successive tasks) compared with placebo. Org 25935 caused significantly more dizziness and drowsiness compared with placebo; these side effects were mainly mild. A single dose of Org 25935 does not improve learning or memory in healthy male individuals. However, the drug was well tolerated, and it remains to be seen whether it would have a positive effect on cognition in patient groups with pre-existing cognitive deficits.

  8. Evaluation of performance, safety, subject acceptance, and compliance of a disposable autoinjector for subcutaneous injections in healthy volunteers.

    Berteau, Cecile; Schwarzenbach, Florence; Donazzolo, Yves; Latreille, Mathilde; Berube, Julie; Abry, Herve; Cotten, Joël; Feger, Celine; Laurent, Philippe E

    2010-10-05

    A disposable autoinjector was developed for subcutaneous (SC) self-injection by patients with chronic diseases. To verify its performance and evaluate its acceptance, a clinical study was conducted in healthy volunteers, comparing SC injections performed by subjects using the autoinjector with SC injections performed by nurses using a syringe. This was a randomized, single-center, crossover study comparing SC self-injection using an autoinjector with SC nurse-administered injection using a syringe. Two volumes (0.2 mL and 1 mL) were injected into healthy volunteers. Study objectives included assessment of the accuracy and consistency of the volume injected by the injection systems, and skin reaction and pain associated with the injection. The fluid depot in the SC tissue layer was evaluated by ultrasound. Subject acceptance was evaluated using questionnaires on attitudes and emotions towards the injection technique, and challenged by seeking the subjects' preferred system for a final study injection or future treatment. A total of 960 injections (480 with autoinjector, 480 with syringe) were performed in 40 subjects. There were no significant differences in mean fluid leakage and injected volumes between the systems. Pain associated with the injection was significantly lower with the auto-injector than with the syringe. Local skin reaction at the injection site was overall satisfactory. Injections were appropriately performed by all subjects. At study end, all 40 subjects preferred the autoinjector for a final study injection and for future treatment. This study indicated that the autoinjector used by the subject was similar to a syringe used by a nurse in terms of performance and safety in administering the injections, and better in terms of pain, overall acceptance, and preference.

  9. The H3 antagonist ABT-288 is tolerated at significantly higher exposures in subjects with schizophrenia than in healthy volunteers.

    Othman, Ahmed A; Haig, George; Florian, Hana; Locke, Charles; Gertsik, Lev; Dutta, Sandeep

    2014-06-01

    ABT-288 is a potent and selective H3 receptor antagonist with procognitive effects in several preclinical models. In previous studies, 3 mg once daily was the maximal tolerated dose in healthy volunteers. This study characterized the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of ABT-288 in stable subjects with schizophrenia. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating study of ABT-288 (10 dose levels, from 1 to 60 mg once daily for 14 days) in stable subjects with schizophrenia treated with an atypical antipsychotic. In each dose group, five to seven and two to three participants were assigned to ABT-288 and placebo, respectively. Of the 67 participants enrolled, nine participants (on ABT-288) were prematurely discontinued, in seven of these due to adverse events. ABT-288 was generally safe and tolerated at doses up to 45 mg once daily. The most common adverse events, in decreasing frequency (from 31 to 5%), were abnormal dreams, headache, insomnia, dizziness, somnolence, dysgeusia, dry mouth, psychotic disorder, parosmia and tachycardia. Adverse events causing early termination were psychotic events (four) and increased creatine phosphokinase, pyrexia and insomnia (one each). The half-life of ABT-288 ranged from 28 to 51 h, and steady state was achieved by day 12 of dosing. At comparable multiple doses, ABT-288 exposure in subjects with schizophrenia was 45% lower than that previously observed in healthy subjects. At trough, ABT-288 cerebrospinal fluid concentrations were 40% of the total plasma concentrations. ABT-288 was tolerated at a 15-fold higher dose and 12-fold higher exposures in subjects with schizophrenia than previously observed in healthy volunteers. The greater ABT-288 tolerability was not due to limited brain uptake. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of a once-daily extended-release formulation of pramipexole in healthy male volunteers: three studies.

    Jenner, Peter; Könen-Bergmann, Michael; Schepers, Cornelia; Haertter, Sebastian

    2009-11-01

    , dose-proportional increase in pharmacokinetic parameters, including AUC(0-24h,ss) and C(max,ss). At the highest fasted dose (4.5 mg), the geometric coefficient of variation for interindividual variability at steady state was 30.1% for AUC(0-24h,ss) (vs 21.4% for IR pramipexole 1.5 mg TID) and 22.3% for C(max,ss) (vs 19.0%). At steady state, the upper bounds of the 90% CIs for fed:fasted values with ER 4.5 mg were 122.1 for AUC(0-24h) and 126.8 for C(max). No serious AEs occurred, and the dropout rate was low. In these studies in healthy male volunteers, an ER pramipexole formulation was identified that resembled the IR formulation in terms of both pharmacokinetics and tolerability. In patients with Parkinson's disease, once-daily use of an ER formulation may improve the convenience of treatment relative to the IR formulation taken 3 times daily and thus increase compliance. Copyright 2009 Excerpta Medica Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental gonococcal infection in male volunteers: Cumulative experience with Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains FA1090 and MS11mkC

    Marcia Metzgar Hobbs

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Experimental infection of male volunteers with Neisseria gonorrhoeae is safe and reproduces the clinical features of naturally acquired gonococcal urethritis. Human inoculation studies have helped define the natural history of experimental infection with two well-characterized strains of N. gonorrhoeae, FA1090 and MS11mkC. The human model has proved useful for testing the importance of putative gonococcal virulence factors for urethral infection in men. Studies with isogenic mutants have improved our understanding of the requirements for gonococcal LOS structures, pili, opacity proteins, IgA1 protease and the ability of infecting organisms to obtain iron from human transferrin and lactoferrin during uncomplicated urethritis. The model also presents opportunities to examine innate host immune responses that may be exploited or improved in development and testing of gonococcal vaccines. Here we review results to date with human experimental gonorrhea.

  12. Variation of 210Po daily urinary excretion for male subjects at environmental level

    Hoelgye, Z.; Hyza, M.; Mihalik, J.; Rulik, P.; Skrkal, J.

    2015-01-01

    210 Po was determined in 24-h urine of seven healthy males from Prague, Czech Republic, for ten consecutive days. The results show that for each volunteer, the urinary excretion of 210 Po changed only little from day to day in the studied time period. For two volunteers, the difference in the daily excreted 210 Po activity for two consecutive days was not significant, given the 95 % confidence interval (two sigma) of the activity measurements. The same is valid for the excretion data of the other volunteers, except for some days where the differences were slightly higher. The range of daily urinary excretion of 210 Po of each volunteer in the studied time period was quite narrow. Among the volunteers, the maximum daily urinary excretion value of 210 Po was at most about a factor of 2.5 higher than the lowest excretion value. An attempt to explain the observed small inter-individual variability of 210 Po excretion in daily urine is made. (orig.)

  13. In-vivo Kinetics of Silymarin (Milk Thistle) on Healthy Male Volunteers

    Erah

    Purpose: The study was aimed at evaluating the in vivo kinetics of silymarin tablets, a product with anti- hepatotoxic and free ... EXPERIMENTAL. Subjects and Methods ... buffer adjusted to 2.8 with phosphoric acid. It was filtered through a ...

  14. Bioequivalence of generic lamotrigine 100-mg tablets in healthy Thai male volunteers: a randomized, single-dose, two-period, two-sequence crossover study.

    Srichaiya, Arunee; Longchoopol, Chaowanee; Oo-Puthinan, Sarawut; Sayasathid, Jarun; Sripalakit, Pattana; Viyoch, Jarupa

    2008-10-01

    Lamotrigine is an antiepileptic drug which has been used in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. A search of the literature did not find previously published bioequivalence and pharmacokinetic evaluations of lamotrigine in healthy Thai male volunteers. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters between 2 brands of lamotrigine in healthy Thai male volunteers. A randomized, single-dose, 2-period, 2-sequence, crossover study design with a 2-week washout period was conducted in healthy Thai males. Subjects were randomized to receive either the test or reference formulation in the first period. All subjects were required to be nonsmokers and without a history of alcohol or drug abuse. Plasma samples were collected over a 120-hour period after 100-mg lamotrigine administration in each period. A validated high-performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet method was used to analyze lamotrigine concentration in plasma. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using a noncompartmental method. Bioequivalence between the test and reference products, as defined by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), is determined when the ratio for the 90% CIs of the difference in the means of the log-transformed AUC(0-t), AUC(0-infinity), and C(max) of the 2 products are within 0.80 and 1.25. Adverse events were determined by measuring vital signs after dosing. Subjects were also asked if they suffered from undesirable effects such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and headache. This bioequivalence study was performed in 24 healthy Thai males (mean [SD] age, 20.5 [1.3] years; range, 19-24 years; weight, 62.5 [7.4] kg; height, 172.8 [6.9] cm; body mass index, 20.9 [2.0] kg/m(2)). The mean (SD) C(max) and T(max) of the test formulation of lamotrigine were 1.7 (0.3) microg/mL and 1.2 (0.9) hours, respectively. The mean (SD) C(max) and T(max) of the reference formulation of lamotrigine were 1.7 (0.3) microg/mL and 1.4 (1.0) hours, respectively. The mean

  15. Subjective and neurovegetative changes in healthy volunteers and panic patients performing simulated public speaking.

    Parente, Alexandre C B V; Garcia-Leal, Cybele; Del-Ben, Cristina M; Guimarães, Francisco S; Graeff, Frederico G

    2005-12-01

    Drug-free symptomatic panic patients, drug-treated nonsymptomatic patients and healthy controls were submitted to simulated public speaking. Subjective anxiety, cognitive impairment and discomfort measured by the visual analog mood scale as well as skin conductance level were higher in symptomatic patients than in controls at the beginning of the experimental session, nonsymptomatic patients lying in between. Subjective sedation, spontaneous fluctuations of skin conductance, heart rate and blood pressure were similar in the three groups. Preparation and performance of speech decreased sedation while increasing anxiety, cognitive impairment, level and fluctuations of skin conductance, heart rate and blood pressure. Anxiety, cognitive impairment and conductance level were less increased in symptomatic patients than in controls. Electrodermal activity, but not cardiovascular measures of sympathetic arousal correlated with anticipatory anxiety. Chronic treatment with serotonin uptake inhibitors attenuated the differences between panic patients and controls, supporting the participation of serotonin in panic disorder.

  16. Evaluation of performance, safety, subject acceptance, and compliance of a disposable autoinjector for subcutaneous injections in healthy volunteers

    Cecile Berteau

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cecile Berteau1, Florence Schwarzenbach1, Yves Donazzolo2, Mathilde Latreille2, Julie Berube3, Herve Abry1, Joël Cotten1, Celine Feger1, Philippe E Laurent11BD Medical Pharmaceutical Systems, Le-Pont-de-Claix, 2Eurofins Optimed Clinical Research, Gières, France; 3Statistics, BD Corporate, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USAObjective: A disposable autoinjector was developed for subcutaneous (SC self-injection by patients with chronic diseases. To verify its performance and evaluate its acceptance, a clinical study was conducted in healthy volunteers, comparing SC injections performed by subjects using the autoinjector with SC injections performed by nurses using a syringe.Methods: This was a randomized, single-center, crossover study comparing SC self-injection using an autoinjector with SC nurse-administered injection using a syringe. Two volumes (0.2 mL and 1 mL were injected into healthy volunteers. Study objectives included assessment of the accuracy and consistency of the volume injected by the injection systems, and skin reaction and pain associated with the injection. The fluid depot in the SC tissue layer was evaluated by ultrasound. Subject acceptance was evaluated using questionnaires on attitudes and emotions towards the injection technique, and challenged by seeking the subjects’ preferred system for a final study injection or future treatment.Results: A total of 960 injections (480 with autoinjector, 480 with syringe were performed in 40 subjects. There were no significant differences in mean fluid leakage and injected volumes between the systems. Pain associated with the injection was significantly lower with the autoinjector than with the syringe. Local skin reaction at the injection site was overall satisfactory. Injections were appropriately performed by all subjects. At study end, all 40 subjects preferred the autoinjector for a final study injection and for future treatment.Conclusion: This study indicated that the autoinjector used by

  17. The effects of glycine on subjective daytime performance in partially sleep-restricted healthy volunteers

    Makoto eBannai

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 30% of the general population suffers from insomnia. Given that insomnia causes many problems, amelioration of the symptoms is crucial. Recently, we found that a nonessential amino acid, glycine subjectively and objectively improves sleep quality in humans who have difficulty sleeping. We evaluated the effects of glycine on daytime sleepiness, fatigue and performances in sleep-restricted healthy subjects. Sleep was restricted to 25% less than the usual sleep time for three consecutive nights. Before bedtime, 3 g of glycine or placebo were ingested, sleepiness and fatigue were evaluated using the visual analogue scale (VAS and a questionnaire, and performance were estimated by personal computer (PC performance test program on the following day. In subjects given glycine, the VAS data showed a significant reduction in fatigue and a tendency toward reduced sleepiness. These observations were also found via the questionnaire, indicating that glycine improves daytime sleepiness and fatigue induced by acute sleep restriction. PC performance test revealed significant improvement in psychomotor vigilance test. We also measured plasma melatonin and the expression of circadian-modulated genes expression in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN to evaluate the effects of glycine on circadian rhythms. Glycine did not show significant effects on plasma melatonin concentrations during either the dark or light period. Moreover, the expression levels of clock genes such as Bmal1 and Per2 remained unchanged. However, we observed a glycine-induced increase in the neuropeptides arginine vasopressin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the light period. Although no alterations in the circadian clock itself were observed, our results indicate that glycine modulated SCN function. Thus, glycine modulates certain neuropeptides in the SCN and this phenomenon may indirectly contribute to improving the occasional sleepiness and fatigue induced by sleep

  18. Differences in personality traits between male-to-female and female-to-male gender identity disorder subjects.

    Miyajima, Eiichi; Taira, Naoki; Koda, Munenaga; Kondo, Tsuyoshi

    2014-12-15

    The present study aimed to investigate differences in personality traits among male-to-female (MtF), female-to-male (FtM) gender identity disorder (GID) subjects and non-transsexual male (M) and female (F) controls. Subjects were 72 MtF and 187 FtM GID subjects without psychiatric comorbidities together with 184 male and 159 female non-transsexual controls. Personality traits were assessed using a short version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-125). Group comparisons were made by two-way ANOVA. Statistical significances were observed as follows: 1) lower novelty seeking in FtM than in M or MtF, 2) higher reward dependence in FtM than in M, 3) higher cooperativeness in FtM than in M or MtF, 4) the highest self-transcendence in MtF among all the groups. The highest self-transcendence in MtF subjects may reflect their vulnerable identity and constrained adaptation to society as the minority. Nevertheless, higher reward dependence and cooperativeness in FtM subjects can be related to more determined motivation for the treatments of GID and might promise better social functioning and adjustment than MtF subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic Variation of the Dopamine Transporter (DAT1) Influences the Acute Subjective Responses to Cocaine in Volunteers with Cocaine Use Disorders

    Brewer, Alex J.; Nielsen, David A.; Spellicy, Catherine J.; Hamon, Sara C.; Gingrich, Justin; Thompson-Lake, Daisy G. Y.; Nielsen, Ellen M.; Mahoney, James J.; Kosten, Thomas R.; Newton, Thomas F.; De La Garza, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Objective : The aim of this study was to identify gene variants of DAT1 (SLC6A3) that modulate subjective responses to acute cocaine exposure. Methods Non-treatment seeking volunteers with cocaine use disorders (CUDs) received a single bolus infusion of saline and cocaine (40 mg, IV) in randomized order. Subjective effects were assessed with visual analog scales administered before (-15 min) and up to 20 min after infusion. Subjective effects ratings were normalized to baseline and saline infusion values were subtracted. Data was analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. DNA from subjects was genotyped for the DAT1 intron 8 (rs3836790) and 3’ UTR (rs28363170) variable number of tandem repeats. Results Participants were mostly male (~80%) and African American (~70%). No differences were found among drug use variables between groups for either polymorphism. Carriers of the 9-allele of the DAT1 3’ UTR (9,9 and 9,10) (n = 24) exhibited greater responses to cocaine for “high”, “any drug effect”, “anxious”, and “stimulated” (all p-values < 0.001) compared to individuals homozygous for the 10-allele (n = 33). For the intron 8 polymorphism, individuals homozygous for the 6 allele exhibited greater responses for “anxious” than carriers of the 5 allele (p < 0.001). Individuals possessing the genotype pattern of 10,10 and at least one 5-allele reported lower responses to “good effects”, “bad effects”, “depressed”, and “anxious” (all p-values < 0.01). Conclusions The data presented here support the hypothesis that genetic differences of DAT1 contribute to variation of subjective responses to cocaine among participants with CUDs. PMID:25850966

  20. Effects of improved fat meat products consumption on emergent cardiovascular disease markers of male volunteers at cardiovascular risk.

    Celada, Paloma; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J; Delgado-Pando, Gonzalo; Bastida, Sara; Rodilla, Manuel Espárrago; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña

    2016-12-01

    High meat-product consumption has been related to cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, previous results suggest the benefits of consuming improved fat meat products on lipoprotein-cholesterol and anthropometric measurements. Present study aims to assess the effect of consuming different Pâté and Frankfurter formulations on emergent CVD biomarkers in male volunteers at increased CVD risk. Eighteen male volunteers with at least two CVD risk factors were enrolled in a sequentially controlled study where different pork-products were tested: reduced-fat (RF), omega-3-enriched-RF (n-3RF), and normal-fat (NF). Pork-products were consumed during 4-week periods separated by 4-week washout. The cardiometabolic index (CI), oxidized low density lipoproteins (oxLDL), apolipoproteins (Apo) A1 and B, homocysteine (tHcys), arylesterase (AE), C-reactive Protein (CRP), tumor necrotic factor-alpha (TNFα), and lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) were tested and some other related ratios calculated. AE, oxLDL and Lp(a), AE/HDLc, LDLc/Apo B, and AE/oxLDL rate of change were differently affected (P<0.01) by pork-products consumption. RF increased (P < 0.05) AE, AE/HDLc and AE/oxLDL ratios and decreased TNFα, tHcys; n-3RF increased (P < 0.001) AE, AE/HDLc and AE/oxLDL ratios and decreased (P < 0.05) Lp(a); while NF increased (P<0.05) oxLDL and Lp(a) levels. In conclusion, RF and n-3RF products affected positively the level of some emergent CVD markers. The high regular consumption of NF-products should be limited as significantly increased Lp(a) and oxLDL values. The high variability in response observed for some markers suggests the need to perform more studies to identify targets for RF- and n-3RF-products. Graphical Abstract Emergent CVD markers.

  1. Effects of a milk product, fermented by Lactobacillus acidophilus and with fructo-oligosaccharides added, on blood lipids in male volunteers

    Schaafsma, G.; Meuling, W.J.A.; Dokkum, W. van; Bouley, C.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in adult male volunteers the effect of a new fermented milk product, fermented by Lactobacillus acidophilus and with fructo-oligosaccharides added, on blood lipids. Design: Randomized placebo-controlled double-blind two-way cross over trial with two treatment periods of

  2. Hair as an indicator of the body content of polonium in humans: preliminary results from study of five male volunteers

    Rääf, C.L.; Holstein, H.; Holm, E.; Roos, P.

    2015-01-01

    The radionuclide 210 Po is of importance from a radiation protection view and has properties that cause special problems when attempting to determine the body content in humans. Estimates have traditionally been made from either urine and/or fecal samples, which require a time-consuming radiochemical preparation before alpha spectrometric determination. In order to find a more simple and less labor intensive method hair has been used as a bioindicator and investigated in this study. The relationship between intake and excretion in hair has been estimated in five volunteers who ingested radioactive polonium ( 209 Po as a bio-tracer for 210 Po) in well determined quantities. Four of the volunteers were given 5–10 Bq 209 Po in a single intake (acute intake) and one volunteer has ingested a daily intake of 58.7 mBq 209 Po for a period of 180 d. Human hair was found to reflect the daily clearance of ingested polonium peaking at 0.001–0.01% d −1 of the ingested amount, thereafter decreasing mono-exponentially, corresponding to a biological half-time of 10–20 days. For the case of protracted intake a mono-exponential build-up was observed with a half-time of 40 ± 5 d. In addition, after cessation of intake, a short-term component (74%) with a biological half-time of 16 ± 4 d, and a long-term component (26%) with a half-time of 93 ± 53 d were observed. It is concluded that hair can be used to detect not only the amount of ingested polonium but also whether the intake was protracted or acute. - Highlights: • After single intakes polonium is excreted in hair with biological half-times (range 15–30 days). • Polonium concentration vs position in hair strand reflects the intake history of subject. • For acute intakes peak hair concentration or daily excretion can be related to the amount of intake. • Protracted intakes of polonium result in an increase in Po concentration in hair, reaching equilibrium after 180 days. • Bi-exponential decay of

  3. Bioavailability and tolerability of combination treatment with revaprazan 200 mg + itopride 150 mg: a randomized crossover study in healthy male Korean volunteers.

    Choi, Hee Youn; Noh, Yook-Hwan; Jin, Seok-Joon; Kim, Yo Han; Kim, Mi-Jo; Sung, Hyeryoung; Jang, Seong Bok; Lee, Sung Jae; Bae, Kyun-Seop; Lim, Hyeong-Seok

    2012-09-01

    events (AEs) were reported in 8 subjects. All AEs were considered to be mild, and there were no clinically significant differences between treatment groups. The findings from this study suggest bioequivalence between revaprazan given as monotherapy and in combination with itopride in these healthy Korean male volunteers, with no clinical significant drug-drug interaction. All treatments in this study was generally well tolerated. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT0133289. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of the CYP2C19 genotype on the pharmacokinetics of icotinib in healthy male volunteers.

    Ruan, Can-Jun; Liu, Dong-Yang; Jiang, Ji; Hu, Pei

    2012-12-01

    Icotinib hydrochloride {4-[(3-ethynylphenyl)amino]-6,7-benzo-12-crown-4-quinazoline hydrochloride}, a novel epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), was designed for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the present study, we investigated the influence of the CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3 alleles on the pharmacokinetics of icotinib in healthy Chinese volunteers. In a single-dose pharmacokinetic study, 12 healthy Chinese volunteers received an oral dose of 600 mg of icotinib. Plasma was sampled for up to 72 h post-dose, followed by quantification of icotinib by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Five subjects genotyped as homozygous extensive metabolizers (CYP2C19*1/*1), 6 subjects genotyped as heterozygous extensive metabolizers (CYP2C19*1/*2 or CYP2C19*1/*3), and 1 subject genotyped as a poor metabolizer (CYP2C19*2/*3) and was withdrawn from the research because of urticaria. The mean icotinib AUC(0-∞) and C(max) (14.56 ±5.31 h mg/L and 2.32 ± 0.49 μg/mL) in homozygous EMs was 1.56 and 1.41-fold lower than that in heterozygous EMs (22.7 ± 6.11 and 3.28 ± 0.48, P = 0.046 and 0.047). The mean CL/F (44.18 ± 12.17 L/h) in homozygous EMs was 1.55-fold higher than that in heterozygous EMs (28.42 ± 9.23 L/h, P = 0.013). The data showed that the pharmacokinetics of icotinib differ significantly between homozygous EMs and heterozygous EMs in CYP2C19.

  5. Kinetic Modeling of the Tau PET Tracer 18F-AV-1451 in Human Healthy Volunteers and Alzheimer Disease Subjects.

    Barret, Olivier; Alagille, David; Sanabria, Sandra; Comley, Robert A; Weimer, Robby M; Borroni, Edilio; Mintun, Mark; Seneca, Nicholas; Papin, Caroline; Morley, Thomas; Marek, Ken; Seibyl, John P; Tamagnan, Gilles D; Jennings, Danna

    2017-07-01

    18 F-AV-1451 is currently the most widely used of several experimental tau PET tracers. The objective of this study was to evaluate 18 F-AV-1451 binding with full kinetic analysis using a metabolite-corrected arterial input function and to compare parameters derived from kinetic analysis with SUV ratio (SUVR) calculated over different imaging time intervals. Methods: 18 F-AV-1451 PET brain imaging was completed in 16 subjects: 4 young healthy volunteers (YHV), 4 aged healthy volunteers (AHV), and 8 Alzheimer disease (AD) subjects. Subjects were imaged for 3.5 h, with arterial blood samples obtained throughout. PET data were analyzed using plasma and reference tissue-based methods to estimate the distribution volume, binding potential (BP ND ), and SUVR. BP ND and SUVR were calculated using the cerebellar cortex as a reference region and were compared across the different methods and across the 3 groups (YHV, AHV, and AD). Results: AD demonstrated increased 18 F-AV-1451 retention compared with YHV and AHV based on both invasive and noninvasive analyses in cortical regions in which paired helical filament tau accumulation is expected in AD. A correlation of R 2 > 0.93 was found between BP ND (130 min) and SUVR-1 at all time intervals. Cortical SUVR curves reached a relative plateau around 1.0-1.2 for YHV and AHV by approximately 50 min, but increased in AD by up to approximately 20% at 110-130 min and approximately 30% at 160-180 min relative to 80-100 min. Distribution volume (130 min) was lower by 30%-35% in the YHV than AHV. Conclusion: Our data suggest that although 18 F-AV-1451 SUVR curves do not reach a plateau and are still increasing in AD, an SUVR calculated over an imaging window of 80-100 min (as currently used in clinical studies) provides estimates of paired helical filament tau burden in good correlation with BP ND , whereas SUVR sensitivity to regional cerebral blood changes needs further investigation. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and

  6. Plasma homovanillic acid correlates inversely with history of learning problems in healthy volunteer and personality disordered subjects.

    Coccaro, Emil F; Hirsch, Sharon L; Stein, Mark A

    2007-01-15

    Central dopaminergic activity is critical to the functioning of both motor and cognitive systems. Based on the therapeutic action of dopaminergic agents in treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), ADHD symptoms may be related to a reduction in central dopaminergic activity. We tested the hypothesis that dopaminergic activity, as reflected by plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA), may be related to dimensional aspects of ADHD in adults. Subjects were 30 healthy volunteer and 39 personality disordered subjects, in whom morning basal pHVA concentration and a dimensional measure of childhood ADHD symptoms (Wender Utah Rating Scale: WURS) were obtained. A significant inverse correlation was found between WURS Total score and pHVA concentration in the total sample. Among WURS factor scores, a significant inverse relationship was noted between pHVA and history of "childhood learning problems". Consistent with the dopaminergic dysfunction hypothesis of ADHD and of cognitive function, pHVA concentrations were correlated with childhood history of ADHD symptoms in general and with history of "learning problems" in non-ADHD psychiatric patients and controls. Replication is needed in treated and untreated ADHD samples to confirm these initial results.

  7. The Effect of Chronic Alprazolam Intake on Memory, Attention, and Psychomotor Performance in Healthy Human Male Volunteers

    Zahid Sadek Chowdhury

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alprazolam is used as an anxiolytic drug for generalized anxiety disorder and it has been reported to produce sedation and anterograde amnesia. In the current study, we randomly divided 26 healthy male volunteers into two groups: one group taking alprazolam 0.5 mg and the other taking placebo daily for two weeks. We utilized the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB software to assess the chronic effect of alprazolam. We selected Paired Associates Learning (PAL and Delayed Matching to Sample (DMS tests for memory, Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP for attention, and Choice Reaction Time (CRT for psychomotor performance twice: before starting the treatment and after the completion of the treatment. We found statistically significant impairment of visual memory in one parameter of PAL and three parameters of DMS in alprazolam group. The PAL mean trial to success and total correct matching in 0-second delay, 4-second delay, and all delay situation of DMS were impaired in alprazolam group. RVP total hits after two weeks of alprazolam treatment were improved in alprazolam group. But such differences were not observed in placebo group. In our study, we found that chronic administration of alprazolam affects memory but attentive and psychomotor performance remained unaffected.

  8. The Effect of Chronic Alprazolam Intake on Memory, Attention, and Psychomotor Performance in Healthy Human Male Volunteers.

    Chowdhury, Zahid Sadek; Morshed, Mohammed Monzur; Shahriar, Mohammad; Bhuiyan, Mohiuddin Ahmed; Islam, Sardar Mohd Ashraful; Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat

    2016-01-01

    Alprazolam is used as an anxiolytic drug for generalized anxiety disorder and it has been reported to produce sedation and anterograde amnesia. In the current study, we randomly divided 26 healthy male volunteers into two groups: one group taking alprazolam 0.5 mg and the other taking placebo daily for two weeks. We utilized the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) software to assess the chronic effect of alprazolam. We selected Paired Associates Learning (PAL) and Delayed Matching to Sample (DMS) tests for memory, Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP) for attention, and Choice Reaction Time (CRT) for psychomotor performance twice: before starting the treatment and after the completion of the treatment. We found statistically significant impairment of visual memory in one parameter of PAL and three parameters of DMS in alprazolam group. The PAL mean trial to success and total correct matching in 0-second delay, 4-second delay, and all delay situation of DMS were impaired in alprazolam group. RVP total hits after two weeks of alprazolam treatment were improved in alprazolam group. But such differences were not observed in placebo group. In our study, we found that chronic administration of alprazolam affects memory but attentive and psychomotor performance remained unaffected.

  9. The brain smell centres - comparison of localisation and activation in male and female subjects using functional MR imaging

    Marchwicka-Wasiak, M.; Goraj, B.

    2004-01-01

    The study was conducted in order to determine and to compare the location and activation of smell brain centres in females and males brains using olfactory nerve-mediated (geraniol) and combined olfactory and trigeminal nerve-mediated (patchouli) stimulants. 10 normal volunteers (five women and five men), right-handed, non-smokers, without any CNS diseases were examined to determine the activated cortex areas during stimulation by geraniol and patchouli. MR brain scans were obtained using a 1.5 T clinical scanner, with the head-neck coil. The imaging was performed in each subject using SE and EPI sequences with a blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) effect. The individual inhaled odorized air during the 30 seconds period and alternating room air over the same period. The mean pixel intensity of activated images was substracted from the mean pixel intensity of preactivated images. The olfactory system-mediated stimuli (geraniol) evoked bilateral activation of female brains smell centres and right hemisphere centres activation in male brains. The exposure to the olfactory and trigeminal nerve-mediated stimuli (patchouli) showed more activated regions in both sexes than to the olfactory nerve-ediated stimuli. fMRI proved to be a useful method to compare the location and activation of male and female brain smell centres. (author)

  10. Regulatory experience of TOPS: an internet-based system to prevent healthy subjects from over-volunteering for UK clinical trials.

    Allen, C; Francis, G; Martin, J; Boyce, M

    2017-12-01

    The aim was to review the use of The Over-volunteering Prevention System (TOPS) since the HRA began hosting it in 2013, and the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) experience of monitoring its use by UK clinical research units. The HRA searched the TOPS database for the number, type and location of units and the number of entries. The MHRA inspectors reviewed their findings from routine inspections. Twenty-two additional UK units registered to use TOPS during 2013-2016, making a total of 84 units since TOPS was established in 2002. Use of TOPS is now a condition of research ethics committee approval of a phase 1 study and fulfils MHRA accreditation requirements for preventing over-volunteering. The total number of entries by all active units during 2013-2016 was 89,335, of which 84% were UK citizens and 16% non-UK citizens. The total number of entries during 2002-2016 was 249,612. Only 15 of 24,531 subjects (1/1600) and 18 of 18,745 subjects (1/1040) entered in 2015 and 2016, respectively, were deemed potential over-volunteers. The findings continue to support the concept that TOPS not only helps to prevent over-volunteering, but also deters subjects from trying to do so. Regulation of TOPS by the HRA and MHRA has enhanced its effectiveness, benefited all users and helped to improve the safety of volunteers who participate in non-therapeutic trials in the UK. The UK is still the only country with a national database to prevent over-volunteering that has published data on its widespread use and effectiveness.

  11. Hair as an indicator of the body content of polonium in humans: Preliminary results from study of five male volunteers

    Rääf, C.L.; Holstein, H.; Holm, E.

    2015-01-01

    radioactive polonium (209Po as a bio-tracer for 210Po) in well determined quantities. Four of the volunteers were given 5-10Bq 209Po in a single intake (acute intake) and one volunteer has ingested a daily intake of 58.7mBq 209Po for a period of 180 d. Human hair was found to reflect the daily clearance...

  12. Pharmacokinetic interaction between udenafil and dapoxetine: a randomized, open-labeled crossover study in healthy male volunteers

    Kim YH

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Yo Han Kim,1 Hee Youn Choi,1 Shi Hyang Lee,1 Hae Sun Jeon,1 Hyeong-Seok Lim,1 Mi Young Bahng,2 Kyun-Seop Bae1 1Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, 2Clinical Development Department, Dong-A ST Co, Ltd, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: “Udenafil” is a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor indicated for erectile dysfunction. “Dapoxetine” is a serotonin transport inhibitor indicated for premature ejaculation. The aim of the study reported here was to investigate the pharmacokinetic drug interaction between udenafil and dapoxetine in healthy male subjects. Methods: An open-label, three-treatment, six-sequence, three-period crossover study was performed in healthy male subjects. In varying sequences, each subjects received single oral doses of udenafil 200 mg, dapoxetine 60 mg, and both treatments. The periods were separated by a washout period of 7 days. Serial blood samples were collected up to 48 hours after dosing. The plasma concentrations of udenafil and dapoxetine were determined using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained by non-compartmental analysis. Tolerability was assessed throughout the study. Results: Twenty-three healthy subjects completed the study. The geometric mean ratios of the area under the plasma concentration–time curve from time 0 to last measurable time point and measured peak plasma concentration for udenafil were 0.923 (90% confidence interval [CI]: 0.863–0.987 and 0.864 (90% CI: 0.789–0.947, respectively. The geometric mean ratios of the area under the plasma concentration–time curve from time 0 to last measurable time point and measured peak plasma concentration for dapoxetine were 1.125 (90% CI: 1.044–1.213 and 0.837 (90% CI: 0.758–0.925, respectively. There were no serious adverse events reported, and none of the subjects dropped out due to adverse events

  13. Human volunteer study with PGME: Eye irritation during vapour exposure

    Emmen, H.H.; Muijser, H.; Arts, J.H.E.; Prinsen, M.K.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the possible occurrence of eye irritation and subjective symptoms in human volunteers exposed to propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME) vapour at concentrations of 0, 100 and 150 ppm. Testing was conducted in 12 healthy male volunteers using a repeated

  14. [The enantioselective pharmacokinetic study of desvenlafaxine sustained release tablet in Chinese healthy male volunteers after oral administration].

    Chen, Yin-xia; Du, Jiang-bo; Zhang, Yi-fan; Chen, Xiao-yan; Zhong, Da-fang

    2015-04-01

    A chiral LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous analysis of desvenlafaxine (DVS) enantiomers in human plasma was developed and applied to a pharmacokinetic study on 12 Chinese healthy volunteers. d6-Desvenlafaxine was used as internal standard (IS). Chromatographic separation was performed on the Astec Chirobiotic V chiral column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm). The assay was linear over the concentration range of 0.500-150 ng x mL(-1) for both enantiomers (r2 > 0.99). The method was successfully applied to a stereoselective pharmacokinetic study of 100 mg desvenlafaxine sustained release tablets on 12 Chinese healthy volunteers under fasting conditions. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic parameters were similar to both enantiomers in Chinese healthy volunteers. The AUC(0-t), and C(max) of the two enantiomers were about 1.5 times higher than those of blacks and whites reported in the literature.

  15. Single Whole-Body Cryostimulation Procedure versus Single Dry Sauna Bath: Comparison of Oxidative Impact on Healthy Male Volunteers

    Paweł Sutkowy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to extreme heat and cold is one of the environmental factors whose action is precisely based on the mechanisms involving free radicals. Fluctuations in ambient temperature are among the agents that toughen the human organism. The goal of the study was to evaluate the impact of extremely high (dry sauna, DS and low (whole-body cryostimulation, WBC environmental temperatures on the oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium in the blood of healthy male subjects. The subjects performed a single DS bath (n=10; 26.2 ± 4.6 years and a single WBC procedure (n=15; 27.5 ± 3.1 years. In the subjects’ blood taken immediately before and 20 min after the interventions, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in erythrocytes (TBARSer and blood plasma (TBARSpl were determined. Single WBC and DS procedures induced an increase in the activity of SOD and GPx, as well as SOD and CAT, respectively. The SOD activity was higher after WBC than after DS. Extremely high and low temperatures probably induce the formation of reactive oxygen species in the organisms of healthy men and, therefore, disturb the oxidant-antioxidant balance.

  16. Pyrethroid insecticide exposure and reproductive hormone levels in healthy Japanese male subjects

    Yoshinaga, J; Imai, K; Shiraishi, H

    2014-01-01

    )] were explored in 322 male university students in suburban Tokyo. The subjects constituted part of a large cross-sectional survey on the reference value of semen quality of Japanese men. Urinary 3-PBA was detectable in 91% of the subjects demonstrating ubiquitous exposure among the general population....... However, there were no associations between urinary 3-PBA and serum hormone levels. This result was inconsistent with those reported in China and the USA for subjects who had similar levels of urinary 3-PBA to the present subjects. One of the possible reasons of the inconsistency might be different...

  17. A single portion of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L) improves protection against DNA damage but not vascular function in healthy male volunteers.

    Del Bó, Cristian; Riso, Patrizia; Campolo, Jonica; Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Brambilla, Ada; Rizzolo, Anna; Porrini, Marisa

    2013-03-01

    It has been suggested that anthocyanin-rich foods may exert antioxidant effects and improve vascular function as demonstrated mainly in vitro and in the animal model. Blueberries are rich sources of anthocyanins and we hypothesized that their intake could improve cell protection against oxidative stress and affect endothelial function in humans. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of one portion (300 g) of blueberries on selected markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant protection (endogenous and oxidatively induced DNA damage) and of vascular function (changes in peripheral arterial tone and plasma nitric oxide levels) in male subjects. In a randomized cross-over design, separated by a wash out period ten young volunteers received one portion of blueberries ground by blender or one portion of a control jelly. Before and after consumption (at 1, 2, and 24 hours), blood samples were collected and used to evaluate anthocyanin absorption (through mass spectrometry), endogenous and H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage in blood mononuclear cells (through the comet assay), and plasma nitric oxide concentrations (through a fluorometric assay). Peripheral arterial function was assessed by means of Endo-PAT 2000. Blueberries significantly reduced (P < .01) H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage (-18%) 1 hour after blueberry consumption compared to control. No significant differences were observed for endogenous DNA damage, peripheral arterial function and nitric oxide levels after blueberry intake. In conclusion, one portion of blueberries seems sufficient to improve cell antioxidant defense against DNA damage, but further studies are necessary to understand their role on vascular function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bioequivalence study of a new sildenafil 100 mg orodispersible film compared to the conventional film-coated 100 mg tablet administered to healthy male volunteers

    Radicioni, Milko; Castiglioni, Chiara; Giori, Andrea; Cupone, Irma; Frangione, Valeria; Rovati, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    A new orodispersible film formulation of the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, sildenafil, has been developed to examine the advantages of an orally disintegrating film formulation and provide an alternative to the current marketed products for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. The pharmacokinetics of the sildenafil 100 mg orodispersible film (IBSA) was compared to that of the conventional marketed 100 mg film-coated tablet (Viagra®) after single-dose administration to 53 healthy male volunteers (aged 18–51 years) in a randomized, open, two-way crossover bioequivalence study. Each subject received a single oral dose of 100 mg of sildenafil as test or reference formulation administered under fasting conditions at each of the two study periods according to a randomized crossover design. There was a washout interval of ≥7 days between the two administrations of the investigational medicinal products. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were collected up to 24 h post-dosing. The primary objective was to compare the rate (peak plasma concentration; Cmax) and extent (area under the curve [AUC] from administration to last observed concentration time; AUC0–t) of sildenafil absorption after single-dose administration of test and reference. Secondary endpoints were observed to describe the plasma pharmacokinetic profiles of sildenafil and its metabolite N-desmethyl-sildenafil relative bioavailability and safety profile after single-dose administration. The mean sildenafil and N-desmethyl-sildenafil plasma concentration–time profiles up to 24 h after single-dose administration of sildenafil 100 mg orodispersible film and film-coated tablet were nearly superimposable. The bioequivalence test was fully satisfied for sildenafil and N-desmethyl-sildenafil in terms of rate and extent of bioavailability. Adverse events occurred at similar rates for the two formulations and were of mild-to-moderate severity. The results suggest that the new orodispersible film

  19. Association of N-acetyltransferase-2 and glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms with idiopathic male infertility in Vietnam male subjects.

    Trang, Nguyen Thi; Huyen, Vu Thi; Tuan, Nguyen Thanh; Phan, Tran Duc

    2018-04-25

    N-acetyltransferase-2 (NAT2) and Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are phase-II xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes participating in detoxification of toxic arylamines, aromatic amines, hydrazines and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are produced under oxidative and electrophile stresses. The purpose of this research was to investigate whether two common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of NAT2 (rs1799929, rs1799930) and GSTP1 (rs1138272, rs1695) associated with susceptibility to idiopathic male infertility. A total 300 DNA samples (150 infertile patients and 150 healthy control) were genotyped for the polymorphisms by ARMS - PCR. We revealed a significant association between the NAT2 variant genotypes (CT + TT (rs1799929), (OR: 3.74; p male infertility in subjects from Vietnam. This pilot study is the first (as far as we know) to reveal that polymorphisms of NAT2 (rs1799929, rs1799930) and GSTP1 (rs1138272, rs1695) are some novel genetic markers for susceptibility to idiopathic male infertility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Neural responses to silent lipreading in normal hearing male and female subjects

    Ruytjens, Liesbet; Albers, Frans; van Dijk, Pim; Wit, Hero; Willemsen, Antoon

    In the past, researchers investigated silent lipreading in normal hearing subjects with functional neuroimaging tools and showed how the brain processes visual stimuli that are normally accompanied by an auditory counterpart. Previously, we showed activation differences between males and females in

  1. The Area of Secondary Hyperalgesia following Heat Stimulation in Healthy Male Volunteers: Inter- and Intra-Individual Variance and Reproducibility.

    Morten Sejer Hansen

    Full Text Available Clinical pain models can be applied when investigating basic physiologic pain responses in healthy volunteers. Several pain models exist; however, only few have been adequately validated. Our primary aim with this prospective study was to investigate the intra- and inter-individual variation in secondary hyperalgesia elicited by brief thermal sensitization (45°C for 3 min in healthy volunteers.Fifty healthy volunteers were included. Areas of secondary hyperalgesia following brief thermal sensitization were investigated by 2 observers on 4 experimental days, with a minimum interval of 7 days. Additionally, heat pain detection threshold and pain during thermal stimulation (45°C for 1 min., and the psychological tests Pain Catastrophizing Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score were applied.For areas of secondary hyperalgesia, an intra-observer intra-person correlation of 0.85, 95% CI [0.78, 0.90], an intra-observer inter-person correlation of 0.03, 95% CI [0.00, 0.16], and a coefficient of variation of 0.17, 95% CI [0.14, 0.21] was demonstrated. Four percent of the study population had areas of secondary hyperalgesia both below the 1st and above the 3rd quartile considering all included participants. Heat pain detection threshold predicted area of secondary hyperalgesia with an adjusted R2 of 0.20 (P = 0.0006.We have demonstrated a low intra-individual, and a high inter-individual variation in thermally induced secondary hyperalgesia. We conclude that brief thermal sensitization produce secondary hyperalgesia with a high level of reproducibility, which can be applied to investigate different phenotypes related to secondary hyperalgesia in healthy volunteers.clinicaltrials.gov NCT02166164.

  2. CYP3A5*3 and MDR1 C3435T are influencing factors of inter-subject variability in rupatadine pharmacokinetics in healthy Chinese volunteers.

    Xiong, Yuqing; Yuan, Zhao; Yang, Jingzhi; Xia, Chunhua; Li, Xinhua; Huang, Shibo; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Mingyi

    2016-04-01

    Rupatadine (RUP) is an oral antihistamine and platelet-activating factor antagonist and is shown as the substrate of CYP3A5 and P-gp. The significant interindividual differences of CYP3A5 and P-gp often cause bioavailability differences of some clinical drugs. The present study is aimed to evaluate the effect of genetic polymorphisms of CYP3A5 and MDR1 on RUP pharmacokinetics in healthy male Chinese volunteer subjects. Blood samples were collected from 36 subjects before and after a single, oral RUP 10 mg dose. A PCR-RFLP assay was used to genotype CYP3A5*3 and assess MDR1 C3435T variation. A validated LC-MS/MS method quantified plasma RUP concentration. The relationship between RUP plasma concentration, pharmacokinetic parameters, and polymorphic alleles (CYP3A5 and MDR1) were assessed. Plasma RUP concentrations were lower for CYP3A5*1/*1 carriers than for CYP3A5*3/*3 and CYP3A5*1/*3 carriers. Mean C(max), AUC(0-t) and AUC(0-∞) were significantly lower, and the CLz and Vd were significantly higher in the CYP3A5 wild-type group, than in the CYP3A5 mutated group. MDR1 CT and MDR1 TT carriers had lower plasma RUP concentrations than MDR1 CC carriers. The mean C(max), AUC(0-t), AUC(0-∞) and T max were significantly lower in the TT group than in the CC and CT groups. The mean CLz was higher in the TT group than in the CC and CT groups, but not significantly. These results suggest that CYP3A5 and MDR1 may play a key role in the variability of RUP metabolism and transport, respectively. CYP3A5 and MDR1 polymorphisms may be the main explanation for the differences observed in RUP pharmacokinetics, and therefore may provide a rationale for safe and effective clinical use of RUP. Our research lays down a solid theory foundation to guide the safe and effective clinical use of RUP and a route to achieve individualized therapy.

  3. Endurance training enhances skeletal muscle interleukin-15 in human male subjects

    Rinnov, Anders; Yfanti, Christina; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Regular endurance exercise promotes metabolic and oxidative changes in skeletal muscle. Overexpression of interleukin-15 (IL-15) in mice exerts similar metabolic changes in muscle as seen with endurance exercise. Muscular IL-15 production has been shown to increase in mice after weeks of regular...... endurance running. With the present study we aimed to determine if muscular IL-15 production would increase in human male subjects following 12 weeks of endurance training. In two different studies we obtained plasma and muscle biopsies from young healthy subjects performing: (1) 12 weeks of ergometer...... weeks of regular endurance training induced a 40% increase in basal skeletal muscle IL-15 protein content (p...

  4. The effect of sauna bathing on lipid profile in young, physically active, male subjects

    Dorota Gryka; Wanda Pilch; Marta Szarek; Zbigniew Szygula; Łukasz Tota

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of Finnish sauna bathing on lipid profile in healthy, young men. Material and Methods: Sixteen male subjects (20–23 years) were subjected to 10 sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna every 1 or 2 days. The mean sauna temperature was 90±2°C, while humidity was 5–16%. Each session consisted of three 15-minute parts and a 2-minute cool-down between them. The following measurements were taken before and after the sauna sessions: body mas...

  5. The Possible Role of Smoking and Mild Inflammation on Iron, Copper Ions and Related Metalloproteins in Male Volunteers Working in Radiation Field

    Bahgat, M.M.; Amer, M.M.; Michael, M.I.; El Daly, E.S.

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress implies that cells have intact pro-oxidant/anti-oxidant systems that continuously generate and detoxify oxidants during normal aerobic metabolism. When additional oxidative events occur, the pro-oxidant systems out balance the anti-oxidant, potentially producing oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids ultimately leading to cell death in severe oxidative stress. A disturbance in pro-oxidant/anti-oxidant systems results from a myriad of different oxidative challenges, including radiation, metabolism of environmental pollutants and administered drugs and immune system response to disease or infection. Forty male volunteers have participated in this study to evaluate the effect of smoking and mild infection on ferric and copper ions, related metalloproteins and glutathione peroxidase in males working in the radiation fields. The results denoted that those two stress ors added further imbalance in the pro oxidant-antioxidant status

  6. Growth hormone (GH) activity is associated with increased serum oestradiol and reduced Anti-Müllerian Hormone in healthy male volunteers treated with GH and a GH antagonist

    Andreassen, M; Frystyk, Jan; Faber, J

    2013-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptors are present on pituitary gonadotrophs and on testicular Leydig and Sertoli cells. Thus, the GH/IGF-I system may modulate the pituitary-gonadal axis in males. This is a randomized cross-over study. Eight healthy male volunteers...... (160-290) vs. 106 (97-157) μg/L, p = 0.001) and oestradiol (86 ± 28 vs. 79 ± 25 pm, p = 0.060) decreased. No significant changes or trends in the other reproductive hormones occurred during the two treatment regimens. GH/IGF-I activity was positively associated with serum oestradiol, suggesting that GH...

  7. Outcome and preferences in female-to-male subjects with gender dysphoria: Experience from Eastern India.

    Majumder, Anirban; Sanyal, Debmalya

    2016-01-01

    Awareness of gender dysphoria (GD) and its treatment is increasing. There is paucity of scientific data from India regarding the therapeutic options being used for alleviating GD, which includes psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments. To study the therapeutic options including psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments used for alleviating GD. This is a retrospective study of treatment preferences and outcome in 18 female-to-male (FTM) transgender subjects who presented to the endocrine clinic. The mean follow-up was 1.6 years and only one subject was lost to follow-up after a single visit. All subjects desiring treatment had regular counseling and medical monitoring. All FTM subjects were cross-dressing. Seventeen (94.4%) FTM subjects were receiving cross-sex hormone therapy, in the form of testosterone only (61.1%) or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist in combination with testosterone (11.1%) or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) depot in combination with testosterone (22.2%). FTM subjects preferred testosterone or testosterone plus MPA; very few could afford GnRH therapy. Testosterone esters injection was preferred by most (72.2%) subjects as it was most affordable while 22.2% chose 3 monthly injections of testosterone undecanoate for convenience and better symptomatic improvement, but it was more expensive. None preferred testosterone gels because of cost and availability concerns. About 33.3% of our subjects underwent mastectomy, 38.9% had hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and only one subject underwent phalloplasty. About 16.7% of FTM subjects presented with prior mastectomy depicting a high prevalence of unsupervised or poorly supervised surgeries not following protocol wise approach. Notwithstanding of advances in Standards of Care in the Western world, there is lack of awareness and acceptance in the FTM subjects, about proper and timely protocol-wise management options leading to suboptimal physical, social, and

  8. Outcome and preferences in female-to-male subjects with gender dysphoria: Experience from Eastern India

    Anirban Majumder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Awareness of gender dysphoria (GD and its treatment is increasing. There is paucity of scientific data from India regarding the therapeutic options being used for alleviating GD, which includes psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments. Aim: To study the therapeutic options including psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments used for alleviating GD. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective study of treatment preferences and outcome in 18 female-to-male (FTM transgender subjects who presented to the endocrine clinic. Results: The mean follow-up was 1.6 years and only one subject was lost to follow-up after a single visit. All subjects desiring treatment had regular counseling and medical monitoring. All FTM subjects were cross-dressing. Seventeen (94.4% FTM subjects were receiving cross-sex hormone therapy, in the form of testosterone only (61.1% or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonist in combination with testosterone (11.1% or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA depot in combination with testosterone (22.2%. FTM subjects preferred testosterone or testosterone plus MPA; very few could afford GnRH therapy. Testosterone esters injection was preferred by most (72.2% subjects as it was most affordable while 22.2% chose 3 monthly injections of testosterone undecanoate for convenience and better symptomatic improvement, but it was more expensive. None preferred testosterone gels because of cost and availability concerns. About 33.3% of our subjects underwent mastectomy, 38.9% had hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and only one subject underwent phalloplasty. About 16.7% of FTM subjects presented with prior mastectomy depicting a high prevalence of unsupervised or poorly supervised surgeries not following protocol wise approach. Conclusion: Notwithstanding of advances in Standards of Care in the Western world, there is lack of awareness and acceptance in the FTM subjects, about proper and timely protocol

  9. Bioequivalence study of a new sildenafil 100 mg orodispersible film compared to the conventional film-coated 100 mg tablet administered to healthy male volunteers

    Radicioni M

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Milko Radicioni,1 Chiara Castiglioni,1 Andrea Giori,2 Irma Cupone,3 Valeria Frangione,4 Stefano Rovati4 1CROSS Research S.A., Phase I Unit, Arzo, Switzerland; 2IBSA Farmaceutici Italia, Lodi, Italy; 3Bouty S.p.A., Strada Padana Superiore, Cassina De’ Pecchi, Italy; 4IBSA Institut Biochimique S.A., Pambio-Noranco, Switzerland Abstract: A new orodispersible film formulation of the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, sildenafil, has been developed to examine the advantages of an orally disintegrating film formulation and provide an alternative to the current marketed products for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. The pharmacokinetics of the sildenafil 100 mg orodispersible film (IBSA was compared to that of the conventional marketed 100 mg film-coated tablet (Viagra® after single-dose administration to 53 healthy male volunteers (aged 18–51 years in a randomized, open, two-way crossover bioequivalence study. Each subject received a single oral dose of 100 mg of sildenafil as test or reference formulation administered under fasting conditions at each of the two study periods according to a randomized crossover design. There was a washout interval of ≥7 days between the two administrations of the investigational medicinal products. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were collected up to 24 h post-dosing. The primary objective was to compare the rate (peak plasma concentration; Cmax and extent (area under the curve [AUC] from administration to last observed concentration time; AUC0–t of sildenafil absorption after single-dose administration of test and reference. Secondary endpoints were observed to describe the plasma pharmacokinetic profiles of sildenafil and its metabolite N-desmethyl-sildenafil relative bioavailability and safety profile after single-dose administration. The mean sildenafil and N-desmethyl-sildenafil plasma concentration–time profiles up to 24 h after single-dose administration of sildenafil 100 mg

  10. Relative bioavailability of generic and branded acetylcysteine effervescent tablets: A single-dose, open-label, randomized-sequence, two-period crossover study in fasting healthy Chinese male volunteers.

    Liu, Yan-Mei; Liu, Yun; Lu, Chuan; Jia, Jing-Ying; Liu, Gang-Yi; Weng, Li-Ping; Wang, Jia-Yan; Li, Guo-Xiu; Wang, Wei; Li, Shui-Jun; Yu, Chen

    2010-11-01

    Acetylcysteine may be used as a muco- lytic agent for the treatment of chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and other pulmonary diseases complicated by the production of viscous mucus. However, little is known of its pharmacokinetic properties when given orally in healthy volunteers, particularly in a Chinese Han population. This study was conducted to provide support for the marketing of a generic product in China. The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of a generic test formulation and a branded reference formulation of acetylcysteine in fasting healthy Chinese male volunteers. A single-dose, open-label, randomized-sequence, 2-period crossover design with a 7-day washout period between doses was used in this study. Healthy Chinese male nonsmokers aged 18 to 40 years with a body mass index (BMI) of 19 to 25 kg/m(2) were selected. Eligible volunteers were randomly assigned to receive acetylcysteine 600 mg PO as either the test formulation (3 tablets of 200 mg each) or reference formulation (1 tablet of 600 mg) under fasting conditions. A total of 15 serial blood samples were collected over a 24-hour interval, and total plasma acetylcysteine concentrations were analyzed by a validated liquid chromatography-isotopic dilution mass spectrometry method. Pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), T(max), t(½) AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-∞) were calculated and analyzed statistically. The 2 formulations were considered bioequivalent if the 90% CIs of the log-transformed ratios (test/reference) of C(max) and AUC were within the predetermined bioequivalence ranges (70%-143% for C(max); 80%-125% for AUC), as established by the State Food and Drug Administration of China. Tolerability was determined by vital signs, clinical laboratory tests, 12-lead ECGs, physical examinations, and interviews with the subjects about adverse events (AEs). A total of 24 healthy Chinese Han male volunteers were enrolled in and

  11. Outcome and preferences in male-to-female subjects with gender dysphoria: Experience from Eastern India.

    Majumder, Anirban; Sanyal, Debmalya

    2017-01-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) is an increasingly recognized medical condition in India, and little scientific data on treatment outcomes are available. Our objective is to study the therapeutic options including psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments used for alleviating GD in male-to-female (MTF) transgender subjects in Eastern India. This is a retrospective study of treatment preferences and outcome in 55 MTF transgender subjects who were presented to the endocrine clinic. Descriptive statistical analysis is carried out in the present study, and Microsoft Word and Excel are used to generate graphs and tables. The mean follow-up was 1.9 years and 14 subjects (25.5%) were lost to follow-up after a single or 2-3 contact sessions. Rest 41 subjects (74.5%) desiring treatment had regular counseling and medical monitoring. All 41 subjects were dressing to present herself as female and all of them were receiving cross-sex hormone therapy either estrogen only (68%), or drospirenone in combination with estrogen (12%) or gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH) in combination with estrogens (19.5%). Most of the subjects preferred estrogen therapy as it was most affordable and only a small number of subjects preferred drospirenone or GnRH agonist because of cost and availability. 23.6% subjects underwent esthetic breast augmentation surgery and 25.5% underwent orchiectomy and/or vaginoplasty. Three subjects presented with prior breast augmentation surgery and nine subjects presented with prior orchiectomy without vaginoplasty, depicting a high prevalence of poorly supervised surgeries. Standards of care documents provide clinical guidance for health professionals about the optimal management of transsexual people. The lack of information among health professionals about proper and protocolwise management leads to suboptimal physical, social, and sexual results.

  12. The cardiovascular responses of male subjects to kung fu techniques. Expert/novice paradigm.

    Jones, M A; Unnithan, V B

    1998-12-01

    The primary aim was to assess cardiovascular responses of expert and novice subjects to kung fu techniques. It was hypothesised that experienced subjects would demonstrate improved economy of movement during the techniques, evidenced by reduced exercise intensity. a comparative design was established utilising two groups; experienced (group E), and novice (group N). the experimentation took place under laboratory conditions, but was designed to maximise external validity. the only preselection variables were regular attendance at training and experience. Nine experienced males (group E, exp 9.5 +/- 5.2 yrs) and nine novice males (group N, exp 1.2 +/- 0.1 yrs) participated. The only exclusion guidelines were contraindications to participate within a maximal test, no subjects were excluded upon this basis. N/A. each subject participated in three kung fu protocols (forms, kicking and punching). Each protocol, randomly allocated, consisted of ten work (30 sec) and ten rest periods (30 sec). MEASURES taken during the protocols were heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2). These were expressed as a percentage of maximal values to reflect exercise intensity. During both the form protocol and punching protocol group E were found to be working at a significantly (p kung fu techniques differ depending upon experience level. It is difficult to directly relate this to improved economy since work output could not be accurately quantified. It was also found that kung fu protocols elicited exercise intensity into the cardiovascular training zone.

  13. Comparative bioavailability and tolerability of a single 20-mg dose of two fluoxetine hydrochloride dispersible tablet formulations in fasting, healthy Chinese male volunteers: an open-label, randomized-sequence, two-period crossover study.

    Shi, Shaojun; Liu, Yani; Wu, Jianhong; Li, Zhongfang; Zhao, Yan; Zhong, Dafang; Zeng, Fandian

    2010-10-01

    The proprietary formulation of fluoxetine hydrochloride is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor class. Pharmacokinetic studies investigating the bioequivalence of generic and branded formulations are needed to market generic fluoxetine in China. The aim of this study was to compare the bioavailability and tolerability of the proposed generic formulation with the established reference formulation of fluoxetine hydrochloride 20 mg in a fasting, healthy Chinese male population. This 10-week, open-label, randomized-sequence, single-dose, 2-period crossover study was conducted in healthy native Han Chinese male volunteers. Eligible subjects were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive a single 20-mg dose of the test or reference formulation, followed by a 35-day washout period and administration of the alternate formulation. Doses were administered after a 12-hour overnight fast. For analysis of pharmacokinetic properties (including C(max), T(max), AUC(0-t), AUC(0-∞), and t(½)), blood samples were obtained over a 672-hour period after dosing. Plasma concentrations of fluoxetine and its active metabolite, norfluoxetine, were analyzed using a validated LC-MS/MS method. The formulations were to be considered bioequivalent if the ln-transformed ratios (test/ reference) of C(max) and AUC were within the predetermined bioequivalence range of 80% to 125%, as established by the US Food and Drug Administration, and if the P values were fasting, healthy Chinese male volunteers. Both formulations appeared to be well tolerated. Copyright © 2010 Excerpta Medica Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pharmacokinetic interaction of telmisartan with s-amlodipine: an open-label, two-period crossover study in healthy Korean male volunteers.

    Noh, Yook-Hwan; Lim, Hyeong-Seok; Kim, Mi Jo; Kim, Yo Han; Choi, Hee Youn; Sung, Hye Ryoung; Jin, Seok-Joon; Lim, Jonglae; Bae, Kyun-Seop

    2012-07-01

    Telmisartan belongs to a class of orally active angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), and S-amlodipine is an enantiomer of amlodipine. Amlodipine is a racemic mixture and the calcium channel blocking (CCB) effect is confined to S-amlodipine, whereas R-amlodipine has a 1000-fold lower activity and no racemization occurs in vivo in human plasma. Combination therapy of ARBs with CCBs provides advantages for blood pressure control and vascular protection over monotherapy. To investigate the effects of coadministration of telmisartan and S-amlodipine on the steady-state pharmacokinetic properties of each drug as a drug-drug interaction study required before developing the fixed-dose combination agent. This study comprised 2 separate parts, A and B; each was a multiple-dose, open-label, 2-sequence, 2-period, crossover study in healthy male Korean volunteers. In part A, volunteers were administered 80 mg of telmisartan, either alone or with 5 mg of S-amlodipine. In part B, volunteers were administered 5 mg of S-amlodipine, either alone or with 80 mg of telmisartan. Blood samples were taken on days 9 and 37, following the final dose of each treatment, and at 0 (predose), 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 hours after administration in part A, and were taken at 0 (predose), 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 24 hours after administration in part B. Plasma concentrations were determined using LC-MS/MS. The pharmacokinetic properties of each drug after coadministration of telmisartan and S-amlodipine were compared with those of each drug administered alone. Tolerability was assessed using measurements of vital signs, clinical chemistry tests, and interviews. Fifty-six volunteers were enrolled (32 in part A and 24 in part B), and all completed except 4 volunteers (3 withdrawn in part A and 1 withdrawn in part B). The geometric mean ratios (GMRs) (90% CI) for the C(max,ss) and AUC(τ,ss) of telmisartan (with or without S-amlodipine) were 1.039 (0

  15. Abilities of Oropharyngeal pH Tests and Salivary Pepsin Analysis to Discriminate Between Asymptomatic Volunteers and Subjects With Symptoms of Laryngeal Irritation.

