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Sample records for male spousal caregivers

  1. Gender Differences in Dementia Spousal Caregiving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Maria Pöysti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The proportion of male caregivers is rapidly increasing. However, there are few large scale studies exploring gender differences in the burden or coping with caregiving. We investigated this among caregivers of patients with dementia. The study cohort consisted of 335 dyads of wife-husband couples from two studies including dementia patients and their spousal caregivers. Baseline mini-mental state examination (MMSE, clinical dementia rating scale (CDR, neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI, cornell depression scale and charlson comorbidity index (CCI were used to describe patients with dementia, Zarit burden scale and geriatric depression scale were used to measure experienced burden and depression of caregivers. Mean age of caregivers was 78 years. There were no differences in depression, satisfaction with life, or loneliness according to caregivers' gender. Male caregivers had more comorbidities than females (CCI 1.9 versus 1.1, P<0.001, and the wives of male caregivers had a more severe stage of dementia than husbands of female caregivers (CDR, P=0.048; MMSE14.0 versus 17.7, P<0.001. However, the mean Zarit burden scale was significantly lower among male than female caregivers (31.5 versus 37.5; P<0.001. Lower education of male caregivers tended to be associated with less experienced burden. In conclusion, male caregivers of dementia experienced lower burden than female caregivers despite care recipients' more severe disease.

  2. Compassionate Love in Individuals With Alzheimer's Disease and Their Spousal Caregivers: Associations With Caregivers' Psychological Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monin, Joan K; Schulz, Richard; Feeney, Brooke C

    2015-12-01

    To examine whether compassionate love in both individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their spousal caregivers related to less caregiving burden, more positive caregiving appraisals, and less depressive symptoms for caregivers. Fifty-eight individuals with AD and their spousal caregivers participated in interviews in which both partners reported their compassionate love for their partner, and caregivers self-reported burden, positive appraisals of caregiving, and depressive symptoms. As hypothesized, both AD individuals' and caregivers' compassionate love were associated with less burden and more positive appraisals of caregiving. Also, care givers' compassionate love mediated the association between AD individuals' compassionate love and caregivers' burden as well as the association between AD individuals' compassionate love and caregivers' positive appraisals of caregiving. Finally, there was a marginally significant association between caregivers' compassionate love and less caregiver depressive symptoms. Results suggest that AD individuals' compassionate love is related to compassionate love in caregivers, which in turn relates to reduced burden but not significantly less depressive symptoms for caregivers. Assessing caregivers' and AD individuals' feelings of compassionate love may be useful in identifying caregivers who are resilient and those who are at a heightened risk for caregiving burden. Also, interventions that enhance both partners' compassionate love may benefit caregivers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Caregiving burden and psychological distress in Chinese spousal caregivers: gender difference in the moderating role of positive aspects of caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Ng, Ting Kin; Zhuang, Xiao Yu

    2018-05-21

    This study endeavors to advance the current literature by examining the gender differences in the caregiving experiences and the stress-buffering role of positive aspects of caregiving (PAC) among Chinese spousal caregivers of frail elders in Hong Kong. Forty-nine husband caregivers and 121 wife caregivers of frail elders in Hong Kong (N = 170) responded to the Positive Aspects of Caregiving (PAC) scale, the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI), the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS-21), and demographic questions. These spousal caregivers were diverse in age, and their care receivers were diverse in terms of age and health condition. As predicted, there were significant gender differences in the moderating effects of PAC on the relationships of caregiving burden to depression, anxiety, and overall psychological distress. While PAC significantly buffered the effects of caregiving burden on depression, anxiety, and overall psychological distress for wife caregivers, the moderating effects of PAC were not significant for husband caregivers. Unexpectedly, wife caregivers reported lower PAC, higher caregiving burden, and higher psychological distress. As these findings suggest that PAC is lower but more beneficial for Chinese wife caregivers than Chinese husband caregivers, helping professionals are recommended to use strengths-based interventions that target PAC when working with Chinese wife caregivers.

  4. Effect of male partner's support on spousal modern contraception in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Male partner hindrances and costs of contraceptive or transportation to clinic are important in noncompliance. Male partner education, subsidized/free contraceptives and mobile/community services will improve compliance. Keywords: Female contraception; Male partner support; Spousal contraception ...

  5. Spousal Caregiving for Partners With Dementia: A Deductive Literature Review Testing Calasanti's Gendered View of Care Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Chull; Coogle, Constance L

    2016-07-01

    Spousal caregiving allows stressed couples to continue living in the community rather than seeking institutional solutions. Dr. Toni Calasanti has postulated that there are gender differences in the care work styles and coping strategies used by spousal caregivers dealing with dementia. While caregiving husbands tend to adopt task-oriented (masculine) approaches, caregiving wives are more likely to take an emotionally focused (feminine) orientation. These differences result in the need for varied interventions. Male caregivers tend toward a managerial approach, whereas female caregivers generally adopt a relational approach. This distinction was examined in the course of a literature review through the deductive process. It was determined that the core thesis of such a gender-based view of care work as a tiered entity threaded with masculinity/femininity remains quite plausible in contrast to models based on self-perceived gender identity of caregivers that require more exploration. Recommendations for future investigations are offered as new questions arise. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Spousal Perceptions of Marital Stress and Support among Grandparent Caregivers: Variations by Life Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzek, Amanda E.; Cooney, Teresa M.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined how raising grandchildren influences the marital relationship of grandparent caregivers although half of such caregivers are married. This study used national survey data from Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) to contrast perceptions of spousal support and strain for grandparents who had recently provided…

  7. Predictors of Secondary Role Strains Among Spousal Caregivers of Older Adults With Functional Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polenick, Courtney A; DePasquale, Nicole

    2018-01-08

    Aging spouses commonly care for a partner with functional disability, but little is known about how spousal caregiving may impact different life domains. This study evaluated how caregiving characteristics are associated with secondary role strains among spousal caregivers. This cross-sectional study examined 367 spousal caregivers and their partners from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study and National Study of Caregiving. Hierarchical regressions were estimated to determine how caregiver background factors (sociodemographics, health conditions) along with primary objective (care activities, care recipient health conditions, and dementia status) and subjective (emotional caregiving difficulties, role overload) stressors are linked to care-related valued activity restriction, negative caregiving relationship quality, and care-related family disagreements. Gender differences were considered. After accounting for all predictors, older caregivers and caregivers providing more help with activities of daily living and health system interactions (e.g., scheduling appointments) were more likely to report activity restriction, whereas caregivers with more emotional difficulties reported higher negative caregiving relationship quality. Role overload was positively associated with all three secondary strains. For husbands only, caring for a partner with more chronic conditions was linked to higher negative caregiving relationship quality and caring for a partner with dementia was associated with a greater likelihood of family disagreements. Secondary role strains may develop through similar and unique pathways for caregiving wives and husbands. Further research is needed to identify those who could benefit from support in managing their care responsibilities alongside other life areas. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Medical Care Tasks among Spousal Dementia Caregivers: Links to Care-Related Sleep Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polenick, Courtney A; Leggett, Amanda N; Maust, Donovan T; Kales, Helen C

    2018-05-01

    Medical care tasks are commonly provided by spouses caring for persons living with dementia (PLWDs). These tasks reflect complex care demands that may interfere with sleep, yet their implications for caregivers' sleep outcomes are unknown. The authors evaluated the association between caregivers' medical/nursing tasks (keeping track of medications; managing tasks such as ostomy care, intravenous lines, or blood testing; giving shots/injections; and caring for skin wounds/sores) and care-related sleep disturbances. A retrospective analysis of cross-sectional data from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study and National Study of Caregiving was conducted. Spousal caregivers and PLWDs/proxies were interviewed by telephone at home. The U.S. sample included 104 community-dwelling spousal caregivers and PLWDs. Caregivers reported on their sociodemographic and health characteristics, caregiving stressors, negative caregiving relationship quality, and sleep disturbances. PLWDs (or proxies) reported on their health conditions and sleep problems. Caregivers who performed a higher number of medical/nursing tasks reported significantly more frequent care-related sleep disturbances, controlling for sociodemographic and health characteristics, caregiving stressors, negative caregiving relationship quality, and PLWDs' sleep problems and health conditions. Post hoc tests showed that wound care was independently associated with more frequent care-related sleep disturbances after accounting for the other medical/nursing tasks and covariates. Spousal caregivers of PLWDs who perform medical/nursing tasks may be at heightened risk for sleep disturbances and associated adverse health consequences. Interventions to promote the well-being of both care partners may benefit from directly addressing caregivers' needs and concerns about their provision of medical/nursing care. Copyright © 2018 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  9. Talking about Sexuality and Intimacy with Women Spousal Caregivers: Perspectives of Service Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Shari; Drummond, Jennifer; Silverman, Marjorie; Sussman, Tamara; Orzeck, Pam; Barylak, Lucy; Wallach, Isabelle; Billette, Veronique

    2016-11-20

    This article reports the findings of an exploratory study examining service provider perceptions and experiences of addressing sexuality and intimacy with women spousal caregivers. The caregiver-provider encounter is examined, and challenges faced by service providers in addressing sexuality are considered. Themes identified include ambivalence and discomfort, personal and institutional barriers, meanings attributed to sexuality and intimacy, and lack of opportunities to discuss experiences. Strategies to overcome silence and invisibility on the part of service providers in the health and social services system are considered. © 2016 National Association of Social Workers.

  10. Spousal caregivers and persons with dementia: Increasing participation in shared leisure activities among hospital-based dementia support program participants.

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    DiLauro, Michelle; Pereira, Amanda; Carr, Jennifer; Chiu, Mary; Wesson, Virginia

    2015-02-20

    Spousal caregivers of persons with dementia often have difficulty engaging persons with dementia in leisure activities. This qualitative descriptive study identifies how caregivers perceive their spouses' participation in leisure activities since dementia onset and the professional guidance caregivers require to increase persons with dementia participation in shared leisure activities. Nine spousal caregivers from a hospital-based caregiver intervention attended one of three focus groups. Using symbolic interactionism and selective optimization with compensation theory as guiding frameworks, thematic content analysis was performed. Three major themes were identified: Recognizing and acknowledging changes, Making sense of changes and conflicts, and Embracing changes and forging ahead. Findings can be used by healthcare providers to better understand caregivers' needs for engaging persons with dementia in shared leisure activities, and inform development of feedback protocols to enhance caregiver interventions. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Compassionate Love in Individuals With Alzheimer’s Disease and Their Spousal Caregivers: Associations With Caregivers’ Psychological Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monin, Joan K.; Schulz, Richard; Feeney, Brooke C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: To examine whether compassionate love in both individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and their spousal caregivers related to less caregiving burden, more positive caregiving appraisals, and less depressive symptoms for caregivers. Design and Methods: Fifty-eight individuals with AD and their spousal caregivers participated in interviews in which both partners reported their compassionate love for their partner, and caregivers self-reported burden, positive appraisals of caregiving, and depressive symptoms. Results: As hypothesized, both AD individuals’ and caregivers’ compassionate love were associated with less burden and more positive appraisals of caregiving. Also, care givers’ compassionate love mediated the association between AD individuals’ compassionate love and caregivers’ burden as well as the association between AD individuals’ compassionate love and caregivers’ positive appraisals of caregiving. Finally, there was a marginally significant association between caregivers’ compassionate love and less caregiver depressive symptoms. Implications: Results suggest that AD individuals’ compassionate love is related to compassionate love in caregivers, which in turn relates to reduced burden but not significantly less depressive symptoms for caregivers. Assessing caregivers’ and AD individuals’ feelings of compassionate love may be useful in identifying caregivers who are resilient and those who are at a heightened risk for caregiving burden. Also, interventions that enhance both partners’ compassionate love may benefit caregivers. PMID:24534607

  12. Protective buffering and emotional desynchrony among spousal caregivers of cancer patients.

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    Langer, Shelby L; Rudd, Michael E; Syrjala, Karen L

    2007-09-01

    To examine protective buffering and emotional desynchrony among spousal caregivers of cancer survivors. Repeated measures; 42 caregivers engaged in 2 videotaped, oral emotional expression exercises: 1 in the presence of their patient and 1 in the absence of their patient. Felt emotion (self-report) and expressed emotion (lexical expression or words uttered and coder-derived facial expression). Other measures assessed mental and physical health, dyadic satisfaction, and dispositional emotional inhibition. Protective buffering differed by communicative channel (lexical vs. facial). Caregivers' facial expressions were more positive when the patient was present versus absent. In contrast, the valence of caregivers' words did not differ per patient presence. Facial protective buffering was unrelated to health and dyadic outcomes. Lexical protective buffering was inversely related to both caregiver and patient marital satisfaction. Dispositional emotional inhibition was inversely related to caregiver mental health and marital satisfaction. Desynchrony occurred when the patient was present but was counter to prediction; felt emotion was more positive than expressed emotion. Results provide behavioral evidence of facial protective buffering. To the extent that lexical buffering occurs, it poses a dyadic risk, and chronic inhibition poses both psychological and dyadic risks. Future research is needed to refine the operational definition of desynchrony and to examine the biopsychosocial sequelae of buffering. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Shadow of domestic violence and extramarital sex cohesive with spousal communication among males in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Public health and human right issues are challenging in low and middle income countries. The main objectives of this paper were to determine the prevalence and factors associated with domestic violence, extramarital sex, and spousal communication among male. Methods A cross-sectional study among 2466 married males in Kathmandu, Nepal was conducted using random sampling method. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of associated factors were estimated by stepwise backward likelihood ratio method. Results Prevalence of domestic violence was 63.14% (95% CI 61.20-65.05), extramarital sex was 32.12% (95% CI 30.27-34.00), and spousal communication was 48.87% (95% CI 46.85-50.90). Nearly one in five male (18.20%) had not used condom during extramarital sex. Interestingly, male who had more than three or equal children were less likely to have perpetrated domestic violence compared with those who had less children. Older male aged 25 and above were more likely (AORs = 1.55, 95% CI 1.19-2.03) to have extramarital sex compared with male aged 24 or below. Those male who had studied secondary or higher level of education were less likely to have extramarital sex compared to those who had primary level or no education. Male who had higher income were more likely to have spousal communication compared to those who had less income. Surprisingly, those male who had extramarital sex were less likely to have spousal communication compared with those was not involved in extramarital sex. Conclusion Practice of domestic violence and extramarital sex is quite common among married male in Nepal, where spousal communication is sparse. These findings can be used to advocate for immediate attention and activities needs to be endorsed by policymakers and programmers. PMID:24924872

  14. The Effects of the MORE Wisdom Resources on Spousal Caregivers' Life Satisfaction: An Application of the Resilience Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungyoun; Knight, Bob G

    2017-01-01

    Models of resilience suggest that psychosocial resources and their interactions facilitate resilience while experiencing life challenges of caregiving. The MORE wisdom resources (sense of Mastery, Openness to experience, Reflective attitude, and Emotion regulation) have been suggested as possible personal resources of resilience that predict positive health outcomes of caregivers. Applying a model of resilience, this study examined the direct and indirect effects of the three of the MORE wisdom resources (sense of Mastery, Openness to experience, and Emotion regulation) on caregiving spouses' life satisfaction and perceived physical health. Using data from the survey of Midlife in the United States, caregiving spouses (n = 114) and matched non-caregivers (n = 114) were included. We compared the direct and indirect effects of the wisdom resources on life satisfaction and physical health between the two groups. The simple mediation model proposed in 2008 by Preacher and Hayes revealed that openness to experience was directly associated with better life satisfaction among caregiving spouses. Sense of mastery and emotion regulation had indirect effects on life satisfaction through spousal support. The effects the wisdom resources on caregiving spouses' perceived physical health were not found. This study demonstrated that the three of the MORE wisdom resources are possible personal resilience factors influencing life satisfaction among caregiving spouses. Moreover, the study showed how spousal support mediates the relationship between the wisdom resources and life satisfaction. Interventions aiming to increase life satisfaction among caregiving spouses should focus on increasing both personal and environmental resources and strengthening the relationship of the caregiver and care recipient.

  15. Avoidant coping partially mediates the relationship between patient problem behaviors and depressive symptoms in spousal Alzheimer caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausbach, Brent T; Aschbacher, Kirstin; Patterson, Thomas L; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; von Känel, Roland; Mills, Paul J; Dimsdale, Joel E; Grant, Igor

    2006-04-01

    Caring for a loved one with Alzheimer disease is a highly stressful experience that is associated with significant depressive symptoms. Previous studies indicate a positive association between problem behaviors in patients with Alzheimer disease (e.g., repeating questions, restlessness, and agitation) and depressive symptoms in their caregivers. Moreover, the extant literature indicates a robust negative relationship between escape-avoidance coping (i.e., avoiding people, wishing the situation would go away) and psychiatric well-being. The purpose of this study was to test a mediational model of the associations between patient problem behaviors, escape-avoidance coping, and depressive symptoms in Alzheimer caregivers. Ninety-five spousal caregivers (mean age: 72 years) completed measures assessing their loved ones' frequency of problem behaviors, escape-avoidance coping, and depressive symptoms. A mediational model was tested to determine if escape-avoidant coping partially mediated the relationship between patient problem behaviors and caregiver depressive symptoms. Patient problem behaviors were positively associated with escape-avoidance coping (beta = 0.38, p avoidance coping was positively associated with depressive symptoms (beta = 0.33, p avoidance coping. Sobel's test confirmed that escape-avoidance coping significantly mediated the relationship between problem behaviors and depressive symptoms (z = 2.07, p avoidance coping partially mediates the association between patient problem behaviors and depressive symptoms among elderly caregivers of spouses with dementia. This finding provides a specific target for psychosocial interventions for caregivers.

  16. Factors influencing the health-related quality of life of Chinese advanced cancer patients and their spousal caregivers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuping; Xu, Yinghua; Zhou, Huiya; Loke, Alice Yuen

    2016-08-02

    Cancer and its treatment have a major impact on the lives of patients and their intimate partners, such as on their health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The aims of this study are to: (i) assess the HRQOL of advanced cancer patients and spousal caregivers, and explore the relationship between the HRQOL of cancer patients and that of their spousal caregivers; (ii) detect factors influencing the HRQOL of cancer patients and spousal caregivers; and (iii) explore the impact of anxiety and depression on the HRQOL of couples. A total of 131 couples where one of the partners was hospitalized for advanced cancer were invited to complete a survey to assess their demographic and background information, HRQOL, and anxiety and depression. HRQOL was measured using the SF-12, while anxiety and depression were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Data were analyzed using a T-test, Pearson correlations, multiple linear regressions, and structural equation modeling. In general, the spousal caregivers had higher levels of HRQOL (seven out of eight SF-12 domains and two SF-12 dimensions) p = 0.038-0.000, anxiety (p = 0.002), and depression (p = 0.011) than patients. Correlations of HRQOL between patients and spouses were small to moderate (r = 0.193-0.398). Multiple independent factors influencing the physical component summary (PCS), mental component summary (MCS), vitality (VT), and role emotional (RE) sections of the SF-12 were identified, including: gender, time since diagnosis, levels of education, working status, the extent to which spousal caregivers were informed about the disease, improved marital relationship after the diagnosis of cancer, and anxiety and depression. For both patients and spousal caregivers, the strongest independent factor influencing HRQOL (SF-12 PCS, MCS, VT, and RE) was anxiety and depression. Anxiety and depression may have both actor and partner effects on the HRQOL of couples to various degrees. The findings of

  17. Influence of alcohol on condom use pattern during non-spousal sexual encounter in male migrant workers in north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, S A; Kant, S; Goswami, K; Rai, S K; Misra, P

    2014-01-01

    Migrant workers constitute an important risk group for Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome transmission in India. Alcohol consumption before sexual intercourse has been postulated to influence condom use practices. This study aimed to assess this association with regard to non-spousal sexual encounters among male migrant workers in northern India. A cross-sectional facility-based survey was conducted in 2011. Male migrant workers aged ≥18 years, who were born outside Haryana, who had moved to the current location after 15 years of age,had worked in the current factory for at least 1 year, who were willing to participate and were able to give written, informed consent were included in the study. A consecutive sampling was performed. Descriptive, bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were carried out. A total of 162 participants reported having experienced non-spousal sexual encounters in the last 1 year. The proportion of men who reported not having used a condom at their last non-spousal sexual encounter was 59.3%, and 78.4% of the men reported having consumed alcohol in the last 1 year. About 48.1% of men reported having consumed alcohol before their last non-spousal sexual encounter. Men who consumed alcohol were three times more likely to not use a condom at their last non-spousal sexual encounter (OR = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.5-6.4). This association persisted even after adjusting for relevant confounders. Alcohol consumption had a negative influence on condom use during non-spousal sexual encounter among male migrant workers. An integrated approach to promote condom use and reduce alcohol consumption among migrant men needs to be undertaken through targeted intervention strategies.

  18. Is salivary pH a marker of depression among older spousal caregivers for cancer patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaila, Rabia; Cohen, Miri; Zidan, Jamal

    2014-01-01

    The pH in saliva, which decreases due to the activation of the sympathetic nervous system, may serve as a biomarker of psychological distress in caregivers but has rarely been studied in this context. The aims are to examine the levels of salivary pH as a possible biomarker of depression among caregivers and whether depression mediates the association between caregiving status (cancer caregivers vs. non-cancer caregivers) and pH levels. Cross-sectional data were collected from 68 consecutive-sampled spouses of cancer patients, and 42 age-matched individuals. Lower levels of pH saliva were found among caregivers of cancer patients than in the comparison group. Being a caregiver, poor subjective health, higher depression, and lower mastery predicted lower pH levels. In addition, depression mediated the associations of mastery with pH levels. The study provides preliminary evidence that salivary pH may serve as an easily tested indicator of the stress of caregiving and its related depression.

  19. The two-year incidence of depression and anxiety disorders in spousal caregivers of persons with dementia: who is at the greatest risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joling, Karlijn J; van Marwijk, Harm W J; Veldhuijzen, Aaltje E; van der Horst, Henriëtte E; Scheltens, Philip; Smit, Filip; van Hout, Hein P J

    2015-03-01

    Caregivers of persons with dementia play an important and economically valuable role within society, but many may do so at a considerable cost to themselves. Knowing which caregivers have the highest risk of developing a mental disorder may contribute to better support of ultra-high-risk groups with preventive interventions. This study aims to describe the incidence of depression and anxiety disorders in caregivers and to identify its significant predictors. Prospective cohort study with a follow-up of 24 months. 181 spousal caregivers of persons with dementia without a clinical depression or anxiety disorder at baseline. Memory clinics, case management services, and primary care settings in the Netherlands. The onset of depression and anxiety was measured every 3 months with the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview, a structured diagnostic instrument for DSM-IV mental disorders. Potential predictors were assessed at baseline. 60% of the caregivers developed a depressive and/or anxiety disorder within 24 months: 37% a depression, 55% an anxiety disorder, and 32% both disorders. Sub-threshold depressive symptoms (Wald χ2=6.20, df=1, OR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.28-8.03, p=0.013) and poor self-reported health of the caregiver (Wald χ2=5.56, df=1, OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.03-1.34, p=0.018) at baseline were significant predictors of disorder onset. Spousal caregivers of persons with dementia have a high risk to develop a mental disorder. Indicators related to the caregiver's (mental) health rather than environmental stressors such as patient characteristics or interruption of caregivers' daily activities predict disorder onset and can be used to identify caregivers for whom supporting preventive interventions are indicated. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cognitive reserve and self-efficacy as moderators of the relationship between stress exposure and executive functioning among spousal dementia caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertl, M M; Hannigan, C; Brennan, S; Robertson, I H; Lawlor, B A

    2017-04-01

    A substantial literature has reported that stress negatively impacts on cognitive processes. As dementia caregiving can be stressful, it has been hypothesized that the challenges of dementia care may increase caregivers' own vulnerability to cognitive decline. Prefrontal processes are thought to be most vulnerable to stress; however, few studies have examined whether greater caregiver stress predicts poorer executive dysfunction, and no previous research has considered potential moderators of this relationship. We examined (1) whether greater psychological stress mediated a relationship between caregiver stress exposure and executive functioning and (2) whether greater self-efficacy and cognitive reserve (CR) moderated this relationship. Spousal dementia caregivers (n = 253) completed the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (stress exposure), the Perceived Stress Scale, the National Adult Reading Test (CR), the Fortinsky dementia-specific caregiver self-efficacy scale, and the Color Trails Test (executive functioning). Moderated mediation was tested using the PROCESS macro. Age, gender, and dementia risk factors were included as covariates. Greater stress exposure indirectly predicted executive functioning through psychological stress. Stronger relationships between greater psychological stress and poorer executive functioning were observed among caregivers with lower CR; there was no evidence that self-efficacy moderated the relationship between stress exposure and psychological stress. Our findings are in line with the idea that greater psychological stress in response to challenges associated with dementia care predicts poorer caregiver executive functioning, particularly among caregivers with low CR. However, these findings are cross sectional; it is also possible that poorer executive functioning contributes to greater caregiver stress.

  1. Effect of Male Partner's Support on Spousal Modern Contraception in a Low Resource Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Olayinka; Adeniran, Abiodun; Fawole, Adegboyega; Adesina, Kikelomo; Aboyeji, Abiodun; Adeniran, Peace

    2016-09-01

    As efforts continue to increase contraceptive uptake, male partner support remains important in spousal modern contraceptive use. A prospective cross-sectional survey involving women on modern contraception was conducted at the family planning clinic of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, between December 2013 and April 2014. All consenting participants completed a self-administered questionnaire designed for the study, and statistical analysis was done with SPSS version 20.0 using with chi square test and logistic regression; p value contraceptives used were IUD and injectables while male partner was responsible for discontinuation in 30(23.3%) of previous users. Covert contraceptive use was 22(7.2%), male partner support was 209(68.5%) as payment for the contraceptives (203; 66.6%) or transportation to the clinic (198; 64.9%). Also, 55(18.0%) women failed to comply with contraception recently due to male partner hindrance (25; 45.5%) or inability to pay for contraceptive (11; 20%) or transportation to the clinic (8; 14.5%). Male partners hindered contraception by reporting the woman to relatives/friends (8; 32%) or denying her money for feeding allowance (6; 24%); 277(90.8%) women want contraception to be couple decision while 261(85.6%) want contraception administered only if both partners consented. The significant predictors of male partner support were awareness about the contraceptive use (pMale partner hindrances and costs of contraceptive or transportation to clinic are important in noncompliance. Male partner education, subsidized/free contraceptives and mobile/community services will improve compliance.

  2. A mismatch between supply and demand of social support in dementia care: a qualitative study on the perspectives of spousal caregivers and their social network members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Alieske E H; Boots, Lizzy M M; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Verhey, Frans R J; de Vugt, Marjolein E

    2017-06-13

    Access to social support contributes to feelings of independence and better social health. This qualitative study aims to investigate multi-informant perspectives on informal social support in dementia care networks. Ten spousal caregivers of people with dementia (PwD) completed an ecogram, a social network card and a semi-structured interview. The ecogram aimed to trigger subjective experiences regarding social support. Subsequently, 17 network members were interviewed. The qualitative analyses identified codes, categories, and themes. Sixth themes emerged: (1) barriers to ask for support; (2) facilitators to ask for support; (3) barriers to offer support; (4) facilitators to offer support; (5) a mismatch between supply and demand of social support; and (6) openness in communication to repair the imbalance. Integrating social network perspectives resulted in a novel model identifying a mismatch between the supply and demand of social support, strengthened by a cognitive bias: caregivers reported to think for other social network members and vice versa. Openness in communication in formal and informal care systems might repair this mismatch.

  3. Caregiver Stigma and Burden in Memory Disorders: An Evaluation of the Effects of Caregiver Type and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phoebe V. Kahn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable gains in public awareness of dementia, dementia patients and their caregivers continue to be stigmatized. Previous work has explored stigma and burden among adult children of persons with dementia in Israel, but no similar data exist for spousal caregivers or caregivers in general in the United States. This study examines the differences in stigma and burden experienced by spousal and adult child caregivers and male and female caregivers of persons with dementia. Eighty-two caregivers were given the Zarit Burden Inventory Short Form (ZBI and the Caregiver Section of the Family Stigma in Alzheimer’s Disease Scale (FS-ADS-C. Scores on the FS-ADS-C and ZBI were positively correlated (rs=.51, p<.001. Female caregivers reported experiencing more stigma on the FS-ADS-C (t(80 = −4.37, p<.001 and more burden on the ZBI (t(80 = −2.68, p=.009 compared to male caregivers, and adult child caregivers reported experiencing more stigma on the FS-ADS-C (t(30.8 = −2.22, p=.034 and more burden on the ZBI (t(80 = −2.65, p=.010 than spousal caregivers. These results reinforce the importance of support for caregivers, particularly adult child and female caregivers who may experience higher levels of stigma and burden.

  4. Subjective burden among spousal and adult-child informal caregivers of older adults : results from a longitudinal cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenkamp, Marloes; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Slaets, Joris; Stolk, Ronald; Wittek, Rafael; Smidt, Nynke

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pressures on informal caregivers are likely to increase due to increasing life expectancy and health care costs, which stresses the importance of prevention of subjective burden. The present study examined the correlates of overall subjective burden and multiple burden dimensions among

  5. Men and masculinities in forensic psychiatric care: an interview study concerning male nurses' experiences of working with male caregivers and male patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpula, Esa; Ekstrand, Per

    2009-09-01

    Forensic psychiatric care is largely populated by men--as patients, caregivers, and nurses. Previous research has not focused on the meaning of gender in this context. The aim of this study is to analyse male nurses' experiences of working with male caregivers and attending to male patients in forensic psychiatric care. Data were collected through interviews with six male nurses. The results consist of five themes. Protection and defence are key aspects of care and male caregivers gain status and authority through their physical strength. This could hamper caring and provide male caregivers with a superior position in the department.

  6. The presence of a primary male caregiver affects children's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    caregiver has an influence, direct or indirect, on children's language skills. Keywords: ... the presence/absence of a father figure on language development were mainly conducted in ... centres via the classroom teachers or day mothers.

  7. Spousal communication about HIV prevention in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Chi; Mishra, Vinod; Ksobiech, Kate

    2011-11-01

    High HIV rates among cohabiting couples in many African countries have led to greater programmatic emphasis on spousal communication in HIV prevention. This study examines how demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of cohabiting adults influence their dyadic communication about HIV. A central focus of this research is on how the position of women relative to their male partners influences spousal communication about HIV prevention. The authors analyze gaps in spousal age and education and females' participation in household decision making as key factors influencing spousal communication about HIV, while controlling for sexual behaviors of both partners as well as other individual and contextual factors. Data were obtained from the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey for 1,388 cohabiting couples. Information regarding spousal communication was self-reported, assessing whether both, either, or neither partner ever discussed HIV prevention with the other. Analyses showed higher levels of education for the female partner and participation in household decision making are positively associated with spousal communication about HIV prevention. With females' education and other factors controlled, couples with more educated male partners were more likely to have discussed HIV prevention than couples in which both partners have the same level of education. Spousal communication was also positively associated with household wealth status and exposure to the mass media, but couples in which male partners reported having nonspousal sex in the past year were less likely to have discussed HIV prevention with their spouses. Findings suggest HIV prevention programs should promote female empowerment and encourage male participation in sexual health discussion.

  8. Male caregivers of patients with breast and gynecologic cancer: experiences from caring for their spouses and partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Violeta; Copp, Gina; Molassiotis, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable evidence demonstrating the negative effects of caregiving particularly in the areas of psychological well-being and quality of life of family caregivers of patients with cancer. However, there is little work on male caregivers' subjective experience of caring for family members with cancer, and little is known on how caregivers experience the caring over time. The objective of the study was to explore male spouses'/partners' experience of caring for their wives/partners with breast and gynecologic cancer over a 1-year period. An exploratory longitudinal qualitative descriptive design using face-to-face interviews of 15 spouses/partners was used in this study. Content analysis of the transcribed data was conducted to extract significant categories and themes. Varying degrees of interrelated cognitive, physical, and psychological impact were experienced by caregivers that extended to 12 months. Gender-specific attitudes prevented male caregivers from supporting their own self. Male caregivers dealt with problems that arose in the caregiving congruent with their masculinity, such as minimizing disruptions, focusing on tasks, and keeping their own stress to themselves. Male caregivers as a separate group with their own needs have not received much attention in the cancer literature, and their concerns and challenges may differ from those of female caregivers. Male caregivers' concerns and challenges must be taken into consideration when planning appropriate interventions to support them in their caregiving role.

  9. The use of legal guardians and financial powers of attorney among home-dwellers with Alzheimer's disease living with their spousal caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raivio, M M; Mäki-Petäjä-Leinonen, A P; Laakkonen, M-L; Tilvis, R S; Pitkälä, K H

    2008-12-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a random sample of 1943 spouses of home-dwellers with Alzheimer's disease (AD) to examine the prevalence of court-appointed guardians or financial powers of attorney for persons with AD, related factors and the need for information about these issues among caregiving families. The questionnaire consisted questions on variables of demographic characteristics, disability, symptoms and care needs of the person with dementia, the strain of caregiving, the use of court-appointed legal guardians or powers of attorney, as well as discussions about these issues -- and the need for them -- with a doctor. The response rate was 77% and the mean ages of those with AD and caregivers were 80.2 and 78.2 years, respectively. The use of legal guardians was rare (4.3%), while the use of financial powers of attorney was more common (37.8%). Only 9.9% of the couples had discussed these issues with their doctor, whereas 47.9% expressed a need for it. The factors associated with the use of these legal arrangements were related to the severity of dementia, including experiencing dementia symptoms for more than 3 years, poor functioning, incontinence and behavioural symptoms. There is a clear need for information on medico-legal issues related to dementia among caregivers of AD patients. If held soon after the diagnosis, such discussions could support the autonomy of these persons in spite of AD and enable them to plan for the future as they wish.

  10. Men's Knowledge and Spousal Communication about Modern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Men's Knowledge, Spousal Communication about Family Planning ... 1Department of Health Education and Promotion, Public Health Faculty, Jimma ... male involvement in reproductive health services 1. The ... are likely to be more effective for women when men are ..... more equitable gender roles; discussion between.

  11. Factors Underpinning Caregiver Burden in Frontotemporal Dementia Differ in Spouses and their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaizik, Cassandra; Caga, Jashelle; Camino, Julieta; O’Connor, Claire M.; McKinnon, Colleen; Oyebode, Jan R.; Piguet, Olivier; Hodges, John R.; Mioshi, Eneida

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this observational study were to (1) compare spousal and child caregiver burden; (2) compare co-resident and live-out child caregiver burden; and (3) investigate factors influencing spousal and child caregiver burden. Data was collected from 90 caregivers of people with frontotemporal degeneration (FTD) recruited from the Frontotemporal Dementia Research Group (Frontier) at Neuroscience Research, Australia. Of this caregiver group, 43 were spousal caregivers and 47 were child caregivers. Caregiver burden and emotional state were evaluated using the short Zarit Burden Interview and the short version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21. The Social Network Index was applied to ascertain the social network of the caregiver, while the Intimate Bond Measure was used to evaluate the current quality of the relationship between the caregiver and the person with dementia. The Frontotemporal Dementia Rating Scale was used to assess severity of dementia. Spousal and child caregivers experienced similar levels of burden, depression, anxiety, and stress, regardless of disease severity. Co-resident child caregivers had smaller social networks and greater burden than live-out caregivers. Dementia severity was key in spousal caregiver burden, whereas caregiver depression was most important in child caregiver burden. Child and spousal caregivers of individuals with FTD share similar levels of burden, influenced by different factors. Future interventions need to account for these differences. PMID:28106550

  12. Development of a nursing care problems coping scale for male caregivers for people with dementia living at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Midori; Ono, Mitsu

    2015-01-01

    The number of male caregivers has increased, but male caregivers face several problems that reduce their quality of life and psychological condition. This study focused on the coping problems of men who care for people with dementia at home. It aimed to develop a coping scale for male caregivers so that they can continue caring for people with dementia at home and improve their own quality of life. The study also aimed to verify the reliability and validity of the scale. The subjects were 759 men who care for people with dementia at home. The Care Problems Coping Scale consists of 21 questions based on elements of questions extracted from a pilot study. Additionally, subjects completed three self-administered questionnaires: the Japanese version of the Zarit Caregiver Burden Scale, the Depressive Symptoms and the Self-esteem Emotional Scale, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. There were 274 valid responses (36.1% response rate). Regarding the answer distribution, each average value of the 21 items ranged from 1.56 to 2.68. The median answer distribution of the 21 items was 39 (SD = 6.6). Five items had a ceiling effect, and two items had a floor effect. The scale stability was about 50%, and Cronbach's α was 0.49. There were significant correlations between the Care Problems Coping Scale and total scores of the Japanese version of the Zarit Caregiver Burden Scale, the Depressive Symptoms and Self-esteem Emotional Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The answers provided on the Care Problems Coping Scale questionnaire indicated that male caregivers experience care problems. In terms of validity, there were significant correlations between the external questionnaires and 19 of the 21 items in this scale. This scale can therefore be used to measure problems with coping for male caregivers who care for people with dementia at home.

  13. Reconsidering the orphan problem: the emergence of male caregivers in Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Care for AIDS orphans in southern Africa is frequently characterized as a "crisis", where kin-based networks of care are thought to be on the edge of collapse. Yet these care networks, though strained by AIDS, are still the primary mechanisms for orphan care, in large part because of the essential role grandmothers play in responding to the needs of orphans. Ongoing demographic shifts as a result of HIV/AIDS and an increasingly feminized labor market continue to disrupt and alter networks of care for orphans and vulnerable children. This paper examines the emergence of a small but growing number of male caregivers who are responding to the needs of the extended family. While these men are still few in number, the strength of gendered ideologies of female care means that this group of men is socially, if not statistically significant. Men continue to be considered caregivers of last resort, but their care will close a small but growing gap that threatens to undermine kin-based networks of care in Lesotho and across the region. The adaptation of gender roles reinforces the strength and resilience of kinship networks even when working against deeply entrenched ideas about gendered division of domestic labor.

  14. Caregiver Stress and Mental Health: Impact of Caregiving Relationship and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning, Margaret J; Wu, Zheng

    2016-12-01

    This study compared the stress and mental health implications of caregiving to a spouse, children, siblings, other family members, friends, and others among middle-aged and older male and female caregivers. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted using 2007 Canadian General Social Survey data collected on a subsample of caregivers aged 45 and older. Our analyses revealed that for women, caring for a spouse or children was more stressful and detrimental to mental health than caring for parents or others. Similarly, for men, caring for a spouse and for children was more stressful than caring for others but did not adversely affect overall mental health. The findings suggest that spousal and child caregiving tend to be more rather than less stressful and detrimental to middle-aged and older caregivers' mental health than is caregiving to most others but that gender differences need to be considered. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Work and Family: Satisfaction, Stress, and Spousal Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Miller, Dianne L.; Campbell, N. Jo; Morrison, Charles R.

    2000-01-01

    Married veterinarians were surveyed about work satisfaction, work-related stress, marital-family stress, and spousal support for their career. Female veterinarians reported greater effect of martial/family stress on career and less perceived support than did their male counterparts. Areas of greatest work dissatisfaction for both genders were…

  16. Occupational segregation, gender essentialism and male primacy as major barriers to equity in HIV/AIDS caregiving: Findings from Lesotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoae Lucia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender segregation of occupations, which typically assigns caring/nurturing jobs to women and technical/managerial jobs to men, has been recognized as a major source of inequality worldwide with implications for the development of robust health workforces. In sub-Saharan Africa, gender inequalities are particularly acute in HIV/AIDS caregiving (90% of which is provided in the home, where women and girls make up the informal (and mostly unpaid workforce. Men's and boy's entry into HIV/AIDS caregiving in greater numbers would both increase the equity and sustainability of national and community-level HIV/AIDS caregiving and mitigate health workforce shortages, but notions of gender essentialism and male primacy make this far from inevitable. In 2008 the Capacity Project partnered with the Lesotho Ministry of Health and Social Welfare in a study of the gender dynamics of HIV/AIDS caregiving in three districts of Lesotho to account for men's absence in HIV/AIDS caregiving and investigate ways in which they might be recruited into the community and home-based care (CHBC workforce. Methods The study used qualitative methods, including 25 key informant interviews with village chiefs, nurse clinicians, and hospital administrators and 31 focus group discussions with community health workers, community members, ex-miners, and HIV-positive men and women. Results Study participants uniformly perceived a need to increase the number of CHBC providers to deal with the heavy workload from increasing numbers of patients and insufficient new entries. HIV/AIDS caregiving is a gender-segregated job, at the core of which lie stereotypes and beliefs about the appropriate work of men and women. This results in an inequitable, unsustainable burden on women and girls. Strategies are analyzed for their potential effectiveness in increasing equity in caregiving. Conclusions HIV/AIDS and human resources stakeholders must address occupational segregation

  17. Occupational segregation, gender essentialism and male primacy as major barriers to equity in HIV/AIDS caregiving: Findings from Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Constance J; Fogarty, Linda; Makoae, Lucia Nthabiseng; Reavely, Erik

    2011-06-08

    Gender segregation of occupations, which typically assigns caring/nurturing jobs to women and technical/managerial jobs to men, has been recognized as a major source of inequality worldwide with implications for the development of robust health workforces. In sub-Saharan Africa, gender inequalities are particularly acute in HIV/AIDS caregiving (90% of which is provided in the home), where women and girls make up the informal (and mostly unpaid) workforce. Men's and boy's entry into HIV/AIDS caregiving in greater numbers would both increase the equity and sustainability of national and community-level HIV/AIDS caregiving and mitigate health workforce shortages, but notions of gender essentialism and male primacy make this far from inevitable.In 2008 the Capacity Project partnered with the Lesotho Ministry of Health and Social Welfare in a study of the gender dynamics of HIV/AIDS caregiving in three districts of Lesotho to account for men's absence in HIV/AIDS caregiving and investigate ways in which they might be recruited into the community and home-based care (CHBC) workforce. The study used qualitative methods, including 25 key informant interviews with village chiefs, nurse clinicians, and hospital administrators and 31 focus group discussions with community health workers, community members, ex-miners, and HIV-positive men and women. Study participants uniformly perceived a need to increase the number of CHBC providers to deal with the heavy workload from increasing numbers of patients and insufficient new entries. HIV/AIDS caregiving is a gender-segregated job, at the core of which lie stereotypes and beliefs about the appropriate work of men and women. This results in an inequitable, unsustainable burden on women and girls. Strategies are analyzed for their potential effectiveness in increasing equity in caregiving. HIV/AIDS and human resources stakeholders must address occupational segregation and the underlying gender essentialism and male primacy if there

  18. Marriage Matters: Spousal Similarity in Life Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich Schimmack; Richard Lucas

    2006-01-01

    Examined the concurrent and cross-lagged spousal similarity in life satisfaction over a 21-year period. Analyses were based on married couples (N = 847) in the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). Concurrent spousal similarity was considerably higher than one-year retest similarity, revealing spousal similarity in the variable component of life satisfac-tion. Spousal similarity systematically decreased with length of retest interval, revealing simi-larity in the changing component of life sati...

  19. Willingness to Express Emotions to Caregiving Spouses

    OpenAIRE

    Monin, Joan K.; Martire, Lynn M.; Schulz, Richard; Clark, Margaret S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the association between care-recipients’ willingness to express emotions to spousal caregivers and caregiver’s well-being and support behaviors. Using self-report measures in the context of a larger study, 262 care-recipients with osteoarthritis reported on their willingness to express emotions to caregivers, and caregivers reported on their stress and insensitive responding to care-recipients. Results revealed that care-recipients’ willingness to express happiness was ass...

  20. Differences on psychosocial outcomes between male and female caregivers of children with life-limiting illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Monica; Steele, Rose; Cadell, Susan; Hemsworth, David

    2011-06-01

    This secondary analysis of data examined the psychosocial outcomes of meaning in caregiving, self-esteem, optimism, burden, depression, spirituality, and posttraumatic growth in 273 parents caring for children with life-limiting illnesses to (a) determine if there were gender differences and (b) identify gender-specific correlations among these outcomes. Findings suggest that significant gender differences exist. Women reported higher average scores compared with men for meaning in caregiving, depression, burden, and posttraumatic growth and lower average scores for optimism. Correlations also revealed some significant differences. Health care professionals need to be aware of gender differences and tailor their interventions appropriately. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of crystal methamphetamine among male adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa: Caregivers' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Kwaku Oppong; Lentoor, Antonio G

    2017-03-27

    Against the background that crystal methamphetamine (colloquially known as "tik") is extensively used by the emerging working class Coloured youth in Cape Town, South Africa, this exploratory qualitative study was conducted to explore the experience of mothers whose children use methamphetamine. The researchers conducted one-to-one semi-structured in-depth interviews with sixteen (16) purposively selected caregivers (mothers) whose sons use methamphetamine. Interviews were recorded and simultaneously translated and transcribed. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes related to the experiences of caregivers of youth with methamphetamine problems. Findings showed that youth misbehaviour provided a context that led to feelings of shame and embarrassment. Participants also experienced personal challenges which included emotional problems, fear and self-blame. Participants also expressed family disruptions and financial drain as adverse experiences as a results of their sons' misbehaviour. The study results highlight the psychosocial challenges for caregivers of children who use methamphetamine. These findings underscore the need for effort to be directed at the development of formal support interventions for mothers of youth who are troubled with addiction.

  2. The impact of dementia and mild memory impairment (MMI) on intimacy and sexuality in spousal relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Helen D; Newkirk, Lori A; Pitts, Christiane B; Coughlin, Christine A; Sridhar, Sneha B; Zeiss, L McKenzie; Zeiss, Antonette M

    2010-06-01

    Sexuality and intimacy in couples in which one partner is affected by dementia has been widely researched. Few studies have explored these issues in couples where one partner is affected by mild memory impairment (MMI) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The objectives of this study were to (1) identify and contrast issues of intimacy and sexuality that spousal caregivers of persons with MMI and dementia may experience, and (2) identify future lines of research in this population. Fourteen dementia and nine MMI spousal caregivers participated in focus groups conducted between 2008 and 2009 at the Stanford/VA Alzheimer's Research Center. Content analyses were conducted to identify themes. Five themes emerged: communication, marital cohesion, affectional expression, caregiver burden, and ambiguity concerning the future of the relationship. Dementia caregivers reported more difficulties with communication, cohesion, and perceptions of increased burden than their MMI counterparts. Both groups indicated reduced sexual expression due to physical limitations; substitute activities including hand-holding, massaging, and hugging were noted. Both groups reported difficulty anticipating the future of the relationship due to present stressors. While dementia caregivers could consider future romantic relationships with others, MMI caregivers were primarily able to consider future relationships only for companionship and emotional intimacy. Early therapeutic interventions may assist couples in modifying activities, behaviors, and expectations about the future of the relationship. Such modifications may help maintain relationship satisfaction, decrease burden, preserve quality of life, and delay time-to-placement. Extending time-to-placement could have cost savings implications for families and the healthcare system.

  3. Relationships between soldiers' PTSD symptoms and spousal communication during deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Sarah; Loew, Benjamin; Allen, Elizabeth; Stanley, Scott; Rhoades, Galena; Markman, Howard

    2011-06-01

    Social support, including support from spouses, may buffer against posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The current study assessed whether the frequency of spousal communication during a recent deployment, a potentially important source of support for soldiers, was related to postdeployment PTSD symptoms. Data came from 193 married male Army soldiers who returned from military deployment within the past year. For communication modalities conceptualized as delayed (i.e., letters, care packages, and e-mails), greater spousal communication frequency during deployment was associated with lower postdeployment PTSD symptom scores, but only at higher levels of marital satisfaction (p = .009). At lower marital satisfaction, more delayed spousal communication during deployment was associated with more PTSD symptoms (p = .042). For communication modalities conceptualized as interactive (i.e., phone calls, instant messaging, instant messaging with video), the same general direction of effects was seen, but the interaction between communication frequency and marital satisfaction predicting PTSD symptoms did not reach significance. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  4. Informal Caregivers Assisting People with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chunfeng

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify characteristics of informal caregivers, caregiving, and people with multiple sclerosis (MS) receiving this assistance that are associated with the strength of the care-giver/care recipient relationship. Data were collected in a national survey of informal caregivers and analyzed using an ordered logistic regression model to identify factors associated with caregiver perceptions of the strength of the relationship with the person with MS. The overall health of the person with MS was significantly associated with caregiver perceptions that providing assistance strengthened the caregiver/care recipient relationship, with poor health having a negative impact on the relationship. A spousal relationship between the caregiver and the person with MS was associated with significantly lower perceptions of a strengthened relationship. Conversely, caregiver perceptions that MS symptoms interfered with the independence of the person with MS in daily life were associated with caregiver perceptions of a strengthened relationship. Longer duration of caregiving and more hours per week spent providing assistance also were associated with a stronger relationship. In contrast, we found a significant negative association between caregiver perceptions that assisting the person with MS was burdensome and the strength of the relationship. Similarly, higher levels of education among caregivers tended to have a significantly negative impact on the caregiver/care recipient relationship. Our findings highlight the importance of addressing the needs and concerns of spousal caregivers. Health professionals who treat informal caregivers, as well as those treating people with MS, should be sensitive to the impact caregiving has on caregivers, especially spouses providing assistance. PMID:24453723

  5. Transitions of male partners of women with breast cancer: hope, guilt, and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggleby, Wendy; Thomas, Jasmine; Montford, Kelly; Thomas, Roanne; Nekolaichuk, Cheryl; Ghosh, Sunita; Cumming, Ceiwen; Tonkin, Katia

    2015-03-01

    To (a) describe the types of transitions experienced by male spousal caregivers of women with breast cancer and the strategies used by male spouses to deal with these transitions and (b) examine factors related to their quality of life, including demographic variables, self-efficacy, caregiver guilt, hope, the quality of life of their partner with breast cancer, and transitions. Cross-sectional, transformational, mixed-methods approach. Participants' homes. 105 dyads of male spouses and their female partners diagnosed with stages I-III breast cancer. 600 surveys were mailed to women with breast cancer and their male partners. Significant variables were entered into a multivariate model. Male caregiver quality of life. The quality of life of male spouse participants was positively influenced by hope (p life scores reported higher hope and lower caregiver guilt scores. They reported lower quality-of-life scores if they dealt with transitions by "doing what needs to be done."
 Strategies to support male spouses of women with breast cancer should involve ways to foster hope, reduce feelings of guilt, and encourage male caregivers to engage more in supporting their spouses.

  6. Prevalence of Mental Health Disorders Among Caregivers of Patients With Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallim, Adnaan Bin; Sayampanathan, Andrew Arjun; Cuttilan, Amit; Chun-Man Ho, Roger

    2015-12-01

    The overall prevalence of mental health disorders among caregivers of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) remains unclear. This meta-analysis aims to evaluate the prevalence of various mental health disorders among caregivers of patients with AD globally and to determine factors that predispose to development of the aforementioned, namely gender of caregiver, gender of patient, and caregiver-patient relationship. A total of 17 studies were eligible for systematic review and meta-analysis. A meta-analysis of published work was performed using the random effect model. Data analysis was done with RevMan 5.3. A total of 10,825 caregivers were assessed. The aggregate prevalence of depression among caregivers was 34.0%, anxiety at 43.6%, and use of psychotropic drugs at 27.2%. Meta-analysis revealed the odds of having of depression was 1.53 times higher in female caregivers (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29-1.83; I(2) = 7%; Z = 4.78; P mental health disorders, particularly depression and anxiety, as compared with the general population and with their counterparts caring for patients with other illnesses. The higher prevalence is mainly observed in female caregivers, caregivers with male care-recipients, and caregivers who have a spousal relationship with care-recipients. Prevalence of anxiety was also notably higher in this cohort but more research needs to be done in this area. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Spousal violence and pregnancy termination among married ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-08-25

    spousal sexual violence, and 19% had experienced spou- sal emotional violence7. ... ment of women's fundamental human rights and sexual ..... Gender Issues and National Response to HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. ... tation.pdf , August 25, 2013. 16.

  8. Spousal rape: A challenge for pastoral counsellors

    OpenAIRE

    James A. Glanville; Yolanda Dreyer

    2013-01-01

    This article reflects on the criticism regarding the pastoral counsellor’s dealings with spousal rape victims. It argues that counsellors should be sensitive not to be biased, either personally or theologically, and should have an understanding of the biopsychosocial (biological, psychological and social) impact of spousal rape, such as rape-related post-traumatic stress and other related illnesses such as depression, victimisation and stigmatisation. The pastoral counsellors should be awar...

  9. [Men as caregivers for their wives - two phenomenological studies of the experiences of male primary caregivers in home arrangements. Part 1: men as caregivers for their wives after stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorschner, Stephan; Bauernschmidt, Dorothee

    2014-08-01

    In Germany, men participate more and more in the extensive process of caring for their relatives. The ongoing discourse in nursing sciences, however, reflects poorly on this increasing number of male principal caregivers. Objective of the present study is to analyse the following questions, with focus on caring husbands: Firstly, how do caring husbands experience caring for their wives after stroke? And secondly, how do they organise daily life? Narrative interviews with ten caring husbands were conducted. Analysis was performed using a modified phenomenological-interpretative approach as described by Diekelmann (1992). Six central issues evolved: "I never thought something like that'd happen to us …" (disease as acute crisis); "I see her just the way she was when we first met …" (relationship); "… since then I got her in home care." (care); "… this work, it's never been easy" (work and burden); "This new situation, well, you've got to adapt …" (adaptation); "… because I do need some time for myself!" (support and relief). "Being responsible" emerged as a constitutive pattern, according to which caring husbands perceive their own life situation. Professional nurses should take this constitutive pattern seriously and should align their work to it when collaborating with male principal care givers. For this purpose, further research is needed to develop new approaches to this special situation and its implications.

  10. Spousal communication and contraceptive use in rural Nepal: an event history analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Cynthia F

    2011-06-01

    This study analyzes longitudinal data from couples in rural Nepal to investigate the influence of spousal communication about family planning on their subsequent contraceptive use. The study expands current understanding of the communication-contraception link by (a) exploiting monthly panel data to conduct an event history analysis, (b) incorporating both wives' and husbands' perceptions of communication, and (c) distinguishing effects of spousal communication on the use of four contraceptive methods. The findings provide new evidence of a strong positive impact of spousal communication on contraceptive use, even when controlling for confounding variables. Wives' reports of communication are substantial explanatory factors in couples' initiation of all contraceptive methods examined. Husbands' reports of communication predict couples'subsequent use of male-controlled methods. This analysis advances our understanding of how marital dynamics--as well as husbands' perceptions of these dynamics--influence fertility behavior, and should encourage policies to promote greater integration of men into family planning programs.

  11. Willingness to express emotions to caregiving spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monin, Joan K; Martire, Lynn M; Schulz, Richard; Clark, Margaret S

    2009-02-01

    This study examined the association between care-recipients' willingness to express emotions to spousal caregivers and caregiver's well-being and support behaviors. Using self-report measures in the context of a larger study, 262 care-recipients with osteoarthritis reported on their willingness to express emotions to caregivers, and caregivers reported on their stress and insensitive responding to care-recipients. Results revealed that care-recipients' willingness to express happiness was associated with less insensitive caregiver responding, and willingness to express interpersonal emotions (e.g., compassion, guilt) was associated with less caregiving stress. There were also gender differences, such that caregiving wives, in particular, benefited from their husband's willingness to express vulnerable (e.g., anxiety, sadness) and interpersonal emotions. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Older Caregiving Parents: Division of Household Labor, Marital Satisfaction, and Caregiver Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essex, Elizabeth Lehr; Hong, Jinkuk

    2005-01-01

    Based on a sample of 126 families, this study investigated how division of household labor is related to marital satisfaction and caregiving burden among older married parents caring for adult children with intellectual disabilities. For mothers, greater spousal participation in household work and satisfaction with the division of labor were…

  13. Icabod Crane in Day Care II: Teachers' Concerns about Male Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Tom; Draper, Thomas W.

    To explore the issue of prejudice against male participation in child care professions, a study was conducted with 13 female students in the process of completing 2-year associate degrees in child care. Subjects responded to a projective measure on which they were asked to inspect a list of nine personal "deficiencies" and rate, on a…

  14. Motile Sperm Output by Male Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) Managed Ex Situ Is Influenced by Public Exposure and Number of Care-Givers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Diana C.; Freeman, Elizabeth W.; Brown, Janine L.; Wildt, David E.; Terrell, Kimberly A.; Franklin, Ashley D.; Crosier, Adrienne E.

    2015-01-01

    The collective cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) population in zoological institutions has never been self-sustaining because of challenges in natural reproduction. A retrospective analysis of North American zoo-breeding records has revealed that >90% of litters produced since 2003 occurred in facilities ‘off-display’ from the public. We examined seminal, endocrine, and behavioral traits of 29 adult male cheetahs that were: 1) managed in public exhibit or off-display facilities; 2) maintained by different numbers of cheetah-specific care-givers; and 3) living adjacent to varying numbers of adult conspecifics. Cheetahs housed off-display produced more total motile sperm/ejaculate (P = 0.04) than on-exhibit males. This finding was mirrored in our laboratory’s historical records where two-fold more total motile sperm (P 3 care-givers. Exposure to high numbers of conspecifics within the same institution did not impact (P > 0.05) seminal traits, and presence of the public, care-giver number, or animals/facility had no influence (P > 0.05) on androgen or glucocorticoid excretion or other behavioral metrics. Findings indicate that male cheetahs are sensitive to general public exposure and too many care-givers, resulting in compromised motile sperm output/ejaculate with mechanism of action unrelated to altered androgen or glucocorticoid excretion. PMID:26332582

  15. Motile Sperm Output by Male Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus Managed Ex Situ Is Influenced by Public Exposure and Number of Care-Givers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana C Koester

    Full Text Available The collective cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus population in zoological institutions has never been self-sustaining because of challenges in natural reproduction. A retrospective analysis of North American zoo-breeding records has revealed that >90% of litters produced since 2003 occurred in facilities 'off-display' from the public. We examined seminal, endocrine, and behavioral traits of 29 adult male cheetahs that were: 1 managed in public exhibit or off-display facilities; 2 maintained by different numbers of cheetah-specific care-givers; and 3 living adjacent to varying numbers of adult conspecifics. Cheetahs housed off-display produced more total motile sperm/ejaculate (P = 0.04 than on-exhibit males. This finding was mirrored in our laboratory's historical records where two-fold more total motile sperm (P 3 care-givers. Exposure to high numbers of conspecifics within the same institution did not impact (P > 0.05 seminal traits, and presence of the public, care-giver number, or animals/facility had no influence (P > 0.05 on androgen or glucocorticoid excretion or other behavioral metrics. Findings indicate that male cheetahs are sensitive to general public exposure and too many care-givers, resulting in compromised motile sperm output/ejaculate with mechanism of action unrelated to altered androgen or glucocorticoid excretion.

  16. Motile Sperm Output by Male Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) Managed Ex Situ Is Influenced by Public Exposure and Number of Care-Givers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Diana C; Freeman, Elizabeth W; Brown, Janine L; Wildt, David E; Terrell, Kimberly A; Franklin, Ashley D; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2015-01-01

    The collective cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) population in zoological institutions has never been self-sustaining because of challenges in natural reproduction. A retrospective analysis of North American zoo-breeding records has revealed that >90% of litters produced since 2003 occurred in facilities 'off-display' from the public. We examined seminal, endocrine, and behavioral traits of 29 adult male cheetahs that were: 1) managed in public exhibit or off-display facilities; 2) maintained by different numbers of cheetah-specific care-givers; and 3) living adjacent to varying numbers of adult conspecifics. Cheetahs housed off-display produced more total motile sperm/ejaculate (P = 0.04) than on-exhibit males. This finding was mirrored in our laboratory's historical records where two-fold more total motile sperm (P 3 care-givers. Exposure to high numbers of conspecifics within the same institution did not impact (P > 0.05) seminal traits, and presence of the public, care-giver number, or animals/facility had no influence (P > 0.05) on androgen or glucocorticoid excretion or other behavioral metrics. Findings indicate that male cheetahs are sensitive to general public exposure and too many care-givers, resulting in compromised motile sperm output/ejaculate with mechanism of action unrelated to altered androgen or glucocorticoid excretion.

  17. Spousal Religiosity, Religious Bonding, and Pornography Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Samuel L

    2017-02-01

    Religiosity and pornography use are often closely connected. Relatively few studies, however, have examined how this religion-pornography connection plays out within the context of committed romantic relationships. Moreover, virtually all studies of religion and pornography use conceptualize religiosity as a quality intrinsic to the person that typically reduces pornography viewing. Focusing on married Americans, this study shifted the focus to consider whether the religiosity of one's spouse relates to one's own pornography viewing and under what circumstances. Analyses of the nationally representative Portraits of American Life Study (N = 1026) revealed that spousal religiosity was strongly and negatively related to participants viewing pornography, controlling for participants' own religious or sociodemographic characteristics or sexual satisfaction. This relationship held whether spousal religiosity was measured with participants' evaluations of their spouses' religiosity or spouses' self-reported religiosity. The association between spousal religiosity and pornography use was also moderated by participants' religious service attendance, gender, and age. Considering mechanisms, the association between spousal religiosity and pornography use was mediated by frequent participation in religious bonding activities as a couple, suggesting that spousal religiosity may decrease pornography viewing among married Americans by promoting greater religious intimacy and unity between the couple, consequently decreasing one's interest or opportunities to view pornography.

