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Sample records for male role model

  1. Adolescents of the U.S. National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study: male role models, gender role traits, and psychological adjustment

    Bos, H.; Goldberg, N.; van Gelderen, L.; Gartrell, N.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the influence of male role models on the lives of adolescents (N = 78) in the U.S. National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study. Half of the adolescents had male role models; those with and those without male role models had similar scores on the feminine and masculine scales

  2. Role models and occupational ambitions of in-school male adolescents

    Suhail Ahmad Azmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A role model is perceived as worthy of imitation, their selection can indicate significant elements of psychosocial health and self-projection in adolescents. Patterns of behavior and lifestyle choices established during adolescence can have immediate and lasting effects on health. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was undertaken in the schools of Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. The sample frame was 2347, out of which a sample of 390 students was studied. Data collected were entered and analyzed by SPSS for Windows version 10%. Results: Majority (62.7% of adolescents revealed that their role models were Film Star (34.8% and their Teachers (27.9%, Parents (14.3%, Sportsman (12.0%. Politicians as the role models were opted by least proportion (1.2%. Desire of future occupation was Businessmen (27.9%, Doctor (18.6, and Engineer (14.4%. Conclusion: Nearly all adolescents had a role model. There is greater impact of cinema on the minds of adolescents, which resulted in choosing film actors as their role model. Aspiration of future occupation was not related to the characteristics of the role model.

  3. A Mediational Model Explaining the Connection Between Religiosity and Anti-Homosexual Attitudes in Italy: The Effects of Male Role Endorsement and Homosexual Stereotyping.

    Piumatti, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to better understand the relationship between religiosity and anti-homosexual attitudes in Italy by examining the mediation effects of male role endorsement and homosexual stereotyping. A sample of 5,522 Italian residents (age range = 18-74) was drawn from a cross-sectional national representative survey carried out in 2011. Measures included general religiosity, male role endorsement, homosexual stereotyping, social acceptance of homosexuality, and homosexual rights endorsement. Structural equation modeling was used to test the mediational effects of male role endorsement and homosexual stereotyping on the relationship between general religiosity and attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Results showed that both male role endorsement and homosexual stereotyping partially mediated the relationship. In a model where religiosity and both mediators positively explained anti-homosexual attitudes, male role endorsement was the strongest mediator. Endorsement of gender role beliefs and homosexual stereotyping may thus exacerbate the connection between religiosity and anti-homosexual attitudes among Italians.

  4. The effects of exposure to muscular male models among men: exploring the moderating role of gym use and exercise motivation.

    Halliwell, Emma; Dittmar, Helga; Orsborn, Amber

    2007-09-01

    This study examines the effects of exposure to the muscular male body ideal on body-focused negative affect among male gym users and non-exercisers. As hypothesized, the impact of media exposure depended on men's exercise status. Non-exercisers (n = 58) reported greater body-focused negative affect after exposure to images of muscular male models than after neutral images (no model controls), whereas gym users (n = 58) showed a tendency for less body-focused negative affect after the model images than after the control images. Furthermore, the extent to which gym users were motivated to increase strength and muscularity moderated these exposure effects; men who reported stronger strength and muscularity exercise motivation reported a greater degree of self-enhancement after exposure to the muscular ideal. The findings are interpreted with respect to likely differences in motives for social comparisons.

  5. An empirical test of a mediation model of the impact of the traditional male gender role on suicidal behavior in men.

    Houle, Janie; Mishara, Brian L; Chagnon, François

    2008-04-01

    Men die by suicide three to four times more often than women in Western countries. The adverse impact of the traditional male gender role as well as men's reluctance to seek help are possible explanations of this gender gap, but these hypotheses have not been well documented empirically. This study compares two groups of men who experienced comparable severely stressful life events during the preceding 12 months: 40 men admitted to hospital emergency following suicide attempts, and 40 men with no history of suicide attempts. Structured interviews were conducted to measure adherence to the traditional male gender role, help seeking behaviour, social support, suicide acceptability and mental health. ANOVAS indicated that attempters are more likely to adhere to the traditional masculine gender role and regression analysis revealed that this relationship persists even when the presence of mental disorders is statistically controlled. Sequential regression analysis support the mediation model and show that the effects of the traditional male gender role on suicidal behavior are mediated through protective and risk factors for suicide, namely mental state, help seeking and social support. The traditional male gender role appears to increase the risk of suicidal behavior in men by undermining their mental state and by inhibiting the protective factors of help seeking and social support. This study underscores the importance of encouraging men to seek help.

  6. The Size Advantage Model of Sex Allocation in the Protandrous Sex-Changer Crepidula fornicata: Role of the Mating System, Sperm Storage, and Male Mobility.

    Broquet, Thomas; Barranger, Audrey; Billard, Emmanuelle; Bestin, Anastasia; Berger, Rémy; Honnaert, Gaelle; Viard, Frédérique

    2015-09-01

    Sequential hermaphroditism is adaptive when the reproductive value of an individual varies with size or age, and this relationship differs between males and females. In this case, theory shows that the lifetime reproductive output of an individual is increased by changing sex (a hypothesis referred to as the size-advantage model). Sex-linked differences in size-fitness curves can stem from differential costs of reproduction, the mating system, and differences in growth and mortality between sexes. Detailed empirical data is required to disentangle the relative roles of each of these factors within the theory. Quantitative data are also needed to explore the role of sperm storage, which has not yet been considered with sequential hermaphrodites. Using experimental rearing and paternity assignment, we report relationships between size and reproductive success of Crepidula fornicata, a protandrous (male-first) gastropod. Male reproductive success increased with size due to the polygamous system and stacking behavior of the species, but females nonetheless had greater reproductive success than males of the same size, in agreement with the size-advantage theory. Sperm storage appeared to be a critical determinant of success for both sexes, and modeling the effect of sperm storage showed that it could potentially accelerate sex change in protandrous species.

  7. Selenium: its potential role in male infertility

    Oguntibeju, O.O.; Esterhuyse, J.S.; Truter, E.J.

    2009-01-01

    Currently, biomedical research is showing interest in the anti-oxidant activity of selenium. This could be due to compelling evidence that reported that oxidative damage to cells and cell membranes is one of the causative agents in the pathogenesis of many disease states including male infertility. Selenium is a trace element which may be found in soil, water and some foods and is considered to be an essential element which plays an active role in several metabolic pathways and is believed to perform several important roles in the human body. These roles include anti-oxidative activities at cellular level and participating in different enzyme systems. Selenium also serves as a vital component in the maintenance of muscle cell and red blood cell integrity, playing a role in the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). It has also been reported that selenium is essential in the detoxification of toxic metals in the human system, foetal respiration and energy transfer reactions as well as in the production of sperm cells. It is thought that male infertility can be the result of a selenium deficiency as the absence of selenium in the testicular tissues induces degeneration which results in the active impairment of sperm motility as the first indication of impending infertility. This review paper investigates the role of selenium in male infertility. (author)

  8. Role Models without Guarantees: Corrective Representations and the Cultural Politics of a Latino Male Teacher in the Borderlands

    Singh, Michael V.

    2018-01-01

    In recent years mentorship has become a popular 'solution' for struggling boys of color and has led to the recruitment of more male of color teachers. While not arguing against the merits of mentorship, this article critiques what the author deems 'corrective representations.' Corrective representations are the imagined embodiment of proper and…

  9. The effects of stereotypes of women's performance in male-dominated hierarchies: Stereotype threat activation and reduction through role models

    Latu, V.; Schmid Mast, M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent progress in increasing gender equality in organizations, workplace hierarchies remain male-dominated in most domains. We discuss how gender stereotypes contribute to holding women back in leadership and workplace domains and how we can reduce the negative effects of gender stereotypes. In the first part of the chapter we discuss how awareness of negative stereotypes of women in leadership can decrease women's performance and self-related cognitions in leadership tasks such as m...

  10. The male role in cervical cancer

    Castellsagué Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental, clinical, and epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that genital Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs are predominantly sexually transmitted. Epidemiological studies in virginal and HPV-negative women clearly indicate that sexual intercourse is virtually a necessary step for acquiring HPV. As with any other sexually transmitted disease (STD men are implicated in the epidemiological chain of the infection. Penile HPVs are predominantly acquired through sexual contacts. Sexual contacts with women who are prostitutes play an important role in HPV transmission and in some populations sex workers may become an important reservoir of high-risk HPVs. Acting both as "carriers" and "vectors" of oncogenic HPVs male partners may markedly contribute to the risk of developing cervical cancer in their female partners. Thus, in the absence of screening programs, a woman's risk of cervical cancer may depend less on her own sexual behavior than on that of her husband or other male partners. Although more rarely than women, men may also become the "victims" of their own HPV infections as a fraction of infected men are at an increased risk of developing penile and anal cancers. Male circumcision status has been shown to reduce the risk not only of acquiring and transmitting genital HPVs but also of cervical cancer in their female partners. More research is needed to better understand the natural history and epidemiology of HPV infections in men.

  11. Modeling the Male Reproductive Endocrine Axis: Potential Role for a Delay Mechanism in the Inhibitory Action of Gonadal Steroids on GnRH Pulse Frequency.

    Ferasyi, Teuku R; Barrett, P Hugh R; Blache, Dominique; Martin, Graeme B

    2016-05-01

    We developed a compartmental model so we could test mechanistic concepts in the control of the male reproductive endocrine axis. Using SAAM II computer software and a bank of experimental data from male sheep, we began by modeling GnRH-LH feed-forward and LH-T feedback. A key assumption was that the primary control signal comes from a hypothetical neural network (the PULSAR) that emits a digital (pulsatile) signal of variable frequency that drives GnRH secretion in square wave-like pulses. This model produced endocrine profiles that matched experimental observations for the testis-intact animal and for changes in GnRH pulse frequency after castration and T replacement. In the second stage of the model development, we introduced a delay in the negative feedback caused by the aromatization of T to estradiol at the brain level, a concept supported by empirical observations. The simulations showed how changes in the process of aromatization could affect the response of the pulsatile signal to inhibition by steroid feedback. The sensitivity of the PULSAR to estradiol was a critical factor, but the most striking observation was the effect of time delays. With longer delays, there was a reduction in the rate of aromatization and therefore a decrease in local estradiol concentrations, and the outcome was multiple-pulse events in the secretion of GnRH/LH, reflecting experimental observations. In conclusion, our model successfully emulates the GnRH-LH-T-GnRH loop, accommodates a pivotal role for central aromatization in negative feedback, and suggests that time delays in negative feedback are an important aspect of the control of GnRH pulse frequency.

  12. Role Model, Hero or Champion? Children's Views Concerning Role Models

    Bricheno, Patricia; Thornton, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Background: Claims that male role models can improve the behaviour and achievement of boys are familiar and persistent. However, research has not confirmed such a link; recent UK studies indicate that peers and relatives may be far more important to boys than their teachers. Given the seemingly relentless reference to male teachers as role models…

  13. A cognitive-perceptual model of symptom perception in males and females: the roles of negative affect, selective attention, health anxiety and psychological job demands.

    Goodwin, Laura; Fairclough, Stephen H; Poole, Helen M

    2013-06-01

    Kolk et al.'s model of symptom perception underlines the effects of trait negative affect, selective attention and external stressors. The current study tested this model in 263 males and 498 females from an occupational sample. Trait negative affect was associated with symptom reporting in females only, and selective attention and psychological job demands were associated with symptom reporting in both genders. Health anxiety was associated with symptom reporting in males only. Future studies might consider the inclusion of selective attention, which was more strongly associated with symptom reporting than negative affect. Psychological job demands appear to influence symptom reporting in both males and females.

  14. The evaluation of role of NMDA receptor and spinal microglia on age dependent differences of neuropathic pain in SNL model in male rats

    Hussain zeinali

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Induced neuropathic pain following nerve injury has behavioral signs such as allodynia and hyperalgesia. There are reports about the age dependent differences in severity and incidence and even therapeutic response of this pain. In this study, we have tried to evaluate behavioral differences of this pain in an induced neuropathic model in different ages, according to important role of N-methyl, D-aspartate (NMDA receptor and spinal microglia on induction and maintenance of pain. Material and methods: Male rats were grouped in young (5-6 week and mature (10-11 week. Under general anesthesia, the spinal nerve ligation (SNL surgery was operated on right leg. The effect of different doses of dextromethorphan (NMDA blocker and minocycline (microglia inhibitor on 5th day after surgery was evaluated and compared in two age-groups. Results: In this study, both Minocycline and dextromethorphan diminished neuropathic pain in a dose dependent manner in these two ages. Minocycline in contrast to dextromethorphan was more effective in young rats. The co-administration of ineffective doses of minocycline and dextromethorphan could be effective. Conclusion: Microglia and NMDA receptor function in neuropathic pain is different in different ages and the role of microglia is more evident. On the other hand the inhibition of both microglia and NMDA receptor can be considered for lowering neuropathic pain.

  15. "Absent Fathers", and Children's Social and Emotional Learning: An Exploration of the Perceptions of "Positive Male Role Models" in the Primary School Sector

    Wood, Peter; Brownhill, Simon

    2018-01-01

    This paper focuses on the testimonies of three male primary school staff members who utilised social and emotional learning (SEL) in their everyday practice within their respective schools. The data, collected through individual interviews, illustrate how these three men interpreted SEL, and their role in the development of children's social,…

  16. Multiscale Systems Modeling of Male Reproductive Tract ...

    The reproductive tract is a complex, integrated organ system with diverse embryology and unique sensitivity to prenatal environmental exposures that disrupt morphoregulatory processes and endocrine signaling. U.S. EPA’s in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) database (ToxCastDB) was used to profile the bioactivity of 54 chemicals with male developmental consequences across ~800 molecular and cellular features [Leung et al., accepted manuscript]. The in vitro bioactivity on molecular targets could be condensed into 156 gene annotations in a bipartite network. These results highlighted the role of estrogen and androgen signaling pathways in male reproductive tract development, and importantly, broadened the list of molecular targets to include GPCRs, cytochrome-P450s, vascular remodeling proteins, and retinoic acid signaling. A multicellular agent-based model was used to simulate the complex interactions between morphoregulatory, endocrine, and environmental influences during genital tubercle (GT) development. Spatially dynamic signals (e.g., SHH, FGF10, and androgen) were implemented in the model to address differential adhesion, cell motility, proliferation, and apoptosis. Urethral tube closure was an emergent feature of the model that was linked to gender-specific rates of ventral mesenchymal proliferation and urethral plate endodermal apoptosis, both under control of androgen signaling [Leung et al., manuscript in preparation]. A systemic parameter sweep w

  17. The Male Gender Role and Depression

    Liljegren, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Although depression is a common mental health disorder, less research has been devoted to men's experience with depression compared to women's experiences. Although men may exhibit similar patterns of depression as women, men often have unique pattern of exhibiting depression characterized by substance abuse, irritability, aggression, and interpersonal conflict. The paper presents a review of the relevant literature on male depression and, in particular, how it is potentially affected by male...

  18. Role of Ultrasound in Male Infertility

    Moon, Min Hoan; Sung, Chang Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    US evaluation is the mainstay of diagnostic imaging of infertile men. In this editorial, we review the spectrum of diseases responsible for male infertility, discuss the way in which US imaging studies can be used for evaluation of male infertility, and illustrate characteristic US imaging features that allow for specific diagnosis. The discussion will be divided into three main categories: obstruction in sperm passage, impairment of sperm function, and defect in sperm genesis.

  19. Role of Ultrasound in Male Infertility

    Moon, Min Hoan; Sung, Chang Kyu

    2012-01-01

    US evaluation is the mainstay of diagnostic imaging of infertile men. In this editorial, we review the spectrum of diseases responsible for male infertility, discuss the way in which US imaging studies can be used for evaluation of male infertility, and illustrate characteristic US imaging features that allow for specific diagnosis. The discussion will be divided into three main categories: obstruction in sperm passage, impairment of sperm function, and defect in sperm genesis.

  20. EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF THE PRIMARY MALE HYPOGONADISM

    P. A. Kulikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of the new methods of treatment of primary male hypogonadism is an urgent medical problem. Its solution requires a suitable experimental model of the disease. Aim: The creation of new experimental model of primary male hypogonadism. Materials and methods: The study was conducted on the male Wistar rats, hypogonadism was modeled by temporary ligation of the distal part of the spermatic cord. Results: It was shown that three-day ligation of the spermatic cord led to persistent disturbance of the testosterone-producing and reproductive functions. These manifestations were reversible at shorter duration of the exposure. Conclusion: The created model of primary male hypogonadism is characterized by the persistent testosterone-producing and reproductive functions disturbance, technical availability, non-toxicity to the other organs and systems. Availability of the model provides new opportunities for the development of approaches to treating diseases of the reproductive organs in men.

  1. Models and role models.

    ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    Developing experimental models to understand dental caries has been the theme in our research group. Our first, the pH-cycling model, was developed to investigate the chemical reactions in enamel or dentine, which lead to dental caries. It aimed to leverage our understanding of the fluoride mode of action and was also utilized for the formulation of oral care products. In addition, we made use of intra-oral (in situ) models to study other features of the oral environment that drive the de/remineralization balance in individual patients. This model addressed basic questions, such as how enamel and dentine are affected by challenges in the oral cavity, as well as practical issues related to fluoride toothpaste efficacy. The observation that perhaps fluoride is not sufficiently potent to reduce dental caries in the present-day society triggered us to expand our knowledge in the bacterial aetiology of dental caries. For this we developed the Amsterdam Active Attachment biofilm model. Different from studies on planktonic ('single') bacteria, this biofilm model captures bacteria in a habitat similar to dental plaque. With data from the combination of these models, it should be possible to study separate processes which together may lead to dental caries. Also products and novel agents could be evaluated that interfere with either of the processes. Having these separate models in place, a suggestion is made to design computer models to encompass the available information. Models but also role models are of the utmost importance in bringing and guiding research and researchers. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. The role of male contest competition over mates in speciation

    Anna QVARNSTRÖM, Niclas VALLIN, Andreas RUDH

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on the role of sexual selection in the speciation process largely focuses on the diversifying role of mate choice. In particular, much attention has been drawn to the fact that population divergence in mate choice and in the male traits subject to choice directly can lead to assortative mating. However, male contest competition over mates also constitutes an important mechanism of sexual selection. We review recent empirical studies and argue that sexual selection through male contest competition can affect speciation in ways other than mate choice. For example, biases in aggression towards similar competitors can lead to disruptive and negative frequency-dependent selection on the traits used in contest competition in a similar way as competition for other types of limited resources. Moreover, male contest abilities often trade-off against other abilities such as parasite resistance, protection against predators and general stress tolerance. Populations experiencing different ecological conditions should therefore quickly diverge non-randomly in a number of traits including male contest abilities. In resource based breeding systems, a feedback loop between competitive ability and habitat use may lead to further population divergence. We discuss how population divergence in traits used in male contest competition can lead to the build up of reproductive isolation through a number of different pathways. Our main conclusion is that the role of male contest competition in speciation remains largely scientifically unexplored [Current Zoology 58 (3: 490–506, 2012].

  3. Novel roles of Pkd2 in male reproductive system development

    Nie, Xuguang; Arend, Lois J

    2014-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is one of the most common inherited genetic diseases, caused by mutations in PKD1 and/ or PKD2. Infertility and reproductive tract abnormalities in male ADPKD patients are very common and have higher incidence than in the general population. In this work, we reveal novel roles of Pkd2 for male reproductive system development. Disruption of Pkd2 caused dilation of mesonephric tubules/efferent ducts, failure of epididymal coiling, and defecti...

  4. Beyond the Bravado: Sex Roles and the Exploitive Male.

    Taubman, Stan

    1986-01-01

    Examines the tendency of men to engage in domestic violence and sexual exploitation and presents male sex-role acquisition as a process of psychosocial violence against young boys, which creates a sense of shame, powerlessness, self-alienation, isolation from others, and retaliatory rage and inhibits capacities for intimacy and mutuality.…

  5. Models and role models

    ten Cate, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Developing experimental models to understand dental caries has been the theme in our research group. Our first, the pH-cycling model, was developed to investigate the chemical reactions in enamel or dentine, which lead to dental caries. It aimed to leverage our understanding of the fluoride mode of

  6. Molecular mechanisms of fertilization: the role of male factor

    Ewa Maria Kratz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization, the fusion of male and female gametes, is an incompletely known, multistep, complex process, in which many factors participate. Fertilization is a precisely regulated, species-specific process, but some cellular mechanisms are similar for many mammal species. The studies of mechanisms of male and female gamete production enable understanding of fertilization issues and, as a result, make the analysis of the causes of infertility possible. Male and female infertility is a progressive phenomenon. The development of laboratory medicine enables the analysis of molecular aspects of the reactions between gametes, which may result in better diagnosis of many infertility cases and indicate the direction of therapeutic management. The fertilization process is accompanied by many biochemical reactions, in which glycoproteins present in human ejaculate play a very important role. Glycan structures enable glycoproteins to participate in the interactions between cells, including those between gametes. The analysis of the glycosylation profile and degree of ejaculate glycoproteins not only contributes to deepening the knowledge about mechanisms accompanying the fertilization process, but also may be useful as an additional diagnostic marker of male infertility.The aim of the present review is to approach selected molecular mechanisms occurring in the male genital tract, related to the fertilization process, as well as to analyze their influence on male fertility.

  7. Conceptual model of male military sexual trauma.

    Elder, William B; Domino, Jessica L; Rentz, Timothy O; Mata-Galán, Emma L

    2017-08-01

    Male sexual trauma is understudied, leaving much to be known about the unique mental health needs of male survivors. This study examined veteran men's perceptions of the effects of military sexual trauma. Military sexual trauma was defined as physically forced, verbally coerced, or substance-incapacitated acts experienced during military service. Interviews were conducted with 21 male veterans who reported experiencing military sexual trauma. Data were drawn together using a grounded theory methodology. Three categories emerged from data analysis, including (a) types of military sexual trauma (being touched in a sexual way against their will [N = 18]; sexual remarks directed at them [N = 15]; being physically forced to have sex [N = 13]); (b) negative life effects (difficulty trusting others [N = 18]; fear of abandonment [N = 17]; substance use [N = 13]; fear of interpersonal violence [N = 12]; conduct and vocational problems [N = 11]; irritability/aggression [N = 8]; insecurity about sexual performance [N = 8]; difficulty managing anger [N = 8]); and (c) posttraumatic growth (N = 15). Results from this study suggest sexual trauma in the military context may affect systems of self-organization, specifically problems in affective, self-concept, and relational domains, similar to symptoms of those who have experienced prolonged traumatic stressors. This model can be used by clinicians to select treatments that specifically target these symptoms and promote posttraumatic growth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. A Review: Role of oxidative stress in male infertility

    Hamed Fanaei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS have a very important role in the intracellular signaling process in physiological conditions. On the other hand, during the recent decade it has been indicated that ROS play a role in various types of male infertility and it is due to the overproduction of ROS or decrease in the antioxidant defense system in the reproductive system and sperm. In pathological conditions, ROS via interferences in the spermatogenesis process, sperm function, and sperm structure (motility, viability, acrosome reaction, sperm-oocyte fusion, and damage to DNA and cell membrane as well as reduction in fertilization and implantation can lead to infertility. Knowledge of how ROS affect the physiological process of the reproductive system is crucial in the treatment of infertility. Thus, in this review article we will discuss experimental and clinical findings related to the effects of ROS on male fertility.

  9. Roles of autophagy in male reproductive development in plants

    Shigeru eHanamata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy, a major catabolic pathway in eukaryotic cells, is essential in development, maintenance of cellular homeostasis, immunity and programmed cell death (PCD in multicellular organisms. In plant cells, autophagy plays roles in recycling of proteins and metabolites including lipids, and is involved in many physiological processes such as abiotic and biotic stress responses. However, its roles during reproductive development had remained poorly understood. Quantitative live cell imaging techniques for the autophagic flux and genetic studies in several plant species have recently revealed significant roles of autophagy in developmental processes, regulation of PCD and lipid metabolism. We here review the novel roles of autophagic fluxes in plant cells, and discuss their possible significance in PCD and metabolic regulation, with particular focus on male reproductive development during the pollen maturation.

  10. The Building Resiliency and Vocational Excellence (BRAVE) Program: a violence-prevention and role model program for young, African American males.

    Griffin, James P

    2005-11-01

    There are sharp disparities between non-Hispanic Whites and African Americans in mortality and years of potential life lost for numerous health-related conditions, including HIV/AIDS. The Building Resiliency and Vocational Excellence (BRAVE) Program is an intervention using Resiliency Networking designed for use with African American young men to help offset these disparities. Resiliency Networking incorporates coaching, career planning, and re-definition of gender roles to help young men develop a sense of purpose and future and to manage their lifestyles effectively. In addition to fostering a strong link with an older mentor, the program fosters healthy peer-to-peer relationships. The paper reports on preliminary use of the intervention and recommends future applications.

  11. The Inexpressive Male: Functional-Conflict and Role Theory as Contrasting Explanations.

    Balswick, Jack

    1979-01-01

    Compares functional-conflict and role theory perspectives in their ability to explain male inexpressiveness. The role theory approach incorporates the individual and the social structure in explaining male inexpressiveness. Change in male expressiveness can be expected if males are encouraged to devote more time and energy to emotionally laden…

  12. Aggression Toward Gay Men as Gender Role Enforcement: Effects of Male Role Norms, Sexual Prejudice, and Masculine Gender Role Stress

    Parrott, Dominic J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress as mediators of the relations between male gender norms and anger and aggression toward gay men. Participants were 150 self-identified heterosexual men who completed measures of adherence to male gender role norms, sexual prejudice, masculine gender role stress, and state anger. Participants then viewed a video depicting intimate relationship behavior between two gay men, reported state anger a second time, and competed in a laboratory aggression task against either a heterosexual or a gay male. Results indicated that adherence to the antifemininity norm exerted an indirect effect, primarily through sexual prejudice, on increases in anger. Adherence to the status and antifemininity norms exerted indirect effects, also through sexual prejudice, on physical aggression toward the gay, but not the heterosexual, male. Findings provide the first multivariate evidence for determinants of aggression toward gay men motivated by gender role enforcement. PMID:19558440

  13. The role of meiotic drive in hybrid male sterility.

    McDermott, Shannon R; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2010-04-27

    Meiotic drive causes the distortion of allelic segregation away from Mendelian expected ratios, often also reducing fecundity and favouring the evolution of drive suppressors. If different species evolve distinct drive-suppressor systems, then hybrid progeny may be sterile as a result of negative interactions of these systems' components. Although the hypothesis that meiotic drive may contribute to hybrid sterility, and thus species formation, fell out of favour early in the 1990s, recent results showing an association between drive and sterility have resurrected this previously controversial idea. Here, we review the different forms of meiotic drive and their possible roles in speciation. We discuss the recent empirical evidence for a link between drive and hybrid male sterility, also suggesting a possible mechanistic explanation for this link in the context of chromatin remodelling. Finally, we revisit the population genetics of drive that allow it to contribute to speciation.

  14. Quantitative genetic models of sexual selection by male choice.

    Nakahashi, Wataru

    2008-09-01

    There are many examples of male mate choice for female traits that tend to be associated with high fertility. I develop quantitative genetic models of a female trait and a male preference to show when such a male preference can evolve. I find that a disagreement between the fertility maximum and the viability maximum of the female trait is necessary for directional male preference (preference for extreme female trait values) to evolve. Moreover, when there is a shortage of available male partners or variance in male nongenetic quality, strong male preference can evolve. Furthermore, I also show that males evolve to exhibit a stronger preference for females that are more feminine (less resemblance to males) than the average female when there is a sexual dimorphism caused by fertility selection which acts only on females.

  15. Sex Differences in Judgments of Male and Female Role Stereotypes.

    Getz, Sandra K.; Herman, Jeanne B.

    This study tests whether or not there are sex differences in judgments of the success of various male and female lifestyles, and if so, what differential standards are applied to males and females. The most interesting result of this study is that college men and women use the same standards to judge the success of male lifestyles but different…

  16. A study of role stress, organizational commitment and intention to quit among male nurses in southern Taiwan.

    Lou, Jiunn-Horng; Yu, Hsing-Yi; Hsu, Hsiu-Yueh; Dai, Hung-Da

    2007-03-01

    Gender and sex role stereotyping are recognized as having the potential to limit the professional development of males within the nursing profession. The purpose of this study was to understand the relationships between demographic data and the dimensions of role stress, organizational commitment, and intentions to quit among male nurses in southern Taiwan. Research also investigated the correlations with three dependent variables and identified best predictors of male nurse intentions to quit the nursing profession. A total of 91 male nurses volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional research. Research results were based on data collected from questionnaires sent by mail to participants. A total of 76 valid questionnaires were returned and used in analysis (response rate = 83.5%). Findings pointed to patients, colleagues and society as the major sources of role stress for male nurses. These sources of stress, and the resultant intention to quit on the part of male nurses, are due in significant part to the widespread stereotyping of the profession of nursing as a "woman's occupation". Such stress pressures male nurses to consider quitting to take jobs in other professional fields. Role stress is correlated to intention to quit among male nurses. Role stress and years of service are highly relevant predictors of male nurse intention to quit and leave the nursing profession, explaining 33.8% of variability. We suggest that at various levels of education and society, promotion of male and female equality should be increased. There is also a need for psychological consultation as well as the promotion of male nurse role models to prevent male nurses turning away from nursing careers.

