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Sample records for male sex partners

  1. Is Sex with Older Male Partners Associated with Higher Sexual Risk Behavior Among Young Black MSM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Nicholas; Mena, Leandro A; Geter, Angelica; Crosby, Richard A

    2017-08-01

    Participants at a sexual health clinic completed a survey with questions regarding sexual risk behavior and partner characteristics. Of 585 participants eligible for analysis, 124 reported generally having older male partners. These participants were significantly more likely to be HIV-infected (p < 0.001), have four or more sex partners as a "bottom" (p = 0.04), have concurrent partners (p = 0.01), and have partners suspected of having an sexually transmitted infection (p = 0.05) than participants without older partners. With analysis restricted to HIV- individuals, risk behaviors did not differ significantly between the groups. HIV- individuals with older partners may be at increased risk of HIV infection due to increased HIV prevalence among older sexual partners and not due to increased risk behaviors with these partners.

  2. Heterosexual experience prevents the development of conditioned same-sex partner preference in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Tecamachaltzi-Silvaran, Miriam B; Díaz-Estrada, Victor X; Chena-Becerra, Florencia; Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; Paredes-Ramos, Pedro; Manzo, Jorge; Garcia, Luis I; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2017-03-01

    Sexual partner preferences can be strengthened, weakened or even drastically modified via Pavlovian conditioning. For example, conditioned same-sex partner preference develops in sexually-naïve male rats that undergo same-sex cohabitation under the effects of quinpirole (QNP, D2 agonist). Here, we assessed the effect of prior heterosexual experience on the probability to develop a conditioned same-sex preference. Naïve or Sexually-experienced males received either Saline or QNP and cohabited during 24h with a male partner that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus. This was repeated every 4days for a total of three trials and resulted in four groups (Saline-naïve, Saline-experienced, QNP-naïve, QNP-experienced). Social and sexual preference were assessed four days after the last conditioning trial in a drug-free test in which experimental males chose between the scented familiar male and a novel sexually receptive female. Results showed that Saline-naïve, Saline-experienced and QNP-experienced displayed a clear preference for the female (opposite-sex). By contrast, only QNP-naïve males displayed a same-sex preference. Accordingly, QNP-experienced males were not affected by the conditioning process and continued to prefer females. We discuss the effects of copulation and D2 agonists on the facilitation and/or disruption of conditioned partner preferences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Women's motivations to have sex in casual and committed relationships with male and female partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Heather L; Reissing, Elke D

    2015-05-01

    Women report a wide variety of reasons to have sex (e.g., Meston & Buss, 2010), and while it is reasonable to assume that those reasons may vary based on the context of the relationship, this assumption has not yet been tested. The purpose of this study was to explore how relationship type, sexual attraction, and the gender of one's partner interact and affect the sexual motivations of women. A total of 510 women (361 who reported exclusively other-sex attraction and 149 who reported same-sex/bisexual attraction) completed the YSEX? questionnaire. Participants rated their sexual motivations for casual sex and sex in a committed relationship with male and/or female partners, depending on reported sexual attraction. Results showed that relationship type affected reported motivation for sex: physical motivations were more strongly endorsed for casual sex, whereas emotional motivations were more strongly endorsed for sex in committed relationships. No significant differences in motivation were reported between women who reported same-sex attraction and those who did not. Women who reported bisexual attraction and identified as being lesbian, bisexual, or another sexual minority reported no significant differences in motivation for sex with male or female partners. The results of this study highlight the importance of relationship context when discussing sexual motivation and suggest a high degree of similarity in motivation for women, regardless of sexual orientation or gender of partner.

  4. Brain activation associated to olfactory conditioned same-sex partner preference in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria-Avila, Genaro A; Cibrian-Llanderal, Tamara; Díaz-Estrada, Victor X; García, Luis I; Toledo-Cárdenas, Rebeca; Pfaus, James G; Manzo, Jorge

    2018-03-01

    Sexual preferences can be strongly modified by Pavlovian learning. For instance, olfactory conditioned same-sex partner preference can occur when a sexually naïve male cohabits with an scented male during repeated periods under the effects of enhanced D2-type activity. Preference is observed days later via social and sexual behaviors. Herein we explored brain activity related to learned same-sex preference (Fos-Immunoreactivity, IR) following exposure to a conditioned odor paired with same-sex preference. During conditioning trials males received either saline or the D2-type receptor agonist quinpirole (QNP) and cohabitated during 24 h with a stimulus male that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus. This was repeated every 4 days, for a total of three trials. In a drug-free final test we assessed socio/sexual partner preference between the scented male and a receptive female. The results indicated that QNP-conditioned males developed a same-sex preference observed via contact, time spent, olfactory investigations, and non-contact erections. By contrast, saline-conditioned and intact (non-exposed to conditioning) males expressed an unconditioned preference for the female. Four days later the males were exposed to almond scent and their brains were processed for Fos-IR. Results indicated that the QNP-conditioned group expressed more Fos-IR in the nucleus accumbens (AcbSh), medial preoptic area (MPA), piriform cortex (Pir) and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) as compared to saline-conditioned. Intact males expressed the lowest Fos-IR in AcbSh and VMH, but the highest in MPA and Pir. We discuss the role of these areas in the learning process of same-sex partner preferences and olfactory discrimination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Anonymous sex and HIV risk practices among men using the Internet specifically to find male partners for unprotected sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, H

    2012-06-01

    To examine the popularity of anonymous sex practices among men using the Internet to find male partners for unprotected sex, and how anonymous sex relates to involvement in other HIV-related risk behaviours, and to investigate the factors associated with engaging in anonymous sex. Structured telephone interviews were conducted with men who used the Internet specifically to find male partners for unprotected sex. Random sampling from 16 websites was used to obtain a national sample. The data reported in this paper were based on quantitative interviews collected with a cross-sectional study design. Between January 2008 and May 2009, confidential telephone interviews lasting approximately 1-2 h were completed with 332 men. Participants were paid $35 for their participation. Most of the men (67.4%) liked anonymous sex, and slightly more than half (51.2%) had engaged in the behaviour during the month prior to interview. Involvement in anonymous sex was associated with greater involvement in a variety of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related risk practices, such as illegal drug use, number of sex partners, and amount of unprotected sex. Four factors were associated with having vs not having anonymous sex: (1) being HIV positive; (2) answering all of the HIV-related knowledge questions correctly; (3) deriving greater enjoyment from having sex in public places, such as parks, public toilets, or adult book shops; and (4) greater impulsivity. Seven factors were associated with greater vs lesser involvement in anonymous sex among those practising the behaviour: (1) being involved in a relationship with a long-term partner; (2) liking to have sex in public places; (3) using bareback-oriented websites to identify sex partners; (4) greater impulsivity; (5) low level of condom use self-efficacy; (6) greater knowledge about HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; and either (7a) severe childhood maltreatment or (7b) Caucasian race. Men in this population often sought

  6. Love, Trust, and HIV Risk Among Female Sex Workers and Their Intimate Male Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M Gudelia; Ulibarri, Monica D; Fergus, Kirkpatrick B; Amaro, Hortensia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-08-01

    We examined correlates of love and trust among female sex workers and their noncommercial male partners along the Mexico-US border. From 2011 to 2012, 322 partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, completed assessments of love and trust. Cross-sectional dyadic regression analyses identified associations of relationship characteristics and HIV risk behaviors with love and trust. Within 161 couples, love and trust scores were moderately high (median 70/95 and 29/40 points, respectively) and correlated with relationship satisfaction. In regression analyses of HIV risk factors, men and women who used methamphetamine reported lower love scores, whereas women who used heroin reported slightly higher love. In an alternate model, men with concurrent sexual partners had lower love scores. For both partners, relationship conflict was associated with lower trust. Love and trust are associated with relationship quality, sexual risk, and drug use patterns that shape intimate partners' HIV risk. HIV interventions should consider the emotional quality of sex workers' intimate relationships.

  7. Concurrent sexual partnerships among female sex workers and their non-commercial male partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela Marie; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Rangel, M Gudelia; Staines, Hugo S; Morris, Martina; Patterson, Thomas L; Ulibarri, Monica D; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the prevalence and correlates of concurrent (overlapping) sexual partnerships among female sex workers (FSWs) and their non-commercial male partners in two Mexico-US border cities. A cross-sectional survey of FSWs and their non-commercial male partners was conducted in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico (2010-2011). Eligible FSWs and verified non-commercial partners were aged ≥18 years; FSWs had ever used hard drugs (lifetime) and recently exchanged sex for money, drugs or other goods (past month). Participants underwent baseline questionnaires obtaining dates of sex and condom use with ≤5 other recurring partners, including FSWs' regular clients. These dates were compared with dates of sex with enrolled study partners to determine overlap (ie, 'recurring' concurrency). Bivariate probit regression identified recurring concurrency correlates. Among 428 individuals (214 couples), past-year recurring concurrency prevalence was 16% and was higher among women than their non-commercial male partners (26% vs 6%). In 10 couples (5%), both partners reported recurring concurrency. The majority of couples (64%) always had unprotected sex, and most of the individuals (70%) with recurring concurrency 'sometimes' or 'never' used condoms with their concurrent partners. Recurring concurrency was positively associated with FSWs' income, men's caballerismo (a form of traditional masculinity) and men's belief that their FSW partners had sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Recurring concurrency, representing sustained periods of overlapping partnerships in which unprotected sex was common, should be addressed by couple-based STI prevention interventions.

  8. Preventing HIV Transmission Among Partners of HIV-Positive Male Sex Workers in Mexico City: A Modeling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, João Filipe G; Marshall, Brandon D L; Escudero, Daniel; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; González, Andrea; Flanigan, Timothy; Operario, Don; Mayer, Kenneth H; Lurie, Mark N; Galárraga, Omar

    2015-09-01

    Mexico has a concentrated HIV epidemic, with male sex workers constituting a key affected population. We estimated annual HIV cumulative incidence among male sex workers' partners, and then compared incidence under three hypothetical intervention scenarios: improving condom use; and scaling up HIV treatment as prevention, considering current viral suppression rates (CVS, 60.7 %) or full viral suppression among those treated (FVS, 100 %). Clinical and behavioral data to inform model parameterization were derived from a sample (n = 79) of male sex workers recruited from street locations and Clínica Condesa, an HIV clinic in Mexico City. We estimated annual HIV incidence among male sex workers' partners to be 8.0 % (95 % CI: 7.3-8.7). Simulation models demonstrated that increasing condom use by 10 %, and scaling up HIV treatment initiation by 50 % (from baseline values) would decrease the male sex workers-attributable annual incidence to 5.2, 4.4 % (CVS) and 3.2 % (FVS), respectively. Scaling up the number of male sex workers on ART and implementing interventions to ensure adherence is urgently required to decrease HIV incidence among male sex workers' partners in Mexico City.

  9. Minority stress and relationship functioning among young male same-sex couples: An examination of actor-partner interdependence models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Brian A; McConnell, Elizabeth; Dyar, Christina; Mustanski, Brian; Newcomb, Michael E

    2018-05-01

    In different-sex couples, individual and partner stress can both have a negative impact on relationship functioning (actor and partner effects). Gay and bisexual men experience unique stress (sexual minority stress), but few studies have examined the effects of this stress on relationship functioning among young male couples. The current study examined (a) actor and partner effects of general and minority stress (internalized stigma, microaggressions, victimization, and outness) on relationship functioning (relationship quality and negative relationship interactions), (b) interactions between individual and partner stress as predictors of relationship functioning, and (c) dyadic coping and relationship length as moderators of actor and partner effects. Actor-partner interdependence models were tested using data from 153 young male couples. There was strong support for actor effects. Higher general stress and internalized stigma were associated with lower relationship quality, but only for those in longer relationships. Additionally, higher general stress, internalized stigma, and microaggressions, and lower outness, were associated with more negative relationship interactions. There was limited support for partner effects. Having a partner with higher internalized stigma was associated with more negative relationship interactions, but none of the other partner effects were significant. There was no support for individual and partner stress interacting to predict relationship functioning or for dyadic coping as a stress buffer. Findings highlight the influence of one's own experiences of general and minority stress on relationship functioning, but raise questions about how partner stress influences relationship functioning among young male couples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Sexually transmitted infections, sexual risk behavior, and intimate partner violence among African American adolescent females with a male sex partner recently released from incarceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartzendruber, Andrea; Brown, Jennifer L; Sales, Jessica M; Murray, Colleen C; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2012-08-01

    Social networks directly and indirectly influence sexually transmitted infections (STIs) risk. The objective was to explore associations between sex with a male recently released from incarceration and sexual risk and intimate partner violence (IPV) among African American adolescent females. Sociodemographic, psychosocial, and sexual behavior data were collected at baseline, 6, and 12 months from African American females, aged 15-21 years, participating in an HIV/STI prevention trial. Among 653 participants with ≥1 follow-up assessments, generalized estimating equations tested associations during follow-up between having a recently released partner and STI acquisition, sexual risk behaviors, and IPV, adjusting for age, treatment assignment, and corresponding baseline measure. Eighty-three (13.6%) participants had a recently released partner at 6 months and 56 (9.3%) at 12 months. Participants with a recently released partner were more likely to have the following: vaginal (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 5.48), anal (AOR: 2.43), and oral (AOR: 1.51) sex, a casual partner (AOR: 1.66), sex while high/drunk (AOR: 1.57) or with a high/drunk partner (AOR: 2.27); use condoms inconsistently (AOR: .58); acquire Chlamydia (AOR: 1.80), and experience emotional (AOR: 4.09), physical (AOR: 2.59), or sexual abuse (AOR: 4.10) by a boyfriend. They had a greater number of sex partners, lower partner communication and refusal self-efficacy, were high/drunk during sex more frequently, and used condoms during oral sex less frequently. A recently released sex partner is associated with sexual risk and IPV among African American adolescent females. Prevention programs should inform adolescents about potential risks associated with recently released partners as well as provide adolescents with skills to establish and maintain healthy sexual relationships. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Multiple sex partner

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    intercourse, about 60% reported having a single sexual partner and 40% reported having multiple ... masturbation, start having sex at a younger age, have sex with married people and/or .... sex were considered unacceptable by 89 vs.

  12. Preferred and Actual Relative Height among Homosexual Male Partners Vary with Preferred Dominance and Sex Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Stulp, Gert; Třebický, Vít; Havlíček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541), we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant’s own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role), men that preferred a more dominant and more “active” sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more “passive” sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men. PMID:24466136

  13. Preferred and actual relative height among homosexual male partners vary with preferred dominance and sex role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Stulp, Gert; Třebický, Vít; Havlíček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541), we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant's own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role), men that preferred a more dominant and more "active" sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more "passive" sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men.

  14. Preferred and actual relative height among homosexual male partners vary with preferred dominance and sex role.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Varella Valentova

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541, we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant's own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role, men that preferred a more dominant and more "active" sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more "passive" sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men.

  15. Enhaced D2-type receptor activity facilitates the development of conditioned same-sex partner preference in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibrian-Llanderal, Tamara; Rosas-Aguilar, Viridiana; Triana-Del Rio, Rodrigo; Perez, Cesar A; Manzo, Jorge; Garcia, Luis I; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2012-08-01

    Animal models have shown that the neural bases of social attachment, sexual preference and pair bonds, depend on dopamine D2-type receptor and oxytocin activity. In addition, studies have demonstrated that cohabitation can shape partner preference via conditioning. Herein, we used rats to explore the development of learned same-sex partner preferences in adulthood as a result of cohabitation during enhanced D2 activity. Experimental Wistar males (N=20), received saline or the D2 agonist (quinpirole) and were allowed to cohabitate during 24 h, with a stimulus male partner that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus. This was repeated every 4 days, for a total of three trials. Four days later they were drug-free tested for partner preference between the scented male partner and a sexually receptive female. Sexual partner preference was analyzed by measuring frequency and latency for appetitive and consummatory sexual behaviors, as well as non-contact erections. Social preference was also analyzed by measuring the frequency and latency of visits, body contacts and time spent together. Results indicated that only quinpirole-treated males displayed sexual and social preference for the scented male over the sexually receptive female. They spent more time together, displayed more body contacts, more female-like proceptive behaviors, and more non-contact erections. Accordingly, conditioned males appeared to be more sexually aroused and motivated by the known male than by a receptive female. We discuss the implications of this animal model on the formation of learned homosexual partner preferences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Preferred and Actual Relative Height among Homosexual Male Partners Vary with Preferred Dominance and Sex Role

    OpenAIRE

    Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Stulp, Gert; Třebický, Vít; Havlíček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541), we found that t...

  17. Male self-disclosure of HIV infection to sex partners: a Hawaii-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study used a cross-sectional survey design with self-report to (a) describe serostatus disclosure to recent sex partners (SPs) among a multiethnic group of HIV-infected men from Hawaii, (b) explore factors influencing disclosure, and (c) examine relationships between disclosure and condom use. Respondents recalled their sexual experiences with up to three most recent SPs in the 3 months before survey administration. The men (N = 93) reported a disclosure rate of approximately 50% with 228 SPs. Disclosure was significantly influenced by SP serostatus, relationship status, self-efficacy for disclosure decision making, and cocaine use before sex. Disclosure was also significantly associated with condom use, highlighting the transmission risk reduction benefit of disclosure for these participants. HIV caregivers should routinely address disclosure to SPs and offer interventions to enhance condom use. Interventions for strengthening efficacy beliefs for disclosure decision making should be tailored to help men with multiple SPs and those with recent cocaine use.

  18. Male self-disclosure of HIV-positive serostatus to sex partners: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kathleen M

    2005-01-01

    HIV-positive men face multiple challenges when deciding whether to disclose their serostatus to sex partners. The purpose of this literature review (1996-2004) is to identify valid and reliable research results that identify factors influencing serostatus disclosure to sex partners by men who are HIV-positive. Articles included in the review were identified through an electronic search using pertinent terms related to disclosure to sex partners, followed by a search of references for additional articles. A compilation of research results for 17 articles is presented under the headings of background, contextual, and psychosocial factors influencing disclosure. An analysis of the data suggests that differences in disclosure rates vary based on sex partner factors including serostatus, relationship status, and number of sex partners. Rates of disclosure to primary sex partners ranged from 67% to 88%, suggesting that nearly one third of main sex partners were not disclosed to and were at risk of contracting HIV, whereas a pattern of lower disclosure among casual partners was evident. As the number of sex partners increased, the likelihood of disclosure to all sex partners decreased, ranging from one quarter (25%) to slightly over half (58%). In addition, perceived efficaciousness and positive outcome expectations were the most frequent theoretical constructs embedded in the research associated with disclosure, suggesting that these factors play an important role in the process of disclosure to sex partners. Interpersonal factors that positively influenced self-disclosure included spousal support, emotional investment, and communication about safe sex, including asking about a partner's serostatus. Self-disclosure was not consistently associated with safer sex. Recommendations for future research are presented, based on the results included in this review.

  19. 'He's not my pimp': toward an understanding of intimate male partner involvement in female sex work at the Mexico-US border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, María Luisa; Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Rangel, María Gudelia; Staines, Hugo; Yotebieng, Kelly; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Syvertsen, Jennifer L

    2017-11-24

    Female sex work is often perceived as women being controlled by men. We used surveys and qualitative interviews with female sex workers and their intimate partners in two Northern Mexico cities to examine couples' own perceptions of their relationships and male partners' involvement in sex work. Among 214 couples, the median age was 34 and relationship duration was approximately 3 years. Only 10 women in the survey reported having a pimp, and the majority reported sole control over sex work decisions. Qualitative analyses revealed that while most men avoided direct involvement in sex work, they offered advice that was largely driven by concern for their partner's well-being. Our discussion of these results considers the broader socio-political context surrounding these relationships and how changing gender roles, economic insecurity and stigma shape couples' everyday social interactions. Assumptions that all sex workers' relationships are coercive and commercial marginalises these couples while leaving their health concerns unaddressed.

  20. Preferred and actual relative height among homosexual male partners vary with preferred dominance and sex role

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varella Valentova, Jaroslava; Stulp, Gert; Třebický, Vít; Havlíček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of Non-Disclosure of HIV Serostatus to Sex partners among HIV-Infected Female Sex Workers and HIV-infected Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Cheng, Debbie M.; Coleman, Sharon; Bridden, Carly; Battala, Madhusudana; Silverman, Jay G.; Pardeshi, Manoj H.; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines non-disclosure of HIV serostatus to sex partners among HIV-infected adults involved with transactional sex in Mumbai, India. Surveys were conducted with HIV-infected female sex workers (n = 211) and infected male clients (n = 205) regarding HIV knowledge, awareness of sex partners’ HIV serostatus, alcohol use, transactional sex involvement post-HIV diagnosis and non-disclosure of HIV serostatus. Gender-stratified multiple logistic regression models were used for analysis. Non-disclosure of one’s serostatus to all sex partners was reported by almost three-fifths of females and two-fifths of males. Predictors of non-disclosure included lack of correct knowledge about HIV and no knowledge of sex partners’ HIV serostatus. Among females, recent alcohol consumption also predicted non-disclosure. Among males, 10 + paid sexual partners in the year following HIV diagnosis predicted non-disclosure. Secondary HIV prevention efforts in India require greater focus on HIV disclosure communication and integrated alcohol and sexual risk reduction. PMID:22810892

  2. Conditioned same-sex partner preference in male rats is facilitated by oxytocin and dopamine: effect on sexually dimorphic brain nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana-Del Rio, Rodrigo; Tecamachaltzi-Silvarán, Miriam B; Díaz-Estrada, Victor X; Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; Corona-Morales, Aleph A; Pfaus, James G; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2015-04-15

    Conditioned same-sex partner preference can develop in male rats that undergo cohabitation under the effects of quinpirole (QNP, D2 agonist). Herein, we assessed the development of conditioned same-sex social/sexual preference in males that received either nothing, saline, QNP, oxytocin (OT), or QNP+OT during cohabitation with another male (+) or single-caged (-). This resulted in the following groups: (1) Intact-, (2) Saline+, (3) QNP-, (4) OT-, (5) QNP+, (6) OT+ and (7) QNP/OT+. Cohabitation occurred during 24h in a clean cage with a male partner that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus. This was repeated every 4 days for a total of three trials. Social and sexual preference were assessed four days after the last conditioning trial in a drug-free test in which experimental males chose between the scented familiar male and a novel sexually receptive female. Results showed that males from groups Intact-, Saline+, QNP- and OT- displayed a clear preference for the female (opposite-sex), whereas groups QNP+, OT+ and QNP/OT+ displayed socio/sexual preference for the male partner (same-sex). In Experiment 2, the brains were processed for Nissl dye and the area size of two sexually dimorphic nuclei (SDN-POA and SON) was compared between groups. Males from groups OT-, OT+ and QNP/OT+ expressed a smaller SDN-POA and groups QNP+ and QNP/OT+ expressed a larger SON. Accordingly, conditioned same-sex social/sexual partner preference can develop during cohabitation under enhanced D2 or OT activity but such preference does not depend on the area size of those sexually dimorphic nuclei. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Intimate Partner Violence and Controlling Behavior Among Male Same-Sex Relationships in China: Relationship With Ambivalent Sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Diandian; Zheng, Lijun

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we examined intimate partner violence (IPV), cold violence, and controlling behaviors in male same-sex relationships in China, with a focus on the characteristics of IPV and controlling behaviors, and their relationships with ambivalent sexism. IPV was categorized as psychological aggression, physical injury, physical assault, and sexual coercion and was measured using the revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2), an eight-item scale measuring cold violence that was designed specifically for this study. Controlling behaviors were measured using a 34-item scale that was designed for this study, and sexist attitudes toward women and men were assessed using the short forms of the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI) and the Ambivalence toward Men Inventory (AMI), respectively. Participants ( N = 272) reported instances of perpetration of or victimization by IPV and controlling behaviors within the past 6 months and indicated ambivalent sexism (hostile attitude toward men and women and benevolent attitude toward men and women [HM, HS, BM, and BS, respectively]). Almost 47.1% of the participants reported an experience of IPV, and the prevalence of cold violence and controlling behaviors was found to be 65.1% and 80.5%, respectively. Psychological aggression was the most common, followed sequentially by sexual coercion, physical assault, and injury in present study. We found a strong association between perpetration and victimization and that different forms of violence tend to co-occur in both IPV and controlling behaviors. As predicted, ambivalent sexism was positively correlated with IPV and controlling behaviors, specifically HS and HM. The results indicated the high prevalence of IPV and controlling behaviors among male same-sex relationships, and sexism contributing to this high prevalence.

  4. The CLOSER (CLarifying Vaginal Atrophy's Impact On SEx and Relationships) survey: implications of vaginal discomfort in postmenopausal women and in male partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappi, Rossella E; Kingsberg, Sheryl; Maamari, Ricardo; Simon, James

    2013-09-01

    Postmenopausal vaginal atrophy (VA) is a chronic condition with symptoms that include vaginal dryness, soreness, itching, burning, and dyspareunia. The CLarifying Vaginal Atrophy's Impact On SEx and Relationships survey evaluated the impact of VA on the physical and emotional aspects of sexual relationships between postmenopausal women and their male partners. Four thousand one hundred females and 4,100 males representing the United Kingdom, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Italy, France, Canada, and the United States were surveyed. Assessments included: (i) talking about VA and its symptoms; (ii) the impact of VA on intimacy, relationships, and women's self-esteem; (iii) talking about VA and erectile dysfunction (ED); and (iv) the impact of local estrogen therapy (LET) on intimacy and relationships. Descriptive data on the impact of VA. Twenty-eight percent of women did not tell their partners when they first encountered vaginal discomfort, mainly because they felt "it was just a natural part of growing older" (52%) or because of "embarrassment" (21%). Eighty-two percent of males wanted their partner to share their experiences with VA; males were also more comfortable discussing VA than females (68% vs. 58%, respectively). Having sex less often (women: 58%, men: 61%), less satisfying sex (women: 49%, men: 28%), and putting off having sex (women: 35%, men: 14%) were the main effects of VA. Intimacy avoidance was attributed to painful sex (women: 55%, men: 61%) and women's reduced sexual desire (women: 46%, men: 43%). Discussions about vaginal discomfort and ED were generally limited to partners and healthcare providers (HCPs). LET use resulted in less painful sex (women: 62%, men: 59%) and more satisfying sex (women: 47%, men: 49%). VA has an adverse emotional and physical impact on postmenopausal women and their partners. These findings may encourage more open communication about VA between couples and their HCPs. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. "Come on Baby. You Know I Love You": African American Women's Experiences of Communication with Male Partners and Disclosure in the Context of Unwanted Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzmer, Kyle; Ludwig-Barron, Natasha T; Wyatt, Gail E; Hamilton, Alison B; Stockman, Jamila K

    2016-05-01

    We examined African American women's experiences of communication with their male intimate partners a couple of hours before and after an incident of unwanted sex. We also examined women's experiences of disclosure following an incident of unwanted sex. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with a community-based sample of sexually active African American women (n = 19) reporting at least one incident of sexual coercion (i.e., being pressured into unwanted sex without consent) by an intimate male partner since the age of 18. Our analysis was guided by "the sexual division of power" from Connell's (1987) theory of gender and power. Data were analyzed inductively by examining the interviews for common themes in the following domains: communication before the unwanted sex, communication after the unwanted sex, and disclosure to others. Men pressured partners for unwanted sex through verbal and non-verbal tactics, ranging from pestering and blunt requests for sex to verbal bullying and violence. Many women responded by clearly saying no. However, many women also described eventually ceasing to resist their partners and engaging in unwanted sex. After the unwanted sex, men actively and passively avoided discussing the incident. Although many women discussed the unwanted sex with family and friends, less women disclosed to trained professionals. In some cases, women did not discuss the incident with anyone at all. These findings indicate that, when addressing sexual violence against women, there is a need to target men as well as the norms of masculinity that underpin physical and sexual violence against women.

  6. Disparities in HIV and syphilis prevalence and risk factors between older male clients with and without steady sex partners in southwestern rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; His, Jenny H; Wu, Xinghua; Shen, Zhiyong; Lu, Huaxiang; Chen, Huanhuan; Huang, Hui; Zhang, Heng; Ruan, Yuhua; Shao, Yiming; Tang, Zhenzhu

    2017-04-12

    Heterosexual intercourse accounted for 93% of reported HIV cases in Guangxi, and Guangxi had 10% of China's total number of reported HIV cases. Older men are particularly vulnerable to STIs, for example, 46% of Guangxi's HIV cases were men over 50 years of age. As this is an under-studied population in China, effective prevention and control policies have yet to be developed. Thus, the aim of this study was to use a large-scale cross-sectional survey to understand the demographic and behavior factors associated with HIV and syphilis infections among older male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in a high epidemic area of rural Guangxi, China. A large-scale cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012 among older male clients of FSWs in low-cost commercial sex venues. Questionnaire interviews were administered to collect sociodemographic and sexual behavior information. Blood samples were collected for HIV and syphilis infection tests. Of the 3485 participants, 2509 (72.0%) clients had a steady sex partner and 976 (28.0%) clients had no steady sex partner. The overall prevalence of HIV and syphilis infection were 3.0% and 3.2%, respectively. Compared to those with a steady sex partner, clients with no steady partner had higher odds of HIV infection (AOR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.27-2.86), syphilis infection (AOR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.02-2.30), and having factors associated with HIV or syphilis infection, including non-commercial casual sex encounters in last month (AOR: 3.29, 95% CI: 2.42-4.46), >10 years of commercial sex history (AOR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.12-1.53), >2 incidents of commercial sex in last month (AOR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.19-1.96), and aphrodisiac use in last month (AOR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.16-1.70). Clients with no steady partner had lower odds of having heterosexual intercourse (AOR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.56-0.79), awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS (AOR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.64-0.88), and having had HIV tests (AOR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44-0.98). Older male clients of low

  7. Acceptability of vaginal microbicides among female sex workers and their intimate male partners in two Mexico-US border cities: a mixed methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela M; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M Gudelia; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Stockman, Jamila K; Ulibarri, Monica D; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) may benefit from pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) including microbicides for HIV prevention. Since adherence is a key factor in PrEP efficacy, we explored microbicide acceptability and potential barriers to use within FSWs' intimate relationships in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, where HIV prevalence is increasing. FSWs and their verified intimate (non-commercial) male partners completed quantitative and qualitative interviews from 2010 to 2012. Our complementary mixed methods design followed an iterative process to assess microbicide acceptability, explore related relationship dynamics and identify factors associated with concern about male partners' anger regarding microbicide use. Among 185 couples (n=370 individuals), interest in microbicides was high. In qualitative interviews with 28 couples, most participants were enthusiastic about microbicides for sex work contexts but some explained that microbicides could imply mistrust/infidelity within their intimate relationships. In the overall sample, nearly one in six participants (16%) worried that male partners would become angry about microbicides, which was associated with higher self-esteem among FSWs and lower self-esteem and past year conflicts causing injury within relationships among men. HIV prevention interventions should consider intimate relationship dynamics posing potential barriers to PrEP acceptability and adherence, involve male partners and promote risk communication skills.

  8. Psychosocial correlates of safe sex communication between Latina women and their stable male partners: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luft, Heidi; Larson, Elaine

    2017-05-01

    Latina women in stable relationships have risks for human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually transmitted infections. Improving safe sexual communication (SSC) could enable women to accurately assess and mitigate their risk of infection within their relationship. Literature to identify psychosocial correlates that facilitate or inhibit SSC between Latina women and their partners has not yet been synthesized. The purpose of this study was to conduct an integrative review and synthesis of empirical and theoretical research that examines psychosocial correlates of SSC among adult Latina women from the United States, Latina America, and the Caribbean with stable male partners. A systematic search of LILACS, EBSCO, and PsychInfo databases was conducted to identify qualitative and quantitative studies that investigated psychosocial correlates of SSC among adult Latina women with a stable male partner. Pertinent data were abstracted and quality of individual studies was appraised. A qualitative synthesis was conducted following Miles and Huberman's method. Five qualitative and three quantitative studies meet eligibility criteria. Factors related to SSC related to three main themes: (1) relationship factors such as length, quality, and power/control, (2) individual factors including attitudes, beliefs, background, behaviors, and intrapersonal characteristics, and (3) partner factors related to partner beliefs and behaviors. The interplay of relationship, individual, and partner factors should be considered in the assessment of SSC for Latina women with their stable partners. To inform future interventions and clinical guidelines, additional research is needed to identify which factors are most related to SSC for this population, and how comparable experiences are for Latina women of different subcultures and living in different countries.

  9. Acceptability of vaginal microbicides among female sex workers and their intimate male partners in two Mexico-U.S. border cities: a mixed methods analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela M.; Syvertsen, Jennifer L.; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Stockman, Jamila K.; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Female sex workers (FSWs) may benefit from pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) including microbicides for HIV prevention. Since adherence is a key factor in PrEP efficacy, we explored microbicide acceptability and potential barriers to use within FSWs’ intimate relationships in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, where HIV prevalence is increasing. Methods FSWs and their verified intimate (non-commercial) male partners completed quantitative and qualitative interviews from 2010–2012. Our complementary mixed methods design followed an iterative process to assess microbicide acceptability, explore related relationship dynamics, and identify factors associated with concern about male partners’ anger regarding microbicide use. Results Among 185 couples (n=370 individuals), interest in microbicides was high. In qualitative interviews with 28 couples, most participants were enthusiastic about microbicides for sex work contexts but some explained that microbicides could imply mistrust/infidelity within their intimate relationships. In the overall sample, nearly 1 in 6 participants (16%) worried that male partners would become angry about microbicides, which was associated with higher self-esteem among FSWs and lower self-esteem and past year conflict causing injury within relationships among men. Conclusions HIV prevention interventions should consider intimate relationship dynamics posing potential barriers to PrEP acceptability and adherence, involve male partners, and promote risk communication skills. PMID:23398385

  10. Dyadic, Partner, and Social Network Influences on Intimate Partner Violence among Male-Male Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Stephenson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite a recent focus on intimate partner violence (IPV among men who have sex with men (MSM, the male-male couple is largely absent from the IPV literature. Specifically, research on dyadic factors shaping IPV in male-male couples is lacking.Methods: We took a subsample of 403 gay/bisexual men with main partners from a 2011 survey of approximately 1,000 gay and bisexual men from Atlanta. Logistic regression models of recent (,12 month experience and perpetration of physical and sexual IPV examined dyadic factors, including racial differences, age differences, and social network characteristics of couples as key covariates shaping the reporting of IPV.Results: Findings indicate that men were more likely to report perpetration of physical violence if they were a different race to their main partner, whereas main partner age was associated with decreased reporting of physical violence. Having social networks that contained more gay friends was associated with significant reductions in the reporting of IPV, whereas having social networks comprised of sex partners or closeted gay friends was associated with increased reporting of IPV victimization and perpetration.Conclusion: The results point to several unique factors shaping the reporting of IPV within male-male couples and highlight the need for intervention efforts and prevention programs that focus on male couples, a group largely absent from both research and prevention efforts. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(4:316–323.

  11. A community-based qualitative study on the experience and understandings of intimate partner violence and HIV vulnerability from the perspectives of female sex workers and male intimate partners in North Karnataka state, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Andrea K; Nair, Sapna G; Bruce, Sharon G; Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Thalinja, Raghavendra; Murthy, Srikanta; Javalkar, Prakash; Pillai, Priya; Collumbien, Martine; Heise, Lori; Isac, Shajy; Bhattacharjee, Parinita

    2018-05-11

    Research has increasingly documented the important role that violence by clients and the police play in exacerbating HIV vulnerability for women in sex work. However few studies have examined violence in the intimate relationships of women in sex work, or drawn on community partnerships to explore the social dynamics involved. A community-based participatory research study was undertaken by community and academic partners leading intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV prevention programs in Bagalkot district, Karnataka state, India. The purpose was to explore the experience and understandings of intimate partner violence and HIV/AIDS among women in sex work and their intimate partners in Bagalkot that would inform both theory and practice. A community-based, interpretive qualitative methodology was used. Data was collected between July and October 2014 through in-depth interviews with 38 participants, including 10 couples, 13 individual female sex workers, and 5 individual male intimate partners. Purposive sampling was done to maximize variation on socio-demographic characteristics. Thematic content analysis was conducted through coding and categorization for each interview question in NVivo 10.0, followed by collaborative analysis to answer the research questions. The results showed that an array of interrelated, multi-level factors underlay the widespread acceptance and perpetuation of violence and lack of condom use in participants' intimate relationships. These included individual expectations that justified violence and reflected societal gender norms, compounded by stigma, legal and economic constraints relating to sex work. The results demonstrate that structural vulnerability to IPV and HIV must be addressed not only on the individual and relationship levels to resolve relevant triggers of violence and lack of condom use, but also the societal-level to address gender norms and socio-economic constraints among women in sex work and their partners. The study

  12. Sex Differences in Attitudes toward Partner Infidelity

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Tagler; Heather M. Jeffers

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences in reactions to partner infidelity have often been studied by comparing emotional reactions to scenarios of sexual versus emotional infidelity. Men, relative to women, tend to react with more distress to partner sexual infidelity than to emotional infidelity. Evolutionary theorists interpret this difference as evidence of sexually dimorphic selection pressures. In contrast, focusing only on the simple effects within each sex, social-cognitive theorists suggest that men and wom...

  13. Sex Differences in Attitudes toward Partner Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Tagler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in reactions to partner infidelity have often been studied by comparing emotional reactions to scenarios of sexual versus emotional infidelity. Men, relative to women, tend to react with more distress to partner sexual infidelity than to emotional infidelity. Evolutionary theorists interpret this difference as evidence of sexually dimorphic selection pressures. In contrast, focusing only on the simple effects within each sex, social-cognitive theorists suggest that men and women do not differ in their reactions to partner infidelity. As evidenced by recent rival meta-analytic reports, these diverging perspectives remain largely unresolved and contentious. The present study was designed to take a new approach by measuring attitudes toward partner infidelity. Results were consistent with the evolutionary perspective: Men, to a significantly larger degree than women, evaluated partner sexual infidelity more negatively than emotional infidelity.

  14. Sex differences in attitudes toward partner infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagler, Michael J; Jeffers, Heather M

    2013-08-06

    Sex differences in reactions to partner infidelity have often been studied by comparing emotional reactions to scenarios of sexual versus emotional infidelity. Men, relative to women, tend to react with more distress to partner sexual infidelity than to emotional infidelity. Evolutionary theorists interpret this difference as evidence of sexually dimorphic selection pressures. In contrast, focusing only on the simple effects within each sex, social-cognitive theorists suggest that men and women do not differ in their reactions to partner infidelity. As evidenced by recent rival meta-analytic reports, these diverging perspectives remain largely unresolved and contentious. The present study was designed to take a new approach by measuring attitudes toward partner infidelity. Results were consistent with the evolutionary perspective: Men, to a significantly larger degree than women, evaluated partner sexual infidelity more negatively than emotional infidelity.

  15. Characterization of juvenile play in rats: importance of sex of self and sex of partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argue, Kathryn J; McCarthy, Margaret M

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile social play is observed in many mammalian species, and its disruption in several neuropsychiatric disorders has greatly increased interest in understanding the origins and sources of variability in this behavior. We quantified social play behavior in juvenile rats and investigated the impact of sex and familiarity of the play partner. Sex differences in play behavior were investigated by comparing males and females from either same- or mixed-sex pairs with data pooled over 12 days of analysis. Whether play was altered based on the sex of the play partner was assessed using a paired analysis to compare play with a same- or opposite-sex play partner for both males and females. Additionally, a repeated measures design was utilized to determine whether play changed with increasing age. On postnatal day 33, a novel play partner was introduced. We used a repeated measures analysis to compare postnatal day 33 with the previous day. These approaches were used to assess the effects of age, sex, sex of partner, and familiarity of partner on total social play behavior as well as how play was broken down into components, such as pouncing, pinning, chasing, and boxing. There were sex differences in total frequency of play, and specific parameters of play behavior, such as chasing, pouncing, pinning, and boxing. Additionally, males significantly altered their play behavior in response to the sex of their play partner, whereas females were more sensitive to the familiarity of the play partner. This study provides critical groundwork for uncovering factors that regulate social play behavior and can be used to guide future mechanistic based work.

  16. Prevalence and associated factors of unprotected anal intercourse with regular male sex partners among HIV negative men who have sex with men in China: a cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongliang Li

    Full Text Available The HIV prevalence and incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM in China are high. Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI with a regular male sex partner (RP, a significant predictor of HIV sero-conversion, was high yet under-emphasized among MSM having RP (MSMRP. The present cross-sectional survey interviewed 307 HIV negative MSMRP recruited through convenient sampling from multiple sources, including venue-based outreaching, online recruitment, and referrals made by peers, in Beijing and Chengdu, China. Among MSMRP, the prevalence of UAI with RP in the last three months was 52.4%. The results of the multivariate analysis showed that trust and intimacy within the relationship with RP and presence of clinical depression symptoms were positively associated with UAI with RP in the last three months. Other associated scalar factors derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior were related to perceptions on condom use, including positive attitudes toward condom use (a negative association, subjective norm of the perception that MSM do not usually use condoms during anal intercourse with RP (a positive association, perceived behavioral control over condom use with RP (a negative association, and behavioral intention to use condoms with RP in the coming three months (a negative association. It is seen that MSMRP were at high risk of HIV/STD transmission. The associated factors hence involved those related to perceptions about condom use, mental health, and interpersonal relationship. Future interventions should take these multi-dimensional factors into account. In particular, future research to test the efficacy of couple-based interventions that include mental health elements needs to be conducted, as trust and intimacy within the relationship were associated with UAI among MSMRP, and mental health problems may exist for both the MSMRP and their RP.

  17. Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Sexual Violence: Are There Unique Characteristics Associated With Making Partners Have Sex Without a Condom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdie, Michele Parkhill; Abbey, Antonia; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined correlates of making an intimate partner engage in unprotected sex among perpetrators of sexual violence. Based on the Confluence Model, we hypothesized that power and impersonal sex motives would be higher among perpetrators who made a dating partner have unprotected sex. Among a subsample of 78 male college students, significant differences were found for acceptance of verbal pressure, positive attitudes about casual sex, frequency of sexual intercourse, and physical injuries to dating partners. These findings highlight the importance of integrating theories and interventions directed at sexual assault and sexual risk reduction. PMID:20980229

  18. Sex in a lifetime: Sexual behaviors in the United States by lifetime number of sex partners, 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haderxhanaj, Laura T; Leichliter, Jami S; Aral, Sevgi O; Chesson, Harrell W

    2014-06-01

    Using data from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth, we found that lifetime number of vaginal sex partners is positively associated with the number of sex partners in the past 12 months and negatively associated with age at first vaginal intercourse among 15- to 44-year-old male and female respondents.

  19. Knowledge, Perception and Level of Male Partner Involvement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    establishing the level of male partner involvement and influence of couple knowledge and perception on male involvement in choice of ... access to care and provision of emotional and ..... although the male partners are key decision makers.

  20. Y Chromosome DNA in Women's Vaginal Samples as a Biomarker of Recent Vaginal Sex and Condom Use With Male Partners in the HPV Infection and Transmission Among Couples Through Heterosexual Activity Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagón, Talía; Burchell, Ann; El-Zein, Mariam; Guénoun, Julie; Tellier, Pierre-Paul; Coutlée, François; Franco, Eduardo L

    2018-01-01

    Y chromosome DNA from male epithelial and sperm cells was detected in vaginal samples after unprotected sex in experimental studies. We assessed the strength of this association in an observational setting to examine the utility of Y chromosome DNA as a biomarker of recent sexual behaviors in epidemiological studies. The HPV (human papillomavirus) Infection and Transmission Among Couples Through Heterosexual Activity cohort study enrolled 502 women attending a university or college in Montréal, Canada, and their male partners from 2005 to 2010. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction to test women's baseline vaginal samples for Y chromosome DNA and assessed which sexual behaviors were independent predictors of Y chromosome DNA positivity and quantity with logistic and negative binomial regression. Y chromosome DNA positivity decreased from 77% in women in partnerships reporting vaginal sex 0 to 1 day ago to 13% in women in partnerships reporting last vaginal sex of 15 or more days ago (adjusted odds ratio, 0.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.36). The mean proportion of exfoliated vaginal sample cells with Y chromosome DNA was much lower for women who reported always using condoms (0.01%) than for women who reported never using condoms (2.07%) (adjusted ratio, 26.8; 95% confidence interval, 8.9-80.5). No association was found with reported oral/digital sex frequency or concurrency of partnerships. Y chromosome DNA quantity is strongly associated with days since last vaginal sex and lack of condom use in observational settings. Y chromosome DNA quantity may prove useful as a correlate of recent vaginal sex in observational studies lacking data on sexual behavior, such as surveillance studies of human papillomavirus infection prevalence.

  1. Masturbation and Partnered Sex: Substitutes or Complements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnerus, Mark; Price, Joseph; Gordon, David

    2017-10-01

    Drawing upon a large, recent probability sample of American adults ages 18-60 (7648 men and 8090 women), we explored the association between sexual frequency and masturbation, evaluating the evidence for whether masturbation compensates for unavailable sex, complements (or augments) existing paired sexual activity, or bears little association with it. We found evidence supporting a compensatory relationship between masturbation and sexual frequency for men, and a complementary one among women, but each association was both modest and contingent on how content participants were with their self-reported frequency of sex. Among men and women, both partnered status and their sexual contentment were more obvious predictors of masturbation than was recent frequency of sex. We conclude that both hypotheses as commonly evaluated suffer from failing to account for the pivotal role of subjective sexual contentment in predicting masturbation.

  2. Postpartum depression and the male partner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna de Magistris

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Numerous studies have shown that postpartum depression is a phenomenon that develops in a family, social and economic context capable of influencing its course. A predominant role in the onset of the pathology is played by the relationship of the couple, but up to now few studies have been carried out on the role of the partner of the depressed mother and on the interactions between the two partners, that is, on how maternal depression influences the behaviour of the male partner and is in turn influenced, and how the depression of both parents, and not only that of the mother, influences the neuropsychic development of the child and the interactions between the child and the outside world. Objectives: The objectives are to examine the literature to arrive at an understanding of how the father figure develops during the pregnancy and how postpartum depression impacts on the couple’s relationship and the care of the children by both partners. Materials and methods: This article presents a review of recent literature on the subject through a search for articles in Pubmed and Sciencedirect (keywords: men, postpartum depression, fathers, couple, prediction, detection, and by referring to classic texts in the fields of psychiatry and psychotherapy on the development of the parental figures. Conclusions: Although up to now the literature on the consequences of postpartum depression on the couple is scanty, the data collected allow us to affirm that it is not a problem that concerns only the mother, but one that has an impact on the entire family, on the child and the partner, triggering a chain reaction of maladjustment and distress that may lead to separation and destruction of the family unit with important repercussions on society as a whole.

  3. Effect of male partner's support on spousal modern contraception in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Male partner hindrances and costs of contraceptive or transportation to clinic are important in noncompliance. Male partner education, subsidized/free contraceptives and mobile/community services will improve compliance. Keywords: Female contraception; Male partner support; Spousal contraception ...

  4. Trichomoniasis as sexually transmitted disease in sex partners

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    Parvathi C

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of 30 male consorts of 30 cases of vaginal trichomoniasis with high levels of parasitic infection was undertaken to evaluate the sexually transmitted role of trichomoniasis in sex partners. There were 20 symptomatic and 10 asymptomatic male partners, who revealed T. vaginalis in 80.0% and 60.0 of the cases respectively and the overall prevalence was 73.3% (22 Of 30. T. vaginalis was detected in 83.3% male with urethritis and 50.0% males with prostatitis. Detection of trichomonas in urethral discharge, morning drop secretion, urine deposit and prostatic fluid was 80.0%, 50.0% 35.7% and 21.4% in that order. It is evident from these results that the sex consorts of all cases of trichomoniasis should be considered as harbouring T. vaginalis in their genito-urinary tract as carriers and be treated to break the chain of transmission. Fontanna smear was superior to culture and wet mount in the detection of T. vaginalis, the success rates being 73.3%, 63.3% and 53.3%. A good correlation was observed between smear and culture at high levels of parasitic infection.

  5. Finding Sex Partners Through Social Media Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Aparna; Nguyen, Minh; Giang, Le Minh; Ha, Tran Viet; Bhadra, Madhura; Nguyen, Sang Minh; Vu, Viet Duc; Nguyen, Quynh T; Miller, William C; Go, Vivian F

    2018-02-01

    Many men who have sex with men (MSM) in low and middle income countries search for male sexual partners via social media in part due to societal stigma and discrimination, yet little is known about the sexual risk profiles of MSM social media users. This cross-sectional study investigates the prevalence of social media use to find male sex partners in Hanoi, Vietnam and examines associations between social media use and sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics, including levels of internalized, perceived and enacted stigma, high-risk sexual behaviors, and HIV testing. 205 MSM were recruited from public venues where MSM congregate as well as through snowball sampling and completed an anonymous survey. MSM who found their male sexual partners using social media in the last year were more likely to have completed a university or higher degree (aOR 2.6; 95% CI 1.2-5.7), experience high levels of MSM-related perceived stigma (aOR 3.0; 95% CI 1.1-8.0), and have more than ten lifetime male sexual partners (aOR 3.2; 95% CI 1.3-7.6) compared to those who did not use social media. A niche for social media-based interventions integrating health and stigma-reduction strategies exists in HIV prevention programs for MSM.

  6. Multiple Sex Partner and Risk Behaviour Among Secondary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania is realizing increase in adolescents engaged in multiple sex partner behaviour and premarital sex. The objective of this study was to assess the awareness of multiple sex partner behaviour and risk factors among secondary school students in Moshi, Tanzania. Anonymously, questionnaires were completed by 360 ...

  7. Seeing the Partner: A Video Recall Study of Emotional Behavior in Same- and Mixed-Sex Late Adolescent Romantic Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Nancy; Clarke, Sara A.

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-three college-aged same- and mixed-sex romantic couples (83% White, 63% female, mean age, 20.8) engaged in a video recall task in which they rated their own and their partners' behaviors and emotions. Females reported feeling more connected to partners and reported fewer negative behaviors than males. Females with male partners reported the…

  8. Intimate Partner Violence May Be One Mechanism by Which Male Partner Socioeconomic Status and Substance Use Affect Female Partner Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although male partners' socioeconomic status (SES and substance use is associated with worse health of female partners, the mechanism behind this link is still unknown.Objectives: To investigate whether intimate partner violence (IPV is a mechanism by which male partners' SES and substance use influence female partners' self-rated health (SRH as victims and survivors of IPV.Materials and Methods: Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS is an ongoing population-based cohort. Male and female partners' SES, anxiety, depression, and substance use, and their relationship status were measured at baseline. IPV victimization was also asked among female partners' at baseline. Female partners' subjective health was measured 3 times (baseline−1998, 3 years later−2001, and 5 years later−2003. Using AMOS, we fitted two structural equation models (SEM for data analysis. In Model 1 we tested direct paths from male partners' SES and mental health to female partners' SRH, in the absence of IPV. In the Model 2 we conceptualized female partners' IPV victimization between male partners' SES and mental health and female partners' SRH. In both models we controlled for the effect of female partners' SES and mental health.Results: In Model 1, male partners' poor SES and substance use were associated with worse trajectory of SRH of female partner. In Model 2, male to female IPV was the mechanism by which male partners' SES and substance use were associated with female partners' SRH.Conclusions: IPV is one of the mechanisms by which male partners' SES and substance use can influence female partners' health. That is, IPV may operate as a vehicle by which male partners' social and psychological risk factors impact female partners' health. Thus, this study demonstrates how male partners' socio-ecological risk factors such as low SES and substance use impact female partners' health. Therefore, there is a need for broader socio-ecological approach

  9. Sex differences in partner preferences in humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazart, Jacques

    2016-02-19

    A large number of morphological, physiological and behavioural traits are differentially expressed by males and females in all vertebrates including humans. These sex differences, sometimes, reflect the different hormonal environment of the adults, but they often remain present after subjects of both sexes are placed in the same endocrine conditions following gonadectomy associated or not with hormonal replacement therapy. They are then the result of combined influences of organizational actions of sex steroids acting early during development, or genetic differences between the sexes, or epigenetic mechanisms differentially affecting males and females. Sexual partner preference is a sexually differentiated behavioural trait that is clearly controlled in animals by the same type of mechanisms. This is also probably true in humans, even if critical experiments that would be needed to obtain scientific proof of this assertion are often impossible for pragmatic or ethical reasons. Clinical, epidemiological and correlative studies provide, however, converging evidence strongly suggesting, if not demonstrating, that endocrine, genetic and epigenetic mechanisms acting during the pre- or perinatal life control human sexual orientation, i.e. homosexuality versus heterosexuality. Whether they interact with postnatal psychosexual influences remains, however, unclear at present. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Working, sex partner age differences, and sexual behavior among African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, José A; Zimmerman, Marc; Xue, Yange; Gee, Gilbert C; Caldwell, Cleopatra H

    2009-10-01

    Participation in the workplace has been proposed as a potential structural-level HIV/STI prevention strategy for youth. Only a few cross-sectional studies have explored the effect of work during adolescence and young adulthood on sexual behavior and their results have been mixed. This study builds on this literature by exploring whether work influences youths' sexual behavior in a cohort of African American youth (N = 562; 45% males; M = 14.5 years, SD = 0.6) followed from adolescence to young adulthood (ages 13-25 years). Using growth curve modeling, we tested whether working was associated with older sex partners. Then, we explored the association between sex partner age differences and sexual behaviors (i.e., number of sex partners, condom use, and frequency of sexual intercourse). Finally, we tested whether the relationship between sex partner age differences and sexual behaviors was confounded by working. Working greater number of hours was not significantly associated with having older sex partners. Sex partner age differences was associated with number of partners, condom use, and higher sex frequency. These associations were larger for females. Working was associated with higher sex frequency, after accounting for age differences. We discuss the implications of these findings for future research and program planning, particularly in the context of youth development programs.

  11. Technology, normalisation and male sex work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhail, Catherine; Scott, John; Minichiello, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Technological change, particularly the growth of the Internet and smart phones, has increased the visibility of male escorts, expanded their client base and diversified the range of venues in which male sex work can take place. Specifically, the Internet has relocated some forms of male sex work away from the street and thereby increased market reach, visibility and access and the scope of sex work advertising. Using the online profiles of 257 male sex workers drawn from six of the largest websites advertising male sexual services in Australia, the role of the Internet in facilitating the normalisation of male sex work is discussed. Specifically we examine how engagement with the sex industry has been reconstituted in term of better informed consumer-seller decisions for both clients and sex workers. Rather than being seen as a 'deviant' activity, understood in terms of pathology or criminal activity, male sex work is increasingly presented as an everyday commodity in the market place. In this context, the management of risks associated with sex work has shifted from formalised social control to more informal practices conducted among online communities of clients and sex workers. We discuss the implications for health, legal and welfare responses within an empowerment paradigm.

  12. Knowledge, Perception and Level of Male Partner Involvement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge, Perception and Level of Male Partner Involvement in Choice of ... many practice this and the influence of the couple knowledge and perception on male ... Chi-square and binary logistic regression were used for statistical analysis.

  13. Male sex workers who sell sex to men also engage in anal intercourse with women: evidence from Mombasa, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Mannava

    Full Text Available To investigate self-report of heterosexual anal intercourse among male sex workers who sell sex to men, and to identify the socio-demographic characteristics associated with practice of the behavior.Two cross-sectional surveys of male sex workers who sell sex to men in Mombasa, Kenya.Male sex workers selling sex to men were invited to participate in surveys undertaken in 2006 and 2008. A structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers was used to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, HIV and STI knowledge, and health service usage. Data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. Bivariate logistic regression, after controlling for year of survey, was used to identify socio-demographic characteristics associated with heterosexual anal intercourse.From a sample of 867 male sex workers, 297 men had sex with a woman during the previous 30 days - of whom 45% did so with a female client and 86% with a non-paying female partner. Within these groups, 66% and 43% of male sex workers had anal intercourse with a female client and non-paying partner respectively. Factors associated with reporting recent heterosexual anal intercourse in bivariate logistic regression after controlling for year of survey participation were being Muslim, ever or currently married, living with wife only, living with a female partner only, living with more than one sexual partner, self-identifying as basha/king/bisexual, having one's own children, and lower education.We found unexpectedly high levels of self-reported anal sex with women by male sex workers, including selling sex to female clients as well as with their own partners. Further investigation among women in Mombasa is needed to understand heterosexual anal sex practices, and how HIV programming may respond.

  14. Student Judgments of the risks of HIV-Infection as a function of sexual practice, sex of target and partner, and age and sex of student

    OpenAIRE

    Spears, Russell; Abraham, Charles; Sheeran, Paschal; Abrams, Dominic

    1995-01-01

    Two age cohorts of male and female students (n = 311) were investigated concerning their perceptions of the HIV-related risks of various sex-related practices (unprotected vaginal, oral, and anal sex, and mutual masturbation and kissing). Participants judged the risk of these activities for either a male or a female acquiring either a new male sexual partner or a new female one. The greater risks of unprotected sex compared to other practices and the enhanced risks of these practices within g...

  15. Promoting male partner HIV testing and safer sexual decision making through secondary distribution of self-tests by HIV-negative female sex workers and women receiving antenatal and post-partum care in Kenya: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumurthy, Harsha; Masters, Samuel H; Mavedzenge, Sue Napierala; Maman, Suzanne; Omanga, Eunice; Agot, Kawango

    2016-06-01

    Increased uptake of HIV testing by men in sub-Saharan Africa is essential for the success of combination prevention. Self-testing is an emerging approach with high acceptability, but little evidence exists on the best strategies for test distribution. We assessed an approach of providing multiple self-tests to women at high risk of HIV acquisition to promote partner HIV testing and to facilitate safer sexual decision making. In this cohort study, HIV-negative women aged 18-39 years were recruited at two sites in Kisumu, Kenya: a health facility with antenatal and post-partum clinics and a drop-in centre for female sex workers. Participants gave informed consent and were instructed on use of oral fluid based rapid HIV tests. Participants enrolled at the health facility received three self-tests and those at the drop-in centre received five self-tests. Structured interviews were conducted with participants at enrolment and over 3 months to determine how self-tests were used. Outcomes included the number of self-tests distributed by participants, the proportion of participants whose sexual partners used a self-test, couples testing, and sexual behaviour after self-testing. Between Jan 14, 2015, and March 13, 2015, 280 participants were enrolled (61 in antenatal care, 117 in post-partum care, and 102 female sex workers); follow-up interviews were completed for 265 (96%). Most participants with primary sexual partners distributed self-tests to partners: 53 (91%) of 58 participants in antenatal care, 91 (86%) of 106 in post-partum care, and 64 (75%) of 85 female sex workers. 82 (81%) of 101 female sex workers distributed more than one self-test to commercial sex clients. Among self-tests distributed to and used by primary sexual partners of participants, couples testing occurred in 27 (51%) of 53 in antenatal care, 62 (68%) of 91 from post-partum care, and 53 (83%) of 64 female sex workers. Among tests received by primary and non-primary sexual partners, two (4%) of 53

  16. Male partner selectivity, romantic confidence, and media depictions of partner scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Laramie D

    2013-01-18

    An experiment was conducted to explore the effects of exposure to partner scarcity or abundance messages on men's partner selectivity, romantic confidence, and self-assessed attractiveness. Undergraduate male participants watched a soap opera narrative featuring either two men competing over one potential female partner (partner scarcity) or two women competing over one potential male partner (partner abundance). Relative to control subjects, watching either narrative reduced romantic confidence. Experimental condition also affected partner selectivity and self-assessed attractiveness, though both effects were moderated by endorsement of traditional masculine ideology. Viewing the abundance narrative resulted in greater selectivity and self-assessed attractiveness for men high in endorsement of traditional masculinity but diminished selectivity and self-assessed attractiveness for men low in endorsement of traditional masculine identity.

  17. Male Partner Selectivity, Romantic Confidence, and Media Depictions of Partner Scarcity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laramie D. Taylor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to explore the effects of exposure to partner scarcity or abundance messages on men's partner selectivity, romantic confidence, and self-assessed attractiveness. Undergraduate male participants watched a soap opera narrative featuring either two men competing over one potential female partner (partner scarcity or two women competing over one potential male partner (partner abundance. Relative to control subjects, watching either narrative reduced romantic confidence. Experimental condition also affected partner selectivity and self-assessed attractiveness, though both effects were moderated by endorsement of traditional masculine ideology. Viewing the abundance narrative resulted in greater selectivity and self-assessed attractiveness for men high in endorsement of traditional masculinity but diminished selectivity and self-assessed attractiveness for men low in endorsement of traditional masculine identity.

  18. Sex of Sexual Partners and Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Among U.S. Girls and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agénor, Madina; McCauley, Heather L; Peitzmeier, Sarah M; Haneuse, Sebastien; Gordon, Allegra R; Potter, Jennifer; Austin, S Bryn

    2016-03-01

    Girls and women are at risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer from male and female sexual partners throughout the life course. However, no study has assessed how sex of sexual partners, a dimension of sexual orientation, may relate to HPV vaccination among girls and women. In 2014, data from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth were used to conduct logistic regression analyses estimating the relationship between sex of lifetime and past-year sexual partners and HPV vaccine awareness and initiation among U.S. girls and women aged 15-25 years (N=3,253). Among U.S. girls and women aged 15-25 years, the prevalence of HPV vaccine awareness and HPV vaccine initiation was 84.4% and 28.5%, respectively. Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, participants with only female past-year sexual partners had significantly lower odds of initiating HPV vaccination relative to those with only male past-year sexual partners (OR=0.16, 95% CI=0.05, 0.55). Similarly, respondents with no lifetime (OR=0.65, 95% CI=0.46, 0.92) or past-year (OR=0.69, 95% CI=0.50, 0.94) sexual partners had significantly lower adjusted odds of HPV vaccine initiation compared with those with only male sexual partners. No difference was apparent in the odds of initiating HPV vaccination between participants with male and female sexual partners and those with only male sexual partners. Medical and public health professionals should ensure that girls and women with only female or no sexual partners are included in HPV vaccine education and promotion efforts. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Heteromorphic Sex Chromosomes: Navigating Meiosis without a Homologous Partner

    OpenAIRE

    Checchi, Paula M.; Engebrecht, JoAnne

    2011-01-01

    Accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis relies on homology between the maternal and paternal chromosomes. Yet by definition, sex chromosomes of the heterogametic sex lack a homologous partner. Recent studies in a number of systems have shed light on the unique meiotic behavior of heteromorphic sex chromosomes, and highlight both the commonalities and differences in divergent species. During meiotic prophase, the homology-dependent processes of pairing, synapsis, and recombination have ...