  18. Living With Dementia: An Exploratory Study of Caregiving in a Chinese Family Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Oi Ling; Kwong, Ping Sum; Ho, Candis Ka Yan; Chow, Susanna Miu Yee; Kwok, Timothy; Wong, Bel; Ho, Vennus; Lau, Andrew; Ho, Florence

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study explored themes that described families taking care of elderly relatives with dementia in Chinese society. Ten families were invited for two in-depth family interviews involving spousal caregivers, child caregivers, and care recipients. Five themes resulted: positive affection as coping strategies, power and control in the caregiving relationship, adult children's involvement in caregiving, sibling rivalry, and intergenerational conflicts. The ways these themes functioned and helped in dementia care, the research implications, and limitations are discussed.

  19. The development of an online intervention (Care Assist) to support male caregivers of women with breast cancer: a protocol for a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Janelle V; Gerges, Martha; Girgis, Afaf

    2018-02-17

    It is projected that 17 730 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer in Australia in 2017, with 3114 of these predicted to be fatal. Caregiving for a person with cancer can significantly impact caregivers' physical and mental health. Many caregivers feel ill-prepared for this role, especially when care involves complex medical needs accompanied by the psychological challenges experienced following a cancer diagnosis. This study employs a convergent, parallel, mixed methods design combining an online survey with an optional interview. Eligible, consenting participants will be invited to participate in a survey to examine (1) participants' unmet needs, (2) challenges experienced throughout the cancer journey, (3) perceived self-efficacy to determine participants' level of confidence in undertaking caregiver tasks, (4) views regarding suitable content to include in a caregiver training intervention, (5) preferred method of intervention delivery (ie, website, smartphone application and/or interactive video), and (6) preferences for the timing of delivery of the intervention content (ie, ability to choose a module, access to the entire content or have a set order in which they receive the information). Caregivers will be eligible to participate if they (1) are male, (2) have previously cared for or are currently caring for a woman with breast cancer, (3) are aged over 18 years, and (4) do not currently suffer from a cognitive impairment or mental health condition (ie, depression, anxiety). Data analysis will include examination of differences in psychological outcomes and needs based on demographic variables, and mediation analysis to explore whether self-efficacy mediates the relationship between challenges, unmet needs and distress. Qualitative data will be analysed using thematic analysis. The study was reviewed and approved by two human research ethics committees within Australia. We anticipate two to three publications may be developed from the study.

  20. Spousal rape: A challenge for pastoral counsellors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Glanville

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the criticism regarding the pastoral counsellor’s dealings with spousal rape victims. It argues that counsellors should be sensitive not to be biased, either personally or theologically, and should have an understanding of the biopsychosocial (biological, psychological and social impact of spousal rape, such as rape-related post-traumatic stress and other related illnesses such as depression, victimisation and stigmatisation. The pastoral counsellors should be aware of the legal and medical ramifications of spousal rape and have knowledge of the correct referral resources and procedures (trusted professionals, shelters and support structures. They should be self-aware and understand the effect that gender or previous traumatic personal experiences may have on their reactions. The article consists of the following sections: the phenomenon ‘rape’; acquaintance rape; spousal rape; post-traumatic stress; post-traumatic stress disorder; rape trauma syndrome; cognitive behavioural therapy; spirituality; doctrinal matters; social system of patriarchy; a pastoral counselling model; self-care.

  1. Spousal rape: A challenge for pastoral counsellors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Glanville

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the criticism regarding the pastoral counsellor’s dealings with spousal rape victims. It argues that counsellors should be sensitive not to be biased, either personally or theologically, and should have an understanding of the biopsychosocial (biological, psychological and social impact of spousal rape, such as rape-related post-traumatic stress and other related illnesses such as depression, victimisation and stigmatisation. The pastoral counsellors should be aware of the legal and medical ramifications of spousal rape and have knowledge of the correct referral resources and procedures (trusted professionals, shelters and support structures. They should be self-aware and understand the effect that gender or previous traumatic personal experiences may have on their reactions. The article consists of the following sections: the phenomenon ‘rape’; acquaintance rape; spousal rape; post-traumatic stress; post-traumatic stress disorder; rape trauma syndrome; cognitive behavioural therapy; spirituality; doctrinal matters; social system of patriarchy; a pastoral counselling model; self-care.

  2. "Correcting an Erring Wife Is Normal": Moral Discourses of Spousal Violence in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjei, Stephen Baffour

    2018-06-01

    This study draws insights from discursive psychology to explore moral discourses of spousal violence in Ghana. In particular, it investigates how sociocultural norms and practices are invoked in talk of perpetrators and victims as moral warrants for husband-to-wife abuse in Ghana. Semi-structured focus group and personal interviews were conducted with a total of 40 participants: 16 victims, 16 perpetrators, and eight key informants from rural and urban Ghana. Participants' discursive accounts suggest that husbands have implicit moral right and obligation to punish their wives for disobedience and other infractions against male authority in marriage. Both perpetrators and victims build their talk around familiar normative discourses and practices that provide tacit support for spousal violence in Ghana. While perpetrators mobilize culturally resonant and normative repertoires to justify abuse, blame their victims, and manage their moral accountability; victims position husband-to-wife abuse as normal, legitimate, disciplinary, and corrective. These moral discourses of spousal violence apparently serve to relieve perpetrators of moral agency; prime battered women to accept abuse; and devastate their agency to leave abusive marital relationships. The findings contribute to our understanding of how cultural and social norms of spousal violence are morally constituted, reproduced, and sustained in talk of perpetrators, victims, and other key members of society.

  3. Individual and spousal unemployment as predictors of smoking and drinking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaya, Mariana; Glymour, M Maria; Christakis, Nicholas A; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S V

    2014-06-01

    The effects of unemployment on health behaviors, and substance use in particular, is still unclear despite substantial existing research. This study aimed to assess the effects of individual and spousal unemployment on smoking and alcohol consumption. The study was based on eight waves of geocoded Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort data (US) from 1971 to 2008 that contained social network information. We fit three series of models to assess whether lagged 1) unemployment, and 2) spousal unemployment predicted odds of being a current smoker or drinks consumed per week, adjusting for a range of socioeconomic and demographic covariates. Compared with employment, unemployment was associated with nearly twice the subsequent odds of smoking, and with increased cigarette consumption among male, but not female, smokers. In contrast, unemployment predicted a one drink reduction in weekly alcohol consumption, though effects varied according to intensity of consumption, and appeared stronger among women. While spousal unemployment had no effect on substance use behaviors among men, wives responded to husbands' unemployment by reducing their alcohol consumption. We conclude that individual, and among women, spousal unemployment predicted changes in substance use behaviors, and that the direction of the change was substance-dependent. Complex interactions among employment status, sex, and intensity and type of consumption appear to be at play and should be investigated further. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Burden in family caregivers of the elderly: prevalence and association with characteristics of the elderly and the caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara de Sa Neves Loureiro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional, epidemiological study aimed to estimate the prevalence of burden among family caregivers of impaired elderly residents in the city of João Pessoa, and to identify associations between the mean burden and social and demographic characteristics of the elderly and the caregivers. A total number of 240 elderly residents in a previously drawn census tract participated in this research. The sample was composed of 52 elderly and their caregivers. For data collection, a questionnaire was applied with questions on social and demographic characteristics of elderly and caregivers, and the Burden Interview Scale was used. Results showed a high prevalence of burden among caregivers (84.6%, in which a statistically significant association was found with the following characteristics: retired elderly, elderly as head of family, spousal caregivers, and caregivers with less education. The findings of this study may contribute to the development of activities focused on formal and emotional support for the caregivers.

  5. Leisure activities, caregiving demands and catecholamine levels in dementia caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattillion, Elizabeth A; Mausbach, Brent T; Roepke, Susan K; von Känel, Roland; Mills, Paul J; Dimsdale, Joel E; Allison, Matthew; Ziegler, Michael G; Patterson, Thomas L; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Grant, Igor

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether satisfaction from leisure activities moderates the relationship between caregiving demands (i.e., hours per day spent caring for a spouse with dementia) and resting levels of the catecholamines norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI). Spousal caregivers (n = 107; mean age = 73.95 ± 8.12 years) were assessed in home for plasma levels of NE and EPI, amount of care provided, and leisure satisfaction. Regression was used to determine whether leisure satisfaction moderated the relationship between hours providing care per day and catecholamine levels. A significant interaction was found between hours caregiving and leisure satisfaction for NE, but not for EPI. Post hoc regressions were conducted for both NE and EPI. At low leisure satisfaction, time spent caring for a spouse was positively associated with plasma NE (β = 0.41; p = 0.005) and EPI (β = 0.44; p = 0.003). In contrast, at high levels of satisfaction, time caregiving was not significantly associated with plasma NE (β = -0.08; p = 0.57) or EPI (β = 0.23; p = 0.12). These findings suggest that leisure satisfaction may protect caregivers from increases in catecholamines, which have been implicated in cardiovascular risk. Further support for these findings may impact psychological treatments for distressed caregivers.

  6. Predictors of Spousal Support for the Work Commitments of Husbands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Joe F.; Orthner, Dennis K.

    1988-01-01

    Examined antecedents of spousal support of husbands' work commitment from perspective of wives. Found spousal support influenced directly only by satisfaction with quality of life made possible by local work organization and length of involvement with organization. Marital and social adjustment, and perceptions of husband's work environment…

  7. Spousal Capital as a Resource for Couples Starting a Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzek, Amanda E.; Gudmunson, Clinton G.; Danes, Sharon M.

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study finds that spousal capital is an important resource for entrepreneurs starting a business because it has implications for business sustainability and couple relationship quality. Structural equation modeling supported a process whereby gender had an impact on spousal involvement in the business, which was positively…

  8. Caregiver Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will not sell or share your name. Caregiver Depression Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | Print Many caregivers ... depression See your doctor Treatment Coping Symptoms of depression Caregiving is hard — and can lead to feelings ...

  9. Immigration policy and economic cycle effects on spousal reunification in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Mato Díaz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the influence of immigration policy and the Great Recession on spousal reunification in Spain. After a significant immigration boom (2000-2008, family-related migration has contributed to the significant flows that continued to arrive in Spain during the economic crisis. But this type of migration was subject to both the crisis and immigration policy changes, such as visa conditions, which may not have been specifically addressed to influence these flows. Using data from the Spanish Labor Force Survey (LFS, the research considers married primary immigrants who came to Spain from the four main countries of origin (Ecuador, Colombia, Romania and Morocco and concludes, first, that tighter conditions to visit the country—particularly tourist border controls—discourage spousal reunification. The reason could be that during the immigration boom, illicit immigration abounded and secondary immigrants were arriving as tourists. Secondly, reunification was slowed down by the Great Recession for the majority of the countries considered, except Ecuador. Unsurprisingly, given the job losses in typical male jobs, the negative influence of the crisis is greater for female primary immigrants. Third, contrary to the expectations that placed secondary immigrants as people with relatively low ties to the labor market, the research shows that because spousal reunification coincided with a deep economic and job crisis, female secondary immigrants increased the family labor supply in order to maintain consumption and/or remittance in what looks like an added-worker effect.

  10. Spousal labor market effects from government health insurance: Evidence from a veterans affairs expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Melissa A; Lahey, Joanna N

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the total impact of health insurance receipt on household labor supply is important in an era of increased access to publicly provided and subsidized insurance. Although government expansion of health insurance to older workers leads to direct labor supply reductions for recipients, there may be spillover effects on the labor supply of uncovered spouses. While the most basic model predicts a decrease in overall household work hours, financial incentives such as credit constraints, target income levels, and the need for own health insurance suggest that spousal labor supply might increase. In contrast, complementarities of spousal leisure would predict a decrease in labor supply for both spouses. Utilizing a mid-1990s expansion of health insurance for U.S. veterans, we provide evidence on the effects of public insurance availability on the labor supply of spouses. Using data from the Current Population Survey and Health and Retirement Study, we employ a difference-in-differences strategy to compare the labor market behavior of the wives of older male veterans and non-veterans before and after the VA health benefits expansion. Although husbands' labor supply decreases, wives' labor supply increases, suggesting that financial incentives dominate complementarities of spousal leisure. This effect is strongest for wives with lower education levels and lower levels of household wealth and those who were not previously employed full-time. These findings have implications for government programs such as Medicare and Social Security and the Affordable Care Act. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Quality of Spousal Relationship on Procurement of Abortion in Peri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Couples'-Communication and Abortion in Nigeria ... The quality of spousal relationship may influence the acceptance of the status of pregnancies and the decision to .... partner, parity, age-difference among couples, ..... Public health, 2009.

  12. Quality of Spousal Relationship on Procurement of Abortion in Peri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality of Spousal Relationship on Procurement of Abortion in Peri-Urban Nigeria. ... Communication was the only dimension of relationship quality that showed significant association with history of induced ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  13. Barriers to spousal contribution to childbirth pain relief in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelonye, A U; Pitkäaho, T; Aregbesola, A; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, K

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the barriers inhibiting the use of spousal presence for childbirth pain relief in health facilities and recommendations from three perspectives: the midwife, the woman, and the spouse. Spousal presence is a non-invasive, participatory and inexpensive technique used in pain management during childbirth. Although it contributes to a large extent in relieving childbirth pain, it is underutilized in Nigerian hospitals. Overcoming the challenges impeding spousal presence and participation during childbirth will improve maternal outcome, satisfaction and midwifery care practices. A cross-sectional survey conducted in four hospitals in Nigeria involving midwives (n = 100), women (n = 142) and their spouses (n = 142) from June to December 2014 using pretested questionnaires. Five themes were identified: poor infrastructural facility, lack of adequate pain management policy, lack of midwife pain management practices, midwives' attitudes towards spousal presence during childbirth and feelings about spousal presence during childbirth pain relief. Infrastructural defects in the health facilities resulting in the lack of privacy in maternity units for both spouses and partners negatively influence the presence of a spouse during childbirth and pain relief. Adopting effective strategies such as good infrastructural facilities, staff training and spouse-friendly hospital policies will encourage spouses to fully participate in and contribute to childbirth pain relief. This study identified poor staff attitudes towards pain relief and spousal presence during childbirth as barriers. Providing adequate policies on pain management, continuous staff education and orientation on spousal relationship will improve active spousal participation and maternal satisfaction during childbirth. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  14. Sex differences in depressive effects of experiencing spousal bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Jung; Lee, Sang Gyu; Chun, Sung-Youn; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2017-02-01

    Spousal death is a significant event that becomes a turning point in an individual's life. Widowed persons experience new circumstances, which might induce depression. However, the effects of spousal death on depression can differ by sex and culture. Thus, the present study examined the association between depressive levels and experience of spousal death in Korean adults aged older than 45 years. The data were from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging from 2010 to 2012. The analysis used frequency analysis to compare the distribution of demographic variables between men and women, and anova to compare 10-item short-form Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores as the dependent variable among comparison groups. We also carried out linear mixed model analysis on the association between the 10-item short-form Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and experience of spousal death. Among 5481 respondents, 2735 were men and 2741 were women. The number of men and women who experienced spousal death were 43 (1.6%) and 181 (6.6%), respectively. Men had lower depressive levels than women when they had been married (men 2.99, women 3.64). Both men and women experiencing spousal death had significantly higher 10-item short-form Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores than married men and women (men β = 0.911, P = 0.003; women β = 0.512, P = 0.001; ref: no experience of spousal death). There was a significant association between experience of spousal death and depressive level for both men and women. We suggest that policy practitioners promote community programs that provide bereaved adults with easy access to meaningful social participation and support the minimum cost of living of the widowed. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 322-329. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  15. The self-management balancing act of spousal care partners in the case of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Sue; Chen, Tiffany; Eldridge, Jenna; Thomas, Cathi A; Habermann, Barbara; Tickle-Degnen, Linda

    2017-12-12

    Living with and caring for someone with chronic illness can lead to limitations in activity and social participation for the care partner. Past research emphasizes the importance of care partners taking care of themselves physically and emotionally so they can stay healthy to support the care recipient. There is little information regarding how the care partner takes care of their own social lives. The purpose of this study was to explore the concept of social self-management from the perspective of spousal care partners of people with Parkinson's disease. Twenty spousal care partners of people with Parkinson's disease were interviewed three times. A grounded theory approach informed data analysis. Findings that emerged from the data focused on balance in activities, support, and emotions and were summarized into three main themes: (1) Activities: Caregiving and beyond; (2) Strategies to support self and spouse; and (3) Emotional impact: Burden and compassion. This research shows that care partners want to retain social participation and provides support for the importance of addressing the socio-emotional needs of care partners of people with a chronic disease. Interventions that guide care partners to take care of their spectrum of needs may lead to healthier, positive relationships. Implications for rehabilitation The focus of rehabilitation is often on the person diagnosed with the chronic condition. Living with and caring for someone with a chronic illness, such as Parkinson's disease, can lead to limitations in activity and social participation for the care partner. Including care partners in the rehabilitation process is key to helping maintain their health and well-being. Learning caregiving and self-management strategies may help care partners support their loved ones while staying socially engaged.

  16. Influence of Knowledge of Spousal Fertility Cycles on Male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Reproductive Health Participation in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria ... Despite the established roles and influence of men on women‟s uptake and ... Age over 30, above secondary education, and men aware of menstrual dates ... Involvement of men at family level as demonstrated in this study serves to influence and explain.

  17. Comparison of caregiver strain in Parkinson's disease between Yamagata, Japan, and Maryland, The United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanji, Haruko; Koyama, Shingo; Wada, Manabu; Kawanami, Toru; Kurita, Keiji; Tamiya, Gen; Saito, Naohiro; Suzuki, Kyoko; Kato, Takeo; Anderson, Karen E; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L; Fishman, Paul S; Reich, Stephen G; Weiner, William J; Shulman, Lisa M

    2013-06-01

    Japan and the United States (US) have different cultures of caregiving including differences in family structure and social programs that may influence caregiver strain. Differences in caregiver strain between regions in Japan and in the US have not been investigated in patient-spouse dyads in PD. To compare caregiver strain in spouses of PD patients between Yamagata, Japan and Maryland, US. Correlations between caregiver strain and patient/spousal variables are also examined. In Yamagata and Maryland, spouses of patients with PD completed questionnaires assessing caregiver strain. Patients and spouses completed scales assessing mental health, and medical co-morbidity. PD severity and disability were assessed with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and the Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living Scale. Results in the two regions were compared with Chi-square and Student's t-tests. Relationships between caregiver strain and patient/spousal variables were analyzed with univariate correlations and multivariate regression. 178 Spouse-patient pairs were assessed. The level of caregiver strain in PD did not differ between Yamagata, Japan and Maryland, US despite differences in demographics and social support programs in the two regions. Yamagata spouses reported physical, time and financial constraints, while Maryland spouses reported more emotional distress. In both regions, spousal depression was a significant contributor to caregiver strain. Different approaches to reduce caregiver strain will likely be necessary in Yamagata and Maryland since the contributing factors to caregiver strain are influenced by differences in culture and social supports in each country. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of spousal involvement in continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP adherence in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool-Anwar S

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Little is known about the impact of spousal involvement on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP adherence. The aim of this study was to determine whether spouse involvement affects adherence with CPAP therapy, and how this association varies with gender. Methods: 194 subjects recruited from Apnea Positive Pressure Long Term Efficacy Study (APPLES completed the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS. The majority of participants were Caucasian (83%, and males (73%, with mean age of 56 years, mean BMI of 31 kg/m2. & 62% had severe OSA. The DAS is a validated 32-item self-report instrument measuring dyadic consensus, satisfaction, cohesion, and affectional expression. A high score in the DAS is indicative of a person’s adjustment to the marriage. Additionally, questions related to spouse involvement with general health and CPAP use were asked. CPAP use was downloaded from the device and self-report, and compliance was defined as usage > 4 h per night. Results: There were no significant differences in overall marital quality between the compliant and noncompliant subjects. However, level of spousal involvement was associated with increased CPAP adherence at 6 months (p=0.01. After stratifying for gender these results were significant only among males (p=0.03. Three years after completing APPLES, level of spousal involvement was not associated with CPAP compliance even after gender stratification. Conclusion: Spousal involvement is important in determining CPAP compliance in males in the 1st 6 months after initiation of therapy but is not predictive of longer-term adherence. Involvement of the spouse should be considered an integral part of CPAP initiation procedures.

  19. Developing a cultural model of caregiving obligations for elderly Chinese wives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, Eleanor

    2005-06-01

    This article addresses the dilemmas of elderly Chinese women as spousal caregivers in Hong Kong in the 1990s. An in-depth ethnographic approach was used to draw on a convenience sample of 20 elderly wives who were caregivers from Hong Kong. At the conceptual level, the discussion highlights how caregiving is rooted in complex, culturally-based models of contemporary practices, sociohistoric patterns, and gender-specific obligations. The key themes identified were marital duty-bound roles and responsibilities, reciprocity and burden, public guidelines and upholding reputations as Chinese wives, monetary restrictions, affection as an emotional force to sustain caregiving, effects of the caregiving role, and the creation of self-identity through caregiving. The model proposed for interpreting elderly Chinese wives' caregiving obligations highlights the tension-filled links between Confucianism and government guidelines, early and ongoing socializing experiences, and self-identity.

  20. The temporal relationship between change in symptoms of prolonged grief and posttraumatic stress following old age spousal bereavement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O Connor, Maja; Nickerson, Angela; Aderka, Idan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: High levels of both prolonged grief symptoms (PGS) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are relatively common following bereavement, and the two types of bereavement complications share some of the same features. Little research has studied which of the two precedes the other...... following the death of a loved one. The purpose of this study was to examine the temporal relationship between change in high levels of PGS and PTSS during the first four years following old age spousal loss. Methods: Participants were 237 Danes (40% male; mean age = 73 years, SD = 4.4; range 65-81) who....... Results: Lower-level mediation analyses wereas performed. Results indicated that PGS mediated 83% of the relationship between time and PTSS, while PTSS only mediated 17% of the relationship between time and PGS. These results suggest that changes in PGS mediated changes in PTSS following spousal...

  1. Does spousal participation in Gamblers Anonymous benefit compulsive gamblers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E E; Nora, R M

    1992-12-01

    Extent of gambling-free periods was compared for 90 compulsive gamblers, 44 with spouses who participated in Gamblers Anonymous and 46 with spouses who did not. Although the results were in the direction of a beneficial effect of spousal participation, the relationship was statistically nonsignificant.

  2. Influence of Spousal Communication on Marital Stability: Implication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is often said that the home is the basic unit of the larger society. Thus when the home is settled, the society is at peace. The main focus of this study was to find out the influence of spousal communication on marital stability: Implications for Conducive Home Environment. A researcher-designed questionnaire titled ...

  3. Spousal Recollections of Early Signs of Primary Progressive Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzebon, Margaret; Douglas, Jacinta; Ames, David

    2018-01-01

    Background: Although primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is characterized by progressive loss of language and communication skills, knowledge about the earliest emerging signs announcing the onset of this condition is limited. Aims: To explore spousal recollections regarding the earliest signs of PPA and to compare the nature of the earliest…

  4. 5 CFR 831.618 - Waiver of spousal consent requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waiver of spousal consent requirement. 831.618 Section 831.618 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... locate the spouse; and (ii) Documentary corroboration such as tax returns filed separately or newspaper...

  5. 5 CFR 842.607 - Waiver of spousal consent requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waiver of spousal consent requirement. 842.607 Section 842.607 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... locate the spouse; and (ii) Documentary corroboration such as tax returns filed separately or newspaper...

  6. 107 SPOUSAL RAPE IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD Abstract Sexual

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    5 Some have wondered why a married woman will cry foul and ... for the retention of spousal rape exemption among others is the fact that establishing rape within marriage is usually an uphill task, it is believed that such allegations can .... between unmarried persons is unlawful; it is noted that this act do not carry with it any ...

  7. Gender roles, marital intimacy, and nomination of spouse as primary caregiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, S M; Goldscheider, F; Ciambrone, D A

    1999-04-01

    Using data from a sample of married men and women undergoing treatment for cancer, we tested two potential hypotheses for the unequal representation of husbands and wives as spousal caregivers, including societal gender role norms and emotional closeness in the marital relationship. Multivariate analyses support both hypotheses; wives are only one third as likely as husbands to select their spouses as caregivers, and spouses who name their mates as confidants are three times more likely than those who do not to also name them as caregivers. We conclude that although gender role norms are key to caregiver selection, the intimacy inherent in the caregiving role renders an emotionally close marriage an important criterion to the selection of spouse as caregiver.

  8. Help for the Caregiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patient needs the caregiver to do, but also what the caregiver is willing and able to do. Caregiver strain ... be caused by the cancer or the treatments. What the caregiver is expected to do Caregivers report that they ...

  9. Perceived stress and quality of life in dementia patients and their caregiving spouses: does dyadic coping matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häusler, Andreas; Sánchez, Alba; Gellert, Paul; Deeken, Friederike; Rapp, Michael A; Nordheim, Johanna

    2016-11-01

    Given the well-established association between perceived stress and quality of life (QoL) in dementia patients and their partners, our goal was to identify whether relationship quality and dyadic coping would operate as mediators between perceived stress and QoL. 82 dyads of dementia patients and their spousal caregivers were included in a cross-sectional assessment from a prospective study. QoL was assessed with the Quality of Life in Alzheimer's Disease scale (QoL-AD) for dementia patients and the WHO Quality of Life-BREF for spousal caregivers. Perceived stress was measured with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14). Both partners were assessed with the Dyadic Coping Inventory (DCI). Analyses of correlation as well as regression models including mediator analyses were performed. We found negative correlations between stress and QoL in both partners (QoL-AD: r = -0.62; p stress and QoL in spousal caregivers (z = 0.28; p = 0.02), but not in dementia patients. Likewise, relationship quality significantly mediated the relationship between stress and QoL in caregivers only (z = -2.41; p = 0.02). This study identified dyadic coping as a mediator on the relationship between stress and QoL in (caregiving) partners of dementia patients. In patients, however, we found a direct negative effect of stress on QoL. The findings suggest the importance of stress reducing and dyadic interventions for dementia patients and their partners, respectively.

  10. Male Involvement in Family Planning Decision Making in Ile-Ife ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    spousal communication, and investigated the correlates of men's opinion in family planning decision making in ... questionnaire to collect information from 402 male study participants. ..... who attained post-secondary education were more.

  11. Family demands, social support and caregiver burden in Taiwanese family caregivers living with mental illness: the role of family caregiver gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess gender effects on family demands, social support and caregiver burden as well as to examine contributing factors of caregiver burden in caring for family members with mental illness. Providing continued care and support for people with mental illness is demanding and challenging. Findings of earlier caregiving studies on the role of caregiver gender in response to caregiver burden and caregiving-related factors have been inconsistent. Little research has been undertaken to examine gender effect on family demands, social support and caregiver burden in Taiwanese family caregivers of individuals with mental illness. Cross-sectional, descriptive correlation design. Data from 43 families, including at least one male and female family caregiver in each family, were analysed using descriptive statistics, principal component analysis and mixed linear modelling. Demographic data, Perceived Stress Scale, Perceived Social Support and Caregiver Burden Scale-Brief were used to collect data. Female family caregivers perceived less social support and experienced higher degrees of caregiver burden compared with male family caregivers. In contrast, no significant gender effect was associated with family demands. Family caregivers with greater family demands and less social support experienced higher degrees of caregiver burden. The results reinforced those of previously published studies that caregiver burden is highly prevalent among female family caregivers. Caregiver gender appears to be highly valuable for explaining family demands, social support and caregiver burden. Health care professionals should continue to collaborate with family caregivers to assess potential gender effects on available support and design gender-specific interventions to alleviate caregiver burden. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Effects of Individual, Spousal, and Offspring Socioeconomic Status on Mortality Among Elderly People in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between socio-economic status and health among elderly people has been well studied, but less is known about how spousal or offspring’s education affects mortality, especially in non-Western countries. We investigated these associations using a large sample of Chinese elderly. Methods: The data came from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS from the years 2005 to 2011 (n = 15 355, aged 65–105 years at baseline; 5046 died in 2008, and 2224 died in 2011. Educational attainment, occupational status, and household income per capita were used as indicators of socio-economic status. Spousal and offspring’s education were added into the final models. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to study mortality risk by gender. Results: Adjusted for age, highly educated males and females had, on average, 29% and 37% lower mortality risk, respectively, than those with a lower education. Particularly among men, this effect was observed among those whose children had intermediate education only. A higher household income was also associated with lower mortality risk among the elderly. Male elderly living with a well-educated spouse (HR 0.79; 95% CI, 0.64–0.99 had a lower mortality risk than those living with a low-educated spouse. Conclusions: Both the socio-economic status of the individual and the educational level of a co-resident spouse or child are associated with mortality risk in elderly people. The socio-economic position of family members plays an important role in producing health inequality among elderly people.

  13. Living with loss: middle-aged men face spousal bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daggett, Luann M

    2002-05-01

    Spousal bereavement is one of the most profoundly disturbing events encountered in the human life span. Research has shown that conjugal bereavement has significant physical and psychological consequences for the surviving spouse. In American culture, men and women experience bereavement in different ways. The author used in-depth interviews in the tradition of phenomenology to collect data from 8 men aged 41 to 54 years who had experienced the death of their spouse within the previous 8 months to 6 years. The research revealed the lived experience of spousal bereavement to be a journey from the realization of irreconcilable loss through themes of responding to the loss and living through the loss toward reclamation and reconstruction of a life.

  14. Effect of Marriage and Spousal Criminality on Recidivism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Signe Hald; Andersen, Lars Højsgaard; Skov, Peer Ebbesen

    2015-01-01

    The authors analyzed whether the effect of marriage on recidivism varied by spousal criminality. For this purpose, they used propensity score matching and full population data from Statistics Denmark on all unmarried and previously convicted men from birth cohorts 1965–1985 (N = 102,839). The res......The authors analyzed whether the effect of marriage on recidivism varied by spousal criminality. For this purpose, they used propensity score matching and full population data from Statistics Denmark on all unmarried and previously convicted men from birth cohorts 1965–1985 (N = 102......,839). The results showed that marriage reduced recidivism compared to nonmarriage only when the spouse had no criminal record. Similarly, marriage to a nonconvicted spouse reduced recidivism significantly more than marriage to a convicted spouse. These findings not only underline how important marriage...... is for social integration but also stress the heterogeneous nature of the protective effects of marriage....

  15. Validation of the Chinese version of the Modified Caregivers Strain Index among Hong Kong caregivers: an initiative of medical social workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wallace Chi Ho; Chan, Christopher L F; Suen, Margaret

    2013-11-01

    Family caregivers may often experience caregiving stress and burden. To systematically assess this issue, medical social workers may need to use a brief and valid measurement in their practice. In the Hong Kong Chinese context, one additional challenge is to examine whether a measurement developed in the West is valid for Hong Kong Chinese caregivers. Thus, medical social workers in Hong Kong initiated this research study to validate the Chinese version of the Modified Caregiver Strain Index (C-M-CSI). A total of 223 Chinese caregivers of patients with various chronic illnesses were recruited for this validation study. C-M-CSI demonstrated good reliability (Cronbach's alpha coefficient = .91), concurrent validity with the Chinese version of the Caregiver Burden Inventory, and discriminant validity with the Chinese version of the Meaning in Life Questionnaire. Factor analysis yielded a single factor as the original M-CSI, which explained 49 percent of variance. Construct validity was shown by differentiating spousal and nonspousal caregivers, as well as caregivers of patients with and without behavioral problems. C-M-CSI is recommended as a brief and valid measurement that can be used by medical social workers in assessing the caregiving strain of Chinese caregivers of patients in Hong Kong.

  16. Family Caregivers' Experiences of Caring for a Relative With Younger Onset Dementia: A Qualitative Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabote, Christy Joy; Bramble, Marguerite; McCann, Damhnat

    2015-08-01

    Family caregiving for people with younger onset dementia affects everyone in the family unit. This article presents findings of a qualitative systematic review exploring the experiences of family caregivers of persons with younger onset dementia. A systematic search resulted in the inclusion of five relevant articles, and two groups within the family unit were identified-child caregivers and adult and spousal caregivers. Using the thematic synthesis approach, five themes emerged: dementia damage, grief for loss of relationship, changes in family roles, positive and negative impacts of family caregiving, and transition to formal care. The review findings support increasing evidence that despite the stress of caring for a person with dementia damage, family members have the capacity to cope, adapt, and grow through their experiences. Nurses can assist families to identify their unique strengths and enhance family resiliency so they can navigate the "lonely road" of younger onset dementia. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. LGBT Caregiver Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    LGBT CAREGIVER CONCERNS IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS FOR LGBT CAREGIVERS LGBT CAREGIVER CONSIDERATIONS As a caregiver for someone with Alzheimer’s disease, you will face various challenges. Some are common among all ...

  18. Relationships among spousal communication, self-efficacy, and motivation among expectant Latino fathers who smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaddouma, Alexander; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Fish, Laura J; Bilheimer, Alicia; Gonzalez, Alicia; Pollak, Kathryn I

    2015-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is a prevalent problem among Latinos, yet little is known about what factors motivate them to quit smoking or make them feel more confident that they can. Given cultural emphases on familial bonds among Latinos (e.g., familismo), it is possible that communication processes among Latino spouses play an important role. The present study tested a mechanistic model in which perceived spousal constructive communication patterns predicted changes in level of motivation for smoking cessation through changes in self-efficacy among Latino expectant fathers. Latino males (n = 173) and their pregnant partners participated in a couple-based intervention targeting males' smoking. Couples completed self-report measures of constructive communication, self-efficacy (male partners only), and motivation to quit (male partners only) at 4 time points throughout the intervention. Higher levels of perceived constructive communication among Latino male partners predicted subsequent increases in male partners' self-efficacy and, to a lesser degree, motivation to quit smoking; however, self-efficacy did not mediate associations between constructive communication and motivation to quit smoking. Furthermore, positive relationships with communication were only significant at measurements taken after completion of the intervention. Female partners' level of perceived constructive communication did not predict male partners' outcomes. These results provide preliminary evidence to support the utility of couple-based interventions for Latino men who smoke. Findings also suggest that perceptions of communication processes among Latino partners (particularly male partners) may be an important target for interventions aimed at increasing desire and perceived ability to quit smoking among Latino men. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Emotional Expression and Spousal Support as Predictors of Marital Satisfaction: The Case of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedirir, Sabiha; Hamarta, Erdal

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between spousal support and the ability to express feelings of marital satisfaction, and the extent to which spousal support and the ability to express feelings can predict marital satisfaction. Research was conducted in accordance with general survey models. The study group comprised 195 married couples (N =…

  20. Work-family conflict, job satisfaction and spousal support: an exploratory study of nurses' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, C J; Beekhan, A; Paruk, Z; Ramgoon, S

    2008-03-01

    In recognising the highly stressful nature of the nursing profession, the added burden of hospital staff shortages, and patient overload, the present study explored the impact of work on family functioning, its relationship to job satisfaction and the role of spousal support in a group of 80 female nurses working in a government hospital. Using a descriptive, correlational design, the relationships among job satisfaction, work-family conflict (WFC) and spousal/partner support were explored. The hypotheses that job satisfaction and WFC would be negatively correlated, that job satisfaction and spousal support would be positively correlated, and that WFC and spousal support would be negatively correlated, were tested using correlation techniques. All hypotheses were confirmed. The role of spousal support in the relationship between job satisfaction and work -family conflict was highlighted.

  1. Prevalence and risk factors for spousal violence among women attending health care centres in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamdouh, H M; Ismail, H M; Kharboush, I F; Tawfik, M M; El Sharkawy, O G; Abdel-Baky, M; Sallam, H N

    2012-11-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional survey to determine the prevalence of, and factors affecting, spousal violence among 3271 ever-married women attending 12 randomly selected family health centres in Alexandria Governorate. More than three-quarters of the participants (77%) reported experiencing spousal violence during their marital life. Emotional violence was the most common type reported (71.0%), followed by physical (50.3%), economic (40.8%) and sexual (37.1%) violence. The study confirms the high prevalence of spousal violence across all socioeconomic strata. Logistic regression analysis indicated large family size, divorce or separation, low educational attainment of husband, smoking habit and drug use in husband, husband's psychological status and history of exposure to physical violence during adolescence were associated with spousal violence. This high rate of spousal violence highlights the urgent need for government and civil society to address the issue, which hinders progress toward Egypt's development goals.

  2. Work-family conflict, job satisfaction and spousal support: An exploratory study of nurses’ experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CJ Patel

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In recognising the highly stressful nature of the nursing profession, the added burden of hospital staff shortages, and patient overload, the present study explored the impact of work on family functioning, its relationship to job satisfaction and the role of spousal support in a group of 80 female nurses working in a government hospital. Using a descriptive, correlational design, the relationships among job satisfaction, work-family conflict (WFC and spousal/partner support were explored. The hypotheses that job satisfaction and WFC would be negatively correlated, that job satisfaction and spousal support would be positively correlated, and that WFC and spousal support would be negatively correlated, were tested using correlation techniques. All hypotheses were confirmed. The role of spousal support in the relationship between job satisfaction and work -family conflict was highlighted.

  3. "Between the devil and the deep blue sea": the beliefs of caregivers of people with dementia regarding the use of in-home respite services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Lyn; Jones, Sandra C

    2011-04-01

    This article details results from qualitative research with caregivers in regard to the beliefs they associate with the use of in-home respite services. Outcomes are perceived by caregivers in relation to care recipient personal safety and the avoidance of negative consequences through the provision of supervision in the caregiver's absence. Use of in-home services challenges normative beliefs for some caregivers, particularly for spousal caregivers who feel it is their role to provide assistance that is needed in the home. Likewise, perceived inflexibility and the inability of in-home services to provide responsive and personalized care make the use of in-home services difficult and may inform control beliefs. Implications are discussed in relation to community care pathways and the promotion and development of in-home respite services to better target caregiver beliefs and respond to caregiver perceived needs.

  4. Pathways to Police Contact for Spousal Violence Survivors: The Role of Individual and Neighborhood Factors in Survivors' Reporting Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Betty Jo; Peirone, Amy; Cheung, Chi Ho; Habibov, Nazim

    2017-09-01

    Rational choice theory proposes that spousal violence survivors engage in a cost-benefit analysis when determining whether to contact the police in the aftermath of violence. Feminist intersectional frameworks contend that the perceived costs and benefits of police intervention differ among survivors based on their intersecting social identities. Normative theory further posits that it is not solely individual factors but also social norms derived from one's neighborhood context that may be related to reporting practices. Consistent with these perspectives, this study assessed the association between spousal violence survivors' sociodemographic, violence, and neighborhood characteristics and (a) police contact, (b) pathways to police contact, (c) motivations for contacting the police, and (d) motivations for not contacting the police. Data were drawn from the 2009 Canadian General Social Survey-Victimization main file, and included male and female survivors ( N = 890). Survivors most commonly contacted the police to stop the violence (89.4%) and most commonly did not contact the police because they did not believe it was important enough (35.3%). Results of multivariate regression analysis indicate that survivors who were visible minority, those who feared for their lives, and those who were injured were significantly more likely to self-report violence to police. Survivors were more likely to say the violence was not important enough to report if there was a police station in their neighborhood, and were less likely to say that violence was not important enough to report if they had experienced multiple incidents of violence. Implications for policing and criminal justice system engagement with spousal violence survivors are provided.

  5. Characteristics of spousal homicide perpetrators: a study of all cases of spousal homicide in Sweden 1990-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfrage, Henrik; Rying, Mikael

    2004-01-01

    In Sweden 20 000 cases of assault against women are reported to the police every year. All data on the perpetrators of spousal homicide in Sweden between 1990 and 1999 were investigated (n = 164). A control group of all other perpetrators of homicide in Sweden during the same period, i.e. cases of homicide not committed in the context of spouse violence (n = 690) was used. All verdicts, as well as all material in the police investigations, including interviews with all of the police investigators, were analysed. Copies of police examinations of the suspects, and forensic reports from the autopsies, were also examined. Data on all registered criminality were collected from the National Police Register, and in cases where the perpetrators had been subject to forensic psychiatric examinations, those reports were obtained from the Swedish National Board of Forensic Medicine. In addition, the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version scores were rated from the forensic psychiatric examinations. There was a four times higher suicide rate among the spousal homicide perpetrators (24%, n = 40) compared with the perpetrators in the control-group (6%, n = 39, chi-squared = 55,42 df = 1, p suicidal ideation must be considered as an important risk factor for spousal homicide. In 79% of the cases the spousal homicide perpetrators were subject to forensic psychiatric examinations. All except 5% were diagnosed with at least one psychiatric diagnosis, and 34% were sentenced to forensic psychiatric treatment. If it is assumed that the psychiatric morbidity was high in the 24% of the perpetrators who committed suicide, then 80% of all perpetrators of spouse homicide during the study period can be characterized as mentally disordered. 'Psychopathic' perpetrators, who generally are over-represented in most violent criminality, were comparatively uncommon. Only seven (4%) in the study group met the diagnostic criteria for psychopathy as measured with the PCL:SV. The group of spouse

  6. Neuropsychological correlates of complicated grief in older spousally bereaved adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Mary-Frances; Arizmendi, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Across many research domains, evidence for complicated grief as a distinct psychopathology continues to grow. Previous research from neuropsychology has shown an increased attentional bias to emotionally relevant stimuli in those suffering from complicated grief. This study furthers our understanding of the characteristics that distinguish complicated grief. We expand on previous research by (a) testing older adults, (b) excluding those with comorbid major depressive disorder, (c) using participant-chosen grief-related stimuli, and (d) using a married, nonbereaved control group. We recruited 76 older adults in 3 groups: spousally bereaved with complicated grief, spousally bereaved with noncomplicated grief, and nonbereaved controls. Performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task, Digit Span Backwards, and the emotional counting Stroop was examined. Results indicate longer reaction time across 3 blocks of grief-related words in the complicated grief group but no difference across 3 blocks of the neutral words. The 3 groups performed comparably on the other neurocognitive tasks, indicating no cognitive differences in working memory or set shifting between groups. Furthermore, these effects of complicated grief generalize to older adults and appear independent of major depression. Complicated grief has cognitive interference as a neuropsychological component highlighting it as distinct from noncomplicated grief.

  7. Changing spousal roles and their effect on recovery in gamblers anonymous: GamAnon, social support, wives and husbands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferentzy, Peter; Skinner, Wayne; Antze, Paul

    2010-09-01

    This paper examines changing spousal roles and their effects upon recovery in Gamblers Anonymous (GA). It is based upon a qualitative study designed to gage uniformity as well as variations in approaches to recovery in GA. Interviews were conducted with 39 GA members (26 men, 13 women; mean age 56.5 years). Though the study was based in the Toronto area, only 13 interviews involved participants from that region. Phone interviews were conducted with GA members from various regions of both Canada and the US. GamAnon, GA's sister fellowship, has been designed for anyone affected seriously by someone's gambling problem. In practice, GamAnon comprises mostly women--spouses of male GA members--who traditionally have taken a keen interest in the ways in which their husbands achieve and maintain abstinence from gambling. Changing spousal roles have led to fewer women joining GamAnon, as many opt instead to part with troubled spouses. As well, more women are attending GA than in the past, typically with husbands who are disinclined to join GamAnon. All of this has drastically altered how GA members pursue recovery. These changes and their implications are discussed.

  8. Caregiver social support quality when interacting with cancer survivors: advancing the dual-process model of supportive communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey-Knowles, Jacquelyn; Faw, Meara H

    2018-04-01

    Cancer caregivers often experience significant challenges in their motivation and ability to comfort cancer survivors, particularly in a spousal or romantic context. Spousal cancer caregivers have been known to report even greater levels of burden and distress than cancer sufferers, yet still take on the role of acting as an informal caregiver so they can attend to their partner's needs. The current study tested whether a theoretical model of supportive outcomes-the dual-process model of supportive communication-explained variations in cancer caregivers' motivation and ability to create high-quality support messages. The study also tested whether participant engagement with reflective journaling on supportive acts was associated with increased motivation or ability to generate high-quality support messages. Based upon the dual-process model, we posited that, following supportive journaling tasks, caregivers of spouses currently managing a cancer experience would report greater motivation but also greater difficulty in generating high-quality support messages, while individuals caring for a patient in remission would report lower motivation but greater ability to create high-quality support messages. Findings provided support for these assertions and suggested that reflective journaling tasks might be a useful tool for improving remission caregivers' ability to provide high-quality social support to survivors. Corresponding theoretical and applied implications are discussed.

  9. Caregiving and travel patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This study explored the impact of caregiving for older adults on mobility and travel : patterns. Specifically, the focus was on how caregivers managed trips on behalf of : another who receives care. Caregiving is becoming increasingly common as the :...

  10. Late-Stage Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know Online ...

  11. Middle-State Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know Online ...

  12. Early-Stage Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know Online ...

  13. Family Caregiver Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on your schedule. Look for our launch soon! FAMILY CARE NAVIGATOR ─ Click on Your State AL AK ... AiA18 Smart Patients Caregivers Community In partnership with Family Caregiver Alliance Learn more Caregiver Research Studies show ...

  14. Family caregiving in bipolar disorder: caregiver consequences, caregiver coping styles, and caregiver distress.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, P.J.J.; Wijngaarden, B. van; Knoppert-van der Klein, E.A.M.; Achterberg, T. van

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: This study investigated the consequences caregivers of outpatients with bipolar disorder are confronted with, the distress they experience and their coping styles. METHODS: Caregivers (n = 115) were asked to complete the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire (IEQ) to measure caregivers'

  15. Association Between Spousal Suicide and Mental, Physical, and Social Health Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Runeson, Bo; Bolton, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Importance: Bereavement after spousal suicide has been linked to mental disorders; however, a comprehensive assessment of the effect of spousal suicide is needed. Objective: To determine whether bereavement after spousal suicide was linked to an excessive risk of mental, physical, and social health......-years and compared people bereaved by spousal suicide with the general population and people bereaved by other manners of death. Incidence rate ratios were calculated using Poisson regressions while adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and the presence of mental and physical disorders. Main Outcomes...... and Measures: Mental disorders (any disorder, mood, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, alcohol use disorders, drug use disorders, and self-harm); physical disorders (cancers, diabetes, sleep disorder, cardiovascular diseases, chronic lower respiratory tract diseases, liver cirrhosis, and spinal disc...

  16. Entrapment of victims of spousal abuse in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, Stephen Baffour

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on discursive psychology and positioning theory, this study explores the influence of cultural and familial value orientations on battered women’s identity, agency and decision to leave or stay in abusive conjugal relationship in Ghana. Two semi-structured focus group discussions and four...... in-depth personal interviews were conducted with 16 victims of husband-to-wife abuse from rural and urban Ghana. The findings indicate that entrapment of victims of spousal abuse in Ghana reflects their social embeddedness and that battered women’s identities and agency are expressed in the context...... of familial and cultural value orientations. The primacy of family identity and victims’ apparent implicit moral obligation to preserve the social image of their extended family influence their entrapment. Participants’ discursive accounts further suggest that stay/leave decisions of battered women in Ghana...

  17. Smoking within the Household: Spousal Peer Effects and Children's Health Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Canta, Chiara; Dubois, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies spousal peer effects on the smoking behaviour and their implication for the health of children through passive smoking. Smoking decisions are modeled as equilibrium strategies of an incomplete information game within the couple. Using data from the French Health Survey 2002-2003, we identify two distinct effects linked to spousal behaviour: a smoking enhancing effect of smoking partners and a smoking deterring effect of non smoking partners. On the one hand, ...

  18. Spousal concordance in the use of alternative tobacco products: A multi-country investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan E; Banse, Rainer; Ebbeler, Christine; Ferketich, Amy K

    2017-02-01

    Married couples often share similar health-related characteristics and behaviors, including cigarette smoking status. Despite their rising popularity in the U.S., little research has examined the patterns of spousal concordance (SC) for alternative tobacco products (ATPs), such as e-cigarettes, cigars, and hookah. The purpose of this project was to examine the roles of age, gender, and culture in the strength of SC for these ATPs. Analyses focused on a diverse community sample of married individuals in Ohio, U.S. (N=278), but also examined patterns in Austria, Greece, Israel, the Netherlands, and Slovakia. All participants completed a survey in which they indicated both their own, and their spouse's ever-use of various tobacco products. For the U.S. sample, SC was highest for e-cigarettes, flavored e-cigarettes, flavored cigarettes, and hookah (ϕs=0.48- 0.61); SC appeared to be stronger among younger couples, and when there was only a small female vs. male differences in use. Similar patterns were found in the other countries, with a few key exceptions. In particular, there was low SC for e-cigarettes and flavored e-cigarettes in the other countries, where e-cigarettes had been federally regulated by the time of data collection. Overall, these findings have implications for the continued spreading popularity of these tobacco use behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Family caregiving for older adults : gendered roles and caregiver burden in emigrant households of Kerala, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ugargol, Allen Prabhaker; Bailey, Ajay

    2018-01-01

    The Indian state of Kerala leads the demographic transition and characteristically showcases emigration of predominantly male adult children, leaving behind parents, spouses and children. When men emigrate, gendered contexts burden women, especially spouses and daughters-in-law, with caregiving

  20. Evaluation of a Telephone-Delivered, Community-Based Collaborative Care Management Program for Caregivers of Older Adults with Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavandadi, Shahrzad; Wray, Laura O; DiFilippo, Suzanne; Streim, Joel; Oslin, David

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate whether a community-based, telephone-delivered, brief patient/caregiver-centered collaborative dementia care management intervention is associated with improved caregiver and care recipient (CR) outcomes. Longitudinal program evaluation of a clinical intervention; assessments at baseline and 3- and 6-month follow-up. General community. Caregivers (N = 440) of older, community-dwelling, low-income CRs prescribed a psychotropic medication by a primary care provider who met criteria for dementia and were enrolled in the SUpporting Seniors Receiving Treatment And INtervention (SUSTAIN) program for older adults. Dementia care management versus clinical evaluation only. Perceived caregiving burden and caregiver general health (primary outcomes); CR neuropsychiatric symptoms and caregiver distress in response to CRs' challenging dementia-related behaviors (secondary outcomes). Caregivers were, on average, 64.0 (SD: 11.8) years old and 62.6% provided care for the CR for 20 or more hours per week. The majority of the sample was female (73.2%), non-Hispanic White (90.2%), and spousal caregivers (72.5%). Adjusted longitudinal models of baseline and 3- and 6-month data suggest that compared with caregivers receiving clinical evaluation only, caregivers receiving care management reported greater reductions in burden over time. Subgroup analyses also showed statistically significant reductions in caregiver-reported frequency of CR dementia-related behaviors and caregiver distress in response to those symptoms at 3-month follow-up. A community-based, telephone-delivered care management program for caregivers of individuals with dementia is associated with favorable caregiver and CR-related outcomes. Findings support replication and further research in the impact of tailored, collaborative dementia care management programs that address barriers to access and engagement. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Caregiver Burden, Quality Of Life And Vulnerability Towards Psychopathology In Caregivers Of Patients With Dementia/alzheimer's Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawood, S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify caregivers' burden, evaluate quality of life in them; and predict anxiety and depression in caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Neurology and Psychiatry Department of Lahore General Hospital (LGH), from January to December, 2013. Methodology: A purposive sample of 60 caregivers, who had been taking care of patients with AD for more than one year, were recruited from the study centre. The Zarit Burden Interview was used to assess caregiver burden. The brief version of World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale to assess quality of life and anxiety and depression subscales of symptom checklist-revised were administered to assess caregivers' vulnerability towards psychopathology. Results: There were 6 males and 54 females caregivers with mean age of 37.60 ± 14.87 years. The burden of caregiving had negative relationship (-0.57; -0.50; -0.48; and -0.50, respectively) with physical, psychological, social, and environmental domains of quality of life. Neither caregiver burden nor quality of life predicted for anxiety and depression in the caregivers. Conclusion: Caregiver burden may impair quality of life of caregivers but results imply the need to identify the interpersonal and intrapersonal characteristics of caregivers that buffered the adverse effects of caregiver burden and impaired the quality of life on psychological well being of the patients with AD. (author)

  2. An exploration of spousal separation and adaptation to long-term disability: six elderly couples engaged in a horticultural programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Linda; Miranda, Baldwin; Bean, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to explore the impact of separation on couples where one spouse lives in a skilled nursing facility and the other spouse lives alone in the community. Six couples participated in a 10-week gardening group. Semi-structured interviews were conducted at the beginning of the study and observations were made and discussions engaged through the 10-week horticultural programme. Thematic analysis of interviews and discussions revealed reduced social participation of community-dwelling spouses in an effort to maintain their marital role. In one or more cases the non-institutionalized spouse adapted to separation by developing social roles and relationships within the skilled nursing facility and continuing as a caregiver to their spouse. Occupational therapists are encouraged to include spouses in programmes to nurture healthy spousal roles. Further research is needed to explore how elderly couples may support each other through purposeful occupation while one spouse is in a long-term care facility. (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Predictors of caregiver burden in Iranian family caregivers of cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsoleymani, Seyed Reza; Rohani, Camelia; Matbouei, Mahsa; Nasiri, Malihe; Vasli, Parvaneh

    2017-01-01

    Caregiver burden threatens the psychological, emotional, functional and even physical health of caregivers. The aims of this study were to determine caregiver burden and family distress and the relationship between them, also to explore predictors of caregiver burden in a sample of Iranian family caregivers of cancer patients. This is a cross-sectional study with correlational design. A total of 104 family caregivers of cancer patients were asked to respond to the Caregiver Burden Inventory (CBI) and the Family Distress Index (FDI) together with a sociodemographic questionnaire. For evaluating the relationship between CBI and FDI scores, the Pearson's product-moment correlation was used. In addition, multiple linear regression analysis was applied to explore the predictive factors of caregiver burden. A high burden was experienced by almost half of the caregivers (48.1%). The FDI mean score was 9.76 ± 5.40 ranged from 0 to 24. A strong positive correlation was found between the caregiver burden and family distress ( r = 0.76). Multiple linear regression results showed the predictive role of FDI score (β = 0.71, P = 0.001), patient's gender (β = -0.25, P = 0.001), and early cancer diagnosis (β =0.13, P = 0.027) in caregiver burden. They could explain 65% of variance in the level of burden in family caregivers. Family nurses should consider the caregivers burden and vulnerability of families with cancer patient, especially if the patient is a male or has a new diagnosis. They should also design special programs for the whole family as a system that family can adapt to the new situation.

  4. Socio-Economic Perspectives of Male Sexual Challenges and Inter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-Economic Perspectives of Male Sexual Challenges and Inter-Spousal Communication in a Mono-Cultural Setting. ... for all men who have sexual health challenges in order to stimulate mutual harmonious communication between husband and wife and enhance effective management of crisis at home fronts.

  5. Caregiver psychoeducation for schizophrenia: is gender important?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McWilliams, Stephen

    2007-07-01

    Females care for individuals with chronic illness more commonly than males and have different attitudes to illness. Additionally, they experience greater burden and reduced quality of life, when compared to their male counterparts. Since knowledge has been shown to be related to burden, we sought to determine whether there were gender differences in knowledge acquisition during a six-week caregiver psychoeducation programme (CPP).

  6. Spousal Coping Strategies in the Shadow of Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechory-Bitton, Mally; Cohen-Louck, Keren

    2017-11-01

    The present study focuses on spousal differences in reaction to ongoing exposure to terror and security threats. Sixty-eight married couples with children living in a region exposed to ongoing security threats were evaluated. All participants completed questionnaires on objective exposure (number of incidents) and subjective exposure (sense of fear) to terrorism and security threats, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and their coping strategies with this ongoing exposure. Mothers reported higher levels of fear and PTSD symptoms, although their objective levels of exposure did not differ from those of their husbands. Similarities were found in coping strategies adopted by mothers and fathers to cope with life in the shadow of terrorism. Both mothers and fathers integrated emotion- and problem-focused coping strategies, with greater use of the latter. These similarities partially contradict research findings suggesting gender differences in coping with exposure to security threats. The results support the need for further research into investigating the role of dyadic coping in the context of prolonged exposure to security threats.

  7. Spousal Involvement and CPAP Adherence: A Dyadic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lichuan; Malhotra, Atul; Kayser, Karen; Willis, Danny G.; Horowitz, June; Aloia, Mark; Weaver, Terri E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Poor adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment is associated with substantial health care costs, morbidity and mortality, and has been a leading obstacle in the effective management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Successful interventions to improve CPAP adherence may ultimately include a variety of components. For patients living with spouses (refers to all domestic partners), the spouse will likely be an integral component to any successful intervention. Developing understanding of the role of spouses in adherence to CPAP has been identified to be a critical research need. This review expands the investigation of CPAP adherence to a broader context, from an exclusive focus on individual patients to a dyadic perspective encompassing both patients and their spouses. A conceptual framework based on social support and social control theories is proposed to understand spousal involvement in CPAP adherence. Methodologies for future investigations are discussed, along with implications for developing interventions that engage both patients and their spouses to improve CPAP use. PMID:24906222

  8. Perceived Stress in Family Caregivers of Individuals With Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masa'Deh, Rami

    2017-06-01

    The current study aimed to measure the stress levels of family caregivers of individuals with mental illness and compare their stress levels according to the diagnosis and other sociodemographic characteristics. The sample comprised 310 family caregivers of individuals with mental illness in Jordan. Family caregivers completed a demographic checklist and the Arabic version of the Perceived Stress Scale 10-Item (PSS-10) questionnaire. A significant difference was found in PSS-10 levels among family caregivers according to gender, diagnosis of their family member, and time since diagnosis. Female caregivers reported significantly higher stress levels than male caregivers. Family members of individuals with schizophrenia reported the highest stress levels (p family caregivers and time since diagnosis. Investigating stress levels in family members of individuals with mental illness may be helpful when designing interventions to reduce such stress. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(6), 30-35.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Spousal support and changes in distress over time in couples coping with cancer : the role of personal control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dagan, Meirav; Sanderman, Robbert; Schokker, Marike C; Wiggers, Theo; Baas, Peter C; van Haastert, Michiel; Hagedoorn, Mariët

    This longitudinal study has examined the associations between perceived supportive and unsupportive spousal behavior and changes in distress in couples coping with cancer. We tested whether people relatively low in their sense of personal control were more responsive to spousal supportive and

  10. Caregiver Health and Wellness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain and headaches Stress and depression As a caregiver, what can I do to take care of my ... caregiving. Accept that there is a limit to what you can do as a caregiver. Recognize when you feel overwhelmed or are physically ...

  11. Comparison of long-term outcomes between spousal transplants and other living unrelated donor transplants: single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hye Eun; Song, Joon Chang; Hyoung, Bok Jin; Hwang, Hyeon Seok; Lee, So Young; Jeon, Youn Joo; Park, Sun Cheol; Choi, Bum Soon; Kim, Yong Soo; Moon, In Sung; Yang, Chul Woo

    2009-01-01

    The greater use of living unrelated donors (LUDs) as kidney donors is a worldwide trend in the current era of organ shortage, and spouses are an important source of LUDs. This study was to compare the long-term outcomes of spousal donor grafts with other LUD grafts. Among 445 LUD grafts, 77 were spouses and 368 were other LUDs. The clinical characteristics and long-term survival rates for spousal transplants were compared with those for other LUD transplants, and risk factors affecting graft survival were assessed. Spousal donors had a significantly higher average number of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatches (4.2 vs. 3.4, p HLA mismatching, the spousal donor type or donor age did not affect the graft survival. Renal transplants from spousal donors show similar long-term outcomes to those from better HLA-matched and younger LUDs. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Partner dependency and intimate partner abuse: A sociocultural grounding of spousal abuse in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, Stephen Baffour

    2015-01-01

    While sociocultural scholarship has attempted an ecological explanation of intimate partner violence, it has largely been criticized for ignoring dispositional factors of both perpetrators and victims. Dependent personality and attachment-related emotional problems have been implicated in the ext......While sociocultural scholarship has attempted an ecological explanation of intimate partner violence, it has largely been criticized for ignoring dispositional factors of both perpetrators and victims. Dependent personality and attachment-related emotional problems have been implicated...... of dependency and attachment-related spousal violence as a form of a psychopathology. This article discusses partner dependency and jealousy-motivated spousal violence as socioculturally situated, dependent on contextual and relational conditions of meaning embedded in the communal society of Ghana....... It highlights Ghanaian communal personality, gendered socialization and meaning systems of marriage as salient sociocultural features for conceptualizing partner dependency and emotional-related spousal violence....

  13. Mental and physical health correlates among family caregivers of patients with newly-diagnosed incurable cancer: a hierarchical linear regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Kelly M; Jacobs, Jamie M; Nipp, Ryan D; Carr, Alaina; Jackson, Vicki A; Park, Elyse R; Pirl, William F; El-Jawahri, Areej; Gallagher, Emily R; Greer, Joseph A; Temel, Jennifer S

    2017-03-01

    Caregiver, relational, and patient factors have been associated with the health of family members and friends providing care to patients with early-stage cancer. Little research has examined whether findings extend to family caregivers of patients with incurable cancer, who experience unique and substantial caregiving burdens. We examined correlates of mental and physical health among caregivers of patients with newly-diagnosed incurable lung or non-colorectal gastrointestinal cancer. At baseline for a trial of early palliative care, caregivers of participating patients (N = 275) reported their mental and physical health (Medical Outcome Survey-Short Form-36); patients reported their quality of life (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General). Analyses used hierarchical linear regression with two-tailed significance tests. Caregivers' mental health was worse than the U.S. national population (M = 44.31, p caregiver, relational, and patient factors simultaneously revealed that younger (B = 0.31, p = .001), spousal caregivers (B = -8.70, p = .003), who cared for patients reporting low emotional well-being (B = 0.51, p = .01) reported worse mental health; older (B = -0.17, p = .01) caregivers with low educational attainment (B = 4.36, p family caregivers of patients with incurable cancer, caregiver demographics, relational factors, and patient-specific factors were all related to caregiver mental health, while caregiver demographics were primarily associated with caregiver physical health. These findings help identify characteristics of family caregivers at highest risk of poor mental and physical health who may benefit from greater supportive care.