  17. Parker's sneak-guard model revisited: why do reproductively parasitic males heavily invest in testes?

    Ota, Kazutaka; Kohda, Masanori; Hori, Michio; Sato, Tetsu

    2011-10-01

    Alternative reproductive tactics are widespread in males and may cause intraspecific differences in testes investment. Parker's sneak-guard model predicts that sneaker males, who mate under sperm competition risk, invest in testes relatively more than bourgeois conspecifics that have lower risk. Given that sneakers are much smaller than bourgeois males, sneakers may increase testes investment to overcome their limited sperm productivity because of their small body sizes. In this study, we examined the mechanism that mediates differential testes investment across tactics in the Lake Tanganyika cichlid fish Lamprologus callipterus. In the Rumonge population of Burundi, bourgeois males are small compared with those in other populations and have a body size close to sneaky dwarf males. Therefore, if differences in relative testis investment depend on sperm competition, the rank order of relative testis investment should be dwarf males > bourgeois males in Rumonge = bourgeois males in the other populations. If differences in relative testis investment depend on body size, the rank order of relative testes investment should be dwarf males > bourgeois males in Rumonge > bourgeois males in the other populations. Comparisons of relative testis investment among the three male groups supported the role of sperm competition, as predicted by the sneak-guard model. Nevertheless, the effects of absolute body size on testes investment should be considered to understand the mechanisms underlying intraspecific variation in testes investment caused by alternative reproductive tactics.

  18. The Male Role in Contraception: Implications for Health Education.

    Chng, Chwee Lye

    1983-01-01

    Many males still perceive contraception as a woman's responsibility. This paper describes male contraceptives and their effectiveness and draws implications for school and community health education professionals. More equitable sharing of the responsibility for contraception might result in more effective contraception. (PP)

  19. Role Models on Dope

    Christiansen, Ask Vest; Gleaves, John

    2014-01-01

    Compared to football-players cyclists are virtuous role models. Yes, Lance Armstrong, Michael Rasmussen and other riders have doped, and because of this they have received the predicate as the most immoral athletes in the sporting world. But if morality is not only a question of whether a person ...... has enhanced his or hers performances by the use of various drugs (and lied about it), but also is about human beings’ relations and interactions, then cycling isn’t as depraved as we like to tell each other. Football is much worse....

  20. From Metrosexual to Retrosexual: The Importance of Shifting Male Gender Roles to Feminism

    Anderson, Katherine Noel

    2008-01-01

    The study of gender in feminism should not only concentrate on female gender roles and queer transgressions of established gender roles, but should also include an in-depth discussion on male gender roles as they exist in society. This paper focuses on the metrosexual and the retrosexual trends which have recently affected the male gender role in society. The emergence of the metrosexual in the 1990s through 2005 was a profound change in the traditional male gender role which allowed men to ...

  1. The role of oxytocin in male and female reproductive behavior

    Veening, J.G.; Jong, T.R. de; Waldinger, M.D.; Korte, S.M.; Olivier, B.

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is a nonapeptide with an impressive variety of physiological functions. Among them, the 'prosocial' effects have been discussed in several recent reviews, but the direct effects on male and female sexual behavior did receive much less attention so far. As our contribution to honor the

  2. Review of the role of robotic surgery in male infertility

    Mohamed Etafy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To present the current state of the art in various robot-assisted microsurgical procedures in male infertility and review the latest literature, as the technology in infertility procedures has substantially developed since the incorporation of the Vinci® robotic platform (Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA. Materials and methods: The search strategy in this review was conducted in accordance with Cochrane guidelines and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA. A search strategy was conducted in MEDLINE, PubMed and the Cochrane electronic databases (from 2000 to present to identify studies that included both robotic and male infertility. Results: In all, 23 studies were found, 12 of which met our inclusion criteria. Articles were excluded if the study did not include both male infertility and robotics. Conclusions: Robotic assistance for microsurgical procedures in male infertility appears to be safe and feasible. It has several advantages including elimination of tremor, multi-view magnification, additional instrument arms, and enhanced dexterity with articulating instrument arms. It also has a short learning curve with a small skin incision. However, larger, prospective studies are needed to establish the clinical benefits over standard microsurgery. Keywords: Robotic testicular sperm extraction, Robotic varicocelectomy, Robotic vasectomy reversal, Robotic vasoepididymostomy (RAVE, Robotic vasovasostomy

  3. Genetic and epigenetic factors: Role in male infertility

    M B Shamsi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic factors contribute upto 15%-30% cases of male infertility. Formation of spermatozoa occurs in a sequential manner with mitotic, meiotic, and postmeiotic differentiation phases each of which is controlled by an intricate genetic program. Genes control a variety of physiologic processes, such as hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, germ cell development, and differentiation. In the era of assisted reproduction technology, it is important to understand the genetic basis of infertility to provide maximum adapted therapeutics and counseling to the couple.

  4. CENTRAL EUROPE: Role models

    Anon.

    1993-12-15

    Hungary is one of the newcomers to the CERN fold, having joined in 1992. The country's contributions are naturally in line with its slender resources and are not as immediately visible as those of the major Western European Member States. However the approach used and its consequent successes provide a good role model for a smaller nation in an international research environment. This was reflected on 24 September at a meeting of the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA) convened in Budapest, continuing an ECFA tradition of holding meetings in national centres to learn more about the physics programmes of different countries. This tradition started with visits to major West European Centres, but last year ECFA held a meeting in Warsaw, its first in a central European country. By far the largest Hungarian population centre, Budapest is also a hub for national research in this sector, with university centres and the KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics of the National Academy of Sciences. However important research work is also carried out in the eastern city of Debrecen. Hungarians look back to the classic investigations of Eotvos early this century as the starting point of their national tradition in fundamental physics. (In the mid-80s, these experiments briefly came back into vogue when there was a suggestion of an additional 'fifth force' contribution to nuclear masses.)

  5. CENTRAL EUROPE: Role models

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Hungary is one of the newcomers to the CERN fold, having joined in 1992. The country's contributions are naturally in line with its slender resources and are not as immediately visible as those of the major Western European Member States. However the approach used and its consequent successes provide a good role model for a smaller nation in an international research environment. This was reflected on 24 September at a meeting of the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA) convened in Budapest, continuing an ECFA tradition of holding meetings in national centres to learn more about the physics programmes of different countries. This tradition started with visits to major West European Centres, but last year ECFA held a meeting in Warsaw, its first in a central European country. By far the largest Hungarian population centre, Budapest is also a hub for national research in this sector, with university centres and the KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics of the National Academy of Sciences. However important research work is also carried out in the eastern city of Debrecen. Hungarians look back to the classic investigations of Eotvos early this century as the starting point of their national tradition in fundamental physics. (In the mid-80s, these experiments briefly came back into vogue when there was a suggestion of an additional 'fifth force' contribution to nuclear masses.)

  6. Role strain among male RNs in the critical care setting: Perceptions of an unfriendly workplace.

    Carte, Nicholas S; Williams, Collette

    2017-12-01

    Traditionally, nursing has been a female-dominated profession. Men employed as registered nurses have been in the minority and little is known about the experiences of this demographic. The purpose of this descriptive, quantitative study was to understand the relationship between the variables of demographics and causes of role strain among male nurses in critical care settings. The Sherrod Role Strain Scale assesses role strain within the context of role conflict, role overload, role ambiguity and role incongruity. Data analysis of the results included descriptive and inferential statistics. Inferential statistics involved the use of repeated measures ANOVA testing for significant difference in the causes of role strain between male nurses employed in critical care settings and a post hoc comparison of specific demographic data using multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs). Data from 37 male nurses in critical care settings from the northeast of the United States were used to calculate descriptive statistics standard deviation, mean of the data analysis and results of the repeated ANOVA and the post hoc secondary MANOVA analysis. The descriptive data showed that all participants worked full-time. There was an even split from those participants who worked day shift (46%) vs. night shift (43%), most the participants indicated they had 15 years or more experience as an registered nurse (54%). Significant findings of this study include two causes of role strain in male nurses employed in critical care settings which are: role ambiguity and role overload based on ethnicity. Consistent with previous research findings, the results of this study suggest that male registered nurses employed in critical care settings do experience role strain. The two main causes of role strain in male nurses are role ambiguity and role overload. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Mitochondrial DNA plays an equal role in influencing female and male longevity in centenarians.

    He, Yong-Han; Lu, Xiang; Tian, Jiao-Yang; Yan, Dong-Jing; Li, Yu-Chun; Lin, Rong; Perry, Benjamin; Chen, Xiao-Qiong; Yu, Qin; Cai, Wang-Wei; Kong, Qing-Peng

    2016-10-01

    The mitochondrion is a double membrane-bound organelle which plays important functional roles in aging and many other complex phenotypes. Transmission of the mitochondrial genome in the matrilineal line causes the evolutionary selection sieve only in females. Theoretically, beneficial or neutral variations are more likely to accumulate and be retained in the female mitochondrial genome during evolution, which may be an initial trigger of gender dimorphism in aging. The asymmetry of evolutionary processes between gender could lead to males and females aging in different ways. If so, gender specific variation loads could be an evolutionary result of maternal heritage of mitochondrial genomes, especially in centenarians who live to an extreme age and are considered as good models for healthy aging. Here, we tested whether the mitochondrial variation loads were associated with altered aging patterns by investigating the mtDNA haplogroup distribution and genetic diversity between female and male centenarians. We found no evidence of differences in aging patterns between genders in centenarians. Our results indicate that the evolutionary consequence of gender dimorphism in mitochondrial genomes is not a factor in the altered aging patterns in human, and that mitochondrial DNA contributes equally to longevity in males and females. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Determinants of anger and physical aggression based on sexual orientation: an experimental examination of hypermasculinity and exposure to male gender role violations.

    Parrott, Dominic J; Zeichner, Amos

    2008-12-01

    The present study examined the effects of hypermasculinity and exposure to male gender role violations on antigay anger and aggression. Participants were 148 heterosexual men who were randomly assigned to view either a male-male or a male-female erotic video. Participants completed a measure of hypermasculinity and anger was assessed before and after viewing the erotic video. A laboratory paradigm was then used to measure physical aggression toward a gay or heterosexual man. Hypermasculinity predicted greater increases in anger among men who viewed male-male erotica relative to men who viewed male-female erotica. Hypermasculinity also predicted higher levels of physical aggression toward a gay, relative to a heterosexual, man, but only after viewing male-male erotica. Findings were discussed within the context of the General Aggression Model.

  9. Role model and prototype matching

    Lykkegaard, Eva; Ulriksen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    ’ meetings with the role models affected their thoughts concerning STEM students and attending university. The regular self-to-prototype matching process was shown in real-life role-models meetings to be extended to a more complex three-way matching process between students’ self-perceptions, prototype...

  10. Watching Aggressive, Attractive, Female Protagonists Shapes Gender Roles for Women Among Male and Female Undergraduate Viewers.

    Taylor, Laramie D; Setters, Tiffany

    2011-07-01

    The impact of exposure to media representations of aggressive, attractive, female protagonists on audiences' gender role expectations for women was explored through a laboratory experiment with 122 undergraduates from a large university on the west coast of the United States. Participants viewed a segment of a major Hollywood motion picture that featured a female protagonist who was either highly attractive or less attractive and either highly aggressive or not aggressive. Viewing clips featuring a female protagonist who was both aggressive and stereotypically attractive led to greater endorsement of stereotypically feminine and stereotypically masculine gender role expectations for women. The effect on endorsement of stereotypically masculine expectations was partially mediated by the perception that the protagonist was a good role model for women. Although women endorsed both feminine and masculine gender role expectations for women more strongly than men, the effects of exposure to aggressive, attractive, female protagonists were similar for both male and female participants. Results are discussed in terms of gender stereotype activation and superwoman expectations for women.

  11. The Extreme Male Brain Theory and Gender Role Behaviour in Persons with an Autism Spectrum Condition

    Stauder, J. E. A.; Cornet, L. J. M.; Ponds, R. W. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Extreme Male Brain theory persons with autism possess masculinised cognitive traits. In this study masculinisation of gender role behaviour is evaluated in 25 persons with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) and matched controls with gender role behaviour as part of a shortened version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality…

  12. The Gender Role Perceptions of Male Students at a Prestigious, Single-Gender, Catholic High School

    Thompson, Franklin T.; Austin, William P.

    2010-01-01

    This study utilized a data set of categorical responses measuring the gender role views of students (N = 701) from a prestigious, Midwestern, all-male, Catholic high school. Incongruence between student self-perceptions and the realities of gender role miseducation and the embracement of sexist ideology were readily apparent. Findings suggest that…

  13. The role of clinical pathologists in the management of male infertility ...

    Male infertility is receiving increasing attention in Africa as up to 50% of cases of infertility are ascribed to it. In the management of this condition, the clinical laboratory plays a crucial role especially in the proper identification of causes of infertility. The role of the pathologists in this respect stems from the choice of laboratory ...

  14. The motivational theory of role modeling : How role models influence role aspirants' goals

    Morgenroth, Thekla; Ryan, Michelle K.; Peters, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Role models are often suggested as a way of motivating individuals to set and achieve ambitious goals, especially for members of stigmatized groups in achievement settings. Yet, the literature on role models tends not to draw on the motivational literature to explain how role models may help role

  15. Sex-role identification of normal adolescent males and females as related to school achievement.

    Hock, R A; Curry, J F

    1983-12-01

    The historical view of masculinity/femininity posited essentially bipolar opposites, with the presence of one set of characteristics precluding the other. More recent studies of sex-role stereotypes have defined sexual orientation within clusters of socially desirable attributes which males and females perceive as differentiating males from females. This view negates the contention that psychological sex roles are composed of bipolar opposites, and concludes that the constructs of masculinity and femininity are independent dimensions rather than a single bipolar dimension. Little is known about the sex-role functioning of adolescents, yet it is during adolescence that qualitative shifts occur in interpersonal relationships and concurrent changes occur in cognitive functioning, with adolescents shifting toward hypothetical thinking and abstract ideal notions. In view of these changes, much can be learned about adult functioning by studying the sex-role perceptions of adolescents related to familial and social variables. This study examines the sex-role perceptions that adolescents hold of fathers, mothers, ideal males, ideal females, and selves. Differences exist between male and female adolescents, and significant linkages exist between sex-role identification and academic achievement.

  16. Is there a role for Serratia marcescens in male infertility: An experimental study?

    Rana, Kalpana; Thaper, Deepali; Prabha, Vijay

    2017-04-01

    Establishment of a male BALB/c mouse model to study the role of sperm impairing S. marcescens on mouse reproductive potential. The current study can add to use of reliable animal models to provide a noteworthy evidence for the microbial cause of infertility. The mice in the test groups II, III, IV were intraperitoneally administered with different doses (10 4 , 10 6 or 10 8  cfu) of S. marcescens whereas, group I serving as control, received PBS, for 10 consecutive days. The groups were evaluated for any change in body weight, tissue somatic index (%), seminal parameters and histology. Confirmation of S. marcescens from reproductive organs was done by reisolating the same by cultural characteristics and biochemical tests. The results showed that weight gain was evident only in mice receiving PBS (group I), whereas a decrease was recorded in the test groups (group II, III and IV). Only testes of test groups showed significant changes in TSI values whereas, no change in TSI was observed in any reproductive organ of any test group. Seminal parameters viz. sperm count, motility and viability were found to decrease in test groups II, III and IV as compared to control group I. Interestingly, the number of pus cells and percent decapitation was more prominent in test groups which received higher doses (i.e. group III and group IV). The histopathological examination revealed mild to dense inflammation in vas deferens and caudal epididymis in all test groups except hypospermatogenesis which was observed only in test group III and IV. However, in group I, neither adverse changes nor any sign of inflammation were observed. Intraperitoneal inoculation of S. marcescens could lead to alteration of semen parameters, induction of decapitation in spermatozoa and histopathological changes, thereby decreasing the reproductive potential of male mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Why Are Males Bad for Females? Models for the Evolution of Damaging Male Mating Behavior

    Lessells, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    One explanation for the cost to mating for females caused by damaging male mating behavior is that this causes the females to adaptively modify their subsequent life histories in a way that also increases male fitness. This might occur because the reduction in residual reproductive value of the

  18. Using Gender Role Conflict Theory in Counseling Male-to-Female Transgender Individuals

    Wester, Stephen R.; McDonough, Tracy A.; White, Maureen; Vogel, David L.; Taylor, Lareena

    2010-01-01

    Ignoring gender socialization while counseling transgender clients neglects a significant aspect of the transgender experience. To address this, the authors review the literature on gender role conflict (GRC) theory as it pertains to the transgender experience of biological males whose authentic self is female. They explore the main types of…

  19. Stereotype Threat, Gender-Role Conformity, and New Zealand Adolescent Males in Choirs

    Watson, Penelope; Rubie-Davies, Christine Margaret; Hattie, John Allan

    2017-01-01

    Choirs have been stereotypically gendered feminine in many national contexts. When gender-role conformity has been expected in such settings, male choral participation and performance has often been rendered gender incongruent and consequently threatening. Gender stereotype threat was explored as a factor which might instigate a potentially…

  20. Female-to-male transsexualism and sex roles: self and spouse ratings on the PAQ.

    Fleming, M Z; MacGowan, B R; Salt, P

    1984-02-01

    The sex-role-based perceptions of self and spouse in a group of female-to-male transsexuals, their wives, and a matched control group were studied. Each participant was given four copies of the Personal Attributes Questionnaire and asked to rate self, spouse, ideal self, and ideal spouse. The transsexual group rated themselves significantly higher than the control male group on the F scale, while there were no significant differences between the two groups on the M and M-F scales. The transsexuals' wives rated their spouses higher than did the control women on the F scale, and this difference approached significance. There were no significant differences between the spouse ratings of these two groups on the M and M-F scales. These results are discussed in terms of the relationship between sex role and gender identity and in terms of the theories that propose role strain as the cause of transsexualism.

  1. Role Modeling for Clinical Educators.

    Ettinger, Ellen Richter

    1991-01-01

    To become better role models, higher educators in institutions of clinical education should be conscious of the behaviors they demonstrate and the broad range of activities and attitudes that students observe and emulate, including clinical competence, professional demeanor, doctor-patient interactions, ethical values, and social consciousness.…

  2. Good mentors and role models

    Lawrence

    Today, as a teacher and researcher, I look forward to my day ... essential for women, and that it would prove to be more valuable ... mentors, who have been my role models. ... benefit to make the workplace gender friendly by including more.

  3. A multidimensional intergenerational model of young males' driving styles.

    Gil, Shani; Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Toledo, Tomer

    2016-12-01

    This study examines the associations between fathers' driving styles, the family's general and driving-related atmosphere, and the young drivers' motivations, on one hand, and young males' driving styles, on the other. The 242 father and son pairs that participated in the study independently completed several self-report questionnaires at different points in time within the first year after licensure of the young drivers. A structural equation model (SEM) was developed, in which the contribution of fathers' driving style and their sons' perceptions of the general family relations, the family climate for road safety (FCRS), and costs and benefits of driving, to the driving styles of the young male drivers was examined. The SEM estimation results show direct as well as indirect significant effects between the various dimensions. The FCRS factors of non-commitment and messages, and the cost of thrill, were found to be the strongest mediators between the fathers' driving style and the family cohesion, on one hand, and the driving style of the young driver, on the other. These results may be useful in pointing out directions for the development of interventions that could assist in reducing the involvement of youngsters in risky driving and car crashes, and encourage safe and considerate driving. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Alternative routes to the leader male role in a multi-level society: follower vs. solitary male strategies and outcomes in hamadryas baboons.

    Pines, Mathew; Saunders, Julian; Swedell, Larissa

    2011-07-01

    The nested one-male units (OMUs) of the hamadryas baboon are part of a complex social system in which "leader" males achieve near exclusive mating access by forcibly herding females into permanent consortships. Within this multi-level social system (troops, bands, clans and OMUs) are two types of prereproductive males--the follower and solitary male--whose different trajectories converge on the leader role. Here we compare OMU formation strategies of followers, who associate with a particular OMU and may have social access to females, with those of solitary males, who move freely within the band and do not associate regularly with OMUs. Data were derived from 42 OMU formations (16 by followers and 26 by solitary males) occurring over 8 years in a hamadryas baboon band at the Filoha site in Ethiopia. "Initial units" (IUs) with sexually immature females (IU strategy) were formed by 44% of followers and 46% of solitary males. The remaining followers took over mature females when their leader was deposed (challenge strategy) or disappeared (opportunistic strategy), or via a seemingly peaceful transfer (inheritance strategy). Solitary males took over mature females from other clans and bands, but mainly from old, injured or vanished leaders within their clan (via both the challenge and opportunistic strategies). Former followers of an OMU were more successful at taking over females from those OMUs than any other category of male. Despite this advantage enjoyed by ex-follower leaders, ex-solitary leaders were equally capable of increasing their OMU size at a comparable rate in their first 2 years as a leader. These results demonstrate the potential for males to employ both multiple roles (follower vs. solitary male) and multiple routes (IU, inheritance, challenge, opportunistic) to acquire females and become a leader male in a mating system characterized by female defense polygyny in a competitive arena. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. A role for the adult fat body in Drosophila male courtship behavior.

    Anna A Lazareva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mating behavior in Drosophila depends critically on the sexual identity of specific regions in the brain, but several studies have identified courtship genes that express products only outside the nervous system. Although these genes are each active in a variety of non-neuronal cell types, they are all prominently expressed in the adult fat body, suggesting an important role for this tissue in behavior. To test its role in male courtship, fat body was feminized using the highly specific Larval serum protein promoter. We report here that the specific feminization of this tissue strongly reduces the competence of males to perform courtship. This effect is limited to the fat body of sexually mature adults as the feminization of larval fat body that normally persists in young adults does not affect mating. We propose that feminization of fat body affects the synthesis of male-specific secreted circulating proteins that influence the central nervous system. In support of this idea, we demonstrate that Takeout, a protein known to influence mating, is present in the hemolymph of adult males but not females and acts as a secreted protein.

  6. The role of the dorsolateral tegmentum in the control of male sexual behavior: a reevaluation.

    Romero-Carbente, J C; Camacho, F J; Paredes, R G

    2006-06-30

    The medial preoptic area/anterior hypothalamus (MPOA/AH) plays a key role in the control of male sexual behavior. Independently of the type, MPOA/AH lesions permanently eliminate male sexual behavior in the rat. The MPOA/AH projects among other structures to the dorsolateral tegmentum (DLT). Bilateral electrolytic lesions of the DLT or the unilateral electrolytic destruction of the MPOA/HA combined with a contralateral electrolytic lesion of the DLT eliminate male sexual behavior. In the present experiment, we evaluated if neurotoxic lesions of the DLT produce the same behavioral deficits as those observed after electrolytic lesions. This would allow us to evaluate if neurons of the DLT or the fibers passing through this area are important in the control of male sexual behavior. To this aim, sexually experience male rats were tested for socio-sexual behavior, partner preference and motor execution in order to determine if the possible behavioral changes could be attributed to alterations in sexual motivation or motor execution. One week after the bilateral DLT lesions the animals were evaluated in the same behavioral tests. The lesions were identified by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neuronal nuclear protein (Neu-N) immunohistochemistry. No significant consistent effects upon sexual behavior were observed in any of the groups, including the group with clear bilateral damage of the DLT. A reduction in the percentage of males displaying ejaculation in the first post-lesion test was observed for all groups injected with quinolinic acid. No effects upon partner preference or motor coordination were observed after the lesion in any of the groups. The lack of effect of DLT neurotoxic lesions upon mating suggests that neurons of this structure are not involved in the control of male sexual behavior.

  7. Roles of Female and Male Genotype in Post-Mating Responses in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Delbare, Sofie Y N; Chow, Clement Y; Wolfner, Mariana F; Clark, Andrew G

    2017-10-30

    Mating induces a multitude of changes in female behavior, physiology, and gene expression. Interactions between female and male genotype lead to variation in post-mating phenotypes and reproductive success. So far, few female molecules responsible for these interactions have been identified. Here, we used Drosophila melanogaster from 5 geographically dispersed populations to investigate such female × male genotypic interactions at the female transcriptomic and phenotypic levels. Females from each line were singly-mated to males from the same 5 lines, for a total of 25 combinations. Reproductive output and refractoriness to re-mating were assayed in females from the 25 mating combinations. Female × male genotypic interactions resulted in significant differences in these post-mating phenotypes. To assess whether female × male genotypic interactions affect the female post-mating transcriptome, next-generation RNA sequencing was performed on virgin and mated females at 5 to 6 h post-mating. Seventy-seven genes showed strong variation in mating-induced expression changes in a female × male genotype-dependent manner. These genes were enriched for immune response and odorant-binding functions, and for expression exclusively in the head. Strikingly, variation in post-mating transcript levels of a gene encoding a spermathecal endopeptidase was correlated with short-term egg production. The transcriptional variation found in specific functional classes of genes might be a read-out of female × male compatibility at a molecular level. Understanding the roles these genes play in the female post-mating response will be crucial to better understand the evolution of post-mating responses and related conflicts between the sexes. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Role of the male partner in the lower genitourinary tract infection of female.

    Sahoo, B; Bhandari, H; Sharma, M; Malhotra, S; Sawhney, H; Kumar, B

    2000-07-01

    We studied the relationships of selected microbes and the role of consorts in the causation of vaginal discharge which may be due to cervicitis or vaginitis. A total of 93 consecutive patients in the reproductive age group with symptoms of vaginal discharge along with their sexual partners were studied. Samples were collected from the cervix and posterior fornix of the female patients and from the urethra and sub-prepucial area of the male partner for culture of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Gardnerella vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, ureaplasma, candida, aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Apart from cultures, KOH and Gram stain of the discharge were made. Predominant pathogen isolated was Ureaplasma urealyticum from 40 (43.01%) females and 23 (24.7%) males. The next common pathogenic organisms isolated were candida species from 11 (11.8%) females and 5 (5.4%) males and Chlamydia trachomatis in 3 (3.2%) females and 1 (1.1%) male. Various organisms were more frequently isolated from the 29 of 43 (67.4%) couples who had had sexual intercourse 7 days prior to the recruitment as compared to 14 of 43 (32.6%) who had had coitus more than 7 days prior to their recruitment. This may be due to the spontaneous disappearance or decrease in the number of organisms to the level that they could be detected by culture. In our study, 6 (6.5%) of male partners carrying pathogenic organisms were asymptomatic, indicating that their screening and treatment is vital.

  9. The Role of Antioxidants in Biochemical Disorders Induced by Arsenic in Adult male Rats

    Hassanin, M.M.; Zaki, Z.T.; Emarah, E.A.M.; Hussein, A.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation included biochemical, radiometric, molecular studies and histopathological examination to evaluate the protective role of Antox tablets toward Arsenic toxicity in adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus). Arsenic were given as sodium arsenate to different groups in drinking water at a dose of 100 mg/L, for 3 and 6 weeks led to severe tissue damage as revealed by an elevation of serum total protein and alteration of serum protein fractions. Using radioimmunoassay it was found that serum total testosterone level was significantly decreased. The decreased level of total testosterone paralleled the observed testicular damage. Treatment of male rats with antioxidant (Antox) along with arsenic led to an improvement in both the biochemical and histological alterations induced by arsenic. Thus the protective role of Antox is attributed to its antioxidant and free radicals scavenging properties of its components (selenium, vitamin A acetate, ascorbic acid and vitamin E).

  10. Role of Tribulus terrestris in Male Infertility: Is It Real or Fiction?

    GamalEl Din, Sameh Fayek

    2017-12-20

    Tribulus terrestris is an annual herb of the Zygophyllaceae family and is commonly known as Gokshur, Gokharu, or puncturevine. Flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, lignin, amides, and glycosides are the main active phytoconstituents of this plant. Infertility is defined by the failure to conceive a child after one year or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. Infertility affects society at large and has a negative impact on the social and emotional aspects of the patient. This in-depth review presents several studies that evaluate the role of Tribulus terrestris in a chronological order to help us better understand the exact mechanism by which this herbal medicine acts in male infertility. In conclusion, the exact role of Tribulus terrestris in male infertility is still controversial and needs future double-blind placebo-controlled studies that deploy larger cohorts.

  11. Family support and acceptance, gay male identity formation, and psychological adjustment: a path model.

    Elizur, Y; Ziv, M

    2001-01-01

    While heterosexist family undermining has been demonstrated to be a developmental risk factor in the life of persons with same-gender orientation, the issue of protective family factors is both controversial and relatively neglected. In this study of Israeli gay males (N = 114), we focused on the interrelations of family support, family acceptance and family knowledge of gay orientation, and gay male identity formation, and their effects on mental health and self-esteem. A path model was proposed based on the hypotheses that family support, family acceptance, family knowledge, and gay identity formation have an impact on psychological adjustment, and that family support has an effect on gay identity formation that is mediated by family acceptance. The assessment of gay identity formation was based on an established stage model that was streamlined for cross-cultural practice by defining three basic processes of same-gender identity formation: self-definition, self-acceptance, and disclosure (Elizur & Mintzer, 2001). The testing of our conceptual path model demonstrated an excellent fit with the data. An alternative model that hypothesized effects of gay male identity on family acceptance and family knowledge did not fit the data. Interpreting these results, we propose that the main effect of family support/acceptance on gay identity is related to the process of disclosure, and that both general family support and family acceptance of same-gender orientation play a significant role in the psychological adjustment of gay men.

  12. The role of cohesin genes in the meiosis of male house mouse

    Šebestová, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    Cohesin genes play an important role in cell division. They ensure proper chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis. This study is focused on the role of cohesin genes during meiosis in male house mouse (Mus musculus). At first, this study introduces key processes of mammalian meiosis. Next, the structure of cohesin complex is described; it consists of a heterodimer SMC proteins - SMC3 and SMC1α or SMC1β, which are enclosed to the ring by cleavable subunit RAD21, RAD21L or REC8. Fourt...