    Yadlapati, Rena; Adkins, Christopher; Jaiyeola, Diana-Marie; Lidder, Alcina K; Gawron, Andrew J; Tan, Bruce K; Shabeeb, Nadine; Price, Caroline P E; Agrawal, Neelima; Ellenbogen, Michael; Smith, Stephanie S; Bove, Michiel; Pandolfino, John E

    2016-04-01

    It has been a challenge to confirm the association between laryngeal symptoms and physiological reflux disease. We examined the ability of oropharyngeal pH tests (with the Restech Dx-pH system) and salivary pepsin tests (with Peptest) to discriminate between asymptomatic volunteers (controls) and subjects with a combination of laryngeal and reflux symptoms (laryngeal ± reflux). We performed a physician-blinded prospective cohort study of 59 subjects at a single academic institution. Adult volunteers were recruited and separated into 3 groups on the basis of GerdQ and Reflux Symptom Index scores: controls (n = 20), laryngeal symptoms (n = 20), or laryngeal + reflux symptoms (n = 19). Subjects underwent laryngoscopy and oropharyngeal pH tests and submitted saliva samples for analysis of pepsin concentration. Primary outcomes included abnormal acid exposure and composite (RYAN) score for oropharyngeal pH tests and abnormal mean salivary pepsin concentration that was based on normative data. Complete oropharyngeal pH data were available from 53 subjects and complete salivary pepsin data from 35 subjects. We did not observe any significant differences between groups in percent of time spent below pH 4.0, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, or RYAN scores or percent of subjects with positive results from tests for salivary pepsin (53% vs 40% vs 75%; P = .50, respectively). The laryngeal + reflux group had a significantly higher estimated mean concentration of salivary pepsin (117.9 ± 147.4 ng/mL) than the control group (32.4 ± 41.9 ng/mL) or laryngeal symptom group (7.5 ± 11.2 ng/mL) (P = .01 and P = .04, respectively). By using current normative thresholds, oropharyngeal pH testing and salivary pepsin analysis are not able to distinguish between healthy volunteers and subjects with a combination of laryngeal and reflux symptoms. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Lost in translation? The potential psychobiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) fails to modulate stress or cognitive performance in healthy male subjects.

    Kelly, John R; Allen, Andrew P; Temko, Andriy; Hutch, William; Kennedy, Paul J; Farid, Niloufar; Murphy, Eileen; Boylan, Geraldine; Bienenstock, John; Cryan, John F; Clarke, Gerard; Dinan, Timothy G

    2017-03-01

    Preclinical studies have identified certain probiotics as psychobiotics - live microorganisms with a potential mental health benefit. Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) has been shown to reduce stress-related behaviour, corticosterone release and alter central expression of GABA receptors in an anxious mouse strain. However, it is unclear if this single putative psychobiotic strain has psychotropic activity in humans. Consequently, we aimed to examine if these promising preclinical findings could be translated to healthy human volunteers. To determine the impact of L. rhamnosus on stress-related behaviours, physiology, inflammatory response, cognitive performance and brain activity patterns in healthy male participants. An 8week, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over design was employed. Twenty-nine healthy male volunteers participated. Participants completed self-report stress measures, cognitive assessments and resting electroencephalography (EEG). Plasma IL10, IL1β, IL6, IL8 and TNFα levels and whole blood Toll-like 4 (TLR-4) agonist-induced cytokine release were determined by multiplex ELISA. Salivary cortisol was determined by ELISA and subjective stress measures were assessed before, during and after a socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT). There was no overall effect of probiotic treatment on measures of mood, anxiety, stress or sleep quality and no significant effect of probiotic over placebo on subjective stress measures, or the HPA response to the SECPT. Visuospatial memory performance, attention switching, rapid visual information processing, emotion recognition and associated EEG measures did not show improvement over placebo. No significant anti-inflammatory effects were seen as assessed by basal and stimulated cytokine levels. L. rhamnosus was not superior to placebo in modifying stress-related measures, HPA response, inflammation or cognitive performance in healthy male participants. These findings highlight the challenges associated with

  17. Somatic mosaicism underlies X-linked acrogigantism syndrome in sporadic male subjects.

    Daly, Adrian F; Yuan, Bo; Fina, Frederic; Caberg, Jean-Hubert; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Rostomyan, Liliya; de Herder, Wouter W; Naves, Luciana A; Metzger, Daniel; Cuny, Thomas; Rabl, Wolfgang; Shah, Nalini; Jaffrain-Rea, Marie-Lise; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Faucz, Fabio R; Castermans, Emilie; Nanni-Metellus, Isabelle; Lodish, Maya; Muhammad, Ammar; Palmeira, Leonor; Potorac, Iulia; Mantovani, Giovanna; Neggers, Sebastian J; Klein, Marc; Barlier, Anne; Liu, Pengfei; Ouafik, L'Houcine; Bours, Vincent; Lupski, James R; Stratakis, Constantine A; Beckers, Albert

    2016-04-01

    Somatic mosaicism has been implicated as a causative mechanism in a number of genetic and genomic disorders. X-linked acrogigantism (XLAG) syndrome is a recently characterized genomic form of pediatric gigantism due to aggressive pituitary tumors that is caused by submicroscopic chromosome Xq26.3 duplications that include GPR101 We studied XLAG syndrome patients (n= 18) to determine if somatic mosaicism contributed to the genomic pathophysiology. Eighteen subjects with XLAG syndrome caused by Xq26.3 duplications were identified using high-definition array comparative genomic hybridization (HD-aCGH). We noted that males with XLAG had a decreased log2ratio (LR) compared with expected values, suggesting potential mosaicism, whereas females showed no such decrease. Compared with familial male XLAG cases, sporadic males had more marked evidence for mosaicism, with levels of Xq26.3 duplication between 16.1 and 53.8%. These characteristics were replicated using a novel, personalized breakpoint junction-specific quantification droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) technique. Using a separate ddPCR technique, we studied the feasibility of identifying XLAG syndrome cases in a distinct patient population of 64 unrelated subjects with acromegaly/gigantism, and identified one female gigantism patient who had had increased copy number variation (CNV) threshold for GPR101 that was subsequently diagnosed as having XLAG syndrome on HD-aCGH. Employing a combination of HD-aCGH and novel ddPCR approaches, we have demonstrated, for the first time, that XLAG syndrome can be caused by variable degrees of somatic mosaicism for duplications at chromosome Xq26.3. Somatic mosaicism was shown to occur in sporadic males but not in females with XLAG syndrome, although the clinical characteristics of the disease were similarly severe in both sexes. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  18. Somatic Mosaicism Underlies X-linked Acrogigantism (XLAG) Syndrome in Sporadic Male Subjects

    Daly, Adrian F.; Yuan, Bo; Fina, Frederic; Caberg, Jean-Hubert; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Rostomyan, Liliya; de Herder, Wouter W.; Naves, Luciana A.; Metzger, Daniel; Cuny, Thomas; Rabl, Wolfgang; Shah, Nalini; Jaffrain-Rea, Marie-Lise; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Faucz, Fabio R; Castermans, Emilie; Nanni-Metellus, Isabelle; Lodish, Maya; Muhammad, Ammar; Palmeira, Leonor; Potorac, Iulia; Mantovani, Giovanna; Neggers, Sebastian J.; Klein, Marc; Barlier, Anne; Liu, Pengfei; Ouafik, L'Houcine; Bours, Vincent; Lupski, James R.; Stratakis, Constantine A.; Beckers., Albert

    2016-01-01

    Somatic mosaicism has been implicated as a causative mechanism in a number of genetic and genomic disorders. X-linked acrogigantism (XLAG) syndrome is a recently characterized genomic form of pediatric gigantism due to aggressive pituitary tumors that is caused by submicroscopic chromosome Xq26.3 duplications that include GPR101. We studied XLAG syndrome patients (N=18) to determine if somatic mosaicism contributed to the genomic pathophysiology. Eighteen subjects with XLAG syndrome were identified with Xq26.3 duplications using high definition array comparative genome hybridization (HD-aCGH). We noted males with XLAG had a decreased log2 ratio compared with expected values, suggesting potential mosaicism, while females showed no such decrease. As compared with familial male XLAG cases, sporadic males had more marked evidence for mosaicism, with levels of Xq26.3 duplication between 16.1-53.8%. These characteristics were replicated using a novel, personalized breakpoint-junction specific quantification droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) technique. Using a separate ddPCR technique we studied the feasibility of identifying XLAG syndrome cases in a distinct patient population of 64 unrelated subjects with acromegaly/gigantism and identified one female gigantism patient that had increased copy number variation (CNV) threshold for GPR101 that was subsequently diagnosed as having XLAG syndrome on HD-aCGH. Employing a combination of HD-aCGH and novel ddPCR approaches, we have demonstrated, for the first time, that XLAG syndrome can be caused by variable degrees of somatic mosaicism for duplications at chromosome Xq26.3. Somatic mosaicism was shown to occur in sporadic males but not in females with XLAG syndrome, although the clinical characteristics of the disease were similarly severe in both sexes. PMID:26935837

  19. Palatability, digestibility and emotional pattern in 60 healthy volunteers after ingestion of an iced dessert presented in four different flavours: a subjective evaluation.

    Garzaro, M; Raimondo, L; Pecorari, G; Riva, G; Sensini, M; Naqe, N; Giordano, C

    2012-01-01

    Several variables lead to changes in human and animal eating behaviour and food choices. A pivotal role is played by food palatability, represented by food, smell, taste, texture, appearance and temperature. The aim of our study is to assess the potential differences in palatability and digestibility of four different flavoured iced desserts, consumed at the end of a standardized meal, and their impact on the emotional status of 60 healthy volunteers. Sixty healthy volunteers, after ENT and psychological assessment, were asked to fill out a Psycho-Emotional Questionnaire (PEQ) to assess their basal emotional pattern before the consumption of an iced dessert at the end of a standard meal, after which they completed an Organoleptic-Sensory Questionnaire (OSQ), a Dynamic Digestibility Questionnaire (DDQ) and again the PEQ. Four different flavors (lemon, tangerine, pineapple and chocolate) were tested on 4 consecutive days on the same subjects. Most of the 60 subjects, by means of OSQ, found taste, aspect, texture and smell of the 4 flavours pleasant, lemon and tangerine were the freshest and lightest. The DDQ identified pineapple and chocolate dessert as those less digestible. By means of PEQ we recorded an improvement in joy, mood and activation, associated with good data of digestibility and palatability after the consumption of all flavors. Our data showed that all flavors improve joy, mood and activation, after their consumption, without statistically significant differences. However, among the tested flavours, lemon and tangerine appear to be the most pleasant and those which facilitate the digestive process.

  20. Heat exposure of Cannabis sativa extracts affects the pharmacokinetic and metabolic profile in healthy male subjects.

    Eichler, Martin; Spinedi, Luca; Unfer-Grauwiler, Sandra; Bodmer, Michael; Surber, Christian; Luedi, Markus; Drewe, Juergen

    2012-05-01

    The most important psychoactive constituent of CANNABIS SATIVA L. is Δ (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabidiol (CBD), another important constituent, is able to modulate the distinct unwanted psychotropic effect of THC. In natural plant extracts of C. SATIVA, large amounts of THC and CBD appear in the form of THCA-A (THC-acid-A) and CBDA (cannabidiolic acid), which can be transformed to THC and CBD by heating. Previous reports of medicinal use of cannabis or cannabis preparations with higher CBD/THC ratios and use in its natural, unheated form have demonstrated that pharmacological effects were often accompanied with a lower rate of adverse effects. Therefore, in the present study, the pharmacokinetics and metabolic profiles of two different C. SATIVA extracts (heated and unheated) with a CBD/THC ratio > 1 were compared to synthetic THC (dronabinol) in a double-blind, randomized, single center, three-period cross-over study involving 9 healthy male volunteers. The pharmacokinetics of the cannabinoids was highly variable. The metabolic pattern was significantly different after administration of the different forms: the heated extract showed a lower median THC plasma AUC (24 h) than the unheated extract of 2.84 vs. 6.59 pmol h/mL, respectively. The later was slightly higher than that of dronabinol (4.58 pmol h/mL). On the other hand, the median sum of the metabolites (THC, 11-OH-THC, THC-COOH, CBN) plasma AUC (24 h) was higher for the heated than for the unheated extract. The median CBD plasma AUC (24 h) was almost 2-fold higher for the unheated than for the heated extract. These results indicate that use of unheated extracts may lead to a beneficial change in metabolic pattern and possibly better tolerability. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Differences in male and female subjective experience and physiological reactions to emotional stimuli.

    Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Lačev, Alek

    2017-07-01

    Research based on self-reported data often indicates that women are the more emotional sex. The present study examined differences in emotion between the sexes across two components of the emotional process: subjective experience and physiological reactions to emotional stimuli. During the experimental study, participants (N=124; 22.5±2.88; 51 males) subjectively rated their emotional experience (valence and intensity) towards presented positive and negative affective stimuli, while physiological reactions (facial electromyography, heart rate, skin conductance, and finger skin temperature) were measured during expositions. Results from self-reports suggest that women declared more intensive emotional experiences for positive and negative stimuli and rated negative stimuli as more negative in comparison to men. Physiological measurements showed differences between the sexes in the physiological baseline measurements (facial electromyography, skin conductance and finger skin temperature). However, physiological responses towards positive or negative emotional stimuli did not prove to be different between men and women, except for finger skin temperature. Relations between self-reported subjective experiences and physiological changes were weak and insignificant. Collectively, our findings suggest certain emotional differences experienced between men and women. These differences can be found specifically in self-reported subjective experiences, while significant differences were not predominantly present in recorded physiological reactions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. The impact of social exclusion vs. inclusion on subjective and hormonal reactions in females and males.

    Seidel, E M; Silani, G; Metzler, H; Thaler, H; Lamm, C; Gur, R C; Kryspin-Exner, I; Habel, U; Derntl, B

    2013-12-01

    The experience of social exclusion represents an extremely aversive and threatening situation in daily life. The present study examined the impact of social exclusion compared to inclusion on steroid hormone concentrations as well as on subjective affect ratings. Eighty subjects (40 females) participated in two independent behavioral experiments. They engaged in a computerized ball tossing game in which they ostensibly played with two other players who deliberately excluded or included them, respectively. Hormone samples as well as mood ratings were taken before and after the game. Social exclusion led to a decrease in positive mood ratings and increased anger ratings. In contrast, social inclusion did not affect positive mood ratings, but decreased sadness ratings. Both conditions did not affect cortisol levels. Testosterone significantly decreased after being excluded in both genders, and increased after inclusion, but only in males. Interestingly, progesterone showed an increase after both conditions only in females. Our results suggest that social exclusion does not trigger a classical stress response but gender-specific changes in sex hormone levels. The testosterone decrease after being excluded in both genders, as well as the increase after inclusion in males can be interpreted within the framework of the biosocial status hypothesis. The progesterone increase might reflect a generalized affiliative response during social interaction in females. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Testosterone potentiates the hypoxic ventilatory response of adult male rats subjected to neonatal stress.

    Fournier, Sébastien; Gulemetova, Roumiana; Joseph, Vincent; Kinkead, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Neonatal stress disrupts development of homeostatic systems. During adulthood, male rats subjected to neonatal maternal separation (NMS) are hypertensive and show a larger hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR), with greater respiratory instability during sleep. Neonatal stress also affects sex hormone secretion; hypoxia increases circulating testosterone of NMS (but not control) male rats. Given that these effects of NMS are not observed in females, we tested the hypothesis that testosterone elevation is necessary for the stress-related increase of the HVR in adult male rats. Pups subjected to NMS were placed in an incubator for 3 h per day from postnatal day 3 to 12. Control pups remained undisturbed. Rats were reared until adulthood, and the HVR was measured by plethysmography (fractional inspired O2 = 0.12, for 20 min). We used gonadectomy to evaluate the effects of reducing testosterone on the HVR. Gonadectomy had no effect on the HVR of control animals but reduced that of NMS animals below control levels. Immunohistochemistry was used to quantify androgen receptors in brainstem areas involved in the HVR. Androgen receptor expression was generally greater in NMS rats than in control rats; the most significant increase was noted in the caudal region of the nucleus tractus solitarii. We conclude that the abnormal regulation of testosterone is important in stress-related augmentation of the HVR. The greater number of androgen receptors within the brainstem may explain why NMS rats are more sensitive to testosterone withdrawal. Based on the similarities of the cardiorespiratory phenotype of NMS rats and patients suffering from sleep-disordered breathing, these results provide new insight into its pathophysiology, especially sex-based differences in its prevalence. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  4. Pronounced between-subject and circadian variability in thymidylate synthase and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase enzyme activity in human volunteers

    Jacobs, Bart A W; Deenen, Maarten J; Pluim, Dick; van Hasselt, J G Coen; Krähenbühl, Martin D; van Geel, Robin M J M; de Vries, Niels; Rosing, Hilde; Meulendijks, Didier; Burylo, Artur M; Cats, Annemieke; Beijnen, Jos H; Huitema, Alwin D R; Schellens, Jan H M

    AIMS: The enzymatic activity of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) and thymidylate synthase (TS) are important for the tolerability and efficacy of the fluoropyrimidine drugs. In the present study, we explored between-subject variability (BSV) and circadian rhythmicity in DPD and TS activity in

  5. A single-dose, randomized, two-way crossover study comparing two olanzapine tablet products in healthy adult male volunteers under fasting conditions.

    Elshafeey, Ahmed H; Elsherbiny, Mohamed A; Fathallah, Mohsen M

    2009-03-01

    Olanzapine is a psychotropic agent that belongs to the thienobenzodiazepine class. The aim of this study was to assess the bioequivalence of 2 commercial 10-mg tablet formulations of olanzapine by statistical analysis of the pharmacokinetic parameters C(max), AUC from 0 to 72 hours after dosing (AUC(0-72)), and AUC(0-infinity) as required by the Egyptian health authority for the marketing of a generic product. This bioequivalence study was carried out in healthy male volunteers using a single-dose, randomized, 2-way crossover design under fasting conditions. Statistical analysis of the pharmacokinetic parameters C(max), AUC(0-72), and AUC(0-infinity) was conducted to determine bioequivalence (after log-transformation of data using analysis of variance and 90% CIs) and to gain marketing approval in Egypt. The formulations were considered to be bioequivalent if the log-transformed ratios of the 3 pharmacokinetic parameters were within the predetermined bioequivalence range (ie, 80%-125%), as established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Both the test product (Trademark: Integrol((R)) [Global Napi Pharmaceuticals, Cairo, Egypt]) and the reference product (Trademark: Zyprexa((R)) [Eli Lilly and Company, Basingstoke, Hampshire, United Kingdom]) were administered as 10-mg tablets with 240 mL of water after an overnight fast on 2 treatment days, separated by a 2-week washout period. After dosing, serial blood samples were collected for 72 hours. Plasma samples were analyzed using a sensitive, reproducible, and accurate liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method capable of quantitating olanzapine in the range of 0.167 to 16.7 ng/mL, with a lower limit of quantitation of 0.167 ng/mL. Adverse events were reported by the volunteers as instructed or observed by the resident physician, and were recorded, tabulated, and evaluated. Twenty-four healthy adult male volunteers participated in this study. Their mean (SD) age was 24.7 (6.2) years (range, 19

  6. Spatio-Temporal Parameters\\' Changes in Gait of Male Elderly Subjects

    Heydar Sadeghi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare spatio-temporal gait parameters between elderly and young male subjects. Methods & Materials: 57 able-bodied elderly (72±5.5 years and 57 healthy young (25±8.5 years subjects participated in this study. A four segment model consist of trunk, hip, shank, and foot with 10 reflective markers were used to define lower limbs. Kinematic data collected using four high speed video based cameras at a sampling frequency of 90 Hz.The t-testfor independent samples (α≤0.05 applied for statistical analysis. Results: Significant differences showed longer stance phase (2%, longer push-of time (4%, slower cadence (13%, slower speed (28% and shorter step length (15% for elderly in comparison with young subjects, though no significant differences were seen in double supporttime between two groups. Conclusion: Due to results, spatio-temporal changes are mainly attributed to the age-related decreases in muscular flexibility, joints>ranges of motion and neuromuscular control in elderly people.

  7. Does creatine supplementation improve the plasma lipid profile in healthy male subjects undergoing aerobic training?

    Scagliusi Fernanda B

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We aimed to investigate the effects of creatine (Cr supplementation on the plasma lipid profile in sedentary male subjects undergoing aerobic training. Methods Subjects (n = 22 were randomly divided into two groups and were allocated to receive treatment with either creatine monohydrate (CR (~20 g·day-1 for one week followed by ~10 g·day-1 for a further eleven weeks or placebo (PL (dextrose in a double blind fashion. All subjects undertook moderate intensity aerobic training during three 40-minute sessions per week, over 3 months. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TAG, fasting insulin and fasting glycemia were analyzed in plasma. Thereafter, the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA was calculated. Tests were performed at baseline (Pre and after four (Post 4, eight (Post 8 and twelve (Post 12 weeks. Results We observed main time effects in both groups for HDL (Post 4 versus Post 8; P = 0.01, TAG and VLDL (Pre versus Post 4 and Post 8; P = 0.02 and P = 0.01, respectively. However, no between group differences were noted in HDL, LDL, CT, VLDL and TAG. Additionally, fasting insulin, fasting glycemia and HOMA did not change significantly. Conclusion These findings suggest that Cr supplementation does not exert any additional effect on the improvement in the plasma lipid profile than aerobic training alone.

  8. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic effects of the intravenous CB1 receptor agonist Org 26828 in healthy male volunteers.

    Zuurman, Lineke; Passier, Paul C C M; de Kam, Marieke L; Kleijn, Huub J; Cohen, Adam F; van Gerven, Joop M A

    2010-11-01

    An ideal drug for outpatient treatments under conscious sedation would have both sedative and analgesic properties. CB1/CB2 agonists are expected to have sedative, amnestic, analgesic and anti-emetic properties. The main objective of this first study in humans was to assess the sedative properties of intravenous Org 26828. In addition, pharmacokinetics, amnestic properties, postural stability, and behavioural and cardiovascular effects were studied. Midazolam intravenous 0.1 mg/kg and placebo were used as controls. The pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax and AUC0-inf) of the main metabolite Org 26761 were proportional to dose. No effects were observed after doses up to 0.3 μg/kg of Org 26828. Dose-related effects were observed at higher doses. Although subjects reported subjective sedation after administration of Org 26828 at 3 and 6 μg/kg, the observed sedation was considerably less than after midazolam. Doses higher than the maximum tolerated dose of 1 μg/kg of Org 26828 caused unpleasant central nervous system effects (anxiety, paranoia, hallucinations). Therefore, Org 26828 is not suitable for providing sedation for outpatient surgical procedures.

  9. Pancreatic polypeptide is involved in the regulation of body weight in pima Indian male subjects

    Koska, Juraj; DelParigi, Angelo; de Courten, Barbora

    2004-01-01

    Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is released from the pancreas in response to a meal. In humans, low-circulating PP levels have been observed in obesity, and administration of pharmacological doses of PP has been shown to decrease food intake. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether low...... circulating PP is associated with weight gain in Pima Indians. Plasma PP concentrations were measured after an overnight fast and 30 min after a standardized mixed meal in 33 nondiabetic male subjects who had a follow-up visit 4.9 +/- 2.5 years later. Cross-sectionally, fasting and postprandial PP levels were...... negatively associated with body size and adiposity. Prospectively, the change in PP response to the meal was negatively associated with the change in body weight (r = -0.53, P = 0.002). In contrast, a high fasting PP level was positively associated with change in body weight (r = 0.45, P = 0...

  10. Consistency between subjectively and objectively measured hazard perception skills among young male drivers

    Abele, Liva; Haustein, Sonja; Møller, Mette

    2018-01-01

    . Subjective measures of HPS include self-reports derived based on the Hazard Perception Questionnaire (HPQ), Driving Skill Questionnaire (DSQ), and Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (BSSS). Results show that drivers who respond to the hazards on time, as compared to drivers who do not respond, have higher scores......Young male drivers have lower hazard perception skills (HPS) than older and more experienced drivers and a tendency to overestimate their skills in hazardous situations. Both factors contribute to an over-representation in traffic accidents. Based on a sample of 63 drivers aged 18-24, this study...... negatively when the hazard is visible. To enhance the HPS among young drivers, the results of this study suggest that specific hazard perception training is relevant, especially for hazards that require more advanced HPS....

  11. Impaired masturbation-induced erections: a new cardiovascular risk factor for male subjects with sexual dysfunction.

    Rastrelli, Giulia; Boddi, Valentina; Corona, Giovanni; Mannucci, Edoardo; Maggi, Mario

    2013-04-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is considered an early surrogate marker of silent, or even overt, cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, epidemiological studies take into account only sexual intercourse-related erections. Although autoeroticism is a very common practice, data on masturbation-induced erections as a possible predictor of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) are lacking. To evaluate the clinical correlates of impaired masturbation-induced erections and to verify the importance of this sexual aspect in predicting MACE. A consecutive series of 4,031 male patients attending the Outpatient Clinic for sexual dysfunction for the first time was retrospectively studied. Among these subjects, 64% reported autoeroticism during the last 3 months, and only this subset was considered in the following analyses. In the longitudinal study, 862 subjects reporting autoeroticism were enrolled. Several clinical, biochemical, and instrumental (Prostaglandin E1 [PGE1 ] test and penile color Doppler ultrasound) parameters were studied. Subjects with an impaired erection during masturbation (46% of those reporting autoeroticism) had more often a positive personal or family history of CVD, a higher risk of reduced intercourse- and sleep-related erections, hypoactive sexual desire and perceived reduced ejaculate volume, and impaired PGE1 test response. Prolactin levels were lower in those having impaired erection during masturbation. In the longitudinal study, unadjusted incidence of MACE was significantly associated with impaired masturbation-induced erections. When dividing the population according to the median age and diagnosis of diabetes, the association between impaired masturbation-induced erections and incidence of MACE was maintained only in the youngest (masturbation-induced erections, can provide further insights on forthcoming MACE in particular in "low risk" subjects. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  12. Relationship between job stress and subjective oral health symptoms in male financial workers in Japan.

    Yoshino, Koichi; Suzuki, Seitaro; Ishizuka, Yoichi; Takayanagi, Atsushi; Sugihara, Naoki; Kamijyo, Hideyuki

    2017-04-07

    The aim was to assess subjective oral health symptoms and job stress, as measured by self-assessment of how demanding the job is, in male financial workers. The participants were recruited by applying screening procedures to a pool of Japanese registrants in an online database. For the stress check, 7 items about how demanding the job is were selected from The Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ). Participants comprised a total of 950 financial male workers, ages 25 to 64. Participants who answered "I can't complete my work in the required time" had more decayed teeth (p=0.010). Participants who felt that their job is highly demanding (answered affirmatively to 6 or all 7 items) were more likely to report "often get food stuck between teeth" (p=0.030), "there are some foods I can't eat" (p=0.005), "bad breath" (p=0.032), and "jaw makes clicking sound" (p=0.032). The independent variable of total stress score of 24-28 was found to be correlated to at least three oral health symptoms (OR: 3.25; 95%CI: 1.66-6.35). These results indicate that certain job stress factors are associated with certain oral health symptoms, and that oral health symptoms are likely predictors of job stress.

  13. Comparative fasting bioavailability of 2 bepotastine formulations in healthy male Chinese volunteers: an open-label, randomized, single-dose, 2-way crossover study.

    Shentu, Jianzhong; Zhou, Huili; Hu, Xingjiang; Wu, Guolan; Wu, Lihua; Zhu, Meixiang; Zhai, You; Zheng, Yunliang; Liu, Jian

    2014-04-01

    Bepotastine is a second-generation histamine1 receptor antagonist that is used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, urticaria, and pruritus associated with skin disease. A new generic formulation of bepotastine has been developed in China, and information concerning bioavailability and pharmacokinetic properties in the Chinese population has not been reported. The aim of the present study was to compare the bioavailability and pharmacokinetic properties of 2 tablet formulations of bepotastine, the 10-mg generic formulation (test) and a branded formulation (reference), in healthy male Chinese volunteers to obtain registration approval of the test formulation. A single-center, open-label, randomized, 2-way crossover study with a 1-week washout period was conducted in 24 healthy male volunteers. Blood samples were collected for 16 hours after a single dose of the 10-mg bepotastine test formulation or the reference formulation. Plasma bepotastine concentrations were determined using a validated LC-MS/MS method. Cmax, Tmax, AUC₀-t, AUC₀-∞, and t½ were determined using noncompartmental analysis. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the 90% CIs for the log-transformed Cmax and AUC values were within the predetermined interval of 75% to 133% and 80% to 125%, respectively, according to the guidelines of the China Food and Drug Administration. No significant differences were found in mean (SD) pharmacokinetic parameters between the test and reference drugs, including Cmax (74.81 [9.91] ng/mL vs 78.60 [29.58] ng/mL), AUC₀-t (295.55[115.29] ng·h/mL vs 299.17[109.29] ng·h/mL), and AUC0-∞ (305.28 [118.50] ng·h/mL vs 310.90 [112.20] ng·h/mL). The mean (SD) t½ values of the test and reference formulations were 2.53 (0.50) hours and 2.62 (0.41) hours, respectively. The 90% CIs of the treatment ratios for the logarithmic transformed values of Cmax, AUC₀-t, and AUC₀-∞ were 86.96% to 101.80%, 93.22% to 104.13%, and 92.66% to 103.30%, respectively

  14. Relative Bioavailability of Fixed-Dose Combinations of Tamsulosin and Dutasteride: Results From 2 Randomized Trials in Healthy Male Volunteers.

    Burns, Olivia; Zhu, John; Manyak, Michael J; Ravindranath, Ramiya; Koosha, Fariba; Haque, Nazneen; Chung, Sally

    2018-05-01

    The relative bioavailabilities of dutasteride/tamsulosin hydrochloride 0.5 mg/0.2 mg fixed-dose combination (FDC) capsules compared with coadministered reference products (1 dutasteride 0.5-mg capsule [Avodart ® ] + 1 tamsulosin hydrochloride 0.2-mg orally disintegrating tablet [Harnal D ® ]) were investigated in 2 clinical trials under fasted and fed conditions (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02184585 and NCT02509104). Both trials were open-label, randomized, single-dose, crossover studies in healthy male adults aged 18-65 years. Trial 1 evaluated 2 formulations (FDC1 and FDC2), and trial 2 evaluated a third formulation (FDC3). The primary end points were dutasteride area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to t (AUC (0-t) ) and peak plasma concentration (C max ) and tamsulosin AUC (0-∞) , AUC (0-t) , and C max . The formulations were considered to be bioequivalent if the 90%CIs for the geometric mean ratios for each end point were within the range of 0.80-1.25. For FDC1 in trial 1, bioequivalence criteria were not met for dutasteride C max or AUC in the fasted state or for tamsulosin C max in the fasted or fed states. For FDC2 in trial 1, all bioequivalence criteria were met except for tamsulosin C max in the fasted state. For FDC3 in trial 2, bioequivalence criteria were met for all dutasteride and tamsulosin end points in both the fed and fasted states. Safety profiles were similar for all FDC formulations and combination treatments. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  15. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability study of two ondansetron oral soluble film formulations in fasting healthy male Chinese volunteers

    Zhu YB

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Yubing Zhu,1 Qian Zhang,1 Jianjun Zou,2 Meng Wan,1 Zheng Zhao,1 Junrong Zhu1 1Department of Pharmacy, 2Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacology, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China Background: Ondansetron oral soluble film is designed to be applied on top of the tongue without requiring water to aid dissolution or swallowing, which is especially fitting for nausea and vomiting patients.Purpose: This study was conducted to compare the bioavailability of two 8 mg ondansetron oral soluble film formulations.Patients and methods: This randomized, open-label, two-period crossover study was performed under fasting conditions. A total of ten eligible subjects were randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio to receive a single 8 mg dose of the test and reference ondansetron oral soluble film formulations, followed by a 1-week washout period and administration of the alternate formulation. The concentrations of ondansetron were assayed using an liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer/mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS method. For analysis of pharmacokinetic properties, including the peak concentration of Tmax (Cmax, AUC from time 0 (baseline to t hours (AUC0–t, and AUC from baseline to infinity (AUC0–∞, blood samples were obtained at intervals over the 24-hour period after studying drug administration. Tolerability was assessed by monitoring vital signs and laboratory tests (hematology, blood biochemistry, hepatic function, and urinalysis and by questioning subjects about adverse events.Results: The mean (standard derivation [SD] relative bioavailability was 96.5 (23.7%. The 90% confidence intervals (CIs for the log-transformed ratios of Cmax and AUC0–t were 84.71%–103.28% and 91.38%–108.60%, respectively (P>0.05. Similar results were found for the data without log-transformation. No statistically significant differences were found based on analysis of variance. No significant adverse events occurred

  16. Bioequivalence and pharmacokinetic evaluation of two formulations of risperidone 2 mg : an open-label, single-dose, fasting, randomized-sequence, two-way crossover study in healthy male Chinese volunteers.

    Liu, Yun; Zhang, Meng-qi; Jia, Jing-ying; Liu, Yan-mei; Liu, Gang-yi; Li, Shui-jun; Wang, Wei; Weng, Li-ping; Yu, Chen

    2013-03-01

    and at completion of the study. A total of 24 healthy male Chinese volunteers (mean age 22.9 years [standard deviation (SD) 2.7, range 19.2-27.1]; weight 63.2 kg [SD 7.0, range 52.0-78.0]; and height 171.3 cm [SD 6.1, range 162.0-187.0]) were enrolled, and all completed the study. For the parent drug, risperidone, the 90% CIs of the relative values (test vs. reference) of the Cmax, AUC from time zero to time t (AUCt), and AUC from time zero to infinity (AUC∞) were 97.0-124.0%, 92.7-115.1%, and 92.8-114.2%, respectively. For the active metabolite, 9-hydroxy-risperidone, the values were 104.4-117.7%, 101.0-113.7%, and 100.4-113.4%, respectively. The two formulations met the predetermined criteria for bioequivalence. A total of 73 AEs were observed in 24 subjects during the study. The most common AE was sedation (48 events), followed by nasal reactions (14 events), postural hypotension (3 events), hypertriglyceridemia (2 events), dizziness (4 events), nausea (1 event), and anorexia (1 event). Their severity was as follows: 16 were mild, 57 were moderate, and none were severe. The majority of the AEs were considered to be related (48 events) or probably related (23 events) to the study medication. No clinically significant abnormalities on physical examination, vital sign measurements, or electrocardiographic recordings were reported. No serious AEs were reported. The data from this study in healthy adult male Chinese subjects suggest that the test formulation met the regulatory criteria for bioequivalence to the reference formulation, on the basis of the rate and extent of absorption. Both formulations were well tolerated.

  17. A new topical formulation enhances relative diclofenac bioavailability in healthy male subjects

    Brunner, Martin; Davies, David; Martin, Wolfgang; Leuratti, Chiara; Lackner, Edith; Müller, Markus

    2011-01-01

    AIMS To evaluate the relative plasma and tissue availability of diclofenac after repeated topical administration of a novel diclofenac acid-based delivery system under development (DCF100C). METHODS This was a single-centre, open-label, three-period, crossover clinical trial of five discrete diclofenac formulations. Test preparations comprised two concentrations (1.0% and 2.5%) of DCF100C, with and without menthol and eucalyptus oil (total daily doses of 5 mg and 12.5 mg). Voltaren® Emulgel® gel (1.0%) was the commercially available comparator (total daily dose of 40 mg). Topical application was performed onto the thigh of 20 male healthy subjects for 3 days. Applying a Youden square design, each drug was evaluated in 12 subjects, with each subject receiving three test preparations. Blood sampling and in vivo microdialysis in subcutaneous adipose and skeletal muscle tissues were performed for 10 h after additional final doses on the morning of day 4. RESULTS All four DCF100C formulations demonstrated a three- to fivefold, dose-dependent increase in systemic diclofenac availability compared with Voltaren® Emulgel® and were approximately 30–40 times more effective at facilitating diclofenac penetration through the skin, taking different dose levels into account. Tissue concentrations were low and highly variable. The 2.5% DCF100C formulation without sensory excipients reached the highest tissue concentrations. AUC(0,10 h) was 2.71 times greater than for Voltaren® Emulgel® (90% CI 99.27, 737.46%). Mild erythema at the application site was the most frequent adverse event associated with DCF100C. There were no local symptoms after treatment with the reference formulation. CONCLUSION DCF100C formulations were safe and facilitated greater diclofenac penetration through the skin compared with the commercial comparator. DCF100C represents a promising alternative to oral and topical diclofenac treatments that warrants further development. PMID:21241352

  18. The impact of disaster work on community volunteers: The role of peri-traumatic distress, level of personal affectedness, sleep quality and resource loss, on post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and subjective health.

    Thormar, Sigridur B; Gersons, Berthold P R; Juen, Barbara; Djakababa, Maria Nelden; Karlsson, Thorlakur; Olff, Miranda

    2014-12-01

    Disaster work has shown to cause PTSD symptoms and subjective health complaints in professional emergency personnel. However, very little is known about how disaster work affects community volunteers. This first time longitudinal study examined factors contributing to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSD) and subjective health complaints in volunteers working in an earthquake setting. At six and eighteen months post disaster, a sample of 506 Indonesian Red Cross volunteers were assessed using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and the Subjective Health Complaints Inventory. Factors analyzed in relation to the outcomes included: peri-traumatic distress, level of personal affectedness by the disaster, sleep quality and loss of resources as a consequence of the disaster. At 18 months post-disaster the findings showed high levels of PTSD symptoms and subjective health complaints. Quality of sleep was related to both outcomes but resource loss only to PTSD symptoms. Neither peri-traumatic distress nor level of affectedness by the disaster (external versus directly affected volunteers), were predictive of symptoms. This study indicates that characteristics of disaster work e.g. low quality of sleep, may be an important contributor to PTSD symptoms and subjective health complaints in volunteers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of sauna bathing on lipid profile in young, physically active, male subjects.

    Gryka, Dorota; Pilch, Wanda; Szarek, Marta; Szygula, Zbigniew; Tota, Łukasz

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of Finnish sauna bathing on lipid profile in healthy, young men. Sixteen male subjects (20-23 years) were subjected to 10 sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna every 1 or 2 days. The mean sauna temperature was 90±2°C, while humidity was 5-16%. Each session consisted of three 15-minute parts and a 2-minute cool-down between them. The following measurements were taken before and after the sauna sessions: body mass, heart rate, body skinfold thickness. The percentage fat content and then, the lean body mass were calculated. Total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, lipoprotein cholesterol LDL and HDL were measured in blood samples. A statistically significant decrease of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol was observed during 3 weeks of sauna treatment and in the week afterwards. A significant decline in triacylglycerols was found directly after the 1st and 24 h directly after the 10th sauna session. After the 10th sauna session the level of HDL cholesterol remained slightly increased, but this change was not statistically significant. A decrease in blood plasma volume was found directly after the 1st and the last sauna bathing session due to perspiration. An adaptive increase in blood plasma volume was also found after the series of 10 sauna sessions. Ten complete sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna caused a reduction in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol fraction levels during the sessions and a gradual return of these levels to the initial level during the 1st and the 2nd week after the experiment. A small, statistically insignificant increase in HDL-C level and a transient decline in triacylglycerols were observed after those sauna sessions. The positive effect of sauna on lipid profile is similar to the effect that can be obtained through a moderate-intensity physical exercise.

  20. The effect of sauna bathing on lipid profile in young, physically active, male subjects

    Dorota Gryka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of Finnish sauna bathing on lipid profile in healthy, young men. Material and Methods: Sixteen male subjects (20–23 years were subjected to 10 sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna every 1 or 2 days. The mean sauna temperature was 90±2°C, while humidity was 5–16%. Each session consisted of three 15-minute parts and a 2-minute cool-down between them. The following measurements were taken before and after the sauna sessions: body mass, heart rate, body skinfold thickness. The percentage fat content and then, the lean body mass were calculated. Total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, lipoprotein cholesterol LDL and HDL were measured in blood samples. Results: A statistically significant decrease of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol was observed during 3 weeks of sauna treatment and in the week afterwards. A significant decline in triacylglycerols was found directly after the 1st and 24 h directly after the 10th sauna session. After the 10th sauna session the level of HDL cholesterol remained slightly increased, but this change was not statistically significant. A decrease in blood plasma volume was found directly after the 1st and the last sauna bathing session due to perspiration. An adaptive increase in blood plasma volume was also found after the series of 10 sauna sessions. Conclusions: Ten complete sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna caused a reduction in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol fraction levels during the sessions and a gradual return of these levels to the initial level during the 1st and the 2nd week after the experiment. A small, statistically insignificant increase in HDL-C level and a transient decline in triacylglycerols were observed after those sauna sessions. The positive effect of sauna on lipid profile is similar to the effect that can be obtained through a moderate-intensity physical exercise.

  1. Effects of nalbuphine on anterior pituitary and adrenal hormones and subjective responses in male cocaine abusers.

    Goletiani, Nathalie V; Mendelson, Jack H; Sholar, Michelle B; Siegel, Arthur J; Skupny, Alicja; Mello, Nancy K

    2007-04-01

    Nalbuphine (Nubain) is a mixed action mu-kappa agonist used clinically for the management of pain. Nalbuphine and other mu-kappa agonists decreased cocaine self-administration in preclinical models. Cocaine stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, but the effects of nalbuphine on the HPA axis are unknown. Analgesic doses (5 and 10 mg/70 kg) of IV nalbuphine were administered to healthy male cocaine abusers, and plasma levels of PRL, ACTH and cortisol were measured before and at 10, 17, 19, 23, 27, 31, 35, 40, 45, 60, 75, 105, and 135 min after nalbuphine administration. Subjective effects were measured on a Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Prolactin (PRL) increased significantly within 17 min (P=.04) and reached peak levels of 22.1+/-7.1 ng/ml and 54.1+/-11.3 at 60 min after low and high dose nalbuphine administration, respectively. VAS reports of "Sick," "Bad" and "Dizzy" were significantly higher after 10 mg/70 kg than after 5 mg/70 kg nalbuphine (P=.05-.0001), and were significantly correlated with increases in PRL (P=.05-.0003). However, sedation and emesis were observed only after a 10 mg/70 kg dose of nalbuphine. Interestingly, ACTH and cortisol levels did not change significantly after administration of either dose of nalbuphine. Taken together, these data suggest that nalbuphine had both mu- and kappa-like effects on PRL (PRL increase) but did not increase ACTH and cortisol.

  2. Short-term dehydroepiandrosterone treatment increases platelet cGMP production in elderly male subjects.

    Martina, Valentino; Benso, Andrea; Gigliardi, Valentina Ramella; Masha, Andi; Origlia, Carla; Granata, Riccarda; Ghigo, Ezio

    2006-03-01

    Several clinical and population-based studies suggest that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate (DHEA-S) play a protective role against atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease in human. However, the mechanisms underlying this action are still unknown. It has recently been suggested that DHEA-S could delay atheroma formation through an increase in nitric oxide (NO) production. Twenty-four aged male subjects [age (mean +/- SEM): 65.4 +/- 0.7 year; range: 58.2-67.6 years] underwent a blinded placebo controlled study receiving DHEA (50 mg p.o. daily at bedtime) or placebo for 2 months. Platelet cyclic guanosine-monophosphate (cGMP) concentration (as marker of NO production) and serum levels of DHEA-S, DHEA, IGF-I, insulin, glucose, oestradiol (E(2)), testosterone, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 antigen (PAI-1 Ag), homocysteine and lipid profile were evaluated before and after the 2-month treatment with DHEA or placebo. At the baseline, all variables in the two groups were overlapping. All parameters were unchanged after treatment with placebo. Conversely, treatment with DHEA (a) increased (P < 0.001 vs. baseline) platelet cGMP (111.9 +/- 7.1 vs. 50.1 +/- 4.1 fmol/10(6) plts), DHEA-S (13.6 +/- 0.8 vs. 3.0 +/- 0.3 micromol/l), DHEA (23.6 +/- 1.7 vs. 15.3 +/- 1.4 nmol/l), testosterone (23.6 +/- 1.0 vs. 17.7 +/- 1.0 nmol/l) and E(2) (72.0 +/- 5.0 vs. 60.0 +/- 4.0 pmol/l); and (b) decreased (P < 0.05 vs. baseline) PAI-1 Ag (27.4 +/- 3.8 vs. 21.5 +/- 2.5 ng/ml) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (3.4 +/- 0.2 vs. 3.0 +/- 0.2 mmol/l). IGF-I, insulin, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, HDL2 cholesterol, HDL3 cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and homocysteine levels were not modified by DHEA treatment. This study shows that short-term treatment with DHEA increased platelet cGMP production, a marker of NO production, in healthy elderly subjects. This effect is coupled with a decrease in PAI-1

  3. A new topical formulation enhances relative diclofenac bioavailability in healthy male subjects.

    Brunner, Martin; Davies, David; Martin, Wolfgang; Leuratti, Chiara; Lackner, Edith; Müller, Markus

    2011-06-01

    • Therapy with topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) relies on the ability of the active drug to penetrate the skin in sufficiently high amounts to exert a clinical effect, which is linked to the specific galenic properties of the formulation. • This phase 1 study characterizes the transdermal penetration and plasma exposure of different dose levels with galenic differences of a novel topical diclofenac formulation under development and indicates greater diclofenac penetration through the skin when compared with a commercially available formulation. To evaluate the relative plasma and tissue availability of diclofenac after repeated topical administration of a novel diclofenac acid-based delivery system under development (DCF100C). This was a single-centre, open-label, three-period, crossover clinical trial of five discrete diclofenac formulations. Test preparations comprised two concentrations (1.0% and 2.5%) of DCF100C, with and without menthol and eucalyptus oil (total daily doses of 5 mg and 12.5 mg). Voltaren Emulgel gel (1.0%) was the commercially available comparator (total daily dose of 40 mg). Topical application was performed onto the thigh of 20 male healthy subjects for 3 days. Applying a Youden square design, each drug was evaluated in 12 subjects, with each subject receiving three test preparations. Blood sampling and in vivo microdialysis in subcutaneous adipose and skeletal muscle tissues were performed for 10 h after additional final doses on the morning of day 4. All four DCF100C formulations demonstrated a three- to fivefold, dose-dependent increase in systemic diclofenac availability compared with Voltaren Emulgel and were approximately 30-40 times more effective at facilitating diclofenac penetration through the skin, taking different dose levels into account. Tissue concentrations were low and highly variable. The 2.5% DCF100C formulation without sensory excipients reached the highest tissue concentrations. AUC(0,10 h) was

  4. Bioequivalence of two lansoprazole delayed release capsules 30 mg in healthy male volunteers under fasting, fed and fasting-applesauce conditions: a partial replicate crossover study design to estimate the pharmacokinetics of highly variable drugs.

    Thota, S; Khan, S M; Tippabhotla, S K; Battula, R; Gadiko, C; Vobalaboina, V

    2013-11-01

    An open-label, 2-treatment, 3-sequence, 3-period, single-dose, partial replicate crossover studies under fasting (n=48), fed (n=60) and fasting-applesauce (n=48) (sprinkled on one table spoonful of applesauce) modalities were conducted in healthy adult male volunteers to evaluate bioequivalence between 2 formulations of lansoprazole delayed release capsules 30 mg. In all the 3 studies, as per randomization, either test or reference formulations were administered in a crossover manner with a required washout period of at least 7 days. Blood samples were collected adequately (0-24 h) to determine lansoprazole plasma concentrations using a validated LC-MS/MS analytical method. To characterize the pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax, AUC0-t, AUC0-∞, Tmax, Kel and T1/2) of lansoprazole, non-compartmental analysis and ANOVA was applied on ln-transformed values. The bioequivalence was tested based on within-subject variability of the reference formulation. In fasting and fed studies (within-subject variability>30%) bioequivalence was evaluated with scaled average bioequivalence, hence for the pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞, the 95% upper confidence bound for (μT-μR)2-θσ2 WR was ≤0, and the point estimates (test-to-reference ratio) were within the regulatory acceptance limit 80.00-125.00%. In fasting-applesauce study (within-subject variability<30%) bioequivalence was evaluated with average bioequivalence, the 90% CI of ln-transformed data of Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ were within the regulatory acceptance limit 80.00-125.00%. Based on these aforesaid statistical inferences, it was concluded that the test formulation is bioequivalent to reference formulation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Managing Volunteers.

    Geber, Beverly

    1991-01-01

    Discusses changing nature of volunteers in Peter Drucker's book "Managing the Nonprofit Corporation." Points out that most volunteers have full-time jobs, families, very little leisure; they are not willing to do such routine work as stuffing envelopes; they want carefully defined projects with beginning and end. Discusses real…

  6. Selective visualization of pelvic splanchnic nerve and pelvic plexus using readout-segmented echo-planar diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance neurography: A preliminary study in healthy male volunteers

    Yamashita, Rikiya, E-mail: rickdom@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Isoda, Hiroyoshi, E-mail: sayuki@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Arizono, Shigeki, E-mail: arizono@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Furuta, Akihiro, E-mail: akihirof@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Ohno, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: goohno@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Osaka Red Cross Hospital, 5-30 Fudegasaki-cho, Tennoji-ku, Osaka, 543-8555 (Japan); Ono, Ayako, E-mail: onoayako@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Murata, Katsutoshi, E-mail: katsutoshi.murata@siemens.com [Siemens Healthcare Japan KK, Gate City Osaki West Tower, 11-1 Osaki 1-Chome, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8644 (Japan); Togashi, Kaori, E-mail: ktogashi@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • RS-EPI DW-MRN has a potential to selectively depict the pelvic parasympathetic nerve. • The nervous visibility showed a moderate correlation with the image artifact level. • Our method could help preserving function after pelvic nerve-preserving surgery. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the potential of readout-segmented echo-planar diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance neurography (RS-EPI DW-MRN) for the selective visualization of pelvic splanchnic nerve and pelvic plexus in healthy male volunteers. Materials and methods: Institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained. RS-EPI DW-MRN images were acquired from thirteen healthy male volunteers aged 25–48 years between September 2013 and December 2013. For RS-EPI DW-MRN, the following parameters were used: spatial resolution, 1.1 × 1.1 × 2.5 mm; b-value, 250 s/mm{sup 2}; number of readout-segments, seven; and acquisition time, 7 min 45 s. For qualitative assessment, two abdominal radiologists independently evaluated the visibility of the pelvic splanchnic nerves and pelvic plexuses bilaterally in each subject on oblique coronal thin-slab 10-mm-thick maximum intensity projection images and scored it with a 4-point grading scale (excellent, good, fair, poor). Both readers scored twice at 6-month intervals. Inter-observer and intra-observer variability were evaluated using Cohen’s quadratically weighted κ statistics. Image artifact level was scored on a 4-point grading scale by other two abdominal radiologists in order to evaluate the correlation between the nerve visibility and the severity of imaging artifacts using the Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Results: Qualitative grading showed the following success rate (number of nerves qualitatively scored as excellent or good divided by total number of nerves): reader 1 (first set), 73% (19/26); reader 2 (first set), 77% (20/26); reader 1 (second set), 81% (21/26); and reader 2 (second set), 77% (20

  7. Emotions or Science? Pre-Tertiary Males' Accounts of Psychology as a Subject Choice

    Mercer, Jenny; Sander, Paul; Williams, Stella; Jones, Tim

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that the number of males studying psychology in the UK, both at A-level and on degree courses, is disproportionately low compared to females. There is a paucity of research, however, which discusses how psychology is viewed by this group. The present study employed focus groups with 35 pre-tertiary males (some of whom were…

  8. Subjective experience of coercion in psychiatric care: a study comparing the attitudes of patients and healthy volunteers towards coercive methods and their justification.

    Mielau, J; Altunbay, J; Gallinat, J; Heinz, A; Bermpohl, F; Lehmann, A; Montag, C

    2016-06-01

    Under certain conditions, coercive interventions in psychotic patients can help to regain insight and alleviate symptoms, but can also traumatize subjects. This study explored attitudes towards psychiatric coercive interventions in healthy individuals and persons suffering from schizophrenia, schizoaffective or bipolar disorder. The impact of personal history of coercive treatment on preferences concerning clinical management of patients unable to consent was investigated. Six case vignettes depicting scenarios of ethical dilemmas and demanding decisions in favour of or against coercive interventions were presented to 60 healthy volunteers and 90 patients. Structured interviews focusing on experienced coercion were performed in conjunction with the Coercion Experience Scale and the Admission Experience Survey. Symptom severity, psychosocial functioning and insight into illness were assessed as influencing variables. Student's t tests compared patients' and controls' judgments, followed by regression analyses to define the predictive value of symptoms and measures of coercion on judgments regarding the total patient sample and patients with experience of fixation. Patients and non-psychiatric controls showed no significant difference in their attitudes towards involuntary admission and forced medication. Conversely, patients more than controls significantly disapproved of mechanical restraint. Subjective experience of coercive interventions played an important role for the justification of treatment against an individual's "natural will". Factors influencing judgments on coercion were overall functioning and personal experience of treatment effectiveness and fairness. Qualitative and quantitative aspects of perceived coercion, in addition to insight into illness, predicted judgments of previously fixated patients. Results underline the importance of the quality of practical implementation and care, if coercive interventions cannot be avoided.

  9. IMPACT OF IMPROVED FAT-MEAT PRODUCTS CONSUMPTION ON ANTHROPOMETRIC MARKERS AND NUTRIENT INTAKES OF MALE VOLUNTEERS AT INCREASED CARDIOVASCULAR RISK.

    Celada, Paloma; Delgado-Pando, Gonzalo; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco; Ruperto, Mar; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2015-08-01

    meat products have been recognized to be adequate matrix for incorporating functional ingredients. The impact of meat products formulated by replacing animal fat with a combination of olive, linseed and fish oils on energy and nutrient intakes and anthropometric measurements were tested in a non-randomized-controlled- sequential study. eighteen male volunteers at high-CVD risk consumed weekly 200 g frankfurters and 250 g pâtés during three 4-wk periods (reduced fat (RF); n3-enriched- RF (n-3RF), and normal fat (NF)), separated by 4-wk washout. Energy and nutrient intakes, healthy eating index (HEI), and anthropometric changes were evaluated. body fat mass rate-of-change and the waist/ hip ratio significantly differs (p = 0.018 and p = 0.031, respectively) between periods, decreasing body fat mass, waist circumference and waist/hip ratio in RF period and increasing body fat mass in NF one (all p = 0.05). Significant inverse correlations were observed between rate- of-change of BMI and ideal body weight with dietary carbohydrate/SFA ratio in n-3RF period (p = 0.003 and p = 0.006, respectively). Initial diets presented low HEIs (means Product consumption improved dietary Zn, Ca, retinol equivalent, folate and vitamin B12 contents in all periods, and ameliorated n-3 PUFA contents and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio over the n-3RF period. improved-fat meat products appear as functional foods for overweight/obeses since their consumption improved selected body-fat markers, without affecting HEI, macronutrient and energy but their n-3 PUFA and n6/n3 ratio intakes. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. Bioequivalence of 2 Formulations of Sildenafil Oral Soluble Film 100 mg and Sildenafil Citrate (Viagra) 100 mg Oral Tablets in Healthy Male Volunteers.

    Dadey, Eric

    Sildenafil citrate tablets (VIAGRA; Pfizer Inc) have been used since 1998 as an oral therapy for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. However, in some cases, patients may have difficulty in swallowing tablets, and the need to use water to aid in the oral administration of the tablets has the potential to interrupt the sexual encounter, reduce spontaneity, and therefore decrease the quality of the experience. Two oral soluble film (OSF) formulations of sildenafil were developed using MonoSol Rx's proprietary PharmFilm technology. Both films were formulated to dissolve rapidly on the tongue, thereby releasing the drug into the oral cavity, whereupon it is swallowed without the use of water. From a patient perspective, it is anticipated that the film formulations of sildenafil citrate will provide a more compliant and discreet dosage form. The purpose of this clinical study was to compare the bioequivalence of the 2 sildenafil OSF 100 mg formulations (MonoSol Rx, LLC) with the sildenafil citrate 100 mg tablets. The design was a single-dose, randomized, open-label, 3-period, 6-sequence, 3-treatment, single-center, crossover study conducted in 18 healthy, nonsmoking male volunteers under fasting conditions, with each treatment period separated by a 7-day washout period. Plasma sildenafil concentrations were measured predose and then periodically to 24 hours after dosing. The 90% confidence intervals for plasma sildenafil AUC0-t, AUC0-∞, and Cmax for both sildenafil OSF formulations as compared with sildenafil citrate tablets were all within the 80%-125% range, indicating bioequivalence of both film formulations to sildenafil citrate tablets. Overall, the demonstrated bioequivalence coupled with the performance advantages of an OSF dosage form (ie, rapid dissolution in the mouth, can be taken without water, and can be dosed discreetly) suggest that the sildenafil OSF may provide an attractive alternative to sildenafil citrate oral tablets.

  11. Whole body sodium MRI at 3T using an asymmetric birdcage resonator and short echo time sequence: first images of a male volunteer

    Wetterling, Friedrich; Corteville, Dominique M.; Kalayciyan, Raffi; Rennings, Andreas; Konstandin, Simon; Nagel, Armin M.; Stark, Helmut; Schad, Lothar R.

    2012-07-01

    Sodium magnetic resonance imaging (23Na MRI) is a non-invasive technique which allows spatial resolution of the tissue sodium concentration (TSC) in the human body. TSC measurements could potentially serve to monitor early treatment success of chemotherapy on patients who suffer from whole body metastases. Yet, the acquisition of whole body sodium (23Na) images has been hampered so far by the lack of large resonators and the extremely low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) achieved with existing resonator systems. In this study, a 23Na resonator was constructed for whole body 23Na MRI at 3T comprising of a 16-leg, asymmetrical birdcage structure with 34 cm height, 47.5 cm width and 50 cm length. The resonator was driven in quadrature mode and could be used either as a transceiver resonator or, since active decoupling was included, as a transmit-only resonator in conjunction with a receive-only (RO) surface resonator. The relative B1-field profile was simulated and measured on phantoms, and 3D whole body 23Na MRI data of a healthy male volunteer were acquired in five segments with a nominal isotropic resolution of (6 × 6 × 6) mm3 and a 10 min acquisition time per scan. The measured SNR values in the 23Na-MR images varied from 9 ± 2 in calf muscle, 15 ± 2 in brain tissue, 23 ± 2 in the prostate and up to 42 ± 5 in the vertebral discs. Arms, legs, knees and hands could also be resolved with applied resonator and short time-to-echo (TE) (0.5 ms) radial sequence. Up to fivefold SNR improvement was achieved through combining the birdcage with local RO surface coil. In conclusion, 23Na MRI of the entire human body provides sub-cm spatial resolution, which allows resolution of all major human body parts with a scan time of less than 60 min.

  12. Effect of food on the pharmacokinetic properties of the oral sarpogrelate hydrochloride controlled-release tablet in healthy male Korean subjects.

    Jung, Jin Ah; Kim, Jung-Ryul; Kim, Tae-Eun; Lee, Soo-Youn; Huh, Wooseong; Lee, Jae Won; Jun, Hun; Ko, Jae-Wook

    2013-07-01

    A new controlled-release formulation of sarpogrelate, a 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor subtype 2 antagonist that blocks serotonin-induced platelet aggregation, has been developed for once-daily administration. This study evaluated the effect of food on the pharmacokinetic properties of controlled-release sarpogrelate (sarpogrelate CR) in healthy volunteers. A randomized, open-label, two-period, two-treatment crossover study was performed in healthy male Korean subjects. Following an overnight fast, a single dose of sarpogrelate CR 300 mg was administered either in the fasted condition or immediately after a high-fat breakfast. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a noncompartmental analysis. Tolerability was determined using clinical laboratory testing and physical examination, including vital sign measurements, electrocardiography, and interviews with the volunteers regarding adverse events (AEs). A total of 24 healthy subjects were enrolled, 23 of whom completed the study (mean [range] age, 26 years [21-45]; weight, 68.1 kg [56.0-79.9]; body mass index, 22.1 kg/m(2) [18.8-25.0]). Sarpogrelate C(max) and AUC(last) were decreased In the fed condition compared with those in the fasted condition, with geometric mean ratios (90% CI) of 0.4868 (0.4041-0.5864) and 0.7394 (0.6809-0.8028), respectively. T(max) was delayed from 0.75 to 4.0 hours after a high-fat meal, but the fed condition exhibited a similar elimination profile to that of the fasted condition. The most commonly reported AE was headache (n = 2), and other AEs were reported in 1 subject each. All of the AEs were considered mild in intensity, and the participants recovered without treatment. Compared with the administration of sarpogrelate CR 300 mg in the fasted condition, administration with food was associated with a decreased rate and extent of absorption, as assessed by C(max) and AUC(last), respectively. The drug was well-tolerated by the healthy subjects in this study. Copyright © 2013

  13. The impact of disaster work on community volunteers: The role of peri-traumatic distress, level of personal affectedness, sleep quality and resource loss, on post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and subjective health

    Thormar, Sigridur B.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; Juen, Barbara; Djakababa, Maria Nelden; Karlsson, Thorlakur; Olff, Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Disaster work has shown to cause PTSD symptoms and subjective health complaints in professional emergency personnel. However, very little is known about how disaster work affects community volunteers. This first time longitudinal study examined factors contributing to post-traumatic stress disorder

  14. Effects of food on the pharmacokinetics of gemigliptin/metformin sustained-release 50/1,000 mg (25/500 mg x 2 tablets) fixeddose combination tablet in healthy male volunteers.

    Choi, Hee Youn; Noh, Yook-Hwan; Kim, Yo Han; Kim, Mi Jo; Lee, Shi Hyang; Kim, Jeong-Ae; Kim, Bogyeong; Lim, Hyeong-Seok; Bae, Kyun-Seop

    2014-05-01

    For patient convenience, a gemigliptin/metformin sustainedrelease fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablet was developed. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of food on the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of the FDC tablets. This was an open-label, randomized, single dose, 2-period, 2-sequence crossover study in 24 healthy male volunteers. The FDC tablets (25/500 mg × 2 tablets) were administered in high-fat fed and fasted states on separate occasions, and each subject was randomly allocated to each sequence with a 7-day washout period. PK blood samplings were conducted from predose to 48 hours after dosing. Tolerability assessments were performed throughout the study. Nine adverse events (AEs) of mild intensity were reported from 8 subjects after study drug administration, and the AE frequency was similar between treatments. No serious AEs were reported. The PK parameters of gemigliptin and metformin were compared between fasting and fed states. For gemigliptin, the geometric mean ratios (GMRs) (fed : fasted state) of the Cmax and AUClast were 0.886 (90% confidence interval (CI) 0.781 - 1.006) and 1.021 (90% CI 0.949 - 1.099), respectively. For metformin, the GMRs of the Cmax and AUClast were 0.811 (90% CI 0.712 - 0.923) and 1.144 (90% CI 1.013 - 1.291), respectively. A prolonged tmax for metformin was observed. These results are similar to the effects of food on each component. The FDC tablet may have a similar PK profile as that of individual drugs and is generally tolerable when administered with food. These results indicate that the FDC tablet can be administered in the same dosing regimen as each component, especially that of metformin sustained-release.

  15. The effect of five day dosing with THCV on THC-induced cognitive, psychological and physiological effects in healthy male human volunteers: A placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover pilot trial.