  14. The impact of spousal violence on the children: A pastoral care approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luvuyo G. Sifo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the impact of spousal violence on children. Spousal violence in the home affects children negatively and its impact goes beyond their childhood years into adulthood. Some children become dysfunctional in life as a result of their exposure to violence between their parents. These children may exhibit symptoms associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD later on in life. A case study of a family exposed to violence was undertaken. Findings from this case scenario were measured against existing literature. A pastoral care method of responding to the victims is proposed in order for them to be healed.

  15. Development of older men's caregiving roles for wives with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, Ingrid; Håkanson, Cecilia; Eriksson, Henrik; Sandberg, Jonas

    2017-12-01

    This secondary analysis of qualitative interviews describes how older Swedish men approach the caregiver role for a wife with dementia, over time. An increasing number of male caregivers will become primary caregivers for partners living with dementia at home, and they will likely be caregivers for an extended period of time. It has been stated that caregiving experiences influence how older men think of themselves. The theoretical starting point is a constructivist position, offering an understanding of older caregiving men's constructions and reconstructions of themselves and their caregiver roles. Seven men, who were cohabiting with their wives, were interviewed on up to five occasions at home during a 5- to 6-year period. The findings comprise three themes; me and it, me despite it, it is me, depict how these men gradually take on and normalise the caregiving tasks, and how they develop and internalise a language based on their caring activities. The results provide understanding about the relationship between men as caregivers and how this influences them as individuals. By careful attention to each caregiving man's individual needs rather than making gendered assumptions about men and caring, the aim of the caregiver support for men might best target men's own meaning to the caring in their the everyday practices. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  16. Brief Report: Relationships Among Spousal Communication, Self-Efficacy, and Motivation Among Expectant Latino Fathers Who Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaddouma, Alexander; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Fish, Laura J.; Bilheimer, Alecia; Gonzalez, Alecia; Pollak, Kathryn I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cigarette smoking is a prevalent problem among Latinos, yet little is known about what factors motivate them to quit smoking or make them feel more confident that they can. Given cultural emphases on familial bonds among Latinos (e.g., familismo), it is possible that communication processes among Latino spouses play an important role. The present study tested a mechanistic model in which perceived spousal constructive communication patterns predicted changes in level of motivation for smoking cessation through changes in self-efficacy among Latino expectant fathers. Methods Latino males (n = 173) and their pregnant partners participated in a couple-based intervention targeting males’ smoking. Couples completed self-report measures of constructive communication, self-efficacy (male partners only), and motivation to quit (male partners only) at four time points throughout the intervention. Results Higher levels of perceived constructive communication among Latino male partners predicted subsequent increases in male’s partners’ self-efficacy and, to a lesser degree, motivation to quit smoking; however, self-efficacy did not mediate associations between constructive communication and motivation to quit smoking. Furthermore, positive relationships with communication were only significant at measurements taken after completion of the intervention. Female partners’ level of perceived constructive communication did not predict male partners’ outcomes. Conclusion These results provide preliminary evidence to support the utility of couple-based interventions for Latino men who smoke. Findings also suggest that perceptions of communication processes among Latino partners (particularly male partners) may be an important target for interventions aimed increasing desire and perceived ability to quit smoking among Latino men. PMID:25844907

  17. Influence of community social norms on spousal violence: a population-based multilevel study of Nigerian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linos, Natalia; Slopen, Natalie; Subramanian, S V; Berkman, Lisa; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether social norms toward spousal violence in Nigeria, at the state level, are associated with a woman's exposure to physical and sexual violence perpetrated by her husband. Using data from the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey, we fit four 3-level random intercepts models to examine contextual factors associated with spousal violence while accounting for individual-level predictors. Of the 18,798 ever-married Nigerian women in our sample, 18.7% reported exposure to spousal sexual or physical violence. The prevalence was geographically patterned by state and ranged from 3% to 50%. Permissive state-level social norms toward spousal violence were positively associated with a woman's report of physical and sexual violence perpetrated by her husband (odds ratio [OR] = 1.80; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.17, 2.77), after adjusting for individual-level characteristics. A number of individual-level variables were significantly associated with victimization, including a woman's accepting beliefs toward spousal violence (OR = 1.11; 95% CI = 1.09, 1.14). Women living in states with Sharia law were less likely to report spousal violence (OR = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.35, 0.95). Efforts to end violence against women, particularly spousal violence, should consider broader social and contextual determinants of violence including social norms.

  18. Japanese spousal smoking study revisited: how a tobacco industry funded paper reached erroneous conclusions

    OpenAIRE

    Yano, E

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To provide a participant's account of the development of a paper commissioned by the tobacco industry examining the reliability of self reported smoking status; to redress the distorted report of this Japanese spousal smoking study which evaluated the reliability and validity of self reported smoking status, and estimated confounding by diet and lifestyle factors.

  19. Effects of own and spousal disability on loneliness among older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korporaal, M.; Broese Van Groenou, M.I.; van Tilburg, T.G.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This study examines the effects of own and spousal disability on social and emotional loneliness among married adults aged 65 and older. Method: Data from 710 men and 379 women of a Dutch community sample were analyzed with linear regression analyses. Results: For men, only their wives'

  20. “Correcting an Erring Wife Is Normal”: Moral Discourses of Spousal Violence in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, Stephen Baffour

    2015-01-01

    , blame their victims, and manage their moral accountability; victims position husband-to-wife abuse as normal, legitimate, disciplinary, and corrective. These moral discourses of spousal violence apparently serve to relieve perpetrators of moral agency; prime battered women to accept abuse; and devastate...

  1. A study of spousal domestic violence in an urban slum of Mumbai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek S Shrivastava

    2013-01-01

    Results: The proportion of domestic violence was 36.9%. The most common form of violence was verbal in 87 (86.1% followed by physical in 64 (63.4%. Conclusion: A significant association was found between domestic violence and age, education, spousal alcoholism, and duration of marriage.

  2. Relationships and cardiovascular risk: perceived spousal ambivalence in specific relationship contexts and its links to inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uchino, B.N.; Bosch, J.A.; Smith, T.W.; Carlisle, M.; Birmingham, W.; Bowen, K.S.; Light, K.C.; O'Hartaigh, B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Although perceiving one’s social ties as sources of ambivalence has been linked to negative health outcomes, the more specific contexts by which such relationships influence health remain less studied. We thus examined if perceived spousal relationship quality in three theoretically

  3. Spousal Support and Work--Family Balance in Launching a Family Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmunson, Clinton G.; Danes, Sharon M.; Werbel, James D.; Loy, Johnben Teik-Cheok

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether emotional spousal support contributes to business owners' perceived work-family balance while launching a family business. Hobfoll's Conservation of Resources theory of stress is applied to 109 family business owners and their spouses. Results from structural equation models support several hypotheses. First, reports of…

  4. Putting context into a cultural perspective: examining Arab and Jewish adolescents' judgments and reasoning about spousal retribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitner, Ronald O; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami; Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M; Zeira, Anat

    2011-05-01

    In this study, we examined what contextual factors influence adolescents' judgments and reasoning about spousal retribution. Adolescents were drawn from Central and Northern Israel and consisted of 2,324 Arab and Jewish students (Grades 7-11). The study was set up in a 2 (Arab/Jewish respondent) × 2 (spousal retribution scenarios) factorial design. Our findings suggest that societal and cultural norms may be more powerful contextual variables than group stereotypes in influencing Arab and Jewish adolescents' evaluations of spousal retribution. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  5. Spousal violence and receipt of skilled maternity care during and after pregnancy in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Marie; Bick, Debra; Matsufuji, Hiromi; Coxon, Kirstie

    2016-12-01

    a substantial number of Nepali women experience spousal violence, which affects their health in many ways, including during and after pregnancy. This study aimed to examine associations between women's experiences of spousal violence and their receipt of skilled maternity care, using two indicators: (1) receiving skilled maternity care across a continuum from pregnancy to the early postnatal period and (2) receiving any skilled maternity care in pregnancy, childbirth, or postpartum. data were analysed for married women aged 15-49 from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey. Data were included on women who completed an interview on spousal violence as part of the survey and had given birth within the five years preceding the survey (weighted n=1375). Logistic regression models were developed for analyses. the proportion of women who received skilled maternity care across the pregnancy continuum and those who received any skilled maternity care was 24.1% and 53.7%, respectively. Logistic regression analyses showed that spousal violence was statistically significantly associated with receiving low levels of skilled maternity care, after adjusting for accessibility of health care. However, after controlling for women's sociodemographic backgrounds (age, number of children born, educational level, husband's education level, husband's occupation, region of residence, urban/rural residence, wealth index), these significant associations disappeared. Better-educated women, women whose husbands were professionals or skilled workers and women from well-off households were more likely to receive skilled maternity care either across the pregnancy continuum or at recommended points during or after pregnancy. spousal violence and low uptake of skilled maternity care are deeply embedded in a society in which gender inequality prevails. Factors affecting the receipt of skilled maternity care are multidimensional; simply expanding geographical access to maternity services may

  6. Quality of life in family caregivers of schizophrenia patients in Spain: caregiver characteristics, caregiving burden, family functioning, and social and professional support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribé, José M; Salamero, Manel; Pérez-Testor, Carles; Mercadal, Josep; Aguilera, Concepción; Cleris, Margarida

    2018-03-01

    Caregivers experience physical and mental stress that ends up lowering their quality of life (QoL). Our goal was to research (a) the level of caregivers QoL; (b) the relationships between the demographic characteristics of the caregivers, their caregiving burden, their family functioning, their social and professional support and their QoL and (c) the best predictors of caregivers QoL. 100 key caregivers (70% parents, 8% spouses, 17% siblings and 5% children) were studied using the world health organization quality of life-Bref (WHOQOL-BREF) to research their QoL, the Zarit Scale to assess their perception of their caregiving burden, the Social Network Questionnaire to examine their social support, the Family APGAR to assess the satisfaction with social support from the family and a professional support scale (Escala de Apoyo Profesional) to determine the professional support received by caregivers was performed. Scores on the WHOQOL-BREF in the Physical, Psychological, Social and Environment domains were 15.0 (SD = 3.7), 13.3 (SD = 4.2), 11.0 (SD = 4.7) and 13.5 (SD = 3.1), respectively. Through bivariate analysis, the dimensions that showed a positive significant association with QoL were being a young male caregiver who was a working father with a high educational level and help from other family members. Caregivers of patients who were older and had a later onset of the illness, a lower score on the Zarit Scale and a high score on the Social Network Questionnaire, Family APGAR and Escala de Apoyo Profesional showed higher QoL. Many of these variables made a unique contribution in the multivariate analysis. There is a significant association between the caregiver's burden and their QoL. Regression analysis showed that the best predictors of QoL were caregiving burden, social support and professional support.

  7. Caregiver reports of patient-initiated violence in psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwumere, Juliana; Grice, Sarah; Garety, Philippa; Bebbington, Paul; Dunn, Graham; Freeman, Daniel; Fowler, David; Kuipers, Elizabeth

    2014-07-01

    Aggressive behaviour in psychosis is not uncommon. Community provision for people with psychosis has left informal caregivers to take on a greater role in their care. However, few studies have explored links between patient-initiated violence in mental health caregiving relationships and caregiver functioning. Our study investigated caregiver reports of aggressive acts committed by their relative with psychosis and their links to caregiver appraisals of the caregiving relationship and caregiver outcomes. Caregivers of patients with a recent relapse of psychosis, recruited to a psychological therapy trial, completed the audiotaped Camberwell Family Interview at baseline. This semi-structured interview includes questions on the quality of the relationship between caregiver and patient, and patient history of violence. Seventy-two transcripts of interviews were assessed for reports of patient-initiated violence. One-half of the caregiver sample (52.9%) reported an incident of patient-initiated violence during their interview; 62.2% of these involved violence toward themselves, and 24.3% toward property. Reports of patient violence were associated with caregiver ratings of hostility expressed toward patients, lower self-esteem, and emotion-focused coping. People caring on their own were more likely to report incidents of patient violence. Younger patients, males, and inpatients were more frequently identified as having a history of this kind of violence. Our findings suggested that caregiver reports of patient-initiated violence in psychosis are not uncommon. Mental health staff need to be aware of the risks of such violence for caregivers of people with psychosis, and consider appropriate procedures for minimizing it.

  8. Gender Differences in Caregiving at End of Life: Implications for Hospice Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Karla T; Pike, Kenneth C; Demiris, George; Parker Oliver, Debra; Albright, David L; Lewis, Alexandria M

    2015-12-01

    Researchers have identified important gender differences in the experience of caring for a family member or friend living with advanced disease; however, trends suggest that these differences may be diminishing over time in response to changing gender roles. In addition, while many studies have found caregiving experiences and outcomes to be poorer among female caregivers, noteworthy exceptions exist. The primary aim of this exploratory study was to determine how, if at all, current day caregiving at end of life varies by gender. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a multisite randomized controlled trial of a family caregiving intervention performed between 2010 and 2014. We compared female and male hospice family caregivers on baseline variables using χ(2) tests for association of categorical variables and t-tests for continuous variables. Our sample included 289 family caregivers of individuals receiving services from one of two hospice agencies located in the northwestern United States. Demographic data and other categorical variables of interest were provided via caregiver self-report using an instrument created specifically for this study. Reaction to caregiving and caregiving burden were measured using the Caregiver Reaction Assessment (CRA). As it related to caregiving, females had significantly lower self-esteem and more negative impact on their schedule, health, and family support than males. No gender differences were detected with regard to the impact of caregiving on individuals' finances. Despite changing social expectations, pronounced gender differences persist in caregiving at the end of life.

  9. Behind the smile: qualitative study of caregivers' anguish and management responses while caring for someone living with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingham, Jennifer; Frost, Julia; Britten, Nicky

    2017-07-20

    Caregivers support self-management in heart failure but often experience stress, anxiety and ill health as a result of providing care. 1. To identify the factors that contribute to the experience of anguish.2. To understand how caregivers learn to live with what is frequently a challenging and demanding role. Individual interviews with caregivers who had been caring for someone with heart failure for a minimum of 6 months. We used thematic analysis to inductively analyse transcripts. Twenty-two caregivers, from three centres in the United Kingdom, took part in individual interviews. The caregivers were aged between 39 and 84 years, and six were men. Twenty were in spousal or partner relationships. We found that caregivers often hide the extent of their emotional stress or anguish. We identified four main themes with explanatory subthemes-emotional impact (fear for the future and sense of hopelessness), role definition (changing sense of who I am, reduced resilience, learning care skills, role conflict and changing role), exclusion (exclusion by the cared-for person and by health professionals and feeling alone) and ignoring one's own health-that were associated with anguish. From these findings, we produced a caregiver needs assessment model in the context of caring for a person with heart failure. Caregivers have many unmet and hidden needs. Primary care health professionals are well placed to meet the needs of caregivers. The model may be used by health and social care professionals to identify needs and to provide caregivers with targeted practical and emotional support; and for researchers developing interventions to enhance self-management in heart failure. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Association Between Spousal Suicide and Mental, Physical, and Social Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runeson, Bo; Bolton, James M.; Wilcox, Holly C.; Forman, Julie L; Krogh, Jesper; Shear, M. Katherine; Nordentoft, Merete; Conwell, Yeates

    2017-01-01

    Importance Bereavement after spousal suicide has been linked to mental disorders; however, a comprehensive assessment of the effect of spousal suicide is needed. Objective To determine whether bereavement after spousal suicide was linked to an excessive risk of mental, physical, and social health outcomes when compared with the general population and spouses bereaved by other manners. Design, Setting, and Participants This nationwide, register-based cohort study conducted in Denmark of 6.7 million individuals aged 18 years and older from 1980 to 2014 covered more than 136 million person-years and compared people bereaved by spousal suicide with the general population and people bereaved by other manners of death. Incidence rate ratios were calculated using Poisson regressions while adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and the presence of mental and physical disorders. Main Outcomes and Measures Mental disorders (any disorder, mood, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, alcohol use disorders, drug use disorders, and self-harm); physical disorders (cancers, diabetes, sleep disorder, cardiovascular diseases, chronic lower respiratory tract diseases, liver cirrhosis, and spinal disc herniation); causes of mortality (all-cause, natural, unintentional, suicide, and homicide); social health outcomes; and health care use. Results The total study population included 3 491 939 men, 4814 of whom were bereaved by spousal suicide, and 3 514 959 women, 10 793 of whom were bereaved by spousal suicide. Spouses bereaved by a partner’s suicide had higher risks of developing mental disorders within 5 years of the loss (men: incidence rate ratio, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.6-2.0; women: incidence rate ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.6-1.8) than the general population. Elevated risks for developing physical disorders, such as cirrhosis and sleep disorders, were also noted as well as the use of more municipal support, sick leave benefits, and disability pension funds than the general

  11. Self-stigma among caregivers of people with mental illness: toward caregivers' empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girma, Eshetu; Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Dehning, Sandra; Mueller, Norbert; Tesfaye, Markos; Froeschl, Guenter

    2014-01-01

    In addition to economic and material burdens, caregivers of people with mental illness are exposed to psychosocial challenges. Self-stigma is among the psychological challenges that can be exacerbated by intrinsic and/or extrinsic factors. Caregivers' self-stigma can negatively influence the patients' treatment and rehabilitation process. The objective of this study was to measure the level and correlates of self-stigma among caregivers of people with mental illness. An interviewer-administered cross-sectional study was conducted in the Jimma University Specialized Hospital Psychiatry Clinic in Ethiopia on a sample of 422 caregivers. Data were collected by trained nurses working in the clinic using a pretested questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression was performed to identify the correlates of self-stigma among caregivers of people with mental illness. The majority (70.38%) of the caregivers were male. On a scale of 0 to 15, with 0 being low and 15 being high, the average self-stigmatizing attitude score was 4.68 (±4.11). A statistically significant difference in mean self-stigma score was found between urban and rural respondents (t=3.95, PSelf-stigma of caregivers showed significant positive correlation with perceived signs of mental illness (r=0.18, Pself-stigma was perceived supernatural explanation of mental illness (standardized β=0.22, Pself-stigma in this study was significantly correlated with perceived supernatural explanation of mental illness. Since caregivers' self-stigma may negatively influence patients' treatment-seeking, adherence, and rehabilitation processes, programs that enhance coping strategies by strengthening self-esteem and empowerment by health care providers and establish family support groups may be helpful to tackle self-stigma among caregivers of people with mental illness.

  12. Spousal Violence in 5 Transitional Countries: A Population-Based Multilevel Analysis of Individual and Contextual Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismayilova, Leyla

    2015-11-01

    I examined the individual- and community-level factors associated with spousal violence in post-Soviet countries. I used population-based data from the Demographic and Health Survey conducted between 2005 and 2012. My sample included currently married women of reproductive age (n = 3932 in Azerbaijan, n = 4053 in Moldova, n = 1932 in Ukraine, n = 4361 in Kyrgyzstan, and n = 4093 in Tajikistan). I selected respondents using stratified multistage cluster sampling. Because of the nested structure of the data, multilevel logistic regressions for survey data were fitted to examine factors associated with spousal violence in the last 12 months. Partner's problem drinking was the strongest risk factor associated with spousal violence in all 5 countries. In Moldova, Ukraine, and Kyrgyzstan, women with greater financial power than their spouses were more likely to experience violence. Effects of community economic deprivation and of empowerment status of women in the community on spousal violence differed across countries. Women living in communities with a high tolerance of violence faced a higher risk of spousal violence in Moldova and Ukraine. In more traditional countries (Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan), spousal violence was lower in conservative communities with patriarchal gender beliefs or higher financial dependency on husbands. My findings underscore the importance of examining individual risk factors in the context of community-level factors and developing individual- and community-level interventions.

  13. Tacit definitions of informal caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrubel, J; Richards, T A; Folkman, S; Acree, M C

    2001-01-01

    This study describes three tacit definitions of informal caregiving and explores the extent to which differences in these tacit definitions explain variation in caregivers' negative mood over time. There is a growing need to understand the sources of stress and gratification for informal caregivers. Tacit definitions of informal caregiving refer to caregivers' understanding of what caregiving entails. These definitions are tacit because they arise from caregivers' taken-for-granted understanding rather than formally articulated positions concerning caregiving. A random sample of 60 men, all of whom were caregiving partners of men with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), was drawn from a larger cohort of 253 participants in the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) Coping Project (1990-1997). The caregivers were assessed bimonthly for 2 years with procedures that included a semi-structured interview focusing on a recent stressful event involving caregiving, and quantitative measures of well-being. Interpretive phenomenological case studies of the narrative accounts of the 60 caregivers produced three tacit definitions of caregiving - engagement, conflict and distance. These three tacit definitions were distinguished by differences in learning about caregiving, involvement in health care decisions, caregiving activities and reported sources of stress. The three groups differed on measures of dyadic adjustment, depression, anger and anxiety. Better understanding of caregivers' tacit definitions can facilitate and enhance effective support and interventions for caregivers.

  14. Moving beyond caregiver burden: identifying helpful interventions for family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrell, Jeanne M

    2014-03-01

    Family members serving as informal caregivers for loved ones often experience physical, psychological, emotional, social, and financial consequences that can be conceptualized as caregiver burden. As the number of older adults in our society continues to increase, there will be even more demand for family caregivers. It is important to move beyond a focus on the statistics and characteristics of caregiver burden and identify helpful interventions to reduce this burden. Interventions that decrease caregiver burden can enable family caregivers to delay placement of the individual in an institutional setting and improve quality of life for both the caregiver and care recipient. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. More caregiving, less working: caregiving roles and gender difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeonjung; Tang, Fengyan

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the relationship of caregiving roles to labor force participation using the nationally representative data from the Health and Retirement Study. The sample was composed of men and women aged 50 to 61 years (N = 5,119). Caregiving roles included caregiving for spouse, parents, and grandchildren; a summary of three caregiving roles was used to indicate multiple caregiving roles. Bivariate analysis using chi-square and t tests and binary logistic regression models were applied. Results show that women caregivers for parents and/or grandchildren were less likely to be in the labor force than non-caregivers and that caregiving responsibility was not related to labor force participation for the sample of men. Findings have implication for supporting family caregivers, especially women, to balance work and caregiving commitments. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. Exploring youth and caregiver preferences for asthma education video content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geryk, Lorie L; Arrindell, Courtney C; Sage, Adam J; Blalock, Susan J; Reuland, Daniel S; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Lee, Charles; Sleath, Betsy L; Carpenter, Delesha M

    2016-01-01

    This study examines (1) whether youth and their caregivers have different preferences for asthma education video topics and (2) if education topic preferences vary by youth and caregiver sociodemographic characteristics. Youth (n = 83) ages 7-17 years with persistent asthma and their caregivers were recruited at two pediatric practices in North Carolina. Sociodemographic information and youth and caregiver preferences for nine asthma video education topics were collected during in-person interviews. Bonferroni-corrected Chi-square or McNemar tests (α = 0.0056) were used to compare youth and caregivers differences in topic preferences and topic preferences by youth and caregiver sociodemographic characteristics, including gender, race, ethnicity, and age. Youth were primarily male (52%) and from low-income families (74%; caregiver annual income less than $30,000) and many were Hispanic (45%). Youth and parents expressed the most interest in the following two topics: "how to deal with triggers" (90% and 95%, respectively) and "how to keep asthma under control" (87% and 96%, respectively). Caregivers and children were discordant for two topics: "the difference between a rescue and controller medicine" and "how to [help your child] talk to your [his/her] friends about asthma." No differences were found between youth and caregiver sociodemographic characteristics and video topic preferences. Youth with persistent asthma and their caregivers differed in their asthma education topic preferences, but preferences did not vary by caregiver or youth sociodemographic characteristics. Studies examining the effectiveness of interventions tailored to differences in educational preferences of youth with asthma and their caregivers are needed.

  17. The influence of marital status and spousal employment on retirement behavior in Germany and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radl, Jonas; Himmelreicher, Ralf K

    2015-05-01

    This article analyzes the impact of marital status and spousal employment on the timing of retirement in Germany and Spain. Retirement behavior is examined by means of event-history models, with a competing risks framework being used to distinguish between voluntary and involuntary work-exit transitions. To take account of the role of social policies, we adopt a comparative approach. Data are drawn from a 2006 special retirement module implemented analogously in national labor force surveys. The results show that spousal labor market participation plays a large role in work-exit transitions, even when retirement is involuntary. This finding questions the widespread belief that coretirement is exclusively due to preference for joint retirement shared among spouses. Moreover, widows and widowers tend to retire prematurely in Germany, whereas no such effect could be found in Spain. This finding is explained by reference to specific economic incentives arising from national pension legislation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Do personality traits moderate the effect of late-life spousal loss on psychological distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Manacy; Carr, Deborah

    2010-06-01

    We use data from the Changing Lives of Older Couples (CLOC) study to investigate the extent to which: (1) five personality traits (agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability/neuroticism, extraversion, and openness) moderate the effect of late-life spousal loss on depressive symptoms; (2) these patterns vary based on the expectedness of the death; and (3) the patterns documented in (1) and (2) are explained by secondary stressors and social support. Widowed persons report significantly more depressive symptoms than married persons, yet the deleterious effects of loss are significantly smaller for highly extraverted and conscientious individuals. The protective effects of personality traits, however, vary based on the expectedness of the death. Extraversion is protective against depression only for persons who had forewarning of the death. Extraverts may be particularly good at marshalling social support during prolonged periods of spousal illness. We discuss the ways that extraversion and conscientiousness may buffer against bereavement-related stressors.

  19. The Effects of Military Change-of-Station Moves on Spousal Earnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-02

    Career Advancement Accounts program, available to assist some Figure 1. Impact of PCS Moves on Military Spousal Earnings NOTES: The “working spouses...Spouses’ career earnings may be especially affected by permanent change-of-station (PCS) moves. Job-specific skills and knowledge gained while one is...Finally, the inherently disruptive nature of moving could have negative effects on productivity , thereby lowering wages. To date, our understanding of

  20. Post-migration employment changes and health: A dyadic spousal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Annie; Goldberg, Rachel E

    2017-10-01

    Prospective studies have found unemployment and job loss to be associated with negative psychological and physical health outcomes. For immigrants, the health implications of employment change cannot be considered apart from pre-migration experiences. While immigrants demonstrate relative success in securing employment in the United States, their work is often not commensurate with their education or expertise. Previous research has linked downward employment with adverse health outcomes among immigrants, but with gender differences. We extended this literature by considering a wider range of employment states and accounting for the interdependence of husbands' and wives' employment trajectories. We examined the relationships between personal and spousal post-migration employment changes and self-rated health and depressive symptoms using dyadic data from the 2003 New Immigrant Survey (NIS) (n = 5682 individuals/2841 spousal pairs). We used the Actor Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) to model cross-partner effects and account for spousal interdependence. In general, men's downward employment trajectories were associated with poorer health for themselves. Women's employment trajectories had fewer statistically significant associations with their own or their husbands' health, underscoring the generally more peripheral nature of women's work in the household. However, women's current unemployment in particular was associated with poorer health outcomes for themselves and their husbands, suggesting that unmet need for women's work can produce health risks within immigrant households. Our findings suggest that employment change should be considered a household event that can impact the wellbeing of linked individuals within. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Spousal recovery support, recovery experiences, and life satisfaction crossover among dual-earner couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, YoungAh; Fritz, Charlotte

    2015-03-01

    Research has indicated the importance of recovery from work stress for employee well-being and work engagement. However, very little is known about the specific factors that may support or hinder recovery in the context of dual-earner couples. This study proposes spousal recovery support as a potential resource that dual-earner couples can draw on to enhance their recovery experiences and well-being. It was hypothesized that spousal recovery support would be related to the recipient spouse's life satisfaction via his or her own recovery experiences (i.e., psychological detachment, relaxation, and mastery experiences). The study further investigated the crossover of life satisfaction between working spouses as a potential outcome of recovery processes. Data from 318 full-time employed married couples in South Korea were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results showed that spousal recovery support was positively related to all 3 recovery experiences of the recipient spouse. Moreover, this recovery support was related to the recipient spouse's life satisfaction via relaxation and mastery experiences. Unexpectedly, psychological detachment was negatively related to life satisfaction, possibly indicating a suppression effect. Life satisfaction crossed over between working spouses. No gender differences were found in the hypothesized paths. Based on these findings, theoretical and practical implications are discussed, and future research directions are presented. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. HIV-Risk Behavior Among the Male Migrant Factory Workers in a North Indian City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Male migrants act as a bridge for transmitting infection from core risk groups to general population and hence this group becomes essential for the HIV control program. Migrant workers constitute a large proportion of workforce in India and HIV/AIDS epidemic in them would cause huge economic losses. Objectives: The aim of this study was to ascertain the HIV-risk behavior among male migrant factory workers. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional facility based survey conducted in 2011. Male migrant workers aged ≥18 years, who were born outside Haryana, who had moved to current location after 15 years of age, who had worked in the current factory for at least one year, who were willing to participate and able to give valid consent were eligible. A consecutive sampling was done. Descriptive, bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were done. Results: A total of 755 male subjects completed the interview. About 21.5% had experienced non-spousal sexual intercourse in last one year. Nearly 60% did not use a condom at the last non-spousal sex. Factors associated with recent non-spousal sex were being unmarried, younger age at migration, recent migration to Haryana, greater number of places migrated and lesser total duration of migration and those associated with non-use of condom at the last non-spousal sex were older age, lower education, lesser number of places migrated and lower level of HIV/AIDS knowledge. Conclusion: Unprotected, recent non-spousal sex was common among male migrants, which could increase their HIV/AIDS vulnerability.

  3. Repetitive Questioning Exasperates Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Hamdy MD

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive questioning is due to an impaired episodic memory and is a frequent, often presenting, problem in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (amnestic type. It is due to the patients’ difficulties learning new information, retaining it, and recalling it, and is often aggravated by a poor attention span and easy distractibility. A number of factors may trigger and maintain repetitive questioning. Caregivers should try to identify and address these triggers. In the case discussion presented, it is due to the patient’s concerns about her and her family’s safety triggered by watching a particularly violent movie aired on TV. What went wrong in the patient/caregiver interaction and how it could have been avoided or averted are explored. Also reviewed are the impact of repetitive questioning, the challenges it raises for caregivers, and some effective intervention strategies that may be useful to diffuse the angst that caregivers experience with repetitive questioning.

  4. Depression and Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FCA - A A + A You are here Home Depression and Caregiving Order this publication Printer-friendly version ... a more serious depression over time. Symptoms of Depression People experience depression in different ways. Some may ...

  5. Child marriage and its associations with controlling behaviors and spousal violence against adolescent and young women in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muazzam; Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria

    2014-12-01

    Child marriage (before 18 years) is widely prevalent in Pakistan, and disproportionately affects young girls in rural, low-income, and poorly educated households. Our study aims to determine the associations between child marriage and controlling behaviors (CB) and spousal violence by husbands against adolescent and young women in Pakistan beyond those attributed to social vulnerabilities. We analyzed data from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2012-2013, of currently married women aged 15-24 years who had participated in the domestic violence module (n = 589, 22.5% [589/2,615] of the subsample aged 15-24 years) to identify differences in CB and spousal violence experiences between early (marriage. Associations between child marriage and CB and spousal violence by husband were assessed by calculating adjusted odds ratios (AOR) using logistic regression models after controlling for demographics, social equity indicators (education, wealth index, and rural residence), spousal age gap, and husband's education. Overall, 47.8% of currently married women aged 15-24 years in Pakistan were married before the age of 18 years. About one third of women aged 15-24 years in Pakistan reported experiencing CB (31.8%) and spousal violence (31.1%) by their husbands. Compared with adult marriage, child marriage was significantly associated with CB (AOR = 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.042-2.157), any form of spousal violence (physical or emotional) (AOR = 2.03; 95% CI, 1.392-2.969), emotional violence (AOR = 1.86; 95% CI, 1.254-2.767), and physical violence (AOR = 2.44; 95% CI, 1.582-3.760), including severe physical violence (AOR = 2.57; 95% CI, 1.122-5.872). Effective interventions are needed to prevent child marriages and raise awareness about their negative consequences, with special reference to spousal violence. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Determinants of patient-family caregiver congruence on preferred place of death in taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Siew Tzuh; Chen, Cheryl Chia-Hui; Tang, Woung-Ru; Liu, Tsang-Wu

    2010-08-01

    Patient-family caregiver congruence on preferred place of death not only increases the likelihood of dying at home but also contributes significantly to terminally ill cancer patients' quality of life. To examine the determinants of patient-family caregiver congruence on the preferred place of death in Taiwan. Patient-family caregiver dyads (n=1,108) were surveyed on preferences and needs for end-of-life (EOL) care. Determinants of congruence on preferences were identified by multivariate logistic regression. Patient-caregiver dyads achieved 78.1% agreement on the preferred place of death. The kappa coefficient of congruence was 0.55 (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.50, 0.60). The extent of patient-family caregiver congruence on preferred place of death increased with the patient's higher functional dependence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] and 95% CI=1.04 [1.02, 1.05]), higher patient-rated importance for dying at preferred place of death (AOR [95% CI]=1.60 [1.43, 1.79]), and having a spousal caregiver (AOR [95% CI]=1.62 [1.14, 2.31]). Other determinants of patient-family caregiver congruence included patient age (AOR [95% CI]=1.01 [1.00, 1.03]), patient-family concordance on preferred EOL care options (AOR=1.68-1.73), patient knowledge of prognosis (AOR [95% CI]=0.68 [0.48, 0.97]), and impact of caregiving on the family caregiver's life (AOR [95% CI]=0.98 [0.96, 0.99]). Increasing patient-family congruence on preferred place of death not only requires knowledge of the patient's prognosis and advance planning by both parties but also depends on family caregivers endorsing patient preferences for EOL care options and ensuring that supporting patients dying at home does not create an intolerable burden for family caregivers. Copyright (c) 2010 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Exploration the Supportive Needs and Coping Behaviors of Daughter and Daughter in-Law Caregivers of Stroke Survivors, Shiraz-Iran: A Qualitative Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamzadeh, Sakineh; Tengku Aizan, Hamid; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Hamidon, Basri; Rahimah, Ibrahim

    2015-07-01

    The period of hospital stay and the first month after discharge have been found to be the most problematic stages for family caregivers of stroke survivors. It is just at home that patients and caregivers actually understand the whole consequences of the stroke. The adult offspring often have more different needs and concerns than spousal caregivers. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the needs of this particular group of caregivers. Therefore, this qualitative content analysis study aimed to explore the supportive needs and coping behaviors of daughter and daughter in-law caregivers (DILs) of stroke survivors one month after the patient's discharge from the hospital in Shiraz, Southern of Iran. This is a qualitative content analysis study using semi-structured and in-depth interviews with a purposive sampling of seventeen daughter and daughter in-law caregivers. The data revealed seven major themes including information and training, financial support, home health care assistance need, self-care support need, adjusting with the cultural obligation in providing care for a parent in-law, and need for improving quality of hospital care. Also, data from the interview showed that daughter and daughter in-law caregivers mostly used emotional-oriented coping strategies, specially religiosity, to cope with their needs and problems in their care-giving role. The results of this qualitative study revealed that family caregivers have several unmet needs in their care-giving role. By providing individualized information and support, we can prepare these family caregivers to better cope with the home care needs of stroke survivors and regain control over aspects of life.

  8. Facing Spousal Cancer During Child-Rearing Years: Do Social Support and Hardiness Moderate the Impact of Psychological Distress on Quality of Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senneseth, Mette; Hauken, May A; Matthiesen, Stig B; Gjestad, Rolf; Laberg, Jon C

    Partners of cancer patients report psychological distress and reduced quality of life. However, partners' mental health status and quality of life during child-rearing years and the influence of social support and hardiness on their well-being have not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to describe psychological distress, quality of life, social support, and hardiness of the partners facing spousal cancer during child-rearing years and investigate whether social support or hardiness moderated the relationship between psychological distress and quality of life. Cross-sectional data were collected in Norway from December 2013 to July 2015 as part of the Cancer-PEPSONE study. Five questionnaires were administered to 14 females and 21 males (n = 35). Participants reported more psychological distress and lower quality-of-life scores than other healthy Norwegian populations. Psychological distress seemed to be associated with their not being in control of their futures. Received social support moderated the effect of psychological distress on quality of life. Facing spousal cancer during child-rearing years seemed to have a substantial impact on partners' mental health and an adverse impact on their quality of life. Accordingly, these partners' self-care abilities may be reduced. Received social support may reduce the multiple burdens and consequently allow for enhancement of self-care. Interventions should aim to improve the social support provided to child-rearing partners, which may improve their quality of life. Providing adequate information about their partner's cancer illness and treatment may enhance their feelings of control, which may be beneficial for their mental health status.

  9. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CAREGIVER BURDEN IN CANCER CERVIX AND CANCER BREAST ILLNESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasagopalan, Nappinnai, Solayappan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caregivers of individuals suffering from cancer illnesses are at risk of having subjected to mental health consequences. There is a paucity of data comparing the caregiver burden of cancer breast and cancer cervix patients. Aim: The aim of the present study is to compare the caregiver burden of cancer breast and cancer cervix patients. To study the association of caregiver burden with demographic factors like age, gender, duration of caregiving etc. Materials & Methods: This Cross sectional study is performed on the key relatives of patients of 31 cancer cervix and 31 cancer breast patients. Burden assessment schedule was used. Results: Our findings suggest burden is more in male caregivers of breast cancer patients. It is not so in caregivers of cancer cervix patients. Whenever the caregiver is closely related to the patients the burden is high in both groups. Whenever the burden scores were high the depression scores were also high. Treatment modalities as a whole correlates with burden scores in caregivers of breast cancer patients but not in cancer cervix patients. Conclusion: Caregivers with breast and cervical cancer patients are vulnerable if the caregiver is male, from low socioeconomical background, more closely related and when the patients received poor treatment modalities.

  10. Engagement in Pleasant Leisure Activities and Blood Pressure: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study in Alzheimer Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausbach, Brent T; Romero-Moreno, Rosa; Bos, Taylor; von Känel, Roland; Ziegler, Michael G; Allison, Matthew A; Mills, Paul J; Dimsdale, Joel E; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Losada, Andrés; Márquez-González, María; Patterson, Thomas L; Grant, Igor

    2017-09-01

    Elevated blood pressure is a significant public health concern, particularly given its association with cardiovascular disease risk, including stroke. Caring for a loved one with Alzheimer disease has been associated with physical health morbidity, including higher blood pressure. Engagement in adaptive coping strategies may help prevent blood pressure elevation in this population. This 5-year longitudinal study examined whether greater participation in pleasant leisure activities was associated with reduced blood pressure in caregivers. Participants were 126 in-home spousal Alzheimer's caregivers (M [SD] age = 74.2 [7.9] years) that completed five yearly assessments. Linear mixed-effects models analysis was used to examine the longitudinal relationship between pleasant leisure activities and caregivers' blood pressure, after adjusting for demographic and health characteristics. Greater engagement in pleasant leisure activities was associated with reduced mean arterial blood pressure (B = -0.08, SE = 0.04, p = .040). Follow-up analyses indicated that engagement in activities was significantly associated with reduced diastolic (B = -0.07, SE = 0.03, p = .030) but not systolic blood pressure (B = -0.10, SE = 0.06, p = .114). In addition, mean arterial blood pressure was significantly reduced when caregiving duties ended because of placement of care recipients in nursing homes (B = -3.10, SE = 1.11, p = .005) or death of the care recipient (B = -2.64, SE = 1.14, p = .021). Greater engagement in pleasant leisure activities was associated with lowered caregivers' blood pressure over time. Participation in pleasant leisure activities may have cardiovascular health benefits for Alzheimer's caregivers.

  11. Spousal depression, anxiety, and suicide after myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Emil L; Peterson, Eric D; Weeke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    or non-fatal AMI. Married patients with fatal or non-fatal AMI (1997-2008) were matched with their counterparts dying or hospitalized with a non-AMI cause; incident use of antidepressants and benzodiazepines, incident depression care, and suicides were compared pre- and post-event using Poisson models...... and benzodiazepine initiation (IRR 1.5 vs. 1.1, and 6.7 vs. 1.3, respectively, Pdepression and suicide. Male individuals whose spouse had a fatal or non-fatal AMI had a relatively higher increased risk of depression than female individuals...

  12. Factors of Resilience in Informal Caregivers of People with Dementia from Integrative International Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joling, Karlijn J; Windle, Gill; Dröes, Rose-Marie; Meiland, Franka; van Hout, Hein P J; MacNeil Vroomen, Janet; van de Ven, Peter M; Moniz-Cook, Esmé; Woods, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Although caring for a person with dementia can be stressful, some caregivers appear to experience few negative consequences to their well-being. This study aimed to examine what proportion of caregivers demonstrates resilience under different challenging circumstances and to identify factors related to their resilience. Baseline data from 4 studies from the Netherlands and UK among informal caregivers of people with dementia were harmonized and integrated. Caregiver resilience was defined as high levels of psychological well-being despite different types of high caregiving demands. Multivariate regression analyses identified factors significantly related to caregiver resilience. The integrated data set included 15 harmonized variables with data from 1,048 caregivers facing a high care demand. The prevalence of resilience varied between 35 and 43%, depending on the demand for high care. Being a male caregiver, caring for a female, living apart from your relative, and low caregiver burden were positively related to caregiver resilience. Caregivers have the capacity to demonstrate resilience despite significant challenges. This study demonstrates how harmonization of data from multiple existing studies can be used to increase power and explore the consistency of findings. This contributes to a better understanding of which factors are likely to facilitate caregiver resilience and offers insights for developing services. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Rates and predictors of depression status among caregivers of patients with COPD hospitalized for acute exacerbations: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernabeu-Mora R

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Bernabeu-Mora,1–3 Gloria García-Guillamón,2 Joaquina Montilla-Herrador,2,3 Pilar Escolar-Reina,2,3 José Antonio García-Vidal,2 Francesc Medina-Mirapeix2,3 1Division of Pneumology, Hospital Morales Meseguer, 2Department of Physical Therapy, University of Murcia, 3Physiotherapy and Disability Research Group, Instituto Murciano de Investigación Biosanitaria Virgen de la Arrixaca (IMIB, Murcia, Spain Background: Hospitalization is common for acute exacerbation of COPD, but little is known about its impact on the mental health of caregivers. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the rates and predictors of depressive symptoms in caregivers at the time of hospitalization for acute exacerbation of COPD and to identify the probability and predictors of subsequent changes in depressive status 3 months after discharge. Materials and methods: This was a prospective study. Depression symptoms were measured in 87 caregivers of patients hospitalized for exacerbation at hospitalization and 3 months after discharge. We measured factors from four domains: context of care, caregiving demands, caregiver resources, and patient characteristics. Univariate and multivariate multiple logistic regressions were used to determine the predictors of depression at hospitalization and subsequent changes at 3 months. Results: A total of 45 caregivers reported depression at the time of hospitalization. After multiple adjustments, spousal relationship, dyspnea, and severe airflow limitation were the strongest independent predictors of depression at hospitalization. Of these 45 caregivers, 40% had a remission of their depression 3 months after discharge. In contrast, 16.7% of caregivers who were not depressive at hospitalization became depressive at 3 months. Caregivers caring >20 hours per week for patients with dependencies had decreased odds of remission, and patients having dependencies after discharge increased the odds of caregivers becoming

  14. Everyday life and social relations in home-living patients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their caregivers: Quantitative and qualitative analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lisbeth Villemoes

    2007-01-01

    and the presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms. In the second study, data were collected using semi-structured research interviews with 11 patients before their participation in the DAISY intervention programme. Grounded theory analysis of the interview data revealed that the basic social psychological problem...... with the changes they face in relation to everyday life and social relations; and 3) to identify and analyse the experience of patients and their spousal caregivers concerning the impact of an intensive psychosocial intervention programme with tailored counselling, education courses and support groups, conducted...

  15. Prevalence and Attitude of Women to Spousal Physical Abuse in Pregnancy in a Niger Delta Community of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustine Vincent Umoh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Spousal physical violence in pregnancy is a major public health and human rights concern. Identifying its prevalence and understanding the women’s attitude towards this phenomenon in our environment is key to developing strategies for effective intervention. Methods: This was a cross sectional study of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital (UUTH, Uyo in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Information was collected using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire instrument. Results: The mean age of respondents was 28.72 ± 4.47 years with a range of 16 – 48 years. The prevalence of spousal physical violence in the current pregnancy was 10.3%. 45.2% of those who experienced violence in the current pregnancy also experienced violence in other pregnancies while 73.7% of those who reported spousal violence in previous pregnancies also experienced violence in the current pregnancy. There was a significant relationship between spousal physical violence and the woman’s number of deliveries/parity (x2 = 16.145, p=0.025, marital status (x2=11.105, p=0.025 and husband’s occupation (x2=12.786, p=0.047. About half of the respondents expressed the view that spousal violence was not excusable under any circumstance while 22.7% believed that it could be excused under certain circumstances. Also 50.0% of those who experienced physical violence in the current pregnancy expressed the view that physical violence can be excusable. Most of the women (65.8% either kept the incidence of abuse secret or just did nothing. None reported to the police. Conclusion: Spousal physical abuse is still prevalent in our society. There is need to enlighten the women on this phenomenon in order to get their cooperation towards its eradication. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 731-736

  16. Investigating spousal concordance of diabetes through statistical analysis and data mining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Yi Wang

    Full Text Available Spousal clustering of diabetes merits attention. Whether old-age vulnerability or a shared family environment determines the concordance of diabetes is also uncertain. This study investigated the spousal concordance of diabetes and compared the risk of diabetes concordance between couples and noncouples by using nationally representative data.A total of 22,572 individuals identified from the 2002-2013 National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan constituted 5,643 couples and 5,643 noncouples through 1:1 dual propensity score matching (PSM. Factors associated with concordance in both spouses with diabetes were analyzed at the individual level. The risk of diabetes concordance between couples and noncouples was compared at the couple level. Logistic regression was the main statistical method. Statistical data were analyzed using SAS 9.4. C&RT and Apriori of data mining conducted in IBM SPSS Modeler 13 served as a supplement to statistics.High odds of the spousal concordance of diabetes were associated with old age, middle levels of urbanization, and high comorbidities (all P < 0.05. The dual PSM analysis revealed that the risk of diabetes concordance was significantly higher in couples (5.19% than in noncouples (0.09%; OR = 61.743, P < 0.0001.A high concordance rate of diabetes in couples may indicate the influences of assortative mating and shared environment. Diabetes in a spouse implicates its risk in the partner. Family-based diabetes care that emphasizes the screening of couples at risk of diabetes by using the identified risk factors is suggested in prospective clinical practice interventions.

  17. Spousal Concordance of Diabetes Mellitus among Women in Ajman, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sharbatti, Shatha S; Abed, Yasmeen I; Al-Heety, Lujain M; Basha, Shaikh A

    2016-05-01

    Spousal concordance is defined as similar behaviours and associated health statuses between spouses. This study aimed to identify the concordance of diabetes mellitus (DM) and related variables among genetically unrelated couples in Ajman, United Arab Emirates (UAE). This cross-sectional study included 270 married women attending either the Mushairef Health Center or the Gulf Medical College Hospital in Ajman between May and November 2012. A validated questionnaire was designed to determine sociodemographic characteristics and a history or family history of DM, hypertension, coronary artery disease or dyslipidaemia among the women and their husbands. The weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels of all women were measured. Of the women, 39.3% of those with diabetic husbands and 39.9% of those with non-diabetic husbands were diabetic themselves (P >0.050). The prevalence of DM spousal concordance was 17.8%. A history of hypertension, coronary artery disease and dyslipidaemia was significantly more frequent among women whose husbands had a history of the same conditions (P = 0.001, 0.040 and 0.002, respectively). Spousal concordance of abnormal glycaemia among non-diabetic women with diabetic husbands was significant (P = 0.001). Having a diabetic husband (P = 0.006) and being obese (P = 0.009) were the only significant predictors of hyperglycaemia among non-diabetic women after controlling for confounding factors. There was significant concordance of abnormal glycaemia among non-diabetic women with diabetic husbands. The spouses of diabetic patients may therefore be a target population for regular hyperglycaemia and DM screening.

  18. Sexual Scripts and Criminal Statutes: Gender Restrictions, Spousal Allowances, and Victim Accountability After Rape Law Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Ethan Czuy

    2018-03-01

    The author provides a mixed-methods assessment of U.S. rape statutes to assess progress in reform. Contemporary statutes offer restrictive frameworks for distinguishing criminal from noncriminal sexual violence, many of which are grounded in gendered and heterosexist assumptions. Fourteen states retain gender restrictions in rape statutes. Twenty maintain marital distinctions that limit accountability for spousal rape. Furthermore, whereas explicit resistance requirements have been eliminated nationwide, implicit resistance expectations manifest through emphasis on physical force and involuntary intoxication. Analyses conclude with recommendations for further legal reform and a discussion of the potential for legislation to affect broader social perceptions of rape.

  19. EFFECTS OF REHABILITATION SERVICES ON ANXIETY, DEPRESSION, CARE-GIVING BURDEN AND PERCEIVED SOCIAL SUPPORT OF STROKE CAREGIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yavuz Karahan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few data are available on the specific care giving-related problems of stroke patient’s caregivers and factors that influence the burden of these caregivers. Aim: To study the influences of the active rehabilitation process on anxiety, depression, care burden and perceived social support level of stroke patients caregivers. Design: A prospective clinical trial. Setting: Patients and caregivers entering a rehabilitation program at a university hospital in Turkey. Populations: Ninety patients with a first episode of stroke and 90 caregivers responsible for their care were recruited for our study. Methods: Patients and caregivers were assessed before and after the active rehabilitation process. The functional disability level of the patients was assessed by Functional Independence Measure (FIM. The Beck Anxiety Scale (BAS and the Beck Depression Scale (BDS were used for anxiety and depression assessment, the Zarit Care Burden Scale (ZCBS for care burden assessment and the Multi-Dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MDSPSS for perceived social support assessment. Results: A statistically significant rise is observed in the special person sub-assessment of MDSPSS in both female and male caregivers. Also, a significant decrease in care burden, anxiety and depression levels of caregivers was noted after the rehabilitation program (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Caregivers accept the rehabilitation period as important social support in addition to the support provided by family and friends. Also, our positive results were associated with an improvement in the patients’ functional level and an increase in the acquisition of knowledge and skill required of caregivers in order to provide care during rehabilitation. Clinical Rehabilitation Impact: The rehabilitation team should be aware of the fact that the perceived care burden may be greater due to the lack of knowledge concerning available resources and due to the inability to cope with

  20. Caregiving in Indian Country

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-12-23

    This podcast discusses the role of caregivers in Indian County and the importance of protecting their health. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 12/23/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/23/2009.

  1. Caregivers' acceptance of using artesunate suppositories for treating childhood malaria in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Rachael L; Auwun, Alma; Pongua, Grace; Oa, Olive; Davis, Timothy M E; Karunajeewa, Harin A; Reeder, John C

    2007-04-01

    Community-based interventions using artemisinin-derived suppositories may potentially reduce malaria-related childhood mortality. However, their sociocultural acceptability is unknown in Papua New Guinea and a formal examination of caregiver's attitudes to rectal administration was needed to inform effective deployment strategies. Caregivers (n = 131) of children with uncomplicated malaria were questioned on their prior experience with, and attitudes to, rectal administration and then offered artesunate suppositories as treatment of their child. The 29% who refused this alternative were further questioned to determine their reasons for this refusal. Lack of spousal approval and fear of side effects were the most common reasons for refusal. Sixty-six percent of caregivers agreed to self-administer suppositories, which were perceived as effective (99%), safe (96%), and fast-acting (91%), but problematic to administer to a struggling child (56%). Shame, embarrassment, and hygiene were not significant concerns. Acceptability of rectal administration should be relatively high in Papua New Guinea. However, deployment must be accompanied by health education that addresses the practical aspects of administration, is appropriate for the illiterate, and is directed at fathers as well as mothers.

  2. Is Women's Empowerment Associated With Help-Seeking for Spousal Violence in India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Kathleen; Mumford, Elizabeth; Clark, Cari Jo

    2018-05-01

    Violence against women by their husbands is a problem for women worldwide. However, the majority of women do not seek help. This article presents findings from a national survey in India on empowerment-related correlates of help-seeking behaviors for currently married women who experienced spousal violence. We examined individual-, relationship-, and state-level measures of empowerment on help-seeking from informal and formal sources. Findings indicate that help-seeking is largely not associated with typical measures of empowerment or socio-economic development, whereas state-level indicators of empowerment may influence help-seeking. Although not a target of this study, we also note that injury from violence and the severity of the violence were among the strongest factors related to seeking help. Taken together, the low prevalence of help-seeking and lack of strong individual-level correlates, apart from severe harm, suggests widespread barriers to seeking help. Interventions that affect social norms and reach women and men across social classes in society are needed in addition to any individual-level efforts to promote seeking help for spousal violence.

  3. Do Afterlife Beliefs Affect Psychological Adjustment to Late-Life Spousal Loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We explore whether beliefs about the existence and nature of an afterlife affect 5 psychological symptoms (anxiety, anger, depression, intrusive thoughts, and yearning) among recently bereaved older spouses. Method. We conduct multivariate regression analyses using data from the Changing Lives of Older Couples (CLOC), a prospective study of spousal loss. The CLOC obtained data from bereaved persons prior to loss and both 6 and 18 months postloss. All analyses are adjusted for health, sociodemographic characteristics, and preloss marital quality. Results. Bleak or uncertain views about the afterlife are associated with multiple aspects of distress postloss. Uncertainty about the existence of an afterlife is associated with elevated intrusive thoughts, a symptom similar to posttraumatic distress. Widowed persons who do not expect to be reunited with loved ones in the afterlife report significantly more depressive symptoms, anger, and intrusive thoughts at both 6 and 18 months postloss. Discussion. Beliefs in an afterlife may be maladaptive for coping with late-life spousal loss, particularly if one is uncertain about its existence or holds a pessimistic view of what the afterlife entails. Our findings are broadly consistent with recent work suggesting that “continuing bonds” with the decedent may not be adaptive for older bereaved spouses. PMID:23811692

  4. Physical disability contributes to caregiver stress in dementia caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, David G; Paley, Glenys A; Nichols, Pamela; Roberts, David; Underwood, Peter J; Schaper, Frank

    2005-03-01

    Previous findings of studies on the impact of physical illness on caregiver health have been inconsistent. The authors wanted to determine whether physical disability, as determined by the SF-12 survey that provides information on both physical and mental health problems, contributes to caregiver stress. The authors interviewed 91 primary caregivers (aged 38-85 years) of persons with dementia who had been referred by their family physicians for the first time for formal support services or memory evaluation. Caregivers completed the SF-12 version of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey that generates Mental Component Summary (MCS) and Physical Component Summary (PCS) scores and reported on caregiver stress and concurrent medical conditions and medications. Most caregivers reported stress (76.9%), having medical conditions (72.4%), or taking medications (67%). The MCS but not the PCS scores were significantly lower than community norms, indicating an excess of disability due to mental health problems. Nevertheless, 40.7% had PCS scores indicating some degree of physical disability. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, PCS scores but not the presence of medical problems were independently associated with caregiver stress. Chronic disability as assessed by SF-12 PCS scores is independently associated with caregiver stress. These data suggest that caregivers of persons with dementia should be assessed for disabling physical conditions and mental health problems. In addition, reducing the impact of physical disability could ameliorate caregiver stress.

  5. Paid caregiver motivation, work conditions, and falls among senior clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Lee A; Tam, Karen; Friesema, Elisha; Martin, Gary J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the motivation of paid non-familial caregivers of seniors, understand more about their work conditions, and identify any links to negative outcomes among their senior clients. Ninety-eight paid caregivers (eighty-five female and thirteen male), recruited from multiple sites (i.e. senior centers, shopping malls, local parks, lobbies of senior apartments, caregiver agency meetings) completed face-to-face questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. We found that 60.7% of participants chose to become a caregiver because they enjoyed being with seniors while 31.7% were unable to obtain other work, and 8.2% stated it was a prerequisite to a different health related occupation. Caregivers stated that the most challenging conditions of their work were physical lifting (24.5%), behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (24.5%), senior depression/mood changes (18.4%), attachment with impending death (8.2%), missing injuries to client (5.1%), lack of sleep (4.1%), and lack of connection with outside world (3.1%). Caregivers who reported that the best part of their job was the salary, flexible hours, and ease of work were significantly more likely to have clients who fell and fractured a bone than those who enjoyed being with seniors (job characteristics, 62.5% vs. senior enjoyment, 25.6%; pmotivated commonly by their love of seniors and also by their lack of other job opportunities. Paid caregivers frequently face challenging work conditions. When seeking a caregiver for a senior, motivation of the caregiver should be considered when hiring. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Put Yourself in My Work Shoes: Variations in Work-Related Spousal Support for Professional Married Coworkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janning, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    Level and type of spousal shared work has been oversimplified in past research. This research proposes that being similar to a spouse, in the case of paid work, differs depending on whether spouses share workplace, occupation, or both. And this level and type of similarity can influence the level and qualitative characteristics of work-related…

  7. Food Selectivity, Mealtime Behavior Problems, Spousal Stress, and Family Food Choices in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, C.; Hubbard, K.; Anderson, S. E.; Mick, E.; Must, A.; Bandini, L. G.

    2015-01-01

    Mealtime behavior problems and family stress occur frequently among families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it is unknown whether food selectivity is an associated factor. The associations of high food selectivity with mealtime behavior problems, spousal stress, and influence on family members were assessed among 53…

  8. The Effects of Forgiveness Therapy on Depression, Anxiety, and Posttraumatic Stress for Women after Spousal Emotional Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Gayle L.; Enright, Robert D.

    2006-01-01

    Emotionally abused women experience negative psychological outcomes long after the abusive spousal relationship has ended. This study compares forgiveness therapy (FT) with an alternative treatment (AT; anger validation, assertiveness, interpersonal skill building) for emotionally abused women who had been permanently separated for 2 or more years…

  9. Caregiving to persons living with HIV/AIDS: experiences of Vietnamese family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Pranee C; Doan, Thoa Thi Kim; Dinh, Thu Thi Xuan; Oach, Nhung Kim; Le, Phong Hoang

    2016-03-01

    To examine the experiences of caregiving among Vietnamese family members of persons living with HIV/AIDS. As the number of persons living with HIV/AIDS increases, the need of family caregivers who can take responsibility for the home care of these persons increases. Vietnam has one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics in Asia. A descriptive cross-sectional study with quantitative and qualitative methods was used. A purposive sample of 104 family caregivers, both male and female, participated voluntarily by answering a questionnaire of caregiver burden, and 20 of them participated in in-depth interview. Female caregivers were mainly mothers and wives while male caregivers were mainly husbands, fathers and siblings. The largest group of family caregivers reported moderate to severe burden. There was no difference between genders in total caregiver burden, but there were several differences between older and younger caregivers in some items of caregiver burden. Five categories of experiences emerged: Different types of caregiving to persons living with HIV/AIDS, cultural and religious issues associated with caregiving, keeping secret to avoid stigma and discrimination, lack of knowledge about disease and provision of care, and fear, anxiety and frustration. Stigma and discrimination should be decreased by providing knowledge to the general public about HIV/AIDS, in particular about ways of transmission and protection. Special knowledge should be given to family caregivers to enable them to give care to persons living with HIV/AIDS at home. This could be done through culturally appropriate training/intervention programmes in which coping methods should be included. Support group interventions should also be carried through. The results obtained can be used as baseline information. Health care providers should consider gender, age and culture of family members of persons living with HIV/AIDS. Knowledge about HIV/AIDS, provision of care at home and in hospital, and

  10. Cancer caregiving tasks and consequences and their associations with caregiver status and the caregiver's relationship to the patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Line; Ross, Lone; Petersen, Morten Aagaard

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Seriously ill patients often depend on their informal caregivers to help and support them through the disease course. This study investigated informal cancer caregivers' experiences of caregiving tasks and consequences and how caregiver status (primary vs. non-primary caregiver) and t...

  11. Effects of rehabilitation services on anxiety, depression, care-giving burden and perceived social support of stroke caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Ali Yavuz; Kucuksen, Sami; Yilmaz, Halim; Salli, Ali; Gungor, Tayfun; Sahin, Muhammed

    2014-01-01

    Few data are available on the specific care giving-related problems of stroke patient's caregivers and factors that influence the burden of these caregivers. To study the influences of the active rehabilitation process on anxiety, depression, care burden and perceived social support level of stroke patients caregivers. A prospective clinical trial. Patients and caregivers entering a rehabilitation program at a university hospital in Turkey. Ninety patients with a first episode of stroke and 90 caregivers responsible for their care were recruited for our study. Patients and caregivers were assessed before and after the active rehabilitation process. The functional disability level of the patients was assessed by Functional Independence Measure (FIM). The Beck Anxiety Scale (BAS) and the Beck Depression Scale (BDS) were used for anxiety and depression assessment, the Zarit Care Burden Scale (ZCBS) for care burden assessment and the Multi-Dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MDSPSS) for perceived social support assessment. A statistically significant rise is observed in the special person sub-assessment of MDSPSS in both female and male caregivers. Also, a significant decrease in care burden, anxiety and depression levels of caregivers was noted after the rehabilitation program (p social support in addition to the support provided by family and friends. Also, our positive results were associated with an improvement in the patients' functional level and an increase in the acquisition of knowledge and skill required of caregivers in order to provide care during rehabilitation. The rehabilitation team should be aware of the fact that the perceived care burden may be greater due to the lack of knowledge concerning available resources and due to the inability to cope with stress effectively.

  12. Taking Care of You: Support for Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Parents / Taking Care of You: Support for Caregivers What's in this article? The Caregiver's Dilemma Tips for Caregivers More Tips Getting Help ... there are moments when the sheer magnitude of what you're up against is so ... not alone. The Caregiver's Dilemma When you're the caregiver of a ...