  13. A new role for GABAergic transmission in the control of male rat sexual behavior expression.

    Rodríguez-Manzo, Gabriela; Canseco-Alba, Ana

    2017-03-01

    GABAergic transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) exerts a tonic inhibitory influence on mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons' activity. Blockade of VTA GABA A receptors increases dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Increases in NAcc dopamine levels typically accompany sexual behavior display. Copulation to satiety is characterized by the instatement of a long lasting (72h) sexual behavior inhibition and the mesolimbic system appears to be involved in this phenomenon. GABAergic transmission in the VTA might play a role in the maintenance of this long lasting sexual inhibitory state. To test this hypothesis, in the present work we investigated the effect of GABA A receptor blockade in sexually exhausted males 24h after copulation to satiety, once the sexual inhibitory state is established, and compared it with its effect in sexually experienced rats. Results showed that low doses of systemically administered bicuculline induced sexual behavior expression in sexually exhausted rats, but lacked an effect on copulation of sexually experienced animals. Intra-VTA bilateral infusion of bicuculline did not modify sexual behavior of sexually experienced rats, but induced sexual behavior expression in all the sexually exhausted males. Hence, GABA plays a role in the control of sexual behavior expression at the VTA. The role played by GABAergic transmission in male sexual behavior expression of animals with distinct sexual behavior conditions is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Eyewitness Testimony for a Simulated Juvenile Crime by Male and Female Criminals with Consistent or Inconsistent Gender-Role Characteristics

    Shapiro, Lauren R.

    2009-01-01

    Eyewitness recall by 60 adolescents and 60 young adults in Experiment 1 and by 64 children and 63 preadolescents in Experiment 2 for a simulated theft in which gender-role characteristics and sex of criminal were manipulated (i.e., masculine male, feminine male, feminine female, masculine female) was investigated. Gender-role flexibility impacted…

  15. Role of male partners in the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission

    Osoti A

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Alfred Osoti,1–3 Hannah Han,4 John Kinuthia,1,5 Carey Farquhar3,4,6 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, AIC Kijabe Hospital, Kijabe, Kenya; 3Department of Epidemiology, 4Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, USA; 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya; 6Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, USA Abstract: There is emerging evidence that in resource-limited settings with a high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV burden, male partner involvement in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT is associated with improved uptake of effective interventions and infant HIV-free survival. There is also increasing evidence that male partner involvement positively impacts non-HIV related outcomes, such as skilled attendance at delivery, exclusive breastfeeding, uptake of effective contraceptives, and infant immunizations. Despite these associations, male partner involvement remains low, especially when offered in the standard antenatal clinic setting. In this review we explore strategies for improving rates of antenatal male partner HIV testing and argue that the role of male partners in PMTCT must evolve from one of support for HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women to one of comprehensive engagement in prevention of primary HIV acquisition, avoidance of unintended pregnancies, and improved HIV-related care and treatment for the HIV-infected and uninfected women, their partners, and children. Involving men in all components of PMTCT has potential to contribute substantially to achieving virtual elimination of mother-to-child HIV transmission; promoting partner-friendly programs and policies, as well as pursuing research into numerous gaps in knowledge identified in this review, will help drive this process. Keywords: male involvement, limited-resource settings

  16. Modeling Manhood: Reimagining Black Male Identities in School

    Givens, Jarvis R.; Nasir, Na'ilah; ross, kihana; de Royston, Maxine McKinney

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the process by which stereotypical mainstream representations of black males (as hard, as anti-school, and as disconnected from the domestic sphere) were reimagined in all-black, all-male manhood development classes for 9th graders in urban public high schools. Findings show that instructors debunked stereotypes and created new…

  17. Oxytocin--its role in male reproduction and new potential therapeutic uses.

    Thackare, Hemlata; Nicholson, Helen D; Whittington, Kate

    2006-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is traditionally thought of as a "female" neurohypophysis hormone due to its role in parturition and milk ejection. However, OT is recognized as having endocrine and paracrine roles in male reproduction. At ejaculation, a burst of OT is released from the neurohypophysis into the systemic circulation and stimulates contractions of the reproductive tract aiding sperm release. There is conclusive evidence that OT is synthesized within the mammalian testis, epididymis and prostate and the presence of OT receptors (OTRs) through the reproductive tract supports a local action for this peptide. OT has a paracrine role in stimulating contractility of the seminiferous tubules, epididymis and the prostate gland. Interestingly, OT has also been shown to modulate androgen levels in these tissues via stimulation of the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestostone (DHT) by 5alpha-reductase. The elucidation of OT's role in male reproduction has suggested a number of potential therapeutic uses for this hormone. Exogenous administration of OT has, in some cases, been shown to increase the numbers of ejaculated sperm, possibly by stimulating contractions of the reproductive tract and thus aiding sperm passage. Within the prostate, OT has been shown to affect gland growth both directly and via its interaction with androgen metabolism. Prostate pathologies due to unregulated cell proliferation/growth, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia and cancer, are unfortunately very common and few effective treatments are available. Greater understanding of paracrine growth mediators, such as OT, is likely to provide new mechanisms for treating such pathologies.

  18. The Role of Monocyte Percentage in Osteoporosis in Male Rheumatic Diseases.

    Su, Yu-Jih; Chen, Chao Tung; Tsai, Nai-Wen; Huang, Chih-Cheng; Wang, Hung-Chen; Kung, Chia-Te; Lin, Wei-Che; Cheng, Ben-Chung; Su, Chih-Min; Hsiao, Sheng-Yuan; Lu, Cheng-Hsien

    2017-11-01

    Osteoporosis is easily overlooked in male patients, especially in the field of rheumatic diseases mostly prevalent with female patients, and its link to pathogenesis is still lacking. Attenuated monocyte apoptosis from a transcriptome-wide expression study illustrates the role of monocytes in osteoporosis. This study tested the hypothesis that the monocyte percentage among leukocytes could be a biomarker of osteoporosis in rheumatic diseases. Eighty-seven males with rheumatic diseases were evaluated in rheumatology outpatient clinics for bone mineral density (BMD) and surrogate markers, such as routine peripheral blood parameters and autoantibodies. From the total number of 87 patients included in this study, only 15 met the criteria for diagnosis of osteoporosis. Both age and monocyte percentage remained independently associated with the presence of osteoporosis. Steroid dose (equivalent prednisolone dose) was negatively associated with BMD of the hip area and platelet counts were negatively associated with BMD and T score of the spine area. Besides age, monocyte percentage meets the major requirements for osteoporosis in male rheumatic diseases. A higher monocyte percentage in male rheumatic disease patients, aged over 50 years in this study, and BMD study should be considered in order to reduce the risk of osteoporosis-related fractures.

  19. Role of male genetic factors in recurrent pregnancy loss in Northeast China.

    Dai, Rulin; Pan, Yuan; Fu, Yan; Liu, Qian; Han, Weifeng; Liu, Ruizhi

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the roles of male genetic factors, including Y chromosome microdeletions and chromosomal heteromorphism, in recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) in Northeast China. We evaluated 1072 male patients from Northeast China whose wives had a history of two or more consecutive miscarriages. We also selected 971 infertile and 200 fertile men as control groups. Semen analysis was carried out by computer-assisted sperm analysis. Y chromosome microdeletions were detected by polymerase chain reaction and chromosomes were evaluated by karyotype analysis. There were no microdeletions in the RPL and fertile control groups, but 112 of the infertile men had Y chromosome microdeletions. Chromosomal heteromorphism was detected in all the groups. Patients in the infertile control group had a significantly higher percentage (2.16%) of Y variation (Yqh±) heteromorphism compared with the RPL group, but there were no significant differences in the incidences of chromosomal heteromorphism among the other groups. Y chromosome microdeletions and chromosomal heteromorphism are not associated with RPL in Northeast China. Some RPL males had structural chromosome anomalies, all of which were reciprocal translocations. We suggest that it may not be necessary to detect Y chromosome microdeletions in RPL males with Yqh±. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The dynamics of male brooding, mating patterns, and sex roles in pipefishes and seahorses (family Syngnathidae).

    Wilson, Anthony B; Ahnesjö, Ingrid; Vincent, Amanda C J; Meyer, Axel

    2003-06-01

    Modern theory predicts that relative parental investment of the sexes in their young is a key factor responsible for sexual selection. Seahorses and pipefishes (family Syngnathidae) are extraordinary among fishes in their remarkable adaptations for paternal care and frequent occurrences of sex-role reversals (i.e., female-female competition for mates), offering exceptional opportunities to test predictions of sexual selection theory. During mating, the female transfers eggs into or onto specialized egg-brooding structures that are located on either the male's abdomen or its tail, where they are osmoregulated, aerated, and nourished by specially adapted structures. All syngnathid males exhibit this form of parental care but the brooding structures vary, ranging from the simple ventral gluing areas of some pipefishes to the completely enclosed pouches found in seahorses. We present a molecular phylogeny that indicates that the diversification of pouch types is positively correlated with the major evolutionary radiation of the group, suggesting that this extreme development and diversification of paternal care may have been an important evolutionary innovation of the Syngnathidae. Based on recent studies that show that the complexity of brooding structures reflects the degree of paternal investment in several syngnathid species, we predicted sex-role reversals to be more common among species with more complex brooding structures. In contrast to this prediction, however, both parsimony- and likelihood-based reconstructions of the evolution of sex-role reversal in pipefishes and seahorses suggest multiple shifts in sex roles in the group, independent from the degree of brood pouch development. At the same time, our data demonstrate that sex-role reversal is positively associated with polygamous mating patterns, whereas most nonreversed species mate monogamously, suggesting that selection for polygamy or monogamy in pipefishes and seahorses may strongly influence sex

  1. An overview of the role of bacterial infection in male infertility

    Hamed Fanaei

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An important cause of male infertility is the bacterial infections of the genitourinary tract. These infections affect sperm cell function and whole spermatogenesis and also cause deterioration in spermatogenesis, obstruction of the seminal tract, and impairment of spermatozoa function. The most important bacteria associated with genitourinary tract infections include chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and genital mycoplasma species. Inappropriate or delayed therapy of the bacterial infections of the genitourinary tract will lead to reduced fertility and, subsequently in severe cases, infertility. In other words, a good understanding of the interaction between bacterial infections and the reproductive system plays an important role in the treatment of infertile men. In this review article, we will discuss clinical and laboratory findings related to the bacterial infection of the genitourinary tract and its effects on male infertility.

  2. Dual role of betel leaf extract on thyroid function in male mice.

    Panda, S; Kar, A

    1998-12-01

    The effects of betel leaf extract (0.10, 0.40, 0.80 and 2.0 g kg-1 day-1 for 15 days) on the alterations in thyroid hormone concentrations. lipid peroxidation (LPO) and on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were investigated in male Swiss mice. Administration of betel leaf extract exhibited a dual role, depending on the different doses. While the lowest dose decreased thyroxine (T4) and increased serum triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations, reverse effects were observed at two higher doses. Higher doses also increased LPO with a concomitant decrease in SOD and CAT activities. However, with the lowest dose most of these effects were reversed. These findings suggest that betel leaf can be both stimulatory and inhibitory to thyroid function, particularly for T3 generation and lipid peroxidation in male mice, depending on the amount consumed.

  3. Androgens and the male reproductive tract: an overview of classical roles and current perspectives.

    Patrão, Marilia T C C; Silva, Erick J R; Avellar, Maria Christina W

    2009-11-01

    Androgens are steroid hormones that play key roles in the development and maintenance of male phenotype and reproductive function. These hormones also affect the function of several non-reproductive organs, such as bone and skeletal muscle. Endogenous androgens exert most of their effects by genomic mechanisms, which involve hormone binding to the androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, resulting in the modulation of gene expression. AR-induced non-genomic mechanisms have also been reported. A large number of steroidal and non-steroidal AR-ligands have been developed for therapeutic use, including the treatment of male hypogonadism (AR agonists) and prostate diseases (AR antagonists), among other pathological conditions. Here, the AR gene and protein structure, mechanism of action and AR gene homologous regulation were reviewed. The AR expression pattern, its in vivo regulation and physiological relevance in the developing and adult testis and epididymis, which are sites of sperm production and maturation, respectively, were also presented.

  4. A vasoactive role for endogenous relaxin in mesenteric arteries of male mice.

    Chen Huei Leo

    Full Text Available The peptide hormone relaxin has striking effects on the vascular system. Specifically, endogenous relaxin treatment reduces myogenic reactivity through nitric oxide (NO-mediated vasorelaxation and increases arterial compliance in small resistance arteries. However, less is known about the vascular roles of endogenous relaxin, particularly in males. Therefore, we used male wild-type (Rln+/+ and relaxin knockout (Rln-/- mice to test the hypothesis that passive wall properties and vascular reactivity in mesenteric arteries would be compromised in Rln-/- mice. Passive compliance was determined in arteries (n=8-9 mounted on a pressure myograph and in Ca2+-free Krebs containing 2 mM EGTA. Passive volume compliance was significantly (P=0.01 decreased in the mesenteric arteries of Rln-/- mice. Vascular reactivity was assessed using wire myography. In mesenteric arteries (n=5 of Rln-/- mice, there was a significant (P<0.03 increase in sensitivity to the vasoconstrictors phenylephrine and thromboxane-mimetic U41669. This enhanced responsiveness to vasoconstrictors was abolished by endothelial denudation, and attributed to impaired NO and prostanoid pathways in Rln-/- mice. Sensitivity to the endothelial agonist acetylcholine was significantly (n=7-9, P ≤ 0.03 decreased, and this was abolished in the presence of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin (2 µM. This indicates that prostanoid vasoconstrictor pathways were upregulated in the mesenteric arteries of Rln-/- mice. In summary, we demonstrate endothelial dysfunction and impaired arterial wall remodeling in male mice deficient in relaxin. Thus, our results highlight a role for endogenous relaxin in the maintenance of normal mesenteric artery structure and function in males.

  5. Role of Oxidative Stress in Male Reproductive Dysfunctions with Reference to Phthalate Compounds.

    Sedha, Sapna; Kumar, Sunil; Shukla, Shruti

    2015-11-14

    A wide variety of environmental chemicals/xenobiotics including phthalates have been shown to cause oxidative stress targeting the endocrine system and cause reproductive anomalies. The present review describes various issues by oxidative stress causing male reproductive dysfunctions. Here in this review, the importance and role of phthalate compounds in male reproductive dysfunction has been well documented. One class of environmental endocrine disruptors is phthalates. Phthalate compounds are mostly used as plasticizers, which increase the flexibility, durability, longevity, and etc. of the plastics. Large-scale use of plastic products in our daily life as well as thousands of workers engaged in the manufacture of plastic and plastic products and recycling plastic industry are potentially exposed to these chemicals. Further, general population as well as vulnerable groups i.e. children and pregnant women are also exposed to these chemicals. Phthalates are among wide variety of environmental toxicants capable of compromising male fertility by inducing a state of oxidative stress in the testes. They may also generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may affect various physiological and reproductive functions. The available data points out that phthalate compounds may also induce oxidative stress in the male reproductive organs mainly testis and epididymis. They impair spermatogenic process by inducing oxidative stress and apoptosis in germ cells or target sertoli cells and thereby hamper spermatogenesis. They also impair the Leydig cell function by inducing ROS, thereby decreasing the levels of steroidogenic enzymes. Thus in utero and postnatal exposure to phthalate compounds might lead to decreased sperm count and various other reproductive anomalies in the young male.

  6. Behavioural evidence of male volatile pheromones in the sex-role reversed wolf spiders Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps

    Aisenberg, Anita; Baruffaldi, Luciana; González, Macarena

    2010-01-01

    The use of chemical signals in a sexual context is widespread in the animal kingdom. Most studies in spiders report the use of female pheromones that attract potential sexual partners. Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps are two burrowing wolf spiders that show sex-role reversal. Females locate male burrows and initiate courtship before males perform any detectable visual or vibratory signal. So, females of these species would be detecting chemical or mechanical cues left by males. Our objective was to explore the potential for male pheromones to play a role in mate detection in A. brasiliensis and A. alticeps. We designed two experiments. In Experiment 1, we tested the occurrence of male contact pheromones by evaluating female courtship when exposed to empty burrows constructed by males or females (control). In Experiment 2, we tested the existence of male volatile pheromones by evaluating female behaviour when exposed to artificial burrows connected to tubes containing males, females or empty tubes (control). Our results suggest the occurrence of male volatile pheromones that trigger female courtship in both Allocosa species. The sex-role reversal postulated for these wolf spiders could be driving the consequent reversal in typical pheromone-emitter and detector roles expected for spiders.

  7. Top, Bottom, and Versatile Anal Sex Roles in Same-Sex Male Relationships: Implications for Relationship and Sexual Satisfaction.

    Moskowitz, David A; Garcia, Christopher P

    2018-06-01

    Across much of the gay and bisexual male research on sexual position self-label (i.e., calling oneself a top, bottom, or versatile), there exist two commonalities: (1) studies tend to focus almost entirely on individual, relationally single androphilic men; (2) studies rarely account for relationships and relationship dynamics. In response, we explored the role of self-label over sexual and relationship satisfaction among gay and bisexual partnered men. Specifically, we looked at whether adopted sexual position identities were consonant or dissonant (i.e., matching or mismatching) with enacted behavior in relationships and how that impacted men's attitudes toward different relational attributes. Through an online survey, we sampled 169 men in same-sex relationships, asking them questions about their ideal penetrative role identities and their reality penetrative roles with their partner. We then asked them to rate their relationship on 10 sexual and interpersonal attributes. Multiple regression modeling suggested ideal-reality penetrative role dissonance was predictive of sexual dissatisfaction among tops who bottomed in their relationships and, to a lesser extent, bottoms who topped. In contrast, penetrative role dissonance was predictive of relationship satisfaction among tops who bottomed in their relationship, but not bottoms who topped. We conclude that a potential reason for this paradox among tops who bottom may be sexual altruism. That is, men may be satisfied with other aspects within their relationships, understand their partner's anal sex preferences, and accommodate that position in response to their initial relationship satisfaction.

  8. The role of p38 in mitochondrial respiration in male and female mice.

    Ju, Xiaohua; Wen, Yi; Metzger, Daniel; Jung, Marianna

    2013-06-07

    p38 is a mitogen-activated protein kinase and mediates cell growth, cell differentiation, and synaptic plasticity. The aim of this study is to determine the extent to which p38 plays a role in maintaining mitochondrial respiration in male and female mice under a normal condition. To achieve this aim, we have generated transgenic mice that lack p38 in cerebellar Purkinje neurons by crossing Pcp2 (Purkinje cell protein 2)-Cre mice with p38(loxP/loxP) mice. Mitochondria from cerebellum were then isolated from the transgenic and wild-type mice to measure mitochondrial respiration using XF24 respirometer. The mRNA and protein expression of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) in cerebellum were also measured using RT-PCR and immunoblot methods. Separately, HT22 cells were used to determine the involvement of 17β-estradiol (E2) and COX in mitochondrial respiration. The genetic knockout of p38 in Purkinje neurons suppressed the mitochondrial respiration only in male mice and increased COX expression only in female mice. The inhibition of COX by sodium azide (SA) sharply suppressed mitochondrial respiration of HT22 cells in a manner that was protected by E2. These data suggest that p38 is required for the mitochondrial respiration of male mice. When p38 is below a normal level, females may maintain mitochondrial respiration through COX up-regulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of the Na+/K+-ATPase ion pump in male reproduction and embryo development.

    Câmara, D R; Kastelic, J P; Thundathil, J C

    2017-08-01

    Na + /K + -ATPase was one of the first ion pumps studied because of its importance in maintaining osmotic and ionic balances between intracellular and extracellular environments, through the exchange of three Na + ions out and two K + ions into a cell. This enzyme, which comprises two main subunits (α and β), with or without an auxiliary polypeptide (γ), can have specific biochemical properties depending on the expression of associated isoforms (α1β1 and/or α2β1) in the cell. In addition to the importance of Na + /K + -ATPase in ensuring the function of many tissues (e.g. brain, heart and kidney), in the reproductive tract this protein is essential for embryo development because of its roles in blastocoel formation and embryo hatching. In the context of male reproduction, the discovery of a very specific subunit (α4), apparently restricted to male germ cells, only expressed after puberty and able to influence sperm function (e.g. motility and capacitation), opened a remarkable field for further investigations regarding sperm biology. Therefore, the present review focuses on the importance of Na + /K + -ATPase on male reproduction and embryo development.

  10. The role of Ad-36 as a risk factor in males with gynecomastia.

    Kocazeybek, Bekir; Saribas, Suat; Ergin, Sevgi

    2015-12-01

    Gynecomastia is highly prevalent worldwide and Adenovirus-36 (Ad-36), recently implicated in increased adipose tissue deposition due to its affinity for adipose tissue, is a potential etiological agent in the development of obesity and therefore we hypothesized that Ad-36 may also play a role in the development of gynecomastia by possibly accompanying increased regional adiposity. To support our hypothesis, we conducted a study that included 33 adult males with gynecomastia (PG) and 15 adult males as the patient control group (HCG). Leptin and adiponectin levels were monitored using ELISA. A significant difference in Ad-36 antibody positivity was found between the groups (pgynecomastia may develop following an increase in aromatase enzyme activity, by which more oestrogen is produced and the estrogen-androgen balance disrupted. Also, regional adipose tissue enlargements may cause the excessive production of estrogens leading to gynecomastia. Adipose tissue has been recognized as a major endocrine organ in recent years. Another plausible explanation is excessive aromatization of androgens to estrogens by peripheral adipose tissue may promote gynecomastia in males. Moreover, our results suggest that there might be a relationship between Ad-36 and gynecomastia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An integral projection model with YY-males and application to evaluating grass carp control

    Erickson, Richard A.; Eager, Eric A.; Brey, Marybeth; Hansen, Michael J.; Kocovsky, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Invasive fish species disrupt ecosystems and cause economic damage. Several methods have been discussed to control populations of invasive fish including the release of YY-males. YY-males are fish that have 2 male chromosomes compared to a XY-male. When YY-males mate, they only produce male (XY) offspring. This decreases the female proportion of the population and can, in theory, eradicate local populations by biasing the sex-ratio. YY-males have been used as a population control tool for brook trout in montane streams and lakes in Idaho, USA. The YY-male control method has been discussed for grass carp in Lake Erie, North America. We developed and presented an integral projection model for grass carp to model the use of YY-males as a control method for populations in this lake. Using only the YY-male control method, we found that high levels of YY-males would need to be release annually to control the species. Specifically, these levels were the same order of magnitude as the baseline adult population (e.g., 1000 YY-males needed to be released annual for 20 years to control a baseline adult population of 2500 grass carp). These levels may not be reasonable or obtainable for fisheries managers given the impacts of YY-males on aquatic vegetation and other constraints of natural resource management.

  12. Role of male partner involvement in ART retention and adherence in Malawi's Option B+ program.

    Wesevich, Austin; Mtande, Tiwonge; Saidi, Friday; Cromwell, Elizabeth; Tweya, Hannock; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Hoffman, Irving; Miller, William C; Rosenberg, Nora E

    2017-11-01

    Malawi's Option B+ program provides all HIV-infected pregnant women free lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART), but challenges remain regarding retention and ART adherence, potentially due to male partner barriers. We explored relationships between male partner involvement and Option B+ retention and adherence. In 2014, a randomized controlled trial in Malawi compared male recruitment strategies for couple HIV testing and counseling (cHTC) at an antenatal clinic. This secondary analysis was conducted among the entire cohort (N = 200) of women, irrespective of randomization status. We assessed whether cHTC attendance, early disclosure of HIV-positive status, and partner ART reminders were associated with retention and adherence at one month after starting treatment. Retention was defined as attending HIV clinic follow-up within one day of running out of pills. Adherence was defined as taking ≥95% of ARTs by pill count. We used binomial regression to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Median female age was 26 years. Most women (79%) were retained; of these, 68% were adherent. Receiving cHTC was associated with improved retention (aRR 1.33, 95% CI 1.12, 1.59). Receiving male partner ART reminders was weakly associated with retention (aRR 1.16, 95% CI 0.96, 1.39). Disclosure within one day was not associated with retention (aRR 1.08, 95% CI: 0.91, 1.28). Among those who were retained, these three behaviors were not associated with improved 95% adherence. CHTC could play an important role in improving Option B+ retention. Increasing cHTC participation and enhancing adherence-related messages within cHTC are important.

  13. What determines the income gap between French male and female GPs - the role of medical practices

    Dumontet Magali

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many OECD countries, the gender differences in physicians’ pay favour male doctors. Due to the feminisation of the doctor profession, it is essential to measure this income gap in the French context of Fee-for-service payment (FFS and then to precisely identify its determinants. The objective of this study is to measure and analyse the 2008 income gap between males and females general practitioners (GPs. This paper focuses on the role of gender medical practices differentials among GPs working in private practice in the southwest region of France. Methods Using data from 339 private-practice GPs, we measured an average gender income gap of approximately 26% in favour of men. Using the decomposition method, we examined the factors that could explain gender disparities in income. Results The analysis showed that 73% of the income gap can be explained by the average differences in doctors’ characteristics; for example, 61% of the gender income gap is explained by the gender differences in workload, i.e., number of consultations and visits, which is on average significantly lower for female GPs than for male GPs. Furthermore, the decomposition method allowed us to highlight the differences in the marginal returns of doctors’ characteristics and variables contributing to income, such as GP workload; we found that female GPs have a higher marginal return in terms of earnings when performing an additional medical service. Conclusions The findings of this study help to understand the determinants of the income gap between male and female GPs. Even though workload is clearly an essential determinant of income, FFS does not reduce the gender income gap, and there is an imperfect relationship between the provision of medical services and income. In the context of feminisation, it appears that female GPs receive a lower income but attain higher marginal returns when performing an additional consultation.

  14. What determines the income gap between French male and female GPs - the role of medical practices.

    Dumontet, Magali; Le Vaillant, Marc; Franc, Carine

    2012-09-21

    In many OECD countries, the gender differences in physicians' pay favour male doctors. Due to the feminisation of the doctor profession, it is essential to measure this income gap in the French context of Fee-for-service payment (FFS) and then to precisely identify its determinants. The objective of this study is to measure and analyse the 2008 income gap between males and females general practitioners (GPs). This paper focuses on the role of gender medical practices differentials among GPs working in private practice in the southwest region of France. Using data from 339 private-practice GPs, we measured an average gender income gap of approximately 26% in favour of men. Using the decomposition method, we examined the factors that could explain gender disparities in income. The analysis showed that 73% of the income gap can be explained by the average differences in doctors' characteristics; for example, 61% of the gender income gap is explained by the gender differences in workload, i.e., number of consultations and visits, which is on average significantly lower for female GPs than for male GPs. Furthermore, the decomposition method allowed us to highlight the differences in the marginal returns of doctors' characteristics and variables contributing to income, such as GP workload; we found that female GPs have a higher marginal return in terms of earnings when performing an additional medical service. The findings of this study help to understand the determinants of the income gap between male and female GPs. Even though workload is clearly an essential determinant of income, FFS does not reduce the gender income gap, and there is an imperfect relationship between the provision of medical services and income. In the context of feminisation, it appears that female GPs receive a lower income but attain higher marginal returns when performing an additional consultation.

  15. Examining the Relationship between Male Rape Myth Acceptance, Female Rape Myth Acceptance, Victim Blame, Homophobia, Gender Roles, and Ambivalent Sexism

    Davies, Michelle; Gilston, Jennifer; Rogers, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, attitudes toward gay men, a series of gender role and sexism measures, victim blame and assault severity were investigated. It was predicted that men would display more negative, stereotypical attitudes than women and that male rape myth endorsement would be related…

  16. The Role of Clitoral Anatomy in Female to Male Sex Reassignment Surgery

    Vojkan Vukadinovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Controversies on clitoral anatomy and its role in female sexual function still make clitoral reconstructive surgery very challenging. We evaluated the role of clitoral anatomic features in female to male sex reassignment surgery. Material and Methods. The study included 97 female transsexuals, aged from 18 to 41 years, who underwent single stage metoidioplasty between March 2008 and January 2013. The operative technique involved vaginectomy, the release of clitoral ligaments and urethral plate, urethroplasty by combining buccal mucosa graft and genital flaps, and scrotoplasty with insertion of testicle prostheses. Postoperative questionnaire was used to evaluate aesthetic, functional, and sexual outcome. Results. The mean followup was 30 months. The mean length of the neophallus was 7 cm, compared to mean preoperative length of the hypertrophied clitoris of 3.3 cm. Complications occurred in 27.84% of all patients, related mostly to urethroplasty. Voiding while standing was achieved in all cases. None of the patients had problems in sexual arousal, masturbation, or orgasms. Conclusion. Accurate knowledge of the clitoral anatomy, physiology, and neurovascular supply is crucial for a successful outcome of female to male sex reassignment surgery. Our approach appears to ensure overall satisfaction and high quality of sexual life.

  17. [Construction of a structural model about male and female adolescents' alienation, depression, and suicidal thoughts].

    Lee, Eunsook

    2007-06-01

    This study was designed to construct a structural model explaining alienation, depression, and suicidal thoughts in male and female adolescents. Data was collected by questionnairs from 204 male and 208 female students selected randomly in high schools in K city. This study found that depression was significantly affected by alienation, and was indirectly affected through alienation by school attachment, peer relationships, and academic performance. Suicidal thoughts were greatly affected by depression, and were directly and indirectly influenced by alienation. It was confirmed that alienation turned out to be a important mediating variable, while it had a effect significant on depression and suicidal thoughts. Also there were significant differences in affecting factors among male and female students. Intervention strategies for preventing alienation, depression and suicidal thoughts should be different according to gender. In addition, specific nursing intervention plans, including parent education and role training programs, fostering of humanistic and achievement-focused educational environment, peer support programs, and individual counselling, need to be developed and implemented to lessen a feeling of alienation from family and school.