    Englund, Amir; Atakan, Zerrin; Kralj, Aleksandra; Tunstall, Nigel; Murray, Robin; Morrison, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Cannabis is mostly grown under illegal and unregulated circumstances, which seems to favour a product increasingly high in its main cannabinoid ∆-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). ∆-9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) is a relatively untested cannabinoid which is said to be a cannabinoid receptor neutral antagonist, and may inhibit the effects of THC. To explore the safety and tolerability of repeated THCV administration and its effects on symptoms normally induced by THC in a sample of healthy volunteers. Ten male cannabis users (THC on the fifth day. THCV was well tolerated and subjectively indistinguishable from placebo. THC did not significantly increase psychotic symptoms, paranoia or impair short-term memory, while still producing significant intoxicating effects. Delayed verbal recall was impaired by THC and only occurred under placebo condition (Z=-2.201, p=0.028), suggesting a protective effect of THCV. THCV also inhibited THC-induced increased heart rate (Z=-2.193, p=0.028). Nine out of ten participants reported THC under THCV condition (compared to placebo) to be subjectively weaker or less intense (χ(2)=6.4, p=0.011). THCV in combination with THC significantly increased memory intrusions (Z=-2.155, p=0.031). In this first study of THC and THCV, THCV inhibited some of the well-known effects of THC, while potentiating others. These findings need to be interpreted with caution due to a small sample size and lack of THC-induced psychotomimetic and memory-impairing effect, probably owing to the choice of dose. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Subjectivity

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  17. Resident intruder paradigm-induced aggression relieves depressive-like behaviors in male rats subjected to chronic mild stress

    Wei, Sheng; Ji, Xiao-wei; Wu, Chun-ling; Li, Zi-fa; Sun, Peng; Wang, Jie-qiong; Zhao, Qi-tao; Gao, Jie; Guo, Ying-hui; Sun, Shi-guang; Qiao, Ming-qi

    2014-01-01

    Background Accumulating epidemiological evidence shows that life event stressors are major vulnerability factors for psychiatric diseases such as major depression. It is also well known that the resident intruder paradigm (RIP) results in aggressive behavior in male rats. However, it is not known how resident intruder paradigm-induced aggression affects depressive-like behavior in isolated male rats subjected to chronic mild stress (CMS), which is an animal model of depression. Material/Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: non-stressed controls, isolated rats subjected to the CMS protocol, and resident intruder paradigm-exposed rats subjected to the CMS protocol. Results In the sucrose intake test, ingestion of a 1% sucrose solution by rats in the CMS group was significantly lower than in control and CMS+RIP rats after 3 weeks of stress. In the open-field test, CMS rats had significantly lower open-field scores compared to control rats. Furthermore, the total scores given the CMS group were significantly lower than in the CMS+RIP rats. In the forced swimming test (FST), the immobility times of CMS rats were significantly longer than those of the control or CMS+RIP rats. However, no differences were observed between controls and CMS+RIP rats. Conclusions Our data show that aggressive behavior evoked by the resident intruder paradigm could relieve broad-spectrum depressive-like behaviors in isolated adult male rats subjected to CMS. PMID:24911067

  18. Clinical characteristics of self-mutilating behavior in Turkish male subjects with antisocial personality disorder: relationship to psychopathy.

    Alpay Ates, M; Algul, Ayhan; Semiz, Umit B; Gecici, Omer; Basoglu, Cengiz; Ebrinc, Servet; Cetin, Mesut

    2011-05-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the characteristics of self-mutilation (SM) and examine the relationship between SM and psychopathy in male subjects with antisocial personality disorder (APD). APD diagnosis was established by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Axis II Disorders. Subjects (N = 116) were assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised and a semi-structured self-mutilation questionnaire form. In males with APD, the percentages of psychopathy and SM were 48.3% (N =56) and 96.6% (N = 112), respectively. There were positive correlations between severity of psychopathy and severity, number, and frequency of SM. Considerably high rates of SM and psychopathy were found in Turkish males with APD. The features of SM were associated with comorbidity of psychopathy. These results showed the importance of exploring the self-injurious behavior and psychopathy when diagnosed with APD.

  19. Effect of exercise on epinephrine turnover in trained and untrained male subjects

    Kjær, Michael; Christensen, N J; Sonne, B

    1985-01-01

    The kinetics underlying plasma epinephrine concentrations were studied. Six athletes (T) and six sedentary males (C) were given intravenous infusions of 3H-labeled epinephrine, after which arterial blood was drawn. They rested sitting and bicycled continuously to exhaustion (60 min at 125 W, 60 min...

  20. Factors influencing subject selection in upper secondary education (Key Stage 4 for males and females in England

    Joanne Vaughan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Research to date has investigated the potential factors that influence students’ decisions in opting to study certain subjects during their upper secondary education. Trends in subject selection at this level (Key Stage 4 have been maintained over time and have consistently displayed comparable differences for males and females. It is recognised that males typically opt for subjects such as physical education and science, while females are traditionally noted as favouring the arts and humanities. These educational decisions may impact on future occupational directions. In light of recent initiatives, such as the English Baccalaureate, it is of interest to explore whether such measures have had an influence on this noted gender gap. Participants and procedure The present study investigates the potential predictors of subject selection, while controlling for gender, offering a specific focus on the education system in England. Attention is given to students’ perceived academic ability and attitude toward school, and how such factors may guide subject choice. Participants (N = 276 were students currently in the process of selecting optional modules for Key Stage 4 study. Results The findings demonstrate that female students are less likely than their male counterparts to opt for physical education (PE and business studies/information and communication technology (ICT as preferred modules, in comparison to ‘creative and performance’ subjects (reference category. Higher levels of reported masculinity were also shown to relate to the up-take of PE at Key Stage 4. Conclusions The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to existing research and practical contributions to the educational arena.

  1. Comparable pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of two epoetin alfa formulations Eporon® and Eprex® following a single subcutaneous administration in healthy male volunteers

    Yoon S

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sumin Yoon,1 Su-jin Rhee,1 Sun Ju Heo,2 Tae Young Oh,2 Seo Hyun Yoon,1 Joo-Youn Cho,1 SeungHwan Lee,1,3 Kyung-Sang Yu1,3 1Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul, 2Dong-A ST Co. Ltd., Seoul, 3Clinical Trials Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea Purpose: This study aimed to assess and compare the pharmacokinetic (PK and pharmacodynamic (PD properties following a single subcutaneous injection of epoetin alfa (Eporon® with those of the comparator (Eprex® in healthy male subjects. Subjects and methods: A randomized, double-blind, two-sequence, crossover study was conducted. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive a single dose, that is, 4,000 IU, of the test or comparator epoetin alfa. After 4 weeks, all subjects received the alternative formulation. The primary PK parameters, maximum observed concentration (Cmax and area under the curve extrapolated to infinity (AUCinf, were calculated with the serum erythropoietin (EPO concentrations from blood samples collected for 144 h after dosing. The reticulocyte, hematocrit, hemoglobin and red blood cell counts were measured up to 312 h as PD markers. The primary PD parameters, maximum observed effect (Emax and area under the effect curve (AUEC, were obtained from the baseline-corrected reticulocyte count. The serum EPO concentration and the reticulocyte count were used to assess the concentration–response relationship. The tolerability and immunogenicity profiles were assessed together. Results: Forty-two subjects completed the study. The mean EPO concentration–time profiles were comparable between the two formulations. The geometric mean ratios (90% CI of the Cmax and AUCinf were 0.908 (0.843–0.978 and 1.049 (0.999–1.101, respectively, both of which were within the regulatory range of 0.80–1.25. Additionally, the PD and tolerability profiles were similar between the two

  2. Impact of Exposure to Dim Light at Night on Sleep in Female and Comparison with Male Subjects.

    Cho, Chul-Hyun; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Kang, Seung-Gul; Kim, Leen; Lee, Eun-Il; Lee, Heon-Jeong

    2018-03-19

    Light pollution has become a social and health issue. We performed an experimental study to investigate impact of dim light at night (dLAN) on sleep in female subjects, with measurement of salivary melatonin. The 25 female subjects (Group A: 12; Group B: 13 subjects) underwent a nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG) session with no light (Night 1) followed by an NPSG session randomly assigned to two conditions (Group A: 5; Group B: 10 lux) during a whole night of sleep (Night 2). Salivary melatonin was measured before and after sleep on each night. For further investigation, the female and male subjects of our previous study were collected (48 subjects), and differences according to gender were compared. dLAN during sleep was significantly associated with decreased total sleep time (TST; F=4.818, p=0.039), sleep efficiency (SE; F=5.072, p=0.034), and Stage R latency (F=4.664, p=0.041) for female subjects, and decreased TST (F=14.971, pfemale as well as in merged subjects. REM sleep showed a pronounced increase under 10 lux than under 5 lux in merged subjects, suggesting the possibility of subtle influences of dLAN on REM sleep.

  3. Electrophysiological characteristics of motor units and muscle fibers in trained and untrained young male subjects

    Duez, Lene; Qerama, Erisela; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesized that the amplitudes of compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) and interference pattern analysis (IPA) would be larger in trained subjects compared with untrained subjects, possibly due to hypertrophy of muscle fibers and/or increased central drive. Moreover, we hypothesized...... and untrained subjects in IPA power spectrum and turns per second or amplitude of the CMAPs obtained by DMS. Muscle fiber hypertrophy and/or altered central drive may account for our results, but there was no indication of changes in muscle fiber excitability. Muscle Nerve, 2010....... that the untrained muscle is less excitable compared with the trained muscle. An electromyographic (EMG) needle electrode was used to record the IPA at maximal voluntary effort. The CMAP was obtained by stimulating the musculocutaneous nerve and recording the brachial biceps muscle using surface electrodes. CMAPs...

  4. Cardio-respiratory response of young adult Indian male subjects to stress: Effects of progressive muscle relaxation

    Arunima Chaudhuri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress and anxiety have become an integral part of our lives. Of late, this has resulted in the increase in incidence of hypertension and coronary heart disease. Objectives: To assess the effect of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR on young adult males and its role in the modulation of cardio-respiratory response on exposure to stress. Materials and Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care referral hospital. Undergraduate male students under stress were chosen for the study. Fasting blood samples were drawn to analyze sugar and lipid profile, followed by anthropometric measurements and ECG. In the resting condition, blood pressure, pulse rate, and spirometric parameters; forced vital capacities (FVC, and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV 1 % were measured. Then, they were made to exercise with bicycle ergometer and post exercise, the vital parameters were recorded. All subjects were given a training of Jacobson′s Progressive Muscular Relaxation and asked to practice this technique for 3 months. All parameters were re-evaluated. Results: Significant decreases in resting heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol levels of subjects were seen after PMR training. Exercise-induced rise in heart rate and blood pressure were also significantly less in subjects following PMR training. Conclusion: Progressive muscle relaxation helps in modulation of heart rate, blood pressure, and lipid profile in healthy normal adult male individuals.

  5. Personality in Free-Ranging Hanuman Langur (Semnopithecus entellus) Males: Subjective Ratings and Recorded Behavior

    Konečná, M.; Lhota, S.; Weiss, A.; Urbánek, Tomáš; Adamová, T.; Pluháček, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 4 (2008), s. 379-389 ISSN 0735-7036 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : trait rating * questionnaires * behavioral indices Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.081, year: 2008

  6. Variations in leptin, nesfatin-1 and irisin levels induced by aerobic exercise in young trained and untrained male subjects

    Sermin Algul

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate the impacts of acute aerobic exercise on circulating levels of hormones associated with energy metabolism, namely leptin, nesfatin-1 and irisin, in trained and untrained male subjects and to determine whether the timing of the exercise (i.e. morning or night amplified these impacts. Thirty trained (19.2±0.7 years and 30 untrained (19.5±0.6 years male subjects performed two aerobic running exercises (3 days between tests to 64-76% of the subjects’ maximal heart rate for about 30 min. Pre- and post-exercise venous blood samples were taken and analysed for leptin, nesfatin-1 and irisin using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Paired samples and independent samples t-tests were used to analyse data. Irisin levels increased in all the subjects (p<0.001. In both groups, nesfatin-1 levels increased significantly after the night-time exercise (p<0.05. Importantly, leptin and nesfatin-1 levels varied among the trained and untrained groups: Both leptin and nesfatin-1 levels increased in 4 (13% and 12 (40% subjects, respectively, after the morning exercises, and they increased in 9 (30% and 10 (33% subjects, respectively, after the night-time exercise. They decreased in 5 (16% and 7 (23% subjects, respectively, after the morning exercise and in 6 (20% and 3 (10% subjects, respectively, after the night-time exercise. Exercise may result in increased energy consumption by altering irisin levels. However, due to variations among individuals, increasing leptin and nesfatin-1 levels by reducing food intake may not be applicable.

  7. A Comparative Study on Laryngeal Aerodynamics in Dysarthrophonic versus Normophonic Male Subjects

    Indranil Chatterjee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder.  It occurs due to paralysis, weakness, or incoordination of the speech musculature. The authors with this study want to enrich clinical understanding of the difference of the aerodynamic characteristics in normophonic and dysarthric population. Materials and method The aerodynamic characteristics in normophonics and in dysarthric population were compared and documented using Voice Function Analyzer (Aerophone II®. Forty male individuals within the age range of thirty five to fifty five years participated in this study. The control group   had twenty normophonic cases with no history of neurological disorder. The second group had twenty cases with dysarthria. Result Significant difference was found between the two groups in peak flow, forced volume and duration, vital capacity and fast adduction-abduction measurements. Discussion The difference in results from both the groups and their implications are discussed based on these findings. Conclusion The present study has assessed the parameters of speech and voice disorder in male dysarthric individuals. It suggests inclusion of aerodynamic measurement in test protocol and for evidence based research and prognosis documentation. Measurement of laryngeal or vocal tract resistance may be useful in documenting a variety of the perceptual voice characteristics.

  8. Male Asian international students' perceived racial discrimination, masculine identity, and subjective masculinity stress: a moderated mediation model.

    Wong, Y Joel; Tsai, Pei-Chun; Liu, Tao; Zhu, Qingqing; Wei, Meifen

    2014-10-01

    This study examined male Asian international college students' perceptions of racial discrimination, subjective masculinity stress, centrality of masculine identity, and psychological distress by testing a moderated mediation model. Participants were 160 male Asian international college students from 2 large public universities. Participants' perceived racial discrimination was positively related to their subjective masculinity stress only at high (but not low) levels of masculine identity centrality. Additionally, subjective masculinity stress was positively related to psychological distress, although this association was stronger among those who reported high levels of masculine identity centrality. The authors also detected a moderated mediation effect in which subjective masculinity stress mediated the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress only at high (but not low) levels of masculine identity centrality. These findings contribute to the counseling psychology literature by highlighting the connections between race- and gender-related stressors as well as the relevance of masculine identity to an understanding of men's mental health. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Differences in male and female subjective experience and physiological reactions to emotional stimuli

    Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Lačev, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 117, July (2017), s. 75-82 ISSN 0167-8760 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-02889P Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) StrategieAV21/14 Program:StrategieAV Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Emotion * Stereotype * Arousal * Valence * Gender Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 2.582, year: 2016

  10. Male and female brain evolution is subject to contrasting selection pressures in primates

    Dunbar Robin IM

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The claim that differences in brain size across primate species has mainly been driven by the demands of sociality (the "social brain" hypothesis is now widely accepted. Some of the evidence to support this comes from the fact that species that live in large social groups have larger brains, and in particular larger neocortices. Lindenfors and colleagues (BMC Biology 5:20 add significantly to our appreciation of this process by showing that there are striking differences between the two sexes in the social mechanisms and brain units involved. Female sociality (which is more affiliative is related most closely to neocortex volume, but male sociality (which is more competitive and combative is more closely related to subcortical units (notably those associated with emotional responses. Thus different brain units have responded to different selection pressures.

  11. The consideration of emotional intelligence abilities in event volunteers

    Reza Andam

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of emotional intelligence abilities is one of the new subjects and important in human behavior studies. According to this matter, purpose of this research is consideration of emotional intelligence abilities in public sport events volunteers in 2011. For this purpose, Bradbury and Cruise's standard questionnaire was completed by present volunteers in event (n=80. The results indicated that 4 levels of emotional intelligence in volunteers are higher than expectational average significantly (p<0.01. Also, priority of emotional intelligence abilities indicated that self-awareness is first priority and social awareness, relationship management and self-management are second, third and fourth priorities in volunteers. Finally, in the basis of parameter, results stated that there is no difference between male and female volunteers emotional intelligence in first Olympia of public sport. According to results of present research and advantages of attention to emotional intelligence and human behavior in organizations, it recommended sport events managers to be more sensitive relative to human behavior abilities in human behavior abilities in human resource (volunteers under his management. At least, result of this meditation in student's sport is recruitment and development of motivated volunteers for continuous attendance in sport events.

  12. Sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprout extract improves hepatic abnormalities in male subjects

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Ushida, Yusuke; Shiozawa, Hirokazu; Umeda, Rumiko; Tsuruya, Kota; Aoki, Yudai; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Nishizaki, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate effects of dietary supplementation of sulforaphane (SF)-rich broccoli sprout (BS) extract on hepatic abnormalities in Japanese male participants. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind trial, male participants with fatty liver received either BS capsules containing glucoraphanin [GR; a precursor of SF (n = 24)] or placebo (n = 28) for 2 mo. Liver function markers, serum levels of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT, respectively) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP) and an oxidative stress marker, urinary levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), were measured and compared in participants before and after the trial period. In an animal model, chronic liver failure was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by successive intraperitoneal injection with N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) for 4 wk. Concomitantly, rats received AIN-76 diets supplemented with or without BS extract. Thereafter, rats were sacrificed, and their sera and livers were collected to measure serum liver function markers and hepatic levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels and hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, a prototypical phase 2 antioxidant enzyme. RESULTS: Dietary supplementation with BS extract containing SF precursor GR for 2 mo significantly decreased serum levels of liver function markers, ALT [median (interquartile range), before: 54.0 (34.5-79.0) vs after supplementation: 48.5 (33.3-65.3) IU/L, P NDMA-induced chronic liver failure in rats, which was attributable to the suppression of the increase in TBARS through induction of hepatic phase 2 antioxidant enzymes including hepatic GST (86.6 ± 95.2 vs 107.8 ± 7.7 IU/g, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Dietary supplementation with BS extract containing the SF precursor GR is likely to be highly effective in improving liver function through reduction of oxidative stress. PMID:26604653

  13. The subjective experience of using Ignatian meditation by male and female South African university students: an exploratory study.

    Efthimiadis-Keith, Helen; Lindegger, Graham

    2014-10-01

    This study is set out to examine the subjective experience of using the Ignatian method of meditation to reflect on and pray through Ruth 2. A group of male and female Theology students from the University of KwaZulu-Natal were invited to reflect upon/pray through Ruth 2 using Ignatian meditation. Following this exercise, participants were invited to participate in a focus group in which they shared their experience of this exercise, focusing particularly on some of the gendered aspects of the experience. The transcribed focus group material was subjected to a critical thematic analysis, in order to identify which core aspects of the experience of using this method of meditation and reflection were responsible for the reported subjective experiences. The analysis also included a comparison of the experience for men and women participating in this exercise, and the differential effect of various aspects of the exercise on men and women.

  14. Reproducibility of subjective appetite ratings and ad libitum test meal energy intake in overweight and obese males.

    Horner, Katy M; Byrne, Nuala M; King, Neil A

    2014-10-01

    To determine whether changes in appetite and energy intake (EI) can be detected and play a role in the effectiveness of interventions, it is necessary to identify their variability under normal conditions. We assessed the reproducibility of subjective appetite ratings and ad libitum test meal EI after a standardised pre-load in overweight and obese males. Fifteen overweight and obese males (BMI 30.3 ± 4.9 kg/m(2), aged 34.9 ± 10.6 years) completed two identical test days, 7 days apart. Participants were provided with a standardised fixed breakfast (1676 kJ) and 5 h later an ad libitum pasta lunch. An electronic appetite rating system was used to assess subjective ratings before and after the fixed breakfast, and periodically during the postprandial period. EI was assessed at the ad libitum lunch meal. Sample size estimates for paired design studies were calculated. Appetite ratings demonstrated a consistent oscillating pattern between test days, and were more reproducible for mean postprandial than fasting ratings. The correlation between ad libitum EI on the two test days was r = 0.78 (P appetite and ad libitum test meal EI in overweight and obese males is comparable to previous reports in normal weight adults. Sample size requirements for studies vary depending on the parameter of interest and sensitivity needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of toxic risk assessment of arsenic in male subjects through drinking water in southern Sindh Pakistan.

    Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Khan, Sumaira; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Shah, Faheem

    2011-11-01

    The arsenic (As) hazardous quotient was estimated based on concentration of As in drinking water and scalp hair of male subjects of two age groups (n=360) consuming As contaminated water at different levels and non-contaminated drinking water. The total As concentrations in drinking water of less-exposed (LE) and high-exposed (HE) areas was found to be 3- to 30-fold higher than the permissible limit of the World Health Organization (2004) for drinking water, while the levels of As in drinking water of non-exposed (NE) areas was within the permissible limit. The levels of As in scalp hair samples of male subjects of two age groups belonging to NE, LE, and HE areas ranged from 0.01 to 0.27, 0.11-1.31, and 0.36-6.80 μg/g, respectively. A significant correlation between As contents of drinking water and As concentration in scalp hair was observed in sub-district Gambit (r=0.825-0.852, p<0.001) as compared to those subjects belonging to LE sub-district Thari Mirwah. A toxicity risk assessment provides a hazard quotient corresponding to <10 that indicates non-carcinogenic exposure risk of understudy areas.

  16. Pharmacokinetic interaction of finasteride with tamsulosin hydrochloride: an open-label, randomized, 3-period crossover study in healthy Chinese male volunteers.

    Chu, Nannan; Xu, Hongrong; Wang, Guoqin; Wang, Jiangdian; Chen, Weili; Yuan, Fei; Yang, Mengjie; Li, Xuening

    2015-02-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate whether there was clinically significant pharmacokinetic (PK) interaction between finasteride and tamsulosin in healthy Chinese male subjects. This was an open-label, randomized, 3-period, crossover study. Subjects received single and multiple doses of 5 mg finasteride alone, single and multiple doses of 0.2 mg tamsulosin hydrochloride sustained-release capsule alone, and single and multiple doses of 5 mg finasteride with 0.2 mg tamsulosin hydrochloride, in an order determined by a computerized randomization schedule. Blood samples were collected up to 48 hours after dosing on study day 1 and up to 24 hours after dosing on study day 9 for determination of plasma concentrations with a validated LC-MS/MS method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated via noncompartmental methods. Tolerability was evaluated by monitoring adverse events, laboratory assays, vital signs, and 12-lead ECG. Fifteen subjects were enrolled, and 14 completed the study. The geometric mean ratios (GMRs) (90% CIs) of AUC(τ,ss) and C(max,ss) values of finasteride at steady state between coadministration of finasteride and tamsulosin hydrochloride and finasteride alone were 1.14 (1.05-1.23) and 1.06 (0.99-1.14), respectively. The GMRs (90% CIs) for AUC(0-t) and C(max) values of finasteride for a single dose of coadministration of finasteride and tamsulosin hydrochloride and finasteride alone were 1.02 (0.94-1.11) and 1.06 (1.01-1.11), respectively. The GMRs (90% CIs) for AUC(τ,ss) and C(max,ss) values of tamsulosin at steady-state for coadministration of finasteride and tamsulosin hydrochloride and tamsulosin hydrochloride alone were 1.18 (1.05-1.33) and 1.23 (1.06-1.43), respectively. The GMRs (90% CIs) for AUC(0-t) and C(max) values of tamsulosin for a single dose of coadministration of finasteride and tamsulosin hydrochloride and tamsulosin hydrochloride alone were 1.04 (0.97-1.10) and 1.04 (0.98-1.11), respectively. Statistical analyses

  17. Markers of bone resorption and calcium metabolism are related to dietary intake patterns in male and female bed rest subjects

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Hargens, A. r.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary potassium and protein intakes predict net endogenous acid production in humans. Intracellular buffers, including exchangeable bone mineral, play a crucial role in balancing chronic acid-base perturbations in the body; subsequently, chronic acid loads can potentially contribute to bone loss. Bone is lost during space flight, and a dietary countermeasure would be desirable for many reasons. We studied the ability of diet protein and potassium to predict levels of bone resorption markers in males and females. Identical twin pairs (8 M, 7 F) were assigned to 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, SED) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (EX). Diet was controlled for 3 d before and 30 d of bed rest (BR). Urinary Ca, N-telopeptide (NTX), and pyridinium crosslinks (PYD) were measured before and on days 5, 12, 19, and 26 of BR. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation (Pdietary animal protein/potassium intake was not correlated with NTX before BR for males or females, but they were positively correlated in both groups of males during bed rest. Dietary animal protein/potassium and urine Ca were correlated before and during bed rest for the males, and only during bed rest for the females. Conversely, the ratio of dietary vegetable protein/potassium intake was negatively correlated with urinary calcium during bed rest for the females, but there was no relationship between vegetable protein/potassium intake and bone markers for the males. These data suggest that the ratio of animal protein/potassium intake may affect bone, particularly in bed rest subjects. These data show that the type of protein and gender may be additional factors that modulate the effect of diet on bone metabolism during bed rest. Altering this ratio may help prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  18. Markers of bone resorption and calcium metabolism are related to dietary intake patterns in male and female bed rest subjects

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Hargens, A. r.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary potassium and protein intakes predict net endogenous acid production in humans. Intracellular buffers, including exchangeable bone mineral, play a crucial role in balancing chronic acid-base perturbations in the body; subsequently, chronic acid loads can potentially contribute to bone loss. Bone is lost during space flight, and a dietary countermeasure would be desirable for many reasons. We studied the ability of diet protein and potassium to predict levels of bone resorption markers in males and females. Identical twin pairs (8 M, 7 F) were assigned to 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, SED) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (EX). Diet was controlled for 3 d before and 30 d of bed rest (BR). Urinary Ca, N-telopeptide (NTX), and pyridinium crosslinks (PYD) were measured before and on days 5, 12, 19, and 26 of BR. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation (P<0.05). The ratio of dietary animal protein/potassium intake was not correlated with NTX before BR for males or females, but they were positively correlated in both groups of males during bed rest. Dietary animal protein/potassium and urine Ca were correlated before and during bed rest for the males, and only during bed rest for the females. Conversely, the ratio of dietary vegetable protein/potassium intake was negatively correlated with urinary calcium during bed rest for the females, but there was no relationship between vegetable protein/potassium intake and bone markers for the males. These data suggest that the ratio of animal protein/potassium intake may affect bone, particularly in bed rest subjects. These data show that the type of protein and gender may be additional factors that modulate the effect of diet on bone metabolism during bed rest. Altering this ratio may help prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  19. Effects of bedtime periocular and posterior cervical cutaneous warming on sleep status in adult male subjects: a preliminary study.

    Igaki, Michihito; Suzuki, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Ichiro; Ichiba, Tomohisa; Kuriyama, Kenichi; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2018-01-01

    Appropriate warming of the periocular or posterior cervical skin has been reported to induce autonomic or mental relaxation in humans. To clarify the effects of cutaneous warming on human sleep, eight male subjects with mild sleep difficulties were asked to try three experimental conditions at home, each lasting for 5 days, in a cross-over manner: warming of the periocular skin with a warming device for 10 min before habitual bedtime, warming of the posterior cervical skin with a warming device for 30 min before habitual bedtime, and no treatment as a control. The warming device had a heat- and steam-generating sheet that allowed warming of the skin to 40 °C through a chemical reaction with iron. Electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded during nocturnal sleep using an ambulatory EEG device and subjected to spectral analysis. All the participants reported their sleep status using a visual analog scale. We found that warming of the periocular or posterior cervical skin significantly improved subjective sleep status relative to the control. The EEG delta power density in the first 90 min of the sleep episode was significantly increased under both warming of the periocular or posterior cervical skin relative to the control. These results suggest that warming of appropriate skin regions may have favorable effects on subjective and objective sleep quality.

  20. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of verinurad, a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor, in healthy adult male subjects

    Shen Z

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Zancong Shen,1 Michael Gillen,2 Jeffrey N Miner,1 Gail Bucci,1 David M Wilson,1 Jesse W Hall1 1Ardea Biosciences, Inc., San Diego, CA, 2AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD, USA Purpose: Verinurad (RDEA3170 is a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor in clinical development for the treatment of gout and asymptomatic hyperuricemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of verinurad in healthy adult males.Subjects and methods: This was a Phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single and multiple ascending dose study. Panels of eight male subjects received a single oral dose of verinurad or placebo in either a fasted or fed state; panels of 10–12 male subjects received ascending doses of once-daily verinurad or placebo in a fasted state for 10 days. Serial blood and urine samples were assayed for verinurad and uric acid. Safety was assessed by adverse event (AE reports, laboratory tests, vital signs, and electrocardiograms (ECGs.Results: A total of 81 adult males completed the study. Following single doses of verinurad, maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax and area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC increased in a dose-proportional manner; Cmax occurred at 0.5–0.75 hours and 1.25 hours in the fasted and fed states, respectively. Food decreased AUC by 23% and Cmax by 37%-53%. There was a modest accumulation of verinurad following multiple daily doses. Verinurad reduced serum urate levels by up to 62% (40 mg, single dose and 61% (10 mg, multiple dose. The increase in urinary excretion of uric acid was greatest in the first 6 hours after dosing and was still evident ≥24 hours for verinurad doses ≥2 mg. Verinurad was well tolerated at all doses. No serious AEs, severe AEs, discontinuations due to AEs, or clinically significant laboratory or ECG abnormalities were reported.Conclusion: Single and multiple doses of verinurad were well tolerated

  1. Changes in salivary microbiota increase volatile sulfur compounds production in healthy male subjects with academic-related chronic stress.

    Bruno Dias Nani

    Full Text Available To investigate the associations among salivary bacteria, oral emanations of volatile sulfur compounds, and academic-related chronic stress in healthy male subjects.Seventy-eight healthy male undergraduate dental students were classified as stressed or not by evaluation of burnout, a syndrome attributed to academic-related chronic stress. This evaluation was carried out using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey questionnaire. Oral emanations of hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl sulfide were measured using an Oral Chroma™ portable gas chromatograph. The amounts in saliva of total bacteria and seven bacteria associated with halitosis were quantified by qPCR. The in vitro production of H2S by S. moorei and/or F. nucleatum was also measured with the Oral Chroma™ instrument.The stressed students group showed increased oral emanations of hydrogen sulfide and dimethyl sulfide, together with higher salivary Solobacterium moorei levels (p < 0.05, Mann Whitney test. There were moderate positive correlations between the following pairs of variables: Fusobacterium nucleatum and S. moorei; F. nucleatum and hydrogen sulfide; Tannerella forsythia and F. nucleatum; T. forsythia and S. moorei. These correlations only occurred for the stressed group (p < 0.05, Spearman correlation. The in vitro experiment demonstrated that S. moorei increased H2S production by F. nucleatum (p < 0.05, ANOVA and Tukey's test.The increased amount of S. moorei in saliva, and its coexistence with F. nucleatum and T. forsythia, seemed to be responsible for increased oral hydrogen sulfide in the healthy male stressed subjects.

  2. Main components and content of sports volunteer activities

    Петренко, Ірина

    2017-01-01

    Iryna PetrenkоPurpose: identification of the main structural components and content of sports volunteer activities. Material & Methods: used analysis of literature and documents, organizational analysis. Result: basic structural components of sports volunteer activity are defined. The content of sports volunteer activity is disclosed. Conclusion: sports volunteer activity includes the following structural components: subject, object, purpose, motivation, means, actions; subject is a sport...

  3. Male and female WorldSID and post mortem human subject responses in full-scale vehicle tests.

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Humm, John; Pintar, Frank; Rhule, Heather; Moorhouse, Kevin; Suntay, Brian; Stricklin, Jim; Rudd, Rodney; Craig, Matthew

    2017-05-29

    This study compares the responses of male and female WorldSID dummies with post mortem human subject (PMHS) responses in full-scale vehicle tests. Tests were conducted according to the FMVSS-214 protocols and using the U.S. Side Impact New Car Assessment Program change in velocity to match PMHS experiments, published earlier. Moving deformable barrier (MDB) tests were conducted with the male and female surrogates in the left front and left rear seats. Pole tests were performed with the male surrogate in the left front seat. Three-point belt restraints were used. Sedan-type vehicles were used from the same manufacturer with side airbags. The PMHS head was instrumented with a pyramid-shaped nine-axis accelerometer package, with angular velocity transducers on the head. Accelerometers and angular velocity transducers were secured to T1, T6, and T12 spinous processes and sacrum. Three chest bands were secured around the upper, middle, and lower thoraces. Dummy instrumentation included five infrared telescoping rods for assessment of chest compression (IR-TRACC) and a chest band at the first abdomen rib, head angular velocity transducer, and head, T1, T4, T12, and pelvis accelerometers. Morphological responses of the kinematics of the head, thoracic spine, and pelvis matched in both surrogates for each pair. The peak magnitudes of the torso accelerations were lower for the dummy than for the biological surrogate. The brain rotational injury criterion (BrIC) response was the highest in the male dummy for the MDB test and PMHS. The probability of AIS3+ injuries, based on the head injury criterion, ranged from 3% to 13% for the PMHS and from 3% to 21% for the dummy from all tests. The BrIC-based metrics ranged from 0 to 21% for the biological and 0 to 48% for the dummy surrogates. The deflection profiles from the IR-TRACC sensors were unimodal. The maximum deflections from the chest band placed on the first abdominal rib were 31.7 mm and 25.4 mm for the male and female

  4. Female and male adolescents' subjective orientations to mathematics and the influence of those orientations on postsecondary majors.

    Perez-Felkner, Lara; McDonald, Sarah-Kathryn; Schneider, Barbara; Grogan, Erin

    2012-11-01

    Although important strides toward gender parity have been made in several scientific fields, women remain underrepresented in the physical sciences, engineering, mathematics, and computer sciences (PEMCs). This study examines the effects of adolescents' subjective orientations, course taking, and academic performance on the likelihood of majoring in PEMC in college. Results indicate that racial-ethnic and gender underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are interrelated and should be examined with attention to the intersecting factors influencing female and racial-ethnic minority adolescents' pathways toward careers in these fields. Among those who major in PEMC fields, women closely resemble men with respect to their subjective orientations. The effects of subjective orientations on women's chances of majoring in PEMC vary by their secondary school mathematics course completion levels. Women who take more mathematics courses are more likely to major in PEMC; however, course taking alone does not attenuate gender disparities in declaring these majors. High mathematics ability (as measured by standardized test scores in the 10th grade) appears to be positively associated with women's selection of social, behavioral, clinical, and health science majors. This association is less robust (and slightly negative) for women in PEMC. While advanced course taking appears to assist women in selecting PEMC majors, women who enter these fields may not be as strong as those who select other, less male-dominated scientific fields.

  5. Effect of dietary fatty acids on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in healthy male subjects

    Bysted, Anette; Holmer, G.; Lund, Pia

    2005-01-01

    interesterified test fats with equal amounts of palmitic acid ( P fat), stearic acid (S fat), trans-18: 1 isomers (T fat), oleic acid (O fat), or linoleic acid (L fat) were tested. Subjects: A total of 16 healthy, normolipidaemic males ( age 23 +/- 2 y) were recruited. Interventions: The participants ingested fat......Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of trans-18: 1 isomers compared to other fatty acids, especially saturates, on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols ( TAG) in chylomicrons and VLDL. Design: A randomised crossover experiment where five......-rich test meals ( 1 g fat per kg body weight) and the fatty acid profiles of chylomicron and VLDL TAG were followed for 8 h. Results: The postprandial fatty acid composition of chylomicron TAG resembled that of the ingested fats. The fatty acids in chylomicron TAG were randomly distributed among the three...

  6. Growth responses of male broilers subjected to increasing air velocities at high ambient temperatures and a high dew point.

    Dozier, W A; Lott, B D; Branton, S L

    2005-06-01

    This study examined live performance responses of male broilers to increasing air velocity of 120 and 180 m/min reared under high cyclic temperatures (25-35-25 degrees C) with a 23 degrees C dew point from 21 to 49 d. Birds were reared in an environmental facility containing 2 wind tunnels (4 pens/tunnel) and 6 floor pens (control). At 21 d, 53 birds were placed in each pen of the wind tunnels and control group, respectively, and growth performance was determined weekly. Increasing air velocity from 120 to 180 m/min improved BW and BW gain from 29 to 35, 36 to 42, and 43 to 49 d of age leading to a cumulative advantage of 287 g in BW gain and a 10-point difference in feed conversion from 21 to 49 d of age. Subjecting birds to air velocity improved growth rate, feed consumption, and feed conversion at each weekly interval from 28 to 49 d over the control birds. These results indicate that male broilers approximating 2.0 to 3.0 kg respond to an air velocity of 180 m/min when exposed to high cyclic temperatures.

  7. Correlation of lithium levels between drinking water obtained from different sources and scalp hair samples of adult male subjects.

    Baloch, Shahnawaz; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Talpur, Farah Naz; Arain, Muhammad Balal

    2017-10-01

    There is some evidence that natural levels of lithium (Li) in drinking water may have a protective effect on neurological health. In present study, we evaluate the Li levels in drinking water of different origin and bottled mineral water. To evaluate the association between lithium levels in drinking water with human health, the scalp hair samples of male subjects (25-45 years) consumed drinking water obtained from ground water (GW), municipal treated water (MTW) and bottled mineral water (BMW) from rural and urban areas of Sindh, Pakistan were selected. The water samples were pre-concentrated five to tenfold at 60 °C using temperature-controlled electric hot plate. While scalp hair samples were oxidized by acid in a microwave oven, prior to determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The Li content in different types of drinking water, GW, MTW and BMW was found in the range of 5.12-22.6, 4.2-16.7 and 0.0-16.3 µg/L, respectively. It was observed that Li concentration in the scalp hair samples of adult males consuming ground water was found to be higher, ranged as 292-393 μg/kg, than those who are drinking municipal treated and bottle mineral water (212-268 and 145-208 μg/kg), respectively.

  8. Detection of Acetaldehyde in the Esophageal Tissue among Healthy Male Subjects after Ethanol Drinking and Subsequent L-Cysteine Intake.

    Okata, Hideki; Hatta, Waku; Iijima, Katsunori; Asanuma, Kiyotaka; Tsuruya, Atsuki; Asano, Naoki; Koike, Tomoyuki; Hamada, Shin; Nakayama, Toru; Masamune, Atsushi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2018-04-01

    Ethanol is oxidized by alcohol dehydrogenase to acetaldehyde, a recognized carcinogen for the esophagus. However, no previous study has measured the acetaldehyde levels in the esophageal tissue. L-cysteine has been shown to reduce the acetaldehyde levels in the saliva; however, it is unknown whether L-cysteine intake affects the acetaldehyde concentration in the esophageal tissue. The aim of this study was to measure the acetaldehyde concentration in the esophageal tissue after ethanol drinking and evaluate the effect of L-cysteine intake on the acetaldehyde levels in the esophagus. We enrolled 10 male subjects with active acetaldehyde dehydrogenase-2*1/*1 (ALDH2*1/*1) genotype and 10 male subjects with the inactive acetaldehyde dehydrogenase-2*1/*2 (ALDH2*1/*2) genotype, the mean ages of whom were 25.6 and 27.9 years, respectively. In this prospective, single-blind, placebo-controlled study using L-cysteine and placebo lozenges (first and second examination), saliva and blood were collected before and after ethanol drinking. Esophageal tissue was obtained by endoscopic biopsy at 60 minutes after drinking, and the acetaldehyde and ethanol concentrations were measured. The acetaldehyde concentration of the saliva was significantly lower in those taking L-cysteine than in those taking the placebo. Acetaldehyde in the esophageal tissue was detected only in those taking L-cysteine lozenges. There were no correlations between the acetaldehyde concentrations in the esophageal tissue and saliva or blood. In conclusion, we detected acetaldehyde in the human esophageal tissue after ethanol drinking. Unexpectedly, intake of L-cysteine lozenges appears to contribute to detection of acetaldehyde in the esophageal tissue.

  9. Pressure/cross-sectional area relations in the proximal urethra of healthy males: the time dependent pressure response following forced dilation. Part IV: results in healthy volunteers

    Bagi, Per; Bøtker-Rasmussen; Kristensen, Jørgen Kvist

    2002-01-01

    The significance of the anatomical location and age on the urethral response to a sudden forced dilation was studied in 30 healthy males aged 23-85 years. The pressure decay after dilation was fitted with a double exponential function of the form: P(t) = P(equ) + P(alpha)e(-t/tau(alpha) + P...

  10. Adolescentes como voluntários de pesquisa e consentimento livre e esclarecido: conhecimento e opinião de pesquisadores e jovens Adolescents as research subjects and free informed consent: knowledge and opinion of researchers and adolescents

    Fabiana Guariglia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresentam-se resultados de um estudo que avaliou o conhecimento e a opinião de pesquisadoras e jovens, que haviam sido sujeitos de suas pesquisas sobre as normas legais referentes à participação de adolescentes como sujeitos de pesquisa; a capacidade dos adolescentes decidirem de forma autônoma; e o processo vivenciado pelos adolescentes quando aceitaram serem sujeitos. O estudo foi qualitativo, com amostra intencional, definida pelo critério de saturação das informações. Entrevistaram-se três pesquisadores que tinham adolescentes como sujeitos de uma de suas pesquisas e nove destes jovens. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevista semidirigida, gravada. Todas as pesquisadoras conheciam algum documento legal relativo à participação de adolescentes como voluntários de pesquisa. As jovens surpreenderam-se, pois não sabiam da existência das mesmas, entretanto, as consideraram necessárias para proteger os adolescentes. Em geral, as pesquisadoras e as jovens consideraram que os adolescentes têm capacidade para decidir de forma autônoma participar como voluntários de pesquisa. As jovens afirmaram ter decidido sua participação conscientemente.This article presents the results of a study that evaluated the knowledge and opinions of researchers and adolescents that served as their research subjects on the legal norms that regulate the participation of the latter as research subjects, the capacity of adolescents to make autonomous decisions regarding participation, and the adolescent experience after agreeing to take part in a study. This was a qualitative study with a convenience sample, the size of which was defined by the criteria of informational redundancy. Interviews were conducted with three researchers who had used adolescents as research subjects and nine of these subjects. This number of interviews was sufficient to reach informational redundancy. Data was collected through recorded semi-structured interviews, with

  11. Effect of fluoxetine on the pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole: a two-treatment period study in healthy male subjects.

    Vlase, Laurian; Popa, Adina; Neag, Maria; Muntean, Dana; Leucuta, Sorin E

    2011-10-01

    Fluoxetine is an inhibitor of the main metabolizing enzymes of lansoprazole and could influence the pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole. The changes in lansoprazole pharmacokinetics could have clinical significance concerning the safety of the therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic interaction between fluoxetine and lansoprazole in healthy subjects. A dose of lansoprazole 30 mg, alone or in combination with fluoxetine 60 mg, was administered to 18 healthy male subjects in a two-treatment study design, separated by an 8-day period in which fluoxetine alone was administered as a single oral daily dose. Plasma concentrations of lansoprazole were determined during a 12-hour period following drug administration. Lansoprazole plasma concentrations were determined by a validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The pharmacokinetic parameters of lansoprazole were calculated using non-compartmental analysis. In the two periods of treatment, the mean maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) values were 817 ng/mL (lansoprazole alone) and 1370 ng/mL (lansoprazole in combination with fluoxetine after pre-treatment with fluoxetine for 8 days) [p lansoprazole and suggest that the observed interaction may be clinically significant, although its clinical relevance has yet to be confirmed.

  12. Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of DA-8031, a novel selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor for premature ejaculation in healthy male subjects

    Shin D

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dongseong Shin,1 SeungHwan Lee,2 Sojeong Yi,2 Seo Hyun Yoon,2 Joo-Youn Cho,2 Mi Young Bahng,3 In-Jin Jang,2 Kyung-Sang Yu2 1Clinical Trials Center, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon, 2Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, 3Department of Product Development, Dong-A ST, Seoul, Korea Objective: DA-8031 is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor under development for the treatment of premature ejaculation. This is the first-in-human study aimed at evaluating the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of DA-8031 and its metabolites (M1, M2, M4, and M5 in the plasma and urine after administration of a single oral dose in healthy male subjects.Methods: A dose block-randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single ascending dose study was conducted. Subjects received either placebo or a single dose of DA-8031 at 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, or 120 mg. DA-8031 and its four metabolites were analyzed in the plasma and urine for pharmacokinetic evaluation. The effect of genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome-P450 (CYP enzymes on the pharmacokinetics of DA-8031 was evaluated.Results: After a single dose, plasma DA-8031 reached the maximum concentration at a median of 2–3 h and was eliminated with terminal elimination half-life of 17.9–28.7 h. The mean renal clearance was 3.7–5.6 L/h. Dose-proportional pharmacokinetics was observed over the dose range of 20–80 mg. Among the metabolites, M4 had the greatest plasma concentration, followed by M5 and M1. Subjects with CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizer had significantly greater dose-normalized Cmax and AUC0–t of DA-8031 as well as smaller metabolic ratios than those subjects with CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer. The most common adverse events were nausea, dizziness, and headache, and no serious adverse events were reported.Conclusion: In conclusion, the systemic exposure of DA-8031 was increased proportionally to the dose within 20

  13. Becoming an Older Volunteer: A Grounded Theory Study

    Janet Witucki Brown

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This Grounded Theory study describes the process by which older persons “become” volunteers. Forty interviews of older persons who volunteered for Habitat for Humanity were subjected to secondary content analysis to uncover the process of “becoming” a volunteer. “Helping out” (core category for older volunteers occurs within the context of “continuity”, “commitment” and “connection” which provide motivation for volunteering. When a need arises, older volunteers “help out” physically and financially as health and resources permit. Benefits described as “blessings” of volunteering become motivators for future volunteering. Findings suggest that older volunteering is a developmental process and learned behavior which should be fostered in older persons by personally inviting them to volunteer. Intergenerational volunteering projects will allow older persons to pass on knowledge and skills and provide positive role modeling for younger volunteers.

  14. Becoming an Older Volunteer: A Grounded Theory Study

    Witucki Brown, Janet; Chen, Shu-li; Mefford, Linda; Brown, Allie; Callen, Bonnie; McArthur, Polly

    2011-01-01

    This Grounded Theory study describes the process by which older persons “become” volunteers. Forty interviews of older persons who volunteered for Habitat for Humanity were subjected to secondary content analysis to uncover the process of “becoming” a volunteer. “Helping out” (core category) for older volunteers occurs within the context of “continuity”, “commitment” and “connection” which provide motivation for volunteering. When a need arises, older volunteers “help out” physically and financially as health and resources permit. Benefits described as “blessings” of volunteering become motivators for future volunteering. Findings suggest that older volunteering is a developmental process and learned behavior which should be fostered in older persons by personally inviting them to volunteer. Intergenerational volunteering projects will allow older persons to pass on knowledge and skills and provide positive role modeling for younger volunteers. PMID:21994824

  15. Volunteering and Volunteers: Benefit-Cost Analyses

    Handy, Femida; Mook, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the phenomenon of volunteering from a benefit-cost perspective. Both the individual making a decision to volunteer and the organization making a decision to use volunteer labor face benefits and costs of their actions, yet these costs and benefits almost always remain unarticulated, perhaps because the common perception of…

  16. Why Volunteer? Understanding Motivations for Student Volunteering

    Holdsworth, Clare

    2010-01-01

    The profile of volunteering in English Higher Education (HE) has been enhanced in recent years through various initiatives that have not only funded activities, but have sought to expand the range of volunteering opportunities available to students and recognise the contribution that volunteering can make to students' employability. This expansion…

  17. 45 CFR 2553.44 - May cost reimbursements received by a RSVP volunteer be subject to any tax or charge, treated as...

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May cost reimbursements received by a RSVP... benefit payments or minimum wage laws. Cost reimbursements are not subject to garnishment, do not reduce... receive assistance from other programs? 2553.44 Section 2553.44 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to...

  18. Longitudinal measurements of total body water and body composition in healthy volunteers by online breath deuterium measurement and other near-subject methods

    Engel, B.; Španěl, Patrik; Smith, D.; Diskin, A. M.; Davis, S. J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 3 (2005), s. 99-106 ISSN 1479-456X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/00/0632 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : total body water * deuterium isotope dilution * FA-MS * bio-impendance Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  19. Bioequivalence of two film-coated tablets of imatinib mesylate 400 mg: a randomized, open-label, single-dose, fasting, two-period, two-sequence crossover comparison in healthy male South American volunteers.

    Parrillo-Campiglia, Susana; Ercoli, Mónica Cedres; Umpierrez, Ofelia; Rodríguez, Patricia; Márquez, Sara; Guarneri, Carolina; Estevez-Parrillo, Francisco T; Laurenz, Marilena; Estevez-Carrizo, Francisco E

    2009-10-01

    Imatinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has been established as a highly effective therapy for chronic myelogenous leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. A new generic, once-daily 400-mg tablet of imatinib has been developed by a pharmaceutical company in Argentina, where the regulatory standard for marketing authorization of an imatinib generic is in vitro dissolution testing. The aim of this study was to assess the bioequivalence of a new generic film-coated test tablet formulation versus a film-coated reference tablet formulation of imatinib 400 mg. The local manufacturer seeks to validate the in vitro performance of this new formulation with a bioequivalence study. A randomized, open-label, single-dose, fasting, 2-period, 2-sequence crossover design with a 2-week washout period was used in this study. The study population consisted of healthy male South American (Uruguayan) volunteers, who were assigned in a 1:1 ratio to a randomized sequence (test-reference or reference-test). In each period, the test or reference formulation was administered after an overnight fast. During the 72-hour follow-up period, participants were monitored for vital signs and symptoms. Blood samples were collected at 15 time points, including baseline, until 72 hours. Physical examination and laboratory tests (blood, urine) were repeated 1 week after study completion. A noncompartmental model was used to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of imatinib. The 90% CIs of the test/reference ratios for AUC(0-infinity) and C(max) were determined; the test and reference formulations were considered bioequivalent if the 90% CIs were between 0.80 and 1.25. Adverse events were assessed by a nurse who administered a questionnaire while the healthy volunteers were admitted in the unit. The bioequivalence study was conducted in 30 Uruguayan male volunteers. Demographic characteristics (mean [SD]) included age, 27.8 (6.5) years; weight, 71.2 (9.8) kg; height, 1.71 (0.09) m; and body

  20. Serotonin exerting protection of serum lipid pattern in male albino rat subjected to shot or intermittent whole body gamma irradiation

    El-Dighidy, E.A.M.; El-Kady, M.H.R.

    1995-01-01

    Certain cancer patients are subjected to varying levels of intermittent radiation delivered in certain cases as whole body exposure. Effective control of many haematological complications built up during radiation treatment would necessarily contribute to up-grading of cancer radiotherapy. In the present study, the effect of either shot or intermittent whole body gamma irradiation at cumulative dose levels up to 6 and 10 Gy, have been evaluated on the levels of total lipids and lipid fractions in blood serum of male albino rats. The pharmacological role of serotonin and its potential radioprotective capacity have been assessed on the serum lipid pattern. The results indicated generally significant increases in the levels of blood lipid fractions especially HDL-cholesterol. On the other hand, the level of LDL-cholesterol recorded a significant decrease on the third day post either shot or cumulative dose levels at 6 or 10 Gy and also post 4 successive doses of serotonin administration. The only exceptions were recorded in the case of LDL-cholesterol post administration of single dose of serotonin and serotonin prior to shot dose levels of 6 or 10 Gy. 2 tabs

  1. Relationship between Autonomic Markers of Heart Rate and Subjective Indicators of Recovery Status in Male, Elite Badminton Players

    Christo A. Bisschoff, Ben Coetzee, Michael R. Esco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of the study was to determine if heart rate variability (HRV, and heart rate recovery (HRR are related to several subjective indicators of recovery status (muscle soreness, hydration status, sleep quality and quantity as well as pre-competition mood states for different match periods in male, elite, African, singles badminton players. HRV and HRR were measured in twenty-two badminton players before (pre-match, during (in-match, after (post-match and during rest periods (in-match rest of 46 national and international matches. Muscle soreness, hydration status, and sleep quality and quantity were measured on a daily basis whereas mood states were measured just before each match via questionnaires. Prior to each match warm-up, players were fitted with a Fix Polar Heart Rate Transmitter Belt to record heart rate every second during each match and HRR during service breaks and after matches. Kubios HRV software was used for final HRV analyses from the series of R-R-intervals. A strong, significant canonical correlation (Rc = 0.96, p = 0.014 was found between HRV, HRR and subjective indicators of recovery status for the in-match period, but only strong, non-significant relationships were observed for pre-match (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.626 and post-match periods (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.085 and a low non-significant relationship (Rc = 0.69, p = 0.258 for the in-match rest period. Canonical functions accounted for between 47.89% and 96.43% of the total variation between the two canonical variants. Results further revealed that Ln-HFnu, the energy index and vigour were the most prominent variables in the relationship between the autonomic markers of heart rate and recovery-related variables. In conclusion, this study proved that subjective indicators of recovery status influence HRV and HRR measures obtained in a competitive badminton environment and should therefore be incorporated in protocols that evaluate these ANS-related parameters.

  2. Relationship between Autonomic Markers of Heart Rate and Subjective Indicators of Recovery Status in Male, Elite Badminton Players.

    Bisschoff, Christo A; Coetzee, Ben; Esco, Michael R

    2016-12-01

    The primary aim of the study was to determine if heart rate variability (HRV), and heart rate recovery (HRR) are related to several subjective indicators of recovery status (muscle soreness, hydration status, sleep quality and quantity as well as pre-competition mood states) for different match periods in male, elite, African, singles badminton players. HRV and HRR were measured in twenty-two badminton players before (pre-match), during (in-match), after (post-match) and during rest periods (in-match rest) of 46 national and international matches. Muscle soreness, hydration status, and sleep quality and quantity were measured on a daily basis whereas mood states were measured just before each match via questionnaires. Prior to each match warm-up, players were fitted with a Fix Polar Heart Rate Transmitter Belt to record heart rate every second during each match and HRR during service breaks and after matches. Kubios HRV software was used for final HRV analyses from the series of R-R-intervals. A strong, significant canonical correlation (Rc = 0.96, p = 0.014) was found between HRV, HRR and subjective indicators of recovery status for the in-match period, but only strong, non-significant relationships were observed for pre-match (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.626) and post-match periods (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.085) and a low non-significant relationship (Rc = 0.69, p = 0.258) for the in-match rest period. Canonical functions accounted for between 47.89% and 96.43% of the total variation between the two canonical variants. Results further revealed that Ln-HFnu, the energy index and vigour were the most prominent variables in the relationship between the autonomic markers of heart rate and recovery-related variables. In conclusion, this study proved that subjective indicators of recovery status influence HRV and HRR measures obtained in a competitive badminton environment and should therefore be incorporated in protocols that evaluate these ANS-related parameters.

  3. Two Phase 1, Open‐Label, Mass Balance Studies to Determine the Pharmacokinetics of 14C‐Labeled Isavuconazonium Sulfate in Healthy Male Volunteers

    Kato, Kota; Hale, Christine; Kowalski, Donna; Lademacher, Christopher; Yamazaki, Takao; Akhtar, Shahzad; Desai, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Isavuconazonium sulfate is the water‐soluble prodrug of the active triazole isavuconazole. Two phase 1 studies were conducted to identify the metabolic profile and mass balance of isavuconazole and BAL8728 (inactive cleavage product). Seven subjects in study 1 (isavuconazole mass balance) received a single oral dose of [cyano‐14C]isavuconazonium sulfate corresponding to 200 mg isavuconazole. Six subjects in study 2 (BAL8728 mass balance) received a single intravenous dose of [pyridinylmethyl‐14C]isavuconazonium sulfate corresponding to 75 mg BAL8728. Pharmacokinetic parameters of radioactivity in whole blood and plasma and of isavuconazole and BAL8728 in plasma were assessed. Radioactivity ratio of blood/plasma, percentage of dose, and cumulative percentage of radioactive dose recovered in urine and feces for isavuconazole and BAL8728 were assessed. Metabolic profiling was carried out by high‐performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mean plasma isavuconazole pharmacokinetic parameters included apparent clearance (2.3 ± 0.7 L/h), apparent volume of distribution (301.8 ± 105.7 L), and terminal elimination half‐life (99.9 ± 44.6 hours). In study 1, isavuconazole‐derived radioactivity was recovered approximately equally in urine and feces (46.1% and 45.5%, respectively). In study 2, BAL8728‐derived radioactivity was predominantly recovered in urine (96.0%). Isavuconazole (study 1) and M4 (cleavage metabolite of BAL8728; study 2) were the predominant circulating components of radioactivity in plasma. PMID:28750160

  4. Live performance of male broilers subjected to constant or increasing air velocities at moderate temperatures with a high dew point.

    Dozier, W A; Lott, B D; Branton, S L

    2005-08-01

    This study examined the effects of varying air velocities vs. a constant air velocity with a cyclic temperature curve of 25-30-25 degrees C and a dew point of 23 degrees C on broilers from 28 to 49 d of age. Four replicate trials were conducted. In each trial, 742 male broilers were randomly allocated to 6 floor pens or 2 air velocity tunnels, with each tunnel consisting of 4 pens. Bird density, feeder, and waterer space were similar across all pens (53 birds/ pen; 0.07 m2/bird). The treatments were control (still air), constant air velocity of 120 m/min, and increasing air velocity (90 m/min from 28 to 35 d, 120 m/min from 36 to 42 d, and 180 m/min from 43 to 49 d). Birds grown in a still air environment gained less weight, consumed less feed, and converted feed less efficiently between 28 and 49 d than birds subjected to moving air (constant or increasing). Growth responses between the air velocity treatments were similar from 28 to 35 and 36 to 42 d of age. Increasing air velocity to 180 m/min improved (P < or = 0.02) the growth rate of broilers from 43 to 49 d of age over birds receiving an air velocity of 120 m/min, but the incidence of mortality was not affected. These results provide evidence that increasing air velocity from 120 to 180 m/min is beneficial to broilers weighing 2.5 kg or greater when exposed to moderate temperatures.

  5. Endothelial mechanotransduction proteins and vascular function are altered by dietary sucrose supplementation in healthy young male subjects.

    Gliemann, Lasse; Rytter, Nicolai; Lindskrog, Mads; Slingsby, Martina H Lundberg; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Sylow, Lykke; Richter, Erik A; Hellsten, Ylva

    2017-08-15

    Mechanotransduction in endothelial cells is a central mechanism in the regulation of vascular tone and vascular remodelling Mechanotransduction and vascular function may be affected by high sugar levels in plasma because of a resulting increase in oxidative stress and increased levels of advanced glycation end-products (AGE). In healthy young subjects, 2 weeks of daily supplementation with 3 × 75 g of sucrose was found to reduce blood flow in response to passive lower leg movement and in response to 12 W of knee extensor exercise. This vascular impairment was paralleled by up-regulation of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, NADPH oxidase and Rho family GTPase Rac1 protein expression, an increased basal phosphorylation status of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and a reduced phosphorylation status of PECAM-1. There were no measurable changes in AGE levels. The findings of the present study demonstrate that daily high sucrose intake markedly affects mechanotransduction proteins and has a detrimental effect on vascular function. Endothelial mechanotransduction is important for vascular function but alterations and activation of vascular mechanosensory proteins have not been investigated in humans. In endothelial cell culture, simple sugars effectively impair mechanosensor proteins. To study mechanosensor- and vascular function in humans, 12 young healthy male subjects supplemented their diet with 3 × 75 g sucrose day -1 for 14 days in a randomized cross-over design. Before and after the intervention period, the hyperaemic response to passive lower leg movement and active knee extensor exercise was determined by ultrasound doppler. A muscle biopsy was obtained from the thigh muscle before and after acute passive leg movement to allow assessment of protein amounts and the phosphorylation status of mechanosensory proteins and NADPH oxidase. The sucrose intervention led to a reduced flow

  6. Comfortable Interpersonal Distance: Aspects of the Interpersonal Behaviour in a Sample of 16-Year-Old Subjects, Males and Females.

    Comunian, Anna Laura

    According to Duke and Newicki, the distance maintained by a subject towards an approach stimulus is closely related to the internal structures of his personality. The test puts the subject's projective personality and the perception that the group has of the subject into relief. Duke and Newiski's "Comfortable Interpersonal Distance"…

  7. [Study of genome instability using DNA fingerprinting of the offspring of male mice subjected to chronic low dose gamma irradiation].

    Bezlepkin, V G; Vasil'eva, G V; Lomaeva, M G; Sirota, N P; Gaziev, A I

    2000-01-01

    By a polymerase chain reaction with an arbitrary primer (AP-PCR), the possibility of transmission of genome instability to somatic cells of the offspring (F1 generation) from male parents of mice exposed to chronic low-level gamma-radiation was studied. Male BALB/c mice 15 days after exposure to 10-50 cGy were mated with unirradiated females. Biopsies were taken from tale tips of two month-old offspring mice and DNA was isolated. The primer in the AP-PCR was a 20-mer oligonucleotide flanking the microsatellite locus Atp1b2 on chromosome 11 of the mouse. A comparative analysis of individual fingerprints of AP-PCR products on DNA-templates from the offspring of irradiated and unirradiated male mice revealed an increased variability of microsatellite-associated sequences in the genome of the offspring of the males exposed to 25 and 50 cGy. The DNA-fingerprints of the offspring of male mice exposed to chronic irradiation with the doses 10 and 25 cGy 15 days before fertilization (at the post-meiotic stage of spermatogenesis) showed an increased frequency of "non-parent bands". The results of the study point to the possibility of transmission to the offspring somatic cells of changes increasing genome instability from male parents exposed to chronic low-level radiation prior to fertilization.

  8. Sexual affordances, perceptual-motor invariance extraction and intentional nonlinear dynamics: sexually deviant and non-deviant patterns in male subjects.

    Renaud, Patrice; Goyette, Mathieu; Chartier, Sylvain; Zhornitski, Simon; Trottier, Dominique; Rouleau, Joanne-L; Proulx, Jean; Fedoroff, Paul; Bradford, John-P; Dassylva, Benoit; Bouchard, Stephane

    2010-10-01

    Sexual arousal and gaze behavior dynamics are used to characterize deviant sexual interests in male subjects. Pedophile patients and non-deviant subjects are immersed with virtual characters depicting relevant sexual features. Gaze behavior dynamics as indexed from correlation dimensions (D2) appears to be fractal in nature and significantly different from colored noise (surrogate data tests and recurrence plot analyses were performed). This perceptual-motor fractal dynamics parallels sexual arousal and differs from pedophiles to non-deviant subjects when critical sexual information is processed. Results are interpreted in terms of sexual affordance, perceptual invariance extraction and intentional nonlinear dynamics.

  9. Plasma and urine profiles of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and its metabolites 11-hydroxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol after cannabis smoking by male volunteers to estimate recent consumption by athletes.