  13. Family caregiving in schizophrenia: domains and distress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schene, A. H.; van Wijngaarden, B.; Koeter, M. W.

    1998-01-01

    This article focuses on (1) the dimensionality of the caregiving concept; (2) the relation between the identified caregiving dimensions and characteristics of the patient, the caregiver, and their relationship; and (3) the relation between caregiving dimensions and caregiver distress. Findings are

  14. Spousal violence in sub-Saharan Africa: does household poverty-wealth matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamiwuye, Samson Olusina; Odimegwu, Clifford

    2014-06-17

    Despite the threat of violence to the health and rights of women yet, for many years, there has been a dearth of nationally comparable data on domestic violence in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper examines whether women from poor households are more likely to experience violence from husband/partner than other women who are from middle or rich households. Data for the study are derived from most recent DHS surveys of ever-married women age 15-49 in Cameroun(3,691), Kenya(4,336), Mozambique(5610), Nigeria (16,763), Zambia(3,010) and Zimbabwe(5,016) who participated in the questions on Domestic Violence Module. Bivariate analysis and Binary Logistic Regression Analysis are used to explore the linkage between household poverty-wealth and spousal violence while simultaneously controlling for confounding variables. The overall prevalence of any form of violence (physical, sexual or emotional) ranges from 30.5% in Nigeria to 43.4% in Zimbabwe; 45.3% in Kenya; 45.5% in Mozambique; 53.9% in Zambia and 57.6% in Cameroun. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses show that in two of the six countries -Zambia and Mozambique, experience of violence is significantly higher among women from non-poor (rich) households than those from other households (poor and middle). For Zimbabwe and Kenya, women from poor households are more likely to have ever experienced spousal violence than those from non-poor households. In the remaining two countries- Nigeria and Cameroun, women from the middle class are more likely to have ever suffered abuse from husband/partner than those from the poor and rich households. Our results thus show that similar measurements of household poverty-wealth have produced varying relationships with respect to experience of spousal violence in six sub-Saharan African countries. In other words, experience of violence cuts across all household poverty-wealth statuses and therefore may not provide enough explanations on whether household-poverty necessarily serves to

  15. Caregivers' willingness‑to‑pay for a topical anesthetic cream for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-17

    Sep 17, 2013 ... Caregivers' willingness‑to‑pay (WTP) for the cream is necessary for its deployment. Objective: To .... Variables. N=188. Percentage. Gender. Male. 28. 14.9. Female. 160. 85.1 .... Table 4: Socioeconomic status discrepancies in.

  16. "I Do the Best I Can": Caregivers' Perceptions of Informal Caregiving for Older Adults in Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroman, Kerryellen; Morency, Jamme

    2011-01-01

    In this first study of informal caregiving for older adults in Belize, 29 caregivers described their experiences of caregiving, how they perceived and managed the role, and what critical resources they needed. The three main themes identified in the caregiver interviews were "the experiences of caregivers, the rewards of caregiving, and…

  17. Quality of life of family caregivers of cancer patients in Singapore and globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Haikel A; Tan, Joyce Ys; Chua, Joanne; Yoong, Russell Kl; Lim, Siew Eng; Kua, Ee Heok; Mahendran, Rathi

    2017-05-01

    Family caregivers of cancer patients often suffer from impaired quality of life (QOL) due to stress arising from the responsibility of caregiving. Most research on such QOL impairments was conducted in Western populations. Thus, this exploratory study sought to (a) examine the QOL levels of family caregivers of cancer patients in an Asian population in Singapore, in relation to caregivers from other countries within and outside of Asia; and (b) investigate the association between sociodemographic factors and QOL impairments in family caregivers in Singapore. A total of 258 family caregivers of cancer patients who were receiving outpatient treatment completed the Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Cancer (CQOLC) and a sociodemographic survey. We compared the published CQOLC total scores from Turkey, Iran, Taiwan, South Korea, the United Kingdom, the United States and Canada with the Singapore dataset and examined the demographic relationships. Caregivers in Singapore and Asia had lower CQOLC total scores than their Western counterparts. Caregivers who were male, of Chinese ethnicity, had parental relationships with their care recipient, or cared for advanced-stage cancer patients were found to have impaired QOL. The findings of this study highlight possible areas in which support can be provided for family caregivers of cancer patients, and underscore the need to reconcile cultural diversity, values, societal expectations and demographic characteristics in Singapore. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association

  18. Dietary Behaviors and Caregiver Perceptions of Overweight and Obesity among Chinese Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Amber; Ji, Meimei; Zhang, Yefu; Zou, Jiaojiao; Li, Mingzhi; Yang, Lina; Lin, Qian

    2018-04-11

    Introduction : Early childhood obesity in China has become a pressing public health concern. A substantial barrier to healthy weight management is poor parental recognition of child overweight. This study examined the relationship between caregiver perceptions of child weight and dietary practices. Methods : A total of 364 children between 2 and 6 years old from six urban preschools in Changsha (China) were included in a cross-sectional study. Information on household demographics, health behaviors, and caregiver attitudes was collected through a self-administered caregiver questionnaire. Chi-squared tests, t -tests, and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to determine the relationship between caregiver perceptions, dietary behaviors, and child weight status. Results : Over 60% of caregivers with overweight/obese children underestimated their children's weight status. These caregivers were less likely to worry about weight and restrict their children's dietary intakes. Children of caregivers who incorrectly classified their weights were also more likely to have a poor appetite. Caregivers of male children and those from families with incomes between 7000 and 11,000 Ren Min Bi (RMB) were more likely to underestimate weight compared to caregivers with daughters and those from higher income households. Conclusions : Although accurate weight perception may be important for motivating healthy behavioral changes, it may also lead to greater restriction of children's diets, which has been linked to long-term weight gain. Interventions to improve awareness of child overweight should be coupled with efforts that teach caregivers about healthy weight management strategies.

  19. Familial and Contextual Influences on Children's Prosocial Behavior: South African Caregivers as Adult Protective Shields in Enhancing Child Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parchment, Tyrone M; Small, Latoya; Osuji, Hadiza; McKay, Mary; Bhana, Arvin

    2016-03-01

    The mental health of children is too frequently overlooked in resource scarce low and middle-income countries. South Africa represents one of many country contexts struggling to meet the mental health needs of large numbers of young people. Family caregivers have been identified as potential protective influences on child mental health, even for those children being reared with high exposure to poverty. This paper explores contextual influences on South African caregiver's social-emotional health living in communities impacted by poverty and food insecurity as they attempt to support their children's prosocial skills and behavior. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was employed to explore the relationship between neighborhood social cohesion and caregiver report of child's prosocial behavior as mediated by the caregiver's mental health ( n =478). Results indicated that the more caregivers experience their communities as socially cohesive, the better their social-emotional well-being, thus positively related to their reports of children's prosocial behavior. Furthermore, when there is a male head of household, caregivers reported better social-emotional well-being in comparison to female headed of household. The more food secure caregivers also were likely to report better general health. South African community characteristics and caregivers, in particular male caregivers, are integral to child and caregiver mental health. Future research should examine the impact of interventions that mobilize community and caregiver supports for children's prosocial behavior and mental health.

  20. Examining the relationship between spousal involvement in Gam-Anon and relapse behaviors in pathological gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zion, M M; Tracy, E; Abell, N

    1991-06-01

    The present investigation focused on Gamblers Anonymous (GA) members in Ohio to ascertain whether or not spousal participation in Gam-Anon, the companion support group, decreased the gambler's relapse into gambling behavior. A cross-sectional survey of 43 GA members was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. While no significant difference was found in the relapse of those gamblers with or without a spouse in Gam-Anon, the degree to which the gambler had engaged in other addictive-like behaviors in the past did appear to be related to relapse. Those gamblers who had not relapsed reported significantly more engagement in past addictive-like behaviors (excessive overeating, drinking, and using drugs) than those who had relapsed. Additionally, their spouses had also engaged in addictive-like behaviors in the past. Discussion suggests possible explanations for the findings. Implications are drawn for both outcome measures and research with self-help groups.

  1. Risk Factors for Spousal Physical Violence Against Women in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldoseri, Halah M; Sharps, Phyllis

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to explore selected risk factors for spousal physical violence (SPV) in women frequenting primary health care clinics (PHCs) in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study design was conducted in six PHCs, where one-on-one, private interviews with 200 women were conducted using a standardized World Health Organization (WHO) violence against women questionnaire (v.10.0). SPV was reported by 45.5% of women. Husband-specific risk factors including alcohol or drug addiction, unemployment, control of wealth in the family, and physical aggression toward other men were significant predictors for SPV. A multisectoral approach should be implemented with focus on providers' training, women's safety, and involvement of men in violence prevention and intervention programs.

  2. Caregiving Appraisal in Family Caregivers of Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Farhadi

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Caregiving appraisal is a multidimensional concept, which has positive and negative aspects. By taking into account all aspects of this concept, one can better understand and ultimately has a more comprehensive assessment of the status of caregivers, and implement effective interventions towards improving the health of this group.

  3. Caregiver burden and correlates among caregivers of children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health ... Data on socio-demographic factors, psychiatric morbidity among caregivers, and level of caregiver burden was collected using a researcher-designed socio-demographic questionnaire, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and Zarit burden interview, respectively.

  4. Spousal concordance and reliability of the 'Prudence Score' as a summary of diet and lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Sanjoti; King, David; Owen, Neville; Jamrozik, Konrad

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes a composite 'Prudence Score' summarising self-reported behavioural risk factors for non-communicable diseases. If proved robust, the 'Prudence score' might be used widely to encourage large numbers of individuals to adopt and maintain simple, healthy changes in their lifestyle. We calculated the 'Prudence Score' based on responses collected in late 2006 to a postal questionnaire sent to 225 adult patients aged 25 to 75 years identified from the records of two general medical practices in Brisbane, Australia. Participants completed the behavioural, dietary and lifestyle items in relation to their spouse as well as themselves. The spouse or partner of each addressee completed their own copy of the study questionnaire. Kappa scores for spousal concordance with probands' reports (n = 45 pairs) on diet-related items varied between 0.35 (for vegetable intake) to 0.77 (for usual type of milk consumed). Spousal concordance values for other behaviours were 0.67 (physical activity), 0.82 (alcohol intake) and 1.0 (smoking habits). Kappa scores for test-retest reliability (n = 53) varied between 0.47 (vegetable intake) and 0.98 (smoking habits). The veracity of self-reported data is a challenge for studies of behavioural change. Our results indicate moderate to substantial agreement from life partners regarding individuals' self-reports for most of the behavioural risk items included in the 'Prudence Score'. This increases confidence that key aspects of diet and lifestyle can be assessed by self-report. The 'Prudence Score' potentially has wide application as a simple and robust tool for health promotion programs.

  5. Women’s opinion on the justification of physical spousal violence: A quantitative approach to model the most vulnerable households in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Raaj Kishore; Rahman, Nusma; Kabir, Enamul; Raihan, Farabi

    2017-01-01

    Bangladesh is a culturally conservative nation with limited freedom for women. A number of studies have evaluated intimate partner violence (IPV) and spousal physical violence in Bangladesh; however, the views of women have been rarely discussed in a quantitative manner. Three nationwide surveys in Bangladesh (2007, 2011, and 2014) were analyzed in this study to characterize the most vulnerable households, where women themselves accepted spousal physical violence as a general norm. 31.3%, 31....

  6. Intra- and Inter-personal Consequences of Protective Buffering among Cancer Patients and Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Shelby L.; Brown, Jonathon D.; Syrjala, Karen L.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Protective buffering refers to hiding cancer-related thoughts and concerns from one’s spouse or partner. This study sought to examine the intra- and inter-personal consequences of protective buffering and motivations for such (desire to shield partner from distress, desire to shield self from distress). METHODS Eighty hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients and their spousal caregivers/ partners completed measures designed to assess protective buffering and relationship satisfaction at two time points: prior to the transplant (T1) and 50 days post-transplant (T2). Overall mental health was also assessed at T2. RESULTS There was moderate agreement between one dyad member’s reported buffering of his/ her partner, and the partner’s perception of the extent to which s/he felt buffered. Caregivers buffered patients more than patients buffered caregivers, especially at T2. The more participants buffered their partners at T2, and the more they felt buffered, the lower their concurrent relationship satisfaction and the poorer their mental health. The latter effect was particularly true for patients who buffered, and patients who felt buffered. With respect to motivations, patients who buffered primarily to protect their partner at T1 reported increases in relationship satisfaction over time, but when they did so at T2, their caregiver reported concurrent decreases in relationship satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS Protective buffering is costly, in that those who buffer and those who feel buffered report adverse psychosocial outcomes. In addition, buffering enacted by patients with an intention to help may prove counterproductive, ultimately hurting the object of such protection. PMID:19731352

  7. Uncovering an invisible network of direct caregivers at the end of life: a population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Catherine M; Abernethy, Amy P; Dal Grande, Eleanora; Currow, David C

    2013-07-01

    Most palliative care research about caregivers relies on reports from spouses or adult children. Some recent clinical reports have noted the assistance provided by other family members and friends. This population study aims to define the people who actually provide care at the end of life. A South Australian study conducted an annual randomized health population survey (n=23,706) over a 7 year period. A sample was obtained of self-identifying people who had someone close to them die and 'expected' death in the last 5 years (n=7915). Data were standardised to population norms for gender, 10-year age group, socioeconomic status, and region of residence. People of all ages indicated they provided 'hands on' care at the end of life. Extended family members (not first degree relatives) and friends accounted for more than half (n=1133/2028; 55.9%) of identified hands-on caregivers. These people came from the entire age range of the adult community. The period of time for which care was provided was shorter for this group of caregivers. People with extended family or friends providing care, were much more likely to be supported to die at home compared to having a spousal carer. This substantial network of caregivers who are mainly invisible to the health team provide the majority of care. Hospice and palliative care services need to create specific ways of identifying and engaging this cohort in order to ensure they are receiving adequate support in the role. Relying on 'next-of-kin' status in research will not identify them.

  8. Neuro-oncology family caregivers are at risk for systemic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Paula R; Price, Thomas J; Weimer, Jason; Ren, Dianxu; Donovan, Heidi S; Given, Charles W; Given, Barbara A; Schulz, Richard; Prince, Jennifer; Bender, Catherine; Boele, Florien W; Marsland, Anna L

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged periods of family caregiving can induce stress levels that may negatively influence caregiver health. However, the physiologic effect of psychological distress in oncology family caregivers has received little attention. Therefore we aimed to determine longitudinal profiles of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-1ra) in neuro-oncology caregivers and identify associations between psychological distress and cytokine levels. Depressive symptoms, anxiety, caregiver burden and blood were collected from 108 adult caregivers at adult patients' diagnosis, 4-, 8-, and 12-months. Trajectory analyses of log transformed cytokine levels were performed. Multiple logistic regression analyses evaluated the impact of psychological distress on cytokine levels. For both cytokines, two distinct populations were identified, neither of which changed over time. High IL-1ra was associated with male caregivers with anxiety (OR = 1.7; 95 %CI 1.06-2.83) and obese caregivers (BMI = 40) who felt burdened due to disrupted schedules (OR = 1.3; 95 %CI 1.02-1.77). Conversely, caregivers with a healthy weight (BMI = 25) who felt burdened due to disrupted schedules were less likely to have high IL-1ra (OR = 0.71; 95 %CI 0.54-0.92). Caregivers ≤30 years old with lower self-esteem from caregiving were 1.16 times (95 %CI 1.04-1.30) more likely to have high IL-6. Analysis demonstrated groups of family caregivers with high and low levels of systemic inflammation and these levels did not change longitudinally over the care trajectory. Poor physical health in family caregivers may have a negative impact on the burden placed on the healthcare system in general and on the well-being of neuro-oncology patients in particular.

  9. Concept Analysis: Alzheimer's Caregiver Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanque, Sarah; Savage, Lynette; Rosenburg, Neal; Caserta, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to analyze the concept of caregiver stress in the context of caring for a person with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. Currently, there are more than 15 million unpaid caregivers for persons suffering from Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. This unpaid care can be stressful for caregivers due to the chronic nature of the disease process, as well as other factors. The paper incorporates the modified method of Wilson's concept analysis procedure to analyze the concept of caregiver stress. A review of the literature was undertaken using the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Google Scholar, and PubMed. A theoretical definition of caregiver stress is provided, and the defining attributes, related concepts, antecedents, and consequences of caregiver stress are proposed, and case studies are presented. The analysis demonstrates that caregiver stress is the unequal exchange of assistance among people who stand in close relationship to one another, which results in emotional and physical stress on the caregiver. Implications for future nursing research and practice conclude the paper. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Rural women caregivers in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosato, Kay E; Leipert, Beverly

    2006-01-01

    Informal caregiving within rural contexts in Canada is increasing. This is due in part to a number of factors related to the restructuring of the Canadian health care system, the regionalization of services to urban locations, the increased population of people 65 years and older, and the desire of this population to age within their rural homes. Most often, the informal caregiving role is assumed by rural women. Women tend to fall into the role of informal caregiver to elders because of the many societal and gender expectations and values that are present within the rural culture. The purpose of this literature review is to identify the context in which women provide care for an elder in rural Canada. Illustrating these issues will help to uncover challenges and barriers rural women face when providing care and highlight recommendations and implications for rural women caregivers and nurses employed within rural settings. Many rural women share similar caregiving experiences as urban informal caregivers, but rural women are faced with additional challenges in providing quality care for an elder. Rural women caregivers are faced with such issues as limited access to adequate and appropriate healthcare services, culturally incongruent health care, geographical distance from regionalized centers and health services, transportation challenges, and social/geographical isolation. In addition to these issues, many rural women are faced with the multiple role demands that attend being a wife, mother, caregiver and employee. The pile up of these factors leaves rural women caregivers susceptible to additional stresses and burn out, with limited resources on which to depend. Through reviewing pertinent literature, appropriate implications and recommendations can be made that may assist rural women caregivers and rural nurses. Nurses working within rural communities are in ideal settings to work collaboratively in building supportive relationships with rural women in order to

  11. Informal caregiving burden and perceived social support in an acute stroke care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akosile, Christopher Olusanjo; Banjo, Tosin Olamilekan; Okoye, Emmanuel Chiebuka; Ibikunle, Peter Olanrewaju; Odole, Adesola Christiana

    2018-04-05

    Providing informal caregiving in the acute in-patient and post-hospital discharge phases places enormous burden on the caregivers who often require some form of social support. However, it appears there are few published studies about informal caregiving in the acute in-patient phase of individuals with stroke particularly in poor-resource countries. This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of caregiving burden and its association with patient and caregiver-related variables and also level of perceived social support in a sample of informal caregivers of stroke survivors at an acute stroke-care facility in Nigeria. Ethical approval was sought and obtained. Fifty-six (21 males, 35 females) consecutively recruited informal caregivers of stroke survivors at the medical ward of a tertiary health facility in South-Southern Nigeria participated in this cross-sectional survey. Participants' level of care-giving strain/burden and perceived social support were assessed using the Caregiver Strain Index and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support respectively. Caregivers' and stroke survivors' socio-demographics were also obtained. Data was analysed using frequency count and percentages, independent t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and partial correlation at α =0.05. The prevalence of care-giving burden among caregivers is 96.7% with a high level of strain while 17.9% perceived social support as low. No significant association was found between caregiver burden and any of the caregiver- or survivor-related socio-demographics aside primary level education. Only the family domain of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support was significantly correlated with burden (r = - 0.295). Informal care-giving burden was highly prevalent in this acute stroke caregiver sample and about one in every five of these caregivers rated social support low. This is a single center study. Healthcare managers and professionals in acute care facilities

  12. Women's opinion on the justification of physical spousal violence: A quantitative approach to model the most vulnerable households in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Raaj Kishore; Rahman, Nusma; Kabir, Enamul; Raihan, Farabi

    2017-01-01

    Bangladesh is a culturally conservative nation with limited freedom for women. A number of studies have evaluated intimate partner violence (IPV) and spousal physical violence in Bangladesh; however, the views of women have been rarely discussed in a quantitative manner. Three nationwide surveys in Bangladesh (2007, 2011, and 2014) were analyzed in this study to characterize the most vulnerable households, where women themselves accepted spousal physical violence as a general norm. 31.3%, 31.9% and 28.7% women in the surveys found justification for physical violence in household in 2007, 2011 and 2014 respectively. The binary logistic model showed wealth index, education of both women and their partner, religion, geographical division, decision making freedom and marital age as significant household contributors for women's perspective in all the three years. Women in rich households and the highly educated were found to be 40% and 50% less likely to accept domestic physical violence compared to the poorest and illiterate women. Similarly, women who got married before 18 years were 20% more likely accept physical violence in the family as a norm. Apart from these particular groups (richest, highly educated and married after 18 years), other groups had around 30% acceptance rate of household violence. For any successful attempt to reduce spousal physical violence in the traditional patriarchal society of Bangladesh, interventions must target the most vulnerable households and the geographical areas where women experience spousal violence. Although this paper focuses on women's attitudes, it is important that any intervention scheme should be devised to target both men and women.

  13. Women's opinion on the justification of physical spousal violence: A quantitative approach to model the most vulnerable households in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raaj Kishore Biswas

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a culturally conservative nation with limited freedom for women. A number of studies have evaluated intimate partner violence (IPV and spousal physical violence in Bangladesh; however, the views of women have been rarely discussed in a quantitative manner. Three nationwide surveys in Bangladesh (2007, 2011, and 2014 were analyzed in this study to characterize the most vulnerable households, where women themselves accepted spousal physical violence as a general norm. 31.3%, 31.9% and 28.7% women in the surveys found justification for physical violence in household in 2007, 2011 and 2014 respectively. The binary logistic model showed wealth index, education of both women and their partner, religion, geographical division, decision making freedom and marital age as significant household contributors for women's perspective in all the three years. Women in rich households and the highly educated were found to be 40% and 50% less likely to accept domestic physical violence compared to the poorest and illiterate women. Similarly, women who got married before 18 years were 20% more likely accept physical violence in the family as a norm. Apart from these particular groups (richest, highly educated and married after 18 years, other groups had around 30% acceptance rate of household violence. For any successful attempt to reduce spousal physical violence in the traditional patriarchal society of Bangladesh, interventions must target the most vulnerable households and the geographical areas where women experience spousal violence. Although this paper focuses on women's attitudes, it is important that any intervention scheme should be devised to target both men and women.

  14. Stroke management: Informal caregivers' burdens and strians of caring for stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbiri, Caleb Ademola; Olawale, Olajide Ayinla; Isaac, Sarah Oghenekewe

    2015-04-01

    Stroke survivors live with varied degrees of disabilities and cares are provided largely by the informal caregivers. This study investigated informal caregivers' burden and strains of caring for stroke patients. This study involved 157 (81 males and 76 females) informal caregivers of stroke survivors receiving care in all secondary and tertiary health institutions with physiotherapy services in Lagos State, Nigeria. Information was collected through self-administered questionnaire during clinic-hours. Data was analyzed using Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient. The patients' age ranged between 20 and 79 (mean=59.6 ± 14.6 years). Sixty-one had haemorrhagic stroke while 96 had ischaemic stroke. The informal caregivers' age was 39.2 ± 12.8 years (range: 17-36 years). More (60.8%) participants reported moderate objective while 79.2% had mild subjective burdens. The following factors significantly increased (Pfinancial well-beings of the informal caregivers. Caring for stroke survivors put social, emotional, health and financial burdens and strains on the informal caregivers. These burdens and strains increase with duration of stroke, intimacy, smaller number of caregivers and length of daily caregiving. Therefore, informal caregivers should be involved in the rehabilitation plan for stroke patients and their well-being should also be given adequate attention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Daily goal progress is facilitated by spousal support and promotes psychological, physical, and relational well-being throughout adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubiak, Brittany K.; Feeney, Brooke C.

    2016-01-01

    In two daily-diary studies, we tested the consequences and precursors of daily goal progress throughout the adult lifespan. Attachment theory posits that exploration—including the pursuit of autonomous goals—promotes well-being across the lifespan and is facilitated by support from close others. For both young-adult newlyweds (Study 1) and married couples in late adulthood (Study 2), daily independent goal progress predicted same-day and next-day improvements in psychological, physical, and relational well-being. Specifically, when participants made more progress on their goals than usual on one day, they reported increases in positive affect, sleep quality, and relationship quality, and decreased physical symptoms, the following day (as well as concurrently). Additionally, spousal support (i.e., availability, encouragement, and noninterference) enabled same-day and next-day goal progress. Mediational analyses showed indirect links between spousal support and well-being through goal progress. Some effects were moderated by attachment orientation in the newlywed sample; individuals with greater insecure attachment benefited most from goal progress, and spousal support enabled goal progress most strongly for individuals with less anxious attachment. Overall, these results support and extend attachment theoretical propositions regarding the importance of the exploration system across the adult lifespan. They contribute to existing literature by demonstrating wide-ranging consequences of successful exploration for well-being and by providing evidence for the importance of both exploration and support for exploration into late adulthood. PMID:27560610

  16. Caregiver burden and its determinants among the family members of patients with dementia in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Abdollahpour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: "Caregiver Burden" is actually an expression addressing the adverse consequences of the care provided to the patients′ with dementia. Review of the previous studies reveals a higher rate of depression and anxiety among the caregivers as compared to the general population. This study has been designed to evaluate the caregiver burden and then the factors influencing it among caregivers of patients with dementia in Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 153 patients and their caregivers registered in the Memory Clinic in Roozbeh Hospital and Iranian Alzheimer Association (IAA were included. Data collection scales were Iranian Version of Caregiver Burden, Global Deterioration scale and Barthel index. Multiple linear regression model was applied to determine the factors influencing the caregiver burden. Results: Out of the 153 patients, 90 were male. The mean age calculated for the patients and the caregivers was 77.1 and 53, respectively. The mean of caregiver burden was 55.2. Three variables, gender (P<0.01, education of the patient (P<0.005 for illiterate patients, and the patient′s dependence on the caregiver for his/her daily tasks (P<0.000 were correlated with a high level of burden on the caregiver. The recommended model explains 0.664% of the variance of the outcome variable. Conclusion: Presence of either moderate or higher levels of burden (58-116 in more than 50% of the caregivers of these patients′ highlights the need for more attention from health policy makers in Iran. Promoting the level of caregivers′ quality of life along with enabling the patients in performing their daily tasks in order to reduce the imposed burden on caregivers′ is recommended.

  17. The MAL-ED Cohort Study: Methods and Lessons Learned When Assessing Early Child Development and Caregiving Mediators in Infants and Young Children in 8 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Kolb, Laura E.; Rasmussen, Zeba A.; Scharf, Rebecca J.; Rasheed, Muneera A.; Svensen, Erling; Seidman, Jessica C.; Tofail, Fahmida; Koshy, Beena; Shrestha, Rita; Maphula, Angelina; Vasquez, Angel Orbe; da Costa, Hilda P.; Yousafzai, Aisha K.; Oria, Reinaldo B.; Roshan, Reeba; Bayyo, Eliwasa B.; Kosek, Margaret; Shrestha, Sanjaya; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Bessong, Pascal; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Lang, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    More epidemiological data are needed on risk and protective factors for child development. In The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study, we assessed child development in a harmonious manner across 8 sites in Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Peru, South Africa, and Tanzania. From birth to 24 months, development and language acquisition were assessed via the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development and a modified MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory. Other measures were infant temperament, the child's environment, maternal psychological adjustment, and maternal reasoning abilities. We developed standard operating procedures and used multiple techniques to ensure appropriate adaptation and quality assurance across the sites. Test adaptation required significant time and human resources but is essential for data quality; funders should support this step in future studies. At the end of this study, we will have a portfolio of culturally adapted instruments for child development studies with examination of psychometric properties of each tool used. PMID:25305296

  18. The relationship between family functioning and caregiving appraisal of dementia family caregivers: caregiving self-efficacy as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsin-Yi; Huang, Lian-Hua

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore caregiving self-efficacy as a mediator for the association between family functioning and caregiving appraisal of dementia family caregivers in Taiwan. This study adopted a cross-sectional correlational design. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 115 dyads of dementia patients and family caregivers from the outpatient neurological clinics of two hospitals in northern Taiwan. Data were gathered through interviews with a structured questionnaire, which included demographic characteristics for caregivers and patients, family functioning, caregiving self-efficacy, as well as positive and negative aspects of caregiving appraisal. Family functioning, patients' activities of daily living score, Neuropsychiatric Inventory caregiver distress, and three domains of self-efficacy were significantly associated with caregiver burden. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that self-efficacy for obtaining respite (SE-OR) significantly explained 20.5% of the variance in caregiver esteem. Caregiver perceived worsened health status, family functioning, and SE-OR significantly explained 59% of the variance in caregiver burden. The mediation test only supported the partially mediating role of SE-OR on the relationship between family functioning and caregiver burden, while the mediating effect of self-efficacy for responding to disruptive behaviours and controlling upsetting thoughts were insignificant. Our findings provided preliminary evidence for health professionals recommending that future studies should assess the family dynamic and health problems of caregivers, and develop appropriate family-centred interventions that focus on strengthening interfamily support and respite services to alleviate caregiver burden.

  19. Prevalence and predictors of help-seeking for women exposed to spousal violence in India - a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardsson, Malin; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2017-11-03

    Spousal violence against women is prevalent in India (29%). Studies from various countries have shown that few women exposed to intimate partner violence or spousal violence seek help, especially in low-income countries. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and predictors of help-seeking among women in India who have experienced various types of spousal violence. Cross-sectional data on 19,125 married, separated, divorced or widowed women in India who had experienced physical or sexual violence at the hands of their husbands were obtained from the India National Family Health Survey III 2005-2006. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out. Less than one fourth (23.7%) of married, separated, divorced or widowed women in India who had experienced some form of physical or sexual spousal violence had sought help, but only 1% had sought help from formal institutions. Help-seeking was most prevalent in women who had been exposed to a combination of physical, sexual and emotional abuse (48.8%) and the least prevalent in women who had experienced sexual violence only (1.5%). Experience of severe violence and violence resulting in injury were the strongest predictors of help-seeking. Having education, being Christian or an acknowledged adherent of another minority religion - mainly Buddhism and Sikhism (Islam not included), getting married after the age of 21 and living in the South region were also associated with seeking help. Women in the North and Northeast regions were less likely to seek help, as were women with children and women who thought that a husband could be justified in hitting his wife. Very few Indian women who experience spousal violence seek help. The characteristics of the violence are the strongest predictors of help-seeking, but sociodemographic factors are also influential. We recommend efforts to ensure educational attainment for girls, prevention of child marriages, and that police officers and

  20. What Are the Caregiver's Rights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction Caregiving What Are the Caregiver’s Rights? Caring for someone you love after a heart or stroke can be hard. The responsibilities and the emotional stress can cause you ...

  1. For Caregivers: Coping with Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Community Advocate Get Involved Donate Coping With Burnout Being a caregiver of someone with ALS is ... Solutions in Dealing with Burnout Common Causes of Burnout Perfectionism: A perfectionist continually focuses on what needs ...

  2. Depression and caregiver burden experienced by caregivers of Jordanian patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Andaleeb Abu; Bond, A Elaine; Froelicher, Erika Sivarajan

    2012-04-01

    Many stroke survivors will be cared for at home, primarily by their relatives. Providing care to a family member with a chronic disabling disease can be both emotionally and physically distressing for the caregivers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between patients' characteristics, duration of caregiving, daily caregiving time, caregiver's characteristics, caregiver depression and burden in caregivers of patients with stroke. A cross-sectional design was used with a convenience sample of 116 subjects. The Center of Epidemiologic Studies of Depression and the Caregiver Strain Index were used to identify caregiver depression and burden, respectively. Logistic regression analysis identified the influence of independent variables on caregiver depression and caregiver burden. Caregivers had high scores for depression and burden indices. Caregivers' health, receiving professional home health care and caregivers' burden were related to caregiver depression. Functional disabilities of patients with stroke and depression of caregivers were related to caregiver burden. To decrease caregiver depression and burden, nurses must provide caregivers with instructions for home management of patients with stroke. Development of specialized stroke home health services in Jordan that targets patients with stroke and their caregivers are recommended. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Factors affecting caregiver burden of terminally ill adults in the home setting - A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He Leow, Mabel Qi; Wai Chi Chan, Sally

    from the JBI-MAStARI (Joanna Briggs Institute-Meta Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument). Quantitative data were extracted from included papers using standardised data extraction tools from the JBI-MAStARI. Findings were presented in narrative form, as statistical pooling was not possible. Seven studies were included in the review. All the studies used a cross-sectional descriptive survey for the collection of data. Four main factors that influenced caregivers' perception of caregiving burden were identified: 1. Caregiver characteristics, 2. Patient characteristics, 3. Social support, and 4. Caregivers' personal protective resources. Caregiver characteristics, patient characteristics, social support, and attitude of caregiver towards the caregiving situation, were found to influence caregivers' perceived caregiving burden. Additional support is required for caregivers who are employed, known to have financial difficulties, caring for patient indicating symptom distress, and caring for a patient at the terminal stage (Level III). Future studies may attempt to develop a framework to identify factors that impact on caregiver burden. More studies on caregiver burden in males, caregiver burden of patients who were at the terminal stages of the various chronic illnesses should be explored.

  4. Prevalence and predictors of anxiety and depression among family caregivers of cancer patients: a nationwide survey of patient-family caregiver dyads in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boyoung; Kim, So Young; Shin, Ji-Yeon; Sanson-Fisher, Robert W; Shin, Dong Wook; Cho, Juhee; Park, Jong-Hyock

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to identify the prevalence and predictors of anxiety and depression among family caregivers of patients with cancer in Korea. A national, multicenter, cross-sectional survey was conducted with 897 family caregivers. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess anxiety and depression in patient-family caregiver dyads. The prevalence of anxiety in family caregivers was 38.1 %:20.3 % reported mild anxiety, 13.3 % reported moderate anxiety, and 4.6 % reported severe anxiety. The prevalence of depression was 82.2 %:40.4 % reported mild depression, 25.5 % reported moderate depression, and 16.3 % reported severe depression. Family caregivers who were younger, were caring for male patients, or had a low quality of life (QOL) in relation to three of the variables measured in the Korean Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Cancer (CQOLC-K): burden, disturbance, and financial concerns reported increased anxiety. Becoming unemployed during caregiving, being the spouse of a patient and having low QOL in relation to three of the variables measured by the CQOLC-K: burden, disturbance, and positive adaptation were associated with depression among family caregivers. The predictive validity of the selected variables were 0.861 (95 % CI: 0.844-0.892) for anxiety and 0.794 (95 % CI: 0.751-0.828) for depression. Family caregivers of patients with cancer experienced high levels of anxiety and depression. Socio-demographic factors and QOL were predictors of anxiety and depression in family caregivers.

  5. The impact of spousal bereavement on hospitalisations: Evidence from the Scottish Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Fu-Min; Petrie, Dennis; Wang, Shaolin; Macduff, Colin; Stephen, Audrey I

    2018-02-01

    This paper estimates the impact of spousal bereavement on hospital inpatient use for the surviving bereaved by following the experience of 94,272 married Scottish individuals from 1991 until 2009 using a difference-in-difference model. We also consider the sample selection issues related to differences in survival between the bereaved and non-bereaved using a simple Cox Proportional-Hazard model. Before conducting these estimations, propensity score approaches are used to re-weight the non-bereaved to generate a more random-like comparison sample for the bereaved. We find that those bereaved who survive are both more likely to be admitted and to stay longer in hospital than a comparable non-bereaved cohort. Bereavement is estimated to induce on average an extra 0.24 (95% CI [0.15, 0.33]) hospital inpatient days per year. Similar to previous studies, we estimate the bereaved have a 19.2% (95% CI [12.5%, 26.3%]) higher mortality rate than the comparable non-bereaved cohort. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Exposure to Spousal Violence in the Family, Attitudes and Dating Violence Perpetration Among High School Students in Port-au-Prince.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Anastasia J

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the associations of exposure to spousal violence in the family and personal and peer attitudes with dating violence (DV) perpetration among high school students in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Participants were 342 high school students in Grades 10 to 12 who stated that they had ever been on a date. Multiple linear regression methods were used to examine correlates of the scale of DV perpetration. Findings showed that personal acceptance of DV mediated the association between exposure to wife-perpetrated and husband-perpetrated spousal violence in the family and DV perpetration for girls. Boys who were exposed to husband-perpetrated spousal violence in the family had significantly higher levels of psychological DV perpetration than those who were not. Contrary to expectations, exposure to wife-perpetrated spousal violence in the family was negatively associated with psychological and physical/sexual DV perpetration by boys, after controlling for other factors. Overall, perceived peer tolerance of DV was more strongly associated with DV perpetration than personal tolerance of DV, and was the only significant correlate of psychological DV perpetration for girls. Perceived peer attitudes also moderated the association between boys' exposure to spousal violence in the family and DV perpetration. Implications for future research and policy are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. The factors affecting the burden of care of informal caregivers of the elderly in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Rohani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rapid growth of the elderly population followed by an increase in long term care will lead to a rise in the health costs of the elderly and the healthcare burden of their caregivers. This study was carried out to examine the factors affecting the burden of care for informal caregivers in order to design better interventional programs and to reduce this burden and unwanted consequences. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in retirement associations of Tehran in 2012. The study population included 200 elderly and 200 caregivers. The instruments for data collection included two questionnaires about the elderly and their caregivers that were completed in a face-to-face interview. The data were analyzed by SPSS-16 software using multiple linear regression. Results: About 60% of the elderly and 34% of caregivers were female. Burden of care was low in 70%, moderate in 11.5%, and high in 18.5% of caregivers. Female caregivers were suffering 1.42 unit more burden of care than male caregivers (P= 0.027. Also, there was a significant association between the burden of care of untrained caregivers and instrumental activities of the daily living of the elderly (P< 0.001, daily activity of the elderly (P<0.001 and adequacy of wage (= 0.001. Conclusion: According to the results, being a female caregiver, daily physical activity of the elderly, instrumental activities of the daily living of the elderly, and adequacy of the wage were the most important factors in increasing the burden of care for caregivers of the elderly.

  8. Tasks performed by primary caregivers and migrant live-in homecare workers in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Iecovich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of migrant live-in homecare workers has been barely addressed in the gerontological literature, in spite of the increase of older persons being cared for by such persons in many Western countries. The purposes of the study are to examine the extent to which migrant live-in homecare workers substitute family caregivers or complement the care that is provided by primary caregivers, and to examine if there are differences in primary caregivers’ involvement in providing help with activities of daily living (ADL and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL before and after hiring a migrant live-in homecare worker, by caregivers’ employment status and gender. The data were drawn from a study that included 335 triads (care recipients, their primary caregivers, and their Filipina live-in homecare workers. The findings show that for the most part primary caregivers continue to play a significant role in providing care, in particular with regard to IADL tasks, even when there is a migrant live-in homecare worker. Several patterns of division of labor between the formal and informal caregivers were identified; that is, in some cases they complement each other while in other cases the migrant live-in homecare workers substitute for the care previously provided by the primary caregivers. Significant differences between male and female caregivers and between working and nonworking caregivers were found with regard to involvement in providing care before and after employment of a migrant homecare worker.

  9. Kenya’s Life Lessons through the Lived Experience of Rural Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Cappiccie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative research study used a phenomenological lens to examine the perspectives of familial caregivers in the Laikipia Region of Kenya. Through the narrative of the caregivers’ lived experience, key factors identified included social supports, rewards of caregiving, and lessons to others. Overarching basic themes centered on food insecurity, disease, rejection, lack of support, education challenges, inadequate land ownership, the absence of male support and neglect issues. These unique perspectives can contribute towards our understanding of policy and programming needs for orphaned children and familial caregivers in rural Kenya and within the rural areas of the East African context.

  10. Caregiving Experience and Its Relation to Perceptual Narrowing of Face Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennels, Jennifer L.; Juvrud, Joshua; Kayl, Andrea J.; Asperholm, Martin; Gredebäck, Gustaf; Herlitz, Agneta

    2017-01-01

    This research examined whether infants tested longitudinally at 10, 14, and 16 months of age (N = 58) showed evidence of perceptual narrowing based on face gender (better discrimination of female than male faces) and whether changes in caregiving experience longitudinally predicted changes in infants' discrimination of male faces. To test face…

  11. Female caregivers and stroke severity determines caregiver stress in stroke patients

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    Bindu Menon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stroke is among the major causes of short- and long-term disability. This study aimed to understand the caregivers (CGs stress in stroke survivors. Materials and Methods: A 22-item questionnaire was administered to 201 CGs of stroke survivors. The variables tested were physical and mental health, social support, financial, and personal problems. CGs were divided into Group A (Barthel index [BI] 75 according to patient's BI, according to gender (male and female CG and relation; spouses (wife, husband, daughters, sons, daughter-in-law, grandchildren, and rest (father, mother, brother, sister, and in-laws. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version–21. Data were analyzed to determine which variables of the patient effects the CG stress. Results: Majority of the CGs (74.62% were females. 65% of CGs graded their burden as moderate to severe. 81% of CGs had left their work for caregiving. More than half of the CGs felt sleep disturbance and physical strain. Psychological instability and financial burdens were reported in 3/4th of CGs. Group A CGs faced more sleep, financial, health, and social life disturbance. Patient's bladder and bowel problems, shoulder pain, patients noncooperative attitude for medication administration, and physiotherapy were more upsetting for Group A CGs. Female CGs were subjected to more sleep disturbance, physical and psychological stress, faced more difficulty regarding the patient's bladder, bowel, personal hygiene needs, and physiotherapy. Female CGs felt less motivated in caregiving than male CGs. Wives and daughters-in-law experienced more burden. Time spent and burden perceived was more by female CGs (χ2 = 15.199, P = 0.002 than males (χ2 = 11.931, P = 0.018; wives and daughters than other relations (χ2 = 32.184, P = 0.000, (χ2 = 35.162, P = 0.019. Conclusion: Our study showed that caregiving burden was predominantly shouldered by females CGs. CGs faced physical, psychological, and socioeconomic

  12. Death representation of caregivers in hospice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andruccioli, Jessica; Russo, Maria Maffia; Bruschi, Angela; Pedrabissi, Luigi; Sarti, Donatella; Monterubbianesi, Maria Cristina; Rossi, Sabina; Rocconi, Sabina; Raffaeli, William

    2012-11-01

    In this study, we investigated caregiver's death representation in hospice. The results presented here are a further analysis of the data collected in our previous study, concerning the evaluation of the caregiver in hospice. The data analysis of 24 caregivers of patients hospitalized in Rimini Hospice (Italy) underlined that caregivers avoiding death representation of the patient admitted to hospice had fewer protective factors (52.3%) and more risk factors (47.7%) than caregivers nonavoiding (66.5% and 33.5%, respectively). Caregivers avoiding death representation, moreover, experienced a greater distress (58%) than those nonavoiding (42%).

  13. Influence of caregiver personality on the burden of family caregivers of terminally ill cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha-Hyun; Kim, Seon-Young; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Shim, Hyun-Jeong; Hwang, Jun-Eul; Chung, Ik-Joo; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2016-02-01

    To determine the influence of caregiver personality and other factors on the burden of family caregivers of terminally ill cancer patients. We investigated a wide range of factors related to the patient-family caregiver dyad in a palliative care setting using a cross-sectional design. Caregiver burden was assessed using the seven-item short version of the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI-7). Caregiver personality was assessed using the 10-item short version of the Big Five Inventory (BFI-10), which measures the following five personality dimensions: extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness. Patient- and caregiver-related sociodemographic and psychological factors were included in the analysis because of their potential association with caregiver burden. Clinical patient data were obtained from medical charts or by using other measures. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to identify the independent factors associated with caregiver burden. We analyzed 227 patient-family caregiver dyads. The multivariate analysis revealed that caregiver extroversion was protective against caregiver burden, whereas depressive symptoms in caregivers were related to increased burden. Neuroticism was positively correlated with caregiver burden, but this relationship was nonsignificant following adjustment for depressive symptoms. Patient-related factors were not significantly associated with caregiver burden. Evaluating caregiver personality traits could facilitate identification of individuals at greater risk of high burden. Furthermore, depression screening and treatment programs for caregivers in palliative care settings are required to decrease caregiver burden.

  14. The burden of family caregiving in the United States: work productivity, health care resource utilization, and mental health among employed adults

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    Hopps M

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Markay Hopps, Laura Iadeluca, Margaret McDonald, Geoffrey T MakinsonPfizer Inc., New York, NY, USA Background: Family caregiving is an increasingly important component of care for patients and the elderly. Objective: The aim of this study is to characterize the burden of family caregiving among employed adults. Methods: Employed adults (≥18 years from the 2013 US National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS were classified as family caregivers if they reported currently caring for at least one adult relative. Chi-square tests and one-way analyses of variance assessed whether employed caregivers, weighted to the US population, differed from employed non-caregivers on behavioral characteristics, workplace productivity, and health care resource utilization. Results: Eight million workers were family caregivers in the United States, more often female than male (51% vs. 49%, P < 0.05, and 53% were between 40 and 64 years of age. Eighteen percent of caregivers were Hispanic compared with 15% of non-caregivers (P < 0.05. Similar behavioral characteristics between caregivers and non-caregivers included daily alcohol consumption (6% vs. 5% and lack of vigorous exercise (25% vs. 29%, but caregivers had a higher prevalence of smoking (26% vs. 19%, P < 0.05. Caregivers reported a higher mean percentage of work time missed (8% vs. 4%, P < 0.05 and greater productivity impairment (24% vs. 14%, P < 0.05. Some form of depression was reported by 53% of caregivers compared with 32% of non-caregivers (P < 0.05, and more caregivers had self-reported insomnia than non-caregivers (46% vs. 37%, P < 0.05. The number of self-reported diagnosed comorbidities was higher among caregivers compared with that of non-caregivers (5.0 vs. 3.1, P < 0.05, as was the mean number of outpatient visits in the previous 6 months (4.1 vs. 2.7, P < 0.05. Conclusion: Family caregiving is associated with a multidimensional burden that impacts caregivers and has implications for

  15. Role of humoral immune reactions as target for antirejection therapy in recipients of a spousal-donor kidney graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhmig, G A; Regele, H; Säemann, M D; Exner, M; Druml, W; Kovarik, J; Hörl, W H; Zlabinger, G J; Watschinger, B

    2000-04-01

    Excellent graft outcome has been reported for spousal-donor kidney transplantation. In husband-to-wife transplantation, however, a tendency toward inferior graft survival has been described for recipients who were previously pregnant. In our series of spousal-kidney transplantations (nine transplantations; three female recipients), actual graft survival is 100% (median observation time, 339 days). Five patients experienced early allograft rejection. In four transplant recipients, rejection was easily reversible by conventional antirejection therapy. In a multiparous recipient, however, mild interstitial allograft rejection associated with early graft dysfunction was resistant to anticellular treatment (antilymphocyte antibody, tacrolimus rescue therapy). The particular finding of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in peritubular capillaries and the finding of diffuse capillary deposits of the complement split product, C4d, in a posttransplantation biopsy specimen suggested a role of antibody-mediated graft injury. Retrospective flow cytometry cross-matching showed the presence of preformed immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to HLA class I antigens that were not detectable by pretransplantation lymphocytotoxic cross-match testing or screening for panel reactive antibodies. After transplantation, however, complement-fixing antibodies, also presumably triggered by reexposure to spousal-donor HLA antigens, could be detected in the patient's serum. These findings suggested antibody-mediated allograft rejection and led to the initiation of immunoadsorption therapy (14 sessions) with staphylococcal protein A. Selective removal of recipient IgG resulted in complete reversal of graft dysfunction. Our findings suggest that in husband-to-wife transplantation, donor-specific antibodies, presumably triggered by previous pregnancies, might occasionally induce sustained allograft dysfunction. Thus, in this particular setting, a detailed immunologic and histopathologic work-up regarding

  16. An organizing framework for informal caregiver interventions: detailing caregiving activities and caregiver and care recipient outcomes to optimize evaluation efforts

    OpenAIRE

    Van Houtven, Courtney Harold; Voils, Corrine I; Weinberger, Morris

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Caregiver interventions may help improve the quality of informal care. Yet the lack of a systematic framework specifying the targets and outcomes of caregiver interventions hampers our ability to understand what has been studied, to evaluate existing programs, and to inform the design of future programs. Our goal was to develop an organizing framework detailing the components of the caregiving activities and the caregiver and care recipient outcomes that should be affected...

  17. Does Spousal Support Can Increase the Women’s Physical Activity?

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    Hajar Rezaee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Numerous benefits of physical activity are well-known for the prevention and treatment of various diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and cancers. However, the status of physical activities among women remains noticeably less than the recommended level. Considering the importance of the spouses’ participation in the promotion of women’s health, this study examined the impact of spousal support on women’s physical activity. Methods: This semi--experimental study was done in February 2015 on 100 couples in reproductive age referred to health centers of Falavarjan city. The participants were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. The information related to women’s physical activity in both groups was collected by aquestionnaire in two steps, before and three months after the intervention. The spouses of women in the intervention group were trained in the field of the importance of physical activity in women’s health in two sessions. The data were analyzed by the software SPSS21 and suitable statistical tests (Independent t, paired t, and Chi-square. Results: The mean and standard deviation of women’s age in the both groups were 28.76±5.51 and 30.38±5.31, respectively. The prevalence of obesity and overweight in the women under the study was generally estimated 44%. Physical activities of women in the intervention group were significantly increased after the intervention (P<0.0001. Also, the Body Mass Index in the intervention group was significantly decreased compared to before the intervention and control group (P<0.001. Conclusion: Spouses could encourage women to perform physical activities. It is recommended that the health care system should implement educational sessions for men to encourage women to exercise.

  18. Informal Caregiving for Cancer Patients

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    Romito, Francesca; Goldzweig, Gil; Cormio, Claudia; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Andersen, Barbara L.

    2013-01-01

    According to the recent worldwide estimation by the GLOBOCAN project, in total, 12.7 million new cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths occurred in 2008. The worldwide number of cancer survivors within 5 years of diagnosis has been estimated at be almost 28.8 million. Informal caregivers, such as family members and close friends, provide essential support to cancer patients. The authors of this report provide an overview of issues in the study of informal caregivers for cancer patients and long-term survivors in the United States and Europe, characterizing the caregivers commonly studied; the resources currently available to them; and their unmet needs, their psychosocial outcomes, and the psychosocial interventions tailored to their special circumstances. A broad overview of the state of research and knowledge, both in Europe and the United States, and observations on the directions for future research are provided. PMID:23695928

  19. Caregiving Isn't a Solo Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sport Follow us Caregiving Isn't a Solo Sport Leeza Gibbons is a leading TV talk show ... go it alone. Caregiving is not a solo sport. Identify who’s on your team. Delegate, forgive, regroup, ...

  20. Long-Term Effects of Bereavement and Caregiver Intervention on Dementia Caregiver Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, William E.; Bergman, Elizabeth J.; Roth, David L.; McVie, Theresa; Gaugler, Joseph E.; Mittelman, Mary S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the joint effects of bereavement and caregiver intervention on caregiver depressive symptoms. Design and Methods: Alzheimer's caregivers from a randomized trial of an enhanced caregiver support intervention versus usual care who had experienced the death of their spouse (n = 254) were repeatedly…

  1. Self- Efficacy and Caregiver Strain in Alzheimer\\'s Caregivers

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    Farahnaz Mohamadi Shahbalaghi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This study with a co relational design has conducted to determine relationship between caregiving strain and self-efficacy in family caregiver of patient with Alzheimer. Accessible sample of the study consisted of 81 family caregivers that all of them were member of Iranian Alzheimer Association. Data was gathered by demographic, self-efficacy and care giving strain questioners. Findings showed the most of the subjects were female (%60, spouse of care giving recipient (56%, married (64%, reside in same household (55%, 49% under high school education, 45% of them haven't taken formal courses about the care of the patients, 53% of them were satisfied about providing of care, 36% reported bad health status. The most important caring needs consisted education for better care providing. the Mean of self-efficacy was 66/96 (29-106 and strain 39/43 (17-65. There were not any relations between strain and self-efficacy with demographic variables. There was positive significant Pearson correlation (r=0/539, p=O/ 01 between self-efficacy and strain. Findings indicated that self-efficacy and care giving strain are subjective and individualized concepts. Care giving to elderly patients is a stressful event but moderate co-relationship shows that caregivers apprise the stress of care giving as a constructive and controllable manner.

  2. Caring stress, suicidal attitude and suicide care ability among family caregivers of suicidal individuals: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, C-Y; Lu, C-Y; Lin, Y-H; Lin, H-Y; Sun, F-K

    2015-12-01

    What is known on the subject? Suicide is a global mental health issue. Taking care of suicidal individuals is a substantial challenge. Most studies emphasize the suicidal individual. Few studies have emphasized the family caregivers of suicidal individuals. No study has explored the relationship between family caregivers' caring stress with suicidal attitudes and suicide care ability. What this paper adds to existing knowledge? The main results indicated that the older family caregivers tended to have a more negative attitude towards suicidal individuals. Female family caregivers' stress was higher than that of male family caregivers. A mild level of caring stress would help family caregivers have a more positive attitude towards suicidal individuals. Furthermore, a positive attitude would help family caregivers improve their caring ability. What are the implications for practice? Mental health nurses could help family caregivers, especially female family caregivers, reduce their holistic caring burden by looking for support resources and enhancing their coping strategies. Mental health nurses could help family caregivers promote positive attitudes towards suicidal relatives by understanding suicidal individuals' suffering. Suicide is a global mental health issue. Family caregivers play a key role in preventing suicide attempts. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship among stress due to the family caregiver's role, suicidal attitude of the family caregiver and suicide care ability among family caregivers. Additionally, instruments of caring stress, attitudes towards suicidal relatives and caring abilities used in the study were tested to measure construct validity. A cross-sectional correlational study was conducted with 164 family caregivers of people who are suicidal. The following three questionnaires were used: the Caring Stress Scale, the Suicidal Attitudes Scale and the Suicidal Caring Ability Scale. Structural equation modelling was performed

  3. Cancer Caregiver: Perceived Benefits of Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapid, Maria I; Atherton, Pamela J; Clark, Matthew M; Kung, Simon; Sloan, Jeff A; Rummans, Teresa A

    2015-11-01

    The burden associated with caregiving has been well documented. Caregivers have multiple responsibilities, and technology may be accessible as a potential burden-alleviating resource. We surveyed cancer caregivers regarding current technology use and willingness to use technology for easing burden or distress. Because age has been associated with technology use, responses were compared between geriatric (≥65 years old) and nongeriatric (18-64 years old) caregivers. We had 112 respondents. Based on nonmissing responses, 66% (n=71) were women, 95% (n=106) were white, and 84% (n=91) had post-high school education. Almost all caregivers reported having Internet (105 [94%]) and e-mail (102 [91%]) access. Nongeriatric caregivers indicated more willingness to access Internet-based tools that help caregivers (54 [93%] versus 41 [76%]; p=0.04) and were more frequent users of social media (37 [64%] versus 16 [30%]; p=0.01), smartphones (33 [57%] versus 16 [30%]; p=0.01), and other mobile wireless devices (42 [72%] versus 19 [35%]; p<0.001) than geriatric caregivers. They also more frequently expected technologies to improve their own quality of life (p=0.009), increase their feelings of being effective as a caregiver (p=0.02), and save time (p=0.003). Regardless of age, a majority of caregivers (67 [62%]) endorsed the potential benefit of caregiving technologies in preventing burnout. Most caregivers have high access to and use of technology. Geriatric and nongeriatric caregivers were receptive to technology-based tools to help with their caregiving roles. Although nongeriatric caregivers expected to derive more benefit from such tools, both groups believed that caregiving technologies could reduce burden.

  4. Dietary Behaviors and Caregiver Perceptions of Overweight and Obesity among Chinese Preschool Children

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    Amber Tang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Early childhood obesity in China has become a pressing public health concern. A substantial barrier to healthy weight management is poor parental recognition of child overweight. This study examined the relationship between caregiver perceptions of child weight and dietary practices. Methods: A total of 364 children between 2 and 6 years old from six urban preschools in Changsha (China were included in a cross-sectional study. Information on household demographics, health behaviors, and caregiver attitudes was collected through a self-administered caregiver questionnaire. Chi-squared tests, t-tests, and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to determine the relationship between caregiver perceptions, dietary behaviors, and child weight status. Results: Over 60% of caregivers with overweight/obese children underestimated their children’s weight status. These caregivers were less likely to worry about weight and restrict their children’s dietary intakes. Children of caregivers who incorrectly classified their weights were also more likely to have a poor appetite. Caregivers of male children and those from families with incomes between 7000 and 11,000 Ren Min Bi (RMB were more likely to underestimate weight compared to caregivers with daughters and those from higher income households. Conclusions: Although accurate weight perception may be important for motivating healthy behavioral changes, it may also lead to greater restriction of children’s diets, which has been linked to long-term weight gain. Interventions to improve awareness of child overweight should be coupled with efforts that teach caregivers about healthy weight management strategies.

  5. Stressors of caregivers of school-age children with epilepsy and use of community resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saburi, Gladys

    2011-06-01

    Childhood epilepsy causes multiple stressors, difficulty in adjustment, and disruptions in family relations. This study sought to identify stressors of caregivers of school-age children and to assess whether use of community resources alleviates or contributes to caregiver stress. Stressors refer to concern about the child, communication with healthcare providers, changes in family relationships, interaction with school, and support within the community. A caregiver refers to the person who had looked after the child for the past 6-12 months. Support groups, religious or worship groups, counseling services, and traditional and spiritual faith healers were the community resources that were addressed. Face-to-face interviews were conducted on a convenience sample of 46 caregivers. A three-part structured interview schedule was used to describe demographic data, stressors of caregivers, and use of community resources. The top 6 stressors were the inability to get antiepileptic drugs, the deep pain or sadness caused by the child's seizures, caregiving (which was predominantly by mothers), limited help from the extended family, inadequate information on side effects of drugs, and inadequate information on seizures. The most commonly used community resource was religious or worship groups, with epilepsy support groups being least used. To alleviate caregiver stress, it is important that healthcare providers routinely assess the effect of seizures on caregivers and refer those requiring counseling, advocate for more male and extended family involvement in caregiving and provide adequate information on side effects of drugs and on seizures as standard practice. Nurses in developed countries should incorporate religious activities among complementary and alternative medicine interventions to reduce caregiver stress. Spiritual faith healers should be encouraged to refer clients with epilepsy for drug therapy and counseling.

  6. Becoming a caregiver: attachment theory and poorly performing doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adshead, Gwen

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, I review a theoretical paradigm (attachment theory) which facilitates an understanding of how human care-giving and care-eliciting behaviours develop and are maintained over the lifespan. I argue that this paradigm has particular utility in: (i) the training of doctors; (ii) understanding why some doctors and medical students experience high levels of stress, and (iii) developing interventions to help those who struggle to manage high levels of work-related stress. I carried out a review of key texts and previously published studies of attachment styles in caregivers. Large-scale epidemiological studies, using valid and reliable measures, show that insecure attachment styles are found in a proportion of normal populations of both males and females. Insecure attachment is associated with impaired stress management and subtle deficits in care-giving sensitivity. It is reasonable to assume that a proportion of students entering medical training and doctors with performance problems may have insecure attachment styles which influence how they approach their training experience and how they manage occupational stress. Attachment theory is a useful paradigm for thinking about training as a professional caregiver. Insecure early attachment experiences may be a risk factor for poor stress management in some medical students and doctors who are exposed to increasing demands as carers. These findings lead to suggestions for possible research and support interventions.

  7. The Relationship Between Caregiving and Mortality After Accounting for Time-Varying Caregiver Status and Addressing the Healthy Caregiver Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredman, Lisa; Lyons, Jennifer G; Cauley, Jane A; Hochberg, Marc; Applebaum, Katie M

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies have shown inconsistent associations between caregiving and mortality. This may be due to analyzing caregiver status at baseline only, and that better health is probably related to taking on caregiving responsibilities and continuing in that role. The latter is termed The Healthy Caregiver Hypothesis, similar to the Healthy Worker Effect in occupational epidemiology. We applied common approaches from occupational epidemiology to evaluate the association between caregiving and mortality, including treating caregiving as time-varying and lagging exposure up to 5 years. Caregiving status among 1,068 women (baseline mean age = 81.0 years; 35% caregivers) participating in the Caregiver-Study of Osteoporotic Fractures study was assessed at five interviews conducted between 1999 and 2009. Mortality was determined through January 2012. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for sociodemographics, perceived stress, and functional limitations. A total of 483 participants died during follow-up (38.8% and 48.7% of baseline caregivers and noncaregivers, respectively). Using baseline caregiving status, the association with mortality was 0.77, 0.62-0.95. Models of time-varying caregiving status showed a more pronounced reduction in mortality in current caregivers (hazard ratios = 0.54, 0.38-0.75), which diminished with longer lag periods (3-year lag hazard ratio = 0.68, 0.52-0.88, 5-year lag hazard ratios = 0.76, 0.60-0.95). Overall, caregivers had lower mortality rates than noncaregivers in all analyses. These associations were sensitive to the lagged period, indicating that the timing of leaving caregiving does influence this relationship and should be considered in future investigations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. How Caregivers Make Meaning of Child Mental Health Problems: Toward Understanding Caregiver Strain and Help Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Lindsay S; Heflinger, Craig Anne

    Family caregivers' conceptualizations of their child's emotional and behavioral problems (EBP) influence help-seeking for the child and caregiver strain. We analyzed 21 interviews with caregivers to explore their conceptualizations about the cause of their child's EBP, their experiences of strain, and their reported help-seeking behaviors. Caregivers had divergent conceptualizations of their child's EBP: 12 caregivers viewed the EBP as caused by a disorder and described the onset of symptoms as the central stressful event, whereas 9 caregivers described their child's problems as a response to an earlier stressor (e.g. trauma, abuse, divorce). Different patterns of caregiver strain and help-seeking were associated with caregiver conceptualization. All caregivers voiced a need for peer-to-peer support for caregivers and youth with EBP.