  18. The Role(s) of Process Models in Design Practice

    Iversen, Søren; Jensen, Mads Kunø Nyegaard; Vistisen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates how design process models are implemented and used in design-driven organisations. The archetypical theoretical framing of process models, describe their primary role as guiding the design process, and assign roles and deliverables throughout the process. We hypothesise...... that the process models also take more communicative roles in practice, both in terms of creating an internal design rationale, as well as demystifying the black box of design thinking to external stakeholders. We investigate this hypothesis through an interview study of four major danish design......-driven organisations, and analyse the different roles their archetypical process models take in their organisations. The main contribution is the identification of three, often overlapping roles, which design process models showed to assume in design-driven organisations: process guidance, adding transparency...

  19. D-galactose-induced animal model of male reproductive aging

    Sulistyoningrum, Evy

    2017-01-01

    Aging is a complex biological process involving molecular, cellular and organic changes. Aging process is not merely caused by chronological age but it can be accelerated by environmental factors contributes to oxidative stress. Aging in male reproductive system is characterized by many conditions such as terticular atrophy, decreases testicular function of spermatogenesis, decreased testicular function of testosteron production which can lead to a serious clinical condition, infertility. Man...

  20. Fatherhood in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities: An Examination of Barriers and Opportunities to Strengthen the Male Parenting Role.

    Reilly, Lyndon; Rees, Susan

    2018-03-01

    Traditional Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander societies value men's role as parents; however, the importance of promoting fatherhood as a key social determinant of men's well-being has not been fully appreciated in Western medicine. To strengthen the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander male parenting role, it is vital to examine current barriers and opportunities. The first author (a male Aboriginal health project officer) conducted yarning sessions in three remote Australian communities, two being Aboriginal, the other having a high Aboriginal population. An expert sample of 25 Aboriginal and 6 non-Aboriginal stakeholders, including maternal and child health workers and men's group facilitators, considered barriers and opportunities to improve men's parenting knowledge and role, with an aim to inform services and practices intended to support men's parenting. A specific aim was to shape an existing men's group program known as Strong Fathers, Strong Families. A thematic analysis of data from the project identified barriers and opportunities to support men's role as parents. Challenges included the transition from traditional to contemporary parenting practices and low level of cultural and male gender sensitivity in maternal and child health services. Services need to better understand and focus on men's psychological empowerment and to address shame and lack of confidence around parenting. Poor literacy and numeracy are viewed as contributing to disempowerment. Communities need to champion Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander male father role models. Biases and barriers should be addressed to improve service delivery and better enable men to become empowered and confident fathers.

  1. Male Role Endorsement Explains Negative Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men Among Students in Mexico More Than in Germany.

    Steffens, Melanie C; Jonas, Kai J; Denger, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Anti-gay attitudes vary across cultures because the larger social context plays a role in attitude formation. Psychological correlates of these attitudes have been investigated in the United States and Europe. Endorsement of traditional gender roles has emerged from that research as a central correlate, next to religiosity and personal contact with lesbians/gay men. In a cross-sectional study, we tested whether these correlates are relevant in Mexico, characterized as an androcentric culture in which both gender-role traditionalism and religiosity are high, using a college-age student sample (N = 63). Because we relied on self-reports, the motivation to appear nonprejudiced was also assessed. We found typical gender differences in attitudes toward gay men. In bivariate tests, anti-gay attitudes were related to male role endorsement, contact with lesbians/gay men, and religiosity. In a multivariate analysis, variance in attitudes was explained by male role endorsement; personal contact or religiosity did not explain additional variance. In a German comparison sample (N = 112), male role endorsement played a smaller role. Variance in anti-gay attitudes in the German sample was also related to personal contact, religiosity, and the motivation to appear nonprejudiced. We discuss the centrality of (male) gender-role endorsement in cultures with high gender-role traditionalism.

  2. Regulatory role of prolactin in paternal behavior in male parents: A narrative review

    F Hashemian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In all mammalian species, a combination of neuroendocrine and experiential factors contributes to the emergence of remarkable behavioral changes observed in parental behavior. Yet, our understanding of neuroendocrine bases of paternal behavior in humans is still preliminary and more research is needed in this area. In the present review, the authors summarized hormonal bases of paternal behavior in both human and nonhuman mammalian species and focused on studies on the regulatory role of prolactin in occurrence of paternal behavior. All peer-reviewed journal articles published before 2015 for each area discussed (parental brain, hormonal bases of maternal behavior, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in nonhuman mammalian species, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in humans were searched by PubMed, Medline, and Scopus for original research and review articles. Publications between 1973 and 2015 were included. Similar to female parents, elevated prolactin levels in new fathers most probably contribute to child-caring behavior and facilitate behavioral and emotional states attributed to child care. Moreover, elevated parental prolactin levels after childbirth decrease the parents′ libidos so that they invest more in parental care than in fertility behavior. According to the available clinical studies, elevation in the amounts of prolactin levels after childbirth in male parents are probably associated with paternal behavior observed in humans.

  3. Cypermethrin induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats: protective role of Tribulus terrestris.

    Sharma, Poonam; Huq, Amir Ul; Singh, Rambir

    2013-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate role of ethanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris (EETT) against alpha-cypermethrin induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats. 24 male Wistar rats weighing about 250-300g were divided in four groups. Group-I was control. alpha-cypermethrin (3.38 mg kg-1b.wt.) was given to group-IlI for 28 days. In Group-Ill, alpha-cypermethrin and EETT (100 mg kg -1b.wt.) were administered in combination for 28 days. Rats in group-IV were given EETT for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed, testes and epididymis were removed and sperm characteristics, sex hormones and various biochemical parameters were studied. Decrease in weight of testes and epididymis, testicular sperm head count, sperm motility, live sperm count, serum testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), leutinizing hormone (LH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total protein content and increase in sperm abnormalities and lipid peroxidation (LPO) level was observed in rats exposed to cypermethrin. In combination group-Ill, EETT treatment ameliorated alpha-cypermethrin induced damage. EETT treatment in group-IV increased testes and epididymis weight, sperm head counts, sperm motility, live sperm counts, testosterone, FSH, LH, GSH, CAT, SOD, GST, GR, GPx and total protein content. The study suggested that Tribulus terrestris plant possess reproductive system enhancement and antioxidant activity.

  4. The Effect of Physical Attractiveness of Models on Advertising Effectiveness for Male and Female Adolescents

    Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of advertising with physically attractive models on male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that highly attractive models are less effective than those who are normally attractive. Implications of social comparison are discussed.

  5. Essential roles of COUP-TFII in Leydig cell differentiation and male fertility.

    Jun Qin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chicken Ovalbumin Upstream Promoter-Transcription Factor II (COUP-TFII; also known as NR2F2, is an orphan nuclear receptor of the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor superfamily. COUP-TFII-null mice die during the early embryonic development due to angiogenesis and cardiovascular defects. To circumvent the early embryonic lethality and investigate the physiological function of COUP-TFII, we knocked out COUP-TFII gene in a time-specific manner by using a tamoxifen inducible Cre recombinase. The ablation of COUP-TFII during pre-pubertal stages of male development results in infertility, hypogonadism and spermatogenetic arrest. Homozygous adult male mutants are defective in testosterone synthesis, and administration of testosterone could largely rescue the mutant defects. Notably, the rescued results also provide the evidence that the major function of adult Leydig cell is to synthesize testosterone. Further phenotypic analysis reveals that Leydig cell differentiation is arrested at the progenitor cell stage in the testes of null mice. The failure of testosterone to resumption of Leydig cell maturation in the null mice indicates that COUP-TFII itself is essential for this process. In addition, we identify that COUP-TFII plays roles in progenitor Leydig cell formation and early testis organogenesis, as demonstrated by the ablation of COUP-TFII at E18.5. On the other hand, when COUP-TFII is deleted in the adult stage after Leydig cells are well differentiated, there are no obvious defects in reproduction and Leydig cell function. Taken together, these results indicate that COUP-TFII plays a major role in differentiation, but not the maintenance of Leydig cells.

  6. Help-Seeking and Counseling within a Traditional Male Gender Role: An Examination from a Multicultural Perspective

    McCarthy, John; Holliday, Ebony L.

    2004-01-01

    A traditional male gender role reflects an affirmation of masculine identity associated with such qualities as success and self-reliance. This gender role is examined from a diversity perspective in counseling, because it may affect many men's help-seeking attitudes and behaviors. Suggestions from the literature are reviewed from the standpoint of…

  7. Validation of artificial neural network models for predicting biochemical markers associated with male infertility.

    Vickram, A S; Kamini, A Rao; Das, Raja; Pathy, M Ramesh; Parameswari, R; Archana, K; Sridharan, T B

    2016-08-01

    Seminal fluid is the secretion from many glands comprised of several organic and inorganic compounds including free amino acids, proteins, fructose, glucosidase, zinc, and other scavenging elements like Mg(2+), Ca(2+), K(+), and Na(+). Therefore, in the view of development of novel approaches and proper diagnosis to male infertility, overall understanding of the biochemical and molecular composition and its role in regulation of sperm quality is highly desirable. Perhaps this can be achieved through artificial intelligence. This study was aimed to elucidate and predict various biochemical markers present in human seminal plasma with three different neural network models. A total of 177 semen samples were collected for this research (both fertile and infertile samples) and immediately processed to prepare a semen analysis report, based on the protocol of the World Health Organization (WHO [2010]). The semen samples were then categorized into oligoasthenospermia (n=35), asthenospermia (n=35), azoospermia (n=22), normospermia (n=34), oligospermia (n=34), and control (n=17). The major biochemical parameters like total protein content, fructose, glucosidase, and zinc content were elucidated by standard protocols. All the biochemical markers were predicted by using three different artificial neural network (ANN) models with semen parameters as inputs. Of the three models, the back propagation neural network model (BPNN) yielded the best results with mean absolute error 0.025, -0.080, 0.166, and -0.057 for protein, fructose, glucosidase, and zinc, respectively. This suggests that BPNN can be used to predict biochemical parameters for the proper diagnosis of male infertility in assisted reproductive technology (ART) centres. AAS: absorption spectroscopy; AI: artificial intelligence; ANN: artificial neural networks; ART: assisted reproductive technology; BPNN: back propagation neural network model; DT: decision tress; MLP: multilayer perceptron; PESA: percutaneous

  8. Asymmetries in Infants’ Attention Toward and Categorization of Male Faces: The Potential Role of Experience

    Rennels, Jennifer L.; Kayl, Andrea J.; Langlois, Judith H.; Davis, Rachel E.; Orlewicz, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Infants typically have a preponderance of experience with females, resulting in visual preferences for female faces, particularly high attractive females, and in better categorization of female relative to male faces. We examined whether these abilities generalized to infants’ visual preferences for and categorization of perceptually similar male faces (i.e., low masculine males). Twelve-month-olds visually preferred high attractive relative to low attractive male faces within low masculine pairs only (Exp. 1), but did not visually prefer low masculine relative to high masculine male faces (Exp. 2). Lack of visual preferences was not due to infants’ inability to discriminate between the male faces (Exps. 3 & 4). Twelve-month-olds categorized low masculine, but not high masculine, male faces (Exp. 5). Infants could individuate male faces within each of the categories (Exp. 6). Twelve-month-olds’ attention toward and categorization of male faces may reflect a generalization of their female facial expertise. PMID:26547249

  9. A model for group counseling with male pedophiles.

    van Zessen, G

    1990-01-01

    Group treatment programs for pedophiles are often designed for populations of convicted men in closed institutions with limited application to other populations. Treatment is usually focused on reducing the "deviant" sexual arousal and/or acquiring heterosocial skills and eventually establishing the ability to engage in adult heterosexual relationships. A six-week, highly structured program is presented to five men in a non-residential setting. In addition to individual psychotherapy, group counseling is offered. Male pedophiles are trained to talk effectively about common problems surrounding man-boy relationships. Counseling is based on the notion that the emotional, erotic and sexual attraction to boys per se does not need to be legitimized or modified. The attraction, however, can be a source of psychological and social problems that can be handled by using a social support system. Social support for pedophile problems can be obtained from and in interaction with other pedophiles.

  10. Trait-aggressiveness and impulsivity: role of psychological resilience and childhood trauma in a sample of male prisoners.

    Carli, Vladimir; Mandelli, Laura; Zaninotto, Leonardo; Alberti, Siegfried; Roy, Alec; Serretti, Alessandro; Sarchiapone, Marco

    2014-01-01

    One of the major challenges for research in the field of human aggression is the need to define the role of personality and trait-like dimensions, such as impulsivity and aggressiveness, in predisposing to violent behavior. 1) To determine whether trait- aggressiveness and impulsivity may be associated with socio-demographic, clinical and crime history variables in a sample of male prisoners; 2) to detect any association of those traits with measures of early traumatic experiences and current resilience traits. A sample of male prisoners (n = 1356) underwent the Brown-Goodwin Assessment for Lifetime History of Aggression (BGLHA) and the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS). Axis I psychiatric disorders were also assessed. Early traumatic experiences and psychological resilience were detected respectively by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Two non-linear logistic regression models were performed to test for the best predictors of trait-aggressiveness and impulsivity. Subjects with a history of substance use disorders and self-mutilation reported both higher BGLHA and BIS scores. Axis I disorders and suicide attempts were associated with aggressiveness, but not to impulsivity. A consistent correlation was found between BGLHA scores and early traumatic experiences. Resilience was positively correlated to impulsivity but not to aggressiveness scores. Our results support the view that aggressiveness and impulsivity are two different, albeit related trait-like dimensions of personality, having a different relationship with resilience, and, inferentially, a different impact over the development of psychiatric disorders.

  11. Gender-role stereotypes and interpersonal behavior: How addicted patients view their ideal male and female therapist

    Jonker, J.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Weert-van Oene, G.H. de; Gijs, L.A.C.L.

    2000-01-01

    This study focuses on the influences of self-perceived interpersonal behavior of addicted inpatients (n = 107) on the stereotypes of their ideal male and female therapist. Based on the interpersonal model of personality patients were asked to describe their ideal male and female therapist.

  12. The Relationship between Race and Students' Identified Career Role Models and Perceived Role Model Influence

    Karunanayake, Danesh; Nauta, Margaret M.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined whether college students' race was related to the modal race of their identified career role models, the number of identified career role models, and their perceived influence from such models. Consistent with A. Bandura's (1977, 1986) social learning theory, students tended to have role models whose race was the same as…

  13. Defining role models for staff orientation.

    Kinley, H

    This article examines the need for a formal role model to help integrate new staff within a unit. While acknowledging the range of titles and functions ascribed to such a role in the literature, the author suggests that the essence of the role and its formal recognition has benefits for experienced staff and orientees alike.

  14. Enduring Influence of Stereotypical Computer Science Role Models on Women's Academic Aspirations

    Cheryan, Sapna; Drury, Benjamin J.; Vichayapai, Marissa

    2013-01-01

    The current work examines whether a brief exposure to a computer science role model who fits stereotypes of computer scientists has a lasting influence on women's interest in the field. One-hundred undergraduate women who were not computer science majors met a female or male peer role model who embodied computer science stereotypes in appearance…

  15. Varieties of Male-Sexual-Identity Development in Clinical Practice:A Neuropsychoanalytic Model

    Frans eStortelder

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Variations of sexual-identity development are present in all cultures, as well as in many animal species. Freud, founding father of psychoanalysis, believed that all men have an inherited, bisexual disposition, and that many varieties of love and desire are experienced as alternative pathways to intimacy.In the neuropsychoanalytic model, psychic development starts with the constitutional self. The constitutional self is comprised of the neurobiological factors which contribute to sexual-identity development. These neurobiological factors are focused on biphasic sexual organization in the prenatal phase, based on variations in genes, sex hormones, and brain circuits. This psychosocial construction of sexual identity is determined through contingent mirroring by the parents and peers of the constitutional self. The development of the self—or personal identity—is linked with the development of sexual identity, gender-role identity, and procreative identity. Incongruent mirroring of the constitutional self causes alienation in the development of the self. Such alienation can be treated within the psychoanalytic relationship.This article presents a contemporary, neuropsychoanalytic, developmental theory of male-sexual identity relating to varieties in male-sexual-identity development, with implications for psychoanalytic treatment, and is illustrated with three vugnettes from clinical practice.

  16. The Role of Interventional Radiology in the Diagnosis and Management of Male Impotence

    Spiliopoulos, Stavros [Patras University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Greece); Shaida, Nadeem [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Trust, Addenbrooke' s University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Katsanos, Konstantinos [Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Trust, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Krokidis, Miltiadis, E-mail: mkrokidis@hotmail.com [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Trust, Addenbrooke' s University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is defined as the persistent inability to reach or maintain penile rigidity enough for sexual satisfaction. Nearly 30% of the men between ages 40 and 70 years are affected by ED. A variety of pathologies, including neurological, psychological, or endocrine disorders and drug side effects, may incite ED. A commonly identified cause of ED is vascular disease. Initial diagnostic workup includes a detailed physical examination and laboratory tests. Whilst duplex ultrasound is considered the first-line diagnostic modality, intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography is still considered the 'gold standard' for the diagnosis of arteriogenic impotence. Percutaneous endovascular treatment may be offered in patients with vasculogenic ED that has failed to respond to oral medical therapy as an alternative to penile prosthesis or open surgical repair. In arteriogenic ED balloon angioplasty of the aorto-iliac axis, and in veno-occlusive ED, percutaneous venous ablation using various embolization materials has been reported to be safe and to improve sexual performance. Recently, the ZEN study investigated the safety and feasibility of drug-eluting stents for the treatment of arteriogenic ED attributed to internal pudendal artery stenosis with promising preliminary results. This manuscript highlights the role of interventional radiology in the diagnosis and minimally invasive treatment of male impotence.

  17. role of conjugated linoleic acid in the prevention of radiation hazard in male rats

    Hussien, E.M.; Osman, N.N.; Haggag, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    the objective of the present study was to examine the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as a natural product in minimizing the radiation hazards. male rats were assigned to six groups each of 7 animals throughout six weeks, fed 1% CLA (wt/wt)added to commercial diet in the form of milk powder 182 g/kg diet. rats exposed to 6 Gy whole body gamma irradiation showed significant increase in total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C).triglycerides (TG), atherosclerosis index, total lipid (TL), phospholipids (ph-lipids), malondialdehyde (MDA), urea,creatinine, uric acid, calcium (Ca) and phosphorous levels associated with decrease in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), activity of reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), total antioxidant status, body weight, testes weight and testosterone both irradiated and non-irradiated milk powder administrated to irradiated rat groups minimized the radiation damage in the assayed parameters indicating its beneficial role as a promising antioxidant in scavenging free radicals and reactive oxygen species

  18. The Role of Interventional Radiology in the Diagnosis and Management of Male Impotence

    Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Shaida, Nadeem; Katsanos, Konstantinos; Krokidis, Miltiadis

    2013-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is defined as the persistent inability to reach or maintain penile rigidity enough for sexual satisfaction. Nearly 30% of the men between ages 40 and 70 years are affected by ED. A variety of pathologies, including neurological, psychological, or endocrine disorders and drug side effects, may incite ED. A commonly identified cause of ED is vascular disease. Initial diagnostic workup includes a detailed physical examination and laboratory tests. Whilst duplex ultrasound is considered the first-line diagnostic modality, intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography is still considered the “gold standard” for the diagnosis of arteriogenic impotence. Percutaneous endovascular treatment may be offered in patients with vasculogenic ED that has failed to respond to oral medical therapy as an alternative to penile prosthesis or open surgical repair. In arteriogenic ED balloon angioplasty of the aorto-iliac axis, and in veno-occlusive ED, percutaneous venous ablation using various embolization materials has been reported to be safe and to improve sexual performance. Recently, the ZEN study investigated the safety and feasibility of drug-eluting stents for the treatment of arteriogenic ED attributed to internal pudendal artery stenosis with promising preliminary results. This manuscript highlights the role of interventional radiology in the diagnosis and minimally invasive treatment of male impotence

  19. The Protective Role of Lettuce oil (Lactuca sativa) against Radiation induced Biological Hazards in Male Rats

    Abdel-Magied, N.; Ahmed, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to clarify the potential role of lettuce oil against damages induced in rats due to exposure to gamma radiation. Adult male albino rats (120-150 g) were divided into 4 groups each of 12 animals. The first group was considered control animals. The second group received, via gavages, lettuce oil (200 mg/Kg body weight) for 3 weeks. The third group was subjected to a single dose of 6.5Gy whole body gamma irradiation. The fourth group received lettuce oil for 3 weeks then was exposed to radiation. Blood samples were collected 1 and 7 days post irradiation. Exposure of rats to gamma irradiation caused a significant increase in the level of glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), malondialdehyde (MDA) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) while a significant decrease was recorded in glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities, white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin content (Hb), haematocrit percentage (Hct%), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), platelets (PLT), leutinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone hormone . In rats treated with lettuce oil then exposed to radiation, the results showed an improvement in all previous parameters. It could be concluded that lettuce oil might reduce the biological hazards in rats induced by gamma irradiation

  20. Protective Role Of Fresh Pomegranate Against Oxidative Damage In Whole Body Gamma Irradiated Male Albino Rats

    Kassab, F.M.A.; Taha, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty four male albino rats, body weight 100-130 g, were used to evaluate the protective role of fresh pomegranate fruit intake for 30 days on the damage induced by single dose of 6 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. The rats were randomly and equally divided into four groups: group (1): control, group (2): irradiated with 6 Gy, group (3): pomegranate for 30 days and group (4): pomegranate for 30 days followed by 6 Gy whole body irradiation. At the end of the experiment, all rats were sacrificed after 12 hours fasting then sera were separated for the determination of sugar, total antioxidant, lipid profile and liver and kidney functions. Results showed that gamma radiation caused significant decline (P<0.05) in serum total antioxidant, total protein, albumin, HDL-C and blood glucose with significant elevation (P<0.05) in other hepato-renal markers in addition to serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C. These changes were significantly attenuated in irradiated animals pre-treated with whole fresh pomegranate fruit leading to the conclusion that pre-intake of pomegranate fruit had a radio- protective effect. This protection of this whole fruit may be due to the increased total antioxidant level leading to free radical scavenging

  1. An Essential Physiological Role for MCT8 in Bone in Male Mice.

    Leitch, Victoria D; Di Cosmo, Caterina; Liao, Xiao-Hui; O'Boy, Sam; Galliford, Thomas M; Evans, Holly; Croucher, Peter I; Boyde, Alan; Dumitrescu, Alexandra; Weiss, Roy E; Refetoff, Samuel; Williams, Graham R; Bassett, J H Duncan

    2017-09-01

    T3 is an important regulator of skeletal development and adult bone maintenance. Thyroid hormone action requires efficient transport of T4 and T3 into target cells. We hypothesized that monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 8, encoded by Mct8 on the X-chromosome, is an essential thyroid hormone transporter in bone. To test this hypothesis, we determined the juvenile and adult skeletal phenotypes of male Mct8 knockout mice (Mct8KO) and Mct8D1D2KO compound mutants, which additionally lack the ability to convert the prohormone T4 to the active hormone T3. Prenatal skeletal development was normal in both Mct8KO and Mct8D1D2KO mice, whereas postnatal endochondral ossification and linear growth were delayed in both Mct8KO and Mct8D1D2KO mice. Furthermore, bone mass and mineralization were decreased in adult Mct8KO and Mct8D1D2KO mice, and compound mutants also had reduced bone strength. Delayed bone development and maturation in Mct8KO and Mct8D1D2KO mice is consistent with decreased thyroid hormone action in growth plate chondrocytes despite elevated serum T3 concentrations, whereas low bone mass and osteoporosis reflects increased thyroid hormone action in adult bone due to elevated systemic T3 levels. These studies identify an essential physiological requirement for MCT8 in chondrocytes, and demonstrate a role for additional transporters in other skeletal cells during adult bone maintenance.

  2. New Insights Into the Role of Estrogens in Male Fertility Based on Findings in Aromatase-Deficient Zebrafish.

    Tang, Haipei; Chen, Yu; Liu, Yun; Yin, Yike; Li, Gaofei; Guo, Yin; Liu, Xiaochun; Lin, Haoran

    2017-09-01

    It has been demonstrated that estrogens are indispensable for male fertility in mammals. Aromatase (encoded by CYP19) catalyzes the final step of estradiol biosynthesis. However, less is known about the role of aromatase in male fertility in nonmammalian species. Fish aromatase is encoded by two separate genes: the gonad-specific cyp19a1a and the brain-specific cyp19a1b. In a recent study, we used transcription activatorlike effector nucleases to systematically generate cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b mutant lines and a cyp19a1a;cyp19a1b double-mutant line in zebrafish and demonstrated that cyp19a1a was indispensable for sex differentiation. In this study, we focused on male fertility in these aromatase-deficient zebrafish. Our results showed that all aromatase-deficient male fish had normal fertility even at 1 year after fertilization. Interestingly, we observed more spermatozoa in the cyp19a1a and double-mutant males than in the wild-type and cyp19a1b mutant males. The whole-body androgen levels, follicle-stimulating hormone β and luteinizing hormone β protein levels in the pituitary, and transcript levels of genes known to be involved in spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in the testes were significantly higher in the cyp19a1a mutant and aromatase double-mutant males than in the wild-type and cyp19a1b mutant males. These results might explain why more spermatozoa were observed in these fish. Collectively, our findings indicate that estrogens are not needed to achieve and maintain normal fertility in male zebrafish. This finding challenges the traditional view that estrogens are indispensable for male fertility. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  3. Role models for complex networks

    Reichardt, J.; White, D. R.

    2007-11-01

    We present a framework for automatically decomposing (“block-modeling”) the functional classes of agents within a complex network. These classes are represented by the nodes of an image graph (“block model”) depicting the main patterns of connectivity and thus functional roles in the network. Using a first principles approach, we derive a measure for the fit of a network to any given image graph allowing objective hypothesis testing. From the properties of an optimal fit, we derive how to find the best fitting image graph directly from the network and present a criterion to avoid overfitting. The method can handle both two-mode and one-mode data, directed and undirected as well as weighted networks and allows for different types of links to be dealt with simultaneously. It is non-parametric and computationally efficient. The concepts of structural equivalence and modularity are found as special cases of our approach. We apply our method to the world trade network and analyze the roles individual countries play in the global economy.

  4. Asymmetries in infants' attention toward and categorization of male faces: The potential role of experience.

    Rennels, Jennifer L; Kayl, Andrea J; Langlois, Judith H; Davis, Rachel E; Orlewicz, Mateusz

    2016-02-01

    Infants typically have a preponderance of experience with females, resulting in visual preferences for female faces, particularly high attractive females, and in better categorization of female relative to male faces. We examined whether these abilities generalized to infants' visual preferences for and categorization of perceptually similar male faces (i.e., low masculine males). We found that 12-month-olds visually preferred high attractive relative to low attractive male faces within low masculine pairs only (Experiment 1) but did not visually prefer low masculine relative to high masculine male faces (Experiment 2). Lack of visual preferences was not due to infants' inability to discriminate between the male faces (Experiments 3 and 4). The 12-month-olds categorized low masculine, but not high masculine, male faces (Experiment 5). Infants could individuate male faces within each of the categories (Experiment 6). The 12-month-olds' attention toward and categorization of male faces may reflect a generalization of their female facial expertise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Do traditional male role norms modify the association between high emotional demands in work, and sickness absence?

    Labriola, Merete; Hansen, Claus D.; Lund, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    analysis showed that participants with high MRNI-score were more affected by emotional demands in terms of their mental health than participants with lower MRNI-score. Conclusions The study confirms the association between emotional demands and absenteeism, and furthermore showed that the effect......Objectives Ambulance workers are exposed to high levels of emotional demands, which could affect sickness absence. Being a male dominated occupation, it is hypothesised that ambulance workers adhere to more traditional male role norms than men in other occupations. The aim is to investigate...... if adherence to traditional male role norms modifies the effect of emotional demands on sickness absence/presenteeism. Methods Data derive from MARS (Men, accidents, risk and safety), a two-wave panel study of ambulance workers and fire fighters in Denmark (n = 2585). Information was collected from...

  6. The impact of gender-role nonconforming behavior, bullying, and social support on suicidality among gay male youth.

    Friedman, Mark S; Koeske, Gary F; Silvestre, Anthony J; Korr, Wynne S; Sites, Edward W

    2006-05-01

    This study hypothesized that gender-role nonconformity is associated with suicidality, and bullying mediates this relationship. Gay males retrospectively answered questions pertaining to elementary, middle, and high school. Support for the hypotheses was found. Results can help screen gay youth for suicidality and support the need for policies prohibiting harassment based on sexual orientation.

  7. Perspectives of Survivors on Military Suicide Decedents’ Life Stressors and Male Gender Role Stress using the Male Gender Role Stressor Inventory (MGRSI)

    2013-03-26

    Suicide Psychiatric diagnoses. Antisocial Personality Disorder is diagnosed three times more often in men than women (American Psychiatric Association...Finally, using a two-year prospective design, researchers determined that a diagnosis of borderline     15   personality disorder resulted in...which refers to “a psychological state in which socialized gender roles have negative consequences for the person or others” (p. 362, O’Neil, 2008) and

  8. Effects of subliminal stimulation on masculinity-femininity ratings of a male model.

    Hovsepian, W; Quatman, G

    1978-02-01

    The effects of subliminal stimulation on masculinity-femininity ratings of a male model were tested for 100 male undergraduates, randomly divided into four groups and individually shown a slide of a male model. One group received no further stimulation. A second group received a subliminal flash of white light across the image of the model; a third group was presented with the subliminal message "masculine," while a fourth group was presented with the subliminal message "feminine." Subjects were asked to rate the model on a six-point scale of masculinity-femininity. The differences in ratings among groups were not significant, indicating that subliminal stimulation did not influence masculinity-femininity value-norm-anchor judgments. There were no significant differences in the reported perception of additional stimuli or the tendency to be relaxed among the four groups. However, subjects who received the "masculine" message and reported that they were more relaxed did tend to rate the model higher in masculinity.