  20. Effects of acute corticosterone treatment on partner preferences in male and female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPlante, Kimberly A; Huremovic, Enida; Tomaszycki, Michelle L

    2014-04-01

    Stress alters physiology and behavior across species. Most research on the effects of stress on behavior uses chronic stressors, and most are correlational. The effects of acute stressors on physiology and behavior have been mixed. Here, we use zebra finches, a highly gregarious species that forms long-term pair bonds, to test the effects of an acute corticosterone (CORT) on opposite-sex partner preferences over a same-sex individual or a group (the latter is a highly appealing option). We had two competing hypotheses. First, we predicted that acute CORT would alter preferences for the opposite sex bird in both conditions in both sexes. However, since there is a sex difference in the effects of CORT on partner preferences in voles, these effects may be more pronounced in males than in females. To test our hypotheses, we administered 2 doses of CORT (10μg and 20μg) or vehicle (control) using a repeated measures design. In the male vs. female test, there was a significant Sex by Treatment interaction, such that in males, 10μg CORT increased preferences for a female over the male compared to when these same males were treated with saline at baseline. There were no effects of treatment in females. In the opposite-sex vs. group condition, there was an overall effect of Treatment, such that the 10μg dose increased preference for the opposite-sex individual over both saline treatments, regardless of sex. These findings further our understanding of the effects of an acute stressor on sexual partner preferences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Early Resumption of Sex following Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision amongst School-Going Males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin George

    Full Text Available Voluntary medical male circumcision is an integral part of the South African government's response to the HIV and AIDS epidemic. Following circumcision, it is recommended that patients abstain from sexual activity for six weeks, as sex may increase the risk of female-to-male HIV transmission and prolong the healing period. This paper investigates the resumption of sexual activity during the healing period among a cohort of school-going males in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The analysis for this paper compares two groups of sexually active school-going males: the first group reported having sex during the healing period (n = 40 and the second group (n = 98 reported no sex during the healing period (mean age: 17.7, SD: 1.7.The results show that 29% (n = 40 of young males (mean age: 17.9, SD: 1.8 who were previously sexually active, resumed sexual activity during the healing period, had on average two partners and used condoms inconsistently. In addition, those males that engage in sexual activity during the healing period were less inclined to practice safe sex in the future (AOR = 0.055, p = 0.002 than the group of males who reported no sex during the healing period. These findings suggest that a significant proportion of young males may currently and in the future, subject themselves to high levels of risk for contracting HIV post circumcision. Education, as part of a VMMC campaign, must emphasize the high risk of HIV transmission for both the males their partners during the healing period.

  2. Understanding sex partner selection from the perspective of inner-city black adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Kerrigan, Deanna; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2006-09-01

    Black adolescents in inner-city settings are at increased risk for HIV and other STDs. Sex partner characteristics, as well as individual behavior, influence individuals' STD risk, yet little is known about the process of sex partner selection for adolescents in this setting. Semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted during the summer and fall of 2002 with 50 inner-city black adolescents (26 females and 24 males) who had been purposively recruited from an STD clinic. Content analysis was used to study interview texts. Young women desire a monogamous romantic partner, rather than a casual sex partner; however, to fulfill their desire for emotional intimacy, they often accept a relationship with a nonmonogamous partner. Young men seek both physical and emotional benefits from being in a relationship; having a partner helps them to feel wanted, and they gain social status among their peers when they have multiple partners. For men, these benefits may help compensate for an inability to obtain jobs that would improve their financial and, as a result, social status. Both women and men assess partners' STD risk on the basis of appearance. HIV and other STD prevention initiatives must go beyond the scope of traditional messages aimed at behavior change and address the need for social support and socioeconomic opportunities among at-risk, inner-city adolescents.

  3. [Status on sexual partners among men who have sex with men among college students in Qingdao, 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X F; Lyu, C X; Zheng, J T; Dong, L; Jiang, Z X; Fu, J H

    2017-12-10

    Objective: To investigate the situation of sexual partners and related factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in college students. Methods: Snowball sampling and Convenience sampling were both used to recruit MSM from colleges in Tsingtao in 2016. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted to collect data of socio-demographic and situation of sexual partners. Sample Size was estimated based on cross-sectional study, and theoretical 267. SPSS 17.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 300 MSM, average aged 20.7, were analyzed. Both first sex partner and the last same-sex sexual partner were met instantly, with proportions as 58.7% (176/300) and 62.3% (187/300) respectively. Among all the MSM, 88.3% (265/300) preferred selecting men as sex partners and 42.7% (128/300) enjoyed finding sex partners in college, while 86.0% (258/300) preferred finding their sex partners through internet. Conclusions: Internet had been the major way of looking for sex partner among MSM in college students, the male sexual partner were met instantly. We should focus on men who have sex with men and their sexual health among college students to prevent and control HIV/AIDS.

  4. HIV prevention interventions for young male commercial sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester-Arnal, R; Gil-Llario, M D; Salmeron-Sánchez, P; Giménez-García, C

    2014-03-01

    The sex industry, where men sell sexual services to other men or women, has grown in recent years. These men who offer sexual services are particularly vulnerable to HIV infection due to such factors as: frequency of risky sexual practices, number of sex partners, drug-taking, prevalence of sexually-transmitted infections (STI) and their specific situation of social exclusion which may hinder access to health services. These multi-faceted realities faced by sex workers explain the burgeoning interest in new avenues of scientific research. There are too few preventive programs however aimed at this population group and the studies that evaluate their effectiveness are fewer still. In this article we survey more recent studies on the difficulties of implementing programs for HIV prevention in male sex workers (MSW), as well as the studies that have gauged the impact of preventive programs in this group.

  5. Pattern of Semen Fluid Abnormalities in Male Partners of Infertile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of male infertility is increasing in our environment. There is a need to evaluate the partern of abnormality with a view to recommending appropriate interventions. We aimed to to analyze the seminal fluid parameters of the male partners of the infertile couples managed in the hospital over a 12 month period ...

  6. Sexual agreements and perception of HIV prevalence among an online sample of partnered men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; White, Darcy; Mitchell, Jason W

    2015-10-01

    Stemming from recent evidence that between one- and two-thirds of new HIV transmissions among men who have sex with men (MSM) occur within main partnerships, research and programmatic efforts have begun to recognize the role of the male-male dyad in shaping HIV risk. Central to this new focus has been studies detailing the presence of sexual agreements, which provide guidelines governing permissions around sex with partners outside of the relationship. Using a Facebook-recruited sample of US-partnered MSM (n = 454), this study examines the associations between reporting of sexual agreements and perceptions of HIV prevalence among male sex partners, friends, and local and national MSM populations. Men who perceived that 10-20 % (OR 6.18, 95 % CI 1.28-29.77) and >20 % of their male sex partners were HIV positive (OR 2.68, 95 % CI 1.02-7.08) had significantly higher odds of reporting having an open agreement with their current main partner than men who perceived that less than 10 % of their male sex partners were HIV positive. Partnered men with open sexual agreements may have more sexual partners than those who report monogamy, possibly leading to heightened perceptions of HIV risk, which may result in reporting of perceptions of greater local HIV prevalence. Additionally, men who have made agreements with their partners may have done so due to concerns about HIV risks, and may also be more aware of increased risks of HIV infection, or may have greater knowledge of HIV prevalence through discussions of serostatus with sex partners. Attention is needed to develop prevention efforts, such as toolkits and resources that enable men to form sexual agreements that are based on comprehensive knowledge of the potential risks for acquisition of HIV.

  7. Globalization and male sex trade in Ghana: Modernity or Immorality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalization and male sex trade in Ghana: Modernity or Immorality? ... apolitical and less hypocritical way of discussing the issue devoid of criminalization, in the ... Key words: Globalization, homosexuality, male sex trade, sex culture, Ghana.

  8. "Amar te Duele" ("love hurts"): sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, depression symptoms and HIV risk among female sex workers who use drugs and their non-commercial, steady partners in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Roesch, Scott; Rangel, M Gudelia; Staines, Hugo; Amaro, Hortensia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-01-01

    A significant body of research among female sex workers (FSWs) has focused on individual-level HIV risk factors. Comparatively little is known about their non-commercial, steady partners who may heavily influence their behavior and HIV risk. This cross-sectional study of 214 FSWs who use drugs and their male steady partners aged ≥18 in two Mexico-U.S. border cities utilized a path-analytic model for dyadic data based upon the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to examine relationships between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence (IPV), depression symptoms, and unprotected sex. FSWs' relationship power, IPV perpetration and victimization were significantly associated with unprotected sex within the relationship. Male partners' depression symptoms were significantly associated with unprotected sex within the relationship. Future HIV prevention interventions for FSWs and their male partners should address issues of sexual relationship power, IPV, and mental health both individually and in the context of their relationship.

  9. Sex Steroid Actions in Male Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Michaël R.; Claessens, Frank; Gielen, Evelien; Lagerquist, Marie K.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Börjesson, Anna E.; Ohlsson, Claes

    2014-01-01

    Sex steroids are chief regulators of gender differences in the skeleton, and male gender is one of the strongest protective factors against osteoporotic fractures. This advantage in bone strength relies mainly on greater cortical bone expansion during pubertal peak bone mass acquisition and superior skeletal maintenance during aging. During both these phases, estrogens acting via estrogen receptor-α in osteoblast lineage cells are crucial for male cortical and trabecular bone, as evident from conditional genetic mouse models, epidemiological studies, rare genetic conditions, genome-wide meta-analyses, and recent interventional trials. Genetic mouse models have also demonstrated a direct role for androgens independent of aromatization on trabecular bone via the androgen receptor in osteoblasts and osteocytes, although the target cell for their key effects on periosteal bone formation remains elusive. Low serum estradiol predicts incident fractures, but the highest risk occurs in men with additionally low T and high SHBG. Still, the possible clinical utility of serum sex steroids for fracture prediction is unknown. It is likely that sex steroid actions on male bone metabolism rely also on extraskeletal mechanisms and cross talk with other signaling pathways. We propose that estrogens influence fracture risk in aging men via direct effects on bone, whereas androgens exert an additional antifracture effect mainly via extraskeletal parameters such as muscle mass and propensity to fall. Given the demographic trends of increased longevity and consequent rise of osteoporosis, an increased understanding of how sex steroids influence male bone health remains a high research priority. PMID:25202834

  10. Prostaglandin levels and semen quality in male partners of infertile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To provide data on semen prostaglandins in Nigerian men and relate this to fertility potential as provided by semen analysis results. Design: Prospective study. Setting: Infertility Clinic of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria Subjects: All male partners of infertile couples who ...

  11. Male-to-male sex among men who inject drugs in Delhi, India: overlapping HIV risk behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Gregory; Jorm, Anthony F; Samson, Luke; Joubert, Lynette; Singh, Shalini; Kermode, Michelle

    2015-04-01

    HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID) is a major public health challenge in India. This paper examines PWID in Delhi who also have male-to-male sex with a focus on overlapping HIV risk behaviours and the psychosocial correlates of a history of male-to-male anal sex. We analysed data collected in April-May of 2012 from a community-based sample of 420 male PWID in Delhi obtained using time location sampling. One third (37%) of the men reported a history of anal sex with men, among whom just 16% used a condom at last anal sex. Almost all (93%) participants who had a history of anal sex with men also had sex with women. Chi-square tests revealed that a history of anal sex with men was associated with a higher number of female sexual partners and sharing of needles and syringes. Additionally, unprotected sex at last sex with a male partner was significantly associated with unprotected sex at last sex with regular and paid female partners. Multivariate binary logistic regression revealed that the psychosocial correlates of a history of anal sex with other men were: being aged 18-24 (OR = 2.4, p = 0.014), illiteracy (OR = 1.9, p = 0.033), having never been married (OR = 2.6, p = 0.007), a main source of income of crime/begging (OR = 3.1, p = 0.019), a duration of injecting drug use greater than 20 years (OR = 3.4, p = 0.035) and suicidal ideation (OR = 1.7, p = 0.048). Male-to-male sex was associated with psychosocial vulnerability, including a longer history of injecting drug use, suicidal ideation and socio-economic disadvantage. Given the extent of overlapping HIV risk behaviours, HIV programs for PWID would benefit from a strong focus on prevention of sexual HIV transmission, especially among male injectors who also have sex with other men. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Differences in Gay Male Couples' Use of Drugs and Alcohol With Sex by Relationship HIV Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason W

    2016-07-01

    Prior studies with men who have sex with men have documented a strong association between substance use with sex and risk for acquisition of HIV. However, few studies have been conducted about gay male couples' use of substances with sex, despite the fact that between one third and two thirds of men who have sex with men acquire HIV from their relationship partners. The present study sought to (1) describe whether one or both partners in the male couple uses substances with sex-by substance type-within and/or outside of their relationship, and (2) assess whether differences exist in those who use substances with sex within and outside the relationship by the couples' HIV status. Dyadic data for this analysis were collected in the United States from a nation-wide cross-sectional Internet study about male couples' relationships and behaviors. Couple-level descriptive and comparative analyses were employed with 361 male couples. Except for alcohol, most couples did not use substances with sex. Of those who did, rates of who used it with sex and substance type within the relationship varied; most couples only had one partner who used substances with sex outside the relationship. Significantly higher proportions of concordantly HIV-negative and HIV-positive couples had both partners who used substances (all types) with sex within their relationship over discordant couples. Most couples had one partner who used outside the relationship; only marijuana and erectile dysfunction medication use with sex significantly differed by couples' HIV status. Findings indicate the need to conduct additional research for prevention development. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. “Amar te Duele” (“Love Hurts”): Sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, depression symptoms and HIV risk among female sex workers who use drugs and their non-commercial, steady partners in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Roesch, Scott; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Staines, Hugo; Amaro, Hortensia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2014-01-01

    A significant body of research among female sex workers (FSWs) has focused on individual-level HIV risk factors. Comparatively little is known about their non-commercial, steady partners who may heavily influence their behavior and HIV risk. This cross-sectional study of 214 FSWs who use drugs and their male steady partners aged ≥18 in two Mexico-U.S. border cities utilized a path-analytic model for dyadic data based upon the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to examine relationships between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence (IPV), depression symptoms, and unprotected sex. FSWs’ relationship power, IPV perpetration and victimization were significantly associated with unprotected sex within the relationship. Male partners’ depression symptoms were significantly associated with unprotected sex within the relationship. Future HIV prevention interventions for FSWs and their male partners should address issues of sexual relationship power, IPV, and mental health both individually and in the context of their relationship. PMID:24743959

  14. A qualitative study of the impact of endometriosis on male partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, L; Law, C; Hudson, N; Mitchell, H; Denny, E; Raine-Fenning, N

    2017-08-01

    What is the impact of endometriosis on male partners of women with the condition? Endometriosis significantly impacts men across several life domains and can negatively impact emotional well-being. Endometriosis has been shown to negatively impact women's quality of life and may strain intimate relationships. Little is known about the impact on male partners. The ENDOPART study was a cross-sectional, qualitative study of 22 women with endometriosis and their male partners (n = 44) in the UK (2012-2013). Inclusion criteria: laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis; the presence of symptoms for at least a year; partners living together. Data were collected via face to face, semi structured interviews with partners interviewed separately. Data were analysed thematically, assisted by NVivo 10. Men reported that endometriosis affected many life domains including sex and intimacy, planning for and having children, working lives and household income. It also required them to take on additional support tasks and roles. Endometriosis also had an impact on men's emotions, with responses including helplessness, frustration, worry and anger. The absence of professional or wider societal recognition of the impact on male partners, and a lack of support available to men, results in male partners having a marginalized status in endometriosis care. Self-selection of participants may have resulted in a sample representing those with more severe symptoms. Couples included are in effect 'survivors' in relationship terms, therefore, findings may underestimate the contribution of endometriosis to relationship breakdown. The study extends knowledge about the impact of endometriosis on relationships, which thus far has been drawn largely from studies with women, by providing new insights about how this condition affects male partners. Healthcare practitioners need to take a more couple-centred, biopsychosocial approach toward the treatment of endometriosis, inclusive of partners and

  15. Correlates of unprotected sex with female sex workers among male clients in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Gallardo Cruz, Manuel; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Nguyen, Lucie; Semple, Shirley J; Patterson, Thomas L

    2010-05-01

    Tijuana, situated adjacent to San Diego, CA on the US-Mexico border, is experiencing an emerging HIV epidemic, with prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs) having risen in recent years from Tijuana. In 2008, males from San Diego (N = 189) and Tijuana (N = 211) aged 18 or older who had paid or traded for sex with a FSW in Tijuana during the past 4 months were recruited in Tijuana's red light district. Participants underwent psychosocial interviews, and were tested for HIV, syphilis (Treponema pallidum), gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae), and Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis). Of 394 men, median age was 36 years, 42.1% were married, and 39.3% were unemployed. Ethnic composition was 13.2% white, 79.4% Hispanic, and 7.4% black or other. Half (50.3%) reported unprotected vaginal or anal sex with FSWs in Tijuana in the past 4 months. High proportions reported using drugs during sex (66%), and 36% reported frequenting the same FSW. Factors independently associated with unprotected sex with FSWs were using drugs during sex, visiting the same FSW, being married, and being unemployed. FSWs' clients represent a sexually transmitted infections/HIV transmission "bridge" through unprotected sex with FSWs, wives, and other partners. Tailored interventions to promote consistent condom use are needed for clients, especially within the context of drug use and ongoing relations with particular FSWs.

  16. Condom use errors and problems among young women who put condoms on their male partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Stephanie A; Graham, Cynthia A; Yarber, William L; Crosby, Richard A

    2003-01-01

    To comprehensively assess condom use errors and problems reported by women who apply condoms, given the lack of data on this aspect of condom use. Data from a questionnaire survey, using a 3-month recall period, was analyzed for a convenience sample of 102 college women who put condoms on their male partner(s) for sex (vaginal, anal, or oral). The percentage of the sample reporting that an error or problem occurred at least once is presented. Fifty-one percent put the condom on after starting sex, and 15% took the condom off before ending sex. Forty-eight percent wanted a condom but didn't have one, 46% did not leave space at the tip, 30% put the condom on wrong side up and had to flip the condom over, 26% did not use a lubricant, and 15% wanted a water-based lubricant and did not have any available. Twenty-five percent reported that their partners lost erections in association with condom use. Twenty-eight percent reported breakage, slippage, or both. Higher error scores were found for those who reported: 1) breakage or slippage, 2) partner erection problems, 3) use of another form of contraception, and 4) not having received instruction in correct condom use. Educating women as well as men about correct condom use, in addition to promoting consistent condom use, may be an important public health strategy.

  17. Sex differences in the implications of partner physical attractiveness for the trajectory of marital satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Andrea L; McNulty, James K; Jackson, Grace L; Karney, Benjamin R

    2014-03-01

    Do men value physical attractiveness in a mate more than women? Scientists in numerous disciplines believe that they do, but recent research using speed-dating paradigms suggests that males and females are equally influenced by physical attractiveness when choosing potential mates. Nevertheless, the premise of the current work is that sex differences in the importance of physical attractiveness are most likely to emerge in research on long-term relationships. Accordingly, the current work drew from 4 independent, longitudinal studies to examine sex differences in the implications of partner physical attractiveness for trajectories of marital satisfaction. In all 4 studies, both partners' physical attractiveness was objectively rated at baseline, and both partners reported their marital satisfaction up to 8 times over the first 4 years of marriage. Whereas husbands were more satisfied at the beginning of the marriage and remained more satisfied over the next 4 years to the extent that they had an attractive wife, wives were no more or less satisfied initially or over the next 4 years to the extent that they had an attractive husband. Most importantly, a direct test indicated that partner physical attractiveness played a larger role in predicting husbands' satisfaction than predicting wives' satisfaction. These findings strengthen support for the idea that sex differences in self-reported preferences for physical attractiveness do have implications for long-term relationship outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Seeking sex partners through the internet and mobile phone applications among men who have sex with men in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Nai-Ying; Tseng, Po-Chia; Huang, Yu-Chao; Chen, Yen-Chin; Hsu, Su-Ting

    2016-07-01

    It has become popular for men who have sex with men (MSM) to use mobile-phone geosocial networking applications (mobile apps) to find sex partners. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in Taiwan to compare the sexual and substance-use behaviors of MSM seeking sex partners through the internet and mobile apps. Of the 1060 participants, 65.8% used the internet via computer and 37.7% used a mobile app to find sexual partners, while 30.3% used recreational drugs or alcohol in the previous 6 months. MSM who exclusively used mobile apps to seek sex partners were significantly more likely than MSM seeking sex via computer to be older, to have used recreational drugs or alcohol, and to have sex with HIV-positive partners. Additionally, using mobile apps to seek sex partners was significantly associated with having sex with online partners through either mobile apps or computer-based internet use (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 7.12 [3.87-13.11]), self-reporting as HIV-positive (AOR, 2.24 [1.12-4.12]), using recreational drugs (AOR, 1.67 [1.21-2.32]), having disclosed HIV status to sexual partners (AOR, 1.44 [1.03-2.02]), and having sex with HIV-positive partners (AOR, 1.81 [1.06-3.10]). In conclusion, the mobile apps may serve as a feasible platform for HIV-positive MSM to find other HIV-positive partners.

  19. A new public health context to understand male sex work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minichiello, Victor; Scott, John; Callander, Denton

    2015-03-24

    Researching male sex work offers insight into the sexual lives of men and women while developing a more realistic appreciation for the changing issues associated with male sex work. This type of research is important because it not only reflects a growing and diversifying consumer demand for male sex work, but also because it enables the construction of knowledge that is up-to-date with changing ideas around sex and sexualities. This paper discusses a range of issues emerging in the male sex industry. Notably, globalisation and technology have contributed to the normalisation of male sex work and reshaped the landscape in which the male sex industry operates. As part of this discussion, we review STI and HIV rates among male sex workers at a global level, which are widely disparate and geographically contextual, with rates of HIV among male sex workers ranging from 0% in some areas to 50% in others. The Internet has reshaped the way that male sex workers and clients connect and has been identified as a useful space for safer sex messages and research that seeks out hidden or commonly excluded populations. We argue for a public health context that recognises the emerging and changing nature of male sex work, which means programs and policies that are appropriate for this population group. Online communities relating to male sex work are important avenues for safer sexual messages and unique opportunities to reach often excluded sub-populations of both clients and male sex workers. The changing structure and organisation of male sex work alongside rapidly changing cultural, academic and medical discourses provide new insight but also new challenges to how we conceive the sexualities of men and male sex workers. Public health initiatives must reflect upon and incorporate this knowledge.

  20. From Client to Pimp: Male Violence against Female Sex Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karandikar, Sharvari; Prospero, Moises

    2010-01-01

    The present study explores intimate partner violence (IPV) among female sex workers from the red-light area based in Mumbai, India. Using a grounded theory approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with ten sex workers to explore their experiences of IPV in the context of commercial sex work. Narratives were analyzed and themes constructed. A…

  1. THE EFFECT OF A MALE SURPLUS ON INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE IN INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sunita; Trent, Katherine; South, Scott J

    2013-08-31

    Theories of the social consequences of imbalanced sex ratios posit that men will exercise extraordinarily strict control over women's behaviour when women's relationship options are plentiful and men's own options are limited. We use data from the third wave of the Indian National Family and Health Survey, conducted in 2005-06, to explore this issue, investigating the effect of the community sex ratio on women's experience of intimate partner violence in India. Multilevel logistic regression models show that a relative surplus of men in a community increases the likelihood of physical abuse by husbands even after adjusting for various other individual, household, and geographic characteristics. Further evidence of control over women when there is a sex ratio imbalance is provided by the increased odds of husbands distrusting wives with money when there is a male surplus in the local community.

  2. Intact Marriages in which One Partner Dis-Identifies with Experiences of Same-Sex Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarhouse, Mark A.; Pawlowski, Lisa M.; Tan, Erica S. N.

    2003-01-01

    This study is of heterosexually married couples in which one partner reports having experienced same-sex attraction and both partners report satisfaction with their marriage despite facing such constraints. Analysis suggested a number of themes related to how spouses learned about their partners' experiences of same-sex attraction, motivations for…

  3. Aging and sex hormones in males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaroli, Maria Chiara

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several large cohort studies have disclosed the trajectories of sex steroids changes overtime in men and their clinical significance. In men the slow, physiological decline of serum testosterone (T) with advancing age overlaps with the clinical condition of overt, pathological hypogonadism. In addition, the increasing number of comorbidities, together with the high prevalence of chronic diseases, all further contribute to the decrease of serum T concentrations in the aging male. For all these reasons both the diagnosis of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) in men and the decision about starting or not T replacement treatment remain challenging. At present, the biochemical finding of T deficiency alone is not sufficient for diagnosing hypogonadism in older men. Coupling hypogonadal symptoms with documented low serum T represents the best strategy to refine the diagnosis of hypogonadism in older men and to avoid unnecessary treatments. PMID:27831823

  4. Profile of male Brazilian injecting drug users who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Aline Dayrell

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to characterize the profile of male injecting drug users who have sex with other men (MSM IDUs recruited through a cross-sectional multi-city survey (AjUDE-Brasil II Project in six Brazilian cities, in 2000-2001. MSM IDUs were compared to other male IDUs using bivariate and multivariate procedures (logistic regression and answer tree analysis with the CHAID algorithm. Among the 709 male IDUs, 187 (26.4% reported ever having had sex with other men, while only 37 reported sex with other men in the previous six months. MSM IDUs were more likely to be unemployed (OR = 2.3, to have injected tranquilizers (OR = 3.6, and to be HIV-seropositive (OR = 2.1, compared to other male IDUs. Male same-sex relations in this subgroup appear to be associated with strategies to finance drug consuming habits, including sex for drugs with occasional female partners or obtaining injection paraphernalia from occasional sex partners. Further studies should focus on this especially vulnerable subgroup of IDUs, due to the bidirectional and complex interrelationships between their drug injecting habits and sexual risk behaviors.

  5. Changes in the Distribution of Sex Partners in the United States: 2002 to 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Christopher R; Dittus, Patricia J; Leichliter, Jami S; Aral, Sevgi O

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the current analysis is to examine subgroup differences in the distribution of opposite-sex sex partners in the United States across an approximate 10-year period to identify patterns that may inform sexually transmitted infection research and prevention. Data were drawn from the 2002 and 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth, a US probability-based household survey focusing on sexual and reproductive health. The measures included in this analysis were lifetime opposite-sex sex partners and opposite-sex sex partners in the past year. Analyses were conducted separately for men and women. All analyses were conducted in R and R-studio with the "survey" package, focusing on medians, the 80th, and 95th quartile. In 2002, there were significant differences between men and women in median number of lifetime sex partners with men reporting more lifetime partners. However, in the 2011-2013 data, these differences are no longer significant. Still, the findings suggest that the top 20% and top 5% of men are reporting significantly more lifetime partners than their female counterparts. In comparison, partners in the past year remain relatively unchanged for both men and women. These findings suggest that there were important changes in the distribution of sex partners between 2002 and 2011-2013 that have implications for sexually transmitted infection prevention. Median lifetime partners are no longer different for women and men: however, the distribution of lifetime partners among men is becoming even more skewed.

  6. Declining Segregation of Same-Sex Partners: Evidence from Census 2000 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent media and scholarly attention describing the “disappearance” of traditionally gay neighborhoods, urban scholars have yet to quantify the segregation of same-sex partners and determine whether declining segregation from different-sex partners is a wide-spread trend. Focusing on the 100 most populous places in the United States, I use data from the 2000 and 2010 Decennial Census to examine the segregation of same-sex partners over time and its place-level correlates. I estimate linear regression models to examine the role of four place characteristics in particular: average levels of education, aggregate trends in the family life cycle of same-sex partners, violence and social hostility motivated by sexual orientation bias, and representation of same-sex partners in the overall population. On average, same-sex partners were less segregated from different-sex partners in 2010 than in 2000, and the vast majority of same-sex partners lived in environments of declining segregation. Segregation was lower and declined more rapidly in places that had a greater percentage of graduate degree holders. In addition, segregation of female partners was lower in places that had a greater share of female partner households with children. These findings suggest that sexual orientation should be considered alongside economic status, race, and ethnicity as an important factor that contributes to neighborhood differentiation and urban spatial inequality. PMID:24187412

  7. Prevalence of consistent condom use with various types of sex partners and associated factors among money boys in Changsha, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lian-Hong; Yan, Jin; Yang, Guo-Li; Long, Shuo; Yu, Yong; Wu, Xi-Lin

    2015-04-01

    Money boys with inconsistent condom use (less than 100% of the time) are at high risk of infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or sexually transmitted infection (STI), but relatively little research has examined their risk behaviors. We investigated the prevalence of consistent condom use (100% of the time) and associated factors among money boys. A cross-sectional study using a structured questionnaire was conducted among money boys in Changsha, China, between July 2012 and January 2013. Independent variables included socio-demographic data, substance abuse history, work characteristics, and self-reported HIV and STI history. Dependent variables included the consistent condom use with different types of sex partners. Among the participants, 82.4% used condoms consistently with male clients, 80.2% with male sex partners, and 77.1% with female sex partners in the past 3 months. A multiple stepwise logistic regression model identified four statistically significant factors associated with lower likelihoods of consistent condom use with male clients: age group, substance abuse, lack of an "employment" arrangement, and having no HIV test within the prior 6 months. In a similar model, only one factor associated significantly with lower likelihoods of consistent condom use with male sex partners was identified in multiple stepwise logistic regression analyses: having no HIV test within the prior six months. As for female sex partners, two significant variables were statistically significant in the multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis: having no HIV test within the prior 6 months and having STI history. Interventions which are linked with more realistic and acceptable HIV prevention methods are greatly warranted and should increase risk awareness and the behavior of consistent condom use in both commercial and personal relationship. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  8. Risk Factors for Hispanic Male Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancera, Bibiana M; Dorgo, Sandor; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias

    2017-07-01

    The literature review analyzed 24 studies that explored male intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration risk factors among men, in particular Hispanics, using the socioecological model framework composed of four socioecological levels for violence prevention. Six databases were reviewed within the EBSCO search engine for articles published from 2000 to 2014. Articles reviewed were specific to risk factors for IPV perpetration among Hispanic men, focusing particularly on Mexican American men. Many key factors have previously been associated with risk for IPV perpetration; however, certain determinants are unique to Hispanics such as acculturation, acculturation stress, and delineated gender roles that include Machismo and Marianismo. These risk factors should be incorporated in future targeted prevention strategies and efforts and capitalize on the positive aspects of each to serve as protective factors.

  9. HIV Partner Notification Values and Preferences Among Sex Workers, Fishermen, and Mainland Community Members in Rakai, Uganda: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Caitlin; Nakyanjo, Neema; Ddaaki, William; Burke, Virginia M; Hutchinson, Naadiya; Kagaayi, Joseph; Wawer, Maria J; Nalugoda, Fred; Kennedy, Caitlin E

    2018-01-25

    HIV partner notification involves contacting sexual partners of people who test HIV positive and referring them to HIV testing, treatment, and prevention services. To understand values and preferences of key and general populations in Rakai, Uganda, we conducted 6 focus group discussions and 63 in-depth interviews in high prevalence fishing communities and low prevalence mainland communities. Participants included fishermen and sex workers in fishing communities, male and female mainland community members, and healthcare providers. Questions explored three approaches: passive referral, provider referral, and contract referral. Qualitative data were coded and analyzed using a team-based matrix approach. Participants agreed that passive referral was most suitable for primary partners. Provider referral was acceptable in fishing communities for notifying multiple, casual partners. Healthcare providers voiced concerns about limited time, resources, and training for provider-assisted approaches. Options for partner notification may help people overcome barriers to HIV serostatus disclosure and help reach key populations.

  10. Sex Differences in the Implications of Partner Physical Attractiveness for the Trajectory of Marital Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Andrea L.; McNulty, James K.; Jackson, Grace; Karney, Benjamin R.

    2014-01-01

    Do men value physical attractiveness in a mate more than women? Scientists in numerous disciplines believe that they do, but recent research using speed-dating paradigms suggests that males and females are equally influenced by physical attractiveness when choosing potential mates. Nevertheless, the premise of the current work is that sex differences in the importance of physical attractiveness are most likely to emerge in research on long-term relationships. Accordingly, the current work drew from four independent, longitudinal studies to examine sex differences in the implications of partner physical attractiveness for trajectories of marital satisfaction. In all four studies, both partners’ physical attractiveness was objectively rated at baseline and both partners reported their marital satisfaction up to eight times over the first four years of marriage. Whereas husbands were more satisfied at the beginning of the marriage and remained more satisfied over the next four years to the extent that they had an attractive wife, wives were no more or less satisfied initially or over the next four years to the extent that they had an attractive husband. Most importantly, a direct test indicated that partner physical attractiveness played a larger role in predicting husbands’ satisfaction than predicting wives’ satisfaction. These findings strengthen support for the idea that gender differences in self-reported preferences for physical attractiveness do have implications for long-term relationship outcomes. PMID:24128188

  11. Interpersonal and structural contexts of intimate partner violence among female sex workers in conflict-affected northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Margaret; Goldenberg, Shira M; Master, Aditi; Muzaaya, Godfrey; Akello, Monica; Braschel, Melissa; Birungi, Josephine; Shannon, Kate

    2017-07-06

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is the most prevalent form of violence against women, yet remains under-researched among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. We explored the interpersonal and structural determinants of recent IPV among female sex workers in northern Uganda. This analysis drew on data from a community-based cross-sectional study (conducted May 2011-January 2012), involving 379 female sex workers in Gulu, northern Uganda. Using logistic regression and multivariable modeling, we examined the correlates of recent male-perpetrated physical or sexual IPV. Of 379 women with noncommercial partners, 59 percent reported having experienced recent moderate/severe physical or sexual IPV. Reporting recent client violence (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.67; 95 percent confidence interval [CI]: 2.31-5.83), doing what their partner wanted (AOR: 2.46; 95 percent CI: 1.46-4.13), and forced sexual debut (AOR: 1.92; 95 percent CI: 1.20-3.05) were independently associated with moderate/severe IPV; recent police arrest and/or incarceration were/was marginally significantly associated with IPV (AOR: 2.25; 95 percent CI: 0.86-5.88, p = 0.097). Greater odds of IPV among sex workers were associated with recent workplace violence, forced sexual debut, and gendered power dynamics favoring male partner control. Programs and policies promoting the safety and health of marginalized women and addressing gender dynamics and violence are needed.

  12. Understanding the New Context of the Male Sex Work Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John; Minichiello, Victor; Marino, Rodrigo; Harvey, Glenn P.; Jamieson, Maggie; Browne, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The article reviews past and recent research on male sex work to offer a context to understand violence in the industry. It provides a critical review of research to show, first, the assumptions made about male sex workers and violence and, second, how such discourses have shaped thinking on the topic. The article presents a case study and…

  13. Prevalence and correlates of sexual risk among male and female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsulis, Yasmina; Durfee, Alesha

    2012-01-01

    We investigated prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behaviours among male and female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico, the busiest border crossing area on the US - Mexico border, analysing survey data from a purposive, cross-sectional sample of male and female sex workers who worked in a range of indoor and outdoor settings. Logistic regression was used to determine factors that were associated with sexual risk-taking, defined as failing to use a condom with last client. In bivariate regression models, gender, work setting (e.g., indoor vs. outdoor), poverty, engaging in survival sex, marital status and perceived drug addiction were correlated with sexual risk. When controlling for work location, housing insecurity, poverty, survival sex, marital status and perceived drug addiction, male sex workers were still 10 times more likely than female sex workers (FSW) to engage in sex without a condom during their last encounter with a client. And, although FSW were significantly more likely than males to have used a condom with a client, they were significantly less likely than males to have used a condom with their regular partner. Future research should further examine how gender shapes sexual risk activities in both commercial and non-commercial relationships.

  14. Semen quality of male partners of infertile couples in Ile-Ife, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objective was to evaluate seminal fluid indices of male partners of infertile couples so as to identify the current status of the contributions of male factor to infertility in our environment. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study of the seminal fluid indices of consecutively consenting male partners of ...

  15. 'Struggling to be the alpha': sources of tension and intimate partner violence in same-sex relationships between men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Tamar; Stephenson, Rob; Freeland, Ryan; Finneran, Catherine; Hadley, Craig

    2016-08-01

    In countries such as the USA, gay and bisexual men experience high rates of intimate partner violence. However, little is known about the factors that contribute to this form of violence. In this study, we examine gay and bisexual men's perceptions of sources of tension in same-sex male relationships and how these may contribute to intimate partner violence. We conducted seven focus-group discussions with 64 gay and bisexual men in Atlanta, GA. Focus groups examined men's reactions to the short-form revised Conflicts Tactics Scale to determine if each item was considered to be intimate partner violence if it were to occur among gay and bisexual men. Analysts completed a thematic analysis, using elements of grounded theory. The sources of tension that men identified included: gender role conflict, dyadic inequalities (e.g. differences in income, age, education), differences in 'outness' about sexual identity, substance use, jealousy and external homophobic violence. Results suggest that intimate partner violence interventions for gay and bisexual men should address behavioural factors, while also focusing on structural interventions. Interventions that aim to reduce homophobic stigma and redefine male gender roles may help to address some of the tension that contributes to intimate partner violence in same-sex male relationships.

  16. Olfactory conditioned same-sex partner preference in female rats: Role of ovarian hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecamachaltzi-Silvaran, M B; Barradas-Moctezuma, M; Herrera-Covarrubias, D; Carrillo, P; Corona-Morales, A A; Perez, C A; García, L I; Manzo, J; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2017-11-01

    The dopamine D2-type receptor agonist quinpirole (QNP) facilitates the development of conditioned same-sex partner preference in males during cohabitation, but not in ovariectomized (OVX) females, primed with estradiol benzoate (EB) and progesterone (P). Herein we tested the effects of QNP on OVX, EB-only primed females. Females received a systemic injection (every four days) of either saline (Saline-conditioned) or QNP (QNP-conditioned) and then cohabited for 24h with lemon-scented stimulus females (CS+), during three trials. In test 1 (female-female) preference was QNP-free, and females chose between the CS+ female and a novel female. In test 2 (male-female) they chose between the CS+ female and a sexually experienced male. In test 1 Saline-conditioned females displayed more hops & darts towards the novel female, but QNP-conditioned females displayed more sexual solicitations towards the CS+ female. In test 2 Saline-conditioned females displayed a clear preference for the male, whereas QNP-conditioned females displayed what we considered a bisexual preference. We discuss the effect of dopamine and ovarian hormones on the development of olfactory conditioned same-sex preference in females. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sex differences in adults' relative visual interest in female and male faces, toys, and play styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Gerianne M; Charles, Nora

    2009-06-01

    An individual's reproductive potential appears to influence response to attractive faces of the opposite sex. Otherwise, relatively little is known about the characteristics of the adult observer that may influence his or her affective evaluation of male and female faces. An untested hypothesis (based on the proposed role of attractive faces in mate selection) is that most women would show greater interest in male faces whereas most men would show greater interest in female faces. Further, evidence from individuals with preferences for same-sex sexual partners suggests that response to attractive male and female faces may be influenced by gender-linked play preferences. To test these hypotheses, visual attention directed to sex-linked stimuli (faces, toys, play styles) was measured in 39 men and 44 women using eye tracking technology. Consistent with our predictions, men directed greater visual attention to all male-typical stimuli and visual attention to male and female faces was associated with visual attention to gender conforming or nonconforming stimuli in a manner consistent with previous research on sexual orientation. In contrast, women showed a visual preference for female-typical toys, but no visual preference for male faces or female-typical play styles. These findings indicate that sex differences in visual processing extend beyond stimuli associated with adult sexual behavior. We speculate that sex differences in visual processing are a component of the expression of gender phenotypes across the lifespan that may reflect sex differences in the motivational properties of gender-linked stimuli.

  18. The brain reaction to viewing faces of opposite- and same-sex romantic partners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semir Zeki

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We pursued our functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies of the neural correlates of romantic love in 24 subjects, half of whom were female (6 heterosexual and 6 homosexual and half male (6 heterosexual and 6 homosexual. We compared the pattern of activity produced in their brains when they viewed the faces of their loved partners with that produced when they viewed the faces of friends of the same sex to whom they were romantically indifferent. The pattern of activation and de-activation was very similar in the brains of males and females, and heterosexuals and homosexuals. We could therefore detect no difference in activation patterns between these groups.

  19. Sex Differences in Judgments of Male and Female Role Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Sandra K.; Herman, Jeanne B.

    This study tests whether or not there are sex differences in judgments of the success of various male and female lifestyles, and if so, what differential standards are applied to males and females. The most interesting result of this study is that college men and women use the same standards to judge the success of male lifestyles but different…

  20. Is higher risk sex common among male or female youths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres

    2015-01-01

    There are several studies that showed the high prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors among youths, but little is known how significant the proportion of higher risk sex is when the male and female youths are compared. A meta-analysis was done using 26 countries' Demographic and Health Survey data from and outside Africa to make comparisons of higher risk sex among the most vulnerable group of male and female youths. Random effects analytic model was applied and the pooled odds ratios were determined using Mantel-Haenszel statistical method. In this meta-analysis, 19,148 male and 65,094 female youths who reported to have sexual intercourse in a 12-month period were included. The overall OR demonstrated that higher risk sex was ten times more prevalent in male youths than in female youths. The practice of higher risk sex by male youths aged 15-19 years was more than 27-fold higher than that of their female counterparts. Similarly, male youths in urban areas, belonged to a family with middle to highest wealth index, and educated to secondary and above were more than ninefold, eightfold and sixfold at risk of practicing higher risk sex than their female counterparts, respectively. In conclusion, this meta-analysis demonstrated that the practice of risky sexual intercourse by male youths was incomparably higher than female youths. Future risky sex protective interventions should be tailored to secondary and above educated male youths in urban areas.

  1. Child Abuse, Risk in Male Partner Selection, and Intimate Partner Violence Victimization of Women of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Juan; Torres, Andrea; Rodríguez, Francisco J

    2018-06-05

    The revictimization of women during the life cycle has attracted the interest of many researchers in recent years. In this study, we examined the relationship between the experience of child abuse and the subsequent victimization by a male partner in adulthood. Specifically, we proposed that childhood abuse experiences negatively affect the development of healthy interpersonal relationships in adulthood. Thus, some female victims of child abuse are more likely to select potentially abusive intimate male partners. Data from 23,863 heterosexual women from the 28 countries of the European Union who were living with their partners at the time of the study were used. We investigated the association between child abuse, partner's adherence to traditional gender roles, and general violence and intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. Multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) results indicated that child abuse is positively related to the partner's traditional gender role and general violence, which in turn predict IPV. Countries' level of human development was found to affect this process. We found support for the hypothesis that child abuse is related to IPV partially because it influences partner selection in adulthood. Thus, when they become adults, girls abused in childhood tend to select partners who are either traditional or generally violent. There is a persistent influence of social structural conditions (i.e., country's human development) throughout this process.

  2. African American adolescents meeting sex partners online: closing the digital research divide in STI/HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Laura B; Brown, Larry K; Swenson, Rebecca R; Valois, Robert F; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; DiClemente, Ralph; Salazar, Laura F; Romer, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    Minority adolescents are affected disproportionately by HIV and STIs, and the Internet is a popular venue to meet sex partners. Little is known about the risks of this behavior for minority adolescents. The majority of studies that have examined sexual risk behavior online or STI/HIV prevention programs online have been among adult MSM. In this study, data from 1,045 African American youth found that 6% met sex partners online and in chat rooms. Odds ratios, adjusting for gender, found this behavior was associated with alcohol (AOR = 2.33, 95% CI [1.1, 4.7]) and drug use (AOR = 3.45, 95% CI [1.9, 6.1]), unprotected vaginal (AOR = 4.71, 95% CI [1.9, 8.4]) and anal sex (AOR = 4.77, 95% CI [1.3,17.1]) in the last 90 days, more lifetime vaginal (AOR = 3.65, 95% CI [2.0, 6.8]) and anal sex (AOR = 2.74, 95% CI [1.5, 4.8]), greater sexual sensation seeking (AOR = 2.92, 95% CI [1.5, 5.7]) and greater depression (AOR = 2.06, 95% CI [1.2, 3.6]. A final multiple logistic regression analyses found that male gender (AOR = 3.13, 95% CI [1.7, 5.8]), drug use at last sex (AOR = 2.41, 95% CI [1.3, 4.5]), lifetime history of vaginal (AOR = 2.90, 95% CI [1.5, 5.5]) and anal sex (AOR = 2.09, 95% CI [1.2, 3.6]), and cocaine use (AOR = 8.53, 95% CI [2.7, 27.3]) were independently associated with having sex with a partner met online. Meeting sex partners online is associated with a variety of risks among African American youth; however, the Internet may be an opportunity for intervention.

  3. Partner selection among Latino immigrant men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Fernanda T; Shedlin, Michele G; Brooks, Kelly D; Montes Penha, Marcelo; Reisen, Carol A; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Poppen, Paul J

    2010-12-01

    This qualitative study explored partner selection in a sample of immigrant Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). In-depth interviews were conducted with men living in the greater New York metropolitan area who had been born in Brazil (n = 10), Colombia (n = 14), or the Dominican Republic (n = 9). One focus group was conducted with MSM from each of the three countries (9 Brazilian, 11 Colombian, and 5 Dominican participants). A grounded theory approach revealed three main themes relating to partner selection. The first concerned stereotypes of how Latino and Anglo-American men tend to behave in their sexual encounters and relationships. The participants perceived Latinos to be more affectionate and passionate, whereas they saw Anglo-American men as more independent and practical. These cultural discrepancies sometimes resulted in a preference for Latino partners. A second theme concerned stereotypes of the national groups, including expectations that Brazilians would be sexy and sensual and that Dominicans would have large penises. As found in other research on MSM of color, ethnic and national stereotypes were associated with experiences of sexual objectification. The third theme addressed the importance of masculine characteristics in sexual attraction and partner selection. Negative feelings towards effeminate men who did not conform to normative male physical or behavioral presentation reflect a stigma found inside and outside of the gay community. These findings suggest that gender and ethnic stereotypes play an important role in shaping partner choice and have implications for sexual risk and relationship formation.

  4. Condom use and intimacy among Tajik male migrants and their regular female partners in Moscow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabrocki, Christopher; Polutnik, Chloe; Jonbekov, Jonbek; Shoakova, Farzona; Bahromov, Mahbat; Weine, Stevan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined condom use and intimacy among Tajik male migrants and their regular female partners in Moscow, Russia. This study included a survey of 400 Tajik male labour migrants and longitudinal ethnographic interviews with 30 of the surveyed male migrants and 30 of their regular female partners. of the surveyed male migrants, 351 (88%) reported having a regular female partner in Moscow. Findings demonstrated that the migrants' and regular partners' intentions to use condoms diminished with increased intimacy, yet each party perceived intimacy differently. Migrants' intimacy with regular partners was determined by their familiarity and the perceived sexual cleanliness of their partner. Migrants believed that Muslim women were cleaner than Orthodox Christian women and reported using condoms more frequently with Orthodox Christian regular partners. Regular partners reported determining intimacy based on the perceived commitment of the male migrant. When perceived commitment faced a crisis, intimacy declined and regular partners renegotiated condom use. The association between intimacy and condom use suggests that HIV-prevention programmes should aim to help male migrants and female regular partners to dissociate their approaches to condom use from their perceptions of intimacy.

  5. Sex mosaics in a male dimorphic ant Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Juri; Mimori, Kohei; Yamauchi, Katsusuke; Tsuchida, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Gynandromorphy, or the development of organisms with a combination of male and female morphological features, is common in Hymenoptera. The underlying mechanism is likely associated with the sex-determination system, and studying this phenomenon should lead to a deeper understanding of both embryonic development and sex determination. The reproductive capabilities of gynandromorphs (hereafter, sex mosaics) remain unclear. We studied gynandromorphy in the Malaysian ant Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi, which has sex mosaics of queens (gynandromorphs; mosaic of queens and winged male) and workers (ergatandromorphs; mosaic of worker and wingless ergatoid male). These sex mosaics were classified into seven morphological categories. Most individuals had more male than female body areas. Behavioral observations revealed that sex mosaics behave more in accordance with the “sex” of their brain than that of the reproductive organs (gaster). Relative DNA quantities showed that both female and male regions contained haploid and diploid nuclei, irrespective of their phenotypic appearance, indicating that external appearance did not reflect internal tissues. Nearly one third of the adults were sex mosaics and they were not infected with Wolbachia. Our results suggest that the production of sex mosaics in this species does not pose a substantial cost to colonies and that the underlying causes are therefore not strongly selected against.

  6. Oral contraceptive use in women changes preferences for male facial masculinity and is associated with partner facial masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Anthony C; Burriss, Robert P; Petrie, Marion; Jones, Benedict C; Roberts, S Craig

    2013-09-01

    Millions of women use hormonal contraception and it has been suggested that such use may alter mate preferences. To examine the impact of oral contraceptive (pill) use on preferences, we tested for within-subject changes in preferences for masculine faces in women initiating pill use. Between two sessions, initiation of pill use significantly decreased women's preferences for male facial masculinity but did not influence preferences for same-sex faces. To test whether altered preference during pill use influences actual partner choice, we examined facial characteristics in 170 age-matched male partners of women who reported having either been using or not using the pill when the partnership was formed. Both facial measurements and perceptual judgements demonstrated that partners of women who used the pill during mate choice have less masculine faces than partners of women who did not use hormonal contraception at this time. Our data (A) provide the first experimental evidence that initiation of pill use in women causes changes in facial preferences and (B) documents downstream effects of these changes on real-life partner selection. Given that hormonal contraceptive use is widespread, effects of pill use on the processes of partner formation have important implications for relationship stability and may have other biologically relevant consequences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The male sex pheromone of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana: towards an evolutionary analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M Nieberding

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Female sex pheromones attracting mating partners over long distances are a major determinant of reproductive isolation and speciation in Lepidoptera. Males can also produce sex pheromones but their study, particularly in butterflies, has received little attention. A detailed comparison of sex pheromones in male butterflies with those of female moths would reveal patterns of conservation versus novelty in the associated behaviours, biosynthetic pathways, compounds, scent-releasing structures and receiving systems. Here we assess whether the African butterfly Bicyclus anynana, for which genetic, genomic, phylogenetic, ecological and ethological tools are available, represents a relevant model to contribute to such comparative studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a multidisciplinary approach, we determined the chemical composition of the male sex pheromone (MSP in the African butterfly B. anynana, and demonstrated its behavioural activity. First, we identified three compounds forming the presumptive MSP, namely (Z-9-tetradecenol (Z9-14:OH, hexadecanal (16:Ald and 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-ol (6,10,14-trime-15-2-ol, and produced by the male secondary sexual structures, the androconia. Second, we described the male courtship sequence and found that males with artificially reduced amounts of MSP have a reduced mating success in semi-field conditions. Finally, we could restore the mating success of these males by perfuming them with the synthetic MSP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides one of the first integrative analyses of a MSP in butterflies. The toolkit it has developed will enable the investigation of the type of information about male quality that is conveyed by the MSP in intraspecific communication. Interestingly, the chemical structure of B. anynana MSP is similar to some sex pheromones of female moths making a direct comparison of pheromone biosynthesis between male butterflies and female moths relevant

  8. HIV Testing and Awareness of Partner's HIV Status Among Chinese Men Who Have Sex with Men in Main Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chongyi; Yan, Hongjing; Raymond, H Fisher; Shi, Ling-En; Li, Jianjun; Yang, Haitao; McFarland, Willi

    2016-04-01

    Many men who have sex with men (MSM) do not use condoms with their main partners, especially if both parties are of the same HIV status. However, significant proportions of MSM have never tested or recently tested and are unaware of their main partners' HIV status. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 524 MSM in Jiangsu, China in 2013-2014. Time-location sampling and online convenience sampling were used to recruit participants. We compared awareness of HIV status and recent HIV testing between participants who had main partners versus those who did not, and identified factors associated with recent HIV testing among men in main partnerships. Participants in main partnerships were significantly more likely to report recent HIV testing and being HIV-negative instead of HIV-unknown compared to participants in casual partnerships only. Overall, 74.5 % of participants were aware of their main partners' HIV status. Among participants in main partnerships, those who had 2-5 male anal sex partners in the past 6 months and those who reported that their partners were HIV-negative had 2.36 (95 % CI 1.12, 4.97) and 4.20 (95 % CI 2.03, 8.70) fold greater odds of being tested in the past year compared to those who had main partners only and those whose partners were HIV-positive/unknown, respectively. Chinese MSM in main partnerships might be practicing serosorting and may be at lower risk for HIV infection due to increased awareness of main partners' HIV status and higher uptake of recent testing.

  9. Sexual relationship power and intimate partner violence among sex workers with non-commercial intimate partners in a Canadian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Katherine A; Deering, Kathleen N; Feng, Cindy X; Shoveller, Jean A; Shannon, Kate

    2015-01-01

    There is little information on the private lives of women engaged in sex work, particularly how power dynamics within intimate relationships may affect intimate partner violence (IPV). Using baseline data of sex workers enrolled in a longitudinal cohort, "An Evaluation of Sex Workers' Health Access" (AESHA), the present study examined the association between sexual relationship power and IPV among sex workers in non-commercial partnerships in Vancouver, Canada. Pulweritz's Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS) and The World Health Organization (WHO) Intimate Partner Violence against Women Scale (Version9.9) were used. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression techniques were used to investigate the potential confounding effect of sexual relationship power on IPV among sex workers. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Of 510 sex workers, 257 (50.4%) reported having an non-commercial intimate partner and were included in this analysis. In the past 6 months, 84 (32.7%) sex workers reported IPV (physical, sexual or emotional). The median age was 32 years, 39.3% were of Aboriginal ancestry, and 27.6% were migrants. After controlling for known confounders (e.g., age, Aboriginal ancestry, migrant status, childhood trauma, non-injection drug use), low relationship power was independently associated with 4.19 increased odds (95% CI: 1.93-9.10) and medium relationship power was associated 1.95 increased odds (95% CI: 0.89-4.25) of IPV. This analysis highlights how reduced control over sexual-decision making is plays a critical role in IPV among sex workers, and calls for innovation and inclusive programming tailored to sex workers and their non-commercial intimate partnerships.

  10. Relation of Childhood Sexual Abuse, Intimate Partner Violence, and Depression to Risk Factors for HIV Among Black Men Who Have Sex With Men in 6 US Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John K; Wilton, Leo; Magnus, Manya; Wang, Lei; Wang, Jing; Dyer, Typhanye Penniman; Koblin, Beryl A; Hucks-Ortiz, Christopher; Fields, Sheldon D; Shoptaw, Steve; Stephenson, Rob; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Cummings, Vanessa

    2015-12-01

    We assessed the relation of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), intimate partner violence (IPV), and depression to HIV sexual risk behaviors among Black men who have sex with men (MSM). Participants were 1522 Black MSM recruited from 6 US cities between July 2009 and December 2011. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used. Participants reported sex before age 12 years with someone at least 5 years older (31.1%), unwanted sex when aged 12 to 16 years (30%), IPV (51.8%), and depression (43.8%). Experiencing CSA when aged 12 to 16 years was inversely associated with any receptive condomless anal sex with a male partner (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.29, 0.86). Pressured or forced sex was positively associated with any receptive anal sex (AOR = 2.24; 95% CI = 1.57, 3.20). Experiencing CSA when younger than 12 years, physical abuse, emotional abuse, having been stalked, and pressured or forced sex were positively associated with having more than 3 male partners in the past 6 months. Among HIV-positive MSM (n = 337), CSA between ages 12 and 16 years was positively associated with having more than 3 male partners in the past 6 months. Rates of CSA, IPV, and depression were high, but associations with HIV sexual risk outcomes were modest.

  11. Multiple sex partner behavior in female undergraduate students in China: A multi-campus survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong; Chen, Weiqi; Wu, Haocheng; Bi, Yongyi; Zhang, Miaoxuan; Li, Shiyue; Braun, Kathryn L

    2009-01-01

    Background China is realizing increases in women engaged in premarital sex and multiple sex partner behavior. Our aim was to examine prevalence and determinants of multiple sex partner behavior among female undergraduates in China. Methods Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 unmarried female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Items captured demographic, family, peer and work influence, and student factors (major, academic performance, and sex-related knowledge and attitudes). To examine risk factors for sexual behaviors, we used multi-level logistic regression, yielding odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results Of 4,769 female students, 863 (18.10%) reported ever having sexual intercourse, and 5.31% reported having multiple sex partners (29.32% of all women having sexual intercourse). Several demographic, family, peer and work influences, and student factors (including major, performance, knowledge, and attitude toward sex) were risk factors for ever having sex. However, risk factors for multiple sex partners only included working in a place of entertainment, having current close friends that were living with boyfriends, poor academic performance, and positive attitudes toward multiple partners. These women also were more likely to practice masturbation, start having sex at a younger age, have sex with married men and/or men not their "boyfriends" at first coitus, and not use condoms consistently. Conclusion A small but important subset of Chinese female undergraduates is engaged in unprotected sex with multiple sex partners. Interventions need to target at risk women, stressing the importance of consistent condom use. PMID:19698132

  12. Multiple sex partner behavior in female undergraduate students in China: A multi-campus survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Miaoxuan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background China is realizing increases in women engaged in premarital sex and multiple sex partner behavior. Our aim was to examine prevalence and determinants of multiple sex partner behavior among female undergraduates in China. Methods Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 unmarried female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Items captured demographic, family, peer and work influence, and student factors (major, academic performance, and sex-related knowledge and attitudes. To examine risk factors for sexual behaviors, we used multi-level logistic regression, yielding odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Results Of 4,769 female students, 863 (18.10% reported ever having sexual intercourse, and 5.31% reported having multiple sex partners (29.32% of all women having sexual intercourse. Several demographic, family, peer and work influences, and student factors (including major, performance, knowledge, and attitude toward sex were risk factors for ever having sex. However, risk factors for multiple sex partners only included working in a place of entertainment, having current close friends that were living with boyfriends, poor academic performance, and positive attitudes toward multiple partners. These women also were more likely to practice masturbation, start having sex at a younger age, have sex with married men and/or men not their "boyfriends" at first coitus, and not use condoms consistently. Conclusion A small but important subset of Chinese female undergraduates is engaged in unprotected sex with multiple sex partners. Interventions need to target at risk women, stressing the importance of consistent condom use.

  13. Multiple sex partner behavior in female undergraduate students in China: a multi-campus survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong; Chen, Weiqi; Wu, Haocheng; Bi, Yongyi; Zhang, Miaoxuan; Li, Shiyue; Braun, Kathryn L

    2009-08-22

    China is realizing increases in women engaged in premarital sex and multiple sex partner behavior. Our aim was to examine prevalence and determinants of multiple sex partner behavior among female undergraduates in China. Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 unmarried female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Items captured demographic, family, peer and work influence, and student factors (major, academic performance, and sex-related knowledge and attitudes). To examine risk factors for sexual behaviors, we used multi-level logistic regression, yielding odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Of 4,769 female students, 863 (18.10%) reported ever having sexual intercourse, and 5.31% reported having multiple sex partners (29.32% of all women having sexual intercourse). Several demographic, family, peer and work influences, and student factors (including major, performance, knowledge, and attitude toward sex) were risk factors for ever having sex. However, risk factors for multiple sex partners only included working in a place of entertainment, having current close friends that were living with boyfriends, poor academic performance, and positive attitudes toward multiple partners. These women also were more likely to practice masturbation, start having sex at a younger age, have sex with married men and/or men not their "boyfriends" at first coitus, and not use condoms consistently. A small but important subset of Chinese female undergraduates is engaged in unprotected sex with multiple sex partners. Interventions need to target at risk women, stressing the importance of consistent condom use.

  14. An experiential program to reduce AIDS risk among female sex partners of injection-drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, F; Wolitski, R J; Thornton-Johnson, S

    1992-11-01

    This article describes the development and implementation of an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) intervention program for female sex partners of male injection-drug users. Four psychoeducational workshops were designed to motivate personal risk reduction, provide participants with necessary cognitive and behavioral skills, and enhance participants' perceived ability to enact positive changes in their lives. The development of the workshop modules was guided by traditional theories of health behavior change and social learning. Also included in the intervention are referral and advocacy services, personal risk reduction counseling, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody testing. Preliminary results indicate that the program has made a significant impact on the AIDS risk of participants--91 percent of women who completed the program reported that they had made positive changes in their lives to reduce their risk of HIV infection.

  15. A cross-sectional study of knowledge of sex partner serostatus among high-risk Peruvian men who have sex with men and transgender women: implications for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Sharita; Segura, Eddy R; Peinado, Jesus; Konda, Kelika A; Segura, Patricia; Casapia, Martin; Ortiz, Abner; Montano, Silvia M; Clark, Jesse L; Sanchez, Jorge; Lama, Javier R

    2013-02-28

    Knowledge of a sex partner's HIV serostatus can influence sexual behavior and inform harm-reduction strategies. We sought to determine how often Peruvian men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) knew the HIV serostatus of their sex partners, if this knowledge was associated with any predictive factors or unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), and if UAI was associated with partner serostatus. We analyzed data from the 2008 Peruvian MSM Sentinel Surveillance Survey. Data were collected by CASI about each participant's three most recent male sex partners. Primary outcome was knowledge of a partner's HIV test result. Multivariate analysis assessed the effect of age, education, sexual identity, number of male partners, alcohol use during intercourse, type of partnership and length of partnership using logistic regression. 735 participants provided data on 1,643 of their most recent sex partners from the last 3 months. 179/735 (24.4%) of all participants knew HIV test results for at least one of their 3 most recent partners, corresponding to 230/1643 (14.0%) of all sexual partnerships in the last 3 months. In multivariate analysis, casual (OR: 0.27, 95% CI: 0.17-0.42) and exchange sex (OR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.11-0.88) partners, compared to stable partners, were negatively associated with knowledge of partner serostatus, whereas relationships lasting longer than one night (<3 months OR: 2.20, 95% CI: 1.39-3.51; 3 months to 1 year OR: 3.00, 95% CI: 1.80-5.01; ≥ 1 year OR: 4.13, 95% CI: 2.40-7.10) were positively associated with knowledge of partner serostatus. Knowledge of partner serostatus was not associated with unprotected anal intercourse with that partner. Few MSM and TW in Peru know their partners' HIV serostatus. Our findings suggest that the type and length of partnership influence the likelihood of knowing a partner's serostatus. Further research should explore the contexts and practices of partner communication, their effect on sexual behavior, and

  16. Sex Hormones And Biochemical Profiles Of Male Gossypol Users In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of gossypol administration on sex hormones and biochemical parameters of male subjects. Twelve male subjects receiving 20mg daily gossypol at the family planning clinic of University College Hospital, Ibadan were studied. Blood samples collected from the subjects ...

  17. Same-sex partner bereavement in older women:an interpretative phenomenological analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ingham, Charlotte; Eccles, Fiona Juliet Rosalind; Armitage, Jocelyn Rebecca; Murray, Craig David

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Due to the lack of existing literature, the current research explored experiences of same-sex partner bereavement in women over the age of 60. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight women. Transcripts were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results: Three themes were identified which elaborated the experiences of older women who had lost a same-sex partner: (1) being left alone encapsulated feelings of isolation and exclusion; (2) naviga...

  18. Same-sex partner bereavement in older women: an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Charlotte F A; Eccles, Fiona J R; Armitage, Jocelyn R; Murray, Craig D

    2017-09-01

    Due to the lack of existing literature, the current research explored experiences of same-sex partner bereavement in women over the age of 60. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight women. Transcripts were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Three themes were identified which elaborated the experiences of older women who had lost a same-sex partner: (1) being left alone encapsulated feelings of isolation and exclusion; (2) navigating visibility centred on how homophobia led to a lack of recognition of the women's grief; and (3) finding new places to be authentic related women's need for new relationships in which they could be themselves. The findings indicate that existing models of partner bereavement may provide useful frameworks when seeking to understand the experiences of older women who have lost their same-sex partners. The findings indicate that in addition to the experiences of partner bereavement noted in research with heterosexual widows, older women who lose same-sex partners may face particular challenges, which can impact upon psychological well-being and adjustment to loss. These challenges appear to result from past and current homophobic and heterosexist attitudes within the UK culture. A range of interventions at individual, group, health service, and societal levels may be beneficial in improving the psychological well-being of older women who lose a same-sex partner.