  9. Caregiver and expecting caregiver support for early peanut introduction guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhawt, Matthew; Chan, Edmond S; Fleischer, David M; Hicks, Allison; Wilson, Rachel; Shaker, Marcus; Venter, Carina; Stukus, David

    2018-03-07

    Recent guidelines recommend early peanut introduction (EPI) beginning around 4 to 6 months of age in infants with severe eczema and/or egg allergy and around 6 months for all other infants. Caregiver preferences for such practices are unknown. We explored preferences for EPI and in-office allergy risk assessment (IRA) through a nationally representative survey of expecting (n = 1,000) and new caregivers of infants younger than 1 year (n = 1,000). Among a primarily female (99.7%), married (80.3%), and white (74.4%) sample, 29% had no or vague awareness of the new guidelines, 61% had no or minimal concern for their child developing food allergy, but 54% felt timing of food introduction has moderate to strong importance for developing food allergy. Only 31% expressed willingness for EPI before or around 6 months of age, with 40% reporting willingness to introduce peanut after 11 months of age, similar to tree nuts and seafood. However, 60% reported willingness to introduce egg before 8 months of age. A total of 51% and 56.8% were unwilling to allow IRA methods, such as skin testing and oral challenge, before 11 months of age, respectively. Odds of willingness to delay peanut introduction (odds ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.96) and undergo challenge (odds ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.82) after 6 months of age were lower among expecting caregivers. Among new and expecting caregivers, there is poor current willingness and questionable support for early allergenic solid food recommendations, including IRA before introduction. Willingness was better among expecting vs current caregivers. These trends underscore a need for broader formal implementation planning to facilitate early allergen introduction and maximize its preventive benefits. Copyright © 2018 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Medically Complex Home Care and Caregiver Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Sara M.; Macdonald, Cameron

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the study: To examine (a) whether the content of caregiving tasks (i.e., nursing vs. personal care) contributes to variation in caregivers' strain and (b) whether the level of complexity of nursing tasks contributes to variation in strain among caregivers providing help with such tasks. Design and methods: The data came from the Cash…

  11. Widening the Generational Circle: Family Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bert Kruger

    This document addresses the dilemma faced by families with an aging or disabled member and the stress associated with the role of family caregiver. Emotions experienced by family caregivers, especially when the caregiver is an adult child caring for an elderly or frail parent, are discussed and feelings of desertion, dependence, and sibling…

  12. Family Caregiver Identity: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eifert, Elise K.; Adams, Rebecca; Dudley, William; Perko, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the multitude of available resources, family caregivers of those with chronic disease continually underutilize support services to cope with the demands of caregiving. Several studies have linked self-identification as a caregiver to the increased likelihood of support service use. Purpose: The present study reviewed the…

  13. Family Caregivers: Psychosocial Impacts and Clinical Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daire, Andrew P.; Torres, Jennifer; Edwards, Nivischi N.

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe how 3 groups of family caregivers (spouses, daughters, and sons) are affected by the caregiving role. In addition, clinical considerations and interventions for mental health professionals working with these different groups of family caregivers are discussed. A clinical case example is also presented. (Contains 2 tables.)

  14. Balancing competing needs mediates the association of caregiving demand with caregiver role strain and depressive symptoms of dementia caregivers: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsin-Yun; Yang, Ching-Tzu; Wang, Yu-Nu; Hsu, Wen-Chuin; Huang, Tzu-Hsin; Lin, Yueh-E; Liu, Chin-Yi; Shyu, Yea-Ing L

    2017-12-01

    To examine the role of balancing competing needs in the relationship between caregiving demand and caregiving outcomes (caregivers' role strain and depressive symptoms). Caregivers who do not balance competing needs are more likely to experience negative caregiving outcomes, suggesting that balance mediates between caregiving demand and caregiving outcomes. Identifying a mediator of negative caregiving effects may help in developing tailored interventions for family caregivers of persons with dementia. A cross-sectional, correlational design. Data were collected from family caregivers' self-completed questionnaires between March 2013 - April 2014. A convenience sample of 120 family caregivers and care receivers with dementia was enrolled. We examined whether balance mediated the relationship between caregiving demand and caregiving outcomes (caregivers' role strain and depressive symptoms) by multiple regression analysis. To evaluate the significance of the indirect effect of caregiver balance, we used the Sobel test and Monte Carlo method, an alternative approach to testing mediation. Balancing competing needs completely mediated the association of caregiving demand with depressive symptoms and partially mediated the association of caregiving demand with role strain. Assessing caregivers' self-perceived sense of balance may help to identify caregivers at high risk for role strain and depressive symptoms. Interventions to enhance caregivers' perceived sense of balance between competing needs may provide a strategy for reducing the negative effects of caregiving. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Promoting improved family caregiver health literacy: evaluation of caregiver communication resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg, Elaine; Goldsmith, Joy; Ferrell, Betty; Ragan, Sandra L

    2017-07-01

    Family caregivers of cancer patients have a vital role in facilitating and sharing information about cancer, revealing a need to develop caregiver health literacy skills to support caregiver communication. The goal of this study was to investigate caregiver print materials and develop and assess a new caregiver communication resource titled A Communication Guide for Caregivers TM . Using a model of six domains of caregiver health literacy skills, print cancer education materials were collected and evaluated for caregiver communication support. A new caregiver communication resource was also developed and assessed by caregivers and healthcare providers. Caregivers reviewed content and assessed utility, relatability, and reading quality. Healthcare providers also assessed whether the material would be understandable and usable for cancer caregivers. Only three of the 28 print materials evaluated were written at the recommended sixth grade reading level and only five addressed all six caregiver health literacy skills. Readability scores for A Communication Guide for Caregivers TM were at the sixth grade level, and caregivers reported its contents were relatable, useful, and easy to read. Healthcare providers also rated the material as easy for patient/family members of diverse backgrounds and varying levels of literacy to understand and use. Existing print-based caregiver education materials do not address caregivers' health literacy skill needs and are aimed at a highly literate caregiving population. A Communication Guide for Caregivers TM meets health literacy standards and family caregiver and provider communication needs. The findings are relevant for healthcare professionals who provide cancer education. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Validation of a model of family caregiver communication types and related caregiver outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg, Elaine; Kravits, Kate; Goldsmith, Joy; Ferrell, Betty; Fujinami, Rebecca

    2017-02-01

    Caring for the family is included as one of the eight domains of quality palliative care, calling attention to the importance of the family system and family communications about cancer during care and treatment of the disease. Previously, a model of family caregiver communication defined four caregiver communication types-Manager, Carrier, Partner, Lone-each with a unique communication pattern. The purpose of the present study was to extend the model of family caregiver communication in cancer care to further understand the impact of family communication burden on caregiving outcomes. This mixed-method study employed fieldnotes from a family caregiver intervention focused on quality of life and self-reported caregiver communication items to identify a specific family caregiver type. Caregiver types were then analyzed using outcome measures on psychological distress, skills preparedness, family inventory of needs, and quality-of-life domains. Corroboration between fieldnotes and self-reported communication for caregivers (n = 21, 16 women, mean age of 53 years) revealed a definitive classification of the four caregiver types (Manager = 6, Carrier = 5, Partner = 6, Lone = 4). Mean scores on self-reported communication items documented different communication patterns congruent with the theoretical framework of the model. Variation in caregiver outcomes measures confirmed the model of family caregiver communication types. Partner and Lone caregivers reported the lowest psychological distress, with Carrier caregivers feeling least prepared and Manager caregivers reporting the lowest physical quality of life. This study illustrates the impact of family communication on caregiving and increases our knowledge and understanding about the role of communication in caregiver burden. The research provides the first evidence-based validation for a family caregiver communication typology and its relationship to caregiver outcomes. Future research is needed to develop and test

  17. Do changes in spousal employment status lead to domestic violence? Insights from a prospective study in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Rocca, Corinne H; Hubbard, Alan E; Subbiah, Kalyani; Edmeades, Jeffrey; Padian, Nancy S

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of physical domestic violence--violence against women perpetrated by husbands--is staggeringly high across the Indian subcontinent. Although gender-based power dynamics are thought to underlie women's vulnerability, relatively little is known about risk and protective factors. This prospective study in southern India examined the association between key economic aspects of gender-based power, namely spousal employment status, and physical domestic violence. In 2005-2006, 744 married women, aged 16-25, residing in low-income communities in Bangalore, India were enrolled in the study. Data were collected at enrollment, 12 and 24 months. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the prospective association between women's employment status, their perceptions of their husband's employment stability, and domestic violence. Women who were unemployed at one visit and began employment by the next visit had an 80% higher odds of violence, as compared to women who maintained their unemployed status. Similarly, women whose husbands had stable employment at one visit and newly had difficulty with employment had 1.7 times the odds of violence, as compared to women whose husbands maintained their stable employment. To our knowledge, this study is the first from a developing country to confirm that changes in spousal employment status are associated with subsequent changes in violence risk. It points to the complex challenges of violence prevention, including the need for interventions among men and gender-transformative approaches to promote gender-equitable attitudes, practices and norms among men and women.

  18. An employee assistance program for caregiver support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mains, Douglas A; Fairchild, Thomas J; René, Antonio A

    2006-01-01

    The Comprehensive Caregiver Choices Program provided support for employee caregivers of elderly people for employees at a hospital in Fort Worth, Texas. Key informant interviews and focus groups provided direction for program development and implementation. A full-time MSW and professionals with expertise in gerontology/geriatrics provided education and care coordination services to caregivers. Approximately 4% of the hospital's workforce participated in the program. Attendees evaluated educational sessions and follow-up interviews were conducted with program participants. Caregiver support programs must continue to seek innovative and creative marketing and service delivery methods to reach out and assist working caregivers in need of support.

  19. Perceived quality of physiotherapy services among informal caregivers of children with cerebral palsy in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaleye, Olubukola A; Hamzat, Talhatu K; Oloso, Modinat O

    2015-01-01

    Effective physiotherapy intervention for children with cerebral palsy (CP) requires that expectations of their caregivers be incorporated into treatment plans and strategies. This study explored the perceived Quality of Physiotherapy (QoP) for children with CP in Ibadan, Nigeria This cross-sectional survey explored the perceived QoP using the SERVQUAL instrument among informal caregivers of children with CP from two different healthcare facilities. Data was analysed using Mann Whiney U and Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests at p ≤ 0.05. Fifty-three informal caregivers (50 females, 3 males) of children with CP (32 males, 21 females) were surveyed. Fourth-fifths (81.13%) of the caregivers perceived the QoP service for their children as poor. The highest negative and positive ranks were in the tangible and responsiveness dimensions of the SERVQUAL respectively. The study demonstrated that caregivers of children with CP perceived the quality of physiotherapy provided for their children as poor. This poor perception is related more to the tangible dimension of care. Strategies to improve care environment for children with CP and their informal caregivers should be implemented to engender satisfaction with care.

  20. Does a wife's education influence spousal agreement on approval of family planning?: Random-effects Modeling using data from two West African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mian; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Rogers, Laurencia

    2014-05-01

    Spousal approval of family planning is critical for contraceptive use. Both contraceptive use rates and women's education are low in many West-African countries and this study examines the role of wives' education in spousal agreement on approval of family planning in two sub-Saharan West African countries. We used couples' data from Demographic Health Surveys in Senegal and in Niger, conducted in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Multiple logistic regression results using multilevel modeling show that the odds of spousal agreement on approval of family planning were slightly over three times [OR: 3.16; 95% CI: 1.32 to 7.57] in Senegal and were about three times [OR: 3.07; 95% CI: 1.64 to 5.76] in Niger higher for women with more than primary education. Findings suggest that improvement in women's education could lead to spousal agreement on approval of family planning, which may lead to use of family planning in sub-Saharan African countries.

  1. Usability of a Wearable Camera System for Dementia Family Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith T. Matthews

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Health care providers typically rely on family caregivers (CG of persons with dementia (PWD to describe difficult behaviors manifested by their underlying disease. Although invaluable, such reports may be selective or biased during brief medical encounters. Our team explored the usability of a wearable camera system with 9 caregiving dyads (CGs: 3 males, 6 females, 67.00 ± 14.95 years; PWDs: 2 males, 7 females, 80.00 ± 3.81 years, MMSE 17.33 ± 8.86 who recorded 79 salient events over a combined total of 140 hours of data capture, from 3 to 7 days of wear per CG. Prior to using the system, CGs assessed its benefits to be worth the invasion of privacy; post-wear privacy concerns did not differ significantly. CGs rated the system easy to learn to use, although cumbersome and obtrusive. Few negative reactions by PWDs were reported or evident in resulting video. Our findings suggest that CGs can and will wear a camera system to reveal their daily caregiving challenges to health care providers.

  2. Association between gap in spousal education and domestic violence in India and Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Daniel; Zoch, Beate; Khan, M Mobarak H; Pollmann, Thorsten; Krämer, Alexander

    2012-06-21

    Domestic violence (DV) against women is a serious human rights abuse and well recognised global public health concern. The occurrence of DV is negatively associated with the educational level of spouses but studies dealing with educational discrepancies of spouses show contradicting results: Wives with higher education than their husbands were more likely to ever experience DV as compared to equally educated couples. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between spousal education gap (SEG) and the prevalence and severity of DV in India and Bangladesh. Nationally representative data collected through the 2005/2006 Indian National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) and 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) were used. In total, we analysed data of 69,805 women aged 15-49 years (Bangladesh: 4,195 women, India: 65,610 women). In addition to univariate and bivariable analyses, a multinomial logistic regression model was used to quantify the association between education gap and less severe as well as severe domestic violence. Adjustment was made for age, religion, and family structure. Wives with higher education than their husbands were less likely to experience less severe (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.77-0.89) and severe (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.72-0.87) DV as compared to equally low-educated spouses (reference group). Equally high-educated couples revealed the lowest likelihood of experiencing DV (severe violence: OR 0.43, CI 0.39-0.48; less severe violence: OR 0.59, CI 0.55-0.63). The model's goodness of fit was low (Nagelkerke's R2 = 0.152). Our analysis revealed no increased DV among wives with a higher educational level than their husbands. Moreover, the results point towards a decrease of severe violence with an increase in education levels among spouses. However, the model did not explain a satisfying amount of DV. Therefore, further research should be done to reveal unknown determinants so that suitable interventions to reduce DV can be

  3. From spouse to caregiver and back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ågård, Anne Sophie; Egerod, Ingrid; Tønnesen, Else

    2015-01-01

    and rehabilitation in general hospital wards, rehabilitation facilities and at home. Consequently, millions of spouses become informal caregivers. Little is known, however, about the concrete challenges spouses face in post-intensive care unit everyday life. DESIGN: Explorative, qualitative grounded theory study...... their role from spouse to caregiver and back' was identified as the core category of the study. The role shifts progressed in a dynamic process involving four elements: (1) committing to caregiving; (2) acquiring caregiving skills; (3) negotiating level of caregiving and (4) gradually leaving the caregiver...... role. Post-ICU caregiving comprised five patient dimensions: observing, assisting, coaching, advocating and managing activities. CONCLUSIONS: Spouses play a vital and multifaceted role in post-intensive care unit recovery. The findings can inform healthcare professionals in their efforts to prepare...

  4. [Family caregiver issues: gender, privacy, and public policy perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I; Chou, Fan-Hao; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2011-04-01

    Due to the phenomenon of Taiwan'saging population has made, long-term care has become an issue of increasingly emphasized importance. According to the statistics, the family takes responsibility for most long-term care duties and more than 70% of primary family caregivers are female. In the past, because of gender-based divisions of labor and gender role expectations made, it was taken for granted that females would be the socially preferred family caregivers. Those men who devoting in themselves to such work were regarded as a rare precious. As such, family care signified entailed different life experiences for males and females. Over the years, amendments to the civil code have recognized family care contributions, and the allowance for caregivers underlines that care responsibilities have shifted away from the family to society. Traditional gender divisions of labor today are significantly more blurred; family structures have become smaller in size; female labor in the workplace has increased; and ten-year long-term care plans and long-term care insurance have been successively implemented. These transformations will make labor outsourcing more and more popular and transform family care from a private problem to a pubic policy issue. In the future, family caregivers require consideration and support on a sustained basis. It is also important to improve and monitor the quality of care services. Nurses, the major professional members of long-term care teams, should be concerned over the issue of family care while providing nursing care. They should include family caregivers in the care plan so that they can make sure that patients receive comprehensive and constant care in order to enhance the overall quality of nursing care.

  5. Subjective Caregiver Burden and Caregiver Satisfaction: The Role of Partner Relationship Quality and Reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tough, Hannah; Brinkhof, Martin W; Siegrist, Johannes; Fekete, Christine

    2017-10-01

    To explore the effect of relationship quality and reciprocity in partnerships on subjective caregiver burden and caregiver satisfaction in partners of persons with a severe physical disability (spinal cord injury). Cross-sectional, observational. Community setting. Caregiving partners of persons with spinal cord injury (N=118). Not applicable. Subjective caregiver burden measured by the Zarit Burden Interview (short form) and caregiver satisfaction measured by a single item on feelings of satisfaction resulting from the caregiver role. Caregiving partners who rated their relationship quality as high encountered less subjective caregiver burden (β=-1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.47 to -0.72; Psatisfaction (odds ratio [OR], 1.18; 95% CI, 1.01-1.45; P=.049). These associations persisted even after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, lesion severity of the care receiver, and objective caregiver burden. Partners who indicated high reciprocity in their relationship to the care receiver indicated less subjective caregiver burden and more caregiver satisfaction when relationship quality was excluded from the final models; however, the effect of reciprocity on subjective burden (β=-.38; 95% CI, -3.71 to 2.95; P=.82) and caregiver satisfaction (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.28-5.22; P=.80) disappeared when including relationship quality. Results highlight the importance of relationship quality as a target for couple interventions aimed at reducing subjective caregiver burden and increasing satisfaction in the caregiving role. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Family caregiving challenges in advanced colorectal cancer: patient and caregiver perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Catherine E; Adams, Rebecca N; Helft, Paul R; O'Neil, Bert H; Shahda, Safi; Rattray, Nicholas A; Champion, Victoria L

    2016-05-01

    Family caregivers of advanced colorectal cancer patients may be at increased risk for psychological distress. Yet their key challenges in coping with the patient's illness are not well understood. Soliciting both patient and caregiver perspectives on these challenges would broaden our understanding of the caregiving experience. Thus, the purpose of this research was to identify caregivers' key challenges in coping with their family member's advanced colorectal cancer from the perspective of patients and caregivers. Individual, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 23 advanced colorectal cancer patients and 23 primary family caregivers. Interview data were analyzed via thematic analysis. In nearly all cases, patient and caregiver reports of the caregiver's key challenge were discrepant. Across patient and caregiver reports, caregivers' key challenges included processing emotions surrounding the patient's initial diagnosis or recurrence and addressing the patient's practical and emotional needs. Other challenges included coping with continual uncertainty regarding the patient's potential functional decline and prognosis and observing the patient suffer from various physical symptoms. Findings suggest that eliciting the perspectives of both patients and caregivers regarding caregivers' challenges provides a more comprehensive understanding of their experience. Results also point to the need to assist caregivers with the emotional and practical aspects of caregiving.

  7. Factors Associated With Higher Caregiver Burden Among Family Caregivers of Elderly Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Lixia; Mordiffi, Siti Zubaidah

    Caring for elderly cancer patients may cause multidimensional burden on family caregivers. Recognition of factors associated with caregiver burden is important for providing proactive support to caregivers at risk. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with high caregiver burden among family caregivers of elderly cancer patients. A systematic search of 7 electronic databases was conducted from database inception to October 2014. The identified studies were screened, and full text was further assessed. The quality of included studies was assessed using a checklist, and relevant data were extracted using a predeveloped data extraction form. Best-evidence synthesis model was used for data synthesis. The search yielded a total of 3339 studies, and 7 studies involving 1233 family caregivers were included after screening and full assessment of 116 studies. Moderate evidence supported that younger caregivers, solid tumors, and assistance with patient's activities of daily living were significantly associated with high caregiver burden. Eighteen factors were supported by limited evidence, and 1 was a conflicting factor. The scientific literature to date proved that caregiver burden was commonly experienced by family caregivers of elderly cancer patients. The evidence indicated that family caregivers who were at younger age, caring for solid tumor patients, and providing assistance with patient's activities of daily living reported high caregiver burden. The data provide evidence in identifying family caregivers at high risk of high caregiver burden. More high-quality studies are needed to clarify and determine the estimates of the effects of individual factors.

  8. Psychosocial group intervention to enhance self-management skills of people with dementia and their caregivers: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laakkonen Marja-Liisa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After diagnosis of a dementing illness, patients and their spouses have many concerns related to the disease and their future. This often leads to poor psychological well-being and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL of the family. Support for self-management skills has been proven to be an effective method to improve prognosis of asthma, heart failure and osteoarthritis. However, self-management interventions have not been studied in dementia. Therefore, our aim was to examine, in an objective-oriented group intervention, the efficacy of self-management support program (SMP on the HRQoL of dementia patients and their spousal caregivers as well as on the sense of competence and psychological well-being of caregivers. Methods During the years 2011 to 12, 160 dementia patients and their spouses will be recruited from memory clinics and randomized into two arms: 80 patients for group-based SMP sessions including topics selected by the participants, 80 patients will serve as controls in usual community care. Sessions may include topics on dementia, community services, active lifestyle and prevention for cognitive decline, spousal relationship, future planning and emotional well-being. The patients and spouses will have their separate group sessions (ten participants per group once a week for eight weeks. Main outcome measures will be patients’ HRQoL (15D and spousal caregivers’ HRQoL (RAND-36, and sense of competence (SCQ. Secondary measures will be caregivers’ psychological well-being (GHQ-12 and coping resources, patients’ depression, cognition and signs of frailty. Data concerning admissions to institutional care and the use and costs of health and social services will be collected during a two-year follow-up. Discussion This is a ‘proof-of-concept’ study to explore the efficacy of group support for self-management skills among dementia families. It will also provide data on cost-effectiveness of the

  9. Positive aspects of caregiving and its correlates in caregivers of schizophrenia: a study from north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kate, N; Grover, S; Kulhara, P; Nehra, R

    2013-06-01

    OBJECTIVE. To study the positive aspects of caregiving and its correlates in primary caregivers of patients with schizophrenia. METHODS. A total of 100 patients with schizophrenia and their primary caregivers were evaluated. Regarding the caregivers, their positive aspects of caregiving were assessed on the Scale for Positive Aspects of Caregiving Experience (SPACE). To examine the correlates of positive aspects of caregiving, they were also assessed on the Family Burden Interview (FBI) Schedule, the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire (IEQ), coping checklist, the Social Support Questionnaire, the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (Hindi version), the WHO Quality of Life-Spirituality, Religiousness and Personal Beliefs Scale, as well as the General Health Questionnaire-12. The patients were assessed on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale. RESULTS. On the SPACE, the highest mean score was seen in the domain of motivation for the caregiving role (2.7), followed by that of caregiver satisfaction (2.4) and caregiver gains (2.3). The mean score was least for the domain of self-esteem and social aspect of caring (1.9). The SPACE domain of caregiver satisfaction correlated negatively with many aspects of burden as assessed by FBI Schedule and coping as assessed by the coping checklist; whereas the self-esteem and social aspect of caring domain correlated positively with worrying-urging II domain and the total IEQ score. No significant correlations between the SPACE and socio-demographics as well as most of the clinical variables were noted. Motivation for the caregiving had a positive correlation with the PANSS negative symptom scale. Multiple correlations were found between the SPACE and quality of life, suggesting that higher positive caregiving experience was associated with better quality of life in caregivers. CONCLUSION. Caregivers of patients with schizophrenia do enjoy positive aspects of

  10. Intended Sensitive and Harsh Caregiving Responses to Infant Crying: The Role of Cry Pitch and Perceived Urgency in an Adult Twin Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Out, Dorothee; Pieper, Suzanne; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Zeskind, Philip Sanford; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the underlying mechanisms of adults' intended caregiving responses to cry sounds in a behavioral genetic design and to investigate the role of cry pitch and perceived urgency in sensitive and harsh caregiving responses. Methods: The sample consisted of 184 adult twin pairs (18-69 years), including males and females, parents…

  11. Emotions, Ideas and Experiences of Caregivers of Patients With Schizophrenia About "Family to Family Support Program".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bademli, Kerime; Duman, Zekiye Çetinkaya

    2016-06-01

    "Family to Family Support Program" is a significant intervention program to assist families by informing them about treatment procedures and coping strategies, increasing their functionality, helping them to overcome the challenges of the disease. This study was particularly designed to investigate the emotions, thoughts, and experiences of caregivers of schizophrenia patients who participated in "Family to Family Support Program." The study was conducted with one of the qualitative research methods, phenomenological method. The study sample included caregivers who care for schizophrenia patients and participated in the "Family to Family Support Program". Twenty caregivers were included in the sample. The study was carried out in İzmir Schizophrenia Support Association. The study data were collected with four open ended questions. The average age of the participants was 56,77 ± 72,89, 10 male caregivers and 10 female caregivers, 9 caregivers were fathers, 6 caregivers were mothers, and 5 of them were siblings. The thematic analysis indicated that the emotions, thoughts and experiences of caregivers can be categorized in four groups: "I learned to deal with my problems", "I am conscious in my interaction with the patient and I know and I am not alone", "I feel much better", and "Schizophrenia is not the end of the road, knowledge sorts things out." Caregivers who participated in "Family to Family Support Program" expressed their satisfaction that they were benefited from the program, their coping skills were improved, they experienced less challenges when providing care, they understood the disease better, and it felt comfortable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Family caregivers' attributions about care-recipient behaviour: does caregiver relationship satisfaction mediate the attribution-distress relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Siu-Kuen Azor; Elliott, Timothy R; Martin, Roy; Uswatte, Gitendra

    2011-09-01

    The relations of caregiver attributions about care-recipient's problem behaviour to caregiving relationship satisfaction and caregiver distress were examined. This is a cross sectional study. Seventy-five family caregivers of individuals diagnosed with various disabling health conditions were recruited and interviewed. Caregiver attributions (internality, intentionality, responsibility, and controllability), caregiving relationship satisfaction, and caregiver distress variables were measured. Structural equation techniques tested an a priori model of the latent constructs of caregiver attributions and caregiver relationship satisfaction to caregiver distress. Maladaptive caregiver attributions (i.e., more trait, higher intentionality, higher responsibility, and higher controllability) about care-recipients' problem behaviours predicted lower caregiving relationship satisfaction, which in turn was predictive of higher caregiver distress. Unexpectedly, caregiver attributions were not directly related to caregiver distress. However, attributions had an indirect effect on distress through relationship satisfaction. Younger caregivers experienced higher caregiver distress. Caregivers' explanations about care-recipient's problem behaviour are indicative of their satisfaction in the relationship with the care recipient, and poor caregiving relationship satisfaction is predictive of caregiver distress. Caregiver attributions and relationship quality may be considered in interventions with family caregivers. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Caregivers' compliance with referral advice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lal, Sham; Ndyomugenyi, Richard; Paintain, Lucy

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several malaria endemic countries have implemented community health worker (CHW) programmes to increase access to populations underserved by health care. There is considerable evidence on CHW adherence to case management guidelines, however, there is limited evidence on the compliance...... in the control arm were trained to treat malaria with ACTs based on fever symptoms. Caregivers' referral forms were linked with CHW treatment forms to determine whether caregivers complied with the referral advice. Factors associated with compliance were examined with logistic regression. RESULTS: CHW saw 18......,497 child visits in the moderate-to-high transmission setting and referred 15.2% (2815/18,497) of all visits; in the low-transmission setting, 35.0% (1135/3223) of all visits were referred. Compliance to referral was low, in both settings

  14. Aspects of family caregiving as addressed in planned discussions between nurses, patients with chronic diseases and family caregivers: a qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedoorn, E I; Paans, W; Jaarsma, T; Keers, J C; van der Schans, C; Luttik, M Louise

    2017-01-01

    Caregiving by family members of elderly with chronic conditions is currently intensifying in the context of an aging population and health care reform in the Netherlands. It is essential that nurses have attention for supporting roles of family caregivers of older patients and address family caregiving aspects on behalf of the continuity of care. This study aims to explore what aspects of family caregiving were addressed during planned discussions between nurses, patients and family caregivers in the hospital. Qualitative descriptive research was conducted using non-participant observation and audio-recordings of planned discussions between nurses, older patients and their family caregivers as they took place in the hospital. Through purposive sampling eligible patients (≥ 65 years) with one or more chronic conditions were included. These patients were admitted to the hospital for diagnostics or due to consequences of their chronic illness. Retrospective chart review was done to obtain patient characteristics. Data were collected in November/December 2013 and April/May 2014 in four hospitals. Qualitative content analysis was performed using the inductive approach in order to gain insight into addressed aspects of family caregiving. A total of 62 patients (mean age (SD) 76 years (7.2), 52% male) were included in the study, resulting in 146 planned discussions (62 admission and discharge discussions and 22 family meetings). Three themes were identified regarding addressed aspects of family caregiving. Two themes referred to aspects addressing the patients' social network, and included 'social network structure' and 'social network support'. One theme referred to aspects addressing coordination of care issues involving family caregiving, referred to as 'coordination of care'. During discussions nurses mostly addressed practical information on the patients' social network structure. When specific family caregiving support was addressed, information was limited and

  15. Caregivers' burden in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Peña-Longobardo, Luz María; Oliva-Moreno, Juan; Hidalgo-Vega, Álvaro

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a very prevalent and invalidating disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the burden borne by informal caregivers of patients with COPD. We used the Survey on Disabilities, Personal Autonomy, and Dependency Situations (Encuesta sobre Discapacidad, Autonomía personal y Situaciones de Dependencia [EDAD]-2008) to obtain information on the characteristics of disabled individuals with COPD and their caregivers in Spain. Additionally, statistical multivariate analyses were performed to analyze the impact that an increase in dependence would have on the problems for which caregivers provide support, in terms of health, professional, and leisure/social dimensions. A total of 461,884 individuals with one or more disabilities and with COPD were identified, and 220,892 informal caregivers were estimated. Results showed that 35% of informal caregivers had health-related problems due to the caregiving provided; 83% had leisure/social-related problems; and among caregivers of working age, 38% recognized having profession-related problems. The probability of a problem arising was significantly associated with the degree of dependence of the patient receiving care. Caregivers of patients with great dependence showed a 39% higher probability of presenting health-related problems, 27% more professional problems, and 23% more leisure problems compared with those with nondependent patients. The results show the large impact on society in terms of the welfare of informal caregivers of patients with COPD. A higher level of dependence was associated with more severe problems in caregivers, in all dimensions.

  16. Urban caregiver empowerment: Caregiver nativity, child asthma symptoms and emergency department use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Maria Teresa; Kopel, Sheryl J.; Williams, Brittney; Dansereau, Katie; Koinis-Mitchell, Daphne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This study examines the associations between caregiver empowerment, child asthma symptoms, and emergency department use in a sample of school aged urban children with asthma. We examined differences in caregiver empowerment, and in the associations among caregiver empowerment, proportion of days with child asthma symptoms, and emergency department use as a function of caregiver nativity. Methods Participants for this study were part of a larger longitudinal study and included Latino, African American and non-Latino White urban caregivers and their children with asthma (ages 7–9; N=130). Caregiver empowerment was assessed within family, asthma services, and community domains. Results Children whose caregivers reported greater empowerment within the family (knowledge and ability to care for their family) presented with fewer asthma symptoms. Children whose caregivers reported greater empowerment within asthma services (ability to collaborate with asthma providers and healthcare system), presented with more asthma symptoms. Foreign-born caregivers endorsed greater empowerment within the family, while US-born caregivers reported greater empowerment within asthma services. For foreign-born caregivers, higher levels of empowerment in the family were associated with fewer child asthma symptoms. For US-born caregivers, higher levels of empowerment in asthma services were associated with more child asthma symptoms. Discussion Results suggest that caregivers who feel more confident and better able to manage problems within their family may better manage their child's asthma more effectively navigate the asthma healthcare system and manage their child's asthma. PMID:27632543

  17. The role of stressors and psychosocial variables in the stress process: a study of chronic caregiver stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedhara, K; Shanks, N; Anderson, S; Lightman, S

    2000-01-01

    An investigation was conducted 1) to examine the relative importance of stressor types (ie, daily hassles, caregiving-specific stressors, and life events) on the stress response, 2) to assess the stability of relationships between psychosocial variables and stress over a 6-month period, and 3) to explore how the nature and magnitude of the contributions made by stressors and psychosocial factors to the stress process varied according to the qualitative characteristics of the stress response (ie, anxiety, depression, and stress). Fifty spousal caregivers of patients with dementia were recruited and asked to participate in a detailed psychosocial evaluation at 3-month intervals; the evaluation involved measurement of stressor frequency, psychosocial variables, and indices of the stress response (ie, anxiety, depression, and stress). The data revealed that the effects of stressors and psychosocial factors on the stress response were considerable (accounting for 49-63% of the variance in stress response measures). Furthermore, there was some evidence of stability in the effects of the stressor and mediator variables on the stress response. Specifically, the contributions of life events and caregiver difficulties were largely consistent at both 3 and 6 months, and the psychosocial factor of "reactive coping and self-appraisal" influenced all three stress response indices at both 3 and 6 months. There is some evidence of stability in the effects of stressors and psychosocial variables on the stress process over a 6-month period. However, it would also seem that the nature of the stress process differs according to the qualitative characteristics of the stress response.

  18. The Relationship between Spousal Age Difference and Violence against Wife in Nigeria: A Generalized Linear Modelling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony C. Akpanta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The act of violence against wife is condemnable and attracts various legal penalties, globally. This article attempts to find a link between spousal age difference and violence (Emotional, Physical and Sexual against wives in Nigeria. The result show that wives who are older than their partners are more likely to experience sexual and emotional violence; also, wives who are same age as their husbands are more likely to experience sexual violence; whereas wives who are 1-4 years younger than their husbands are more likely to experience physical violence; while wives 5 years or more younger than their husbands are generally less likely to experience any form of violence.

  19. Predictors of caregiving satisfaction in informal caregivers of people with dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Labra, Carmen; C. Millan Calenti, Jose; Buján, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of dementia is increasing and consequently the demands from families, institutions and healthcare system. Although a substantial amount of research on caregiving has emphasized the negative aspects of caregiving, specifically on caregiver burden and depression, less...... attention has been paid to the positive aspects of caregiving. The aim of the present work was to study the phenomenon of caregiving satisfaction in informal caregivers of people with dementia by assessing their likely predictors. Methods: A stress process model was used to study caregiver’s satisfaction...... (measured using the Revised Caregiving Satisfaction Scale) on 101 informal caregivers of patients with dementia in relation to the caregiver’s background and context, stress-related factors, and mediators. Results: The regression model has an adjusted R2 of 0.20, which indicates that having a consanguinity...

  20. Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors for Spousal Resemblance in Obesity Status and Habitual Physical Activity in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Jen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggested that the married population has an increased risk of obesity and assimilation between spouses’ body weight. We examined what factors may affect married spouses’ resemblance in weight status and habitual physical activity (HPA and the association of obesity/HPA with spouses’ sociodemoeconomic characteristics and lifestyles. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data of 11,403 adult married couples in the US during years 2006–2008 were used. Absolute-scale difference and relative-scale resemblance indices (correlation and kappa coefficients in body mass index (BMI and HPA were estimated by couples’ socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. We found that spousal difference in BMI was smaller for couples with a lower household income, for who were both unemployed, and for older spouses. Correlation coefficient between spouses’ BMI was 0.24, differing by race/ethnicity and family size. Kappa coefficient for weight status (obesity: BMI ≥ 30, overweight: 30 > BMI ≥ 25 was 0.11 and 0.35 for HPA. Never-working women’s husbands had lower odds of obesity than employed women’s husbands (OR = 0.69 (95% CI = 0.53–0.89. Men’s unemployment status was associated with wives’ greater odds of obesity (OR = 1.31 (95% CI = 1.01–1.71. HPA was associated with men’s employment status and income level, but not with women’s. The population representative survey showed that spousal resemblance in weight status and HPA varied with socioeconomic and demographic factors.

  1. The role of marital quality and spousal support in behaviour problems of children with and without intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Natalie; Baker, B L

    2010-07-01

    Children with intellectual disability (ID) have been found to be at an increased risk for developing behavioural problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the marital domain, including marital quality and spousal support, and behaviour problems in children with and without ID. The relationship between the marital domain and child behaviour problems was examined in 132 families of 6-year-olds with and without ID. Using hierarchical regression, these relationships were also studied over time from child ages 6-8 years. Child behaviour problems were assessed with mother-reported Child Behavior Checklist. The marital domain was measured using the Dyadic Adjustment Scale-7 and the Spousal Support and Agreement Scale. Mother-reported parenting stress and observed parenting practices were tested as potential mediators of the relationship between the marital domain and child behaviour problems. Mean levels of the marital domain were not significantly different between typically developing (TD) and ID groups, but there were significantly greater levels of variance in reported marital quality in the ID group at ages 6, 7 and 8. The marital domain score at child age 6 years predicted child behaviour problems at age 8 for the TD group only. This predictive relationship appeared to be a unidirectional effect, as child behaviour problems at age 6 were not found to predict levels of the marital domain at age 8. Parenting stress partially mediated this relationship for the TD group. The marital domain may have a greater impact on behavioural outcomes for TD children. Implications for future research and interventions are discussed.

  2. MHC-Dependent Mate Selection within 872 Spousal Pairs of European Ancestry from the Health and Retirement Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Qiao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Disassortative mating refers to the phenomenon in which individuals with dissimilar genotypes and/or phenotypes mate with one another more frequently than would be expected by chance. Although the existence of disassortative mating is well established in plant and animal species, the only documented example of negative assortment in humans involves dissimilarity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC locus. Previous studies investigating mating patterns at the MHC have been hampered by limited sample size and contradictory findings. Inspired by the sparse and conflicting evidence, we investigated the role that the MHC region played in human mate selection using genome-wide association data from 872 European American spouses from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS. First, we treated the MHC region as a whole, and investigated genomic similarity between spouses using three levels of genomic variation: single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA alleles (both four-digit and two-digit classifications, and amino acid polymorphisms. The extent of MHC dissimilarity between spouses was assessed using a permutation approach. Second, we investigated fine scale mating patterns by testing for deviations from random mating at individual SNPs, HLA genes, and amino acids in HLA molecules. Third, we assessed how extreme the spousal relatedness at the MHC region was compared to the rest of the genome, to distinguish the MHC-specific effects from genome-wide effects. We show that neither the MHC region, nor any single SNPs, classic HLA alleles, or amino acid polymorphisms within the MHC region, were significantly dissimilar between spouses relative to non-spouse pairs. However, dissimilarity in the MHC region was extreme relative to the rest of genome for both spousal and non-spouse pairs. Despite the long-standing controversy, our analyses did not support a significant role of MHC dissimilarity in human mate choice.

  3. Does Formal Employment Reduce Informal Caregiving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Daifeng; McHenry, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Using the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine the impact of formal employment on informal caregiving. We instrument for individual work hours with state unemployment rates. We find that, among women of prime caregiving ages (40-64 years), working 10% more hours per week reduces the probability of providing informal care by about 2 percentage points. The effects are stronger for more time-intensive caregiving and if care recipients are household members. Our results imply that work-promoting policies have the unintended consequence of reducing informal caregiving in an aging society. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Distress in cancer patients and their caregivers and association with the caregivers' perception of dyadic communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Markus W; Sklenarova, Halina; Brechtel, Anette; Herzog, Wolfgang; Hartmann, Mechthild

    2014-01-01

    Discrepancies within cancer-affected couples can disrupt security within the dyadic relationship during cancer treatment. This study investigated the patients' and caregivers' distress and associations between the caregivers' perception of the patients' degree of open communication and their distress. In a cross-sectional survey, 189 pairs of cancer patients (31% gastrointestinal, 34% lung, 35% urological cancers) and their partners were assessed for distress (QSC-R10), depression and anxiety (PHQ-2/GAD-2). The caregivers also reported their perception of the patients' degree of disclosure regarding cancer-relevant topics (CCAT-F Disclosure subscale), caregiver strain (CSI), and unmet needs (SCNS-P&C). Prevalences of clinically significant distress were calculated. Associations were calculated between the caregivers' and the patients' ratings and between the caregivers' distress and their perception of the patients' degree of disclosure. 33% of the caregivers and 25% of the patients exhibited significant anxiety, with a tendency towards a higher frequency in the caregivers (p = 0.10). The prevalence of depression was lower but equally high in caregivers and patients. The caregivers' perceived non-disclosure by the patients was primarily associated with their anxiety (r = 0.31), disease-specific distress (r = 0.32), and psychological/emotional needs (r = 0.35). The identification of caregivers reporting problems in communicating with patients should be pursued in clinical practice as this might indicate that caregivers are particularly burdened. © 2014 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  5. Caregiving Styles: A Cognitive and Behavioral Typology Associated with Dementia Family Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Mary A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: An increasing number of elderly individuals are diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease and related disorders (ADRD), many of whom receive daily caregiving from spouse or adult child. Caregiving is a "cultural activity," and as such it is strongly influenced by sociocultural beliefs about caregiving and how it should be enacted.…

  6. Perceived Social Support and Caregiver Strain in Caregivers of Children with Tourette's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeder, Chrystal Edge; Remer, Rory

    2007-01-01

    The research on Tourette's disorder (TD), a neuropsychological disorder consisting of motor and phonic tics, has largely focused on individuals with TD and not on the caregivers of children with TD. We investigated the effects of several variables on caregiver strain of caregivers of children with TD, including perceived social support, caregiver…

  7. Caregiving for Dementia in Family Members: Caregiving Burden and Prospects for Effective Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiden, Robert J.; And Others

    Caring for a family member with dementia is a major source of stress for the caregiver. To assess the impact of caring for an impaired family member and to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention programs, 34 caregivers of relatives with dementia completed an amended form of the Philadelphia Geriatric Center's Caregiver Survey and two…

  8. The mediating effect of caregiver burden on the caregivers' quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yeon-Gyu; Jeong, Yeon-Jae; Kim, Won-Cheol; Kim, Jeong-Soo

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] Quality of life (QoL) can be closely related to caregiver burden, which may be a potential mediating effect on the relationships among stroke patient caregivers. This study investigated the predictors of caregiver's QoL based on patient and caregiver characteristics, with caregiver burden as a mediator. [Methods] This study was conducted using surveys, a literature review, and interviews. Survey data were collected from 238 subjects, who were diagnosed with stroke, and their family caregivers from October 2013 to April 2014. [Results] Caregiver health status, income, spouses caring for patients, and duration of hospitalization were identified as significant predictors of caregivers' QoL with a mediating effect of caregiver burden. The time spent on caregiving per day and patient education level were the only direct predictors of caregivers' QoL. [Conclusion] The responsibility of caring for patients with stroke, in particular for a spouse, must be administered by means of a holistic family-centered rehabilitation program. In addition, financial support and availability of various health and social service programs must be comprehensively provided in order to maintain caregivers' well-being.

  9. Needs of informal caregivers across the caregiving course in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a qualitative analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Galvin, Miriam

    2018-01-27

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neuron disease (MND), is a debilitating terminal condition. Informal caregivers are key figures in ALS care provision. The physical, psychological and emotional impact of providing care in the home requires appropriate assistance and support. The objective of this analysis is to explore the needs of informal ALS caregivers across the caregiving course.

  10. Caregiver Café: Providing Education and Support to Family Caregivers of Patients With Cancer
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Joanne P

    2018-02-01

    The many burdens faced by caregivers of patients with cancer are well documented. Caregivers are asked to perform procedures, make assessments, coordinate care, and communicate with healthcare providers at an increasingly complex level. A caregiver quality improvement project, in the form of a Caregiver Café, was instituted at a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center.
. The objectives of the café are to (a) provide respite and a place for caregivers to relax and be nurtured, (b) provide a place for caregivers to meet and support each other, (c) provide answers to caregiver questions, and (d) recommend appropriate caregiver resources.
. The weekly Caregiver Café is led by an advanced practice nurse, and the format varies depending on the needs of the caregivers who attend.
. Caregivers have verbalized the importance of the café in helping them cope with their loved ones' cancers and treatments, and many attend on a regular basis. The Caregiver Café provides support and information and a place to get away from it all.

  11. Correlates of caregiver burden among family caregivers of older Korean Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Banghwa; Sacco, Paul

    2012-05-01

    Despite the rapid growth of older ethnic minority populations, knowledge is limited about informal caregiving among these groups. Our aim was to identify correlates of caregiver burden among family caregivers of older Korean Americans (KAs). A cross-sectional survey collected data from 146 KA caregivers. Using a modified stress-appraisal model, we examined background and context characteristics (caregiver sex, relationship to care recipient, college education, English proficiency, time in caregiving role, family support network, friend support network), a primary stressor (care recipient functional dependency), a primary appraisal (caregiving hours), and resources (family agreement, care management self-efficacy, service use self-efficacy) as potential correlates of caregiver burden. Interactions between the primary stressor, primary appraisal, and resources were also tested. Being female and the care recipient's spouse were associated with higher burden. Conversely, a larger family support network, greater family agreement, and greater care management self-efficacy were associated with lower burden. A significant interaction was detected between functional dependency and family agreement; higher levels of family agreement moderated the association between care recipient functional dependency and caregiver burden. Interventions to reduce caregiver burden in KA caregivers may be more effective if they include approaches specifically designed to build family support, improve family agreement, and increase caregivers' self-efficacy.

  12. Modifiable factors associated with caregiver burden among family caregivers of terminally ill Korean cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seok-Joon; Kim, Jong-Sung; Jung, Jin-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Soo; Kim, Samyong

    2014-05-01

    Higher caregiver burden is associated with poor quality of life among family caregivers. However, in Korea, very few studies have examined factors associated with caregiver burden. The present study investigated factors associated with caregiver burden among family caregivers of terminally ill Korean cancer patients, particularly modifiable factors as a potential target of intervention strategies. A cross-sectional study using self-administered questionnaires was performed. Sixty-four family caregivers of terminally ill cancer patients who were admitted to the hospice-palliative care unit of a university hospital in South Korea were included. To identify caregiver burden, the Caregiver Reaction Assessment scale (CRA) was used in this study. Time spent in providing care per day, number of visits per week from other family members, family functioning, and a positive subscale, self-esteem, of the CRA were deemed as modifiable factors. Other sociodemographic, caregiving characteristics of the subjects were non-modifiable factors. Longer time spent providing care per day, fewer weekly visits from other family members, poor family functioning, and low self-esteem were considered as modifiable factors associated with caregiver burden. Low monthly income and the spouse being the family caregiver were non-modifiable factors. Our study has practical significance in that it identifies modifiable factors that can be used to devise intervention strategies. Developing and applying such intervention strategies for alleviating the factors associated with high caregiver burden could be important for improving the quality of life of both patients and their families.

  13. Measuring negative and positive caregiving experiences: A psychometric analysis of the Caregiver Strain Index Expanded

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruithof, WJ; Post, MWM; Meily, JMA

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the psychometric properties of the Caregiver Strain Index Expanded with those of the original Caregiver Strain Index among partners of stroke patients. Design and subjects: Cross-sectional validation study among 173 caregivers of stroke patients six months post-stroke. Main

  14. A STUDY ON CARDIOVASCULAR AUTONOMIC FUNCTIONS IN CAREGIVERS OF STROKE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghouse Mubarak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Stroke (cerebrovascular accident is an important cause of disability in countries like India and longterm care of these bedridden patients is usually undertaken by the family members. A caregiver is a person who takes responsibility for those who cannot completely care for themselves. Taking care of a chronically ill member in the family usually causes stress to the caregiver causing disturbances in the autonomic function. Thus, the present study is undertaken to find out the effect of longterm caregiving on cardiovascular autonomic functions in a caregiver. MATERIALS AND METHODS 57 caregivers of post-stroke bedridden patients, both male and female, were included in this longitudinal study. Parasympathetic activity was assessed by observing the heart rate changes to immediate standing from lying down position, heart rate changes during deep breathing and heart rate changes during Valsalva manoeuvre. Sympathetic activity was assessed by observing blood pressure changes on immediate standing from lying down position and blood pressure changes during sustained hand grip. RESULTS The results of the present study showed statistically significant decrease in Valsalva ratio, decrease in the heart rate following deep breathing and statistically significant increase in systolic blood pressure in response to immediate standing suggestive of autonomic imbalance. CONCLUSION Our findings suggest that longterm caregiving is accompanied by dysfunction of the cardiac autonomic nervous system, and these individuals are more prone to autonomic neuropathy.

  15. Social Service Professionals' Perceptions of Nonoffending Caregivers in Child Sexual Abuse Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfteich, Paula M.; Cline, Monica L.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to assess social service workers' perceptions of nonoffending caregivers in cases of child sexual abuse. Attributions of blame were examined by administering questionnaires to staff at local social service agencies. It was hypothesized that social service workers who worked in the field longer, were male, or had less…

  16. Breadwinning Moms, Caregiving Dads: Double Standard in Social Judgments of Gender Norm Violators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the role of gender ideologies in moderating social judgments of gender norm violators. Three hundred and eleven participants evaluated a male or a female target who was either a primary breadwinner or a primary caregiver. Attributions of personal traits, moral emotions, and marital emotions were examined. Results showed that…

  17. Parenting characteristics of female caregivers of children affected by chronic endocrine conditions: a comparison between disorders of sex development and type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Katherine D; Fedele, David A; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Phillips, Timothy M; Mazur, Tom; Mullins, Larry L; Chernausek, Steven D; Wisniewski, Amy B

    2011-12-01

    Rearing a child with a chronic illness is stressful and can potentially affect parenting style, which may result in poorer outcomes for children. The purpose of this study was to compare parenting characteristics of female caregivers rearing children with a disorder of sex development (DSD) to female caregivers rearing children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Caregivers of both groups were matched according to age and compared on measures of stress and parenting practices. Both groups demonstrated significant levels of stress and negative parenting practices. Children with T1DM and male children with non-life-threatening DSD were perceived as more vulnerable by their caregivers. Better understanding of parenting experiences of female caregivers rearing children with DSD, particularly male children, will facilitate the development of individualized interventions to ameliorate negative parenting practices and stress, with the long-term goal of improved health outcomes for their children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Taking Care of You: Self-Care for Family Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Taking Care of YOU: Self-Care for Family Caregivers Order this publication Printer-friendly version First, Care ... 25 26 27 28 29 30 Smart Patients Caregivers Community In partnership with Family Caregiver Alliance Learn ...

  19. Positive Aspects of Caregiving and Its Correlates among Caregivers of Bipolar Affective Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, S; Kate, N; Chakrabarti, S; Avasthi, A

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the positive aspects of caregiving and its correlates (socio-demographic and clinical variables, caregiver burden, coping, quality of life, psychological morbidity) in the primary caregivers of patients with bipolar affective disorder (BPAD). A total of 60 primary caregivers of patients with a diagnosis of BPAD were evaluated on the Scale for Positive Aspects of Caregiving Experience (SPACE) and the Hindi version of Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire, Family Burden Interview Schedule (FBIS), modified Hindi version of Coping Checklist, shorter Hindi version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF), and Hindi translated version of 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Caregivers of patients with BPAD had the highest mean score in the SPACE domain of Motivation for caregiving role (2.45), followed by Caregiver satisfaction (2.38) and Caregiving personal gains (2.20). The mean score was the lowest for the domain of Self-esteem and social aspect of caring (2.01). In terms of correlations, age of onset of BPAD had a negative correlation with various domains of SPACE. The mean number of total lifetime affective and depressive episodes correlated positively with Self-esteem and social aspect of caring. Caregiver satisfaction correlated negatively with FBIS domains of Disruption of routine family activities, Effect on mental health of others, and subjective burden. Coercion as a coping mechanism correlated positively with domains of Caregiving personal gains, Caregiver satisfaction, and the total score on SPACE. Three (Physical health, Psychological health, Environment) out of 5 domains of the WHOQOL-BREF correlated positively with the total SPACE score. No association was noted between GHQ-12 and SPACE scores. Positive caregiving experience in primary caregivers of patients with BPAD is associated with better quality of life of the caregivers.

  20. Perceptions and receptivity of non-spousal family support: A mixed methods study of psychological distress among older, church-going African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Daphne C; Wharton, Tracy; Mitchell, Jamie A; Matusko, Niki; Kales, Helen

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of non-spousal family support on mental health among older, church-going African American men. The mixed methods objective was to employ a design that used existing qualitative and quantitative data to explore the interpretive context within which social and cultural experiences occur. Qualitative data (n=21) were used to build a conceptual model that was tested using quantitative data (n= 401). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated an inverse association between non-spousal family support and distress. The comparative fit index, Tucker-Lewis fit index, and root mean square error of approximation indicated good model fit. This study offers unique methodological approaches to using existing, complementary data sources to understand the health of African American men.

  1. Complementary and alternative medicine for Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies: characteristics of users and caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Romitti, Paul A; Conway, Kristin M; Andrews, Jennifer; Liu, Ke; Meaney, F John; Street, Natalie; Puzhankara, Soman; Druschel, Charlotte M; Matthews, Dennis J

    2014-07-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine is frequently used in the management of chronic pediatric diseases, but little is known about its use by those with Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy. Complementary and alternative medicine use by male patients with Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy and associations with characteristics of male patients and their caregivers were examined through interviews with 362 primary caregivers identified from the Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance, Tracking, and Research Network. Overall, 272 of the 362 (75.1%) primary caregivers reported that they had used any complementary and alternative medicine for the oldest Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance, Tracking, and Research Network male in their family. The most commonly reported therapies were from the mind-body medicine domain (61.0%) followed by those from the biologically based practice (39.2%), manipulative and body-based practice (29.3%), and whole medical system (6.9%) domains. Aquatherapy, prayer and/or blessing, special diet, and massage were the most frequently used therapies. Compared with nonusers, male patients who used any therapy were more likely to have an early onset of symptoms and use a wheel chair; their caregivers were more likely to be non-Hispanic white. Among domains, associations were observed with caregiver education and family income (mind-body medicines [excluding prayer and/or blessing only] and whole medical systems) and Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance, Tracking, and Research Network site (biologically based practices and mind-body medicines [excluding prayer and/or blessing only]). Complementary and alternative medicine use was common in the management of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies among Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance, Tracking, and Research Network males. This widespread use suggests further study to evaluate the efficacy of integrating complementary and alternative medicine into treatment regimens for Duchenne and Becker muscular

  2. The Effect of Cancer Patients' and Their Family Caregivers' Physical and Emotional Symptoms on Caregiver Burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Safora; Cvancarova, Milada; Ruland, Cornelia

    Although there is significant evidence that the family caregivers (FCs) of cancer patients can experience significant caregiver burden and symptoms, less is known about the relationships between FCs and patient characteristics that influence caregiver burden. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cancer patients' and FCs' symptoms and demographic characteristics on caregiver burden at initiation of the patients' radiation treatment. Two hundred eighty-one dyads of FCs and cancer patients who received a diagnosis of breast, prostate, melanoma, lymphoma, and head and neck cancers were recruited at the beginning of the patients' radiation treatment. Measures of depression, sleep disturbance, fatigue, social support, and self-efficacy were obtained from both FCs and cancer patients. The family caregivers were also assessed for caregiver burden. Associations between patients' and caregivers' symptoms and demographic characteristics and caregiver burden were investigated using multivariate analyses. There were significant associations between caregiver burden and the patient-related variables such as self-efficacy (P = .02), sleep disturbance (P = .03), and social support (P = .04). Among FC-related variables, higher scores of depression (P caregiver burden. Being a female, either as a patient or FC, increased the likelihood of experiencing fatigue and sleep disturbance. Caregiver burden in FCs is influenced by interplay of patients' and their own symptoms and problems. These interdependencies exist from the beginning of treatment. Nurses should systematically assess the problems and symptoms of the patients and FCs and support them from the time of diagnosis to help prevent symptom development and deterioration.

  3. Alzheimer's aggression: influences on caregiver coping and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Scott E; Little, Kristina G; Gough, Heather R; Spurlock, Wanda J

    2011-04-01

    This study assessed impact of Alzheimer's patients' aggressive behavior (AD aggression) on caregiver coping strategies (task-, emotion-, and avoidance-focused) and caregiver resilience, and examined whether coping strategy moderated the AD aggression-caregiver resilience relationship. Informal caregivers across Louisiana (N = 419) completed surveys with measures of demographics, AD aggression, caregiver coping strategies, and caregiver resilience. Task-focused coping positively related to resilience. Aggression negatively predicted caregiver resilience. Emotion- and avoidance-focused coping strategies separately interacted with aggression and increased its negative relationship to caregiver resilience. Task-focused coping showed no moderation. Implications for social work professionals are discussed.

  4. How to Assemble a Caregiving Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ph.D., author of Elder Care Made Easier . What many caregivers fail to realize is that if they don’ ... the doctor’s. Whatever you do, be clear about what you need them to do and how ... caregivers. The ElderCare Locator , sponsored by the Area Agencies ...

  5. Promote the health of dementia caregivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mark, R.E.

    2016-01-01

    Caregivers of people with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD) will become increasingly important as governments across the world cut health care funding. The vast majority of the care for people with AD is and will be carried out by informal caregivers, in other words, their spouses, children, and friends,

  6. Understanding Your Doctors and Other Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can you do if you don’t understand what your caregiver is saying? Tell them you don’t understand. ... to do and what is happening to you. What if the caregiver is rushed and doesn’t have time to ...

  7. What Knowledge and Skills Do Caregivers Need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given, Barbara; Sherwood, Paula R.; Given, Charles W.

    2008-01-01

    Patients with chronic illnesses and multiple comorbid conditions have intricate treatment protocols that require caregiver involvement, further complicating this already-difficult care. Because better treatments have extended the life spans of most patients with chronic illnesses, caregiver involvement often is required for several years. Many…

  8. Informal caregivers in hospitals: Opportunities and threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiresmaili, Mohammadreza; Emrani, Zahra

    2018-05-20

    High hospital costs are a challenge that health system face. Additionally, studies identified manpower deficiency as a problem in health system. Hospital is a place where patients with different physical and mental conditions come to. Their families and friends' companionship can facilitate this situation for them. This study illustrates the roles of informal caregivers in hospital. This is a phenomenological qualitative study. Data were gathered through semistructured interviews. We interviewed 22 informal caregivers and 9 nurse staffs from different departments of hospital. They were selected through purposeful and snowball sampling approach. The framework method was used for data analysis. We found 3 main themes including (a) roles of informal caregivers, (b) opportunities of presence of the informal caregivers in the hospital, and (c) threats of presence of informal caregivers. This study shows some roles for informal caregivers including mental supports, consultation, decision-making, and care roles. Concerning the shortage of manpower in Iran's hospitals, nurses have less time to take care of each patient; therefore, using informal caregivers as an implicit strategy to overcome nursing shortage and to reduce hospital costs seems to be beneficial. We suggest that an appropriate plan is necessary to make use of them for filling this gap to some extent, as well as providing training sessions and facilities for companions acting as informal caregivers. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Accessing antiretroviral therapy for children: Caregivers' voices

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Margaret (Maggie) Williams

    ScienceDirect journal homepage: http://ees.elsevier.com/hsag/default.asp ... inability of their caregivers to travel the distance requisite to accessing ... and describe the experiences of caregivers accessing ART for .... In this study credibility was facilitated by the researchers ensuring that .... educational assets to assist them.

  10. Concept Analysis: Alzheimer’s Caregiver Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanque, Sarah; Savage, Lynette; Rosenburg, Neal; Honor’s, BA; Caserta, Michael

    2015-01-01

    AIM The aim of this article was to analyze the concept of caregiver stress in the context of caring for a person with Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias. BACKGROUND Currently, there are more than 15 million unpaid care-givers for persons suffering from Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias. This unpaid care can be stressful for caregivers due to the chronic nature of the disease process, as well as other factors. METHOD The paper incorporates the modified method of Wilson’s concept analysis procedure to analyze the concept of caregiver stress. DATA SOURCES A review of the literature was undertaken using the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Google Scholar, and PubMed. RESULTS A theoretical definition of caregiver stress is provided, and the defining attributes, related concepts, antecedents, and consequences of caregiver stress are proposed, and case studies are presented. CONCLUSIONS The analysis demonstrates that caregiver stress is the unequal exchange of assistance among people who stand in close relationship to one another, which results in emotional and physical stress on the caregiver. Implications for future nursing research and practice conclude the paper. PMID:24787468

  11. Understanding psychological distress among pediatric cancer caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Gina E; Warner, Echo L; Morreall, Deborah K; Kirchhoff, Anne C; Kinney, Anita Y; Fluchel, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Few studies have examined distress in caregivers of pediatric cancer patients. We evaluated the association of socioeconomic, demographic, and patient clinical factors on caregivers' self-reported psychological distress associated with having a child with cancer. N = 366 pediatric cancer caregivers completed a self-administered questionnaire from July 2010 to July 2012. The Impact of Event Scale (IES), along with two subscales "intrusion" and "avoidance" measured caregiver cancer-specific distress, with higher scores indicating greater distress. Multivariable linear regression models were used to calculate coefficients (β) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) of IES by socioeconomic, demographic, and clinical factors. Average caregiver IES score was 31.2 (standard deviation (SD) = 16.9, range 0-75). Mean intrusion score was 18.1 (SD 9.8, range 0-35) and avoidance score was 12.8 (SD 9.0, range 0-40). Caregivers with household incomes psychological distress for caregivers of pediatric oncology patients. These findings underscore the importance of developing and testing interventions aimed at evaluating and addressing the psychosocial needs for high-risk caregivers in addition to those of patients.