  9. A role for 5alpha-reductase activity in the development of male homosexuality?

    Alias, A G

    2004-12-01

    Higher body hair with lower mesmorphism ratings were observed in Caucasian homosexual men compared with the general male population, reflecting elevated 5alpha-reductase (5alphaR) activity, and higher dihydrotestosterone-to-testosterone (DHT-to-T) ratio, in sharp contrast to 46,XY 5alphaR 2 deficiency subjects, who are often born with ambiguous, or female genitalia, but tend to grow up to be muscular, heterosexual men with very little body hair, or beard. One study also showed them scoring around dull normal IQs. A greater prevalence of liberal body hair growth in men with higher IQs and/or educational levels was also observed in several samples. The exceptions to this statistical trend are too unsettling, however. Nevertheless, the results of a number of published studies, including one showing higher DHT-to-T ratio in homosexual men, done with different objectives over a span of 80 years, together strongly support these findings. Furthermore, in an animal model, "cognitive-enhancing effects" of "5alpha-reduced androgen [metabolites]" were recently demonstrated.

  10. Creating Role models for Japanese Learners

    Brown, Howard

    2009-01-01

    English classes in Japan are often taught through the medium of Japanese. This sends the message that English is a subject of study rather than a means of communication. A great deal of recent research and pedagogical work has gone into encouraging more classroom English use by Japanese Teachers of English in order to provide positive role models of language use to students. Along with this, other content area faculty members can become role models for students' English success. Results of th...

  11. Modeling of pheromone communication system of forest Lepidopterous insects. II. Model of female searching by male

    A. V. Kovalev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose an agent­based simulation model search. This model allows us to evaluate the effectiveness of different males­females pheromone search strategies for Lepidoptera. In the model, we consider the simplest case of the search, when the pheromone has only one chemical component. It is assumed that the insects are able to detect the pheromone molecules and the sensory cells generate action potentials in contact with the pheromone for some time. Thereafter pheromone molecule is inactivated. This behavior can be regarded as a memory of individual. Proportion of individuals who have reached the source is selected as an integral indicator of the search efficiency. To evaluate the effectiveness, numeric experiments were performed in different conditions: random walk, search algorithm without memory, and algorithm with memory and return mechanism. The resulting effectiveness of source localization by insects for flight in turbulent flows is ~ 70 %, which corresponds to experiments with live specimens in literature. In this case, proposed pheromone search algorithm is quite simple, which makes it biologically correct. Conducted modeling calculations can be the starting point for planning of field observations and pest monitoring systems using pheromone traps.

  12. The Black Male Urban Barbershop as a Sex-Role Socialization Setting.

    Franklin, Clyde W., II

    1985-01-01

    Participant observation found that the barbershop studies perpetuated sex-role stereotypes, encouraged sexist attitudes toward women and, in general, was a sex-role socialization setting that promoted sex-role inequality. (GC)

  13. Androgen Receptor (AR) Physiological Roles in Male and Female Reproductive Systems: Lessons Learned from AR-Knockout Mice Lacking AR in Selective Cells1

    Chang, Chawnshang; Lee, Soo Ok; Wang, Ruey-Sheng; Yeh, Shuyuan; Chang, Ta-Min

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Androgens/androgen receptor (AR) signaling is involved primarily in the development of male-specific phenotypes during embryogenesis, spermatogenesis, sexual behavior, and fertility during adult life. However, this signaling has also been shown to play an important role in development of female reproductive organs and their functions, such as ovarian folliculogenesis, embryonic implantation, and uterine and breast development. The establishment of the testicular feminization (Tfm) mouse model exploiting the X-linked Tfm mutation in mice has been a good in vivo tool for studying the human complete androgen insensitivity syndrome, but this mouse may not be the perfect in vivo model. Mouse models with various cell-specific AR knockout (ARKO) might allow us to study AR roles in individual types of cells in these male and female reproductive systems, although discrepancies are found in results between labs, probably due to using various Cre mice and/or knocking out AR in different AR domains. Nevertheless, no doubt exists that the continuous development of these ARKO mouse models and careful studies will provide information useful for understanding AR roles in reproductive systems of humans and may help us to develop more effective and more specific therapeutic approaches for reproductive system-related diseases. PMID:23782840

  14. The contribution of gender-role orientation, work factors and home stressors to psychological well-being and sickness absence in male- and female-dominated occupational groups.

    Evans, Olga; Steptoe, Andrew

    2002-02-01

    The associations of work stress, types of work and gender-role orientation with psychological well-being and sickness absence were investigated in a questionnaire survey of 588 male and female nurses and 387 male and female accountants. We hypothesised that health might be impaired among women working in the male-dominated occupation (accountancy), and men in the female-dominated occupation (nursing), but that effects might be moderated by job strain (perceptions of high demand and low control), work and home hassles, and traditional male (instrumentality) and female (expressivity) psychological characteristics. Responses were analysed from 172 female and 61 male nurses, and from 53 female and 81 male commercial accountants. Female accountants were more likely than other groups to have high anxiety scores on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales, while male nurses had the highest rates of sickness absence. Male nurses and female accountants also reported more work-related hassles than did female nurses and male accountants. Men and women in the same occupation did not differ in job strain or job social support, but nurses reported greater job strain than accountants, due to higher ratings of demands and lower skill utilisation. After adjusting for age, sex, occupation, paid work hours and a measure of social desirability bias, risk of elevated anxiety was independently associated with higher job strain, lower job social support, more work hassles, more domestic responsibility, lower instrumentality and higher expressivity. The association between sex and anxiety was no longer significant after instrumentality had been entered into the regression model. Sickness absence of more than three days over the past 12 months was independently associated with higher job strain, more work hassles, lower instrumentality and higher expressivity. The results suggest that when men and women occupy jobs in which they are in the cultural and numerical minority, there may be

  15. Male risk taking, female odors, and the role of estrogen receptors.

    Kavaliers, Martin; Clipperton-Allen, Amy; Cragg, Cheryl L; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Korach, Kenneth S; Muglia, Louis; Choleris, Elena

    2012-12-05

    Male risk-taking and decision making are affected by sex-related cues, with men making riskier choices and decisions after exposure to either women or stimuli associated with women. In non-human species females and, or their cues can also increase male risk taking. Under the ecologically relevant condition of predation threat, brief exposure of male mice to the odors of a sexually receptive novel female reduces the avoidance of, and aversive responses to, a predator. We briefly review evidence showing that estrogen receptors (ERs), ERα and ERβ, are associated with the mediation of these risk taking responses. We show that ERs influence the production of the female odors that affect male risk taking, with the odors of wild type (ERαWT, ERβWT), oxytocin (OT) wildtype (OTWT), gene-deleted 'knock-out' ERβ (ERβKO), but not ERαKO or oxytocin (OT) OTKO or ovariectomized (OVX) female mice reducing the avoidance responses of male mice to cat odor. We further show that administration of specific ERα and ERβ agonists to OVX females results in their odors increasing male risk taking and boldness towards a predator. We also review evidence that ERs are involved in the mediation of the responses of males to female cues, with ERα being associated with the sexual and both ERβ and ERα with the sexual and social mechanisms underlying the effects of female cues on male risk taking. The implications and relations of these findings with rodents to ERs and the regulation of human risk taking are briefly considered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR THE KINETICS OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

    In this presentation a model for the hormonal regulation of the reproductive endocrine system in the adult male rat will be discussed. The model includes a description of the kinetics of the androgenic hormones testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, as well as the receptor-mediate...

  17. Relational aggression and victimization in gay male relationships: the role of internalized homophobia.

    Kelley, Thomas M; Robertson, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    This article presents two studies that are the first to examine relational aggression and relational victimization in gay male peer relationships. A qualitative pilot study provides a strong rationale for a subsequent empirical investigation of 100 young adult, self-identified gay males. Results of both studies demonstrate that relational aggression and relational victimization are common experiences in gay male relationships. They also reveal forms of relational aggression and victimization that appear to be unique to gay males (e.g., outing). Results of the empirical study found significant relations between engaging in relational aggression against gay males and experiencing relational victimization and between experiencing relational victimization and internalized homophobia. However, there was no significant correlation between internalized homophobia and engaging in relational aggression. A multiple regression analysis found that experiencing relational victimization was correlated more strongly with the combination of engaging in relational aggression and internalized homophobia together than with relational aggression alone. Results are discussed within the framework of Allport's "traits due to victimization" theory and Meyer's theory of "minority stress." Implications for the prevention of relational aggression/victimization in gay male relationships are offered. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. The Role of Pelvic Floor Muscles in Male Sexual Dysfunction and Pelvic Pain.

    Cohen, Deborah; Gonzalez, Joshua; Goldstein, Irwin

    2016-01-01

    Sexual function is essential to good health and well-being in men. The relationship between male sexual function, pelvic floor function, and pelvic pain is complex and only beginning to be appreciated. The objectives of the current review are to examine these complex relationships, and to demonstrate how pelvic floor physical therapy can potentially improve the treatment of various male sexual dysfunctions, including erectile dysfunction and dysfunction of ejaculation and orgasm. Contemporary data on pelvic floor anatomy and function as they relate to the treatment of various male sexual dysfunctions were reviewed. Examination of evidence supporting the association between the male pelvic floor and erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory/orgasmic dysfunction, and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, respectively. Evidence suggests a close relationship between the pelvic floor and male sexual dysfunction and a potential therapeutic benefit from pelvic floor therapy for men who suffer from these conditions. Pelvic floor physical therapy is a necessary tool in a more comprehensive bio-neuromusculoskeletal-psychosocial approach to the treatment of male sexual dysfunction and pelvic pain. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Can role models boost entrepreneurial attitudes?

    Fellnhofer, Katharina; Puumalainen, Kaisu

    2017-01-01

    This multi-country study used role models to boost perceptions of entrepreneurial feasibility and desirability. The results of a structural equation model based on a sample comprising 426 individuals who were primarily from Austria, Finland and Greece revealed a significant positive influence on perceived entrepreneurial desirability and feasibility. These findings support the argument for embedding entrepreneurial role models in entrepreneurship education courses to promote entrepreneurial activities. This direction is not only relevant for the academic community but also essential for nascent entrepreneurs, policymakers and society at large.

  20. Sexism in Language: Do Fiction Writers Assign Agentive and Patient Roles Equally to Male and Female Characters?

    Dunlop Ochieng

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Studies have shown that language is used discriminatorily to women and men. Hence, there have been movements against gender biased language−the movements which are reported so successful especially in the West.Purpose of Study: This paper however argues that discrimination stems from speakers’ minds; and hence performing gender neutral language alone does not confirm gender neutrality of the performer. The reliable way of judging gender neutrality would then be studying the speakers’ minds.Method: The study applied psychoanalytic literary criticism as a gateway to the unconscious minds of American authors–to find out how gender neutral they were at cognitive level. Through psychoanalytic literary criticism, authors’ suppressed desires would find their way out onto their works in a distorted form. Along these lines, the study assessed the equality in assigning agentive and patient semantic roles between males and females in American fictions–to find out who between males and females were frequently assigned agentive and patient roles of the reciprocal verbs: kiss, hug, marry, and divorce.Findings: The study found out that males were assigned more agentive roles in kiss and hug, and females in divorce. Moreover, both were assigned almost equal roles in marry.Conclusion: The implication of the findings is that speakers’ unconscious mind is basically gender biased along gender stereotypes.

  1. Do women CEOs face greater threat of shareholder activism compared to male CEOs? A role congruity perspective.

    Gupta, Vishal K; Han, Seonghee; Mortal, Sandra C; Silveri, Sabatino Dino; Turban, Daniel B

    2018-02-01

    We examine the glass cliff proposition that female CEOs receive more scrutiny than male CEOs, by investigating whether CEO gender is related to threats from activist investors in public firms. Activist investors are extraorganizational stakeholders who, when dissatisfied with some aspect of the way the firm is being managed, seek to change the strategy or operations of the firm. Although some have argued that women will be viewed more favorably than men in top leadership positions (so-called "female leadership" advantage logic), we build on role congruity theory to hypothesize that female CEOs are significantly more likely than male CEOs to come under threat from activist investors. Results support our predictions, suggesting that female CEOs may face additional challenges not faced by male CEOs. Practical implications and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. The role of sensation seeking and motivations for eating in female and male adolescents who binge eat.

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; Pompili, Sara; Baumgartner, Emma; Baiocco, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Although different personality traits have been associated with the onset and maintenance of binge eating, the role of sensation seeking is still not well documented. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of sensation seeking and motivations for eating in male and female adolescents who binge eat. 336 adolescents (196 boys and 140 girls, mean age 17.48) completed a survey composed of Binge Eating Scale, Motivation for Eating Scale, and Brief Sensation Seeking Scale. Our results showed that for female adolescents, binge eating was significantly correlated with age, body mass index (BMI), Environmental and Emotional Eating. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that BMI was a significant positive predictor of binge eating; Emotional and Physical Eating accounted for 34% of the variance. For male adolescents, binge eating was significantly correlated with age, BMI, Boredom susceptibility, Experience seeking, environmental, Social and Emotional Eating. The most significant variables that contribute to binge symptoms, were age and BMI (that accounted for 16% of the variance), Experience seeking and Boredom susceptibility (11%) and emotional eating (18%). Our results provided support for emotional motivations as significant triggers for binge eating behavior in both male and female adolescents. Although two sensation seeking dimensions were significant predictors of binge eating in males, sensation seeking was not associated to binge eating in the female subsample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Role modeling excellence in clinical nursing practice.

    Perry, R N Beth

    2009-01-01

    Role modeling excellence in clinical nursing practice is the focus of this paper. The phenomenological research study reported involved a group of 8 nurses identified by their colleagues as exemplary. The major theme revealed in this study was that these exemplary nurses were also excellent role models in the clinical setting. This paper details approaches used by these nurses that made them excellent role models. Specifically, the themes of attending to the little things, making connections, maintaining a light-hearted attitude, modeling, and affirming others are presented. These themes are discussed within the framework of Watson [Watson, J., 1989. Human caring and suffering: a subjective model for health services. In: Watson, J., Taylor, R. (Eds.), They Shall Not Hurt: Human Suffering and Human Caring. Colorado University, Boulder, CO] "transpersonal caring" and [Bandura, A., 1997. Social Learning Theory. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ] "Social Learning Theory." Particular emphasis in the discussion is on how positive role modeling by exemplary practitioners can contribute to the education of clinical nurses in the practice setting.

  4. Biological Studies On The Radioprotective Role Of Melatonin On The Medfly Ceratitis Capitata (WIED.), Sterile Males

    SHOMAN, A.A.; MAHMOUD, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) has been used successfully against the medfly. The use of gamma irradiation for sterilizing insects has some adverse effects on their competitiveness which in turn reduces the efficiency of the technique. This study was carried out to evaluate the radioprotective effects of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytyrptamine) on egg hatchability, larval duration, pupal recovery, pupal weight, adult recovery, sex ratio, adult survival, flight ability and mating competitiveness of the medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), sterile males against the oxidative stress induced by gamma radiation. The results showed that the use of melatonin before the application of radiation doses did not affect the percentages of egg hatchability, larval duration and pupal weight while the addition of melatonin to the larval diet led to a significant increase in the percent of the pupal recovery as compared with the control group. The results also showed significant increases in adult recovery, adult survival and flight ability of males reared on larval diet containing melatonin before irradiation as compared to those treated with radiation alone. The competitiveness values were drastically decreased (0.30, 0.17 and 0.19) with the increase of gamma irradiation (90, 100 and 110 Gy, respectively). However, the results showed that the competitiveness values were increased in males previously reared on a larval diet containing 1 g melatonin/kg larval media (0.1%) and the produced full grown pupae were irradiated with 90, 100 and 110 Gy. The highest male mating competitiveness was recorded when melatonin was added to the larval diet then irradiated the produced pupae with the sterilizing dose (90 Gy). The results showed that the competitiveness values were 0.67, 0.47 and 0.46 for the doses 90, 100 and 110 Gy, respectively. The results refer to availability of using melatonin as a simple and effective means to improve the quality and the male mating competitiveness of the

  5. Men Do Matter: Ethnographic Insights on the Socially Supportive Role of the African American Uncle in the Lives of Inner-City African American Male Youth

    Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the role of the African American uncle as a vital yet overlooked form of social support and social capital in the lives of adolescent African American male sons living in single-female-headed households. Research rarely examines the affective roles and functions of men in Black families; moreover, poor urban Black male youth…

  6. Sex Role Socialization and Perceptions of Student Academic Dishonesty by Male and Female Accounting Faculty

    Lento, Camillo; Sayed, Naqi; Bujaki, Merridee

    2018-01-01

    We examine differences between male and female accounting faculty members' perceptions of academic dishonesty and their uses of controls to prevent academically dishonest behaviour. We use socialization concepts to motivate our examination of these differences. Specifically, we find that females generally perceive academic dishonesty to be a more…

  7. A central role for P48/45 in malaria parasite male gamete fertility.

    Dijk, M.R. van; Janse, C.J.; Thompson, J.; Waters, A.P.; Braks, J.A.M.; Dodemont, H.J.; Stunnenberg, H.G.; Gemert, G.J.A. van; Sauerwein, R.W.; Eling, W.M.C.

    2001-01-01

    Fertilization and zygote development are obligate features of the malaria parasite life cycle and occur during parasite transmission to mosquitoes. The surface protein PFS48/45 is expressed by male and female gametes of Plasmodium falciparum and PFS48/45 antibodies prevent zygote development and

  8. Positive Parenting of Young Adolescents by Male Cohabiting Partners: The Roles of Coparenting Conflict and Support

    Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Fathers have often been ignored in the parenting literature. The current study focused on male cohabiting partners (MCPs) who can serve as "social stepfathers" and examined the association of coparent support and conflict with their positive parenting behavior (i.e., acceptance, firm control, and monitoring) of adolescents. Participants…

  9. Adolescents' Judgments of Homophobic Harassment toward Male and Female Victims: The Role of Gender Stereotypes

    Romeo, Katherine E.; Horn, Stacey S.

    2017-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-six adolescents, drawn from a high school in a Midwestern suburb, provided judgments of a hypothetical incident of homophobic harassment with either a male or female victim. Participants also completed a revised version of the Macho Scale, measuring their endorsement of gender stereotypes (a = 0.75). Without the interaction…

  10. Nest building in House Wrens (Troglodytes aedon) : A reexamination of male and female roles

    Alworth, T; Scheiber, IBR

    2000-01-01

    Nest building by House Wrens (Troglodytes aedon) has been described as occurring in two stages. Males arrive on territories before females and begin the first stage by building a stick foundation in a suitable cavity. In the second stage, females build a soft cup-like structure into the stick base.

  11. Male-Female Differences in Hourly Wages: The Role of Human Capital, Working Conditions, and Housework.

    Hersch, Joni

    1991-01-01

    Data from a survey of 414 male and 217 female workers assessed the effects of human capital, household responsibilities, working conditions, and on-the-job training on wages. Household responsibilities had a negative effect on women's earnings; the presence of children positively affected wages of both sexes. (SK)

  12. Examining the Pathologic Adaptation Model of Community Violence Exposure in Male Adolescents of Color

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; So, Suzanna; Bai, Grace J.; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined a model of desensitization to community violence exposure—the pathologic adaptation model—in male adolescents of color. The current study included 285 African American (61%) and Latino (39%) male adolescents (W1 M age = 12.41) from the Chicago Youth Development Study to examine the longitudinal associations between community violence exposure, depressive symptoms, and violent behavior. Consistent with the pathologic adaptation model, results indicated a linear, positive association between community violence exposure in middle adolescence and violent behavior in late adolescence, as well as a curvilinear association between community violence exposure in middle adolescence and depressive symptoms in late adolescence, suggesting emotional desensitization. Further, these effects were specific to cognitive-affective symptoms of depression and not somatic symptoms. Emotional desensitization outcomes, as assessed by depressive symptoms, can occur in male adolescents of color exposed to community violence and these effects extend from middle adolescence to late adolescence. PMID:27653968

  13. Male Hypogonadism

    ... the hormone that plays a key role in masculine growth and development during puberty — or has an ... Adulthood In adult males, hypogonadism may alter certain masculine physical characteristics and impair normal reproductive function. Signs ...

  14. A Controversial Role Model for Pakistani Women

    Faiza Mushtaq

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Al-Huda is a movement of Islamic education and reform with a dedicated female following in Pakistani cities. Its founder and leader is a woman, Dr. Farhat Hashmi, who has become a well-known public figure in Pakistan. This paper explores how Hashmi derives her authority, displays it, and defends it against challenges. Women who become active participants in her classes claim she transforms their understanding of Islam and inspires them to change their lives. However she is criticized by the secular-liberal elites of the country and by the traditional male leadership of Islamic institutions, who question her religious expertise and are uncomfortable with the role of both gender and class in this movement. This analysis highlights the collective interactions and organizational innovations through which Hashmi’s teachings acquire an authoritative status for selected women.

  15. Male sexual strategies modify ratings of female models with specific waist-to-hip ratios.

    Brase, Gary L; Walker, Gary

    2004-06-01

    Female waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) has generally been an important general predictor of ratings of physical attractiveness and related characteristics. Individual differences in ratings do exist, however, and may be related to differences in the reproductive tactics of the male raters such as pursuit of short-term or long-term relationships and adjustments based on perceptions of one's own quality as a mate. Forty males, categorized according to sociosexual orientation and physical qualities (WHR, Body Mass Index, and self-rated desirability), rated female models on both attractiveness and likelihood they would approach them. Sociosexually restricted males were less likely to approach females rated as most attractive (with 0.68-0.72 WHR), as compared with unrestricted males. Males with lower scores in terms of physical qualities gave ratings indicating more favorable evaluations of female models with lower WHR. The results indicate that attractiveness and willingness to approach are overlapping but distinguishable constructs, both of which are influenced by variations in characteristics of the raters.

  16. Developing an Integrative Play Therapy Group Model for Middle School Male Students to Address Bullying Behaviors

    Jordan, Jakarla

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the systematic process of developing an integrative play therapy group model for middle school male students, ages 11-15 who participate in bullying behaviors. Play therapy approaches and evidence-based practices are documented as effective measures for addressing bullying behaviors with children and adolescents. This group…

  17. Role Model Influencers of Nontraditional Professional Women.

    Lunneborg, Patricia W.

    1982-01-01

    Tested the influence of a supportive family on 142 women employed in or studying for nontraditional careers. Results showed the importance of emotional support by parents, siblings, peers and teachers. Suggests counselors encourage women to locate role models and mentors if preparing for nontraditional careers. (Author/JAC)

  18. The role of non-coding RNAs in cytoplasmic male sterility in flowering plants

    Štorchová, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 11 (2017), č. článku 2429. E-ISSN 1422-0067 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-09220S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Cytoplasmic male sterility * Gene expression * Global transcriptome * Non-coding RNA * Pollen development Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.226, year: 2016

  19. Gender Inequality and Role-Strained among Male Nursing Students in Selected Nursing Institution, Lagos, Nigeria

    Folami, Florence F.

    2017-01-01

    Gender discrimination remains problem in the world as a whole and unfortunately, nursing profession is not immune to this problem. Gender discrimination is rejection or restriction made on the basis of socially constructed gender roles which prevents a person from relishing full human rights. Role strain has been defined as when an individual is…

  20. The Effects of Sex and Gender Role Orientation on Mentorship in Male-Dominated Occupations.

    Scandura, Terri A.; Ragins, Belle Rose

    1993-01-01

    Responses from 608 certified public accountants who had mentors showed that biological sex was not related to mentoring, but gender role orientation was. Those with androgynous sex role orientation reported more mentoring functions than did those with masculine or feminine orientations. (SK)

  1. Neurophysiological role of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on seminal parameters in diabetic males with and without neuropathy.

    Ali, Syed Tabrez; Rakkah, Nabeeh I

    2007-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate is a specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase (PDE) type-5 and represents a powerful therapy for male erectile and fertility dysfunctions of different etiologies. Present study demonstrates whether sildenafil administration modifies seminal parameters in diabetic neuropathic patients. In this investigation 50 insulin dependent (IDDM) and 50 non insulin dependent (NIDDM) diabetic male patients with and without an objective evidence of neuropathy and 50 age matched non diabetic male controls were selected. Every male had age between 20 to 65 years with duration of diabetes distributed over 1 to 20 years. Treatment with 100 mg of oral sildenafil citrate on seminal parameters was evaluated by semen analysis in these patients. In both IDDM and NIDDM diabetic neuropathic patients, chronic sildenafil treatment exhibited a significant decrease in total sperm output and sperm concentration (p<0.001). On the other hand, sperm motility and semen volume were found to be increased by about 40% and 48% respectively in these patients, where as sperm morphology and quality of sperm motility remained unaffected. However both types of non neuropathic diabetics showed a non significant difference in all the above mentioned parameters when compared with the untreated groups and their respective control subjects. A comparison between IDDM and NIDDM neuropathic and non neuropathic diabetic groups further indicated a non significant difference in all the parameters of semen analysis. These findings suggest a chronic neuro physiological effect of sildenafil treatment on male fertility profile exclusively in diabetic neuropathic condition with an improvement in testicular function which was probably arrested due to some kind of testicular hyperplasia resulted by testicular necrosis and promoted spermatogenesis. Sildenafil seems to be associated with an improvement in the entire smooth musculature of reproductive tract and testicular morphology which was altered due to

  2. Surface models of the male urogenital organs built from the Visible Korean using popular software

    Shin, Dong Sun; Park, Jin Seo; Shin, Byeong-Seok

    2011-01-01

    Unlike volume models, surface models, which are empty three-dimensional images, have a small file size, so they can be displayed, rotated, and modified in real time. Thus, surface models of male urogenital organs can be effectively applied to an interactive computer simulation and contribute to the clinical practice of urologists. To create high-quality surface models, the urogenital organs and other neighboring structures were outlined in 464 sectioned images of the Visible Korean male using Adobe Photoshop; the outlines were interpolated on Discreet Combustion; then an almost automatic volume reconstruction followed by surface reconstruction was performed on 3D-DOCTOR. The surface models were refined and assembled in their proper positions on Maya, and a surface model was coated with actual surface texture acquired from the volume model of the structure on specially programmed software. In total, 95 surface models were prepared, particularly complete models of the urinary and genital tracts. These surface models will be distributed to encourage other investigators to develop various kinds of medical training simulations. Increasingly automated surface reconstruction technology using commercial software will enable other researchers to produce their own surface models more effectively. PMID:21829759

  3. Mentoring and role models in recruitment and retention: a study of junior medical faculty perceptions.

    Steele, Margaret M; Fisman, Sandra; Davidson, Brenda

    2013-05-01

    This study explored the views of junior faculty toward informing mentorship program development. Mixed sampling methodologies including questionnaires (n = 175), focus groups (female, n = 4; male, n = 4), and individual interviews (female n = 10; male, n = 9) of junior faculty were conducted in clinical departments at one academic health sciences center. Questionnaire results indicated that having role models increased commitment to an academic career; mentorship experience during residency training was a high incentive to pursue an academic career; and junior faculty did have identifiable mentorship experiences. Focus group results revealed that mentoring as well as the presence of role models a few years ahead of the junior faculty would promote career development. Females preferred similar age role models who spoke the same language, particularly in the area of promotion. Females identified several challenges and issues including a lack of researcher role models, a range of perceptions regarding the merits of formal versus informal mentoring, and the idea that mentors should provide advice on promotion and grants. Males valued advice on finances while females wanted advice on work-life balance. Mentorship emerged as an important factor in academic faculty recruitment and retention, with varying perceptions of how it should be institutionalized. Role models were viewed as important for retention, and a paucity of mid-career, female researcher role models suggests a gap to be filled in future programmatic efforts.

  4. The role of male violence against women in female under-representation in (geo)sciences

    Vincent, Aude

    2017-04-01

    Many women face male violence, simply because they are women. Street harassment, sexual harassment at the workplace, sexual assaults and rapes in public or private spaces, domestic violence, are rampant issues. About 1 on 5 women in Europe experiences at least once in her lifetime rape or physical violence, most of the time from a partner or former partner. In average, each year in France, 120 women are killed by their partner. Women scientists are women. There is no reason to suppose that they are less victims of male violence than other women. The different forms of violence they can encounter have effects on women, on physical, behavioral, and psychological levels. Those effects can obviously affect women in their professional life as well as in their intimate or social life: - they might want to avoid the perpetrator of the violence they were victim of; - their self-esteem might be crushed by the disparagement suffered from a violent partner; - a violent partner might threaten to get even more violent if they continue their studies or their career; - the psychological effects of a rape might leave them unable to continue their life as before. Because of such impacts on their lives, some women can't carry on their work and career as they could have, or they might even quit them, or never finish their Master or their PhD. The fact that gender stereotyping from an early ages leads more men than women to scientific careers is now quite acknowledge. We should also think about how much of the under-representation of women in geosciences, and sciences in general, is due to the impact of male violence on women lives.

  5. Gender Role Attitudes and Male Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration: Normative Beliefs as Moderators

    Reyes, H. Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.; Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Reidy, Dennis E.; Hall, Jeffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Commonly used dating violence prevention programs assume that promotion of more egalitarian gender role attitudes will prevent dating violence perpetration. Empirical research examining this assumption, however, is limited and inconsistent. The current study examined the longitudinal association between gender role attitudes and physical dating violence perpetration among adolescent boys (n=577; 14% Black, 5% other race/ethnicity) and examined whether injunctive (i.e., acceptance of dating vi...