    Brenneisen, Rudolf; Meyer, Pascale; Chtioui, Haithem; Saugy, Martial; Kamber, Matthias

    2010-04-01

    Since 2004, cannabis has been prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency for all sports competitions. In the years since then, about half of all positive doping cases in Switzerland have been related to cannabis consumption. In doping urine analysis, the target analyte is 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH), the cutoff being 15 ng/mL. However, the wide urinary detection window of the long-term metabolite of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) does not allow a conclusion to be drawn regarding the time of consumption or the impact on the physical performance. The purpose of the present study on light cannabis smokers was to evaluate target analytes with shorter urinary excretion times. Twelve male volunteers smoked a cannabis cigarette standardized to 70 mg THC per cigarette. Plasma and urine were collected up to 8 h and 11 days, respectively. Total THC, 11-hydroxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-OH), and THC-COOH were determined after hydrolysis followed by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The limits of quantitation were 0.1-1.0 ng/mL. Eight puffs delivered a mean THC dose of 45 mg. Plasma levels of total THC, THC-OH, and THC-COOH were measured in the ranges 0.2-59.1, 0.1-3.9, and 0.4-16.4 ng/mL, respectively. Peak concentrations were observed at 5, 5-20, and 20-180 min. Urine levels were measured in the ranges 0.1-1.3, 0.1-14.4, and 0.5-38.2 ng/mL, peaking at 2, 2, and 6-24 h, respectively. The times of the last detectable levels were 2-8, 6-96, and 48-120 h. Besides high to very high THC-COOH levels (245 +/- 1,111 ng/mL), THC (3 +/- 8 ng/mL) and THC-OH (51 +/- 246 ng/mL) were found in 65 and 98% of cannabis-positive athletes' urine samples, respectively. In conclusion, in addition to THC-COOH, the pharmacologically active THC and THC-OH should be used as target analytes for doping urine analysis. In the case of light cannabis use, this may allow the estimation of more recent consumption, probably influencing

  10. Kinetics of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in blood and of DEHP metabolites in urine of male volunteers after single ingestion of ring-deuterated DEHP

    Kessler, Winfried, E-mail: kessler@helmholtz-muenchen.de [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Numtip, Wanwiwa [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Völkel, Wolfgang; Seckin, Elcim [Department of Chemical Safety and Toxicology, Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority, Pfarrstrasse 3, D-80538 München (Germany); Csanády, György A. [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Institut für Toxikologie und Umwelthygiene, Technische Universität München, München (Germany); Pütz, Christian [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); and others

    2012-10-15

    The plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is suspected to induce antiandrogenic effects in men via its metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). However, there is only little information on the kinetic behavior of DEHP and its metabolites in humans. The toxikokinetics of DEHP was investigated in four male volunteers (28–61 y) who ingested a single dose (645 ± 20 μg/kg body weight) of ring-deuterated DEHP (DEHP-D{sub 4}). Concentrations of DEHP-D{sub 4}, of free ring-deuterated MEHP (MEHP-D{sub 4}), and the sum of free and glucuronidated MEHP-D{sub 4} were measured in blood for up to 24 h; amounts of the monoesters MEHP-D{sub 4}, ring-deuterated mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate and ring-deuterated mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate were determined in urine for up to 46 h after ingestion. The bioavailability of DEHP-D{sub 4} was surprisingly high with an area under the concentration-time curve until 24 h (AUC) amounting to 50% of that of free MEHP-D{sub 4}. The AUC of free MEHP-D{sub 4} normalized to DEHP-D{sub 4} dose and body weight (AUC/D) was 2.1 and 8.1 times, that of DEHP-D{sub 4} even 50 and 100 times higher than the corresponding AUC/D values obtained earlier in rat and marmoset, respectively. Time courses of the compounds in blood and urine of the volunteers oscillated widely. Terminal elimination half-lives were short (4.3–6.6 h). Total amounts of metabolites in 22-h urine are correlated linearly with the AUC of free MEHP-D{sub 4} in blood, the parameter regarded as relevant for risk assessment. -- Highlights: ► After DEHP intake, DEHP and MEHP in blood show oscillating time courses. ► Dose-related blood levels of DEHP are 50 times higher in humans than in rats. ► Dose-related blood levels of free MEHP are 2 times higher in humans than in rats. ► Elimination of DEHP and its metabolites is short with half-lives of 4.3-6.6 h.

  11. Volunteering, income and health.

    Detollenaere, Jens; Willems, Sara; Baert, Stijn

    2017-01-01

    Separate literatures have related volunteering to health gains and income gains. We study the association between volunteering, income and health within one statistical framework. A state-of-the-art mediation analysis is conducted on data concerning the health, volunteering and sociodemographic characteristics of 42926 individuals within 29 European countries. We find that volunteering is positively associated to self-rated health. This association is partially mediated by household income.

  12. Intergenerational Transmission of Volunteering

    Bekkers, René

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I investigate the strength of intergenerational transmission of volunteering for non-profit associations in The Netherlands. Data from the Family Survey of the Dutch Population 2000 reveal that there are significant relations between current volunteering and parental volunteering in

  13. Volunteering and Organizational Diversity

    Henriksen, Lars Skov; Rosdahl, David

    2008-01-01

    volunteering within the three major welfare fields: social service, health, and education. It could be argued that this is a more heterogeneous type of volunteering, because some volunteers work in ‘service organizations' aiming at particular client groups (battered women, homeless, elderly people etc.) while...

  14. THE STUDY OF SELF-CONCEPT BETWEEN VOLUNTEER AND NON-VOLUNTEER STUDENTS IN SPORT OF UNIVERSITIES

    Reza Andam

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding personality characteristics of volunteers are important for their recruitment and retention in sport associations. This study compared self-concept as a personality characteristic between volunteer and non-volunteer students in sport associations. The method of this research was survey and descriptive. The statistical population consisted of volunteer and non-volunteer students in sport associations of Iran universities. Two hundred and fifty two students (120 volunteers and 132 non-volunteers from 10 universities were selected as subjects by using random clustered sampling method. Pyryt and Mandaglio Self Perceived Survey (PMSPS was used to collect the data. The content and face reliability of questionnaire was checked and confirmed. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used to test the reliability of the questionnaire (alfa=0.90. Independent t test and U Mann-Whitney test were used for comparison of the factors between volunteers and non-volunteers. Findings of this study indicated that there was a significant difference between volunteer and non-volunteer students in social and athletic self-concept. The mean of scientific and value factors were higher in volunteers than non-volunteers, however, they were not statistically significant. We concluded that the nature of sport (active and sport volunteering (social encourage students who have higher self-concept for volunteering. Moreover, the characteristics of sport associations can increase self-concept in sport volunteers.

  15. Blood pressure-lowering effects of beetroot juice and novel beetroot-enriched bread products in normotensive male subjects.

    Hobbs, Ditte A; Kaffa, Nedi; George, Trevor W; Methven, Lisa; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2012-12-14

    A number of vegetables have a high nitrate content which after ingestion can be reduced to nitrite by oral bacteria, and further to vasoprotective NO endogenously. In the present study, two separate randomly controlled, single-blind, cross-over, postprandial studies were performed in normotensive volunteers. Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) was measured over a 24 h period following consumption of either four doses of beetroot juice (BJ), 0, 100, 250 and 500 g (n 18), or three bread products, control bread (0 g beetroot), red beetroot- and white beetroot-enriched breads (n 14). Total urinary nitrate/nitrite (NO(x)) was measured at baseline, and at 2, 4 and 24 h post-ingestion. BJ consumption significantly, and in a near dose-dependent manner, lowered systolic BP (SBP, P bread products enriched with 100 g red or white beetroot lowered SBP and DBP over a period of 24 h (red beetroot-enriched bread, P varieties. Total urinary NO(x) significantly increased following the consumption of 100 g (P bread ingestion (P bread compared with the no-beetroot condition. These studies demonstrated significant hypotensive effects of a low dose (100 g) of beetroot which was unaffected by processing or the presence of betacyanins. These data strengthen the evidence for cardioprotective BP-lowering effects of dietary nitrate-rich vegetables.

  16. The Effect of Exogenous GLP-1 on Food Intake is Lost in Male Truncally Vagotomized Subjects with Pyloroplasty

    Plamboeck, Astrid; Veedfald, Simon; Deacon, Carolyn F

    2013-01-01

    . Subjects received GLP-1 (7-36 amide) or saline infusions during and after a standardized liquid mixed meal and a subsequent ad libitum meal. Despite no effect on appetite sensations, GLP-1 significantly reduced ad libitum food intake in the control group, but had no effect in the vagotomized group. Gastric...... with pyloroplasty impairs the effects of exogenous GLP-1 on food intake, gastric emptying, insulin and glucagon secretion, suggesting that intact vagal innervation may be important for GLP-1's actions....... emptying was accelerated in vagotomized subjects and was decreased by GLP-1 in controls but not in vagotomized subjects. Postprandial glucose levels were reduced by the same percentage by GLP-1 in both groups. Peak postprandial GLP-1 levels were ~5-fold higher in the vagotomized subjects. Insulin secretion...

  17. Volunteers in Sport Organizations

    VESNA CILERDZIC

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is done in order to describe student’s attitudes on volunteering in sport. The sample consists of 231 students from Serbia, average age 21,06±3,12years. They were from eight colleges and faculties. For nominal and ordinal variables, frequencies were determined. Many of examined students have volunteering experiences. The results confirm that students believe that we live in a society which his generally thought only to its own benefit; they think that volunteering can not solve the problems in society; that people do not have enough experience with volunteering and people do not have time to volunteering; volunteering is for young people; in their family and among friends, there are no volunteers; everyone could be volunteer only if that wishes; do not believe that volunteering is a waste of time and it helps in future career. The prevalent number of students, regardless of the Faculty which they belong, rarely volunteered in areas outside of sport. Results also shows that students from sport faculties have less experience in volunteering in sport than students from other faculties, but this difference is not dramatic.

  18. TWEAK Receptor Deficiency Has Opposite Effects on Female and Male Mice Subjected to Neonatal Hypoxia–Ischemia

    Anton Kichev

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK is a multifunctional cytokine member of the TNF family. TWEAK binds to its only known receptor, Fn14, enabling it to activate downstream signaling processes in response to tissue injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of TWEAK signaling in neonatal hypoxia–ischemia (HI. We found that after neonatal HI, both TWEAK and Fn14 expression were increased to a greater extent in male compared with female mice. To assess the role of TWEAK signaling after HI, the size of the injury was measured in neonatal mice genetically deficient in Fn14 and compared with their wild-type and heterozygote littermates. A significant sex difference in the Fn14 knockout (KO animals was observed. Fn14 gene KO was beneficial in females; conversely, reducing Fn14 expression exacerbated the brain injury in male mice. Our findings indicate that the TWEAK/Fn14 pathway is critical for development of hypoxic–ischemic brain injury in immature animals. However, as the responses are different in males and females, clinical implementation depends on development of sex-specific therapies.

  19. Histopathological and Reproductive Evaluation in Male Rats Fed Jatropha curcas Seed Cake with or without Alkaline Hydrolysis and Subjected to Heat Treatment

    Teixeira Sousa Moura, Laiane; Palomaris Mariano Souza, Domenica; Mendon?a, Simone; de Aquino Ribeiro, Jos? Ant?nio; Fernandes Sousa, Luciano; Tony Ramos, Adriano; Maiorka, Paulo C?sar; de Ara?jo, Vera L?cia; Mayumi Maruo, Viviane

    2017-01-01

    Jatropha curcas cake, a by-product of biodiesel production, is rich in protein and has potential to be used in livestock feed; however, the presence of antinutritional factors and phorbol esters limits its use. Thus, this study investigated toxicological and reproductive effects in male Wistar rats after subchronic exposure to J. curcas cake subjected to detoxification procedures. Rats were divided into seven groups (n = 10) and treated for 60 days. The control group received commercial feed,...

  20. Social isolation-induced aggression potentiates anxiety and depressive-like behavior in male mice subjected to unpredictable chronic mild stress.

    Xian-cang Ma

    Full Text Available Accumulating epidemiological evidence shows that life event stressors are major vulnerability factors for psychiatric diseases such as major depression. It is also well known that social isolation in male mice results in aggressive behavior. However, it is not known how social isolation-induced aggression affects anxiety and depressive-like behavior in isolated male mice subjected to unpredictable chronic mild stress (CMS, an animal model of depression.C57/B6 male mice were divided into 3 groups; non-stressed controls, in Group I; isolated mice subjected to the CMS protocol in Group II and aggression by physical contact in socially isolated mice subjected to the CMS protocol in Group III. In the sucrose intake test, ingestion of a 1% sucrose solution by mice in Groups II and III was significantly lower than in Group I. Furthermore, intake of this solution in Group III mice was significantly lower than in Group II mice. In the open field test, mice in Group III, showed reduced locomotor activity and reduced entry and retention time in the central zone, compared to Groups I and II mice. Moreover, the distances moved in 1 hour by Group III mice did not differ between night and morning. In the light/black box test, Groups II and III animals spent significantly less time in the light box compared to Group I animals. In the tail suspension test (TST and forced swimming test (FST, the immobility times of Group II and Group III mice were significantly longer than in Group I mice. In addition, immobility times in the FST were significantly longer in Group III than in Group II mice.These findings show that social isolation-induced aggression could potentiate anxiety and depressive-like behaviors in isolated male mice subjected to CMS.

  1. Female and Male Adolescents' Subjective Orientations to Mathematics and the Influence of Those Orientations on Postsecondary Majors

    Perez-Felkner, Lara; McDonald, Sarah-Kathryn; Schneider, Barbara; Grogan, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Although important strides toward gender parity have been made in several scientific fields, women remain underrepresented in the physical sciences, engineering, mathematics, and computer sciences (PEMCs). This study examines the effects of adolescents' subjective orientations, course taking, and academic performance on the likelihood of majoring…

  2. X-linked retinoschisis: RS1 mutation severity and age affect the ERG phenotype in a cohort of 68 affected male subjects.

    Bowles, Kristen; Cukras, Catherine; Turriff, Amy; Sergeev, Yuri; Vitale, Susan; Bush, Ronald A; Sieving, Paul A

    2011-11-29

    To assess the effect of age and RS1 mutation on the phenotype of X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) subjects using the clinical electroretinogram (ERG) in a cross-sectional analysis. Sixty-eight XLRS males 4.5 to 55 years of age underwent genotyping, and the retinoschisis (RS1) mutations were classified as less severe (27 subjects) or more severe (41 subjects) based on the putative impact on the protein. ERG parameters of retinal function were analyzed by putative mutation severity with age as a continuous variable. The a-wave amplitude remained greater than the lower limit of normal (mean, -2 SD) for 72% of XLRS males and correlated with neither age nor mutation class. However, b-wave and b/a-ratio amplitudes were significantly lower in the more severe than in the less severe mutation groups and in older than in younger subjects. Subjects up to 10 years of age with more severe RS1 mutations had significantly greater b-wave amplitudes and faster a-wave trough implicit times than older subjects in this group. RS1 mutation putative severity and age both had significant effects on retinal function in XLRS only in the severe mutation group, as judged by ERG analysis of the b-wave amplitude and the b/a-ratio, whereas the a-wave amplitude remained normal in most. A new observation was that increasing age (limited to those aged 55 and younger) caused a significant delay in XLRS b-wave onset (i.e., a-wave implicit time), even for those who retained considerable b-wave amplitudes. The delayed b-wave onset suggested that dysfunction of the photoreceptor synapse or of bipolar cells increases with age of XLRS subjects.

  3. Psychosocial job quality, mental health, and subjective wellbeing: a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline wave of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health.

    LaMontagne, Anthony D; Milner, Allison; Krnjacki, Lauren; Schlichthorst, Marisa; Kavanagh, Anne; Page, Kathryn; Pirkis, Jane

    2016-10-31

    Employment status and working conditions are strong determinants of male health, and are therefore an important focus in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men). In this paper, we describe key work variables included in Ten to Men, and present analyses relating psychosocial job quality to mental health and subjective wellbeing at baseline. A national sample of males aged 10 to 55 years residing in private dwellings was drawn using a stratified multi-stage cluster random sample design. Data were collected between October 2013 and July 2014 for a cohort of 15,988 males, representing a response fraction of 35 %. This analysis was restricted to 18-55 year old working age participants (n = 13,456). Work-related measures included employment status, and, for those who were employed, a number of working conditions including an ordinal scale of psychosocial job quality (presence of low job control, high demand and complexity, high job insecurity, and low fairness of pay), and working time-related stressors such as long working hours and night shift work. Associations between psychosocial job quality and two outcome measures, mental ill-health and subjective wellbeing, were assessed using multiple linear regression. The majority of participants aged 18-55 years were employed at baseline (85.6 %), with 8.4 % unemployed and looking for work, and 6.1 % not in the labour force. Among employed participants, there was a high prevalence of long working hours (49.9 % reported working more than 40 h/week) and night shift work (23.4 %). Psychosocial job quality (exposure to 0/1/2/3+ job stressors) prevalence was 36 %/ 37 %/ 20 %/ and 7 % of the working respondents. There was a dose-response relationship between psychosocial job quality and each of the two outcome measures of mental health and subjective wellbeing after adjusting for potential confounders, with higher magnitude associations between psychosocial job quality and subjective wellbeing

  4. Psychosocial job quality, mental health, and subjective wellbeing: a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline wave of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health

    Anthony D. LaMontagne

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Employment status and working conditions are strong determinants of male health, and are therefore an important focus in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men. In this paper, we describe key work variables included in Ten to Men, and present analyses relating psychosocial job quality to mental health and subjective wellbeing at baseline. Methods A national sample of males aged 10 to 55 years residing in private dwellings was drawn using a stratified multi-stage cluster random sample design. Data were collected between October 2013 and July 2014 for a cohort of 15,988 males, representing a response fraction of 35 %. This analysis was restricted to 18–55 year old working age participants (n = 13,456. Work-related measures included employment status, and, for those who were employed, a number of working conditions including an ordinal scale of psychosocial job quality (presence of low job control, high demand and complexity, high job insecurity, and low fairness of pay, and working time-related stressors such as long working hours and night shift work. Associations between psychosocial job quality and two outcome measures, mental ill-health and subjective wellbeing, were assessed using multiple linear regression. Results The majority of participants aged 18–55 years were employed at baseline (85.6 %, with 8.4 % unemployed and looking for work, and 6.1 % not in the labour force. Among employed participants, there was a high prevalence of long working hours (49.9 % reported working more than 40 h/week and night shift work (23.4 %. Psychosocial job quality (exposure to 0/1/2/3+ job stressors prevalence was 36 %/ 37 %/ 20 %/ and 7 % of the working respondents. There was a dose–response relationship between psychosocial job quality and each of the two outcome measures of mental health and subjective wellbeing after adjusting for potential confounders, with higher magnitude associations

  5. Association of insertion/deletion polymorphism of angiotensin-converting enzyme gene among Malay male hypertensive subjects in response to ACE inhibitors.

    Heidari, Farzad; Vasudevan, Ramachandran; Mohd Ali, Siti Zubaidah; Ismail, Patimah; Etemad, Ali; Pishva, Seyyed Reza; Othman, Fauziah; Abu Bakar, Suhaili

    2015-12-01

    Several studies show that the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been associated with hypertension in various populations. The present study sought to determine the association of the I/D gene polymorphism among Malay male essential hypertensive subjects in response to ACE inhibitors (enalapril and lisinopril). A total of 72 patients with newly diagnosed hypertension and 72 healthy subjects were recruited in this study. Blood pressure was recorded from 0 to 24 weeks of treatment with enalapril or lisinopril. Genotyping of the I/D polymorphism was carried out using a standard PCR method. Statistically significant association of the D allele of the ACE gene was observed between the case and control subjects (p ACE gene. Patients carrying the DD genotype had higher blood pressure-lowering response when treated with ACE inhibitors enalapril or lisinopril than those carrying ID and II genotypes, suggesting that the D allele may be a possible genetic marker for essential hypertension among Malay male subjects. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Sensation seeking amongst healthy volunteers participating in phase I clinical trials.

    Farré, M; Lamas, X; Camí, J

    1995-01-01

    1. Phase I clinical trials are usually carried out in healthy volunteers. In addition to economic gain, factors that may influence willingness to participate include scientific interest, curiosity and choice for risky activities. 2. We assessed the relationship between personality variables and volunteering for clinical pharmacology research. Two personality questionnaires, the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS, form V) and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), were administered to 48 male healthy university students who volunteered to participate in a phase I clinical trial and to 43 male university students who were not willing to participate in phase I clinical trials. General norm data were also used for the comparison of results. 3. When healthy volunteers were compared with unwilling subjects, significant differences were found in thrill-and-adventure seeking (7.9 vs 6.7, P = 0.0034), experience seeking (6.4 vs 5.2, P = 0.0012), disinhibition (6.2 vs 4.3, P personality profile of healthy volunteers was characterized by a higher sensation seeking trait and extraversion as compared with individuals who were not willing to participate in phase I clinical trials and general norm data. PMID:7640147

  7. Reflections: Volunteering at Home.

    Hu, Amanda

    2016-08-01

    Many young people look forward to volunteering abroad and overlook the ample volunteer opportunities at home. There are several advantages to volunteering at home: you help people in your own community; you can make a long-term commitment; and you have continuity of care for your patients. There are >1200 free clinics in the United States whose main goal is to provide care to the indigent population. These free clinics are always looking for volunteers with specialized medical training. This article reviews the medically related and unrelated volunteer opportunities available in the United States. Volunteering at home is a worthwhile experience, and I encourage the otolaryngology community to explore these opportunities. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  8. Phenotypic heterogeneity and mutational spectrum in a cohort of 45 Italian males subjects with X-linked ectodermal dysplasia.

    Guazzarotti, L; Tadini, G; Mancini, G E; Giglio, S; Willoughby, C E; Callea, M; Sani, I; Nannini, P; Mameli, C; Tenconi, A A; Mauri, S; Bottero, A; Caimi, A; Morelli, M; Zuccotti, G V

    2015-04-01

    Ectodermal dysplasias (EDs) are a group of genetic disorders characterized by the abnormal development of the ectodermal-derived structures. X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, resulting from mutations in ED1 gene, is the most common form. The main purpose of this study was to characterize the phenotype spectrum in 45 males harboring ED1 mutations. The study showed that in addition to the involvement of the major ectodermal tissues, the majority of patients also have alterations of several minor ectodermal-derived structures. Characterizing the clinical spectrum resulting from ED1 gene mutations improves diagnosis and can direct clinical care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. [Burnout in volunteer health workers].

    Argentero, P; Bonfiglio, N S; Pasero, R

    2006-01-01

    While diverse studies carried out in nursing and medical personnel have demonstrated that health workers can be subject to burnout, little effort has been focused on investigating burnout in volunteer hospital workers. The aim of the present study was to verify if burnout exists with volunteer auxiliary personnel and investigate what organizational conditions may favour it. The study was carried out on 80 volunteer workers of the Red Cross of Mortara (PV), subdivided into two categories: those performing emergency interventions and those performing routine services. For the evaluation of burnout, the Italian version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory was used, together with a qualitative type of methodology. A 5-factor multivariate analysis (sex x shift x team x seniority x role), having as dependent variables the three scales of the MBI, showed that the highest values of depersonalization and fulfillment are found in the emergency team, and that subjects with least seniority are those who are least satisfied or fulfilled. The category of team-leader resulted as that with the highest values of emotional burnout, while sex- and shift-based differences were restricted to routine service workers. Despite these differences, findings showed that subjects are minimally affected by problems linked to burnout, although some relational and organizational difficulties emerged with the medical staff that underlie a certain degree of professional dissatisfaction.

  10. Pyridostigmine bromide and the long-term subjective health status of a sample of over 700 male Reserve Component Gulf War era veterans.

    Schumm, Walter R; Reppert, Earl J; Jurich, Anthony P; Bollman, Stephan R; Webb, Farrell J; Castelo, Carlos S; Stever, James C; Kaufman, Mark; Deng, Liang-Yu; Krehbiel, Michelle; Owens, Barbara L; Hall, Carolyn A; Brown, Beverlyn F Cay; Lash, Jeanne F; Fink, Carol J; Crow, Janet R; Bonjour, Gabriele N

    2002-06-01

    Data from a 1996-1997 survey of approximately 700 Reserve Component male veterans indicate that the consumption of pyridostigmine bromide pills, used as a pretreatment for potential exposure to the nerve agent Soman, was a significant predictor of declines in reported subjective health status after the war, even after controlling for a number of other possible factors. Reported reactions to vaccines and other medications also predicted declines in subjective health. While higher military rank generally predicted better health during and after the war, educational attainment, minority status, number of days in theater, and age generally did not predict changes in subjective health. Although servicemembers were directed to take three pills a day, veterans reported a range of compliance--less than a fourth (24%) followed the medical instructions compared to 61% who took fewer than three pills daily and 6% who took six or more pills a day. Implications for use of pyridostigmine bromide are discussed.

  11. A Comparison of Objective and Subjective Stress in Homogeneous Male and Female Teams in a Mars Simulation

    Bishop, S.; Sundaresan, A.

    Introduction The role of stress and its impact on coping performance motivation behavior cognitive functioning and psychological well-being has become a key focus for long duration missions Since all extreme environments are characterized by significant physical demands e g skiing climbing EVAs as well as inescapable environmental characteristics e g imminent danger noise isolation confinement loss of normal sensory stimuli an examination of the impact of prolong stress in analogue environments should provide insight into developing effective support and countermeasures for long duration space crews The presence of even low levels of chronic stressors if not met with functional adaptation and or countermeasures has been shown to produce subjective symptoms of stress persistent performance incompetence accelerated fatiguability altered mood states increased rate of infections and decrements in attention and cognitive Gender has been shown to cut across both individual factors and group factors including response to stress and ways of coping Generally men and women differ in many arenas such as interaction and communication styles need for affiliation responses to crowding privacy and confined spaces Men and women in homogeneous groups interact in significantly different ways than those in mixed groups Therefore differences between genders on subjective and objective responses to stress are of interest The Mars Society Utah Desert Simulation MDRS facility provides a unique opportunity to examine the interaction of

  12. Markers of bone resorption and calcium metabolism are related to dietary intake patterns in male and female bed rest subjects

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Hargens, A. r.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary potassium and protein intakes predict net endogenous acid production in humans. Intracellular buffers, including exchangeable bone mineral, play a crucial role in balancing chronic acid-base perturbations in the body; subsequently, chronic acid loads can potentially contribute to bone loss. Bone is lost during space flight, and a dietary countermeasure would be desirable for many reasons. We studied the ability of diet protein and potassium to predict levels of bone resorption markers in males and females. Identical twin pairs (8 M, 7 F) were assigned to 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, SED) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (EX). Diet was controlled for 3 d before and 30 d of bed rest (BR). Urinary Ca, N-telopeptide (NTX), and pyridinium crosslinks (PYD) were measured before and on days 5, 12, 19, and 26 of BR. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation (Pdiet on bone metabolism during bed rest. Altering this ratio may help prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  13. Effects of Food on the Pharmacokinetics of Omega-3-Carboxylic Acids in Healthy Japanese Male Subjects: A Phase I, Randomized, Open-label, Three-period, Crossover Trial.

    Shimada, Hitoshi; Nilsson, Catarina; Noda, Yoshinori; Kim, Hyosung; Lundström, Torbjörn; Yajima, Toshitaka

    2017-09-01

    Omega-3-carboxylic acids (OM3-CA) contain omega-3 free fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), as carboxylic acids. Food intake is known to affect the bioavailability of ethyl ester fatty acid formulations. We conducted a phase I study to investigate the effects of the timing of OM3-CA administration relative to food intake on the pharmacokinetics of EPA and DHA. In this randomized, open-label, three-period crossover study, Japanese healthy male subjects were administered 4×1 g OM3-CA capsules with continued fasting, before a meal, or after a meal. All subjects fasted for ≥10 h prior to drug/meal administration. The primary objective was to examine the effect of meal timing on the pharmacokinetics of EPA and DHA after OM3-CA administration. The secondary objectives were to examine the safety and tolerability of OM3-CA. A total of 42 Japanese subjects was enrolled in the study. The baseline-adjusted maximum concentration and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 72 h for EPA, DHA, and EPA +DHA were lower in the fasting and before meal conditions than in the after meal condition. The maximum total EPA, total DHA, and total EPA+DHA concentrations were reached later when administered in fasting conditions than in fed conditions, indicating slower absorption in fasting conditions. Diarrhea was reported by five, six, and no subjects in the fasting, before meal, and after meal conditions, respectively. The timing of OM3-CA administration relative to food intake influences the systemic bioavailability of EPA and DHA in healthy Japanese male subjects. NCT02372344.

  14. College Students' Volunteering: Factors Related to Current Volunteering, Volunteer Settings, and Motives for Volunteering

    Moore, Erin W.; Warta, Samantha; Erichsen, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Research has not explored the types of settings that college students prefer to volunteer for and how these settings might be influenced by personal factors (e.g., demographic, academic major, volunteering motivation, religiosity). Students from a Midwestern university (N = 406, 71.9% female) completed a survey that inquired about their…

  15. Hispanic American Volunteering.

    Lopez, Josue; Safrit, R. Dale

    2001-01-01

    Hispanic Americans in Cleveland, Ohio were interviewed about volunteerism. Six themes were identified: (1) influence of family and friends; (2) importance of volunteering to benefit youth; (3) importance of church and religious beliefs; (4) volunteering as a requirement; (5) connections between volunteerism and the community; and (6) personal…

  16. America's Teenagers as Volunteers.

    Knauft, E. B.

    Two national in-home interview surveys conducted by the Gallup Organization and information from a national workshop conference attended by 70 teen volunteers from 28 states and 200 teachers and adult leaders indicate that about three-fifths of youth aged 12 to 17 volunteer an average of just over 3 hours a week. The most frequent volunteer…

  17. NASTEP Volunteer Request (CSA) -

    Department of Transportation — Allows users to add themselves to a Service Area wide ?volunteer for emergency duty? list (was created after Gulf Coast Hurricanes). Approval and email by managers,...

  18. Engaged anthropology and corporate volunteering

    Natália Blahová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present engaged anthropology and its methodological tools with a specific perspective of the research field and the position of the researcher with regard to research subjects. The study focuses on corporate volunteering as one of the forms of collaboration between the non-profit and the private sectors seeking solutions to social problems and community development. Volunteering projects contribute to the interlinking of the knowledge, skills, experience and resources of corporate employees and the representatives of the non-profit or the public sector. It is a part of the philanthropic strategy of companies which are willing to present themselves as entities responsible towards the environment in which they run their business, and towards their employees, partners and customers. Engaged anthropology can bring, through its methodological tools, a new perspective of corporate volunteering. Community-based participatory research on the process of knowledge creation includes all partners on an equal basis and identifies their unique contribution to problem solution and community development.

  19. Experimental rhinovirus infection in volunteers.

    Bardin, P G; Sanderson, G; Robinson, B S; Holgate, S T; Tyrrell, D A

    1996-11-01

    Experimental viral disease studies in volunteers have clarified many aspects of the pathogenesis of human viral disease. Recently, interest has focused on rhinovirus-associated asthma exacerbations, and new volunteer studies have suggested that airway responsiveness (AR) is enhanced during a cold. For scientific, ethical and safety reasons, it is important to use validated methods for the preparation of a virus inoculum and that the particular virological characteristics and host responses should not be altered. We have prepared a new human rhinovirus (HRV) inoculum using recent guidelines and assessed whether disease characteristics (for example, severity of colds or changes in AR) were retained. Studies were conducted in 25 clinically healthy volunteers using a validated HRV inoculum in the first 17 and a new inoculum in the subsequent eight subjects. Severity of cold symptoms, nasal wash albumin levels and airway responsiveness were measured, and the new inoculum was prepared from nasal washes obtained during the cold. The new inoculum was tested using standard virological and serological techniques, as well as a polymerase chain reaction for Mycoplasma pneumoniae. No contaminating viruses or organisms were detected and the methods suggested were workable. Good clinical colds developed in 20 of the 25 subjects and median symptom scores were similar in the validated and new inoculum groups (18 and 17.5, respectively; p=0.19). All subjects shed virus, and there were no differences noted in viral culture scores, nasal wash albumin and rates of seroconversion in the two groups. Although airway responsiveness increased in both groups (p=0.02 and p=0.05), the degree of change was similar. We have performed experimental rhinovirus infection studies and demonstrated similar clinical disease in two inoculum groups. Amplified airway responsiveness was induced; continuing studies will define the mechanisms and suggest modes of treatment.

  20. Main components and content of sports volunteer activities

    Iryna Petrenkо

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: identification of the main structural components and content of sports volunteer activities. Material & Methods: used analysis of literature and documents, organizational analysis. Result: basic structural components of sports volunteer activity are defined. The content of sports volunteer activity is disclosed. Conclusion: sports volunteer activity includes the following structural components: subject, object, purpose, motivation, means, actions; subject is a sports volunteer, the object is a sports competition, the goal is to provide gratuitous assistance for a quality competition, the means are the special knowledge, skills, communication abilities of sports volunteers, actions should be understood as types of volunteer activities and functions that volunteers perform during the preparation and conduct of competitions. Main types of sports volunteer activity are: 1 organizational; 2 judiciary; 3 coaching; 4 legal; 5 medical. Functions that volunteers perform in the competition system are general and special. Content of the functions of sports volunteering depends on the specifics of the sports, the rank of the competition, the specifics of the competition for people with special needs.

  1. [Characteristics of elderly leaders volunteering to participate in a fall prevention programme].

    Shimanuki, Hideki; Ueki, Shouzoh; Ito, Tunehisa; Honda, Haruhiko; Takato, Jinro; Kasai, Toshiyuki; Sakamoto, Yuzuru; Niino, Naoakira; Haga, Hiroshi

    2005-09-01

    This study was conducted to assess characteristics of elderly leaders volunteering to participate in a fall prevention programme. We surveyed 1,503 individuals (75 elderly leaders volunteering to participate in a fall prevention programme and 1,428 non-leader elderly) among the elderly population living in a rural community, Miyagi Prefecture. Subjects were aged 70-84 years. The questionnaire covered socio-demographic factors, as well as physical, psychology and social variables. To analyze the characteristics of the elderly leaders volunteering to participate in this programme, the relationships of socio-demographic, physical, psychology and social factors to whether the elderly were leaders in the programme were analyzed using logistic regression. As a result of multiple logistic regression analysis, the characteristics of elderly leaders volunteering to participate in the fall prevention programme were as follows; 1) being male (OR = 0.25, 95%CI 0.14-0.44); 2) young age (OR=0.43, 95%CI 0.25-0.73); 3) having a high intellectual activity (OR = 2.72, 95%CI 1.65-4.48); 4) being well satisfied with their health (OR = 1.45, 95%CI 1.02-2.07), and 5) having a high IKIGAI (OR = 1.06, 95%CI 1.01-1.13). Only elderly individuals capable of high-level intellectual activities can fill the roles of elderly volunteer group leaders discussed in this study.

  2. Diurnal levels of immunoreactive erythropoietin in normal subjects and subjects with chronic lung disease

    Miller, M.E.; Garcia, J.F.; Cohen, R.A.; Cronkite, E.P.; Moccia, G.; Acevedo, J.

    1981-10-01

    Serum levels of immunoreactive erythropoietin (Ep) were measured in 48 normal male and female volunteers, ages 20-60 years, to establish a control value for Ep of 18.5 +/- 5.0 (mean +/- SD) mU/ml. Levels of the hormone were also measured sequentially over a 24 h period of time in an additional 17 normal volunteers with no diurnal variation. Diurnal levels of immunoreactive Ep were also measured in 30 subjects, with chronic lung disease. These patients, in contrast to normal subjects exhibited a diurnal variation in the level of immunoreactive Ep with peak levels occurring at midnight. The only variable measured which correlated with the serum immunoreactive Ep level in subjects with chronic lung disease was the level of carboxyhaemoglobin (P less than 0.02).

  3. Networking for philanthropy: increasing volunteer behavior via social networking sites.

    Kim, Yoojung; Lee, Wei-Na

    2014-03-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) provide a unique social venue to engage the young generation in philanthropy through their networking capabilities. An integrated model that incorporates social capital into the Theory of Reasoned Action is developed to explain volunteer behavior through social networks. As expected, volunteer behavior was predicted by volunteer intention, which was influenced by attitudes and subjective norms. In addition, social capital, an outcome of the extensive use of SNSs, was as an important driver of users' attitude and subjective norms toward volunteering via SNSs.

  4. Increased Risk of Progression of Coronary Artery Calcification in Male Subjects with High Baseline Waist-to-Height Ratio: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Oh, Hyung Geun; Nallamshetty, Shriram; Rhee, Eun Jung

    2016-02-01

    The waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) is an easy and inexpensive adiposity index that reflects central obesity. In this study, we examined the association of baseline WHtR and progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) over 4 years of follow-up in apparently healthy Korean men. A total of 1,048 male participants (mean age, 40.9 years) in a health-screening program in Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul, Korea who repeated a medical check-up in 2010 and 2014 were recruited. Baseline WHtR was calculated using the value for the waist in 2010 divided by the value for height in 2010. The CAC score (CACS) of each subject was measured by multi-detector computed tomography in both 2010 and 2014. Progression of CAC was defined as a CACS change over 4 years greater than 0. During the follow-up period, progression of CAC occurred in 278 subjects (26.5%). The subjects with CAC progression had slightly higher but significant baseline WHtR compared to those who did not show CAC progression (0.51±0.04 vs. 0.50±0.04, P<0.01). The proportion of subjects with CAC progression significantly increased as the baseline WHtR increased from the 1st quartile to 4th quartile groups (18.3%, 18.7%, 28.8%, and 34.2%; P<0.01). The risk for CAC progression was elevated with an odds ratio of 1.602 in the 4th quartile group of baseline WHtR even after adjustment for confounding variables (95% confidence interval, 1.040 to 2.466). Increased baseline WHtR was associated with increased risk for CAC progression. WHtR might be a useful screening tool to identify individuals at high risk for subclinical atherosclerosis.

  5. Histopathological and Reproductive Evaluation in Male Rats Fed Jatropha curcas Seed Cake with or without Alkaline Hydrolysis and Subjected to Heat Treatment

    Laiane Teixeira Sousa Moura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas cake, a by-product of biodiesel production, is rich in protein and has potential to be used in livestock feed; however, the presence of antinutritional factors and phorbol esters limits its use. Thus, this study investigated toxicological and reproductive effects in male Wistar rats after subchronic exposure to J. curcas cake subjected to detoxification procedures. Rats were divided into seven groups (n=10 and treated for 60 days. The control group received commercial feed, while experimental groups received a diet containing 5% J. curcas cake nonhydrolyzed or hydrolyzed with 5 M NaOH. The cakes were unwashed or washed with ethanol or water and were autoclaved at 121°C for 30 minutes. Alkaline hydrolysis combined with ethanol washing decreased the phorbol ester concentration in the cake by 98%. Histopathological findings included diffuse degeneration of the liver and edema around the pulmonary vessels in the nonhydrolyzed groups. In addition, nontreated females mated with males of nonhydrolyzed unwashed group showed a decreased number of live fetuses and an increased placental weight. There were no signs of toxicity in rats given hydrolyzed cakes washed and unwashed, indicating that alkaline hydrolysis associated with heat treatment is an efficient method for detoxification of the J. curcas cake.

  6. Histopathological and Reproductive Evaluation in Male Rats Fed Jatropha curcas Seed Cake with or without Alkaline Hydrolysis and Subjected to Heat Treatment.

    Teixeira Sousa Moura, Laiane; Palomaris Mariano Souza, Domenica; Mendonça, Simone; de Aquino Ribeiro, José Antônio; Fernandes Sousa, Luciano; Tony Ramos, Adriano; Maiorka, Paulo César; de Araújo, Vera Lúcia; Mayumi Maruo, Viviane

    2017-01-01

    Jatropha curcas cake, a by-product of biodiesel production, is rich in protein and has potential to be used in livestock feed; however, the presence of antinutritional factors and phorbol esters limits its use. Thus, this study investigated toxicological and reproductive effects in male Wistar rats after subchronic exposure to J. curcas cake subjected to detoxification procedures. Rats were divided into seven groups ( n = 10) and treated for 60 days. The control group received commercial feed, while experimental groups received a diet containing 5% J . curcas cake nonhydrolyzed or hydrolyzed with 5 M NaOH. The cakes were unwashed or washed with ethanol or water and were autoclaved at 121°C for 30 minutes. Alkaline hydrolysis combined with ethanol washing decreased the phorbol ester concentration in the cake by 98%. Histopathological findings included diffuse degeneration of the liver and edema around the pulmonary vessels in the nonhydrolyzed groups. In addition, nontreated females mated with males of nonhydrolyzed unwashed group showed a decreased number of live fetuses and an increased placental weight. There were no signs of toxicity in rats given hydrolyzed cakes washed and unwashed, indicating that alkaline hydrolysis associated with heat treatment is an efficient method for detoxification of the J. curcas cake.

  7. A randomized, single-blind, single-dose study evaluating the pharmacokinetic equivalence of proposed biosimilar ABP 980 and trastuzumab in healthy male subjects.

    Hanes, Vladimir; Chow, Vincent; Zhang, Nan; Markus, Richard

    2017-05-01

    This study compared the pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of the proposed biosimilar ABP 980 and trastuzumab in healthy males. In this single-blind study, 157 healthy males were randomized 1:1:1 to a single 6 mg/kg intravenous infusion of ABP 980, FDA-licensed trastuzumab [trastuzumab (US)], or EU-authorized trastuzumab [trastuzumab (EU)]. Primary endpoints were area under the serum concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC inf ) and maximum observed serum concentration (C max ). To establish equivalence, the geometric mean ratio (GMR) and 90% confidence interval (CI) for C max and AUC inf had to be within the equivalence criteria of 0.80-1.25. The GMRs and 90% CIs for C max and AUC inf , respectively, were: 1.04 (0.99-1.08) and 1.06 (1.00-1.12) for ABP 980 versus trastuzumab (US); 0.99 (0.95-1.03) and 1.00 (0.95-1.06) for ABP 980 versus trastuzumab (EU); and 0.96 (0.92-1.00) and 0.95 (0.90-1.01) for trastuzumab (US) versus trastuzumab (EU). All comparisons were within the equivalence criteria of 0.80-1.25. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were reported in 84.0, 75.0, and 78.2 of subjects in the ABP 980, trastuzumab (US), and trastuzumab (EU) groups, respectively. There were no deaths or TEAEs leading to study discontinuation and no binding or neutralizing anti-drug anti-bodies were detected. This study demonstrated the PK similarity of ABP 980 to both trastuzumab (US) and trastuzumab (EU), and of trastuzumab (US) to trastuzumab (EU). No differences in safety and tolerability between treatments were noted; no subject tested positive for binding anti-bodies.

  8. Specific cerebral activation due to visual erotic stimuli in male-to-female transsexuals compared with male and female controls: an fMRI study.

    Gizewski, Elke R; Krause, Eva; Schlamann, Marc; Happich, Friederike; Ladd, Mark E; Forsting, Michael; Senf, Wolfgang

    2009-02-01

    Transsexuals harbor the strong feeling of having been born to the wrong sex. There is a continuing controversial discussion of whether or not transsexualism has a biological representation. Differences between males and females in terms of functional imaging during erotic stimuli have been previously described, revealing gender-specific results. Therefore, we postulated that male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals may show specific cerebral activation differing from their biological gender. Cerebral activation patterns during viewing of erotic film excerpts in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twelve male and 12 female heterosexual volunteers and 12 MTF transsexuals before any treatment viewed erotic film excerpts during fMRI. Additionally, subjective rating of sexual arousal was assessed. Statistics were performed using the Statistical Parametric Mapping software. Significantly enhanced activation for men compared with women was revealed in brain areas involved in erotic processing, i.e., the thalamus, the amygdala, and the orbitofrontal and insular cortex, whereas no specific activation for women was found. When comparing MTF transsexuals with male volunteers, activation patterns similar to female volunteers being compared with male volunteers were revealed. Sexual arousal was assessed using standard rating scales and did not differ significantly for the three groups. We revealed a cerebral activation pattern in MTF transsexuals compared with male controls similar to female controls compared with male controls during viewing of erotic stimuli, indicating a tendency of female-like cerebral processing in transsexualism.

  9. Motivations of German Hospice Volunteers: How Do They Compare to Nonhospice Volunteers and US Hospice Volunteers?

    Stelzer, Eva-Maria; Lang, Frieder R

    2016-03-01

    We examined reasons of volunteering for hospice and nonhospice organizations in a study with 125 volunteers (22-93 years) from the United States and Germany. Motives of US and German hospice volunteers revealed similarities and few differences. Hospice volunteers are involved because they seek to help others, seek new learning experiences, seek social contacts, or seek personal growth. The US hospice volunteers reported motives related to altruistic concerns, enhancement, and social influence as more influential, while German hospice volunteers rated career expectations as being more important. Comparison of German hospice with nonhospice volunteers revealed stronger differences: German hospice volunteers scored higher on altruistic motives, while German nonhospice volunteers yielded higher scores on self-serving motives. Findings contribute to improved understanding of volunteering motivation and of activating or retaining hospice volunteers. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Long-term total sleep deprivation decreases the default spontaneous activity and connectivity pattern in healthy male subjects: a resting-state fMRI study

    Dai XJ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Xi-Jian Dai,1,2* Chun-Lei Liu,3,4* Ren-Lai Zhou,3 Hong-Han Gong,1 Bin Wu,5 Lei Gao,1 Yi-Xiang J Wang2 1Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China; 3Beijing Key Lab of Applied Experimental Psychology, School of Psychology, and National Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4School of Education, Qufu Normal University, Qufu, Shandong, People’s Republic of China; 5National Key Laboratory of Human Factors Engineering, China Astronaut Research and Training Center, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors have contributed equally to this work Objective: The aim of this study is to use resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF methods to explore intrinsic default-mode network (DMN impairment after sleep deprivation (SD and its relationships with clinical features. Methods: Twelve healthy male subjects underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging twice: once following rested wakefulness (RW and the other following 72 hours of total SD. Before the scans, all subjects underwent the attention network test (ANT. The independent component analysis (ICA, rsFC, and ALFF methods were used to examine intrinsic DMN impairment. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to distinguish SD status from RW status. Results: Compared with RW subjects, SD subjects showed a lower accuracy rate (RW =96.83%, SD =77.67%; P<0.001, a slower reaction time (RW =695.92 ms; SD =799.18 ms; P=0.003, a higher lapse rate (RW =0.69%, SD =19.29%; P<0.001, and a higher intraindividual coefficient of variability in reaction time (RW =0.26, SD =0

  11. Occupant kinematics in low-speed frontal sled tests: Human volunteers, Hybrid III ATD, and PMHS.

    Beeman, Stephanie M; Kemper, Andrew R; Madigan, Michael L; Franck, Christopher T; Loftus, Stephen C

    2012-07-01

    A total of 34 dynamic matched frontal sled tests were performed, 17 low (2.5g, Δv=4.8kph) and 17 medium (5.0g, Δv=9.7kph), with five male human volunteers of approximately 50th percentile height and weight, a Hybrid III 50th percentile male ATD, and three male PMHS. Each volunteer was exposed to two impulses at each severity, one relaxed and one braced prior to the impulse. A total of four tests were performed at each severity with the ATD and one trial was performed at each severity with each PMHS. A Vicon motion analysis system, 12 MX-T20 2 megapixel cameras, was used to quantify subject 3D kinematics (±1mm) (1kHz). Excursions of select anatomical regions were normalized to their respective initial positions and compared by test condition and between subject types. The forward excursions of the select anatomical regions generally increased with increasing severity. The forward excursions of relaxed human volunteers were significantly larger than those of the ATD for nearly every region at both severities. The forward excursions of the upper body regions of the braced volunteers were generally significantly smaller than those of the ATD at both severities. Forward excursions of the relaxed human volunteers and PMHSs were fairly similar except the head CG response at both severities and the right knee and C7 at the medium severity. The forward excursions of the upper body of the PMHS were generally significantly larger than those of the braced volunteers at both severities. Forward excursions of the PMHSs exceeded those of the ATD for all regions at both severities with significant differences within the upper body regions. Overall human volunteers, ATD, and PMHSs do not have identical biomechanical responses in low-speed frontal sled tests but all contribute valuable data that can be used to refine and validate computational models and ATDs used to assess injury risk in automotive collisions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Aportes y Desafíos de Estudiar el Voluntariado Desde la Mirada del Sujeto: Análisis de los Hallazgos de Marta, Pozzi y Marzana (2010 Contributions and Challenges of Studying Volunteering From a Subject's Perspective: Analysis of Marta, Pozzi and Marzana's Findings (2010

    María Paz Cadena

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza los resultados del estudio Voluntarios y Ex Voluntarios: Perfiles de Participación Ciudadana a Través del Voluntariado, realizado por Marta, Pozzi y Marzana (en este número, quienes proponen 4 perfiles de voluntarios: voluntarios en ejercicio, voluntarios por necesidades personales, ex voluntarios ciudadanos activos y ex voluntarios por oportunidad. La discusión se articula en base a los beneficios que tiene una aproximación multidimensional desde la perspectiva del sujeto. Para ello se analizan sus aportes a la comprensión de temáticas como el rol de las motivaciones en la participación prosocial, los mecanismos que promueven este tipo de conductas y la diferenciación entre causas y consecuencias de ella. Se discuten algunas ideas, como la importancia de la reelaboración de las motivaciones, el posible rol mediador de estas en la relación entre familia y participación voluntaria y la importancia de considerar en futuros diseños la organización temporal que los propios jóvenes dan a sus experiencias. Se mencionan, además, algunas limitaciones del estudio relacionadas con variables religiosas que pudieran explicar los resultados y con la dificultad de establecer si estos son específicos a esta forma de participación.This article analyzes the results of the study Volunteers and Ex-Volunteers: Paths to Civic Engagement Through Volunteerism, by Marta, Pozzi, and Marzana (in this issue, who propose 4 types of volunteers: volunteers in action, volunteers for personal need, active citizens ex-volunteers and ex-volunteers by chance. The discussion builds upon the benefits of a multidimensional approach from the subject's perspective. To accomplish this, its contributions to the understanding of topics, such as the role of motivation in prosocial involvement, the mechanisms that promote this type of behavior, and the differentiation between causes and consequences of it, are analyzed. Some ideas are

  13. The association of subjective stress, urinary catecholamine concentrations and PC game room use and musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limbs in young male Koreans.

    Kang, Jong-Won; Kim, Heon; Cho, Soo-Hun; Lee, Myung-Koo; Kim, Yong-Dae; Nan, Hong-Mei; Lee, Chul-Ho

    2003-06-01

    The use of PCs can cause health problems, including musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) of the upper limbs. This study was performed to investigate whether using PCs in PC game rooms may induce MSDs of the upper limbs. 284 young male Koreans were included. A self-administered, structured questionnaire was used to gather information about game room use, perceived subjective stress, and the symptoms related to MSDs. Urinary concentrations of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine were measured in spot urine. The symptom prevalence of MSDs of the upper limbs increased according to the increase of the duration of game room use. The intensity of perceived subjective stress showed a significant dose-response relationship with the frequency of MSDs symptoms in neck and shoulder areas. However, the urinary level of catecholamines was not significantly correlated with the symptom prevalence of MSDs in the upper limbs. These findings suggest that using PCs in game rooms produce physical stress on the upper limbs, strong enough to induce MSDs.

  14. Volunteering of seniors in community

    Stropková, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The diploma thesis deals with the theme of volunteering of seniors in the community. The work focuses on the specifics of volunteering of seniors, emphasizing the benefits of volunteering for participating seniors and how to identify them with other groups of people. Using a qualitative research work, it examines on a sample of eight respondents how these senior volunteers perceive the benefits of volunteering, how they relate to the geographical location in which they work, and what communit...

  15. Functional analyses of the skin surface of the areola mammae: comparison between healthy adult male and female subjects and between healthy individuals and patients with atopic dermatitis.

    Kikuchi, K; Tagami, H; Akaraphanth, R; Aiba, S

    2011-01-01

    Although the nipple and areola of the breast constitute a unique and prominent area on the chest, so far no study has been done on the functional properties of their skin surfaces. To study the stratum corneum (SC) covering the areola using noninvasive methods. Eighteen adult healthy subjects comprising nine men and nine women and 18 age- and sex-matched patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), none of whom had visible skin lesions, participated in the study. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin surface hydration and skin surface lipid levels were measured on the areola and adjacent breast skin. The size of the skin surface corneocytes of these skin regions was assessed. All the healthy subjects showed significantly higher TEWL accompanied by smaller sized corneocytes on the areola than on the adjacent breast skin. Only female subjects revealed a significantly higher skin surface hydration state together with significantly increased skin surface lipid levels on the areola than on the adjacent breast skin. These sex differences were observed even in patients with AD. Comparison between healthy individuals and the patients with AD demonstrated higher TEWL, decreased skin surface hydration state and lower skin surface lipid levels associated with smaller sized corneocytes in the areola in the patients with AD, especially in male patients. In adults, the SC barrier function and SC water-binding capacity of the areola were functionally poorer than in the adjacent skin, being covered by smaller sized corneocytes and lower amounts of skin surface lipids, especially in men and in patients with AD. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists 2011.

  16. Influences of early shift work on the diurnal cortisol rhythm, mood and sleep: within-subject variation in male airline pilots.

    Bostock, Sophie; Steptoe, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    We aimed to investigate how early and late work shifts influenced the diurnal cortisol rhythm using a within-subjects study design. Participants were 30 healthy male non-smoking pilots, mean age 39.4, employed by a short-haul airline. The standard rotating shift pattern consisted of 5 early shifts (starting before 0600 h), followed by 3 rest days, 5 late shifts (starting after 1200 h) and 4 rest days. Pilots sampled saliva and completed subjective mood ratings in a logbook 6 times over the day on two consecutive early shift days, two late days and two rest days. Sampling was scheduled at waking, waking+30 m, waking+2.5 h, waking+8 h, waking+12 h and bedtime. Waking time, sleep duration, sleep quality and working hours were also recorded. Cortisol responses were analysed with repeated measures analysis of variance with shift condition (early, late, rest) and sample time (1-6) as within-subject factors. Early shifts were associated with a higher cortisol increase in response to awakening (CAR(i)), a greater total cortisol output over the day (AUC(G)) and a slower rate of decline over the day than late shifts or rest days. Early shifts were also associated with shorter sleep duration but co-varying for sleep duration did not alter the effects of shift on the cortisol rhythm. Both types of work shift were associated with more stress, tiredness and lower happiness than rest days, but statistical adjustment for mood ratings did not alter the findings. Early shift days were associated with significantly higher levels of circulating cortisol during waking hours than late shifts or rest days. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cardiovascular safety of tamsulosin modified release in the fasted and fed state in elderly healthy subjects

    Michel, M. C.; Korstanje, C.; Krauwinkel, W.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The effect of food on the cardiovascular safety of tamsulosin modified release (MR) capsules 0.4 mg in elderly subjects was assessed both after single and multiple dosing. Methods: Thirty-six elderly (age greater than or equal to 60 years) male volunteers were recruited and after a

  18. MR elastography study of the brain in healthy volunteers

    Liu Guangrui; Gao Peiyi; Lin Yan; Wang Xiaochun; Xue Jing; Sui Bingbing; Ma Li; Wang Chen; Shen Mi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the shear stiffness of brain by MR elastography (MRE) in healthy Chinese volunteers and to assess the association between the cerebral shear stiffness and age. Methods: Brain MRE studies were performed on 105 healthy volunteers. The shear stiffness of brain parenchyma was measured by local frequency estimation (LFE) algorithm. The differences of the shear stiffness between white matter (WM) and grey matter (GM) were analyzed by independent sample t test; the differences of brain parenchyma shear stiffness between male and female were estimated by independent sample t test. Spearman test was used to analyze the correlation between age and the shear stiffness of parenchyma; the volunteers were divided into two groups (age ≤40 and age > 40) and the correlation between age and shear stiffness of parenchyma in each group were analyzed separately. Results: The shear stiffness of whiter matter [(23.1±5.7) kPa] was higher than that of grey matter [(11.3±2.6) kPa], and the difference was significant (t=19.34, P 0.05). An age-dependent trend was observed in the stiffness of grey matter (r= 0.315, P 0.05). When the shear stiffness of subjects no more than 40 years old was analysed, the age-dependent trend of shear stiffness was found both in white matter and gray matter (r=0.251, 0.235, P 0.05). Conclusions: The shear stiffness of WM is significantly higher than that of GM. No obvious sex difference was found in the stiffness of brain parenchyma. The shear stiffness of GM increases with age; the age-related increase of shear stiffness of WM was only found in subjects under 40 years old. (authors)

  19. Estudo clínico fase I de carbonato de lodenafila, um novo tipo de inibidor de fosfodiesterase 5 (PDE5), em voluntários saudáveis do sexo masculino = : A phase I clinical trial of lodenafil carbonate, a new phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, in healthy male volunteers

    Hilton Oliveira dos Santos Filho

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Carbonato de Lodenafila é um novo tipo de inibidor de fosfodiesterase 5 (PDE5) utilizado no tratamento da disfunção erétil. O presente estudo foi realizado para avaliar a segurança, tolerabilidade e farmacocinética do carbonato de lodenafila após a administração de doses orais únicas ascendentes (de 1 a 100 mg) a voluntários saudáveis do sexo masculino (n = 33). O estudo foi um estudo clínico fase I, aberto, de escalonamento de dose, utilizando a administração de doses orais únicas de...

  20. Call for volunteers

    2008-01-01

    CERN is calling for volunteers from all members of the Laboratory for organizing the two exceptional Open days.CERN is calling for volunteers from all members of the Laboratory’s personnel to help with the organisation of these two exceptional Open Days, for the visits of CERN personnel and their families on the Saturday and above all for the major public Open Day on the Sunday. As for the 50th anniversary in 2004, the success of the Open Days will depend on a large number of volunteers. All those working for CERN as well as retired members of the personnel can contribute to making this event a success. Many guides will be needed at the LHC points, for the activities at the surface and to man the reception and information points. The aim of these major Open Days is to give the local populations the opportunity to discover the fruits of almost 20 years of work carried out at CERN. We are hoping for some 2000 volunteers for the two Open Days, on the Saturday from 9 a.m. to ...

  1. Normal blood magnesium levels in volunteers of Rawalpindi by atomic absorption absorption technique

    Ahmed, I.; Rehman, S.; Yawar, W.; Rusheed, A.; Ahraf, M.; Syed, N.H.

    1999-01-01

    Magnesium levels in whole blood samples of 67 healthy volunteers (mean 6.46 -+ 0.221; range 1.345 - 13.163 mg/dL) of Rawalpindi district have been determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. Magnesium levels of 41 male and 26 female subjects including doctors, nurses, patients attendees, medical students, sweepers and peons of Rawalpindi Medical College and Rawalpindi General Hospital revealed the normal mean blood levels of 6.088 - + 0.258 mg/dL (range 1.345 - 10.679 mg/dL)and 7.060 -+ 0.375 mg/dL (range 4.495 - 13.163 mg/dL),P<0.05 respectively. Only 10 male volunteers were smokers exhibiting 6.768 -+ 0.558 mg/dL (range 4.466 -10.679 mg/dL). Significant relationship was found in magnesium levels between males and females of poor socio-economic group (P<0.05). No relationship occurred between male smokers and non-smokers and magnesium levels in the age groups of males or females or both, when data was compared by 't' test. (author)

  2. Co-Ingestion of Whey Protein with a Carbohydrate-Rich Breakfast Does Not Affect Glycemia, Insulinemia or Subjective Appetite Following a Subsequent Meal in Healthy Males

    Dean M. Allerton

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to assess postprandial metabolic and appetite responses to a mixed-macronutrient lunch following prior addition of whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast. Ten healthy males (age: 24 ± 1 years; body mass index (BMI: 24.5 ± 0.7 kg/m2 completed three trials in a non-isocaloric, crossover design. A carbohydrate-rich breakfast (93 g carbohydrate; 1799 kJ was consumed with (CHO + WP or without (CHO 20 g whey protein isolate (373 kJ, or breakfast was omitted (NB. At 180 min, participants consumed a mixed-macronutrient lunch meal. Venous blood was sampled at 15 min intervals following each meal and every 30 min thereafter, while subjective appetite sensations were collected every 30 min throughout. Post-breakfast insulinemia was greater after CHO + WP (time-averaged area under the curve (AUC0––180 min: 193.1 ± 26.3 pmol/L, compared to CHO (154.7 ± 18.5 pmol/L and NB (46.1 ± 8.0 pmol/L; p < 0.05, with no difference in post-breakfast (0–180 min glycemia (CHO + WP, 3.8 ± 0.2 mmol/L; CHO, 4.2 ± 0.2 mmol/L; NB, 4.2 ± 0.1 mmol/L; p = 0.247. There were no post-lunch (0–180 min effects of condition on glycemia (p = 0.492, insulinemia (p = 0.338 or subjective appetite (p > 0.05. Adding whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast enhanced the acute postprandial insulin response, without influencing metabolic or appetite responses following a subsequent mixed-macronutrient meal.

  3. Differences in Activation Area Within Brodmann Area 2 Caused by Pressure Stimuli on Fingers and Joints: In Case of Male Subjects.

    Choi, Mi-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Baek, Ji-Hye; Lee, Jung-Chul; Park, Sung-Jun; Jeong, Ul-Ho; Gim, Seon-Young; Kim, Sung-Phil; Lim, Dae-Woon; Chung, Soon-Cheol

    2015-09-01

    In this study, a constant pressure stimulus was applied on the 3 joints (first [p1], second [p2], and third [p3] joints) of 4 fingers (index, middle, ring, and little fingers), and the activation areas within Brodmann area 2 (BA 2) were compared for these different fingers and joints by using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Eight healthy male college students (25.4 ± 1.32 years) participated in the study. Each session was composed of 3 blocks, and each block was composed of a Control phase (30 seconds) and a Pressure phase (30 seconds). No pressure stimulus was applied in the Control phase, during which the subjects would simply lay comfortably with their eyes closed. In the Pressure phase, a pressure stimulus was applied onto one of the joints of the selected finger. For each finger and joint, BA 2 areas activated by the pressure stimulus were extracted by the region of interest method. There was a significant difference in the activation areas for the different fingers (P = .042) as well as for the different joints (P = .050). The activation area decreased in the order of the little, index, and middle fingers, as well as in the order of p1, p3, and p2.

  4. Effects of Paracetamol on NOS, COX, and CYP Activity and on Oxidative Stress in Healthy Male Subjects, Rat Hepatocytes, and Recombinant NOS

    Trettin, Arne; Böhmer, Anke; Suchy, Maria-Theresia; Probst, Irmelin; Staerk, Ulrich; Stichtenoth, Dirk O.; Frölich, Jürgen C.

    2014-01-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a widely used analgesic drug. It interacts with various enzyme families including cytochrome P450 (CYP), cyclooxygenase (COX), and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and this interplay may produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). We investigated the effects of paracetamol on prostacyclin, thromboxane, nitric oxide (NO), and oxidative stress in four male subjects who received a single 3 g oral dose of paracetamol. Thromboxane and prostacyclin synthesis was assessed by measuring their major urinary metabolites 2,3-dinor-thromboxane B2 and 2,3-dinor-6-ketoprostaglandin F1α, respectively. Endothelial NO synthesis was assessed by measuring nitrite in plasma. Urinary 15(S)-8-iso-prostaglanding F2α was measured to assess oxidative stress. Plasma oleic acid oxide (cis-EpOA) was measured as a marker of cytochrome P450 activity. Upon paracetamol administration, prostacyclin synthesis was strongly inhibited, while NO synthesis increased and thromboxane synthesis remained almost unchanged. Paracetamol may shift the COX-dependent vasodilatation/vasoconstriction balance at the cost of vasodilatation. This effect may be antagonized by increasing endothelial NO synthesis. High-dosed paracetamol did not increase oxidative stress. At pharmacologically relevant concentrations, paracetamol did not affect NO synthesis/bioavailability by recombinant human endothelial NOS or inducible NOS in rat hepatocytes. We conclude that paracetamol does not increase oxidative stress in humans. PMID:24799980

  5. Knowledge of results and learning to tell the time in an adult male with an intellectual disability: a single-subject research design.

    Applegate, Samantha L; Rice, Martin S; Stein, Franklin; Maitra, Kinsuk K

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated whether knowledge of results, in the form of visual and audible feedback, would increase the accuracy of time-telling in an individual with an intellectual disability. A 19-year-old male with mild intellectual disability participated in this A1-B1-A2-B2 single-subject study design. The task involved correctly identifying the time given on a computer. Data, based on the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, showed that the participant demonstrated a greater number of correct responses during the intervention phases. Incorporating knowledge of results into a learning strategy for this individual with intellectual disability resulted in an increased ability to accurately identify the correct time on an analogue clock. There is a need to replicate the study design to increase the external validity and generalization of results. The strategies described in the present study may also be useful for occupational therapists who teach individuals with intellectual disability to gain skills in their everyday activities of daily living (ADLs). (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. PlanHab study: assessment of psycho-neuroendocrine function in male subjects during 21 d of normobaric hypoxia and bed rest.