  12. Benefit finding and resilience in child caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Tony; Giles, Melanie; McLaughlin, Marian

    2014-09-01

    A substantial number of children are involved in informal caregiving and make a significant contribution to health care delivery. While this places high levels of demand on their coping resources, there is some evidence that these children find benefit in their caring role. A survey design using questionnaire data collection was used with a sample of 442 children (174 boys and 268 girls) between the ages of 12 and 16. The role of benefit finding and resilience was explored within a stress and coping model of the impact of caregiving. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis (HMRA) identified resilience and benefit finding as accounting for significant amounts of variance in positive health and mediating the impact of caregiving. In regard to negative health, only benefit finding played a significant role. Young caregivers do experience benefit finding and exhibit resilience although the relationship with caregiving burden was inverse. Benefit finding seems to be related to social recognition of the caregiving role and to family support. What is already known on this subject? There is some emerging evidence that child caregivers experience some positive effects or benefits from their caring in spite of the demands of the role. However, the main focus has been on reducing negative outcomes rather than on building resilience. What this study adds? This study provides evidence that young caregivers do experience benefit finding in situations where the role demand is not overly excessive and where the role is socially recognized. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  13. [Biopsychosocial approach to caregiving burden: Why should we care about caregivers' health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leurs, Antoine; Trojak, Benoit; Ponavoy, Eddy; Bonin, Bernard; Chauvet-Gelinier, Jean-Christophe

    2018-06-11

    There are 11 million family caregivers in France and some estimates indicate that there will be 17 million in 2020. Caregiving is a source of chronic stress that requires adaptation and coping strategies. Caregiving may benefit the health of a caregiver with a positive coping style and altruistic goals. However, the caregiver's burden is frequently associated with negative effects in terms of biopsychosocial imbalance and medical conditions, with frequent anxiety and depression. The management of the caregiving burden starts with the recognition of health professionals - caregivers may benefit from consultation-liaison psychiatry and multidisciplinary medico-social strategies, in addition to constant support from their GPs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Spousal overprotection is indirectly associated with poorer dietary adherence for patients with type 2 diabetes via diabetes distress when active engagement is low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew D; Anderson, Jared R; Walker, Ann; Wilcox, Allison; Lewis, Virginia L; Robbins, David C

    2015-05-01

    The current study sought to explore the indirect association of spousal overprotection on patient dietary adherence through the mechanism of diabetes distress and whether the link between overprotection and diabetes distress was moderated by spouse active engagement. Participants were 117 married couples in which one member had been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and were recruited from a patient registry at a Midwestern (USA) medical centre. Data were gathered from spouses and patients through a self-report survey instrument. The research questions were answered with structural equation modelling using the latent moderated structural equations (LMS) approach and dyadic data analytic procedures. Overprotection was associated with reduced dietary adherence indirectly via increased diabetes distress only at low levels of active engagement. The proposed model also proved superior when compared to two plausible alternatives. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the nuanced associations among the different ways spouses cope with illness to achieve better diabetes outcomes and the mechanisms responsible for linking coping and dietary adherence. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Spousal coping behaviour can influence dietary adherence among patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, positively and negatively. Spouses simultaneously engage in different ways of coping with partner illness, but little is known about the interactive nature of coping styles or possible mechanisms that might link coping with illness outcomes. What does this study add? Spousal overprotection is only associated with reduced patient dietary adherence when spouses are also engaging in low levels of active engagement. Diabetes distress is an important mechanism linking spousal coping with patient dietary adherence. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Women’s opinion on the justification of physical spousal violence: A quantitative approach to model the most vulnerable households in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Bangladesh is a culturally conservative nation with limited freedom for women. A number of studies have evaluated intimate partner violence (IPV) and spousal physical violence in Bangladesh; however, the views of women have been rarely discussed in a quantitative manner. Three nationwide surveys in Bangladesh (2007, 2011, and 2014) were analyzed in this study to characterize the most vulnerable households, where women themselves accepted spousal physical violence as a general norm. 31.3%, 31.9% and 28.7% women in the surveys found justification for physical violence in household in 2007, 2011 and 2014 respectively. The binary logistic model showed wealth index, education of both women and their partner, religion, geographical division, decision making freedom and marital age as significant household contributors for women’s perspective in all the three years. Women in rich households and the highly educated were found to be 40% and 50% less likely to accept domestic physical violence compared to the poorest and illiterate women. Similarly, women who got married before 18 years were 20% more likely accept physical violence in the family as a norm. Apart from these particular groups (richest, highly educated and married after 18 years), other groups had around 30% acceptance rate of household violence. For any successful attempt to reduce spousal physical violence in the traditional patriarchal society of Bangladesh, interventions must target the most vulnerable households and the geographical areas where women experience spousal violence. Although this paper focuses on women’s attitudes, it is important that any intervention scheme should be devised to target both men and women. PMID:29161277

  16. Traumatic brain injury: caregivers' problems and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, S T S; Khaw, W F; Rosna, A R; Husna, J

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an increasingly major world health problem. This short review using the most pertinent articles on TBI caregiving problems and needs highlights the pressing issues. Articles focusing on both TBI-caregivers' problems and needs are rarely found, especially for developing countries. Most TBI-caregiving is done by family members, whose altered lives portend burden and stresses which add to the overwhelming demand of caring for the TBI-survivor. Lack of information, financial inadequacy, anxiety, distress, coping deficits, poor adaptability, inadequate knowledge and skills, and a poor support system comprise the major problems. Dysfunctional communication between caregivers and care-receivers has been little researched. The major needs are focused on health and rehabilitation information, financial advice and assistance, emotional and social support, and positive psychological encouragement. In time, health information needs may be met, but not emotional support. Information on TBI caregiving problems and unmet needs is critical to all relevant healthcare stakeholders.

  17. Primary caregivers of in-home oxygen-dependent children: predictors of stress based on characteristics, needs and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai-Wei K; Lin, Hung-Ching; Lee, Chin-Ting; Lee, Kuo-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    To identify the predictors of primary caregivers' stress in caring for in-home oxygen-dependent children by examining the association between their levels of stress, caregiver needs and social support. Increasing numbers of primary caregivers of oxygen-dependent children experience caregiving stress that warrants investigation. The study used a cross-sectional design with three psychometric scales - Modified-Parenting Stress Index, Caregiver Needs Scale and Social Support Index. The data collected during 2010-2011 were from participants who were responsible for their child's care that included oxygen therapy for ≧6 hours/day; the children's ages ranged from 3 months-16 years. Descriptive statistics and multivariable linear regression were used. A total of 104 participants (M = 34, F = 70) were recruited, with an average age of 39·7 years. The average age of the oxygen-dependent children was 6·68 years and their daily use of oxygen averaged 11·39 hours. The caregivers' overall levels of stress were scored as high and information needs were scored as the highest. The most available support from family and friends was emotional support. Informational support was mostly received from health professionals, but both instrumental and emotional support were important. Levels of stress and caregiver needs were significantly correlated. Multivariable linear regression analyses identified three risk factors predicting stress, namely, the caregiver's poor health status, the child's male gender and the caregiver's greater financial need. To support these caregivers, health professionals can maintain their health status and provide instrumental, emotional, informational and financial support. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. An organizing framework for informal caregiver interventions: detailing caregiving activities and caregiver and care recipient outcomes to optimize evaluation efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Houtven Courtney

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caregiver interventions may help improve the quality of informal care. Yet the lack of a systematic framework specifying the targets and outcomes of caregiver interventions hampers our ability to understand what has been studied, to evaluate existing programs, and to inform the design of future programs. Our goal was to develop an organizing framework detailing the components of the caregiving activities and the caregiver and care recipient outcomes that should be affected by an intervention. In so doing, we characterize what has been measured in the published literature to date and what should be measured in future studies to enable comparisons across interventions and across time. Methods Our data set comprises 121 reports of caregiver interventions conducted in the United States and published between 2000 and 2009. We extracted information on variables that have been examined as primary and secondary outcomes. These variables were grouped into categories, which then informed the organizing framework. We calculated the frequency with which the interventions examined each framework component to identify areas about which we have the most knowledge and under-studied areas that deserve attention in future research. Results The framework stipulates that caregiver interventions seek to change caregiving activities, which in turn affect caregiver and care recipient outcomes. The most frequently assessed variables have been caregiver psychological outcomes (especially depression and burden and care recipient physical and health care use outcomes. Conclusions Based on the organizing framework, we make three key recommendations to guide interventions and inform research and policy. First, all intervention studies should assess quality and/or quantity of caregiving activities to help understand to what extent and how well the intervention worked. Second, intervention studies should assess a broad range of caregiver and care recipient

  19. Caregiving experiences predict changes in spiritual well-being among family caregivers of cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rebecca N; Mosher, Catherine E; Cannady, Rachel S; Lucette, Aurelie; Kim, Youngmee

    2014-10-01

    Although enhanced spiritual well-being has been linked to positive mental health outcomes among family caregivers of cancer patients, little is known regarding predictors of spiritual well-being in this population. The current study aimed to examine caregiving experiences as predictors of change in family caregivers' spiritual well-being during the initial months following the patient's cancer diagnosis. Seventy family caregivers of newly diagnosed cancer patients (74% female, mean age = 59 years) participated in this longitudinal survey. Caregivers completed baseline questionnaires shortly before staying with the patient at an American Cancer Society Hope Lodge. Baseline questionnaires assessed caregiving experiences (i.e., self-esteem related to caregiving, family support for providing care, impact of caregiving on finances, and impact of caregiving on one's schedule). In addition, caregivers' spiritual well-being (i.e., meaning in life, peace, and faith) was assessed at baseline and 4-month follow-up. In univariate analyses, all caregiving experiences studied were associated with one or more aspects of spiritual well-being at 4-month follow-up. However, in the multivariate analysis, the only caregiving experience associated with aspects of spiritual well-being at 4-month follow-up was caregivers' perceptions of family support. Specifically, lack of family support was associated with lower levels of meaning and peace. Findings point to the importance of family support in facilitating the search for meaning and peace shortly after a loved one's cancer diagnosis and suggest that interventions targeting caregivers' support system may enhance their spiritual well-being. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Urban caregiver empowerment: Caregiver nativity, child-asthma symptoms, and emergency-department use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Maria Teresa; Kopel, Sheryl J; Williams, Brittney; Dansereau, Katie; Koinis-Mitchell, Daphne

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we examined the associations between caregiver empowerment, child-asthma symptoms, and emergency-department (ED) use in a sample of school-age urban children with asthma. We examined differences in caregiver empowerment, and in the associations among caregiver empowerment, proportion of days with child-asthma symptoms, and ED use as a function of caregiver nativity. Participants for this study were part of a larger longitudinal study and included Latino, African American and non-Latino White urban caregivers and their children with asthma (ages 7-9; N = 130). Caregiver empowerment was assessed within family, asthma services, and community domains. Children whose caregivers reported greater empowerment within the family (i.e., possessing sufficient knowledge and ability to care for their families) presented with fewer asthma symptoms. Children whose caregivers reported greater empowerment within asthma services (i.e., the ability to collaborate with asthma providers and the health-care system), presented with more asthma symptoms. Foreign-born caregivers endorsed greater empowerment within the family, whereas U.S.-born caregivers reported greater empowerment within asthma services. For foreign-born caregivers, higher levels of empowerment in the family were associated with fewer child-asthma symptoms. For U.S.-born caregivers, higher levels of empowerment in asthma services were associated with more child-asthma symptoms. Results suggest that caregivers who feel more confident and better able to manage problems within their families may better manage their children's asthma symptoms. Foreign-born caregivers may benefit from increased support to more effectively navigate the asthma health-care system and manage their children's asthma. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Factors of caregiver burden and family functioning among Taiwanese family caregivers living with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Tsai, Yun-Fang

    2015-06-01

    To assess the degree of caregiver burden and family functioning among Taiwanese primary family caregivers of people with schizophrenia and to test its association with demographic characteristics, family demands, sense of coherence and family hardiness. Family caregiving is a great concern in mental illness. Yet, the correlates of caregiver burden and family functioning in primary family caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia still remain unclear. A cross-sectional descriptive study. A convenience sample of 137 primary family caregivers was recruited from two psychiatric outpatient clinics in Taiwan. Measures included a demographic information sheet and the Chinese versions of the Family Stressors Index, Family Strains Index, 13-item Sense of Coherence Scale, 18-item Caregiver Burden Scale, Family Hardiness Index and Family Adaptability, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve Index. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients, t-test, one-way analysis of variance and a stepwise multiple linear regression. Female caregivers, additional dependent relatives, increased family demands and decreased sense of coherence significantly increased caregiver burden, whereas siblings as caregivers reported lower degrees of burden than parental caregivers. Family caregivers with lower family demands, increased family hardiness and higher educational level had significantly enhanced family functioning. Sense of coherence was significantly correlated with family hardiness. Our findings highlighted the importance of sense of coherence and family hardiness in individual and family adaptation. Special attention needs to focus on therapeutic interventions that enhance sense of coherence and family hardiness, thereby improving the perception of burden of care and family functioning. Given the nature of family caregiving in schizophrenia, understanding of correlates of caregiver burden and family functioning would help

  2. The difficulty of being a professional, a parent, and a spouse on the same day: Daily spillover of workplace interactions on parenting, and the role of spousal support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinen, Kaisa; Rönkä, Anna; Sevón, Eija; Schoebi, Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Designing parenting interventions and preventions requires knowledge on the factors and processes that shape parenting behaviors. Using data collected over 10 days, during the last hour of work and before going to bed, this study examined the spillover of interpersonal work stresses into positive and negative parenting behaviors. Data were collected among 103 couples who had at least one child between the age of one and eight years. Of particular interest was the role of received emotional spousal support as a moderator of stress spillover. Dyadic variants of multilevel models were used to analyze the data. The results showed that on days on which mothers or fathers reported stressful interpersonal interactions in the workplace, they also reported less positive parenting behaviors. In addition, mothers reported more negative parenting behaviors on days characterized by these kinds of work experiences. Mothers and fathers were found to report more positive parenting behaviors, and mothers less negative parenting behaviors, on the days on which they received more spousal support. Received spousal support also moderated spillover of work stress into parenting behaviors and this finding was found to be gender-specific: for mothers, support enhanced spillover into positive behaviors, and for fathers, it enhanced spillover into negative parenting behaviors.

  3. Determinants of caregiving experiences and mental health of partners of cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, C; Triemstra, M; Sanderman, R; van den Bos, GAM

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Research regarding informal caregiving showed considerable individual variation in responses to cancer caregiving. The current longitudinal study examined determinants of caregiver outcomes in terms of caregiver experiences at 3 months and caregiver's mental health at 6 months after

  4. Determinants of caregiving experiences and mental health of partners of cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, C.; Triemstra, M.; Tempelaar, R.; Sanderman, R.; van den Bos, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    Research regarding informal caregiving showed considerable individual variation in responses to cancer caregiving. The current longitudinal study examined determinants of caregiver outcomes in terms of caregiver experiences at 3 months and caregiver's mental health at 6 months after hospital

  5. Caregiving Practice Patterns of Asian, Hispanic, and Non-Hispanic White American Family Caregivers of Older Adults Across Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Christina E

    2016-03-01

    This study is a cross-sectional investigation of caregiving practice patterns among Asian, Hispanic and non-Hispanic White American family caregivers of older adults across three immigrant generations. The 2009 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) dataset was used, and 591 Asian, 989 Hispanic and 6537 non-Hispanic White American caregivers of older adults were selected. First, descriptive analyses of caregivers' characteristics, caregiving situations and practice patterns were examined by racial/ethnic groups and immigrant generations. Practice patterns measured were respite care use, hours and length of caregiving. Three hypotheses on caregiving patterns based on assimilation theory were tested and analyzed using logistic regression and generalized linear models by racial/ethnic groups and generations. Caregiving patterns of non-Hispanic White caregivers supported all three hypotheses regarding respite care use, caregiving hours and caregiving duration, showing less caregiving involvement in later generations. However, Asian and Hispanic counterparts showed mixed results. Third generation Asian and Hispanic caregivers used respite care the least and spent the most caregiving hours per week and had the longest caregiving duration compared to earlier generations. These caregiving patterns revealed underlying cultural values related to filial responsibility, even among later generations of caregivers of color. Findings suggest the importance of considering the cultural values of each racial/ethnic group regardless of generation when working with racially and ethnically diverse populations of family caregivers of older adults.

  6. Male Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands. Low testosterone (male hypogonadism) and other hormonal problems have a number of possible underlying causes. Defects of tubules that transport sperm. Many ... syndrome — in which a male is born with two X chromosomes and one ...

  7. A study on caregiver burden: stressors, challenges, and possible solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialon, Laura Nelson; Coke, Sallie

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore factors impacting caregiver burden and to explore possible solutions for family caregivers of terminally ill patients. The majority of caregivers reported experiencing role conflict and inadequate stress management. Caregivers who worked outside the home, those who cared for two parents concurrently, those with the least amount of outside assistance, and caregivers who spent a longer period of time caregiving reported the highest levels of health problems and overall burden. Caregivers stated a need for more support from Hospice agencies, more education on caregiver training, and more public education about Hospice services. Faith played a positive role in alleviating caregiver burden. Early identification, intervention, education and coordination of services may help to alleviate caregiver burden, which will improve quality of life for both patient and caregiver.

  8. Caregiving burden and its determinants in Polish caregivers of stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaracz, Krystyna; Grabowska-Fudala, Barbara; Górna, Krystyna; Kozubski, Wojciech

    2014-10-27

    Despite the growing body of literature on the consequences of providing non-professional care to stroke survivors, the determinants of caregiving burden are still not fully recognized. Identification of significant determinants can facilitate caregiver intervention programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of burden borne by caregivers of stroke patients and to identify the most important determinants of burden at 6 months after hospitalization. Data were collected from 150 pairs of stroke patients/caregivers. Caregiver burden was assessed on the Caregiver Burden scale (CB). Several characteristics were measured as potential predictors of the burden. Special attention was paid to the caregiver's sense of coherence (SOC) and anxiety. Regression analysis was employed to test the hypothesized relationships between these variables and the burden. Forty-seven percentage of the caregivers reported a substantial burden (severe or moderate). Caregiver SOC (p emotional state and the level of patients' dependency, as these are the vital and modifiable factors affecting caregiver burden following stroke.

  9. Needs of informal caregivers across the caregiving course in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a qualitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Sile; Corr, Bernie; Mays, Iain; Pender, Niall; Hardiman, Orla

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neuron disease (MND), is a debilitating terminal condition. Informal caregivers are key figures in ALS care provision. The physical, psychological and emotional impact of providing care in the home requires appropriate assistance and support. The objective of this analysis is to explore the needs of informal ALS caregivers across the caregiving course. Design In an open-ended question as part of a semistructured interview, caregivers were asked what would help them in their role. Interviews took place on three occasions at 4-month to 6-month intervals. Demographic, burden and quality of life data were collected, in addition to the open-ended responses. We carried out descriptive statistical analysis and thematic analysis of qualitative data. Setting and participants Home interviews at baseline (n=81) and on two further occasions (n=56, n=41) with informal caregivers of people with ALS attending the National ALS/MND Clinic at Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. Results The majority of caregivers were family members. Hours of care provided and caregiver burden increased across the interview series. Thematic analysis identified what would help them in their role, and needs related to external support and services, psychological-emotional factors, patient-related behaviours, a cure and ‘nothing’. Themes were interconnected and their prevalence varied across the interview time points. Conclusion This study has shown the consistency and adaptation in what caregivers identified as helpful in their role, across 12–18 months of a caregiving journey. Support needs are clearly defined, and change with time and the course of caregiving. Caregivers need support from family, friends and healthcare professionals in managing their tasks and the emotional demands of caregiving. Identifying the specific needs of informal caregivers should enable health professionals to provide tailored supportive interventions

  10. The relationship between health-related quality of life and social networks among Japanese family caregivers for people with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Hirokazu; Nagatsuka, Miwa; Hirai, Kei

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine HRQOL depending on whether the participants have family members with disabilities or not. In addition, we examined the relationship between HRQOL and social networks among family caregivers in Japan. The study has a cross-sectional design. Survey forms were distributed to 9205 people aged 30 and older who visited a dispensing pharmacy within fifteen areas of Japan. We collected data on gender, age, job status, and care giving status for persons with disabilities. Moreover, we assessed support size, social support, and HRQOL. Out of the 2029 questionnaires returned, 1763 (male: 663, female: 1100, mean age = 63.06 +/- 13.34) were valid for statistical analyses (the available response rate was 19.15%). A significant difference in HRQOL was identified between family caregivers and non-family caregivers. Further, in males (N = 101), the results confirmed that only social support predicted the PCS and MCS scores, while other variables did not predict either score. On the other hand, in females (N = 144), it was found from the second step of hierarchical multiple regression analysis that only age explained the PCS score, while job status and support size explained the MCS score. It is reasonable to conclude that the HRQOL of family caregivers was lower than that of non-family caregivers, and that the HRQOL of family caregivers was estimated by their social networks.

  11. The relationship between health-related quality of life and social networks among Japanese family caregivers for people with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagatsuka Miwa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims The purpose of this study was to examine HRQOL depending on whether the participants have family members with disabilities or not. In addition, we examined the relationship between HRQOL and social networks among family caregivers in Japan. Methods The study has a cross-sectional design. Survey forms were distributed to 9205 people aged 30 and older who visited a dispensing pharmacy within fifteen areas of Japan. We collected data on gender, age, job status, and care giving status for persons with disabilities. Moreover, we assessed support size, social support, and HRQOL. Out of the 2029 questionnaires returned, 1763 (male: 663, female: 1100, mean age = 63.06 ± 13.34 were valid for statistical analyses (the available response rate was 19.15%. Results A significant difference in HRQOL was identified between family caregivers and non-family caregivers. Further, in males (N = 101, the results confirmed that only social support predicted the PCS and MCS scores, while other variables did not predict either score. On the other hand, in females (N = 144, it was found from the second step of hierarchical multiple regression analysis that only age explained the PCS score, while job status and support size explained the MCS score. Conclusion It is reasonable to conclude that the HRQOL of family caregivers was lower than that of non-family caregivers, and that the HRQOL of family caregivers was estimated by their social networks.

  12. Caregiving burden and the quality of life of family caregivers of cancer patients: the relationship and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rha, Sun Young; Park, Yeonhee; Song, Su Kyung; Lee, Chung Eun; Lee, Jiyeon

    2015-08-01

    Family caregivers of cancer patients become responsible for many elements of cancer care, usually without preparation or training in provision of care. Their efforts of care generate caregiving burden, which could deteriorate caregivers' quality of life (QOL). A secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to describe the influence of caregiving burden on the QOL of family caregivers of cancer patients with consideration of correlates (N = 212). The Korean versions of Zarit Burden Interview and the World Health Organization QOL BREF were used. Multiple regression analyses were applied to analyze the relationship between the caregiving burden and QOL. Caregiving burden explained 30.3% of variance of the QOL (β = -0.534, p < 0.001). Caregivers caring for patients with functional deterioration experienced higher burden. Caregivers providing care for hospitalized patients demonstrated lower QOL. The caregiver's educational level was a positively contributing factor for the QOL. Caregiving burden was the influential, negatively affecting factor for the QOL. Assessment of caregiving burden with special attention being paid to caregivers caring for patients with functional decline would help to identify caregivers in need of support. Supportive care needs to be sought to alleviate caregiving burden and improve the QOL of caregivers, especially for the caregivers of hospitalized patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Work Stress, Caregiving, and Allostatic Load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Nadya; Lange, Theis; Head, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Studies investigating health effects of work and family stress usually consider these factors in isolation. The present study investigated prospective interactive effects of job strain and informal caregiving on allostatic load (AL), a multisystem indicator of physiological......). Regardless of job strain, participants with low caregiving burden (below sample median) had lower subsequent AL levels than did non-caregivers (b = -0.22, 95% confidence interval = -0.06--0.37). CONCLUSIONS: The study provides some evidence for adverse effects of stress at work combined with family demands...

  14. Male Hypogonadism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the hormone that plays a key role in masculine growth and development during puberty — or has an ... Adulthood In adult males, hypogonadism may alter certain masculine physical characteristics and impair normal reproductive function. Signs ...

  15. Male Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to have a baby? If treatment doesn’t work, what are our other options? Resources National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, What Causes Male Infertility? Last Updated: May 30, 2017 This ...

  16. Male contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amory, John K

    2016-11-01

    Although female contraceptives are very effective at preventing unintended pregnancy, some women can not use them because of health conditions or side-effects, leaving some couples without effective contraceptive options. In addition, many men wish to take active responsibility for family planning. Thus, there is a great need for male contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancies, of which 80-90 million occur annually. At present, effective male contraceptive options are condoms and vasectomy, which are not ideal for all men. Therefore, efforts are under way to develop novel male contraceptives. This paper briefly reviews the advantages and disadvantages of condoms and vasectomies and then discusses the research directed toward development of novel methods of male contraception. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Condoms - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prophylactics; Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... your health care provider or pharmacy about emergency contraception ("morning-after pills"). PROBLEMS WITH CONDOM USE Some ...

  18. Self-stigma among caregivers of people with mental illness: toward caregivers’ empowerment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girma, Eshetu; Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Dehning, Sandra; Mueller, Norbert; Tesfaye, Markos; Froeschl, Guenter

    2014-01-01

    Background In addition to economic and material burdens, caregivers of people with mental illness are exposed to psychosocial challenges. Self-stigma is among the psychological challenges that can be exacerbated by intrinsic and/or extrinsic factors. Caregivers’ self-stigma can negatively influence the patients’ treatment and rehabilitation process. The objective of this study was to measure the level and correlates of self-stigma among caregivers of people with mental illness. Methods An interviewer-administered cross-sectional study was conducted in the Jimma University Specialized Hospital Psychiatry Clinic in Ethiopia on a sample of 422 caregivers. Data were collected by trained nurses working in the clinic using a pretested questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression was performed to identify the correlates of self-stigma among caregivers of people with mental illness. Results The majority (70.38%) of the caregivers were male. On a scale of 0 to 15, with 0 being low and 15 being high, the average self-stigmatizing attitude score was 4.68 (±4.11). A statistically significant difference in mean self-stigma score was found between urban and rural respondents (t=3.95, PSelf-stigma of caregivers showed significant positive correlation with perceived signs of mental illness (r=0.18, Pself-stigma was perceived supernatural explanation of mental illness (standardized β=0.22, Pself-stigma in this study was significantly correlated with perceived supernatural explanation of mental illness. Since caregivers’ self-stigma may negatively influence patients’ treatment-seeking, adherence, and rehabilitation processes, programs that enhance coping strategies by strengthening self-esteem and empowerment by health care providers and establish family support groups may be helpful to tackle self-stigma among caregivers of people with mental illness. PMID:24470760

  19. Colorectal cancer patients' preferences for type of caregiver during survivorship care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieldraaijer, T; Duineveld, L A M; Donkervoort, S C; Busschers, W B; van Weert, H C P M; Wind, J

    2018-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors are currently included in a secondary care-led survivorship care programme. Efforts are underway to transfer this survivorship care to primary care, but met with some reluctance by patients and caregivers. This study assesses (1) what caregiver patients prefer to contact for symptoms during survivorship care, (2) what patient factors are associated with a preferred caregiver, and (3) whether the type of symptom is associated with a preferred caregiver. A cross-sectional study of CRC survivors at different time points. For 14 different symptoms, patients reported if they would consult a caregiver, and who they would contact if so. Patient and disease characteristics were retrieved from hospital and general practice records. Two hundred and sixty patients participated (response rate 54%) of whom the average age was 67, 54% were male. The median time after surgery was seven months (range 0-60 months). Patients were divided fairly evenly between tumour stages 1-3, 33% had received chemotherapy. Men, patients older than 65 years, and patients with chronic comorbid conditions preferred to consult their general practitioner (GP). Women, patients with stage 3 disease, and patients that had received chemotherapy preferred to consult their secondary care provider. For all symptoms, patients were more likely to consult their GP, except for (1) rectal blood loss, (2) weight loss, and (3) fear that cancer had recurred, in which case they would consult both their primary and secondary care providers. Patients appreciated all caregivers involved in survivorship care highly; with 8 out of 10 points. CRC survivors frequently consult their GP in the current situation, and for symptoms that could alarm them to a possible recurrent disease consult both their GP and secondary care provider. Patient and tumour characteristics influence patients' preferred caregiver.

  20. Combining Employment and Caregiving: An Intricate Juggling Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guberman, Nancy; Maheu, Pierre

    1999-01-01

    The process that allows family caregivers to combine employment and elder care was examined in interviews with 25 caregivers. The effects of elder care on employment are the result of the degree to which caregivers manage to maintain balance between different life spheres: personal and social life, family life, caregiving, and employment. (53…

  1. A Pilot Evaluation of the Family Caregiver Support Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Mei; Hedrick, Susan C.; Young, Heather M.

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate a federal and state-funded Family Caregiver Support Program (FCSP) and explore what types of caregiver support service are associated with what caregiver outcomes. Information was obtained on a sample of 164 caregivers' use of eleven different types of support service. Descriptive and comparative…

  2. Typical and Atypical Dementia Family Caregivers: Systematic and Objective Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Linda O.; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer; Burns, Robert; Graney, Marshall J.; Zuber, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    This systematic, objective comparison of typical (spouse, children) and atypical (in-law, sibling, nephew/niece, grandchild) dementia family caregivers examined demographic, caregiving and clinical variables. Analysis was of 1,476 caregivers, of whom 125 were atypical, from the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregivers Health (REACH I and II)…

  3. Male contraception

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Vivek; Bantwal, Ganapathi

    2012-01-01

    Contraception is an accepted route for the control of population explosion in the world. Traditionally hormonal contraceptive methods have focused on women. Male contraception by means of hormonal and non hormonal methods is an attractive alternative. Hormonal methods of contraception using testosterone have shown good results. Non hormonal reversible methods of male contraception like reversible inhibition of sperm under guidanceare very promising. In this article we have reviewed the curren...

  4. Symptoms of depression in non-routine caregivers: the role of caregiver strain and burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anna C; Gallagher, Stephen; Hunt, Kate; Der, Geoff; Carroll, Douglas

    2009-11-01

    The origins and persistence of psychological morbidity in caregivers are not fully understood. The present analysis examined the relationship between the strain and burden of caregiving and depression and anxiety in a large community sample. Social support and sleep quality were investigated as potential mediators. Cross-sectional and prospective observational study. Individuals caring for someone other than their own child (N=393) were identified from a population of 2,079. Caregiving strain and burden, social support, and sleep quality were assessed. Participants completed the hospital anxiety and depression scale at the same time and 5 years later. Caregiving strain and burden were associated with depression and anxiety symptoms cross-sectionally, and with a worsening of symptoms 5 years later. Sleep quality appeared to mediate the cross-sectional relationships. The demands of caregiving and associated sleep disruption contribute to symptoms of depression and anxiety in caregivers.

  5. Impacts of informal caregiver availability on long-term care expenditures in OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Byung-Kwang; Bhattacharya, Jay; McDonald, Kathryn M; Garber, Alan M

    2004-12-01

    To quantify the effects of informal caregiver availability and public funding on formal long-term care (LTC) expenditures in developed countries. Secondary data were acquired for 15 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries from 1970 to 2000. Secondary data analysis, applying fixed- and random-effects models to time-series cross-sectional data. Outcome variables are inpatient or home heath LTC expenditures. Key explanatory variables are measures of the availability of informal caregivers, generosity in public funding for formal LTC, and the proportion of the elderly population in the total population. Aggregated macro data were obtained from OECD Health Data, United Nations Demographic Yearbooks, and U.S. Census Bureau International Data Base. Most of the 15 OECD countries experienced growth in LTC expenditures over the study period. The availability of a spouse caregiver, measured by male-to-female ratio among the elderly, is associated with a $28,840 (1995 U.S. dollars) annual reduction in formal LTC expenditure per additional elderly male. Availability of an adult child caregiver, measured by female labor force participation and full-time/part-time status shift, is associated with a reduction of $310 to $3,830 in LTC expenditures. These impacts on LTC expenditure vary across countries and across time within a country. The availability of an informal caregiver, particularly a spouse caregiver, is among the most important factors explaining variation in LTC expenditure growth. Long-term care policies should take into account behavioral responses: decreased public funding in LTC may lead working women to leave the labor force to provide more informal care.

  6. Male sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Terrie B

    2010-05-01

    It should be recognized that sexuality in the aging male is of such import that a complete sexual history must be performed. By taking a complete sexual history, facts can be obtained that will allow for appropriate focus relating to a holistic evaluation and will enable us to dispel antiquated sexual myths pertaining to the aging male. If initiated by the history taker, questions concerning sexuality may be discussed more comfortably by the patient. Erectile dysfunction, male sexual response cycle, testosterone, sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, long-term illness, along with religion and culture are explored in this article with the aim of improving one's knowledge base, self reflection, and awareness of the importance of male sexuality. A complete understanding and appreciation of the aging male's medical history, surgical history, social history, and emotional history as well as his sexual, cultural, and religious concepts will allow the health care provider to better analyze information, and to recommend and provide appropriate advice and treatment to the aging male patient. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Nurses negotiating professional-familial care boundaries: striving for balance within double duty caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Brown, Judith Belle; St-Amant, Oona; Sutherland, Nisha; Martin-Matthews, Anne; Keefe, Janice; Kerr, Mickey

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this sequential, two-phase mixed-methods study was to examine the health of male and female nurses who provided care to older relatives (i.e., double duty caregivers). We explored the experiences of 32 double duty caregivers, which led to the development of an emergent grounded theory, Negotiating Professional-Familial Care Boundaries with two broad dialectical processes: professionalizing familial care and striving for balance. This article examines striving for balance, which is the process that responds to familial care expectations in the midst of available resources and reflects the health experiences of double duty caregivers. Two subprocesses of striving for balance, reaping the benefits and taking a toll, are presented in three composite vignettes, each representing specific double duty caregiving (DDC) prototypes (making it work, working to manage, living on the edge). This emergent theory extends current thinking of family caregiving that will inform the development and refinement of practices and policies relevant to DDC. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. [22q11.2 deletion: handicap-related problems and coping strategies of primary caregivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briegel, Wolfgang; Schneider, Marco; Schwab, K Otfried

    2009-11-01

    To investigate handicap-related problems of children and adolescents with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and their primary caregivers' coping strategies. Primary caregivers of 153 subjects aged 2-16 years were anonymously asked to fill out questionnaires, e.g., the Handicap Related Problems for Parents Inventory. Primary caregivers of 96 subjects (53 males, 43 females; mean age: 7;0 [2;1-16;11] years) sent back questionnaires. Patient's behaviour and discipline were the most important handicap-related problems. Significant correlations could be found between the patient's age and his/her relationship with the primary caregiver (rho=0.228; p=.029) and other family members (rho=0.293; p=.004). Compared to other parents of physically handicapped children or those with multiple handicaps, these parents did not experience increased stress. The more the coping strategies "self-fulfillment" and "intensification of partnership" were used, the lower parental stress was (p=.012, p=.025, respectively). "Focusing on the handicapped child" was positively correlated with high parental stress (p=.000). With regard to parental stress and coping strategies, primary caregivers of children and adolescents with 22q11.2 deletion do not significantly differ from other parents of physically handicapped children. As handicap-related family problems increase with the patient's age, a growing need for counseling, especially for aspects of parenting and discipline, and for treatment can be presumed.

  9. Validity and reliability of Turkish Caregiver Burden Scale among family caregivers of haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cil Akinci, Ayse; Pinar, Rukiye

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the validity and reliability of the Caregiver Burden Scale in family members who provide primary care for haemodialysis patients. In Turkey, there is a need for a multi-dimensional instrument to evaluate the caregiver burden in people who provide care for patients with chronic diseases. A methodological study. The study sample consisted of 161 family members who provide primary care for haemodialysis patients. The forward-backward translation method was used to develop the Turkish Caregiver Burden Scale. The reliability was based on internal consistency investigated by Cronbach's alpha and item-total correlation. The factorial construct validity of the scale was tested with confirmatory factor analysis. By means of convergent and divergent validity, correlation between Caregiver Burden Scale and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and correlation between Caregiver Burden Scale and the Maslach Burnout Scale were investigated. Cronbach's alpha and item-total correlations results suggested that there was good internal reliability. We found five underlying factors similar to original Scale's five-factor solution. The confirmatory factor analysis five-factor model represented an acceptable fit. Factor loadings were significant, with standardised loadings ranging from 0·43-0·81. By means of divergent validity, all sub-dimension scores and the total score of the Caregiver Burden Scale were negatively correlated with the SF-36, whereas there was a positive correlation with the emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation subscales of the Maslach Burnout Scale as expected. These results suggest that the Caregiver Burden Scale is a reliable and valid instrument which can be used with confidence in Turkish caregivers for haemodialysis patients to screen caregiver burden. The burden experienced by people who provide care for patients with chronic diseases can be evaluated with the Caregiver Burden Scale. Additionally, the Caregiver Burden Scale can be used

  10. Determinants of Heart Failure Self-Care Maintenance and Management in Patients and Caregivers: A Dyadic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, Julie T; Vellone, Ercole; Lyons, Karen S; D'Agostino, Fabio; Riegel, Barbara; Juárez-Vela, Raúl; Hiatt, Shirin O; Alvaro, Rosaria; Lee, Christopher S

    2015-10-01

    Disease self-management is a critical component of maintaining clinical stability for patients with chronic illness. This is particularly evident in the context of heart failure (HF), which is the leading cause of hospitalization for older adults. HF self-management, commonly known as HF self-care, is often performed with the support of informal caregivers. However, little is known about how a HF dyad manages the patient's care together. The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of patient and caregiver contributions to HF self-care maintenance (daily adherence and symptom monitoring) and management (appropriate recognition and response to symptoms), utilizing an approach that controls for dyadic interdependence. This was a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from 364 dyads of Italian HF patients and caregivers. Multilevel modeling was used to identify determinants of HF self-care within patient-caregiver dyads. Patients averaged 76.2 (SD = 10.7) years old, and a slight majority (56.9%) was male, whereas caregivers averaged 57.4 (SD = 14.6) years old, and about half (48.1%) were male. Most caregivers were adult children (48.4%) or spouses (32.7%) of patients. Both patients and caregivers reported low levels of HF maintenance and management behaviors. Significant individual and dyadic determinants of self-care maintenance and self-care management included gender, quality of life, comorbid burden, impaired ADLs, cognition, hospitalizations, HF duration, relationship type, relationship quality, and social support. These comprehensive dyadic models assist in elucidating the complex nature of patient-caregiver relationships and their influence on HF self-care, leading to more effective ways to intervene and optimize outcomes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Finding care for the caregiver? Active participation in online health forums attenuates the negative effect of caregiver strain on wellbeing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, M.A.; Das, E.; Fortgens-Sillmann, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on how online health forums may benefit the wellbeing of caregivers. An online questionnaire of caregivers assessed caregiver strain, forum use, and mental and physical wellbeing. Results show a positive relation between caregiver strain and using online health forums to seek

  12. A randomised controlled trial of benefit finding in caregivers: The Building Resources in Caregivers Study Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Brand

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Caregivers may engage in benefit finding, that is, an increase in perceived positive growth, as a cognitive strategy for coping with stress. The Building Resources in Caregivers study will compare effects of a brief benefit finding writing intervention with a control intervention. Caregivers of people with mental and physical disabilities will be randomised into either a benefit-writing group or a neutral writing group. Caregivers will complete measures relating to themselves and care-recipients (e.g. sociodemographics and illness type and psychometric measures of benefit finding, distress and quality of life at three time points. Additionally, qualitative commentary on participation experiences will be gathered.

  13. Family Caregiver's Perception of Alzheimer's disease and caregiving in Chinese culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Baozhen; Mao, Zongfu; Wu, Bei; Mei, Y John; Levkoff, Sue; Wang, Huali

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the perception of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and caregiving among family caregivers of individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD in China. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 46 family caregivers of individuals with cognitive impairment in 2009 in Wuhan and Beijing, China. Participants included 38 spouses, 7 adult children, and 1 sibling, aged between 41 and 85 years old. The findings showed that all family caregivers thought the Chinese terminology of AD laonian chidai, brought discrimination to individuals with cognitive impairment. Caregivers of individuals with AD experienced burden and desired an increase of formal services. Traditional beliefs of respecting elders and caring for extended family members were held among family caregivers of individuals with cognitive impairment, and there was nearly no difference found between caregivers of AD and those of MCI. It implied that traditional culture provided positive influences on caring for elders with cognitive impairment. An alternative term for MCI may contribute to further reducing the discrimination brought by the old Chinese terminology of AD laonian chidai. Development of formal services for elders with cognitive impairment may contribute to reducing caregivers' worries about future caregiving.

  14. The relationship between social support and anxiety among caregivers of children in HIV-endemic South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Marisa; Wild, Lauren; Cluver, Lucie; Kuo, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Caring for children can be a source of joy and fulfilment, but also a source of stress, especially for caregivers living with illness and/or coping with difficult socio-economic conditions. Risks for poor caregiver mental health are especially salient in many parts of southern Africa affected by a generalised HIV-epidemic, high rates of physical illness, difficult livelihood conditions and an increasing number of orphaned and vulnerable children in need of care. Given limited availability and low uptake of formal mental health services in South Africa, the potential protective role of informal community or "social" resources for caregiver populations requires greater attention. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantitatively assess the relationship between social support and symptomatic anxiety among caregivers of children living in HIV-endemic southern African communities. The data are from household survey interviews with 2477 adult primary caregivers of children aged 10-17 years living in two (urban and rural) resource-deprived HIV-endemic South African communities. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis with interaction terms was conducted to assess whether HIV and other illness were significant stressors for caregiver anxiety, whether social support had main or stress-buffering protective effects on anxiety and whether gender moderated the association between social support and anxiety. Our findings showed significant main effects of social support on caregiver anxiety, but no evidence of stress-buffering effects of support or of gender moderating the support-anxiety relationship. This suggests that social support is a general mental health resource for both male and female caregivers of children in these HIV-endemic communities, regardless of whether they are facing specific stressors related to HIV or other illness. Our results highlight the importance of paying greater attention to the social environment when designing and implementing

  15. Family caregiver communication in oncology: advancing a typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Joy; Wittenberg, Elaine; Platt, Christine Small; Iannarino, Nicholas T; Reno, Jenna

    2016-04-01

    The quality of communication between the patient and family caregiver impacts quality of life and well-being for the two; however, providers have few tools to understand communication patterns and assess the communication needs and preferences of caregivers. The aims of this study were to examine family communication patterns among oncology patients and their caregivers and to identify common characteristics among four different types of family caregivers. Nurses recruited oncology patient-caregiver dyads through a large cancer treatment center in the Southeast. Patients and caregivers were separated from one another and interviewed during chemotherapeutic infusions. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded, and thematized. A sample of 24 patients and their caregivers (n = 48) were interviewed. The majority of dyads (21, 88%) shared the same family communication pattern. Common caregiver communication features support previous work identifying four caregiver communication types: Manager, Carrier, Partner, and Lone caregivers. Manager caregivers lead patients by utilizing extensive medical knowledge, whereas Carrier caregivers were led by patients and described tireless acts to maintain the family and avoid difficult conversations. Partner caregivers facilitated family involvement and open communication on a variety of topics, while Lone caregivers focused solely on biomedical matters and a hope for cure. Caregiver communication types were corroborated by patient-caregiver descriptions of caregiving. However, more information is needed to ascertain the variables associated with each caregiver type. Future work to improve identification of caregiver types and create targeted caregiver care plans will require further study of health literacy levels and tested communication interventions per type. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Family caregivers' experiences in nursing homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohne, Vibeke; Høy, Bente; Wilhelm Rehnsfeldt, Arne

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study is focusing on dignity in nursing homes from the perspective of family caregivers. Dignity is a complex concept and central to nursing. Dignity in nursing homes is a challenge, according to research. Family caregivers are frequently involved in their family members’ daily...... experiences at the nursing home. This Scandinavian application study has a descriptive and explorative design. Twenty-nine family caregivers were included. A phenomenological-hermeneutic approach was used to understand the meaning of the narrated text. The interpretations revealed two main themes: “One should......, but still important in nursing homes. It seems therefore important to further investigate experiences of family caregivers in the context of nursing homes....

  17. Hands-On Skills for Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A + A You are here Home Hands-On Skills for Caregivers Printer-friendly version When you’re ... therapist who can help you develop your transferring skills. Allow for their reality Remember to accept your ...

  18. Caregiver information search behavior for alternative transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Numerous factors contribute to cessation of driving, ranging from a decline in cognitive : capability to a decrease in overall physical health. When driving cessation occurs, : responsibility often falls on adult child caregivers to extend the person...

  19. Caregiving for Alzheimer's Disease or Other Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Caregiving for Person with Alzheimer's Disease or a related Dementia Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What is Alzheimer’s Disease? Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form ...

  20. Advice for Loved Ones and Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... constitutes the most effective, supportive and beneficial care partnership for you both. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES FOR LOVED ONES AND CAREGIVERS Our community on social media has recommended the below resources. Aging Parents and ...

  1. Otitis Media and Caregiver Quality of Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Christian Hamilton; Godballe, Christian; Kjeldsen, Anette Drøhse

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Otitis media in children may have a considerable impact on caregiver quality of life. The disease-specific Caregiver Impact Questionnaire is designed to assess caregiver quality of life in relation to child otitis media. Assessment of the psychometric properties of this instrument...... is limited. This study assesses the psychometric properties of this instrument including validity, reproducibility, responsiveness, and interpretability. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal validation study. SETTING: Secondary care units. METHODS: Analyses were based on data from 435 families. Validity was assessed...... Danish version of the Caregiver Impact Questionnaire is a valid and reproducible measurement tool that is also sensitive to measuring change in the current setting. A change score representing minimal important change as perceived by the respondent is proposed. Results of this study support the use...

  2. Mental health and parenting characteristics of caregivers of children with spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm-Buatsi, Elizabeth; Aston, Christopher E; Ryan, Jamie; Tao, Yeun; Palmer, Blake W; Kropp, Bradley P; Klein, Jake; Wisniewski, Amy B; Frimberger, Dominic

    2015-04-01

    Within the chronic medical illness literature, associations exist between caring for an affected child and parent mental health. The few studies examining both mothers and fathers provide mixed results. The purpose of this study is to examine associations between caregiver anxiety, depression, and parenting variables in caregivers of youth with SB as these relate to marital status, age, education, household income, work status, and child's severity of SB. The aim of this study is to examine associations between anxiety, depression, and parenting variables in caregivers of youth with spina bifida and how they relate to demographic and disease variables. Exploratory analyses examined the relationship between participation in support activities and depressive and anxious symptomatology and parenting characteristics. Eighty-four primary caregivers (49 mothers) of 51 youth with spina bifida completed measures of depressive and anxious symptomology, parenting stress, parent overprotection, and perceived child vulnerability. There were differences between mothers and fathers on several parenting characteristics; however, these were related more to marital status and employment than to gender of the caretaker per se. In the 33 married/remarried couples for whom both spouses participated, stress for the mothers was correlated with stress for the fathers. This correlation was strongest in the 12 married couples in which the mother works. Higher perceived vulnerability scores were reported in parents of SB patients in the younger age group, especially preschoolers (0-4 years). Parents of children with shunts reported more anxiety, depression and perceived child vulnerability. Both male and female caregivers of younger children reported significantly higher protectiveness scores. Involvement in recreational activities with other families affected by SB was associated with more positive parenting characteristics for mothers. Stress and protectiveness were found to be positively

  3. Presenting the Prenatal Caregiving Experiences Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røhder, Katrine; Trier, Christopher Høier; Brennan, Jessica

    to the child´s attachment system. The Prenatal Caregiving Experiences Questionnaire (PCEQ) (Brennan, George, & Solomon, 2013) is the first questionnaire that directly assesses prenatal caregiving representation. This poster presentation brings together different researchers who use the instrument in ongoing...... longitudinal research projects. The poster includes a description of the development of the PCEQ questionnaire, the theoretical background, as well as preliminary data on future mothers and fathers from the WARM study....

  4. Care respite: taking care of the caregivers

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, Fernando; Baró, Xavier; Escalera, Sergio; Gonzàlez, Jordi; MacKay, Martha; Serrahima, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: With an ageing population, the issue of care provision is becoming increasingly critical. Since the aspiration of the majority of older people is to live safely and well at home, housing monitoring will be part of health & care integration in the next decades. As a consequence, a higher proportion of people will have to rely on family, friends or neighbours as their informal caregivers, providing that this group already count as around 80% of all caregivers in the EU). The v...

  5. Caregiver psychoeducation for first-episode psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McWilliams, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    International best-practice guidelines for the management of first-episode psychosis have recommended the provision of psychoeducation for multifamily groups. While there is ample evidence of their efficacy in multiepisode psychosis, there is a paucity of evidence supporting this approach specifically for first-episode psychosis. We sought to determine whether a six-week caregiver psychoeducation programme geared specifically at first-episode psychosis improves caregiver knowledge and attitudes.

  6. When LVAD Patients Die: The Caregiver's Mourning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi Ferrario, Silvia; Omarini, Pierangela; Cerutti, Paola; Balestroni, Giangluigi; Omarini, Giovanna; Pistono, Massimo

    2016-05-01

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have progressively evolved, particularly in the last 10 years, to serve patients affected by severe heart failure as a bridge to transplant or destination therapy. The survival rate and quality of life of pre- and postimplant patients, as well as caregivers' perceptions and distress, are under investigation by the scientific community. But what caregivers think and feel after the loss of their loved one has not so far been examined. We contacted 16 principal caregivers of deceased LVAD patients by telephone. They were asked to evaluate their experience with LVADs and were administered a specific questionnaire about their mourning, the Caregiver Mourning Questionnaire (CMQ), to evaluate their perceptions of the physical, emotional, and social support-related problems that they had experienced during the previous 3 months. Positive aspects reported by the caregivers were the patient's overall subjective well-being and increased survival. Negative aspects were the difficulty to manage infections and the driveline, and the incomplete autonomy of the patient. Half of the caregivers reported not being preadvised about many of the problems they would face. The CMQ revealed that numerous caregivers had health problems, difficulty in sleeping, eating disorders, lack of energy, and loneliness. Use of psychotropic drugs and regrets about how they assisted their loved one also emerged. In conclusion, caregivers of LVAD patients may experience complicated mourning. Our data support in particular the need for an early intervention of palliative care which could prevent or reduce complicated mourning. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Caregiver Burden in Alcohol Dependence Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanujam Vaishnavi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alcoholism is a major threat to the individual as well as the society and the maximum burden of the illness is borne by the family. Aim. The study is aimed at assessing the pattern of burden on the caregivers of alcohol dependent patients and at assessing the relationship between the severity of dependence and the burden on caregivers. Settings and Design. Cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in the Department of Psychiatry, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional assessment was done in 200 patients with alcohol dependence and their caregivers. The severity of dependence and the pattern of burden on caregivers were assessed. Statistical Analysis. The data thus collected was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. The study demonstrates that caregivers of alcohol dependent patients reported significant objective burden and subjective burden. Furthermore, the severity of alcohol dependence and the domains of burden such as financial burden, disruption of family interaction, and disruption of family routine activities were positively correlated with high level of significance. Conclusion. The current study has illustrated that all the caregivers experienced significant amount of burden which has to be addressed for better treatment outcome of the patients.

  8. Family Caregivers and Consumer Health Information Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jennifer L; Darer, Jonathan D; Larsen, Kevin L

    2016-01-01

    Health information technology has been embraced as a strategy to facilitate patients' access to their health information and engagement in care. However, not all patients are able to access, or are capable of using, a computer or mobile device. Although family caregivers assist individuals with some of the most challenging and costly health needs, their role in health information technology is largely undefined and poorly understood. This perspective discusses challenges and opportunities of engaging family caregivers through the use of consumer-oriented health information technology. We compile existing evidence to make the case that involving family caregivers in health information technology as desired by patients is technically feasible and consistent with the principles of patient-centered and family-centered care. We discuss how more explicit and purposeful engagement of family caregivers in health information technology could advance clinical quality and patient safety by increasing the transparency, accuracy, and comprehensiveness of patient health information across settings of care. Finally, we describe how clarifying and executing patients' desires to involve family members or friends through health information technology would provide family caregivers greater legitimacy, convenience, and timeliness in health system interactions, and facilitate stronger partnerships between patients, family caregivers, and health care professionals.

  9. Masculinity and spousal violence: Discursive accounts of husbands who abuse their wives in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, Stephen Baffour

    2016-01-01

    and urban Ghana. Participants’ discursive accounts revealed that social anxieties of husbands, their fear of being perceived by others as weak or emasculated, and their disappointment with unfulfilled notions of masculine sovereignty influence conjugal violence. Perpetrators constructed a wife’s expression...... of dissent to her husband’s wishes and commands as an encroachment on masculine spaces, a gender-norm violation, or as providing a public challenge to male identity and thus violence could be used as an obligatory passage to manhood. Perpetrators also mobilized shifting and ambivalent discourses that draw...

  10. Male baldness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Male baldness is very common. Its effect on individuals is extremely variable, and in some people it will have a significant adverse effect on their quality of life. The objectives of this article are to help general practitioners (GPs) be aware of potential health problems related to male baldness, to have an approach to assessing hair loss and to be aware of treatment options. Male baldness is, most often, a normal occurrence, but it may have significant effects on a man's health. It may also be a pointer to other potential health issues. The GP is in the ideal position to conduct an initial evaluation, consider other health issues and advise on treatment options.

  11. Randomized controlled trial of caregiver training for HIV-infected child neurodevelopment and caregiver well being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Judith K; Opoka, Robert; Familiar, Itziar; Nakasujja, Noeline; Sikorskii, Alla; Awadu, Jorem; Givon, Deborah; Shohet, Cilly; Murray, Sarah M; Augustinavicius, Jura; Mendelson, Tamar; Boivin, Michael

    2017-08-24

    HIV infection places children at neurodevelopmental risk; for young children in poverty, risk is compounded by compromised caregiving quality. The mediational intervention for sensitizing caregivers (MISC) program trained caregivers on fostering daily interactions with young children. We hypothesized that MISC could enhance neurodevelopment of rural Ugandan HIV-infected children and improve mental health outcomes of their caregivers, which might mediate improved caregiving quality. A randomized trial of HIV-infected young children (ages 2-5 years) and their female caregivers; cluster randomization was to MISC or a nutrition curriculum. A total of 18 geographic clusters in rural Uganda. Children and caregivers were evaluated at baseline, 6 months, 1 year, and 1-year post-training. Mullen Scales of Early Learning, the Color-Object Association Test for memory, the Early Childhood Vigilance Test of attention, and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function for the children. Caregivers completed measures of depression and anxiety symptoms and daily functioning. MISC had a significant impact on postintervention receptive language (adjusted mean difference = 3.13, 95% confidence interval 0.08, 6.18) that persisted at 1-year follow-up. MISC caregivers reported significantly less functional impairment postprogram (adjusted mean difference = -0.15, 95% confidence interval -0.28, -0.01). Other outcomes were NS. Both intervention conditions resulted in improvements in the study children over time. MISC showed additional impacts on child language and caregiver well-being. Future directions that include assessing the extent enhanced language development resulting from improved caregiving may better prepare impoverished children for school.

  12. Factors associated with caregiver burden among pharmacotherapy-treated children/adolescents with ADHD in the Caregiver Perspective on Pediatric ADHD survey in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fridman M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Moshe Fridman,1 Tobias Banaschewski,2 Vanja Sikirica,3 Javier Quintero,4 M Haim Erder,3 Kristina S Chen5 1AMF Consulting, Inc., Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim of the University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany; 3Global Health Economics Outcomes Research and Epidemiology, Shire, Wayne, PA, USA; 4Psychiatry Department, Hospital Universitario Infanta Leonor, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain; 5Global Health Economics Outcomes Research and Epidemiology, Shire, Lexington, MA, USA Background: Burden on caregivers of children/adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is multidimensional, but incompletely understood. Objective: To analyze caregiver burden across the concepts of work, social/family life, and parental worry/stress, in relation to selected contributing factors. Methods: The online Caregiver Perspective on Pediatric ADHD survey was fielded in ten European countries. Analysis included children/adolescents (6–17 years who were receiving/had received ADHD pharmacotherapy in the previous 6 months. Caregivers recorded their child’s/adolescent’s symptoms “on”/“off” medication (ie, when the caregiver reported that the child/adolescent forgot/chose not to take medication, before the onset of medication effect, or medication worn off. Effects of ADHD severity, comorbidities, and medication adherence on each burden outcome were assessed (multiple regression models. Results: In total, 2,326 caregivers were included (children/adolescents’ mean age: 11.5 years, 80% male. Caregivers reported missed/altered work, avoiding social activity, increased parental worry/stress, and strain on family life, despite using ADHD pharmacotherapy. Child/adolescent comorbidities and ADHD severity were significantly related to all burden concepts measured; the strongest comorbidity associations were with altered

  13. Exploring caregiver burden experienced by family caregivers of patients with End-Stage Renal Disease in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yemisi Okikiade Oyegbile

    Full Text Available Background: Family caregivers in many African countries bear the burden of caregiving alone, with the paucity of research, especially for caregivers of End-Stage Renal Disease patients, having concealed their needs. Aim: To explore the caregiver burden of family caregivers of End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD patients in South-West Nigeria. Design: Following a complementary mixed method data collection strategy, the quantitative data was collected using the Zarit Burden Interview questionnaire to measure the burden of caregiving. Qualitative data was thereafter obtained through in-depth, individual interviews and was analysed using content analysis. Settings: The three research settings consisted of two state hospitals and one private hospital that provide renal care in South-West Nigeria. Result: The mean burden of caregiving for the sample was 50.18 thus indicating that family caregivers experienced moderate to severe burden, which is high compared to the other studies. The participants’ experiences of caregiving revealed the following categories: total dependence, acceptance of caregiving role, competing responsibilities, financial sacrifice and “not making mistakes”. Conclusion: Understanding the extent of caregiver burden, what constitutes burden to family caregivers in low/middle-income countries, and the difficulties associated with caregiving for care-recipients with ESRD, allows appropriate strategies and interventions to be developed. Keywords: End Stage Renal Disease, Family caregivers, Caregiver burden, Complementary mixed methods, Nigeria

  14. CAREGIVER'S DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AND YOUNG CHILDREN'S SOCIOEMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT DELAYS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY IN POOR RURAL AREAS OF CHINA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qianwei; Zhang, Cuihong; Zhang, Jingxu; Luo, Shusheng; Wang, Xiaoli

    2018-03-01

    Poverty and its associated factors put people at risk for depression. The aims of this study were to describe the prevalence of depressive symptoms (DS) of primary caregivers and socioemotional development (SED) delays of young children in poor rural areas of China, and to explore the association between them. Cross-sectional data of 2,664 children aged 3 to 35 months and their primary caregivers were used for analysis. Characteristics of the child, caregiver, and family were collected through face-to-face caregiver interviews. DS were assessed by the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (W.W. Zung, 1965, as cited in World Health Organization, ), and SED was evaluated by the Ages and Stage Questionnaires: Social-Emotional (J. Squires, D. Bricker, & L. Potter, 1997). The χ 2 test, stratification analysis, and logistic regression analyses were used to explore the association. Among the caregivers, 40.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] [38.4, 42.1]), reported DS. Caregivers who were male, older and ethnic minorities as well as had a low level of education, a low family income, or more children were more likely to have DS. Of the children, 24.4% (95% CI [22.8, 26.0]) were recognized with SED delays. Older children displayed more delays than did younger children, but no significant differences between males and females were found. SED delays were significantly associated with mother outmigrating, male caregivers, older age, ethnic minorities, and low education or families with a single parent, low-income, and having more children. Caregivers having DS, odds ratio (OR) = 2.40, 95% CI [1.99, 2.88], was a significant predictor of increased odds of SED delays; other factors were single-parent family, OR = 1.99, 95% CI [1.37, 2.89], inadequate care, OR = 1.69, 95% CI [1.30, 2.21], physical punishment, OR = 1.61, 95% CI [1.33, 1.95], ethnic minorities, OR = 1.41, 95% CI [1.17, 1.71], and child age in months, OR = 1.03, 95% CI [1.02, 1.04], according to the logistic regression

  15. Family caregiver burden: the burden of caring for lung cancer patients according to the cancer stage and patient quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Lourenço Borges

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Patients with lung cancer experience different feelings and reactions, based on their family, social, cultural, and religious backgrounds, which are a source of great distress, not only for the patients but also for their family caregivers. This study aimed to evaluate the impact that lung cancer stage and quality of life (QoL of lung cancer patients have on caregiver burden. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study. Consecutive patient-caregiver dyads were selected and asked to complete the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item ShortForm Health Survey (SF-36. Family caregivers also completed the Caregiver Burden Scale. Group-based modeling was used in order to identify patients with early- or advanced-stage cancer (IA to IIIA vs. IIIB to IV plus non-impaired or impaired QoL (SF36 total score > 50 vs. ≤ 50. Patient-caregiver dyads were stratified into four groups: early-stage cancer+non-impaired QoL; advanced-stage cancer+non-impaired QoL; early-stage cancer+impaired QoL; and advanced-stage cancer+impaired QoL. Results: We included 91 patient-caregiver dyads. The majority of the patients were male and heavy smokers. Family caregivers were younger and predominantly female. The burden, QoL, level of anxiety, and level of depression of caregivers were more affected by the QoL of the patients than by their lung cancer stage. The family caregivers of the patients with impaired QoL showed a higher median burden than did those of the patients with non-impaired QoL, regardless of disease stage. Conclusions: Caregiver burden is more affected by patient QoL than by lung cancer stage.