  6. Dosimetry in Japanese male and female models for a low-frequency electric field

    Hirata, Akimasa; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    The present study quantified induced current in anatomically based Japanese male and female models for exposure to low-frequency electric fields. A quasi-static finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method was applied to analyze this problem. For our computational results, the difference of the induced current density averaged over an area of 1 cm 2 between Japanese male and female models was less than 30% for each nerve tissue. The difference of induced current density between the present study and earlier works was less than 50% for the same conductivities, despite the different morphology. Particularly, maximum current density in central nerve tissues appeared in the retina of Japanese models, the same as in the earlier works. (note)

  7. The gendered stereotype of the 'good manager': Sex role expectations towards male and female managers

    Gmür, Markus

    2006-01-01

    In the past 30 years, U.S. and international studies have shown that societal expectations of the 'good manager' are closely related to the male stereotype. However, it is not clear, whether this stereotype is the same for men andwomen alike in managerial positions. The results of a German study with 625 students and 376 professionals participating between 1997 and 2005 are presentedin the short note below. The main findings of the study are: 1. Female managers are expected to conform more cl...

  8. [Roles of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor in the male reproductive system].

    Chen, Kai-hong; Zhang, Xian; Jiang, Xue-wu

    2016-02-01

    The G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), also known as G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), was identified in the recent years as a functional membrane receptor different from the classical nuclear estrogen receptors. This receptor is widely expressed in the cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, heart, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, and the urogenital system. It is responsible for the mediation of nongenomic effects associated with estrogen and its derivatives, participating in the physiological activities of the body. The present study reviews the molecular structure, subcellular localization, signaling pathways, distribution, and function of GPER in the male reproductive system.

  9. Cartographic modeling: The role and importance

    Ikonović Vesna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and sense of cartographic modeling is to represent essential, typical and characteristically attributes of mapping territory. Cartographic modeling is applying in two phases: 1. trough theoretical modeling and creating mind models (by notice relevant factors of space, modeling is in cartographer’s mind and 2. trough practical modeling and making prototype model (continuing and objectification of mind model which one has bigger degree of concrezation and experimented role. The maps are mathematical and logical models, which are not just representing the contents of the real space, but also their specific and relational traits which can’t be seen at first sight. Atlas is modeled contexture contents of treated thematic of space on optimal map union. Atlases are higher form of cartography. Modern computer's technology and specific software make possible better and faster making of all kinds of maps, atlases and spatial analysis connections and relationships among all elements of contents from concrete space which is, until now, demand much more time or they can not imagine.

  10. Active and passive sexual roles that arise in Drosophila male-male courtship are modulated by dopamine levels in PPL2ab neurons

    Shiu-Ling Chen; Yu-Hui Chen; Chuan-Chan Wang; Yhu-Wei Yu; Yu-Chen Tsai; Hsiao-Wen Hsu; Chia-Lin Wu; Pei-Yu Wang; Lien-Cheng Chen; Tsuo-Hung Lan; Tsai-Feng Fu

    2017-01-01

    The neurology of male sexuality has been poorly studied owing to difficulties in studying brain circuitry in humans. Dopamine (DA) is essential for both physiological and behavioural responses, including the regulation of sexuality. Previous studies have revealed that alterations in DA synthesis in dopaminergic neurons can induce male-male courtship behaviour, while increasing DA levels in the protocerebral posteriolateral dopaminergic cluster neuron 2ab (PPL2ab) may enhance the intensity of ...

  11. Is there an inhibitory role of cortisol in the mechanism of male sexual arousal and penile erection?

    Uckert, Stefan; Fuhlenriede, Mark H; Becker, Armin J; Stief, Christian G; Scheller, Friedemann; Knapp, Wolfram H; Jonas, Udo

    2003-12-01

    It has been speculated for more than 2 decades whether there is a significance of adrenal corticosteroids, such as cortisol, in the process of normal male sexual function, especially in the control of sexual arousal and the penile erectile tissue. However, only few in vivo studies have been carried out up until now on the effects of cortisol on human male sexual performance and penile erection. In order to evaluate further the role of cortisol in male sexual activity, the present study was conducted to detect serum levels of cortisol in the systemic and cavernous blood taken during different penile conditions from healthy males. The effects of cortisol derivative prednisolone, catecholamine norepinephrine (NE) and the peptide endothelin-1 (ET-1) on isolated human corpus cavernosum (HCC) were investigated using the organ bath technique. Fifty-four healthy adult male subjects were exposed to erotic stimuli in order to elicit penile tumescence and rigidity. Whole blood was simultaneously aspirated from the corpus cavernosum and the cubital vein during different penile conditions. Serum levels of cortisol (microg/dl) were determined by means of a radioimmunoassay (ELISA). In the healthy volunteers, cortisol serum levels significantly decreased in the systemic circulation and the cavernous blood with increasing sexual arousal, when the flaccid penis became rigid. During detumescence, the mean cortisol level remained unaltered in the systemic circulation, whereas in the cavernous compartment, it was found to decrease further. Under all penile conditions, no significant differences were registered between cortisol levels in the systemic circulation and in the cavernous blood. Cumulative addition of NE and ET-1 (0.001-10 microM) induced contraction of isolated HCC strips, whereas the contractile response to prednisolone was negligible. Our results strongly suggest an inhibitory role for cortisol in the mechanism of male sexual response and behaviour. These properties are

  12. The Protective Role of Ginger (Zingiber Officinales ) in Male Albino Rats Exposed to Gamma Irradiation

    Osman, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    The present work was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of preirradiation treatment with ginger (Zingiber Officinales) for 21 consecutive days before exposure in controlling post-irradiation hazards in male rats. Male albino rats weighing about 120±10 g were divided into four groups: ( I ) control, ( II ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg , ( III ) irradiated with 6 Gy and ( IV ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg before irradiated with 6 Gy gamma - radiation . The blood samples were collected from heart of animals 21 days after treatment with ginger and seven days post irradiation. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical analysts such as liver functions , lipid profile , kidney function and sex hormone. Whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) caused significant increase in (aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), cholesterol, triglycerides , glucose, urea and creatinine) while alkaline phosphatase showed no effect. Irradiation caused decrease in the contents of total protein , albumin and testosterone. Ginger treatment exerted noticeable amelioration in the studied biochemical parameters of the irradiated albino rats. The mechanism of action of ginger may be due to its antiinflammatory properties against whole body gamma irradiation

  13. Highly tissue specific expression of Sphinx supports its male courtship related role in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Chen, Ying; Dai, Hongzheng; Chen, Sidi; Zhang, Luoying; Long, Manyuan

    2011-04-26

    Sphinx is a lineage-specific non-coding RNA gene involved in regulating courtship behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. The 5' flanking region of the gene is conserved across Drosophila species, with the proximal 300 bp being conserved out to D. virilis and a further 600 bp region being conserved amongst the melanogaster subgroup (D. melanogaster, D. simulans, D. sechellia, D. yakuba, and D. erecta). Using a green fluorescence protein transformation system, we demonstrated that a 253 bp region of the highly conserved segment was sufficient to drive sphinx expression in male accessory gland. GFP signals were also observed in brain, wing hairs and leg bristles. An additional ∼800 bp upstream region was able to enhance expression specifically in proboscis, suggesting the existence of enhancer elements. Using anti-GFP staining, we identified putative sphinx expression signal in the brain antennal lobe and inner antennocerebral tract, suggesting that sphinx might be involved in olfactory neuron mediated regulation of male courtship behavior. Whole genome expression profiling of the sphinx knockout mutation identified significant up-regulated gene categories related to accessory gland protein function and odor perception, suggesting sphinx might be a negative regulator of its target genes.

  14. Highly tissue specific expression of Sphinx supports its male courtship related role in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Ying Chen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sphinx is a lineage-specific non-coding RNA gene involved in regulating courtship behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. The 5' flanking region of the gene is conserved across Drosophila species, with the proximal 300 bp being conserved out to D. virilis and a further 600 bp region being conserved amongst the melanogaster subgroup (D. melanogaster, D. simulans, D. sechellia, D. yakuba, and D. erecta. Using a green fluorescence protein transformation system, we demonstrated that a 253 bp region of the highly conserved segment was sufficient to drive sphinx expression in male accessory gland. GFP signals were also observed in brain, wing hairs and leg bristles. An additional ∼800 bp upstream region was able to enhance expression specifically in proboscis, suggesting the existence of enhancer elements. Using anti-GFP staining, we identified putative sphinx expression signal in the brain antennal lobe and inner antennocerebral tract, suggesting that sphinx might be involved in olfactory neuron mediated regulation of male courtship behavior. Whole genome expression profiling of the sphinx knockout mutation identified significant up-regulated gene categories related to accessory gland protein function and odor perception, suggesting sphinx might be a negative regulator of its target genes.

  15. The Role of Game Based Learning in the Health Literacy of African American Adolescent Males

    Connell, Judith; Knight, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-first century literacy is more than being able to encode for spelling ability, decode for reading comprehension, and calculate for numeric reasoning. It demands the skills to negotiate the world of technology. Health literacy is lower than general literacy, and general literacy is lower among African American males than the overall population. The authors discuss the prospects of incorporating Game Based Learning approaches into strategies for teaching health literacy. Results of a survey administered to youth to determine their level of involvement in video game playing indicate that key elements must be in place to ensure that a game will be played. These include action, strategy, and entertainment. Future investigation will examine the knowledge level of African American adolescent males of the nexus of certain concepts of climate change and health literacy. Climate change has significant implications for human health. This understanding will produce a scientifically based foundation for curricular and instructional decisions that include GBL. Results of this study will be used to design a video game concept and will contribute to the body of knowledge concerning environmental justice and empower individuals to make informed decisions about their own health and those they influence.

  16. Job Stress and Related Factors Among Iranian Male Staff Using a Path Analysis Model.

    Azad-Marzabadi, Esfandiar; Gholami Fesharaki, Mohammad

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, job stress has been cited as a risk factor for some diseases. Given the importance of this subject, we established a new model for classifying job stress among Iranian male staff using path analysis. This cross-sectional study was done on male staff in Tehran, Iran, 2013. The participants in the study were selected using a proportional stratum sampling method. The tools used included nine questionnaires (1- HSE questionnaire; 2- GHQ questionnaire; 3- Beck depression inventory; 4- Framingham personality type; 5- Azad-Fesharaki's physical activity questionnaire; 6- Adult attachment style questionnaire; 7- Azad socioeconomic questionnaire; 8- Job satisfaction survey; and 9- demographic questionnaire). A total of 575 individuals (all male) were recruited for the study. Their mean (±SD) age was 33.49 (±8.9) and their mean job experience was 12.79 (±8.98) years. The pathway of job stress among Iranian male staff showed an adequate model fit (RMSEA=0.021, GFI=0.99, AGFI=0.97, P=0.136). In addition, the total effect of variables like personality type (β=0.283), job satisfaction (β=0.287), and age (β=0.108) showed a positive relationship with job stress, while variables like general health (β=-0.151) and depression (β=-0.242) showed the reverse effect on job stress. According to the results of this study, we can conclude that our suggested model is suited to explaining the pathways of stress among Iranian male staff.

  17. Preferred and Actual Relative Height among Homosexual Male Partners Vary with Preferred Dominance and Sex Role

    Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Stulp, Gert; Třebický, Vít; Havlíček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541), we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant’s own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role), men that preferred a more dominant and more “active” sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more “passive” sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men. PMID:24466136

  18. Preferred and actual relative height among homosexual male partners vary with preferred dominance and sex role.

    Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Stulp, Gert; Třebický, Vít; Havlíček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541), we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant's own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role), men that preferred a more dominant and more "active" sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more "passive" sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men.

  19. Preferred and actual relative height among homosexual male partners vary with preferred dominance and sex role.

    Jaroslava Varella Valentova

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541, we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant's own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role, men that preferred a more dominant and more "active" sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more "passive" sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men.

  20. Gender Role Attitudes and Male Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration: Normative Beliefs as Moderators.

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Reidy, Dennis E; Hall, Jeffrey E

    2016-02-01

    Commonly used dating violence prevention programs assume that promotion of more egalitarian gender role attitudes will prevent dating violence perpetration. Empirical research examining this assumption, however, is limited and inconsistent. The current study examined the longitudinal association between gender role attitudes and physical dating violence perpetration among adolescent boys (n = 577; 14 % Black, 5 % other race/ethnicity) and examined whether injunctive (i.e., acceptance of dating violence) and descriptive (i.e., beliefs about dating violence prevalence) normative beliefs moderated the association. As expected, the findings suggest that traditional gender role attitudes at T1 were associated with increased risk for dating violence perpetration 18 months later (T2) among boys who reported high, but not low, acceptance of dating violence (injunctive normative beliefs) at T1. Descriptive norms did not moderate the effect of gender role attitudes on dating violence perpetration. The results suggest that injunctive norms and gender role attitudes work synergistically to increase risk for dating violence perpetration among boys; as such, simultaneously targeting both of these constructs may be an effective prevention approach.

  1. Secondary hyperparathyroidism prevalence and prognostic role in elderly males with heart failure.

    Loncar, G; Bozic, B; Cvetinovic, N; Dungen, H-D; Lainscak, M; von Haehling, S; Doehner, W; Radojicic, Z; Putnikovic, B; Trippel, T; Popovic, V

    2017-03-01

    Evaluation of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) and its prognostic impact on all-cause mortality in elderly males with heart failure (HF). Seventy three males (67 ± 7 years old) with systolic HF were included. Baseline PTH was measured. Patients were grouped according to PTH cut-off levels of 65 pg/ml (>65 pg/ml = SHPT vs. normal PTH). All-cause mortality was evaluated at 6-year follow-up. SHPT was diagnosed in 43 (59 %) patients. They were more severe compared to the patients with normal PTH regarding NYHA functional class (2.4 ± 0.5 vs. 2.1 ± 0.2, p = 0.001), quality of life score (34 ± 14 vs. 24 ± 12, p = 0.005), 6-min walking distance (378 ± 79 vs. 446 ± 73 m, p < 0.0001), left ventricular ejection fraction (27 ± 8 vs. 31 ± 7 %, p = 0.019), and NT-proBNP [2452 (3399) vs. 918 (1372) pg/ml, p < 0.0001]. No differences in age, vitamin D status, and renal function were noted between studied groups. A total of 41 (56 %) patients died within 6 years of follow-up. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed impaired long-term survival in patients with SHPT versus patients with normal PTH (p = 0.009). The rate of death was highest (75 %) in the group of patients with SHPT and NT-proBNP levels above median value (p = 0.003). Cox regression analysis demonstrated that NT-proBNP was the single independent predictor of all-cause mortality at 6-year follow-up [HR 3.698 (1.927-7.095), p < 0.0001]. SHPT was highly prevalent in elderly males with HF and was associated with impaired survival. HF patients with SHPT had more severe disease compared to the patients with normal serum PTH. Determination of serum PTH levels provided additional value to NT-proBNP for risk stratification in these patients.

  2. A role for the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol for social and high-fat food reward in male mice.

    Wei, Don; Lee, DaYeon; Li, Dandan; Daglian, Jennifer; Jung, Kwang-Mook; Piomelli, Daniele

    2016-05-01

    The endocannabinoid system is an important modulator of brain reward signaling. Investigations have focused on cannabinoid (CB1) receptors, because dissection of specific contributions of individual endocannabinoids has been limited by the available toolset. While we recently described an important role for the endocannabinoid anandamide in the regulation of social reward, it remains to be determined whether the other major endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG), serves a similar or different function. To study the role of 2-AG in natural reward, we used a transgenic mouse model (MGL-Tg mice) in which forebrain 2-AG levels are selectively reduced. We complemented behavioral analysis with measurements of brain 2-AG levels. We tested male MGL-Tg mice in conditioned place preference (CPP) tasks for high-fat food, social contact, and cocaine. We measured 2-AG content in the brain regions of interest by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Male MGL-Tg mice are impaired in developing CPP for high-fat food and social interaction, but do develop CPP for cocaine. Furthermore, compared to isolated mice, levels of 2-AG in socially stimulated wild-type mice are higher in the nucleus accumbens and ventral hippocampus (183 and 140 % of controls, respectively), but unchanged in the medial prefrontal cortex. The results suggest that reducing 2-AG-mediated endocannabinoid signaling impairs social and high-fat food reward in male mice, and that social stimulation mobilizes 2-AG in key brain regions implicated in the control of motivated behavior. The time course of this response differentiates 2-AG from anandamide, whose role in mediating social reward was previously documented.

  3. Role of antioxidant supplements in adult male albino rats intoxicated with methomyl

    Tawfik, S.M.F.M.; EI-Sherbiny, E.M.; Afifi, E.A.A.

    2007-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate and determine the protective effect of intraperitoneal administration of trace mineral selenium (Se) and antioxidant vitamins E and pantothenic acid (PA) to male albino rats intoxicated with methomyl pesticide. Four groups of rats were used in this study. The data obtained revealed that methomyl caused disturbances in liver functions, which were elucidated through ALT and AST levels, and in the levels of serum glucose and insulin. Also, the levels of serum total protein, albumin, total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol and acethylcholinesterase activity were significantly changed from those found in control rats for different periods. Treatment of rats with the antioxidant supplements ameliorated to some extent most of the disturbances in the mentioned biochemical parameter levels. The data concluded that such antioxidants could provide some protection against pesticide-induced toxicity

  4. A role for autophagy in long-term spatial memory formation in male rodents.

    Hylin, Michael J; Zhao, Jing; Tangavelou, Karthikeyan; Rozas, Natalia S; Hood, Kimberly N; MacGowan, Jacalyn S; Moore, Anthony N; Dash, Pramod K

    2018-03-01

    A hallmark of long-term memory formation is the requirement for protein synthesis. Administration of protein synthesis inhibitors impairs long-term memory formation without influencing short-term memory. Rapamycin is a specific inhibitor of target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) that has been shown to block protein synthesis and impair long-term memory. In addition to regulating protein synthesis, TORC1 also phosphorylates Unc-51-like autophagy activating kinase-1 (Ulk-1) to suppress autophagy. As autophagy can be activated by rapamycin (and rapamycin inhibits long-term memory), our aim was to test the hypothesis that autophagy inhibitors would enhance long-term memory. To examine if learning alters autophagosome number, we used male reporter mice carrying the GFP-LC3 transgene. Using these mice, we observed that training in the Morris water maze task increases the number of autophagosomes, a finding contrary to our expectations. For learning and memory studies, male Long Evans rats were used due to their relatively larger size (compared to mice), making it easier to perform intrahippocampal infusions in awake, moving animals. When the autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or Spautin-1 were administered bilaterally into the hippocampii prior to training in the Morris water maze task, the drugs did not alter learning. In contrast, when memory was tested 24 hours later by a probe trial, significant impairments were observed. In addition, intrahippocampal infusion of an autophagy activator peptide (TAT-Beclin-1) improved long-term memory. These results indicate that autophagy is not necessary for learning, but is required for long-term memory formation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Prolegomenon to the Study of "Brother" as a Male Family Role.

    Arkin, William

    1979-01-01

    Directs the reader to sibling gender relationships. Patterns of intimacy in brother-brother and brother-sister relationships are identified. Masculine gender role patterns were expressed more frequently than classic sibling rivalry. Sisters, not mothers, were discovered to be the primary socializing agent for some of men's intimate relationships…

  6. Male Gender Role Strain as a Barrier to African American Men's Physical Activity

    Griffith, Derek M.; Gunter, Katie; Allen, Julie Ober

    2011-01-01

    Despite the potential health consequences, African American men tend to treat their roles as providers, fathers, spouses, and community members as more important than engaging in health behaviors such as physical activity. We conducted 14 exploratory focus groups with 105 urban, middle-aged African American men from the Midwest to examine factors…

  7. Role for c-Abl and p73 in the radiation response of male germ cells

    Hamer, G.; Gademan, I. S.; Kal, H. B.; de rooij, D. G.

    2001-01-01

    p53 plays a central role in the induction of apoptosis of spermatogonia in response to ionizing radiation. In p53(-/-) testes, however, spermatogonial apoptosis still can be induced by ionizing radiation, so p53 independent apoptotic pathways must exist in spermatogonia. Here we show that the p53

  8. WHAT ACCOUNTS FOR MEN'S HOSTILE ATTITUDES TOWARD WOMEN?: THE INFLUENCE OF HEGEMONIC MALE ROLE NORMS AND MASCULINE GENDER ROLE STRESS

    Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined masculine gender role stress (MGRS) as a mediator of the relation between adherence to dimensions of a hegemonic masculinity and hostility toward women (HTW). Among a sample of 338 heterosexual men, results indicated that MGRS mediated the relation between adherence to the status and antifemininity norms, but not the toughness norm, and HTW. Adherence to the toughness norm maintained a positive association with HTW. These findings suggest that men's HTW develops via multiple pathways that are associated with different norms of hegemonic masculinity. Implications for the prediction of men's aggression against women are discussed. PMID:21531691

  9. What accounts for men's hostile attitudes toward women? The influence of hegemonic male role norms and masculine gender role stress.

    Gallagher, Kathryn E; Parrott, Dominic J

    2011-05-01

    This study examined masculine gender role stress (MGRS) as a mediator of the relation between adherence to dimensions of a hegemonic masculinity and hostility toward women (HTW). Among a sample of 338 heterosexual men, results indicated that MGRS mediated the relation between adherence to the status and antifemininity norms, but not the toughness norm, and HTW. Adherence to the toughness norm maintained a positive association with HTW. These findings suggest that men's HTW develops via multiple pathways that are associated with different norms of hegemonic masculinity. Implications for the prediction of men's aggression against women are discussed.

  10. The Internet's Multiple Roles in Facilitating the Sexual Orientation Identity Development of Gay and Bisexual Male Adolescents.

    Harper, Gary W; Serrano, Pedro A; Bruce, Douglas; Bauermeister, Jose A

    2016-09-01

    One emerging avenue for the exploration of adolescents' sexual orientation identity development is the Internet, since it allows for varying degrees of anonymity and exploration. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the role of the Internet in facilitating the sexual orientation identity development process of gay and bisexual male adolescents. Qualitative interviews were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of 63 gay/bisexual male adolescents (ages 15-23). Participants reported using a range of Internet applications as they explored and came to accept their sexual orientation identity, with the intended purpose and degree of anonymity desired determining which applications were used. Youth reported that the Internet provided a range of functions with regard to the exploration and acceptance of their sexual orientation identity, including (1) increasing self-awareness of sexual orientation identity, (2) learning about gay/bisexual community life, (3) communicating with other gay/bisexual people, (4) meeting other gay/bisexual people, (5) finding comfort and acceptance with sexual orientation, and (6) facilitating the coming out process. Future research and practice may explore the Internet as a platform for promoting the healthy development of gay and bisexual male adolescents by providing a developmentally and culturally appropriate venue for the exploration and subsequent commitment to an integrated sexual orientation identity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. The role of red dragon fruit peel (Hylocereus polyrhizus) to improvement blood lipid levels of hyperlipidaemia male mice

    Hernawati; Setiawan, N. A.; Shintawati, R.; Priyandoko, D.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this research was to know the role of red dragon fruit peel powder to total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and weight in the male hyperlipidaemic Balb-C mice (Mus musculus). This study used a completely randomized design (CRD) and four replicates for each dose treatments. Samples were 24 male mice that divided into six groups i.e. positive and negative controls, doses of 50; 100; 150 and 200 mg/kgBW/days red dragon fruit peel powder. Before being given treatment, mice were given feed containing high fat for 20 days until experiencing conditions hyperlipidaemia. The red dragon fruit peel powder was given at oral with used gavage for 30 days. Blood samples were taken from the tail on vena caudalis. Blood lipid samples were analysed at enzymatic with BIOLABO kits. The results of this study indicate that after administration of red dragon fruit peel powder total cholesterol levels, triglycerides and LDL-c decreased, along with increasing doses of red dragon fruit peel powder for 30 days. Furthermore showed that dragon fruit powder can increase HDL-c levels. The conclusion of this research was The red dragon fruit peel powder can improve blood lipid level of male Balb-c mice hyperlipidaemia.

  12. Role of the oxytocin system in amygdala subregions in the regulation of social interest in male and female rats.

    Dumais, Kelly M; Alonso, Andrea G; Bredewold, Remco; Veenema, Alexa H

    2016-08-25

    We previously found that oxytocin (OT) receptor (OTR) binding density in the medial amygdala (MeA) correlated positively with social interest (i.e., the motivation to investigate a conspecific) in male rats, while OTR binding density in the central amygdala (CeA) correlated negatively with social interest in female rats. Here, we determined the causal involvement of OTR in the MeA and CeA in the sex-specific regulation of social interest in adult rats by injecting an OTR antagonist (5ng/0.5μl/side) or OT (100pg/0.5μl/side) before the social interest test (4-min same-sex juvenile exposure). OTR blockade in the CeA decreased social interest in males but not females, while all other treatments had no behavioral effect. To further explore the sex-specific involvement of the OT system in the CeA in social interest, we used in vivo microdialysis to determine possible sex differences in endogenous OT release in the CeA during social interest. Interestingly, males and females showed similar levels of extracellular OT release at baseline and during social interest, suggesting that factors other than local OT release mediate the sex-specific role of CeA-OTR in social interest. Moreover, we found a positive correlation between CeA-OT release and social investigation time in females. This was further reflected by reduced CeA-OT release during social interest in females that expressed low compared to high social interest. We discuss the possibility that this reduction in OT release may be a consequence, rather than a cause, of exposure to a social stimulus. Overall, our findings show for the first time that extracellular OT release in the CeA is similar between males and females and that OTR in the CeA plays a causal role in the regulation of social interest toward juvenile conspecifics in males. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Empathy for Adolescents' Role Model Selection and Learning of DVD Content

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Strouse, Gabrielle A.; Murray, Katherine J.

    2006-01-01

    Male and female high school and college students viewed a DVD about a love story. Youth who more readily empathized with media characters were more likely to perceive same-sex characters as role models and were better able to understand the story content. The findings suggest that fantasy empathy, in which viewers become deeply involved in…

  14. The Dynamics of Male Brooding, Mating Patterns, ad Sex Roles in Pipefishes and Seahorses (Family Syngnathidae)

    Wilson, Anthony Bruce; Ahnesjö, Ingrid; Vincent, Amanda C. J.; Meyer, Axel

    2003-01-01

    Modern theory predicts that relative parental investment of the sexes in their young is a key factor responsible for sexual selection. Seahorses and pipefishes (family Syngnathidae) are extraordinary among fishes in their remarkable adaptations for paternal care and frequent occurrences of sex-role reversals (i.e., female-female competition for mates), offering exceptional opportunities to test predictions of sexual selection theory. During mating, the female transfers eggs into or onto speci...

  15. Entrepreneurial Women in Radiology: Role Models of Success.

    Anzai, Yoshimi; Meltzer, Carolyn C; DeStigter, Kristen K; Destounis, Stamatia; Pawley, Barbara K; Oates, M Elizabeth

    2016-11-01

    Radiology is undeniably male dominated. Alongside surgery and orthopedic surgery, academic radiology ranks near the bottom in having the lowest proportion of full-time female faculty members. Despite many efforts to recruit talented women, the pipeline entering the radiologic disciplines continues to flow at a trickle. One factor is the relative lack of role models for female medical students. Entrepreneurial women in radiology can lead the field with their innovation and creativity, courage, and commitment. In this article, the authors highlight two entrepreneurial female radiologists who shared their success stories at the American Association for Women Radiologists' session at the 2015 ACR annual meeting. Their successes underscore the potential for such women to serve as role models to female medical students and even college undergraduates. Despite the gender gap in radiology, the field has yielded some exceptional women who can take on challenges, overcome barriers and assume risks, create strategies and processes to operationalize their visions, secure funding, and expand their enterprises to make sustainable impacts both at home and abroad. As we move toward more patient- and family-centered care models and become increasingly visible to diverse populations, there is no better time for female leaders in radiology to inspire the next generation to join our essential and rewarding specialty. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Role of spontaneous physical activity in prediction of susceptibility to activity based anorexia in male and female rats.

    Perez-Leighton, Claudio E; Grace, Martha; Billington, Charles J; Kotz, Catherine M

    2014-08-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a chronic eating disorder affecting females and males, defined by body weight loss, higher physical activity levels and restricted food intake. Currently, the commonalities and differences between genders in etiology of AN are not well understood. Animal models of AN, such as activity-based anorexia (ABA), can be helpful in identifying factors determining individual susceptibility to AN. In ABA, rodents are given an access to a running wheel while food restricted, resulting in paradoxical increased physical activity levels and weight loss. Recent studies suggest that different behavioral traits, including voluntary exercise, can predict individual weight loss in ABA. A higher inherent drive for movement may promote development and severity of AN, but this hypothesis remains untested. In rodents and humans, drive for movement is defined as spontaneous physical activity (SPA), which is time spent in low-intensity, non-volitional movements. In this paper, we show that a profile of body weight history and behavioral traits, including SPA, can predict individual weight loss caused by ABA in male and female rats with high accuracy. Analysis of the influence of SPA on ABA susceptibility in males and females rats suggests that either high or low levels of SPA increase the probability of high weight loss in ABA, but with larger effects in males compared to females. These results suggest that the same behavioral profile can identify individuals at-risk of AN for both male and female populations and that SPA has predictive value for susceptibility to AN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. RAB-like 2 has an essential role in male fertility, sperm intra-flagellar transport, and tail assembly.