    Strewe, C; Zeller, R; Feuerecker, M; Hoerl, M; Kumprej, I; Crispin, A; Johannes, B; Debevec, T; Mekjavic, I; Schelling, G; Choukèr, A

    2017-03-01

    Immobilization and hypoxemia are conditions often seen in patients suffering from severe heart insufficiency or primary pulmonary diseases (e.g. fibrosis, emphysema). In future planned long-duration and exploration class space missions (including habitats on the moon and Mars), healthy individuals will encounter such a combination of reduced physical activity and oxygen tension by way of technical reasons and the reduced gravitational forces. These overall unconventional extraterrestrial conditions can result in yet unknown consequences for the regulation of stress-permissive, psycho-neuroendocrine responses, which warrant appropriate measures in order to mitigate foreseeable risks. The Planetary Habitat Simulation Study (PlanHab) investigated these two space-related conditions: bed rest as model of reduced gravity and normobaric hypoxia, with the aim of examining their influence on psycho-neuroendocrine responses. We hypothesized that both conditions independently increase measures of psychological stress and enhance neuroendocrine markers of stress, and that these effects would be exacerbated by combined treatment. The cross-over study composed of three interventions (NBR, normobaric normoxic horizontal bed rest; HBR, normobaric hypoxic horizontal bed rest; HAMB, normobaric hypoxic ambulatory confinement) with 14 male subjects during three sequential campaigns separated by 4 months. The psychological state was determined through three questionnaires and principal neuroendocrine responses were evaluated by measuring cortisol in saliva, catecholamine in urine, and endocannabinoids in blood. The results revealed no effects after 3 weeks of normobaric hypoxia on psycho-neuroendocrine responses. Conversely, bed rest induced neuroendocrine alterations that were not influenced by hypoxia.

  7. South African volunteers' experiences of volunteering at the 2010 ...

    The purpose of this research was to study the phenomenon of volunteering through South African volunteers' experiences of volunteering at the 2010 FIFA World Cup, specifically in the City of Tshwane (COT) in the Tshwane Metropolitan Area (TMA). A qualitative research design was employed, with specific reference to ...

  8. RECRUITING OLDER VOLUNTEERS: FINDINGS FROM THE BELGIAN AGEING STUDIES

    Sarah DURY

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is a significant body of work concerning voluntary work, hardly any attention is given to volunteering of older individuals. Moreover, the potential volunteers among older adults is even less examined. Next to volunteering among olde r adults, the neighbou rhood becomes more salient when people age and this due to their more intense use and time spent in the neighbourhood. In response to these lacunae, the main purpose of this contribution is to examine the impact of subjective neighbourhood features on the recruitment potential for volunteering among older people. This study uses data collected from the Belgian Ageing Studies. 59.977 adults aged sixty and over living self-reliantly in 127 Flemish municipalities in Belgium participated in this study. A binary logistic regression is ap plied to analyse the key va riables characterizing potential volunteers. Our findings stress the need for recognizing the crucial importance of the locality when recruiting older adults for volunteer activities.

  9. Transient Elastographic Values of Healthy Volunteers in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    Bhupendra Kumar Basnet

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Transient elastography is a very promising non invasive procedure to determine liver stiffness for diagnosis of fibrosis in various chronic liver diseases. However, studies on normal values of liver stiffness in apparently healthy subjects are still few. We aimed to determine liver stiffness values in healthy Nepalese volunteers. Methods:Transient elastography (FibroScanR, Echosens, Paris, France was performed to find out liver stiffness values in 45 apparently healthy volunteers after explaining study protocol. Complete medical examination with routine laboratory tests was performed. Subjects with normal liver biochemistries and normal liver ultrasonography were taken for analysis. Results:Mean liver stiffness value of study subjects was 4.24±0.70 kPa. Liver stiffness value was found higher in males than in females (4.32±0.74 vs 4.07±0.61 kPa, respectively, P=0.26 but not statistically significant. Similarly, comparison between age and liver stiffness also showed positive correlation (r=0.211 but not statistically significant (P=0.164 Conclusions: Our study showed that the mean liver stiffness value was 4.24±0.70 kPa in our population and influence of age, gender and body mass index were not significant. Keywords: chronic liver disease; FibroScanR; healthy volunteers; liver stiffness valve; transient elastography.

  10. Amplifying Student Learning through Volunteering

    McFadden, Amanda; Smeaton, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Student volunteer experiences are ubiquitous within higher education contexts. Despite this, there is further scope for understanding the qualitatively different ways students experience volunteering. To achieve this an explicit focus on understanding volunteer experiences from the students' perspective and the relationship these experiences have…

  11. Enhancing Leadership Skills in Volunteers

    Lockett, Landry L.; Boyd, Barry

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how professionals leading volunteers can purposefully work toward developing the "leadership identity" of individual volunteers. These concepts and the application of them are presented in the context of Cooperative Extension volunteer groups. Specific methods of developing the leadership identity and capacity of individual…

  12. The effects of an oral multivatimin combination with calcium, magnesium, and zinc on psychological well-being in healthy young male volunteers: A double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Carroll, D.; Ring, C.; Suter, M.; Willemsen, A.H.M.

    2000-01-01

    Rationale: Vitamin and mineral supplements may be associated with improved psychological status. Objective: The present study tested the effects of a multivitamin and mineral supplement (Berocca®) on psychological well-being. Methods: In a double-blind randomised-control trial, 80 healthy male

  13. Simple artificial training device for respiratory muscle strength and lung volumes in healthy young male and female subjects: A pilot study.

    Leelarungrayub, Jirakrit; Pinkaew, Decha; Yankai, Araya; Chautrakoon, Busaba; Kuntain, Rungtiwa

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a simple artificial device for respiratory muscle strength training and lung volumes using either combined or non-combined exercise with elastic bands in healthy young participants. Forty healthy young participants (20 male and 20 female) aged 19-24 years old were randomized into two main experiments with four sub-groups; (1) artificial device (n = 10) & standard device (n = 10) training, and (2) artificial device training combined with elastic band (EB) exercise (n = 10) & standard device training combined with EB (n = 10) exercise. Respiratory muscle strength with maximal peak inspiratory pressure (PImax), and lung volumes; tidal volume (TV), inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), expiratory reserve volume (ERV) and vital capacity (VC) were evaluated before and after training once daily for 3 weeks. Moreover, the peak dyspnea score and vital sign parameters were compared between the experimental groups after final training. All parameters had no statistical differences (p > 0.5) between the training devices alone and those combined with EB exercise prior to any experiments. Results from the first experiment showed that training with an artificial device increased all parameters (PImax, VC, IRV, ERV) significantly (p artificial device training combined with EB exercise showed a significant increase in all parameters, except for TV, and they were the same as the increased results in training with the standard device combined with EB exercise. There was no significant difference of data between these groups after the training period. Finally, the results of peak dyspnea score and all vital sign parameters from using the artificial device, with or without EB exercise, showed no statistical difference when compared to use of the standard device. This study proposed that a simple artificial device can be used to train the respiratory muscle with or without elastic band exercise in healthy young subjects

  14. Validation and Test-Retest Reliability of New Thermographic Technique Called Thermovision Technique of Dry Needling for Gluteus Minimus Trigger Points in Sciatica Subjects and TrPs-Negative Healthy Volunteers

    Rychlik, Michał; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity and test-retest reliability of Thermovision Technique of Dry Needling (TTDN) for the gluteus minimus muscle. TTDN is a new thermography approach used to support trigger points (TrPs) diagnostic criteria by presence of short-term vasomotor reactions occurring in the area where TrPs refer pain. Method. Thirty chronic sciatica patients (n=15 TrP-positive and n=15 TrPs-negative) and 15 healthy volunteers were evaluated by TTDN three times during two consecutive days based on TrPs of the gluteus minimus muscle confirmed additionally by referred pain presence. TTDN employs average temperature (T avr), maximum temperature (T max), low/high isothermal-area, and autonomic referred pain phenomenon (AURP) that reflects vasodilatation/vasoconstriction. Validity and test-retest reliability were assessed concurrently. Results. Two components of TTDN validity and reliability, T avr and AURP, had almost perfect agreement according to κ (e.g., thigh: 0.880 and 0.938; calf: 0.902 and 0.956, resp.). The sensitivity for T avr, T max, AURP, and high isothermal-area was 100% for everyone, but specificity of 100% was for T avr and AURP only. Conclusion. TTDN is a valid and reliable method for T avr and AURP measurement to support TrPs diagnostic criteria for the gluteus minimus muscle when digitally evoked referred pain pattern is present. PMID:26137486

  15. Safety evaluation of Elixir Paregorico in healthy volunteers: a phase I study.

    de Moraes, Mea; Bezerra, Mm; Bezerra, Faf; de Moraes, Ra; Cavalcanti, Pp; Uchoa, Cra; Lima, Fav; Odorico de Moraes, M

    2008-10-01

    A liquid alcoholic extract of Papaver somniferum named Elixir Paregorico is extensively used for diarrheal diseases in Brazil. Its increased popularity has brought concerns and fears over the safety of this herbal product. Given the lack of investigative clinical studies, in this regard, this study investigated whether Elixir Paregorico administration causes any noticeable toxic effects in healthy volunteers. In all, 28 middle-aged healthy male (n = 14) and female (n = 14) were enrolled. After screening and a washout period, eligible subjects received four oral doses per day of Elixir Paregorico (3 mL diluted in 30 mL of water) over a 10-day period. Altogether, all 28 participants completed the study. The results of hematological and biochemical tests performed pre and post-treatment were within the normal range. In both male and female volunteers, there were no statistical differences (P > 0.05) in the results of clinical and laboratory tests performed at screening, on 5th and 10th day visits, and at final assessment. Although mild adverse events were related, which subsided spontaneously, no serious untoward reactions were reported following Elixir Paregorico administration. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that Elixir Paregorico administered four times a day for 10 days is safe and does not cause any noticeable toxic effect in healthy volunteers.

  16. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics of a new 30 mg modified-release tablet formulation of metoclopramide for once-a-day administration versus 10 mg immediate-release tablets: a single and multiple-dose, randomized, open-label, parallel study in healthy male subjects.

    Bernardo-Escudero, Roberto; Alonso-Campero, Rosalba; Francisco-Doce, María Teresa de Jesús; Cortés-Fuentes, Myriam; Villa-Vargas, Miriam; Angeles-Uribe, Juan

    2012-12-01

    The study aimed to assess the pharmacokinetics of a new, modified-release metoclopramide tablet, and compare it to an immediate-release tablet. A single and multiple-dose, randomized, open-label, parallel, pharmacokinetic study was conducted. Investigational products were administered to 26 healthy Hispanic Mexican male volunteers for two consecutive days: either one 30 mg modified-release tablet every 24 h, or one 10 mg immediate-release tablet every 8 h. Blood samples were collected after the first and last doses of metoclopramide. Plasma metoclopramide concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Safety and tolerability were assessed through vital signs measurements, clinical evaluations, and spontaneous reports from study subjects. All 26 subjects were included in the analyses [mean (SD) age: 27 (8) years, range 18-50; BMI: 23.65 (2.22) kg/m², range 18.01-27.47)]. Peak plasmatic concentrations were not statistically different with both formulations, but occurred significantly later (p 0.05)]. One adverse event was reported in the test group (diarrhea), and one in the reference group (headache). This study suggests that the 30 mg modified-release metoclopramide tablets show features compatible with slow-release formulations when compared to immediate-release tablets, and is suitable for once-a-day administration.

  17. Metabolic mapping of functional activity in human subjects with the [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose technique

    Greenberg, J.H.; Reivich, M.; Alavi, A.

    1981-01-01

    The 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose technique was used to measure regional cerebral glucose utilization by human subjects during functional activation. Normal male volunteers subjected to one or more sensory stimuli exhibited focal increases in glucose metabolism in response to the stimulus. These results demonstrate that the technique is capable of providing functional maps in vivo related to both body region and submodality of sensory information in the human brain

  18. Volunteer Team Management

    Monych, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This thesis looked into volunteer team management in a project in AIESEC in Finland through the action research method. AIESEC in Finland is a non-profit non-government organization with a purpose of “peace and fulfilment of humankinds potential” through development of the youth’s future leadership. AIESEC was not a commissioning party; the project was the basis for the thesis without the supervision of the company. The thesis is based on a project that the author was in charge of, in ...

  19. Making room for volunteers

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    2012-01-01

    If campaigns do not accommodate this view, all but a hard core of regulars and fired-up partisans will drift away, leaving it for staffers and hired hands to do all the hard work of identifying voters, canvassing people by foot and by phone, and turning out the vote. [...] ironically, a campaign...... that is singleminded in its instrumental pursuit of victory can thus be less effective than one that is more accommodating- a campaign that makes room for volunteers by accepting that, unlike staffers, they come to politics with a different perspective and conception of what is and ought to be going on....

  20. Challenges in volunteering from cancer care volunteers perspectives.

    Kamaludin, Kauthar Mohamad; Muhammad, Mazanah; Wahat, Nor Wahiza Abdul; Ibrahim, Rahimah

    2013-01-01

    The involvement of non-government organizations (NGOs) and support groups has helped strengthen public health services in addressing cancer care burden. Owing to the contribution of volunteers in cancer care, this article documents a qualitative study that examined challenges in attracting and retaining cancer care volunteers as part of the effort to develop a volunteer recruitment model. Data were collected through three focus group discussions involving 19 cancer support group members in Malaysia. Findings of the study revealed that mobility and locality appeared to be significant in Malaysian context, while the need for financial support and time flexibility are challenges faced by cancer support groups to attract and retain volunteers. The findings imply that cancer care initiatives can benefit from more local volunteers but at the same time these volunteers require flexibility and financial support to sustain their engagement.

  1. Young People Volunteering in Uganda

    Riiser, Nina Milling

    2011-01-01

    Socio economic conditions in Uganda causes the youth to be caught between childhood and adulthood. They are young people moving towards adulthood, with no option of becoming independent. How does volunteering affect the youth and why does the youth volunteer? Does the youth get closer to adulthood by volunteering and what di they gain? Socio economic conditions in Uganda causes the youth to be caught between childhood and adulthood. They are young people moving towards adulthood, with no o...

  2. Volunteer Environmental Stewardship and Affective Labour in Philadelphia

    Alec Foster

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has critically evaluated the rapid growth of volunteer urban environmental stewardship. Framings of this phenomenon have largely focused upon environmentality and/or neoliberal environments, unfortunately often presenting a totalising picture of the state and/or market utilising power from above to create environmental subjects with limited agency available to local citizens. Based upon qualitative research with volunteer urban environmental stewards in Philadelphia, affective labour is proposed as an alternative explanation for participation. Stewards volunteered their time and labour due to the intense emotional attachments they formed with their neighbourhoods, neighbours, and nonhuman others in relationships of affective labour. Volunteer urban environmental stewardship as affective labour provides room for agency on the part of individuals and groups involved in volunteer urban environmental reproduction and opens up new ways of relating to and being with human and nonhuman others.

  3. Weight and Glucose Reduction Observed with a Combination of Nutritional Agents in Rodent Models Does Not Translate to Humans in a Randomized Clinical Trial with Healthy Volunteers and Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Rebecca J Hodge

    Full Text Available Nutritional agents have modest efficacy in reducing weight and blood glucose in animal models and humans, but combinations are less well characterized. GSK2890457 (GSK457 is a combination of 4 nutritional agents, discovered by the systematic assessment of 16 potential components using the diet-induced obese mouse model, which was subsequently evaluated in a human study.In the diet-induced obese mouse model, GSK457 (15% w/w in chow given with a long-acting glucagon-like peptide -1 receptor agonist, exendin-4 AlbudAb, produced weight loss of 30.8% after 28 days of treatment. In db/db mice, a model of diabetes, GSK457 (10% w/w combined with the exendin-4 AlbudAb reduced glucose by 217 mg/dL and HbA1c by 1.2% after 14 days.GSK457 was evaluated in a 6 week randomized, placebo-controlled study that enrolled healthy subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes to investigate changes in weight and glucose. In healthy subjects, GSK457 well tolerated when titrated up to 40 g/day, and it reduced systemic exposure of metformin by ~ 30%. In subjects with diabetes taking liraglutide 1.8 mg/day, GSK457 did not reduce weight, but it slightly decreased mean glucose by 0.356 mmol/L (95% CI: -1.409, 0.698 and HbAlc by 0.065% (95% CI: -0.495, 0.365, compared to placebo. In subjects with diabetes taking metformin, weight increased in the GSK457-treated group [adjusted mean % increase from baseline: 1.26% (95% CI: -0.24, 2.75], and mean glucose and HbA1c were decreased slightly compared to placebo [adjusted mean glucose change from baseline: -1.22 mmol/L (95% CI: -2.45, 0.01; adjusted mean HbA1c change from baseline: -0.219% (95% CI: -0.910, 0.472].Our data demonstrate remarkable effects of GSK457 in rodent models of obesity and diabetes, but a marked lack of translation to humans. Caution should be exercised with nutritional agents when predicting human efficacy from rodent models of obesity and diabetes.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01725126.

  4. Retired RNs: perceptions of volunteering.

    Cocca-Bates, Katherine C; Neal-Boylan, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative study was done to explore the perceptions of volunteering among retired registered nurses (RNs) in Kansas. Participants were volunteers in formal nursing roles or were using their nursing knowledge and experience in non-nursing roles, such as church work. Regardless of the type of volunteer position, retired RNs reported that they use what they have learned as nurses when they volunteer. Volunteering benefits include enhanced self-worth, intellectual stimulation, reduced social isolation, and opportunities to help others. Increased paperwork, new technology, difficulty finding nursing-specific volunteer opportunities, resistance from health care organizations, and a lack of respect for what these nurses know are challenges and barriers to volunteering. Retired RNs have accumulated years of clinical nursing experience and can be helpful to employed nurses. Health care organizations should launch targeted efforts to recruit and utilize retired RN volunteers. Health care professionals who care for older adults should recommend volunteering as a healthful endeavor. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Volunteering in the aftermath of disasters: Psychopathology and volunteer management

    Þormar, S.B.

    2015-01-01

    The numbers of disasters in the world have multiplied in recent years. The same goes for community volunteers that respond to these events. In developing countries community volunteers are often the largest resource available in the first 48 hours until a more skilled team of rescuers arrives.

  6. Volunteering for charity: pride, respect, and the commitment of volunteers.

    Boezeman, Edwin J; Ellemers, Naomi

    2007-05-01

    This study builds upon and extends the social-identity-based model of cooperation with the organization (T. R. Tyler, 1999; T. R. Tyler & S. L. Blader, 2000) to examine commitment and cooperative intent among fundraising volunteers. In Study 1, structural equation modeling indicated that pride and respect related to the intent to remain a volunteer with an organization, and that this relation was mediated primarily by normative organizational commitment. In Study 2, structural equation modeling indicated that the perceived importance of volunteer work was related to pride, that perceived organizational support related to the experience of respect, and that pride and respect mediated the relation between perceived importance and support on the one hand and organizational commitment on the other. Overall, the results suggest that volunteer organizations may do well to implement pride and respect in their volunteer policy, for instance to address the reliability problem (J. L. Pearce, 1993). 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  7. Stand by me: a volunteer's reflection on working on an academic palliative care unit in Germany.

    Böddeker, Andrea; Smeding, Ruthmarijke; Voltz, Raymond

    2010-09-01

    To relate personal experience and reflections on the tasks and role of a volunteer in an academic palliative care unit into the context of the English publications of 2009. We took a snapshot of the most recent publications as a way of placing the rather unique experiences of this German volunteer in an international context. Five recent studies were found discussing the importance of volunteers in an interdisciplinary context, but mainly focusing on the volunteer's role in the community, interacting with terminally ill patients and their caregivers. Furthermore, aspects of ethical issues, reasons for starting and continuing to volunteer for hospice and the role of male volunteers were evaluated in these studies. The studies feature on the one hand the positive recognition of volunteers, for example, two studies revealed a significant interest by the respondents of having volunteers if they were dying. Also, these articles focused on family carers, who voted for the service of hospice/palliative care volunteers; on the other hand, efforts have to be made to improve the recruitment of volunteers especially if it comes to male support. A further study, reporting on ethical issues, indicates that little is known about these issues when it comes to a volunteer's interaction with a patient in difficult situations, how these are to be managed. These studies give us valuable clues on how and where to make continuous improvements.

  8. Project VUE: Volunteers Upholding Education.

    Thurber, John C.

    This document reports on a project aimed at developing, implementing, and evaluating a plan for using volunteer classroom aides in the Palm Beach County (Florida) schools as a means for meeting various financial, human, and community needs. The desirability of a comprehensive volunteer plan was presented in a 10-point summary by an ad hoc…

  9. Managing Library Volunteers, Second Edition

    Driggers, Preston; Dumas, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    Volunteers are essential to a successful library program--and at a time when deep budget cuts are the norm, there are many libraries that depend on the help of dedicated volunteers, who do everything from shelving books to covering the phones. Whether these are friends, trustees, or community members, managing them effectively is the key to…

  10. Volunteer Computing for Science Gateways

    Anderson, David

    2017-01-01

    This poster offers information about volunteer computing for science gateways that offer high-throughput computing services. Volunteer computing can be used to get computing power. This increases the visibility of the gateway to the general public as well as increasing computing capacity at little cost.

  11. Parental overprotection increases interpersonal sensitivity in healthy subjects.

    Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Kamata, Mitsuhiro

    2009-01-01

    The effect of parental rearing on interpersonal sensitivity was studied in 469 Japanese volunteers. Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument, which consists of the factors of care and protection, and interpersonal sensitivity was measured by the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM). In male subjects, higher IPSM scores were related to higher scores of paternal protection (P < .01) and maternal protection (P < .05). In female subjects, higher IPSM scores were related to higher scores of maternal protection (P < .001). The present study suggests that in both males and females, interpersonal sensitivity is increased by high protection of the same-sex parents and that in males there is an additional effect of high maternal protection.

  12. Ventricular size and cortical atrophy in normal elderly volunteers and demented patients

    Chiba, Kazuo; Yamada, Hideo; Endoh, Kazuo

    1985-01-01

    Review of papers for methods of measuring sizes of ventricles and CSF space on CT revealed many different ways including subjective, linear, planimetric and volumetric methods. Results of these measurements were also reviewed and discussed together with our own study about normally acting elderly volunteers and patients with dimentia. The left lateral ventricle was significantly larger than the right. Sizes of ventricles and CSF spaces increased with aging. These differences were significant among five different age groups in female (younger than 60, sixties, seventies, eighties and older than 90). In male these differences were not significant among several age groups mainly because of a small number in an age group. There was no significant difference of sizes of ventricles and CSF space between male and female. The two variates analysis between sizes of ventricles and CSF space showed rightward shift of two main components in dementia compared with normal group. (author)

  13. The Correlation between the Triglyceride to High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio and Computed Tomography-Measured Visceral Fat and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Local Adult Male Subjects

    Park, Hye-Rin; Shin, Sae-Ron; Han, A Lum; Jeong, Yong Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background We studied the association between the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and computed tomography-measured visceral fat as well as cardiovascular risk factors among Korean male adults. Methods We measured triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat among 372 Korean men. The visceral fat and sub...

  14. Acute fluoxetine modulates emotional processing in young adult volunteers.

    Capitão, L P; Murphy, S E; Browning, M; Cowen, P J; Harmer, C J

    2015-08-01

    Fluoxetine is generally regarded as the first-line pharmacological treatment for young people, as it is believed to show a more favourable benefit:risk ratio than other antidepressants. However, the mechanisms through which fluoxetine influences symptoms in youth have been little investigated. This study examined whether acute administration of fluoxetine in a sample of young healthy adults altered the processing of affective information, including positive, sad and anger cues. A total of 35 male and female volunteers aged between 18 and 21 years old were randomized to receive a single 20 mg dose of fluoxetine or placebo. At 6 h after administration, participants completed a facial expression recognition task, an emotion-potentiated startle task, an attentional dot-probe task and the Rapid Serial Visual Presentation. Subjective ratings of mood, anxiety and side effects were also taken pre- and post-fluoxetine/placebo administration. Relative to placebo-treated participants, participants receiving fluoxetine were less accurate at identifying anger and sadness and did not show the emotion-potentiated startle effect. There were no overall significant effects of fluoxetine on subjective ratings of mood. Fluoxetine can modulate emotional processing after a single dose in young adults. This pattern of effects suggests a potential cognitive mechanism for the greater benefit:risk ratio of fluoxetine in adolescent patients.

  15. The influence of social activity on regional cerebral blood flow and mental function in the normal aged volunteers

    Kobayashi, Shotai; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Katsube, Tomoko; Kitani, Kohaku; Okada, Masanori

    1983-01-01

    The infuence of social activity on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and mental function was studied by Xe133 inhalation method in normal aged volunteers. Subjects: The first group consisted of 33 aged volunteers living in nursing home and exposed to little social stimuli. There were 15 males (mean age of 77 years) and 18 females (77 years). The second group consisted of 49 aged community volunteers who were confirmed socially active. There were 25 males (76 years) and 24 females (72 years). All subjects were healthy persons without a past hitory of cerebral diseases and lung diseases. There were no difference in blood pressure and hematocrit between the two groups. Method: The rCBF was measured by 16-ch-Novo-cerebrograph. Verbal intelligence was evaluated by the Hasegawa Simple Intelligence Scale for Aged. Performance intelligence was evaluated with the Kohs' Block Design Test. Results: 1) The mean rCBF in group I showed significantly lower value than that of group II, especially in the frontotemporal region. The performance intelligence was decreased in group I. However, there were no significant difference in the verbal intelligence between the two groups. 2) The aging effect on rCBF and intelligences was more prominent in group II. 3) In males, hemispheric rCBF of group I decreased bilaterally associated with the decrease of both intelligences. While the left hemispheric rCBF in females was relatively preserved as well as the preservation of verbal intelligence. These results indicate that the social environmental factors may have significant influence to aging of the brain especially in the males. (author)

  16. NASOPHARYNGEAL CONCENTRATIONS IN THE HUMAN VOLUNTEER BREATHING ACETONE

    In an effort to examine the absorption of a common chemical into the nasopharyngeal region in humans, a 57 year old male volunteer inhaled uniformly labeled 13C-acetone at 1.4 ppm for 30 min while performing different breathing maneuvers; nose inhale, nose exhale (NINE); mouth ...

  17. Volunteer Program for the WSIS

    2003-01-01

    PALEXPO, GENEVA, from 4 - 13 December Are you concerned by the digital divide between the North and the South? Would you like to contribute personally to the success of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS), in particular the activities of civil society? Join the team of volunteers and/or offer accommodation to an international volunteer! Contact: Charlotte (Project Coordinator WSIS) Kathy (Volunteer Coordinator) ICVolunteers PO Box 755 - CH-1211 Genève 4 Phone: +41 22 800 1436 - Fax: +41 22 800 14 37 E-mail: charlotte@icvolunteers.org kathy@icvolunteers.org For further information, please consult the website: http://www.icvolunteers.org

  18. Exercise increases endostatin in circulation of healthy volunteers

    Makey Ian

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity increases the risk of atherosclerosis. However, the molecular mechanisms of this relation are poorly understood. A recent report indicates that endostatin, an endogenous angiostatic factor, inhibits the progression of atherosclerosis, and suggests that reducing intimal and atherosclerotic plaque tissue neovascularization can inhibit the progression atherosclerosis in animal models. We hypothesize that exercise can elevate the circulatory endostatin level. Hence, exercise can protect against one of the mechanisms of atherosclerosis. Results We examined treadmill exercise tests in healthy volunteers to determine the effect of exercise on plasma levels of endostatin and other angiogenic regulators. Oxygen consumption (VO2 was calculated. Plasma levels of endostatin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF were determined using ELISA. The total peak VO2 (L in 7 male subjects was 29.5 ± 17.8 over a 4–10 minute interval of exercise. Basal plasma levels of endostatin (immediately before exercise were 20.3 ± 3.2 pg/ml, the plasma levels increased to 29.3 ± 4.2, 35.2 ± 1.8, and 27.1 ± 2.2 ng/ml, at 0.5, 2, and 6 h, respectively, after exercise. There was a strong linear correlation between increased plasma levels of endostatin (% and the total peak VO2 (L related to exercise (R2 = 0.9388; P Conclusions The results suggest that circulating endostatin can be significantly increased by exercise in proportion to the peak oxygen consumption under physiological conditions in healthy volunteers. These findings may provide new insights into the molecular links between physical inactivity and the risk of angiogenesis dependent diseases such as atherosclerosis.

  19. The effect of whisky and wine consumption on total phenol content and antioxidant capacity of plasma from healthy volunteers

    Duthie, GG; Pedersen, M W; PC, Morrice

    1998-01-01

    wine, malt whisky or unmatured 'new make'spirit. Each volunteer participated on three occasions one week apart, consuming one of the beverages each time. Bloodsamples were obtained from the anticubital vein at intervals up to 4h after consumption of the beverages when a urinesample was also obtained....... RESULTS: Within 30 min of consumption of the wine and whisky, there was a similar andsignificant increase in plasma total phenol content and antioxidant capacity as determined by the ferric reducing capacityof plasma (FRAP). No changes were observed following consumption of 'new make' spirit. CONCLUSIONS......OBJECTIVE: To assess whether consumption of 100 ml of whisky or red wine by healthy male subjects increasedplasma total phenol content and antioxidant capacity. DESIGN: A Latin square arrangement to eliminate ordering effectswhereby, after an overnight fast, nine volunteers consumed 100 ml of red...

  20. Dual diagnosis vs. triple diagnosis in HIV: a comparative study to evaluate the differences in psychopathology and suicidal risk in HIV positive male subjects.

    Gupta, M; Kumar, K; Garg, P D

    2013-12-01

    The problem of triple diagnosis of HIV, substance abuse and psychiatric disorders is a complex one with difficult solutions. HIV disease progression is affected by substance use as well as psychiatric illness burden due to both direct as well as indirect factors. Continuing substance abuse with poor drug adherence coexists with psychiatric disorders leading to increased morbidity and mortality. A total of 100 HIV positive subjects comprising of two groups each having 50 subjects with and without substance abuse were assessed using detailed history, mental state examination, WHO schedule for clinical assessment in neuropsychiatry (SCAN 2.0) and Beck's Scale for Suicidal Ideation (BSS). Statistical analysis used Chi-Square test, Fischer's exact test, Student's t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, univariate and multiple regression analysis, univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis. p-Valueabuse, as compared to subjects without substance use. Suicidal risk was significantly increased (pabuse did not increase the risk. Substance abuse inflicts a much greater burden on HIV positive individuals as compared to subjects without substance use. Concomitant substance abuse resulted in significantly increased duration of illness and psychiatric morbidity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Standardized laryngeal videostroboscopic rating : Differences between untrained and trained male and female subjects, and effects of varying sound intensity, fundamental frequency, and age

    Sulter, AM; Schutte, HK; Miller, DG

    To determine the influence of the factors gender, vocal training, sound intensity, pitch, and aging on vocal function, videolaryngostroboscopic images of 214 subjects, subdivided according to gender and status of vocal training, were evaluated by three judges with standardized rating scales,

  2. Volunteer Monitoring to Protect Wetlands

    The involvement of volunteers in ecological monitoring is a realistic, cost-effective, and beneficial way to obtain important information which might otherwise be unavailable due to lack of resources at government agencies.

  3. Vocational guidance in social volunteering

    Nikolay S. Pryazhnikov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the possibilities and limitations of vocational guidance in the social volunteering system. The essence of volunteer work is closely related with assistance to desperate people in searching for the meaning of living, often coinciding with labour activity that are deemed in terms of “the main matter of life” and “the leading activity”. For adolescents, it is the choice of career, and for adults, it is the work proper (i.e. an essential condition for personal self-realization. The problem of “forced volunteering” for experts in vocational guidance also means that they often have to work voluntarily and unselfishly outside the official guidelines. To clarify the terms «volunteer» and «a person in desperate need of help» the study used the method of analyzing the documents, e.g. the Regulations on Social Volunteering, the generalization of psychological sources, the initial survey of university students as active supporters of the volunteer movement, On the essence of volunteering and the place of career guidance in selfless social work. Vocational guidance is not excluded from the general system of volunteerism, but has an insufficiently defined status and low popularity among participants in social volunteering. Also, the problem of «forced volunteering» of experts in career counseling, which often requires voluntary and unselfish performance of quality work outside the framework of official instructions, is also indicated. Simultaneously, positive aspects of such disinterested career initiatives are noted, in particular, less control by the official inspectors (or customers and, accordingly, greater freedom of creativity than when someone else does the work.

  4. Decision making and executive function in male adolescents with early-onset or adolescence-onset conduct disorder and control subjects.

    Fairchild, Graeme; van Goozen, Stephanie H M; Stollery, Sarah J; Aitken, Michael R F; Savage, Justin; Moore, Simon C; Goodyer, Ian M

    2009-07-15

    Although conduct disorder (CD) is associated with an increased susceptibility to substance use disorders, little is known about decision-making processes or reward mechanisms in CD. This study investigated decision making under varying motivational conditions in CD. Performances on the Risky Choice Task (RCT) and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were assessed in 156 adolescents (84 control subjects, 34 with adolescence-onset CD, and 38 with early-onset CD). The RCT was performed twice, once under normal motivational conditions and once under conditions of increased motivation and psychosocial stress. Increased motivation and stress led to more cautious decision making and changes in framing effects on the RCT in all groups, although such effects were least pronounced in the early-onset CD group. Participants from both CD subgroups selected the risky choice more frequently than control subjects. Under normal motivational conditions, early-onset CD participants chose the risky choice more frequently in trials occurring after small gains, relative to control subjects and adolescence-onset CD participants. Following adjustment for IQ differences, the groups did not differ significantly in terms of WCST performance. Differences in decision making between control subjects and individuals with CD suggest that the balance between sensitivity to reward and punishment is shifted in this disorder, particularly the early-onset form. Our data on modulation of decision making according to previous outcomes suggest altered reward mechanisms in early-onset CD. The WCST data suggest that impairments in global executive function do not underlie altered decision making in CD.

  5. Brain Magnetic Resonance Elastography on Healthy Volunteers: A Safety Study

    Guang-Rui Liu; Pei-Yi Gao; Yan Lin; Jing Xue; Xiao-Chun Wang; Bin-Bin Sui; Li Ma; Zhi-Nong Xi; Qin Bai; Hao Shen

    2009-01-01

    Background: Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a recently developed imaging technique that can directly visualize and quantitatively measure tissue elasticity. Purpose: To evaluate the safety of brain MRE on human subjects. Material and Methods: The study included 20 healthy volunteers. MRE sequence scan (drive signal not applied to external force actuator) and MRE study were separately performed on each volunteer at an interval of more than 24 hours. The heart rate and blood pressure of each volunteer were measured immediately before and after MRE sequence scan and MRE study. Electroencephalography (EEG) was also performed within 2 hours after each scan. The volunteers were asked about their experience of the two scans. Randomized-block analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the data of blood pressure and heart rate. Paired t test was used to analyze the data of the two EEG examinations. The volunteers were followed up 1 week after the examination. Results: All procedures were performed on each volunteer, and no one complained of obvious discomfort. No related adverse events were reported during follow-up. There was no statistically significant difference in heart rate or blood pressure. There was a statistically significant difference (P<0.05) in EEG results in the right temporoparietal region. Increased power was found in the theta, delta, alpha, and beta2 bands. No brain injury was detected by the EEG examinations. Conclusion: Based on the study results, brain MRE examinations are safe to perform on human subjects

  6. Função sexual de homens submetidos a transplante hepático Sexual function of males subjected to liver transplantation

    Júlio Cezar Uili Coelho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade de vida sexual masculina antes e depois do transplante hepático. MÉTODOS: Foi enviado questionário de avaliação para 56 doentes masculinos, que tinham idade superior a 18 anos e que sobreviveram mais de seis meses após o transplante hepático. O questionário continha 15 perguntas com cinco ou seis alternativas de resposta para mensurar a função sexual masculina segmentada por cinco componentes: função erétil, função orgástica, desejo sexual, satisfação com a relação sexual e satisfação com a vida sexual como um todo. As respostas geraram valores numéricos, os quais foram agrupados dentro de cada domínio e comparados antes e depois do transplante hepático. RESULTADOS: Vinte e cinco doentes responderam completamente o questionário. Todas os cinco componentes da função sexual melhoraram após o transplante hepático, sendo que o escore da função erétil aumentou de 21,12±8,07 para 26,52±5,22 (p=0,004, da função orgástica de 7,28±3,05 para 9,36±1,47 (p=0,008, da função desejo sexual de 6,64±2,58 para 8,68±1,35 (p=0,005, da satisfação com relação sexual de 9,16±3,83 para 12,52±2,65 (pBACKGROUND: Sexual dysfunction is very common in liver transplantation candidates. Our objective is to determine the sexual life quality of males before and after liver transplantation. METHODS: Questionnaire was sent to 56 males over 18 years of age with at least six-month survival after orthotopic liver transplantation. The self-administered questionnaire contained 15 questions with 5 or 6 alternatives to determine the male sexual function which may be divided into 5 domains: 1 erectile function; 2 orgasmic function; 3 sexual desire; 4 intercourse satisfaction; and 5 overall satisfaction with sexual life. Each answer received a score. Domains scores were computed by summing the scores for individual answers and they were compared before and after the liver transplantation. RESULTS: Twenty

  7. Sex differences in the risk profile and male predominance in silent brain infarction in community-dwelling elderly subjects. The Sefuri brain MRI study

    Takashima, Yuki; Mori, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Manabu; Yuzuriha, Takefumi; Yao, Hiroshi; Miwa, Yoshikazu; Sasaguri, Toshiyuki; Uchino, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Although brain infarction is more common in men, the male predominance of silent brain infarction (SBI) was inconsistent in the earlier studies. This study was to examine the relationship between sex differences in the risk profile and SBI. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional analysis of cardiovascular risk factors and SBI on MRI. We asked all the female participants about the age at natural menopause and parity. SBI was detected in 77 (11.3%) of 680 participants (266 men and 414 women) with a mean age of 64.5 (range 40-93) years. In the logistic analysis, age (odds ratio (OR)=2.760/10 years, 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.037-3.738), hypertension (OR=3.465, 95% CI=1.991-6.031), alcohol intake (OR=2.494, 95% CI=1.392-4.466) and smoking (OR=2.302, 95% CI=1.161-4.565) were significant factors concerning SBI. Although SBI was more prevalent among men, this sex difference disappeared on the multivariate model after adjustment for other confounders. In 215 women aged 60 years or older, age at natural menopause, early menopause, duration of menopause, number of children and age at the last parity were not significantly associated with SBI after adjustment for age. Hypertension and age were considered to be the major risk factors for SBI in community-dwelling people. Male predominance in SBI was largely due to higher prevalence of alcohol habit and smoking in men than in women in our population. (author)

  8. Are Volunteer Satisfaction and Enjoyment Related to Cessation of Volunteering by Older Adults?

    Okun, Morris; Infurna, Frank J; Hutchinson, Ianeta

    2016-05-01

    Previous research indicates that volunteer satisfaction and enjoyment do not exert direct effects on the cessation of volunteering by older adults. This study examined whether satisfaction with and enjoyment of volunteering indirectly affect volunteer cessation via hours volunteered. Our sample consisted of participants in the Americans' Changing Lives study (N = 380) who were 65 years old and older and who volunteered at Wave 1. Volunteer satisfaction, volunteer enjoyment, hours volunteered, and several covariates were assessed at Wave 1, and volunteer cessation was assessed 3 years later at Wave 2. Volunteer satisfaction and volunteer enjoyment were positively associated with hours volunteered, and more hours volunteered was associated with decreased likelihood of volunteer cessation. The indirect effects of volunteer satisfaction and volunteer enjoyment on volunteer cessation via hours volunteered were -.023 (p = .059) and -.036 (p = .015), respectively. The dynamics of volunteer cessation are important because a volunteer shortage is forecasted and because the benefits of volunteering may attenuate when volunteering stops. Future research should test the proposed causal sequence using longitudinal data with at least 3 waves. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Long-Term Engagement in Formal Volunteering and Well-Being: An Exploratory Indian Study.

    Elias, Jereesh K; Sudhir, Paulomi; Mehrotra, Seema

    2016-09-27

    Sustained engagement in volunteering and its correlates have been examined in many studies across the globe. However, there is a dearth of research that explores the perspectives of long-term formal volunteers on the nature of changes perceived in oneself as a result of volunteering. Moreover, the linkages between psychological well-being and volunteering have been insufficiently explored. The present study was aimed at addressing these gaps. A heterogeneous sample of 20 long-term formal volunteer engaged in volunteering across different voluntary organisations in a southern metropolitan Indian city formed the primary sample for the study. In addition, a group of 21 short-term volunteers, matched on age, income and gender, was utilised for comparison with long-term volunteers on well-being indices. A semi structured interview schedule was used to explore self-perceived changes attributable to volunteering experience. In addition, a few standardised measures were used to comprehensively assess subjective well-being and psychological well-being. The interview data provided rich descriptions of perceived positive changes in self across cognitive, behavioral and emotional domains. Mirroring these patterns, the quantitative analyses indicated that long-term volunteers experienced higher levels of psychological well-being (sense of mastery and competence, self-acceptance and sense of engagement and growth) than short-term volunteers. The potential mechanisms involved in beneficial outcomes of long-term volunteering and implications for further research are highlighted.

  10. What do women gain from volunteering? The experience of lay Arab and Jewish women volunteers in the Women for Women's Health programme in Israel.

    Daoud, Nihaya; Shtarkshall, Ronny; Laufer, Neri; Verbov, Gina; Bar-El, Hagar; Abu-Gosh, Nasreen; Mor-Yosef, Shlomo

    2010-03-01

    Ambiguous feelings regarding women engaging in formal volunteering and concerns about their exploitation might explain the dearth of studies regarding the volunteering benefits specifically experienced by low socioeconomic status women. The current study examined benefits of volunteering among women participating in Women for Women's Health (WWH), a lay health volunteers (LHV) programme implemented in Jewish and Arab communities in Israel, and aiming at empowering such women to become active volunteers and promote health activities in their communities. Two years after the introduction of WWH in each community, all 45 Jewish and 25 Arab volunteers were contacted by phone and invited to participate in the focus group discussions. Five focus group discussions were conducted with 25/42 Jewish volunteers in 2003 and four with 20/25 Arab volunteers in 2005. The other volunteers could not attend the scheduled meetings or became inactive for personal reasons. Four benefit categories were identified in both ethnic groups: 1. Personal benefits of having increased knowledge, feeling self-satisfaction, mastering new skills and performing healthy behaviours; 2. Group-social benefits of social support and sense of cohesion; 3. Purposive benefits of achieving the WWH mission and goals; 4. Sociopolitical benefits of learning to accept the other and experiencing increased solidarity. However, the relatively less privileged Arab volunteers enumerated more benefits within the personal and purposive categories. They also identified the unique sociocultural category of improving women's status in the community by creating a legitimate space for women by public sphere involvement, traditionally solely a male domain. We conclude that volunteering in community-based health promotion programmes can be an empowering experience for lay women without being exploitative. Positive volunteering benefits will be even more discernable among underprivileged women who enjoy fewer opportunities in

  11. Magnitude and duration of cue-induced craving for marijuana in volunteers with cannabis use disorder.

    Lundahl, Leslie H; Greenwald, Mark K

    2016-09-01

    Evaluate magnitude and duration of subjective and physiologic responses to neutral and marijuana (MJ)-related cues in cannabis dependent volunteers. 33 volunteers (17 male) who met DSM-IV criteria for Cannabis Abuse or Dependence were exposed to neutral (first) then MJ-related visual, auditory, olfactory and tactile cues. Mood, drug craving and physiology were assessed at baseline, post-neutral, post-MJ and 15-min post MJ cue exposure to determine magnitude of cue- responses. For a subset of participants (n=15; 9 male), measures of craving and physiology were collected also at 30-, 90-, and 150-min post-MJ cue to examine duration of cue-effects. In cue-response magnitude analyses, visual analog scale (VAS) items craving for, urge to use, and desire to smoke MJ, Total and Compulsivity subscale scores of the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire, anxiety ratings, and diastolic blood pressure (BP) were significantly elevated following MJ vs. neutral cue exposure. In cue-response duration analyses, desire and urge to use MJ remained significantly elevated at 30-, 90- and 150-min post MJ-cue exposure, relative to baseline and neutral cues. Presentation of polysensory MJ cues increased MJ craving, anxiety and diastolic BP relative to baseline and neutral cues. MJ craving remained elevated up to 150-min after MJ cue presentation. This finding confirms that carry-over effects from drug cue presentation must be considered in cue reactivity studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Magnitude and duration of cue-induced craving for marijuana in volunteers with cannabis use disorder

    Lundahl, Leslie H.; Greenwald, Mark K.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Evaluate magnitude and duration of subjective and physiologic responses to neutral and marijuana (MJ)–related cues in cannabis dependent volunteers. Methods 33 volunteers (17 male) who met DSM-IV criteria for Cannabis Abuse or Dependence were exposed to neutral (first) then MJ-related visual, auditory, olfactory and tactile cues. Mood, drug craving and physiology were assessed at baseline, post-neutral, post-MJ and 15-min post MJ cue exposure to determine magnitude of cue- responses. For a subset of participants (n=15; 9 male), measures of craving and physiology were collected also at 30-, 90-, and 150-min post-MJ cue to examine duration of cue-effects. Results In cue-response magnitude analyses, visual analog scale (VAS) items craving for, urge to use, and desire to smoke MJ, Total and Compulsivity subscale scores of the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire, anxiety ratings, and diastolic blood pressure (BP) were significantly elevated following MJ vs. neutral cue exposure. In cue-response duration analyses, desire and urge to use MJ remained significantly elevated at 30-, 90- and 150-min post MJ-cue exposure, relative to baseline and neutral cues. Conclusions Presentation of polysensory MJ cues increased MJ craving, anxiety and diastolic BP relative to baseline and neutral cues. MJ craving remained elevated up to 150-min after MJ cue presentation. This finding confirms that carry-over effects from drug cue presentation must be considered in cue reactivity studies. PMID:27436749

  13. The effect of opium addiction on serum adiponectin and leptin levels in male subjects: a case control study from Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors Study (KERCADRS).

    Shahouzehi, Beydolah; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Najafipour, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Serum adiponectin and leptin levels have been shown to be related to obesity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Opium addiction has a positive association with endocrine system disorders. The relationship between adipokines and opium addiction is unclear. In the present study, we aimed to determine serum adiponectin and leptin levels in opium addicted subjects. 176 men, 88 opium addicts and 88 non- addicts were randomly selected from subjects who participated in Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk factors Study (KERCADRS); a population-based study. Serum adiponectin and leptin levels were measured using ELISA and compared between two groups. We adjusted the effect of some confounding factors such as the patients' demographic, clinical and medical history in multivariate analysis model. The serum level of adiponectin in opium addicts was significantly lower than control group (6.5±3.6 vs. 9.8±8.1 µg/ml, Popium addicts, p = 0.80). In the multivariate analysis, after adjusting for age, cigarette smoking, body mass index, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cholesterol, triglyceride and high and low density lipoproteins, the negative association between opium addiction and decreased adiponectin level was still present (β = -0.144, P value = 0.005). The results showed that opium addiction reduces serum adiponectin level. Since adiponectin has been shown to have anti-diabetic and anti-atherogenic effects, its reduction may account for increase in the risk of metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and CVD amongst opium addicted patients.

  14. Parallel Volunteer Learning during Youth Programs

    Lesmeister, Marilyn K.; Green, Jeremy; Derby, Amy; Bothum, Candi

    2012-01-01

    Lack of time is a hindrance for volunteers to participate in educational opportunities, yet volunteer success in an organization is tied to the orientation and education they receive. Meeting diverse educational needs of volunteers can be a challenge for program managers. Scheduling a Volunteer Learning Track for chaperones that is parallel to a…

  15. The volunteer program in a Children's Hospice.

    Duggal, Shalu; Farah, Peggy; Straatman, Lynn Patricia; Freeman, Leanne; Dickson, Susan

    2008-09-01

    Canuck Place Children's Hospice (CPCH) is regarded as one of the leading pediatric palliative care systems in the world. Since 1995, it has been providing hospice care free of charge to children and their families living with life-threatening conditions. The pediatric palliative hospice is a relatively new practice in health care, in comparison to the longstanding adult model. As a result, development and implementation of volunteer programs in pediatric hospices is not currently represented in literature. With over 300 volunteers at present, CPCH has built a successful program that can serve as a model in pediatric volunteer services. To present the unique volunteer roles and experience at CPCH, and share ways volunteers work to support the efforts of the clinical team. Strategies to address current challenges in the volunteer program are also addressed. Descriptive design. A current CPCH volunteer discusses the volunteer program. Interviews were conducted with the founding volunteer director of CPCH and current volunteers. The volunteer program at CPCH fully embraces the life of each child and family. Volunteer selection is the groundwork for ensuring a cohesive work force, while training equips volunteers with the knowledge to carry out their role with confidence. Areas of improvement that have been recognized include offering effective feedback to volunteers and delivering adequate level of training for non-direct care roles. The talents of volunteers at CPCH are diverse, and CPCH aims to recognize and thank volunteers for their continuous contributions.

  16. Changing Nature of Formal Service Program Volunteering

    Hustinx, L.; Shachar, I.Y.; Handy, F.; Smith, D.H.; Smith, D.H.; Stebbins, R.A.; Grotz, J.

    2016-01-01

    Most other chapters in this Handbook focus on volunteering in associations, but this chapter focuses instead mainly on volunteering in volunteer service programs (VSPs). As discussed at length in Handbook Chapter 15, VSPs are essentially volunteer departments of other, larger, controlling, parent

  17. Exploring Volunteering of Committed Young Catholics

    Webber, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a study of volunteer levels of Catholics from various World regions who attended an international youth Catholic festival. Volunteering levels, types of volunteering, reason for volunteering, Catholic group membership and pro-social values are analysed. An online survey was administered five months after the Festival to…

  18. Volunteering as Students significant social activities

    I. A. Zaitseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the involvement of students in volunteer activities, examines the organization of students volunteer activities and volunteer projects realization at the university. The potential of volunteerism as an effective mechanism for addressing the urgent social problems is revealed.Theauthorstudiesexperience of volunteer services organization the I.A. Bunin State University in Yelets.

  19. Predicting volunteer commitment in environmental stewardship programmes

    Robert L. Ryan; Rachel Kaplan; Robert E. Grese

    2001-01-01

    The natural environment benefits greatly from the work of volunteers in environmental stewardship programmes. However, little is known about volunteers' motivations for continued participation in these programmes. This study looked at the relationship between volunteer commitment and motivation, as well as the effect that volunteering has on participants'...

  20. NMR imaging of bladder tumors in males. Preliminary clinical experience

    Sigal, R.; Rein, A.J.J.T.; Atlan, H.; Lanir, A.; Kedar, S.; Segal, S.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of the normal and pathologic bladder was performed in 10 male subjects: 5 normal volunteers, 4 with bladder primary carcinoma, 1 with bladder metastasis. All scanning was done using a superconductive magnet operating at 0.5 T. Spin echo was used as pulse sequence. The diagnosis was confirmed in all cases by NMR imaging. The ability of the technique to provide images in axial, sagital and coronal planes allowed a precise assessment of the morphology and the size of the tumors. The lack of hazards and the quality of images may promote NMR imaging to a prominent role in the diagnosis of human bladder cancer [fr

  1. Effect of Repeated Whole Blood Donations on Aerobic Capacity and Hemoglobin Mass in Moderately Trained Male Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Meurrens, Julie; Steiner, Thomas; Ponette, Jonathan; Janssen, Hans Antonius; Ramaekers, Monique; Wehrlin, Jon Peter; Vandekerckhove, Philippe; Deldicque, Louise

    2016-12-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the impact of three whole blood donations on endurance capacity and hematological parameters and to determine the duration to fully recover initial endurance capacity and hematological parameters after each donation. Twenty-four moderately trained subjects were randomly divided in a donation (n = 16) and a placebo (n = 8) group. Each of the three donations was interspersed by 3 months, and the recovery of endurance capacity and hematological parameters was monitored up to 1 month after donation. Maximal power output, peak oxygen consumption, and hemoglobin mass decreased (p donation with a maximal decrease of 4, 10, and 7%, respectively. Hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, ferritin, and red blood cell count (RBC), all key hematological parameters for oxygen transport, were lowered by a single donation (p donations (p donation was 11% for hematocrit, 10% for hemoglobin concentration, 50% for ferritin, and 12% for RBC (p donation group. Maximal, but not submaximal, endurance capacity was altered after blood donation in moderately trained people and the expected increase in capacity after multiple maximal exercise tests was not present when repeating whole blood donations.

  2. Effect of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on coronary flow in normal subjects.

    Ishikura, Fuminobu; Beppu, Shintaro; Ueda, Hiroaki; Nehra, Ajay; Khandheria, Bijoy K

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on coronary function in normal subjects. The study assessed mean blood pressure, left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) flow, and echocardiographic variables before and 30 and 60 minutes after taking 50 mg of sildenafil citrate. The mean velocity of LAD flow was assessed with Doppler flow imaging. The study subjects were 6 healthy male volunteers (mean age 37 years). The mean velocity of LAD flow increased 60 minutes after taking sildenafil citrate, but there were no other changes. Two volunteers felt mild flashing and one had mild headache during the study. Sildenafil citrate caused vasodilatation in a normal coronary artery without systemic pressure drops. These results suggest that the agent itself did not have negative effects on the heart in normal subjects.

  3. ST-segment deviation during 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring and exercise stress test in healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    Vaage-Nilsen, M; Rasmussen, Verner; Sørum, C

    1999-01-01

    or descending ST-segment depression of >/=0.15 mV during Holter monitoring or at the exercise test, respectively. Furthermore, the specificity was 0.95 when a horizontal or downsloping ST-segment depression of 0.1 mV was displayed in both the Holter and exercise electrocardiographic recording system......BACKGROUND: Although ST-segment deviation has been evaluated and used during many years both on continuous electrocardiographic Holter monitoring and during exercise stress testing, considerable controversy still remains concerning the prevalence and diagnostic significance of fortuitously...... discovered ST-segment deviation in asymptomatic healthy persons. METHODS AND RESULTS: The occurrence of ST-segment deviation was studied in a population of 63 clinically healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age, with the use of 24-hour Holter monitoring and exercise stress testing. The subjects were...

  4. Pharmacokinetics of oral and intravenous melatonin in healthy volunteers

    Andersen, Lars Peter Holst; Werner, Mads Utke; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of oral and iv melatonin in healthy volunteers. METHODS: The study was performed as a cohort crossover study. The volunteers received either 10 mg oral melatonin or 10 mg intravenous melatonin on two separate study days. Blood samples were...... collected at different time points following oral administration and short iv infusion, respectively. Plasma melatonin concentrations were determined by RIA technique. Pharmacokinetic analyses were performed by "the method of residuals" and compartmental analysis. The pharmacokinetic variables: k a, t 1....../2 absorption, t max, C max, t 1/2 elimination, AUC 0-∞, and bioavailability were determined for oral melatonin. C max, t 1/2 elimination, V d, CL and AUC 0-∞ were determined for intravenous melatonin. RESULTS: Twelve male volunteers completed the study. Baseline melatonin plasma levels did not differ...

  5. Effect of small sided handball game on aerobic capacity and repeated sprint ability of male handball players

    CHITTIBABU, Balasubramanian

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of four and eight weeks small-sided handball game on aerobic capacity and repeated sprint ability of male handball players. Sixteen (16) male university handball players volunteered to act as subjects and were randomly assigned to small-sided handball game group (SSHG) and control group (CG).  Small-sided handball game was administered three days in a week for eight weeks. Subjects were measured on aerobic capacity, total sprint time and ...

  6. More than Volunteering: Active Citizenship through Youth Volunteering

    Learning and Skills Network (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    This pack aims to provide materials to help all those involved in youth volunteering and post-16 citizenship education to ensure that there are some citizenship learning outcomes from these valuable experiences. The pack has been produced by the Post-16 Citizenship Support Programme to help the integration of citizenship education into post-16…

  7. UKAEA code of practice for tracer and irradiation studies involving the use of volunteers

    Pritchard, J.N.; Morgan, A.

    1987-06-01

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: 1) General considerations in volunteer studies (informed consent, beneficial objectives, recruitment from within or without the workforce, records, compensation, codes of practice, confidentiality etc.) 2) Tracer and irradiation studies approval committee, (terms of reference, membership, dose limitations, assessment of chemical toxicity, procedure for submitting proposals) 3) Obtaining a project licence 4) Conduct of volunteer experiments 5) The use of non-authority volunteers. (U.K.)

  8. Knowledge and Attitude of Iranian Red Crescent Society Volunteers in Dealing with Bioterrorist attacks

    Seyed Ali Bahreini Moghadam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bioterrorism is a worldwide problem and has been the focus of attention during recent decades. There is no precise information on the knowledge, attitude, and preparedness of Iranian Red Crescent volunteers in dealing with bioterrorism. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the above-mentioned parameters in Mahabad Red Crescent Society volunteers. Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, the knowledge of 120 volunteers was evaluated and rated as poor, moderate, and good. In addition, attitude of the volunteers and preparedness of Mahabad Red Crescent Society was rated as inappropriate and appropriate using a questionnaire. Results: The mean age of volunteers was 32.0 ± 8.2 years (62.5% male. 2 (1.7% volunteers had good knowledge while 94 (78.3% had no knowledge regarding bioterrorist attack management. Only 1 (0.8%  volunteer had appropriate attitude and 6 (5.0% stated their preparedness for being sent out to the crisis zone. 116 volunteers (96.7% indicated that Mahabad Red Crescent Society has an inappropriate level of preparedness to encounter bioterrorist attacks. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed poor knowledge and inappropriate attitude of Mahabad Red Crescent Society volunteers in encountering probable bioterrorist attacks. Furthermore, the Red Crescent Society of this town had an inappropriate level of preparedness in the field of bioterrorism from the viewpoint of the studied volunteers.

  9. Exercise increases endostatin in circulation of healthy volunteers.

    Gu, Jian-Wei; Gadonski, Giovani; Wang, Julie; Makey, Ian; Adair, Thomas H

    2004-01-16

    Physical inactivity increases the risk of atherosclerosis. However, the molecular mechanisms of this relation are poorly understood. A recent report indicates that endostatin, an endogenous angiostatic factor, inhibits the progression of atherosclerosis, and suggests that reducing intimal and atherosclerotic plaque tissue neovascularization can inhibit the progression atherosclerosis in animal models. We hypothesize that exercise can elevate the circulatory endostatin level. Hence, exercise can protect against one of the mechanisms of atherosclerosis. We examined treadmill exercise tests in healthy volunteers to determine the effect of exercise on plasma levels of endostatin and other angiogenic regulators. Oxygen consumption (VO2) was calculated. Plasma levels of endostatin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were determined using ELISA. The total peak VO2 (L) in 7 male subjects was 29.5 +/- 17.8 over a 4-10 minute interval of exercise. Basal plasma levels of endostatin (immediately before exercise) were 20.3 +/- 3.2 pg/ml, the plasma levels increased to 29.3 +/- 4.2, 35.2 +/- 1.8, and 27.1 +/- 2.2 ng/ml, at 0.5, 2, and 6 h, respectively, after exercise. There was a strong linear correlation between increased plasma levels of endostatin (%) and the total peak VO2 (L) related to exercise (R2 = 0.9388; P < 0.01). Concurrently, VEGF levels decreased to 28.3 +/- 6.4, 17.6 +/- 2.4, and 26.5 +/- 12.5 pg/ml, at 0.5, 2, and 6 h, respectively, after exercise. There were no significant changes in plasma bFGF levels in those subjects before and after exercise. The results suggest that circulating endostatin can be significantly increased by exercise in proportion to the peak oxygen consumption under physiological conditions in healthy volunteers. These findings may provide new insights into the molecular links between physical inactivity and the risk of angiogenesis dependent diseases such as atherosclerosis.

  10. Volunteered Geographic Information in Wikipedia

    Hardy, Darren

    2010-01-01

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) refers to the geographic subset of online user-generated content. Through Geobrowsers and online mapping services, which use geovisualization and Web technologies to share and produce VGI, a global digital commons of geographic information has emerged. A notable example is Wikipedia, an online collaborative…

  11. Handbook for Volunteer Reading Aides.

    Lane, Martha A.

    This guide is designed to assist volunteer tutors participating in an adult literacy program. Discussed in the first chapter are the meaning of the term functional literacy, the way in which we get meaning from print, and word identification skills. The next two sections deal with the history of literacy education in industrialized countries and…

  12. Splitting and Assimilation of Male Subjectivity in Mosley’s Devil in A Blue Dress%莫斯里小说《蓝衣魔鬼》中男性主体身份的分裂与同化

    芈岚

    2015-01-01

    With the black male characters in Walter Mosley’s novel Devil In a Blue Dress as the research object,this pa-per aims to present and analyze the dissimilation experienced by the black males when constructing their own masculine subjectivity,the voluntary assimilation they displayed when searching for social recognition and the splitting nature of their masculinity caused by racism from the post-colonialism perspective.With the adoption of gender performance and culture performance theory,this paper also intends to make research about how the black males dealt with their identity crisis from the aspects of racism and restrictive effects the specific social culture had on identity construction and the self-identification of black males for themselves.%美国黑人小说作家沃尔特·莫斯里的犯罪小说《蓝衣魔鬼》围绕着后殖民主义时期黑人男性的故事展开。从社会性别身份建构和文化表演理论的视角观察,黑人男性在其身份建构过程中经历了异化,但为了谋求社会的认可有意识地主动同化。受种族歧视的规限,其主体呈现出分裂性特征。这样的分析,有助于我们从种族主义、特定社会文化对身份建构的规限作用,以及黑人群体的自我身份定位等方面理解战后黑人男性如何应对自身经历的身份危机。

  13. Phylloquinone and Menaquinone-4 Tissue Distribution at Different Life Stages in Male and Female Sprague–Dawley Rats Fed Different VK Levels Since Weaning or Subjected to a 40% Calorie Restriction since Adulthood

    Guylaine Ferland

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Whether through the vitamin K-dependent proteins or the individual K vitamers, vitamin K (VK is associated with a number of age-related conditions (e.g., osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, cognitive decline. In light of this, we investigated the influence of lifetime dietary VK exposure on the tissue distribution of phylloquinone (K1 and menaquinone-4 (MK-4 vitamers in 3-, 12- and 22-month-old male and female rats fed different K1 diets since weaning or subjected to a 40% calorie restricted diet (CR since adulthood. Dietary K1 intakes around the minimal amount required for normal blood coagulation had no significant influence on body weights of both male and female rats at different life stages. Tissue contents of the K vitamers differed according to organs, were generally higher in females than in males, and increased with K1 intake. The MK-4/total VK ratios tended to be increased in old age possibly reflecting an increased physiological demand for MK-4 during aging. Our study also confirmed the greater susceptibility of male rats to low VK containing diet, notably at a younger age. Despite lifelong higher K1 intakes per unit body weight, tissue K1 and MK-4 contents at 20 months were generally lower in CR rats compared to their ad libitum (AL counterparts. Whether the lower tissue MK-4 content is the result of lower synthesis from K1 or greater tissue utilization remains to be determined. However, the more youthful coagulation profile observed in old CR rats (vs. AL rats tends to support the notion that CR is associated with greater utilization of the K vitamers to sustain physiological functions.