  16. Psychometric Properties of the Caregiver Strain Questionnaire (CGSQ) among Caregivers of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Rahul; Madhavan, S. Suresh; Smith, Michael J.; Tworek, Cindy; Patrick, Julie H.; Becker-Cottrill, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the Caregiver Strain Questionnaire (CGSQ) among caregivers of children with autism. The CGSQ was originally developed to assess burden experienced by parents of children and adolescents with serious emotional and behavioral disorders. Study data was collected from 304 primary…

  17. Predictors of Alzheimer's Disease Caregiver Depression and Burden: What Noncaregiving Adults Can Learn from Active Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; Han, GiBaeg; Anderson, Cristina L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined similarities and differences between active caregivers (adult children and spouses whose family member had Alzheimer's disease) and not-as-yet caregiving adults (adult children and spouses whose family members are older, but do not as yet suffer from Alzheimer's disease). The objective was to determine what factors predict…

  18. Perceptions of family caregivers of cancer patients about the challenges of caregiving: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Shahnaz; Rassouli, Maryam; Ilkhani, Mahnaz; Baghestani, Ahmad Reza

    2018-03-01

    The experience of caring for a family member with cancer is associated with several care-related problems and challenges for the caregiver. The comprehensive and in-depth understanding of the trials and tribulations of caregiving can be a step towards resolving the problems faced by family caregivers of these patients. The present study aimed to explore challenges faced by Iranian family caregivers of cancer patients. The present qualitative study was conducted through in-depth semi-structured interviews held with 21 family caregivers of cancer patients selected through purposive sampling. Interviews continued until saturation of data. All interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed through conventional content analysis. The codes extracted from interviews produced four main themes, including 'confusion', 'uncertainty', 'disintegration' and 'setback', which collectively caused suffering for family caregivers. Care provided in an atmosphere of suffering and discontent diminishes caregiver's quality of life and quality of patient care. Health planners should therefore consider the challenges and sufferings faced by family caregivers and should seek to obviate them through appropriate plans. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  19. Conveying empathy to hospice family caregivers: team responses to caregiver empathic communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Debra, Parker Oliver; Demiris, George; Rankin, Anna; Shaunfield, Sara; Kruse, Robin L

    2012-10-01

    The goal of this study was to explore empathic communication opportunities presented by family caregivers and responses from interdisciplinary hospice team members. Empathic opportunities and hospice team responses were analyzed from bi-weekly web-based videoconferences between family caregivers and hospice teams. The authors coded the data using the Empathic Communication Coding System (ECCS) and identified themes within and among the coded data. Data analysis identified 270 empathic opportunity-team response sequences. Caregivers expressed statements of emotion and decline most frequently. Two-thirds of the hospice team responses were implicit acknowledgements of caregiver statements and only one-third of the team responses were explicit recognitions of caregiver empathic opportunities. Although hospice team members frequently express emotional concerns with family caregivers during one-on-one visits, there is a need for more empathic communication during team meetings that involve caregivers. Hospice clinicians should devote more time to discussing emotional issues with patients and their families to enhance patient-centered hospice care. Further consideration should be given to training clinicians to empathize with patients and family caregivers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Impact of Family Functioning on Caregiver Burden among Caregivers of Veterans with Congestive Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Crystal Dea

    2010-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of 76 family caregivers of older veterans with congestive heart failure utilized the McMaster model of family functioning to examine the impact of family functioning variables (problem solving, communication, roles, affective responsiveness, and affective involvement) on caregiver burden dimensions (relationship burden,…

  1. Burden of informal caregiving for stroke patients: Identification of caregivers at risk of adverse health effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exel, N.J.A. van; Koopmanschap, M.A.; Berg, B. van den; Brouwer, W.B.F.; Bos, G.A.M. van den

    2005-01-01

    Background: We assessed the objective and subjective burden of caregiving for stroke patients and investigated which characteristics of the patient, the informal caregiver and the objective burden contribute most to subjective burden and to the condition of feeling substantially burdened. Methods:

  2. Caregivers' attentional bias to pain : does it affect caregiver accuracy in detecting patient pain behaviors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi, Somayyeh; Dehghani, Mohsen; Khatibi, Ali; Sanderman, Robbert; Hagedoorn, Mariet

    Attentional bias to pain among family caregivers of patients with pain may enhance the detection of pain behaviors in patients. However, both relatively high and low levels of attentional bias may increase disagreement between patients and caregivers in reporting pain behaviors. This study aims to

  3. Family caregivers' health in connection with providing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlingsson, Christen L; Magnusson, Lennart; Hanson, Elizabeth

    2012-05-01

    Our aim was to investigate connections between Swedish family caregivers' health and providing care for an ill relative by conducting a systematic search and synthesis of previous research. We analyzed 31 articles using first qualitative content analysis then hermeneutic analysis. Analysis resulted in three derived themes-sliding sideways into caregiving, caregiving in reciprocity, and caregiving in disintegration-and a main interpretation and conceptual model of Swedish family caregivers' health-caregiving in a sphere of beliefs. Results indicated that Swedish family caregivers' beliefs, experiences of reciprocity, or nonsupport, together with quality of interpersonal relationships and feelings of responsibility and guilt, have a profound impact on their health. These results point to the value and importance of nurses gaining an understanding of family caregivers' beliefs and experiences of reciprocity or nonsupport to effectively promote family caregivers' health.

  4. Long-term effects of the Family Bereavement Program on spousally bereaved parents: Grief, mental health problems, alcohol problems, and coping efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Irwin; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Cham, Heining; Wolchik, Sharlene; Ayers, Tim

    2016-08-01

    This study reports on the findings from a 6-year follow-up of a randomized trial of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP) on the outcomes for spousally bereaved parents. Spousally bereaved parents (N = 131) participated in the trial in which they were randomly assigned to receive the FBP (N = 72) or literature control (N = 59). Parents were assessed at four time points: pretest, posttest, and 11-month and 6-year follow-up. They reported on mental health problems, grief, and parenting at all four time periods. At the 6-year follow-up, parents reported on additional measures of persistent complex bereavement disorder, alcohol abuse problems, and coping efficacy. Bereaved parents in the FBP as compared to those in the literature control had lower levels of symptoms of depression, general psychiatric distress, prolonged grief, and alcohol problems, and higher coping efficacy (for mothers) at the 6-year follow-up. Multiple characteristics of the parent (e.g., gender, age, and baseline mental health problems) and of the spousal death (e.g., cause of death) were tested as moderators of program effects on each outcome, but only 3 of 45 tests of moderation were significant. Latent growth modeling found that the effects of the FBP on depression, psychiatric distress, and grief occurred immediately following program participation and were maintained over 6 years. Mediation analysis found that improvement in positive parenting partially mediated program effects to reduce depression and psychiatric distress, but had an indirect effect to higher levels of grief at the 6-year follow-up. Mediation analysis also found that improved parenting at the 6-year follow-up was partially mediated by program effects to reduce depression and that program effects to increase coping efficacy at the 6-year follow-up was partially mediated through reduced depression and grief and improved parenting. FBP reduced mental health problems, prolonged grief, and alcohol abuse, and increased coping

  5. Exploring conflict between caregiving and work for caregivers of elders with dementia: a cross-sectional, correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Nu; Shyu, Yea-Ing Lotus; Tsai, Wen-Che; Yang, Pei-Shan; Yao, Grace

    2013-05-01

    To report the moderating effects of work-related conditions and interactive family-care-giving variables, including mutuality and preparedness, on caregiver role strain and mental health for family caregivers of patients with dementia. Few studies have examined the interrelationships among caregivers' working conditions, care-giving dynamics and caregiver well-being. Cross-sectional, correlational study. Data were collected by self-completed questionnaires from 176 primary family caregivers of patients with dementia in Taiwan from May 2005-January 2006. Caregiver role strain and mental health were analysed by multiple regressions using a hierarchical method to enter independent variables and two- and three-way interaction terms after controlling for caregiver age and gender, employment status, and work flexibility and the simple effect of each independent variable. More preparedness was associated with less role strain for family caregivers with less work/care-giving conflict. More care-giving demand was associated with poorer mental health only for caregivers with low work/care-giving conflict and with average and low preparedness, but not high preparedness. For family caregivers with less work/care-giving conflict, more preparedness decreased role strain and maintained mental health even when care-giving demand was high. These results provide a knowledge base for understanding complex family caregiver phenomena and serve as a guide for developing interventions. Future studies with longitudinal follow-ups are suggested to explore actual causal relationships. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Caregivers in schizophrenia: A cross Cultural Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, Prashant; Matheiken, Shevonne Tresa

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia not only influences the lives of those affected but also those around them, especially the caregivers. This study examines the different determinants that are likely to contribute to the caregivers' perception of burden of care across different countries namely Malaysia and India, using the burden assessment schedule. The goals for this study were, to study the psychosocial and demographic aspects of patients suffering from schizophrenia, to study the levels of perceived burden of the Malaysian and Indian families caring for a relative with schizophrenia, and to study the determinants that contributes to the caregivers' perception of burden of care. The study was conducted in private hospitals, both in Malaysia as well as Mangalore after obtaining the necessary approval. 50 schizophrenia patients and their caregivers in Malaysia and India were chosen using the purposive sampling technique. The inclusion criteria were a minimum of 5 years since diagnosis of schizophrenia. Although the Indian caregivers perceived difficulties in several areas such as finance, family relationship, well-being and health, they still perceived burden to be lesser compared to Malaysian counterpart. Intensified community based care can reduce burden.

  7. Men's knowledge and spousal communication about modern family planning methods in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhane, Adugnaw; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Amberbir, Alemayehu; Morankar, Sudhakar; Berhane, Alemayehu; Deribe, Kebede

    2011-12-01

    This study attempted to determine knowledge, approval and communication about family planning methods among married men in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a representative sample of 738 married males in Amhara Region. All 738 (100%) of the respondents had heard of family planning. About 558 (75.6%) mentioned the importance of using contraceptives for birth spacing and 457 (61.9%) to limit birth. Four hundred and forty-five (60.3%) of participants had ever discussed family planning with their wives. Thirty-three (33.0%) of the respondents reported that they were the sole decision makers in their families. About 597 (80.9%) approved the use of contraceptives. However, some participants did not discuss and approve family planning with their partner. This recalled an intensive effort has been taken by the concerned body to reach the country's targeted family planning coverage by involving men in reproductive health endeavor to enhance the discussion and agreement about family planning usage.

  8. Influence of home care services on caregivers' burden and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Young; Yeom, Hyun-E

    2016-06-01

    To examine the factors affecting the burden and satisfaction of family caregivers, focusing on the beneficial impacts of home care service use. Long-term care for older patients is a multifaceted process that brings both burden and satisfaction to family caregivers. It is expected that home care services offered by the Korean long-term care insurance may contribute to decreasing the burden of family caregivers and enhancing their satisfaction by assisting with practical caregiving tasks. A cross-sectional study. A convenience sample of 157 family caregivers was recruited from five home care service agencies in South Korea. Information about the caregivers, caregiving history, older care recipients and use of home care services was assessed. The effects of home care service use on caregiving burden and satisfaction were tested using hierarchical multiple regression analyses after adjusting for the characteristics of the caregivers, caregiving history and older care recipients. There was no significant influence of home care service use on reducing caregiving burden or on increasing caregivers' satisfaction. Although several factors were associated with caregiving burden and satisfaction, family functioning was the most unique factor to significantly affect both caregiving burden and satisfaction. Home care services might not automatically have a positive impact on caregivers' burden and satisfaction, but maintaining healthy family functioning is an important issue for family caregivers. The findings highlight the important need to reconsider ways to provide home care services and to develop nursing interventions to reinforce supportive family functioning. Practical strategies for providing home care services should be developed through a concrete assessment of the family dynamics and the needs of family caregivers. Health professionals should play a pivotal role in performing the assessment and in developing interventions to strengthen supportive family functioning

  9. Mental Health in Rural Caregivers of Persons With Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra J. Werntz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Informal caregiving for dementia is common and often affects caregiver mental health. In addition to typical stressors faced by caregivers of persons with dementia (PWDs, rural caregivers often face additional stressors associated with living in more remote locations; unfortunately, this group is largely understudied. Ninety-three caregiver–PWD dyads completed measures of social support, perceived control, self-efficacy, burden, and cognitive functioning. Measures of PWD activities of daily living and mental functioning were also collected. These variables were hypothesized to predict caregiver self-reported symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Contrary to predictions, only caregiving-related self-efficacy and caregiver burden predicted the caregiver’s mental health. Future interventions for improving rural caregiver self-reported mental health should target cognitions associated with caregiving self-efficacy and caregiver burden. Health care providers for rural families should focus on ways to reduce feelings of caregiver burden and provide caregivers with useful skills and tools for caregiving.

  10. Family Caregivers in Cancer: Roles and Challenges (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Family caregivers, also called informal caregivers, play an important role in treatment planning, decision making, and managing cancer care. Get comprehensive information on the importance of caregiver roles and concerns and helpful interventions for caregivers in this summary for clinicians.

  11. Latino caregiver experiences with asthma health communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Antonio; Ocasio, Agueda; Tiyyagura, Gunjan; Krumeich, Lauren; Ragins, Kyle; Thomas, Anita; Trevino, Sandra; Vaca, Federico E

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we analyze qualitative data from a purposeful sample of limited English proficiency (LEP) asthma health caregivers. We used ethnically concordant, semistructured, in-depth Spanish-language interviews and a follow-up focus group to explore issues related to communication during pediatric asthma encounters in medical settings. Inductive coding of Spanish transcripts by a bilingual research team was performed until thematic saturation was reached. Several key findings emerged. LEP caregivers encountered significant asthma burdens related to emotional stress, observed physical changes, and communication barriers. Language-discordant communication and the use of ad hoc interpreters were common. This finding is complex, and was influenced by perceptions of interpreter availability, delays in care, feelings of mistrust toward others, and individual emotional responses. Language-concordant education and suitable action plans were valued and desired. We discuss a revealing depiction of the LEP caregiver experience with asthma health communication and recommend areas for further inquiry. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Powerful Tools for Caregivers, a Group Psychoeducational Skill-Building Intervention for Family Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Rosney

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Care providers consistently report negative consequences to their mental health as a direct result of their caregiving responsibilities. Specifically, they describe higher levels of distress, mental health problems, and depressive symptoms compared to their non-caregiving matched controls. Powerful Tools for Caregivers (PTC is a national program that aims to empower caregivers to better care for themselves and enhance their self-efficacy. The purpose of the present study was to determine and quantify the effectiveness of the PTC program through pre/post data analysis. Methods: PTC intervention was evaluated at two questionnaire time points: pre-PTC and post-PTC between June 30, 2004 and Oct 16, 2013. Paired sample t-tests (n=409 were conducted using SPSS Statistics Version 22 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY. Results: PTC increased caregivers who conducted self-care behaviors, who demonstrated self-efficacy, management of depressing emotions and those who used community resources. Conclusion: PTC results in caregivers reporting that they are taking better care of themselves, reacting to their emotions in a healthier manner, gaining more confidence in their caregiving abilities and coping skills, and becoming more knowledgeable about receiving assistance from their community resources.

  13. Elder care and the impact of caregiver strain on the health of employed caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duxbury, Linda; Higgins, Christopher; Smart, Rob

    2011-01-01

    As the baby-boom generation moves towards middle age, and their parents toward old age, the number of employees who combine care for an elderly dependant and work will increase in number. These employees are "at risk" of experiencing caregiver strain. This paper advances our understanding of these trends by examining the relationship between caregiver strain and the health of employed caregivers. Our study involved the analysis of data from the 2001 Canadian National Work, Family and Lifestyle Study (N= 31,517). MANOVA was used to determine the relationship between caregiver strain and three situational factors: (1) gender; (2) where the care recipient lives compared to the caregiver; and, (3) family type. Regression was used to determine the relationship between caregiver strain and mental health. We found that caregiver strain depends on gender, family type and location of care. Emotional strain was a significant predictor of mental health. These findings support the need for organizations to expand their thinking around work-life balance to include employees who have eldercare responsibilities.

  14. Caregiver burden and coping strategies in caregivers of patients with Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iavarone A

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Alessandro Iavarone,1,2 Antonio Rosario Ziello,3,4 Francesca Pastore,3 Angiola Maria Fasanaro,3 Carla Poderico5 1Neurological and Stroke Unit, CTO Hospital, 2Italian Association on Alzheimer's Disease (AIMA, 3Memory Clinic, Neurological Unit, AORN Cardarelli Hospital, Naples, Italy; 4Clinical Research, Telemedicine and Telepharmacy Centre, University of Camerino, Camerino, Italy; 5Department of Psychology, Second University of Naples, Caserta, Italy Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD causes considerable distress in caregivers who are continuously required to deal with requests from patients. Coping strategies play a fundamental role in modulating the psychologic impact of the disease, although their role is still debated. The present study aims to evaluate the burden and anxiety experienced by caregivers, the effectiveness of adopted coping strategies, and their relationships with burden and anxiety. Methods: Eighty-six caregivers received the Caregiver Burden Inventory (CBI and the ­State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI Y-1 and Y-2. The coping strategies were assessed by means of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS, according to the model proposed by Endler and Parker in 1990.Results: The CBI scores (overall and single sections were extremely high and correlated with dementia severity. Women, as well as older caregivers, showed higher scores. The trait anxiety (STAI-Y-2 correlated with the CBI overall score. The CISS showed that caregivers mainly adopted task-focused strategies. Women mainly adopted emotion-focused strategies and this style was related to a higher level of distress. Conclusion: AD is associated with high distress among caregivers. The burden strongly correlates with dementia severity and is higher in women and in elderly subjects. Chronic anxiety affects caregivers who mainly rely on emotion-oriented coping strategies. The findings suggest providing support to families of patients with AD through tailored

  15. Caregiver burden and nonachievement of healthy lifestyle behaviors among family caregivers of cardiovascular disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Mosca, Lori

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether caregiver burdens are associated with lifestyle behaviors 1 year following the hospitalization of a family member with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Prospective follow-up study of National Heart Lung and Blood Institute sponsored Family Intervention Trial for Heart Health participants. Hospital-based recruitment/baseline visit with 1-year follow-up. Family members of hospitalized CVD patients (N  =  423; 67% female; 36% racial/ethnic minority; mean age 49 years). Systematic evaluation at 1 year to determine heart-healthy diet (defined as caregiver burdens (five domains: employment, financial, physical, social, and time; Caregiver Strain Questionnaire). Logistic regression adjusted for covariates. Heart-healthy diet was less frequent among caregivers citing feeling overwhelmed (odds ratio [OR]  =  .50; 95% confidence interval [CI]  =  .26-.97), sleep disturbance (OR  =  .51; 95% CI  =  .27-.96), financial strain (OR  =  .41; 95% CI  =  .20-.86), upsetting behavior (OR  =  .48; 95% CI  =  .25-.92), and/or time demands (OR  =  .47; 95% CI  =  .26-.85) as burdens. Physical activity was less frequent among caregivers reporting financial strain (OR  =  .32; 95% CI  =  .13-.81) or upsetting patient behavior (OR  =  .33; 95% CI  =  .15-.76) as burdens. The most commonly cited caregiver burdens included changes in personal plans (39%), time demands (38%), and sleep disturbance (30%). Caregiver burdens were associated with nonachievement of heart-healthy diet and physical activity behaviors among family caregivers 1 year after patient discharge. When developing heart-health promotion interventions, caregiver burden should be considered as a possible barrier to prevention among family members of CVD patients.

  16. Protecting Against Influenza (Flu): Advice for Caregivers of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Protecting Against Influenza (Flu): Advice for Caregivers of Young Children Language: English ( ... from the flu. Advice on How to Prevent Flu for Caregivers of Young Children 1. Take Time ...

  17. Caregiver experiences and perceptions of stroke | Thomas | Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prominent themes associated with caregiving included: role changes and relationship disruptions within the family, occupational and social implications, fatigue, anxiety, depression, loneliness, frustration as well as financial problems. Caregiver experiences were exacerbated by the inadequate support structures available.

  18. Caregivers' resilience is independent from the clinical symptoms of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Rachel; Simões-Neto, José Pedro; Santos, Raquel Luiza; Sousa, Maria Fernanda Barroso de; Baptista, Maria Alice Tourinho; Lacerda, Isabel Barbeito; Kimura, Nathalia Ramos Santos; Dourado, Marcia Cristina Nascimento

    2016-12-01

    Resilience is the capacity for successful adaptation when faced with the stress of adversity. We aimed to investigate the relationship between caregivers' resilience and the sociodemographic and clinical factors of people with dementia. Cross-sectional assessment of 58 people with dementia and their caregiver dyads showed that most caregivers were female adult children. The caregivers reported moderate to higher levels of resilience, lower levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms and moderate levels of burden. Resilience was not related to the caregiver's gender (p = 0.883), nor clinical (p = 0.807) or emotional problems (p = 0.420). The regression showed that resilience was related to the caregiver's quality of life (p caregivers' resilience and the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of people with dementia. We can assume that resilience is an individual characteristic. Support groups should also focus on the factors that may increase resilience among caregivers.

  19. Assistance received by employed caregivers and their care recipients: who helps care recipients when caregivers work full time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharlach, Andrew E; Gustavson, Kristen; Dal Santo, Teresa S

    2007-12-01

    This study examined the association among caregiver labor force participation, employees' caregiving activities, and the amount and quality of care received by care recipients. Telephone interviews were conducted with 478 adults who were employed full time and 705 nonemployed adults who provided care to a family member or friend aged 50 or older, identified through random sampling of California households. We assessed care recipient impairment and service problems; the amounts and types of assistance received from caregivers, family and friends, and paid providers; and caregiver utilization of support services. Care recipients of caregivers employed full time were less likely to receive large amounts of care from their caregivers, more likely to receive personal care from paid care providers, more likely to use community services, and more likely to experience service problems than were care recipients of nonemployed caregivers. Employed caregivers were more likely to use caregiver support services than were nonemployed caregivers. Accommodation to caregiver full-time employment involves selective supplementation by caregivers and their care recipients, reflecting increased reliance on formal support services as well as increased vulnerability to service problems and unmet care recipient needs. These findings suggest the need for greater attention to the well-being of disabled elders whose caregivers are employed full time.

  20. Facilitating out-of-home caregiving through health information technology: survey of informal caregivers' current practices, interests, and perceived barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulman, Donna M; Piette, John D; Jenchura, Emily C; Asch, Steven M; Rosland, Ann-Marie

    2013-07-10

    Many patients with chronic conditions are supported by out-of-home informal caregivers-family members, friends, and other individuals who provide care and support without pay-who, if armed with effective consumer health information technology, could inexpensively facilitate their care. We sought to understand caregivers' use of, interest in, and perceived barriers to health information technology for out-of-home caregiving. We conducted 2 sequential Web-based surveys with a national sample of individuals who provide out-of-home caregiving to an adult family member or friend with a chronic illness. We queried respondents about their use of health information technology for out-of-home caregiving and used multivariable regression to investigate caregiver and care-recipient characteristics associated with caregivers' technology use for caregiving. Among 316 out-of-home caregiver respondents, 34.5% (109/316) reported using health information technology for caregiving activities. The likelihood of a caregiver using technology increased significantly with intensity of caregiving (as measured by number of out-of-home caregiving activities). Compared with very low intensity caregivers, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of technology use was 1.88 (95% CI 1.01-3.50) for low intensity caregivers, 2.39 (95% CI 1.11-5.15) for moderate intensity caregivers, and 3.70 (95% CI 1.62-8.45) for high intensity caregivers. Over 70% (149/207) of technology nonusers reported interest in using technology in the future to support caregiving. The most commonly cited barriers to technology use for caregiving were health system privacy rules that restrict access to care-recipients' health information and lack of familiarity with programs or websites that facilitate out-of-home caregiving. Health information technology use for out-of-home caregiving is common, especially among individuals who provide more intense caregiving. Health care systems can address the mismatch between caregivers' interest

  1. Advancing Care for Family Caregivers of persons with dementia through caregiver and community partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Carole L; Overbaugh, Kristen J; Pickering, Carolyn E Z; Piernik-Yoder, Bridgett; James, Debbie; Patel, Darpan I; Puga, Frank; Ford, Lark; Cleveland, James

    2018-01-01

    There are currently 15 million Americans who provide over 80% of the care required by their family members with Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. Yet care for caregivers continues to be fragmented and few evidence-based interventions have been translated into routine clinical care and therefore remain inaccessible to most family caregivers. To address this gap, the Caring for the Caregiver program is being developed at UT Health San Antonio, School of Nursing to improve support services and health outcomes for family caregivers. Our purpose is to describe the engagement process undertaken to assess caregiver and community needs and how findings are informing program development. We are using a model of public engagement that consists of communication of information, collection of information from stakeholders, and collaboration where stakeholders are partners in an exchange of information to guide program activities. An assessment of the community was undertaken to identify resources/services for family caregivers. Subsequently, stakeholders were invited to a community-academic forum to discuss strategies to build on existing strengths for family caregiving and to identify gaps in care. Detailed notes were taken and all discussions were recorded and transcribed for analysis. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. We conducted site visits with 15 community agencies, interviewed 13 family caregivers, and attended community events including support groups and health and senior fairs. Fifty-three diverse stakeholders attended the community-academic forum. Participants identified existing assets within our community to support family caregivers. Consistent among groups was the need to increase awareness in our community about family caregivers. Themes identified from the discussion were: making the invisible visible, you don't know what you don't know, learning too late, and anticipating and preparing for the future. Incorporating caregiver and

  2. Culture, role conflict and caregiver stress: The lived experiences of family cancer caregivers in Nairobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Githaiga, Jennifer Nyawira

    2017-10-01

    This article explores the experiences of a small group of Nairobi women caring for a family cancer patient at home. On the basis of literature on women as caregivers in Africa, and on other literature more broadly, it was anticipated that issues around generational roles, gender and women's cultural role would be relevant. Seven women participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews, while thirteen women participated in four mini focus groups. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Findings underscore the socio-cultural complexities of caregiving as a basis for evidence-based culturally appropriate structures to support family caregivers.

  3. Mental Health-Related Stigma and Discrimination in Ghana: Experience of Patients and Their Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawiah, P E; Adongo, P B; Aikins, M

    2015-03-01

    Mental health is now attracting increased public health attention from health professionals, policy makers and the general population. However, stigma and discrimination usually have enormous negative impact on the patients and their families. This study reports on stigma and discrimination faced by mental health patients and their caregivers in a suburban area of Ghana and the coping strategies used. This is a cross-sectional exploratory study which used both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Two hundred and seventy seven mental health patients were purposively interviewed. Focus group discussions were held with caregivers and in-depth interviews were held with mental health professionals. The quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS and Microsoft Excel(®) whilst the qualitative data were coded and manually analyzed thematically. Mental disorder cuts across all age, sex, education, ethnicity, employment, and marital status. More females were stigmatized than males at the work/employment and educational levels. Various forms of stigma were observed at the economic, psychological and social levels, whilst for discrimination it was only observed at the economic and social levels. Caregivers were also stigmatized and discriminated. The coping strategies adopted by the mental patients and their caregivers were also economic, psychological and social in nature. Mental health patients and their families suffer from stigma and discrimination from the individual, family, work, employment, education to the health level. Thus, community level policy on mental health care needs to be developed and implemented. Furthermore mental health education needs to be intensified at the community level.

  4. Changes in job stress and coping skills among caregivers after dementia care practitioner training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Takeya; Takahashi, Megumi; Takai, Michiko; Ikeda, Taichiro; Miyaoka, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Dementia care practitioner training is essential for professional caregivers to acquire medical knowledge and care skills for dementia patients. We investigated the significance of training in stress management by evaluating caregivers' job stress and coping style before and after they have completed training. The subjects included 134 professional caregivers (41 men, 93 women) recruited from participants in training programmes held in Kanagawa Prefecture from August 2008 to March 2010. A survey using a brief job stress questionnaire and a coping scale was carried out before and after they completed their training. A t-test and multiple regression analysis were performed to evaluate the effects of the training. After the training, the scores of modifiers on the job stress scale and of the coping scale increased, whereas the scores of stress reactions on the job stress scale decreased. However, there were no changes in participants' subjective cognition concerning their workplace environment. Furthermore, the change in stress reaction score tended to correlate with the change in consultation score in all participants and with the change in problem-solving and consultation in male participants. Among female participants, the change in stress reaction score tended to correlate with change in support from superiors and colleagues as modifiers. The factors that correlated to the change in stress reaction score differed between genders. The findings suggest that training caregivers improves their stress reaction and coping skills. © 2016 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2016 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  5. Self-stigma among caregivers of people with mental illness: toward caregivers’ empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girma E

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eshetu Girma,1,2 Anne Maria Möller-Leimkühler,2,3 Sandra Dehning,2,3 Norbert Mueller,2,3 Markos Tesfaye,4 Guenter Froeschl2,5 1Department of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; 2CIHLMU Center for International Health, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany; 3Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany; 4Department of Psychiatry, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; 5Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany Background: In addition to economic and material burdens, caregivers of people with mental illness are exposed to psychosocial challenges. Self-stigma is among the psychological challenges that can be exacerbated by intrinsic and/or extrinsic factors. Caregivers’ self-stigma can negatively influence the patients' treatment and rehabilitation process. The objective of this study was to measure the level and correlates of self-stigma among caregivers of people with mental illness. Methods: An interviewer-administered cross-sectional study was conducted in the Jimma University Specialized Hospital Psychiatry Clinic in Ethiopia on a sample of 422 caregivers. Data were collected by trained nurses working in the clinic using a pretested questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression was performed to identify the correlates of self-stigma among caregivers of people with mental illness. Results: The majority (70.38% of the caregivers were male. On a scale of 0 to 15, with 0 being low and 15 being high, the average self-stigmatizing attitude score was 4.68 (±4.11. A statistically significant difference in mean self-stigma score was found between urban and rural respondents (t=3.95, P<0.05. Self-stigma of caregivers showed significant positive correlation with perceived signs of mental illness (r=0.18, P<0.001, perceived supernatural explanations of mental illness (r=0.26, P<0.001, and

  6. Experienced emotional burden in caregivers: psychometric properties of the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire in caregivers of brain injured patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurtsen, Gert J.; Meijer, Ron; van Heugten, Caroline M.; Martina, Juan D.; Geurts, Alexander C. H.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the psychometric properties (internal consistency, discriminant validity, and responsiveness) of the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire for Brain Injury measuring emotional burden in caregivers of patients with chronic acquired brain injury. Inception cohort study. Caregivers of chronic

  7. Family caregivers of individuals with frontotemporal dementia: examining the relationship between coping and caregiver physical and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Cindy C; Wallhagen, Margaret I

    2014-01-01

    To identify strategies to assist family caregivers of individuals with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in dealing with their caregiving demands, nurses must understand these family members' unique needs and how they currently deal with their demands. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between coping and caregiver physical and mental health among FTD family caregivers. Participants were primary caregivers of individuals with FTD (with behavioral symptoms) living at home (N = 61). A small positive association was noted between problem-focused coping and caregiver physical health (r = 0.29, p caregiver mental health (r = 0.21, p = 0.10). However, multiple regression analysis showed that emotion-focused coping (β = 0.46, p caregiver mental health and explained approximately 14% of its variance. These findings support the potential value of emotion-focused coping strategies when dealing with behavioral symptoms manifested by individuals with FTD. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Caregiver Burden Among Caregivers of Individuals With Severe Mental Illness: Testing the Moderation and Mediation Models of Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulud, Zamzaliza Abdul; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2017-02-01

    The association between the socio-demographic characteristics of caregivers, such as gender and caregiver burden, is well documented; however, the process underlying this relationship is poorly understood. Based on the stress process model, we designed a cross-sectional study to examine the mediating and moderating effect of resilience on the relationship between gender and caregiver burden. Caregivers of individuals with severe mental illness (n=201) were recruited in two psychiatric outpatient clinics in Malaysia. The relationship between the gender of the caregiver and caregiver burden was mediated by resilience, thus supporting the stress process model. The findings from the present research contribute to the growing evidence of the interaction between socio-demographic variables of caregivers and resilience, and caregiver burden. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The interaction between informal cancer caregivers and health care professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Line; Ross, Lone; Petersen, Morten Aagaard

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: In order to meet the caregiving challenges, informal caregivers often need a substantial level of interaction with health care professionals (HCPs). This study investigated to which extent the cancer caregivers' needs regarding the interaction with HCPs are met and the associations betwe...

  10. Caregiver Sensitivity, Contingent Social Responsiveness, and Secure Infant Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.; Kassow, Danielle Z.

    2008-01-01

    Findings from two research syntheses of the relationship between caregiver sensitivity and secure infant attachment and one research synthesis of factors associated with increased caregiver use of a sensitive interactional style are presented. The main focus of analysis was the extent to which different measures of caregiver contingent social…

  11. What Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia Affect Caregiver Burnout?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyoshi-Taniguchi, Kazuko; Becker, Carl B; Kinoshita, Ayae

    2018-01-01

    Patients' irritability and aggression have been linked to caregiver depression, but the behaviors that most burden caregivers are not yet definitively identified. This study examines the connection between behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and the burnout of caregivers caring for home-dwelling elders with dementia symptoms in Japan. 80 Japanese rural and urban family caregivers completed detailed questionnaires about their experiences in caring for demented family members. We statistically analyzed the results for correlations between types of dementia, Pines Burnout, and Caregiver Distress. BPSD symptom severity significantly correlated with caregiver distress. The dementia symptoms most strongly correlated with caregiver burnout were: aggression, irritability, abnormal motor behavior, and hallucinations. Among the commonest symptoms, apathy, anxiety, and depression did not seriously aggravate caregiver burnout. Caregivers displayed higher burnout facing agitation/aggression, irritability, aberrant motor behavior, and hallucinations. Caregivers' reported distress was surprisingly dissimilar to their burnout scores; patients' delusions and anxiety led to higher distress reporting but not to burnout. Advance diagnosis of BPSD symptoms should be helpful to support nurses and caregivers of dementia patients. Particular support should be considered for caregivers and nurses of patients expressing aggression, irritability, abnormal motor behavior, and hallucination.

  12. Prevalence and correlates of psychiatric morbidity among caregivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The caregivers were administered a sociodemographic questionnaire, GHQ-12, Zarit Burden interview, and the Columbia Impairment Scale. Results: Most caregivers observed in this study were females (80.5%) with mothers of the patients accounting for 78% of all the caregivers. A higher percentage of the patients were ...

  13. Bereaved Caregivers to Patients With High-Grade Glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piil, Karin; Jarden, Mary

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: The disease and treatment trajectory of patients with high-grade glioma is a burdensome period for the patients' closest relatives who become informal caregivers. Caregivers experiencing this demanding shift in role are at risk of developing symptoms such as depression. Few studies have...... care planning within neuro-oncology caregiving to establish evidence-based practice guidelines and recommendations....

  14. Cancer Communication and Family Caregiver Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Wittenberg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Family caregivers have enormous communication responsibilities tied to caregiving, such as sharing the patient’s medical history with providers, relaying diagnosis and prognosis to other family members, and making decisions about care with the patient. While caregiver stress and burden has been widely documented in the caregiving literature, little is known about how communication burden, real or perceived communication challenges, impacts caregiver quality of life. In family caregiving, the City of Hope (COH Quality of Life model proposes that the caregiving experience is reciprocal to the patient experience, impacting physical, social, psychological, and spiritual quality of life. We used data from a pilot study testing a communication coaching call intervention with family caregivers of lung cancer patients to analyze caregiver reported communication burden and quality of life. We found variances in each quality of life domain, suggesting that caregiver interventions should range from self-care skill building for physical care to psycho-educational interventions that support caregiver coping and communication skill building. These findings demonstrate the importance of caregiver assessment and attention to communication burden in quality cancer care.

  15. Caregiver burden in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Jessica; Bakker, Leonhard A; van Groenestijn, Annerieke C; van den Berg, Leonard H; Schröder, Carin D; Visser-Meily, Johanna Ma; Beelen, Anita

    BACKGROUND: Informal caregivers of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis experience increased levels of caregiver burden as the disease progresses. Insight in the factors related to caregiver burden is needed in order to develop supportive interventions. AIM: To evaluate the evidence on

  16. 78 FR 66617 - National Family Caregivers Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... National Family Caregivers Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation... is one we must recognize and support. During National Family Caregivers Month, we thank these...' family caregivers also receive access to health care. Just as our loved ones celebrate with us in our...

  17. 76 FR 68621 - National Family Caregivers Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... National Family Caregivers Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation... exemplify the best of the American spirit. During National Family Caregivers Month, we pay tribute to the... our Nation's family caregivers assist seniors and people with disabilities to help improve their...

  18. Patterns of caregiver experiences among partners of cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, C; Triemstra, M; Mulder, M; Sanderman, R; van den Bos, GAM

    2000-01-01

    This study describes patterns of caregiving experiences in partners of patients with cancer (N=148) over a 6-month period. Caregiving experiences were assessed by means of the Caregiver Reaction Assessment Scale (CRA), which consists of four negative dimensions and one positive subscale: Disrupted

  19. 77 FR 66525 - National Family Caregivers Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... National Family Caregivers Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Our... hours to providing care to their relatives or loved ones. During National Family Caregivers Month, we... veterans and their family caregivers through financial support; access to health insurance, mental health...

  20. The phenomenology of bodily care: caregivers' experiences with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... caregivers were identified with the help of HIV/AIDS counsellors at two hospitals where AIDS patients received medical treatment. The thematic analysis shows that a patient's body was central in caregiving experiences. Social interaction in caregiving was mediated through seeing and touching the bodies of the patients.

  1. Adult caregiving among American Indians: the role of cultural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goins, R Turner; Spencer, S Melinda; McGuire, Lisa C; Goldberg, Jack; Wen, Yang; Henderson, Jeffrey A

    2011-06-01

    With a sample of American Indian adults, we estimated the prevalence of adult caregiving, assessed the demographic and cultural profile of caregivers, and examined the association between cultural factors and being a caregiver. This is the first such study conducted with American Indians. Data came from a cross-sectional study of 5,207 American Indian adults residing on 2 closely related Lakota Sioux reservations in the Northern Plains and one American Indian community in the Southwest. Cultural factors included measures of cultural identity and traditional healing practices. Seventeen percent of our sample reported being caregivers. In both the Northern Plains and Southwest, caregiving was positively correlated with younger age, being a woman, larger household size, attending and participating in Native events, and endorsement of traditional healing practices. In both regions, attendance and participation in Native events and engagement in traditional healing practices were associated with increased odds of caregiving after adjusting for covariates. Only in the Northern Plains did we find that speaking some Native language at home was associated with increased odds of being a caregiver. Examination of interaction terms indicated some sex differences in the association between cultural factors and caregiving in the Northern Plains but not in the Southwest. Our findings indicate that greater cultural identity and engagement in traditional healing practices are related to caregiving in American Indian populations. Caregiving research, intervention efforts, and caregiving programs and services in Native communities should pay special attention to the dynamics of culture and caregiving.

  2. Exploring factors and caregiver outcomes associated with feelings of preparedness for caregiving in family caregivers in palliative care: a correlational, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Anette; Årestedt, Kristofer

    2013-07-01

    Family caregivers in palliative care often report feeling insufficiently prepared to handle the caregiver role. Preparedness has been confirmed as a variable that may actually protect family caregiver well-being. Preparedness refers to how ready family caregivers perceive they are for the tasks and demands in the caregiving role. The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with preparedness and to further investigate whether preparedness is associated with caregiver outcomes. This was a correlational study using a cross-sectional design. The study took place in three specialist palliative care units and one haematology unit. A total of 125 family caregivers of patients with life-threatening illness participated. Preparedness was significantly associated with higher levels of hope and reward and with a lower level of anxiety. In contrast, preparedness was not associated with depression or health. Being female and cohabiting with the patient were significantly associated with a higher level of preparedness. The relationship to the patient was significantly associated with preparedness, while social support, place of care, time since diagnosis and age of the patients showed no association. Feelings of preparedness seem to be important for how family caregivers experience the unique situation when caring for a patient who is severely ill and close to death. Our findings support the inclusion of preparedness in support models for family caregivers in palliative care. Psycho-educational interventions could preferably be designed aiming to increase family caregiver's preparedness to care, including practical care, communication and emotional support.

  3. Caregiving and Its Resulting Effects—The Care Study to Evaluate the Effects of Caregiving on Caregivers of Patients with Advanced Cancer in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Kai Ting Chua

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Informal caregivers (IC are key to enabling home deaths, where preferred, at the end-of-life. Significant morbidity from advanced cancer can make caregiving burdensome. However, knowledge about the nature of the caregiving burden for caregivers in Singapore is limited. Hence, the key objective in this study was to examine the impact of the caregiving burden on quality of life (QOL, mental health and work capacity among local ICs. Eligible English-speaking ICs of hospitalized advanced cancer patients were recruited through non-random sampling. The Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI, Caregiver Quality of Life Index—Cancer (CQOLC, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale—Revised (CESD-R, and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire (WPAI were interviewer-administered to eligible ICs. Altogether, 16 ICs were surveyed. The mean age of ICs was 43.8 years. Most were children of patients (43.8%, and eight ICs had high burden (ZBI > 17. Those with ZBI > 17 had lower QOL, higher depression scores as well as greater work and activity impairment. In conclusion, high caregiver burden has adverse effects on QOL, mental health and work productivity. Non-physical elements of caregiving (particularly financial and decision-making and increased number of care roles undertaken by a single IC contribute to high burden. Future interventions for caregiving burden in Singapore should also address the financial and decision-making aspects of caregiving. Outsourcing selected aspects of the caregiving role to community services may reduce the number of caregiving aspects undertaken by a single IC and caregiver burden.

  4. Caregiving and Its Resulting Effects-The Care Study to Evaluate the Effects of Caregiving on Caregivers of Patients with Advanced Cancer in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Cheryl Kai Ting; Wu, Jun Tian; Wong, Yin Yee; Qu, Limin; Tan, Yung Ying; Neo, Patricia Soek Hui; Pang, Grace Suyin

    2016-11-15

    Informal caregivers (IC) are key to enabling home deaths, where preferred, at the end-of-life. Significant morbidity from advanced cancer can make caregiving burdensome. However, knowledge about the nature of the caregiving burden for caregivers in Singapore is limited. Hence, the key objective in this study was to examine the impact of the caregiving burden on quality of life (QOL), mental health and work capacity among local ICs. Eligible English-speaking ICs of hospitalized advanced cancer patients were recruited through non-random sampling. The Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI), Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Cancer (CQOLC), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale-Revised (CESD-R), and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire (WPAI) were interviewer-administered to eligible ICs. Altogether, 16 ICs were surveyed. The mean age of ICs was 43.8 years. Most were children of patients (43.8%), and eight ICs had high burden (ZBI > 17). Those with ZBI > 17 had lower QOL, higher depression scores as well as greater work and activity impairment. In conclusion, high caregiver burden has adverse effects on QOL, mental health and work productivity. Non-physical elements of caregiving (particularly financial and decision-making) and increased number of care roles undertaken by a single IC contribute to high burden. Future interventions for caregiving burden in Singapore should also address the financial and decision-making aspects of caregiving. Outsourcing selected aspects of the caregiving role to community services may reduce the number of caregiving aspects undertaken by a single IC and caregiver burden.

  5. Psychometric properties of the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview administered to caregivers to patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a Rasch analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfeldt, Erik; Mayhew, Anna; Straub, Volker; Bushby, Katharine; Lochmüller, Hanns; Lindgren, Peter

    2017-12-18

    To explore the psychometric properties of the full 22-item English (UK and US) version of the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview administered to caregivers to patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Caregivers to patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy from the United Kingdom and the United States, recruited through the TREAT-NMD network, completed the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview online. The psychometric properties of the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview were examined using Rasch analysis. A total of 475 caregivers completed the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview. Model misfit was identified for 9 of 22 items (mean item fit residual 0.061, SD: 2.736) and 13 of 22 items displayed disordered thresholds. The overall item-trait interaction chi-square value was 499 (198 degrees of freedom, p Interview fails to fully operationalize a quantitative conceptualization of caregiver burden among caregivers to patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy from the United Kingdom and the United States. Further research is needed to understand the psychometric properties of the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview in other populations and settings. Implications for Rehabilitation Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a terminal disease characterized by progressive muscle degeneration resulting in substantial disability and a significant burden on family caregivers. The Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview is one of the most widely applied measures of caregiver burden. Our Rasch analysis suggests that the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview is not fit for purpose to measure burden in UK and US caregivers to patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Clinicians and decision-makers should interpret Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview data from these populations with caution.

  6. The Impact of Respite Programming on Caregiver Resilience in Dementia Care: A Qualitative Examination of Family Caregiver Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Emily; Struckmeyer, Kristopher M.

    2018-01-01

    Family members with a relative with dementia often experience what has been called the “unexpected career of caregiver” and face multifaceted, complex, and stressful life situations that can have important consequences. This exploratory study was designed to address this major public health challenge through the lens of caregiver resilience and caregiver respite programming. While many caregivers report that they derive significant emotional and spiritual rewards from their caregiving role, m...

  7. Effect of Caregiver Family Status on Care Recipient Symptom Severity and Caregiver Stress at Nursing Home Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Paulson, Daniel; Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    The present research investigates differences between primary informal caregivers who were in the care recipient’s immediate family (adult children or spouses) versus those primary caregivers who were outside the immediate family. Measurement occurred at the time of admission of the care recipient to an urban nursing home. We hypothesized that immediate family caregivers would report greater behavioral disturbance among care recipients and increased caregiver depression and stress. Data were ...

  8. Resilience in caregivers of persons with Alzheimer's disease: A human condition to overcome caregiver vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardino Fernández-Calvo

    Full Text Available Abstract In general, the experience of providing assistance to and dealing with the complications experienced by a person with Alzheimer's disease puts caregivers in a situation of high risk, vulnerability, and stress, causing serious physical and emotional problems. However, some caregivers adopt a resilient mindset, which helps them to experience and express positive feelings as well as lower their burden in relation to the care. This positive experience occurs because caregivers perceive the process of caring as less adverse. They face the situation of care with a more positive mindset and are able to resist and maintain adaptive functioning. The objective of the present narrative literature review was to emphasize the need to develop intervention programs for caregivers based on salutogenic models of resilience, resistance, and personal growth to promote positive individual, family, and community resources.

  9. Caregiving burden and depression in paid caregivers of hospitalized patients: a pilot study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Dan Liang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caregiving burden and depression in family caregivers have been investigated, but little is known about how they affect paid caregivers. The aim of this study was to investigate caregiving burden and depression in paid caregivers of hospitalized patients. Methods A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in a tertiary referral hospital (Chengdu, China that enrolled 108 paid caregivers who worked in the inpatient department. The Caregiver Burden Inventory (CBI and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D scale were incorporated into a self-developed questionnaire to gather demographic information on the following four aspects: general, work, income, and family. Results The mean total CBI score was 29.7 ± 12.5. The time-dependence burden had the highest score of 15.3 ± 4.0, which was followed by the physical burden score of 6.5 ± 4.6, developmental burden score of 3.7 ± 4.0, social burden score of 3.2 ± 4.0, and emotional burden score of 2.4 ± 3.1. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that a higher CBI was associated with a longer time as a paid caregiver [β=7.041, 95% Confidence Interval (CI:1.935 to 12.974, p = 0.009], lower income satisfaction (β= − 6.573, 95% CI: -11.248 to −3.020, p = 0.001, and higher frequency of meeting with their relatives (β=7.125, 95% CI: 2.019 to 12.456, p = 0.006. The mean CES-D score was 11.9 ± 8.7, and significant depression was found in 28 (25.9% paid caregivers according to the CES-D score ≥ 16 cut-off. There was a moderate positive correlation between the CBI and CES-D scores (Pearson’s r = 0.452, p < 0.001. Conclusions A high caregiving burden was commonly observed in paid caregivers of hospitalized patients in China, as was a high prevalence of depression symptoms. Several associated factors were identified that could be areas for future interventions.

  10. A Program for Caregivers in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll-Dayton, Berit; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Four demonstration sites offered educational seminar series to employed caregivers, followed by choice of service options (care planning, support group, buddy system). Increase in absenteeism and knowledge of aging services was associated with attendance at seminars. Among service options, only care planning and support groups were used by…

  11. Self-care for the caregiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziewicz, R M

    2001-12-01

    Palliative care nurses can face unique stressors and compassion fatigue working in their field. Working with the dying and their families, communicating with other health care professionals, and handling ethical issues are often sources of stress in palliative care. The biochemistry and theory of stress are discussed. Various strategies to cope with caregiver stress are explained.

  12. Family Caregiver Research and the HIPAA Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Steven M.; Levine, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Research in family caregiving recently has become more challenging because of the strict protection of privacy mandated in the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996. We ask when should Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) follow HIPAA rules to the letter and when might they use the waiver option? What is the appropriate…

  13. Families with Special Needs: Caregiving Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Look for memorable events and achievements to honor family members with special needs. Take care of yourself. Stay healthy for yourself and those you care for. Work to maintain your personal interests, hobbies, and friendships. Balance is key. Set reasonable expectations about caregiving. This ...

  14. Protecting the Health of Family Caregivers

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-12-23

    This podcast discusses role of family caregivers and the importance of protecting their health. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 12/23/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/23/2009.

  15. Caregiving process and caregiver burden: Conceptual models to guide research and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brehaut Jamie

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parental care for a child with a developmental disability is an enormous responsibility, one that can far exceed that of typical parental care. While most parents adapt well to the situation of caring for a child with a disability, some do not. To understand parents' adaptations to their children's disabilities, the complex nature of stress processes must be accounted for and the constructs and factors that play a role in the caregiving must be considered. Discussion Evidence suggests that there is considerable variation in how caregivers adapt to their caregiving demands. Many studies have sought to qualify the association between caregiving and health outcomes of the caregivers. Contextual factors such as SES, child factors such as child behaviour problems and severity of disability, intra-psychic factors such as mastery and self-esteem, coping strategies and social supports have all been associated with psychological and/or physical outcome or parents or primary caregivers. In reviewing these issues, the literature appears to be limited by the use of traditional analytic approaches which examine the relationship between a factor and an outcome. It is clear, however, that changes to single factors, as represented in these studies, occur very rarely even in the experimental context. The literature has also been limited by lack of reliance on specific theoretical frameworks. Summary This conceptual paper documents the state of current knowledge and explores the current theoretical frameworks that have been used to describe the caregiving process from two diverse fields, pediatrics and geriatrics. Integration of these models into one comprehensive model suitable for this population of children with disabilities and their caregivers is proposed. This model may guide future research in this area.

  16. Caregiving process and caregiver burden: Conceptual models to guide research and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Parminder; O'Donnell, Maureen; Schwellnus, Heidi; Rosenbaum, Peter; King, Gillian; Brehaut, Jamie; Russell, Dianne; Swinton, Marilyn; King, Susanne; Wong, Micheline; Walter, Stephen D; Wood, Ellen

    2004-01-01

    Background Parental care for a child with a developmental disability is an enormous responsibility, one that can far exceed that of typical parental care. While most parents adapt well to the situation of caring for a child with a disability, some do not. To understand parents' adaptations to their children's disabilities, the complex nature of stress processes must be accounted for and the constructs and factors that play a role in the caregiving must be considered. Discussion Evidence suggests that there is considerable variation in how caregivers adapt to their caregiving demands. Many studies have sought to qualify the association between caregiving and health outcomes of the caregivers. Contextual factors such as SES, child factors such as child behaviour problems and severity of disability, intra-psychic factors such as mastery and self-esteem, coping strategies and social supports have all been associated with psychological and/or physical outcome or parents or primary caregivers. In reviewing these issues, the literature appears to be limited by the use of traditional analytic approaches which examine the relationship between a factor and an outcome. It is clear, however, that changes to single factors, as represented in these studies, occur very rarely even in the experimental context. The literature has also been limited by lack of reliance on specific theoretical frameworks. Summary This conceptual paper documents the state of current knowledge and explores the current theoretical frameworks that have been used to describe the caregiving process from two diverse fields, pediatrics and geriatrics. Integration of these models into one comprehensive model suitable for this population of children with disabilities and their caregivers is proposed. This model may guide future research in this area. PMID:14723791

  17. Validation of the Caregiver Guilt Questionnaire (CGQ) in a sample of British dementia caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Louise; Laidlaw, Ken; Gillanders, David; Quinn, Kathryn

    2013-12-01

    Depression is well documented as a key outcome variable for dementia caregivers; however, guilt has been under-researched, which may be in part due to the lack of an appropriate measure. The Caregiver Guilt Questionnaire (CGQ) was originally developed and piloted with a Spanish population but has not yet been tested in an English-speaking population. A cross-sectional postal survey was undertaken with a sample of 221 dementia caregivers in the UK, as part of a larger study of dementia caregiver outcome measures. The five-factor structure identified for the CGQ in the Spanish sample was replicated in this study. The five factors, "guilt about doing wrong by the care recipient," "guilt about failing to meet the challenges of caregiving," 'guilt over experience of negative emotions in relation to caregiving," "guilt about self-care," and "guilt about neglecting other relatives" accounted for 60% of the variance. Internal consistencies for the whole scale and factors were acceptable, and convergent validity was established with the Zarit Burden Interview guilt factor. A higher score on the CGQ was associated with a higher score on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) and a new cut-off score of 22 was established, which predicted a clinical score on the CES-D with 80.0% sensitivity and 61.5% specificity. The replication of the five-factor structure suggests that these are relevant themes within the feelings of guilt to both Hispanic and British dementia caregivers. The CGQ has been demonstrated to be a valid measure for use with British dementia caregivers and is likely to be of use in clinical and research settings.

  18. Caregiver experiences and perceptions of stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Thomas

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing prevalence of people in developing countries who suffer strokes, the long-term care of people who have had a stroke and who are living with disabilities has substantial consequences for caregivers and their respective families. As the caregiver plays a pivotal role in the rehabilitation of the people who have had a stroke, the objectives of this study constitute an investigation into the complexities of caregiving, including both perceptions and experiences of the healthcare system. Semi-structured interviews were utilised to elicit post-stroke experiences of six caregivers. The challenge the South African context adds to these experiences was probed. The data were analysed qualitatively by thematic and content analysis. Prominent themes associated with caregiving included: role changes and relationship disruptions within the family, occupational and social implications, fatigue, anxiety, depression, loneliness, frustration as well as financial problems. Caregiver experiences were exacerbated by the inadequate support structures available. The results are interpreted within a biopsychosocial approach, concluding with the concerns raised by caregivers on the support they require from the healthcare system in order to provide home-based care. Opsomming Met die toenemende voorkoms van beroerte in ontwikkelende lande bring die langdurige versorging van pasiënte met gestremdheid beduidende gevolge vir sorggewers en hulle onderskeie gesinne mee. Aangesien die sorggewer ‘n sleutelrol in die rehabilitasie van die beroertepasiënt speel, behels die doelstellings van hierdie studie ‘n ondersoek na die verwikkeldhede van versorging, wat sowel persepsies as ondervinding van die gesondheidsorgstelsel insluit. Semi- gestruktureerde onderhoude is aangewend om die na-beroerte ondervindings van ses sorggewers te peil. Die uitdaging wat die Suid- Afrikaanse konteks tot hierdie ondervindings meebring is ondersoek. Die data is kwalitatief

  19. The emotional impact of psychiatric symptoms in dementia on partner caregivers: do caregiver, patient, and situation characteristics make a difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meiland, F.J.M.; Kat, M.G.; van Tilburg, W.; Jonker, C.; Dr�es, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the emotional impact of psychiatric symptoms of patients with dementia on their caregiving partners, and to explore if caregiver, patient, and situation factors predict this emotional impact on caregivers. A cross-sectional design was used. Partners of patients with

  20. Caregiver burden in Alzheimer's disease: Moderation effects of social support and mediation effects of positive aspects of caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhixin; Ma, Caiyun; Han, Hongjuan; He, Runlian; Zhou, Liye; Liang, Ruifeng; Yu, Hongmei

    2018-06-01

    Although there are many studies on the relationship between patient-related factors and negative caregiver outcomes, the specifics of this relationship are poorly understood. We aimed to examine whether caregiver social support moderated the relationship between patient factors and negative outcomes for caregivers of community-dwelling older adults with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and whether positive aspects of caregiving mediated this relationship. We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients diagnosed with AD from 2 hospitals and 3 communities in Taiyuan, China, and their caregivers. Latent moderated structural equations and the bias-corrected percentile bootstrap method were used to estimate the parameters of moderating and mediating effects, respectively. Social support significantly moderated the effects of AD patient cognitive function (P mediated the association between patient depression and caregiver burden (P = 0.006), caregiver anxiety (P = 0.007), and caregiver depression (P = 0.034). The findings identify social support as a moderator and positive aspects of caregiving as a mediator of the relationship between patient-related factors and negative caregiver outcomes. The results suggest that health care providers must offer more effective social support for caregivers. In addition, prompt identification of patient and caregiver emotional states could help to improve quality of life. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. The predictive factors for perceived social support among cancer patients and caregiver burden of their family caregivers in Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oven Ustaalioglu, Basak; Acar, Ezgi; Caliskan, Mecit

    2018-03-01

    We aimed to identify the predictive factors for the perceived family social support among cancer patients and caregiver burden of their family caregivers. Participants were 302 cancer patients and their family caregivers. Family social support scale was used for cancer patients, burden interview was used for family caregivers.All subjects also completed Beck depression invantery. The related socio-demographical factors with perceived social support (PSS) and caregiver burden were evaluated by correlation analysis. To find independent factors predicting caregiver burden and PSS, logistic regression analysis were conducted. Depression scores was higher among patients than their family caregivers (12.5 vs. 8). PSS was lower in depressed patients (p Family caregiver burden were also higher in depressive groups (p family caregiver role was negatively correlated (p caregiver burden. Presence of depression was the independent predictor for both, lower PSS for patients and higher burden for caregivers. The results of this study is noteworthy because it may help for planning any supportive care program not only for patients but together with their caregiver at the same time during chemotherapy period in Turkish population.

  2. Certified Nursing Assistants Balancing Family Caregiving Roles: Health Care Utilization Among Double- and Triple-Duty Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePasquale, Nicole; Bangerter, Lauren R; Williams, Jessica; Almeida, David M

    2016-12-01

    This study examines how certified nursing assistants (CNAs) balancing family caregiving roles-child care (double-duty child caregivers), elder care (double-duty elder caregivers), and both child and elder care (triple-duty caregivers)-utilize health care services relative to nonfamily caregiving counterparts (formal-only caregivers). A sample of 884 CNAs from the Work, Family and Health Study was drawn on to assess the number of acute care (i.e., emergency room or urgent care facility) and other health care (i.e., outpatient treatment or counseling) visits made during the past 6 months. Double-duty elder and triple-duty caregivers had higher acute care utilization rates than formal-only caregivers. CNAs with and without family caregiving roles had similar rates of other health care visits. CNAs providing informal care for older adults have higher acute care visit rates. Given the increasing need for family caregivers and the vital importance of the health of the nursing workforce for the health of others, future research on how double- and triple-duty caregivers maintain their health amidst constant caregiving should be a priority. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Reducing the distance in distance-caregiving by technology innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazelle E Benefield

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Lazelle E Benefield1, Cornelia Beck21College of Nursing, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA; 2Pat & Willard Walker Family Memory Research Center, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USAAbstract: Family caregivers are responsible for the home care of over 34 million older adults in the United States. For many, the elder family member lives more than an hour’s distance away. Distance caregiving is a growing alternative to more familiar models where: 1 the elder and the family caregiver(s may reside in the same household; or 2 the family caregiver may live nearby but not in the same household as the elder. The distance caregiving model involves elders and their family caregivers who live at some distance, defined as more than a 60-minute commute, from one another. Evidence suggests that distance caregiving is a distinct phenomenon, differs substantially from on-site family caregiving, and requires additional assistance to support the physical, social, and contextual dimensions of the caregiving process. Technology-based assists could virtually connect the caregiver and elder and provide strong support that addresses the elder’s physical, social, cognitive, and/or sensory impairments. Therefore, in today’s era of high technology, it is surprising that so few affordable innovations are being marketed for distance caregiving. This article addresses distance caregiving, proposes the use of technology innovation to support caregiving, and suggests a research agenda to better inform policy decisions related to the unique needs of this situation.Keywords: caregiving, family, distance, technology, elders

  4. Transnational caregiving: Part 1, caring for family relations across nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, V Erica

    2011-01-01

    This article concerns how globalization and the aging of the world's population are affecting the already complex issue of intergenerational transnational caregiving. Globalization has caused an increase in workforce mobility with large numbers of individuals seeking employment overseas. This, coupled with increased longevity globally, has resulted in many workers leaving their elderly parents in need of care in their home countries. This has spawned caregiving across national borders, or caring for family relations across nations. Currently in the United States, not enough emphasis is given to family caregiving. Data compiled by AARP and the National Alliance for Caregiving estimate the economic value for this group of family caregivers in 2007 to be $375 billion, accounting for 34-52 million family caregivers per given year. This does not include those families who are transnational caregivers. The seminal work in this emerging field has been done by social anthropologists Loretta Baldassar, Cora Velekoop Baldock, and Raelene Wilding, who have defined the components of transnational caregiving based on an ethnographic study using qualitative data to study nine immigrant communities in Western Australia. Although their research focused on caregiving from a distance, additional work has been added to the discussion by introducing the element of "care drain" and further cultural perspectives. Therefore, this research is an exploratory study on intergenerational transnational caregiving within the context of the changing world and its demographics. Within the context of globalization and global aging, the following questions are addressed: What is the significance of family caregiving? What is a transnational? How has technology changed "transnationalism" today? What are the elements that comprise transnational caregiving? How does culture play a role in transnational caregiving? What are some of the national initiatives undertaken by governments to aid in workforce

  5. Family caregivers of patients with frontotemporal dementia: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, Billy A; Frank, Mayu O; Jun, Jin; Martelly, Melissa T; Sadarangani, Tina; de Sales, Paloma Cesar

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this integrative review is to: (1) identify the characteristics of family caregivers of patients with frontotemporal dementia, (2) explore the impact of providing care on family caregivers' health and well-being, and (3) identify coping strategies used by family caregivers. Frontotemporal dementia is thought to be the second most common form of dementia after Alzheimer's disease. Family caregivers of patients with frontotemporal dementia face unique challenges due to its early onset, behavioral symptoms, and slow progression of decline. However, there is a dearth of research evaluating the health and wellbeing of family caregivers of patients with frontotemporal dementia. An integrative review was conducted using the Whittemore and Knafl methodology. An electronic search of the literature was conducted using four electronic databases: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Science. The Crowe Critical Appraisal tool was used to evaluate the quality of the selected articles. Findings of 11 articles informed this integrative review. Family caregivers of patients with frontotemporal dementia identify behavioral disturbances as most troubling. Spouses and female caregivers experience greater caregiver burden, distress, increased rates of depression, as well as decreased sleep related to behavior disturbances. Though less explored, providing care to those with behavioral disturbances may also impact caregiver physical health. Additionally, female caregivers are most likely to employ coping strategies, most commonly, adaptation and reframing. Effective interventions to reduce family caregiver burden are poorly understood but family caregivers suggest education and internet-based support groups are most helpful. Family caregivers of patients with frontotemporal dementia experience significant distress, which impacts their health and wellbeing. It is important for healthcare providers who care for patients with frontotemporal dementia to recognize the unique

  6. Informal and Formal Social Support and Caregiver Burden: The AGES Caregiver Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Koichiro; Kondo, Naoki; Kondo, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Background We examined the associations of informal (eg, family members and friends) and formal (eg, physician and visiting nurses) social support with caregiver’s burden in long-term care and the relationship between the number of available sources of social support and caregiver burden. Methods We conducted a mail-in survey in 2003 and used data of 2998 main caregivers of frail older adults in Aichi, Japan. We used a validated scale to assess caregiver burden. Results Multiple linear regression demonstrated that, after controlling for caregivers’ sociodemographic and other characteristics, informal social support was significantly associated with lower caregiver burden (β = −1.59, P support was not (β = −0.30, P = 0.39). Evaluating the associations by specific sources of social support, informal social supports from the caregiver’s family living together (β = −0.71, P social support was associated with lower caregiver burden only if it was from family physicians (β = −0.56, P = 0.001). Compared to caregivers without informal support, those who had one support (β = −1.62, P supports (β = −1.55, P support. Conclusions Social support from intimate social relationships may positively affect caregivers’ psychological wellbeing independent of the receipt of formal social support, resulting in less burden. PMID:27180934

  7. Persona Development and Educational Needs to Support Informal Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Awar, Zeina; Kuziemsky, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Informal caregivers are playing an increasing role in community based care delivery. Research is needed that looks at the educational needs of informal caregivers as a precursor to HIT design to support community care delivery. A challenge is informal caregivers have very diverse educational needs. Personas are an approach to describe user characteristics as part of systems design and this approach could be used to understand and categorize the various educational needs of informal caregivers. This paper addresses this research need and provides a method for persona development and the identification of educational needs for informal caregivers.