    Jennifer C Y Lo

    Full Text Available A significant percentage of young men are infertile and, for the majority, the underlying cause remains unknown. Male infertility is, however, frequently associated with defective sperm motility, wherein the sperm tail is a modified flagella/cilia. Conversely, a greater understanding of essential mechanisms involved in tail formation may offer contraceptive opportunities, or more broadly, therapeutic strategies for global cilia defects. Here we have identified Rab-like 2 (RABL2 as an essential requirement for sperm tail assembly and function. RABL2 is a member of a poorly characterized clade of the RAS GTPase superfamily. RABL2 is highly enriched within developing male germ cells, where it localizes to the mid-piece of the sperm tail. Lesser amounts of Rabl2 mRNA were observed in other tissues containing motile cilia. Using a co-immunoprecipitation approach and RABL2 affinity columns followed by immunochemistry, we demonstrated that within developing haploid germ cells RABL2 interacts with intra-flagella transport (IFT proteins and delivers a specific set of effector (cargo proteins, including key members of the glycolytic pathway, to the sperm tail. RABL2 binding to effector proteins is regulated by GTP. Perturbed RABL2 function, as exemplified by the Mot mouse line that contains a mutation in a critical protein-protein interaction domain, results in male sterility characterized by reduced sperm output, and sperm with aberrant motility and short tails. Our data demonstrate a novel function for the RABL protein family, an essential role for RABL2 in male fertility and a previously uncharacterised mechanism for protein delivery to the flagellum.

  18. Reproductive toxicity after levetiracetam administration in male rats: Evidence for role of hormonal status and oxidative stress.

    Merve Baysal

    Full Text Available Levetiracetam (LEV is an antiepileptic drug commonly used in the treatment of epilepsy because of its excellent safety profile in all age groups. It is remarkable that there are no studies evaluating the toxic effects of this drug on the male reproductive system, as it is commonly used in male patients of reproductive age. From this point of view, our aim was to evaluate the possible toxic effects of LEV on the male reproductive system. Therefore, LEV was administered to male rats orally at 50, 150, and 300 mg/kg for 70 consecutive days. At the end of this period, alterations to body and organ weights were calculated, and sperm concentration, motility, and morphology were investigated by a computer-assisted sperm analysis system. Sperm DNA damage was determined by comet assay and histopathological examination of the testes was carried out. Serum testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, and luteinizing hormone (LH levels were measured by ELISAs to determine the effects of hormonal status, while glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and malondialdehyde levels in the testes were measured by colorimetric assay kits to determine the role of oxidative status in potential toxicity. According to the results, sperm quality was decreased by LEV treatment in a dose-dependent manner. LEV induced significant DNA damage in the 150 and 300 mg/kg LEV-administered groups. Histopathology of the testes showed that LEV resulted in testicular injury in the 300 mg/kg LEV-administered group. Serum testosterone, FSH, and LH levels were significantly decreased in the 300 mg/kg LEV-administered group. Glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase levels were significantly decreased in all experimental groups while malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased in 150 and 300 mg/kg LEV-administered groups. According to these results, it was determined that LEV administration decreased sperm quality and it was alleged that hormonal alteration and

  19. Male role norms, knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of colorectal cancer screening among young adult African American men

    Charles R. Rogers, Ph.D., CHES

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Racial disparities in health among African American men in the United States are extensive. In contrast to their White counterparts, African American men have more illnesses and die younger. African American men have colorectal cancer (CRC incidence and mortality rates 25% and 50% higher, respectively, than White men. Due to CRC’s younger age at presentation and high incidence among African American men, CRC screening is warranted at the age of 45 rather than 50, but little is known about younger African American men’s views of CRC screening. Employing survey design, the purpose of the study was to describe the male role norms, knowledge, attitudes, perceived subjective norms, and perceived barriers associated with screening for CRC among a non-random sample of 157 young adult African American men (ages 19-45. Sixty-seven percent of the study sample received a passing knowledge score (85% or better, yet no significant differences were found among the three educational levels (i.e., low, medium, high. More negative attitudes towards CRC screening correlated with the participants’ strong perceptions of barriers, but no extremely negative or positive male role norms and perceived subjective norms were found. The factors significantly associated with attitudes were family history of cancer (unsure, work status, and perceived barriers. Findings from this study provide a solid basis for developing structured health education interventions that address the salient factors shaping young adult African American men's view of CRC and early detection screening behaviors.

  20. Role of carnitine in ameliorating the lead and / or irradiation induced toxicity in male albino rats

    El-Sayed, N.M.

    2005-01-01

    This work: aimed to investigate the protective effect of carnitine (3-hydroxy-4-N-trimethyl amino butyric acid) on the contents of total protein, albumin, glucose and lipid peroxides as malonaldehyde (MDA) in serum, in addition to liver glycogen and lipid peroxides content 1, 2, 4 weeks after exposure of rats to a collective dose of 4 Gy whole body gamma irradiation and / or lead treatment. Adult male rats received lead (50 mg/kg body weight) and / or exposed to fractionated dose (4 Gy) of gamma irradiation delivered as 0.5 Gy twice weekly for four weeks. Results of the present study revealed that fractionated whole body gamma irradiation and / or lead administration induced cellular damage manifested by a significant decrease in serum total protein and albumin, and a significant increase in serum glucose and MDA content as well as significant increase in liver glycogen and MDA. Administration of carnitine (200 mg/kg b.wt.) before lead and / or gamma irradiation, has significantly ameliorated the observed changes, indicating the prophylactic action of carnitine on lead and / or irradiation toxicity

  1. Avoiding escalation from play to aggression in adult male rats: The role of ultrasonic calls.

    Burke, Candace J; Kisko, Theresa M; Pellis, Sergio M; Euston, David R

    2017-11-01

    Play fighting is most commonly associated with juvenile animals, but in some species, including rats, it can continue into adulthood. Post-pubertal engagement in play fighting is often rougher and has an increased chance of escalation to aggression, making the use of play signals to regulate the encounter more critical. During play, both juvenile and adult rats emit many 50-kHz calls and some of these may function as play facilitating signals. In the present study, unfamiliar adult male rats were introduced in a neutral enclosure and their social interactions were recorded. While all pairs escalated their playful encounters to become rougher, only the pairs in which one member was devocalized escalated to serious biting. A Monte Carlo shuffling technique was used for the analysis of the correlations between the overt playful and aggressive actions performed and the types and frequencies of various 50-kHz calls that were emitted. The analysis revealed that lower frequency (20-30kHz) calls with a flat component maybe particularly critical for de-escalating encounters and so allowing play to continue. Moreover, coordinating calls reciprocally, with either the same call mimicked in close, temporal association or with complementary calls emitted by participants as they engage in complementary actions (e.g., attacking the nape, being attacked on the nape), appeared to be ways with which calls could be potentially used to avoid escalation to aggression and so sustain playful interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of Vitamin C As A Potent Antioxidant in Acute Radiation Induced Liver Disease (RILD) Among Male Albino Rats

    Ezz El Arab, A.; Ayad, S.K.Y.; El Fouly, A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated the role of vitamin C as antioxidant in alleviating organ damage caused by gamma irradiation. The present study was conducted to find out the effect of vitamin C on liver biochemical functions such as serum ALT, AST, albumin and bilirubin after experimental liver damage induced by gamma irradiation. Rats irradiated with gamma radiation were used as a model of liver injury terminating with necro inflammatory activity and acute hepatitis. Forty male albino rats were classified into 6 groups (G0-G5). G0 included 8 male albino rats that were divided to 2 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup). Both subgroups were exposed to gamma irradiation with 6 Gy as a single dose. The first subgroup was left for 3 weeks then serum and liver samples were collected while in the second subgroup, 2 rats were died and the remaining 2 rats were left for 6 weeks then serum and liver samples were collected. G1 was the negative control while in the rest groups, the whole body of rats was exposed to gamma irradiation of dose 8 Gy divided to 2 doses (4 Gy/one dose) at one week interval in between. G2 included 12 albino rats divided into 3 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup). The whole body of albino rats of G2 was exposed to 8 Gy gamma irradiation that divided as mentioned before. Serum and liver samples were collected after one day, two days and four days after last dose of irradiation. G3 also included 8 rats that were divided into 2 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup) and whole body was exposed to 8 Gy gamma irradiation that were divided as mentioned before. Serum and liver samples were collected after one week for one subgroup and 2 weeks for other subgroup after last dose of irradiation. The rest 2 groups (4 rats/group) were exposed to 8Gy gamma irradiation divided as before, but the rats in one group were orally supplemented with low dose of vitamin C. G4 and the others were supplemented with high dose of vitamin C for 2 weeks starting after last dose of irradiation (G5) then serum

  3. Modelling Socio-Economic Differences in the Mortality of Danish Males Using a New Affluence Index

    Cairns, Andrew J.G.; Kallestrup-Lamb, Malene; Rosenskjold, Carsten Paysen T.

    We investigate and model how the mortality of Danish males aged 55-94 has changed over the period 1985-2012. We divide the population into ten socio-economic subgroups using a new measure of affluence that combines wealth and income reported on the Statistics Denmark national register database...... possible without losing the essential character of the raw data. The model produces bio-demographically reasonable forecasts of mortality rates that preserve the sub-group rankings at all ages. It also satisfies reasonableness criteria related to the term structure of correlations across ages and over time...

  4. A male with unilateral microphthalmia reveals a role for TMX3 in eye development.

    Ryan Chao

    Full Text Available Anophthalmia and microphthalmia are important birth defects, but their pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. We studied a patient with severe unilateral microphthalmia who had a 2.7 Mb deletion at chromosome 18q22.1 that was inherited from his mother. In-situ hybridization showed that one of the deleted genes, TMX3, was expressed in the retinal neuroepithelium and lens epithelium in the developing murine eye. We re-sequenced TMX3 in 162 patients with anophthalmia or microphthalmia, and found two missense substitutions in unrelated patients: c.116G>A, predicting p.Arg39Gln, in a male with unilateral microphthalmia and retinal coloboma, and c.322G>A, predicting p.Asp108Asn, in a female with unilateral microphthalmia and severe micrognathia. We used two antisense morpholinos targeted against the zebrafish TMX3 orthologue, zgc:110025, to examine the effects of reduced gene expression in eye development. We noted that the morphant larvae resulting from both morpholinos had significantly smaller eye sizes and reduced labeling with islet-1 antibody directed against retinal ganglion cells at 2 days post fertilization. Co-injection of human wild type TMX3 mRNA rescued the small eye phenotype obtained with both morpholinos, whereas co-injection of human TMX3(p.Arg39Gln mutant mRNA, analogous to the mutation in the patient with microphthalmia and coloboma, did not rescue the small eye phenotype. Our results show that haploinsufficiency for TMX3 results in a small eye phenotype and represents a novel genetic cause of microphthalmia and coloboma. Future experiments to determine if other thioredoxins are important in eye morphogenesis and to clarify the mechanism of function of TMX3 in eye development are warranted.

  5. Examining the Role of Supportive Family Connection in Violence Exposure Among Male Youth in Urban Environments.

    Culyba, Alison J; Ginsburg, Kenneth R; Fein, Joel A; Branas, Charles C; Richmond, Therese S; Miller, Elizabeth; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2016-04-24

    Family connection has demonstrated protective effects on violence perpetration, victimization, and witnessing in the general U.S. adolescent population. However, several studies examining the impact of family connection on violence exposure in adolescents living in low-resource urban environments have failed to demonstrate similar protective effects. We interviewed male youth in low-resource neighborhoods in Philadelphia recruited through household random sampling. Adjusted logistic regression was used to test whether a supportive relationship with an adult family member was inversely associated with violence involvement and violence witnessing. In 283 youth participants aged 10 to 24 years, 33% reported high violence involvement, 30% reported high violence witnessing, and 17% reported both. Youth who identified at least one supportive adult family member were significantly less likely to report violence involvement (odds ratio [OR] = 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.18, 0.69]) and violence witnessing (OR = 0.46; 95% CI = [0.24, 0.88]). Youth with two supportive parents, and those with supportive mothers only, also demonstrated significant inverse associations with violence involvement. Supportive parental relationships were inversely but not significantly related to witnessing violence. The findings suggest that supportive parental relationships may not prevent youth in low-resource neighborhoods from witnessing violence but may help prevent direct violence involvement. Next studies should be designed such that the mechanisms that confer protection can be identified, and should identify opportunities to bolster family connection that may reduce adolescent violence involvement among youth in low-resource urban environments. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. The Establishment of Metabolic Syndrome Model by Induction of Fructose Drinking Water in Male Wistar Rats

    Norshalizah Mamikutty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metabolic syndrome can be caused by modification of diet by means of consumption of high carbohydrate and high fat diet such as fructose. Aims. To develop a metabolic syndrome rat model by induction of fructose drinking water (FDW in male Wistar rats. Methods. Eighteen male Wistar rats were fed with FDW 20% and FDW 25% for a duration of eight weeks. The physiological changes with regard to food and fluid intake, as well as calorie intake, were measured. The metabolic changes such as obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and hyperglycaemia were determined. Data was presented in mean ± SEM subjected to one-way ANOVA. Results. Male Wistar rats fed with FDW 20% for eight weeks developed significant higher obesity parameters compared to those fed with FDW 25%. There was hypertrophy of adipocytes in F20 and F25. There were also systolic hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperglycemia in both groups. Conclusion. We conclude that the metabolic syndrome rat model is best established with the induction of FDW 20% for eight weeks. This was evident in the form of higher obesity parameter which caused the development of the metabolic syndrome.

  7. The role of brand trust in male customers' relationship to luxury brands.

    Hur, Won-Moo; Kim, Minsung; Kim, Hanna

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the role of brand trust in customers' luxury brand consumption behavior. Perceived value and brand satisfaction were presented within a framework as antecedents of brand trust, while brand loyalty and brand risk were presented as consequences. A face-to-face survey was administered to a sample (N = 400) of men between 25 and 54 years of age who had purchased luxury brand and non-luxury brand suits within the previous three months. The results showed the greater the hedonic value on brand satisfaction, the greater the influence of brand satisfaction on brand trust, and the greater was the effect of brand trust on brand loyalty for luxury brands as compared with non-luxury brands. Similar patterns are identified between luxury and non-luxury brands for the positive relationship between utilitarian value and brand satisfaction and the negative relationship between brand trust and brand risk.

  8. The role of a certain biological treatment on certain sexual parameters in irradiated male albino rats

    Gabr, S.A.M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The present work aims at the investigation of the following : - Assessment of radiation induced damage on thyroid gland includes: - Serum triiodothyronine (T-3) hormone. - Serum tetraiodothyronine (T-4) hormone. - Assessment of radiation induced change on testis including: - Serum testosterone. - Histopathological study on testis. - Investigation of the radioprotective role of ''estradiol benzate''estrogen as a female sex hormone on the radiation induced changes in the above mentioned parameters at single and fractionated doses tested either before and after radiation exposure. Also its selected the beneficial dose of estrogen as a protective agent on the parameters selected for the present study in irradiated rate. The result obtained from such a study would anticipate certain incidences which would happen in case of humans.6 tabs.,22 figs.,180 refs

  9. Modeling the role of environment in addiction.

    Caprioli, Daniele; Celentano, Michele; Paolone, Giovanna; Badiani, Aldo

    2007-11-15

    The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the main types of animal models used to investigate the modulatory role of environment on drug addiction. The environment can alter the responsiveness to addictive drugs in at least three major ways. First, adverse life experiences can make an individual more vulnerable to develop drug addiction or to relapse into drug seeking. Second, neutral environmental cues can acquire, through Pavlovian conditioning, the ability to trigger drug seeking even after long periods of abstinence. Third, the environment immediately surrounding drug taking can alter the behavioral, subjective, and rewarding effects of a given drug, thus influencing the propensity to use the same drug again. We have focused in particular on the results obtained using an animal model we have developed to study the latter type of drug-environment interaction.

  10. Modeling the development of drug addiction in male and female animals.

    Lynch, Wendy J

    2018-01-01

    An increasing emphasis has been placed on the development and use of animal models of addiction that capture defining features of human drug addiction, including escalation/binge drug use, enhanced motivation for the drug, preference for the drug over other reward options, use despite negative consequences, and enhanced drug-seeking/relapse vulnerability. The need to examine behavior in both males and females has also become apparent given evidence demonstrating that the addiction process occurs differently in males and females. This review discusses the procedures that are used to model features of addiction in animals, as well as factors that influence their development. Individual differences are also discussed, with a particular focus on sex differences. While no one procedure consistently produces all characteristics, different models have been developed to focus on certain characteristics. A history of escalating/binge patterns of use appears to be critical for producing other features characteristic of addiction, including an enhanced motivation for the drug, enhanced drug seeking, and use despite negative consequences. These characteristics tend to emerge over abstinence, and appear to increase rather than decrease in magnitude over time. In females, these characteristics develop sooner during abstinence and/or following less drug exposure as compared to males, and for psychostimulant addiction, may require estradiol. Although preference for the drug over other reward options has been demonstrated in non-human primates, it has been more difficult to establish in rats. Future research is needed to define the parameters that optimally induce each of these features of addiction in the majority of animals. Such models are essential for advancing our understanding of human drug addiction and its treatment in men and women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessing the putative roles of X-autosome and X-Y interactions in hybrid male sterility of the Drosophila bipectinata species complex.

    Mishra, Paras Kumar; Singh, Bashisth Narayan

    2007-07-01

    Interspecific F1 hybrid males of the Drosophila bipectinata species complex are sterile, while females are fertile, following Haldane's rule. A backcross scheme involving a single recessive visible marker on the X chromosome has been used to assess the putative roles of X-autosome and X-Y interactions in hybrid male sterility in the D. bipectinata species complex. The results suggest that X-Y interactions are playing the major role in hybrid male sterility in the crosses D. bipectinata x D. parabipectinata and D. bipectinata x D. pseudoananassae, while X-autosome interactions are largely involved in hybrid male sterility in the crosses D. malerkotliana x D. bipectinata and D. malerkotliana x D. parabipectinata. However, by using this single marker it is not possible to rule out the involvement of autosome-autosome interactions in hybrid male sterility. These findings also lend further support to the phylogenetic relationships among 4 species of the D. bipectinata complex.

  12. Evaluation of Mid-Size Male Hybrid III Models for use in Spaceflight Occupant Protection Analysis

    Putnam, J.; Somers, J.; Wells, J.; Newby, N.; Currie-Gregg, N.; Lawrence, C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In an effort to improve occupant safety during dynamic phases of spaceflight, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has worked to develop occupant protection standards for future crewed spacecraft. One key aspect of these standards is the identification of injury mechanisms through anthropometric test devices (ATDs). Within this analysis, both physical and computational ATD evaluations are required to reasonably encompass the vast range of loading conditions any spaceflight crew may encounter. In this study the accuracy of publically available mid-size male HIII ATD finite element (FE) models are evaluated within applicable loading conditions against extensive sled testing performed on their physical counterparts. Methods: A series of sled tests were performed at the Wright Patterson Air force Base (WPAFB) employing variations of magnitude, duration, and impact direction to encompass the dynamic loading range for expected spaceflight. FE simulations were developed to the specifications of the test setup and driven using measured acceleration profiles. Both fast and detailed FE models of the mid-size male HIII were ran to quantify differences in their accuracy and thus assess the applicability of each within this field. Results: Preliminary results identify the dependence of model accuracy on loading direction, magnitude, and rate. Additionally the accuracy of individual response metrics are shown to vary across each model within evaluated test conditions. Causes for model inaccuracy are identified based on the observed relationships. Discussion: Computational modeling provides an essential component to ATD injury metric evaluation used to ensure the safety of future spaceflight occupants. The assessment of current ATD models lays the groundwork for how these models can be used appropriately in the future. Identification of limitations and possible paths for improvement aid in the development of these effective analysis tools.

  13. The role of postdeployment social factors in linking deployment experiences and current posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology among male and female veterans.

    Smith, Brian N; Wang, Joyce M; Vaughn-Coaxum, Rachel A; Di Leone, Brooke A L; Vogt, Dawne

    2017-01-01

    The postdeployment social context is likely highly salient in explaining mental health symptoms following deployment. The aim of this study was to examine the role of postdeployment social factors (social support and social reintegration difficulty) in linking deployment-related experiences (warfare exposure, sexual harassment, concerns about relationship disruptions, and deployment social support) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology in male and female veterans. A survey was administered to 998 potential participants (after accounting for undeliverable mail) who had returned from deployment to Afghanistan or Iraq. Completed surveys were received from 469 veterans, yielding a response rate of 47%. Hypotheses were examined using structural equation modeling. For male and female veterans, deployment factors predicted later PTSD symptoms through postdeployment social support and social reintegration, with lower support and higher social reintegration difficulty both associated with higher PTSD symptomatology. While the final models for women and men indicated similar risk mechanisms, some differences in pathways were observed. Sexual harassment presented more of a risk for women, whereas lower social support was a greater risk factor for men. Postdeployment social factors appear to represent potentially important targets for interventions aiming to reduce the potential impact of stressful deployment experiences.

  14. Role of human- and animal-sperm studies in the evaluation of male reproductive hazards

    Wyrobek, A.J.; Gordon, L.; Watchmaker, G.

    1982-04-07

    Human sperm tests provide a direct means of assessing chemically induced spermatogenic dysfunction in man. Available tests include sperm count, motility, morphology (seminal cytology), and Y-body analyses. Over 70 different human exposures have been monitored in various groups of exposed men. The majority of exposures studied showed a significant change from control in one or more sperm tests. When carefully controlled, the sperm morphology test is statistically the most sensitive of these human sperm tests. Several sperm tests have been developed in nonhuman mammals for the study of chemical spermatotoxins. The sperm morphology test in mice has been the most widely used. Results with this test seem to be related to germ-cell mutagenicity. In general, animal sperm tests should play an important role in the identification and assessment of potential human reproductive hazards. Exposure to spermatotoxins may lead to infertility, and more importantly, to heritable genetic damage. While there are considerable animal and human data suggesting that sperm tests may be used to detect agents causing infertility, the extent to which these tests detect heritable genetic damage remains unclear. (ERB)

  15. Antioxidant role of inositol hexaphosphate on male rats after short-term exposure to ionizing radiation

    Mansour, S.Z.; Aly, S.M.E.; Ibrahim, N.K.

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the potency of Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) as a natural protective agent against gamma-irradiation induced intracellular free radical such as superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical. Swiss albino rats were gavaged by orally tube with 6 doses (day after day) with IP6 mg/kg body wt) alone or even before exposure the animals to whole body gamma-radiation with single dose of 6 Gy 30 min post the last injection of IP6. Lipid peroxide (LP), Glutathione (GSH) levels and the activity of the antioxidant scavenger enzyme Catalase were estimated in blood, liver, kidney and spleen at day 1 post-irradiation. Some metals concentrations were determined to demonstrate the role of IP6 as chelating agent. Radiation exposure showed marked elevation in LP level accompanied by decline in GSH content and in the activity of related antioxidant enzyme Pretreatment with IP6 potentially reversed the investigated parameters in irradiated rats. It modulated LP, and ameliorated to a great extent GSH content and the activity of Catalase enzyme in blood, liver, kidney and spleen of rats exposed to gamma-irradiation

  16. Men's childbearing desires and views of the male role in Europe at the dawn of the 21st century

    Jürgen Dorbritz

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of modern family patterns of the past decades has been accompanied by substantial changes in social norms, values and gender relations. There is theoretical support for the assumption that the persistence of low fertility levels across Europe is likely to be linked to the incomplete gender revolution, more specifically to the lack of, or only limited changes in the male gender role as opposed to women's role. In order to have a deeper understanding of the development of fertility, we aim to shed more light on the impact of men's role orientation on their fertility intentions in this study. Our analyses include men aged 20-44 years in eight countries: Austria, Estonia, East Germany, West Germany, Italy, Lithuania, the Netherlands and Poland. The data are extracted from the Population Policy Acceptance Study of the early 2000s. Examining within-country differences, we find that men with egalitarian attitudes seem to have higher fertility aspirations than their traditional counterparts in contemporary Europe. This is supported by both the descriptive and the multivariate analyses. The picture is somewhat less conclusive though when we focus on country-rankings by intended family size and by the prevalence of egalitarian versus traditional attitudes.

  17. Radioprotective and Anti-infertility Role of Resveratrol in Adult Male Rats Exposed to Whole-body ?-Irradiation

    Ahmed, M.M.; Tawfik, S.S.

    2010-01-01

    GAMMA-Radiation destroys the process of spermatogenesis and even leads to male infertility. Moreover, seminal oxidative stress is known to end in per oxidative damage of the sperm plasma membrane and loss of its DNA integrity. Man infertility is defined as one year of regular and unprotected intercourse without conception. Plants provide a treatment option that is affordable and available for infertile couples and phyto therapy is an essential form of treatment in nowadays health system. Resveratrol (RSV) is a natural phytoalexin with a wide range of biological activities. Male rats were divided into six groups under investigation, each of six animals. Control group, two RSV groups which received intra gastric RSV (20 and 40 mg kg-1 day-1) for 7 weeks, irradiated group (2 Gy gamma-rays) and two irradiated and RSV groups which received the same preceding doses of RSV for the same period after 2 Gy gamma-rays exposure. Hormonal assay in serum; testosterone, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin were recorded for fertility assessment. The abnormalities occurred in the reproductive system of the irradiated rats were evaluated: Chromosomal aberration frequencies in spermatocytes, metaphase-1, sperm-head abnormalities and oxidative parameters in testes tissue; malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO). Also, the findings suggest that the anti-fertility effect of melatonin was proved to be transient and reversed completely or in part at the end of the second recovery period. The results showed that RSV has a curative role against the oxidative stress involved by gamma-rays in the rats and showed a significant improvement on the male reproductive functions.

  18. The protective role of bee honey against the toxic effect of melamine in the male rat kidney.

    Al-Seeni, Madeha N; El Rabey, Haddad A; Al-Solamy, Suad M

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to test the protective role of natural bee honey against melamine toxicity in the kidney of male albino rats. The dietary supplementation of melamine at a dose of 20,000 ppm for 28 days induced renal dysfunction, as reflected by a significant increase in kidney function parameters (urea, creatinine, and uric acid) and an increase in potassium levels. In addition, a decrease in catalase and glutathione-S-transferase and an increase in lipid peroxide in the kidney tissue homogenate were also observed. Histological changes in the melamine-treated group revealed hyperplasia and damage in kidney cells and the accumulation of melamine crystals in kidney tissues. Honey treatment for 28 days in rats concurrently administered melamine at a dose of 2.5 g/kg body weight for 28 days improved the kidney function, increased antioxidant enzymes, and decreased lipid peroxide levels. The morphology of the kidney cells of the melamine-fed rats was also improved as a result of honey treatment. In conclusion, this study revealed that natural bee honey protects the kidney against the adverse effects induced by melamine toxicity in male albino rats. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Modeling the Impact of Uganda's Safe Male Circumcision Program: Implications for Age and Regional Targeting.

    Kripke, Katharine; Vazzano, Andrea; Kirungi, William; Musinguzi, Joshua; Opio, Alex; Ssempebwa, Rhobbinah; Nakawunde, Susan; Kyobutungi, Sheila; Akao, Juliet N; Magala, Fred; Mwidu, George; Castor, Delivette; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Uganda aims to provide safe male circumcision (SMC) to 80% of men ages 15-49 by 2016. To date, only 2 million men have received SMC of the 4.2 million men required. In response to age and regional trends in SMC uptake, the country sought to re-examine its targets with respect to age and subnational region, to assess the program's progress, and to refine the implementation approach. The Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0), was used in conjunction with incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM) to conduct this analysis. Population, births, deaths, and HIV incidence and prevalence were used to populate the model. Baseline male circumcision prevalence was derived from the 2011 AIDS Indicator Survey. Uganda can achieve the most immediate impact on HIV incidence by circumcising men ages 20-34. This group will also require the fewest circumcisions for each HIV infection averted. Focusing on men ages 10-19 will offer the greatest impact over a 15-year period, while focusing on men ages 15-34 offers the most cost-effective strategy over the same period. A regional analysis showed little variation in cost-effectiveness of scaling up SMC across eight regions. Scale-up is cost-saving in all regions. There is geographic variability in program progress, highlighting two regions with low baseline rates of circumcision where additional efforts will be needed. Focusing SMC efforts on specific age groups and regions may help to accelerate Uganda's SMC program progress. Policy makers in Uganda have already used model outputs in planning efforts, proposing males ages 10-34 as a priority group for SMC in the 2014 application to the Global Fund's new funding model. As scale-up continues, the country should also consider a greater effort to expand SMC in regions with low MC prevalence.

  20. Modeling the Impact of Uganda's Safe Male Circumcision Program: Implications for Age and Regional Targeting.

    Katharine Kripke

    Full Text Available Uganda aims to provide safe male circumcision (SMC to 80% of men ages 15-49 by 2016. To date, only 2 million men have received SMC of the 4.2 million men required. In response to age and regional trends in SMC uptake, the country sought to re-examine its targets with respect to age and subnational region, to assess the program's progress, and to refine the implementation approach.The Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0, was used in conjunction with incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM to conduct this analysis. Population, births, deaths, and HIV incidence and prevalence were used to populate the model. Baseline male circumcision prevalence was derived from the 2011 AIDS Indicator Survey. Uganda can achieve the most immediate impact on HIV incidence by circumcising men ages 20-34. This group will also require the fewest circumcisions for each HIV infection averted. Focusing on men ages 10-19 will offer the greatest impact over a 15-year period, while focusing on men ages 15-34 offers the most cost-effective strategy over the same period. A regional analysis showed little variation in cost-effectiveness of scaling up SMC across eight regions. Scale-up is cost-saving in all regions. There is geographic variability in program progress, highlighting two regions with low baseline rates of circumcision where additional efforts will be needed.Focusing SMC efforts on specific age groups and regions may help to accelerate Uganda's SMC program progress. Policy makers in Uganda have already used model outputs in planning efforts, proposing males ages 10-34 as a priority group for SMC in the 2014 application to the Global Fund's new funding model. As scale-up continues, the country should also consider a greater effort to expand SMC in regions with low MC prevalence.