  19. Australian men's sexual practices in saunas, sex clubs and other male sex on premises venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Anthony; Smith, Anthony M A; Grierson, Jeffrey W; von Doussa, Henry

    2010-06-01

    Sex on premises venues (SOPVs) where men have sex with men have been implicated in the spread of sexually transmissible infections, but few studies have described men's sexual encounters in SOPVs, particularly the degree to which men from different backgrounds engage in risky sexual practices. Interviewer administered surveys were conducted with 186 Australian men who have sex with men (MSM) within 48 h of visiting an SOPV. They reported their sexual practices, the characteristics of their partners and other circumstances surrounding their sexual encounters. All analyses were based on the number of sexual encounters (n = 430). Oral sex was the most common practice, occurring in 74.9% of encounters, followed by massage, frottage or kissing (53.7%), solo or mutual masturbation (36.3%), and anal sex (32.1%). Multivariate analyses revealed age as a significant factor for having protected anal sex (P = 0.001), insertive anal sex (P = 0.004) and receptive anal sex (P practices were more frequent in encounters among younger men, while masturbation (P = 0.03) was more frequent among older men. When men's sexual partners were affected by alcohol, encounters were less likely to involve unprotected anal intercourse (P = 0.006) and more likely to involve massage, frottage or kissing (P = 0.009). Men disclosed their HIV status in only 7.7% of encounters. With the likelihood of risky sexual practices varying according to background, results from this study should be used to guide interventions aiming to promote safer sex in SOPVs.

  20. Male lifespan and the secondary sex ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Ralph; Bruckner, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Literature speculating on the fetal origins of later life morbidity often invokes the "damaged cohort" theory, i.e., that maternal responses to exogenous shocks induce "stress reactivity" in fetuses and thereby shorten the lifespan of males in utero during stressful times. A rival, or "culled cohort," theory posits that exogenous shocks to gravid females induce spontaneous abortions of frail male fetuses, leaving relatively hardy survivors who enjoy, on average, lifespans longer than males in less stressed birth cohorts. A recent test based on archival data from Sweden supported the culled cohort theory. Several characteristics of the Swedish data, however, raise questions regarding the external validity of the findings. We repeat the test with data from Denmark, Iceland, and England and Wales. We use time-series methods that control for trends, seasonal cycles, and other forms of autocorrelation that could confound the test. None of the results supports the "damaged cohort" theory. Consistent with the Swedish findings and with evolutionary theory, we find support in Iceland and England and Wales for the "culled cohort" theory. We discuss the implications of our findings for basic research as well as for public health.

  1. Reversed sex change by widowed males in polygynous and protogynous fishes: female removal experiments in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwamura, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Shohei; Kadota, Tatsuru

    2011-12-01

    Sex change, either protogyny (female to male) or protandry (male to female), is well known among fishes, but evidence of bidirectional sex change or reversed sex change in natural populations is still very limited. This is the first report on female removal experiments for polygnous and protogynous fish species to induce reversed sex change in the widowed males in the field. We removed all of the females and juveniles from the territories of dominant males in the cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus (Labridae) and the rusty angelfish Centropyge ferrugata (Pomacanthidae) on the coral reefs of Okinawa. In both species, if new females or juveniles did not immigrate into the territories of the widowed males, some of them emigrated to form male-male pairs. When a male-male pair formed, the smaller, subordinate partner began to perform female sexual behaviours ( n = 4 in L. dimidiatus; n = 2 in C. ferrugata) and, finally, released eggs ( n = 1, respectively). Thus, the reversed sex change occurred in the widowed males according to the change of their social status. These results suggest that such female removal experiments will contribute to the discovery of reversed sex change in the field also in other polygnous and protogynous species.

  2. An exploratory study of HIV risk behaviours and testing among male sex workers in Beirut, Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunon, Frances M.; Wagner, Glenn J.; Maher, Rabih; Khouri, Danielle; Kaplan, Rachel L.; Mokhbat, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Male sex workers (MSW) are a particularly high-risk subset of men who have sex with men in Lebanon and report higher numbers of sex partners and lower rates of condom use. The purpose was to explore the factors influencing sexual risk behaviors and HIV testing among MSW. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 MSW living in Beirut and working in bathhouses (hammam) or as escorts; content analysis identified emergent themes. Escorts reported more consistent condom use with clients and HIV testing than hammam MSW, with influential factors including HIV risk knowledge and perceived risk susceptibility, job security, and internalized stigma and related feelings of self-worth and fatalism regarding health and HIV risk. In contrast, both groups of MSW typically opted not to condoms with nonclient sex partners, in an effort to differentiate sex for work versus pleasure. The uptake of HIV testing was limited by concerns about the confidentiality of the test results and fear of repercussions of a positive test result for their health and employment. The respondents described an insular existence within the sex work culture, in part to limit exposure to stigma, which has implications for access to support as well as the influence of peer norms regarding sexual risk behavior and health seeking behaviors such as HIV testing. Further research is needed to tailor prevention and HIV testing efforts to reflect the distinct sexual health “cultures” that distinguish these two populations of MSW in Lebanon. PMID:25950906

  3. Attendance of male partners to different reproductive health services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additional in-depth interviews were conducted among married men found attending RH services. Factors that motivates the uptake of locally available RH services together with their partners were explored. Results: A total of 204 men participated in the study, 94.4 % (193/204) of them reported to have ever attended the RH ...

  4. Effect of Male Partner's Support on Spousal Modern Contraception in a Low Resource Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Olayinka; Adeniran, Abiodun; Fawole, Adegboyega; Adesina, Kikelomo; Aboyeji, Abiodun; Adeniran, Peace

    2016-09-01

    As efforts continue to increase contraceptive uptake, male partner support remains important in spousal modern contraceptive use. A prospective cross-sectional survey involving women on modern contraception was conducted at the family planning clinic of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, between December 2013 and April 2014. All consenting participants completed a self-administered questionnaire designed for the study, and statistical analysis was done with SPSS version 20.0 using with chi square test and logistic regression; p value contraceptives used were IUD and injectables while male partner was responsible for discontinuation in 30(23.3%) of previous users. Covert contraceptive use was 22(7.2%), male partner support was 209(68.5%) as payment for the contraceptives (203; 66.6%) or transportation to the clinic (198; 64.9%). Also, 55(18.0%) women failed to comply with contraception recently due to male partner hindrance (25; 45.5%) or inability to pay for contraceptive (11; 20%) or transportation to the clinic (8; 14.5%). Male partners hindered contraception by reporting the woman to relatives/friends (8; 32%) or denying her money for feeding allowance (6; 24%); 277(90.8%) women want contraception to be couple decision while 261(85.6%) want contraception administered only if both partners consented. The significant predictors of male partner support were awareness about the contraceptive use (pMale partner hindrances and costs of contraceptive or transportation to clinic are important in noncompliance. Male partner education, subsidized/free contraceptives and mobile/community services will improve compliance.

  5. Top, Bottom, and Versatile Anal Sex Roles in Same-Sex Male Relationships: Implications for Relationship and Sexual Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, David A; Garcia, Christopher P

    2018-06-01

    Across much of the gay and bisexual male research on sexual position self-label (i.e., calling oneself a top, bottom, or versatile), there exist two commonalities: (1) studies tend to focus almost entirely on individual, relationally single androphilic men; (2) studies rarely account for relationships and relationship dynamics. In response, we explored the role of self-label over sexual and relationship satisfaction among gay and bisexual partnered men. Specifically, we looked at whether adopted sexual position identities were consonant or dissonant (i.e., matching or mismatching) with enacted behavior in relationships and how that impacted men's attitudes toward different relational attributes. Through an online survey, we sampled 169 men in same-sex relationships, asking them questions about their ideal penetrative role identities and their reality penetrative roles with their partner. We then asked them to rate their relationship on 10 sexual and interpersonal attributes. Multiple regression modeling suggested ideal-reality penetrative role dissonance was predictive of sexual dissatisfaction among tops who bottomed in their relationships and, to a lesser extent, bottoms who topped. In contrast, penetrative role dissonance was predictive of relationship satisfaction among tops who bottomed in their relationship, but not bottoms who topped. We conclude that a potential reason for this paradox among tops who bottom may be sexual altruism. That is, men may be satisfied with other aspects within their relationships, understand their partner's anal sex preferences, and accommodate that position in response to their initial relationship satisfaction.

  6. Assisted reproduction in a cohort of same-sex male couples and single men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Stephanie A; Shmorgun, Ziva; Moskovtsev, Sergey I; Baratz, Ari; Librach, Clifford L

    2013-08-01

    To date, there is limited published data on same-sex male couples and single men using assisted reproduction treatment to build their families. The objective of this retrospective study was to better understand treatment considerations and outcomes for this population when using assisted reproduction treatment. A total of 37 same-sex male couples and eight single men (seven homosexual and one heterosexual) who attended the CReATe Fertility Centre for assisted reproduction services were studied. There was a 21-fold increase in the number of same-sex male couples and single men undergoing assisted reproduction treatment since 2003. The mean age was 46years (24-58). Twenty-eight couples (76%) chose to use spermatozoa from both partners to fertilize their donated oocytes. Most men (32 same-sex male couples and seven single men; 87%) obtained oocytes from an anonymous donor, whereas five couples and one single man (13%) had a known donor. Anonymous donors who were open to be contacted by the child after the age of 18 were selected by 67% of patients. Of all 25 deliveries, eight (32%) were sets of twins. All of the twins were half genetic siblings. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationship dynamics and sexual risk behaviour of male partners of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A few men also admitted to being motivated by material and financial benefits from sex workers who they perceived as being rich and this was one factor that helped them sustain the relationships. These findings offer insights into the complex relationship dynamics within high risk sexual partnerships. However, the findings ...

  8. Hepatitis B virus infection on male partner has negative impact on in-vitro fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, H. P.; Halim, B.; Adenin, I.; Rusda, M.; Prasetiawan, E.

    2018-03-01

    It is common to see HBV-infected couple seeking for fertility treatment in reproductive medical centers. The effect of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection on pregnancy outcome after In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) treatment has been a controversy. The study aims this was to evaluate the outcome of in vitro fertilization in couples with the male partner being HBsAg-seropositive. A retrospective analytic study was in HBV-infected and non-HBV infected male partner groups who have been treated with in vitro fertilization (IVF) from October 2016 until May 2017 in HFC IVF Center. From 101 couples, 17 (16.83%) male partners were HBV seropositive. They had similar semen parameters compared to thenon-HBV infected group. Couples with the male partner being HBsAg-seropositive had significantly lower fertilized oocytes and cleaved embryos compared to thenon-HBV infected group. We also found lower clinical pregnancy rate in infected male partner group compared to control group (23.52% vs 51% respectively). Statistically, there was a significant difference in clinical pregnancy rate between HBV-infected group and control group (p<0.05). An hbv-infected male partner may lower the clinical pregnancy rate in couple undergoing IVF treatment. Therefore, the mechanism of impact of HBV infection on IVF outcome needs further exploration.

  9. Environmental injustice and sexual minority health disparities: A national study of inequitable health risks from air pollution among same-sex partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Timothy W; Grineski, Sara E; Morales, Danielle X

    2017-10-01

    Air pollution is deleterious to human health, and numerous studies have documented racial and socioeconomic inequities in air pollution exposures. Despite the marginalized status of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations, no national studies have examined if they experience inequitable exposures to air pollution. This cross-sectional study investigated inequities in the exposure of same-sex partner households to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the US. We examined cancer and respiratory risks from HAPs across 71,207 census tracts using National Air Toxics Assessment and US Census data. We calculated population-weighted mean cancer and respiratory risks from HAPs for same-sex male, same-sex female and heterosexual partner households. We used generalized estimating equations (GEEs) to examine multivariate associations between sociodemographics and health risks from HAPs, while focusing on inequities based on the tract composition of same-sex, same-sex male and same-sex female partners. We found that mean cancer and respiratory risks from HAPs for same-sex partners are 12.3% and 23.8% greater, respectively, than for heterosexual partners. GEEs adjusting for racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status, population density, urban location, and geographic clustering show that living in census tracts with high (vs. low) proportions of same-sex partners is associated with significantly greater cancer and respiratory risks from HAPs, and that living in same-sex male partner enclaves is associated with greater risks than living in same-sex female partner enclaves. Results suggest that some health disparities experienced by LGBT populations (e.g. cancer, asthma) may be compounded by environmental exposures. Findings highlight the need to extend the conceptual framework for explaining LGBT health disparities beyond psycho-behavioral mechanisms translating social stress into illness to include environmental mechanisms. Because psycho-behavioral and environmental

  10. Dyadic violence and readiness to change among male intimate partner violence offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Cory A; Schlauch, Robert C; Eckhardt, Christopher I

    2015-12-10

    Although readiness to change is associated with mandated partner violence treatment compliance and subsequent violent behaviour among male offenders (e.g. Scott and Wolfe, 2003; Eckhardt et al., 2004), our understanding of the factors associated with pretreatment change remains limited. Offender research indicates that individual and dyadic violent behaviour are highly variable and that such variability may provide insight into levels of pretreatment change (Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart, 1994; Archer, 2002). We sought to examine the associations between indicators of change and individual as well as dyadic violence frequency in a sample of male partner violence offenders. To determine whether severity and perceived concordance in the use of violence among male offenders and their female partners influenced readiness to change at pretreatment, 82 recently adjudicated male perpetrators of intimate partner violence were recruited into the current study and administered measures of readiness to change violent behaviour (Revised Safe at Home Scale; Begun et al., 2008) as well as partner violence experiences (Revised Conflict Tactics Scale; Straus et al., 1996). Analyses revealed an interaction between offender-reported male and female violence in the prediction of pretreatment readiness to change such that greater male violence was associated with greater readiness to change among males who reported that their female partners perpetrated low, but not high, levels of violence. Consistently, greater female violence was associated with lower readiness to change only among the most violent male offenders. Results provide support for the assertion that the most violent offenders may be the most resistant to partner violence intervention efforts, particularly when they perceive themselves to be victims as well. Enhanced motivational and couples programming may facilitate treatment engagement among the high-risk group of male offenders who report concordant relationship

  11. Chinmo prevents transformer alternative splicing to maintain male sex identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Grmai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction in sexually dimorphic animals relies on successful gamete production, executed by the germline and aided by somatic support cells. Somatic sex identity in Drosophila is instructed by sex-specific isoforms of the DMRT1 ortholog Doublesex (Dsx. Female-specific expression of Sex-lethal (Sxl causes alternative splicing of transformer (tra to the female isoform traF. In turn, TraF alternatively splices dsx to the female isoform dsxF. Loss of the transcriptional repressor Chinmo in male somatic stem cells (CySCs of the testis causes them to "feminize", resembling female somatic stem cells in the ovary. This somatic sex transformation causes a collapse of germline differentiation and male infertility. We demonstrate this feminization occurs by transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of traF. We find that chinmo-deficient CySCs upregulate tra mRNA as well as transcripts encoding tra-splice factors Virilizer (Vir and Female lethal (2d (Fl(2d. traF splicing in chinmo-deficient CySCs leads to the production of DsxF at the expense of the male isoform DsxM, and both TraF and DsxF are required for CySC sex transformation. Surprisingly, CySC feminization upon loss of chinmo does not require Sxl but does require Vir and Fl(2d. Consistent with this, we show that both Vir and Fl(2d are required for tra alternative splicing in the female somatic gonad. Our work reveals the need for transcriptional regulation of tra in adult male stem cells and highlights a previously unobserved Sxl-independent mechanism of traF production in vivo. In sum, transcriptional control of the sex determination hierarchy by Chinmo is critical for sex maintenance in sexually dimorphic tissues and is vital in the preservation of fertility.

  12. Chinmo prevents transformer alternative splicing to maintain male sex identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grmai, Lydia; Hudry, Bruno; Miguel-Aliaga, Irene; Bach, Erika A

    2018-02-01

    Reproduction in sexually dimorphic animals relies on successful gamete production, executed by the germline and aided by somatic support cells. Somatic sex identity in Drosophila is instructed by sex-specific isoforms of the DMRT1 ortholog Doublesex (Dsx). Female-specific expression of Sex-lethal (Sxl) causes alternative splicing of transformer (tra) to the female isoform traF. In turn, TraF alternatively splices dsx to the female isoform dsxF. Loss of the transcriptional repressor Chinmo in male somatic stem cells (CySCs) of the testis causes them to "feminize", resembling female somatic stem cells in the ovary. This somatic sex transformation causes a collapse of germline differentiation and male infertility. We demonstrate this feminization occurs by transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of traF. We find that chinmo-deficient CySCs upregulate tra mRNA as well as transcripts encoding tra-splice factors Virilizer (Vir) and Female lethal (2)d (Fl(2)d). traF splicing in chinmo-deficient CySCs leads to the production of DsxF at the expense of the male isoform DsxM, and both TraF and DsxF are required for CySC sex transformation. Surprisingly, CySC feminization upon loss of chinmo does not require Sxl but does require Vir and Fl(2)d. Consistent with this, we show that both Vir and Fl(2)d are required for tra alternative splicing in the female somatic gonad. Our work reveals the need for transcriptional regulation of tra in adult male stem cells and highlights a previously unobserved Sxl-independent mechanism of traF production in vivo. In sum, transcriptional control of the sex determination hierarchy by Chinmo is critical for sex maintenance in sexually dimorphic tissues and is vital in the preservation of fertility.

  13. Converging Evidence of Ubiquitous Male Bias in Human Sex Perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Gaetano

    Full Text Available Visually judging the sex of another can be achieved easily in most social encounters. When the signals that inform such judgements are weak (e.g. outdoors at night, observers tend to expect the presence of males-an expectation that may facilitate survival-critical decisions under uncertainty. The present aim was to examine whether this male bias depends on expertise. To that end, Caucasian and Asian observers targeted female and male hand images that were either the same or different to the observers' race (i.e. long term experience was varied while concurrently, the proportion of targets changed across presentation blocks (i.e. short term experience change. It was thus found that: (i observers of own-race stimuli were more likely to report the presence of males and absence of females, however (ii observers of other-race stimuli--while still tending to accept stimuli as male--were not prone to rejecting female cues. Finally, (iii male-biased measures did not track the relative frequency of targets or lures, disputing the notion that male bias derives from prior expectation about the number of male exemplars in a set. Findings are discussed in concert with the pan-stimulus model of human sex perception.

  14. Women have a preference for their male partner to be HPV vaccinated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Diane Medved; Alexander, Natalie Marya; Ahern, Debra Ann; Comes, Johanna Claire; Smith, Melissa Smith; Heutinck, Melinda Ann; Handley, Sandra Martin

    2014-01-01

    Peer influence and social networking can change female adolescent and young adult behavior. Peer influence on preferences for male human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has not been documented. The primary aim of this study was to determine if women had preferences about male sexual partner HPV vaccination receipt. A prospective survey of women 18-26 years of age was conducted at an urban university student health clinic. Education about the two HPV vaccines, cervical cancer and genital warts was provided. Women self-reported their demographic and medical history data, as well as their own preferences for HPV vaccine and their preferences for their male partner HPV vaccine using a 5 point Likert scale. 601 women, mean age of 21.5 years (SD 2.4), participated between 2011 and 2012. Nearly 95% of respondents were heterosexual; condoms and contraceptives were used in over half of the population. Regardless of the woman's vaccination status, women had significantly higher (strongly agree/agree) preferences for the male partner being vaccinated with HPV4 than not caring if he was vaccinated (63.6% vs. 13.1%, ppreference was repeated for sexual risk factors and past reproductive medical history. Women who received HPV4 compared to those choosing HPV2 had a significantly lower proportion of preferences for not caring if the male partner was vaccinated (13% vs. 22%, p = 0.015). Women preferred a HPV vaccinated male partner. Peer messaging might change the male HPV vaccination uptake.

  15. The male handicap: male-biased mortality explains skewed sex ratios in brown trout embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán, P; Labbé, L; Garcia de Leaniz, C

    2016-12-01

    Juvenile sex ratios are often assumed to be equal for many species with genetic sex determination, but this has rarely been tested in fish embryos due to their small size and absence of sex-specific markers. We artificially crossed three populations of brown trout and used a recently developed genetic marker for sexing the offspring of both pure and hybrid crosses. Sex ratios (SR = proportion of males) varied widely one month after hatching ranging from 0.15 to 0.90 (mean = 0.39 ± 0.03). Families with high survival tended to produce balanced or male-biased sex ratios, but SR was significantly female-biased when survival was low, suggesting that males sustain higher mortality during development. No difference in SR was found between pure and hybrid families, but the existence of sire × dam interactions suggests that genetic incompatibility may play a role in determining sex ratios. Our findings have implications for animal breeding and conservation because skewed sex ratios will tend to reduce effective population size and bias selection estimates. © 2016 The Authors.

  16. Venues for Meeting Sex Partners and Partner HIV Risk Characteristics: HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN064) Women's HIV Seroincidence Study (ISIS)

    OpenAIRE

    Isler, M. Roman; Golin, C.; Wang, J.; Hughes, J.; Justman, J.; Haley, D.; Kuo, I.; Adimora, A.; Chege, W.; Hodder, S.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying venues where women meet sexual partners, particular partners who increase women's risk of acquiring HIV, could inform prevention efforts. We categorized venues where women enrolled in HPTN 064 reported meeting their last three sex partners as: (1) Formal, (2) Public, (3) Private, and (4) Virtual spaces. We used multinomial logistic regression to assess the association between these venues and women's individual characteristics and reports of their partners' HIV risk characteristic...

  17. Myth Information and Bizarre Beliefs of Male Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakey, Joyce F.

    1992-01-01

    Describes mythical beliefs, thinking errors, and faulty attitudes collected from a group of 67 male juvenile sex offenders. Addresses four major thinking errors: pretentiousness, uniqueness, failure to assume responsibility, and distorted values. Notes that therapists need this information to develop effective treatment strategies for replacing…

  18. Beyond the Bravado: Sex Roles and the Exploitive Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubman, Stan

    1986-01-01

    Examines the tendency of men to engage in domestic violence and sexual exploitation and presents male sex-role acquisition as a process of psychosocial violence against young boys, which creates a sense of shame, powerlessness, self-alienation, isolation from others, and retaliatory rage and inhibits capacities for intimacy and mutuality.…

  19. Job Orientation of Males and Females: Are Sex Differences Declining?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, O. C.; Tomkiewicz, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Sex differences in job orientation found by Manhardt (1972) were explored to determine if they still exist, or if a trend toward similarity as found in studies on traits and behaviors prevails. Implications for personnel managers in handling differences on job orientation of males and females are discussed. (Author/KC)

  20. Older Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milrod, Christine; Monto, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Recent research has provided increased information about the clients of sex workers; however, little is known about the population of older male customers who contract for heterosexual services online. Clients (N = 208) between 60 and 84 years of age were obtained through sex work review sites and online discussion forums. Participants completed a 129-item questionnaire focusing on physical health, sexual and non-sexual behaviors with sex providers, and the qualities sought in the same. More than half reported having visited sex providers between 13 and 24 times or more during the past 12 months. Participants' advancing age was positively associated with frequency of paid sex. Most frequent sexual activities with providers were fellatio without a condom, followed by penile-vaginal sex with a condom. Analyses also examine the relationship between aging and buying sex. Those with higher incomes and without spouses or partners were more likely to report non-sexual activities with providers, and many participants sought a "GFE" or girlfriend experience, in which paid sexual exchanges are part of a relationship that mirrors conventional non-remunerative relationships.

  1. HIV behavioural risks and the role of work environment among Chinese male sex workers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, William C W; Leung, Phil W S; Li, C W

    2012-01-01

    Male sex workers are a highly marginalised group in Hong Kong and it is increasingly so with an influx of them travelling from mainland China to work as "freelance" sex workers. This study aimed to measure important work environment variables that might affect the likelihood of condom use among male sex workers working in Hong Kong. A cross-sectional survey of 161 participants recruited by snowball and convenience sampling methods through outreach workers of a local non-governmental organization was conducted in 2007-2008. Only 27.4%, 54.7% and 42.6% reported consistent condom use when engaging in oral, anal and vaginal sex, respectively. Logistic regression shows unsafe sex was nearly four times (OR=3.41; 95%CI 1.51-7.69) as common in institutionalised male sex workers as among their independent counterparts. Lack of condoms provided at workplaces was a major barrier in this socio-legal context and was strongly associated with condom non-use amongst institutionalised sex workers (OR= 10.86; 95%CI 2.94-40.17). The present study finds that when compared with independent Male sex workers (MSWs), institutionalised MSWs were older, less educated, earned a higher income but more likely to engage in unsafe sex with their clients and their partners. Public health physicians must work with law-enforcing authorities to provide clear guidelines to remove these HIV prevention barriers.

  2. Sex Partner Meeting Places Over Time Among Newly HIV-Diagnosed Men Who Have Sex With Men in Baltimore, Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Jacky M; Reilly, Meredith L; Perin, Jamie; Schumacher, Christina; Sharma, Megha; Safi, Amelia Greiner; Fields, Errol L; Muvva, Ravikiran; Nganga-Good, Carolyn; Chaulk, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    Sex partner meeting places may be important locales to access men who have sex with men (MSM) and implement targeted HIV control strategies. These locales may change over time, but temporal evaluations have not been performed. The objectives of this study were to describe the frequency of report of MSM sex partner meeting places over time and to compare frequently reported meeting places in the past 5 years and past year among newly HIV-diagnosed MSM in Baltimore City, Maryland. Public health HIV surveillance data including partner services information were obtained for this study from the Baltimore City Health Department from May 2009 to June 2014. A total of 869 sex partner meeting places were reported, including 306 unique places. Bars/clubs (31%) and Internet-based sites (38%) were the most frequently reported meeting place types. Over the 5-year period, the percentage of bars/clubs decreased over time and the percentage of Internet-based sites increased over time. Among bars/clubs, 4 of 5 of those most frequently reported in the past 5 years were also most frequently reported in the most recent year. Among Internet-based sites, 3 of 5 of those most frequently reported in the past 5 years were also in the top 5 most frequently reported in the past year. This study provides a richer understanding of sex partner meeting places reported by MSM over time and information to health departments on types of places to access a population at high risk for HIV transmission.

  3. AB022. The psyche of male sexual difficulties related to related to the partner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaikan, P. Ganesan

    2015-01-01

    Impression management for men aiming at courtship and love is cognitively taxing and is costly. Recent research suggests that when a man tries to impress an attractive woman his cognitive performance could be impaired and depleted. However, cognitive performance of a woman is not affected during her interaction with someone of the opposite sex (Karremans et al. 2009). By dictation of nature and anatomically too, men take an active and positive role in sexual performance; their failures in sexual performances will be revealed to the partner then and there. Men react negatively to such a failure when their confidence or self-esteems are at stake. Their psyche will strike it as a failure of life time, failure of their genetic spread and survival of the species. In subsequent sexual encounter their body and subconscious mind will switch to the physiology of anti-erectile transmission and limit the expansion of desire and arousal on other attempts. In general, we call this performance anxiety. Masters and Johnson’s pioneering work in the 70’s highlighted the negative impact of performance anxiety on sexual function. As a form of therapy, exercise such as Sensate Focus were designed for the couple to overcome the performance anxiety and phobic quality in man so that sexual arousal and penetrative erection can be practiced/achieved in a relaxed state. At the Fertility, menopausal and andrology settings of OBGYN, it is not uncommon to see male sexual dysfunctions that include lack of desire, psychogenic ED and ejaculatory dysfunctions. One of the main causes of complaints of unconsummated marriages is vaginismus (and dyspareunia) in the partner which causes psychogenic erectile dysfunction in husbands who fail to penetrate at the first or second attempts. Such couple tend to drift from sexual intimacy for months and years until there is an extended family pressure for conception. Another situation that compromises erectile capacity of otherwise a normal man with

  4. Older partner selection in young African-American men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrington-Sanders, Renata; Leonard, Lori; Brooks, Durryle; Celentano, David; Ellen, Jonathan

    2013-06-01

    Young African-American (AA) men who have sex with men (YAAMSM) have experienced the greatest proportional increase in new HIV cases compared with other groups. Bridging sexual partnerships between YAAMSM and older aged cohorts with higher rates of primary HIV infection has emerged as an important independent risk factor for the development of HIV. We explored reasons young AAMSM cite for being attracted to and seeking an older partner and the interpersonal needs met within older sexual partnerships. Seventeen in-depth semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted in YAAMSM residing in a midsized urban city with high HIV prevalence. Two coders independently evaluated transcribed data to identify/collapse codes that emerged. We analyzed data using categorical and contextualizing analytic methods. Two themes emerged from the text for seeking an older sexual partner: the emotional maturity the older partner represented and the ability of the older partner to expose the younger partner to more life experiences. In addition, two themes emerged around attraction: support and physical attractiveness of the older partner. Few men described seeking age-discordant relationships for the sole purpose of exchange sex. Older partners during first same-sex experience helped younger partners sort through sexual position and how to perform in relationships. These interviews suggest that YAAMSM may be seeking older partners to fulfill desires to be in a stable, emotionally mature relationship and for exposure in the larger community. Prevention strategies aimed at targeting adolescent MSM age-discordant relationships will need to address the interpersonal needs met within older sexual partnerships. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Women Like Being Valued for Sex, as Long as it is by a Committed Partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Andrea L; McNulty, James K; Maner, Jon K

    2017-02-01

    How do women respond to being valued for sex by their partners? Although research supporting objectification theory suggests that women's reactions to sexual valuation are primarily negative, a separate body of research indicates that women expend significant effort to enhance their sexual appeal. Evolutionary perspectives suggest that whether women are more or less satisfied with partners who value them for sex may depend on how committed those partners are. Being sexually valued by a relatively uncommitted partner may violate women's desire to avoid short-term sexual relationships and thus may be negatively associated with relationship satisfaction. In contrast, being sexually valued by a highly committed partner may positively influence women's relationship satisfaction because it signals to them that they have successfully attracted a long-term relationship partner. Two studies of newly married couples supported these predictions. In Study 1 (N = 109), husbands' sexual valuation was positively associated with marital satisfaction among wives who perceived that those husbands were highly committed, but negatively associated with marital satisfaction among wives who perceived that those husbands were relatively less committed. Study 2 (N = 99) revealed the same pattern for wives (but not husbands) using a likely manifestation of sexual valuation-engaging in frequent sex. These findings join others to demonstrate that interpersonal processes do not have universally positive or negative implications for relationships; rather, their implications depend on the context in which they occur, including contexts that were reproductively beneficial or costly throughout evolutionary history.

  6. News Stories of Intimate Partner Violence: An Experimental Examination of Participant Sex, Perpetrator Sex, and Violence Severity on Seriousness, Sympathy, and Punishment Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Matthew W; Scarduzio, Jennifer A; Lockwood Harris, Kate; Carlyle, Kellie E; Sheff, Sarah E

    2017-06-01

    This study experimentally examines the effects of participant sex, perpetrator sex, and severity of violence on perceptions of intimate partner violence (IPV) seriousness, sympathy toward the victim, and punishment preferences for the perpetrator. Participants (N = 449) were randomly assigned to a condition, exposed to a composite news story, and then completed a survey. Ratings of seriousness of IPV for stories with male perpetrators were significantly higher than ratings of seriousness for stories with female perpetrators. Men had significantly higher sympathy for female victims in any condition than for male victims in the weak or strong severity of violence conditions. Men's sympathy for male victims in the fatal severity of violence condition did not differ from their sympathy for female victims. Women had the least sympathy for female victims in the weak severity condition and men in the weak or strong severity conditions. Women reported significantly higher sympathy for female victims in the strong and fatal severity of violence conditions. Women's ratings of sympathy for male victims in the fatal severity of violence condition were statistically indistinguishable from any other group. Participants reported stronger punishment preferences for male perpetrators and this effect was magnified among men. Theoretical implications are presented with attention provided to practical considerations about support for public health services.

  7. Sexual HIV Risk Among Male Parolees and Their Female Partners: The Relate Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, Megan; Reznick, Olga Grinstead; Dilworth, Samantha E; Binson, Diane; Darbes, Lynae A; Neilands, Torsten B

    The massively disproportionate impact of America's prison boom on communities of color has raised questions about how incarceration may affect health disparities, including disparities in HIV. Primary partners are an important source of influence on sexual health. In this paper, we investigate sexual HIV risk among male-female couples following a man's release from prison. We draw upon data from the Relate Project, a novel cross-sectional survey of recently released men and their female partners in Oakland and San Francisco, California (N=344). Inferential analyses use the actor-partner model to explore actor and partner effects on sexual HIV risk outcomes. Dyadic analyses of sexual HIV risk among male parolees and their female partners paint a complex portrait of couples affected by incarceration and of partners' influences on each other. Findings indicate that demographic factors such as education level and employment status, individual psycho-social factors such as perception of risk, and relationship factors such as commitment and power affect sexual HIV risk outcomes. The Relate Project provides a novel dataset for the dyadic analysis of sexual risk among male parolees and their female partners, and results highlight the importance of focusing on the couple as a unit when assessing HIV risk and protective behaviors. Results also indicate potentially fruitful avenues for population-specific interventions that may help to reduce sexual health disparities among couples affected by incarceration.

  8. Venues for Meeting Sex Partners and Partner HIV Risk Characteristics: HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN064) Women's HIV Seroincidence Study (ISIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman Isler, M; Golin, C; Wang, J; Hughes, J; Justman, J; Haley, D; Kuo, I; Adimora, A; Chege, W; Hodder, S

    2016-06-01

    Identifying venues where women meet sexual partners, particular partners who increase women's risk of acquiring HIV, could inform prevention efforts. We categorized venues where women enrolled in HPTN 064 reported meeting their last three sex partners as: (1) Formal, (2) Public, (3) Private, and (4) Virtual spaces. We used multinomial logistic regression to assess the association between these venues and women's individual characteristics and reports of their partners' HIV risk characteristics. The 2099 women reported meeting 3991 partners, 51 % at Public, 30 % Private, 17 % Formal and 3 % at Virtual venues. Women meeting partners at Formal venues reported more education and condom use than women meeting partners at other venues. Fewer partners met through Formal venues had "high" risk characteristics for HIV than through other venues and hence may pose less risk of HIV transmission. HIV prevention interventions can help women choose partners with fewer risk characteristics across all venue types.

  9. Peripubertal castration of male rats, adult open field ambulation and partner preference behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, T; Slob, A K

    1988-09-15

    The validity of the hypothesis put forward earlier, that testicular secretions during puberty have an organizing effect on open field ambulation was examined. Male rats were castrated or sham-operated at days 21, 43 or 70. At the age of 17 weeks the males were tested in an automated, octagonal open field (3 consecutive days, 3 min/day) for locomotor activity. Male rats castrated at day 21 or day 43 ambulated more than sham-castrated controls. Males castrated at day 70 did not differ from sham-castrated controls. It thus appears that pubertal testicular secretion(s) organize adult open field locomotor activity in male rats. From 18 weeks of age partner preference behavior was tested in the same open field apparatus with one adjacent cage containing an ovariectomized female and an opposite one containing an ovariectomized female brought into heat. The females in the adjacent cages were separated from the experimental males in the octagonal cage by wire mesh. Peripubertally castrated males did not show a clear-cut partner preference, whereas the intact males preferred the vicinity of the estrous female. There were no differences among the males castrated either before, during or after puberty. Testosterone treatment (crystalline T in silastic capsules) caused peripubertally castrated males to prefer the estrous female. Thus, adult partner preference behavior does not seem to be organized by peripubertal testicular androgens.

  10. Role of male partners in the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osoti A

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Alfred Osoti,1–3 Hannah Han,4 John Kinuthia,1,5 Carey Farquhar3,4,6 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, AIC Kijabe Hospital, Kijabe, Kenya; 3Department of Epidemiology, 4Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, USA; 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya; 6Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, USA Abstract: There is emerging evidence that in resource-limited settings with a high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV burden, male partner involvement in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT is associated with improved uptake of effective interventions and infant HIV-free survival. There is also increasing evidence that male partner involvement positively impacts non-HIV related outcomes, such as skilled attendance at delivery, exclusive breastfeeding, uptake of effective contraceptives, and infant immunizations. Despite these associations, male partner involvement remains low, especially when offered in the standard antenatal clinic setting. In this review we explore strategies for improving rates of antenatal male partner HIV testing and argue that the role of male partners in PMTCT must evolve from one of support for HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women to one of comprehensive engagement in prevention of primary HIV acquisition, avoidance of unintended pregnancies, and improved HIV-related care and treatment for the HIV-infected and uninfected women, their partners, and children. Involving men in all components of PMTCT has potential to contribute substantially to achieving virtual elimination of mother-to-child HIV transmission; promoting partner-friendly programs and policies, as well as pursuing research into numerous gaps in knowledge identified in this review, will help drive this process. Keywords: male involvement, limited-resource settings

  11. Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of Mating Behavior and Male Sex Pheromones in Nasonia Wasps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwen Diao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A major focus in speciation genetics is to identify the chromosomal regions and genes that reduce hybridization and gene flow. We investigated the genetic architecture of mating behavior in the parasitoid wasp species pair Nasonia giraulti and Nasonia oneida that exhibit strong prezygotic isolation. Behavioral analysis showed that N. oneida females had consistently higher latency times, and broke off the mating sequence more often in the mounting stage when confronted with N. giraulti males compared with males of their own species. N. oneida males produce a lower quantity of the long-range male sex pheromone (4R,5S-5-hydroxy-4-decanolide (RS-HDL. Crosses between the two species yielded hybrid males with various pheromone quantities, and these males were used in mating trials with females of either species to measure female mate discrimination rates. A quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis involving 475 recombinant hybrid males (F2, 2148 reciprocally backcrossed females (F3, and a linkage map of 52 equally spaced neutral single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers plus SNPs in 40 candidate mating behavior genes revealed four QTL for male pheromone amount, depending on partner species. Our results demonstrate that the RS-HDL pheromone plays a role in the mating system of N. giraulti and N. oneida, but also that additional communication cues are involved in mate choice. No QTL were found for female mate discrimination, which points at a polygenic architecture of female choice with strong environmental influences.

  12. Age of partners at first intercourse among Danish males and females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielandt, H; Boldsen, J; Jeune, B

    1989-01-01

    In 1984-1985 a representative sample of 286 Danish women (response rate = 75.3%) and 336 Danish men (response rate = 77.8%), ages 16-20 years, was interviewed about their first sexual intercourse. A cumulative frequency function was constructed and the median age at sexual debut was estimated at 16.......8 years for both male and female. Generally the age difference between the partners at first intercourse was only a few years. However, the young women almost never reported their first sexual partner as younger than themselves. A cross-check was made of the information given by two homogeneous subsamples...... of the 47 young women and 80 young men who had their first sexual intercourse with a partner who was also a debutant. Self-reported age among the males differed significantly from the age of the first sexual partner as stated by the females in these subsamples. Therefore, there is bias in the reporting...

  13. Patient-delivered partner treatment for male urethritis: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Patricia; Mohammed, Hamish; Richardson-Alston, Gwangi; Leichliter, Jami S; Taylor, Stephanie N; Martin, David H; Farley, Thomas A

    2005-09-01

    Traditional partner referral for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is ineffective at assuring that partners are treated. Alternative methods are needed. We sought to determine whether patient-delivered partner treatment (PDPT) is better than 2 different methods of partner referral in providing antibiotic treatment to sex partners of men with urethritis and in reducing recurrence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Men who received a diagnosis of urethritis at a public STD clinic in New Orleans, Louisiana, during the period of December 2001 through March 2004 were randomly assigned according to the month of treatment for either standard partner referral (PR), booklet-enhanced partner referral (BEPR), or PDPT. At baseline and after 1 month, men were asked to provide information about each partner and were tested for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae. Most enrolled index men (n = 977) were > 24 years of age (51.6%) and African American (95%) and had > or = 2 partners (68.3%). They reported information on 1991 partners, and 78.8% were reinterviewed 4-8 weeks later. Men in the PDPT arm were more likely than men in the BEPR and PR arms to report having seen their partners, having talked to their partners about the infection, having given the intervention to their partners, and having been told by their partners that the antibiotic treatment had been taken (55.8%, 45.6%, and 35.0%, respectively; P < .001). Of men who were reinterviewed, 37.5% agreed to follow-up testing for N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis infection. Those tested were similar to those not tested with regard to the study variables measured. Among those tested, men in the PDPT and BEPR arms were less likely than those in the PR arm to test positive for C. trachomatis and/or N. gonorrhoeae (23.0%, 14.3%, and 42.7%, respectively; P < .001). Among heterosexual men with urethritis, PDPT was better than standard partner referral for treatment of partners and prevention of recurrence of C

  14. Partner Loss in Monogamous Rodents: Modulation of Pain and Emotional Behavior in Male Prairie Voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osako, Yoji; Nobuhara, Reiko; Arai, Young-Chang P; Tanaka, Kenjiro; Young, Larry J; Nishihara, Makoto; Mitsui, Shinichi; Yuri, Kazunari

    2018-01-01

    Pain is modulated by psychosocial factors, and social stress-induced hyperalgesia is a common clinical symptom in pain disorders. To provide a new animal model for studying social modulation of pain, we examined pain behaviors in monogamous prairie voles experiencing partner loss. After cohabitation with novel females, males (n = 79) were divided into two groups on the basis of preference test scores. Half of the males of each group were separated from their partner (loss group), whereas the other half remained paired (paired group). Thus, males from both groups experienced social isolation. Open field tests, plantar tests, and formalin tests were then conducted on males to assess anxiety and pain-related behaviors. Loss males showing partner preferences (n = 20) displayed a significant increase in anxiety-related behavior in the open-field test (central area/total distance: 13.65% [1.58%] for paired versus 6.45% [0.87%] for loss; p partner preferences (r = 0.15). Results indicate that social bonds and their disruption, but not social housing without bonding followed by isolation, modulate pain and emotion in male prairie voles. The prairie vole is a useful model for exploring the neural mechanisms by which social relationships contribute to pain and nociceptive processing in humans.

  15. Correlated Preferences for Male Facial Masculinity and Partner Traits in Gay and Bisexual Men in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lijun; Zheng, Yong

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have documented the correlation between preferences for male facial masculinity and perceived masculinity: women who rate their male partner as more masculine tend to prefer more masculine faces. Men's self-rated masculinity predicts their female partner's preference for masculinity. This study examined the association between other trait preferences and preference for male facial masculinity among 556 gay and bisexual men across multiple cities in China. Participants were asked to choose the three most important traits in a romantic partner from a list of 23 traits. Each participant was then asked to choose a preferred face in each of 10 pairs of male faces presented sequentially, with each pair consisting of a masculinized and feminized version of the same base face. The results indicated that preferences for health and status-related traits were correlated with preferences for male facial masculinity in gay and bisexual men in China; individuals who were more health- or status-oriented in their preferences for a romantic partner preferred more masculine male faces than individuals with lower levels of these orientations. The findings have implications for the correlated preferences for facial masculinity and health- and status-related traits and may be related to perceived health and dominance/aggression of masculine faces based on a sample of non-Western gay and bisexual men.

  16. Trichostatin A (TSA) facilitates formation of partner preference in male prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclot, F; Wang, H; Youssef, C; Liu, Y; Wang, Z; Kabbaj, M

    2016-05-01

    In the socially monogamous prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), the development of a social bonding is indicated by the formation of partner preference, which involves a variety of environmental and neurochemical factors and brain structures. In a most recent study in female prairie voles, we found that treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) facilitates the formation of partner preference through up-regulation of oxytocin receptor (OTR) and vasopressin V1a receptor (V1aR) genes expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that TSA treatment also facilitates partner preference formation and alters OTR and V1aR genes expression in the NAcc in male prairie voles. We thus observed that central injection of TSA dose-dependently promoted the formation of partner preference in the absence of mating in male prairie voles. Interestingly, TSA treatment up-regulated OTR, but not V1aR, gene expression in the NAcc similarly as they were affected by mating - an essential process for naturally occurring partner preference. These data, together with others, not only indicate the involvement of epigenetic events but also the potential role of NAcc oxytocin in the regulation of partner preference in both male and female prairie voles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Motivational influences on the safer sex behavior of agency-based male sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D; Seal, David W

    2008-10-01

    Although indoor male sex workers (MSWs) have been found to engage in lower rates of HIV risk behavior with clients than street-based MSWs, few studies have examined the motivations behind such practices. We interviewed 30 MSWs working for the same escort agency regarding their safer sex practices with clients and their reasons for these. As in other research, MSWs reported little risk behavior with clients. Five motivational themes related to safer sex on the job emerged: health concerns, emotional intimacy, client attractiveness, relationships, and structural work factors. Results suggest that participants engaged in rational decision-making relative to sex with clients, facilitated by reduced economic incentive for riskier behavior and a supportive social context. MSWs desired a safe sexual work place, personal integrity, and minimal negative consequences to personal relationships. Collaborating with sex work employers to study their role in encouraging a safer workplace may be important to future research.

  18. Transitions of male partners of women with breast cancer: hope, guilt, and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggleby, Wendy; Thomas, Jasmine; Montford, Kelly; Thomas, Roanne; Nekolaichuk, Cheryl; Ghosh, Sunita; Cumming, Ceiwen; Tonkin, Katia

    2015-03-01

    To (a) describe the types of transitions experienced by male spousal caregivers of women with breast cancer and the strategies used by male spouses to deal with these transitions and (b) examine factors related to their quality of life, including demographic variables, self-efficacy, caregiver guilt, hope, the quality of life of their partner with breast cancer, and transitions. Cross-sectional, transformational, mixed-methods approach. Participants' homes. 105 dyads of male spouses and their female partners diagnosed with stages I-III breast cancer. 600 surveys were mailed to women with breast cancer and their male partners. Significant variables were entered into a multivariate model. Male caregiver quality of life. The quality of life of male spouse participants was positively influenced by hope (p life scores reported higher hope and lower caregiver guilt scores. They reported lower quality-of-life scores if they dealt with transitions by "doing what needs to be done."
 Strategies to support male spouses of women with breast cancer should involve ways to foster hope, reduce feelings of guilt, and encourage male caregivers to engage more in supporting their spouses.

  19. Meeting sex partners through the Internet, risky sexual behavior, and HIV testing among sexually transmitted infections clinic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monique J; Pugsley, River; Cohen, Steven A

    2015-02-01

    The Internet has now become a popular venue to meet sex partners. People who use the Internet to meet sex partners may be at a higher risk for contracting HIV and STIs. This study examined the association between meeting sex partners from the Internet, and HIV testing, STI history, and risky sexual behavior. Data were obtained from the Virginia Department of Health STD Surveillance Network. Logistic regression models were used to obtain crude and adjusted odds ratios, and 95 % confidence intervals for the associations between meeting sex partners through the Internet and ever tested for HIV, HIV testing in the past 12 months, STI history, and risky sexual behavior. Logistic regression was also used to determine if gender and men who have sex with men interaction terms significantly improved the model. Women who met a sex partner from the Internet were more likely to have had an HIV test in the past 12 months than women who did not meet a partner in this way. On the other hand, men who met a sex partner through the Internet were more likely to have ever had an HIV test than other men, but this was only seen for heterosexual men. All populations who met a sex partner from the Internet were more likely to take part in risky sexual behavior. HIV prevention strategies should emphasize annual testing for all populations.

  20. Central oxytocin receptors mediate mating-induced partner preferences and enhance correlated activation across forebrain nuclei in male prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Zachary V; Walum, Hasse; Jamal, Yaseen A; Xiao, Yao; Keebaugh, Alaine C; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Young, Larry J

    2016-03-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is a deeply conserved nonapeptide that acts both peripherally and centrally to modulate reproductive physiology and sociosexual behavior across divergent taxa, including humans. In vertebrates, the distribution of the oxytocin receptor (OTR) in the brain is variable within and across species, and OTR signaling is critical for a variety of species-typical social and reproductive behaviors, including affiliative and pair bonding behaviors in multiple socially monogamous lineages of fishes, birds, and mammals. Early work in prairie voles suggested that the endogenous OT system modulates mating-induced partner preference formation in females but not males; however, there is significant evidence that central OTRs may modulate pair bonding behavior in both sexes. In addition, it remains unclear how transient windows of central OTR signaling during sociosexual interaction modulate neural activity to produce enduring shifts in sociobehavioral phenotypes, including the formation of selective social bonds. Here we re-examine the role of the central OT system in partner preference formation in male prairie voles using a selective OTR antagonist delivered intracranially. We then use the same antagonist to examine how central OTRs modulate behavior and immediate early gene (Fos) expression, a metric of neuronal activation, in males during brief sociosexual interaction with a female. Our results suggest that, as in females, OTR signaling is critical for partner preference formation in males and enhances correlated activation across sensory and reward processing brain areas during sociosexual interaction. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that central OTR signaling facilitates social bond formation by coordinating activity across a pair bonding neural network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Central oxytocin receptors mediate mating-induced partner preferences and enhance correlated activation across forebrain nuclei in male prairie voles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Zachary V.; Walum, Hasse; Jamal, Yaseen A.; Xiao, Yao; Keebaugh, Alaine C.; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Young, Larry J.

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is a deeply conserved nonapeptide that acts both peripherally and centrally to modulate reproductive physiology and sociosexual behavior across divergent taxa, including humans. In vertebrates, the distribution of the oxytocin receptor (OTR) in the brain is variable within and across species, and OTR signaling is critical for a variety of species-typical social and reproductive behaviors, including affiliative and pair bonding behaviors in multiple socially monogamous lineages of fishes, birds, and mammals. Early work in prairie voles suggested that the endogenous OT system modulates mating-induced partner preference formation in females but not males; however, there is significant evidence that central OTRs may modulate pair bonding behavior in both sexes. In addition, it remains unclear how transient windows of central OTR signaling during sociosexual interaction modulate neural activity to produce enduring shifts in sociobehavioral phenotypes, including the formation of selective social bonds. Here we re-examine the role of the central OT system in partner preference formation in male prairie voles using a selective OTR antagonist delivered intracranially. We then use the same antagonist to examine how central OTRs modulate behavior and immediate early gene (Fos) expression, a metric of neuronal activation, in males during brief sociosexual interaction with a female. Our results suggest that, as in females, OTR signaling is critical for partner preference formation in males and enhances correlated activation across sensory and reward processing brain areas during sociosexual interaction. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that central OTR signaling facilitates social bond formation by coordinating activity across a pair bonding neural network. PMID:26643557

  2. Prevalence of consensual male-male sex and sexual violence, and associations with HIV in South Africa: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin L Dunkle

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa the population prevalence of men who have sex with men (MSM is unknown, as is the population prevalence of male-on-male sexual violence, and whether male-on-male sexual violence may relate to HIV risk. This paper describes lifetime prevalence of consensual male-male sexual behavior and male-on-male sexual violence (victimization and perpetration in two South African provinces, socio-demographic factors associated with these experiences, and associations with HIV serostatus.In a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008, men aged 18-49 y from randomly selected households in the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal provinces provided anonymous survey data and dried blood spots for HIV serostatus assessment. Interviews were completed in 1,737 of 2,298 (75.6% of enumerated and eligible households. From these households, 1,705 men (97.1% provided data on lifetime history of same-sex experiences, and 1,220 (70.2% also provided dried blood spots for HIV testing. 5.4% (n = 92 of participants reported a lifetime history of any consensual sexual activity with another man; 9.6% (n = 164 reported any sexual victimization by a man, and 3.0% (n = 51 reported perpetrating sexual violence against another man. 85.0% (n = 79 of men with a history of consensual sex with men reported having a current female partner, and 27.7% (n = 26 reported having a current male partner. Of the latter, 80.6% (n = 21/26 also reported having a female partner. Men reporting a history of consensual male-male sexual behavior are more likely to have been a victim of male-on-male sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 7.24; 95% CI 4.26-12.3, and to have perpetrated sexual violence against another man (aOR = 3.10; 95% CI 1.22-7.90. Men reporting consensual oral/anal sex with a man were more likely to be HIV+ than men with no such history (aOR = 3.11; 95% CI 1.24-7.80. Men who had raped a man were more likely to be HIV+ than non

  3. Current active and passive smoking among adults living with same sex partners in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Jaime; Checa, Irene; Espejo, Begoña

    2017-05-19

    To assess the association between current active and passive tobacco smoking and living with a same-sex partner in Spain. We analysed data from two cross-sectional national surveys of the Spanish population 15 years and older (2011-Encuesta Nacional de Salud en España and 2014-Encuesta Europea de Salud en España). Analyses included only people living with their partner. Associations were calculated using multiple logistic regressions adjusting for gender, social class and age. Current active and passive smoking were significantly associated with living with same sex partners (odds ratio: 2.71 and 2.88), and particularly strong among women. Spanish adults living with same-sex partners are at higher risk of active and passive smoking. This risk varies by gender. Spanish national surveys should include items on sexual orientation for improved data on health disparities. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Partner violence and psychosocial distress among female sex workers in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Hong

    Full Text Available Despite recognized vulnerability of female sex workers (FSW, most data on this population are focused on their HIV and STI prevalence; studies on their experience of partner violence and psychosocial distress are limited, especially FSW in China.A cross-sectional survey was administered among 1,022 FSW recruited from 9 different types of commercial sex venues in Southwest China. Partner violence scales were adapted from WHO's Women's Health and Domestic Violence scale and psychosocial distress was measured by five indicators, including alcohol intoxication, drug use, suicidal behavior, depression, and loneliness. Random effects modeling was used to control for cluster effects.About 58% of FSW ever experienced violence from their stable partners, and 45% suffered it from their clients. Partner violence was strongly associated with each of the five measures of psychosocial distress, even after controlling for potential confounders.This study is one of the first to examine the association between partner violence and psychosocial distress among FSW in China. The high prevalence of violence experience and distress in this population suggests urgency for intervention. The public health programs targeting FSW should go beyond the focus on HIV/STI prevention and care for the fundamental health and human rights of millions of FSW in China.

  5. The balancing act: exploring stigma, economic need and disclosure among male sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closson, Elizabeth F; Colby, Donn J; Nguyen, Thi; Cohen, Samuel S; Biello, Katie; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    In Vietnam, there is an emerging HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM). Male sex workers engage in high-risk sexual behaviours that make them particularly vulnerable to HIV infection. In 2010, 23 MSM in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) who recently received payment for sex with another man completed in-depth qualitative interviews exploring motivations for sex work, patterns of sex work disclosure and experiences of social stigma. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and translated into English and analysed using a qualitative descriptive approach. Low wages, unstable employment and family remittances were motivating factors for MSM in HCMC to sell sex. Participants described experiences of enacted and felt social stigma related to their involvement in sex work. In response, they utilised stigma management techniques aimed at concealment of involvement in sex work. Such strategies restricted sexual communication with non-paying sex partners and potentially limited their ability to seek social support from family and friends. Departing from decontextualized depictions of sex work disclosure, our findings describe how decisions to reveal involvement in sex work are shaped by social and structural factors such as social stigma, techniques to minimise exposure to stigma, economic imperatives and familial responsibilities.

  6. Positive Parenting of Young Adolescents by Male Cohabiting Partners: The Roles of Coparenting Conflict and Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Fathers have often been ignored in the parenting literature. The current study focused on male cohabiting partners (MCPs) who can serve as "social stepfathers" and examined the association of coparent support and conflict with their positive parenting behavior (i.e., acceptance, firm control, and monitoring) of adolescents. Participants…

  7. Attitudes about Partner Communication Regarding Contraceptive Use among Hispanic Male College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Koreena M.; Wiley, David C.; Housman, Jeff; Martinez-Ramos, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine cultural factors that influence Hispanic male college students' intention to communicate with partners about contraception use. Participants: A sample of 239 self-identified Hispanic participants enrolled in at least 1 college course participated in this study in the spring 2014…

  8. Healthy overweight male partners of subfertile couples should not worry about their semen quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duits, Floor H.; van Wely, Madelon; van der Veen, Fulco; Gianotten, Judith

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of body mass index (BMI) on semen quality in a cohort of male partners in subfertile couples. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: A fertility center based in an academic hospital. Patient(s): Between January 2000 and January 2007, 1466 men visiting the Centre

  9. Kisspeptin neurones in the posterodorsal medial amygdala modulate sexual partner preference and anxiety in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekunbi, D A; Li, X F; Lass, G; Shetty, K; Adegoke, O A; Yeo, S H; Colledge, W H; Lightman, S L; O'Byrne, K T

    2018-03-01

    The posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) is a neural site in the limbic brain involved in regulating emotional and sexual behaviours. There is, however, limited information available on the specific neuronal cell type in the MePD functionally mediating these behaviours in rodents. The recent discovery of a significant kisspeptin neurone population in the MePD has raised interest in the possible role of kisspeptin and its cognate receptor in sexual behaviour. The present study therefore tested the hypothesis that the MePD kisspeptin neurone population is involved in regulating attraction towards opposite sex conspecifics, sexual behaviour, social interaction and the anxiety response by selectively stimulating these neurones using the novel pharmacosynthetic DREADDs (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) technique. Adult male Kiss-Cre mice received bilateral stereotaxic injections of a stimulatory DREADD viral construct (AAV-hSyn-DIO-hM 3 D(Gq)-mCherry) targeted to the MePD, with subsequent activation by i.p. injection of clozapine-N-oxide (CNO). Socio-sexual behaviours were assessed in a counter-balanced fashion after i.p. injection of either saline or CNO (5 mg kg -1 ). Selective activation of MePD kisspeptin neurones by CNO significantly increased the time spent by male mice in investigating an oestrous female, as well as the duration of social interaction. Additionally, after CNO injection, the mice appeared less anxious, as indicated by a longer exploratory time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze. However, levels of copulatory behaviour were comparable between CNO and saline-treated controls. These data indicate that DREADD-induced activation of MePD kisspeptin neurones enhances both sexual partner preference in males and social interaction and also decreases anxiety, suggesting a key role played by MePD kisspeptin in sexual motivation and social behaviour. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology published by John Wiley

  10. Male perception about the inconveniences associated with monthly bleeding for their partner - an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lete, Iñaki; Lobo, Paloma; Nappi, Rossella E; Pintiaux, Axelle; Fiala, Christian; Häusler, Günther; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie

    2018-02-01

    To assess men's perceptions about monthly bleeding and associated inconveniences for their partner, as well as men's attitudes regarding the desired menstruation frequency for their partner and knowledge about hormonal contraceptives. A 15 min quantitative online survey was conducted among 5044 men aged 18-45 years, who had been in a relationship for more than 6 months, across 13 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain and Switzerland). Responses were compared to those obtained in a similar study among European women. Most men perceived that their partner considered her menstrual flow as moderate, lasting an average of 5.2 d, slightly longer than previously reported by women. Almost all men reported that their partners experience menstruation-related symptoms. However, prevalence of mood-related symptoms was perceived to be more frequent and physical symptoms less frequent, relative to women's self-reported symptoms. Given the option, 71% of men would choose longer intervals between their partner's periods. Maintaining the couple's sex life, social life and relationship quality were key factors cited in their preference. Overall, 42% of respondents stated that women taking hormonal contraceptives needed to have monthly periods. Men's perception regarding their partner's periods was generally consistent with that previously reported by women. Most men would prefer less frequent bleeding episodes for their partners. Although, the present data suggest that couples are discussing periods, knowledge about contraception could be improved. Health care professionals should intensify counselling to better inform both partners about their contraceptive options.

  11. Male sex workers: Are we ignoring a risk group in Mumbai, India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinde Santosh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Male sex workers (MSWs have recently been recognized as an important risk group for sexually transmitted infections (STIs including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Although there are global studies on MSWs, few such studies describe the behavioral patterns and STIs among this population in India. Methods: MSWs were evaluated at the Humsafar trust, a community based organization situated in suburban Mumbai, India. We report on the demographics, sexual behaviors, and STIs including HIV of these sex workers. Results: Of the 75 MSWs, 24 were men and 51 were transgenders. The mean age of the group was 23.3 (+ 4.9 years. About 15% were married or lived with a permanent partner. Of these individuals, 85% reported sex work as a main source of income and 15% as an additional source. All the individuals reported anal sex (87% anal receptive sex and 13% anal insertive sex. About 13% of MSWs had never used a condom. The HIV prevalence was 33% (17% in men vs 41% in transgenders, P = 0.04. The STI prevalence was 60% (58% in men vs 61% in transgenders, P = 0.8. Syphilis was the most common STI (28% in these MSWs. HIV was associated with being a transgender (41 vs 17%, P = 0.04, age > 26 years (57 vs 28%, P = 0.04, more than one year of sex work (38 vs 8%, P = 0.05, and income < Rs. 2000 per month (62 vs 27%, P = 0.02. Conclusions: The MSWs have high-risk behaviors, low consistent condom use, and high STI/HIV infections. These groups should be the focus of intensive public health interventions aimed at reduction of risky sexual practices, and STI/HIV prevention and care.

  12. Vitamin D metabolism, sex hormones, and male reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The spectrum of vitamin D (VD)-mediated effects has expanded in recent years, and VD is now recognized as a versatile signaling molecule rather than being solely a regulator of bone health and calcium homeostasis. One of the recently identified target areas of VD is male reproductive function...... is the main VD target in the testis and to what extent VD is important for sex hormone production and function of spermatozoa. This review summarizes descriptive studies on testicular VD metabolism and spatial distribution of VDR and the VD metabolizing enzymes in the mammalian testes and discusses...