  8. A caregiver educational program improves quality of life and burden for cancer patients and their caregivers: a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgacem, Bénédicte; Auclair, Candy; Fedor, Marie-Christine; Brugnon, David; Blanquet, Marie; Tournilhac, Olivier; Gerbaud, Laurent

    2013-12-01

    The French setting, including laws and guidelines, advocates greater involvement of informal caregivers in the care of cancer patients to protect the caregivers from depression, distress, and a decrease in their quality of life. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a caregiver educational programme by measuring two outcomes: patients' and caregivers' quality of life and caregivers' burden. A multicentre randomised controlled trial was performed in six oncology wards in French hospitals. Eligible patients had a cancer, a main caregiver, allowed their caregivers' involvement, and received an inclusion agreement by a doctor/psychologist dyad. The experimental group participated in an educational programme performed by nurses to improve their skills in meal support, nursing care, welfare care, or symptom management. The SF36 and the Zarit burden scales were used to measure quality of life and caregivers' burden at the beginning and at the end of the study. 67 patients were randomised and 33 were included in the experimental group. Evolution scores, which measured the difference between baseline and final scores, showed an improvement in patients' and caregivers' quality of life and an alleviated burden for experimental group caregivers. An educational programme for caregivers encourages the involvement of patients, informal caregivers and health-care providers in a triangular relationship which enhances the quality of life of patients and caregivers alike and decreases caregivers' burden. Care organisation should therefore be rethought as a triangular relationship between patients, caregivers and health-care providers, with nurses as the mainstay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of Noncaregiving-Related Stressors on Informal Caregiver Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austrom, Mary Guerriero; Lu, Yvonne Yueh-Feng; Perkins, Anthony J; Boustani, Malaz; Callahan, Christopher M; Hendrie, Hugh C

    2014-08-01

    Caregivers of persons with dementia are stressed. Stressors not related to care recipients' needs impact caregiver outcomes, yet are seldom reported. The purpose of this study was to report the most stressful events experienced by spouse caregivers of older adults with Alzheimer s disease during a 6-month period. 31 caregivers completed the Most Stressful Event form, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Revised Memory Behavioral Problem Checklist (R-MBPC). Fisher's exact test and two-sample t-test were used to compare Most Stressful Events between caregivers. ANOVA model tested whether the PHQ-9 and R-MBPC subscales differed by stressor. Caregivers reported no stressors 21.5% of the time, 1-2 stressors 25% of the time, and 3 stressors 53% of the time with 318 stressors reported in total. Care recipient needs (30.2%), caregiver needs (26.7%), and decision-making (16.7%) were the most frequently reported stressors. Using a mixed effects model, there were associations between the Most Stressful Events and depression (p = 0.016), mobility (p = 0.024) and caregiver issues (p = 0.009) subscales of R-MBPC. Results can be used to develop targeted intervention and support strategies for spouse caregivers experiencing non-caregiving related stressorsas well as the traditional challenges with caregiving related issues. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Potentially preventable hospitalizations in dementia: family caregiver experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadak, Tatiana; Foster Zdon, Susan; Ishado, Emily; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Borson, Soo

    2017-07-01

    Health crises in persons living with dementia challenge their caregivers to make pivotal decisions, often under pressure, and to act in new ways on behalf of their care recipient. Disruption of everyday routines and heightened stress are familiar consequences of these events. Hospitalization for acute illness or injury is a familiar health crisis in dementia. The focus of this study is to describe the lived experience of dementia family caregivers whose care recipients had a recent unplanned admission, and to identify potential opportunities for developing preventive interventions. Family caregivers (n = 20) of people with dementia who experienced a recent hospitalization due to an ambulatory care sensitive condition or fall-related injury completed phone interviews. Interviews used semi-structured protocols to elicit caregivers' reactions to the hospitalization and recollections of the events leading up to it. Analysis of interview data identified four major themes: (1) caregiver is uncertain how to interpret and act on the change; (2) caregiver is unable to provide necessary care; (3) caregiver experiences a personal crisis in response to the patient's health event; (4) mitigating factors may prevent caregiver crises. This study identifies a need for clinicians and family caregivers to work together to avoid health crises of both caregivers and people with dementia and to enable caregivers to manage the health of their care recipients without sacrificing their own health and wellness.

  11. Commitment to personal values and guilt feelings in dementia caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Alberto, Laura; Losada, Andrés; Márquez-González, María; Romero-Moreno, Rosa; Vara, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Caregivers' commitment to personal values is linked to caregivers' well-being, although the effects of personal values on caregivers' guilt have not been explored to date. The goal of this study is to analyze the relationship between caregivers´ commitment to personal values and guilt feelings. Participants were 179 dementia family caregivers. Face-to-face interviews were carried out to describe sociodemographic variables and assess stressors, caregivers' commitment to personal values and guilt feelings. Commitment to values was conceptualized as two factors (commitment to own values and commitment to family values) and 12 specific individual values (e.g. education, family or caregiving role). Hierarchical regressions were performed controlling for sociodemographic variables and stressors, and introducing the two commitment factors (in a first regression) or the commitment to individual/specific values (in a second regression) as predictors of guilt. In terms of the commitment to values factors, the analyzed regression model explained 21% of the variance of guilt feelings. Only the factor commitment to family values contributed significantly to the model, explaining 7% of variance. With regard to the regression analyzing the contribution of specific values to caregivers' guilt, commitment to the caregiving role and with leisure contributed negatively and significantly to the explanation of caregivers' guilt. Commitment to work contributed positively to guilt feelings. The full model explained 30% of guilt feelings variance. The specific values explained 16% of the variance. Our findings suggest that commitment to personal values is a relevant variable to understand guilt feelings in caregivers.

  12. Sex disparities in access to caregiving in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahodwala, Nabila; Shah, Krunal; He, Ying; Wu, Samuel S; Schmidt, Peter; Cubillos, Fernando; Willis, Allison W

    2018-01-02

    To compare access to caregiving between men and women with Parkinson disease (PD). This was a cross-sectional and longitudinal study among participants with PD enrolled in the National Parkinson Foundation Parkinson's Outcomes Project from 2009 to 2014 at 21 international sites. The primary outcome measures were presence of a caregiver at the baseline visit, caregiver burden as measured by the Multidimensional Caregiver Strain Index (MCSI) at baseline, and time to first paid caregiver. A total of 7,209 participants (63% men, 37% women) with PD were evaluated. Men had a mean age of 66.0 (SD 9.8) years, and women had a mean age of 66.9 (SD 9.7) years. More men than women had a caregiver (88.4% vs 79.4%, p men reported greater strain than those of women (MCSI score 19.9 vs 16.4, p women compared to men (odds ratio 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.67-0.86), and women had a faster rate to using a paid caregiver than men (hazard ratio 1.76, 95% CI 1.35-2.28) after controlling for potential confounders. Informal caregiving resources are lower for women than men with PD, despite the finding that their caregivers report less strain than those of men. In addition, women are more likely to use formal, paid caregivers. Strategies to improve access to caregiving, particularly for women, are needed. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  13. Cross-cultural caregiving and the temporal dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escandon, Socorro

    2013-11-01

    The caregiving research literature has explored and documented findings from psychological, clinical, and policy/program perspectives, but little is known regarding the contextual perspectives of caregiving. Temporal factors influence the structure and functioning of the caregiving family. The proposed paradigm adaptation extends a contextual perspective that addresses the exploration of the caregiving process as a temporal, dynamic, progressive process over time, in which decisions made by caregivers may not always be based on observable tasks but, nevertheless, may have important consequences. When cultures cross, attitudes and behaviors are modified, resulting from contact with a different set of values and beliefs. Cross-cultural research aims to explore these changes that take place over time. Future research should consider the inclusion of measures that assess the temporal aspect of caregiving and the acculturation considerations of family caregivers. These measures are especially needed because of the increased influence of international migration, economic globalization, and political conflicts in today's multicultural societies.

  14. An Exploration of Volition: Caregiver Perceptions of Persons with Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Raber, PhD, OTR/L

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to understand what formal caregivers know about the volition of older adults with moderate dementia. A qualitative approach was used at one assisted living facility. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with formal caregivers to gain their perceptions of residents’ volition or motivation for occupation. Volition of resident participants was assessed using the Volitional Questionnaire (VQ. Caregiver interviews and resident VQ’s were analyzed using van Manen’s phenomenological approach to examine their congruence with regard to the volitional abilities of residents. Thematic analysis yielded two broad themes: (a Caregivers possess varying layers of insight regarding the volitional abilities of the older adults with dementia, and (b caregivers develop a script regarding the volitional abilities of the older adults with dementia. Caregivers possess knowledge about volitional abilities of older adults with dementia. Further research is needed to understand how these perceptions affect their care-giving behaviors.

  15. [Ressignification of life of caregivers of elderly patients with cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Anjos, Anna Cláudia Yokoyama; Zago, Márcia Maria Fontão

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to analyze the process of becoming a caregiver of elderly patients with cancer, in chemotherapy, in the home context. This is an exploratory study with theoretical and methodological orientation of interpretative anthropology and ethnographic case study. Data were collected from January to September 2009, with four caregivers through semi-structured interviews, observation and consultation records. With data analysis were built four units of meaning. In this paper 'we are focusing the thematic unity "The ressignification of caregiver's life", composed by positive aspects of caregiving activities and of helping to overcome difficulties, such as union, solidarity, opportunity for reapproximation. The difficulties were more evident, especially being unprepared to care at home, which led to changes in the caregiver's familiar and social relationships, resulting in impairment of physical, emotional and social aspects. The nurse, as an agent of care, must provide adequate qualification to the caregivers, helping them in coping with the disease and improving the patient-caregiver-service relationship.

  16. Acculturation level and caregiver outcomes from a randomized intervention trial to enhance caregivers' health: evidence from REACH II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Oanh L; Liu, Xiaoyan Lucia; Tancredi, Daniel; Ramirez, A Susana; Schulz, Richard; Hinton, Ladson

    2018-06-01

    Latinos comprise a growing segment of the caregiver population and vary widely in acculturation, yet little is known regarding how acculturation might affect caregiver stress or intervention outcomes. This study examined the relationship between acculturation and burden, bother, and depression in Latino dementia caregivers at baseline and following an intervention. This was a secondary data analysis of 211 Latino caregivers of older adults with dementia from Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health (REACH) II, a multisite randomized trial of caregiver interventions. Baseline and follow-up data were used to run mixed-effects models examining the main and moderating effect of acculturation on caregiver stress. No significant main effect of acculturation was found for any of the outcome measures, controlling for demographic covariates. Acculturation moderated the effect of the intervention on caregiver burden: those who were more acculturated benefited more from the intervention. Differential acculturation for Latino caregivers was not directly associated with caregiver burden, bother, or depression, but was associated with reducing burden from the intervention. Future research should explore by what mechanism acculturation influences caregiver burden following an intervention.

  17. Caring for frail elders with musculoskeletal conditions and family caregivers' subjective well-being: The role of multidimensional caregiver burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Nan; Liu, Jinyu; Lou, Vivian W Q

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the unique set of correlates of each dimension of the burden experienced by family caregivers of frail elders with musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions in China, and the role of caregiver burden in between caregiver stressors and subjective well-being. The data was derived from a community sample of 494 elder-caregiver dyads from six urban districts of Shanghai (China). The elders were aged 75 or above, needed assistance in activities of daily living (ADL) and had MSK conditions. The family caregivers were these elders' primary caregivers and at the age of 18 or older. Path analysis was used to examine the proposed model. Care recipients' functional health, cognitive status and behavioral problems affected the multiple dimensions of caregiver burden differently. These three stressors also indirectly affected caregivers' subjective well-being through physical, social and developmental burden. The findings highlighted the mediator role of caregiver burden in between caregiver stressors and subjective well-being, which supported burden-as-mediator theory in understanding family caregiving for frail elders with musculoskeletal conditions in a Chinese context. The focus of intervention should be varied according to the levels of the primary stressors. Policy and intervention implications with regard to the ways of helping Chinese families care for their frail elders with MSK conditions were discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. "I'm just trying to cope for both of us": Challenges and supports of family caregivers in participant-directed programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliken, Aimee; Mahoney, Ellen K; Mahoney, Kevin J; Mignosa, Kate; Rodriguez, Isabella; Cuchetti, Catherine; Inoue, Megumi

    2018-05-17

    Recently, national attention has focused on the needs of family caregivers providing complex chronic care, noting the necessity to better understand the scope of challenges they encounter. Although a robust body of literature exists about the scope of family caregiving, little is known specifically about the experiences and perspectives of family caregivers who support participant directed (PD) participants, particularly across the caregiving trajectory. Therefore, the aim of this qualitative descriptive study was to describe what family caregivers of individuals with developmental disabilities, physical disabilities, aging, or chronic health conditions identify as the challenges they experience as complex, and their perceptions of the effectiveness and gaps in family support resources in PD. Semi-structured interviews were audio-recorded with a purposive sample of caregivers. Transcribed interviews were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Fifty-four caregivers of individuals with a range of disabilities participated (age 34-78, M 59.9 ± 8.8; male 19%; spouse 17%, parent 61%). Six categories emerged from the analysis: contextualizing complexity, complexity in transitions, coping with complexity: advocacy & isolation, supportive support, unsupportive support, and systems challenges. Caregivers emphasized the interplay between unpredictability, transitions, and complexity and the interaction between the person receiving support, the caregiver's own situation, and the environment. Findings highlight the need, and provide a guide, for family assessment and for tailoring interventions matched to the profiles and self-identified challenges of families living with disability. Social workers can learn what families see as complex and what support broker behaviors families find helpful, and which not.

  19. Smartphone applications for seizure care and management in children and adolescents with epilepsy: Feasibility and acceptability assessment among caregivers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Wang, Rui; Zhou, Dong; Hong, Zhen

    2016-11-01

    to determine the feasibility as well as the attitudes among caregivers of children and adolescents with epilepsy in China towards the use of smart phone applications (apps) for the management of seizures. The caregivers of children and adolescents with epilepsy, ages ranging from 0 to 15 years, were enrolled in the study from the Epilepsy Prevention and Cure Center of West China Hospital within the time period from June 2015 to December 2015. A 10-item questionnaire gauging the attitudes towards using apps for seizure management was administered to the 390 caregivers. Additionally, data on the demographic and clinic characteristics of the children and adolescents with epilepsy for each caregiver were also collected. The results indicated that approximately 99.2% of caregivers own a mobile phone, of which, 97.9% of these mobile phones were smart phones. Despite only 3.1% (12/390) of caregivers currently having an app regarding the management of a chronic illness, 70.2%(274/390) reported that they would use a free seizure management app. The results of the current study indicated that the likelihood of using such a free app increased if the participant was a male as opposed to a female (P=0.03) and among caregivers with a higher education level, a higher annual household income as well as stable job (Pepilepsy and seizure management among caregivers. The use of such apps in China thus represents a promising strategy among caregivers for seizure management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The moderating effect of religiosity on caregiving burden and depressive symptoms in caregivers of patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kyung Hee; Moon, Yoo Sun; Lee, Yunhwan; Choi, Seong Hye; Moon, So Young; Seo, Sang Won; Park, Kyung Won; Ku, Bon D; Han, Hyun Jeong; Park, Kee Hyung; Han, Seol-Heui; Kim, Eun-Joo; Lee, Jae-Hong; Park, Sun A; Shim, Yong S; Kim, Jong Hun; Hong, Chang Hyung; Na, Duk L; Ye, Byoung Seok; Kim, Hee Jin; Moon, Yeonsil; Lee, Sang Soo; Kim, Do Hoon

    2018-01-01

    This study explored whether religiosity/spirituality has a protective role against negative caregiving outcomes, in a large multicenter nationwide sample of caregivers of patients with dementia in South Korea. Additionally, this study was the first to examine whether religiosity/spirituality could affect caregiving outcomes according to the various religious affiliations of caregivers. The study was conducted on a sample of 476 caregivers of patients with dementia participated in the Clinical Research Center for Dementia of South Korea (CREDOS). We examined the moderating effect of each of the three dimensions of religiosity/spirituality (organizational religious activity, ORA; non-organizational religious activity, NORA; intrinsic religiosity, IR) on the relationship between activities of daily living (ADL) of patients with dementia and caregiving burden and depressive symptoms of caregivers, using a series of hierarchical regression analyses. In addition, these analyses were conducted according to the religious affiliations of the caregivers. ORA, NORA, and IR of religiosity/spirituality alleviated the effect of ADL of patients on caregiving burden. ORA and IR moderated the relationship between ADL of patients and depressive symptoms of caregivers. These moderating effects of religiosity on caregiving outcomes were different according to various religious groups. We have identified religiosity/spirituality as a protective factor for caregivers of patients with dementia. The sub-dimensions of religiosity as moderators were different by religious affiliations of caregivers. Further studies are needed to investigate the specific religiosity-related factors which could positively impact the mental health of the caregivers of patients with dementia by religions.

  1. Spousal Conflicts of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Shana R.

    2005-01-01

    Romantic relationships bud and sometimes bloom in the school district workplace. When those relationships involve a sitting member of a school board or an administrator with responsibility for managing other employees, questions about a conflict of interest will be raised. Most states have laws prohibiting a public official from taking official…

  2. Long-term outcomes of renal transplants from spousal and living-related and other living-unrelated donors: a single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kute, Vivek B; Shah, Pankaj R; Vanikar, Aruna V; Gumber, Manoj R; Goplani, Kamal R; Patel, Himanshu V; Munjappa, Bipin C; Trivedi, Hargovind L; Modi, Pranjal R; Shah, Veena R

    2012-07-01

    Deceased donor organ shortage has made living donors (LD) major source for renal transplantation (RTx) in India. Spouses represent an important source of allograft. We carried out a retrospective study of spousal RTx vs. other LDRTx to compare long-term results. This retrospective single-center study was undertaken to evaluate demographic, patient survival, graft survival, function vis-à-vis serum creatinine (SCr) and rejection episodes in 1523 living donor renal allograft recipients from 1998 to 2009. It included spouse donors (n=337) (group 1), living related donors (LRD) (n=969) (group 2), and living unrelated donors (LUD) (n=217) (group 3). Mean recipient age (years +/- SD)) was 41.48 +/- 8.87, 30.49 +/- 10.61, and 37.13 +/- 13.25, respectively for the three groups who were followed for 4.47 +/- 3.03, 4.47 +/- 3.0 and 5.15 +/- 3.28 years respectively. Female donors were 92.6%, 66.4%, and 41%, mean HLA match was 1.15 +/- 0.93, 3 +/- 1.05 and 1.30 +/- 1.08 respectively. One, 5 and 12 year graft survivals among group 1 were 91.39%, 75.49%, and 73.13%; 90.98%, 74.10% and 64.57% in group 2 and 94.92%, 82.86% and 70.31% in group 3. Patient survival for 1, 5 and 12 years were 89.31%, 72.55% and 66.58% in group 1, 93.57%, 82.25% and 72.23% in group 2, and 92.62%, 79.76% and 66.79% in group 3. Acute rejections were noted in 16.6%, 15.8% and 17% respectively. In circumstances of organ shortage andunavailability of well developed ABO incompatible transplants, spousal donation is viable option.

  3. Leisure, gender, and kinship in dementia caregiving: psychological vulnerability of caregiving daughters with feelings of guilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Moreno, Rosa; Losada, Andrés; Marquez, María; Laidlaw, Ken; Fernández-Fernández, Virginia; Nogales-González, Celia; López, Javier

    2014-07-01

    The moderator role of guilt on the effect of leisure activities on dementia caregivers' depressive symptoms was analyzed, considering differences by kinship and guilt as a multidimensional construct. Participants were 351 caregivers (58.97% daughters, 10.54% sons, 19.66% wives, and 10.83% husbands). Measures included frequency of leisure activities, depressive symptoms, and guilt (total scale and 5 factors). A moderator role of guilt was found only for daughters. Specifically, significant interactions between guilt and frequency of leisure activities were found for the total scale and for the Factors 1 (guilt about doing wrong by the care recipient), 2 (guilt about failing to meet the challenges of caregiving), and 3 (guilt about self-care). For those daughters who reported lower levels of leisure activities, showing higher levels of guilt was associated with higher scores in depressive symptoms, whereas those with lower levels of guilt showed lower depressive symptoms scores. Feelings of guilt may have different consequences on caregivers' distress depending on caregivers' gender and kinship. Daughters with higher levels of guilt who do not engage in leisure activities may be especially vulnerable to suffering psychological distress. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Psychosocial impact of early onset dementia among caregivers

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    Nathália R. S. Kimura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is growing recognition of early onset dementia (EOD as a significant clinical and social problem because of its effects on physical and mental health of people with dementia (PWD and their caregivers. Objective: To analyze the psychosocial impact of EOD in family caregivers. Methods: The study design was qualitative. Nine EOD caregivers (7 women were recruited at a service for Alzheimer's disease and assessed using semi-structured interviews. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyze caregivers' reports. Results: Five themes emerged from the narratives: psychological and emotional impact; physical impact; financial and professional impact; social impact and need for support services. The majority of the caregivers of people with EOD perceived their emotional wellbeing as poor or extremely poor. Carers reported poor physical health, which tends to be longer-lasting than mental health problems. Two caregivers had to retire after the disclosure of the dementia diagnosis, and seven reduced their work loads because they had to look after PWD. Preserving the abilities of PWD is essential to maintain their self-esteem, dignity and sense of utility. For the caregivers, interventions and stimulating activities make PWD feel worthwhile and contribute to improving life. Conclusion: The caregivers of people with EOD assume the role of caregiver prematurely and need to balance this activity with other responsibilities. There is a need for more studies of EOD in order to improve understanding of the impact of this disease and to enable development of adequate services for PWD and their caregivers.

  5. Psychosocial impact of early onset dementia among caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Nathália R S; Maffioletti, Virgínia L R; Santos, Raquel L; Baptista, Maria Alice Tourinho; Dourado, Marcia C N

    2015-01-01

    There is growing recognition of early onset dementia (EOD) as a significant clinical and social problem because of its effects on physical and mental health of people with dementia (PWD) and their caregivers. To analyze the psychosocial impact of EOD in family caregivers. The study design was qualitative. Nine EOD caregivers (7 women) were recruited at a service for Alzheimer's disease and assessed using semi-structured interviews. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyze caregivers' reports. Five themes emerged from the narratives: psychological and emotional impact; physical impact; financial and professional impact; social impact and need for support services. The majority of the caregivers of people with EOD perceived their emotional wellbeing as poor or extremely poor. Carers reported poor physical health, which tends to be longer-lasting than mental health problems. Two caregivers had to retire after the disclosure of the dementia diagnosis, and seven reduced their work loads because they had to look after PWD. Preserving the abilities of PWD is essential to maintain their self-esteem, dignity and sense of utility. For the caregivers, interventions and stimulating activities make PWD feel worthwhile and contribute to improving life. The caregivers of people with EOD assume the role of caregiver prematurely and need to balance this activity with other responsibilities. There is a need for more studies of EOD in order to improve understanding of the impact of this disease and to enable development of adequate services for PWD and their caregivers.

  6. Religious Involvement and Adaptation in Female Family Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Harold G; Nelson, Bruce; Shaw, Sally F; Saxena, Salil; Cohen, Harvey Jay

    2016-03-01

    To examine the relationship between religious involvement (RI) and adaptation of women caring for family members with severe physical or neurological disability. Two-site cross-sectional study. Community. A convenience sample of 251 caregivers was recruited. RI and caregiver adaptation (assessed by perceived stress, caregiver burden, and depressive symptoms) were measured using standard scales, along with caregiver characteristics, social support, and health behaviors. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify relationships and mediating and moderating factors. Religious involvement (RI) was associated with better caregiver adaptation independent of age, race, education, caregiver health, care recipient's health, social support, and health behaviors (B = -0.09, standard error = 0.04, t = -2.08, P = .04). This association was strongest in caregivers aged 58-75 and spouses and for perceived stress in blacks. Religious involvement (RI) in female caregivers is associated with better caregiver adaptation, especially for those who are older, spouses of the care recipients, and blacks. These results are relevant to the development of future interventions that provide support to family caregivers. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  7. Experiences and challenges of informal caregiving for Korean immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hae-Ra; Choi, Yun Jung; Kim, Miyong T; Lee, Jong Eun; Kim, Kim B

    2008-09-01

    This paper is a report of a study designed to explore the caregiving experiences of Korean Americans. Increasing numbers of older people in the Asian population place important long-term care demands on Asian caregivers, yet minimal attention has been given to the issue of caregiving in this group. The current study attempts to fill the gap by describing Korean American caregivers' unique caregiving experiences from their perspectives. A qualitative research design using a focus group approach was employed to discuss caregiving experiences in a cultural context. Data were collected over an 8-month period in 2005. Twenty-four informants, mostly women, at varying points surrounding caregiving participated in a focus group interview. Each focus group lasted about 1 (1/2)-2 hours. Thematic analysis was conducted by two bilingual researchers. Three key themes were identified: the caregiver role - competing priorities and beliefs, the extent and impact of caregiving, and the need for education and culturally-tailored support systems. Ten subthemes were identified within the three major themes: (1) facing double challenges; (2) changing attitudes about filial piety (Hyo); (3) providing care; (4) feeling out of control; (5) going through changing family dynamics; (6) being connected vs. providing connection; (7) paying back; (8) learning by themselves; (9) recognizing differences and (10) reconsidering geriatric care systems. The caregiving experiences described by Korean American families point to the need to identify and develop more focused outreach programmes as well as more culturally appropriate support services for this rapidly increasing population.

  8. [The system of informal caregiving as inequality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Calvente, María del Mar; Mateo-Rodríguez, Inmaculada; Eguiguren, Ana P

    2004-05-01

    In our setting, it is families, not the health and social services, who play the greatest role in providing continuous care to persons in need of such services. Informal health care poses two key questions with regard to the issue of equity: differences in the burdens borne by men and women, which contribute to gender inequality and, depending on their educational and socio-economic level, inequities in their ability to choose and gain access to needed resources and support services, thus contributing to social class inequalities. Distributing the burden of caregiving between men and women, and between the family and the state, constitutes a crucial debate in public health. This study analyzes the concept and characteristics of informal care, provides data on its dimensions in our setting, and analyzes the profile of caregivers, as well as the work they do and the impact it has on their lives. Finally, it presents currently existing models and support strategies for informal caregivers. It is largely women who assume the principal role of providing informal care, undertaking the most difficult and demanding tasks and dedicating the largest share of their time to them. As a result, women bear an elevated cost in their lives in terms of health, quality of life, access to employment and professional development, social relations, availability of time for themselves, and economic repercussions. Unemployed, under-educated women from the least privileged social classes constitute the largest group of informal caregivers in our country. Any policies aimed at supporting those who provide such care should keep in mind the unequal point from which they start and be evaluated in terms of their impact on gender and social class inequality.

  9. The Burden of Schizophrenia on Caregivers

    OpenAIRE

    Filiz Adana; Hulya Arslantas

    2011-01-01

    Caregivers’ burden in schizophrenia is a complex concept often with negative connotations. The concept refers to the impact of having a schizophrenia patient in the family including emotional, psychological, physical, economic distress and feelings of shame, embarrassment, guilt, and self-blame expe-rienced by the caregivers. There are objective and subjective aspects of care-givers’ burden. The objective burden refers to observed and verifiable impact of the diseased person in the family suc...

  10. Exploring oral literacy in communication with hospice caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Goldsmith, Joy; Oliver, Debra Parker; Demiris, George; Kruse, Robin L; Van Stee, Stephanie

    2013-11-01

    Low oral literacy has been identified as a barrier to pain management for informal caregivers who receive verbal instructions on pain medication and pain protocols. To examine recorded communication between hospice staff and informal caregivers and explore caregiver experiences. Using transcripts of interactions (n = 47), oral literacy features were analyzed by examining the generalized language complexity using the Flesch-Kincaid grading scale and the dialogue interactivity defined by talking turns and interaction time. Means for longitudinal follow-up measures on caregiver anxiety, quality of life, perception of pain management, knowledge and comfort providing pain medication, and satisfaction were examined to explore their relationship to oral literacy. Communication between team members and caregivers averaged a fourth-grade level on the Flesch-Kincaid scale, indicating that communication was easy to understand. Reading ease was associated (r = 0.67, P < 0.05) with caregiver understanding of and comfort with pain management. Perceived barriers to caregiver pain management were lower when sessions had increased use of passive sentences (r = 0.61, P < 0.01), suggesting that passive voice was not an accurate indicator of language complexity. Caregiver understanding and comfort with administering pain medications (r = -0.82, P < 0.01) and caregiver quality of life (r = -0.49, P < 0.05) were negatively correlated with dialogue pace. As the grade level of talk with caregivers and hospice teams increased, associated caregiver anxiety increased. Caregivers with higher anxiety also experienced greater difficulty in understanding pain medication and its management. Specific adjustments that hospice teams can make to improve caregiver experiences are identified. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Accessing antiretroviral therapy for children: Caregivers' voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret (Maggie Williams

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite efforts to scale up access to antiretroviral therapy (ART, particularly at primary health care (PHC facilities, antiretroviral therapy (ART continues to be out of reach formany human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive children in sub-Saharan Africa. In resource limited settings decentralisation of ART is required to scale up access to essential medication. Traditionally, paediatric HIV care has been provided in tertiary care facilities which have better human and material resources, but limited accessibility in terms of distance for caregivers of HIV-positive children. The focus of this article is on the experiences of caregivers whilst accessing ART for HIV-positive children at PHC (decentralised care facilities in Nelson Mandela Bay (NMB in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual research design was used. The target population comprised caregivers of HIV-positive children. Data were collected by means of indepth individual interviews, which were thematically analysed. Guba's model was usedto ensure trustworthiness. Barriers to accessing ART at PHC clinics for HIV-positive children included personal issues, negative experiences, lack of support and finance, stigma and discrimination. The researchers recommend standardised programmes be developed and implemented in PHC clinics to assist in providing treatment, care and support for HIV positive children.

  12. Accessing antiretroviral therapy for children: Caregivers' voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret (Maggie Williams

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite efforts to scale up access to antiretroviral therapy (ART, particularly at primary health care (PHC facilities, antiretroviral therapy (ART continues to be out of reach for many human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive children in sub-Saharan Africa. In resource limited settings decentralisation of ART is required to scale up access to essential medication. Traditionally, paediatric HIV care has been provided in tertiary care facilities which have better human and material resources, but limited accessibility in terms of distance for caregivers of HIV-positive children. The focus of this article is on the experiences of caregivers whilst accessing ART for HIV-positive children at PHC (decentralised care facilities in Nelson Mandela Bay (NMB in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual research design was used. The target population comprised caregivers of HIV-positive children. Data were collected by means of in-depth individual interviews, which were thematically analysed. Guba's model was used to ensure trustworthiness. Barriers to accessing ART at PHC clinics for HIV-positive children included personal issues, negative experiences, lack of support and finance, stigma and discrimination. The researchers recommend standardised programmes be developed and implemented in PHC clinics to assist in providing treatment, care and support for HIV-positive children.

  13. Illness denial questionnaire for patients and caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi Ferrario, Silvia; Giorgi, Ines; Baiardi, Paola; Giuntoli, Laura; Balestroni, Gianluigi; Cerutti, Paola; Manera, Marina; Gabanelli, Paola; Solara, Valentina; Fornara, Roberta; Luisetti, Michela; Omarini, Pierangela; Omarini, Giovanna; Vidotto, Giulio

    2017-01-01

    Interest in assessing denial is still present, despite the criticisms concerning its definition and measurement. We tried to develop a questionnaire (Illness Denial Questionnaire, IDQ) assessing patients' and caregivers' denial in relation to their illness/disturbance. After a preliminary study, a final version of 24 dichotomous items (true/false) was selected. We hypothesized a theoretical model with three dimensions: denial of negative emotions, resistance to change, and conscious avoidance, the first two composing the actual Denial and the last representing an independent component of the illness denial behavior. The IDQ was administered to 400 subjects (219 patients and 181 caregivers) together with the Anxiety-Depression Questionnaire - Reduced form (AD-R), in order to assess concurrent validity. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), internal consistency indices (Cronbach's α and McDonald's ω), and test-retest analysis were performed. CFA and internal consistency indices (Cronbach's α: 0.87-0.96) indicated a clear and meaningful three-factor structure of IDQ, for both patients and caregivers. Further analyses showed good concurrent validity, with Denial and its subscale negatively associated with anxiety and depression and avoidance positively associated with anxiety and depression. The IDQ also showed a good stability ( r from 0.71 to 0.87). The IDQ demonstrated good psychometric properties. Denial of negative emotions and resistance to change seem to contribute to a real expression of denial, and conscious avoidance seems to constitute a further step in the process of cognitive-affective elaboration of the illness.

  14. Gendering Guilt among Dependent Family Members' Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brea, Maria-Teresa; Albar, María-Jesús; Casado-Mejia, Rosa

    2016-11-17

    This study analyzes guilt among family caregivers of dependent patients, from a gender perspective. A qualitative design was used, conducting in-depth interviews and focus groups. Using purposive sampling, we selected 73 family caregivers and 23 health professionals (family medicine, community nursing, and social work) from the Primary Care District of Seville. The content of the information collected was analyzed in terms of the following categories: a) guilt for abandoning family and friends; b) guilt for the relationship with the dependent person; and c) guilt for placing the relative in a nursing home. To validate the findings, data sources, methodological techniques, and researchers' disciplines were all triangulated. Results indicated that women report more guilt than men for abandoning family and friends, and because of their relationship with the dependent person. However, with respect to nursing home placement, no difference was observed as a function of gender. The high incidence of caregiver guilt needs to be addressed by health professionals to avoid the emergence of other mental health issues.

  15. Personhood-Based Dementia Care: Using the Familial Caregiver as a Bridging Model for Professional Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gabriel Fetterolf

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With biomedicine at the forefront of our culture's understanding of illness, true healing is often neglected. It has become common practice to place elderly persons with Alzheimer's disease in nursing homes or long-term care facilities that do not always regard the sufferers' well-being as a top priority. This article draws from familial caregiving roles as a basis for understanding personhood, which I take to be a bridge between the world of a caregiver and the world of an Alzheimer's sufferer. Furthermore, through the modeling of professional caregiving strategies, I show how one might form meaningful relationships in long-term care facilities, and likewise provide the aging and afflicted person with forms of healing.

  16. Dementia caregiver burden: reliability of the Brazilian version of the Zarit caregiver burden interview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taub Anita

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of this article is to examine the reliability of the Brazilian version of the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview (ZBI. The instrument is a 22-item scale assessing the extent to which caregivers view their responsibilities as having an adverse impact on their social life, health, emotional well-being, and finances. We assessed 50 primary informal caregivers of demented patients coming from 3 different health care centers, using the test-retest method. Analysis of the results showed an intraclass reliability coefficient of 0.88, while Cronbach's coefficient alpha was 0.77 for the test and 0.80 for the retest items. The Brazilian version of ZBI shows sufficient reliability, comparable to the original version.

  17. Moderating role of positive aspects of caregiving in the relationship between depression in persons with Alzheimer's disease and caregiver burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Haihong; Zhai, Junwei; He, Runlian; Zhou, Liye; Liang, Ruifeng; Yu, Hongmei

    2018-03-01

    Improving caregivers' positive perception of their role may be important in reducing their subjective burden when caring for Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with depression. The purpose of present study was to explore the moderating role of the positive aspects of caregiving (PAC) on the subjective burden on family caregivers when managing depressive behaviors. We conducted a cross-sectional study including 200 pairs of patients with mild AD and their caregivers from three communities and two hospitals in Taiyuan, China in October 2014. The latent variable interaction model based on a two stage least squares (2SLS) regression was fitted. A significant moderating effect of the PAC was found on the relationship between depression in patients with AD and the caregiver burden they cause. Caregivers dealing with patients with low levels of depression but with high levels of the PAC had significantly lower levels of caregiver burden compared to those caregivers with the low levels of PAC. Continuously detecting the patient's mental state combined with caregivers having an optimistic attitude towards life may improve the quality of life for both patients and caregivers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of psychotropic medications by caregivers of elderly patients with dementia: is this a sign of caregiver burden?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einstein Francisco Camargos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the consumption of psychotropic medications by caregivers of elderly patients with or without dementia. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at all geriatric units in Brasília, Brazil, during a two-month period. Structured interviews were performed with 311 caregivers of people with or without dementia and they completed questionnaires. Among the caregivers, 196 (63% were caregivers of patients with dementia and 115 (37% were caregivers of patients without dementia. Forty-four caregivers (14.1% were taking psychotropic drugs (benzodiazepines or antidepressants, and this usage was more frequent among caregivers of patients with dementia (p<0.01. Twenty-two caregivers of patients with dementia (11.4% had used sleeping pills after beginning care, compared with only five (4.3% caregivers of patients without dementia (p<0.01. In conclusion, this study found that caregivers of patients with dementia took psychotropic drugs (benzodiazepines and antidepressants more frequently than the ones of patients without dementia.

  19. The effect of caregiver support interventions for informal caregivers of community-dwelling frail elderly: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Lopez Hartmann

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Informal caregivers are important resources for community-dwelling frail elderly. But caring can be challenging. To be able to provide long-term care to the elderly, informal caregivers need to be supported as well. The aim of this study is to review the current best evidence on the effectiveness of different types of support services targeting informal caregivers of community-dwelling frail elderly. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in Medline, PsychINFO, Ovid Nursing Database, Cinahl, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and British Nursing Index in september 2010. Results: Overall, the effect of caregiver support interventions is small and also inconsistent between studies. Respite care can be helpful in reducing depression, burden and anger. Interventions at the individual caregivers' level can be beneficial in reducing or stabilizing depression, burden, stress and role strain. Group support has a positive effect on caregivers' coping ability, knowledge, social support and reducing depression. Technology-based interventions can reduce caregiver burden, depression, anxiety and stress and improve the caregiver's coping ability. Conclusion: Integrated support packages where the content of the package is tailored to the individual caregivers' physical, psychological and social needs should be preferred when supporting informal caregivers of frail elderly. It requires an intense collaboration and coordination between all parties involved.

  20. Caregiver burden of Mexican dementia patients: the role of dysexecutive syndrome, sleep disorders, schooling and caregiver depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Carrasco, Óscar; Guerra-Silla, María de Guadalupe; Torres-Arreola, Laura Del Pilar; García-Peña, Carmen; Escamilla-Jiménez, Cristopher Isaac; González-González, César

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the accelerated growth of the elderly population, reconfiguration of families and member roles, and the increase of mental disorders, it is necessary to investigate the effects of this set of factors on the caregivers of patients with dementia in Mexico. Mental disorders of individuals have a negative impact on their physical and emotional quality of life, leading to greater dependence and making the caring experience a heavy burden. Several studies (none in Mexico) have used either the characteristics of the patient or caregiver to determine the burden, but few studies have included both profiles within a single study. The objective of the present study was to analyze the characteristics of the patients and caregivers associated with caregiver burden. A multicenter study was carried out in six health institutions located in Mexico City, including 175 patients (and their caregivers) diagnosed with different types of dementia. We used the Spanish Caregiver Burden Screen. Descriptive analysis and logistic regressions were used to estimate the effect of the covariates on the caregiver burden. The results showed that patient variables have a greater impact on caregiver burden than caregiver-associated variables. Dysexecutive syndrome, sleep disorders, schooling and caregiver depression are associated with a higher level of caregiver burden. Caregiver burden is a complex phenomenon. The results of the present study showed the need to implement multifactorial interventions targeting the caregiver to reduce the burden, strengthen the skills for patient management to avoid depression, improve patient health, and diminish functional dependence and future hospitalization. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  1. Caregiver burden among primary caregivers of patients undergoing peripheral blood stem cell transplantation: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgul, Nur; Ozdemir, Leyla

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to identify caregiver burden and influencing factors on the burden in primary caregivers of peripheral blood stem cell transplantation patients within 2-12 months following transplant, indicating early recovery period after discharge. This descriptive cross sectional study was carried out at hematopoietic stem cell transplantation outpatient units of three university hospitals in Turkey. A total of 55 patient and caregiver dyads were recruited and interviewed. The data were collected using questionnaires developed by the researchers and caregiver burden was measured with the Zarit Burden Interview. The mean score of Zarit Burden Interview was 28.41 (SD = 13.90). Patients' symptoms including nausea and self depreciation feeling were related to greater caregiver burden. Self-depreciation was referred to feeling undervalued. The mean score of the tool was significantly higher in caregivers who have not been educated beyond primary school and also caregivers who had lower income. Caregivers who supported their patients to fulfill physical needs and who did not receive help for meeting patients' psychological needs had statistically more elevated levels of burden. Moreover, the extent of care giving activities undertaken was positively correlated with caregiver burden scores. While positive impact of the care giving process on family relations decreased caregiver burden; negative effect increased the burden. This study suggests that caregiver burden of primary caregivers caring for peripheral blood stem cell transplantation patients varies by education, income status, and the extent of care giving activities undertaken. Changes in family ties and relations due to care giving effected caregiver burden. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Family caregivers' adjustment to nursing home placement of older relatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Szu-Yao; Davies, Elizabeth

    2007-06-01

    The literature on the impact of nursing home placement of older parents on family caregivers is still incomplete. Family caregivers experience stress, shock, anxiety, fear, resistance, and guilt in the process of decision making. The literature has demonstrated that family caregivers continue to experience stress and problems after placing older relatives into a long term care facility. Cultural values impact on people's attitudes, values and expectations. Culture will therefore affect the care-giving experience. Relatively little information is available from Asian and multicultural societies. Identifying family caregiver experiences after nursing home placement can alert professionals to the need for family guidance prior to nursing home placement and assist in early identification of potential problems. This article reviews the literature and discusses the impact on family caregivers of making a decision for nursing home placement and dealing with the stress and challenges that persist after nursing home admission.

  3. Religious and Spiritual Dimensions of the Vietnamese Dementia Caregiving Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Ladson; Tran, Jane NhaUyen; Tran, Cindy; Hinton, Devon

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of religion and spirituality in dementia caregiving among Vietnamese refugee families. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with nine Vietnamese caregivers of persons with dementia, then tape-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for emergent themes. Caregivers related their spirituality/religion to three aspects of caregiving: (1) their own suffering, (2) their motivations for providing care, and (3) their understanding of the nature of the illness. Key terms or idioms were used to articulate spiritual/religious dimensions of the caregivers’ experience, which included sacrifice, compassion, karma, blessings, grace and peace of mind. In their narratives, the caregivers often combined multiple strands of different religions and/or spiritualities: Animism, Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism and Catholicism. Case studies are presented to illustrate the relationship between religion/spirituality and the domains of caregiving. These findings have relevance for psychotherapeutic interventions with ethnically diverse populations. PMID:20930949

  4. Communication Coaching: A Case Study of Family Caregiver Burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg, Elaine; Ferrell, Betty; Koczywas, Marianna; Ferraro, Catherine

    2017-04-01

    Problematic communication among providers, patients, and their family members can affect the quality of patient care, causing stress to all parties involved and decreased opportunities for collaborative decision making.
. The purpose of this article is to present one case from a pilot study of a family caregiver intervention focused on communication. 
. The nurse-delivered communication intervention includes a written communication guide for family caregivers, as well as a one-time nurse communication coaching call. The call is aimed at identifying caregiver communication concerns, providing communication education, and role playing problematic communication.
. Psychological distress and caregiver confidence in communication were improved for the caregiver. Data presented from the case study demonstrate the need for family caregiver communication support and training and the potential benefits of such training.

  5. Resilience of family caregivers of elderly with Alzheimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlene Souza Silva Manzini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is the capacity that people have to cope positively with adversities. A cross-sectional, quantitative study, that aimed to assess factors associated with the resilience of family caregivers of elderly with Alzheimer’s disease. Sixty-six caregivers composed the sample, who were accompanied in a neurology ambulatory. Most caregivers presented moderate resilience. Linear regression showed that some factors interfered with caregivers’ resilience, being those: overload, the increment of days dedicated to caregiving, the level of kinship daughter-in-law/son-in-law or spouse, and practice of other activities besides caregiving. The findings can be useful in care-related areas, once we identified variables interfering in resilience, and those can be worked and improved to benefit the caregiver and the patient.

  6. Vasopressin and Oxytocin Reduce Food Sharing Behavior in Male, but Not Female Marmosets in Family Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack H. Taylor

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin (OT is critical for lactation and maternal care, but OT and the related nonapeptide vasopressin are important for caregiving behaviors in fathers and alloparents as well. This experiment tested the effects of vasopressin and OT on food sharing in marmoset families. We treated caregivers (parents, siblings with intranasal vasopressin, OT, or saline, and then paired them with the youngest marmoset in the family. Caregivers were given preferred food, and then observed for food sharing and aggressive behavior with young marmosets. OT reduced food sharing from male alloparents to youngest siblings, and fathers that received vasopressin refused to share food with their youngest offspring more often than when treated with OT. Vasopressin increased aggressive vocalizations directed toward potential food recipients in all classes of caregivers. These results indicate that vasopressin and OT do not always enhance prosocial behavior: modulation of food sharing depends on both sex and parental status.

  7. [Caregivers of people with neurodegenerative diseases: from help to delegation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzescaux, Sabine; Blondel, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Being a caregiver is difficult, even more so when it comes to helping people with a neurodegenerative disease. These caregivers, either family members or close friends, are confronted with an unexpected delegation which can prove to be highly complex as the pitfalls can indeed be significant. Moreover, the support the caregivers can provide depends on the support they can get for themselves. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparisons Between Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Informal Caregivers

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy J. Karlin; Joyce Weil; James Gould

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on understanding similarities and differences between non-Hispanic White and Hispanic informal caregivers of those with Alzheimer’s disease. Comparisons take place between caregivers reporting high levels of burden as indicated by the Zarit Burden Inventory. Data suggest similarities and differences between Hispanic (n = 17) and non-Hispanic White (n = 17) caregivers in this study in several areas. H...

  9. Fatigue in family caregivers of adult intensive care unit survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, JiYeon; Tate, Judith A; Hoffman, Leslie A; Schulz, Richard; Ren, Dianxu; Donahoe, Michael P; Given, Barbara A; Sherwood, Paula R

    2014-09-01

    Family caregivers are a vital resource in the recovery of intensive care unit (ICU) survivors. Of concern, the stress associated with this role can negatively affect caregiver health. Fatigue, an important health indicator, has been identified as a predictor of various illnesses, greater use of health services, and early mortality. Examining the impact of fatigue on caregivers' physical health can assist in identifying critical time points and potential targets for intervention. To describe self-reported fatigue in caregivers of ICU survivors from patients' ICU admission to ≤ 2 weeks, two- and four-months post-ICU discharge. Patient-caregiver pairs were enrolled from a medical ICU. Caregiver fatigue was measured using the Short-Form 36 Health Survey Vitality subscale (SF-36 Vitality). Caregiver psychobehavioral stress responses included depressive symptoms, burden, health risk behaviors, and sleep quality. Patient data included self-reported physical symptoms and disposition (home vs. institution). Forty-seven patient-caregiver pairs were initially enrolled. Clinically significant fatigue (SF-36 Vitality ≤ 45) was reported by 43%-53% of caregivers across the time points, and these caregivers reported worse scores in measures of depressive symptoms, burden, health risk behaviors and sleep quality, and patients' symptom burden. In 26 caregivers with data for all time points (55% of the total sample), SF-36 Vitality scores showed trends of improvement when the patient returned home and greater impairment when institutionalization continued. In caregivers of ICU survivors, fatigue is common and potentially linked with poor psychobehavioral responses. Worsening fatigue was associated with greater symptom distress and long-term patient institutionalization. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Resilience of family caregivers of elderly with Alzheimer

    OpenAIRE

    Carlene Souza Silva Manzini; Francisco Assis Carvalho Vale

    2016-01-01

    Resilience is the capacity that people have to cope positively with adversities. A cross-sectional, quantitative study, that aimed to assess factors associated with the resilience of family caregivers of elderly with Alzheimer’s disease. Sixty-six caregivers composed the sample, who were accompanied in a neurology ambulatory. Most caregivers presented moderate resilience. Linear regression showed that some factors interfered with caregivers’ resilience, being those: overload, the increment of...

  11. Leisure Time Activities and Mental Health in Informal Dementia Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Benjamin; Czerniawski, Alana; Davie, Nicola; Miller, Lisa; Quinn, Michael G; King, Carolyn; Carr, Andrea; Elliott, Kate-Ellen J; Robinson, Andrew; Scott, Jenn L

    2015-07-01

    Dementia prevalence and the demand for dementia care are increasing. Informal caregiving accounts for a large proportion of dementia care, but can come at high cost for caregivers. Informal dementia caregivers are at higher risk for mental health problems than the general population. This study examines whether perceived change in leisure activities is one working mechanism linking stress and burden experience in dementia caregiving to lower mental health (depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and reduced satisfaction with life), and whether there are group-based leisure activities that can buffer this detrimental effect. A total of 346 informal Australian dementia caregivers (88.15% female, age 18-82 years) participated in an online study. Mediation and moderation analyses using multiple regression demonstrated that perceived changes in leisure activities linked caregiving stress and burden to lower mental health, and that membership in groups engaging in affiliation or social activities attenuates negative effects of caregiving. Informal dementia caregivers benefit from satisfying leisure activities. In particular, engaging in social activities and self-help groups buffered the negative impact of caregiving. © 2015 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  12. A Problem Solving Intervention for hospice caregivers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiris, George; Oliver, Debra Parker; Washington, Karla; Fruehling, Lynne Thomas; Haggarty-Robbins, Donna; Doorenbos, Ardith; Wechkin, Hope; Berry, Donna

    2010-08-01

    The Problem Solving Intervention (PSI) is a structured, cognitive-behavioral intervention that provides people with problem-solving coping skills to help them face major negative life events and daily challenges. PSI has been applied to numerous settings but remains largely unexplored in the hospice setting. The aim of this pilot study was to demonstrate the feasibility of PSI targeting informal caregivers of hospice patients. We enrolled hospice caregivers who were receiving outpatient services from two hospice agencies. The intervention included three visits by a research team member. The agenda for each visit was informed by the problem-solving theoretical framework and was customized based on the most pressing problems identified by the caregivers. We enrolled 29 caregivers. Patient's pain was the most frequently identified problem. On average, caregivers reported a higher quality of life and lower level of anxiety postintervention than at baseline. An examination of the caregiver reaction assessment showed an increase of positive esteem average and a decrease of the average value of lack of family support, impact on finances, impact on schedules, and on health. After completing the intervention, caregivers reported lower levels of anxiety, improved problem solving skills, and a reduced negative impact of caregiving. Furthermore, caregivers reported high levels of satisfaction with the intervention, perceiving it as a platform to articulate their challenges and develop a plan to address them. Findings demonstrate the value of problem solving as a psycho-educational intervention in the hospice setting and call for further research in this area.

  13. [Resilience in caregivers of patients with dementia: A preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Lansac, Violeta; Crespo López, María; Cáceres, Rebeca; Rodríguez-Poyo, María

    2012-01-01

    Caring for a relative with dementia often has negative effects on the caregiver's physical and psychological health. However, many caregivers successfully cope with the stress factors arising from care, and even have uplifts during their experience, showing high resilience levels. This study presents a preliminary analysis of resilience in caregivers of patients with dementia, exploring its relationship with different variables. Resilience was assessed (by CD-RISC) in 53 family caregivers of patients with dementia. Resilience was correlated to the following variables: caregiving context, stressors (e.g., cognitive impairment), appraisals (e.g., burden), moderators (e.g., personality traits and resources), and caregiving consequences (physical and psychological health). The participants showed moderate scores on resilience. Resilience was associated with poor emotional and physical status (significant inverse correlations with anxiety, depression, psycho-active drug use, health habits…). High resilience scores were significantly correlated to burden, neuroticism and extraversion, self-efficacy, self-esteem and less use of emotion focused coping strategies. Higher resilience relates to a good emotional and physical status in caregivers. Moreover, resilience is more associated with caregiver variables (e.g., appraisal and coping with care, personality features), than to situational variables. The data highlight the strengthening of these types of appraisal and coping as a way to improve caregivers' resilience and, consequently, their health. Copyright © 2011 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Caregivers' perception of factors associated with a healthy diet among people with intellectual disability living in community residences: A Concept mapping method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruud, Marte Pilskog; Raanaas, Ruth Kjærsti; Bjelland, Mona

    2016-12-01

    Many people with intellectual disabilities (ID) living in community-based residences have been found to have unhealthy diet and weight disturbances. In Norway, a majority of people with ID live in such residences. The aim of the study was to examine factors affecting the caregivers' opportunity to promote a healthy diet among the residents. A concept mapping methodology was adopted, including group-based brainstorming, idea synthesising, sorting, rating and analysis of the results. Informants were caregivers in four different community residences for people with mild to moderate ID in the southeast of Norway. A total of 13 informants were recruited (12 females and 1 male), and 10 informants completed two sessions. Eight clusters were identified as affecting the caregivers' ability to promote a healthy diet: "Availability and accessibility", "Guidance and autonomy", "Competence among staff", "Planning and involvement", "Customization", "External conditions affecting staff", "Legislation, rules and structure" and "Everyday challenges", each including both barriers and facilitators. Multiple factors affect the caregivers' ability to promote a healthy diet. Caregivers' opportunity to promote a healthy diet is complex. Availability and accessibility of healthy food is crucial, but a healthy diet also requires time and competence among the caregivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effects of Caregiving Resources on the Incidence of Depression over One Year in Family Caregivers of Disabled Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    矢嶋, 裕樹

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the over-time effects of physical, psychological and social resources on the incidence of depression in family caregivers of the disabled elderly. Data were collected twice at a one-year interval from 1,141 primary caregivers of a disabled older person in an urban area of Japan using a self-reported questionnaire survey. The questionnaire included physical health as an indicator of physical resources, caregiving satisfaction and intention to care as...

  16. The effects of caregiving resources on the incidence of depression over one year in family caregivers of disabled elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Yajima, Yuki; Tsutsui, Takako; Nakajima, Kazuo; Li, Hui-Ying; Takigawa, Tomoko; Wang, Da-Hong; Ogino, Keiki

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the over-time effects of physical, psychological and social resources on the incidence of depression in family caregivers of the disabled elderly. Data were collected twice at a one-year interval from 1,141 primary caregivers of a disabled older person in an urban area of Japan using a self-reported questionnaire survey. The questionnaire included physical health as an indicator of physical resources, caregiving satisfaction and intention to care as...

  17. Professional caregiver's knowledge of self-reported delinquency in an adolescent sample in Swiss youth welfare and juvenile justice institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dölitzsch, Claudia; Schmid, Marc; Keller, Ferdinand; Besier, Tanja; Fegert, Jörg M; Schmeck, Klaus; Kölch, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Since an important goal of the youth welfare system is to prevent troubled adolescents from committing acts of delinquency in future, professional caregivers need to possess accurate knowledge about past behaviors in order to implement appropriate interventions. As part of a comprehensive study on youth in state care, adolescents at 30 residential care facilities in Switzerland were surveyed about past acts of delinquency, and their responses were compared to those of their professional caregivers to see how well they correlated. A sample of 267 male and female adolescents aged 11-18years completed questionnaires about the frequency, nature, and seriousness of different types of offenses, while a designated caregiver for each resident completed a corresponding questionnaire. The majority of residents (86.1%) reported having committed at least one offense, which confirms the prevalence of problem behaviors in this population and the need for strategies to prevent it. The overall rate of agreement between the residents and their caregivers was 77.2%, with both parties reporting that the resident had committed at least one offense in 69.7% of cases, and both reporting that no offense had been committed in 7.5% of cases. Agreement was substantially higher for offenses that were serious than for those that were minor or moderate. Cohen's kappa reached slight to moderate values with regard to individual and categorized offenses. Seriousness scales of delinquency for self-reports and caregiver reports were moderately associated. While the overall rate of agreement between the residents and their caregivers was high, increasing it still further might lead to improvements in strategies for the prevention of recidivism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Frequency of ICD-10 psychiatric diagnosis in children with intellectual disability in Lahore, Pakistan & Caregivers Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Nazish; Azeem, Muhammad Waqar; Sattar, Ahsan; Bhatti, Mohammad Riaz

    2015-01-01

    Association between Intellectual disability (ID) and psychiatric disorders in children & adolescents is well established but there is a paucity of published studies from Pakistan on this topic. The main aim of the study was to assess the frequency of ICD-10 psychiatric diagnosis in the hospital outpatient sample of children with ID in Lahore, Pakistan as well as to find out which challenging behaviors, caregivers find difficult to manage in this setup. Socio-demographic information was collected, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised & ICD-10 diagnostic criteria was used to assess children (age range 6 - 16 years) with suspected ID along with identification of behaviors found to be difficult to manage by caregivers. 150 children were assessed with mean age of 10.7 years (males 70 %). Majority (72%) had mild ID while 18.7% and 9.3% had moderate and severe ID respectively. Thirty percent of children met the criteria for any psychiatric diagnosis, the most common being Oppositional Defiant Disorder (14%) and Hyperkinetic Disorders (10%). Verbal and physical aggression, school difficulties, socialization problems, inappropriate behaviors (e.g. disinhibition), sleep & feeding difficulties were the significant areas identified by the caregivers as a cause of major concern. Significantly high prevalence of ICD-10 psychiatric diagnosis in children with ID was found in Lahore, Pakistan. Support services for these children should be responsive not only to the needs of the child, but also to the needs of the family.

  19. Factors associated with the caregiver burden among family caregivers of patients with heart failure in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaolin; Dolansky, Mary A; Hu, Xiuying; Zhang, Fengying; Qu, Moying

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the status of caregiver burden and identified the factors related to caregiver burden among family caregivers of patients with heart failure in southwest China. A cross-sectional descriptive design with a convenience sample was adopted. Patient and family caregiver dyads (n = 226) in four hospitals in Chengdu, China were recruited from June 2013 to July 2014. The instruments used in this study included the Social Support Rating Scale, the Zarit Burden Interview, and the General Self-Efficacy Scale. Multivariate analysis was used to identify the factors associated with caregiver burden. Forty-four percent of the variance of the caregiver burden was explained by the payment type for treatment, monthly family income, relationship to the patient, caregivers' self-efficacy, and social support. The caregiver burden in southwest Chin