  14. The irradiation of volunteers in medical research

    Rae, S.

    1976-01-01

    Attempts to produce guidelines for use in medical research involving the irradiation of volunteers are surveyed. The recommendations of the British Institute of Radiology (Irradiation of Human Subjects for Medical Research, Bull. Brit. Radiology, 1975, vol.1, no.2, 4) are summarized. These recommendations, based on a preliminary working document produced by the World Health Organization, are considered in three parts, the selection of subjects, the categorisation and the approval of research projects. The importance of freely given and informed consent is emphasized. The suggested four categories of project are classified by the amount of total body radiation to be received by the subject in each project, and the necessary assessment and prior approval procedures are related to this classification. The imposition of a lifetime exposure limit is compared with occupational exposures which are assessed on an annual basis, and the ICRP's 'planned special exposures'. Repeated irradiation of the same subject, although permissible within the recommended limits, may create difficulties. The total lifetime accumulated dose may not always be immediately available if the subject has worked in a number of different establishments. The possibility of compiling an approved list of procedures to reduce some of the anticipated delays in processing applications is discussed. (author)

  15. Volunteer recruitment: the role of organizational support and anticipated respect in non-volunteers' attraction to charitable volunteer organizations.

    Boezeman, Edwin J; Ellemers, Naomi

    2008-09-01

    In 3 experiments the authors examined how specific characteristics of charitable volunteer organizations contribute to the recruitment of new volunteers. In line with predictions, Study 1 revealed that providing non-volunteers with information about organizational support induced anticipated feelings of respect, which subsequently enhanced their attraction to the volunteer organization. However, information about the current success of the volunteer organization did not affect anticipated pride (as among those who seek paid employment) and in fact caused potential volunteers to perceive the organization as being in less need for additional volunteers. Study 2 further showed that information about support from the volunteer organization is a more relevant source of anticipated respect and organizational attraction than support from co-volunteers. Study 3 finally showed that information about task and emotional support for volunteers contributes to anticipated respect and organizational attractiveness and that this increases the actual willingness of non-volunteers to participate in the volunteer organization. Interventions aimed at attracting volunteers and avenues for further research are discussed.

  16. Volunteers and Ex-Volunteers: Paths to Civic Engagement Through Volunteerism Voluntarios y Ex Voluntarios: Perfiles de Participación Ciudadana a Través del Voluntariado

    Elena Marta; Maura Pozzi; Daniela Marzana

    2010-01-01

    The study described is part of a broader longitudinal and multi-methodological research project aimed at investigating volunteerism in young people, in order to understand the reasons for the initial choice to volunteer but, more specifically, the reasons to sustain or quit voluntary involvement, as well as the effects of volunteerism. Eighteen volunteers and 18 ex-volunteers, 50% male and 50% female, aged between 22 and 29 years old, from 2 regions in northern Italy (Lombardy and Emilia Roma...

  17. Human subjects and experimental irradiation

    Rosen, R.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years the public has expressed concern about the use of human subjects in scientific research. Some professional institutions have adopted codes of practice to guide them in this matter. At the University of New South Wales, where human subjects are used in teaching and research programmes, a committee ensures that high ethical standards are maintained. As the volunteer subjects do not gain any benefit themselves from the procedures, their level of risk is kept low. One type of procedure in which risk is becoming quantifiable, is the irradiation of human subjects. To assist peer review groups, the ICRP, WHO and the National Health and Medical Research Council have enunciated principles which should be followed in the irradiation of human volunteer subjects. In general the role of the Committee is advisory to protect the rights of the investigator, the subject, and the institution. Some of the inherent problems are discussed

  18. Cerebral perfusion in homogeneity in normal volunteers

    Gruenwald, S.M.; Larcos, G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: In the interpretation of cerebral perfusion scans, it is important to know the normal variation in perfusion which may occur between the cerebral hemispheres. For this reason 24 normal volunteers with no neurological or psychiatric history, and who were on no medications, had 99m Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT studies using a single headed gamma camera computer system. Oblique, coronal and sagittal images were reviewed separately by two experienced observers and any differences were resolved by consensus. Semi-quantitation was performed by summing two adjacent oblique slices and drawing right and left mirror image ROIs corresponding to the mid section level of anterior and posterior frontal lobes, anterior and posterior parietal lobes, temporal lobes and cerebellum. From the mean counts per pixel, right: left ROI ratios and ROI: cerebellar ratios were calculated. On qualitative review 6/24 subjects had mild asymmetry in tracer distribution between right and left cerebral lobes. Semi-quantitation revealed a 5-10% difference in counts between right and left ROIs in 12/24 subjects and an additional three subjects had 10-20% difference in counts between right and left temporal lobes. This study demonstrates the presence of mild asymmetry of cerebral perfusion in a significant minority of normal subjects

  19. Correlation of nasal geometry with aerosol deposition in human volunteers

    Cheng, Yung-Seng; Simpson, S.Q.; Cheng, Kuo-His; Swift, D.L.; Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Guilmette, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The nasal airways act as the first filter in the respiratory tract to remove very large or small particles, that would otherwise penetrate to the lower airways. Aerosol deposition data obtained with human volunteers vary considerably under comparable experimental conditions. Reasons for the intersubject variations have been frequently attributed to the geometry of the nasal passages. Because there is no direct proof of this hypothesis, nasal deposition of ultrafine particles in human volunteers has been studied in our laboratory. Preliminary results obtained with four adult volunteers also vary considerably between subjects. The purpose of this part of the study was to establish a theoretical equation relating diffusional deposition in nasal airways to the geometrical dimensions of the individual nasal airways. This relationship was then applied to the experimental deposition data and measurement of airway morphometry for correlation

  20. Training within volunteer humanitarian organizations

    Zoran Jelenc

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Training within volunteer humanitarian organisations is one of the most important areas of adult education nowadays. It comprises informal types of education and independent learning (workshops, study circles, activities within small groups, project work, discussions, exchanging opinions and · experiences, visits, presentations, consulting for members. Its goal is primarily encouraging members to act more appropriately, to develop and change fixed habits, viewpoints and behaviour patterns, as well as developing the organisation they belong to.

  1. [Volunteer work and potential volunteer work among 55 to 70-year-olds in Germany].

    Micheel, Frank

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the potential with respect to volunteer work among 55 to 70-year-old persons along with a two-dimensional typology (actual volunteer work and intention of volunteering or expanding actual volunteer work) and to identify the influencing factors. Based on the dataset from the transitions and old age potential (TOP) study, a total of 4421 men and women born between 1942 and 1958 were included. A multinomial regression model showed the predictors for group affiliation along with an engagement-related typology (internal, utilized and external volunteer potential as well as definite non-volunteers). More than a half of the persons in the study sample could be classified as internal or external volunteer potential. Volunteers and potential volunteers revealed more similarities regarding resources and social factors than potential volunteers and definite non-volunteers. Potential volunteers were more active in other informal fields of activity (e.g. nursing or child care) than definite non-volunteers. With respect to volunteer work, definite non-volunteers showed various social disadvantages (in particular with respect to education and health) compared to (potential) volunteers. Other informal activities did not seem to be in major conflict with volunteer activities, e.g. nursing or child care, as long as they were carried out with moderate or low intensity.

  2. Volunteering as a predictor of all-cause mortality: what aspects of volunteering really matter?

    Ayalon, Liat

    2008-10-01

    This study evaluates the predictive effects of different aspects of volunteering (e.g. volunteering status, number of hours, number of years, and type of volunteering activity) on all-cause mortality. A seven-year follow-up dataset of a nationally representative sample of Israelis, 60 years and older was used. As expected, volunteering was associated with a reduced mortality risk even after adjusting for age, gender, education, baseline mental health and physical health, activity level, and social engagement. Those who volunteered for 10 to 14 years had a reduced mortality risk relative to non-volunteers. In addition, those who volunteered privately, not as part of an official organization, also had a reduced mortality risk compared to non-volunteers. The number of hours of volunteering was not a significant predictor of all-cause mortality in the fully adjusted model. In additional sensitivity analyses limited to those who volunteered, none of the various aspects of volunteering was associated with a reduced mortality risk. Results suggest that not all aspects of volunteering have the same predictive value and that the protective effects of length of volunteering time and type of volunteering are particularly important. However, whether or not volunteering is the most consistent predictor of mortality and whether once a person volunteers the various aspects of volunteering are no longer associated with mortality risk.

  3. Effects of botropase on clotting factors in healthy human volunteers

    Ashok K Shenoy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of botropase on various clotting factors in human volunteers. Materials and Methods: It was a prospective open label study conducted on human healthy volunteers. After the baseline screening, subjects fulfilling inclusion criteria were enrolled. On the study day, 1 ml of botropase was administered intravenously and after an hour same dose of botropase (1 ml was given by intramuscular (IM route. The efficacy and safety parameters were monitored up to 72 h from the time of intravenous (IV administration. Results: A total of 15 volunteers, belonging to 24-35 years of age were included in the study. Botropase significantly reduced the plasma level of fibrinogen and fibrin degradation products after 5 min of IV administration (P < 0.05. In addition, factor X was observed to reduce constantly by botropase administration suggesting enhanced turnover between 5 and 20 min of IV administration. Although botropase reduced clotting and bleeding time in all the volunteers, the data remains to be statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Present study demonstrated the safety and efficacy of botropase in human healthy volunteers. The study has shown that it is a factor X activator and reduces effectively clotting and bleeding time.

  4. Can micro-volunteering help in Africa?

    Butgereit, L

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available is convenient to the micro-volunteer, and in small pieces of time (bitesized). This paper looks at a micro-volunteering project where participants can volunteer for five to ten minutes at a time using a smart phone and assist pupils with their mathematics....

  5. Manual for a Volunteer Services System.

    Helgerson, Linda; And Others

    This manual presents guidelines for planning, monitoring, and controlling the development and operation of volunteer assistance programs. The materials included address questions related to both the process of establishing a volunteer program and the administration of a volunteer management system. The manual is not intended to provide a blueprint…

  6. Understanding the Value of Volunteer Involvement

    Terry, Bryan; Harder, Amy; Pracht, Dale

    2011-01-01

    Volunteers can be an important resource of many nonprofit organizations. The ability to meet the mission, goals and objectives of nonprofit organizations often depends upon the effectiveness of volunteer involvement in direct service delivery or indirect program support. Volunteer involvement utilizes financial and non-financial resources of an…

  7. MVP: A Volunteer Development & Recognition Model.

    Gerhard, Gary W.

    This model was developed to provide a systematic, staged approach to volunteer personnel management. It provides a general process for dealing with volunteers from the point of organization entry through volunteer career stages to the time of exiting the organization. The model provides the structural components necessary to (1) plan, coordinate,…

  8. 76 FR 29720 - Information Collection: Volunteer Programs

    2011-05-23

    ... designed to provide educationally related work assignments for students in non-pay status. The volunteer... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Information Collection: Volunteer Programs AGENCY... the Volunteer Programs. DATES: We will consider comment that we received by July 22, 2011. ADDRESSES...

  9. Student Volunteering in English Higher Education

    Holdsworth, Clare; Quinn, Jocey

    2010-01-01

    Volunteering in English higher education has come under political scrutiny recently, with strong cross-party support for schemes to promote undergraduate volunteering in particular. Recent targeted initiatives and proposals have sought to strengthen both the role of volunteering in higher education and synergies between higher education and…

  10. Youth Sport Volunteering: Developing Social Capital?

    Kay, Tess; Bradbury, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the capacity of youth sport volunteering to contribute to the development of social capital. Following a review of the emergence of social capital as a key theme in UK sport policy, the paper focuses on the ability of a structured sports volunteering programme to equip young people with skills for effective volunteering, and…

  11. The Dynamic Tension: Professionals and Volunteers.

    Snider, Alan

    1985-01-01

    Describes results of a study focused on the role and relationship of 4-H agents working with program management volunteers in clubs, communities, and counties. Factors found to be instrumental in the expanded involvement of key volunteers include agent self-confidence, belief in volunteerism, strong support system, and careful volunteer selection.…

  12. Volunteering and mortality risk: a partner-controlled quasi-experimental design.

    O'Reilly, Dermot; Rosato, Michael; Moriarty, John; Leavey, Gerard

    2017-08-01

    The consensus that volunteering is associated with a lower mortality risk is derived from a body of observational studies and therefore vulnerable to uncontrolled or residual confounding. This potential limitation is likely to be particularly problematic for volunteers who, by definition, are self-selected and known to be significantly different from non-volunteers across a range of factors associated with better survival. This is a census-based record-linkage study of 308 733 married couples aged 25 and over, including 100 571 volunteers, with mortality follow-up for 33 months. We used a standard Cox model to examine whether mortality risk in the partners of volunteers was influenced by partner volunteering status-something expected if the effects of volunteering on mortality risk were due to shared household or behavioural characteristics. Volunteers were general more affluent, better educated and more religious than their non-volunteering peers; they also had a lower mortality risk [hazard ratio (HR)adj = 0.78: 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.71, 0.85 for males and HRadj = 0.77: 95% CI = 0.68, 0.88 for females]. However, amongst cohort members who were not volunteers, having a partner who was a volunteer was not associated with a mortality advantage (HRadj = 1.01: 95% CI = 0.92, 1.11 for men and HRadj = 1.00: 95% CI = 0.88, 1.13 women). This study provides further evidence that the lower mortality associated with volunteering is unlikely to be due to health selection or to residual confounding arising from unmeasured selection effects within households. It therefore increases the plausibility of a direct causal effect. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  13. The lived experience of volunteering in a palliative care biography service.

    Beasley, Elizabeth; Brooker, Joanne; Warren, Narelle; Fletcher, Jane; Boyle, Christopher; Ventura, Adriana; Burney, Susan

    2015-10-01

    Many patients approaching death experience hopelessness, helplessness, and a depressed mood, and these factors can contribute to a difficult end-of-life (EoL) period. Biography services may assist patients in finding meaning and purpose at this time. The aim of our study was to investigate the lived experience of volunteers involved in a biography service in Melbourne, Australia, using a qualitative methodology. The participants were 10 volunteers who had participated in a biography service within a private palliative care service. Each volunteer was interviewed separately using a study-specific semistructured interview guide. The transcripts of these interviews were then subjected to thematic analysis. Analysis yielded the following themes: motivations for volunteering; dealing with death, dying, and existential issues; psychosocial benefits of volunteering; and benefits and challenges of working with patients and their families. Our results indicated that volunteering gave the volunteers a deeper appreciation of existential issues, and helped them to be more appreciative of their own lives and gain a deeper awareness of the struggles other people experience. They also suggested that volunteers felt that their involvement contributed to their own personal development, and was personally rewarding. Furthermore, the results highlighted that volunteers found that encounters with family members were sometimes challenging. While some were appreciative, others imposed time limits, became overly reliant on the volunteers, and were sometimes offended, hurt, and angered by what was included in the final biography. It is hoped that the findings of the current study will provide direction for improvements in the biography services that will benefit patients, family members, and volunteers. In particular, our findings highlight the need to provide ongoing support for volunteers to assist them in handling the challenges of volunteering in a palliative care setting.

  14. Privacy Impact Assessment for the Medical and Research Study Records of Human Volunteers

    The Medical & Research Study Records of Human Volunteers System collects demographic and medical information on subjects who participate in research. Learn how this data is collected, used, access to the data, and the purpose of data collection.

  15. Acid Inhibitory Effect of a Combination of Omeprazole and Sodium Bicarbonate (CDFR0209) Compared With Delayed-Release Omeprazole 40 mg Alone in Healthy Adult Male Subjects.

    Kim, Kyu-Nam; Yang, Sung-Won; Kim, Hyunil; Kwak, Seong Shin; Kim, Young-Sang; Cho, Doo-Yeoun

    2018-01-01

    CDFR0209, a combination of an immediate-release formulation of omeprazole 40 mg and sodium bicarbonate 1100 mg, has been developed to treat acid-related disorders. We compared the acid inhibitory effects of CDFR0209 and delayed-release omeprazole (omeprazole-DR, Losec 40 mg) after repeated dosing in Helicobacter pylori-negative healthy adult male subjects. In this 2-period crossover study, 30 subjects were randomized to CDFR0209 or omeprazole-DR daily for 7 days. An ambulatory continuous 24-hour intragastric pH recording was performed at baseline and on days 1 and 7 of each administration period. Integrated gastric acidity was calculated from time-weighted average hydrogen ion concentrations at each hour of the 24-hour record. An analysis of variance model was used to test the pharmacodynamic equivalence of CDFR0209 and omeprazole-DR, using the natural logarithmic transformation of the percent decrease from baseline in integrated gastric acidity for the 24-hour interval after the seventh dose of each omeprazole formulation. The geometric least-squares mean ratios (CDFR0209/omeprazole-DR) of the percent decrease from baseline in integrated gastric acidity was 0.98 (90%CI, 0.93-1.07). Both CDFR0209 and omeprazole-DR are equally effective in decreasing integrated gastric acidity at steady state. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  16. Fluid electrolyte excretion during different hypokinetic body positions of trained subjects

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Naexu, Konstantin A.; Federenko, Youri F.

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different body positions on renal excretion of fluid and electrolytes after exposure to 364 days of decreased number of steps per day (hypokinesia, HK). The studies were performed on 18 endurance trained male volunteers aged 19-24 years who had an average of VO 2max 67 ml/kg body/min. All volunteers were divided into three equal groups: the 1st group subjected to 12 h orthostatic position (OP) and 12 h clinostatic position (CP)/day, the 2nd group exposed to 8 h orthostatic position and 14 h clinostatic position/day, and the 3rd group submitted to 10 h orthostatic position and 16 h clinostatic position/day for 364 days. For the simulation of the hypokinetic effect all volunteers were kept under an average of 3000 steps/day for 364 days. Diuresis and the concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium and magnesium as well as excretion of creatine were determined in 24-h urine samples. By the end of the hypokinetic period all volunteers, regardless of their body position during HK, manifested a significant increase in renal excretion of fluid and electrolytes as compared to prehypokinetic period values. It was concluded that prolonged restriction of motor activity induced a significant increase in renal excretion of fluid and electrolytes in endurance trained subjects regardless to their body position and duration thereof per day.

  17. Volunteering with Newcomers: The Perspectives of Canadian- and Foreign-born Volunteers

    Behnam Behnia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Canadian- and foreign-born volunteers have contributed to the settlement of newcomers into Canadian society. Despite their important contribution, little has been reported about the experiences and perspectives of these volunteers. Using the information collected from face-to-face interviews with 60 Canadian- and foreign-born volunteers who support newcomers, this article discusses factors that motivate people to volunteer with newcomers. The study results revealed among other findings that (1 to become a volunteer, one not only needs to be motivated but also needs to believe that volunteering will produce the expected positive results and to have confidence in one’s ability to complete the assigned tasks, (2 once people become volunteers, the experience of volunteering tests their perceived self-efficacy and their belief about the effectiveness of their volunteer work. Success or failure in their expectations influences their decision tocontinue or discontinue their volunteer work.

  18. Volunteering in later life: research frontiers.

    Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2010-07-01

    This review summarizes the current knowledge about volunteering in later life and suggests 5 research questions at the forefront of knowledge development. Rates of volunteering do not decline significantly until the middle of the 7th decade, and older volunteers commit more hours than younger volunteers. Older adults with more human and social capital tend to volunteer, and there is good evidence of a reciprocal relationship between volunteering and well-being. Program and policy developments in the field are outstripping production of knowledge to support evidence-based practices. Research on the dynamics of volunteering over the life course as well as the patterns of activities that co-occur with volunteering is needed to guide program development. Research methods and findings from transdisciplinary work on the mechanisms through which psychosocial conditions affect health must be extended to the study of the effects of volunteering on older adults. Finally, we need to engage in more applied social science aimed at improving volunteer management, especially recruitment and retention of older volunteers.

  19. Underlying Motivations of Volunteering Across Life Stages.

    Yamashita, Takashi; Keene, Jennifer R; Lu, Chi-Jung; Carr, Dawn C

    2017-03-01

    Volunteering is beneficial not only for individuals' well-being but also for society's well-being; yet only a fraction of U.S. citizens regularly engage in volunteer activities. This study examined how underlying motivations are associated with interest in volunteering for individuals in three major life phases: early, middle, and later adulthood. Data were collected from 1,046 adults who volunteered through nonprofit organizations in Nevada (USA). Exploratory factor analysis revealed that community service, career advancement, and well-being were common underlying motivations for individuals across life stages. However, generativity among the later adulthood group, and social networking among the early and middle adulthood groups were unique motivations for volunteering. Regression analysis showed that the community service motivation was significantly associated with individuals' interest in volunteering among all life stages. Simultaneously, generativity for the later adulthood group, and career advancement for the early adulthood group were unique motivations linked to their actual interest in volunteering.

  20. The stresses of hospice volunteer work.

    Brown, Mary V

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the interpretation of stress, the appraisal of the stressors, as well as the top stressors experienced by hospice volunteers. Individual semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 hospice volunteers. The interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and analyzed, using qualitative research methods. Although the results indicated that the hospice volunteers did not perceive their work as stressful, 2 main themes regarding challenging experiences did emerge. Hospice-related issues and personal issues were of concern to the volunteers. In addition, the timing of the stressors revealed that the most stress was felt at the beginning of their volunteer services, which has implications for hospice volunteer coordinators as they support their volunteers in the field.

  1. The effect of volunteer management professionalization level on volunteer work satisfaction

    Peychlová, Štěpánka

    2013-01-01

    This text concentrates on volunteering in volunteer organizations. It examines the connection between volunteer management professionalization level and volunteer work satisfaction in these organizations. In the theoretical part is defined the concepts of volunteering, professionalization and satisfaction are defined and their particular aspects associated with the focus of the thesis are highlighted. The empirical part describes the construction of the research method and presents the analys...

  2. Unintended volunteers: the volunteering pathways of working class young people in community sport

    Bradford, S; Hills, L; Johnston, C

    2016-01-01

    Sport has become a major setting for youth volunteering in the UK. Volunteering has become understood as a means of enhancing responsible citizenship and of adding various capitals to young people’s identities. Much research on young people’s volunteering in sport has typically (and sometimes by default) focused on middle class experiences, highlighting the combination of instrumental and altruistic motives for volunteering, the importance of family and school in decisions about volunteering ...

  3. Volunteer Tourism in Japan: Its Potential in Transforming “Non-volunteers” to Volunteers

    Yoda, Mami

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of volunteer tourism to transform “non-volunteers” to volunteers in Japan. Volunteer tourism is defined as travel to a location outside the immediate vicinity of daily life in order to engage in organized volunteer activities. In-depth interviews and a survey were conducted to the employees of Haagen-Dazs Japan, Inc., who participated to volunteer tours to the Kiritappu Wetland Trust in Hokkaido. The study closely examines the motivations of the participants...

  4. Improving quality of life in ageing populations: what can volunteering do?

    Cattan, Mima; Hogg, Eddy; Hardill, Irene

    2011-12-01

    The year 2011 was declared the 'European Year of Volunteering' to recognise the contribution volunteers make to society. Such cross-national events reflect the high profile of volunteering and political imperatives to promote it. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive review of current knowledge (articles published between 2005 and 2011) regarding the role of volunteering in improving older people's quality of life (QoL) and to identify areas requiring further research. Volunteering was defined as an activity that is freely chosen, does not involve remuneration and helps or benefits those beyond an individual's immediate family. Our search identified 22 studies and 5 review articles that addressed the benefits of volunteering on older people's quality of life. Most of the research had been conducted in the United States, Canada and Australia using data from longitudinal studies. The majority of the studies concluded that there is a positive association between older people's quality of life and engagement in volunteering. Due to the study designs and the heterogeneity of the research, causality is difficult to demonstrate and the knowledge the studies bring to the subject is variable. This review shows that volunteering may help to maintain and possibly improve some older adults' quality of life. However, there are still major gaps in our understanding of who actually benefits, the social and cultural context of volunteering and its role in reducing health and social inequalities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Towards a sustainable volunteer mobile, online tutoring model for mathematics

    Butgereit, L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Volunteer workers contribute to many aspects of society. There are volunteer organisations which formally assist in many areas such as health, education, housing, safety and security. Virtual volunteering is less common. Virtual volunteering...

  6. VOLUNTEERS FOR A HIGH RISK SPORT.

    Sport parachutists tend to be over-represented in the Western region of the United States. They are, by and large, relatively young males who look...upon the sport as a masculine expression. The sport is objectively dangerous, as measured by the accident rate, and is subjectively perceived as such... Sport parachutists tend to be single-minded in their attitude to the sport , sometimes giving it priority over their commitment to family roles

  7. Volunteering among older people in Korea.

    Kim, Jibum; Kang, Jeong-Han; Lee, Min-Ah; Lee, Yongmo

    2007-01-01

    Faced with aging societies, there is an immense need to better understand the nature of volunteering outside advanced Western industrial countries. As a case of a rapidly aging society, we identify robust factors associated with elderly volunteering in Korea in terms of a resource framework. Data were derived from the Social Statistics Survey conducted by the Korea National Statistical Office in 1999 (N = 7,135) and 2003 (N = 8,371). We first determined overall and age-related volunteer rates for Korea compared to the United States. Using logistic regression, we then examined the effects of human, cultural, and social capital variables on volunteering. Approximately 6% of Koreans aged 65 years and older participate in volunteer programs. All human capital variables are positively related with volunteering. For cultural capital, those who identify their religion as Buddhism or Catholicism are more likely to volunteer than those who have no religion. But surprisingly, Protestantism does not consistently promote volunteering across both years. For social capital, older adults who live alone or with a spouse are more likely to volunteer than those living with both a spouse and children. In contrast to human capital, cultural and social capital on elderly volunteering appears to be contoured by social contexts.

  8. Anatomically standardised {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain perfusion SPET allows accurate differentiation between healthy volunteers, multiple system atrophy and idiopathic Parkinson's disease

    Bosman, Tommy [Division of Nuclear Medicine, P7, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Laere, Koen [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leuven University Hospital, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Santens, Patrick [Department of Neurology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)

    2003-01-01

    The clinical differentiation between typical idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and atypical parkinsonian disorders such as multiple system atrophy (MSA) is complicated by the presence of signs and symptoms common to both forms. The goal of this study was to re-evaluate the contribution of brain perfusion single-photon emission tomography (SPET) with anatomical standardisation and automated analysis in the differentiation of IPD and MSA. This was achieved by discriminant analysis in comparison with a large set of age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers. Technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer SPET was performed on 140 subjects: 81 IPD patients (age 62.6{+-}10.2 years; disease duration 11.0{+-}6.4 years; 50 males/31 females), 15 MSA patients (61.5{+-}9.2 years; disease duration 3.0{+-}2.2 years; 9 males/6 females) and 44 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (age 59.2{+-}11.9 years; 27 males/17 females). Patients were matched for severity (Hoehn and Yahr stage). Automated predefined volume of interest (VOI) analysis was carried out after anatomical standardisation. Stepwise discriminant analysis with cross-validation using the leave-one-out method was used to determine the subgroup of variables giving the highest accuracy for this differential diagnosis. Between MSA and IPD, the only regions with highly significant differences in uptake after Bonferroni correction were the putamen VOIs. Comparing MSA versus normals and IPD, with putamen VOI values as discriminating variables, cross-validated performance showed correct classification of MSA patients with a sensitivity of 73.3%, a specificity of 84% and an accuracy of 83.6%. Additional input from the right caudate head and the left prefrontal and left mesial temporal cortex allowed 100% discrimination even after cross-validation. Discrimination between the IPD group alone and healthy volunteers was accurate in 94% of the cases after cross-validation, with a sensitivity of 91.4% and a specificity of 100

  9. Anatomically standardised 99mTc-ECD brain perfusion SPET allows accurate differentiation between healthy volunteers, multiple system atrophy and idiopathic Parkinson's disease

    Bosman, Tommy; Van Laere, Koen; Santens, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    The clinical differentiation between typical idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and atypical parkinsonian disorders such as multiple system atrophy (MSA) is complicated by the presence of signs and symptoms common to both forms. The goal of this study was to re-evaluate the contribution of brain perfusion single-photon emission tomography (SPET) with anatomical standardisation and automated analysis in the differentiation of IPD and MSA. This was achieved by discriminant analysis in comparison with a large set of age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers. Technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer SPET was performed on 140 subjects: 81 IPD patients (age 62.6±10.2 years; disease duration 11.0±6.4 years; 50 males/31 females), 15 MSA patients (61.5±9.2 years; disease duration 3.0±2.2 years; 9 males/6 females) and 44 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (age 59.2±11.9 years; 27 males/17 females). Patients were matched for severity (Hoehn and Yahr stage). Automated predefined volume of interest (VOI) analysis was carried out after anatomical standardisation. Stepwise discriminant analysis with cross-validation using the leave-one-out method was used to determine the subgroup of variables giving the highest accuracy for this differential diagnosis. Between MSA and IPD, the only regions with highly significant differences in uptake after Bonferroni correction were the putamen VOIs. Comparing MSA versus normals and IPD, with putamen VOI values as discriminating variables, cross-validated performance showed correct classification of MSA patients with a sensitivity of 73.3%, a specificity of 84% and an accuracy of 83.6%. Additional input from the right caudate head and the left prefrontal and left mesial temporal cortex allowed 100% discrimination even after cross-validation. Discrimination between the IPD group alone and healthy volunteers was accurate in 94% of the cases after cross-validation, with a sensitivity of 91.4% and a specificity of 100%. The three

  10. LSD enhances suggestibility in healthy volunteers.

    Carhart-Harris, R L; Kaelen, M; Whalley, M G; Bolstridge, M; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J

    2015-02-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has a history of use as a psychotherapeutic aid in the treatment of mood disorders and addiction, and it was also explored as an enhancer of mind control. The present study sought to test the effect of LSD on suggestibility in a modern research study. Ten healthy volunteers were administered with intravenous (i.v.) LSD (40-80 μg) in a within-subject placebo-controlled design. Suggestibility and cued mental imagery were assessed using the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS) and a mental imagery test (MIT). CIS and MIT items were split into two versions (A and B), balanced for 'efficacy' (i.e. A ≈ B) and counterbalanced across conditions (i.e. 50 % completed version 'A' under LSD). The MIT and CIS were issued 110 and 140 min, respectively, post-infusion, corresponding with the peak drug effects. Volunteers gave significantly higher ratings for the CIS (p = 0.018), but not the MIT (p = 0.11), after LSD than placebo. The magnitude of suggestibility enhancement under LSD was positively correlated with trait conscientiousness measured at baseline (p = 0.0005). These results imply that the influence of suggestion is enhanced by LSD. Enhanced suggestibility under LSD may have implications for its use as an adjunct to psychotherapy, where suggestibility plays a major role. That cued imagery was unaffected by LSD implies that suggestions must be of a sufficient duration and level of detail to be enhanced by the drug. The results also imply that individuals with high trait conscientiousness are especially sensitive to the suggestibility-enhancing effects of LSD.

  11. Value-Expressive Volunteer Motivation and Volunteering by Older Adults: Relationships With Religiosity and Spirituality.

    Okun, Morris A; O'Rourke, Holly P; Keller, Brian; Johnson, Kathryn A; Enders, Craig

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates the interplay among religiosity, spirituality, value-expressive volunteer motivation, and volunteering. We examined religiosity and spirituality as predictors of value-expressive volunteer motivation and volunteering and whether religiosity moderated the relations between (a) spirituality and value-expressive volunteer motivation and (b) value-expressive volunteer motivation and volunteering. After applying multiple imputation procedures to data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study among participants 64-67 years old who survived beyond 2004 (N = 8,148), we carried out regression analyses to predict value-expressive volunteer motivation and volunteering from religiosity and spirituality controlling for demographic variables, physical, emotional, and cognitive health, health risk behaviors, and personality traits. Both religiosity and spirituality were significant (p motivation. Value-expressive volunteer motivation and religiosity were significant (p motivation and volunteering (p motivation (p > .45). Religiosity may provide the way, and value-expressive volunteer motivation the will, to volunteer. The implications of our findings for the forecasted shortage of older volunteers are discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. 45 CFR 1217.6 - Roles of volunteers.

    2010-10-01

    ... communication of VISTA policies to VISTA volunteers. (c) Encourage and develop VISTA volunteer leadership and... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Roles of volunteers. 1217.6 Section 1217.6 Public... VISTA VOLUNTEER LEADER § 1217.6 Roles of volunteers. VISTA volunteer leaders may have the following...

  13. Pharmacokinetics of sugammadex 16 mg/kg in healthy Chinese volunteers.

    de Kam, Pieter-Jan; Hou, Jie; Wang, Zaiqi; Lin, Wen Hong; van den Heuvel, Michiel

    2015-06-01

    Elimination of sugammadex occurs predominantly via the kidneys, with the majority of the drug excreted unchanged in the urine. To date, most studies with sugammadex have been performed in non-Asian populations. The objectives of this open-label study were to determine the pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of single-dose sugammadex (16 mg/kg) in healthy Chinese adult volunteers. 12 Chinese subjects (6 male; 6 female) received intravenous sugammadex (16 mg/kg) as a 10-second bolus infusion. Blood samples were collected pre-sugammadex and at regular intervals up to 24 hours post-sugammadex for PK assessment. Safety was assessed via AEs, vital signs, electrocardiogram, and laboratory parameters. Following sugammadex 16 mg/kg infusion, peak sugammadex concentration was 197 μg/mL, clearance was 99.7 mL/min, and apparent volume of distribution at equilibrium was 10.5 L. Plasma sugammadex concentrations showed a polyexponential decline over time, with an overall geometric mean (CV%) terminal half-life of 145 minutes (17.9%) (139 minutes (17.7%) for males; 152 minutes (18.6%) for females). No influence of gender on the PK of sugammadex was observed. Three subjects experienced an adverse events (AE) (dysgeusia of mild intensity), which was considered possibly or probably related to sugammadex. There were no clinically significant changes in vital signs, electrocardiography or laboratory parameters. PK of sugammadex (16 mg/kg) was characterized in healthy Chinese subjects. Overall between-subject variability on clearance and apparent volume of distribution was ~ 10%. Sugammadex was generally well tolerated.

  14. The liquid organization of volunteer tourism

    Steele, Jessica; Dredge, Dianne

    2017-01-01

    Drawing from developments in sociology and organizational studies, this paper argues for a new understanding of volunteer tourism as liquid organization. It aims to explore the organization of volunteer tourism using a liquid organization perspective and to better understand the potential...... implications of this liquidity on the responsibility of volunteer tourism organizations to host com- munities. The analysis is based on data collected from 80 volunteer tourism organizations. The findings reveal that the volunteer tourism organizations show characteristics of liquid organiza- tion to varying...... degrees. The significance of the research is to problematize the way in which the institutional characteristics of volunteer tourism are (not) conceptualized in current literature and to introduce liquid organization as a means of reinvigorating debate about responsibility....

  15. The liquid organization of volunteer tourism:

    Steele, Jessica; Dredge, Dianne

    2017-01-01

    Drawing from developments in sociology and organizational studies, this paper argues for a new understanding of volunteer tourism as liquid organization. It aims to explore the organization of volunteer tourism using a liquid organization perspective and to better understand the potential...... implications of this liquidity on the responsibility of volunteer tourism organizations to host com- munities. The analysis is based on data collected from 80 volunteer tourism organizations. The findings reveal that the volunteer tourism organizations show characteristics of liquid organiza- tion to varying...... degrees. The significance of the research is to problematize the way in which the institutional characteristics of volunteer tourism are (not) conceptualized in current literature and to introduce liquid organization as a means of reinvigorating debate about responsibility....

  16. Pain perception in healthy volunteers

    Janum, Susanne; Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Werner, Mads U

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to study the relationship between pain perception and cytokine release during systemic inflammation. We present a randomized crossover trial in healthy volunteers (n = 17) in 37 individual trials. Systemic inflammation was induced by an i.v. bolus of Escherichia coli LPS (2 ng/kg) on two...... separate trial days, with or without a nicotine patch applied 10 h previously. Pain perception at baseline, and 2 and 6 h after LPS was assessed by pressure algometry and tonic heat stimulation at an increasing temperature (45-48℃) during both trials. Compared with baseline, pain pressure threshold...... was reduced 2 and 6 h after LPS, while heat pain perception was accentuated at all testing temperatures after 2 but not 6 h. The magnitude of changes in pain perception did not correlate to cytokine release. No effect of transdermal nicotine or training status was observed. In conclusion, LPS administration...

  17. Predictors of burnout and health status in Samaritans' listening volunteers.

    Roche, Adeline; Ogden, Jane

    2017-12-01

    Samaritan listening volunteers provide emotional support to people in distress or suicidal. Samaritans' has high volunteer turnover, which may be due to burnout. This study evaluated the role of demographic and psychosocial factors in predicting Samaritans listening volunteers' burnout and health status. Samaritans' listening volunteers (n = 216) from seven branches across UK completed an online survey to assess their levels of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, personal accomplishment), subjective health status, coping, empathy and social support. Overall, listeners showed low levels of burnout and good health. Regression analysis revealed that higher emotional exhaustion was predicted by younger age and avoidant coping style; higher depersonalisation was predicted by lower empathy fantasy and higher avoidant coping style; lower personal accomplishment scores were predicted by higher empathy personal distress and worse health status was predicted by more hours per week spent on listening duties, lower social support and higher avoidant coping style. Overall, different factors influenced different facets of burnout. However, higher use of avoidant coping style consistently predicted higher burnout and worse health status, suggesting avoidant coping is an important target for intervention.

  18. The Effect of Volunteer Work on Employability

    Petrovski, Erik; Dencker-Larsen, Sofie; Holm, Anders

    2017-01-01

    In addition to benefiting others, volunteer work is argued to supply volunteers themselves with skills, reputation, and social connections that increase overall employability. We test this hypothesized causal link between volunteer work and employability with a high-quality 2012 Danish survey...... sample of 1,867 individuals of working age. The survey data are linked to administrative registers containing individual-level data on unemployment. A combination of detailed controls, lagged dependent variables, and instrumental variable regression is used to determine cause and effect. Our findings...... show that performing volunteer work does not statistically significantly affect the risk or rate of unemployment for the typical individual on the labour market....

  19. Post-Event Volunteering Legacy: Did the London 2012 Games Induce a Sustainable Volunteer Engagement?

    Niki Koutrou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The hosting of the London 2012 Olympic Games was seen as an opportunity to harness the enthusiasm of the 70,000 volunteers involved and to provide a post-event volunteer legacy. A total of 77 individuals who had acted as volunteers in London 2012 were contacted approximately four years after the Games and agreed to complete a web-based open-ended survey. The participants were asked to indicate their level of current volunteering engagement and whether volunteering at the Games had an impact on their current volunteering levels. The study found that the London Olympics were the first volunteer experience for most of the volunteers who completed the survey, with the main motivation to volunteer being anything related to the Olympic Games. Just over half of the respondents are currently volunteering. Lack of time is shown to be the main barrier towards further volunteering commitment. Only half of respondents had been contacted by a volunteering scheme after London 2012. The implications of the findings for a potential volunteering legacy are then explored.

  20. Efficacy and safety of 5% minoxidil topical foam in male pattern hair loss treatment and patient satisfaction.

    Hasanzadeh, Hournaz; Nasrollahi, Saman Ahmad; Halavati, Nader; Saberi, Maryam; Firooz, Alireza

    2016-09-01

    Male pattern hair loss is widespread around the world. Its prevalence indicates the importance of finding the best treatment modalities. This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of minoxidil 5% topical foam in male pattern hair loss treatment and patient satisfaction. This study was a before-and-after trial on 17 male patients with male pattern hair loss. Subjects were instructed to apply one capful (1 ml) of minoxidil 5% topical foam on the scalp daily for 6 months. Efficacy was assessed through hair counts, subject assessment, and global photographic review. Seventeen male volunteers were recruited, and three volunteers were withdrawn; 14 participated in the trial for 16 weeks, and 12 continued up to 24 weeks. The average hair count with a camera at week 16 (181.87 ± 52.42) and week 24 (194.58 ± 62.82) and with an eye count at week 16 (62.57 ± 15.28) and week 24 (69.91 ± 15.61) increased significantly compared to the baseline after intervention. This study confirmed that minoxidil 5% topical foam is a safe and effective treatment for MPHL. The effect of it is evident after 24 weeks of use.

  1. Environmental volunteer well-being: Managers' perception and actual well-being of volunteers.

    Kragh, Gitte; Stafford, Rick; Curtin, Susanna; Diaz, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Background : Environmental volunteering can increase well-being, but environmental volunteer well-being has rarely been compared to participant well-being associated with other types of volunteering or nature-based activities. This paper aims to use a multidimensional approach to well-being to explore the immediately experienced and later remembered well-being of environmental volunteers and to compare this to the increased well-being of participants in other types of nature-based activities and volunteering. Furthermore, it aims to compare volunteer managers' perceptions of their volunteers' well-being with the self-reported well-being of the volunteers. Methods : Onsite surveys were conducted of practical conservation and biodiversity monitoring volunteers, as well as their control groups (walkers and fieldwork students, respectively), to measure general well-being before their nature-based activity and activity-related well-being immediately after their activity. Online surveys of current, former and potential volunteers and volunteer managers measured remembered volunteering-related well-being and managers' perceptions of their volunteers' well-being. Data were analysed based on Seligman's multidimensional PERMA ('positive emotion', 'engagement', 'positive relationship', 'meaning', 'achievement') model of well-being. Factor analysis recovered three of the five PERMA elements, 'engagement', 'relationship' and 'meaning', as well as 'negative emotion' and 'health' as factors. Results : Environmental volunteering significantly improved positive elements and significantly decreased negative elements of participants' immediate well-being, and it did so more than walking or student fieldwork. Even remembering their volunteering up to six months later, volunteers rated their volunteering-related well-being higher than volunteers rated their well-being generally in life. However, volunteering was not found to have an effect on overall mean well-being generally in life

  2. Characteristics of men with substance use disorder consequent to illicit drug use: comparison of a random sample and volunteers.

    Reynolds, Maureen D; Tarter, Ralph E; Kirisci, Levent

    2004-09-06

    Men qualifying for substance use disorder (SUD) consequent to consumption of an illicit drug were compared according to recruitment method. It was hypothesized that volunteers would be more self-disclosing and exhibit more severe disturbances compared to randomly recruited subjects. Personal, demographic, family, social, substance use, psychiatric, and SUD characteristics of volunteers (N = 146) were compared to randomly recruited (N = 102) subjects. Volunteers had lower socioceconomic status, were more likely to be African American, and had lower IQ than randomly recruited subjects. Volunteers also evidenced greater social and family maladjustment and more frequently had received treatment for substance abuse. In addition, lower social desirability response bias was observed in the volunteers. SUD was not more severe in the volunteers; however, they reported a higher lifetime rate of opiate, diet, depressant, and analgesic drug use. Volunteers and randomly recruited subjects qualifying for SUD consequent to illicit drug use are similar in SUD severity but differ in terms of severity of psychosocial disturbance and history of drug involvement. The factors discriminating volunteers and randomly recruited subjects are well known to impact on outcome, hence they need to be considered in research design, especially when selecting a sampling strategy in treatment research.

  3. The psychological profile of parents who volunteer their children for clinical research: a controlled study.

    Harth, S C; Johnstone, R R; Thong, Y H

    1992-06-01

    Three standard psychometric tests were administered to parents who volunteered their children for a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a new asthma drug and to a control group of parents whose children were eligible for the trial but had declined the invitation. The trial took place at a children's hospital in Australia. The subjects comprised 68 parents who had volunteered their children and 42 who had not, a participation rate of 94 per cent and 70 per cent, respectively. The responses of these parents to the Gordon Survey of Interpersonal Values Questionnaire, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire were analysed by computer. There was a marked difference between the psychological profiles of the two groups of parents. Volunteering parents put more value on benevolence while non-volunteering parents were more concerned with power and prestige. The self-esteem of volunteering parents was much lower than that of non-volunteering parents. Finally, volunteering parents were more introverted, exhibited greater anxiety and low supergo, while non-volunteering parents appeared to have greater social confidence and emotional stability. Since an individual's values, self-esteem and personality may be important antecedents of behaviour, these findings suggest that parents who volunteer their children for clinical research are not only socially disadvantaged and emotionally vulnerable, but may also be psychologically predisposed to volunteering. Furthermore, these findings provide evidence for the existence of a psychosocial 'filter' effect of the informed consent procedure, which may be discouraging the better educated, more privileged and psychologically resilient members of society from participation as research subjects.

  4. The psychological profile of parents who volunteer their children for clinical research: a controlled study.

    Harth, S C; Johnstone, R R; Thong, Y H

    1992-01-01

    Three standard psychometric tests were administered to parents who volunteered their children for a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a new asthma drug and to a control group of parents whose children were eligible for the trial but had declined the invitation. The trial took place at a children's hospital in Australia. The subjects comprised 68 parents who had volunteered their children and 42 who had not, a participation rate of 94 per cent and 70 per cent, respectively. The responses of these parents to the Gordon Survey of Interpersonal Values Questionnaire, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire were analysed by computer. There was a marked difference between the psychological profiles of the two groups of parents. Volunteering parents put more value on benevolence while non-volunteering parents were more concerned with power and prestige. The self-esteem of volunteering parents was much lower than that of non-volunteering parents. Finally, volunteering parents were more introverted, exhibited greater anxiety and low supergo, while non-volunteering parents appeared to have greater social confidence and emotional stability. Since an individual's values, self-esteem and personality may be important antecedents of behaviour, these findings suggest that parents who volunteer their children for clinical research are not only socially disadvantaged and emotionally vulnerable, but may also be psychologically predisposed to volunteering. Furthermore, these findings provide evidence for the existence of a psychosocial 'filter' effect of the informed consent procedure, which may be discouraging the better educated, more privileged and psychologically resilient members of society from participation as research subjects. PMID:1619628

  5. Gender differences of heart rate variability in healthy volunteers

    Saleem, S.; Majeed, S.M.I.; Khan, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify the basic values of heart rate variability in Pakistani population and to verify our hypothesis that there are gender differences in cardiovascular autonomic modulation. Methods: The descriptive cross sectional study based on convenience probability sampling was conducted at Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology/National Institute of Heart Diseases (AFIC/NIHD) Pakistan. The duration of the study was from December 2009 to July 2010. It involved 24-hour holter monitoring of 45 healthy individuals using holter electrocardiography (ECG) recorder. Heart rate variability was analysed in time (SDNN, SDANN, SDNNi, rMSSD, pNN50) and frequency domains (power, VLF, LF, and HF). Results: The time domain indices; SDNN (male=140 +- 36 ms vs. females=122 +- 33 ms; p =0.09), SDANN (male=123 +- 34 ms vs. females=111+- 34 ms; P= 0.23), SDNNi (male=64 +-19 ms vs. females=52 +- 14 ms; P= 0.03), and pNN50 (male=14 +- 10 ms vs. females=12 +- 7 ms; P= 0.43) were decreased in female volunteers when compared with males. Comparison of frequency domain indices; Total power (male=4041 +- 3150 ms/sup 2/ vs. females=2750 +- 1439 ms/sup 2/; P= 0.07), VLF (male=291 2675 ms/sup 2/ vs. females=1843 +- 928 ms/sup 2/; P= 0.06), LF (male=788 +- 397 ms/sup 2/ vs. females=556 +- 346 ms/sup 2/; P= 0.04) and HF (male=318 +- 251 ms/sup 2/ vs. females=31 277 ms/sup 2/; P= 0.94) amongst males and females showed attenuated heart rate variability in females. Of all the observed values, SDNNi and LF were found significantly (p <0.05) decreased in women. Conclusion: In healthy population, heart rate variability is low in women than men. It reflects sympathetic dominance in women in our population. (author)

  6. Motivations and Benefits of Student Volunteering: Comparing Regular, Occasional, and Non-Volunteers in Five Countries

    Karen Smith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Programmes targeting student volunteering and service learning are part of encouraging civic behaviour amongst young people. This article reports on a large scale international survey comparing volunteering amongst tertiary students at universities in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. The data revealed high rates of student volunteering and the popularity of occasional or episodic volunteering. There were strong commonalities in student volunteering behaviour, motivations and benefits across the five Western predominately English-speaking countries. Altruism and self-orientated career motivations and benefits were most important to students; however volunteering and non-volunteering students differed in the relative value they attached to volunteering for CV-enhancement and social factors.

  7. Ohio 4-H Agents' and Volunteer Leaders' Perceptions of the Volunteer Leadership Development Program.

    Kwarteng, Joseph A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This study found that six areas of volunteer leadership development are important to volunteers and 4-H agents. The areas are (1) recruiting, (2) training, (3) motivation, (4) recognition, (5) retention, and (6) supervision. (JOW)

  8. CORPORATE VOLUNTEERING AS AN ELEMENT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ORGANIZATION

    Natalia Ivanovna Gorlova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is devoted to the topic of development of corporate volunteering, which is topical for Russian society. The subject of the analysis is corporate volunteering in Russia and its impact on the sustainable development of the organization. Corporate volunteering is seen at the intersection of the interests of the company, employees and the local community. The aim of the research is a theoretical analysis of modern practices of corporate volunteer activity as a factor of sustainable development of the organization. Methodology. Within the framework of the article, using the method of comparison and grouping, we analyzed and studied the materials of the latest international and Russian studies based on expert opinions from business, government, civil society on this phenomenon. Results. The results of the work consist in the fact that the authors grouped and summarized the motivational attitudes of participants in the corporate volunteer movement, presented practical recommendations on the formation of a system for supporting corporate volunteering, and showed the relationship between the organization’s sustainable development and corporate volunteering. Practical implications. The practical significance of the study is that its conclusions and recommendations can be used in the organization of corporate volunteering in Russian companies.

  9. The Longitudinal Effects of Adolescent Volunteering on Secondary School Completion and Adult Volunteering

    Moorfoot, Nicholas; Leung, Rachel K.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the longitudinal effect of adolescent volunteering behaviour on young adult volunteering and the completion of secondary school. Utilising data from the Australian sample of the International Youth Development Study, frequency of volunteering in Grade 9 (mean age = 15 years) and in young adulthood (mean age = 21 years), and completion of secondary school were measured. Mixed effect logistic regression analyses revealed that adolescent volunteering was associated with an in...

  10. Do monetary rewards undermine intrinsic motivations of volunteers? Some empirical evidence for Italian volunteers

    Fiorillo, Damiano

    2007-01-01

    Empirical studies show that intrinsic motivations increase the volunteer labour supply. This paper studies how monetary rewards to volunteers affect their intrinsic motivations. Using a sample of Italian volunteers, allowing to distinguish the type of volunteer, the paper shows that monetary rewards (extrinsic motivations) influence positively the choice to donate voluntary hours, while a low intrinsic motivation seems to decrease hours per week. Moreover, monetary rewards increase the hours ...

  11. The deficit of decision-making in male subjects with antisocial personality disorder%男性反社会人格障碍患者的决策功能研究

    颜安; 马慧娟; 尹良爽; 章旭东; 汪凯

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨男性反社会人格障碍(Antisocial personality disorder,ASPD)患者决策倾向.方法 将76例反社会人格障碍患者(ASPD)组与其人口学资料相匹配的无人格障碍健康对照(Healthy control,HC)组作为研究对象,通过爱荷华博弈任务(Iowa Gambling Task,IGT)进行决策功能的测试,采用焦虑自评量表(SAS)、抑郁自评量表(SDS)、简明精神状态量表(MMSE)、明尼苏达多项人格测验精神病态分量表(MMPI-Pd)和Barratt冲动量表(BIS-11)对两组被试进行背景测试.结果 ASPD组在IGT中净有利选牌数明显低于HC组[分别为(-4.13±18.27)次,(6.03±19.43)次],差异有统计学意义[t(134)=-3.132,P=0.002].对ASPD组与HC组采用2(组)×5(阶段)方差分析,比较两组不同阶段的净有利选择,发现两组间的主效应显著[F1.134)=9.811,P=0.002];不同阶段的主效应同样显著[F(4,536)=15.456,P<0.01].随着爱荷华博弈任务选择次数的增多,ASPD组和HC组净有利选择次数均逐渐增加,但在第三、第四、第五阶段,HC组相较ASPD组净有利选择数目显著增多[第三阶段F(1.134)=5.947,P=0.016;第四阶段F(1.134)=5.023,P=0.027;第五阶段F(1,134)=8.553,P=0.004].ASPD组净有利选择数与MMPI-Pd分数呈负相关(r=-0.232,P=0.006),而与年龄、教育程度、SAS、SDS、BIS-11评分均无相关.结论 男性反社会人格障碍患者存在决策功能障碍,其决策缺陷可能与眶额叶、背外侧前额叶以及前扣带回的结构和功能异常有关.%Objective To investigate the capabilities of decision-making in male subjects with Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD).Methods A total of 76 male ASPD subjects were compared with matched 60 healthy controls on the Iowa Gambling Task.At the same time,All of them were evaluated with Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS),Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS),Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE),the MMPI Personality Disorder Scales (MMPI-Pd) and The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11

  12. The effect of feeding frequency on insulin and ghrelin responses in human subjects

    Solomon, Thomas; Chambers, Edward S; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2008-01-01

    Recent work shows that increased meal frequency reduces ghrelin responses in sheep. Human research suggests there is an interaction between insulin and ghrelin. The effect of meal frequency on this interaction is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effect of feeding frequency on insulin...... and ghrelin responses in human subjects. Five healthy male volunteers were recruited from the general population: age 24 (SEM 2)years, body mass 75.7 (SEM 3.2) kg and BMI 23.8 (SEM 0.8) kg/m(2). Volunteers underwent three 8-h feeding regimens: fasting (FAST); low-frequency(two) meal ingestion (LOFREQ......(MEAL)); high-frequency (twelve) meal ingestion (HIFREQ(MEAL)). Meals were equi-energetic within trials,consisting of 64% carbohydrate, 23% fat and 13% protein. Total energy intake was equal between feeding trials. Total area under the curve for serum insulin and plasma ghrelin responses did not differ between...

  13. The Longitudinal Effects of Adolescent Volunteering on Secondary School Completion and Adult Volunteering

    Moorfoot, Nicholas; Leung, Rachel K.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the longitudinal effect of adolescent volunteering behaviour on young adult volunteering and the completion of secondary school. Utilising data from the Australian sample of the International Youth Development Study, frequency of volunteering in Grade 9 (mean age = 15 years) and in young adulthood (mean age = 21 years), and…

  14. Environmental volunteer well-being: Managers’ perception and actual well-being of volunteers

    Kragh, Gitte; Stafford, Rick; Curtin, Susanna; Diaz, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Background: Environmental volunteering can increase well-being, but environmental volunteer well-being has rarely been compared to participant well-being associated with other types of volunteering or nature-based activities. This paper aims to use a multidimensional approach to well-being to explore the immediately experienced and later remembered well-being of environmental volunteers and to compare this to the increased well-being of participants in other types of nature-based activities and volunteering. Furthermore, it aims to compare volunteer managers’ perceptions of their volunteers’ well-being with the self-reported well-being of the volunteers. Methods: Onsite surveys were conducted of practical conservation and biodiversity monitoring volunteers, as well as their control groups (walkers and fieldwork students, respectively), to measure general well-being before their nature-based activity and activity-related well-being immediately after their activity. Online surveys of current, former and potential volunteers and volunteer managers measured remembered volunteering-related well-being and managers’ perceptions of their volunteers’ well-being. Data were analysed based on Seligman’s multidimensional PERMA (‘positive emotion’, ‘engagement’, ‘positive relationship’, ‘meaning’, ‘achievement’) model of well-being. Factor analysis recovered three of the five PERMA elements, ‘engagement’, ‘relationship’ and ‘meaning’, as well as ‘negative emotion’ and ‘health’ as factors. Results: Environmental volunteering significantly improved positive elements and significantly decreased negative elements of participants’ immediate well-being, and it did so more than walking or student fieldwork. Even remembering their volunteering up to six months later, volunteers rated their volunteering-related well-being higher than volunteers rated their well-being generally in life. However, volunteering was not found to have an

  15. 20 CFR 628.540 - Volunteer program.

    2010-04-01

    ... programs under this part to volunteer assistance, in the form of mentoring, tutoring, and other activities. ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Volunteer program. 628.540 Section 628.540 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE II OF...

  16. Volunteer labor supply in The Netherlands

    van Dijk, Jouke; Boin, Ronald

    1993-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to provide insight in the determinants of the decision to participate (yes or no) in volunteer work and the decision with regard to the number of hours spent on volunteer work. These decisions are empirically analyzed with Dutch microdata for 1982 by means of a logit

  17. Meaningful Commitment: Finding Meaning in Volunteer Work

    Schnell, Tatjana; Hoof, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that volunteer work is associated with various aspects of meaning making by employing a multi-dimensional model of meaning operationalized by the "Sources of Meaning and Meaning in Life Questionnaire" ("SoMe"). An empirical study comparing 168 volunteers with a representative sample of the general population (N =…

  18. Matching Expectations for Successful University Student Volunteering

    Paull, Megan; Omari, Maryam; MacCallum, Judith; Young, Susan; Walker, Gabrielle; Holmes, Kirsten; Haski-Leventha, Debbie; Scott, Rowena

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of expectation formation and matching for university student volunteers and their hosts. Design/methodology/approach: This research involved a multi-stage data collection process including interviews with student volunteers, and university and host representatives from six…

  19. Student Volunteering in England: A Critical Moment

    Darwen, Jamie; Rannard, Andrea Grace

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the current state of student volunteering in English universities, and show how it contributes to some of the core activities of higher education, including teaching and learning, employability, and public engagement. The paper goes on to describe challenges currently faced by student volunteering,…

  20. Volunteer map data collection at the USGS

    Eric, B. Wolf; Poore, Barbara S.; Caro, Holly K.; Matthews, Greg D.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1994, citizen volunteers have helped the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) improve its topographic maps. Through the Earth Science Corps program, citizens were able to "adopt a quad" and collect new information and update existing map features. Until its conclusion in 2001, as many as 300 volunteers annotated paper maps which were incorporated into the USGS topographic-map revision process.

  1. College Experience and Volunteering. Fact Sheet

    Marcelo, Karlo Barrios

    2007-01-01

    College experience and volunteering are positively correlated. Measurable differences in civic activity exist between young people who attend college and young people who do not. This fact sheet explores volunteering as civic engagement among youth with college experience, ages 19-25, which was down for the second year in a row in 2006. The…

  2. Training Shelter Volunteers to Teach Dog Compliance

    Howard, Veronica J.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which training procedures influenced the integrity of behaviorally based dog training implemented by volunteers of an animal shelter. Volunteers were taught to implement discrete-trial obedience training to teach 2 skills (sit and wait) to dogs. Procedural integrity during the baseline and written instructions…

  3. Corporate volunteering - motivation for voluntary work

    Debora Azevedo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, when the welfare state is a responsibility of the entire society, organizations in the private sector assume co-responsibility for social issues. They are also pressured by the challenges presented by technological advances and the globalization , involving new parameters and requirements for quality. In this context, the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (RSC emerges as an option for solutions to the issues related to the company and the whole community. Among the actions of the RSC is the Corporate Volunteering-program, which aims to promote / encourage employes to do voluntary work. A central issue when talking about volunteering is the withdrawal of these (SILVA and FEITOSA, 2002; TEODÓSIO, 1999 and, in accordance with the Community Solidarity (1997, one of the possible causes for the withdrawal is the lack of clarity as to the motives and expectations that lead the person to volunteer themselves. This study uses qualitative research and triangulation of feedback from volunteers, coordinators of volunteers and social organizations, to present a framework from which it is possible to analyze the various motivations for the volunteer work. Key words: Corporate Volunteering program. Volunteering. Corporate social responsibility.

  4. Applying the social cognitive perspective to volunteer intention in China: the mediating roles of self-efficacy and motivation.

    Wang, Ji-Wei; Wei, Chang-Nian; Harada, Koichi; Minamoto, Keiko; Ueda, Kimiyo; Cui, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Cheng-Gang; Cui, Zhi-Ting; Ueda, Atsushi

    2011-06-01

    When predicting volunteer intention, much attention is paid to the volunteer organization environment (VOE). Given that self-efficacy and motivation have emerged as important predictors of volunteer intention, we adopted a combination of ideas of Bandura's social cognitive theory and Ajzen's theory of planned behavior integrating VOE, self-efficacy and motivation to examine their effects on volunteer intention and to determine whether self-efficacy and motivation mediate the relationship between VOE and volunteer intention. The subjects of this study consisted of 198 community health volunteers in Shanghai city, China. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to identify the factor structure using standard principal component analysis. Six new factors were revealed, including two VOE factors, relation with organization and support from government; two motivation factors, personal attitude and social recognition; self-efficacy and volunteer intention. The results of a hierarchical regression analysis indicated that relation with organization accounted for 14.8% of the variance in volunteer intention, and support from government failed to add significantly to variance in volunteer intention; self-efficacy and personal attitude motivation partially mediated the effects of relation with organization on volunteer intention; social recognition motivation did not mediate the relationship between relation with organization and volunteer intention; and relation with organization, self-efficacy and personal attitude motivation accounted for 33.7% of the variance in volunteer intention. These results provide support for self-efficacy and personal attitude motivation as mediators and provide preliminary insight into the potential mechanisms for predicting volunteer intention and improving volunteering by integrating VOE, self-efficacy and motivation factors.

  5. The comparison of self esteem between volunteer and non volunteer students in universities sport in Iran

    Reza Andam.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies three concepts of transformational, transactional and laissez-faire leaderships as three independent and individual dimensions. This field study is descriptive and correlative. Statistical population of this study is the volunteer students in universities' sport associations of 10 regions of the country. Among 73 universities, 17 had active sport associations. Based on Morgan table, 231 students were selected as statistical sample (n=231 from which the results of 208 questionnaires were analyzed. Bass and Avolio (1995 Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ was used to measure managers' leadership style of the universities' sport administrations. This questionnaire includes 41 questions with 5-value Lickert scale (1=never to 5=always. Choosing satisfaction from experiencing as the most important dimension of satisfaction shows volunteers' high level of satisfaction from experiences they have acquired in universities sport associations. The reason of this fact is that sport activity in the association is long term in nature. Sport association provides the students an opportunity to experience and use their experiences in their sport and work life. This study illustrates that girls are more satisfied than boys in all satisfaction dimensions (especially acquiring experience, career, commitment, and material in sport associations. Researches show that female students' satisfaction is more than male students' satisfaction and women's job satisfaction is more than men's job satisfaction. Thus, the higher degree of job satisfaction and experiencing in female students seems more justifying. Also, it's been cleared that sport students were more satisfied than other students in all satisfaction dimensions (especially acquiring experience, career, purposeful, and commitment

  6. Effect of Sildenafil Citrate on Intraocular Pressure and Blood Pressure in Human Volunteers

    Gerometta, Rosana; Alvarez, Lawrence J.; Candia, Oscar A.