  13. Male sex workers in Córdoba, Argentina: sociodemographic characteristics and sex work experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariño Rodrigo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report on the sociodemographic characteristics and work experiences of 31 male sex workers (MSWs in the city of Córdoba, Argentina. METHODS: Information on each of the MSWs was collected using a questionnaire that covered his personal characteristics and his work background, self-assessed general health status, and use of health and social services. Scales were included in order to assess attitudes towards condom use, knowledge about safe sex, perceptions about the risk of getting HIV, individual self-efficacy, and locus of control. The questionnaire also asked each respondent to rank his level of agreement with interactive strategies for gaining client compliance with safe sex practices. RESULTS: In terms of their self-identity, out of the 30 MSWs who answered the question, 10 of them (33.3% self-identified as heterosexual and 9 (30% as bisexual. Alcohol and drug consumption and unsafe sexual practices were relatively low among the MSWs. Of the 31 MSWs responding, 21 of them (67.7% reported that they had been tested for HIV, but only 13 of them (41.9% said they had been vaccinated for either hepatitis A or hepatitis B. A variety of differences were found between the study's 17 street sex workers (sex workers who offer their services in public places such as streets and parks and the 14 independent sex workers (sex workers who are self-employed, advertise and manage their own business, and have an exclusive location for their commercial sex work. The street MSWs were younger and had less formal education. Independent MSWs were economically more settled, had been working longer in the sex industry, and were more comfortable about having sex with men. Independent MSWs were also more likely to report a gay sexual orientation and less likely to report using alcohol, marijuana, or other substances. CONCLUSIONS: The differences between street MSWs and independent MSWs are important since they could influence the negotiating of safer sex

  14. The use of mobile phone apps by Australian gay and bisexual men to meet sex partners: an analysis of sex-seeking repertoires and risks for HIV and STIs using behavioural surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Peter; Mao, Limin; Prestage, Garrett; Zablotska, Iryna; de Wit, John; Holt, Martin

    2016-04-19

    Mobile phone apps are now the most popular method that Australian gay men use to find sex partners. Partner-seeking mobile phone apps use location functions to identify like-minded men and display their proximity. This study examines whether meeting partners via mobile apps is associated with a greater risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) than with other ways of meeting partners. Data were analysed from the Gay Community Periodic Surveys, community-based, cross-sectional surveys conducted in Australian state capital cities between 2010 and 2014. χ 2 tests and multinomial logistic regression were used to analyse differences in risk profiles of men who used different methods to meet partners. Data were analysed from 36 428 men who participated in the Gay Community Periodic Surveys between 2010 and 2014. In 2014, 4116 men reported meeting sex partners with the use of mobile apps, increasing from 23.9% in 2011 to 42.5% in 2014. Men who used a combination of online and offline methods reported a greater number of sex partners and were more likely to report a recent STI than men who used online methods only or offline methods only. There has been a steep increase in the use of mobile phone apps by gay men in Australia to meet male partners. However, men who use a combination of mobile phone apps, internet websites and offline places to meet partners appear to be at increased risk of STIs or HIV compared with men who use a narrower range of online and offline methods. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Role of the male partner in the lower genitourinary tract infection of female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, B; Bhandari, H; Sharma, M; Malhotra, S; Sawhney, H; Kumar, B

    2000-07-01

    We studied the relationships of selected microbes and the role of consorts in the causation of vaginal discharge which may be due to cervicitis or vaginitis. A total of 93 consecutive patients in the reproductive age group with symptoms of vaginal discharge along with their sexual partners were studied. Samples were collected from the cervix and posterior fornix of the female patients and from the urethra and sub-prepucial area of the male partner for culture of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Gardnerella vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, ureaplasma, candida, aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Apart from cultures, KOH and Gram stain of the discharge were made. Predominant pathogen isolated was Ureaplasma urealyticum from 40 (43.01%) females and 23 (24.7%) males. The next common pathogenic organisms isolated were candida species from 11 (11.8%) females and 5 (5.4%) males and Chlamydia trachomatis in 3 (3.2%) females and 1 (1.1%) male. Various organisms were more frequently isolated from the 29 of 43 (67.4%) couples who had had sexual intercourse 7 days prior to the recruitment as compared to 14 of 43 (32.6%) who had had coitus more than 7 days prior to their recruitment. This may be due to the spontaneous disappearance or decrease in the number of organisms to the level that they could be detected by culture. In our study, 6 (6.5%) of male partners carrying pathogenic organisms were asymptomatic, indicating that their screening and treatment is vital.

  16. HIV among pregnant women in Moshi Tanzania: the role of sexual behavior, male partner characteristics and sexually transmitted infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uriyo Jacqueline

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV in Tanzania, and factors contributing to this situation need to be identified. The objective of this study was to determine social, behavioral and biological risk factors of HIV infection among pregnant women in Moshi urban, Tanzania. In 2002 – 2004, consenting women (N = 2654, attending primary health clinics for routine antenatal care were interviewed, examined and biological samples collected for diagnosis of HIV and other sexually transmitted/reproductive tract infections. Results The prevalence of HIV was 6.9%. The risk for HIV was greater among women whose male partner; had other sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 15.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.39–27.20, traveled frequently (AOR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.22–2.65 or consumed alcohol daily (AOR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.06–2.67. Other independent predictors of HIV were age, number of sex partners, recent migration, and presence of bacterial vaginosis, genital ulcer, active syphilis and herpes simplex virus type 2. Conclusion Development of programs that actively involve men in HIV prevention is important in reducing transmission of HIV in this population. Further, interventions that focus on STI control, the mobile population, sexual risk behavior and responsible alcohol use are required.

  17. Pathways from Racial Discrimination to Multiple Sexual Partners Among Male African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Steven M.; Yu, Tianyi; Allen, Kimberly A.; Pocock, Alexandra M.; Brody, Gene H.

    2014-01-01

    African American male adolescents’ involvement with multiple sexual partners has important implications for public health as well as for their development of ideas regarding masculinity and sexuality. The purpose of this study was to test hypotheses regarding the pathways through which racial discrimination affects African American adolescents’ involvement with multiple sexual partners. We hypothesized that racial discrimination would engender psychological distress, which would promote attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple sexual partnerships. The study also examined the protective influence of parenting practices in buffering the influence of contextual stressors. Participants were 221 African American male youth who provided data at ages 16 and 18; their parents provided data on family socioeconomic disadvantages. Of these young men, 18.5% reported having 3 or more sexual partners during the past 3 months. Structural equation models indicated that racial discrimination contributed to sexual activity with multiple partners by inducing psychological distress, which in turn affected attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple partners. The experience of protective parenting, which included racial socialization, closeness and harmony in parent-child relationships, and parental monitoring, buffered the influence of racial discrimination on psychological distress. These findings suggest targets for prevention programming and underscore the importance of efforts to reduce young men’s experience with racial discrimination. PMID:25937821

  18. Hormonal contraceptive use and mate retention behavior in women and their male partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, Lisa L M; Puts, David A; Roberts, S Craig; Little, Anthony C; Burriss, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    Female hormonal contraceptive use has been associated with a variety of physical and psychological side effects. Women who use hormonal contraceptives report more intense affective responses to partner infidelity and greater overall sexual jealousy than women not using hormonal contraceptives. Recently, researchers have found that using hormonal contraceptives with higher levels of synthetic estradiol, but not progestin, is associated with significantly higher levels of self-reported jealousy in women. Here, we extend these findings by examining the relationship between mate retention behavior in heterosexual women and their male partners and women's use of hormonal contraceptives. We find that women using hormonal contraceptives report more frequent use of mate retention tactics, specifically behaviors directed toward their partners (i.e., intersexual manipulations). Men partnered with women using hormonal contraceptives also report more frequent mate retention behavior, although this relationship may be confounded by relationship satisfaction. Additionally, among women using hormonal contraceptives, the dose of synthetic estradiol, but not of synthetic progesterone, positively predicts mate retention behavior frequency. These findings demonstrate how hormonal contraceptive use may influence behavior that directly affects the quality of romantic relationships as perceived by both female and male partners. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. [High-risk sexual behaviour by partner type among men who have sex with men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folch, Cinta; Fernández-Dávila, Percy; Ferrer, Laia; Soriano, Raúl; Díez, Mercedes; Casabona, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    To identify factors associated with high risk sexual practices among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Spain. An online survey was conducted in 2010, which included, among others, questions on HIV/STI sexual behaviours and prevention needs. Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with a partner of unknown or discordant HIV status in the past year was defined as a high risk sexual behaviour. Of the 13,111 participants, 49.4% had had sex with steady partners (SP) and 73.4% with non-steady partners (NSP) in the last 12months; and the prevalence of high risk UAI was 25.4% and 29.4%, respectively. Factors associated with high risk UAI with SP were: living in a city of less than 500,000 inhabitants (OR=1.42 50 partners), having used drugs for sex (OR=1.33), and at parties (OR=1.19), having a medium (OR=1.82) or low (OR=1.33) level of HIV/STI knowledge, and being HIV-positive (OR=1.56). Among MSM, the prevalence of high risk sexual practices is high with both SP and NSP. Factors associated with high risk UAI vary by type of sexual partner (e.g., having HIV with an undetectable viral load). These must be taken into account when planning strategies for primary and secondary prevention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  20. The influence of male partners on contraceptive usage in sub-Saharan Africa-Lagos experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omololu Adegbola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Family planning programs, researches, and studies have focused mainly on women with little attention to men′s role in the contraceptive choices by the couple. Men′s exclusion from these programs has serious implications on the acceptance and use of contraceptives by the couple. Objective: To determine the influence of male partners on contraceptive use of their spouses. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study at a Tertiary Care Centre in Lagos, Nigeria. It was conducted from January 1 to April 30, 2010, where all consecutive consenting pregnant women were given structured questionnaires to give to their partners so as to evaluate the contribution of the male partners to contraceptives use in their spouses as well as assess their awareness and knowledge of contraception. Categorical variables were analyzed using Chi-square test or Fisher′s exact test as appropriate while continuous variables by t-test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Of the 370 respondents, only 51.9% (192 knew about female contraceptive methods, while 50% (185 were willing to allow their wives to use contraception. Barrier method (17.3% and periodic abstinence (15.7% were the leading preferred choice for their wives. However, bilateral tubal ligation was the least preferred method (1.6%. Previous counseling of male partner significantly influenced their decision to allow their wives to use contraceptives (P = 0.001. Conclusion: Involving the male partner in family planning counseling plays an important role in increasing the acceptance and use of contraceptives by the couple.

  1. Migration Stress, Poor Mental Health, and Engagement in Sex with High-Risk Partners: A Mediation Modeling Analysis of Data from Rural-to-Urban Migrants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Chen, Xinguang; Yan, Yaqiong; Gong, Jie; Li, Fang; Robserson, Emily

    2017-12-01

    There is a growing need for better understanding of mechanisms underpinning the relationship between migration stress and HIV risk behaviors for the development of HIV prevention and control policy. Survey data from a random sample of 1,293 Chinese rural-to-urban migrants were analyzed. Stress was assessed using the Domestic Migration Stress Questionnaire (DMSQ), mental health status was assessed using the Brief Symptoms Inventory (BSI), and having sex with high risk partners was assessed as if ever have had sex with high risk partners (e.g., sex workers, intravenous injection drug users, blood donors, persons infected with HIV, persons with sexually transmitted infection, and same gender partners) in the past year. The proposed relationship was tested using mediation modeling method. Among the sample, 5.5% reported having had sex with high-risk partners in the past year. Mediation analysis indicated that the relationship between DMSQ scores and having sex with high-risk partners was mediated by BSI (coefficient =0.41, 95% CI [0.21, 0.65]), including its components of somatization (0.32 [0.15, 0.53]), obsessive-compulsive disorder (0.31 [0.07, 0.55]), depression (0.45 [0.23, 0.72]), anxiety (0.41 [0.23, 0.63]), and hostility (0.35 [0.17, 0.56]). Furthermore, the effect was more pronounced in males than in females. The study findings provide new data advancing our understanding of the mechanism of engagement in risky sex, underscoring the need for the HIV prevention policies in China to pay more attention to mental health of the rural-to-urban migrant population.

  2. Safer sex decision-making among men with haemophilia and HIV and their female partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, K L; Cotton, D; Huszti, H C; Parsons, J T

    2001-01-01

    An exploratory qualitative study of adult heterosexual men with haemophilia and HIV and women who were their sexual partners was conducted as formative research to better understand cognitive factors involved in behavioural intentions and practices which comprise HIV risk-reduction for sexual transmission. The study sought to generate hypotheses, uncover themes, and develop a broad perspective on possible determinants of behaviours related to HIV transmission risk reduction. Qualitative analysis of these data served as a basis for developing a subsequent quantitative, hypothesis-testing survey and an intervention. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 23 single men and 28 married men with haemophilia and HIV infection, and 28 married women partners selected through stratified, purposeful sampling. The interviews identified beliefs, attitudes, and values underlying decisions regarding target behaviours related to preventing sexual transmission of HIV, including (1) using condoms consistently during vaginal intercourse and (2) talking to partners about risk reduction. The interviews elicited information about perceived advantages and disadvantages of performing each of the targeted behaviours, and factors that facilitate or prevent performing them. Qualitative analysis of coded responses yielded important themes regarding how choices are made about sexual activity and safer sex. Most notably, communication between partners (1) plays a direct, key role in facilitating condom use and (2) forms the basis for maintaining emotional intimacy in these relationships. The link between condom use and communicating about safer sex was viewed as pivotal in achieving HIV prevention for individuals in serodiscordant couples. Recommendations for risk reduction intervention development are discussed.

  3. Traumatic childhood exposures in the lives of male perpetrators of female intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Margaret E; Scrandis, Debra A

    2013-09-01

    Despite efforts to use behavior modification interventions for male perpetrators, intimate partner violence (IPV) remains a significant problem in some male-female relationships. Childhood exposure to traumatic violent experiences, especially when untreated, can influence adult behaviors. Little is known about these possible factors in the lives of male perpetrators of IPV and if they influence their violent behavior against female intimate partners. This study's aim was to explore the life perspective of men who have been violent with their female intimate partners using Gadamer's hermeneutic phenomenology. Nine men with a history of female IPV were interviewed twice over a 5-month period. Interview content focused on their experiences in childhood and adult lives. Four themes emerged from the qualitative interviews: (a) childhood and family issues, (b) school and mental health issues, (c) substance abuse and (d) legal issues. Traumatic violent experiences in childhood, such as physical and sexual abuse, frequently led to school problems, misuse of substances, and arrests for a spectrum of crimes. These results highlight the importance of identifying traumatic violent exposures through a brief two-question screen of all children in primary care. Implications for individualized mental health treatment of male perpetrators and recommendations for further research are addressed.

  4. Pattern of semen fluid abnormalities in male partners of infertile couples in southeastern, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugboaja, J O; Monago, E N; Obiechina, N J A

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of male infertility is increasing in our environment. There is a need to evaluate the pattern of abnormality with a view to recommending appropriate interventions. We aimed to to analyze the seminal fluid parameters of the male partners of the infertile couples managed in the hospital over a 12 month period and to identify the pattern of abnormalities. A retrospective study of all the semen samples of male partners of infertile couples submitted for analysis to the microbiology laboratory of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi Nigeria between 1st January 2006 and 31st December 2006 The reports of the semen fluid analysis were retrieved from the records department and supplemented with the laboratory register. Out of the 348 semen sample reports evaluated, 237 (68.0%) had semen fluid abnormalities. 104 (30.0%) had single factor abnormalities while 133 (38.0%) had combined factor anomalies. Asthenozoospermia 58 (16.7%) was the main single abnormality, while Astheno-oligozoospermia 51 (14.7%) and Astheno-oligoteratozoospermia (13.2%) were the major combined factor abnormalities detected. Very few 5 (1.4%) of the patients had azospermia. The study showed a high rate of semen fluid abnormalities among the male partners of infertile women in our environment. The high preponderance of poor motility emphasizes the need to include men in programmes aimed at reducing sexually transmitted infections in Nigeria.

  5. Predictors of perceived male partner concurrency among women at risk for HIV and STI acquisition in Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffoor, Zakir; Wand, Handan; Street, Renée A; Abbai, Nathlee; Ramjee, Gita

    2016-01-01

    Women in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be at greater risk for HIV acquisition than men. Concurrency, viz. multiple sexual partnerships that overlap over time, has been studied as a possible risk factor for HIV transmission. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of perceived male partner concurrency among sexually active, HIV negative women. Socio-demographic and behavioural data from women enrolled in a biomedical HIV prevention clinical trial were assessed in relation to perceived male partner concurrency using the Chi squared test. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess the independent predictors of perceived male partner concurrency. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were obtained for HIV and STI incidence in relation to male partner concurrency. A Cox Proportional Hazards model was used to assess the association between perceived male partner concurrency and HIV and STI incidence. The results revealed that 29 % of women reported their male partners to be in concurrent sexual relationships, 22 % reported partners that were not engaging in concurrency, whilst 49 % reported not knowing their partners concurrency status. Older women, having never married, experiencing economic abuse, and women reporting individual concurrency, were found to be significant predictors of perceived male partner concurrency in the studied population. Perceived male partner concurrency was not found to be a significantly associated with incident HIV and STI infections in this analysis. The study provides insight into predictors of perceived male partner concurrency among women at high risk for STI and HIV acquisition. These results may inform the design of behavioural and biomedical interventions, to address the role of multiple sexual partnerships in HIV prevention.

  6. Gene by Social-Context Interactions for Number of Sexual Partners Among White Male Youths: Genetics-informed Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guang; Tong, Yuying; Cai, Tianji

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we set out to investigate whether introducing molecular genetic measures into an analysis of sexual partner variety will yield novel sociological insights. The data source is the white male DNA sample in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Our empirical analysis has produced a robust protective effect of the 9R/9R genotype relative to the Any10R genotype in the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1). The gene-environment interaction analysis demonstrates that the protective effect of 9R/9R tends to be lost in schools in which higher proportions of students start having sex early or among those with relatively low levels of cognitive ability. Our genetics-informed sociological analysis suggests that the “one size” of a single social theory may not fit all. Explaining a human trait or behavior may require a theory that accommodates the complex interplay between social contextual and individual influences and genetic predispositions. PMID:19569400

  7. Dyadic effects of gender minority stressors in substance use behaviors among transgender women and their non-transgender male partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L.; Gamarel, Kristi E.; Nemoto, Tooru; Operario, Don

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite evidence that interpersonal processes shape health behaviors, research concerning the dyadic effects of gender minority stressors on substance use behaviors of transgender people is scarce. The objective of this study was to use dyadic analysis to examine whether transgender discrimination was associated with substance use among transgender women and their male partners. Methods Transgender women and their male partners (N=191 couples; N=382 individuals) completed questionnaires. Participants’ mean age was 37.1; 79.1% were racial/ethnic minority; 61.3% earned transgender-related discrimination and past 30-day non-marijuana illicit drug use adjusting for age, relationship length, financial hardship, and depressive distress among partners in these dyads. Results Illicit drug use was reported by 31.4% of transgender women and 25.1% of their male partners. Perceived transgender discrimination was independently associated with increased odds of illicit drug use for transgender women (actor effect) but not for their male partners. Financial hardship statistically predicted drug use for both partners (actor effects). There were no partner effects for financial hardship on drug use. Overall, 34.5% of dyads had discrepant substance use. Discrimination scores of male partners differentiated dyads who reported discrepant substance use. Discussion Gender minority stressors are critical to understanding substance use among transgender women and their male partners. Integrating socioeconomic status into gender minority stress frameworks is essential. Results have implications for substance use prevention and treatment, including the need to incorporate gender minority stressors into interventions. PMID:25642440

  8. Dyadic effects of gender minority stressors in substance use behaviors among transgender women and their non-transgender male partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; Gamarel, Kristi E; Nemoto, Tooru; Operario, Don

    2014-03-01

    Despite evidence that interpersonal processes shape health behaviors, research concerning the dyadic effects of gender minority stressors on substance use behaviors of transgender people is scarce. The objective of this study was to use dyadic analysis to examine whether transgender discrimination was associated with substance use among transgender women and their male partners. Transgender women and their male partners ( N =191 couples; N =382 individuals) completed questionnaires. Participants' mean age was 37.1; 79.1% were racial/ethnic minority; 61.3% earned discrimination and past 30-day non-marijuana illicit drug use adjusting for age, relationship length, financial hardship, and depressive distress among partners in these dyads. Illicit drug use was reported by 31.4% of transgender women and 25.1% of their male partners. Perceived transgender discrimination was independently associated with increased odds of illicit drug use for transgender women (actor effect) but not for their male partners. Financial hardship statistically predicted drug use for both partners (actor effects). There were no partner effects for financial hardship on drug use. Overall, 34.5% of dyads had discrepant substance use. Discrimination scores of male partners differentiated dyads who reported discrepant substance use. Gender minority stressors are critical to understanding substance use among transgender women and their male partners. Integrating socioeconomic status into gender minority stress frameworks is essential. Results have implications for substance use prevention and treatment, including the need to incorporate gender minority stressors into interventions.

  9. Male Circumcision and Risk of HIV Acquisition among Men who have Sex with Men from the United States and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jorge; Sal y Rosas, Victor G.; Hughes, James P.; Baeten, Jared M.; Fuchs, Jonathan; Buchbinder, Susan P.; Koblin, Beryl A.; Casapia, Martín; Ortiz, Abner; Celum, Connie

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between male circumcision, insertive anal sex practices, and HIV acquisition in a cohort of men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods Data were from 1824 HSV-2 seropositive, HIV seronegative MSM, 1362 (75%) from Peru and 462 (25%) from the US, who participated in a randomized placebo controlled trial of HSV-2 suppression for HIV prevention (HPTN 039). Circumcision status was determined by examination at enrollment. HIV testing was done every three months for up to 18 months. Partner-specific sexual behavior for up to the last three partners during the previous three months was analyzed. Results There was no significant association between male circumcision and HIV acquisition in univariate analysis (RR=0.84, 95% CI 0.50–1.42). In a pre-specified multivariate analysis that assumed a linear relationship between the proportion of insertive acts and effect of circumcision on HIV acquisition, the interaction between circumcision and proportion of insertive acts was not significant (p=0.11). In an exploratory analysis that categorized behavior with recent partners by proportion of insertive acts (<60% or ≥60% insertive acts), circumcision was associated with a non-statistically significant 69% reduction in the risk of HIV acquisition (RR=0.31, 95% CI 0.06–1.51) among men who reported ≥60% of insertive acts with recent male partners. Conclusion Circumcision does not have a significant protective effect against HIV acquisition among MSM from Peru and US, although there may be reduced risk for men who are primarily insertive with their male partners. This association needs to be investigated across diverse cohorts of MSM. PMID:21099672

  10. Etiological Diagnosis of Undervirilized Male / XY Disorder of Sex Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atta, I.; Ibrahim, M.; Parkash, A.; Lone, S. W.; Khan, Y. N.; Raza, J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To do clinical, hormonal and chromosomal analysis in undervirilized male / XY disorder of sex development and to make presumptive etiological diagnosis according to the new Disorder of Sex Development (DSD) classification system. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Endocrine Unit at National Institute of Child Health, Karachi, Pakistan, from January 2007 to December 2012. Methodology: Patients of suspected XY DSD / undervirilized male visiting endocrine clinic were enrolled in the study. Criteria suggested XY DSD include overt genital ambiguity, apparent female/male genitalia with inguinal/labial mass, apparent male genitalia with unilateral or bilateral non-palpable testes, micropenis and isolated hypospadias or with undescended testis. The older children who had delayed puberty were also evaluated with respect to DSD. As a part of evaluation of XY DSD, abdominopelvic ultrasound, karyotype, hormone measurement (testosterone, FSH, LH), FISH analysis with SRY probing, genitogram, laparoscopy, gonadal biopsy and HCG stimulation test were performed. Frequencies and percentages applied on categorical data whereas mean, median, standard deviation were calculated for continuous data. Results: A total of 187 patients met the criteria of XY DSD. Age ranged from 1 month to 15 years, 55 (29.4%) presented in infancy, 104 (55.6%) between 1 and 10 years and 28 (15%) older than 10 years. Twenty five (13.4%) were raised as female and 162 as (86.6%) male. The main complaints were ambiguous genitalia, unilateral cryptorchidism, bilateral cryptorchidism, micropenis, delayed puberty, hypospadias, female like genitalia with gonads, inguinal mass. The karyotype was 46 XY in 183 (97.9%), 46 XX in 2 (1.1%), 47 XXY in 1 (0.5%), 45 X/46 XY in 1 (0.5%) patient. HCG stimulation test showed low testosterone response in 43 (23 %), high testosterone response in 62 (33.2%), partial testosterone response in 32 (17.1%) and normal testosterone response in 50 (26

  11. Sex Hormone-Related Functions in Regenerating Male Rat Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    FRANCAVILLA, ANTONIO; EAGON, PATRICIA K.; DiLEO, ALFREDO; POLIMENO, LORENZO; PANELLA, CARMINE; AQUILINO, A. MARIA; INGROSSO, MARCELLO; Van THIEL, DAVID H.; STARZL, THOMAS E.

    2011-01-01

    Sex hormone receptors were quantitated in normal male rat liver and in regenerating liver at several different times after partial (70%) hepatectomy. Both estrogen and androgen receptor content were altered dramatically by partial hepatectomy. Total hepatic content and nuclear retention of estrogen receptors increased, with the zenith evident 2 days after partial hepatectomy, corresponding to the zenith of mitotic index. Serum estradiol increased after 1 day, and reached a maximum at 3 days after surgery. In contrast, total and nuclear androgen receptor content demonstrated a massive decline at 1, 2, and 3 days after resection. Serum testosterone displayed a parallel decline. In addition, hepatic content of two androgen-responsive proteins was reduced to 15% and 13% of normal values during this period. The activity of these various proteins during regeneration of male rat liver is comparable to that observed in the liver of normal female rats. Taken together, these results indicate that partial hepatectomy induces a feminization of certain sexually dimorphic aspects of liver function in male rats. Furthermore, these data provide evidence that estrogens, but not androgens, may have an important role in the process of liver regeneration. PMID:3758617

  12. Vitamin D metabolism, sex hormones, and male reproductive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin

    2012-08-01

    The spectrum of vitamin D (VD)-mediated effects has expanded in recent years, and VD is now recognized as a versatile signaling molecule rather than being solely a regulator of bone health and calcium homeostasis. One of the recently identified target areas of VD is male reproductive function. The VD receptor (VDR) and the VD metabolizing enzyme expression studies documented the presence of this system in the testes, mature spermatozoa, and ejaculatory tract, suggesting that both systemic and local VD metabolism may influence male reproductive function. However, it is still debated which cell is the main VD target in the testis and to what extent VD is important for sex hormone production and function of spermatozoa. This review summarizes descriptive studies on testicular VD metabolism and spatial distribution of VDR and the VD metabolizing enzymes in the mammalian testes and discusses mechanistic and association studies conducted in animals and humans. The reviewed evidence suggests some effects of VD on estrogen and testosterone biosynthesis and implicates involvement of both systemic and local VD metabolism in the regulation of male fertility potential.

  13. Male sex workers: practices, contexts, and vulnerabilities for HIV acquisition and transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Stefan David; Friedman, M Reuel; Geibel, Scott; Rebe, Kevin; Bozhinov, Borche; Diouf, Daouda; Sabin, Keith; Holland, Claire E; Chan, Roy; Cáceres, Carlos F

    2015-01-17

    Male sex workers who sell or exchange sex for money or goods encompass a very diverse population across and within countries worldwide. Information characterising their practices, contexts where they live, and their needs is limited, because these individuals are generally included as a subset of larger studies focused on gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) or even female sex workers. Male sex workers, irrespective of their sexual orientation, mostly offer sex to men and rarely identify as sex workers, using local or international terms instead. Growing evidence indicates a sustained or increasing burden of HIV among some male sex workers within the context of the slowing global HIV pandemic. Several synergistic facilitators could be potentiating HIV acquisition and transmission among male sex workers, including biological, behavioural, and structural determinants. Criminalisation and intersectional stigmas of same-sex practices, commercial sex, and HIV all augment risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections among male sex workers and reduce the likelihood of these people accessing essential services. These contexts, taken together with complex sexual networks among male sex workers, define this group as a key population underserved by current HIV prevention, treatment, and care services. Dedicated efforts are needed to make those services available for the sake of both public health and human rights. Evidence-based and human rights-affirming services dedicated specifically to male sex workers are needed to improve health outcomes for these men and the people within their sexual networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Behavioural evidence of male volatile pheromones in the sex-role reversed wolf spiders Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisenberg, Anita; Baruffaldi, Luciana; González, Macarena

    2010-01-01

    The use of chemical signals in a sexual context is widespread in the animal kingdom. Most studies in spiders report the use of female pheromones that attract potential sexual partners. Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps are two burrowing wolf spiders that show sex-role reversal. Females locate male burrows and initiate courtship before males perform any detectable visual or vibratory signal. So, females of these species would be detecting chemical or mechanical cues left by males. Our objective was to explore the potential for male pheromones to play a role in mate detection in A. brasiliensis and A. alticeps. We designed two experiments. In Experiment 1, we tested the occurrence of male contact pheromones by evaluating female courtship when exposed to empty burrows constructed by males or females (control). In Experiment 2, we tested the existence of male volatile pheromones by evaluating female behaviour when exposed to artificial burrows connected to tubes containing males, females or empty tubes (control). Our results suggest the occurrence of male volatile pheromones that trigger female courtship in both Allocosa species. The sex-role reversal postulated for these wolf spiders could be driving the consequent reversal in typical pheromone-emitter and detector roles expected for spiders.

  15. An Event-Level Analysis of Condomless Anal Intercourse with a HIV-Discordant or HIV Status-Unknown Partner Among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men from a Multi-site Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cui; Latkin, Carl; Tobin, Karin; Seal, David; Koblin, Beryl; Chander, Geetanjali; Siconolfi, Daniel; Flores, Stephen; Spikes, Pilgrim

    2018-05-19

    Despite the high HIV incidence and prevalence among black men who have sex with men (BMSM), little research has examined partner characteristics, partner seeking venue, sexual position, substance use, and sexual risk behavior at the sex event-level among BMSM. Using the baseline data from a multi-site study of 807 BMSM stratified by their HIV status, the goal of this study was to conduct a detailed event-level analysis of 1577 male anal sex events to assess the factors associated with condomless anal intercourse (CLAI) with a HIV-discordant or HIV status-unknown partner. We found CLAI with an HIV-discordant or unknown HIV status partner among HIV-negative BMSM was negatively associated with having sex with a main partner, and was positively associated with taking both receptive and insertive sexual positions during sex. As compared to a sex partner met at bar, night club or dance club, HIV-positive BMSM were less likely to engage in CLAI with HIV-discordant and unknown HIV status partner met at party or friend's house or at community organizations. HIV-positive BMSM had lower odds of engaging in CLAI with HIV-discordant and unknown HIV status partner if they had insertive sexual position or both receptive and insertive sexual positions. These results underscore the importance of delineating unique sex event-level factors associated with sexual risk behavior depending on individuals' HIV status. Our findings suggest event-level partner characteristics, sexual position, and partner seeking venues may contribute to disparities in HIV incidence.

  16. Intimate Partner Violence among Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico-U.S. Border Cities: Partner Characteristics and HIV Risk-behaviors as Correlates of Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Amaro, Hortensia; O'Campo, Patricia; Patterson, Thomas L

    2010-12-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with greater vulnerability to HIV infection among women. We examined prevalence and correlates of IPV among female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, two large Mexico-U.S. border cities where HIV prevalence is rising. Participants were 300 FSWs with a current spouse or a steady partner. Participants' mean age was 33 years, and mean number of years as a sex worker was 6 years. The prevalence of IPV in the past 6 months among participants was 35%. Using multivariate logistic regression, factors independently associated with IPV included having experienced abuse as a child, a partner who had sex with someone else, and lower sexual relationship power. Our findings suggest the need for previous abuse screening and violence prevention services for FSWs in the Mexico-U.S. border region. Careful consideration of relationship dynamics such as infidelity and relationship power is warranted when assessing for IPV risk.

  17. Lived experiences of male intimate partners of female rape victims in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Evalina; Duma, Sinegugu E; Mayers, Pat M

    2014-09-23

    Sexual violence in South Africa is a major public health and social problem. Sexual assault or rape is a traumatic event which disrupts not only the life of the female rape victim, but also that of her male intimate partner (MIP), irrespective of whether he witnessed or was informed of the incident. The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of MIPs of female rape victims and the meaning of these experiences in the six months following the partner's rape. We conducted a longitudinal hermeneutic phenomenological study. Nine purposively sampled adult MIPs were interviewed over a period of six months. The participants were in an intimate relationship with a female rape victim prior to and immediately after the rape; their partners had been treated at a specialised centre for victims of rape and sexual assault. Four interviews were conducted with each of the nine intimate partners of female rape victims: (1) within 14 days of, (2) a month after, (3) three months after, and (4) six months after the rape. Two major themes emerged: being-in-the-world as a secondary victim of rape, and living in multiple worlds, those of their female partners, family, friends, society, employers or colleagues, professionals and the justice system. The participant's familiar world became strange and even threatening, and his relationship with his partner became uncertain. Early supportive intervention for intimate partners of female rape victims is required to prevent on-going emotional trauma and alleviate the effects of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and suffering at intra- and interpersonal levels.

  18. Increased risk of severe depression in male partners of women with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakaya, Naoki; Saito-Nakaya, Kumi; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: A few small studies published to date have suggested that major psychosocial problems develop in the partners of cancer patients; however, to the authors' knowledge, no studies to date have addressed their risk for severe depression. In a retrospective cohort study, the risk for hosp......BACKGROUND:: A few small studies published to date have suggested that major psychosocial problems develop in the partners of cancer patients; however, to the authors' knowledge, no studies to date have addressed their risk for severe depression. In a retrospective cohort study, the risk...... for hospitalization with an affective disorder of the male partners of women with breast cancer was investigated, using unbiased, nationwide, population-based information. METHODS:: Followed were 1,162,596 men born between 1925 and 1973 who were aged ≥30 years at study entry, resided in Denmark between 1994 and 2006......-related indicators obtained from national administrative and disease registers. RESULTS:: During the 13 years of follow-up, breast cancer was diagnosed in the partners of 20,538 men. On multivariable analysis, men whose partner was diagnosed with breast cancer were found to be at an increased risk of being...

  19. Role of male partner involvement in ART retention and adherence in Malawi's Option B+ program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesevich, Austin; Mtande, Tiwonge; Saidi, Friday; Cromwell, Elizabeth; Tweya, Hannock; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Hoffman, Irving; Miller, William C; Rosenberg, Nora E

    2017-11-01

    Malawi's Option B+ program provides all HIV-infected pregnant women free lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART), but challenges remain regarding retention and ART adherence, potentially due to male partner barriers. We explored relationships between male partner involvement and Option B+ retention and adherence. In 2014, a randomized controlled trial in Malawi compared male recruitment strategies for couple HIV testing and counseling (cHTC) at an antenatal clinic. This secondary analysis was conducted among the entire cohort (N = 200) of women, irrespective of randomization status. We assessed whether cHTC attendance, early disclosure of HIV-positive status, and partner ART reminders were associated with retention and adherence at one month after starting treatment. Retention was defined as attending HIV clinic follow-up within one day of running out of pills. Adherence was defined as taking ≥95% of ARTs by pill count. We used binomial regression to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Median female age was 26 years. Most women (79%) were retained; of these, 68% were adherent. Receiving cHTC was associated with improved retention (aRR 1.33, 95% CI 1.12, 1.59). Receiving male partner ART reminders was weakly associated with retention (aRR 1.16, 95% CI 0.96, 1.39). Disclosure within one day was not associated with retention (aRR 1.08, 95% CI: 0.91, 1.28). Among those who were retained, these three behaviors were not associated with improved 95% adherence. CHTC could play an important role in improving Option B+ retention. Increasing cHTC participation and enhancing adherence-related messages within cHTC are important.

  20. The frequency of sexual dysfunctions in male partners of women with vaginismus in a Turkish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, S; Dogan, M

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this investigation is to determine the sexual history traits, sexual satisfaction level and frequency of sexual dysfunctions in men whose partners have vaginismus. The study included 32 male partners of vaginismic patients, who presented at a psychiatry department. Subjects were evaluated by a semi-structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was developed by researchers for assessing sexually dysfunctional patients and included detailed questions with regard to socio-demographic variables, general medical and sexual history. All participants also received the Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS). According to DSM-IV-TR criteria, 65.6% of the investigated males were diagnosed with one or more sexual dysfunctions. The most common problem was premature ejaculation (50%) and the second one was erectile dysfunction (28%). The transformed GRISS subscale scores provided similar data. It is concluded that the assessment of sexual functions of males who have vaginismic partners should be an integral part of the management procedure of vaginismus for optimal outcome.

  1. Conflict, negative emotion, and reports of partners' relationship maintenance in same-sex couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogolsky, Brian G; Gray, Christine R

    2016-03-01

    The literature on relationship maintenance has focused primarily on the beneficial outcomes of maintenance, and, as a result, little is known about relational processes that may interfere with reports of partners' maintenance. The authors examine how daily conflict influences individuals' reports of their partners' maintenance, and how a constructive communication style buffers this influence by reducing negative emotion on conflict days. In a daily diary study of 98 same-sex couples in romantic relationships, they found that the negative association between conflict and reports of a partner's relationship maintenance was mediated by negative emotion. That is, there was an indirect effect by which daily conflict was associated with higher levels of daily negative emotion, which was associated with reports of lower levels of partners' relationship maintenance. This indirect effect was moderated by couples' overall level of constructive communication such that higher levels diminished the degree to which couples experienced negative emotion on days with episodes of relational conflict. The authors discuss results in the context of interpersonal theory and provide implications for clinicians and practitioners. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Lived experiences of male intimate partners of female rape victims in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evalina van Wijk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual violence in South Africa is a major public health and social problem. Sexual assault or rape is a traumatic event which disrupts not only the life of the female rape victim, but also that of her male intimate partner (MIP, irrespective of whether he witnessed or was informed of the incident.Objectives: The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of MIPs of female rape victims and the meaning of these experiences in the six months following the partner’s rape.Method: We conducted a longitudinal hermeneutic phenomenological study. Nine purposively sampled adult MIPs were interviewed over a period of six months. The participants were in an intimate relationship with a female rape victim prior to and immediately after the rape; their partners had been treated at a specialised centre for victims of rape and sexual assault. Four interviews were conducted with each of the nine intimate partners of female rape victims: (1 within 14 days of, (2 a month after, (3 three months after, and (4 six months after the rape.Results: Two major themes emerged: being-in-the-world as a secondary victim of rape, and living in multiple worlds, those of their female partners, family, friends, society, employers or colleagues, professionals and the justice system. The participant’s familiar world became strange and even threatening, and his relationship with his partner became uncertain.Conclusion: Early supportive intervention for intimate partners of female rape victims is required to prevent on-going emotional trauma and alleviate the effects of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and suffering at intra- and interpersonal levels.

  3. Differential interactions of sex pheromone and plant odour in the olfactory pathway of a male moth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Deisig

    Full Text Available Most animals rely on olfaction to find sexual partners, food or a habitat. The olfactory system faces the challenge of extracting meaningful information from a noisy odorous environment. In most moth species, males respond to sex pheromone emitted by females in an environment with abundant plant volatiles. Plant odours could either facilitate the localization of females (females calling on host plants, mask the female pheromone or they could be neutral without any effect on the pheromone. Here we studied how mixtures of a behaviourally-attractive floral odour, heptanal, and the sex pheromone are encoded at different levels of the olfactory pathway in males of the noctuid moth Agrotis ipsilon. In addition, we asked how interactions between the two odorants change as a function of the males' mating status. We investigated mixture detection in both the pheromone-specific and in the general odorant pathway. We used a recordings from individual sensilla to study responses of olfactory receptor neurons, b in vivo calcium imaging with a bath-applied dye to characterize the global input response in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe and c intracellular recordings of antennal lobe output neurons, projection neurons, in virgin and newly-mated males. Our results show that heptanal reduces pheromone sensitivity at the peripheral and central olfactory level independently of the mating status. Contrarily, heptanal-responding olfactory receptor neurons are not influenced by pheromone in a mixture, although some post-mating modulation occurs at the input of the sexually isomorphic ordinary glomeruli, where general odours are processed within the antennal lobe. The results are discussed in the context of mate localization.

  4. Prevalence of Same-Sex Sexual Behavior and Associated Characteristics among Low-Income Urban Males in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jesse L.; Caceres, Carlos F.; Lescano, Andres G.; Konda, Kelika A.; Leon, Segundo R.; Jones, Franca R.; Kegeles, Susan M.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Coates, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Peru has a concentrated HIV epidemic in which men who have sex with men are particularly vulnerable. We describe the lifetime prevalence of same-sex sexual contact and associated risk behaviors of men in Peru's general population, regardless of their sexual identity. Methods and Results A probability sample of males from low-income households in three Peruvian cities completed an epidemiologic survey addressing their sexual risk behavior, including sex with other men. Serum was tested for HSV-2, HIV, and syphilis. Urine was tested for chlamydia and gonorrhea. A total of 2,271 18–30 year old men and women were contacted, of whom 1,645 (72.4%) agreed to participate in the study. Among the sexually experienced men surveyed, 15.2% (85/558, 95% CI: 12.2%–18.2%) reported a history of sex with other men. Men ever reporting sex with men (MESM) had a lower educational level, had greater numbers of sex partners, and were more likely to engage in risk behaviors including unprotected sex with casual partners, paying for or providing compensated sex, and using illegal drugs. MESM were also more likely to have had previous STI symptoms or a prior STI diagnosis, and had a greater prevalence of HSV-2 seropositivity. Conclusions Many low-income Peruvian men have engaged in same-sex sexual contact and maintain greater behavioral and biological risk factors for HIV/STI transmission than non-MESM. Improved surveillance strategies for HIV and STIs among MESM are necessary to better understand the epidemiology of HIV in Latin America and to prevent its further spread. PMID:17712426

  5. Risk factors for HIV infection in Males who have Sex with Males (MSM in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Omar A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent surveillance data from Bangladesh indicate rising HIV infection among intravenous drug users (IDU in the country. We suggest a likely association between HIV risk factors in this group and other groups, such as males who have sex with males (MSM. Methods Data on MSM in Bangladesh was collected and analyzed from numerous primary and secondary sources, including government ministries, non-profit health organizations, and personal communications. Results The overall prevalence of HIV in Bangladesh is relatively low, but surveillance data indicate that infection has reached significant proportions in certain high-risk groups and may soon spread to other groups, specifically MSM. Conclusion The epidemiology of HIV infection in other countries suggests that increasing rates of HIV in higher-risk populations can precede an epidemic in the general population. We review the data concerning MSM, IDU and HIV in Bangladesh from a variety of sources and propose ways to prevent HIV transmission.

  6. Sex and Gender: How Being Male or Female Can Affect Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Issues Subscribe May 2016 Print this issue Sex and Gender How Being Male or Female Can ... a major impact on your health. While both sexes are similar in many ways, researchers have found ...

  7. Clinical trial considerations on male contraception and collection of pregnancy information from female partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banholzer Maria

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little guidance regarding the risk of exposure of pregnant women/ women of childbearing potential to genotoxic or teratogenic compounds via vaginal dose delivered through seminal fluid during sexual intercourse. Method We summarize current thinking and provide clinical trial considerations for a consistent approach to contraception for males exposed to genotoxic and/or teratogenic compounds or to compounds of unknown teratogenicity, and for collection of pregnancy data from their female partners. Results Where toxicity testing demonstrates genotoxic potential, condom use is required during exposure and for 5 terminal plasma half-lives plus 74 days (one human spermatogenesis cycle to avoid conception. For non-genotoxic small molecules and immunoglobulins with unknown teratogenic potential or without a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL from embryo-fetal development (EFD studies and no minimal anticipated biological effect level (MABEL, condom use is recommended for males with pregnant partner/female partner of childbearing potential. For teratogenic small molecules with estimated seminal fluid concentration and a margin between projected maternal area under the curve (AUC and NOAEL AUC from EFD studies of ≥300 (≥100 for immunoglobulins or in the absence of a NOAEL with a margin between MABEL plasma concentration and maternal Cmax of ≥300 (≥10 for immunoglobulins, condom use is not required. However, condom use is required for margins below the thresholds previously indicated. For small molecules with available seminal fluid concentrations, condom use is required if margins are Pregnancy data should be proactively collected if pregnancy occurs during the condom use period required for males exposed to first-in-class molecules or to molecules with a target/class shown to be teratogenic, embryotoxic or fetotoxic in human or preclinical experiments. Conclusion These recommendations, based on a precaution

  8. '. . . if you bring the kit home, you [can] get time and test together with your partner': Pregnant women and male partners' perceptions regarding female partner-delivered HIV self-testing in Uganda - A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matovu, Joseph Kb; Buregyeya, Esther; Arinaitwe, Jim; Wanyenze, Rhoda K

    2017-11-01

    In 2015, the World Health Organization reported that more than 60 million people were tested for HIV in 122 low- and middle-income countries between 2010 and 2014. Despite this level of progress, over 40% of people living with HIV remain unaware of their HIV status. This calls for innovative approaches to improve uptake of HIV testing services, including use of HIV self-test (HIVST) kits. We conducted a cross-sectional, qualitative study to assess pregnant women and their male partners' perceptions regarding female partner-delivered HIVST kits. This study was conducted at two health facilities in Central Uganda between November and December 2015. Data were collected on pregnant women's willingness to take HIVST kits to their male partners and other household members using eight focus group discussions and 30 in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed following a thematic framework approach. Overall, pregnant women were willing to take HIVST kits to their partners and other household members, with the exception of their cowives. Male partners were willing to use HIVST kits brought by their female partners. Our findings suggest that secondary distribution of HIVST kits through female partners is acceptable and has the potential to improve male partner and household-member HIV testing.

  9. Gender Norms and Age-Disparate Sexual Relationships as Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence, Sexual Violence, and Risky Sex among Adolescent Gang Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nydegger, Liesl A; DiFranceisco, Wayne; Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Unequal gender norms and age-disparate sexual relationships can lead to power imbalances and are also associated with intimate partner violence (IPV), sexual coercion and violence, and sexual risk behaviors. The present study examined these variables from both victim and perpetrator perspectives among adolescent gang members. Age-disparate sexual relationships were defined as sex partners 5 or more years older among female participants and 5 or more years younger among male participants. Participants were recruited from a mid-sized Midwestern city and completed a 60-90-min audio computer-assisted self-interview in a community-based setting. Participants in this study included 107 female gang members (68 % African-American, 19 % Latina; mean age, 17.6) and 169 male gang members (62 % African-American, 28 % Latino; mean age, 17.7). As hypothesized, endorsing unequal gender norms toward women was significantly related to IPV victimization among female participants and perpetration among male participants, and engagement in group sex in the past month among both female and male participants (ps sexual relationships were significantly more likely to have experienced more IPV and report being raped and males gang members who had age-disparate sexual relationships were significantly more likely to perpetrate IPV in the past year and perpetrate rape (ps sexual relationships were also significantly related to being gang raped among female gang members and participating in a gang rape among male gang members, and engaging in group sex among both female and male gang members (ps sexual relationships were more likely to have been pregnant (ps sexual coercion/violence. Early intervention will also be necessary as these adolescent gang members are already engaged in extremely high-risk, coercive, and violent behaviors.

  10. Reducing Intimate and Paying Partner Violence against Women Who Exchange Sex in Mongolia: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Catherine E.; Chen, Jiehua; Chang, Mingway; Batsukh, Altantsetseg; Toivgoo, Aira; Riedel, Marion; Witte, Susan S.

    2012-01-01

    Women who exchange sex for money or other goods, that is, female sex workers, are at increased risk of experiencing physical and sexual violence from both paying and intimate partners. Exposure to violence can be exacerbated by alcohol use and HIV/STI risk. The purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of a HIV/STI risk reduction and…

  11. Stereotypes of Intimate Partner Violence: Do Sex and Sexual Orientation Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Meza-de-Luna

    Full Text Available Abstract This study analyzed stereotypes on intimate partner violence (IPV of heterosexual and same-sex couples. The participants, 232 Mexican college students, evaluated physical and psychological IPV exerted by men and women with different sexual orientations. The data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. The results indicate that men evaluated women and gay men as having a similar IPV, while men´s perceptions of IPV for these groups were higher than those of women. Women viewed heterosexual men as the most violent and evaluated the other groups with different degrees of IPV. Physical violence is regarded as natural in men, both gay and heterosexual. To conclude, the results suggest that IPV stereotypes are affected by the sex of the evaluators and by their sexual orientation. It is relevant to expand the scope of prevention programs.

  12. The Link Between Community-Based Violence and Intimate Partner Violence: the Effect of Crime and Male Aggression on Intimate Partner Violence Against Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Ligia; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Hossain, Mazeda; Watts, Charlotte; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2015-08-01

    Both intimate partner violence (IPV) and community violence are prevalent globally, and each is associated with serious health consequences. However, little is known about their potential links or the possible benefits of coordinated prevention strategies. Using aggregated data on community violence from the São Paulo State Security Department (INFOCRIM) merged with WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence data, random intercept models were created to assess the effect of crime on women's probability of experiencing IPV. The association between IPV and male aggression (measured by women's reports of their partner's fights with other men) was examined using logistic regression models. We found little variation in the likelihood of male IPV perpetration related to neighborhood crime level but did find an increased likelihood of IPV experiences among women whose partners were involved in male-to-male violence. Emerging evidence on violence prevention has suggested some promising avenues for primary prevention that address common risk factors for both perpetration of IPV and male interpersonal violence. Strategies such as early identification and effective treatment of emotional disorders, alcohol abuse prevention and treatment, complex community-based interventions to change gender social norms and social marketing campaigns designed to modify social and cultural norms that support violence may work to prevent simultaneously male-on-male aggression and IPV. Future evaluations of these prevention strategies should simultaneously assess the impact of interventions on IPV and male interpersonal aggression.

  13. Interpersonal well-being and mental health among male partners of women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segrin, Chris; Badger, Terry; Sieger, Amelia; Meek, Paula; Lopez, Ana Maria

    2006-05-01

    The focus of this investigation was on the mental health of men whose partners had recently been diagnosed with breast cancer. In accord with theoretical models that specify the importance of interpersonal relationships in maintaining mental health, men's relationship satisfaction and perceptions of social support were predicted to be positively associated with their mental health during this stressful time. The sample included 63 male partners of women with breast cancer who participated in a three-wave panel study that assessed various indicators of mental health and interpersonal well being at T1, T1 + 6 weeks, and T1 + 10 weeks. Results indicated substantial distress in at least 25% of the men. However this distress subsided over time. Relationship satisfaction was both concurrently and prospectively associated with better mental health. Social support was negatively associated with concurrent mental health but post hoc analyses suggested that men's social networks perhaps provide greater social support to the extent that the men are emotionally distressed.

  14. Cognitive emotional consequences of male infertility in their female partners: a qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Fatemeh Zahra; Taghipour, Ali; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Kimiaei, Seyed Ali; Mazlom, Seyed Reza; Amirian, Maliheh

    2015-11-01

    Infertility, as a global phenomenon and one of the most important issues of reproductive health, affects women more often than men, even when the infertility is due to a male factor. The purpose of this study was to explore the cognitive emotional experiences of women faced with male infertility. This qualitative study was conducted in 2014-2015 in Mashhad, Iran. The perceptions and experiences of healthy women whose husbands were diagnosed with primary male factor infertility were investigated using a qualitative content analysis approach. Participants were selected through purposeful sampling, and data collection was conducted using in-depth semistructured interviews. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis with MAXqda software. Study rigor was verified via criteria proposed by Lincoln and Guba. One main theme emerged through analysis entitled "cognitive emotional reactions confronting infertility diagnosis" with sub-themes of cognitive emotional reactions when confronted with male infertility diagnosis with subthemes of disbelief and denial, fear and apprehension, suffering and emotional distress, disappointment, frustration, confusion, and joy. The diagnosis of male infertility was associated with important emotional cognitive consequences for their female partners. Emotional support, providing new insights into how to treat the issue, and trying to shorten the process of diagnosis are necessary for these women. This kind of support could reduce the psychological effects of confrontation with the diagnosis of male infertility, including social insecurity for women.

  15. Gender minority stress, mental health, and relationship quality: a dyadic investigation of transgender women and their cisgender male partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamarel, Kristi E; Reisner, Sari L; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Nemoto, Tooru; Operario, Don

    2014-08-01

    Research has demonstrated associations between experiences of discrimination, relationship quality, and mental health. However, critical questions remain unanswered with regard to how stigma enacted and experienced at the dyadic-level influences relationship quality and mental health for transgender women and their cisgender (nontransgender) male partners. The present study sought to examine how experiences of transgender-related discrimination (i.e., unfair treatment, harassment) and relationship stigma (i.e., the real or anticipated fear of rejection based on one's romantic affiliation) were associated with both partners relationship quality and mental health. Couples (n = 191) were recruited to participate in cross-sectional survey. Dyadic analyses using actor-partner interdependence models were conducted to examine the influence of minority stressors on clinically significant depressive distress and relationship quality. For both partners, financial hardship, discrimination, and relationship stigma were associated with an increased odds of depressive distress. For both partners, financial hardship was associated with lower relationship quality. Among transgender women, their own and their partner's higher relationship stigma scores were associated with lower relationship quality; however, among male partners, only their partner's greater relationship stigma scores were associated with lower relationship quality. Findings provide preliminary support for dyadic crossover effects of relationship stigma on the health of partners. Findings illustrate the importance of minority stress and dyadic stress frameworks in understanding and intervening upon mental health disparities among transgender women and their male partners. Couples-based interventions and treatment approaches to help transgender women and their male partners cope with minority stressors are warranted to improve the health and well-being of both partners.

  16. Sexually Explicit Online Media, Body Satisfaction, and Partner Expectations Among Men who have Sex with Men: a Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leickly, Emily; Nelson, Kimberly; Simoni, Jane

    2017-09-01

    Limited research has investigated the perceived influence of sexually explicit online media (SEOM) on body satisfaction and partner expectations of men who have sex with men (MSM). Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 MSM, covering the perceived influence of MSM-specific SEOM. All nine men who broached the topics of body satisfaction and partner expectations reported that MSM-specific SEOM set unreasonably high physical appearance expectations for themselves and/or their potential partners. Although MSM-specific SEOM might be negatively affecting body satisfaction and partner expectations among MSM, its ubiquity may make it a useful tool to support body positivity.

  17. Exploring the desires and sexual culture of men who have sex with male-to-female transgender women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, Daniel; Perry, Ashley; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel

    2013-07-01

    Men who have sex with transgender women (MSTW) currently constitute a gap in the research community's understanding of male sexuality and sexual desire. In an effort to address this lack of knowledge, an ethnographic study of MSTW in New York City was conducted between December 2005 and May 2007, including in-depth interviews with MSTW (n = 15), key informant interviews (n = 13), and ethnographic observation of semi-private "tranny" parties held at various venues throughout New York City. The specific objectives were to: (1) describe the sex marketplaces and the sexual experiences of an ethnographic sample of MSTW in New York City and (2) describe the ways MSTW construct their sexual partnering practices and the meanings attributed to those practices in relation to varying social contexts (in and outside the sex marketplace). In this analysis, we described the MSTW sex market landscape in New York and identified three major recurrent themes in the ways that MSTW organized their sexual desire for TW transitioning from sex marketplaces to social spaces in their lives: (1) phallus-centric trade sex market focus; (2) relational-companionship market focus; and (3) specialized market focus. Although the findings from the study are not representative of the broader MSTW population, they represent an important step in amassing a body of knowledge about an understudied and underserved sex market upon which future research is needed.

  18. Coping with Romantic Betrayal: Sex Differences in Responses to Partner Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul L. Miller

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The current research tested the hypothesis that, because infidelity entails somewhat different negative consequences for men and women, men and women display different emotional and behavioral reactions aimed at reducing the costs of infidelity. The study utilized an open-response method in which participants wrote about their reactions to an imagined infidelity. Findings suggest that, in response to partner infidelity, men display greater feelings of anger and a greater propensity for violence (particularly toward the male interloper, whereas women display greater feelings of sadness and a greater inclination toward seeking out sources of compensatory social affiliation (particularly from existing friendships. The current research is some of the first to identify functional responses designed to help women and men offset the social costs inflicted by a partner's infidelity.

  19. Sex steroid levels in XY males and sex-reversed XX males, of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), during the reproductive cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, E; Josa, A; Gil, L; González, N

    2011-02-01

    In this study, the annual cycle of the gonadal steroids testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), 17β-oestradiol (E2) and 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) was determined using radioimmunoassay and then compared, for XY males (n=35) and sex-reversed XX males (n=27) rainbow trout, to establish possible endocrinology differences. Both in XY males and sex-reversed XX males, significant correlation was shown between body weight and T (r=0.5046 and 0.34078, respectively; psex-reversed XX males were similar and showed an intense seasonal variation. The highest levels for T and 11-KT were detected from December to April with a peak in January (51.67 ± 5.11 and 61.95 ± 4.25 ng/ml, for XY males and 57.1 ± 5.82 and 59.27 ± 4.84 ng/ml, respectively, for XX males). In addition, there was a positive correlation (psex-reversed XX males (r=0.6019). Concentrations of DHP in XY males also showed seasonal variation with a peak in February (25.18 ± 12.99 ng/ml). However, DHP levels in sex-reversed XX males were undetectable (sex-reversed XX males were similar to those observed in XY males. The only difference in the annual gonadal steroid cycle between XY and sex-reversed XX males was in the DHP profile. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Male Partner's Involvement in HIV Counselling and Testing and Associated Factors among Partners of Pregnant Women in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenebe, Alemu; Gebeyehu, Abebaw; Derseh, Lemma; Ahmed, Kedir Y

    2016-01-01

    Background. Despite the existence of several programmes promoting male involvement in HIV counselling and testing during their wife's pregnancy as a part of PMTCT, few men have heeded the call. The aim of this study was to assess male partner's involvement in HCT and its associated factors. Methods. This study was based on institution based cross-sectional study design that used systematic random sampling technique. A total of 416 partners were interviewed in the data collection. Multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to identify the independent predictors. Result. In this study, the prevalence of male involvement in HCT was found to be 40.1% (95% CI: 35.3%-44.7%). The independent predictors of male involvement were partners who were younger, were cohabitant, were with multigravida wives, were knowledgeable on route of mother-to-child transmission, and discussed HCT. Conclusion. The prevalence of male involvement in HCT was found to be suboptimal compared to similar studies in Ethiopia. There is a need of interventions on partners who are older, separated, and with lower gravidity wife. Awareness creation campaign should also be created on the route of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and on the importance of discussion with wife.

  1. Cortisol increases in response to brief social exchanges with opposite sex partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremka, Lisa M; Collins, Nancy L

    2017-03-01

    Researchers recently demonstrated that cortisol increases in response to mating-relevant social interactions. An important next step is investigating factors that explain individual differences in cortisol reactivity within these contexts. The current study examined demographic, situational, and individual difference predictors of cortisol reactivity following brief, non-face-to-face interactions with potential dating partners. College students made a video introducing themselves to another participant. During another appointment, they watched a short video of an opposite-sex confederate introducing himself/herself, and believed the other person was watching their video. Participants were told they would get to know the confederate more during a web-chat, which never took place. Participants received either rejection, acceptance, or no feedback from the confederate. Cortisol levels increased over baseline in all feedback conditions. Cortisol increases were particularly strong for participants who perceived the confederate as a more desirable dating partner, participants who were independently rated as a less desirable partner, and men. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Physical (Surgical) Castration as Treatment of Male Sex Offenders?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škvain, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 1 (2014), s. 40-47 ISSN 0026-9301 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : sex offenders * treatment of sex offenders * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences Impact factor: 0.136, year: 2014

  3. Sex Differences in the Implications of Partner Physical Attractiveness for the Trajectory of Marital Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Meltzer, Andrea L.; McNulty, James K.; Jackson, Grace; Karney, Benjamin R.

    2013-01-01

    Do men value physical attractiveness in a mate more than women? Scientists in numerous disciplines believe that they do, but recent research using speed-dating paradigms suggests that males and females are equally influenced by physical attractiveness when choosing potential mates. Nevertheless, the premise of the current work is that sex differences in the importance of physical attractiveness are most likely to emerge in research on long-term relationships. Accordingly, the current work dre...

  4. Microbiota of male genital tract: impact on the health of man and his partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mändar, Reet

    2013-03-01

    This manuscript describes the male genital tract microbiota and the significance of it on the host's and his partner's health. Microbiota exists in male lower genital tract, mostly in urethra and coronal sulcus while high inter-subject variability exists. Differences appear between sexually transmitted disease positive and negative men as well as circumcised and uncircumcised men. Upper genital tract is generally germ-free, except in case of infections. Prostatitis patients have frequently abundant polymicrobial communities in their semen, expressed prostatic secretion and/or post-massage urine. Coryneform bacteria have ambivalent role in male urogenital tract being frequently commensals but sometimes associated with prostatitis and urethritis. Interactions between male and female genital tract microbiota are highly likely yet there are very scarce studies on the couples' genital tract microbiota. Increase of bacterial vaginosis-type microbiota and coliforms are the most typical findings in men while the adverse effect of male genital tract bacteria on in vitro fertilization and pregnancy outcome has also been indicated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sex-Fair Education and the Male Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kathryn P.

    1982-01-01

    Describes how the traditional, agressive male role has been reinforced by social studies textbooks. The author recommends that teachers teach about new roles for males by presenting images of males in caring, nurturing, and expressive roles. (AM)

  6. An exploration of the perceptions of male partners involved in the birthing experience at a regional Australian hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrett, Liesel; Barkla, Sally; Knights, Janice; de Costa, Caroline; Harmen, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    The benefits to women of having their male partners present during labor and birth have been well documented, but the effects on men of sharing the birth experience have been less well explored. Several studies have suggested that male partners' positive experiences at this time may benefit partner and family relationships subsequently, whereas negative experiences may translate into later difficulties in these relationships. This study explored the perceptions of male partners involved in the birthing experience in the Integrated Women's Health Unit of Cairns Base Hospital, Cairns, Australia, over a 6-month period in 2010. The aims of the study were to document male partners' self-reported perceptions of their antenatal, labor, and birth experiences and birth expectations and birth involvement and to determine whether these perceptions influenced their feelings that their presence during birth was beneficial to the birthing woman. Participants were men experiencing for the first time their partner giving birth. A self-administered 14-item questionnaire was used to collect data; 163 of 200 eligible participants returned completed questionnaires. Continuous variables were converted to categorical variables and chi-square testing was used to determine significant differences between groups. The relationship between beneficial presence and antenatal, labor, and birthing experiences was assessed using correlation analysis and hierarchical regression analysis. There was a significant relationship demonstrated between perceived benefit of the partners' presence and positive perception of both antenatal experience and birth involvement. There also was a positive relationship between realized birth expectations and both antenatal experience and birth involvement. This study suggests that male partners' perceptions of beneficial presence during the birth experience can be enhanced by their feeling well informed and supported during the antenatal period and feeling involved

  7. Sexual Orientation, Drug Use Preference during Sex, and HIV Risk Practices and Preferences among Men Who Specifically Seek Unprotected Sex Partners via the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Klein

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study entailed conducting a content analysis of 1,434 ads/profiles posted on one of the most popular “Men who have Sex with Men” (MSM websites that specifically fosters unprotected sex. Ads/profiles were selected randomly based on the American ZIP code of residence (n = 1,316, with a randomly-drawn oversampling of profiles of men who self-identified as heterosexual or ���curious” rather than gay or bisexual (n = 118. Data were collected between September 2006 and September 2007. The purpose of the present paper is to examine the conjoint effects of self-identified sexual orientation and preference for having/not having sex while high, on men’s sought-after sexual risk. Analytical comparisons of the four groups showed that, on most measures, the combination of sexual orientation and drug use preference during sex differentiated the men. Generally speaking, gay/bisexual men who advertised online for partners with whom they could have sex while high expressed the greatest interest in risky sexual behaviors (e.g., felching, unprotected oral sex, unprotected anal sex and various risk-related preferences (e.g., multiple partner sex, anonymous sex, eroticizing ejaculatory fluids. This is especially true when they are compared to their heterosexual/“curious” counterparts whose online profiles were not as likely to indicate a desire for having sex while high.

  8. Psychological characteristics of the male beater of their female partner, residing in city of Bucaramanga, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Aguilera Torrado

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the personalities of the male beater of their female partner. Method: We evaluate, by means of BFQ / IMAFE tests, 50 convicted aggressors, registered by the Attorney General Office. We also interviewedthem. Results: Aggressors had very low marks in general culture, information, cooperativism, cordiality, altruism, friendship, generosity and empathy. They showed a low marks in reflexion, order, and in being meticulous, diligent, perseverant, as wells as, in being energetic and dynamic. High marks in submission, and in being anxious, vulnerable, emotive, impulsive, impatient and irritable. The vast majority identifies the above symptoms as culturally associate with feminism. It is clear through the interview that the economical stability, alcohol abuse or their female partner plays an important role to explain their behavior. They do not consider themselves as being violent with their female partner, rather they blame upon their cultural, social and economical status, as being the direct responsible for beating women. Conclusions: The female aggressor, usually, is a man with traditional ideas, paternal values and resistant to changes. This will be reflected upon his personality characteristics and the meaning he has for his violent behavior. Probably this may, also, reflects a homophobic and misogynist feelings, which, usually, is a product of gender identity and in the process of building his masculinity, no responding, also, to the request from the “macho” pattern asked by his paternal culture.

  9. An economic evaluation of conception strategies for heterosexual serodiscordant couples where the male partner is HIV-positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchumanan, Michelle; Coyte, Peter C; Loutfy, Mona

    2015-01-01

    To conduct an economic evaluation of the three commonly used interventions that reduce sexual HIV transmission when an HIV-negative female aims to conceive with an HIV-positive male on combination antiretroviral therapy (condomless sex restricted to timed ovulation [CS], sperm washing with intrauterine insemination [SW] and condomless sex restricted to timed ovulation with pre-exposure prophylaxis [CS-PrEP]). As SW and CS-PrEP are only privately available for pregnancy planning for this population in Canada, this study was conducted to inform policy decisions concerning potential public health insurance coverage, as well as to inform fertility counselling in settings with adequate combination antiretroviral therapy access globally. We developed a cohort Markov model with a lifetime horizon and used the perspective of Ontario's Ministry of Health (MOH). Input parameters were drawn from literature, the MOH's Schedule of Benefits and a time trade-off questionnaire designed for this study. Outcome measures included quality-adjusted life-years and incremental cost-effectiveness. Costs and benefits were discounted at annual rates of 3%. Costs were reported in Canadian 2013 dollars and an exchange rate of 1 USD to 1.066 CND was applied where necessary. Sensitivity analysis assessed the uncertainty of model parameters. The base case analysis found that CS-PrEP and SW were each more costly and less effective at conception than CS. The results were robust in the sensitivity analysis and suggest that CS is the dominant conception strategy in this population. Neither CS-PrEP nor SW represent better value for money relative to CS as a conception option for HIV-discordant couples with positive male partners. Based on these findings, CS-PrEP and SW cannot be recommended for public-funding in developed countries.

  10. MMPI Profiles of Males with Abnormal Sex Chromosome Complements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, M.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Nine males with Klinefelter's syndrome (XXY) and seven XYY males, located primarily in prisons and psychiatric hospitals, were administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. (Author/KW)

  11. First use of antidepressant medication in male partners of women with breast cancer in Denmark from 1998 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cromhout, Pernille F; Latocha, Kristine M; Olsen, Maja H

    2017-01-01

    to partners of breast cancer-free women. Cox regression analyses examined associations between exposed partners' sociodemographic characteristics, somatic comorbidity, death of female partner, and first use of antidepressant medication. RESULTS: Male partners of women with breast cancer had an increased rate...... ratio of 1.08 (95% CI, 1.03-1.13) for first use of antidepressant medication compared to the background population, corresponding to excess absolute risk of 12 cases per 10 000 person-years. This increased risk persisted throughout 14 years of follow-up. Higher age, shorter education, somatic...

  12. Fluorochemicals used in food packaging inhibit male sex hormone synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenmai, A.K., E-mail: akjro@food.dtu.dk [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Nielsen, F.K. [Section of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Pedersen, M. [Division of Food Chemistry, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Hadrup, N. [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Trier, X. [Division of Food Chemistry, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Christensen, J.H. [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C. (Denmark); Vinggaard, A.M. [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    synthesis of male sex hormones. ► Generally, levels of estrogens and cortisol stayed unaffected or increased. ► The effect on steroid synthesis was specific on gene expression of Bzrp and CYP19.

  13. Love moderates the relationship between partner type and condom use among women engaging in transactional vaginal sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Alexis M; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Hensel, Devon J; Wiehe, Sarah E; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Wagner, Karla D

    2016-04-01

    Background Relationship characteristics and day-to-day variation in affective state have been associated with HIV risk behaviour. However, no research has assessed the impact of these factors on event-level condom use among women engaging in transactional sex. Twenty-six women engaging in transactional sex were enrolled in a prospective study of their sexual health. They completed diaries about multi-level predictors of condom use during vaginal sex twice, daily. Over 4 weeks, 18 participants reported 87 paid/traded vaginal intercourse events. Of these, 51.7% were condom protected. The majority of paid/traded events (81.5%) occurred with a non-romantic partner. After controlling for partner type, feeling in love on a given day was associated with higher odds of condom use during paid/traded sexual events, while having sex on the weekend and at night were associated with lower odds of condom use (all P≤0.05). There was a significant interaction between being in love and using condoms during transactional sex (Plove and 40% (4/10) when love was reported. In sexual events with non-romantic partners, the frequency of condom use was 43.8% (14/32) when women did not report love and 59.5% (22/37) when love was reported. Women were less likely to report protected sex with romantic partners and more likely to report protected sex with non-romantic partners when they are in love. Interventions focusing on the link between day-to-day variation in affective state on condom use may help women with risk management across partner types.

  14. Correlates of unprotected sex with male clients among female sex workers in 13 Mexican cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Shirley J; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Chavarin, Claudia V; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Mendoza, Doroteo V; Aarons, Gregory A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2017-12-01

    This study examined correlates of unprotected vaginal and anal sex (UVA) with male clients among female sex workers (FSWs). Baseline data were gathered from 1089 FSWs recruited from 13 cities across Mexico enrolled in an evidence-based sexual risk reduction intervention. We used generalised estimating equations (GEE) to predict total UVA while controlling for the nested structure of the data. Total UVA with clients in the past month was examined in relation to selected sociodemographic, substance-use, and micro- and macro-environmental factors. A greater number of UVA acts was associated with three micro-level environmental factors (i.e. never getting condoms for free, unaffordability of condoms, greater number of clients per month), and three macro-level environmental factors (i.e. lower health and higher education indices, greater population size of city). These findings suggest the development of social and structural approaches to HIV prevention for FSWs in Mexico, including modification of venue-based policies that pressure FSWs to maximise client volume, changes to the work environment that promote availability and affordability of condoms, and improved population health. Moreover, our findings call for the development of context-specific HIV interventions that take into account variations in the sexual risk behaviours and HIV risk environments of FSWs throughout Mexico.

  15. The importance of male partner involvement for women's acceptability and adherence to female-initiated HIV prevention methods in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Elizabeth T; van der Straten, Ariane; Chidanyika, Agnes; Chipato, Tsungai; Jaffar, Shabbar; Padian, Nancy

    2011-07-01

    Enlisting male partner involvement is perceived as an important component of women's successful uptake of female-initiated HIV prevention methods. We conducted a longitudinal study among a cohort of 955 Zimbabwean women participating in a clinical trial of the effectiveness of a female-initiated HIV prevention method (the diaphragm and lubricant gel) to: (a) describe the extent to which women involved their male partners in the decision to use the study products, and (b) measure the effect perceived male partner support had on their acceptability and consistent use of these methods. Reported levels of male partner involvement in discussions and decisions regarding: joining the study, study activities, the outcome of HIV/STI test results, and product use were very high. In multivariate analyses, regular disclosure of study product use and partner approval for the diaphragm and gel were significantly associated with women's acceptability and consistent use of the products; an essential component for determining efficacy of investigational prevention methods. These results support the need for more sophisticated measurement of how couples interact to make decisions that impact study participation and investigational product use as well as more rigorous adaptations and evaluations of existing strategies to involve male partners in female-initiated HIV prevention trials.

  16. Men's constructions of masculinity and male sexuality through talk of buying sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huysamen, Monique; Boonzaier, Floretta

    2015-01-01

    Commercial sex is an everyday occurrence across a range of contexts in South Africa. In this paper we turn our attention to the often-marginalised role of the buyers of sex by drawing on narrative interviews with male clients of female sex workers recruited through online advertisements in order to explore the ways in which heterosexual men construct, negotiate and perform their masculinity and sexuality through talking about their experiences of paying for sex. We highlight parallels between men's narratives of paying for sex and dominant discourses of gender and heterosexuality. We show how men draw on heteronormative sexual scripts in constructing and making sense of paid sexual encounters and how men are simultaneously able to construct and enact a particular idealised version of masculinity and male sexuality through their talk on paying for sex. Finally, we discuss how online resources could be used more extensively in future research with the male clients of sex workers.

  17. An Investigation of Sex-Related Slang Vocabulary and Sex-Role Orientation Among Male and Female University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutner, Nancy G.; Brogan, Donna

    1974-01-01

    Undergraduate males, undergraduate females, and graduate student nurses (female) were asked to list all the slang expressions they knew for 17 sex-related stimulus words. Males listed a significantly larger total number of slang expressions than either female group. (Author)

  18. Diabetes and male sex are key risk factor correlates of the extent of coronary artery calcification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoll, Rachel; Zhao, Ying; Wiklund, Urban

    2017-01-01

    for CAC scoring. RESULTS: Among all patients, male sex (OR = 4.85, pdyslipidemia and smoking also showing a relationship. Among patients with CAC, age, diabetes, hypertension...... and dyslipidemia were associated with an increasing CAC score in males and females, with diabetes being the strongest dichotomous risk factor (p... males and females. To a lesser extent, hypertension and dyslipidemia were also associated in the high CAC quantiles and the low CAC quantiles respectively. CONCLUSION: In addition to age and male sex in the total population, diabetes is the most important correlate of CAC extent in both sexes....

  19. High HIV Prevalence and Risk Among Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadol, Patrick; Hoang, Tran Vu; Le, Linh-Vi; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Kaldor, John; Law, Matthew

    2017-08-01

    In Vietnam's concentrated HIV epidemic, female sex workers (FSWs) are at increased risk for acquiring and transmitting HIV, largely through their male clients. A high proportion of males in Vietnam report being clients of FSWs. Studying HIV-related risk factors and prevalence among male clients is important, particularly given the potential for male clients to be a 'bridge' of HIV transmission to the more general population or to sex workers. Time-location sampling was used to identify FSW in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam's largest cities, in 2013-2014. Recruited FSWs were asked to refer one male client to the study. Demographic and risk behavior data were collected from FSWs and male clients by administered questionnaires. Biologic specimens collected from male clients were tested for HIV and opiates. Sampling weights, calculated based on the FSWs probability of being selected for enrolment, were applied to prevalence estimates for both FSWs and male clients. Logistic regression models were developed to obtain odds ratios for HIV infection among male clients. A total of 804 male clients were enrolled. Overall, HIV prevalence among male clients was 10.2%; HIV prevalence was 20.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 15.0-27.9%) among those reporting a history of illegal drug use and 32.4% (95% CI 20.2-47.7%) among those with opioids detected in urine. HIV prevalence among male clients did not differ across 'bridging' categories defined by condom use with FSWs and regular partners over the previous 6 months. HIV among male clients was associated with a reported history of illegal drug use (OR 3.76; 95% CI 1.87-7.56), current opioid use (OR 2.55; 95% CI 1.02-6.36), and being referred by an FSW who self-reported as HIV-positive (OR 5.37; 95% CI 1.46-19.75). Self-reported HIV prevalence among enrolled FSWs was 2.8%. Based on HIV test results of male clients and self-reported status from FSWs, an estimated 12.1% of male client-FSW pairs were sero-discordant. These

  20. Accurate detection of male subclinical genital tract infection via cervical culture and DNA hybridization assay of the female partner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trum, J. W.; Pannekoek, Y.; Spanjaard, L.; Bleker, O. P.; van der Veen, F.

    2000-01-01

    The accuracy of the PACE2 DNA hybridization assay of the cervix and cervical culture in female partners for the diagnosis of male subclinical genital tract infection were assessed in a male infertility population. A total of 184 men were screened for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma

  1. Sex differences in mate preferences revisited: do people know what they initially desire in a romantic partner?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwick, Paul W; Finkel, Eli J

    2008-02-01

    In paradigms in which participants state their ideal romantic-partner preferences or examine vignettes and photographs, men value physical attractiveness more than women do, and women value earning prospects more than men do. Yet it remains unclear if these preferences remain sex differentiated in predicting desire for real-life potential partners (i.e., individuals whom one has actually met). In the present study, the authors explored this possibility using speed dating and longitudinal follow-up procedures. Replicating previous research, participants exhibited traditional sex differences when stating the importance of physical attractiveness and earning prospects in an ideal partner and ideal speed date. However, data revealed no sex differences in the associations between participants' romantic interest in real-life potential partners (met during and outside of speed dating) and the attractiveness and earning prospects of those partners. Furthermore, participants' ideal preferences, assessed before the speed-dating event, failed to predict what inspired their actual desire at the event. Results are discussed within the context of R. E. Nisbett and T. D. Wilson's (1977) seminal article: Even regarding such a consequential aspect of mental life as romantic-partner preferences, people may lack introspective awareness of what influences their judgments and behavior. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  2. Partner Preference Among Men Who Have Sex with Men: Potential Contribution to Spread of HIV Within Minority Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gregory; Birkett, Michelle; Hammond, Sydney; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disproportionately affects men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. Most prior research into drivers of HIV transmission has focused on individual characteristics rather than on dyadic-level behaviors such as sex partner selection. This article explores racial/ethnic preferences in sex and relationship partner selection among MSM to further contextualize the spread of HIV within minority groups. Participants were recruited through a mobile application (app) for men to meet other men in 2015 and completed an online survey on behaviors related to HIV risk. All analyses on the sample of 530 MSM were conducted in 2015. There was significant homophily in partner selection within racial/ethnic minorities, but not for white MSM. In general, mobile app-using MSM reported a general preference for white and Hispanic men and a dispreference for black and Asian men, both for sex and relationship partners. Racial/ethnic preferences were found to drive intentions to form partnerships within this sample. Combined with the stigma many of these racial/ethnic minorities may also feel from homophobic attitudes within their own racial/ethnic communities, these MSM may be at particular risk for social isolation. These partner preferences likely affect the structure of the sexual networks of MSM and may contribute to increased clustering within high HIV incident sexual networks.

  3. Perceived stigma of purchasing sex among Latino and non-Latino male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Semple, Shirley J; Wagner, Karla D; Chavarin, Claudia V; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2015-02-01

    HIV prevention efforts must be comprehensive in their understanding of the factors involved in HIV risk. Male clients, who have received less research attention than female sex workers (FSWs), may experience stigma as a function of purchasing sex. Perceived stigma may be related to poor psychological outcomes, risky psychosexual characteristics, and higher drug and sexual risk behavior among male clients of FSWs. However, perceived stigma of purchasing sex may differ between clients of different ethnic groups. In the present study, we examine the correlates of perceived stigma of purchasing sex among Latino versus non-Latino male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. Using time-location sampling, we recruited 375 male clients (323 Latino, 52 non-Latino) in Tijuana who completed a computerized survey on various measures. We measured perceived stigma of purchasing sex using three items we developed for this study. Using linear regression analyses we found that perceived stigma was associated with greater guilt, a greater feeling of escape from everyday life, and more negative condom attitudes among Latino clients. This was not found among non-Latino clients. Features of Latino culture, like machismo, and how they may relate to stigma of purchasing sex are discussed.

  4. A Population-Based Comparison of Female and Male Same-Sex Parent and Different-Sex Parent Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Henny M W; Kuyper, Lisette; Gartrell, Nanette K

    2018-03-01

    This investigation compared Dutch same-sex parent and different-sex parent households on children's psychological well-being, parenting stress, and support in child rearing. It was also assessed whether associations among children's well-being, parenting stress, and support in child rearing were different in the two household types. Data were based on a nationally representative survey (N = 25,250). Matching was used to enhance similarity in background characteristics between both types of families. Parental and child characteristics were matched for 43 female same-sex parent, 52 male same-sex parent, and 95 different-sex parent households with offspring between 5 and 18 years old. No significant differences were found on children's well-being, problems in the parent-child relationship, being worried about the child, or the use of formal and informal support between mothers in same-sex and different-sex parent households or for fathers in same-sex and different-sex parent households. Regarding perceived confidence in child rearing, fathers in same-sex parent households and mothers in different-sex parent households felt less competent than their counterparts. Neither the associations between children's well-being and the predictors (parenting stress variables) nor those between support and the predictors (parenting stress and children's well-being) differed along household type. In this population-based study, the similarity in child outcomes regardless of household type confirms the results of prior investigations based on convenience samples. These findings are pertinent to family therapists, practitioners, court officials, and policymakers who seek information on parenting experiences and child outcomes in female and male same-sex parent families. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  5. Relational and sexual fluidity in females partnered with male-to-female transsexual persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramburu Alegría, C

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports on a study examining sexuality in females who remain partnered with male-to-female transsexual persons. Participants' self-view and sexual fluidity following their partners' transition from man to woman is examined. Sixteen females participated in in-depth, semi-structured interviews. An inductive process of data analysis was conducted, using the constant comparative method, an iterative process by which data are compared within and across subjects. Data were collected until thematic saturation was achieved. Four themes related to sexuality emerged: (1) questioning of sexual orientation; (2) sexual orientation categorization; (3) relational fluidity without sexual relations; and (4) relational fluidity with sexual relations. Participants maintained a heterosexual identity, yet modified their self-view to include an identity that reflected their reformed relationship. The majority of the respondents reported sexual lives that were active or evolving. Others remained in relationships that no longer included sexual activity. The study findings highlight the potential fluidity within the sexual and relational lives of females, and can enhance healthcare providers' preparedness and efficacy with diverse populations. Providers are in a unique position to offer resources to patients who identify as sexually or gender-diverse, or who are in relationships with sexually or gender-diverse persons. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing.

  6. The relationship between males' attitudes to partner violence and use of contraceptive methods in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, L; Ozaydin, N

    2005-09-01

    Interventions have been carried out to improve the reproductive health and status of women in Turkey. However, these efforts are limited due to lack of male involvement. Lifestyle risks such as partner violence need to be evaluated in terms of any effects on the use of contraception. Data collected from interviews of married women and their husbands for the 1998 Turkish Demographic and Health Survey and 1971 husbands were included in the study. The percentage of husbands who were against partner violence was 20.4%. However, 22 (0.9%) husbands had an attitude toward the use of violence against their wives. The frequency of contraceptive use was increased from the group of men who had unfavorable attitudes towards violence to the group of men who had favorable attitudes. A similar trend was found in the percentages of condom use for men, with multiple factors influencing contraceptive use. The study suggests that further investigations are needed for couple-related issues to improve the status of women in the community and to empower women for sexual health.

  7. Offending, Adjudication, and Outcome Patterns of Solo Male, Solo Female, and Partnered Mass Murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurian, Elizabeth A

    2018-05-01

    Research on mass murder is limited due to differences in definitions (particularly with respect to victim count), as well as categorizations based on motive. These limitations restrict our understanding of the offending, adjudication, and outcome patterns of these offenders and can obscure potential underlying similarities to comparable types of offenders (e.g., lone actors or terrorists). To address some of these limitations, this research study, which includes an international sample of 434 cases (455 total offenders), uses descriptive and empirical analyses of solo male, solo female, and partnered mass murderers (teams of two or more) to explore offending, adjudication, and outcome patterns among these different types offenders. While the results from this research study support much previous mass murder research, the findings also emphasize the importance of large international sample sizes, objective categorizations, and the use of empirically based analyses to further advance our understanding of these offenders.

  8. 'In different situations, in different ways': male sex work in St. Petersburg, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccolai, Linda M; King, Elizabeth J; Eritsyan, Ksenia U; Safiullina, Liliya; Rusakova, Maia M

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative study of male sex work in St. Petersburg Russia with a focus on social vulnerabilities, HIV-risk perception and HIV-related behaviours. In-depth interviews were conducted with individuals knowledgeable about male sex work through their profession and with male sex workers themselves. Male sex work involves a variety of exchanges, including expensive vacations, negotiated monetary amounts or simply access to food. Methods of finding clients included the Internet, social venues (e.g. gay clubs and bars) and public places (e.g. parks). Use of the Internet greatly facilitated male sex work in a variety of ways. It was used by both individuals and agencies to find clients, and appeared to be increasing. Men often reported not being professionally connected to other male sex workers and limited disclosure about their work. Many were aware of the work-related risks to personal safety, including violence and robbery by clients. Perceived risk for HIV was mostly abstract and several exceptions to condom use with clients were noted. Alcohol use was reported as moderate but alcohol was consumed frequently in association with work. These data suggest that the most salient risks for male sex workers include professional isolation, threats to personal safety, limited perceived HIV risk and sub-optimal levels of condom use.

  9. The experiences of male sudden cardiac arrest survivors and their partners: a gender analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uren, Alan; Galdas, Paul

    2015-02-01

    To explore how masculinities shape the experiences of men and their partners after survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest report depression, dependence on others for daily functioning, decreased participation in society and significant decreases in quality of life. There is growing evidence that masculine gender identities play a central role in the recovery experiences of men and their families following other major cardiac events. However, to date, there has been no examination of how masculinities shape men's experiences of recovery following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Interview study guided by an interpretive description approach. Data were subjected to thematic analysis. A purposive sample of seven male sudden cardiac arrest survivors and 6 female partners was recruited in 2010 from a secondary care centre in British Columbia, Canada. Three themes were prominent in the experiences of the participants: (1) Support and self-reliance; (2) Dealing with emotional (in) vulnerability; and (3) No longer a 'He-man'. Masculinities played a role in men's experiences of recovery and adaptation following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Hegemonic masculinity partly explained men's experiences, notably their reluctance to seek professional support and reactions to changes in lifestyle. However, the study also suggests that the popular stereotype of men being 'strong and silent' in the face of ill-health may only be a part of a more complex story. Nurses would benefit from taking into consideration the potential influence of male gender identities on men's recovery postcardiac arrest. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Behavioral and psychosocial correlates of anal sex among male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Chavarin, Claudia; Patterson, Thomas L

    2015-05-01

    Most studies of heterosexual sex risk practices have focused on condomless vaginal sex despite evidence that condomless anal sex has a significantly higher risk of HIV transmission. The present study focused on male clients' anal sex practices with female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana, Mexico, where an HIV epidemic is growing among high-risk groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify psychosocial and behavioral correlates of anal sex among male clients. Our sample of HIV-negative men (N = 400) was predominantly Latino (87.5 %), born in Mexico (78.8 %), never married (36.8 %) or in a regular or common-law marriage (31.5 %), and employed (62.8 %), with an average age and education of 37.8 and 9.2 years, respectively. Eighty-nine percent identified as heterosexual and 11 % as bisexual. By design, 50 % of the sample resided in Tijuana and the other 50 % in San Diego County. Nearly half (49 %) reported at least one incident of anal sex with a FSW in Tijuana in the past 4 months; of those participants, 85 % reported that one or more of their anal sex acts with FSWs had been without a condom. In a multivariate model, anal sex with a FSW in the past 4 months was associated with bisexual identification, methamphetamine use with FSWs, repeat visits to the same FSW, higher scores on perceived stigma about being a client of FSWs, and sexual compulsivity. Prevention programs are needed that address the behavioral and psychosocial correlates of heterosexual anal sex in order to reduce HIV/STI transmission risk among male clients, FSWs, and their sexual network members.

  11. Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Black Men Who Have Sex With Men Who Also Report Having Sex With Transgender Partners: Analysis of HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 061 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Grace Chela; Young, Alicia; Krakauer, Chloe; Watson, Christopher Chauncey; Cummings, Vanessa; Mayer, Kenneth; Koblin, Beryl

    2017-10-01

    HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN 061) study data of Black MSM were analyzed to determine characteristics associated with having transgender sexual partners (TGP) and the association of having TGP with sexual risk. Of 1,449 cisgender MSM, 343(24%) reported also having TGP. MSM with TGP were more likely to be older, have a sexual orientation other than homosexual, have a history of incarceration, or have insufficient funds for necessities, but less likely to be HIV positive or report sex with men to health care providers. MSM with TGP were 3.67 times more likely to recently have 5+ new partners and 2.02 times more likely to report 6+ condomless sexual acts. Since MSM with TGP reported not disclosing sex with men to health care providers, these men may need tailored HIV prevention and care. Future studies should examine differing sexual risks MSM take with sexual partners with different gender identities.

  12. Gay and Bisexual Men's Perceptions of Police Helpfulness in Response to Male-Male Intimate Partner Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Finneran

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Despite several recent studies documenting high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV among gay and bisexual men (GBM, the literature is silent regarding GBM’s perceptions of IPV within their community. We examine GBM’s perceptions of same-sex IPV: its commonness, its severity, and the helpfulness of a hypothetical police response to a GBM experiencing IPV.Methods: We drew data from a 2011 survey of venue-recruited GBM (n¼989. Respondents were asked to describe the commonness of IPV, severity of IPV, and helpfulness of a hypothetical police response to IPV among GBM and among heterosexual women. We fitted a logistic model for the outcome of viewing the police response to a gay/bisexual IPV victim as less helpful than for a female heterosexual IPV victim. The regression model controlled for age, race/ethnicity, education, sexual orientation, employment status, and recent receipt of physical, emotional, and sexual IPV, with key covariates being internalized homophobia and experiences of homophobic discrimination.Results: The majority of respondents viewed IPV among GBM as common (54.9% and problematic(63.8%. While most respondents had identical perceptions of the commonness (82.7% and severity (84.1% of IPV in GBM compared to heterosexual women, the majority of the sample (59.1% reported perceiving that contacting the police would be less helpful for a GBM IPV victim than for a heterosexual female IPV victim. In regression, respondents who reported more lifetime experiences of homophobic discrimination were more likely to have this comparatively negative perception (odds ratio: 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.17.Conclusion: The results support a minority stress hypothesis to understand GBM’s perceptions of police helpfulness in response to IPV. While IPV was viewed as both common and problematic among GBM, their previous experiences of homophobia were correlated with a learned anticipation of rejection and stigma from

  13. Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk-taking among Men Who Have Sex with Men in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephenson, Robert

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A growing body of literature suggests that men who have sex with men (MSM represent a high risk group for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection in Africa, but are often overlooked in the development of HIV interventions and programming. Little attention has been paid to the presence of intimate partner violence (IPV among MSM in African settings. This paper examines reporting of IPV among a sample of predominantly white, gay internet-recruited MSM in South Africa and examines associations between IPV and sexual risk-taking.Methods: Internet-using MSM were recruited through selective placement of banner advertisements on Facebook.com. Eligibility criteria were over 18-years-old, residence in South Africa and self-reporting of recent male-male sexual behavior. There were 777 eligible respondents, of which 521 MSM with complete data are included in the final analysis. Ninety percent of the sample reported a White/ European race, and 96% self-identified as gay.Results: The prevalence of IPV, both experienced and perpetrated, was relatively high, with 8% of men reporting having experienced recent physical IPV and 4.5% of men reporting recent experiences of sexual IPV. Approximately 4.5% of MSM reported recently perpetrating physical IPV, while the reporting of perpetration of recent sexual IPV was much lower at 0.45%. Reporting of experiencing and perpetration of physical IPV was significantly associated with race, level of education and reporting recent unprotected anal sex. Reporting of experiencing recent sexual IPV was significantly associated with reported experiences of homophobia.Conclusion: There is a limited amount of data on IPV within same-sex relationships in South Africa, and the results presented here suggest that the prevalence of IPV within this White/European and gay population is cause for concern. Collection of IPV data through surveys administered via social networking sites is feasible and represents a way of

  14. Mutual Partner Violence: Mental Health Symptoms among Female and Male Victims in Four Racial/Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospero, Moises; Kim, Miseong

    2009-01-01

    This study examines racial/ethnic and sex differences in the prevalence of mutual intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health symptoms. The authors asked 676 university students in heterosexual relationships if they had experienced IPV, coercive victimization, and/or perpetration as well as symptoms of depression, anxiety, hostility, and…

  15. Sexual Behavior, Definitions of Sex, and the Role of Self-Partner Context Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Kelsey K; McGarrity, Larissa A; Strassberg, Donald S

    2017-09-01

    Prior research has examined how heterosexual individuals define sex; however, these studies have rarely focused on sexual minority individuals or included a full range of applicable sexual behaviors. Participants were recruited from a local Pride Festival across two years. Study 1 (N = 329) was primarily descriptive and examined which physically intimate behaviors lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) participants included in their definitions of sex and the behaviors in which they had previously engaged. Study 2 (N = 393) utilized a between-subjects design to assess differences in definitions of sex when judging one's own behavior compared with that of a partner outside of the relationship. The behaviors in which participants were most likely to have engaged were manual-genital (82%) and oral-genital stimulation (79%). Regarding definitions of sex, a clear "gold standard" emerged for men, with 90% endorsing penile-anal intercourse as sex. No equally clear standard existed for women. Participants who were asked to consider their partner's behavior outside of their relationship were more likely to endorse the behavior as "having sex" than participants asked to consider their own behavior. This study addressed a major limitation of prior research by investigating definitions of sex among a community sample of LGB adults, with implications for provision of health care and sexual agreements between same-sex couples.

  16. Early Intranasal Vasopressin Administration Impairs Partner Preference in Adult Male Prairie Voles (Microtus ochrogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trenton C. Simmons

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research supports a modulatory role for arginine vasopressin (AVP in the expression of socially motivated behaviors in mammals. The acute effects of AVP administration are demonstrably pro-social across species, providing the justification for an ever-increasing measure of clinical interest over the last decade. Combining these results with non-invasive intranasal delivery results in an attractive system for offering intranasal AVP (IN-AVP as a therapeutic for the social impairments of children with autism spectrum disorder. But, very little is known about the long-term effects of IN-AVP during early development. In this experiment, we explored whether a single week of early juvenile administration of IN-AVP (low = 0.05 IU/kg, medium = 0.5 IU/kg, high = 5.0 IU/kg could impact behavior across life in prairie voles. We found increases in fecal boli production during open field and novel object recognition testing for the medium dose in both males and females. Medium-dose females also had significantly more play bouts than control when exposed to novel conspecifics during the juvenile period. Following sexual maturity, the medium and high doses of IN-AVP blocked partner preference formation in males, while no such impairment was found for any of the experimental groups in females. Finally, the high-dose selectively increased adult male aggression with novel conspecifics, but only after extended cohabitation with a mate. Our findings confirm that a single week of early IN-AVP treatment can have organizational effects on behavior across life in prairie voles. Specifically, the impairments in pair-bonding behavior experienced by male prairie voles should raise caution when the prosocial effects of acute IN-AVP demonstrated in other studies are extrapolated to long-term treatment.

  17. Shadow of domestic violence and extramarital sex cohesive with spousal communication among males in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Public health and human right issues are challenging in low and middle income countries. The main objectives of this paper were to determine the prevalence and factors associated with domestic violence, extramarital sex, and spousal communication among male. Methods A cross-sectional study among 2466 married males in Kathmandu, Nepal was conducted using random sampling method. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of associated factors were estimated by stepwise backward likelihood ratio method. Results Prevalence of domestic violence was 63.14% (95% CI 61.20-65.05), extramarital sex was 32.12% (95% CI 30.27-34.00), and spousal communication was 48.87% (95% CI 46.85-50.90). Nearly one in five male (18.20%) had not used condom during extramarital sex. Interestingly, male who had more than three or equal children were less likely to have perpetrated domestic violence compared with those who had less children. Older male aged 25 and above were more likely (AORs = 1.55, 95% CI 1.19-2.03) to have extramarital sex compared with male aged 24 or below. Those male who had studied secondary or higher level of education were less likely to have extramarital sex compared to those who had primary level or no education. Male who had higher income were more likely to have spousal communication compared to those who had less income. Surprisingly, those male who had extramarital sex were less likely to have spousal communication compared with those was not involved in extramarital sex. Conclusion Practice of domestic violence and extramarital sex is quite common among married male in Nepal, where spousal communication is sparse. These findings can be used to advocate for immediate attention and activities needs to be endorsed by policymakers and programmers. PMID:24924872

  18. STUDENTS JUDGMENTS OF THE RISKS OF HIV-INFECTION AS A FUNCTION OF SEXUAL PRACTICE, SEX OF TARGET AND PARTNER, AND AGE AND SEX OF STUDENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SPEARS, R; ABRAHAM, C; SHEERAN, P; ABRAMS, D

    1995-01-01

    Two age cohorts of male and female students (n = 311) were investigated concerning their perceptions of the HIV-related risks of various sex-related practices (unprotected vaginal, oral, and anal sex, and mutual masturbation and kissing). Participants judged the risk of these activities for either a

  19. Social bonds in the dispersing sex: partner preferences among adult female chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, Steffen; McLellan, Karen; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara; Murray, Carson M; Krupenye, Christopher; Gilby, Ian C; Pusey, Anne E

    2015-07-01

    In most primate societies, strong and enduring social bonds form preferentially among kin, who benefit from cooperation through direct and indirect fitness gains. Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes , differ from most species by showing consistent female-biased dispersal and strict male philopatry. In most East African populations, females tend to forage alone in small core areas and were long thought to have weak social bonds of little biological significance. Recent work in some populations is challenging this view. However, challenges remain in quantifying the influence of shared space use on association patterns, and in identifying the drivers of partner preferences and social bonds. Here, we use the largest data set on wild chimpanzee behaviour currently available to assess potential determinants of female association patterns. We quantify pairwise similarities in ranging, dyadic association and grooming for 624 unique dyads over 38 years, including 17 adult female kin dyads. To search for social preferences that could not be explained by spatial overlap alone, we controlled for expected association based on pairwise kernel volume intersections of core areas. We found that association frequencies among females with above-average overlap correlated positively with grooming rates, suggesting that associations reflected social preferences in these dyads. Furthermore, when available, females preferred kin over nonkin partners for association and grooming, and variability was high among nonkin dyads. While variability in association above and below expected values was high, on average, nonkin associated more frequently if they had immature male offspring, while having female offspring had the opposite effect. Dominance rank, an important determinant of reproductive success at Gombe, influenced associations primarily for low-ranking females, who associated preferentially with each other. Our findings support the hypothesis that female chimpanzees form well

  20. Field dispersal ability and taxis to sex pheromone of irradiated F-1 male Asian corn borer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huasong; Liu Qiongru; Lu Daguang; Wang Endong; Kang Wen; Li Yongjun; He Qiulan; Hu Jianguo

    1998-01-01

    The dispersal ability of F-1 male Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee), irradiated with 100, 150 and 200 Gy Separately in parental generation were tested by marking (with Calco oil red or Sudan blue internally)-releasing-recapturing (with synthesized sex pheromone) method in the field where the farthest distance from release point to pheromone trap was 550 m. The results showed that, as compared with the normal male moths, despite of the fact that a part of the irradiated F-1 males had lost dispersal ability or taxis to sex pheromone, there was no significant difference between the captured rates of irradiated F-1 males and normal males in the trap 550 m from release point, indicated that the dispersal ability or taxis to sex pheromone of irradiated F-1 males arrived at 550 m from release point are still well matched with the normal ones

  1. The psychological impact of infertility and fertility treatment on the male partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Maeve; Dineen, Tim; Sarma, Kiran; Nolan, Aonghus

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports the findings of two studies that examined factors predicting infertility distress in male partners within couples with an infertility diagnosis and where the couple was receiving fertility treatment. A cross-sectional design was implemented using a questionnaire battery (The questionnaire battery comprised an inventory of four different standardised questionnaires compiled together into one booklet) compiled from earlier theory-building qualitative research conducted by the authors. Infertility related distress was examined in relation to a number of psychosocial variables including relationship dynamics, self-esteem, current mental health and attitudes towards idealised masculinity. The questionnaire battery was completed by 167 men undergoing or consulting for fertility treatment. Participants were recruited through Irish fertility clinics (Study 1, n = 111) and through an online survey (Study 2, n = 55). Regression analyses identified four variables that predicted variance in infertility distress in both studies: 'Attitude towards idealised masculinity', 'Mental health', 'Relationship satisfaction' and 'Self-esteem'. This finding was found to be robust having controlled for age, time since diagnosis, number of attempts at treatment and diagnostic category (male factor, female factor or mixed factor infertility). ConclusiON: Recommendations for fertility clinics and mental health professionals should be made in relation to managing infertility distress and supporting couples during fertility treatment.

  2. Detection of oncogenic human papillomavirus genotypes on spermatozoa from male partners of infertile couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Rosaria; Capra, Giuseppina; Bellavia, Carmela; Ruvolo, Giovanni; Scazzone, Concetta; Venezia, Renato; Perino, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) sperm infection and its correlation with sperm parameters in patients who attended a fertility clinic. Cross-sectional clinical study. University-affiliated reproductive medicine clinic. A total of 308 male partners of couples undergoing in vitro fertilization techniques. Specimens of semen were collected from all patients. Sperm parameters were evaluated according to the World Health Organization manual. The presence of HPV DNA was researched by the combined use of two HPV assays and a highly sensitive nested polymerase chain reaction assay followed by HPV genotyping. To examine whether HPV was associated with the sperm, in situ hybridization (ISH) analysis was performed. Results of HPV investigation were compared with sperm parameters and ISH analysis. Twenty-four out of 308 semen samples (7.8%) were HPV DNA positive, but HPV infection did not seem to affect semen quality. Moreover, ISH revealed a clear HPV localization at the equatorial region of sperm head in infected samples. Oncogenic HPV genotypes were detected on spermatozoa from asymptomatic subjects, but a role of the infection in male infertility was not demonstrated. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Wage differentials of males and females in same-sex and different-sex couples in Canada, 2006–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Mueller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper utilizes five cycles of the General Social Survey in consecutive years from 2006 through 2010 to address the issue of differential wages amongst members of same-sex couples compared to their counterparts in different-sex couples. We find that men in gay couples have wages that are statistically indistinguishable from those of males in heterosexual relationships. By contrast, a sizeable and statistically significant earnings premium exists for lesbians in same-sex couples.

  4. Sex differences in DNA methylation and expression in zebrafish brain: a test of an extended 'male sex drive' hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Aniruddha; Lagisz, Malgorzata; Rodger, Euan J; Zhen, Li; Stockwell, Peter A; Duncan, Elizabeth J; Horsfield, Julia A; Jeyakani, Justin; Mathavan, Sinnakaruppan; Ozaki, Yuichi; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2016-09-30

    The sex drive hypothesis predicts that stronger selection on male traits has resulted in masculinization of the genome. Here we test whether such masculinizing effects can be detected at the level of the transcriptome and methylome in the adult zebrafish brain. Although methylation is globally similar, we identified 914 specific differentially methylated CpGs (DMCs) between males and females (435 were hypermethylated and 479 were hypomethylated in males compared to females). These DMCs were prevalent in gene body, intergenic regions and CpG island shores. We also discovered 15 distinct CpG clusters with striking sex-specific DNA methylation differences. In contrast, at transcriptome level, more female-biased genes than male-biased genes were expressed, giving little support for the male sex drive hypothesis. Our study provides genome-wide methylome and transcriptome assessment and sheds light on sex-specific epigenetic patterns and in zebrafish for the first time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Higher variability in the number of sexual partners in males can contribute to a higher prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Rodrigo Gouveia; Pedersen, Anders Gorm

    2009-01-01

    , and on the probability of disease transmission. We note that in addition to humans, the variance phenomenon described here is likely to play a role for sexually transmitted diseases in other species also. We also show, again by examining published, empirical data, that the female to male prevalence ratio increases...... of sexually transmitted diseases: compared to the situation where the genders have identical sex partner distributions, men will reach a lower equilibrium value, while women will stay at the same level (meaning that female prevalence becomes higher than male). We carefully analyse model behaviour and derive...... with the overall prevalence of a sexually transmitted disease (i.e., the more widespread the disease, the more women are affected). We suggest that this pattern may be caused by the effect described above in highly prevalent sexually transmitted diseases, while its impact in low-prevalence epidemics is surpassed...

  6. Nucleus accumbens core medium spiny neuron electrophysiological properties and partner preference behavior in the adult male prairie vole, Microtus ochrogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Jaime A; Johnson, Ashlyn G; Vogel, Andrea R; Patisaul, Heather B; McGraw, Lisa A; Meitzen, John

    2018-04-01

    Medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the nucleus accumbens have long been implicated in the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie numerous social and motivated behaviors as studied in rodents such as rats. Recently, the prairie vole has emerged as an important model animal for studying social behaviors, particularly regarding monogamy because of its ability to form pair bonds. However, to our knowledge, no study has assessed intrinsic vole MSN electrophysiological properties or tested how these properties vary with the strength of the pair bond between partnered voles. Here we performed whole cell patch-clamp recordings of MSNs in acute brain slices of the nucleus accumbens core (NAc) of adult male voles exhibiting strong and weak preferences for their respective partnered females. We first document vole MSN electrophysiological properties and provide comparison to rat MSNs. Vole MSNs demonstrated many canonical electrophysiological attributes shared across species but exhibited notable differences in excitability compared with rat MSNs. Second, we assessed male vole partner preference behavior and tested whether MSN electrophysiological properties varied with partner preference strength. Male vole partner preference showed extensive variability. We found that decreases in miniature excitatory postsynaptic current amplitude and the slope of the evoked action potential firing rate to depolarizing current injection weakly associated with increased preference for the partnered female. This suggests that excitatory synaptic strength and neuronal excitability may be decreased in MSNs in males exhibiting stronger preference for a partnered female. Overall, these data provide extensive documentation of MSN electrophysiological characteristics and their relationship to social behavior in the prairie vole. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This research represents the first assessment of prairie vole nucleus accumbens core medium spiny neuron intrinsic electrophysiological properties and

  7. 'Inconstant males' and the maintenance of labile sex expression in subdioecious plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehlers, Bodil; Bataillon, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    . Depending on the genetics of sex determination, we found pure dioecy, stable subdioecy (trioecy), and situations where inconstant males coexisted with either pure females or pure males. Under selfing and pollen limitation, certain conditions selected for inconstant males which will drive populations......Here, we evaluate the role of pollen limitation and selfing in the maintenance of labile sex expression in subdioecious plant species. We used a literature survey to explore which factors correlated with a significant occurrence of hermaphrodites in dioecious species. We developed models to explore...... the selective maintenance of labile sex expression. The models had similar ecological assumptions but differed in the genetic basis of sex lability. We found that a significant frequency of hermaphrodites was associated with animal pollination, and that hermaphrodites were ‘inconstant' males with perfect...

  8. Cold-induced alteration in the global structure of the male sex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cold-induced alteration in the global structure of the male sex ... dar et al. 1978). Chromosome preparated from a single pair of salivary glands show extremely puffy and diffuse ..... Akhtar A. 2003 Dosage compensation: an intertwined world of.

  9. Motivational Counseling: Implications for Counseling Male Juvenile Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Samir H.; Lambie, Glenn W.; Glover, Michelle Muenzenmeyer

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) often appear unmotivated to change, which thus necessitates a therapeutic approach that matches "resistant" client characteristics. In this article, the authors review common traits of JSOs, introduce motivational counseling as an effective treatment modality, and offer a case illustration. (Contains 1 table and 1…

  10. XX male sex reversal with genital abnormalities associated with a de novo SOX3 gene duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moalem, Sharon; Babul-Hirji, Riyana; Stavropolous, Dmitri J; Wherrett, Diane; Bägli, Darius J; Thomas, Paul; Chitayat, David

    2012-07-01

    Differentiation of the bipotential gonad into testis is initiated by the Y chromosome-linked gene SRY (Sex-determining Region Y) through upregulation of its autosomal direct target gene SOX9 (Sry-related HMG box-containing gene 9). Sequence and chromosome homology studies have shown that SRY most probably evolved from SOX3, which in humans is located at Xq27.1. Mutations causing SOX3 loss-of-function do not affect the sex determination in mice or humans. However, transgenic mouse studies have shown that ectopic expression of Sox3 in the bipotential gonad results in upregulation of Sox9, resulting in testicular induction and XX male sex reversal. However, the mechanism by which these rearrangements cause sex reversal and the frequency with which they are associated with disorders of sex development remains unclear. Rearrangements of the SOX3 locus were identified recently in three cases of human XX male sex reversal. We report on a case of XX male sex reversal associated with a novel de novo duplication of the SOX3 gene. These data provide additional evidence that SOX3 gain-of-function in the XX bipotential gonad causes XX male sex reversal and further support the hypothesis that SOX3 is the evolutionary antecedent of SRY. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Identification of SOX3 as an XX male sex reversal gene in mice and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Edwina; Hughes, James; White, Stefan; Sekido, Ryohei; Tan, Jacqueline; Arboleda, Valerie; Rogers, Nicholas; Knower, Kevin; Rowley, Lynn; Eyre, Helen; Rizzoti, Karine; McAninch, Dale; Goncalves, Joao; Slee, Jennie; Turbitt, Erin; Bruno, Damien; Bengtsson, Henrik; Harley, Vincent; Vilain, Eric; Sinclair, Andrew; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Thomas, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Sex in mammals is genetically determined and is defined at the cellular level by sex chromosome complement (XY males and XX females). The Y chromosome-linked gene sex-determining region Y (SRY) is believed to be the master initiator of male sex determination in almost all eutherian and metatherian mammals, functioning to upregulate expression of its direct target gene Sry-related HMG box-containing gene 9 (SOX9). Data suggest that SRY evolved from SOX3, although there is no direct functional evidence to support this hypothesis. Indeed, loss-of-function mutations in SOX3 do not affect sex determination in mice or humans. To further investigate Sox3 function in vivo, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing Sox3. Here, we report that in one of these transgenic lines, Sox3 was ectopically expressed in the bipotential gonad and that this led to frequent complete XX male sex reversal. Further analysis indicated that Sox3 induced testis differentiation in this particular line of mice by upregulating expression of Sox9 via a similar mechanism to Sry. Importantly, we also identified genomic rearrangements within the SOX3 regulatory region in three patients with XX male sex reversal. Together, these data suggest that SOX3 and SRY are functionally interchangeable in sex determination and support the notion that SRY evolved from SOX3 via a regulatory mutation that led to its de novo expression in the early gonad.

  12. Identification of SOX3 as an XX male sex reversal gene in mice and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Edwina; Hughes, James; White, Stefan; Sekido, Ryohei; Tan, Jacqueline; Arboleda, Valerie; Rogers, Nicholas; Knower, Kevin; Rowley, Lynn; Eyre, Helen; Rizzoti, Karine; McAninch, Dale; Goncalves, Joao; Slee, Jennie; Turbitt, Erin; Bruno, Damien; Bengtsson, Henrik; Harley, Vincent; Vilain, Eric; Sinclair, Andrew; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Thomas, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Sex in mammals is genetically determined and is defined at the cellular level by sex chromosome complement (XY males and XX females). The Y chromosome–linked gene sex-determining region Y (SRY) is believed to be the master initiator of male sex determination in almost all eutherian and metatherian mammals, functioning to upregulate expression of its direct target gene Sry-related HMG box–containing gene 9 (SOX9). Data suggest that SRY evolved from SOX3, although there is no direct functional evidence to support this hypothesis. Indeed, loss-of-function mutations in SOX3 do not affect sex determination in mice or humans. To further investigate Sox3 function in vivo, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing Sox3. Here, we report that in one of these transgenic lines, Sox3 was ectopically expressed in the bipotential gonad and that this led to frequent complete XX male sex reversal. Further analysis indicated that Sox3 induced testis differentiation in this particular line of mice by upregulating expression of Sox9 via a similar mechanism to Sry. Importantly, we also identified genomic rearrangements within the SOX3 regulatory region in three patients with XX male sex reversal. Together, these data suggest that SOX3 and SRY are functionally interchangeable in sex determination and support the notion that SRY evolved from SOX3 via a regulatory mutation that led to its de novo expression in the early gonad. PMID:21183788

  13. 'Just getting by': a cross-sectional study of male sex workers as a key population for HIV/STIs among men who have sex with men in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Angela M; Garvich, Mijail; Díaz, David A; Sánchez, Hugo; García, Patricia J; Coates, Thomas J

    2014-05-01

    To describe the sociodemographic and sex work characteristics, recent sexual practices, HIV risk perception and testing history, and HIV and syphilis prevalence of Cercado (downtown) and non-Cercado (close urban) male sex workers (MSWs) in Lima, Peru. Eighty-nine MSWs completed a self-administered survey and participated in HIV and syphilis testing. Cercado MSWs had significantly lower median weekly earnings than non-Cercado MSWs (US$43 vs US$72, p=0.04). Most non-Cercado MSWs (81%) reported only insertive anal intercourse with male/transgender partners, while Cercado MSWs primarily reported only insertive (52%) or insertive and receptive (45%) anal intercourse (p=0.03). Consistent condom use was low with insertive and receptive anal intercourse in both subgroups. Among MSWs with recent female partners, condom use with the last partner was lower among Cercado versus non-Cercado MSWs for vaginal sex (37% vs 65%, p=0.04) and anal sex (27% vs 80%, p=0.01). More Cercado than non-Cercado MSWs (57% vs 42%) perceived high HIV risk (p=0.05) and Cercado MSWs had a much higher prevalence than non-Cercado MSWs of HIV (23% vs 4%, p=0.04) and syphilis (22% vs 0%, p=0.02) infections. MSWs in Lima are diverse and Cercado MSWs are 'just getting by,' engaging in more risk behaviours, and more likely to have HIV/STIs. Future research should identify, describe and carry out HIV/STI testing with broader groups of MSWs and their client and non-client partners. Prevention efforts should provide HIV/STI risk reduction education for MSWs and related subgroups who are currently not targeted such as female partners.

  14. When Violence Can Appear With Different Male Partners: Identification of Resilient and Non-resilient Women in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Herrero

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Little scholarly attention has been paid to the analysis of the history of intimate partner violence (IPV against women with different male partners and how it could be related to levels of IPV with the current male partner. From this point of view, been a victim of IPV could increase the vulnerability of women and, therefore, exert a negative influence on the selection of partners over time, thus increasing the odds of potentially mating with abusive male partners. Alternatively, for some women victims of IPV in previous relationships, there may be additional resources that reduce their vulnerability to victimization by new partners.Methodology: The present study analyzes levels of IPV in different partners of 2376 heterosexual women from the 28 countries of the European Union living together as a couple who had previously lived with a different male partner.Analysis/Discussion: Multilevel regression results indicated that resilient women were younger, more satisfied with household income, and were involved in shorter relationships. As for their previous levels of victimization, they scored lower on child abuse and non-partner adult victimization. Also, their levels of victimization from previous partners were the same as those of the non-resilient women, with the exception of physical IPV victimization where resilient women scored higher than non-resilient women. Resilient women also informed the interviewer to have ended the abusive relationship because of the violence to a greater extent than non-resilient women and seemed to suffer fewer psychological difficulties due to previous violent relationships. Finally, countries scoring higher on human development index (HDI showed a larger proportion of resilient women.Conclusion: Resilient women are mostly characterized by fewer psychological difficulties and lower frequency of adverse situations (in childhood or in adulthood when compared to non-resilient women. Although resilient

  15. Exploring the population implications of male preference when the sex probabilities at birth can be altered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank T Denton

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The paper explores the population effects of male preference stopping rules and of alternative combinations of fertility rates and male-biased birth sex ratios. Methods: The 'laboratory' is a closed, stable population with five age groups and a dynamic process represented by a compact Leslie matrix. The new element is sex-selective abortion. We consider nine stopping rules, one with no male preference, two with male preference but no abortion, and six with male preference and the availability of abortion to achieve a desired number of male births. We calculate the probability distribution over the number of births and number of male births for each rule and work out the effects at the population level if the rule is adopted by all women bearing children. We then assess the impact of alternative combinations of fertility rates and male-biased sex ratios on the population. Results: In the absence of sex-selective abortion, stopping rules generally have no effect on the male/female birth proportions in the population, although they can alter the fertility rate, age distribution, and rate of growth. When sex-selective abortion is introduced the effect on male/female proportions may be considerable, and other effects may also be quite different. The contribution of this paper is the quantification of effects that might have been predictable in general but which require model-based calculations to see how large they can be. As the paper shows, they can in fact be very large: a population in which sex-selective abortion is widely practised can look quite different from what it would otherwise be.

  16. Japan's progressive sex: male homosexuality, national competition, and the cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J M

    2000-01-01

    This essay serves as a broad investigation of the origins of what came to be called the "gay boom" in 1990's Japanese cinema: a culmination of print media, television, and especially films which made the gay male not merely a visible (political) subject but also the site of displaced contestations of gendered (female) desire. The most visible transnational signifier of the "gay boom" was the 1992 film Okoge, a film which, in keeping with a Japanese trend which relocates the gay male as a safe displacement of female desire, posits the heterosexual female as the audience's point of identification in a film about the lives of gay Japanese men. Using this as a starting point, this essay seeks to explore how male homosexuality and gender construction operate within both Japanese nationalism and the transnational discourse of Japanese cinema's dissemination.

  17. Depression and HIV Serostatus Disclosure to Sexual Partners Among Newly HIV-Diagnosed Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abler, Laurie; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Watt, Melissa H; Hansen, Nathan B; Wilson, Patrick A; Kochman, Arlene

    2015-10-01

    HIV disclosure to sexual partners facilitates joint decision-making and risk reduction strategies for safer sex behaviors, but disclosure may be impacted by depression symptoms. Disclosure is also associated with disclosure self-efficacy, which in turn may also be influenced by depressive symptoms. This study examined the relationship between depression and HIV disclosure to partners following diagnosis among men who have sex with men (MSM), mediated by disclosure self-efficacy. Newly HIV-diagnosed MSM (n=92) who reported sexual activity after diagnosis completed an assessment soon after diagnosis which measured depressive symptoms, and another assessment within 3 months of diagnosis that measured disclosure self-efficacy and disclosure. Over one-third of the sample reported elevated depressive symptoms soon after diagnosis and equal proportions (one-third each) disclosed to none, some, or all partners in the 3 months after diagnosis. Depressive symptoms were negatively associated with disclosure self-efficacy and disclosure to partners, while disclosure self-efficacy was positively associated with disclosure. Disclosure self-efficacy partially mediated the relationship between depression and disclosure, accounting for 33% of the total effect. These findings highlight the importance of addressing depression that follows diagnosis to enhance subsequent disclosure to sexual partners.

  18. Exploring the interpersonal relationships in street-based male sex work: results from an Australian qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, David; Minichiello, Victor

    2007-01-01

    While the literature on male sex work has increased significantly over the past decade, few studies examine the influence of relational dynamics in the lives of those engaged in male sex work. This qualitative study, conducted with a sample of male street sex workers in Sydney, Australia, explores how relationships color their involvement with sex work. The findings reveal the complexity of their relationships and how their interactions with others shape their engagement in sex work. The data also offer insight into how exit pathways are influenced by money and relationships that occur within this particular male sex work setting. Implications for health policy and intervention are considered.

  19. Male caregivers of patients with breast and gynecologic cancer: experiences from caring for their spouses and partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Violeta; Copp, Gina; Molassiotis, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable evidence demonstrating the negative effects of caregiving particularly in the areas of psychological well-being and quality of life of family caregivers of patients with cancer. However, there is little work on male caregivers' subjective experience of caring for family members with cancer, and little is known on how caregivers experience the caring over time. The objective of the study was to explore male spouses'/partners' experience of caring for their wives/partners with breast and gynecologic cancer over a 1-year period. An exploratory longitudinal qualitative descriptive design using face-to-face interviews of 15 spouses/partners was used in this study. Content analysis of the transcribed data was conducted to extract significant categories and themes. Varying degrees of interrelated cognitive, physical, and psychological impact were experienced by caregivers that extended to 12 months. Gender-specific attitudes prevented male caregivers from supporting their own self. Male caregivers dealt with problems that arose in the caregiving congruent with their masculinity, such as minimizing disruptions, focusing on tasks, and keeping their own stress to themselves. Male caregivers as a separate group with their own needs have not received much attention in the cancer literature, and their concerns and challenges may differ from those of female caregivers. Male caregivers' concerns and challenges must be taken into consideration when planning appropriate interventions to support them in their caregiving role.

  20. Mental health functioning among men who use the Internet specifically to find partners for unprotected sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Klein

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown a link between mental health functioning and involvement in HIV risk practices. The present research examines how well one specific group of men who have sex with other men (MSM fare in terms of their mental health functioning, and then focuses on how mental health functioning relates to HIV risk practices in this population. The study was based on a national random sample of 332 MSM who use the Internet to seek men with whom they can engage in unprotected sex. Data collection was conducted via telephone interviews between January 2008 and May 2009. Depression is more common among men in this population than in the adult male population-at-large. All other measures of mental health functioning that were examined (self-esteem, impulsivity, current life satisfaction, optimism about the future indicated low rates of mental health problem. Contrary to expectations, in nearly all instances, mental health functioning was not related to HIV risk practices. More work needs to be done to understand the causes of depression among these men, and to assess how, if at all, depression relates to risk practices in this population. These findings suggest that factors other than mental health problems must be considered if one wishes to understand HIV risk taking in this population.

  1. Tribolium castaneum Transformer-2 regulates sex determination and development in both males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2013-12-01

    Tribolium castaneum Transformer (TcTra) is essential for female sex determination and maintenance through the regulation of sex-specific splicing of doublesex (dsx) pre-mRNA. In females, TcTra also regulates the sex-specific splicing of its own pre-mRNA to ensure continuous production of functional Tra protein. Transformer protein is absent in males and hence dsx pre-mRNA is spliced in a default mode. The mechanisms by which males inhibit the production of functional Tra protein are not known. Here, we report on functional characterization of transformer-2 (tra-2) gene (an ortholog of Drosophila transformer-2) in T. castaneum. RNA interference-mediated knockdown in the expression of gene coding for tra-2 in female pupae or adults resulted in the production of male-specific isoform of dsx and both female and male isoforms of tra suggesting that Tra-2 is essential for the female-specific splicing of tra and dsx pre-mRNAs. Interestingly, knockdown of tra-2 in males did not affect the splicing of dsx but resulted in the production of both female and male isoforms of tra suggesting that Tra-2 suppresses female-specific splicing of tra pre-mRNA in males. This dual regulation of sex-specific splicing of tra pre-mRNA ensures a tight regulation of sex determination and maintenance. These data suggest a critical role for Tra-2 in suppression of female sex determination cascade in males. In addition, RNAi studies showed that Tra-2 is also required for successful embryonic and larval development in both sexes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High burden of STI and HIV in male sex workers working as internet escorts for men in an observational study: a hidden key population compared with female sex workers and other men who have sex with men

    OpenAIRE

    Verhaegh-Haasnoot, Amanja; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H. T. M.; Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Male sex work in the western countries has changed, including now a subculture of male sex workers who have paid sex with men arranged for via the internet. The men involved in this subculture do not easily identify themselves as sex workers nor as homosexual, and are therefore missed by regular health care and public health interventions. These male sex workers may form a hidden key population for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV, bridging towards other persons outsi...

  3. Aetiological diagnosis of male sex ambiguity: a collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Yves; Rey, Rodolfo; Teinturier, Cécile; Nicolino, Marc; Michel-Calemard, Laurence; Mowszowicz, Irène; Jaubert, Francis; Fellous, Marc; Chaussain, Jean-Louis; Chatelain, Pierre; David, Michel; Nihoul-Fékété, Claire; Forest, Maguelone G; Josso, Nathalie

    2002-01-01

    A collaborative study, supported by the Biomed2 Programme of the European Community, was initiated to optimise the aetiological diagnosis in genetic or gonadal males with intersex disorders, a total of 67 patients with external sexual ambiguity, testicular tissue and/or a XY karyotype. In patients with gonadal dysgenesis or true hermaphroditism, the incidence of vaginal development was 100%, a uterus was present in 60%; uni or bilateral cryptorchidism was seen in nearly all cases of testicular dysgenesis (99%) but in only 57% of true hermaphrodites. Mean serum levels of anti-mullerian hormone and of serum testosterone response to chorionic gonadotropin stimulation were significantly decreased in both conditions, by comparison with patients with unexplained male pseudohermaphroditism or partial androgen insensitivity (PAIS). Mutations in the androgen receptor, 90% within exons 2-8, were detected in patients with PAIS. Clinically, a vaginal pouch was present in 90%, cryptorchidism in 36%. In 52% of cases, no diagnosis could be reached, despite an exhaustive clinical and laboratory work-up, including routine sequencing of exons 2-8 of the androgen receptor. By comparison with PAIS, unexplained male pseudohermaphroditism was characterised by a lower incidence of vaginal pouch (55%) and cryptorchidism (22%) but a high incidence of prematurity/intrauterine growth retardation (30%) or mild malformations (14%). reaching an aetiological diagnosis in cases of male intersex is difficult because of the variability of individual cases. Hormonal tests may help to discriminate between partial androgen insensitivity and gonadal dysgenesis/true hermaphroditism but are of less use for differentiating from unexplained male pseudohermaphroditism. Sequencing of exons 2-8 of the androgen receptor after study of testosterone precursors following human chorionic gonadotrophin stimulation is recommended when gonadal dysgenesis and true hermaphroditism can be excluded.

  4. Urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations and semen quality of male partners of subfertile couples in Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguri, Tomoko; Yoshinaga, Jun; Toshima, Hiroki; Mizumoto, Yoshifumi; Hatakeyama, Shota; Tokuoka, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) has been known as a testicular toxicant in experimental rodents. Possible association between iAs exposure and semen quality (semen volume, sperm concentration, and sperm motility) was explored in male partners of couples (n = 42) who visited a gynecology clinic in Tokyo for infertility consultation. Semen parameters were measured according to WHO guideline at the clinic, and urinary iAs and methylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-hydride generation-ICP mass spectrometry. Biological attributes, dietary habits, and exposure levels to other chemicals with known effects on semen parameters were taken into consideration as covariates. Multiple regression analyses and logistic regression analyses did not find iAs exposure as significant contributor to semen parameters. Lower exposure level of subjects (estimated to be 0.5 μg kg(-1) day(-1)) was considered a reason of the absence of adverse effects on semen parameters, which were seen in rodents dosed with 4-7.5 mg kg(-1).

  5. Optimizing Partner Notification Programs for Men Who Have Sex with Men: Factorial Survey Results from South China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberta L Wang

    Full Text Available Syphilis is prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM in China. Syphilis partner notification (PN programs targeting MSM has been considered as one of effective strategies to prevention and control of the infection in the population. We examined willingness and preferences for PN among MSM to measure feasibility and optimize uptake.Participation in a syphilis PN program was measured using a factorial survey from both the perspective of the index patient and the partner. Respondents were recruited from April-July 2011 using convenience sampling at two sites-a MSM sexually transmitted disease (STD clinic and a MSM community based organization (CBO. Respondents first evaluated three factorial survey vignettes to measure probability of participation and then an anonymous sociodemographic questionnaire. A two-level mixed linear model was fitted for the factorial survey analysis.In 372 respondents with mean age (± SD 28.5 (± 6.0 years, most were single (82.0% and closeted gays (66.7%. The Internet was the most frequent place to search for sex. Few (31.2% had legal names for casual partners, but most had instant messenger (86.5% and mobile phone numbers (77.7%. The mean probability of participation in a syphilis PN program was 64.5% (± 32.4% for index patients and 63.7% (± 32.6% for partners. Referral of the partner to a private clinic or MSM CBO for follow-up decreased participation compared to the local Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC or public STD clinic.Enhanced PN services may be feasible among MSM in South China. Internet and mobile phone PN may contact partners untraceable by traditional PN. Referral of partners to the local CDC or public STD clinic may maximize PN participation.