    2011-01-01

    Anecdotal reports have suggested that the vasodilator, sildenafil citrate, which evokes its effect via a select inhibition of PDE5, has the potential to increase intraocular pressure (IOP) in some individuals. An ocular hypertensive effect by sildenafil was also recently described in a sheep animal model. In contrast, clinical studies have not found a direct association between sildenafil ingestion (commonly consumed as Viagra) and changes in IOP. However, some such studies also reported no effects of sildenafil on systemic blood pressure (BP) at the time of the IOP determination. Given this surprising result, our purpose was to repeat a study in human volunteers in the city of Corrientes, Argentina to corroborate the effects of sildenafil on human IOP and systemic BP. For the present study, 9 healthy volunteers (male and female, 18 to 74 years old) were selected as subjects after ophthalmic and cardiovascular evaluation indicated that they exhibited normal parameters for their age. In a masked, placebo-controlled study, the subjects ingested 100 mg sildenafil citrate (provided as Vorst from Laboratorios Bernabo, Argentina) in one session, and a placebo on a second separate occasion. IOP was measured with a Goldman applanation tonometer by an ophthalmologist, and BP by a second physician, neither of whom witnessed the tablet ingestion by the volunteers, nor provided with information on the nature of the test compounds. A third individual administered the tablets. The average baseline IOP of this group of 9 was 13.1 ± 0.6 mm Hg. Subsequent to sildenafil ingestion, IOP increased by 26% to 16.5 ± 0.8 mm Hg 60 min later (p< 0.005, as paired data), and returned to control values within 2 hrs. Both systolic and diastolic BP were significantly reduced by sildenafil ingestion. At the point of maximal systemic hypotension (90 min), the systolic and diastolic pressures declined by 15% and 13%, respectively. No significant changes in IOP or BP were recorded after ingestion

  7. Effect of sildenafil citrate on intraocular pressure and blood pressure in human volunteers.

    Gerometta, Rosana; Alvarez, Lawrence J; Candia, Oscar A

    2011-07-01

    Anecdotal reports have suggested that the vasodilator, sildenafil citrate, which evokes its effect via a select inhibition of PDE5, has the potential to increase intraocular pressure (IOP) in some individuals. An ocular hypertensive effect by sildenafil was also recently described in a sheep animal model. In contrast, clinical studies have not found a direct association between sildenafil ingestion (commonly consumed as Viagra) and changes in IOP. However, some such studies also reported no effects of sildenafil on systemic blood pressure (BP) at the time of the IOP determination. Given this surprising result, our purpose was to repeat a study in human volunteers in the city of Corrientes, Argentina to corroborate the effects of sildenafil on human IOP and systemic BP. For the present study, 9 healthy volunteers (male and female, 18-74 years old) were selected as subjects after ophthalmic and cardiovascular evaluation indicated that they exhibited normal parameters for their age. In a masked, placebo-controlled study, the subjects ingested 100 mg sildenafil citrate (provided as Vorst from Laboratorios Bernabo, Argentina) in one session, and a placebo on a second separate occasion. IOP was measured with a Goldman applanation tonometer by an ophthalmologist, and BP by a second physician, neither of whom witnessed the tablet ingestion by the volunteers, nor provided with information on the nature of the test compounds. A third individual administered the tablets. The average baseline IOP of this group of 9 was 13.1 ± 0.6 mm Hg. Subsequent to sildenafil ingestion, IOP increased by 26% to 16.5 ± 0.8 mm Hg 60 min later (P < 0.005, as paired data), and returned to control values within 2 h. Both systolic and diastolic BP were significantly reduced by sildenafil ingestion. At the point of maximal systemic hypotension (90 min), the systolic and diastolic pressures declined by 15% and 13%, respectively. No significant changes in IOP or BP were recorded after

  8. Personality Traits and Motives for Volunteering

    Marija Juzbasic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the possibility of predicting volunteer motives based on five-factor model of personality in a sample of 159 volunteers from Zagreb, Osijek and Split. Data was collected using IPIP-300 personality questionnaire and Volunteer Functions Inventory. Results indicate that Croatian volunteers are agreeable, conscientious, altruistic, dutiful, and moral persons with artistic interests. Their most salient motives for volunteering are understanding and values. Hierarchical regression analysis confirmed that the five-factor model personality traits independently predict 17% of protective motive variance, 12% of values motive, 18% of career motive, 10% of understanding motive, and 12% of enhancement motive. Social motive was not explained by personality traits.

  9. The psychological profile of parents who volunteer their children for clinical research: a controlled study.

    Harth, S C; Johnstone, R R; Thong, Y H

    1992-01-01

    Three standard psychometric tests were administered to parents who volunteered their children for a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a new asthma drug and to a control group of parents whose children were eligible for the trial but had declined the invitation. The trial took place at a children's hospital in Australia. The subjects comprised 68 parents who had volunteered their children and 42 who had not, a participation rate of 94 per cent and 70 per cent, respectively. ...

  10. Volunteers for Researchers’ Night wanted

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Every year, on the last Friday of September, the European Researchers’ Night (see here) takes place in about 300 cities all over Europe - promoting research in engaging and fun ways for the general public. This year, CERN will be participating once again, hosting dozens of events across the Balexert shopping centre – and we’ll need YOUR help to make the celebration a success.   From film screenings and celebrity Q&A sessions to “Ask a Researcher” and build-your-own LEGO LHC events, this year’s Researchers’ Night is going to be jam-packed! The fun will kick off prior to the night itself with a mock-up of the LHC tunnel installed in the central court of the Balexert shopping centre, 8-12 September*. CERN people will be on hand to speak to shoppers about the LHC, and to encourage them to participate in Researchers’ Night! The CERN organisers are recruiting volunteers and support staff for Researchers’ ...

  11. Motivations for volunteers in food rescue nutrition.

    Mousa, T Y; Freeland-Graves, J H

    2017-08-01

    A variety of organizations redistribute surplus food to low-income populations through food rescue nutrition. Why volunteers participate in these charitable organizations is unclear. The aim of this study is to document the participation and motivations of volunteers who are involved specifically in food rescue nutrition. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two phases. In phase 1, a new instrument, Motivations to Volunteer Scale, was developed and validated in 40 participants (aged ≥18 years). In phase 2, the new scale and a demographics questionnaire were administered to 300 participants who were volunteering in food pantries and churches. The pilot study showed that Motivations to Volunteer Scale exhibited an internal consistency of Cronbach's α of 0.73 (P  0.05). The scale was validated also by comparison to the Volunteer Function Inventory (r = 0.86, P social life, and altruism. The mean motivation score of the 300 volunteers was 9.15 ± 0.17. Greater motivations were observed among participants who were aged >45 years, women, Hispanics, college/university graduates, physically inactive, non-smokers, and had an income ≥ $48,000. The Motivations to Volunteer Scale is a valid tool to assess why individuals volunteer in food rescue nutrition. The extent of motivations of participants was relatively high, and the primary reason for volunteering was altruism. Health professionals should be encouraged to participate in food redistribution. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Narrow cervical canal in 1211 asymptomatic healthy subjects: the relationship with spinal cord compression on MRI.

    Nakashima, Hiroaki; Yukawa, Yasutsugu; Suda, Kota; Yamagata, Masatsune; Ueta, Takayoshi; Kato, Fumihiko

    2016-07-01

    Narrow cervical canal (NCC) has been a suspected risk factor for later development of cervical myelopathy. However, few studies have evaluated the prevalence in asymptomatic subjects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of NCC in a large cohort of asymptomatic volunteers. This study was a cross-sectional study of 1211 asymptomatic volunteers. Approximately 100 men and 100 women representing each decade of life from the 20s to the 70s were included in this study. Cervical canal anteroposterior diameters at C5 midvertebral level on X-rays, and the prevalence of spinal cord compression (SCC) and increased signal intensity (ISI) changes on MRI were evaluated. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to determine the cut-off value of the severity of canal stenosis resulting in SCC. NCC (<14 mm) was observed in 123 (10.2 %) subjects. SCC and ISI were found in 64 (5.3 %) and 28 (2.3 %) subjects, respectively. The prevalence of NCC was significantly higher in females and older subjects, but the occurrence of severe NCC (<12 mm) did not increase with age. The canal size in subjects with SCC or ISI was significantly smaller than in those without SCC (p < 0.0001). The cut-off values of cervical canal stenosis resulting in SCC were 14.8 and 13.9 mm in males and females, respectively. The prevalence of NCC was considerably lower among asymptomatic healthy volunteers; the cervical canal diameter in subjects with SCC or ISI was significantly smaller than in asymptomatic subjects; NCC is a risk factor for SCC.

  13. Effect of Colour of Object on Simple Visual Reaction Time in Normal Subjects

    Sunita B. Kalyanshetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The measure of simple reaction time has been used to evaluate the processing speed of CNS and the co-ordination between the sensory and motor systems. As the reaction time is influenced by different factors; the impact of colour of objects in modulating the reaction time has been investigated in this study. 200 healthy volunteers (female gender 100 and male gender100 of age group 18-25 yrs were included as subjects. The subjects were presented with two visual stimuli viz; red and green light by using an electronic response analyzer. Paired‘t’ test for comparison of visual reaction time for red and green colour in male gender shows p value<0.05 whereas in female gender shows p<0.001. It was observed that response latency for red colour was lesser than that of green colour which can be explained on the basis of trichromatic theory.

  14. Microwave heating for male contraception

    Jiang, H.B.

    1985-01-01

    A study at Sichuan University investigated microwave irradiation as a reversible male contraception. In the first phase of the study, the testes of rabbits were exposed to 2450 MHz microwaves with intensity of 15-35 mW/cm/sup 2/ for 15-20 minutes. The animals' sperm count was reduced from 5.86 x 10/sup 8/ +- 1.67 x 10/sup 8//ml (S.D.), to 0.273 x 10/sup 8/ +- 0.385 x 10/sup -8//ml 35 days after exposure. The impregnation ability was lost for about two months, even though the animals retained a normal sexual desire and physical condition. In the second phase, a group of 200 human volunteers received 2450 MHz microwave exposure with an intensity of 80-100 mW/cm/sup 2/ at the surface of the scrotum for 40-60 minutes. The volunteers' sperm counts were reduced from 7511 x 10/sup 4/ +- 2758 x 10/sup 4//ml to 366 x 10/sup 4/ +- 352 x 10/sup 4//ml at 39 +- 5.4 days after exposure; reduction amounting to approximately 95 percent. The viability and motility of the sperm were also reduced. Two months after the last exposure, the sperm counts of the volunteers recovered to 4625 x 10/sup 4/ +- 1897 x 10/sup 4//ml. No obvious changes were found either in medical examinations or in the daily lifestyles of the volunteers

  15. Effect of a high dose of simvastatin on muscle mitochondrial metabolism and calcium signaling in healthy volunteers

    Galtier, F.; Mura, T.; Raynaud de Mauverger, E.; Chevassus, H.; Farret, A.; Gagnol, J.-P.; Costa, F.; Dupuy, A.

    2012-01-01

    Statin use may be limited by muscle side effects. Although incompletely understood to date, their pathophysiology may involve oxidative stress and impairments of mitochondrial function and of muscle Ca 2+ homeostasis. In order to simultaneously assess these mechanisms, 24 male healthy volunteers were randomized to receive either simvastatin for 80 mg daily or placebo for 8 weeks. Blood and urine samples and a stress test were performed at baseline and at follow-up, and mitochondrial respiration and Ca 2+ spark properties were evaluated on a muscle biopsy 4 days before the second stress test. Simvastatin-treated subjects were separated according to their median creatine kinase (CK) increase. Simvastatin treatment induced a significant elevation of aspartate amino transferase (3.38 ± 5.68 vs − 1.15 ± 4.32 UI/L, P 2+ sparks. However, among statin-treated subjects, those with the highest CK increase displayed a significantly lower Vmax rotenone succinate and an increase in Ca 2+ spark amplitude vs both subjects with the lowest CK increase and placebo-treated subjects. Moreover, Ca 2+ spark amplitude was positively correlated with treatment-induced CK increase in the whole group (r = 0.71, P = 0.0045). In conclusion, this study further supports that statin induced muscular toxicity may be related to alterations in mitochondrial respiration and muscle calcium homeostasis independently of underlying disease or concomitant medication. -- Highlights: ► Statin use may be limited by side effects, particularly myopathy. ► Statins might impair mitochondrial function and muscle Ca2+ signaling in muscle. ► This was tested among healthy volunteers receiving simvastatin 80 mg daily for 8 weeks. ► CK increase was associated with alterations in Ca2+ sparks and mitochondrial function.

  16. Male Infertility

    ... hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands. Low testosterone (male hypogonadism) and other hormonal problems have a number of possible underlying causes. Defects of tubules that transport sperm. Many ... syndrome — in which a male is born with two X chromosomes and one ...

  17. Organizational Support and Volunteering Benefits for Older Adults

    Tang, Fengyan; Choi, Eunhee; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested a theoretical model of volunteering benefits and examined the mechanism through which volunteering benefits older adults. Design and Methods: This is a 2-wave study of 253 older adult volunteers serving in 10 volunteer programs. Older volunteers completed the mailed surveys in 2005 and 2006. Structural equation modeling…

  18. Effects of gender difference and birth order on perceived parenting styles, measured by the EMBU scale, in Japanese two-sibling subjects.

    Someya, T; Uehara, T; Kadowaki, M; Tang, S W; Takahashi, S

    2000-02-01

    The relationship between Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppforstran (EMBU) scaling and gender, birth order and parents' gender was previously investigated in a large volunteer sample; significant interactions among the variables were found. In the present study, 730 Japanese volunteers with one sibling were used as subjects in order to control the number of siblings: the effect of gender of subjects and siblings and birth order on the perceived parenting style was examined. Based on gender and birth orders, 730 subjects were grouped into the following categories: (i) male with a younger brother; (ii) male with a younger sister; (iii) male with an older brother; (iv) male with an older sister; (v) female with a younger brother; (vi) female with a younger sister; (vii) female with an older brother; and (viii) female with an older sister. One-way ANOVA was performed with each EMBU subscale used as a dependent variable and these eight groups as independent variables. The scores for rejection and emotional warmth of father were influenced significantly by the pattern of siblings (Pchildren strongly experienced parenting style as more rejecting than others, and female children (elder sisters with brother, or younger sisters with sister) recognized parenting style as more caring and demonstrated more warmth than others. The results confirmed a significant interaction of gender of subjects and siblings and birth order of perceived parental rearing behavior.

  19. Assessment of olfactory nerve by SPECT-MRI image with nasal thallium-201 administration in patients with olfactory impairments in comparison to healthy volunteers.

    Hideaki Shiga

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess whether migration of thallium-201 ((201Tl to the olfactory bulb were reduced in patients with olfactory impairments in comparison to healthy volunteers after nasal administration of (201Tl. PROCEDURES: 10 healthy volunteers and 21 patients enrolled in the study (19 males and 12 females; 26-71 years old. The causes of olfactory dysfunction in the patients were head trauma (n = 7, upper respiratory tract infection (n = 7, and chronic rhinosinusitis (n = 7. (201TlCl was administered unilaterally to the olfactory cleft, and SPECT-CT was conducted 24 h later. Separate MRI images were merged with the SPECT images. (201Tl olfactory migration was also correlated with the volume of the olfactory bulb determined from MRI images, as well as with odor recognition thresholds measured by using T&T olfactometry. RESULTS: Nasal (201Tl migration to the olfactory bulb was significantly lower in the olfactory-impaired patients than in healthy volunteers. The migration of (201Tl to the olfactory bulb was significantly correlated with odor recognition thresholds obtained with T&T olfactometry and correlated with the volume of the olfactory bulb determined from MRI images when all subjects were included. CONCLUSIONS: Assessment of the (201Tl migration to the olfactory bulb was the new method for the evaluation of the olfactory nerve connectivity in patients with impaired olfaction.

  20. Volunteering as a determinant of civil society

    A. V. Matiychyk

    2016-06-01

    Another prerequisite of volunteerism was the surge of Advantages Revolution in 2013-2014, and after it – the anti-terrorist operation in eastern Ukraine. In 2015 the aid organization in terms of ATO and internally displaced persons has increased directions volunteering. Important indicators of volunteering were high levels of involvement of Ukrainian philanthropy and consequently public confidence in voluntary organizations, qualitative growth of volunteerism, the founders of which were gradually included among the managerial elite Ukraine. At the same time, there are number of problems that discredit the work of volunteers and the idea of volunteering in general, for example, fraud volunteers and fake organizations. Moreover, the increased activity of the volunteer movement was caused by the internal crisis that led to the imbalance of public administration, lack of high-quality management decisions, lack of resource capabilities. Also it was caused by external factors, such as the need to participate in the organization of international events and conduct military operations against separatist groups in eastern Ukraine. So, volunteer activity gradually becomes an effective mechanism of self-organization of citizens.

  1. Motivation to volunteer among senior center participants.

    Pardasani, Manoj

    2018-04-01

    Senior centers in the United States play a vital role in the aging continuum of care as the focal points of a community-based system of services targeting independent older adults to promote their social integration and civically engagement. Although several studies have evaluated the diversity of senior center programs, demographic characteristics of participants, and benefits of participation, very few have explored motivations to volunteer among participants. Many senior centers rely on a cadre of participants who volunteer there to assist with programs and meal services. However, a systematic examination of volunteering interests and the rationale for volunteering among senior center participants has been missing from the literature. This mixed-methods study, conducted at a large suburban senior center, explores the interests and motivations of volunteerism among the participants. The study found that there was limited interest in volunteering among senior center participants. Those who were motivated to volunteer wanted to do so in order to stay connected with their community. There was strong interest in volunteering for single events or projects rather than a long-term commitment. Implications for senior centers are discussed.

  2. Male Teachers' Experiences of Own Aggression

    Botha, Johan; Myburgh, Chris; Poggenpoel, Marie

    2013-01-01

    We describe an exploratory, descriptive, and contextual study on the lived experiences of 17 male teachers' own aggression in the Gert Sibande district in Mpumalanga province. Individual phenomenological interviews were used to collect data from these volunteers for this qualitative research. The data were analysed by means of an open coding…

  3. Brain activation during human male ejaculation

    Holstege, Ger; Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Paans, Anne M.J.; Meiners, Linda C.; Graaf, Ferdinand H.C.E. van der; Reinders, A.A.T.Simone

    2003-01-01

    Brain mechanisms that control human sexual behavior in general, and ejaculation in particular, are poorly understood. We used positron emission tomography to measure increases in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during ejaculation compared with sexual stimulation in heterosexual male volunteers.

  4. Metabolic capacity and interindividual variation in toxicokinetics of styrene in volunteers

    Wenker, M. A.; Kezić, S.; Monster, A. C.; de Wolff, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the interindividual variation in styrene toxicokinetics and to correlate this variation with the individual metabolic capacity for cytochrome P450 (CYP), CYP2E1, CYP1A2 and CYP2D6. Twenty male volunteers were exposed on separate occasions to 104+/-3 and

  5. Non-uniform versus uniform attenuation correction in brain perfusion SPET of healthy volunteers

    Van Laere, K.; Versijpt, J.; Dierckx, R.; Koole, M.

    2001-01-01

    Although non-uniform attenuation correction (NUAC) can supply more accurate absolute quantification, it is not entirely clear whether NUAC provides clear-cut benefits in the routine clinical practice of brain SPET imaging. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of NUAC versus uniform attenuation correction (UAC) on volume of interest (VOI)-based semi-quantification of a large age- and gender-stratified brain perfusion normal database. Eighty-nine healthy volunteers (46 females and 43 males, aged 20-81 years) underwent standardised high-resolution single-photon emission tomography (SPET) with 925 MBq 99m Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) on a Toshiba GCA-9300A camera with 153 Gd or 99m Tc transmission CT scanning. Emission images were reconstructed by filtered back-projection and scatter corrected using the triple-energy window correction method. Both non-uniform Chang attenuation correction (one iteration) and uniform Sorenson correction (attenuation coefficient 0.09 cm -1 ) were applied. Images were automatically re-oriented to a stereotactic template on which 35 predefined VOIs were defined for semi-quantification (normalisation on total VOI counts). Small but significant differences between relative VOI uptake values for NUAC versus UAC in the infratentorial region were found. VOI standard deviations were significantly smaller for UAC, 4.5% (range 2.6-7.5), than for NUAC, 5.0% (2.3-9.0) (P 99m Tc-ECD uptake values in healthy volunteers to those obtained with NUAC, although values for the infratentorial region are slightly lower. NUAC produces a slight increase in inter-subject variability. Further study is necessary in various patient populations to establish the full clinical impact of NUAC in brain perfusion SPET. (orig.)

  6. The association of 5-HTR2A-1438A/G, COMTVal158Met, MAOA-LPR, DATVNTR and 5-HTTVNTR gene polymorphisms and antisocial personality disorder in male heroin-dependent Chinese subjects.

    Yang, Mei; Kavi, Vasish; Wang, Wenfu; Wu, Zhimei; Hao, Wei

    2012-03-30

    To explore the association between the 5-HTR2A-1438A/G, COMTVal158Met, MAOA-LPR, DATVNTR and 5-HTTVNTR polymorphisms with comorbidity of antisocial personality disorder in male heroin-dependent patients. In case control study, we compared the polymorphic distributions of 5-HTR2A-1438A/G, COMTVal158Met, MAOA-LPR, DATVNTR and 5-HTTVNTR in 588 male heroin-dependent patients (including 311 patients with antisocial personality disorder and 277 patients without antisocial personality disorder) and 194 normal males by genotypes, alleles, and interaction between genes. Between male heroin-dependent patients with antisocial personality disorder and normal males, and between male heroin-dependent patients with and without antisocial personality disorder, the distributions of 5-HTTVNTR polymorphic genotypes and alleles were in statistical significance. Individuals carrying 10R allele were in higher risk of the comorbidity of antisocial personality disorder and heroin dependence. By MDR analyses, the interaction between 5-HTTVNTR and DATVNTR was close to statistical significance in predicting the risk of antisocial personality disorder in male heroin dependent patients. In male heroin dependent patients, individuals carrying 5-HTTVNTR 10R allele or/and DATVNTR 9R allele were in higher risks of co-occurring antisocial personality disorder, while individuals with 5-HTTVNTR 12R/12R and DATVNTR 10R/10R genotypes together were in lower risks of antisocial personality disorder. 5-HTTVNTR, and the interaction between 5-HTTVNTR and DATVNTR may be associated with the comorbidity of antisocial personality disorder in male heroin-dependent patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Three-dimensional patterns of speech-induced cerebral and cerebellar activation in healthy volunteers and in aphasic stroke patients studied by positron emission tomography of 2(18F)-fluorodeoxyglucose

    Pawlik, G.; Heiss, W.D.; Beil, C.; Gruenewald, G.; Herholz, K.; Wienhard, K.; Wagner, R.

    1987-01-01

    Eight healthy male volunteers and eight moderately aphasic patients with a single cerebral infarctions in the postacute stage, were studied by dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) using the 2(18F)-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose method and a 7-slice positron camera. Because hemispheric speech dominance is commonly thought to be closely related to handedness, subjects were tested by the Oldfield and Bryden questionnaires; the volunteers also had a tracking and pin-sort test. PET studies were performed in random order, both at rest and during spontaneous speech of rather abstract and some biographic content, with a time interval of 2 to 7 days between measurements of the same individual. Data was analyzed by means of weighted, repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA). 11 refs.; 2 figs

  8. 5 CFR 315.605 - Appointment of former ACTION volunteers.

    2010-01-01

    ... full-time community volunteer (including criminal justice volunteer, volunteer in justice, and VET... institution of higher learning; or (3) In another activity which, in the agency's view, warrants extension. (c...

  9. Volunteer water monitoring: A guide for state managers

    1990-08-01

    Contents: executive summary; volunteers in water monitoring; planning a volunteer monitoring program; implementing a volunteer monitoring program; providing credible information; costs and funding; and descriptions of five successful programs

  10. Pre-donation screening of volunteer prisoner blood donors for hepatitis B and C in prisons of punjab pakistan

    Pervaiz, A.; Sipra, F.S.; Rana, T.H.; Qadeer, I.

    2015-01-01

    Prisoners as a high risk group are never recommended for blood donations. In Pakistan, prisoners are legally allowed to donate blood and get thirty days extra remission. Inspectorate of prisons allowed Alizaib Foundation for blood donation camps subject to pre-donation screening of volunteer prisoner blood donor against infectious diseases. This study was conducted to identify the potential benefits of pre-donation screening. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in October, 2009 in Punjab. Intending volunteer prisoner blood donors from January, 2007 to September, 2009 from prisons of Punjab were included. Physically fit were tested for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and B Virus (HBV) by Rapid test kit before bleeding. Data was analysed by Epi-Info. Results: A total of 5894 male volunteer prisoner donors were screened and 1038 (17.6%) were rejected. The mean age was 28 years (range: 17-70 years). Of 5894, 857 (14.5%) were HCV positive and 222 (3.8%) were HBV positive. HCV and HBV co-infection was present among 41 (0.7%). Being convicted prisoner blood donor is significantly associated with higher seroprevalence for HCV (OR 1.35, 95% C.I. 1.17-1.57) and being under trial prisoner is significantly associated with higher seroprevalence for HBV (OR 1.40, 95% C.I. 1.06-1.85). Conclusion: Hepatitis B and C viruses were responsible for almost 18% prisoner blood donor rejection. Pre-donation screening of blood donors is an effective intervention to improve the safety and limit the cost of blood. Treatment of identified cases may contribute to public health. In the international scenario this study findings necessitate the amendments in the relevant prison rules. (author)

  11. Prevalence of Desloratadine Slow-metabolizer Phenotype and Food-dependent Pharmacokinetics of Desloratadine in Healthy Chinese Volunteers.

    Wang, Ting; Zhang, Kun; Li, Tingting; He, Lin; Xie, Huiru; Jiang, Xuehua; Wang, Ling

    2015-12-01

    Desloratadine, the major active metabolite of loratadine, is a non-sedating long-acting antihistamine that is widely used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of desloratadine slow-metabolizer (DSM) phenotype and the effects of food on the pharmacokinetics of desloratadine and its active metabolite 3-OH-desloratadine in healthy Chinese volunteers. A total of 46 healthy Chinese male volunteers were included in this investigation. All subjects received a single dose of a 5-mg desloratadine tablet under fasting or fed conditions and the plasma concentrations of desloratadine and 3-OH-desloratadine were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The pharmacokinetic profiles were analyzed using a non-compartmental method in the Phoenix WinNonlin program. The individuals with a 3-OH-desloratadine-to-desloratadine exposure ratio lower than 10 % or a desloratadine half-life (t 1/2) of ≥50 h were supposed to be DSM. There was only one DSM among the 46 volunteers, with a prevalence of 2.2 %. Moreover, administration in a fed state resulted in 34.07 and 32.06 % decreases in maximum plasma concentration and area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity for desloratadine and 47.26 and 48.46 % for 3-OH-desloratadine compared with those values under fasting conditions. Taken together, these results indicated that the incidence of the DSM phenotype in the Chinese population was low and that food intake could significantly decrease the absorption rate and extent of desloratadine.

  12. Male Hypogonadism

    ... the hormone that plays a key role in masculine growth and development during puberty — or has an ... Adulthood In adult males, hypogonadism may alter certain masculine physical characteristics and impair normal reproductive function. Signs ...

  13. Male Infertility

    ... to have a baby? If treatment doesn’t work, what are our other options? Resources National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, What Causes Male Infertility? Last Updated: May 30, 2017 This ...

  14. Male contraception.

    Amory, John K

    2016-11-01

    Although female contraceptives are very effective at preventing unintended pregnancy, some women can not use them because of health conditions or side-effects, leaving some couples without effective contraceptive options. In addition, many men wish to take active responsibility for family planning. Thus, there is a great need for male contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancies, of which 80-90 million occur annually. At present, effective male contraceptive options are condoms and vasectomy, which are not ideal for all men. Therefore, efforts are under way to develop novel male contraceptives. This paper briefly reviews the advantages and disadvantages of condoms and vasectomies and then discusses the research directed toward development of novel methods of male contraception. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Condoms - male

    Prophylactics; Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... your health care provider or pharmacy about emergency contraception ("morning-after pills"). PROBLEMS WITH CONDOM USE Some ...

  16. Male contraception

    Mathew, Vivek; Bantwal, Ganapathi

    2012-01-01

    Contraception is an accepted route for the control of population explosion in the world. Traditionally hormonal contraceptive methods have focused on women. Male contraception by means of hormonal and non hormonal methods is an attractive alternative. Hormonal methods of contraception using testosterone have shown good results. Non hormonal reversible methods of male contraception like reversible inhibition of sperm under guidanceare very promising. In this article we have reviewed the curren...

  17. Expanding subjectivities

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool......-Saxon and continental traditions, this special issue provides examples of the use of researcher subjectivity, informed by psychoanalytic thinking, in expanding research understanding....

  18. Male sexuality.

    Ginsberg, Terrie B

    2010-05-01

    It should be recognized that sexuality in the aging male is of such import that a complete sexual history must be performed. By taking a complete sexual history, facts can be obtained that will allow for appropriate focus relating to a holistic evaluation and will enable us to dispel antiquated sexual myths pertaining to the aging male. If initiated by the history taker, questions concerning sexuality may be discussed more comfortably by the patient. Erectile dysfunction, male sexual response cycle, testosterone, sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, long-term illness, along with religion and culture are explored in this article with the aim of improving one's knowledge base, self reflection, and awareness of the importance of male sexuality. A complete understanding and appreciation of the aging male's medical history, surgical history, social history, and emotional history as well as his sexual, cultural, and religious concepts will allow the health care provider to better analyze information, and to recommend and provide appropriate advice and treatment to the aging male patient. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Monitoring and Evaluation of Volunteer Tourism

    Taplin, Jessica; Dredge, Dianne; Scherrer, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The rapid expansion and commercialisation of the volunteer tourism sector and the potential for negative impacts on host communities have put the sector under increasing scrutiny. Monitoring and evaluation are key aspects of sustainable tourism planning and management, and play important roles...... in the project planning and implementation cycles of volunteer tourism organisations and destination managements. However, they can be both value-laden and politically charged, making an understanding of context, purpose and various approaches to monitoring and evaluation important. Drawing from evaluation...... highlights the important influence of context (the issue the volunteer tourism programme is addressing, the nature of the intervention, the setting, the evaluation context and the decision-making context), and identifies four dimensions of volunteer tourism (stakeholders, organisations, markets...

  20. Volunteering: beyond an act of charity.

    Dickson, Murray; Dickson, Geraldine Gerri

    2005-12-01

    Volunteering internationally appeals to health care professionals and students for a variety of reasons and serves a number of purposes. If international voluntarism is to be mutually advantageous, however, host countries, volunteers and project sponsors need to understand how best they can work together and what can be achieved by volunteers for the greatest benefit of all concerned. This paper is intended to contribute to the growing dialogue on international voluntarism and offers suggestions to strengthen its value, from the perspectives of health workers in a developing country and the authors" experiences over the past 30 years. The paper also identifies undesirable side effects and disabling interventions of international initiatives and examines the notions of aid and assistance. One strategy to prepare volunteers for upcoming international efforts as well as to address inequities at home is involvement with underserved populations in our own country.

  1. Irradiation of volunteers in nuclear medicine

    Huda, W.; Scrimger, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The preliminary assessment of many radiopharmaceuticals is often carried out with the help of normal volunteers. These volunteers are drawn from the general public, are fully informed of the procedure to be performed and its attendant risks, and in many cases are compensated financially for their trouble. The cooperation of such people is of vital importance to the full understanding of the normal kinetics and metabolism of many new radiopharmaceuticals. The restrictions on the choice of normal volunteers, and the radiation dose limits which must be observed are not explicitly defined in any of the current guidelines, and in this paper we propose a rationale, based upon available information, which sets acceptable limits for volunteers, and provides a framework within which scientists and physicians can work

  2. The hospice volunteer: a person of hospitality.

    Welk, T A

    1992-01-01

    Volunteers are integral members of the hospice interdisciplinary team. They are distinguished from other members of the team only by role, not by expectation. The distinction is not between "volunteer" and "professional," because every team member is to be professional in the best sense of that word. If a distinction is to be made, it is that some hospice staff members are salaried while others donate their services. Volunteer staff members are expected to be as responsible and accountable as every other member of the team. ALL staff members must realize the importance of taking care of personal needs in order to be able to care for others. Even though the following article deals primarily with the volunteer hospice staff member, the points outlined can just as easily be applied to the salaried staff member.

  3. Safeguards for healthy volunteers in drug studies.

    Smith, R N

    1975-09-06

    Safeguards for healthy volunteers in drug studies have not been as strict as those involving patients. The shortcomings include the lack of surveillance over the scientific validity of the protocol and its ethical review, and over the financial inducements to volunteers. Recruitment is open to abuse because the volunteers may have some allegiance to the investigators. There is an urgent need to institute checks on these aspects. Most important, however, is the lack of legal safeguards for volunteers taking part in research done outside the pharmaceutical industry. The suggested procedure for obtaining consent, for health checks, and for providing compensation can be equitable to all concerned, and yet not restrict initiative, nor curtail research aims.

  4. Volunteers and Their Motivation for Canistherapy

    Saláková, Klára

    2014-01-01

    The bachelor thesis on the topic: "Volunteers and their motivation for canistherapy" is divided into the theoretical and practical part. The aim is to find out what motives lead people to do voluntary work in canistherapy. The theoretical part defines the basic concepts of motivation, volunteering and canistherapy, because these concepts are related with the name and with the aim of my work. First, there is defined motivation, basic concepts of motivation in relation to personality, motives a...

  5. Exploring the working role of hospice volunteers

    Watts, Jacqueline H.

    2011-01-01

    Volunteering is now a regular feature of health and social care service provision with volunteers working in diverse contexts such as day care centres, ‘after school’ clubs, hospitals and hospices. The promotion of the idea of an active civil society by successive UK governments has led to the professionalisation of some voluntary work as the product of a partnership between the voluntary sector, government and business. More standardised working practices and semi-formalised aspects of volun...

  6. Holding on to what you have got: keeping hospice palliative care volunteers volunteering.

    Claxton-Oldfield, Stephen; Jones, Richard

    2013-08-01

    In all, 119 hospice palliative care volunteers from 3 community-based hospice programs completed the Volunteer Retention Questionnaire (VRQ), a 33-item survey designed for this study. The VRQ asks volunteers to rate the importance of each item to their decision to continue volunteering. The items that received the highest mean importance ratings included enjoying the work they do, feeling adequately prepared/trained to perform their role, and learning from their patients' experiences/listening to their patients' life stories. Being recognized (eg, pins for years of service or being profiled in the hospice newsletter), receiving phone calls/cards from their volunteer coordinator on special occasions, and being reimbursed for out-of-pocket expenses were among the items that received the lowest mean importance ratings. Suggestions for improving volunteer retention are provided.

  7. IL FENOMENO VOLUNTEERED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

    Flavio Lupia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution addresses the phenomenon of Voluntereed Geographic Informationexplaining these new and burgeoning sources of information offers multidisciplinary scientists an unprecedented opportunity to conduct research on a variety of topics at multiple spatial and temporal scales. In particular the contribution refers to two COST Actions which have been recently activated on the subject which areparticularly relevant for the growing of the European scientific community.

  8. Postural control and risk of falling in bipodalic and monopodalic stabilometric tests of healthy subjects before, after visuo-proprioceptive vestibulo-postural rehabilitation and at 3 months thereafter: role of the proprioceptive system

    CARLI, P.; PATRIZI, M.; PEPE, L.; CAVANIGLIA, G.; RIVA, D.; D’OTTAVI, L.R.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Nine healthy volunteers (6 males, 3 females), mean age 34.5 years (SD = 11.52), underwent a vestibulo-postural rehabilitation cycle with a visuo-proprioceptive-type stimulus. All subjects in the study group were evaluated by means of stabilometric bipodalic and monopodalic tests both before and immediately after treatment, and again 3 month thereafter. The Delos Postural Proprioceptive System®, DPPS (Delos, srl, Turin, Italy), was used in performing these stabilometric tests and in th...

  9. Equal prefrontal cortex activation between males and females in a motor tasks and different visual imagery perspectives: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS study

    Thiago F. Dias Kanthack

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the prefrontal cortex (PFC blood flow variation and time on in males and females while performing a motor task and imagery perspectives. Eighteen right handed subjects (11 males and 7 females were volunteers to this study. All subjects went through three randomly conditions, a motor task condition (MT in which they had to do a simple finger tap. The other conditions included practicing imagery in first and third views. During all the conditions, the fNIRS device was attached to the subject forehead to obtain the blood flow; the total time in each task which was measured with a chronometer. No difference had been found in any condition for both sexes in the PFC and time, nor for all subjects integrated in the PFC. Therefore, we conclu-de that both imageries can be used to mentally train a motor task, and probably both sexes can be benefited.

  10. Cardiovascular disease markers responses in male receiving improved-fat meat-products vary by initial LDL-cholesterol levels.

    Paloma Celada

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is prevalent in people at high meat-product consumption. To study the effect of consuming different Pâté and Frankfurter formulations on clinical/emergent CVD biomarkers in male volunteers with different initial LDL-cholesterol levels (< and ³ 3.36 mmol/L. Method: Eighteen male volunteers with at least two CVD risk factors were enrolled in a crossover controlled study. Pork-products were consumed during 4wk: reduced-fat (RF, omega-3-enriched-RF (n-3RF, and normal-fat (NF. Pork-products were separated by 4wk washout. Lipids, lipoproteins, oxidized LDL (oxLDL, apolipoproteins (apo and their ratios, homocysteine (tHcys, arylesterase (AE, C-reactive protein (CRP, tumor necrotic factor (TNFa were tested. Results: The rate of change for AE, oxLDL, Lp(a, AE/HDL-cholesterol, LDL/apo B and AE/oxLDL ratios varied (p<0.05 among periods only in volunteers with LDLcholesterol ³3.36 mmol/L. TNFa decreased (p<0.05 among volunteers with low-normal LDL-cholesterol values while AE increased (p<0.01 in high LDL-cholesterol volunteers during the RF-period. AE increased while CRP decreased (both p<0.01 in low-normal LDL-cholesterol volunteers while AE (p<0.001 and apo B (p<0.01 increased in the high LDL-cholesterol group during the n-3RF-period. Total cholesterol (p<0.05 increased in the low/normal LDL-cholesterol group while tHcys decreased (p<0.05 in the high LDL-cholesterol group during the NF-period. Differences in response in volunteers with low-normal vs. high initial LDL-cholesterol levels to the n-3RF but not to the RF meat-products seem evident. Conclusions: Subjects with high LDL-cholesterol seem target for n-3RF products while subjects with LDL-cholesterol <3.36 mmol/L were more negatively affected by NF-products. Any generalization about functional meat product or consumption should be avoided.

  11. Positive experiences of volunteers working in deployable laboratories in West Africa during the Ebola outbreak.

    Belfroid, Evelien; Mollers, Madelief; Smit, Pieter W; Hulscher, Marlies; Koopmans, Marion; Reusken, Chantal; Timen, Aura

    2018-01-01

    The largest outbreak of Ebola virus disease ever started in West Africa in December 2013; it created a pressing need to expand the workforce dealing with it. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the experiences of volunteers from the European Union who worked in deployable laboratories in West Africa during the outbreak. This study is part of the EMERGE project. We assessed the experiences of 251 volunteers with a 19-item online questionnaire. The questions asked about positive aspects of volunteering such as learning new skills, establishing a new path in life, and changing life values. Other questionnaire subjects were the compliance to follow-up measures, the extent to which volunteers felt these measures restricted their daily activities, the fear of stigmatization, and worries about becoming infected or infecting their families. The volunteers reported positive effects that reached far beyond their daily work, such as changes in life priorities and a greater appreciation of the value of their own lives. Although the volunteers did not feel that temperature monitoring restricted their daily activities, full compliance to temperature monitoring and reporting it to the authorities was low. The volunteers did not fear Ebola infection for themselves or their families and were not afraid of stigmatization. With respect to the burden on the families, 50% reported that their family members were worried that the volunteer would be infected with Ebola virus. Altogether, the positive experiences of the volunteers in this study far outweigh the negative implications and constitute an important argument for inspiring people who intend to join such missions and for motivating the hesitant ones.

  12. Positive experiences of volunteers working in deployable laboratories in West Africa during the Ebola outbreak.

    Evelien Belfroid

    Full Text Available The largest outbreak of Ebola virus disease ever started in West Africa in December 2013; it created a pressing need to expand the workforce dealing with it. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the experiences of volunteers from the European Union who worked in deployable laboratories in West Africa during the outbreak. This study is part of the EMERGE project. We assessed the experiences of 251 volunteers with a 19-item online questionnaire. The questions asked about positive aspects of volunteering such as learning new skills, establishing a new path in life, and changing life values. Other questionnaire subjects were the compliance to follow-up measures, the extent to which volunteers felt these measures restricted their daily activities, the fear of stigmatization, and worries about becoming infected or infecting their families. The volunteers reported positive effects that reached far beyond their daily work, such as changes in life priorities and a greater appreciation of the value of their own lives. Although the volunteers did not feel that temperature monitoring restricted their daily activities, full compliance to temperature monitoring and reporting it to the authorities was low. The volunteers did not fear Ebola infection for themselves or their families and were not afraid of stigmatization. With respect to the burden on the families, 50% reported that their family members were worried that the volunteer would be infected with Ebola virus. Altogether, the positive experiences of the volunteers in this study far outweigh the negative implications and constitute an important argument for inspiring people who intend to join such missions and for motivating the hesitant ones.

  13. Online pre-race education improves test scores for volunteers at a marathon.

    Maxwell, Shane; Renier, Colleen; Sikka, Robby; Widstrom, Luke; Paulson, William; Christensen, Trent; Olson, David; Nelson, Benjamin

    2017-09-01

    This study examined whether an online course would lead to increased knowledge about the medical issues volunteers encounter during a marathon. Health care professionals who volunteered to provide medical coverage for an annual marathon were eligible for the study. Demographic information about medical volunteers including profession, specialty, education level and number of marathons they had volunteered for was collected. A 15-question test about the most commonly encountered medical issues was created by the authors and administered before and after the volunteers took the online educational course and compared to a pilot study the previous year. Seventy-four subjects completed the pre-test. Those who participated in the pilot study last year (N = 15) had pre-test scores that were an average of 2.4 points higher than those who did not (mean ranks: pilot study = 51.6 vs. non-pilot = 33.9, p = 0.004). Of the 74 subjects who completed the pre-test, 54 also completed the post-test. The overall post-pre mean score difference was 3.8 ± 2.7 (t = 10.5 df = 53 p online education demonstrated a long-term (one-year) increase in test scores. Testing also continued to show short-term improvement in post-course test scores, compared to pre-course test scores. In general, marathon medical volunteers who had no volunteer experience demonstrated greater improvement than those who had prior volunteer experience.

  14. Healthy volunteers can be phenotyped using cutaneous sensitization pain models.

    Mads U Werner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human experimental pain models leading to development of secondary hyperalgesia are used to estimate efficacy of analgesics and antihyperalgesics. The ability to develop an area of secondary hyperalgesia varies substantially between subjects, but little is known about the agreement following repeated measurements. The aim of this study was to determine if the areas of secondary hyperalgesia were consistently robust to be useful for phenotyping subjects, based on their pattern of sensitization by the heat pain models. METHODS: We performed post-hoc analyses of 10 completed healthy volunteer studies (n = 342 [409 repeated measurements]. Three different models were used to induce secondary hyperalgesia to monofilament stimulation: the heat/capsaicin sensitization (H/C, the brief thermal sensitization (BTS, and the burn injury (BI models. Three studies included both the H/C and BTS models. RESULTS: Within-subject compared to between-subject variability was low, and there was substantial strength of agreement between repeated induction-sessions in most studies. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC improved little with repeated testing beyond two sessions. There was good agreement in categorizing subjects into 'small area' (1(st quartile [75%] responders: 56-76% of subjects consistently fell into same 'small-area' or 'large-area' category on two consecutive study days. There was moderate to substantial agreement between the areas of secondary hyperalgesia induced on the same day using the H/C (forearm and BTS (thigh models. CONCLUSION: Secondary hyperalgesia induced by experimental heat pain models seem a consistent measure of sensitization in pharmacodynamic and physiological research. The analysis indicates that healthy volunteers can be phenotyped based on their pattern of sensitization by the heat [and heat plus capsaicin] pain models.

  15. Male baldness.

    Clarke, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Male baldness is very common. Its effect on individuals is extremely variable, and in some people it will have a significant adverse effect on their quality of life. The objectives of this article are to help general practitioners (GPs) be aware of potential health problems related to male baldness, to have an approach to assessing hair loss and to be aware of treatment options. Male baldness is, most often, a normal occurrence, but it may have significant effects on a man's health. It may also be a pointer to other potential health issues. The GP is in the ideal position to conduct an initial evaluation, consider other health issues and advise on treatment options.

  16. Sexual Selection on male cuticular hydrocarbons via male-male competition and female choice.

    Lane, S M; Dickinson, A W; Tregenza, T; House, C M

    2016-07-01

    Traditional views of sexual selection assumed that male-male competition and female mate choice work in harmony, selecting upon the same traits in the same direction. However, we now know that this is not always the case and that these two mechanisms often impose conflicting selection on male sexual traits. Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) have been shown to be linked to both social dominance and male attractiveness in several insect species. However, although several studies have estimated the strength and form of sexual selection imposed on male CHCs by female mate choice, none have established whether these chemical traits are also subject to sexual selection via male-male competition. Using a multivariate selection analysis, we estimate and compare sexual selection exerted by male-male competition and female mate choice on male CHC composition in the broad-horned flour beetle Gnatocerus cornutus. We show that male-male competition exerts strong linear selection on both overall CHC abundance and body size in males, while female mate choice exerts a mixture of linear and nonlinear selection, targeting not just the overall amount of CHCs expressed but the relative abundance of specific hydrocarbons as well. We discuss the potential implications of this antagonistic selection with regard to male reproductive success. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  17. Brain activation by visual erotic stimuli in healthy middle aged males.

    Kim, S W; Sohn, D W; Cho, Y-H; Yang, W S; Lee, K-U; Juh, R; Ahn, K-J; Chung, Y-A; Han, S-I; Lee, K H; Lee, C U; Chae, J-H

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify brain centers, whose activity changes are related to erotic visual stimuli in healthy, heterosexual, middle aged males. Ten heterosexual, right-handed males with normal sexual function were entered into the present study (mean age 52 years, range 46-55). All potential subjects were screened over 1 h interview, and were encouraged to fill out questionnaires including the Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory. All subjects with a history of sexual arousal disorder or erectile dysfunction were excluded. We performed functional brain magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in male volunteers when an alternatively combined erotic and nonerotic film was played for 14 min and 9 s. The major areas of activation associated with sexual arousal to visual stimuli were occipitotemporal area, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, orbitofrontal cortex, caudate nucleus. However, hypothalamus and thalamus were not activated. We suggest that the nonactivation of hypothalamus and thalamus in middle aged males may be responsible for the lesser physiological arousal in response to the erotic visual stimuli.

  18. The acute (immediate) effects of reflexology on arterial compliance in healthy volunteers: A randomised study.

    Rollinson, K; Jones, J; Scott, N; Megson, IL; Leslie, SJ

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reflexology is a widely used complementary therapy. The effects of reflexology on the cardiovascular system are not well characterised. Arterial stiffness (compliance) is a marker of vascular health. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of reflexology on arterial compliance in healthy volunteers. METHODS: 12 healthy volunteers (1 male; 11 female; mean age 44.8 ± 10.8 yrs) received 10 min of reflexology on each foot in a single-blind randomised study. The main outcome measures ...

  19. A New Combination of Testosterone and Nestorone Transdermal Gels for Male Hormonal Contraception

    Ilani, Niloufar; Roth, Mara Y.; Amory, John K.; Swerdloff, Ronald S.; Dart, Clint; Page, Stephanie T.; Bremner, William J.; Sitruk-Ware, Regine; Kumar, Narender; Blithe, Diana L.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Combinations of testosterone (T) and nestorone (NES; a nonandrogenic progestin) transdermal gels may suppress spermatogenesis and prove appealing to men for contraception. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the effectiveness of T gel alone or combined with NES gel in suppressing spermatogenesis. Design and Setting: This was a randomized, double-blind, comparator clinical trial conducted at two academic medical centers. Participants: Ninety-nine healthy male volunteers participated in the study. Interventions: Volunteers were randomized to one of three treatment groups applying daily transdermal gels (group 1: T gel 10 g + NES 0 mg/placebo gel; group 2: T gel 10 g + NES gel 8 mg; group 3: T gel 10 g + NES gel 12 mg). Main Outcome Variable: The main outcome variable of the study was the percentage of men whose sperm concentration was suppressed to 1 million/ml or less by 20–24 wk of treatment. Results: Efficacy data analyses were performed on 56 subjects who adhered to the protocol and completed at least 20 wk of treatment. The percentage of men whose sperm concentration was 1 million/ml or less was significantly higher for T + NES 8 mg (89%, P male range throughout the treatment period. Adverse effects were minimal in all groups. Conclusion: A combination of daily NES + T gels suppressed sperm concentration to 1 million/ml or less in 88.5% of men, with minimal adverse effects, and may be further studied as a male transdermal hormonal contraceptive. PMID:22791756

  20. Current status and future prospect of radiation exposure to research volunteers in institutes with nuclear medicine. The report of questionnaires regarding radiation exposures to volunteers in clinical researches and clinical trials

    2010-01-01

    There has been no guide of authorized radiological protection system in Japan when volunteers receive radionuclide administration in clinical research or phase I - IV studies. The purpose of this report was to depict issues on institutional radiological protection system for establishing the guide. We accumulated full-filled questionnaires regarding institutional radiological protection system of human subjects in 82 hospitals in which clinical researches or phase I - IV studies underwent to be subjected to radionuclide administrated volunteers in recent two years. We analyzed regarding (1) research content, (2) what committee approval of research using radionuclide administrated volunteer, (3) selection of the volunteers, (4) regulatory dose of administrated radionuclide, and (5) informed consent. Normal volunteers are subjected in clinical researches as well as phase-I study and microdose study. The researches subjected to normal volunteers needed with approval of institutional ethic committee in 64 (78%) hospitals, others than ethic committee in 9 (10%), and unknown in 2 (2%). In remaining 7 (8%), both ethic and other committees were described. No one with radiological knowledge included the committees in 23 hospitals (28%), of 15 had no consultation system regarding radiological protection. In all hospitals, regulatory dose in human subjects is less than 50 mSv and sufficient informed consent regarding the protection was obtained. In Japan, researches subjected to radionuclide administrated volunteers are performed by authorization of institutional ethic committees. Administrated radionuclide dose in them are less than upper limits of regulatory system of ICRP, USA and England because the committees include physicians, technologists and pharmaceutics with knowledge of radiological protection. But some hospitals have no committees authorize the research because they have no idea of authorized committees or cannot establish the committees. We recommend that

  1. Daytime Ayahuasca administration modulates REM and slow-wave sleep in healthy volunteers.

    Barbanoj, Manel J; Riba, Jordi; Clos, S; Giménez, S; Grasa, E; Romero, S

    2008-02-01

    Ayahuasca is a traditional South American psychoactive beverage and the central sacrament of Brazilian-based religious groups, with followers in Europe and the United States. The tea contains the psychedelic indole N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and beta-carboline alkaloids with monoamine oxidase-inhibiting properties that render DMT orally active. DMT interacts with serotonergic neurotransmission acting as a partial agonist at 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor sites. Given the role played by serotonin in the regulation of the sleep/wake cycle, we investigated the effects of daytime ayahuasca consumption in sleep parameters. Subjective sleep quality, polysomnography (PSG), and spectral analysis were assessed in a group of 22 healthy male volunteers after the administration of a placebo, an ayahuasca dose equivalent to 1 mg DMT kg(-1) body weight, and 20 mg d-amphetamine, a proaminergic drug, as a positive control. Results show that ayahuasca did not induce any subjectively perceived deterioration of sleep quality or PSG-measured disruptions of sleep initiation or maintenance, in contrast with d-amphetamine, which delayed sleep initiation, disrupted sleep maintenance, induced a predominance of 'light' vs 'deep' sleep and significantly impaired subjective sleep quality. PSG analysis also showed that similarly to d-amphetamine, ayahuasca inhibits rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, decreasing its duration, both in absolute values and as a percentage of total sleep time, and shows a trend increase in its onset latency. Spectral analysis showed that d-amphetamine and ayahuasca increased power in the high frequency range, mainly during stage 2. Remarkably, whereas slow-wave sleep (SWS) power in the first night cycle, an indicator of sleep pressure, was decreased by d-amphetamine, ayahuasca enhanced power in this frequency band. Results show that daytime serotonergic psychedelic drug administration leads to measurable changes in PSG and sleep power spectrum and suggest an

  2. Safety and feasibility of long-term intravenous sodium nitrite infusion in healthy volunteers.

    Ryszard M Pluta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infusion of sodium nitrite could provide sustained therapeutic concentrations of nitric oxide (NO for the treatment of a variety of vascular disorders. The study was developed to determine the safety and feasibility of prolonged sodium nitrite infusion. METHODOLOGY: Healthy volunteers, aged 21 to 60 years old, were candidates for the study performed at the National Institutes of Health (NIH; protocol 05-N-0075 between July 2007 and August 2008. All subjects provided written consent to participate. Twelve subjects (5 males, 7 females; mean age, 38.8±9.2 years (range, 21-56 years were intravenously infused with increasing doses of sodium nitrite for 48 hours (starting dose at 4.2 µg/kg/hr; maximal dose of 533.8 µg/kg/hr. Clinical, physiologic and laboratory data before, during and after infusion were analyzed. FINDINGS: The maximal tolerated dose for intravenous infusion of sodium nitrite was 267 µg/kg/hr. Dose limiting toxicity occurred at 446 µg/kg/hr. Toxicity included a transient asymptomatic decrease of mean arterial blood pressure (more than 15 mmHg and/or an asymptomatic increase of methemoglobin level above 5%. Nitrite, nitrate, S-nitrosothiols concentrations in plasma and whole blood increased in all subjects and returned to preinfusion baseline values within 12 hours after cessation of the infusion. The mean half-life of nitrite estimated at maximal tolerated dose was 45.3 minutes for plasma and 51.4 minutes for whole blood. CONCLUSION: Sodium nitrite can be safely infused intravenously at defined concentrations for prolonged intervals. These results should be valuable for developing studies to investigate new NO treatment paradigms for a variety of clinical disorders, including cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage, and ischemia of the heart, liver, kidney and brain, as well as organ transplants, blood-brain barrier modulation and pulmonary hypertension. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION INFORMATION: http

  3. 45 CFR 1220.2-2 - Part-time volunteers.

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Part-time volunteers. 1220.2-2 Section 1220.2-2... SERVICE PAYMENT OF VOLUNTEER LEGAL EXPENSES Criminal Proceedings § 1220.2-2 Part-time volunteers. (a) With respect to a part-time volunteer, ACTION will reimburse a sponsor for the reasonable expenses it incurs...

  4. Characteristics of the Essence of Volunteering in Psychology

    Shagurova, Angelina Alexandrovna; Ivanovna, Efremova Galina; Aleksandrovna, Bochkovskaya Irina; Denisenko, Sergey Ivanovich; Valerievich, Tarasov Mihail; Viktorovna, Nekrasova Marina; Potutkova, Svetlana Anatolievna

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the basic ideas of volunteering; it analyzes the data of psychological studies on social activity and it highlights the importance of studying the motivational part of volunteering. The conclusion on structure and content of volunteering is made. Key focus is on the fact that volunteering is of particular importance in the…

  5. Youth Volunteering in the States: 2002 to 2006. Fact Sheet

    Helms, Sara E.; Marcelo, Karlo Barrios

    2007-01-01

    Volunteer rates vary tremendously across states and age groups. In recent years, young people have exhibited rising volunteering rates, particularly high school students and college freshmen, but 2006 witnessed a drop in the volunteering rate among. When comparing the volunteer rates for different age groups from 2002 to 2006, 16-18 year olds…

  6. An Analysis of volunteer motivation in HIV/AIDS community ...

    Many have had difficulty attracting and retaining volunteers because of failure to understand volunteer motivation. The study explores volunteerism and emphasizes that volunteers derive personal satisfactions from voluntary activities other than monetary compensation. Volunteers “expect a return on their investment”.

  7. The Effect of Motivational Practices on Volunteer Motivation to ...

    The study assesses whether organizations' motivational practices affect volunteer motivation and levels of performance. This study was guided by the following two research questions: first, what motivation practices exist in Volunteer Involving Organizations and whether such affect volunteers' motivation to volunteer again?

  8. 45 CFR 1226.11 - Part time volunteers.

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Part time volunteers. 1226.11 Section 1226.11... SERVICE PROHIBITIONS ON ELECTORAL AND LOBBYING ACTIVITIES Volunteer Activities § 1226.11 Part time volunteers. (a) The provisions in this section are applicable to part time volunteers, as defined in § 1226.3...

  9. The quantitative measurements of foveal avascular zone using optical coherence tomography angiography in normal volunteers.

    Ghassemi, Fariba; Mirshahi, Reza; Bazvand, Fatemeh; Fadakar, Kaveh; Faghihi, Houshang; Sabour, Siamak

    2017-12-01

    To provide normative data of foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and thickness. In this cross-sectional study both eyes of each normal subject were scanned with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) for foveal superficial and deep avascular zone (FAZ) and central foveal thickness (CFT) and parafoveal thickness (PFT). Out of a total of 224 eyes of 112 volunteers with a mean age of 37.03 (12-67) years, the mean superficial FAZ area was 0.27 mm 2 , and deep FAZ area was 0.35 mm 2 ( P  < 0.001), with no difference between both eyes. Females had a larger superficial (0.32 ± 0.11 mm 2 versus 0.23 ± 0.09 mm 2 ) and deep FAZ (0.40 ± 0.14 mm 2 versus 0.31 ± 0.10 mm 2 ) ( P  < 0.001) than males. By multivariate linear regression analysis, in normal eyes, superficial FAZ area varied significantly with the gender, CFT, and deep FAZ. Deep FAZ varied with the gender and CFT. The gender and CFT influence the size of normal superficial and deep FAZ of capillary network.

  10. Effect of isoproterenol, phenylephrine, and sodium nitroprusside on fundus pulsations in healthy volunteers.

    Schmetterer, L; Wolzt, M; Salomon, A; Rheinberger, A; Unfried, C; Zanaschka, G; Fercher, A F

    1996-03-01

    Recently a laser interferometric method for topical measurement of fundus pulsations has been developed. Fundus pulsations in the macular region are caused by the inflow and outflow of blood into the choroid. The purpose of this work was to study the influence of a peripheral vasoconstricting (the alpha 1 adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine), a predominantly positive inotropic (the non-specific beta adrenoceptor agonist isoproterenol), and a non-specific vasodilating (sodium nitroprusside) model drug on ocular fundus pulsations to determine reproducibility and sensitivity of the method. In a double masked randomised crossover study the drugs were administered in stepwise increasing doses to 10 male and nine female healthy volunteers. Systemic haemodynamic variables and fundus pulsations were measured at all infusion steps. Fundus pulsation increased during infusion of isoproterenol with statistical significance versus baseline at the lowest dose of 0.1 microgram/min. Neither peripheral vasoconstriction nor peripheral vasodilatation affected the ocular fundus pulsations. Measurements of fundus pulsations is a highly reproducible method in healthy subjects with low ametropy. Changes of local pulsatile ocular blood flow were detectable with our method following the infusion of isoproterenol. As systemic pharmacological vasodilatation or vasoconstriction did not change fundus pulsations, further experimental work has to be done to evaluate the sensitivity of the laser interferometric fundus pulsation measurement in various eye diseases.

  11. using subjective judgement to determine the validity of a tutorial

    2008-11-21

    Nov 21, 2008 ... methodological aspects of subjective judgement will follow in the place of conventional .... Volunteers to undertake tasks. 3. Identifies learning ... Integrates legislation, ethics, social and physical sciences. 5. Evaluates and ...

  12. The White Lion Volunteer Program in South Africa: A Study of Volunteer Needs

    Boretti Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Volunteer tourists are motivated to participate in volunteer programs due to their need to ‘do something different’, ‘see another culture’ and ‘to escape’, amongst others. The research aims to determine the internal and external factors that motivate individuals to participate in the Tsau! Global White Lion Protection Trust’s (GWLPT volunteer program. Maslow’s theory of human motivation and Frankl’s study of human behaviour are used to explore intrinsic factors whereas extrinsic or macro environmental factors of influence are also investigated. A mixed method approach with focus group discussions and an online survey is followed. A background to the volunteer program is presented with the activities available to volunteers. The key findings indicate that most volunteers are young females that volunteer for a minimum of two weeks; are internally motivated to ‘give back and be useful’ and ‘to work with the white lions’ for the purpose of self-actualisation. External motivation is mainly social in terms of concern about the well-being of the lions, and South Africa being an economically affordable destination. The GWLPT strives to fulfil the needs of volunteers, especially intrinsic needs associated with self-actualisation and self-transcendence.

  13. Measuring the Impacts of a Volunteer-Based Community Development Program in Developing Volunteers' Leadership Skills

    Meier, Amy; Singletary, Loretta; Hill, George

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of an evaluation of the impacts of a community development program to develop leadership skills in its adult volunteers. The evaluation featured 20 questions about leadership skills learned as a result of volunteer experiences. Data analysis strategies beyond a simple means ranking resulted in evidence…

  14. What are the motivational needs behind volunteer work?

    Danoff, A; Kopel, S

    1994-01-01

    Identification of an individual's motivational need and desired volunteer work enables volunteer administrators to capitalize on the motivation a person brings to the organization as well as to make effective use of the role by being cognizant of the levels of participation behind the differing volunteer assignments. The Motivation by Maslow Questionnaire was used to identify motivational needs of 35 helpline (crisis) volunteers, and three categories of volunteer work were used to classify their levels of participation. Implications for improving volunteer commitment to the formal voluntary organization and recruitment and retention strategies relative to volunteer motivational needs are discussed.

  15. Endostatin concentration in plasma of healthy human volunteers

    Shah, I.; Malik, M.O.; Khan, M.J.; Fatima, S.; Habib, S.H.

    2017-01-01

    Angiogenesis is involved in many cardiovascular and cancerous diseases, including atherosclerosis and is controlled by a fine balance between angiogenic and angiostatic mediators. Endostatin is one of the main angiostatic mediators, and inhibits angiogenesis and prevents progression of atherosclerosis. The available literature shows a broad range of concentrations in relatively small samples of healthy controls and is calculated by using different techniques. This study was aimed to determine the basal endostatin concentration in plasma of healthy volunteers, to fully understand its physiological role. Methods: Fifty healthy adult volunteers were recruited to the study. Participants were advised not to participate in any physical activity on the day before the blood sampling. The volunteers' physical activity, height, weight, heart rate and blood pressure were recorded. The samples were analysed for plasma endostatin concentration, using ELISA. The participants were divided by gender and ethnic groups to calculate any difference. Results: Endostatin and other variables were normally distributed. Most of the participants had a moderate level of physical activity with no gender related difference (p=0.370). The mean value for plasma endostatin in all samples was 105+-12 ng/ml with range of 81-132 ng/ml. For males, it was 107+-13 ng/ml, while for females; 102+-12 ng/ml. There were no significant gender or ethnicity related differences in endostatin concentration. Moreover, endostatin was not significantly related with any anthropometric and physical variable. Conclusion: This study gives endostatin levels in normal healthy people and show no gender and ethnicity related differences in endostatin levels. Endostatin was not related with any anthropometric and physical variable. (author)

  16. Horse meat consumption affects iron status, lipid profile and fatty acid composition of red blood cells in healthy volunteers.