  6. The use of mobile phone apps by Australian gay and bisexual men to meet sex partners : an analysis of sex-seeking repertoires and risks for HIV and STIs using behavioural surveillance data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hull, Peter; Mao, Limin; Prestage, Garrett; Zablotska, Iryna; de Wit, John; Holt, Martin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mobile phone apps are now the most popular method that Australian gay men use to find sex partners. Partner-seeking mobile phone apps use location functions to identify like-minded men and display their proximity. This study examines whether meeting partners via mobile apps is associated

  7. The Tyranny of Surveillance: Male Teachers and the Policing of Masculinities in a Single Sex School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Wayne; Frank, Blye

    2006-01-01

    This paper draws on research into male teachers in one single sex high school in the Australian context to highlight how issues of masculinity impact on their pedagogical practices and relationships with boys. The study is situated within the broader international field of research on male teachers, masculinities and schooling in Australia, the UK…

  8. Change in sex pheromone expression by nutritional shift in male cockroaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim; Shearman, Melanie; Rapkin, James

    2017-01-01

    affected by dietary nutrient composition with higher values on carbohydrate-biased diet, and males had significantly higher and lower levels of consumption, lipid reserves, and sex pheromones when shifted to a carbohydrate-biased and a protein-biased diet, respectively, compared with males maintained...

  9. Gender variation, partial male sterility and labile sex expression in gynodioecious Plantago coronopus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelewijn, HP; VanDamme, JMM

    Gynodioecy is a breeding system consisting of male steriles (MS, females) and hermaphrodites (H). There is however within such sq stems a third, often neglected, class of partially male sterile plants (PMS), i.e. plants with an intermediate sex expression. In natural populations of Plantago

  10. Gender variation, partial male sterility and labile sex expression in gynodioecious Plantago coronopus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelewijn, H.P.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    1996-01-01

    Gynodioecy is a breeding system consisting of male steriles (MS, females) and hermaphrodites (H). There is however within such sq stems a third, often neglected, class of partially male sterile plants (PMS), i.e. plants with an intermediate sex expression. In natural populations of Plantago

  11. Associations Between Sex Education and Contraceptive Use Among Heterosexually Active, Adolescent Males in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Nicole; Buhi, Eric R; Elder, John P; Corliss, Heather L

    2017-05-01

    This study examined associations between reports of receiving education on topics commonly included in sex education (e.g., abstinence only, comprehensive) prior to age 18 years and contraceptive use at the last sex among heterosexually active, 15- to 20-year-old males in the United States. Cross-sectional data from 539 males participating in the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth were analyzed. Bivariate and multinomial logistic regression analyses adjusting for confounding estimated associations between receipt of seven sex education topics (e.g., information on HIV/AIDS, how to say no to sex) and contraceptive use at the last sex (i.e., dual barrier and female-controlled effective methods, female-controlled effective method only, barrier method only, and no method). Nearly, all participants (99%) reported receiving sex education on at least one topic. Education on sexually transmitted diseases (94.7%) and HIV/AIDS (92.0%) were the most commonly reported topics received; education on where to get birth control was the least common (41.6%). Instruction about birth control methods (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32-6.87) and how to say no to sex (AOR = 3.39; CI = 1.33-8.64) were positively associated with dual contraception compared to no use. For each additional sex education topic respondents were exposed to, their odds of using dual methods compared to no method was 47% greater (AOR = 1.47; CI = 1.16-1.86). Exposure to a larger number of sex education topics is associated with young men's report of dual contraception use at the last sex. Comprehensive sex education, focusing on a range of topics, may be most effective at promoting safer sex among adolescent males. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Controversies of Sex Re-assignment in Genetic Males with Congenital Inadequacy of the Penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveenthiran, Venkatachalam

    2017-09-01

    Sex assignment in 46XY genetic male children with congenital inadequacy of the penis (CIP) is controversial. Traditionally, children with penile length less than 2 cm at birth are considered unsuitable to be raised as males. They are typically re-assigned to female-sex and feminizing genitoplasty is usually done in infancy. However, the concept of cerebral androgen imprinting has caused paradigm shift in the philosophy of sex re-assignment. Masculinization of the brain, rather than length of the penis, is the modern criterion of sex re-assignment in CIP. This review summarizes the current understanding of the complex issue. In 46XY children with CIP, male-sex assignment appears appropriate in non-hormonal conditions such as idiopathic micropenis, aphallia and exstrophy. Female-sex re-assignment appears acceptable in complete androgen insensitivity (CAIS), while partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) patients are highly dissatisfied with the assignment of either sex. Children with 5-alpha reductase deficiency are likely to have spontaneous penile lengthening at puberty. Hence, they are better raised as males. Although female assignment is common in pure gonadal dysgenesis, long-term results are not known to justify the decision.

  13. Evidence of increased STI/HIV-related risk behavior among male perpetrators of intimate partner violence in Guatemala: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembling, John; Andrinopoulos, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem with a demonstrated link to increased sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV-related risk and vulnerability. While IPV is an important issue in Central America, the link to STI/HIV risk has not been explored in this region. In this study, the relationship between emotional and physical/sexual IPV and the STI/HIV-related risk behaviors of sex worker patronage and infidelity is assessed among male IPV perpetrators using data from a national survey conducted in 2009 in Guatemala (n = 4773 married/partnered men). Bivariate associations between background characteristics and emotional and physical IPV perpetration were explored. Logistic regression models were run to test associations between IPV for each sexual risk behavior. Perpetration of emotional and physical/sexual IPV was more common among married/partnered men who were older than 24, had more education, lived in urban areas, or were in common law versus married unions. Reports of past-year emotional IPV perpetration increased as wealth quintile increased. After adjusting for demographics and other characteristics, physical/sexual IPV perpetration was associated with past-year infidelity (AOR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1-3.6). Lifetime emotional IPV (AOR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.7) and physical/sexual IPV 1.6 (95% CI 1.2-2.0) were positively associated with a history of sex worker patronage. Endorsement of traditional gender role norms showed a marginally positive association with past-year infidelity in the adjusted model (AOR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.8). The study findings from Guatemala reinforce the growing evidence globally that male IPV perpetrators are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior, including sex worker patronage and main partner infidelity. The concurrency of violence and increased STI/HIV risk may compound the health risks for female victims of IPV who also face injury and psychological trauma. Integration of prevention and screening of

  14. Transactional sex and the challenges to safer sexual behaviors: a study among male sex workers in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biello, Katie B; Thomas, Beena E; Johnson, Blake E; Closson, Elizabeth F; Navakodi, Pandiaraja; Dhanalakshmi, A; Menon, Sunil; Mayer, Kenneth H; Safren, Steven A; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2017-02-01

    Male sex workers (MSW) are a significant but invisible population in India who are at risk for HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Few studies from India have documented HIV risk factors and motivations for sex work in this population. Between 2013 and 2014, a community-based convenience sample of 100 MSW in Chennai (south India) completed a baseline risk assessment as part of a behavioral intervention. Participants were ≥18 years, and reported current sex work. We report medians and proportions, and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney and chi-square tests are used to examine differences between sex work and sexual behavior measures by income source. Participants were engaged in sex work for 5.0 years (IQR = 2.3-10.0), and earned 3000 (IQR = 2000-8000) Rupees (India engage in high levels of sexual risk for HIV/STIs. Money appears to be a driving factor for engaging in sex work and condomless sex with clients. HIV prevention interventions with MSW should focus on facilitating skills that will support their ability to negotiate sexual safety in the context of monetary disincentives.

  15. Community-level intimate partner violence and the circumstances of first sex among young women from five African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speizer Ilene S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender-based violence is an important risk factor for adverse reproductive health (RH. Community-level violence may inhibit young women's ability to engage in safer sexual behaviors due to a lack of control over sexual encounters. Few studies examine violence as a contextual risk factor. Methods Using nationally representative data from five African countries, the association between community-level physical or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV and the circumstances of first sex (premarital or marital among young women (ages 20-29 was examined. Results In Mali, and Kenya bivariate analyses showed that young women who had premarital first sex were from communities where a significantly higher percentage of women reported IPV experience compared to young women who had marital first sex. Multivariate analyses confirmed the findings for these two countries; young women from communities with higher IPV were significantly more likely to have had premarital first sex compared to first sex in union. In Liberia, community-level IPV was associated with a lower risk of premarital sex as compared to first sex in union at a marginal significance level. There was no significant relationship between community-level IPV and the circumstances of first sex in the Democratic Republic of Congo or Zimbabwe. Conclusion These findings indicate that context matters for RH. Individualized efforts to improve RH may be limited in their effectiveness if they do not acknowledge the context of young women's lives. Programs should target prevention of violence to improve RH outcomes of youth.

  16. Adverse childhood experiences and intimate partner aggression in the US: sex differences and similarities in psychosocial mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monique J; Perera, Robert A; Masho, Saba W; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A

    2015-04-01

    Six in ten people in the general population have been exposed to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem in the US. The main objective of this study was to assess sex differences in the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance abuse, and depression as mediators in the association between ACEs and intimate partner aggression. Data were obtained from Wave 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the mediational role of PTSD, substance abuse and depression in the association between ACE constructs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration/psychopathology) and intimate partner aggression. Among men, PTSD mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and intimate partner aggression. However, among men and women, substance abuse mediated the relationship between physical and psychological abuse and intimate partner aggression. IPV programs geared towards aggressors should address abuse (sexual, physical and psychological), which occurred during childhood and recent substance abuse and PTSD. These programs should be implemented for men and women. Programs aimed at preventing abuse of children may help to reduce rates of depression and PTSD in adulthood, and subsequent intimate partner aggression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nice guys finish last: same-sex sexual behavior and pairing success in male budgerigars

    OpenAIRE

    Puya Abbassi; Nancy Tyler Burley

    2012-01-01

    In budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), a social parrot in which females are socially dominant, males of all ages engage in a set of behaviors with other males that closely resembles the repertoire used in heterosexual courtship. One adaptive hypothesis for this tendency, the "courtship practice hypothesis," posits that males with greater experience in same-sex activities develop superior skills that increase their courtship success with females. To test this hypothesis, we measured individ...

  18. Male partners' involvement in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjate Cuco, Rosa Marlene; Munguambe, Khátia; Bique Osman, Nafissa; Degomme, Olivier; Temmerman, Marleen; Sidat, Mohsin M

    2015-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), male partners are rarely present during prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services. This systematic review aims to synthesize, from a male perspective, male partners' perceived roles, barriers and enablers of their involvement in PMTCT, and highlights persisting gaps. We carried out a systematic search of papers published between 2002 and 2013 in English on Google Scholar and PubMed using the following terms: men, male partners, husbands, couples, involvement, participation, Antenatal Care (ANC), PMTCT, SSA countries, HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing and disclosure. A total of 28 qualitative and quantitative original studies from 10 SSA countries were included. Men's perceived role was addressed in 28% (8/28) of the studies. Their role to provide money for ANC/PMTCT fees was stated in 62.5% (5/8) of the studies. For other men, the financial responsibilities seemed to be used as an excuse for not participating. Barriers were cited in 85.7% (24/28) of the studies and included socioeconomic factors, gender role, cultural beliefs, male unfriendly ANC/PMTCT services and providers' abusive attitudes toward men. About 64% (18/28) of the studies reported enablers such as: older age, higher education, being employed, trustful monogamous marriages and providers' politeness. In conclusion, comprehensive PMTCT policies that are socially and culturally sensitive to both women and men need to be developed.

  19. The other side of the bridge: exploring the sexual relationships of men who have sex with men and their female partners in Mumbai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closson, Elizabeth F.; Sivasubramanian, Murugesan; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Srivastava, Ankur; Safren, Steven A.; Anand, Vivek Raj; Gangakhedkar, Raman

    2014-01-01

    Behaviourally bisexual men have been identified as a ‘bridge’ population of HIV transmission to heterosexual women in India. Little is known about the sexual relationships that these men have with their female sex partners. The primary objective of this study was to explore the sexual practices and relationship dynamics between married and unmarried behaviourally bisexual men and their female sex partners in Mumbai, India. In 2009, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 32 men who reported sex with men and women. Participants discussed a variety of sexual practices and arrangements with female sex partners. Irrespective of marital status and sexual identity, many said that they had satisfying sexual experiences and feelings of affection for female sex partners. However, sexual incompatibility between married partners was also reported. Explanations of bisexual concurrency were discussed in terms of both sexual satisfaction and sexual preference. Self-perceived HIV risk related to same-sex sexual behaviour motivated many men to use condoms with female partners. Expectations of unprotected marital sex and perceptions of partner risk were barriers to condom use. HIV prevention programmes for this population may benefit from tailored risk reduction counselling that attend to the variations of these sexual and social relationship dynamics. PMID:24815724

  20. Stable Same-Sex Friendships with Higher Achieving Partners Promote Mathematical Reasoning in Lower Achieving Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Kiuru, Noona; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    This study is designed to investigate friend influence over mathematical reasoning in a sample of 374 children in 187 same-sex friend dyads (184 girls in 92 friendships; 190 boys in 95 friendships). Participants completed surveys that measured mathematical reasoning in the 3rd grade (approximately 9 years old) and one year later in the 4th grade (approximately 10 years old). Analyses designed for dyadic data (i.e., longitudinal Actor-Partner Interdependence Models) indicated that higher achieving friends influenced the mathematical reasoning of lower achieving friends, but not the reverse. Specifically, greater initial levels of mathematical reasoning among higher achieving partners in the 3rd grade predicted greater increases in mathematical reasoning from 3rd grade to 4th grade among lower achieving partners. These effects held after controlling for peer acceptance and rejection, task avoidance, interest in mathematics, maternal support for homework, parental education, length of the friendship, and friendship group norms on mathematical reasoning. PMID:26402901

  1. Perceptions About Sex Related Myths And Misconceptions: Difference In Male And Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Raizada

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Research problem: Perceptions about sex-re- iated myths and misconceptions. Objectives: To identify the difference in percep­tions of mates and females over sex-reiated myths and misconceptions. Study Design - Community based cross sectional study. Setting - Self-administered questionnaire study was un­dertaken in an urban area of Jhansi. Participants - Married couples with reproductive age wife. Sample size - 417 couples of the area. Study Variables-Sex-related myths and misconceptions. Outcome Variables - Masturbation, Penis-size and sexual performance, STD transmission. Intercourse with virgin and cure of STDs, Initiation of sexual act, Bleeding on first night. Statistical analysis - By chi - square test. Results: Response rate 63.8%. Only 8.6% females and 33.7% males knew correctly about masturbation. Males also knew better about route of STD infection (73.5% and about the fact that intercouse with a virgin cannot cure STDs (47.4%. Females, however, outnumber males on the question of relation between man's penis size and his sexual performance (70%, initiation of sexual act (58.6% and bleeding in females on first night of marriage (70%. Conclusion: Males and females had significantly different perceptions on sex related myths and misconceptions. Recommendations: Sex education campaigns should be designed and implemented to eliminate these age old sex related myths and misconceptions.

  2. Perceptions About Sex Related Myths And Misconceptions: Difference In Male And Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Raizada

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Research problem: Perceptions about sex-re- iated myths and misconceptions.Objectives: To identify the difference in percep­tions of mates and females over sex-reiated myths and misconceptions.Study Design - Community based cross sectional study.Setting - Self-administered questionnaire study was un­dertaken in an urban area of Jhansi.Participants - Married couples with reproductive age wife.Sample size - 417 couples of the area.Study Variables-Sex-related myths and misconceptionsOutcome Variables - Masturbation, Penis-size and sexual performance, STD transmission. Intercourse with virgin and cure of STDs, Initiation of sexual act, Bleeding on first night.Statistical analysis - By chi - square test.Results: Response rate 63.8%. Only 8.6% females and 33.7% males knew correctly about masturbation. Males also knew better about route of STD infection (73.5% and about the fact that intercouse with a virgin cannot cure STDs (47.4%. Females, however, outnumber males on the question of relation between man's penis size and his sexual performance (70%, initiation of sexual act (58.6% and bleeding in females on first night of marriage (70%.Conclusion: Males and females had significantly different perceptions on sex related myths and misconceptions.Recommendations: Sex education campaigns should be designed and implemented to eliminate these age old sex related myths and misconceptions.

  3. Sex-role identification of normal adolescent males and females as related to school achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, R A; Curry, J F

    1983-12-01

    The historical view of masculinity/femininity posited essentially bipolar opposites, with the presence of one set of characteristics precluding the other. More recent studies of sex-role stereotypes have defined sexual orientation within clusters of socially desirable attributes which males and females perceive as differentiating males from females. This view negates the contention that psychological sex roles are composed of bipolar opposites, and concludes that the constructs of masculinity and femininity are independent dimensions rather than a single bipolar dimension. Little is known about the sex-role functioning of adolescents, yet it is during adolescence that qualitative shifts occur in interpersonal relationships and concurrent changes occur in cognitive functioning, with adolescents shifting toward hypothetical thinking and abstract ideal notions. In view of these changes, much can be learned about adult functioning by studying the sex-role perceptions of adolescents related to familial and social variables. This study examines the sex-role perceptions that adolescents hold of fathers, mothers, ideal males, ideal females, and selves. Differences exist between male and female adolescents, and significant linkages exist between sex-role identification and academic achievement.

  4. Impact of male partner's awareness and support for contraceptives on female intent to use contraceptives in southeast Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeanolue, Echezona E; Iwelunmor, Juliet; Asaolu, Ibitola; Obiefune, Michael C; Ezeanolue, Chinenye O; Osuji, Alice; Ogidi, Amaka G; Hunt, Aaron T; Patel, Dina; Yang, Wei; Ehiri, John E

    2015-09-10

    Despite the growing body of evidence on use of modern contraceptives among women in sub-Saharan African countries, little is known about the broader context in which female decision-making concerning contraceptive use occurs, particularly the role of their male partners' awareness and support of modern contraceptives. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 2468 pregnant women and their male partners enrolled in the Healthy Beginning Initiative (HBI), an intervention to increase HIV testing among pregnant women in Enugu, southeast Nigeria. The aims of this study were to determine: 1) male partners' awareness of, and support for, female contraceptive methods, and 2) influence of male partners' contraceptive awareness and support on pregnant women's expressed desire to use contraception. We used logistic regression models to examine the association between male partners' awareness and support of modern contraceptives on their spouses' desire to use contraceptives. Men's awareness of, and support for, use of modern contraceptives were significantly associated with their female partners' desire to use contraception. A majority of the men who were aware of modern contraceptives (66.5 %) and those who supported their spouses' use of contraception (72.5 %) had partners who expressed a desire to use contraception. Men who were aware of female contraception were 3 times more likely to have spouses who desired to use contraception (AOR = 3.17, 95 % C.I: 2.70-3.75). In addition, men who showed support for their spouses' use of contraception were over 5 times more likely to have spouses who indicated a desire to use contraception (AOR = 5.76, 95 % C.I: 4.82-6.88). Living in a household of 5 or more people (AOR = 1.45, 95 % C.I: 1.23-1.72) and residing in an urban area (AOR = 0.81, 95 % C.I: 0.67-0.97) were also significantly associated with women's expressed desire to use modern contraception. Men's awareness of, and support for, use of modern contraceptives were markedly

  5. Home-based HIV testing for men preferred over clinic-based testing by pregnant women and their male partners, a nested cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osoti, Alfred Onyango; John-Stewart, Grace; Kiarie, James Njogu; Barbra, Richardson; Kinuthia, John; Krakowiak, Daisy; Farquhar, Carey

    2015-07-30

    Male partner HIV testing and counseling (HTC) is associated with enhanced uptake of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT), yet male HTC during pregnancy remains low. Identifying settings preferred by pregnant women and their male partners may improve male involvement in PMTCT. Participants in a randomized clinical trial (NCT01620073) to improve male partner HTC were interviewed to determine whether the preferred male partner HTC setting was the home, antenatal care (ANC) clinic or VCT center. In this nested cross sectional study, responses were evaluated at baseline and after 6 weeks. Differences between the two time points were compared using McNemar's test and correlates of preference were determined using logistic regression. Among 300 pregnant female participants, 54% preferred home over ANC clinic testing (34.0%) or VCT center (12.0%). Among 188 male partners, 68% preferred home-based HTC to antenatal clinic (19%) or VCT (13%). Men who desired more children and women who had less than secondary education or daily income Pregnant women and their male partners preferred home-based compared to clinic or VCT-center based male partner HTC. Home-based HTC during pregnancy appears acceptable and may improve male testing and involvement in PMTCT.

  6. Fluorochemicals used in food packaging inhibit male sex hormone synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Nielsen, F. K.; Pedersen, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate surfactants (PAPS) are widely used in food contact materials (FCMs) of paper and board and have recently been detected in 57% of investigated materials. Human exposure occurs as PAPS have been measured in blood; however knowledge is lacking on the toxicology of PAPS. The....... Overall, these results demonstrate that fluorochemicals present in food packaging materials and their metabolites can affect steroidogenesis through decreased Bzrp and increased CYP19 gene expression leading to lower androgen and higher estrogen levels.......Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate surfactants (PAPS) are widely used in food contact materials (FCMs) of paper and board and have recently been detected in 57% of investigated materials. Human exposure occurs as PAPS have been measured in blood; however knowledge is lacking on the toxicology of PAPS....... The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of six fluorochemicals on sex hormone synthesis and androgen receptor (AR) activation in vitro. Four PAPS and two metabolites, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2 FTOH) were tested. Hormone profiles, including eight steroid...

  7. Male sex pheromone components in Heliconius butterflies released by the androconia affect female choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Darragh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sex-specific pheromones are known to play an important role in butterfly courtship, and may influence both individual reproductive success and reproductive isolation between species. Extensive ecological, behavioural and genetic studies of Heliconius butterflies have made a substantial contribution to our understanding of speciation. Male pheromones, although long suspected to play an important role, have received relatively little attention in this genus. Here, we combine morphological, chemical and behavioural analyses of male pheromones in the Neotropical butterfly Heliconius melpomene. First, we identify putative androconia that are specialized brush-like scales that lie within the shiny grey region of the male hindwing. We then describe putative male sex pheromone compounds, which are largely confined to the androconial region of the hindwing of mature males, but are absent in immature males and females. Finally, behavioural choice experiments reveal that females of H. melpomene, H. erato and H. timareta strongly discriminate against conspecific males which have their androconial region experimentally blocked. As well as demonstrating the importance of chemical signalling for female mate choice in Heliconius butterflies, the results describe structures involved in release of the pheromone and a list of potential male sex pheromone compounds.

  8. The Occurrence of Male-to-Female Intimate Partner Violence on Days of Men's Drinking: The Moderating Effects of Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fals-Stewart, William; Leonard, Kenneth E.; Birchler, Gary R.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the moderating effects of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) on the day-to-day relationship between male partner alcohol consumption and male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) for men entering a domestic violence treatment program (n = 170) or an alcoholism treatment program (n = 169) were examined. For both samples,…

  9. The weaker sex? The propensity for male-biased piglet mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma M Baxter

    Full Text Available For the most part solutions to farm animal welfare issues, such as piglet mortality, are likely to lie within the scientific disciplines of environmental design and genetic selection, however understanding the ecological basis of some of the complex dynamics observed between parent and offspring could make a valuable contribution. One interesting, and often discussed, aspect of mortality is the propensity for it to be sex-biased. This study investigated whether known physiological and behavioural indicators of piglet survival differed between the sexes and whether life history strategies (often reported in wild or feral populations relating to parental investment were being displayed in a domestic population of pigs. Sex ratio (proportion of males (males/males+females at birth was 0.54 and sex allocation (maternal investment measured as piglet birth weight/litter weight was statistically significantly male-biased at 0.55 (t(35 = 2.51 P = 0.017, suggesting that sows invested more in sons than daughters during gestation. Despite this investment in birth weight, a known survival indicator, total pre-weaning male mortality was statistically significantly higher than female mortality (12% vs. 7% respectively z = 2.06 P = 0.040. Males tended to suffer from crushing by the sow more than females and statistically significantly more males died from disease-related causes. Although males were born on average heavier, with higher body mass index and ponderal index, these differences were not sustained. In addition male piglets showed impaired thermoregulation compared to females. These results suggest male-biased mortality exists despite greater initial maternal investment, and therefore reflects the greater susceptibility of this sex to causal mortality factors. Life history strategies are being displayed by a domestic population of pigs with sows in this study displaying a form of parental optimism by allocating greater resources at birth

  10. Screening of Genes Specifically Expressed in Males of Fenneropenaeus chinensis and Their Potential as Sex Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihao Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The androgenic gland (AG, playing an important role in sex differentiation of male crustacean, is a target candidate to understand the mechanism of male development and to mine male-specific sex markers. An SSH library (designated as male reproduction-related tissues—SSH library, MRT-SSH library for short was constructed using cDNA from tissues located at the basal part of the 5th pereiopods, including AG and part of spermatophore sac, as tester, and the cDNA from the basal part of the 4th pereiopods of these male shrimp as driver. 402 ESTs from the SSH library were sequenced and assembled into 48 contigs and 104 singlets. Twelve contigs and 14 singlets were identified as known genes. The proteins encoded by the identified genes were categorized, according to their proposed functions, into neuropeptide hormone and hormone transporter, RNA posttranscriptional regulation, translation, cell growth and death, metabolism, genetic information processing, signal transduction/transport, or immunity-related proteins. Eleven highly expressed contigs in the SSH library were selected for validation of the MRT-SSH library and screening sex markers of shrimp. One contig, specifically expressed in male shrimp, had a potential to be developed as a transcriptomic sex marker in shrimp.

  11. HIV prevention among male clients of female sex workers in Kaolack, Senegal: results of a peer education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, L; Ndiaye, I; Kapadia, A; Eisen, G; Diop, O; Mboup, S; Kanki, P

    2000-02-01

    This article reports the results of a peer-led HIV prevention education and condom promotion program among transport workers in Kaolack, Senegal. As part of a 2-year longitudinal follow-up study, changes in men's AIDS-related knowledge, sexual behavior, condom use, and perceived barriers to condom use were evaluated by self-reports obtained from a systematic sample of transport workers interviewed before and after intervention. In addition to men's self-reports, preintervention and postintervention data on men's sexual and condom use behavior were gathered from a sample of licensed, commercial sex workers, who cited transport workers as their primary source of clients. Significant increases in men's HIV-related knowledge, previous use of condoms (from 30.4% to 53.5%), and consistent condom use with regular sex partners were documented over the study period, as were significant declines in perceived barriers to condom use. Though men reported significantly fewer sexual encounters with casual and commercial partners at follow-up compared to baseline, these data were unreliable. Women's postintervention reports indicate that a greater proportion of clients (including, but not limited to transport workers) "always" agree to use condoms (p money for unprotected sex (p taking greater initiative in the mechanics of condom use (supplying the condom, putting it on, and taking it off) than they did prior to the intervention, and significantly (p < .05) fewer women think that most of their clients know how to use a condom. The findings indicate that the peer-mediated intervention had a positive impact on several important outcomes measured and suggest that HIV prevention efforts need to focus on male client groups despite the logistical and methodological challenges.

  12. Torque teno virus infection in male commercial sex workers in Surakarta Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Luvi, Sabrina Damara; Hartono, Sari, Yulia

    2017-02-01

    The molecular epidemiology data of torque teno virus (TTV) in Indonesia is very rare. This study evaluated the prevalence of TTV in male commercial sex workers, as one of the high risk community for blood borne viruses pathogens in Surakarta, Indonesia. All blood samples collected from male commercial sex workers in Surakarta in 2009-2013 were tested by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplified PCR products were molecularly cloned and subjected to sequence analysis. TTV DNA was detected in 80.9% (72/89) samples. Furthermore, the molecular characterization revealed that the most prevalent was genogroup 3, followed by genogroup 2 and l, respectively. TTV was detected in male commercial sex workers in Surakarta with high infection rate. Further investigation about TTV circulation in Indonesian population is needed in order to provide additional information about the genetic variability and TTV epidemiology in Indonesia, especially in the high risk communities.

  13. Uptake of Home-Based Syphilis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing Among Male Partners of Pregnant Women in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Jennifer; Kinuthia, John; Roxby, Alison C; Krakowiak, Daisy; Osoti, Alfred; Richardson, Barbra A; Gone, Molly Ann; Asila, Victor; Parikh, Saloni; Farquhar, Carey

    2017-09-01

    Few men are tested for syphilis or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during their partner's pregnancy, a high-risk period for HIV and syphilis transmission. Offering home-based rapid testing of syphilis to couples during pregnancy can support prevention efforts to reduce transmission of sexually transmitted diseases and adverse pregnancy outcomes. We assessed men's uptake of paired (separate tests, single blood draw) point-of-care syphilis and HIV tests within a randomized controlled trial of pregnant women who received clinic or home partner HIV testing. We evaluated acceptance of paired HIV-syphilis testing during pregnancy or at 6 months postpartum, and evaluated whether addition of syphilis testing affected the uptake of HIV testing among men. Of 601 women, we were unable to meet 101 male partners, and 180 tested before syphilis tests were available. Paired syphilis and HIV testing was offered at home to 80 men during pregnancy and to 230 men postpartum. For syphilis, 93% of men agreed to test during pregnancy and 98% agreed postpartum. For paired syphilis and HIV testing, 91% of men tested for both during pregnancy and 96% tested postpartum. Before syphilis test introduction, 96% of men accepted HIV testing, compared with 95% of men who accepted HIV testing when paired testing was offered. Uptake of syphilis and HIV testing was high among male partners offered couple testing at home. Introducing syphilis testing did not adversely affect HIV testing among men. Point-of-care diagnostics outside facilities can increase testing of male partners who rarely accompany women to antenatal clinics.

  14. Prevalence of Consensual Male–Male Sex and Sexual Violence, and Associations with HIV in South Africa: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkle, Kristin L.; Jewkes, Rachel K.; Murdock, Daniel W.; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Morrell, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan Africa the population prevalence of men who have sex with men (MSM) is unknown, as is the population prevalence of male-on-male sexual violence, and whether male-on-male sexual violence may relate to HIV risk. This paper describes lifetime prevalence of consensual male–male sexual behavior and male-on-male sexual violence (victimization and perpetration) in two South African provinces, socio-demographic factors associated with these experiences, and associations with HIV serostatus. Methods and Findings In a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008, men aged 18–49 y from randomly selected households in the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal provinces provided anonymous survey data and dried blood spots for HIV serostatus assessment. Interviews were completed in 1,737 of 2,298 (75.6%) of enumerated and eligible households. From these households, 1,705 men (97.1%) provided data on lifetime history of same-sex experiences, and 1,220 (70.2%) also provided dried blood spots for HIV testing. 5.4% (n = 92) of participants reported a lifetime history of any consensual sexual activity with another man; 9.6% (n = 164) reported any sexual victimization by a man, and 3.0% (n = 51) reported perpetrating sexual violence against another man. 85.0% (n = 79) of men with a history of consensual sex with men reported having a current female partner, and 27.7% (n = 26) reported having a current male partner. Of the latter, 80.6% (n = 21/26) also reported having a female partner. Men reporting a history of consensual male–male sexual behavior are more likely to have been a victim of male-on-male sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 7.24; 95% CI 4.26–12.3), and to have perpetrated sexual violence against another man (aOR = 3.10; 95% CI 1.22–7.90). Men reporting consensual oral/anal sex with a man were more likely to be HIV+ than men with no such history (aOR = 3.11; 95% CI 1.24–7.80). Men who had raped a man

  15. Sex determination in beetles: Production of all male progeny by Parental RNAi knockdown of transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Sex in insects is determined by a cascade of regulators ultimately controlling sex-specific splicing of a transcription factor, Doublesex (Dsx). We recently identified homolog of dsx in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Tcdsx). Here, we report on the identification and characterization of a regulator of Tcdsx splicing in T. castaneum. Two male-specific and one female-specific isoforms of T. castaneum transformer (Tctra) were identified. RNA interference-aided knockdown of Tctra in pupa or adults caused a change in sex from females to males by diverting the splicing of Tcdsx pre-mRNA to male-specific isoform. All the pupa and adults developed from Tctra dsRNA injected final instar larvae showed male-specific sexually dimorphic structures. Tctra parental RNAi caused an elimination of females from the progeny resulting in production of all male progeny. Transformer parental RNAi could be used to produce all male population for use in pest control though sterile male release methods. PMID:22924109

  16. Regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities in male and female rat macrophages by sex steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo R.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Human and animal immune functions present sex dimorphism that seems to be mainly regulated by sex hormones. In the present study, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes total superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px were measured in intraperitoneal resident macrophages from adult male and female rats. In addition to comparing males and females, we also examined the regulation of these enzyme activities in macrophages by sex steroids. GSH-Px activity did not differ between male and female macrophages. However, both total SOD and CAT activities were markedly higher in females than in males (83 and 180%. Removal of the gonads in both males and females (comparison between castrated groups increased the difference in SOD activity from 83 to 138% and reduced the difference in CAT activity from 180 to 86%. Castration and testosterone administration did not significantly modify the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in male macrophages. Ovariectomy did not affect SOD or GSH-Px activity but markedly reduced (48% CAT activity. This latter change was fully reversed by estrogen administration, whereas progesterone had a smaller effect. These results led us to conclude that differences in the SOD and CAT activities may partially explain some of the differences in immune function reported for males and females. Also, estrogen is a potent regulator of CAT in macrophages and therefore this enzyme activity in macrophages may vary considerably during the menstrual cycle.

  17. Female-to-male sex reversal in mice caused by transgenic overexpression of Dmrt1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Liang; Svingen, Terje; Ting Ng, Ee

    2015-01-01

    for primary sex determination and instead maintains Sertoli cell phenotype in postnatal testes. Here, we report that enforced expression of Dmrt1 in XX mouse fetal gonads using a Wt1-BAC transgene system is sufficient to drive testicular differentiation and male secondary sex development. XX transgenic fetal...... into testicular cell types, including steroidogenic fetal Leydig cells and non-meiotic germ cells. As a consequence, male internal and external reproductive organs developed postnatally, with an absence of female reproductive tissues. These results reveal that Dmrt1 has retained its ability to act as the primary...

  18. Predictors of perceived male partner concurrency among women at risk for HIV and STI acquisition in Durban, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gaffoor, Zakir; Wand, Handan; Street, Ren?e A.; Abbai, Nathlee; Ramjee, Gita

    2016-01-01

    Background Women in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be at greater risk for HIV acquisition than men. Concurrency, viz. multiple sexual partnerships that overlap over time, has been studied as a possible risk factor for HIV transmission. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of perceived male partner concurrency among sexually active, HIV negative women. Methods Socio-demographic and behavioural data from women enrolled in a biomedical HIV prevention clinical trial were assessed in r...

  19. Lethal and nonlethal violence against an intimate female partner: comparing male murderers to nonlethal abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobash, R Emerson; Dobash, Russell P; Cavanagh, Kate; Medina-Ariza, Juanjo

    2007-04-01

    Men's lethal and nonlethal violence against an intimate female partner are compared. Various risk factors are examined to compare men's lethal and nonlethal violence against an intimate woman partner. Relative to abusers, men who kill are generally more conventional with respect to childhood backgrounds, education, employment, and criminal careers, are more likely to be possessive and jealous, and are more likely to be separated from their partner at the time of the event. Men who kill are more likely to have used violence against a previous partner, to have sexually assaulted and strangled the victim, and to have used a weapon or instrument. However, they were less likely to have been drunk at the time of the event and/or to have previously used violence against the woman they killed. Overall, the findings do not support the notion of a simple progression from nonlethal to lethal violence and raise some dilemmas for the growing area of risk assessment.

  20. High burden of STI and HIV in male sex workers working as internet escorts for men in an observational study: a hidden key population compared with female sex workers and other men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegh-Haasnoot, Amanja; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H T M; Hoebe, Christian J P A

    2015-07-29

    Male sex work in the western countries has changed, including now a subculture of male sex workers who have paid sex with men arranged for via the internet. The men involved in this subculture do not easily identify themselves as sex workers nor as homosexual, and are therefore missed by regular health care and public health interventions. These male sex workers may form a hidden key population for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV, bridging towards other persons outside this context. This clinic-based observational study included consultations by male sex workers (n = 212), female sex workers (n = 801) and in men having sex with men who did not report being paid for sexual contacts (MSM, n = 2703) who received STI and HIV testing and counselling at our clinic during the study period. In this study we compare the consultations in male sex workers to those in in female sex workers and MSM. Demographic characteristics and sexual behaviour of the male sex workers, female sex workers and MSM were compared using chi-square tests and non-parametric tests. Using univariate and multivariate regression analyses, determinants for STI positivity in male sex workers were evaluated. Male sex workers tested positive for STI (including HIV) in 40 % of the consultations; female sex workers and MSM respectively in 9 and 14 % of the consultations. A new HIV infection was found in 8 % of the consultations of male sex workers. Male sex workers were a young population of migrant sex workers from Eastern Europe. They reported more often to also have sex contacts with women and other sex workers. Male sex workers are at a higher risk for one or more new STI than female sex workers and other MSM, even after correction for age, ethnicity, known HIV positivity and behavioural variables. Male sex workers form a hidden key population that impacts the transmission of STI and HIV within the MSM population and, possibly, to the heterosexual population. They require specific targeted

  1. Synergistic Disruption of External Male Sex Organ Development by a Mixture of Four Antiandrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie; Scholze, Martin; Dalgaard, Majken

    2009-01-01

    : Strikingly, the effect of combined exposure to the selected chemicals on malformations of external sex organs was synergistic, and the observed responses were greater than would be predicted from the toxicities of the individual chemicals. In relation to other hallmarks of disrupted male sexual development......, and a pharmaceutical, finasteride, on landmarks of male sexual development in the rat, including changes in anogenital distance, retained nipples, sex organ weights and malformations of genitalia. These chemicals were chosen because they disrupt androgen action according to differing mechanisms of action. Results...... in male offspring. Conclusions: Since unhindered androgen action is essential for human male development in foetal life, these findings are highly relevant to human risk assessment. Evaluations that ignore the possibility of combination effects may lead to considerable underestimations of risks associated...

  2. Demographics, Behaviors, and Sexual Health Characteristics of High Risk Men Who Have Sex With Men and Transgender Women Who Use Social Media to Meet Sex Partners in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Jeremy Y; Konda, Kelika A; Calvo, Gino M; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Cáceres, Carlos F

    2017-03-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in Peru bear a disproportionate burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In a context of quickly expanding communication technology, increasing numbers of MSM and TW are using social media applications to seek sex partners. Understanding social media users and their sex partnering practices is needed to update HIV and STI prevention programming. In Lima, Peru, 312 MSM and 89 TW from 2 STI clinics underwent HIV and STI testing and participated in a survey of demographics, behaviors, sexual health, and social media practices. χ, t tests, and Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare those with and without recent social media sex partners. Men who have sex with men with social media sex partners were younger, more educated, and more likely to identify as gay. They were significantly more likely to report greater numbers of sex partners, including anonymous sex partners; sex in higher-risk venues, orgies, and have rectal Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Transgender women with social media sex partners were also younger, more likely to participate in sex work, and have a lower rate of rapid plasma reagin positivity or history of syphilis. Participants reported using several social media sites including sexual hook-up applications, websites for gay men, pornographic websites, and chat sites, but the most common was Facebook. Prevention strategies targeting Peruvian MSM and TW who use social media are needed to address higher-risk sexual behavior and the high burden of STIs.

  3. A novel male-associated marker for sex identification in Ussuri catfish Pseudobagrus ussuriensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chuankun; Pan, Zhengjun; Wang, Hui; Chang, Guoliang; Ding, Huaiyu

    2017-08-01

    The Ussuri catfish Pseudobagrus ussuriensis is a promising aquaculture fish with sexual dimorphism that males grow 2-3 times faster than females. Therefore, all-male breeding could increase production of this fish, and sex-linked markers would be useful during the breeding process. In this study, a male-associated marker named PuGT54 was isolated in P. ussuriensis from a previously constructed microsatellite library. A total of 185 P. ussuriensis individuals containing 95 females and 90 males were used to test the usage of this maker. And results showed that sexes of all individuals were successfully identified, indicating the high reliability and accuracy of this marker for sex identification. Furthermore, the male-specific fragment amplified by this maker was cloned and sequenced, which was 118 base pairs in length. As homologous genes of this fragment was not found through BLASTn, detailed information of the male-specific fragment is unknown presently. Nevertheless, this marker would be helpful in conservation, breeding and ecological study of P. ussuriensis.

  4. Male Sex Workers: Practices, Contexts, and Vulnerabilities for HIV acquisition and transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Stefan David; Friedman, M. Reuel; Geibel, Scott; Rebe, Kevin; Bozhinov, Borche; Diouf, Daouda; Sabin, Keith; Holland, Claire E.; Chan, Roy; Caceres, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Summary Male sex workers (MSW) who sell/exchange sex for money or goods comprise an extremely diverse population across and within countries worldwide. Information characterizing their practices, contexts where they live, and their needs is very limited, as these men are generally included as subsets of larger studies focused on gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) or even female sex workers. MSW, regardless of their sexual orientation, mostly offer sex to men, and rarely identify as sex workers, using local or international terms instead. There is growing evidence of a sustained or increasing burden of HIV among some MSW in the context of the slowing global HIV pandemic. There are several synergistic facilitator spotentiating HIV acquisition and transmission among MSW, including biological, behavioural, and structural determinants. The criminalization and intersectional stigmas of same-sex practices, commercial sex, and HIV all increase HIV and STI risk for MSW and decrease their likelihood of accessing essential services. These contexts, taken together with complex sexual networks among MSW, define them as a key population underserved by current HIV prevention, treatment, and care services. Dedicated efforts are needed to make those services available for the sake of both public health and human rights. PMID:25059939

  5. The Sex Determination Gene transformer Regulates Male-Female Differences in Drosophila Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Elizabeth J; Narsaiya, Marcus S; Grewal, Savraj S

    2015-12-01

    Almost all animals show sex differences in body size. For example, in Drosophila, females are larger than males. Although Drosophila is widely used as a model to study growth, the mechanisms underlying this male-female difference in size remain unclear. Here, we describe a novel role for the sex determination gene transformer (tra) in promoting female body growth. Normally, Tra is expressed only in females. We find that loss of Tra in female larvae decreases body size, while ectopic Tra expression in males increases body size. Although we find that Tra exerts autonomous effects on cell size, we also discovered that Tra expression in the fat body augments female body size in a non cell-autonomous manner. These effects of Tra do not require its only known targets doublesex and fruitless. Instead, Tra expression in the female fat body promotes growth by stimulating the secretion of insulin-like peptides from insulin producing cells in the brain. Our data suggest a model of sex-specific growth in which body size is regulated by a previously unrecognized branch of the sex determination pathway, and identify Tra as a novel link between sex and the conserved insulin signaling pathway.

  6. The Sex Determination Gene transformer Regulates Male-Female Differences in Drosophila Body Size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J Rideout

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Almost all animals show sex differences in body size. For example, in Drosophila, females are larger than males. Although Drosophila is widely used as a model to study growth, the mechanisms underlying this male-female difference in size remain unclear. Here, we describe a novel role for the sex determination gene transformer (tra in promoting female body growth. Normally, Tra is expressed only in females. We find that loss of Tra in female larvae decreases body size, while ectopic Tra expression in males increases body size. Although we find that Tra exerts autonomous effects on cell size, we also discovered that Tra expression in the fat body augments female body size in a non cell-autonomous manner. These effects of Tra do not require its only known targets doublesex and fruitless. Instead, Tra expression in the female fat body promotes growth by stimulating the secretion of insulin-like peptides from insulin producing cells in the brain. Our data suggest a model of sex-specific growth in which body size is regulated by a previously unrecognized branch of the sex determination pathway, and identify Tra as a novel link between sex and the conserved insulin signaling pathway.

  7. Lived experiences of male intimate partners of female rape victims in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evalina van Wijk

    2014-09-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of MIPs of female rape victims and the meaning of these experiences in the six months following the partner’s rape. Method: We conducted a longitudinal hermeneutic phenomenological study. Nine purposively sampled adult MIPs were interviewed over a period of six months. The participants were in an intimate relationship with a female rape victim prior to and immediately after the rape; their partners had been treated at a specialised centre for victims of rape and sexual assault. Four interviews were conducted with each of the nine intimate partners of female rape victims: (1 within 14 days of, (2 a month after, (3 three months after, and (4 six months after the rape. Results: Two major themes emerged: being-in-the-world as a secondary victim of rape, and living in multiple worlds, those of their female partners, family, friends, society, employers or colleagues, professionals and the justice system. The participant’s familiar world became strange and even threatening, and his relationship with his partner became uncertain. Conclusion: Early supportive intervention for intimate partners of female rape victims is required to prevent on-going emotional trauma and alleviate the effects of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and suffering at intra- and interpersonal levels.

  8. What do You Need to Get Male Partners of Pregnant Women Tested for HIV in Resource Limited Settings? The Baby Shower Cluster Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeanolue, Echezona E; Obiefune, Michael C; Yang, Wei; Ezeanolue, Chinenye O; Pharr, Jennifer; Osuji, Alice; Ogidi, Amaka G; Hunt, Aaron T; Patel, Dina; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Ehiri, John E

    2017-02-01

    Male partner involvement has the potential to increase uptake of interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). Finding cultural appropriate strategies to promote male partner involvement in PMTCT programs remains an abiding public health challenge. We assessed whether a congregation-based intervention, the Healthy Beginning Initiative (HBI), would lead to increased uptake of HIV testing among male partners of pregnant women during pregnancy. A cluster-randomized controlled trial of forty churches in Southeastern Nigeria randomly assigned to either the HBI (intervention group; IG) or standard of care referral to a health facility (control group; CG) was conducted. Participants in the IG received education and were offered onsite HIV testing. Overall, 2498 male partners enrolled and participated, a participation rate of 88.9%. Results showed that male partners in the IG were 12 times more likely to have had an HIV test compared to male partners of pregnant women in the CG (CG = 37.71% vs. IG = 84.00%; adjusted odds ratio = 11.9; p HIV testing and counseling among male partners of pregnant women.

  9. Sex disparity in colonic adenomagenesis involves promotion by male hormones, not protection by female hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amos-Landgraf, James M.; Heijmans, Jarom; Wielenga, Mattheus C. B.; Dunkin, Elisa; Krentz, Kathy J.; Clipson, Linda; Ederveen, Antwan G.; Groothuis, Patrick G.; Mosselman, Sietse; Muncan, Vanesa; Hommes, Daniel W.; Shedlovsky, Alexandra; Dove, William F.; van den Brink, Gijs R.

    2014-01-01

    It recently has been recognized that men develop colonic adenomas and carcinomas at an earlier age and at a higher rate than women. In the Apc(Pirc/+) (Pirc) rat model of early colonic cancer, this sex susceptibility was recapitulated, with male Pirc rats developing twice as many adenomas as

  10. Activation of PPAR by Rosiglitazone Does Not Negatively Impact Male Sex Steroid Hormones in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mansour

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR activation decreased serum testosterone (T in women with hyperthecosis and/or polycystic ovary syndrome and reduced the conversion of androgens to estradiol (E2 in female rats. This implies modulation of female sex steroid hormones by PPAR. It is not clear if PPAR modulates sex steroid hormones in diabetic males. Because PPAR activation by thiazolidinedione increased insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes, understanding the long term impact of PPAR activation on steroid sex hormones in males is critical. Our objective was to determine the effect of PPAR activation on serum and intratesticular T, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and E2 concentrations in male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats treated with the PPAR agonist rosiglitazone (a thiazolidinedione. Treatment for eight weeks increased PPAR mRNA and protein in the testis and elevated serum adiponectin, an adipokine marker for PPAR activation. PPAR activation did not alter serum or intratesticular T concentrations. In contrast, serum T level but not intratesticular T was reduced by diabetes. Neither diabetes nor PPAR activation altered serum E2 or gonadotropins FSH and LH concentrations. The results suggest that activation of PPAR by rosiglitazone has no negative impact on sex hormones in male ZDF rats.

  11. A Phenomenological Study of Middle Grade Female and Male Students' Single-Sex Mathematical Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Amber; Che, S. Megan

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing a descriptive phenomenological design, this study examines the lived experiences of seven middle grade students, four females and three males, enrolled in a single-sex mathematics classroom within a coeducational school setting. The intent of the study is to understand, from students themselves, about the experience of single-sex…

  12. Sexual violence and the risk of HIV transmission in sexual partners of male injecting drug users in Tien Du district, Bac Ninh province of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Vinh Thi; Ho, Hien Thi; Nguyen, Tri Manh; Do, Huynh Khac

    2018-04-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study among 148 women who were regular sexual partners of male injecting drug users in Tien Du, Bac Ninh province, Vietnam to identify the rate of HIV infection and factors associated with HIV transmission among them. HIV infection rate among sexual partners was high, 11.5%. Sexual violence was prevalent, 63.5% among sexual partners; 94.1% (16/17) among those with HIV. We discovered an association between sexual violence and HIV infection. Sexual partners suffering from sexual violence caused by their regular sexual partners faced 9.24 times higher HIV risk than those who did not have sexual violence.

  13. Social context, sexual risk perceptions and stigma: HIV vulnerability among male sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okal, Jerry; Luchters, Stanley; Geibel, Scott; Chersich, Matthew F; Lango, Daniel; Temmerman, Marleen

    2009-11-01

    Knowledge about sexual practices and life experiences of men having sex with men in Kenya, and indeed in East Africa, is limited. Although the impact of male same-sex HIV transmission in Africa is increasingly acknowledged, HIV prevention initiatives remain focused largely on heterosexual and mother-to-child transmission. Using data from ten in-depth interviews and three focus group discussions (36 men), this analysis explores social and behavioural determinants of sexual risks among men who sell sex to men in Mombasa, Kenya. Analysis showed a range and variation of men by age and social class. First male same-sex experiences occurred for diverse reasons, including love and pleasure, as part of sexual exploration, economic exchange and coercion. Condom use is erratic and subject to common constraints, including notions of sexual interference and motivations of clients. Low knowledge compounds sexual risk taking, with a widespread belief that the risk of HIV transmission through anal sex is lower than vaginal sex. Traditional family values, stereotypes of abnormality, gender norms and cultural and religious influences underlie intense stigma and discrimination. This information is guiding development of peer education programmes and sensitisation of health providers, addressing unmet HIV prevention needs. Such changes are required throughout Eastern Africa.

  14. Influence of electromagnetic pulse on the offspring sex ratio of male BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Hui; Jiang, Da-Peng; Wang, Ya-Feng; Yan, Jia-Jia; Guo, Qi-Yan; Miao, Xia; Lang, Hai-Yang; Xu, Sheng-Long; Liu, Jun-Ye; Guo, Guo-Zhen

    2017-09-01

    Public concern is growing about the exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and its effect on male reproductive health. Detrimental effect of EMF exposure on sex hormones, reproductive performance and sex-ratio was reported. The present study was designed to clarify whether paternal exposure to electromagnetic pulse (EMP) affects offspring sex ratio in mice. 50 male BALB/c mice aged 5-6 weeks were exposed to EMP daily for 2 weeks before mated with non-exposed females at 0d, 7d, 14d, 21d and 28d after exposure. Sex hormones including total testosterone, LH, FSH, and GnRH were detected using radioimmunoassay. The sex ratio was examined by PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis. The results of D0, D21 and D28 showed significant increases compared with sham-exposed groups. The serum testosterone increased significantly in D0, D14, D21, and D28 compared with sham-exposed groups (p<0.05). Overall, this study suggested that EMP exposure may lead to the disturbance of reproductive hormone levels and affect the offspring sex ratio. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Depressive symptom trajectories in women affected by breast cancer and their male partners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottmann, Nina; Hansen, Dorte Gilså; Hagedoorn, Mariët

    2016-01-01

    whether patients and partners had similar trajectories. METHODS: A nationwide, population-based cohort of couples dealing with breast cancer was established in Denmark. Participants completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale at baseline and 5 and 12 months later. Sociodemographic......PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of breast cancer patients and their partners based on distinct trajectories of depressive symptoms, to examine how relationship quality and medical and sociodemographic factors were associated with these trajectories, and to explore...... and medical characteristics were retrieved from registers. A trajectory finite mixture model was used to identify trajectories. RESULTS: The trajectories of depressive symptoms over time were analyzed in 546 patients and 508 partners. Among patients, 13 % had a high stable trajectory, 38 % an intermediate...

  16. When Sex Work Becomes Your Everything: The Complex Linkages Between Economy and Affection Among Male Sex Workers in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Angela M; Garvich, Mijail; Díaz, David A; Sánchez, Hugo; García, Patricia J; Coates, Thomas J

    2014-09-01

    In Peru, there are few studies on male sex workers (MSWs), and existing studies explore limited subgroups or offer limited information about MSWs' perspectives. This study provides in-depth perspectives from 40 MSWs who work in downtown Lima (Cercado) and in surrounding urban neighborhoods (non-Cercado) through interviews on their identities, lives, and HIV/STI (sexually transmitted infection) risks and vulnerabilities. Findings are that entry into sex work links economy and affection, particularly among Cercado MSWs. Continued sex work cements this link, making it difficult to exit sex work and establish goals. Ties between economics and affections influence MSWs' perceived HIV/STI risks, vulnerabilities, and prevention practices. Although Cercado MSWs report higher HIV/STI risks and vulnerabilities than non-Cercado peers, they report fewer prevention practices given inability to buy condoms and acceptance of client offers of higher payment, especially clients they feel affection for. MSWs need support to strengthen their self-perceptions and define and pursue their goals in order to improve their HIV/STI prevention practices, health, and well-being. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. Male-driven grooming bouts in mixed-sex dyads of Kinda baboons (Papio kindae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyher, Anna H; Phillips-Conroy, Jane E; Fourrier, Marc S; Jolly, Clifford J

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of the Central African Kinda baboon (Papio kindae) is not well documented. Having previously noted distinctive grooming behavior in several Kinda baboon populations, we investigated the topic more systematically in the Kafue National Park, Zambia. We recorded the duration and details of male-female dyadic interactions (approaches, withdrawals and time spent grooming) in the early morning and late afternoon. Such interactions were more often initiated by the male and terminated by the female partner. The male groomed the female more often, and longer, than she groomed him, regardless of the female's reproductive state or the presence of an infant. The bias towards male grooming was stronger in morning than evening interactions. These behaviors, whose function is not immediately obvious, and which are unlike those previously reported in baboons, further exemplify the distinctiveness of the taxon.

  18. Gadd45g is essential for primary sex determination, male fertility and testis development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Johnen

    Full Text Available In humans and most mammals, differentiation of the embryonic gonad into ovaries or testes is controlled by the Y-linked gene SRY. Here we show a role for the Gadd45g protein in this primary sex differentiation. We characterized mice deficient in Gadd45a, Gadd45b and Gadd45g, as well as double-knockout mice for Gadd45ab, Gadd45ag and Gadd45bg, and found a specific role for Gadd45g in male fertility and testis development. Gadd45g-deficient XY mice on a mixed 129/C57BL/6 background showed varying degrees of disorders of sexual development (DSD, ranging from male infertility to an intersex phenotype or complete gonadal dysgenesis (CGD. On a pure C57BL/6 (B6 background, all Gadd45g(-/- XY mice were born as completely sex-reversed XY-females, whereas lack of Gadd45a and/or Gadd45b did not affect primary sex determination or testis development. Gadd45g expression was similar in female and male embryonic gonads, and peaked around the time of sex differentiation at 11.5 days post-coitum (dpc. The molecular cause of the sex reversal was the failure of Gadd45g(-/- XY gonads to achieve the SRY expression threshold necessary for testes differentiation, resulting in ovary and Müllerian duct development. These results identify Gadd45g as a candidate gene for male infertility and 46,XY sex reversal in humans.

  19. Postzygotic incompatibilities between the pupfishes, Cyprinodon elegans and Cyprinodon variegatus: hybrid male sterility and sex ratio bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech, C

    2006-11-01

    I examined the intrinsic postzygotic incompatibilities between two pupfishes, Cyprinodon elegans and Cyprinodon variegatus. Laboratory hybridization experiments revealed evidence of strong postzygotic isolation. Male hybrids have very low fertility, and the survival of backcrosses into C. elegans was substantially reduced. In addition, several crosses produced female-biased sex ratios. Crosses involving C. elegans females and C. variegatus males produced only females, and in backcrosses involving hybrid females and C. elegans males, males made up approximately 25% of the offspring. All other crosses produced approximately 50% males. These sex ratios could be explained by genetic incompatibilities that occur, at least in part, on sex chromosomes. Thus, these results provide strong albeit indirect evidence that pupfish have XY chromosomal sex determination. The results of this study provide insight on the evolution of reproductive isolating mechanisms, particularly the role of Haldane's rule and the 'faster-male' theory in taxa lacking well-differentiated sex chromosomes.

  20. The influence of gender role stereotyping on women's experiences of female same-sex intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassouneh, Dena; Glass, Nancy

    2008-03-01

    Female same-sex intimate partner violence (FSSIPV) is a serious problem that affects the health and safety of lesbian and bisexual women. To begin to address the paucity of research, a mixed methods study was conducted to identify shared and unique risk and protective factors for FSSIPV. This article reports on qualitative findings related to the influence of gender role stereotyping on women's experiences of FSSIPV. Findings indicate that gender role stereotyping shapes women's experiences of FSSIPV by influencing individual, familial, community, and societal perceptions and responses to this phenomenon.

  1. Stigma in Male Depression and Suicide: A Canadian Sex Comparison Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliffe, John L; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Gordon, Susan J; Creighton, Genevieve; Kelly, Mary T; Black, Nick; Mackenzie, Corey

    2016-04-01

    Stigma in men's depression and suicide can restrict help-seeking, reduce treatment compliance and deter individuals from confiding in friends and family. In this article we report sex comparison findings from a national survey of English-speaking adult Canadians about stigmatized beliefs concerning male depression and suicide. Among respondents without direct experience of depression or suicide (n = 541) more than a third endorsed the view that men with depression are unpredictable. Overall, a greater proportion of males endorsed stigmatizing views about male depression compared to female respondents. A greater proportion of female respondents endorsed items indicating that men who suicide are disconnected, lost and lonely. Male and female respondents with direct personal experience of depression or suicide (n = 360) strongly endorsed stigmatizing attitudes toward themselves and a greater proportion of male respondents indicated that they would be embarrassed about seeking help for depression.

  2. Risk of Intimate Partner Violence among Young Adult Males with Childhood ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymbs, Brian; Molina, Brooke; Pelham, William; Cheong, JeeWon; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Belendiuk, Kat; Walther, Christine; Babinski, Dara; Waschbusch, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research has clearly documented the social dysfunction of youth with ADHD. However, little is known about the interpersonal relationships of adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood, including rates of intimate partner violence (IPV). Method: Using data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study, analyses compared the level of IPV…

  3. Capturing the Interpersonal Implications of Evolved Preferences? Frequency of Sex Shapes Automatic, but Not Explicit, Partner Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Lindsey L; McNulty, James K; Meltzer, Andrea L; Olson, Michael A

    2016-06-01

    A strong predisposition to engage in sexual intercourse likely evolved in humans because sex is crucial to reproduction. Given that meeting interpersonal preferences tends to promote positive relationship evaluations, sex within a relationship should be positively associated with relationship satisfaction. Nevertheless, prior research has been inconclusive in demonstrating such a link, with longitudinal and experimental studies showing no association between sexual frequency and relationship satisfaction. Crucially, though, all prior research has utilized explicit reports of satisfaction, which reflect deliberative processes that may override the more automatic implications of phylogenetically older evolved preferences. Accordingly, capturing the implications of sexual frequency for relationship evaluations may require implicit measurements that bypass deliberative reasoning. Consistent with this idea, one cross-sectional and one 3-year study of newlywed couples revealed a positive association between sexual frequency and automatic partner evaluations but not explicit satisfaction. These findings highlight the importance of automatic measurements to understanding interpersonal relationships. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Effects of male sex hormones on gender identity, sexual behavior, and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuan-shan; Cai, Li-qun

    2006-04-01

    Androgens, the male sex hormones, play an essential role in male sexual differentiation and development. However, the influence of these sex hormones extends beyond their roles in sexual differentiation and development. In many animal species, sex hormones have been shown to be essential for sexual differentiation of the brain during development and for maintaining sexually dimorphic behavior throughout life. The principals of sex determination in humans have been demonstrated to be similar to other mammals. However, the hormonal influence on sexual dimorphic differences in the nervous system in humans, sex differences in behaviors, and its correlations with those of other mammals is still an emerging field. In this review, the roles of androgens in gender and cognitive function are discussed with the emphasis on subjects with androgen action defects including complete androgen insensitivity due to androgen receptor mutations and 5alpha-reductase-2 deficiency syndromes due to 5alpha-reductase-2 gene mutations. The issue of the complex interaction of nature versus nurture is addressed.

  5. A NEW HYPOTHESIS ON THE EVOLUTION OF SEX DETERMINATION IN VERTEBRATES - BIG FEMALES ZW, BIG MALES XY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KRAAK, SBM; DELOOZE, EMA

    1993-01-01

    Why are there two chromosomal sex-determining mechanisms in vertebrates; ZW/ZZ, meaning female heterogamety, and XX/XY, meaning male heterogamety? We propose an evolutionary explanation. Transition from environmental sex determination to genetic sex determination can result when an allele that

  6. The dynamics of male brooding, mating patterns, and sex roles in pipefishes and seahorses (family Syngnathidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anthony B; Ahnesjö, Ingrid; Vincent, Amanda C J; Meyer, Axel

    2003-06-01

    Modern theory predicts that relative parental investment of the sexes in their young is a key factor responsible for sexual selection. Seahorses and pipefishes (family Syngnathidae) are extraordinary among fishes in their remarkable adaptations for paternal care and frequent occurrences of sex-role reversals (i.e., female-female competition for mates), offering exceptional opportunities to test predictions of sexual selection theory. During mating, the female transfers eggs into or onto specialized egg-brooding structures that are located on either the male's abdomen or its tail, where they are osmoregulated, aerated, and nourished by specially adapted structures. All syngnathid males exhibit this form of parental care but the brooding structures vary, ranging from the simple ventral gluing areas of some pipefishes to the completely enclosed pouches found in seahorses. We present a molecular phylogeny that indicates that the diversification of pouch types is positively correlated with the major evolutionary radiation of the group, suggesting that this extreme development and diversification of paternal care may have been an important evolutionary innovation of the Syngnathidae. Based on recent studies that show that the complexity of brooding structures reflects the degree of paternal investment in several syngnathid species, we predicted sex-role reversals to be more common among species with more complex brooding structures. In contrast to this prediction, however, both parsimony- and likelihood-based reconstructions of the evolution of sex-role reversal in pipefishes and seahorses suggest multiple shifts in sex roles in the group, independent from the degree of brood pouch development. At the same time, our data demonstrate that sex-role reversal is positively associated with polygamous mating patterns, whereas most nonreversed species mate monogamously, suggesting that selection for polygamy or monogamy in pipefishes and seahorses may strongly influence sex

  7. Is Sex Good for Your Health? A National Study on Partnered Sexuality and Cardiovascular Risk among Older Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Waite, Linda J; Shen, Shannon; Wang, Donna H

    2016-09-01

    Working from a social relationship and life course perspective, we provide generalizable population-based evidence on partnered sexuality linked to cardiovascular risk in later life using national longitudinal data from the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (NSHAP) (N = 2,204). We consider characteristics of partnered sexuality of older men and women, particularly sexual activity and sexual quality, as they affect cardiovascular risk. Cardiovascular risk is defined as hypertension, rapid heart rate, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), and general cardiovascular events. We find that older men are more likely to report being sexually active, having sex more often, and more enjoyably than are older women. Results from cross-lagged models suggest that high frequency of sex is positively related to later risk of cardiovascular events for men but not women, whereas good sexual quality seems to protect women but not men from cardiovascular risk in later life. We find no evidence that poor cardiovascular health interferes with later sexuality for either gender. © American Sociological Association 2016.

  8. Behavioral tactics of male sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) under varying operating sex ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Thomas P.; Adkison, Milo D.; Ward, Michael B.

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated several reproductive-behavior patterns in male salmon, including competitive and sneaking tactics, the formation of hierarchies, and non-hierarchical aggregations around ripe females. Through behavioral observations at varying spatial and temporal scales, we examined the hypothesis that operational sex ratio (OSR) determines male sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) distribution and breeding tactics. Patterns of male distribution and behavior varied over both coarse and fine scales, associated with apparent shifts in reproductive opportunities, the physical characteristics of the breeding sites, and the deterioration of the fish as they approached death. Females spawned completely within a few days of arriving on the spawning grounds, whereas males courted the available ripe females from the date of their arrival on the spawning ground until their death. This difference in reproductive lifespans tended to elevate late-season OSRs but was partially counterbalanced by male departures and the arrival of other ripe females. The proportion of males able to dominate access to ripe females decreased and the number of large courting groups increased over the course of the season, apparently related to both increasing OSR and the deteriorating physical condition of males. However, great variation in OSR was observed within the spawning sites on a given day. OSRs were generally higher in shallow than in deep water, perhaps because larger females or more desirable breeding sites were concentrated in shallow water. The aggregations of males courting females were not stable (i.e. many arrivals and departures took place) and male aggression varied with group size. Aggression was most frequent at low OSRs and in groups of intermediate size (2–4 males per female), and much less frequent in larger groups, consistent with the needs of maximizing reproductive opportunities while minimizing unproductive energy expenditure. These results indicate

  9. Trauma symptoms, internalized stigma, social support, and sexual risk behavior among HIV-positive gay and bisexual MSM who have sought sex partners online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Kaylee E; Cruess, Dean G; Kalichman, Moira O; Grebler, Tamar; Cherry, Chauncey; Kalichman, Seth C

    2016-01-01

    Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) remain the highest risk group for HIV infection. One reason is the increased use of the Internet to meet potential sex partners, which is associated with greater sexual risk behavior. To date, few studies have investigated psychosocial predictors of sexual risk behavior among gay and bisexual men seeking sex partners online. The purpose of the current study was to test a conceptual model of the relationships between trauma symptoms indexed on the event of HIV diagnosis, internalized HIV stigma, and social support on sexual risk behavior among gay and bisexual MSM who seek sex partners online. A sample of 142 gay and bisexual MSM recruited on- and offline completed a comprehensive online assessment battery assessing the factors noted above. A number of associations emerged; most notably internalized HIV stigma mediated the relationship between trauma-related symptoms indexed on the event of HIV diagnosis and sexual risk behavior with HIV-negative and unknown serostatus sex partners. This suggests that gay and bisexual MSM who are in greater distress over their HIV diagnosis and who are more sensitive to HIV stigma engage in more HIV transmission risk behavior. As sexual risk environments expand with the increasing use of the Internet to connect with others for sex, it is important to understand the predictors of sexual risk behavior so that tailored interventions can promote sexual health for gay and bisexual MSM seeking sex online.

  10. Different male versus female breeding periodicity helps mitigate offspring sex ratio skews in sea turtles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Clive Hays

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The implications of climate change for global biodiversity may be profound with those species with little capacity for adaptation being thought to be particularly vulnerable to warming. A classic case of groups for concern are those animals exhibiting temperature-dependent sex-determination (TSD, such as sea turtles, where climate warming may produce single sex populations and hence extinction. We show that, globally, female biased hatchling sex ratios dominate sea turtle populations (exceeding 3:1 in >50% records, which, at-a-glance, reiterates concerns for extinction. However, we also demonstrate that more frequent breeding by males, empirically shown by satellite tracking 23 individuals and supported by a generalized bio-energetic life history model, generates more balanced operational sex ratios (OSRs. Hence, concerns of increasingly skewed hatchling sex ratios and reduced population viability are less acute than previously thought for sea turtles. In fact, in some scenarios skewed hatchling sex ratios in groups with TSD may be adaptive to ensure optimum OSRs.

  11. Performance, power and condom use: reconceptualised masculinities amongst Western male sex tourists to Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Simon; Limmer, Mark

    2018-03-01

    Each year large numbers of Western men travel to Thailand for sex tourism. Although many will use condoms during their sexual encounters, others will not, potentially exposing themselves to the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. Although sex tourism in Thailand has been well documented, the social drivers underpinning voluntary sexual risk-taking through the avoidance of condoms remain poorly understood. Engaging with R.W. Connell's concept of hegemonic masculinity and drawing on data collected from 1237 online discussion board posts and 14 face-to-face interviews, this study considers the ways in which understandings and performances of masculinities may inform the sexual risk-taking behaviours of Western male sex tourists. It argues that for some of these men, unprotected sex is viewed not as a reckless behaviour but, instead, as a safe and appropriate masculine practice, supported by relationships that are often framed as romantic and within a setting where HIV is still largely considered a homosexual disease. With sex workers often disempowered to request safer sexual practices, and some men's attitudes towards unprotected sex resistant to external health promotion advice, the paper concludes by considering what this might mean for policy and practice.

  12. The association between male-biased sex ratio and indicators of stress in red-spotted newts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspbury, Andrea S; Grayson, Kristine L; Fantaye, Selamawit; Nichols, Ian; Myers-Burton, Miranda; Ortiz-Mangual, Xavier; Gabor, Caitlin R

    2017-05-01

    In populations with a male-biased operational sex ratio, coercive mating by males can have fitness consequences for females. One component of reduced fitness for females in populations with a male-biased OSR may be greater activation of the stress response, resulting in higher corticosterone release rates (CORT; a glucocorticoid stress hormone in amphibians). We test the hypothesis that a male-biased sex ratio affects female activity and release rates of CORT and testosterone (T) in male and female red-spotted newts (Notophthalmus viridescens). First, we evaluated if chemical cues from a male-biased sex ratio affect activity and CORT release rates in females. We predicted that females exposed to chemical cues of three males would be less active and have higher CORT release rates than those exposed to chemical cues of one male. Second, we measured CORT release rates of red-spotted newts in field enclosures with either a male-biased or a female-biased sex ratio. We predicted that females in the male-biased treatment would have higher CORT and T release rates than those in a female-biased treatment, owing to higher levels of male harassment. We also predicted that males would have higher CORT and T release rates in male-biased treatments due to higher levels of male-male competition. Females were not less active in response to chemical cues from more males over fewer males, but there was a positive relationship between female activity and CORT when they were exposed to the cues of three males. We also found that females, but not males, in the male-biased sex ratio treatment had higher CORT and T release rates than those in the female-biased treatment. Our results support the hypothesis that a male-biased sex ratio leads to a higher stress response, which may underlie the observed decrease in immune function and body condition in previous work exposing female red-spotted newts to a male-biased sex ratio. This study furthers our understanding of the mechanistic basis

  13. Using lod scores to detect sex differences in male-female recombination fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, B; Greenberg, D A; Hodge, S E

    2004-01-01

    Human recombination fraction (RF) can differ between males and females, but investigators do not always know which disease genes are located in genomic areas of large RF sex differences. Knowledge of RF sex differences contributes to our understanding of basic biology and can increase the power of a linkage study, improve gene localization, and provide clues to possible imprinting. One way to detect these differences is to use lod scores. In this study we focused on detecting RF sex differences and answered the following questions, in both phase-known and phase-unknown matings: (1) How large a sample size is needed to detect a RF sex difference? (2) What are "optimal" proportions of paternally vs. maternally informative matings? (3) Does ascertaining nonoptimal proportions of paternally or maternally informative matings lead to ascertainment bias? Our results were as follows: (1) We calculated expected lod scores (ELODs) under two different conditions: "unconstrained," allowing sex-specific RF parameters (theta(female), theta(male)); and "constrained," requiring theta(female) = theta(male). We then examined the DeltaELOD (identical with difference between maximized constrained and unconstrained ELODs) and calculated minimum sample sizes required to achieve statistically significant DeltaELODs. For large RF sex differences, samples as small as 10 to 20 fully informative matings can achieve statistical significance. We give general sample size guidelines for detecting RF differences in informative phase-known and phase-unknown matings. (2) We defined p as the proportion of paternally informative matings in the dataset; and the optimal proportion p(circ) as that value of p that maximizes DeltaELOD. We determined that, surprisingly, p(circ) does not necessarily equal (1/2), although it does fall between approximately 0.4 and 0.6 in most situations. (3) We showed that if p in a sample deviates from its optimal value, no bias is introduced (asymptotically) to the maximum

  14. Female-to-male transsexualism and sex roles: self and spouse ratings on the PAQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, M Z; MacGowan, B R; Salt, P

    1984-02-01

    The sex-role-based perceptions of self and spouse in a group of female-to-male transsexuals, their wives, and a matched control group were studied. Each participant was given four copies of the Personal Attributes Questionnaire and asked to rate self, spouse, ideal self, and ideal spouse. The transsexual group rated themselves significantly higher than the control male group on the F scale, while there were no significant differences between the two groups on the M and M-F scales. The transsexuals' wives rated their spouses higher than did the control women on the F scale, and this difference approached significance. There were no significant differences between the spouse ratings of these two groups on the M and M-F scales. These results are discussed in terms of the relationship between sex role and gender identity and in terms of the theories that propose role strain as the cause of transsexualism.

  15. Females scan more than males: a potential mechanism for sex differences in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisz, Jennifer J; Pottruff, Molly M; Shore, David I

    2013-07-01

    Recognition-memory tests reveal individual differences in episodic memory; however, by themselves, these tests provide little information regarding the stage (or stages) in memory processing at which differences are manifested. We used eye-tracking technology, together with a recognition paradigm, to achieve a more detailed analysis of visual processing during encoding and retrieval. Although this approach may be useful for assessing differences in memory across many different populations, we focused on sex differences in face memory. Females outperformed males on recognition-memory tests, and this advantage was directly related to females' scanning behavior at encoding. Moreover, additional exposures to the faces reduced sex differences in face recognition, which suggests that males may be able to improve their recognition memory by extracting more information at encoding through increased scanning. A strategy of increased scanning at encoding may prove to be a simple way to enhance memory performance in other populations with memory impairment.

  16. A Longitudinal Analysis of the Criminal Careers of Intimate Partner Violence Offender Subtypes: Results From a Prospective Survey of Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Delphine; Farrington, David P; Coid, Jeremy W; Piquero, Alex R

    2016-12-01

    Using data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, a prospective longitudinal survey of more than 400 males in the United Kingdom followed from age 8 years to age 48 years, we investigated the role of Cluster B personality traits and the association with violent offending groups based on a typology theory of male intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators: those who committed family-only violence and the generally violent offender. We also considered whether offending/violent groups could be predicted using risk factors measured in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Our findings suggest that those men who are violent both within and outside the home (the generally violent men) are distinguished from those who are involved in IPV within the home only. The differences appear to be more in degree than in kind. We discuss these findings in relation to the idea of specific interventions and policy.

  17. Two males with SRY-positive 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Sezgin; Asci, Ramazan; Okten, Gülsen; Atac, Fatih; Onat, Onur E; Ogur, Gonul; Aydin, Oguz; Ozcelik, Tayfun; Bagci, Hasan

    2013-02-01

    The 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development (46,XX testicular DSD) is a rare phenotype associated with disorder of the sex chromosomes. We describe the clinical, molecular, and cytogenetic findings of a 16- and a 30-year-old male patient with sex-determining region Y (SRY)-positive 46,XX testicular DSD. Chromosomal analysis revealed 46,XX karyotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed the SRY region translocated to the short arm of the X chromosome. The presence of the SRY gene was also confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The X chromosome inactivation (XCI) assay showed that both patients have a random pattern of X chromosome inactivation. This report compares the symptoms and features of the SRY-positive 46,XX testicular DSD patients.

  18. [Type of partner, socio-economic factors and risk practices in men who have sex with men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasch Gallén, Àngel; Tomás Aznar, Concepción; Rubio Aranda, Encarnación

    2015-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) perform risk practices that pose a challenge to prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between receptive and insertive unprotected anal intercourse (RUAI and IUAI) according to the type of partner and the practice of barebacking with socioeconomic factors. A descriptive study was conducted through a self-administered questionnaire distributed by a software tool in social networks and non-governmental organizations from June-2014 to January-2015. Participants consisted of 601 people living in Spain. Pearson's χ(2) test and logistic regression models were applied with odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). In stable couples, the risk of RUAI increased in individuals with a medium income (OR: 1.79; 95%CI: 1.14-2.80) and in those who lived together (OR: 2.94; 95%CI: 1.74-4.98) and IUAI increased in individuals living with a partner (OR: 5.58; 95%IC: 3.24-9.59). When the partner was a friend, the risk of RUAI was higher among individuals with secondary education (OR: 2.20; 95%CI: 1.44-3.36) and those who were retired (OR: 3.6; 95%CI: 1.25-10.37), while living with a partner was a protective factor (OR: 0.56; 95%CI: 0.32-0.98). The risk of barebacking was greater in younger men (OR: 2.59; 95%CI: 1.27-5.28), in those with secondary education (OR: 1.51; 95%CI: 0.99-2.29) and in those living with a partner (OR: 3.64; 95%CI: 2.12-6.24). There is a need to reduce vulnerability due to socioeconomic factors that influence engagement in risk practices and to highlight the importance of barebacking, mainly in young MSM. Partner-based interventions and harm reduction strategies should be incorporated into preventive strategies. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. "Maybe She Was Provoked": Exploring Gender Stereotypes About Male and Female Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarduzio, Jennifer A; Carlyle, Kellie E; Harris, Kate Lockwood; Savage, Matthew W

    2017-01-01

    The current study is concerned with the different types of gender stereotypes that participants may draw upon when exposed to news stories about intimate partner violence (IPV). We qualitatively analyzed open-ended responses examining four types of gender stereotypes-aggression, emotional, power and control, and acceptability of violence. We offer theoretical implications that extend past research on intimate terrorism and situational couple violence, the gender symmetry debate, and how stereotypes are formed. We also discuss practical implications for journalists who write stories about IPV and individuals who provide services to victims and perpetrators. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Work-related violence and inconsistent condom use with non-paying partners among female sex workers in Adama City, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Alyssa; Kidanu, Aklilu; Bradley, Heather M; Kumoji, Evelyn Kuor; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2013-08-23

    Although reported condom use between female sex workers and their clients is high in Ethiopia, condom use with regular, non-paying partners remains low, posing a substantial risk of HIV infection to sex workers, their partners and the general population. Previous studies have identified the synergistic effects of substance abuse, violence and HIV risk, but few have examined these inter-relationships among female sex workers and their regular, non-paying partners. This study explored the associations between work-related violence, alcohol abuse and inconsistent condom use among establishment-based female sex workers and their regular, non-paying partners in Adama City, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 350 establishment-based female sex workers, aged 15-35, at 63 bars, hotels and nightclubs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to test the association between work-related violence and condom use with regular, non-paying partners, controlling for age, overall income, education and sex workers' total number of sexual partners in the past week. Alcohol abuse was explored as an effect modifier. Respondents reported a high prevalence of work-related violence (59%) and alcohol abuse (51%). Work-related violence was statistically significantly associated with unprotected sex with regular, non-paying partners among those who abused alcohol (OR: 6.34, 95% CI: 2.43-16.56) and among those who did not (OR: 2.98, 95% CI: 1.36-6.54). Alcohol abuse was not associated with inconsistent condom use within these partnerships, though it may strengthen the effect of work-related violence on unprotected sex. Findings suggest violence against establishment-based female sex workers is associated with HIV risk within regular, non-paying partnerships. Qualitative work is needed to better understand the links between a violent work environment and condom use with regular, non-paying partners and how interventions can be implemented in this context to

  1. Sex and aggregation pheromone transport after methyl eugenol consumption in male Bactrocera papayae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hee, Alvin K.W.; Tan, K.H.

    2000-01-01

    Amongst at least 52 sibling species complexes in the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae), B. papayae (formerly Mal B) Drew and Hancock (Drew and Hancock 1994) is beginning to emerge as an economically important insect pest which poses a severe threat to the fruit cultivation in both subtropical and tropical countries. In Malaysia, B. papayae is one of the most damaging pests which infests many commercially grown fruits (Tan and Lee 1982). Like the Oriental fruit fly and its sibling species complex, B. carambolae Drew and Hancock, B. papayae is also strongly attracted to, and compulsively feeds on, methyl eugenol (ME) (Tan 1993). Chemical analyses revealed that in B. papayae males, ME is converted to phenylpropanoids which are then selectively accumulated in the rectal gland. Of the three major volatile substances, 2-allyl-4,5-dimethoyphenol (allyl-DMP) was detected in higher quantities relative to the trans-coniferyl alcohol (4-(3-hydroxy-E-propenyl)-2-methoxyphenol) (CF) and cis-3,4-dimethoxycinnamyl alcohol (cis-DMC) (Nishida et al. 1988a, 1988b). Behavioural studies have also shown that allyl-DMP and CF function as male sex and aggregation pheromone in B. papayae (Tan and Nishida 1996, Hee and Tan 1998). Allyl-DMP was found to be the most attractive compound and cis-DMC the least attractive to the males (Tan 1996). Consumption of ME enhances the mating competitiveness of males. This is demonstrated by the strong attraction of females to conspecific ME-fed males in wind tunnel experiments (Hee and Tan 1998). In male-male mating competition for virgin females, males that fed on ME performed significantly better (Shelly and Dewire 1994, Tan and Nishida 1996). Thus it appears that ME-fed males produced signals that were more attractive. However, the characterisation and understanding of the functions of these phenylpropanoids have not been accompanied by studies of their physiological mode of transport in male flies. The current

  2. Changes in radiosensitivity of male sex hormones in rats maintained on kelthane contaminated feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abughadeer, A.R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Alteration of sex hormones levels in male rats after whole body gamma irradiation (6.5 Gy) has been studied. The hormonal response of irradiated rats fed on experimental feed contaminated with organo chlorine insecticide 'kelthane' (200 mg/kg body weight) for different time intervals (3,6 and 12 weeks), has been also investigated. Investigations included measurements of testes/body weight ratio; Testosterone; Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH); luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin levels in serum and testes homogenate of treated rats. The data indicate that whole body gamma irradiation causes significant alteration in all tested parameters except for the testosterone level. Normal rats fed on 'kelthane' contaminated feed, showed significant alteration in all tested parameters, which increased with the prolongation of 'kelthane' exposure period. Double treatment of 'kelthane' and irradiation resulted in more pronounced alterations. It can be concluded that the male sex hormones in rats fed on 'kelthane', were more sensitive to whole body gamma irradiation. Moreover, male sex hormones have shown reliable reliable dose/effect relationship for either radiation or pesticide internal contamination. This suggests their possible use as markers in early diagnosis of radiation exposure and pesticides toxication syndromes. 3 tabs

  3. Sex ratio meiotic drive as a plausible evolutionary mechanism for hybrid male sterility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linbin Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological diversity on Earth depends on the multiplication of species or speciation, which is the evolution of reproductive isolation such as hybrid sterility between two new species. An unsolved puzzle is the exact mechanism(s that causes two genomes to diverge from their common ancestor so that some divergent genes no longer function properly in the hybrids. Here we report genetic analyses of divergent genes controlling male fertility and sex ratio in two very young fruitfly species, Drosophila albomicans and D. nasuta. A majority of the genetic divergence for both traits is mapped to the same regions by quantitative trait loci mappings. With introgressions, six major loci are found to contribute to both traits. This genetic colocalization implicates that genes for hybrid male sterility have evolved primarily for controlling sex ratio. We propose that genetic conflicts over sex ratio may operate as a perpetual dynamo for genome divergence. This particular evolutionary mechanism may largely contribute to the rapid evolution of hybrid male sterility and the disproportionate enrichment of its underlying genes on the X chromosome--two patterns widely observed across animals.

  4. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 regulates proliferation and Sertoli differentiation during male sex determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yuna; Bingham, Nathan; Sekido, Ryohei; Parker, Keith L.; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Capel, Blanche

    2007-01-01

    Targeted mutagenesis of Fgf9 in mice causes male-to-female sex reversal. Among the four FGF receptors, FGFR2 showed two highly specific patterns based on antibody staining, suggesting that it might be the receptor-mediating FGF9 signaling in the gonad. FGFR2 was detected at the plasma membrane in proliferating coelomic epithelial cells and in the nucleus in Sertoli progenitor cells. This expression pattern suggested that Fgfr2 might play more than one role in testis development. To test the hypothesis that Fgfr2 is required for male sex determination, we crossed mice carrying a floxed allele of Fgfr2 with two different Cre lines to induce a temporal or cell-specific deletion of this receptor. Results show that deletion of Fgfr2 in embryonic gonads phenocopies deletion of Fgf9 and leads to male-to-female sex reversal. Using these two Cre lines, we provide the first genetic evidence that Fgfr2 plays distinct roles in proliferation and Sertoli cell differentiation during testis development. PMID:17940049

  5. Sex ratio meiotic drive as a plausible evolutionary mechanism for hybrid male sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linbin; Sun, Tianai; Woldesellassie, Fitsum; Xiao, Hailian; Tao, Yun

    2015-03-01

    Biological diversity on Earth depends on the multiplication of species or speciation, which is the evolution of reproductive isolation such as hybrid sterility between two new species. An unsolved puzzle is the exact mechanism(s) that causes two genomes to diverge from their common ancestor so that some divergent genes no longer function properly in the hybrids. Here we report genetic analyses of divergent genes controlling male fertility and sex ratio in two very young fruitfly species, Drosophila albomicans and D. nasuta. A majority of the genetic divergence for both traits is mapped to the same regions by quantitative trait loci mappings. With introgressions, six major loci are found to contribute to both traits. This genetic colocalization implicates that genes for hybrid male sterility have evolved primarily for controlling sex ratio. We propose that genetic conflicts over sex ratio may operate as a perpetual dynamo for genome divergence. This particular evolutionary mechanism may largely contribute to the rapid evolution of hybrid male sterility and the disproportionate enrichment of its underlying genes on the X chromosome--two patterns widely observed across animals.

  6. Relation of cigarette smoking in males of different ages to sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nabarawy, F.S.

    2002-01-01

    The relationship of cigarette smoking, age, total testosterone free testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were examined by solid phase radioimmunoassay in 90 randomly chosen healthy males of different ages. The serum levels of these hormones were investigated for smokers compared with non-smokers, of the same ages in 3 groups (adolescent males, middle aged males, and old aged males). Results indicated that cigarette smokers showed increased serum levels of testosterone (60.0% higher, P> 0.05), free testosterone (51.0 higher, P > 0.005) in young adolescent males group, testosterone (27.8% higher, P > 0.001), free testosterone (21.3% higher, P > 0.001) in middle aged males group, and testosterone (21.0% higher, P > 0.001), free testosterone (16.8% higher, P > 0.4) in old ages males group. SHBG was calculated as a mean of free and total testosterone in each group. smokers showed higher mean values of SHBG than non-smokers. Age was positively associated with serum SHBG, it was found that SHBG increased by 17.2% from the youngest (> 18 years) to the oldest age (> 65 years)

  7. Responses of male inmates to primary partner requests for condom use: effects of message content and domestic violence history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Charles J; O'Leary, Ann

    2003-02-01

    Many women at high risk for HIV infection face resistance and, in some cases, violence as a response to their requests for condom use. The current study investigated how domestically violent and nonviolent men reacted to various condom negotiation approaches. Ten different scenarios, in which the partner provides a justification for a condom request or the context suggests one, were presented to 84 male inmates selected at random from a county jail. As predicted, condom scenarios factored into groupings with content suggestive of high and low relationship threat. Of the justifications presented, yeast infections generated more favorable responses than standard HIV prevention messages. The riskiest condom negotiation scenario was one that suggested infidelity on the part of the woman. Level of male violence severity in the relationship predicted more coercive responses to suggestions of a woman's infidelity. The results suggest that creative strategies that do not call into question the fidelity or commitment of either partner may be more effective in getting men to use condoms and/or to not react violently.

  8. Male Prison Inmates With Gender Dysphoria: When Is Sex Reassignment Surgery Appropriate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Cynthia S; Lawrence, Anne A

    2016-10-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD), a feeling of persistent discomfort with one's biologic sex or assigned gender, is estimated to be more prevalent in male prison inmates than in nonincarcerated males; there may be 3000-4000 male inmates with GD in prisons in the United States. An increasing number of U.S. prison systems now offer gender dysphoric inmates diagnostic evaluation, psychotherapy, cross-sex hormone therapy, and opportunities, albeit limited, to enact their preferred gender role. Sex reassignment surgery (SRS), however, has not been offered to inmates except in response to litigation. In the first case of its kind, the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation recently agreed to provide SRS to an inmate and developed policy guidelines for its future provision. In other recent cases, U.S. courts have ruled that male inmates with GD are entitled to SRS when it is medically necessary. Although these decisions may facilitate the provision of SRS to inmates in the future, many U.S. prison systems will probably remain reluctant to offer SRS unless legally compelled to do so. In this review, we address the medical necessity of SRS for male inmates with GD. We also discuss eligibility criteria and the practical considerations involved in providing SRS to inmates. We conclude by offering recommendations for physicians, mental health professionals, and prison administrators, designed to facilitate provision of SRS to inmates with GD in a manner that provides humane treatment, maximizes the likelihood of successful outcomes, minimizes risk of regret, and generates data that can help inform future decisions.

  9. Negotiating the Edge: The Rationalization of Sexual Risk Taking Among Western Male Sex Tourists to Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Simon; Limmer, Mark

    2017-09-08

    Every year thousands of Western men travel to Thailand as sex tourists to participate in paid-for sex. Although many of these men will use condoms to protect themselves against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), others will not, despite the risks. By applying Steven Lyng's (1990) concept of edgework to data collected from 14 face-to-face interviews with male sex tourists in Pattaya, Thailand, and 1,237 online discussion board posts, this article explores the ways in which these men understood and sought to rationalize the sexual risks they took. We argue that notions of likelihood of infection and significance of consequence underpin these behaviors, and we identify the existence of understandings of sexual risk that reject mainstream safer-sex messages and frame condomless sex as a broadly safe activity for heterosexual men. The article concludes by summarizing the difficulties inherent in driving behavior change among this group of men, for whom sexual risks appear to be easily rationalized away as either inconsequential or irrelevant.

  10. Sexual risk behaviors for HIV infection in Spanish male sex workers: differences according to educational level, country of origin and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, R; Salmerón, P; Gil, M D; Gómez, S

    2012-05-01

    The stigma associated with male sex workers (MSW) hinders the prevention, treatment, and care of HIV infection in this population. These factors make social and public health resources less accessible to MSW. To improve the effectiveness of prevention strategies, this study examines social factors such as educational level, country of origin, and sexual orientation. Semi-structured interviews of 100 MSW in Castellón and Valencia (Spanish cities) indicate that knowledge of HIV transmission is good; nevertheless, MSW significantly overestimate or underestimate some sexual practices. Levels of condom use are high; notably, they are higher during anal sex. Levels of condom use are lower with intimate partners than with clients. MSW do not present differences in terms of the socio-demographic variables analyzed and sexual orientation. Furthermore, regression analyses are not significant. These results offer more accurate profiles of MSW than were previously available, which will ultimately help improve the effectiveness of prevention programs.

  11. Developing Online Recruitment and Retention Methods for HIV Prevention Research Among Adolescent Males Who Are Interested in Sex with Males: Interviews with Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kimberly M; Ramirez, Jaime J; Carey, Michael P

    2017-12-21

    Adolescent males interested in sex with males (AMSM) are an important audience for HIV prevention interventions, but they are difficult to reach due to their age and social stigma. We aim to identify efficient methods to recruit and retain AMSM in online research. Interviews with 14-to-18-year-old AMSM (N=16) were conducted at 2017 Pride events in Boston, MA and Providence, RI. Participants reported that (1) social media platforms are viable recruitment venues; (2) recruitment advertisements should describe the study using colorful/bright pictures, familiar words, and information about compensation; (3) surveys should be recruitment and retention procedures to increase the efficiency of HIV prevention research for this at-risk group. ©Kimberly M Nelson, Jaime J Ramirez, Michael P Carey. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 21.12.2017.

  12. Incidence, prevalence, diagnostic delay, morbidity, mortality and socioeconomic status in males with 46,XX disorders of sex development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, A.; Johannsen, T. H.; Stochholm, K.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What is the epidemiology and trajectory of health and socioeconomic status in males with 46,XX disorders of sex development (DSD)? SUMMARY ANSWER 46,XX DSD males had an increased overall morbidity compared to male background population controls, and the socioeconomic status was inf...

  13. Spatial Distribution of Partner-Seeking Men Who Have Sex With Men Using Geosocial Networking Apps: Epidemiologic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algarin, Angel B; Ward, Patrick J; Christian, W Jay; Rudolph, Abby E; Holloway, Ian W; Young, April M

    2018-05-31

    Geosocial networking apps have made sexual partner-seeking easier for men who have sex with men, raising both challenges and opportunities for human immunodeficiency virus and sexually transmitted infection prevention and research. Most studies on men who have sex with men geosocial networking app use have been conducted in large urban areas, despite research indicating similar patterns of online- and app-based sex-seeking among men who have sex with men in rural and midsize cities. The goal of our research was to examine the spatial distribution of geosocial networking app usage and characterize areas with increasing numbers of partner-seeking men who have sex with men in a midsize city in the South. Data collection points (n=62) were spaced in 2-mile increments along 9 routes (112 miles) covering the county encompassing the city. At each point, staff logged into 3 different geosocial networking apps to record the number of geosocial networking app users within a 1-mile radius. Data were collected separately during weekday daytime (9:00 AM to 4:00 PM) and weekend nighttime (8:00 PM to 12:00 AM) hours. Empirical Bayesian kriging was used to create a raster estimating the number of app users throughout the county. Raster values were summarized for each of the county's 208 Census block groups and used as the outcome measure (ie, geosocial networking app usage). Negative binomial regression and Wilcoxon signed rank sum tests were used to examine Census block group variables (eg, median income, median age) associated with geosocial networking app usage and temporal differences in app usage, respectively. The number of geosocial networking app users within a 1-mile radius of the data collection points ranged from 0 to 36 during weekday daytime hours and 0 to 39 during weekend nighttime hours. In adjusted analyses, Census block group median income and percent Hispanic ethnicity were negatively associated with geosocial networking app usage for all 3 geosocial networking

  14. Male partners of women with provoked vestibulodynia: attributions for pain and their implications for dyadic adjustment, sexual satisfaction, and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodoin, Mélanie; Bergeron, Sophie; Khalifé, Samir; Dupuis, Marie-José; Desrochers, Geneviève; Leclerc, Bianca

    2008-12-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia is a female genital pain condition that results in sexual dysfunction and impacts negatively on the couple. Although patients' causal attributions have been linked to worse psychosexual outcomes, no study has documented the male partners' perspective of this distressing problem and its potential influence on their psychosexual adaptation. To identify whether male partners' attributions for vestibulodynia are possible predictors of their dyadic adjustment, sexual functioning, sexual satisfaction, and psychological distress, as well as of women's pain and sexual functioning. Thirty-eight women with vestibulodynia first completed measures of pain intensity and sexual functioning. Male partners responded to mailed questionnaires assessing their own attributions for genital pain as well as their psychological distress, relationship adjustment, sexual functioning, and sexual satisfaction. Women completed the McGill-Melzack Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Attributions of male partners were measured using an adapted version of the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ)-Partner Version. Men also filled out the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), the Sexual History Form (SHF), and the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction (GMSEX). All four negative attribution dimensions and higher levels of women's pain intensity successfully predicted increased psychological distress in male partners. Higher levels of both internal and global attributions were associated with men's poorer dyadic adjustment, whereas global and stable attributions were related to their lower sexual satisfaction. Attributions failed to significantly predict sexual functioning in male partners and women's pain and sexual functioning. Evaluation and treatment of sexual pain problems should involve both partners and should explore the role of negative attributions.

  15. Collaborative research to prevent HIV among male prison inmates and their female partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, O A; Zack, B; Faigeles, B

    1999-04-01

    Despite the need for targeted HIV prevention interventions for prison inmates, institutional and access barriers have impeded development and evaluation of such programs. Over the past 6 years, the authors have developed a unique collaborative relationship to develop and evaluate HIV prevention interventions for prison inmates. The collaboration includes an academic research institution (the Center for AIDS Prevention Studies at the University of California, San Francisco), a community-based organization (Centerforce), and the staff and inmate peer educators inside a state prison. In this ongoing collaboration, the authors have developed and evaluated a series of HIV prevention interventions for prison inmates and for women who visit prison inmates. Results of these studies support the feasibility and effectiveness of HIV prevention programs for inmates and their partners both in prison and in the community. Access and institutional barriers to HIV intervention research in prisons can be overcome through the development of collaborative research partnerships.

  16. Federal Employees Health Benefits and Federal Employees Dental and Vision Insurance Programs' Coverage Exception for Children of Same-Sex Domestic Partners. Interim final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-02

    This action amends the rule to create a regulatory exception that allows children of same-sex domestic partners living overseas to maintain their Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) and Federal Employees Dental and Vision Program (FEDVIP) coverage until September 30, 2018. Due to a recent Supreme Court decision, as of January 1, 2016, coverage of children of same-sex domestic partners under the FEHB Program and FEDVIP will generally only be allowed if the couple is married, as discussed in Benefits Administration Letter (BAL) 15-207 dated October 5, 2015. OPM recognizes there are additional requirements placed on overseas federal employees that may not apply to other civilian employees with duty stations in the United States making it difficult to travel to the United States to marry same-sex partners.

  17. 46, XX male: a case study of clinical, hormonal and molecular cytogenetic evaluation of sex development disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Shahid, S.M.; Azhar, A.

    2012-01-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSD) create medical and social dilemma. Maleness with XX genotype is a rare genetic condition affecting one in 24,000 new-born males. The XX male syndrome is a varied condition characterized by a spectrum of clinical presentation. ranging from normal male genitalia to ambiguous sex. Chromosomal anomalies are important cause of lack of development in secondary sexual characteristics, delayed puberty, miscarriage, infertility and other associated problems. An individual having ambiguous sex may have lifelong impact on social, psychological and sexual functions. The present case study describes the hormonal, clinical and molecular cytogenetics data of sex development disorders in a patient who was phenotypically male but cytogenetic analysis revealed 46.XX. (author)

  18. Sex differences in gender characteristics of Australian nurses and male engineers: a comparative cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Fisher, Murray

    2011-08-01

    There continue to be assumptions within the nursing literature that nursing is synonymous with a feminine sex role identity. A comparative cross-sectional survey consisting of the Bem Sex Role Inventory and the Australian sex role scale was used to determine sex difference in gender characteristics of Australian nurses and with male engineers. A statistically significant difference in femininity was found between all the samples (F((2,908)) = 20.24, p orientation (t = 27.67) and self display (t = 12.42). Whilst differences in expressive characteristics were found between male and female nurses, a similar difference was found between male nurses and male engineers, supporting the notion that male nurses perceive themselves as having feminine characteristics essentially required for nursing.

  19. Condom Use During Commercial Sex Among Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in Sichuan China: A Social Cognitive Theory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Yang, Cui; Latkin, Carl A; Luan, Rongsheng; Nelson, Kenrad E

    2016-10-01

    There has been little theory-based research focusing on condom use among male clients of female sex workers (CFSW) in China. The current study applied social cognitive theory to condom use behaviors of CFSW in China. Face-to-face structured interviews were conducted among 584 CFSW recruited through snowball sampling. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were applied to examine factors associated with consistent condom use. A minority (30.65 %) of respondents reported using condoms consistently with FSW, and 7 of 12 social cognitive dimensions/subdimensions were found to be significantly influential. The most significant factors were self-efficacy [adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) = 2.11, 95 %, CI = 1.74-2.43] and personal pleasure reduction (APR = 0.3, 95 % CI = 0.15-0.6). HIV-related knowledge, perceived HIV susceptibility, condom cost, condom efficacy, and embarrassment of carrying condoms were not associated with consistent condom uses with FSW. Findings from the current study suggest future prevention programs should target sex venues, and condom access should ensure both quantity and quality. Peer education should focus on knowledge education and peer norms, and knowledge education should include information on HIV infection severity and how to increase pleasure with condom use.

  20. Social factors and aromatase gene expression during adult male-to-female sex change in captive leopard grouper Mycteroperca rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Mendoza, Daniel; Campos-Ramos, Rafael; Vázquez-Islas, Grecia; Burgos-Aceves, Mario A; Esquivel-Gutiérrez, Edgar R; Guerrero-Tortolero, Danitzia A

    2018-01-25

    Social factors and aromatase gene expression in the leopard grouper Mycteroperca rosacea was studied when captive fish were separated by sex during the reproductive (April-June) and post-reproductive (July-September) seasons. Monosex females, monosex males, and mixed-sex, held in social sextet units were analyzed for sex steroids throughout confinement. At the end of the experiment, the gonad-sex was defined by histology, and gonad and brain aromatase gene expressions were quantified. Only males held in the monosex social units changed sex. Histology showed one male remained unchanged, six were found in a transitional sexual stage, in which two had intersex-predominantly-testes, and four had a more defined intersex ovo-testes pattern, and 11 were immature de novo females (neofemales). Neofemales and most intersex fish did not survive. In spring, 11-ketosterone showed a specific male profile, which suggests that male-to-female sex change was not triggered during the reproductive season. The low steroid levels in summer made it impossible to associate the sex change to a gonad hormonal shift; in September, gonad aromatase gene expression was not significantly different among groups. However, brain aromatase expression in intersex fish was significantly higher than monosex females, mixed-sex females, and neofemale groups. These results suggest that in the absence of female hormonal compounds, and at a time when male gonad steroidogenesis was diminished, the brain mediated male-to-male social-behavioral interactions, including stress, by increasing aromatization, resulting in derived intersex-male, which triggered more aromatization, followed by a sex change. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sífilis em parturientes: aspectos relacionados ao parceiro sexual Syphilis in parturients: aspects related to the sex partner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza de Araújo Campos

    2012-09-01

    behavioral profile of sex partners, the proportion of those inadequately treated as well as to verify how many of them were inadequately treated and why some were not treated. METHODS: Quantitative study with data collected from May to October, 2008 at five public maternities in Fortaleza, Ceará. A survey was carried out with parturients who were hospitalized with syphilis and had a stable sex partner. We analyzed sociodemographic variables and those related to communication, diagnosis and treatment of sex partners. The data were entered into the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and were analyzed using frequency distributions, measures of central tendency and dispersion. RESULTS: The study included 56 pregnant women. Most sexual partners were young adults aged on average 29 years, 50% of them had studied for less than seven years, 82.1 worked and 46.4% had a family income of less than a minimum wage. Of all the partners, 92.9% were the child's father and 69.6% lived with the women. Fifty percent and 12% were alcohol and drug users, respectively. Most partners (75.0% were told about the diagnosis by the women, and in 78.6% of cases they were aware of the VDRL result before or during the prenatal period. However, 25.0% of the women did not communicate the result to their partners for the following reasons: not knowing the importance of the partner's treatment (50.0%, not being together after the diagnosis (42.9% and having a quarrel (7.1%. Of the partners who were informed about the result before or during the prenatal period, 56.0% were treated and six (42.8% were considered to have been properly treated. Among the ones who did not receive treatment, 63.6% refused it because they did not feel sick, because they did not believe in the treatment and because they were afraid of injections. CONCLUSIONS: Partners are told about the syphilis diagnosis of the pregnant women; however, only a few are properly treated.

  2. [Practices and perception of risk in human immunodeficiency virus infected males who have sex with other males].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Mosteyrín, Sol; del Val Acebrón, María; Fernández de Mosteyrín, Teresa; Fernández Guerrero, Manuel L

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases increases in males who have sex with males (MSM), despite the knowledge on how to prevent them. To determine the mechanisms that are driving this lack of prevention is important to reverse the trend. An anonymous, voluntary and self-reporting questionnaire was completed by HIV+ MSM patients who were seen in a hospital clinic, with the aim of finding out the sexual risk practices and behaviour, as well as their perceptions and assessment as regards this risk. The questionnaire included 58questions, divided into 10sections, to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour as regards HIV. The questionnaires were also given to the physicians, with the aim of exploring their perceptions, attitudes and opinions as regards the situation of the epidemic, prevention, perception of the diseases and the patient, and values in clinical practice. A total of 495 questionnaires from the patients were analysed. Most of them (87%) said they knew how HIV was acquired, and 97% knew how to prevent it, but 69% knew they were in a risk situation, and 43% had little concern of contracting HIV. Almost two-thirds (65%) had sex with ≥2persons on the same day, 47% met on the Internet and 26% had group sex. The same percentage of those surveyed considered that they acted impulsively. They highlighted a lack of information (33%), bad luck (32%), assumed excessive risk (36%), and lake of concern (25%), as the main reasons for acquiring the infection. When confronted with diagnosis 41% of patients answered «I never thought that it would happen to me», and 32% said «I had bad luck». Of the 121 physicians who completed the questionnaire, 24% considered that infection due to HIV/AIDS was out of control in Spain, and 65% responded that there was an image that HIV/AIDS was a controlled disease and of little concern. A large majority (71%) of those surveyed, considered that the increase in new

  3. Associations of lead and cadmium with sex hormones in adult males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kresovich, Jacob K., E-mail: jkreso2@uic.edu; Argos, Maria; Turyk, Mary E.

    2015-10-15

    Heavy metal exposures are ubiquitous in the environment and their relation to sex hormones is not well understood. This paper investigates the associations between selected heavy metals (lead and cadmium) and sex hormones (testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, free estradiol) as well as other major molecules in the steroid biosynthesis pathway (androstanedione glucuronide and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG)). Blood lead and cadmium were selected as biomarkers of exposure, and tested for associations in males using National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 1999–2004. After adjustment for age, race, body mass index, smoking status, diabetes and alcohol intake, blood lead was positively associated with testosterone and SHBG while blood cadmium was positively associated with SHBG. After controlling for additional heavy metal exposure, the associations between lead and testosterone as well as cadmium and SHBG remained significant. Furthermore, the association between blood lead and testosterone was modified by smoking status (P for interaction=0.011), diabetes (P for interaction=0.021) and blood cadmium (P for interaction=0.029). The association between blood cadmium and SHBG levels was modified by blood lead (P for interaction=0.004). This study is the most comprehensive investigation to date regarding the association between heavy metals and sex hormones in males. - Highlights: • We used a nationally representative dataset (NHANES) and employed sample weighting. • We examined associations between lead and cadmium with sex-hormone levels. • Blood lead level was positively associated with serum testosterone and SHBG levels. • Blood cadmium level was positively associated with SHBG levels, modified by lead. • Diabetes, smoking and cadmium modified lead and testosterone association.

  4. Associations of lead and cadmium with sex hormones in adult males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kresovich, Jacob K.; Argos, Maria; Turyk, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal exposures are ubiquitous in the environment and their relation to sex hormones is not well understood. This paper investigates the associations between selected heavy metals (lead and cadmium) and sex hormones (testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, free estradiol) as well as other major molecules in the steroid biosynthesis pathway (androstanedione glucuronide and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG)). Blood lead and cadmium were selected as biomarkers of exposure, and tested for associations in males using National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 1999–2004. After adjustment for age, race, body mass index, smoking status, diabetes and alcohol intake, blood lead was positively associated with testosterone and SHBG while blood cadmium was positively associated with SHBG. After controlling for additional heavy metal exposure, the associations between lead and testosterone as well as cadmium and SHBG remained significant. Furthermore, the association between blood lead and testosterone was modified by smoking status (P for interaction=0.011), diabetes (P for interaction=0.021) and blood cadmium (P for interaction=0.029). The association between blood cadmium and SHBG levels was modified by blood lead (P for interaction=0.004). This study is the most comprehensive investigation to date regarding the association between heavy metals and sex hormones in males. - Highlights: • We used a nationally representative dataset (NHANES) and employed sample weighting. • We examined associations between lead and cadmium with sex-hormone levels. • Blood lead level was positively associated with serum testosterone and SHBG levels. • Blood cadmium level was positively associated with SHBG levels, modified by lead. • Diabetes, smoking and cadmium modified lead and testosterone association.

  5. Epidemiology of male same-sex behaviour and associated sexual health indicators in low- and middle-income countries: 2003-2007 estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, C F; Konda, K; Segura, E R; Lyerla, R

    2008-08-01

    To conduct a systematic review of published and unpublished data from research and public health information systems on the prevalence of male-to-male sex in the total male population; as well as among men who have sex with men (MSM), data on prevalence of heterosexual activity and heterosexual unions; prevalence of condom use with male and female partners; and prevalence of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Key indicators were defined (a) among men in the general population: prevalence of sex with a man ever and last year; (b) among MSM: prevalence of heterosexual experiences ever and last year; proportion of male-female transgenders; proportion of sex workers; prevalence of HIV and other STIs, condom use in last sexual encounter; consistent condom use with men last year; never used a condom with a man. With help from key informants, study searches were conducted in Pubmed, LILLACS, institutional databases, conference records and other sources. Methodology and quality of information were assessed, and the best data available for 2003-7 were selected. Indicator estimates from each study were used to propose regional estimate ranges. A total of 83 new entries were entered into the database in addition to the previous 561, totalling 644. Of these, 107 showing 2003-7 data were selected. Many new studies came from sub-Saharan Africa, portraying hidden HIV epidemics among MSM. The most frequently reported estimate was HIV infection, with high estimate ranges in most of the regions, except for Middle East and North Africa and Eastern Europe. The next most frequently reported was lifetime frequency of heterosexual sex, showing that roughly 50% of MSM ever had sex with a woman. The small number of newer studies reporting prevalence of "sex with a man in last 12 months" between 2003 and 2007, did not warrant enough new evidence to revise our 2005 size estimates for MSM populations. A considerable number of new studies with estimates of

  6. Molecular diagnostic testing for Klinefelter syndrome and other male sex chromosome aneuploidies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hager Karl

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male sex chromosome aneuploidies are underdiagnosed despite concomitant physical and behavioral manifestations. Objective To develop a non-invasive, rapid and high-throughput molecular diagnostic assay for detection of male sex chromosome aneuploidies, including 47,XXY (Klinefelter, 47,XYY, 48,XXYY and 48,XXXY syndromes. Methods The assay utilizes three XYM and four XA markers to interrogate Y:X and X:autosome ratios, respectively. The seven markers were PCR amplified using genomic DNA isolated from a cohort of 323 males with aneuploid (n = 117 and 46,XY (n = 206 karyotypes. The resulting PCR products were subjected to Pyrosequencing, a quantitative DNA sequencing method. Results Receiver operator characteristic (ROC curves were used to establish thresholds for the discrimination of aneuploid from normal samples. The XYM markers permitted the identification of 47,XXY, 48,XXXY and 47,XYY syndromes with 100% sensitivity and specificity in both purified DNA and buccal swab samples. The 48,XXYY karyotype was delineated by XA marker data from 46,XY; an X allele threshold of 43% also permitted detection of 48,XXYY with 100% sensitivity and specificity. Analysis of X chromosome-specific biallelic SNPs demonstrated that 43 of 45 individuals (96% with 48,XXYY karyotype had two distinct X chromosomes, while 2 (4% had a duplicate X, providing evidence that 48,XXYY may result from nondisjunction during early mitotic divisions of a 46,XY embryo. Conclusions Quantitative Pyrosequencing, with high-throughput potential, can detect male sex chromosome aneuploidies with 100% sensitivity.

  7. I do…do you? Dependence and biological sex moderate daters' cortisol responses when accommodating a partner's thoughts about marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Elizabeth A; Loving, Timothy J

    2013-06-01

    We examined how daters' levels of relationship dependence interact with men's and women's degree of accommodation during a likelihood of marriage discussion to predict cortisol levels at the conclusion of the discussion. Upon arriving at the laboratory, couple members were separated and asked to graph their perceived likelihood of one day marrying each other. Couples were reunited and instructed to create a joint graph depicting their agreed-upon chance of marriage. For the majority of couples, negotiating their likelihood of marriage required one or both partners to accommodate each other's presumed likelihood of marriage. Multilevel analyses revealed a significant Dependence×Accommodation×Sex interaction. For women who increased their likelihood of marriage, feelings of dependence predicted heightened levels of cortisol relative to baseline; we suggest such a response is indicative of eustress. Among men, those who accommodated by decreasing their likelihood of marriage experienced significantly lower levels of cortisol to the extent that they were less dependent on their partners. Discussion focuses on why men and women show different physiological reactions in response to seemingly favorable outcomes from a relationship discussion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Changes in the Plasma Sex Hormone Profile in Males with Severe Concomitant Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N Yezhova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to perform a complex study of typical plasma sex hormone changes and their functional significance in males with severe concomitant injury (SCI. Subjects and methods. Fifty-nine males aged 18—49 years who had SCI were enrolled in the study. The admission severity was an APACHE II score of 18.6±2.4. According to the outcome of the disease, all the patients were divided into 2 groups: A survivors; B deceased persons. A control comprised 12 healthy male donors aged 19-36 years, in whom the levels of 8 sex steroids were measured. The standard procedures were used to comparatively analyze the concentrations of pituitary reproductive hormones and aldosterone. Hormonal concentrations were studied over time on posttraumatic days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 15. The plasma hormone profile was examined by test kits (BSL, USA on a Stat Fax 2100 device (Awareness Technology Inc., USA for enzyme immunoassay. Prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, progesterone (P, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OH-P, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S, androstendione (A, testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT, estrone (E1, estradiol (E2, and aldosterone were determined. Results. The complex study of phasic changes in the profile of 11 plasma sex hormones was first conducted in males in the posttraumatic period. Moreover, the typical plasma hormonal changes were elevated prolactin levels and their phasic variations, normal LH and FSH levels with a tendency for further phasic LH changes and FSH reduction. After the injury, the plasma concentration of P was increased and that of 17-OH-P was decreased. The levels of A and DHEA-S varied in the normal range with a tendency for DHEA-S to be lower during the process. In the posttraumatic period, the plasma content of T and DHT was substantially reduced and that of E1 and E2 was increased. The deceased patients generally showed higher levels of A, DHEA-S, and estrogens as a reflection of

  9. Male partner circumcision associated with lower Trichomonas vaginalis incidence among pregnant and postpartum Kenyan women: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintye, Jillian; Drake, Alison L; Unger, Jennifer A; Matemo, Daniel; Kinuthia, John; McClelland, R Scott; John-Stewart, Grace

    2017-03-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the world's most common curable STI and has implications for reproductive health in women. We determined incidence and correlates of T. vaginalis in an HIV-uninfected peripartum cohort. Women participating in a prospective study of peripartum HIV acquisition in Western Kenya were enrolled during pregnancy and followed until 9 months post partum. T. vaginalis was assessed every 1-3 months using wet mount microscopy. Correlates of incident T. vaginalis were determined using Cox proportional hazards models. Among 1271 women enrolled, median age was 22 years (IQR 19-27) and gestational age was 22 weeks (IQR 18-26); most (78%) were married and had uncircumcised male partners (69%). Prevalent T. vaginalis was detected in 81 women (6%) at enrolment. Among women without T. vaginalis at enrolment, 112 had T. vaginalis detected during 1079 person-years of follow-up (10.4 per 100 person-years). After adjustment for socio-economic factors, male partner circumcision status, pregnancy status and other STIs, T. vaginalis incidence was higher during pregnancy than post partum (22.3 vs 7.7 per 100 person-years, adjusted HR (aHR) 3.68, 95% CI 1.90 to 7.15, pvaginalis compared with women with uncircumcised partners (aHR 0.42, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.76, p=0.004). Employed women had lower risk of incident T. vaginalis than unemployed women (aHR 0.49, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.79, p=0.003); recent STI was associated with increased T. vaginalis risk (aHR 2.97, 95% CI 1.49 to 5.94, p=0.002). T. vaginalis was relatively common in this peripartum cohort. Male circumcision may confer benefits in preventing T. vaginalis . Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Heavy Alcohol Use Among Migrant and Non-Migrant Male Sex Workers in Thailand: A Neglected HIV/STI Vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadamuz, Thomas E; Clatts, Michael C; Goldsamt, Lloyd A

    2018-02-20

    There is scarce research on male sex workers in the context of alcohol use. While heavy alcohol use has been established as a risk factor for HIV and STI infections among men who have sex with men (MSM), men who engage in sex work with other men, particularly from the Global South, have not been included in these studies. Moreover, studies among male sex workers in Asia often do not explore migration contexts of these men. The objective of this exploratory study is to examine the prevalence and correlates of heavy alcohol use among migrant and non-migrant male sex workers in Bangkok and Pattaya, Central Thailand. Between August and October 2015, 18-24 year-old migrant and non-migrant male sex workers (n = 212) were recruited from various male sex work-identified venues (bars, clubs, massage parlors, and go-go bars) to take an interviewer-administered cross-sectional survey in Bangkok and Pattaya, Thailand. Measures were adapted from previous studies in similar populations and included structured questions across four domains, including demographic characteristics, alcohol use, stimulant use, and sexual behaviors. Multivariable logistic regression assessed the independent associations between heavy alcohol use (heavy versus not heavy) and demographic characteristics, stimulant use and sexual behavior. Heavy alcohol use was prevalent among one-third of participants. Heavy alcohol use was positively associated with male sex workers who were non-migrant and Thai, currently using stimulants, having 15 or more male clients in the past month and having first consumed alcohol at age 15 years or younger. Current HIV prevention efforts should consider subpopulations of MSM, including male sex workers and migrants, as well as other risk behaviors like alcohol, as important contexts for HIV and STI risks.

  11. Structural Pathways between Child Abuse, Poor Mental Health Outcomes and Male-Perpetrated Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machisa, Mercilene T.; Christofides, Nicola; Jewkes, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Background Violent trauma exposures, including child abuse, are risk factors for PTSD and comorbid mental health disorders. Child abuse experiences of men exacerbate adult male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV). The relationship between child abuse, poor mental health and IPV perpetration is complex but research among the general population is lacking. This study describes the relationship and pathways between history of child abuse exposure and male-perpetrated IPV while exploring the potentially mediating effect of poor mental health. Methods We analysed data from a randomly selected, two-stage clustered, cross-sectional household survey conducted with 416 adult men in Gauteng Province of South Africa. We used multinomial regression modelling to identify associated factors and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to test the primary hypothesis that poor mental health (defined as abusing alcohol or having PTSD or depressive symptoms) mediates the relationship between child abuse and IPV perpetration. Results Eighty eight percent of men were physically abused, 55% were neglected, 63% were emotionally abused and 20% were sexually abused at least once in their childhood. Twenty four percent of men had PTSD symptoms, 24% had depressive symptoms and 36% binge drank. Fifty six percent of men physically abused and 31% sexually abused partners at least once in their lifetime. Twenty two percent of men had one episode and 40% had repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. PTSD symptomatology risk increased with severity of child trauma and other trauma. PTSD severity increased the risk for binge drinking. Child trauma, other trauma and PTSD symptomatology increased the severity of depressive symptoms. PTSD symptomatology was comorbid with alcohol abuse and depressive symptoms. Child trauma, having worked in the year before the survey, other trauma and PTSD increased the risk of repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. Highly equitable gender attitudes were protective

  12. Structural Pathways between Child Abuse, Poor Mental Health Outcomes and Male-Perpetrated Intimate Partner Violence (IPV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercilene T Machisa

    Full Text Available Violent trauma exposures, including child abuse, are risk factors for PTSD and comorbid mental health disorders. Child abuse experiences of men exacerbate adult male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV. The relationship between child abuse, poor mental health and IPV perpetration is complex but research among the general population is lacking. This study describes the relationship and pathways between history of child abuse exposure and male-perpetrated IPV while exploring the potentially mediating effect of poor mental health.We analysed data from a randomly selected, two-stage clustered, cross-sectional household survey conducted with 416 adult men in Gauteng Province of South Africa. We used multinomial regression modelling to identify associated factors and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM to test the primary hypothesis that poor mental health (defined as abusing alcohol or having PTSD or depressive symptoms mediates the relationship between child abuse and IPV perpetration.Eighty eight percent of men were physically abused, 55% were neglected, 63% were emotionally abused and 20% were sexually abused at least once in their childhood. Twenty four percent of men had PTSD symptoms, 24% had depressive symptoms and 36% binge drank. Fifty six percent of men physically abused and 31% sexually abused partners at least once in their lifetime. Twenty two percent of men had one episode and 40% had repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. PTSD symptomatology risk increased with severity of child trauma and other trauma. PTSD severity increased the risk for binge drinking. Child trauma, other trauma and PTSD symptomatology increased the severity of depressive symptoms. PTSD symptomatology was comorbid with alcohol abuse and depressive symptoms. Child trauma, having worked in the year before the survey, other trauma and PTSD increased the risk of repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. Highly equitable gender attitudes were protective against single and

  13. Factors Associated with Male Partner Involvement in Programs for the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motlagabo G. Matseke

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Male partner involvement (MPI can contribute to the success of programs aimed at preventing mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV. However, the definition and measures of MPI differ according to context. This study utilized secondary cross-sectional data to investigate the prevalence and determinants of MPI among 463 male partners of HIV-infected pregnant women in rural South Africa. Results indicated that 44.1% of male partners reported involvement in most or all specified male partner involvement activities (i.e., scores of 7 to 9. Descriptive, correlation and multiple linear-regression analyses were conducted. Positive predictors of MPI included relationship status, own HIV status, awareness of female partner’s positive HIV status, female partner’s desire to have more children, having family planning discussions with provider, condom use to prevent HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs, and partner reasoning skills. Negative predictors included partner verbal aggression. Overall, although MPI is low, the study underlines important information that could be used to develop interventions aimed at improving maternal and infant health in PMTCT programs in South Africa.

  14. Intimate partner violence reported by female and male users of healthcare units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Claudia Renata Dos Santos; Schraiber, Lilia Blima

    2017-02-16

    To analyze nonfatal violence suffered and committed by adult men and women, in an intimate relationship. The participants in the research were women aged between 15 and 49 years and men between 18 and 60 years, interviewed by face-to-face questionnaire application. The sample selection was of consecutive type, according to the order of arrival of the users. We conducted temporarily independent investigations and covered different health services to avoid couples and relationships in which the retaliation could be overvalued. To improve the comparison, we also examined reports of men and women from the same service, i.e., a service that was common to both investigations. We compared the situations suffered by women according to their reports and cross-linked the information to what men, according to their own reports, do against intimate partners or ex-partners. We also examined the cross-linked situation in reverse: the violence committed by women against their partners, according to their reports, in comparison with the violence suffered by men, also according to their reports, even if, in this case, the exam refers only to physical violence. The variables were described using mean, standard deviation, frequencies and proportions, and the hypothesis testing used was: Fisher's exact and Pearson's Chi-square tests, adopting a significance level of 5%. Victimization was greater among women, regardless of the type of violence, when perpetrated by intimate partner. The perception of violence was low in both genders; however, women reported more episodes of multiple recurrences of any violence and sexual abuse suffered than men acknowledged to have perpetrated. The study in its entirety shows significant gender differences, whether about the prevalence of violence, whether about the perception of these situations. Analisar as violências não fatais sofridas e praticadas por homens e mulheres adultos, em situação de parceria íntima. Os sujeitos da pesquisa foram

  15. How to make a sexy snake: estrogen activation of female sex pheromone in male red-sided garter snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M Rockwell; Mason, Robert T

    2012-03-01

    Vertebrates indicate their genetic sex to conspecifics using secondary sexual signals, and signal expression is often activated by sex hormones. Among vertebrate signaling modalities, the least is known about how hormones influence chemical signaling. Our study species, the red-sided garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis), is a model vertebrate for studying hormonal control of chemical signals because males completely rely on the female sex pheromone to identify potential mates among thousands of individuals. How sex hormones can influence the expression of this crucial sexual signal is largely unknown. We created two groups of experimental males for the first experiment: Sham (blank implants) and E2 (17β-estradiol implants). E2 males were vigorously courted by wild males in outdoor bioassays, and in a Y-maze E2 pheromone trails were chosen by wild males over those of small females and were indistinguishable from large female trails. Biochemically, the E2 pheromone blend was similar to that of large females, and it differed significantly from Shams. For the second experiment, we implanted males with 17β-estradiol in 2007 but removed the implants the following year (2008; Removal). That same year, we implanted a new group of males with estrogen implants (Implant). Removal males were courted by wild males in 2008 (implant intact) but not in 2009 (removed). Total pheromone quantity and quality increased following estrogen treatment, and estrogen removal re-established male-typical pheromone blends. Thus, we have shown that estrogen activates the production of female pheromone in adult red-sided garter snakes. This is the first known study to quantify both behavioral and biochemical responses in chemical signaling following sex steroid treatment of reptiles in the activation/organization context. We propose that the homogametic sex (ZZ, male) may possess the same targets for activation of sexual signal production, and the absence of the activator (17

  16. Diversity of commercial sex among men and male-born trans people in three Peruvian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nureña, César R; Zúñiga, Mario; Zunt, Joseph; Mejía, Carolina; Montano, Silvia; Sánchez, Jorge L

    2011-11-01

    In Peru, commercial sex involving men and male-born travestis, transgenders and transsexuals (CSMT) is usually represented as a dangerous practice carried out on the streets by people experiencing economic hardship and social exclusion. However, in reality little is known about the complexities of this practice in Peru. This paper presents findings from an ethnographic study of the characteristics, patterns and sociocultural aspects of CSMT in three Peruvian cities. The study included participant observation in sex work venues and interviews with 42 sex workers and 25 key informants. We found that CSMT in Peru takes many forms (some not previously described in the country) and is practised in different places by people from various socioeconomic levels. In many cases, the practice appears linked to ideals of social mobility, migratory experiences and other economic activities. In addition, the increasing use of the Internet and mobile phones has changed patterns of sex work in Peru. We review the implications of these findings for future research and public health interventions.

  17. Sex-specific effects of mindfulness on romantic partners' cortisol responses to conflict and relations with psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie; Laurent, Sean; Hertz, Robin; Egan-Wright, Dorianne; Granger, Douglas A

    2013-12-01

    Mindfulness is known to improve individuals' and couples' subjective stress regulation, but little is known about how it impacts hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to acute psychosocial stress. The current study tested effects of dispositional mindfulness facets on young adult couples' cortisol responses to a conflict discussion stressor, as well as associations with psychological adjustment. One hundred heterosexual couples completed the five facet mindfulness questionnaire one week before engaging in a conflict discussion task. Each partner provided five saliva samples from pre- to post-conflict, which were assayed for cortisol. Measures of adjustment - depression and anxiety symptoms and global well-being - were also completed at this session. Hierarchical linear modeling of cortisol trajectories revealed sex-specific effects; whereas women's mindfulness (nonreactivity facet) predicted higher conflict stress cortisol levels, men's mindfulness (describing facet) predicted less pronounced cortisol reactivity/recovery curves. These patterns were related to better adjustment-lower depression symptoms for women and greater well-being for men. Implications for sex differences in mindfulness benefits are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. HIV Infection, risk factors and health services use among male-to-female transgender sex workers: a cross-sectional study in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Ana; Martins, Maria Rosário Oliveira; Mendão, Luís; Barros, Henrique; Dias, Sónia

    2018-01-01

    Male-to-female transgender sex workers (TSW) have been identified as a key population at risk for HIV. This study examined risk behaviors and HIV prevalence among TSW, and described health services use. A participatory cross-sectional survey was conducted with 125 TSW recruited in locations and networks where sex workers congregate. HIV-risk behaviors were common among participants. Inconsistent condom use with clients in the previous month was reported by 12.0% of participants and was associated with Portuguese nationality, inconsistent condom use with non-paying partners and not been reached by HIV prevention programs in the previous year. Ever use of psychoactive substances was reported by 61.6% of participants and was associated with being non-employed, doing full-time sex work, having higher number of non-paying partners and having never used health services. Also, ever use of psychoactive substances was negatively associated with older age and Portuguese nationality. About 34% of the participants reported having not been tested in the previous 12 months; 20.2% never used the health services. Overall, 14.9% (95%CI: 8.0-21.0%) reported being HIV-positive. Of those, 22.2% (95%CI: 1.0-43.5%) had unprotected sex with clients in the previous month, 26.7% (95%CI: 1.3-52.0%) had unprotected sex with non-paying partners in the previous year, 13.3% (95%CI: 0.0-33.0%) had ever injected drugs, 60.0% (95%CI: 23.0-97.0%) reported a past STI and 33.3% (95%CI: 2.0-64.6%) had currently HIV/STI co-infection. The socioeconomic, relational or partnering, and structural contexts conducive to increased risk are warranting further investigation. This knowledge would be valuable to inform prevention programs. HIV interventions, including secondary prevention, should address specific needs of TSW. Outreach initiatives aimed to reach TSW who are difficult to access can play a role in promoting access to health services and reducing HIV infection and transmission.