    Del Bó, Cristian; Simonetti, Paolo; Gardana, Claudio; Riso, Patrizia; Lucchini, Giorgio; Ciappellano, Salvatore

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of moderate consumption of horse meat on iron status, lipid profile and fatty acid composition of red blood cells in healthy male volunteers. Fifty-two subjects were randomly assigned to two groups of 26 subjects each: a test group consuming two portions of 175 g/week of horse meat, and a control group that abstained from eating horse meat during the 90 days trial. Before and after 90 days, blood samples were collected for analysis. Horse meat consumption significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced serum levels of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ( - 6.2% and - 9.1%, respectively) and transferrin ( - 4.6%). Total n - 3, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids n - 3 and docosahexeanoic acid content in erythrocytes increased (p ≤ 0.05) by about 7.8%, 8% and 11%, respectively. In conclusion, the regular consumption of horse meat may contribute to the dietary intake of n - 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and may improve lipid profile and iron status in healthy subjects.

  17. Motives for Volunteering: Categorization of Volunteers' Motivations Using Open-ended Questions

    Fernando Chacón

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Most studies of volunteers’ motivations use standardized questionnaires with one of the most commonly-used being the Volunteer Function Inventory. Open-ended questions about what drives individuals to be volunteers are seldom used. We hypothesize that questionnaires tend to overestimate the number of motivations and to underestimate their variety. Therefore, in this paper we analyze the answers of 1515 volunteers to an open-ended question and categorize these answers. Results show that volunteers give an average of 2 motivations, fewer than the questionnaires, and that the Value motivation is the most frequently mentioned and the most important for volunteers. In addition, this motivation coexists with other motivations, which are lacking in the standard questionnaires, such as Organizational Commitment, Personal Development, Religiosity, Social Change or Interest in the Activity.

  18. Results from the national hospice volunteer training survey.

    Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Schneider, Greg; Oliver, Debra Parker

    2010-03-01

    Although the role of volunteers is at the heart of hospice care, little is known about hospice volunteer training and volunteer activity. A survey was used to assess current training programs for hospice volunteers. Hospices were invited to participate in the study from a link on the website for the Hospice Volunteer Association and Hospice Educators Affirming Life Project. Survey results revealed that the majority of volunteer work is in patient care, with most hospice agencies requiring a minimum 12-month volunteer commitment and an average 4-hour volunteer shift per week. Volunteer training is separate from staff training, is provided by paid agency staff, and costs approximately $14,303 per year. Communication and family support are considered important curriculum topics. Revisions to current volunteer training curriculum and format are suggested.

  19. Volunteer Computing Experience with ATLAS@Home

    Cameron, David; The ATLAS collaboration; Bourdarios, Claire; Lan\\c con, Eric

    2016-01-01

    ATLAS@Home is a volunteer computing project which allows the public to contribute to computing for the ATLAS experiment through their home or office computers. The project has grown continuously since its creation in mid-2014 and now counts almost 100,000 volunteers. The combined volunteers' resources make up a sizable fraction of overall resources for ATLAS simulation. This paper takes stock of the experience gained so far and describes the next steps in the evolution of the project. These improvements include running natively on Linux to ease the deployment on for example university clusters, using multiple cores inside one job to reduce the memory requirements and running different types of workload such as event generation. In addition to technical details the success of ATLAS@Home as an outreach tool is evaluated.

  20. Bioequivalence of a single 400-mg dose of imatinib 100-mg oral tablets and a 400-mg tablet in healthy adult Korean volunteers.

    Lee, Hae Won; Seong, Sook Jin; Park, Sung Min; Lee, Joomi; Gwon, Mi-Ri; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Lim, Sung Mook; Lim, Mi-Sun; Kim, Woomi; Yang, Dong Heon; Yoon, Young-Ran

    2015-06-01

    Imatinib mesylate (IM) is a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. A new once-daily 400-mg film-coated tablet of imatinib has been developed by a pharmaceutical company in Korea. The present study was designed to assess and compare the PK parameters, bioavailability, and bioequivalence of the new imatinib 400-mg formulation (test) versus the conventional 100-mg formulation (reference) administered as a single 400-mg dose in healthy adult male volunteers. This randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-way crossover study was conducted in healthy Korean male volunteers. Eligible subjects were randomly assigned in a 1 : 1 ratio to receive 400 mg of the test (one 400-mg tablet) or reference (four 100-mg tablets) formulation, followed by a 2-week washout period and administration of the alternate formulation. Serial blood samples were collected at 0 (predose), 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after administration. Plasma imatinib concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The formulations were to be considered bioequivalent if the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the adjusted geometric mean ratios for Cmax, AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-∞)ž were within the predetermined range of 0.80 - 1.25. In total, 35 subjects completed the study. No serious adverse event was reported during the study. The 90% CIs of the adjusted geometric mean ratios of the test formulation to the reference formulation for C(max), AUC(0-t) and AUC(0-∞)ž of imatinib were all within the bioequivalence criteria range of 0.8 - 1.25. The test formulation of imatinib met the Korean regulatory requirements for bioequivalence. Both imatinib formulations were well-tolerated in all subjects.

  1. The Views of `Volunteer' of Japanese University Students

    Arakawa, Yumiko; Yoshida, Hiroko; Hozumi, Yoshimi

    2007-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was given to Japanese undergraduate students to determine their personal experiences of `volunteer activities'. And their views and images of `volunteer' in Japan. The results showed that almost 80% experienced `volunteer activities' in schools before entering university. The details of their experiences did not relate to their views and images of `volunteer' and the `volunteer activities' at schools did not seem to play an important role in developing the concept of `v...

  2. Motivations for Youth Volunteer Participation: Types and Structure--An Analysis of Interviews with Twenty-Four Young Volunteers

    Luping, Wu

    2011-01-01

    Scholars who study volunteer activities are attaching ever greater importance to the motivations of volunteers who participate in volunteer activities. However, deficiencies are, on the whole, to be found in the empirical studies by scholars in China on the participating volunteers' motivations. To make up for the deficiencies in the research on…

  3. Volunteered Cloud Computing for Disaster Management

    Evans, J. D.; Hao, W.; Chettri, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Disaster management relies increasingly on interpreting earth observations and running numerical models; which require significant computing capacity - usually on short notice and at irregular intervals. Peak computing demand during event detection, hazard assessment, or incident response may exceed agency budgets; however some of it can be met through volunteered computing, which distributes subtasks to participating computers via the Internet. This approach has enabled large projects in mathematics, basic science, and climate research to harness the slack computing capacity of thousands of desktop computers. This capacity is likely to diminish as desktops give way to battery-powered mobile devices (laptops, smartphones, tablets) in the consumer market; but as cloud computing becomes commonplace, it may offer significant slack capacity -- if its users are given an easy, trustworthy mechanism for participating. Such a "volunteered cloud computing" mechanism would also offer several advantages over traditional volunteered computing: tasks distributed within a cloud have fewer bandwidth limitations; granular billing mechanisms allow small slices of "interstitial" computing at no marginal cost; and virtual storage volumes allow in-depth, reversible machine reconfiguration. Volunteered cloud computing is especially suitable for "embarrassingly parallel" tasks, including ones requiring large data volumes: examples in disaster management include near-real-time image interpretation, pattern / trend detection, or large model ensembles. In the context of a major disaster, we estimate that cloud users (if suitably informed) might volunteer hundreds to thousands of CPU cores across a large provider such as Amazon Web Services. To explore this potential, we are building a volunteered cloud computing platform and targeting it to a disaster management context. Using a lightweight, fault-tolerant network protocol, this platform helps cloud users join parallel computing projects

  4. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CORPORATE VOLUNTEERING AND CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: RESULTS OF AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

    Oscar Licandro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Volunteering (CV is a phenomenon that emerged in the second half of the 20th century and began to grow and globalize at the beginning of the 21st century. There seems to be a consensus that the recent growth of Corporate Volunteering is related to the development and growing legitimacy of the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. Nevertheless, the theoretical discussion on how the two concepts (Corporate Volunteering and Corporate Social Responsibility are related is just beginning, while empirical research on how this relationship operates in corporate practice is still incipient. This paper presents preliminary results of a research on this subject carried out in Uruguay in 2016. This is a statistical study that analyses the relationship between the application of corporate volunteering activities and the incorporation of a CSR approach to the management of companies. The incorporation of both types of practices is measured by a self-assessment questionnaire that includes 81 indicators (using a Likert scale to assess them, which were designed based on ISO 26000 Guidance of Social Responsibility. The questionnaire was administered to 96 companies, using a comparative analysis between those that practice Corporate Volunteering and those which do not. The results obtained allow us to support the hypothesis that the application of Corporate Volunteering is positively associated with the incorporation of CSR when managing the relationship between the company and its employees and also with the community. Moreover, these results contribute to a better understanding on how both concepts are related.

  5. Non-invasive assessment of phosphate metabolism and oxidative capacity in working skeletal muscle in healthy young Chinese volunteers using 31P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Ming Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Generally, males display greater strength and muscle capacity than females while performing a task. Muscle biopsy is regarded as the reference method of evaluating muscle functions; however, it is invasive and has sampling errors, and is not practical for longitudinal studies and dynamic measurement during excise. In this study, we built an in-house force control and gauge system for quantitatively applying force to quadriceps while the subjects underwent 31P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (31P-MRS; our aim was to investigate if there is a sex difference of phosphate metabolite change in working muscles in young heathy Chinese volunteers. Methods. Volunteers performed knee-extending excises using a force control and gauge system while lying prone in a Philips 3T Magnetic Resonance (MR scanner. The 31P-MRS coil was firmly placed under the middle of the quadriceps . 31P-MRS measurements of inorganic phosphate (Pi, phosphocreatine (PCr and adenosine triphosphate (ATP were acquired from quadriceps while subjects were in a state of pre-, during- and post-exercise. The PCr, Pi, PCr/Pi, PCr/ATP, pH, work/energy cost ratio (WE, kPCr and oxidative capacity were compared between males and females. Results. A total of 17 volunteers underwent the study. Males: N = 10, age = 23.30 ± 1.25years; females: N = 7, age = 23.57 ± 0.79 years. In this study, males had significantly greater WE (16.33 ± 6.46 vs. 7.82 ± 2.16, p = 0.002 than females. Among PCr, Pi, PCr/Pi, PCr/ATP, pH, kPCr and oxidative capacity at different exercise status, only PCr/Pi (during-exercise, males = 5.630 ± 1.647, females = 4.014 ± 1.298, p = 0.047, PCr/ATP (during-exercise, males =1.273 ± 0.219, females = 1.523 ± 0.167, p = 0.025, and ATP (post-exercise, males = 24.469 ± 3.911 mmol/kg, females = 18.353 ± 4.818 mmol/kg, p = 0.035 had significant sex differences. Males had significantly greater PCr/Pi, but less PCr/ATP than females during exercise, suggesting males had

  6. Pulsar discovery by global volunteer computing.

    Knispel, B; Allen, B; Cordes, J M; Deneva, J S; Anderson, D; Aulbert, C; Bhat, N D R; Bock, O; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Champion, D J; Chatterjee, S; Crawford, F; Demorest, P B; Fehrmann, H; Freire, P C C; Gonzalez, M E; Hammer, D; Hessels, J W T; Jenet, F A; Kasian, L; Kaspi, V M; Kramer, M; Lazarus, P; van Leeuwen, J; Lorimer, D R; Lyne, A G; Machenschalk, B; McLaughlin, M A; Messenger, C; Nice, D J; Papa, M A; Pletsch, H J; Prix, R; Ransom, S M; Siemens, X; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; Stovall, K; Venkataraman, A

    2010-09-10

    Einstein@Home aggregates the computer power of hundreds of thousands of volunteers from 192 countries to mine large data sets. It has now found a 40.8-hertz isolated pulsar in radio survey data from the Arecibo Observatory taken in February 2007. Additional timing observations indicate that this pulsar is likely a disrupted recycled pulsar. PSR J2007+2722's pulse profile is remarkably wide with emission over almost the entire spin period; the pulsar likely has closely aligned magnetic and spin axes. The massive computing power provided by volunteers should enable many more such discoveries.

  7. Changes in stature during and after spinal traction in young male subjects Alterações na estatura antes e após a tração vertebral em homens jovens

    ALF Rodacki

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spinal traction is a relatively popular procedure for increasing the intervertebral space by applying separating forces. The parameters of time and magnitude of the traction forces may influence the outcomes from this procedure and need to be investigated. The duration of the benefits derived from traction is unknown and needs to be determined so that physiotherapists can provide better and more effective treatments. OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed the relationship between load magnitude and time during spinal traction in relation to stature variations. Traction effect duration was also analyzed. METHOD: Fifteen healthy male subjects (23.1 ± 5.77 years; 1.80 ± 0.17 m and 87.0 ± 9.6 kg were assessed under three traction conditions (0, 30 and 60% of body weight, BW of 42 minutes. Stature variation was used to determine intervertebral disc height variation. Stature was assessed every 7 minutes during traction of 42 minutes and every 5 minutes for 45 minutes after traction ceased. RESULTS: 0 and 30% BW traction produced similar gains (6.09 ± 1.89 mm, 5.70 ± 1.88 mm, respectively; p>0.05, while these were smaller (pCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A tração sobre a coluna vertebral é um procedimento relativamente popular para aumentar o espaço inter-vertebral pela aplicação de forças de separação. Os parâmetros de tempo e magnitude da força aplicada podem influenciar os resultados desse procedimento e ainda precisam ser investigados. A duração dos benefícios derivados da tração não é conhecida e precisa ser determinada para que fisioterapeutas possam prover tratamentos melhores e mais eficientes. OBJETIVO: Este estudo analisou a relação entre a magnitude de carga e de tempo durante a tração vertebral sobre as variações de estatura, bem como a duração deste efeito. MÉTODOS: Quinze sujeitos saudáveis do sexo masculino (23,1 ± 5,77 anos; 1,80 ± 0,17 m e 87,0 ± 9,6 Kg foram mensurados sob três condições (0, 30 e 60% PC

  8. Magnetic resonance elastography: Feasibility of liver stiffness measurements in healthy volunteers at 3 T

    Mannelli, L.; Godfrey, E.; Graves, M.J.; Patterson, A.J.; Beddy, P.; Bowden, D.; Joubert, I.; Priest, A.N.; Lomas, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining liver stiffness measurements with magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) at 3 T in normal healthy volunteers using the same technique that has been successfully applied at 1.5 T. Methods and materials: The study was approved by the local ethics committee and written informed consent was obtained from all volunteers. Eleven volunteers (mean age 35 ± 9 years) with no history of gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, or cardiovascular disease were recruited. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol included a gradient echo-based MRE sequence using a 60 Hz pneumatic excitation. The MRE images were processed using a local frequency estimation inversion algorithm to provide quantitative stiffness maps. Adequate image quality was assessed subjectively by demonstrating the presence of visible propagating waves within the liver parenchyma underlying the driver location. Liver stiffness values were obtained using manually placed regions of interest (ROI) outlining the liver margins on the gradient echo wave images, which were then mapped onto the corresponding stiffness image. The mean stiffness values from two adjacent sections were recorded. Results: Eleven volunteers underwent MRE. The quality of the MRE images was adequate in all the volunteers. The mean liver stiffness for the group was 2.3 ± 0.38 kPa (ranging from 1.7–2.8 kPa). Conclusions: This preliminary work using MRE at 3 T in healthy volunteers demonstrates the feasibility of liver stiffness evaluation at 3 T without modification of the approach used at 1.5 T. Adequate image quality and normal MRE values were obtained in all volunteers. The obtained stiffness values were in the range of those reported for healthy volunteers in previous studies at 1.5 T. There was good interobserver reproducibility in the stiffness measurements.

  9. Magnetic resonance elastography: Feasibility of liver stiffness measurements in healthy volunteers at 3 T

    Mannelli, L., E-mail: mannellilorenzo@yahoo.it [Department of Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Godfrey, E.; Graves, M.J.; Patterson, A.J.; Beddy, P.; Bowden, D.; Joubert, I.; Priest, A.N.; Lomas, D.J. [Department of Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-15

    Aim: To demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining liver stiffness measurements with magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) at 3 T in normal healthy volunteers using the same technique that has been successfully applied at 1.5 T. Methods and materials: The study was approved by the local ethics committee and written informed consent was obtained from all volunteers. Eleven volunteers (mean age 35 {+-} 9 years) with no history of gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, or cardiovascular disease were recruited. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol included a gradient echo-based MRE sequence using a 60 Hz pneumatic excitation. The MRE images were processed using a local frequency estimation inversion algorithm to provide quantitative stiffness maps. Adequate image quality was assessed subjectively by demonstrating the presence of visible propagating waves within the liver parenchyma underlying the driver location. Liver stiffness values were obtained using manually placed regions of interest (ROI) outlining the liver margins on the gradient echo wave images, which were then mapped onto the corresponding stiffness image. The mean stiffness values from two adjacent sections were recorded. Results: Eleven volunteers underwent MRE. The quality of the MRE images was adequate in all the volunteers. The mean liver stiffness for the group was 2.3 {+-} 0.38 kPa (ranging from 1.7-2.8 kPa). Conclusions: This preliminary work using MRE at 3 T in healthy volunteers demonstrates the feasibility of liver stiffness evaluation at 3 T without modification of the approach used at 1.5 T. Adequate image quality and normal MRE values were obtained in all volunteers. The obtained stiffness values were in the range of those reported for healthy volunteers in previous studies at 1.5 T. There was good interobserver reproducibility in the stiffness measurements.

  10. Calcaneal attachment of the plantar fascia: MR findings in asymptomatic volunteers.

    Ehrmann, Christine; Maier, Matthias; Mengiardi, Bernard; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Sutter, Reto

    2014-09-01

    To determine the spectrum of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings at the calcaneal attachment of the plantar fascia in asymptomatic volunteers. The study was approved by the institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from all subjects. MR imaging was performed in 77 asymptomatic volunteers (mean age, 48.0 years; age range, 23-83 years) with use of a 1.5-T system. There were 40 women (mean age, 49.0 years; age range, 24-83 years) and 37 men (mean age, 48.0 years; age range, 23-83 years). Signal intensity characteristics and thickness of the medial, central, and lateral fascicles of the plantar fascia were assessed independently by two radiologists. The presence of soft-tissue edema, bone marrow edema, and bone spur formation at the attachment of the plantar fascia was noted. Datasets were analyzed with inferential statistic procedures. The mean thickness of the plantar fascia was 0.6 mm (medial fascicle), 4.0 mm (central fascicle), and 2.3 mm (lateral fascicle). Increased signal intensity in the plantar fascia was seen with the T1-weighted sequence in 16 of the 77 volunteers (21%), the T2-weighted sequence in six (7.8%), and the short inversion time inversion-recovery sequence in six (7.8%). Soft-tissue edema was seen deep to the plantar fascia in five of the 77 volunteers (6.5%) and superficial to the plantar fascia in 16 (21%). A calcaneal spur was detected in 15 of the 77 volunteers (19%). Calcaneal bone marrow edema was present in four volunteers (5.2%). T1-weighted signal intensity changes in the plantar fascia, soft-tissue edema superficial to the plantar fascia, and calcaneal spurs are common findings in asymptomatic volunteers and should be used with caution in the diagnosis of plantar fasciitis. Increased signal intensity within the plantar fascia with fluid-sensitive sequences is uncommon in asymptomatic volunteers.

  11. Incidental findings in healthy control research subjects using whole-body MRI

    Morin, S.H.X.; Cobbold, J.F.L.; Lim, A.K.P.; Eliahoo, J.; Thomas, E.L.; Mehta, S.R.; Durighel, G.; Fitzpatrick, J.; Bell, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful clinical tool used increasingly in the research setting. We aimed to assess the prevalence of incidental findings in a sequential cohort of healthy volunteers undergoing whole-body MRI as part of a normal control database for imaging research studies. Materials and methods: 148 healthy volunteers (median age 36 years, range 21-69 years; 63.5% males, 36.5% females) were enrolled into a prospective observational study at a single hospital-based MRI research unit in London, UK. Individuals with a clinical illness, treated or under investigation were excluded from the study. Results: 43 (29.1%) scans were abnormal with a total of 49 abnormalities detected. Of these, 20 abnormalities in 19 patients (12.8%) were of clinical significance. The prevalence of incidental findings increased significantly with both increasing age and body mass index (BMI). Obese subjects had a fivefold greater risk of having an incidental abnormality on MRI (OR 5.4, CI 2.1-14.0). Conclusions: This study showed that more than one quarter of healthy volunteers have MR-demonstrable abnormalities. There was an increased risk of such findings in obese patients. This has ethical and financial implications for future imaging research, particularly with respect to informed consent and follow-up of those with abnormalities detected during the course of imaging studies.

  12. Towards a definition of SUBJECT in binding domains and subject ...

    be antecedents for subject-oriented anaphors (e.g. Maling 1984) ... 1985), it is unclear what actually determines this binding behaviour, or why subjects should ..... contexts can be unified by the fact that both functionally determine their complements. ...... Binding theory, control and pro. ... San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 179 ...

  13. Pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence study of itopride HCl in healthy volunteers.

    Cho, Kyung-Jin; Cho, Wonkyung; Cha, Kwang-Ho; Park, Junsung; Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2010-01-01

    In the present study two different formulations containing 50 mg itopride HCl (N-[4-12-(dimethylamino)ethoxylbenzyl]-3,4-dimethoxybenzamide HCl, CAS 122898-67-3) were compared in 28 healthy male volunteers in order to compare the bioavailability and prove the bioequivalence. The study was performed in an open, single dose randomized, 2-sequence, crossover design in 28 healthy male volunteers with a one-week washout period. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic profiling were drawn at selected times during 24 h. The serum concentrations of itopride HCl were determined using a specific and sensitive HPLC method with fluorescence detection. The detection limit of itopride HCl was 5 ng/ml and no endogenous compounds were found to interfere with analysis. The mean AUC(0-4h), AUC(0 --> infinity), C(max), T(max) and T1/2 were 865.28 ng x h/ml, 873.04 ng x h/ml, 303.72 ng/ml, 0.75 h, and 2.95 h, respectively, for the test formulations, and 833.00 ng x h/ml, 830.97 ng x h/ml, 268.01 ng/ml, 0.78 h, and 2.83 h, respectively, for the reference formulation. Both primary target parameters AUC(0 --> infinity) and C(max) were log-transformed and tested parametrically by analysis of variance (ANOVA). 90% confidence intervals of AUC(0 --> infinity) and C(max) were 100.57%-109.56% and 105.46%-121.18%, respectively, and were in the range of acceptable limits of bioequivalence (80-125%). Based on these results, the two formulations of itopride HCl are considered to be bioequivalent.

  14. Prioritizing Motivational and Satisfactorily Factors of Volunteer Medical and Health Personnel in Natural Disasters

    Mohsen Aminizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Currently, volunteer forces are among the main members of the healthcare services, particularly in the treatment sector, and play a key role in healthcare and treatment services. Since efficient human resources are the greatest and most important assets of all organizations, they constantly work to train, retain, and get the best of these valuable assets. The main objective of this work was to prioritize the motivational factors and satisfaction of the volunteer forces participating in treatment and health programs in the case of emergencies. Materials and Methods: The study population of this research was all volunteers (N=600 in treatment and health programs of Kerman Province. Using the Morgan Table, 360 subjects were selected. The data-gathering instrument was Andam’s questionnaire of motivational factors with reliability of 0.94, and Galindo-Kuhn and Guzley (2001 questionnaire of satisfaction with reliability of 0.92. To determine research data distribution, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied. Moreover, for data analysis inferential statistics tests of Friedman, Mann–Whitney U, and Kruskal–Wallis were used at significance level of P<0.05. Results: The present research revealed that the most and least important motivational factors in volunteers of treatment and health units were purposeful motivation and financial motivation with average rankings of 5.45 and 1.99, respectively. In addition, among the satisfaction factors, the volunteers reported communication with volunteers and organizational communication as the most and least important satisfaction factors, respectively. The results of this research indicated that the female volunteers participated in volunteer activities with greater occupational, support, progress, and social motivations. In addition, single participants had greater occupational, social, and financial motivations towards participation in these activities as compared to married participants

  15. Hepatitis C virus infection rate in volunteer blood donors from the ...

    Aims. To establish the true incidence of HCV infection in volunteer blood donors in the Western Gape, and compare risk factors and clinical and biochemical features of viraemic and non-viraemic subjects. Methods. All donors attending the Western Province. Blood Transfusion Service between December 1992 and.

  16. Classical Natural History: the importance of volunteers in collection management and research

    Reumer, J.W.F.; Post, K.

    2010-01-01

    As a result of increasing budget constraints and decreasing interest in classical natural history, the work effort of volunteer researchers and the need for private funding are of growing importance. A brief historical background is provided, showing the decreasing interest in the subject shown by

  17. Plasmodium vivax sporozoite challenge in malaria-naïve and semi-immune Colombian volunteers

    Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Forero-Peña, David A.; Rubiano, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    induced in naïve and semi-immune volunteers by infected mosquito bites was compared. Methods: Seven malaria-naïve and nine semi-immune Colombian adults (n = 16) were subjected to the bites of 2-4 P. vivax sporozoite-infected Anopheles mosquitoes. Parasitemia levels, malaria clinical manifestations...

  18. Volunteering is prospectively associated with health care use among older adults.

    Kim, Eric S; Konrath, Sara H

    2016-01-01

    Although observational and experimental studies have shown that volunteering is linked with better mental health, physical health, and health behaviors, no studies have examined whether volunteering is associated with patterns of health care use. The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine whether volunteering was associated with a greater use of preventive health care services, but fewer doctor visits and nights spent in the hospital. Participants (n = 7168) were drawn from the 2006 wave of the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative panel study of American adults over the age of 51, and tracked for one wave (2 years). Logistic regression and generalized linear models were used for analyses. In analyses that adjusted for sociodemographic factors and baseline health, volunteers were 30% more likely to receive flu shots (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.16-1.47), 47% more likely to receive cholesterol tests (OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.24-1.74); female volunteers were 53% more likely to receive mammograms/x-rays (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.28-1.83) and 21% more likely to receive Pap smears (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.03-1.41); male volunteers were 59% more likely to receive prostate exams (OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.29-1.95). In a model that adjusted for sociodemographic factors, volunteers spent 38% fewer nights in the hospital (RR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.52-0.76), however volunteering was not associated with frequency of doctor visits (RR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.87-1.02). The association between volunteering and number of nights spent in the hospital was minimally affected after adjusting for potential confounding (baseline health) and explanatory variables (health behaviors, social integration, stress, positive psychological factors, personality). This is the first known study to examine the association between volunteering and health care use. If future studies replicate these findings, the results may be used to inform the development of new

  19. Effects of different sleep deprivation protocols on sleep perception in healthy volunteers.

    Goulart, Leonardo I; Pinto, Luciano R; Perlis, Michael L; Martins, Raquel; Caboclo, Luis Otavio; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L

    2014-10-01

    To investigate whether different protocols of sleep deprivation modify sleep perception. The effects of total sleep deprivation (TD) and selective rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (RD) on sleep perception were analyzed in normal volunteers. Thirty-one healthy males with normal sleep were randomized to one of three conditions: (i) normal uninterrupted sleep; (ii) four nights of RD; or (iii) two nights of TD. Morning perception of total sleep time was evaluated for each condition. Sleep perception was estimated using total sleep time (in hours) as perceived by the volunteer divided by the total sleep time (in hours) measured by polysomnography (PSG). The final value of this calculation was defined as the perception index (PI). There were no significant differences among the three groups of volunteers in the total sleep time measured by PSG or in the perception of total sleep time at baseline condition. Volunteers submitted to RD exhibited lower sleep PI scores as compared with controls during the sleep deprivation period (P sleep deprivation reduced the ability of healthy young volunteers to perceive their total sleep time when compared with time measured by PSG. The data reinforce the influence of sleep deprivation on sleep perception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. BOINC service for volunteer cloud computing

    Høimyr, N; Blomer, J; Buncic, P; Giovannozzi, M; Gonzalez, A; Harutyunyan, A; Jones, P L; Karneyeu, A; Marquina, M A; Mcintosh, E; Segal, B; Skands, P; Grey, F; Lombraña González, D; Zacharov, I

    2012-01-01

    Since a couple of years, a team at CERN and partners from the Citizen Cyberscience Centre (CCC) have been working on a project that enables general physics simulation programs to run in a virtual machine on volunteer PCs around the world. The project uses the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) framework. Based on CERNVM and the job management framework Co-Pilot, this project was made available for public beta-testing in August 2011 with Monte Carlo simulations of LHC physics under the name “LHC at home 2.0” and the BOINC project: “Test4Theory”. At the same time, CERN's efforts on Volunteer Computing for LHC machine studies have been intensified; this project has previously been known as LHC at home, and has been running the “Sixtrack” beam dynamics application for the LHC accelerator, using a classic BOINC framework without virtual machines. CERN-IT has set up a BOINC server cluster, and has provided and supported the BOINC infrastructure for both projects. CERN intends to evolve the setup into a generic BOINC application service that will allow scientists and engineers at CERN to profit from volunteer computing. This paper describes the experience with the two different approaches to volunteer computing as well as the status and outlook of a general BOINC service.

  1. Embedding Volunteer Activity into Paramedic Education.

    Ross, Linda; Kabidi, Sophia

    2017-01-01

    Paramedics require a wide range of skills that are beyond clinical or technical skills in order to meet the demands of the role and provide quality and compassionate care to patients. Non-technical or "soft" skills and attributes are generally challenging to teach and develop in the classroom setting. Volunteerism provides an opportunity for students to gain exposure to different communities and develop interpersonal skills. This cross-sectional study used one-on-one interviews with 12 third-year Bachelor of Emergency Health (Paramedic) students from Monash University, Australia, who completed a community volunteering program. Results suggest that paramedic students see volunteering as a highly valuable means of developing a number of skills crucial to their future roles and paramedic practice. Volunteering also provided students with an opportunity to learn about themselves and the broader community, develop confidence, and improve overall job-readiness and employability. This study demonstrates that embedding volunteering into paramedic education is an effective way to develop the broad range of paramedic attributes required for the role. These experiences allow students to make the important transition to a job-ready graduate paramedic who can provide holistic patient-centred care.

  2. Dynamics of Volunteering in Older Europeans

    Hank, Karsten; Erlinghagen, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dynamics of volunteering in the population aged 50 years or older across 11 Continental European countries. Design and Methods: Using longitudinal data from the first 2 waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, we run multivariate regressions on a set of binary-dependent variables indicating…

  3. The Invention and Institutionalization of Volunteer Centers

    Lorentzen, Håkon; Henriksen, Lars Skov

    2014-01-01

    the Norwegian centers lacked a national coordinating unit. Third, an independent legal form in which local associations are members may have helped Danish centers bring about a sense of local ownership. In Norway, volunteer centers had weak ties to other local voluntary associations and were at times perceived...

  4. 77 FR 22177 - National Volunteer Week, 2012

    2012-04-12

    ..., service and social innovation will play an essential role in achieving our highest ambitions--from a world-class education for every child to an economy built to last. During National Volunteer Week, we pay... landmark national service law that laid out a strategy to link service with innovation, established the...

  5. Volunteers in Wikipedia: Why the Community Matters

    Baytiyeh, Hoda; Pfaffman, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Wikipedia is a reliable encyclopedia with over seven million articles in several languages all contributed and maintained by volunteers. To learn more about what drives people to devote their time and expertise to building and maintaining this remarkable resource, surveys with Likert-scaled items measuring different types of motivations were…

  6. International Volunteering: Employability, Leadership and More

    Rothwell, Andrew; Charleston, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the experiences of individuals in transition between education and work during international volunteering expeditions. While it was expected that outcomes might include employability enhancement and skill development, the authors aimed to clarify what the main factors were, examine employability…

  7. A Look Inside Corporate Employee Volunteer Programs.

    Benjamin, Ellen J.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 15 corporate volunteer program managers found that administration was complicated by limited staff time and lack of clear policies; employee preferences and incentives/rewards had a higher priority than impact on customers and community; feedback on program results was mostly informal; and 73% reported no measurement process. (Contains…

  8. Effectiveness of trained community volunteers in improving ...

    Both groups were compared at baseline and after 6 months of the experiment on their knowledge of malaria prevention and treatment. Level of significance was set at P = 0.05. Results: In the ... attainment of millennium development goals 4. Key words: Community volunteers, malaria, Nigeria, task shifting, under ‑ 5 children ...

  9. The Benefits of Volunteering for Psychology Students

    Bromnick, Rachel; Horowitz, Ava; Shepherd, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Within the current economic climate students are seen as needing more than a degree to succeed in securing graduate employment. One way that students chose to enhance their employability is through engaging in voluntary work. In this empirical study, undergraduate psychology students' reasons for volunteering are explored within the context of…

  10. Pulsar discovery by global volunteer computing

    Knispel, B.; Allen, B.; Cordes, J.M.; Deneva, J.S.; Anderson, D.; Aulbert, C.; Bhat, N.D.R.; Bock, O.; Bogdanov, S.; Brazier, A.; Camilo, F.; Champion, D.J.; Chatterjee, S.; Crawford, F.; Demorest, P.B.; Fehrmann, H.; Freire, P.C.C.; Gonzalez, M.E.; Hammer, D.; Hessels, J.W.T.; Jenet, F.A.; Kasian, L.; Kaspi, V.M.; Kramer, M.; Lazarus, P.; van Leeuwen, J.; Lorimer, D.R.; Lyne, A.G.; Machenschalk, B.; McLaughlin, M.A.; Messenger, C.; Nice, D.J.; Papa, M.A.; Pletsch, H.J.; Prix, R.; Ransom, S.M.; Siemens, X.; Stairs, I.H.; Stappers, B.W.; Stovall, K.; Venkataraman, A.

    2010-01-01

    Einstein@Home aggregates the computer power of hundreds of thousands of volunteers from 192 countries to mine large data sets. It has now found a 40.8-hertz isolated pulsar in radio survey data from the Arecibo Observatory taken in February 2007. Additional timing observations indicate that this

  11. Effect of calyx capsule-ethanol extract Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on renal function of healthy volunteers

    Harun, N.; Darmawan, E.; Nurani, L. H.

    2017-11-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa contains flavonoid, triterpenoid, anthocyanin which function as immunostimulant. H. sabdariffa is considered safe for animal renal; nonetheless, there are known side effects of which need to be further investigated for human renal. This research aims to investigate the effect of calyx capsule-ethanol extract H. sabdariffa for renal function of healthy male and female for 30 days period by monitoring Scr and Clcr component in their blood samples. The method of this experimental research was by pre and post-treatment by involving 20 healthy volunteers who have met inclusion and exclusion criteria. The volunteers have completed the informed consent for this experiment. Furthermore, volunteers were divided into two groups (10 male and 10 female). Each group was given orally 500 mg of calyx capsule-ethanol extract H. sabdariffa per day for 30 days period. Blood tests were taken on day 0, day 30 after consuming the capsule and day 45 (15 days after the last day of capsule intake) in order to measure the Scr and Clcr concentration in the blood samples by using Jaffe dan Cockcroft-Gault method. The results of each sampling day were further analyzed statistically and compared using Repeated ANOVA dan Friedman test. The results suggest that there was a difference in the renal function on day 0, 30 and 45 samplings. However, there was no significant difference in Scr dan Clcr concentrations on female and male volunteers (p>0.05). Specifically, the type of gender affects Scr concentration (p0.05). In addition, age and Body Mass Index (BMI) does not affect Scr and Clcr concentrations (p>0.05). The side effects discovered through the monitoring increased in mixturition and bloatedness. Calyx capsule-ethanol extract H. sabdariffa does not affect on renal function of healthy volunteers.

  12. Quantitative MRI comparison of systemic hemodynamics in Mustard/Senning repaired patients and healthy volunteers at rest

    Laffon, Eric; Jimenez, Maria; Choussat, Alain; Latrabe, Valerie; Ducassou, Dominique; Marthan, Roger; Laurent, Francois

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to non-invasively compare ascending aortic blood flow and cross-sectional area (CSA) variations vs time in Mustard or Senning repaired (MSR) patients against those of healthy volunteers at rest. Velocity-encoded MR imaging was performed in 10 male patients (age range 18-24 years, median age 20.5 years) late after a Mustard or Senning correction, and in 10 male healthy volunteers (age range 21-25 years, median age 22.5 years), at the upper part of the ascending aorta. Both aortic cross-sectional area (CSA) and blood-flow variations were recorded over a complete cardiac cycle, with a 30-ms time of resolution. The body-surface area (BSA), the mean CSA over the systolic phase, and the BSA-normalized systemic ventricle power and work were significantly lower in the patient series compared with those of the volunteer series. The BSA-normalized right ventricle (RV) power and work of MSR patients were equal to 87 and 83% on average of those of the left ventricle (LV) of healthy volunteers. We conclude that, at rest, the mechanical performance of the systemic RV in MSR patients is significantly lower than that of the LV in healthy volunteers. Furthermore, the significantly lower aortic CSA found in MSR patients than in healthy volunteers may reveal an increase in the vasomotor tone. (orig.)

  13. Training and supporting hospice volunteers: a regional survey.

    Lavenburg, Philip; Bernt, Frank M

    2012-08-01

    We surveyed volunteers from 8 hospices in the Delaware Valley regarding training, perceived needs, and role satisfaction. Results were consistent with previous studies: satisfaction with preservice training and with volunteering was very high; respondents reported feeling very prepared and confident about doing hospice work as a result of their volunteer training. In addition, longer volunteer preservice training was associated with higher levels of overall satisfaction with training; levels of volunteer satisfaction and fulfillment tended to be lower during the first year of volunteering; and participation in volunteer support teams was associated with finding volunteer work rewarding and with feeling a part of the hospice team. Implications for preservice training and ongoing support and education of hospice volunteers are discussed.

  14. Evaluation of vocal fold vibration with an assessment form for high-speed digital imaging: comparative study between healthy young and elderly subjects.

    Yamauchi, Akihito; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Yokonishi, Hisayuki; Nito, Takaharu; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Goto, Takao; Takano, Shingo; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Tayama, Niro

    2012-11-01

    We conducted a prospective study with a subjective assessment form for high-speed digital imaging (HSDI) to elucidate the features of vocal fold vibrations in vocally healthy subjects and to clarify gender- and age-related differences. Healthy adult volunteers participated in this study. They were divided into young (aged 35 and younger) and elderly (aged 65 and older) groups, and the scores of an assessment form for HSDI characteristics elaborated at our institution were statistically analyzed. Twenty-six young subjects (males: 9, females: 17; mean age: 27 years) and 20 elderly subjects (males: 8, females: 12; mean age: 72 years) were assigned to our study. Posterior gap and posterior-to-anterior longitudinal phase difference were characteristic to young females, whereas in young males, mucosal wave, anterior-to-posterior longitudinal phase difference, and supraglottic hyperactivity were frequent. In elderly males, axis shift, asymmetry, supraglottic hyperactivity, increased mucosal wave, lateral phase difference, and anterior-to-posterior longitudinal phase difference were frequent; and in elderly females, high incidence of lateral phase difference, atrophic change, anterior gap, and asymmetry were observed. The results show that the behaviors of vocal fold vibrations were diverse even in healthy subjects with no vocal complaints or history of laryngeal diseases, and hence, the diversity of vocal fold vibrations in normal subjects must be taken into account in evaluating vocal fold vibrations. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The volunteer anesthetist: a personal view.

    Brown, S T

    2000-08-01

    The most common opportunities for nurse anesthetists to be involved in volunteer anesthesia overseas are usually on a surgical team to provide direct care for selected types of patients or to be involved in teaching local anesthesia providers. The challenges are numerous and unique in each setting. Sharing of knowledge, directly as an instructor or indirectly as a provider, provides for a great impact on health care delivery in many emerging nations. The anesthesia provider who is working to deliver care in another country must consider many variables before taking on such a venture. The type of surgical team or teaching assignment one accepts will determine the type of preparation that must be done before departing. In addition to the many organizational items, one should consider some personal issues as well. Lost wages, transportation costs, and lodging expenses are often paid for by the volunteer. Time away from one's family may also be a consideration. Health care, such as updated immunizations, must be attended to before to departure. Volunteers must be able to provide good care in less than ideal situations, and often with much less equipment and medications than are available in the United States. A review of some of the issues that one should consider before deciding to be a volunteer are outlined in this article. The nurse anesthetist who successfully anticipates and deals with the challenges of volunteer anesthesia will be rewarded with an intense degree of personal satisfaction. The ability to give back to the profession and those who would otherwise not have access to one's skills or knowledge produces a sense of accomplishment that is unique.

  16. MRI study of the brain in aged volunteers

    Kasahara, Hiroo; Tanno, Munehiko; Yamada, Hideo; Endoh, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Mitsuru; Karasawa, Akihide.

    1993-01-01

    In order to characterize age-related and chronological changes of the brain, longitudinal studies of aged volunteers were conducted using computed tomography since 1982. The present paper discusses correlations between brain function and findings of MR images which were obtained using a 1.5 T superconductive MR instrument since 1989. A total of 118 volunteers aged 60 to 88 years old with a mean age of 75.0±6.7 participated in the study, which consisted of MRI, EEG recording, the Benton Visual Retention Test and a medical interview. Subjects with a past history or clinical evidence of CVD, head trauma or dementia were excluded from the study. Incidence of T 2 high signal intensity lesions increased with age. Some showing T 1 low signal intensity in the same lesion were considered to be lacunar infarction, over all incidence of which was 24.6%. Numbers of correct responses on the BVRT showed a negative correlation with numbers of T 2 high signal intensity lesions. Although the aged volunteers in the present study could achieve all activity of daily living without any trouble, high cortical function evaluated by visuoperceptual performance of BVRT was somewhat disturbed in participants with multiple T 2 high signal intensity lesions. Brain atrophy seems to be more advanced in groups with T 2 hyper intensity lesions than in the group without them. These findings may support the notion that T 2 high signal intensity lesions are not merely an index of aging but pathologic lesions accompanied with senescence, although further studies including clinico-pathological correlation are necessary to establish this concept. (author)

  17. Background characteristics, resources and volunteering among older adults (aged ≥70 years) in the community: A longitudinal study.

    Cramm, Jane M; Nieboer, Anna P

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe (in)formal volunteering among older adults (aged ≥70 years) in the community, and the longitudinal relationships between background characteristics, resources (social, cognitive and physical functioning, social capital) and volunteering. At baseline, a total of 945 (out of 1440) independently living Dutch older adults (aged ≥70 years) completed the questionnaire (66% response). Two years later, these respondents were asked to complete a questionnaire again, of which 588 (62%) responded. Of 945 respondents (43% male; mean age 77.5 ± 5.8 years, range 70-101 years), 34.7% were married and 83.3% were born in the Netherlands. Social capital, social functioning and physical functioning were significantly higher among volunteering older adults. Being born in the Netherlands, higher educational level, social capital and social functioning were related to formal volunteering activities at baseline, and also predicted these activities 2 years later. Regarding informal volunteering activities, we found a significant association with age, being born in the Netherlands, marital status, educational level, social capital and social functioning at baseline. Examining their predictive nature, we found that younger age, being born in the Netherlands, social capital and physical functioning were associated with engagement in informal volunteering activities 2 years later. The present study shows that older adults remain engaged in volunteering activities, and that background characteristics (e.g. ethnic background, education) and resources (social functioning, social capital) contribute to this engagement. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  18. The new capitalist philanthropy and the intensification of the teacher’s work: reflections on corporate volunteering

    Maria Vieira Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes research results obtained by the authors on the new formats of capitalist philanthropy through volunteering work. It highlights, especially,teaching practices developed in companies with “social responsibility”, consolidating a new modality of teacher’s work. From speeches of company managers and volunteer teachers, the analyses contextualize the paradoxes, contradictions, and ambiguities found in volunteering activities, catching the processes of work intensification observed in the set of devices provided by the capitalist administration, which focus on the subjective dimensions of the worker and the objective dimensions of capital accumulation.

  19. Who will volunteer? Analysing individual and structural factors of volunteering in Swiss sports clubs.

    Schlesinger, Torsten; Nagel, Siegfried

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses the conditions influencing volunteering in sports clubs. It focuses not only on individual characteristics of volunteers but also on the corresponding structural conditions of sports clubs. It proposes a model of voluntary work in sports clubs based on economic behaviour theory. The influences of both the individual and context levels on the decision to engage in voluntary work are estimated in different multilevel models. Results of these multilevel analyses indicate that volunteering is not just an outcome of individual characteristics such as lower workloads, higher income, children belonging to the sports club, longer club memberships, or a strong commitment to the club. It is also influenced by club-specific structural conditions; volunteering is more probable in rural sports clubs whereas growth-oriented goals in clubs have a destabilising effect.

  20. Survey of awareness and analyses of related factors to volunteer activities of pharmacy students after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    小武家, 優子; 吉田, 健; 吉武, 毅人

    2012-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011. At the time of the earthquake, pharmacist and pharmacy students engaged in volunteer activities such as providing disaster medicine and relief supplies to disaster areas. Questionnaire survey for pharmacy students were carried out in order to clarify awareness to volunteer activities for disaster areas and to use data as a basis of Service-Learning in the 6 years pharmacy education. We divided subjects into pharmacy students those wo...

  1. Population pharmacokinetics of adefovir dipivoxil tablets in healthy Chinese volunteers.

    Huang, Jihan; Zhang, Yaping; Huang, Xiaohui; Li, Lujin; Li, Yunfei; Wang, Kun; Yang, Juan; He, Yingchun; Lv, Yinghua; Zheng, Qingshan

    2014-01-01

    To develop a population pharmacokinetic model of adefovir dipivoxil in healthy volunteers and evaluate the effect of individual factors on the pharmacokinetics of adefovir dipivoxil. Plasma concentration data collected from 32 healthy Chinese subjects in a Phase I clinical study was pooled. Subjects received a single oral dose of 10 mg, 20 mg, or 30 mg adefovir dipivoxil, or multiple doses of 10 mg once a day for 9 days. Plasma concentrations of adefovir dipivoxil were measured using a validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric method. A nonlinear mixed-effect model was used to analyze the plasma concentration data of adefovir dipivoxil in healthy volunteers and to calculate the relevant parameters as well as inter- and intra-individual variability. The time course of adefovir dipivoxil concentration is best described by a first-order absorption and first-order elimination two-compartment model with lag time. The final estimate of total body clearance (CL) is 56.9 L/h and 78.7 L/h for single and multiple dosing regimen, respectively; the volume distribution of the central compartment (V2) is 106 L; inter-compartmental clearance (Q) is 220 L/h; volume distribution of the peripheral compartment (V3) is 498 L and 800 L for single and multiple dosing regimen, respectively; absorption rate is 0.509 h-1; and lag time is 0.315 hours. The inter-individual variabilities of CL and V2 were 22.4% and 58.9%, respectively. The proportional error of residual variability is 14.1% and the additive error is 0.30 ng/L. The final pharmacokinetic model was evaluated using a bootstrap method. A nonlinear mixed effect model for oral adefovir dipivoxil formulations was developed in healthy Chinese subjects. A multiple dosing regimen may significantly increase the body clearance and volume distribution of the peripheral compartment compared to a single dosing regimen. *These authors contribute equally to this work.

  2. Treatment of male androgenetic alopecia with topical products containing Serenoa repens extract.

    Wessagowit, Vesarat; Tangjaturonrusamee, Chinmanat; Kootiratrakarn, Tanawatt; Bunnag, Thareena; Pimonrat, Tanatya; Muangdang, Nattaporn; Pichai, Pitchayasak

    2016-08-01

    Male androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a common hair problem. Serenoa repens extract has been shown to inhibit both types of 5-α reductase and, when taken orally, has been shown to increase hair growth in AGA patients. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of topical products containing S. repens extract for the treatment of male AGA. This was a pilot, prospective, open, within-subject comparison limited to 24 weeks using no placebo controls. In all, 50 male volunteers aged between 20 and 50 years received topical S. repens products for 24 weeks. The primary end-point was a hair count in an area of 2.54 cm(2) at week 24. Secondary end-points included hair restoration, investigators' photographic assessment, patients' evaluation and discovering adverse events. The average hair count and terminal hair count increased at weeks 12 and 24 compared to baseline. Some of these positive results levelled off at week 24, presumably because the concentrated topical product containing S. repens extract was stopped after 4 weeks. The patients were satisfied with the products and the side-effects were limited. The topical application of S. repens extract could be an alternative treatment in male pattern baldness in male patients who do not want or cannot tolerate the side-effects of standard medications, but the use of a concentrated S. repens product beyond 4 weeks may be necessary for sustained efficacy. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  3. SSRI treatment suppresses dream recall frequency but increases subjective dream intensity in normal subjects.

    Pace-Schott, E F; Gersh, T; Silvestri, R; Stickgold, R; Salzman, C; Hobson, J A

    2001-06-01

    Clinical lore and a small number of published studies report that the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) intensify dreaming. This study examines the dream effects of paroxetine and fluvoxamine in order to both increase clinical knowledge of these agents and to test an important potential method for probing the relationship between REM sleep neurobiology and dreaming in humans. Fourteen normal, paid volunteers (4 males, 10 females; mean age 27.4 year, range 22--39) free of medical or neuropsychiatric symptoms as well as of psychotropic or sleep affecting drugs completed a 31-day home-based study consisting of: 7 days drug-free baseline; 19 days on either 100 mg fluvoxamine (7 Ss) or 20 mg paroxetine (7 Ss) in divided morning and evening doses; and 5 days acute discontinuation. Upon awakening, subjects wrote dream reports, self-scored specific emotions in their reports and rated seven general dream characteristics using 5-point Likert scales. Dream reports were independently scored for bizarreness, movement and number of visual nouns by three judges. REM sleep-related measures were obtained using the Nightcap ambulatory sleep monitor. Mean dream recall frequency decreased during treatment compared with baseline. Dream report length and judge-rated bizarreness were greater during acute discontinuation compared with both baseline and treatment and this effect was a result of the fluvoxamine-treated subjects. The subjective intensity of dreaming increased during both treatment and acute discontinuation compared with baseline. Propensity to enter REM sleep was decreased during treatment compared with baseline and acute discontinuation and the intensity of REM sleep increased during acute discontinuation compared with baseline and treatment. The decrease in dream frequency during SSRI treatment may reflect serotonergic REM suppression while the augmented report length and bizarreness during acute SSRI discontinuation may reflect cholinergic rebound from

  4. Application of human volunteer studies in setting exposure limits

    Bailey, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Human volunteer studies can provide many of the quantitative data on human radionuclide biokinetics needed to relate organ doses to intakes. They are best suited to characterising parameters that apply to a wide range of compounds, e.g. particle deposition in the respiratory tract, and the retention and excretion of elements after injection into the blood. Their application to quantifying particle clearance from the respiratory tract is discussed, with particular reference to recent findings and the NRPB's programme of volunteer investigations. Evidence to support the view that particle clearance rates are similar for different materials is summarised. Rates of particle clearance from the human lung to the GI tract are calculated from the results of two recent studies. The fraction of the remaining lung content cleared per day is estimated to decrease from ∼ 3 x 10 -3 d -1 at 25 days to ∼ 5 x 10 -4 d -1 at 350 days. There is a large degree of inter-subject variation, with most results conforming to a log-normal distribution with σ g of 1.6. There remains considerable uncertainty about subsequent clearance, and about sites of long-term lung retention. (author)

  5. Perceived direction of gravity and the body-axis during static whole body roll-tilt in healthy subjects.

    Tamura, Atsushi; Wada, Yoshiro; Inui, Takuo; Shiotani, Akihiro

    2017-10-01

    We used the subjective visual vertical (SVV) and two different subjective visual body axis (SVBA) methods to quantify roll-tilt perception under gravity, and investigated the characteristics of these methods during static roll-tilt. In addition, we independently developed a compact device to facilitate evaluation of SVBA in different gravitational environments. Ten male volunteers participated in this study. We created a roll-tilt environment using a flight simulator in a dark room. The cockpit of the simulator was tilted leftward or rightward (-30°, -20°, -10°, 0°, 10°, 20° and 30°) in each randomly ordered trial. We quantified roll-tilt perception such that the experiment was conducted under 21 different conditions per participant. We found no significant differences among the SVV error and the two types of SVBA error. The SVV and the SVBA methods may be useful for evaluating subjective roll-tilt perception.

  6. Pharmacokinetic comparison and bioequivalence evaluation of losartan/ hydrochlorothiazide tablet between Asian Indian and Japanese volunteers.

    Kumar, Sudershan; Monif, Tausif; Khuroo, Arshad; Reyar, Simrit; Jain, Rakesh; Singla, Ajay K; Kurachi, Kazuya

    2014-01-01

    To demonstrate the bioequivalence between the test and reference formulations of losartan/hydrochlorothiazide 50 + 12.5 mg tablet and evaluate the effect of ethnicity on pharmacokinetics properties of losartan, losartan carboxylic acid and hydrochlorothiazide on healthy Asian Indian and Japanese volunteers. Randomized, open-label, crossover, bioavailability studies were conducted separately in healthy Asian Indian and Japanese volunteers. One tablet either of test or of reference product was administered after 10 hours of overnight fasting. After dosing, serial blood samples were collected for a period of 48 hours for both the studies. Plasma samples were analyzed for losartan, losartan carboxylic acid and hydrochlorothiazide by a validated liquid chromatographic and mass spectrometric method (LC-MS/MS). The pharmacokinetic parameters AUC0-t, AUC0-∞, Cmax, tmax, and other pharmacokinetics parameters were determined from plasma concentration-time profiles for both test and reference formulations of losartan/hydrochlorothiazide 50 + 12.5 mg tablets. Statistical evaluations were done to evaluate bioequivalence between generic test formulation (EPR0001) and Japanese reference product (Preminent®). Losartan, losartan carboxylic acid and hydrochlorothiazide were well tolerated by subjects in all periods of each study under fasted conditions. No serious adverse events were observed. The ratios of least square means for AUC0-t and Cmax and the affiliated 90% confidence intervals were within acceptance range recommended by PMDA. Marginal differences were observed in pharmacokinetic values of Asian Indian and Japanese volunteers. The results of these bioavailability studies indicate that the test formulation of losartan/hydrochlorothiazide 50 + 12.5 mg (EPR0001) tablets is bioequivalent to marketed Preminent® reference formulation in Asian Indian and Japanese volunteers, when administered under fasting conditions. Both test and reference formulations were well tolerated

  7. Age dependent white matter lesions and brain volume changes in healthy volunteers

    Christiansen, P; Larsson, H B; Thomsen, C

    1994-01-01

    The brain of 142 healthy volunteers aged 21 to 80 years were investigated using MR imaging. The number and size of the white matter hyperintensity lesions (WMHL) in the cerebral hemispheres were determined. Furthermore, the volume of the cerebral hemispheres and of the lateral ventricles was meas......The brain of 142 healthy volunteers aged 21 to 80 years were investigated using MR imaging. The number and size of the white matter hyperintensity lesions (WMHL) in the cerebral hemispheres were determined. Furthermore, the volume of the cerebral hemispheres and of the lateral ventricles...... was measured. An almost linear increase in the number of volunteers with WMHL was seen with aging for males and females. With aging a significant decrease in the volume of the cerebral hemispheres was found for males, and a significant increase in the volume of the lateral ventricles was seen for both males...... and females. Our results suggest that with aging central atrophy increases more (relatively) than cortical atrophy. No correlation was found between the decreasing volume of the cerebral hemispheres and the increasing number and size of WMHL, nor between the increasing volume of the lateral ventricles...

  8. Analysis of metabolites of mefenamic acid in urine of human volunteers

    Abbas, M.; Nawaz, R.; Mahmood, T.; Sani, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The metabolites of mefenamic acid, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, were studied in urine of human male and female volunteers. Urine samples were collected at pre-determined time intervals. The concentration of mefenamic acid as free drug was analyzed by spectrophotometry at 285 nm and the metabolites were separated by paper chromatography. The average plus minus SE values of the amount of mefenamic acid in urine of human male and female volunteers were found to be 4.484 plus minus 0.228 micro gram/mL and 4.057 plus minus micro g/mL respectively. The average R/sub f/values of mefenamic acid as free drug in male and female volunteers were found to be 0.76 and 0.77 respectively. And the average R/sub f/ values for the metabolites of mefenamic acid were found to be 0.47 and 0.45 respectively. The method of analysis is accurate, easy, handy and reproducible (author)

  9. 75 FR 56501 - Information Collection; Land Management Agency Volunteer Surveys

    2010-09-16

    ... Information Collection; Land Management Agency Volunteer Surveys AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice... and test models of volunteer management; supply information to LMA program managers and other... is seeking comments from all interested individuals and organizations on the new information...

  10. What helps volunteers to continue with their work? | Marincowitz ...

    South African Family Practice ... Aim: The aim of the study was to understand what volunteers perceived to be the factors helping them to continue ... Findings: The volunteers feel that their work consists of various forms of support to patients.

  11. Volunteer computing experience with ATLAS@Home

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00068610; The ATLAS collaboration; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Cameron, David; Filipčič, Andrej; Lançon, Eric; Wu, Wenjing

    2016-01-01

    ATLAS@Home is a volunteer computing project which allows the public to contribute to computing for the ATLAS experiment through their home or office computers. The project has grown continuously since its creation in mid-2014 and now counts almost 100,000 volunteers. The combined volunteers’ resources make up a sizeable fraction of overall resources for ATLAS simulation. This paper takes stock of the experience gained so far and describes the next steps in the evolution of the project. These improvements include running natively on Linux to ease the deployment on for example university clusters, using multiple cores inside one task to reduce the memory requirements and running different types of workload such as event generation. In addition to technical details the success of ATLAS@Home as an outreach tool is evaluated.

  12. Molecular helpers wanted... Call for volunteers!

    2008-01-01

    The Task Force in charge of the organization of the LHC Inauguration is looking for 40 volunteers to support the team of molecular cooks directed by international chef Ettore Bocchia. The "molecular" volunteers will help in the preparation of liquid nitrogen ice-cream. Your help is requested from 12h to 18h on October 21st. Your participation in a general rehearsal on October 20th is also required - (the time of the rehearsal will be communicated at a later moment). Dress code: black pants and shoes, long sleeved white shirt. Do not miss this opportunity to take part in an extraordinary event! For further information and to enrol, contact: mailto:Catherine.Brandt@cern.ch

  13. Volunteers in the Danish Home Guard 2016

    Fridberg, Torben; Larsen, Mona

    This report maps the composition of a group of volunteer members of the Home Guard, as well as their opinions and expectations of the Home Guard and their own voluntary efforts. The report is a follow-up to two previous surveys completed in 2007 and 2011 and it therefore also highlights changes...... from 2007 to 2011 and 2016. Based on a questionnaire survey, the report paints a picture of who the volunteers are, what motivates them and how they perceive their surrounding environment’s view of them as members of the Home Guard. The report also focuses on the volunteers’ view of the Home Guard......’s tasks and activities both in Denmark and abroad. Finally, the report describes the volunteers’ perception of the Home Guards’ communication and campaigns. The report was commissioned and financed by the Danish Home Guard Command....

  14. The volunteer programme ‘Night Ravens’:

    Larsen, Britt Østergaard; Kleif, Helle Bendix; Kolodziejczyk, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The volunteer programme ‘Night Ravens’ (NR) was founded in Sweden in 1987 and has, over the years, developed into a Scandinavian concept covering large areas of Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The NR programme is a crime prevention initiative with adults walking...... the streets at night in identifiable ‘uniforms’ in areas with high activity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of the NR programme in Denmark based on a volunteer set-up with a less intrusive approach to situational crime prevention than, for instance, hot spot policing. The analyses...... are based on a longitudinal data set containing socio-demographic information on all 585 postcode districts in Denmark and quarterly records of six different categories of reported crimes in the years 2001–2010.We apply a difference-in-difference design and compare development in crime rates in districts...

  15. Volunteer Computing Experience with ATLAS@Home

    Adam-Bourdarios, C.; Bianchi, R.; Cameron, D.; Filipčič, A.; Isacchini, G.; Lançon, E.; Wu, W.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    ATLAS@Home is a volunteer computing project which allows the public to contribute to computing for the ATLAS experiment through their home or office computers. The project has grown continuously since its creation in mid-2014 and now counts almost 100,000 volunteers. The combined volunteers’ resources make up a sizeable fraction of overall resources for ATLAS simulation. This paper takes stock of the experience gained so far and describes the next steps in the evolution of the project. These improvements include running natively on Linux to ease the deployment on for example university clusters, using multiple cores inside one task to reduce the memory requirements and running different types of workload such as event generation. In addition to technical details the success of ATLAS@Home as an outreach tool is evaluated.

  16. Virtual Mentoring for Volunteer Leadership Development

    Guloy, Sheryl

    2015-01-01

    Calls to investigate leadership development in the nonprofit and voluntary sector have been put forth as concerns about leadership succession have increased. To respond to this call to investigate this under-researched area, this design-based, multiple case study provides rich, thick descriptions of the development of the mentoring relationships, between mentor and mentee pairs, over the course of a virtual mentoring program for volunteer leadership development, in a Catholic nonprofit. I exp...

  17. Volunteer Flying Organizations: Law Enforcements Untapped Resource

    2016-12-01

    World War II, women in the United States turned manpower into woman power as housewives across the nation took manufacturing jobs building bombers...delineates responsibilities for the entire volunteer organization. Safety -first Flying Culture CHP CHP’s first- class safety program uses the most...civilian pilots to augment law enforcement based aviation operations. This thesis uses recommendations of the Public Safety Aviation Accreditation

  18. Monterey Bay Aquarium Volunteer Guide Scheduling Analysis

    2014-12-01

    TERMS 15. NUMBER OF Monterey Bay Aquarium, linear programing, network design, multi commodity flow, resilience PAGES 17. SECURITY 18. SECURITY...Volunteers fill many roles that include Aquarium guides, information desk attendants, divers, and animal caregivers . Julie Packard, Executive Director of...further analyze the resiliency of the shifts to changes in staffing levels caused by no-shows or drop-ins. 3 While the guide program managers have

  19. Clinical trials in male hormonal contraception.

    Nieschlag, Eberhard

    2010-11-01

    Research has established the principle of hormonal male contraception based on suppression of gonadotropins and spermatogenesis. All hormonal male contraceptives use testosterone, but only in East Asian men can testosterone alone suppress spermatogenesis to a level compatible with contraceptive protection. In Caucasians, additional agents are required of which progestins are favored. Clinical trials concentrate on testosterone combined with norethisterone, desogestrel, etonogestrel or depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate. The first randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial performed by the pharmaceutical industry demonstrated the effectiveness of a combination of testosterone undecanoate and etonogestrel in suppressing spermatogenesis in volunteers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Relation of hypertension with body mass index and age in male and female population of Peshawar, Pakistan

    Humayun, A.; Shah, A.S.; Sultana, R.

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension, a condition developed as a result of high blood pressure is strongly correlated with body mass index (BMI). Obesity was noted to be a single best predictor of hypertension incidence, and was regarded as a major controllable contributor to hypertension. Overweight and obesity is conveniently determined from BMI. Present study was conducted in Khyber Medical College (KMC) Peshawar to investigate the relation of hypertension with BMI and age. The objective of the present investigation is to establish a relationship between hypertension and BMI in male and female population of Peshawar with consideration of age. Methods: This study was conducted at KMC, Peshawar during 2008-2009. A total of 1006 adult male and female volunteers were the subject of present research and were categorised in terms of their ages. BMI was determined from weight and height; the subjects were grouped as normal, overweight and obese. Hypertension was determined from the measure of blood pressure. Results: The results show a consistence relation between BMI and hypertension within age groups in both male and females. The figures exhibited a relation of age with BMI and hypertension in both males and females subjects. Conclusion: The results showed a higher trend of hypertension with increasing BMI. In young females it was noted that with a shift from normal BMI the incidence of hypertension was very high. (author)