  19. Sex-specific signaling in the blood-brain barrier is required for male courtship in Drosophila.

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    Valbona Hoxha

    Full Text Available Soluble circulating proteins play an important role in the regulation of mating behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. However, how these factors signal through the blood-brain barrier (bbb to interact with the sex-specific brain circuits that control courtship is unknown. Here we show that male identity of the blood-brain barrier is necessary and that male-specific factors in the bbb are physiologically required for normal male courtship behavior. Feminization of the bbb of adult males significantly reduces male courtship. We show that the bbb-specific G-protein coupled receptor moody and bbb-specific Go signaling in adult males are necessary for normal courtship. These data identify sex-specific factors and signaling processes in the bbb as important regulators of male mating behavior.

  20. Preparation of slowly released male sex hormone drug by radiation polymerization technique and its evaluation in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Rueizhi; Lei Shaoqiong; Li Ximing

    1992-01-01

    The radiation polymerization technique was used for immobilization testosterone propionate into crosslinked network of poly hydroxyethyl methacrylate to prepare slowly released male sex hormone drug which is used for testicular prosthesis. The testicular prosthesis was transplanted into the scrotum of male rabbit whose testes was excised 2 months before the transplantation. Then the level of male sex hormone in serum was measured by radioimmunoassay once a week after transplantation. The results of measurement in a period of 6 months were shown that the testicular prosthesis has a stable release of male sex hormone. The testosterone level in serum of the castrated male rabbits rises markedly and finally stabilizes at the level of 429 ± 36 ng/100 ml after transplantation. Macroscopic examination of biopsies taken from the tissues around the testicular prosthesis showed that tissue compatibility was revealed well

  1. Burden of HIV and Syphilis: A Comparative Evaluation between Male Sex Workers and Non-Sex-Worker Men Who Have Sex with Men in Urban China.

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    Weiming Tang

    Full Text Available The increasing burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs including HIV and syphilis among male sex workers (MSWs is a major global concern. The aim of our study was to evaluate the difference between MSWs and non-commercial MSMs in China.During 2008-09, in a cross-sectional study, 2618 adult MSM were recruited through respondent-driven and snowball sampling from seven cities of China. Information regarding socio-demographics, risk behaviors, HIV-related knowledge and STI-related symptoms were collected and participants were tested for HIV and syphilis.Among 2618 participating MSM, 9.97% sold sex to males. HIV prevalence was 7.45% (6.13% among MSWs and 7.59% among non-MSW MSM and syphilis prevalence was 14.32% (10.73% for MSWs and 14.72% for non-MSW MSM. Compared to non-MSW MSM, MSWs were more likely to be younger (adjusted odds ratio: aOR = 0.91, 95% confidence interval: 95%CI=0.88-0.93, never married (aOR = 4.38, 95% CI = 2.38-6.80, less educated, heterosexual (aOR = 13.04, 95% CI = 6.08-27.95, less knowledgeable regarding HIV (aOR = 0.70, 95% CI=0.51-0.96, experiencing symptoms of STI (aOR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.47-3.19, engaging in condomless vaginal intercourse (aOR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.47-3.19 and less likely to engage in condomless anal intercourse (aOR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.46-0.85.High HIV and syphilis prevalence warranted urgent intervention targeting MSWs as a separate sentinel group for efficient surveillance owing to their different distribution from non-MSW MSM. Although male sex workers and non-commercial homosexuals have similar rates of HIV and syphilis, MSWs have different characteristics which should be considered in designing intervention programs targeting them.

  2. Sex Differences in Spatial Memory in Brown-Headed Cowbirds: Males Outperform Females on a Touchscreen Task.

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    Mélanie F Guigueno

    Full Text Available Spatial cognition in females and males can differ in species in which there are sex-specific patterns in the use of space. Brown-headed cowbirds are brood parasites that show a reversal of sex-typical space use often seen in mammals. Female cowbirds, search for, revisit and parasitize hosts nests, have a larger hippocampus than males and have better memory than males for a rewarded location in an open spatial environment. In the current study, we tested female and male cowbirds in breeding and non-breeding conditions on a touchscreen delayed-match-to-sample task using both spatial and colour stimuli. Our goal was to determine whether sex differences in spatial memory in cowbirds generalizes to all spatial tasks or is task-dependant. Both sexes performed better on the spatial than on the colour touchscreen task. On the spatial task, breeding males outperformed breeding females. On the colour task, females and males did not differ, but females performed better in breeding condition than in non-breeding condition. Although female cowbirds were observed to outperform males on a previous larger-scale spatial task, males performed better than females on a task testing spatial memory in the cowbirds' immediate visual field. Spatial abilities in cowbirds can favour males or females depending on the type of spatial task, as has been observed in mammals, including humans.

  3. Sex Differences in Spatial Memory in Brown-Headed Cowbirds: Males Outperform Females on a Touchscreen Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigueno, Mélanie F.; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A.; Sherry, David F.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial cognition in females and males can differ in species in which there are sex-specific patterns in the use of space. Brown-headed cowbirds are brood parasites that show a reversal of sex-typical space use often seen in mammals. Female cowbirds, search for, revisit and parasitize hosts nests, have a larger hippocampus than males and have better memory than males for a rewarded location in an open spatial environment. In the current study, we tested female and male cowbirds in breeding and non-breeding conditions on a touchscreen delayed-match-to-sample task using both spatial and colour stimuli. Our goal was to determine whether sex differences in spatial memory in cowbirds generalizes to all spatial tasks or is task-dependant. Both sexes performed better on the spatial than on the colour touchscreen task. On the spatial task, breeding males outperformed breeding females. On the colour task, females and males did not differ, but females performed better in breeding condition than in non-breeding condition. Although female cowbirds were observed to outperform males on a previous larger-scale spatial task, males performed better than females on a task testing spatial memory in the cowbirds’ immediate visual field. Spatial abilities in cowbirds can favour males or females depending on the type of spatial task, as has been observed in mammals, including humans. PMID:26083573

  4. Central vasopressin V1a receptor activation is independently necessary for both partner preference formation and expression in socially monogamous male prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Zoe R; Spiegel, Lauren; Young, Larry J

    2010-02-01

    The neuropeptide arginine vasopressin (AVP) modulates a variety of species-specific social behaviors. In socially monogamous male prairie voles, AVP acts centrally via vasopressin V1a receptor (V1aR) to facilitate mating induced partner preferences. The display of a partner preference requires at least 2 temporally distinct processes: social bond formation as well as its recall, or expression. Studies to date have not determined in which of these processes V1aR acts to promote partner preferences. Here, male prairie voles were administered intracerebroventricularly a V1aR antagonist (AVPA) at different time points to investigate the role of V1aR in social bond formation and expression. Animals receiving AVPA prior to cohabitation with mating or immediately prior to partner preference testing failed to display a partner preference, while animals receiving AVPA immediately after cohabitation with mating and control animals receiving vehicle at all 3 time points displayed partner preferences. These results suggest that V1aR signaling is necessary for both the formation and expression of partner preferences and that these processes are dissociable. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Male Partners' Investment and Alternatives as Correlates of Women's Coerced First Sexual Intercourse in Chinese Dating Relationships: A Social Exchange Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shanshan; Tsang, Sandra

    2016-10-01

    Social exchange theory has great potential to help our understanding of dating partners' sexual interaction. Yet, to our knowledge, there is still no empirical study applying this theory to explain sexual coercion in the context of intimate relationships. This study examined the relationship between male partners' social exchange variables (investment and alternatives) and women's coerced first sexual intercourse in dating relationships, within both gender samples (not dyadic data). A total of 927 valid questionnaires were collected by purposive snowball sampling in five main cities in China of college students who were currently in a romantic relationship. Results showed that in the male sample, male partners' investment significantly and positively correlated with emotional manipulation coercive tactics, and their alternatives significantly and positively predicted defection threats as coercive tactics. In the female sample, there were no such observations. The research hypotheses of this study have been partially supported, and its implications and limitations are discussed.

  6. Prevalence and Predictors of Self-Reported Consistent Condom Usage among Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Bimal; Sam, Asirvatham Edwin

    2014-01-01

    Clients of female sex workers (FSWs) possess a high potential of transmitting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections from high risk FSWs to the general population. Promotion of safer sex practices among the clients is essential to limit the spread of HIV/AIDS epidemic. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of consistent condom use (CCU) among clients of FSWs and to assess the factors associated with CCU in Tamil Nadu. 146 male respondents were recruited from the hotspots who reportedly had sex with FSWs in exchange for cash at least once in the past one month. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate methods. Overall, 48.6 and 0.8 percent clients consistently used condoms in the past 12 months with FSWs and regular partners, respectively. Logistic regression showed that factors such as education, peers' use of condoms, and alcohol consumption significantly influenced clients' CCU with FSWs. Strategies for safe sex-behaviour are needed among clients of FSWs in order to limit the spread of HIV/AIDS epidemic in the general population. The role of peer-educators in experience sharing and awareness generation must also be emphasized. PMID:26316978

  7. Uptake of a Partner Notification Model for HIV Among Men Who Have Sex With Men and Transgender Women in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Shirley J; Pines, Heather A; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Vera, Alicia Harvey; Rangel, Gudelia; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Patterson, Thomas L

    2017-11-20

    Undiagnosed HIV infection is common among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in Latin America. We examined uptake of a partner notification (PN) model among MSM and TW in Tijuana, Mexico. Forty-six HIV-positive MSM/TW enrolled as index patients, and reported 132 MSM/TW sexual partners for PN. Of notified partners (90/132), 39% declined eligibility screening or participation, 39% tested for HIV, and of those 28% were newly-diagnosed HIV-positive. Partners who were seen by the index patient more than once in the past 4 months and those who primarily had sex with the index patient in one of their homes were more likely to be notified via PN (76% vs. 50%; p = 0.01 and 86% vs. 64%, p = 0.02, respectively). Lower than expected PN uptake was associated with problems identifying index patients, obtaining reliable partner contact information, and engaging notified partners.

  8. Meiotic sex chromosome inactivation is disrupted in sterile hybrid male house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Polly; Good, Jeffrey M; Nachman, Michael W

    2013-03-01

    In male mammals, the X and Y chromosomes are transcriptionally silenced in primary spermatocytes by meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) and remain repressed for the duration of spermatogenesis. Here, we test the longstanding hypothesis that disrupted MSCI might contribute to the preferential sterility of heterogametic hybrid males. We studied a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus in which sterility is asymmetric: F1 males with a M. m. musculus mother are sterile or nearly so while F1 males with a M. m. domesticus mother are normal. In previous work, we discovered widespread overexpression of X-linked genes in the testes of sterile but not fertile F1 males. Here, we ask whether this overexpression is specifically a result of disrupted MSCI. To do this, we isolated cells from different stages of spermatogenesis and measured the expression of several genes using quantitative PCR. We found that X overexpression in sterile F1 primary spermatocytes is coincident with the onset of MSCI and persists in postmeiotic spermatids. Using a series of recombinant X genotypes, we then asked whether X overexpression in hybrids is controlled by cis-acting loci across the X chromosome. We found that it is not. Instead, one large interval in the proximal portion of the M. m. musculus X chromosome is associated with both overexpression and the severity of sterility phenotypes in hybrids. These results demonstrate a strong association between X-linked hybrid male sterility and disruption of MSCI and suggest that trans-acting loci on the X are important for the transcriptional regulation of the X chromosome during spermatogenesis.

  9. Interchromosomal insertional translocation at Xq26.3 alters SOX3 expression in an individual with XX male sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Bryan; Hughes, James; Corbett, Mark; Shaw, Marie; Innes, Josie; Patel, Leena; Gecz, Jozef; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Thomas, Paul

    2015-05-01

    46,XX male sex reversal occurs in approximately 1: 20 000 live births and is most commonly caused by interchromosomal translocations of the Y-linked sex-determining gene, SRY. Rearrangements of the closely related SOX3 gene on the X chromosome are also associated with 46,XX male sex reversal. It has been hypothesized that sex reversal in the latter is caused by ectopic expression of SOX3 in the developing urogenital ridge where it triggers male development by acting as an analog of SRY. However, altered regulation of SOX3 in individuals with XX male sex reversal has not been demonstrated. Here we report a boy with SRY-negative XX male sex reversal who was diagnosed at birth with a small phallus, mixed gonads, and borderline-normal T. Molecular characterization of the affected individual was performed using array comparative genomic hybridization, fluorescent in situ hybridization of metaphase chromosomes, whole-genome sequencing, and RT-PCR expression analysis of lymphoblast cell lines. The affected male carries ∼774-kb insertion translocation from chromosome 1 into a human-specific palindromic sequence 82 kb distal to SOX3. Importantly, robust SOX3 expression was identified in cells derived from the affected individual but not from control XX or XY cells, indicating that the translocation has a direct effect on SOX3 regulation. This is the first demonstration of altered SOX3 expression in an individual with XX male sex reversal and suggests that SOX3 can substitute for SRY to initiate male development in humans.

  10. The Role of Clitoral Anatomy in Female to Male Sex Reassignment Surgery

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    Vojkan Vukadinovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Controversies on clitoral anatomy and its role in female sexual function still make clitoral reconstructive surgery very challenging. We evaluated the role of clitoral anatomic features in female to male sex reassignment surgery. Material and Methods. The study included 97 female transsexuals, aged from 18 to 41 years, who underwent single stage metoidioplasty between March 2008 and January 2013. The operative technique involved vaginectomy, the release of clitoral ligaments and urethral plate, urethroplasty by combining buccal mucosa graft and genital flaps, and scrotoplasty with insertion of testicle prostheses. Postoperative questionnaire was used to evaluate aesthetic, functional, and sexual outcome. Results. The mean followup was 30 months. The mean length of the neophallus was 7 cm, compared to mean preoperative length of the hypertrophied clitoris of 3.3 cm. Complications occurred in 27.84% of all patients, related mostly to urethroplasty. Voiding while standing was achieved in all cases. None of the patients had problems in sexual arousal, masturbation, or orgasms. Conclusion. Accurate knowledge of the clitoral anatomy, physiology, and neurovascular supply is crucial for a successful outcome of female to male sex reassignment surgery. Our approach appears to ensure overall satisfaction and high quality of sexual life.

  11. A Content Analysis of Testosterone Websites: Sex, Muscle, and Male Age-Related Thematic Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Nicholas; Vuong, Jimmy; Gray, Peter B

    2018-03-01

    Male testosterone supplementation is a large and growing industry. How is testosterone marketed to male consumers online? The present exploratory study entailed a content coding analysis of the home pages of 49 websites focused on testosterone supplementation for men in the United States. Four hypotheses concerning anticipated age-related differences in content coding were also tested: more frequent longevity content toward older men, and more frequent social dominance/physical formidability, muscle, and sex content toward younger men. Codes were created based on inductive observations and drawing upon the medical, life history, and human behavioral endocrinology literatures. Approximately half ( n = 24) of websites were oriented toward younger men (estimated audience of men 40 years of age or younger) and half ( n = 25) toward older men (estimated audience over 40 years of age). Results indicated that the most frequent content codes concerned online sales (e.g., product and purchasing information). Apart from sales information, the most frequent codes concerned, in order, muscle, sex/sexual functioning, low T, energy, fat, strength, aging, and well-being, with all four hypotheses also supported. These findings are interpreted in the light of medical, evolutionary life history, and human behavioral endocrinology approaches.

  12. Radiation therapy induced changes in male sex hormone levels in rectal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dueland, Svein; Groenlie Guren, Marianne; Rune Olsen, Dag; Poulsen, Jan Peter; Magne Tveit, Kjell

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose:To determine the effect of curative radiation therapy (46-50 Gy) on the sex hormone levels in male rectal cancer patients. Materials and methods:Twenty-five male rectal cancer patients (mean age 65 years), receiving pelvic radiation therapy (2 Gyx23-25 fractions in 5 weeks) were included. Serum testosterone, FSH and LH were determined before start of treatment, at the 10th and 25th fractions, and 4-6 weeks after completed radiotherapy. The testicular dose was determined by thermoluminescent dosimetry. Results:Five weeks of radiation therapy (46-50 Gy) resulted in a 100% increase in serum FSH, a 70% increase in LH, and a 25% reduction in testosterone levels. After treatment, 35% of the patients had serum testosterone levels below lower limit of reference. The mean radiation dose to the testicles was 8.4 Gy. A reduction in testosterone values was observed already after a mean dose of 3.3 Gy (10th fraction). Conclusion:Radiation therapy (46-50 Gy) for rectal cancer resulted in a significant increase in serum FSH and LH and a significant decrease in testosterone levels, indicating that sex hormone production is sensitive to radiation exposure in patients with a mean age of 65 years

  13. Association between Sex Hormone and Blood Uric Acid in Male Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

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    Wen Cao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between serum uric acid (SUA level and sexual dysfunction in patients with diabetes is not well characterized. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM causes metabolic disorders, including abnormal serum uric acid (SUA levels. In this study, we enrolled 205 male patients with T2DM and investigated the relationship between sex hormone levels and SUA. Patients were divided into four groups based on SUA quartiles. On the other hand, based on the total testosterone (TT level, patients were divided into three groups; SUA and other laboratory indices were determined. Increase in SUA level was significantly associated with decreased levels of TT, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, sex hormone-binding globulin, and increased levels of dehydroepiandrosterone, age, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, glycated hemoglobin, serum creatinine, and HOMA-IR levels. SUA, waist circumference, BMI, and HOMA-IR showed a negative correlation with TT level, while age showed a positive correlation with TT level. SUA and body mass index were found to be risk factors for gonadal dysfunction. Therefore, we conclude that hypogonadism of male patients with T2DM is related to SUA level.

  14. Let’s Talk About Sex: Parental Communication and Sexual Behavior of Male Filipino Youth

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    Goldilyn D. Gumban

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the sexual behavior of young people is important in pursuing health development in our society. In the Philippines, current data shows that there is a drastic increase in sex related activities concerning our youths. According to past studies, strong familial relationship and parent-child connectedness decrease the likelihood of a child to engage in risky sex. Furthermore, families with strong communication and are open to sexual topics became closer, and more comfortable with each other. This quantitative, correlational study was designed to describe the level of parental communication in terms of sexual health issues and its relationship to the sexual behaviorsof male Filipino youths in Metro Manila. A total of 143 male respondents ages 18-25 from Metro Manila participated in the study through an online survey. Results suggest that that majority of the respondents reported low level of parental communication in terms of sexual health issues and a large number reported risky sexual behaviors. The results of this study suggested no significant relationship between the respondent‟s level of parental communication and their sexual behavior.

  15. Decreased serum levels of sex steroids associated with osteoporosis in a group of Romanian male patients

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    Popa Florina Ligia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. With age, sex hormone deficiency leads to reduced bone mineral density (BMD in men. The aim of our research is to analyze the role of serum sex steroids in assessing BMD in the men included in this study. Materials and methods. This cross-sectional study included 146 men aged 65-85 years old with osteopenia or osteoporosis (study group and 121 men with normal BMD (control group. Serum levels of total testosterone (Tt and free testosterone (Tf were measured by immunoassay, and estradiol (E2 levels were measured by the immunoenzymatic method. Femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD was examined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results. Tf and E2 deficiency was significantly associated with low BMD (p=0.007. No association was found between Tt deficiency and reduced BMD. Tf levels (p<0.001 and E2 levels (p=0.003 were significantly lower in patients with reduced BMD compared to those with normal BMD. Significant more cases with low levels of Tf (p=0.015 and E2 (p<0.001 were found in patients with osteoporosis compared to those with osteopenia. Conclusions. Sex hormones deficiency in men was significantly correlated with the decrease of BMD. Determination of serum Tf and E2 levels is important in assessing the risk of osteoporosis in male subjects.

  16. HIV prevalence by race co-varies closely with concurrency and number of sex partners in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Kenyon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV prevalence differs by more than an order of magnitude between South Africa's racial groups. Comparing the sexual behaviors and other risk factors for HIV transmission between the different races may shed light on the determinants of South Africa's generalized HIV epidemic. METHODS: Five nationally representative and one city-representative population-based surveys of sexual behavior were used to assess the extent to which various risk factors co-varied with HIV prevalence by race in South Africa. RESULTS: In 2004, the prevalence of HIV was 0.5%, 1%, 3.2% and 19.9% in 15-49 year old whites, Indians, coloureds and blacks respectively. The risk factors which co-varied with HIV prevalence by race in the six surveys were age of sexual debut (in five out of five surveys for men and three out of six surveys for women, age gap (zero surveys in men and three in women, mean number of sex partners in the previous year (five surveys in men and three in women and concurrent partnerships (five surveys in men and one in women. Condom usage and circumcision were both more prevalent in the high HIV prevalence groups. The reported prevalence of concurrency was 6 to 17 times higher in the black as opposed to the white men in the five surveys. CONCLUSIONS: The differences in sexual behavior in general, and the prevalence of concurrency and the number of sexual partners in particular, offer a plausible and parsimonious cause to explain a part of the differing prevalences of HIV between South Africa's racial groups.

  17. Factors associated with sex hormones and erectile dysfunction in male Taiwanese participants with obesity.

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    Shi, Ming-Der; Chao, Jian-Kang; Ma, Mi-Chia; Hao, Lyh-Jyh; Chao, I-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has been receiving an increasing amount of attention recently, but investigations regarding the potential impact of obesity, sexual behaviors, and sex hormones on erectile dysfunction (ED) in men have not completely clarified the association. To identify the relationship between ED, sexual behavior, sexual satisfaction, sex hormones, and obesity in older adult males in Taiwan. Data were obtained from a baseline survey of 476 older adult males (≧40 years old). Their demographic data, body mass index (BMI), sex hormones, sexual desire, sexual satisfaction, and ED status were assessed. The International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5), Sexual Desire Inventory (SDI), and Sexual Satisfaction Scale (SSS) were used to assess ED, sexual desire, and sexual satisfaction. In all, 476 men were available for analysis. The mean age of the sample was 51.34 ± 7.84 years (range 40 to 70 years). The IIEF total score had a mean of 19.44 ± 4.98; 264 (55.5%) subjects had ED, 250 (52.9%) were currently obese (BMI ≧27), and 297 (62.4%) had metabolic syndrome. The results showed an increased risk of ED among obese men and subjects with lower levels of sex hormones and lower sexual desire. Testosterone levels were lower in subjects with obesity (P < 0.001). Among the predictors of ED, obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.07-2.44, P = 0.021), abnormal high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (OR = 10.59, 95% CI = 4.70-23.87, P < 0.001), and lower serum full testosterone (OR = 3.27, 95% CI = 2.16-4.93, P < 0.001) were significantly independent factors. This study supports the idea of a close relationship between low levels of sex hormones, sexual desire, sexual satisfaction, obesity, and ED, and also shows that low free testosterone and hs-CRP may predict ED, even in obese populations. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Condom use and HIV-related behaviors in urban Tanzanian men who have sex with men: a study of beliefs, HIV knowledge sources, partner interactions and risk behaviors.

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    Nyoni, Joyce E; Ross, Michael W

    2013-01-01

    Although studies have been conducted in neighboring countries, there are no published data on men who have sex with men (MSM) in mainland Tanzania. We report on a respondent-driven sampling study of 271 MSM in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The sample covered a wide range of educational attainment and employment, median age was 24, and all respondents had heard of HIV/AIDS, mostly through public media. Those satisfied with media information on HIV were younger, had lower education, and had obtained their information from health facilities. Over two-thirds believed that having one faithful partner and using condoms would protect against HIV: nevertheless, more than two-thirds were worried about HIV infection. Two-thirds had had a relationship with a woman, one-third in the past year. Predictors of non-use of condoms for anal sex with last casual partner were younger age, not being worried about HIV infection, and agreeing to have sex even if a condom was refused. There was no significance in proportion using a condom with last casual (43%) and last regular (49%) partner. Most partners (MSM knew a median of 10 other MSM) were met in bars, music halls, and in the home/local environment, and 70% of MSM described their sexual position as "bottom." Sixty percent reported having an HIV test and the great majority was comfortable discussing condoms with partners and friends: half would refuse to have sex if condoms were not agreed to. These data suggest a significant "gay" community in Dar es Salaam with relatively accurate HIV information but moderate condom use, HIV testing and ability to refuse unsafe sex. There is clearly scope for targeted HIV prevention programs in the MSM community in Tanzania.

  19. Prevalence and correlates of knowledge of male partner HIV testing and serostatus among African-American women living in high poverty, high HIV prevalence communities (HPTN 064)

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    Jennings, Larissa; Rompalo, Anne M.; Wang, Jing; Hughes, James; Adimora, Adaora A.; Hodder, Sally; Soto-Torres, Lydia E.; Frew, Paula M.; Haley, Danielle F.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of sexual partners' HIV infection can reduce risky sexual behaviors. Yet, there are no published studies to-date examining prevalence and characteristics associated with knowledge among African-American women living in high poverty communities disproportionately affected by HIV. Using the HIV Prevention Trial Network's (HPTN) 064 Study data, multivariable logistic regression was used to examine individual, partner, and partnership-level determinants of women's knowledge (n=1,768 women). Results showed that women's demographic characteristics alone did not account for the variation in serostatus awareness. Rather, lower knowledge of partner serostatus was associated with having two or more sex partners (OR=0.49, 95%CI: 0.37-0.65), food insecurity (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94), partner age>35 (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94), and partner concurrency (OR=0.63, 95%CI: 0.49-0.83). Access to financial support (OR=1.42, 95%CI: 1.05-1.92) and coresidence (OR=1.43, 95%CI: 1.05-1.95) were associated with higher knowledge of partner serostatus. HIV prevention efforts addressing African-American women's vulnerabilities should employ integrated behavioral, economic, and empowerment approaches. PMID:25160901

  20. [Sexual behavior and sources of information about sex among male adolescents: An 8-year follow-up].

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    Korkmaz Cetin, Saniye; Bildik, Tezan; Erermiş, Serpil; Demiral, Nagehan; Ozbaran, Burcu; Tamar, Müge; Aydin, Cahide

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the changes over time in sexual attitude and behavior among adolescents, and to measure the effect of sources information about sex on these changes. This study was conducted in 2 stages, the first in 1996 and the second in 2004. In all, 392 male tenth grade students (150 in the first stage and 242 in the second stage) were evaluated. A personal information questionnaire developed by the authors was used to collect sociodemographic data, including sexual behavior, sexual attitude, and sources of information about sex. The findings show that there was a significant increase in intercourse and flirting behavior from 1996 to 2004, although no significant difference in masturbation was observed. Additionally, the number of male adolescents that reported family and pornographic films as their sources of information about sex increased 1.6-fold and 2.9-fold, respectively. A significant relationship between watching pornographic films and engaging in sexual intercourse was noted. The number of male adolescents age mean 16, engaging in sexual intercourse increased between 1996 and 2004. Pornographic films were observed to be the most common source of information about sex and also predicted the probability of adolescents having sex. Findings that indicate the need for better and more accurate sources of information about sex. The availability of good quality information about sex is critical to the development of the sexual identity and mental health of male adolescents.

  1. The Size Advantage Model of Sex Allocation in the Protandrous Sex-Changer Crepidula fornicata: Role of the Mating System, Sperm Storage, and Male Mobility.

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    Broquet, Thomas; Barranger, Audrey; Billard, Emmanuelle; Bestin, Anastasia; Berger, Rémy; Honnaert, Gaelle; Viard, Frédérique

    2015-09-01

    Sequential hermaphroditism is adaptive when the reproductive value of an individual varies with size or age, and this relationship differs between males and females. In this case, theory shows that the lifetime reproductive output of an individual is increased by changing sex (a hypothesis referred to as the size-advantage model). Sex-linked differences in size-fitness curves can stem from differential costs of reproduction, the mating system, and differences in growth and mortality between sexes. Detailed empirical data is required to disentangle the relative roles of each of these factors within the theory. Quantitative data are also needed to explore the role of sperm storage, which has not yet been considered with sequential hermaphrodites. Using experimental rearing and paternity assignment, we report relationships between size and reproductive success of Crepidula fornicata, a protandrous (male-first) gastropod. Male reproductive success increased with size due to the polygamous system and stacking behavior of the species, but females nonetheless had greater reproductive success than males of the same size, in agreement with the size-advantage theory. Sperm storage appeared to be a critical determinant of success for both sexes, and modeling the effect of sperm storage showed that it could potentially accelerate sex change in protandrous species.

  2. Disclosure appraisal mediating the association between perceived stigma and HIV disclosure to casual sex partners among HIV+ MSM: a path model analysis.

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    Li, Haochu; Chen, Xinguang; Yu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    HIV stigma is widely believed to be related to HIV disclosure. However, there is a dearth of studies examining the mechanisms that link stigma to disclosure. This is a specific study to assess the relationship between perceived stigma and HIV disclosure to casual sex partners based on a social cognitive theory. HIV+ men who have sex with men (MSM) from two US cities (N = 297) completed questionnaires administered using audio computer-assisted self-interviewing. Path modeling analysis was used to assess the theory-based structural relationships. Perceived stigma was negatively associated with attitudes, intention and behavior of HIV disclosure to casual sex partners. The association was fully mediated by disclosure appraisal, including disclosure outcome expectations, costs and self-efficacy. Findings of this study add new knowledge regarding HIV stigma and disclosure, and provide timely data supporting more effective behavioral interventions to encourage HIV disclosure among MSM.

  3. Correlates of self-efficacy for condom use among male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

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    Volkmann, Tyson; Wagner, Karla D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Semple, Shirley J; Ompad, Danielle C; Chavarin, Claudia V; Patterson, Thomas L

    2014-05-01

    Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana, Mexico engage in high levels of unprotected sex. While behavioral change theories posit that self-efficacy predicts condom use, correlates of self-efficacy for condom use remain largely unstudied. We examined these correlates among male clients of FSWs in Tijuana. Eligible male clients were at least 18 years of age, HIV-negative, lived in Tijuana or San Diego, reported unprotected sex with a Tijuana FSW at least once in the past 4 months, and agreed to be treated for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire including demographics, substance use, psychosocial and psychosexual characteristics (e.g., outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, social support, and sexual sensation seeking), and sexual behaviors. Participants also underwent HIV/STI testing. A stepwise hierarchical multiple regression analysis identified correlates of self-efficacy for condom use. Of 393 male clients, median age was 37 years. Participants were mostly Spanish-speaking and employed. Factors independently associated with higher self-efficacy for condom use were higher positive outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, lower sexual sensation seeking scores, and higher social support scores. Both psychosocial and psychosexual factors may influence self-efficacy for condom use among male clients of FSWs. These factors represent central constructs in sociocognitive models that explain behavioral change and could be intervention targets for improving self-efficacy for condom use and, ultimately, safer sex behavior.

  4. Caenorhabditis elegans Male Copulation Circuitry Incorporates Sex-Shared Defecation Components To Promote Intromission and Sperm Transfer

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    LeBoeuf, Brigitte; Garcia, L. Rene

    2016-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism can be achieved using a variety of mechanisms, including sex-specific circuits and sex-specific function of shared circuits, though how these work together to produce sexually dimorphic behaviors requires further investigation. Here, we explore how components of the sex-shared defecation circuitry are incorporated into the sex-specific male mating circuitry in Caenorhabditis elegans to produce successful copulation. Using behavioral studies, calcium imaging, and genetic manipulation, we show that aspects of the defecation system are coopted by the male copulatory circuitry to facilitate intromission and ejaculation. Similar to hermaphrodites, male defecation is initiated by an intestinal calcium wave, but circuit activity is coordinated differently during mating. In hermaphrodites, the tail neuron DVB promotes expulsion of gut contents through the release of the neurotransmitter GABA onto the anal depressor muscle. However, in the male, both neuron and muscle take on modified functions to promote successful copulation. Males require calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion (CAPS)/unc-31, a dense core vesicle exocytosis activator protein, in the DVB to regulate copulatory spicule insertion, while the anal depressor is remodeled to promote release of sperm into the hermaphrodite. This work shows how sex-shared circuitry is modified in multiple ways to contribute to sex-specific mating. PMID:28031243

  5. The syndemic condition of psychosocial problems and HIV risk among male sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

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    Biello, Katie B; Colby, Donn; Closson, Elizabeth; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2014-07-01

    In Vietnam, the co-occurrence (i.e., "syndemic") of psychosocial factors (e.g., depression and substance use) may disproportionately burden male sex workers and increase their HIV risk. A comprehensive survey was conducted among 300 male sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam in 2010. We performed logistic regression to examine the association between the syndemic variable-a count score of the number of five psychosocial conditions endorsed-and unprotected anal sex (UAS) in the past. One-third of participants reported any UAS, and 42 % reported ≥2 psychosocial health problems. In multivariable models, experiencing ≥4 psychosocial health problems was significantly associated with UAS. Every unit increase in number of psychosocial health problems was associated with a 25-30 % increase in odds of UAS. Understanding the syndemic condition and its association with HIV risk among male sex workers in Vietnam may lead to the development of more effective, comprehensive interventions.

  6. Identification and Validation of a New Male Sex-Specific ISSR Marker in Pointed Gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinchan Adhikari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to develop a genetic sex marker for the pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. to allow gender determination at any stage in the life cycle. Screening of genomic DNA with intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR primers was used to discover sex-specific touch-down polymerase chain reaction (Td-PCR amplification products. Using pooled DNA from male and female genotypes and 42 ISSR primers, a putative male specific marker (~550 bp was identified. DNA marker specific to male is an indication of existence of nonepigenetic factors involved in gender development in pointed gourd. The ISSR technique has proved to be a reliable technique in gender determination of pointed gourd genotypes at the seedling phenophase. The sex marker developed here could also be used as a starting material towards sequence characterization of sex linked genes for better understanding the developmental as well as evolutionary pathways in sexual dimorphism.

  7. Commercial sex behaviours among involuntary male bachelors: findings from a survey of migrants in Xi'an, China.

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    Yang, Xueyan; Li, Shuzhuo; Attané, Isabelle; Feldman, Marcus W

    2015-06-01

    The highly male-biased sex ratio at birth has produced a severe male 'marriage squeeze' in China. However, with an imbalanced sex ratio, the marriage-squeezed or involuntary bachelors can meet their sexual needs only through ways other than marriage. To investigate the commercial sex behaviours of involuntary bachelors, we conducted a survey on reproductive health and family living among male migrant bachelors in Xi'an City, the capital of Shaanxi Province, from December 2009 to January 2010. The prevalence of commercial sex use was 37.2% among unmarried men, 30.1% among married but separated men and 17.2% among married and cohabitating men (χ(2) = 31.33; P = 0.000; df = 2). Marital status, knowledge about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), age and income were associated with the prevalence and frequency of commercial sex behaviours. Condom use was less frequent among involuntary bachelors and was significantly associated with knowledge about AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, the frequency of commercial sex behaviours, marital status and age. The higher prevalence of commercial sex behaviours and the lower frequency of condom use indicate a higher risk of disease from commercial sex among involuntary bachelors, implicating both individual and public health. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Male sex interspecies divergence and down regulation of expression of spermatogenesis genes in Drosophila sterile hybrids.

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    Sundararajan, Vignesh; Civetta, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Male sex genes have shown a pattern of rapid interspecies divergence at both the coding and gene expression level. A common outcome from crosses between closely-related species is hybrid male sterility. Phenotypic and genetic studies in Drosophila sterile hybrid males have shown that spermatogenesis arrest is postmeiotic with few exceptions, and that most misregulated genes are involved in late stages of spermatogenesis. Comparative studies of gene regulation in sterile hybrids and parental species have mainly used microarrays providing a whole genome representation of regulatory problems in sterile hybrids. Real-time PCR studies can reject or reveal differences not observed in microarray assays. Moreover, differences in gene expression between samples can be dependant on the source of RNA (e.g., whole body vs. tissue). Here we survey expression in D. simulans, D. mauritiana and both intra and interspecies hybrids using a real-time PCR approach for eight genes expressed at the four main stages of sperm development. We find that all genes show a trend toward under expression in the testes of sterile hybrids relative to parental species with only the two proliferation genes (bam and bgcn) and the two meiotic class genes (can and sa) showing significant down regulation. The observed pattern of down regulation for the genes tested can not fully explain hybrid male sterility. We discuss the down regulation of spermatogenesis genes in hybrids between closely-related species within the contest of rapid divergence experienced by the male genome, hybrid sterility and possible allometric changes due to subtle testes-specific developmental abnormalities.

  9. Is audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI useful in risk behaviour assessment of female and male sex workers, Mombasa, Kenya?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth M van der Elst

    Full Text Available Audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI may elicit more frequent reporting of socially sensitive behaviours than face-to-face (FtF-interview. However, no study compared responses to both methods in female and male sex workers (FSW; MSW in Africa.We sequentially enrolled adults recruited for an HIV-1 intervention trial into a comparative study of ACASI and FtF-interview, in a clinic near Mombasa, Kenya. Feasibility and acceptability of ACASI, and a comparative analysis of enrolment responses between ACASI and FtF on an identical risk assessment questionnaire were evaluated. In total, 139 women and 259 men, 81% of eligible cohort participants, completed both interviews. ACASI captured a higher median number of regular (2 vs. 1, p<0.001, both genders and casual partners in the last week (3 vs. 2, p = 0.04 in women; 2 vs. 1, p<0.001 in men. Group sex (21.6 vs. 13.5%, p<0.001, in men, intravenous drug use (IDU; 10.8 vs. 2.3%, p<0.001 in men; 4.4 vs. 0%, p = 0.03 in women, and rape (8.9 vs. 3.9%, p = 0.002, in men were reported more frequently in ACASI. A surprisingly high number of women reported in ACASI that they had paid for sex (49.3 vs. 5.8%, p<0.001. Behaviours for recruitment (i.e. anal sex, sex work, sex between males were reported less frequently in ACASI. The majority of women (79.2% and men (69.7% felt that answers given in ACASI were more honest. Volunteers who were not able to take ACASI (84 men, and 37 women mostly lacked reading skills.About 1 in 5 cohort participants was not able to complete ACASI, mostly for lack of reading skills. Participants who completed ACASI were more likely to report IDU, rape, group sex, and payment for sex by women than when asked in FtF interview. ACASI appears to be a useful tool for high risk behaviour assessments in the African context.

  10. Condition dependence and the nature of genetic variation for male sex comb bristle number in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Ahuja, Abha; De Vito, Scott; Singh, Rama S

    2011-04-01

    Genetic architecture of variation underlying male sex comb bristle number, a rapidly evolving secondary sexual character of Drosophila, was examined. First, in order to test for condition dependence, diet was manipulated in a set of ten Drosophila melanogaster full-sib families. We confirmed heightened condition dependent expression of sex comb bristle number and its female homologue (distal transverse row bristles) as compared to non-sex sternopleural bristles. Significant genotype by environment effects were detected for the sex traits indicating a genetic basis for condition dependence. Next we measured sex comb bristle number and sternopleural bristle number, as well as residual mass, a commonly used condition index, in a set of thirty half-sib families. Sire effect was not significant for sex comb and sternopleural bristle number, and we detected a strong dominance and/or maternal effect or X chromosome effect for both traits. A strong sire effect was detected for condition and its heritability was the highest as compared to sex comb and sternopleural bristles. We discuss our results in light of the rapid response to divergent artificial selection for sex comb bristle number reported previously. The nature of genetic variation for male sex traits continues to be an important unresolved issue in evolutionary biology.

  11. HIV testing among male partners of pregnant women in Nigeria: a missing link in the elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

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    Olakunde, Babayemi O; Adeyinka, Daniel A; Oladele, Tolulope; Ozigbu, Chamberline E

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we assessed male partner testing and the serodiscordance rate among pregnant women and their partners in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programme in Nigeria. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the consolidated national health sector PMTCT data over a five-year period (2012-2016). Over the period, a total of 11,833,062 pregnant women were tested for HIV with a positivity rate of 2.2%. About 266,188 (2.2%) of sexual partners of pregnant women who presented at PMTCT clinics had an HIV test within the period. The uptake of male partner testing varied across the years, ranging from 22,269 (1.7%) in 2012 to 90,603 (2.9%) in 2014 (χ 2 for trend = 1320; p HIV-negative pregnant women who tested was higher than the proportion of partners of HIV-positive pregnant women (81% versus 19%, respectively). The serodiscordance rate among partners who tested over the five-year period was 18%. The serodiscordance rate declined from 24% in 2012 to 13% in 2016 (χ 2 for trend = 1202; p HIV combination prevention approach in the HIV response.

  12. [Influence of water fluoride exposure on sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone in adult male].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tong; Yang, Rupu; Li, Shihong; Zheng, Guoqing; Xi, Yu; Cheng, Xuemin; Hou, Jiaxiang; Cui, Liuxin; Ba, Yue

    2013-03-01

    To explore the influence of water fluoride exposure on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and testosterone in adult male. Cross-sectional study was conducted in three villages of Tongxu county including high fluoride group (HFG), defluoridation project group (DFPG) and control group (CG) based on the fluoride concentration in drinking water. Adult male who were born and raised in the village and aged 18 - 50 years old were recruited using cluster sampling. Fasting blood and morning urine samples were collected. The fluoride levels in drinking water and urine were detected by fluoride-ion selective electrode method. Serum SHBG level was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The chemical luminescence immune analysis method was used to detect serum testosterone content. Serum SHBG level was 47.85 nmol/L in CG, 31.37 nmol/L in DFPG and 24.52 nmol/L in HFG respectively. There were significant difference among of three groups (P < 0.05). Serum testosterone level was 3.69 ng/ml in CG, 4.61 ng/ml in DFPG and 4.83 ng/ml in HFG respectively. Serum testosterone level in HFG was significantly higher than that in CG (P < 0.05). Serum SHBG level in HFG has positive correlation with serum testosterone (r = 0.230, P = 0.049), which has not been observed in DFPG and CG. Long-time fluorine exposure may affect serum SHBG and testosterone level in adult male.

  13. The Relationship Between Internalized Homophobia and Intimate Partner Violence in Same-Sex Relationships: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenes-Ribera, Laura; Sánchez-Meca, Julio; Longobardi, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the association between internalized homophobia and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization in same-sex relationships. The literature search and the application of the inclusion criteria made it possible to identify 10 studies, 2 of which were excluded due to missing data. Therefore, eight studies were finally included in the meta-analysis. The results showed positive and statistically significant associations between internalized homophobia and IPV perpetration and victimization, indicating that higher levels of internalized homophobia were related to higher levels of IPV. Specifically, the pooled effect size for the relationship between internalized homophobia and IPV perpetration (all forms), it was r + = .147, 95% confidence interval (CI) = [.079, .214]; for the association between internalized homophobia and physical/sexual IPV perpetration, it was r + = .166, 95% CI [.109, .221]; p homophobia and psychological IPV perpetration, it was r + = .145, 95% CI [.073, .216]; and for the association between internalized homophobia and any type of IPV victimization, it was r + = .102, 95% CI [.030, .173]. Implications of these results for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  14. Marijuana use and sex with multiple partners among lesbian, gay and bisexual youth: results from a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyun; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2017-01-05

    Sex with multiple partners (SMP) is one of the important contributing factors for contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among adolescents and young adults, especially among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual (LGB) youth. Past studies mainly focus on examining associations of alcohol or club drugs use with unprotected sexual behaviors among adult homo/bisexual men, while little is known about the temporal association between marijuana use (MU) and SMP among LGB youth. This study examined the relationship between MU and SMP among LGB adolescents and young adults. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) logistic regression analyses were utilized to analyze four waves' public-use Add Health data (N = 694, youth who reported a homo/bisexual status at any wave; Wave 1: aged 11-21; Wave 4: aged 24-32). After adjusting for other substance use, current depression, mother-child relationship quality at Wave 1, and socioeconomic variables, past-year MU was both concurrently and prospectively associated with past-year SMP. The moderating effect of age was not found. MU is concurrently and prospectively associated with increased odds of SMP in the adolescent sample and in the young adult sample. Findings imply that prevention/intervention on HIV risk behaviors may benefit from MU reduction not only in LGB adolescents but also in young adults.

  15. Marijuana use and sex with multiple partners among lesbian, gay and bisexual youth: results from a national sample

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    Xiaoyun Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sex with multiple partners (SMP is one of the important contributing factors for contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs among adolescents and young adults, especially among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual (LGB youth. Past studies mainly focus on examining associations of alcohol or club drugs use with unprotected sexual behaviors among adult homo/bisexual men, while little is known about the temporal association between marijuana use (MU and SMP among LGB youth. Methods This study examined the relationship between MU and SMP among LGB adolescents and young adults. Generalized estimating equations (GEE logistic regression analyses were utilized to analyze four waves’ public-use Add Health data (N = 694, youth who reported a homo/bisexual status at any wave; Wave 1: aged 11–21; Wave 4: aged 24–32. Results After adjusting for other substance use, current depression, mother-child relationship quality at Wave 1, and socioeconomic variables, past-year MU was both concurrently and prospectively associated with past-year SMP. The moderating effect of age was not found. Conclusion MU is concurrently and prospectively associated with increased odds of SMP in the adolescent sample and in the young adult sample. Findings imply that prevention/intervention on HIV risk behaviors may benefit from MU reduction not only in LGB adolescents but also in young adults.

  16. Beyond Sex: Likelihood and Predictors of Effective and Ineffective Intervention in Intimate Partner Violence in Bystanders Perceiving an Emergency.

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    Chabot, Heather Frasier; Gray, Melissa L; Makande, Tariro B; Hoyt, Robert L

    2016-01-06

    Within the framework of the bystander model of intervention, we examined specific correlates and the likelihood of effective and ineffective intervention strategies of bystanders to an instance of intimate partner violence (IPV) identified as an emergency. We measured psychological variables associated with general prosocial behavior (including sex, instrumentality, expressiveness, empathy, personal distress, dispositional anger, and perceived barriers) as influential predictors in four IPV intervention behaviors (i.e., calling 911, talking to the victim, talking to the perpetrator, and physically interacting with the perpetrator). One hundred seventeen college community members completed preintervention measures, watched a film clip of IPV which they identified as an emergency, reported their likelihood of becoming involved and utilizing intervention behaviors, and identified perceived barriers to intervention. Participants were more likely to indicate using effective over ineffective intervention tactics. Lower perceived barriers to intervention predicted greater intervention likelihood. Hierarchical regression indicated that men and individuals higher in anger and instrumental traits were more likely to report that they would engage in riskier ineffective forms of intervention. Implications regarding bystander training and associations to intervention in related forms of violence including sexual assault are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. [Experience assisting an AIDS-infected homosexual patient and his same-sex partner make a do-not-resuscitate decision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Jang; Lai, Pei-Yu; Liou, Siao-Ying; Ko, Wen-Chien; Ko, Nai-Ying

    2012-10-01

    Family members play an important role in the process of writing advance directives. Homosexual men infected with HIV often wish to authorize their intimate same-sex partner or friends rather than immediate family members to make medical decisions on their behalf. Although same-sex marriage is currently illegal in Taiwan, HIV infected homosexual patients are able to write advance directives appointing their same-sex partner to be their surrogate decision maker for end-of-life medical decisions. This case report describes an experience assisting a homosexual patient with HIV to write his advance directives. The nurse assisted the patient and his partner to make a self-determined decision not to resuscitate. Family conferences held to discuss the patient's decisions regarding resuscitation helped legitimize his partner's primary role in making end-of-life healthcare decisions on his behalf. As an advocate for patient rights, nurses should understand the law as it relates to homosexuality and end-of-life decision making, inform patients on the durable power of autonomy, and help execute their advance directives.

  18. Neurosteroids in Adult Hippocampus of Male and Female Rodents: Biosynthesis and Actions of Sex Steroids

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    Yasushi Hojo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The brain is not only the target of steroid hormones but also is able to locally synthesize steroids de novo. Evidence of the local production of steroids in the brain has been accumulating in various vertebrates, including teleost fish, amphibia, birds, rodents, non-human primates, and humans. In this review, we mainly focus on the local production of sex steroids in the hippocampal neurons of adult rodents (rats and mice, a center for learning and memory. From the data of the hippocampus of adult male rats, hippocampal principal neurons [pyramidal cells in CA1–CA3 and granule cells in dentate gyrus (DG] have a complete system for biosynthesis of sex steroids. Liquid chromatography with tandem-mass-spectrometry (LC-MS/MS enabled us to accurately determine the levels of hippocampal sex steroids including 17β-estradiol (17β-E2, testosterone (T, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT, which are much higher than those in blood. Next, we review the steroid synthesis in the hippocampus of female rats, since previous knowledge had been biased toward the data from males. Recently, we clarified that the levels of hippocampal steroids fluctuate in adult female rats across the estrous cycle. Accurate determination of hippocampal steroids at each stage of the estrous cycle is of importance for providing the account for the fluctuation of female hippocampal functions, including spine density, long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD, and learning and memory. These functional fluctuations in female had been attributed to the level of circulation-derived steroids. LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that the dendritic spine density in CA1 of adult female hippocampus correlates with the levels of hippocampal progesterone and 17β-E2. Finally, we introduce the direct evidence of the role of hippocampus-synthesized steroids in hippocampal function including neurogenesis, LTP, and memory consolidation. Mild exercise (2 week of treadmill running elevated

  19. Use of AUDIT, and measures of drinking frequency and patterns to detect associations between alcohol and sexual behaviour in male sex workers in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temmerman Marleen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has linked alcohol use with an increased number of sexual partners, inconsistent condom use and a raised incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs. However, alcohol measures have been poorly standardised, with many ill-suited to eliciting, with adequate precision, the relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk behaviour. This study investigates which alcohol indicator - single-item measures of frequency and patterns of drinking ( > = 6 drinks on 1 occasion, or the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT - can detect associations between alcohol use and unsafe sexual behaviour among male sex workers. Methods A cross-sectional survey in 2008 recruited male sex workers who sell sex to men from 65 venues in Mombasa district, Kenya, similar to a 2006 survey. Information was collected on socio-demographics, substance use, sexual behaviour, violence and STI symptoms. Multivariate models examined associations between the three measures of alcohol use and condom use, sexual violence, and penile or anal discharge. Results The 442 participants reported a median 2 clients/week (IQR = 1-3, with half using condoms consistently in the last 30 days. Of the approximately 70% of men who drink alcohol, half (50.5% drink two or more times a week. Binge drinking was common (38.9%. As defined by AUDIT, 35% of participants who drink had hazardous drinking, 15% harmful drinking and 21% alcohol dependence. Compared with abstinence, alcohol dependence was associated with inconsistent condom use (AOR = 2.5, 95%CI = 1.3-4.6, penile or anal discharge (AOR = 1.9, 95%CI = 1.0-3.8, and two-fold higher odds of sexual violence (AOR = 2.0, 95%CI = 0.9-4.9. Frequent drinking was associated with inconsistent condom use (AOR = 1.8, 95%CI = 1.1-3.0 and partner number, while binge drinking was only linked with inconsistent condom use (AOR = 1.6, 95%CI = 1.0-2.5. Conclusions Male sex workers have high levels of hazardous and

  20. Prevalence and associated factors of condomless receptive anal intercourse with male clients among transgender women sex workers in Shenyang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yong; Wang, Zixin; Lau, Joseph TF; Li, Jinghua; Ma, Tiecheng; Liu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Globally, transgender women sex workers have a high prevalence of HIV and condomless receptive anal intercourse with male clients (CRAIMC). We investigated the prevalence of CRAIMC and factors associated with CRAIMC among transgender women sex workers in China. Methods In 2014, we anonymously interviewed 220 transgender women sex workers face to face in Shenyang, China. Those who self-reported as HIV negative or as having unknown HIV serostatus were invited to take up free, anonymous HIV rapid testing (n=183); 90 did so. Using CRAIMC in the last month as the dependent variable, three types of associated factors were investigated, in addition to background factors: feminizing medical interventions, sex work and perceptions related to condom use. Univariate and multiple logistic regression models were fitted. Results Of the participants, 16.8% self-reported as HIV positive and 9.1% were detected to be HIV positive through free HIV testing; 26.8% had had CRAIMC in the last month, 45.5% had performed sex work in other Chinese cities (last year), and 23.2% had had condomless anal intercourse with men who were non-clients. In the adjusted analysis, significant factors associated with CRAIMC (last month) included the following: 1) any feminizing medical intervention performed (adjusted odds ratio, AOR: 2.22); 2) sex-work-related factors, including recruitment of male clients most often at hotels (AOR: 5.02) and charge per episode of transactional sex (201 to 400 RMB, AOR: 0.27; reference group: ≤100 RMB); and 3) perceptions related to condom use, including perceived transgender identity's impact on condomless sex such as wearing feminine attire, concern about exposing their status as a transgender woman to male clients (AOR: 1.20) and perceived self-efficacy of consistent condom use with male clients (AOR: 0.56). Perceived self-efficacy of consistent condom use with male clients fully mediated the association between perceived transgender identity's impact

  1. Partner Disclosure of PrEP Use and Undetectable Viral Load on Geosocial Networking Apps: Frequency of Disclosure and Decisions About Condomless Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Michael E; Mongrella, Melissa C; Weis, Benjamin; McMillen, Samuel J; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in biomedical prevention strategies, including pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and achieving an undetectable viral load (UVL) among HIV-infected persons, show promise in curbing the rising incidence of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. This mixed-methods study aimed to investigate the frequency with which MSM encounter potential sex partners on geosocial networking apps who disclose biomedical prevention use, and how MSM make decisions about condom use after these disclosures. Participants were recruited through advertisements placed on a large geosocial networking app for MSM. A total of 668 and 727 participants, respectively, responded to questionnaires assessing partner disclosure of PrEP use and UVL. Each questionnaire included an open-ended item assessing reasons for condomless anal sex (CAS) with partners using biomedical prevention. Across both surveys, most respondents encountered potential sex partners who disclosed PrEP use or UVL, and the majority of those who met up with these partners engaged in CAS at least once. Qualitative analyses found that most participants who reported CAS did so after making a calculated risk about HIV transmission. We also describe a novel risk reduction strategy, "biomed-matching," or having CAS only when both individuals use PrEP or have UVL. We report serostatus differences in both quantitative and qualitative findings. Disclosure of PrEP use and UVL is not uncommon among MSM. Many MSM make accurate appraisals of the risks of CAS with biomedical prevention, and mobile apps may aid with disclosing biomedical prevention use.

  2. Reversal Surgery in Regretful Male-to-Female Transsexuals After Sex Reassignment Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Miroslav L; Bizic, Marta R; Duisin, Dragana; Bouman, Mark-Bram; Buncamper, Marlon

    2016-06-01

    Sex reassignment surgery (SRS) has proved an effective intervention for patients with gender identity disorder. However, misdiagnosed patients sometimes regret their decision and request reversal surgery. This review is based on our experience with seven patients who regretted their decision to undergo male-to-female SRS. To analyze retrospectively seven patients who underwent reversal surgery after regretting their decision to undergo male-to-female SRS elsewhere. From November 2010 through November 2014, seven men 33 to 53 years old with previous male-to-female SRS underwent reversal phalloplasty. Preoperatively, they were examined by three independent psychiatrists. Surgery included three steps: removal of female genitalia with scrotoplasty and urethral lengthening, total phalloplasty with microvascular transfer of a musculocutaneous latissimus dorsi flap, and neophallus urethroplasty with penile prosthesis implantation. Self-reported esthetic and psychosexual status after reversion surgery and International Index of Erectile Function scores for sexual health after phalloplasty and penile prosthesis implantation. Follow-up was 13 to 61 months (mean = 31 months). Good postoperative results were achieved in all patients. In four patients, all surgical steps were completed; two patients are currently waiting for penile implants; and one patient decided against the penile prosthesis. Complications were related to urethral lengthening: two fistulas and one stricture were observed. All complications were repaired by minor revision. According to patients' self-reports, all patients were pleased with the esthetic appearance of their genitalia and with their significantly improved psychological status. Reversal surgery in regretful male-to-female transsexuals after SRS represents a complex, multistage procedure with satisfactory outcomes. Further insight into the characteristics of persons who regret their decision postoperatively would facilitate better future

  3. Health, Trust, or “Just Understood”: Explicit and Implicit Condom Decision-Making Processes Among Black, White, and Interracial Same-Sex Male Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Chadwick K.; Gómez, Anu Manchikanti; Dworkin, Shari; Wilson, Patrick A.; Grisham, Kirk; McReynolds, Jaih; Vielehr, Peter; Hoff, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    Among gay and bisexual men, primary partners are a leading source of HIV infection. Trust, intimacy, and advancements in HIV treatment may impact same-sex male couples’ decisions to engage in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). This qualitative study explored how Black, White and interracial couples discussed, and made decisions regarding condoms. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 48 same-sex male couples in the New York and San Francisco metropolitan areas. Stratified purposive sampling was used to include Black (n = 16), White (n = 17), and interracial (Black-White) (n = 15) couples. Twenty-six couples were concordant HIV-negative and 22 were HIV-discordant. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Some couples described explicit processes, which involved active discussion, while others described implicit processes, where condom-use decisions occurred without any explicit discussion. These processes also differed by race and HIV status. Black couples tended to report condom-use as “just understood.” White, HIV-discordant couples decided not to use condoms, with some identifying the HIV-positive partner’s suppressed viral load and high CD4 count as deciding factors. After an unplanned episode of UAI, White, HIV-negative couples tended to discontinue condom use while Black HIV-negative couples decided to revert to using condoms. HIV prevention efforts focused on same-sex, male couples must consider the explicit/implicit nature of condom decision-making processes. Understanding differences in these processes and considering relationship dynamics, across race and HIV status, can promote the development of innovative couple–level, HIV prevention interventions. PMID:23912774

  4. Multimethod prediction of child abuse risk in an at-risk sample of male intimate partner violence offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M; Gracia, Enrique; Lila, Marisol

    2016-10-01

    The vast majority of research on child abuse potential has concentrated on women demonstrating varying levels of risk of perpetrating physical child abuse. In contrast, the current study considered factors predictive of physical child abuse potential in a group of 70 male intimate partner violence offenders, a group that would represent a likely high risk group. Elements of Social Information Processing theory were evaluated, including pre-existing schemas of empathy, anger, and attitudes approving of parent-child aggression considered as potential moderators of negative attributions of child behavior. To lend methodological rigor, the study also utilized multiple measures and multiple methods, including analog tasks, to predict child abuse risk. Contrary to expectations, findings did not support the role of anger independently predicting child abuse risk in this sample of men. However, preexisting beliefs approving of parent-child aggression, lower empathy, and more negative child behavior attributions independently predicted abuse potential; in addition, greater anger, poorer empathy, and more favorable attitudes toward parent-child aggression also exacerbated men's negative child attributions to further elevate their child abuse risk. Future work is encouraged to consider how factors commonly considered in women parallel or diverge from those observed to elevate child abuse risk in men of varying levels of risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Behavioural and cognitive sex/gender differences in autism spectrum condition and typically developing males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Laura; Mandy, William; Petrides, K V

    2017-08-01

    Studies assessing sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions often fail to include typically developing control groups. It is, therefore, unclear whether observed sex/gender differences reflect those found in the general population or are particular to autism spectrum conditions. A systematic search identified articles comparing behavioural and cognitive characteristics in males and females with and without an autism spectrum condition diagnosis. A total of 13 studies were included in meta-analyses of sex/gender differences in core autism spectrum condition symptoms (social/communication impairments and restricted/repetitive behaviours and interests) and intelligence quotient. A total of 20 studies were included in a qualitative review of sex/gender differences in additional autism spectrum condition symptoms. For core traits and intelligence quotient, sex/gender differences were comparable in autism spectrum conditions and typical samples. Some additional autism spectrum condition symptoms displayed different patterns of sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions and typically developing groups, including measures of executive function, empathising and systemising traits, internalising and externalising problems and play behaviours. Individuals with autism spectrum conditions display typical sex/gender differences in core autism spectrum condition traits, suggesting that diagnostic criteria based on these symptoms should take into account typical sex/gender differences. However, awareness of associated autism spectrum condition symptoms should include the possibility of different male and female phenotypes, to ensure those who do not fit the 'typical' autism spectrum condition presentation are not missed.

  6. The embodiment of tourism among bisexually-behaving Dominican male sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Mark B

    2008-10-01

    While theories of "structure" and social inequality have increasingly informed global health efforts for HIV prevention--with growing recognition of the linkages between large-scale political and economic factors in the distribution and impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic--there is still little theorization of precisely how structural factors shape the very bodies and sexualities of specific populations and groups. In order to extend the theoretical understanding of these macro-micro linkages, this article examines how the growth of the tourism industry in the Dominican Republic has produced sexual practices and identities that reflect both the influence of large-scale structural processes and the resistant responses of local individuals. Drawing on social science theories of political economy, embodiment, and authenticity, I argue that an understanding of patterns of sexuality and HIV risk in the region requires analysis of how political-economic transformations related to tourism intersect with the individual experiences and practices of sexuality on the ground. The analysis draws on long-term ethnographic research with bisexually behaving male sex workers in two cities in the Dominican Republic, including participant observation, in-depth interviews, focus groups, and surveys. By examining the global and local values placed on these men's bodies and the ways sex workers use their bodies to broker tourists' pleasure, we may better understand how the large-scale structures of the tourism industry are linked to the specific meanings and practices of sexuality.

  7. Associations between maternal phenolic exposure and cord sex hormones in male newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunhua; Xu, Xijin; Zhang, Yuling; Li, Weiqiu; Huo, Xia

    2016-03-01

    Are maternal urinary phenol concentrations associated with cord steroid hormone levels and anogenital distance (AGD) in male newborns? High maternal urinary Bisphenol A (BPA) levels are associated with decreases in cord testosterone levels and the ratio of testosterone to estradiol in male newborns, but there was no significant association with AGD. Early life exposure to phenolic endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) is known to disrupt hormonal activities and affect reproductive development in males. However, studies on the health effects of prenatal human exposure are scarce. This was a cross-sectional study to investigate the association between maternal phenolic exposure and cord sex steroid hormones and AGD in male newborns. We recruited 100 mother-infant pairs from each of two hospitals, one in a polluted town (Guiyu) and the other in a cleaner town (Haojiang), from September 2010 to September 2011. One hundred and seventy eight maternal urine samples and 137 cord blood samples were available for quantification, thus 137 complete records entered into the final analysis. Of them, 77 pairs were from Guiyu, and 60 were from Haojiang. The chemical conc