  1. Transient population dynamics of mosquitoes during sterile male releases: modelling mating behaviour and perturbations of life history parameters.

    Christopher M Stone

    Full Text Available The release of genetically-modified or sterile male mosquitoes offers a promising form of mosquito-transmitted pathogen control, but the insights derived from our understanding of male mosquito behaviour have not fully been incorporated into the design of such genetic control or sterile-male release methods. The importance of aspects of male life history and mating behaviour for sterile-male release programmes were investigated by projecting a stage-structured matrix model over time. An elasticity analysis of transient dynamics during sterile-male releases was performed to provide insight on which vector control methods are likely to be most synergistic. The results suggest that high mating competitiveness and mortality costs of released males are required before the sterile-release method becomes ineffective. Additionally, if released males suffer a mortality cost, older males should be released due to their increased mating capacity. If released males are of a homogenous size and size-assortative mating occurs in nature, this can lead to an increase in the abundance of large females and reduce the efficacy of the population-suppression effort. At a high level of size-assortative mating, the disease transmission potential of the vector population increases due to male releases, arguing for the release of a heterogeneously-sized male population. The female population was most sensitive to perturbations of density-dependent components of larval mortality and female survivorship and fecundity. These findings suggest source reduction might be a particularly effective complement to mosquito control based on the sterile insect technique (SIT. In order for SIT to realize its potential as a key component of an integrated vector-management strategy to control mosquito-transmitted pathogens, programme design of sterile-male release programmes must account for the ecology, behaviour and life history of mosquitoes. The model used here takes a step in this

  2. Radio -Protective Role of Zinc Administration Pre-Exposure to Gamma-Irradiation in Male Albino Mice

    El-Dawy, H.A.; Aly El-Sayed, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the potency of zinc chloride injected subcutaneously (30 mg/kg b.w.) in male albino mice as a radio-protective agent pre exposure to gamma-irradiation. The investigation of the radio-protective role of zinc chloride was accomplished through measuring the levels of sex hormones, and observation of the chromosomal aberrations and sperm-head abnormalities after exposure to gamma-irradiation. The average of abnormal cells with chromosomal aberration and abnormal sperm % on the 7 th and 21 th days were 32% and 40%, and 14% and 22% respectively in mice exposed to radiation alone compared to 12% and 16%, and 5% and 12% respectively in mice treated with zinc chloride pre-irradiation. Treatment of mice with zinc chloride pre-irradiation induced significant amelioration in FSH and LH hormone levels on the 7 th day only of experimentation period, and showed non-significant amelioration in testosterone level

  3. Socio-historical paths of the male breadwinner model - an explanation of cross-national differences.

    Pfau-Effinger, Birgit

    2004-09-01

    It is often assumed that in the historical transformation to modern industrial society, the integration of women into the economy occurred everywhere as a three-phase process: in pre-modern societies, the extensive integration of women into societal production; then, their wide exclusion with the shift to industrial society; and finally, their re-integration into paid work during the further course of modernization. Results from the author's own international comparative study of the historical development of the family and the economic integration of women have shown that this was decidedly not the case even for western Europe. Hence the question arises: why is there such historical variation in the development and importance of the housewife model of the male breadwinner family? In the article, an explanation is presented. It is argued that the historical development of the urban bourgeoisie was especially significant for the historical destiny of this cultural model: the social and political strength of the urban bourgeoisie had central societal importance in the imposition of the housewife model of the male breadwinner family as the dominant family form in a given society. In this, it is necessary to distinguish between the imposition of the breadwinner marriage at the cultural level on the one hand, and at the level of social practice in the family on the other.

  4. Role of dopamine D4 receptors in copulatory behavior: Studies with selective D4 agonists and antagonists in male rats.

    Sanna, Fabrizio; Contini, Andrea; Melis, Maria Rosaria; Argiolas, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Dopamine influences the anticipatory and consummatory phases of sexual behavior, by acting on receptors of the D2 family (D2, D3 and D4) and in particular of the D2 subtype, although evidence for a role of D4 receptors in erectile function and copulatory behavior is also available. In order to clarify such a role of D4 receptors, the effect of selective D4 receptor agonists and antagonists on copulatory behavior of sexually potent male rats in classic copulation tests with a receptive female, was compared with that of apomorphine and haloperidol, a classic dopamine receptor agonist and antagonist, respectively. PD-168,077 (0.05-0.2mg/kg) and ABT-724 (0.01-0.04mg/kg), two selective D4 receptor agonists, given subcutaneously, improved dose-dependently copulatory behavior as shown by the decrease of mount frequency and post ejaculatory interval induced by PD-168,077, and of mount frequency, ejaculation latency, post ejaculatory and inter intromission intervals induced by ABT-724, and by the increase of ejaculation frequency and copulatory efficacy induced by both drugs. Conversely, L-745,870 (1-5mg/kg), a selective D4 receptor antagonist, given intraperitoneally, impaired dose-dependently copulatory behavior, as shown by the increase in intromission and ejaculation latencies, mount frequency, post ejaculatory interval and the decrease in ejaculation frequency and copulatory efficacy induced by this drug. L-745,870 (5mg/kg) administered before PD-168,077 (0.2mg/kg) or ABT-724 (0.04mg/kg), also abolished completely the facilitatory effects of both PD-168,077 and ABT-724 on sexual behavior. These results confirm the involvement of D4 receptors in specific aspects of male rat copulatory behavior that overlap only partially with those influenced by apomorphine and haloperidol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The protective role of melatonin on L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis in adult male albino rats.

    Sadek, A S; Khattab, R T

    2017-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease that has an increasing incidence worldwide. AP is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates ranging 15-40% in its severe form. Oxidative stress plays an important role in pancreatic acinar cell injury in case of AP. Melatonin (Mel) is proven to have both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of the work was to investigate the protective role of Mel against L-arginine (L-arg)-induced AP in adult male albino rats. Thirty-six adult male albino rats were used in this study. Animals were divided into four groups; Control group (Group A; n = 6), Mel group (Group B; n = 6), L-arg group (Group C; n = 12) receiving two doses of L-arg injection with 1 h interval in-between, and L-arg+Mel group (Group D; n = 12) receiving Mel 1 h after each L-arg injection. 24 h after the second L-arg injection, the serum levels of amylase (AM), lipase (LP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrotic factor-alpha (TNF-α) were determined. Then, pancreatic specimens were processed for histological and immunohistochemical staining with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the area percentage of VEGF and collagen content were measured by digital image analysis. Microscopic examination revealed that animals received L-arg only (Group C) showed loss of the pancreatic lobular architecture with marked fibrosis, acinar degeneration, inflammatory reaction and marked oedema with vascular congestion. Also, L-arg-induced AP caused a significant elevation of the serum levels of AM, LP, IL-6. All these histo-pathological and serological parameters were markedly improved by Mel administration. Melatonin exhibits strong therapeutic effects in the course of AP. Hence, the use of Mel as adjuvant treatment in AP is recommended.

  6. Identification of miRNAs with potential roles in regulation of anther development and male-sterility in 7B-1 male-sterile tomato mutant

    Omidvar, Vahid; Mohorianu, I.; Dalmay, T.; Fellner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, OCT 28 (2015), s. 878 ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : 7B-1 mutation * Solanum lycopersicum * Male-sterility Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.867, year: 2015

  7. The role of brain peptides in the reproduction of blue gourami males (Trichogaster trichopterus).

    Levy, Gal; Degani, Gad

    2013-10-01

    In all vertebrates, reproduction and growth are closely linked and both are controlled by complex hormonal interactions at the brain-pituitary level. In this study, we focused on the reciprocal interactions between brain peptides that regulate growth and reproductive functions in a teleostei fish (blue gourami Trichogaster trichopterus). An increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1) gene expression was detected during ontogeny, and this peptide increased growth hormone (GH) and β follicle-stimulating hormone (βFSH) gene expression in pituitary cell culture. However, although no change in gonadotropin-releasing hormone 2 (GnRH2) gene expression during the reproductive cycle or sexual behavior was detected, a stimulatory effect of this peptide on β gonadotropins (βGtH) gene expression was observed. In addition, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38 (PACAP-38) inhibited GnRH-analog-induced βFSH gene expression, and co-treatment of cells with GnRH-analog and PACAP-38 inhibited GnRH-analog-stimulatory and PACAP-38-inhibitory effects on GH gene expression. These findings together with previous studies were used to create a model summarizing the mechanism of brain peptides (GnRH, PACAP and its related peptide) and the relationship to reproduction and growth through pituitary hormone gene expression during ontogenesis and reproductive stages in blue gourami. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Towards A Model of Identity and Role Exit

    Jason S. Milne

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Explanations of role exit often focus on how factors associated with a specific role that affect whether the individual will exit a role or not. Other research explains how identities affect our performance in a role. However, no one has yet to demonstrate the connection between role-set factors and identities, and role exit. Using data from a survey of 940 current and former soccer referees, this paper provides a model of role exit that involves a complex of processes that include role-set factors (structural and cultural factors associated with a specific role and identity processes. Specifically, this paper demonstrates that, other than role conflict, identity processes explain the relationship between role-set factors and role exit. The model provides a beginning method for understanding the connection between identities and role exit.

  9. The effects of simulating a realistic eye model on the eye dose of an adult male undergoing head computed tomography.

    Akhlaghi, Parisa; Ebrahimi-Khankook, Atiyeh; Vejdani-Noghreiyan, Alireza

    2017-05-01

    In head computed tomography, radiation upon the eye lens (as an organ with high radiosensitivity) may cause lenticular opacity and cataracts. Therefore, quantitative dose assessment due to exposure of the eye lens and surrounding tissue is a matter of concern. For this purpose, an accurate eye model with realistic geometry and shape, in which different eye substructures are considered, is needed. To calculate the absorbed radiation dose of visual organs during head computed tomography scans, in this study, an existing sophisticated eye model was inserted at the related location in the head of the reference adult male phantom recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Then absorbed doses and distributions of energy deposition in different parts of this eye model were calculated and compared with those based on a previous simple eye model. All calculations were done using the Monte Carlo code MCNP4C for tube voltages of 80, 100, 120 and 140 kVp. In spite of the similarity of total dose to the eye lens for both eye models, the dose delivered to the sensitive zone, which plays an important role in the induction of cataracts, was on average 3% higher for the sophisticated model as compared to the simple model. By increasing the tube voltage, differences between the total dose to the eye lens between the two phantoms decrease to 1%. Due to this level of agreement, use of the sophisticated eye model for patient dosimetry is not necessary. However, it still helps for an estimation of doses received by different eye substructures separately.

  10. Effect of Qiangji Jianli Yin on sex hormones in male rat models of splenoasthenic syndrome

    Chen Zhixi; Xu Zhiwei; Liu Xiaobin; Zhao Hui; Chen Jinyan; Li Zhiqiang; He Zanhou

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of Qiangji Jianli Yin on male rat models of splenoasthenic syndrome through changes of serum sex hormones (T, E 2 ), amylase and histologic changes of spleen, thymus, adrenals as well as to study the material foundation of spleno-renal mutual correlationship in traditional Chinese medicine. Methods: Rat models male of splenoasthenic syndrome were established with daily gavage of rhubarb decoction (2ml 2 and amylase levels were determined with RIA on d10 and d20 and the animals were sacrificed on d20 to procure spleen, thymus and adrenals for histologic study. Control rats (n=10) were given daily gavage of distilled water only. Results: Serum E 2 and T levels in the splenoasthenic syndrome models without treatment were significantly higher than those in controls rats on dl0 (P 2 levels increased further but T levels dropped markedly and were significantly lower than those in untreated group (P 2 , T on d10 were much less in the models treated with Qiangji Jianli Yin with maintenance of E 2 /T ratio. On d20 the serum E 2 levels, though increased, were much lower than those in untreated group, hence the E 2 /T ratio was also much lower than that in untreated group and differed less from that in controls. Serum amylase levels on d10 and d20 in the splenoastheic models without treatment were significantly lower than those in controls rats (P 2 might be the material foundation responsible for the spleno-renal interrelationship. Histologic changes of spleen, thymus and adrenals might be the evidence of the traditional Chinese medicine theory of 'splenoasthenic would induce renal deficiency'. (authors)

  11. A socio-sports model of disordered eating among Brazilian male athletes.

    Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo; de Oliveira, Saulo Melo Fernandes; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a socio-sports model of disordered eating (DE) in Brazilian male athletes. Three hundred and twenty one athletes over 12 years of age from 18 different sports modalities were investigated. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was applied to evaluate DE. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) was used to evaluate athlete dissatisfaction with body fat levels. The Muscularity Concern subscale of the Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS) was used to evaluate athlete dissatisfaction with muscularity levels. To investigate the influence of sociocultural factors on body image, the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) was applied. Body fat was estimated by skinfold measurement. Demographic data were collected (competitive level and training regimen). Structural equation modelling was conducted to analyse the relationships between research variables and the factors that mediate them. The results indicated that the sociocultural factors and body fat dissatisfaction adhered to socio-sports model of DE (X(2) = 18.50, p = .001, RMSEA = .069, GFI = .97, AGFI = .91, TLI = .93). The BSQ accurately predicted the relationship between SATAQ-3 and EAT-26 (R(2) = .08, p = 0.001) scores. A direct relationship between the SATAQ-3 and EAT-26 (R(2) = .07, p = 0.01) and BSQ (R(2) = .10, p = 0.001) scores was identified. No relationship was found between structural equation model and Muscularity Concern (R(2) = .02, p = 0.14), competitive level (R(2) = .01, p = 0.19), training regimen (R(2) = .03, p = 0.11) or body fat (R(2) = .02, p = 0.14). The results suggest that sociocultural factors and body fat dissatisfaction follow the socio-sports model of DE in Brazilian male athletes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of patient-centeredness and gender of professional role models on trainees' mentalization responses. Implications for film-aided education.

    Bálint, Katalin; Nagy, Tamás; Csabai, Márta

    2014-10-01

    To examine how certain characteristics of film-presented practitioner role-models influence trainees' mentalization. In an experimental setting, psychology students watched four film clips presenting a patient-practitioner session; the clips varied in the practitioner's patient-centeredness (positive vs. negative) and gender. Participants commented on the practitioner's thoughts, emotions and intentions through the session. Analysis of 116 comments focused on the effect of patient-centeredness and gender variables on mentalization and judgment utterances. Negative role-models and female role-models induced higher levels of mentalization compared to positive and male role-models. There was no gender difference in the level of mentalization; however male participants gave more judgmental responses than female participants. The patient-centeredness had a larger effect on mentalization when trainees described the opposite gender role-model. In a systematic comparison, students' capacity for mentalization differed according to role-models' patient-centeredness and gender, as well as the gender-match of students with role-models. When working with film-presented role-models, educators should be aware of the differences in the level of mentalization elicited by positive and male role-models, as opposed to negative and female role-models. Educators should also consider the gender-match between trainees and role-models, therefore students should be exposed to both cross- and same-gender role-models. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Detection of transgenerational spermatogenic inheritance of adult male acquired CNS gene expression characteristics using a Drosophila systems model.

    Abhay Sharma

    Full Text Available Available instances of inheritance of epigenetic transgenerational phenotype are limited to environmental exposures during embryonic and adult gonadal development. Adult exposures can also affect gametogenesis and thereby potentially result in reprogramming of the germline. Although examples of epigenetic effects on gametogenesis exist, it is notable that transgenerational inheritance of environment-induced adult phenotype has not yet been reported. Epigenetic codes are considered to be critical in neural plasticity. A Drosophila systems model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ induced long-term brain plasticity has recently been described. In this model, chronic PTZ treatment of adult males causes alterations in CNS transcriptome. Here, we describe our search for transgenerational spermatogenic inheritance of PTZ induced gene expression phenotype acquired by adult Drosophila males. We generated CNS transcriptomic profiles of F(1 adults after treating F(0 adult males with PTZ and of F(2 adults resulting from a cross between F(1 males and normal females. Surprisingly, microarray clustering showed F(1 male profile as closest to F(1 female and F(0 male profile closest to F(2 male. Differentially expressed genes in F(1 males, F(1 females and F(2 males showed significant overlap with those caused by PTZ. Interestingly, microarray evidence also led to the identification of upregulated rRNA in F(2 males. Next, we generated microarray expression profiles of adult testis from F(0 and F(1 males. Further surprising, clustering of CNS and testis profiles and matching of differentially expressed genes in them provided evidence of a spermatogenic mechanism in the transgenerational effect observed. To our knowledge, we report for the first time detection of transgenerational spermatogenic inheritance of adult acquired somatic gene expression characteristic. The Drosophila systems model offers an excellent opportunity to understand the epigenetic mechanisms underlying

  14. Detection of transgenerational spermatogenic inheritance of adult male acquired CNS gene expression characteristics using a Drosophila systems model.

    Sharma, Abhay; Singh, Priyanka

    2009-06-02

    Available instances of inheritance of epigenetic transgenerational phenotype are limited to environmental exposures during embryonic and adult gonadal development. Adult exposures can also affect gametogenesis and thereby potentially result in reprogramming of the germline. Although examples of epigenetic effects on gametogenesis exist, it is notable that transgenerational inheritance of environment-induced adult phenotype has not yet been reported. Epigenetic codes are considered to be critical in neural plasticity. A Drosophila systems model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced long-term brain plasticity has recently been described. In this model, chronic PTZ treatment of adult males causes alterations in CNS transcriptome. Here, we describe our search for transgenerational spermatogenic inheritance of PTZ induced gene expression phenotype acquired by adult Drosophila males. We generated CNS transcriptomic profiles of F(1) adults after treating F(0) adult males with PTZ and of F(2) adults resulting from a cross between F(1) males and normal females. Surprisingly, microarray clustering showed F(1) male profile as closest to F(1) female and F(0) male profile closest to F(2) male. Differentially expressed genes in F(1) males, F(1) females and F(2) males showed significant overlap with those caused by PTZ. Interestingly, microarray evidence also led to the identification of upregulated rRNA in F(2) males. Next, we generated microarray expression profiles of adult testis from F(0) and F(1) males. Further surprising, clustering of CNS and testis profiles and matching of differentially expressed genes in them provided evidence of a spermatogenic mechanism in the transgenerational effect observed. To our knowledge, we report for the first time detection of transgenerational spermatogenic inheritance of adult acquired somatic gene expression characteristic. The Drosophila systems model offers an excellent opportunity to understand the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the

  15. Male circumcision as strategy for HIV prevention and sexually transmitted diseases. The potential role of traditional birth attendants in neonatal male circumcision.

    Dini, Catia

    2010-01-01

    In developing countries, it would be advisable to give priority to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention strategies, because of the high mortality caused by the rapid spread of the pandemic. Furthermore, HIV prevention could contribute to the mitigation of tuberculosis (TB) propagation, which is tightly correlated to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). As demonstrated, male circumcision (MC) confers protection against HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STD). The suggested strategy considers the neonatal MC advantageous, since it is safer, feasible, culturally more acceptable and less costly than adult MC. This approach is based on the assumption that, if newborn males are circumcised, within the next 15-20 years the sexually active population will be almost entirely circumcised and, consequently, the HIV transmission will be reduced. The employment of retrained traditional birth attendants is considered in order to implement the MC after the child birth and to facilitate its acceptance in those contexts where it is not traditionally performed.

  16. Male circumcision as strategy for HIV prevention and sexually transmitted diseases: the potential role of traditional birth attendants in neonatal male circumcision

    Catia Dini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, it would be advisable to give priority to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevention strategies, because of the high mortality caused by the rapid spread of the pandemic. Furthermore, HIV prevention could contribute to the mitigation of tuberculosis (TB propagation, which is tightly correlated to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS. As demonstrated, male circumcision (MC confers protection against HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STD. The suggested strategy considers the neonatal MC advantageous, since it is safer, feasible, culturally more acceptable and less costly than adult MC. This approach is based on the assumption that, if newborn males are circumcised, within the next 15-20 years the sexually active population will be almost entirely circumcised and, consequently, the HIV transmission will be reduced. The employment of retrained traditional birth attendants is considered in order to implement the MC after the child birth and to facilitate its acceptance in those contexts where it is not traditionally performed.

  17. Softened food reduces weight loss in the streptozotocin-induced male mouse model of diabetic nephropathy

    Nørgaard, Sisse A; Sand, Fredrik W; Sørensen, Dorte B

    2018-01-01

    The streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mouse is a widely used model of diabetes and diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, it is a well-known issue that this model is challenged by high weight loss, which despite supportive measures often results in high euthanization rates. To overcome...... these issues, we hypothesized that supplementing STZ-induced diabetic mice with water-softened chow in addition to normal chow would reduce weight loss, lower the need for supportive treatment, and reduce the number of mice reaching the humane endpoint of 20% weight loss. In a 15 week STZ-induced DN study we...... demonstrated that diabetic male mice receiving softened chow had reduced acute weight loss following STZ treatment ( p = 0.045) and additionally fewer mice were euthanized due to weight loss. By supplementing the diabetic mice with softened chow, no mice reached 20% weight loss whereas 37.5% of the mice...

  18. A longitudinal investigation of the mediating role of self-esteem and body importance in the relationship between stress and body dissatisfaction in adolescent females and males.

    Murray, Kristen; Rieger, Elizabeth; Byrne, Don

    2013-09-01

    Body dissatisfaction is particularly prevalent during adolescence and has recently been linked to stress in females and males. However, prospective studies are needed to better understand the relationship between stress and body dissatisfaction. The present study investigates the direction of this association and the mediating role of self-esteem and body image importance. A sample of 298 adolescent females and males in Grades 7 to 10 (ages 12 to 17 years) were surveyed at two time points over a one-year period. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that stress significantly predicted body dissatisfaction one year later. Furthermore, a multiple mediation analysis controlling for gender revealed a significant indirect effect in both cross-sectional and longitudinal models, indicating that stress predicts reductions in self-esteem and increases in body importance, which in turn predict body dissatisfaction. These findings suggest that stress, self-esteem, and body importance should be included in programmes aimed at improving body dissatisfaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A behavioral economic analysis of the value-enhancing effects of nicotine and varenicline and the role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in male and female rats.

    Barrett, Scott T; Geary, Trevor N; Steiner, Amy N; Bevins, Rick A

    2018-04-09

    Reinforcement value enhancement by nicotine of non-nicotine rewards is believed to partially motivate smoking behavior. Recently, we showed that the value-enhancing effects of nicotine are well characterized by reinforcer demand models and that the value-enhancing effects of the smoking-cessation aid bupropion (Zyban) are distinct from those of nicotine and differ between the sexes. The present study evaluated potential sex differences in the enhancement effects of nicotine and varenicline (Chantix) using a reinforcer demand methodology. The role of α4β2* and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the enhancing effects of nicotine and varenicline is also evaluated. Male and female rats (n=12/sex) were trained to lever press maintained by sensory reinforcement by visual stimulus (VS) presentations. Changes in the VS value following nicotine and varenicline administration were assessed using an established reinforcer demand approach. Subsequently, the effects of antagonism of α4β2* and α7 nAChRs on varenicline and nicotine-induced enhancement active lever-pressing were assessed using a progressive ratio schedule. Nicotine and varenicline enhanced VS demand equivalently between the sexes as evaluated by reinforcer demand. However, α4β2* receptor antagonism attenuated value enhancement by nicotine and varenicline in females, but only of nicotine in males.

  20. Assessment of the Clinical Trainer as a Role Model: A Role Model Apperception Tool (RoMAT)

    Jochemsen-van der Leeuw, H. G. A. Ria; van Dijk, Nynke; Wieringa-de Waard, Margreet

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Positive role modeling by clinical trainers is important for helping trainees learn professional and competent behavior. The authors developed and validated an instrument to assess clinical trainers as role models: the Role Model Apperception Tool (RoMAT). Method On the basis of a 2011

  1. Construction of Korean male tomographic model segmented from PET-CT data

    Lee, Choon Sik; Park, Sang Kyun; Lee, Jai Ki

    2004-01-01

    Tomographic human models provide currently the most realistic representation of human anatomy for radiation dosimetry calculation. Most of the models have been constructed by using computed tomographic (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained from a single individual. Each scan has its inherent advantages and disadvantages. CT scan gives a considerable radiation dose to a subject, and MR scan takes too long time to get clear images of an immobile subject. An emerging source of medical images for the construction of tomographic models is PET-CT, which is performed when looking for cancer. In this study, a tomographic model of Korean adult male was developed by processing whole-body CT images of a PET-CT-scanned healthy volunteer. The 343 slices of the CT images were semi-automatically segmented layer by layer using a graphic software and screen digitizer. The 3rd Korean tomographic model, named KRMAN-2, consisting of 300x150x344 voxels of a size of 2x2x5mm 3 , was constructed. Examples of application to Monte Carlo radiation dosimetry calculation in idealized whole-body irradiations were given and discussed

  2. Animal models of physiologic markers of male reproduction: genetically defined infertile mice

    Chubb, C.

    1987-10-01

    The present report focuses on novel animal models of male infertility: genetically defined mice bearing single-gene mutations that induce infertility. The primary goal of the investigations was to identify the reproductive defects in these mutant mice. The phenotypic effects of the gene mutations were deciphered by comparing the mutant mice to their normal siblings. Initially testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis were investigated. The physiologic markers for testicular steroidogenesis were steroid secretion by testes perifused in vitro, seminal vesicle weight, and Leydig cell histology. Spermatogenesis was evaluated by the enumeration of homogenization-resistant sperm/spermatids in testes and by morphometric analyses of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium. If testicular function appeared normal, the authors investigated the sexual behavior of the mice. The parameters of male sexual behavior that were quantified included mount patency, mount frequency, intromission latency, thrusts per intromission, ejaculation latency, and ejaculation duration. Females of pairs breeding under normal circumstances were monitored for the presence of vaginal plugs and pregnancies. The patency of the ejaculatory process was determined by quantifying sperm in the female reproductive tract after sexual behavior tests. Sperm function was studied by quantitatively determining sperm motility during videomicroscopic observation. Also, the ability of epididymal sperm to function within the uterine environment was analyzed by determining sperm capacity to initiate pregnancy after artificial insemination. Together, the experimental results permitted the grouping of the gene mutations into three general categories. They propose that the same biological markers used in the reported studies can be implemented in the assessment of the impact that environmental toxins may have on male reproduction.

  3. The possible role of low doses of Cerastes cerastes crude venom in mitigating doxorubicin induced oxidative damage in male rats

    Salama, S. F.; AL-Sadoon, M. K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible role of Cerastes cerastes crude venom (CCV) in attenuating (doxorubicin) DOX oxidative damage in male rats. Forty male rats, matched in age and weight were sorted into four groups, control, CCV-group, DOX-group and CCV + DOX-groups. DOX given as a single dose i.p. injection of 10 mg per kg body weight) induced a significant increase in serum advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), malondialdehyde (MDA), urea, total proteins, AST, ALT, triglycerides and cholesterol. Meanwhile significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dimutase (SOD),uric acid as well as RBCs, platelet counts, hemoglobin content (Hb), haematocrit value (Hct), total leukocytes, neutrophils and lymphocytes count was recorded after 14 days. CCV i.p. injected daily at a dose of . LD50 for 14 days showed a significant decrease of the content of serum AOPP and MDA, lymphocytes and a significant increase of GSH, uric acid, RBCs count, Hb, Hct, total proteins, triglycerides, neutrophils count compared to control. In DOX+ CCV-group, CCV was given daily for 7 days before DOX, 10 mg/kg, followed by CCV for 7 more days, a significant inhibition of the serum triglycerides, cholesterol, urea and total protein, AST, ALT, AOPP, MDA, and a significant elevation of GSH, SOD, uric acid, RBCs, platelet counts, Hb, Hct, were shown as compared with DOX- group. It could be concluded that CCV at low doses can be used as a natural antioxidant to alleviate oxidative injuries of DOX.

  4. The possible role of low doses of Cerastes cerastes crude venom in mitigating doxorubicin induced oxidative damage in male rats

    Salama, S.F.; AL-Sadoon, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible role of Cerastes cerastes crude venom (CCV) in attenuating (doxorubicin) DOX oxidative damage in male rats. Forty male rats, matched in age and weight were sorted into four groups, control, CCV-group, DOX-group and CCV + DOX-groups. DOX given as a single dose i.p. injection of 10 mg per kg body weight) induced a significant increase in serum advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP),malondialdehyde (MDA), urea, total proteins, AST, ALT, triglycerides and cholesterol. Meanwhile significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dimutase (SOD),uric acid as well as RBCs, platelet counts, hemoglobin content (Hb), haematocrit value (Hct), total leukocytes, neutrophils and lymphocytes count was recorded after 14 days. CCV i.p. injected daily at a dose of 1/4 LD 50 for 14 days showed a significant decrease of the content of serum AOPP and MDA, lymphocytes and a significant increase of GSH, uric acid, RBCs count, Hb, Hct, total proteins, triglycerides, neutrophils count compared to control. In DOX+ CCV-group, CCV was given daily for 7 days before DOX, 10 mg/kg, followed by CCV for 7 more days, a significant inhibition of the serum triglycerides, cholesterol, urea and total protein, AST, ALT, AOPP, MDA, and a significant elevation of GSH, SOD, uric acid, RBCs, platelet counts, Hb, Hct, were shown as compared with DOX- group. It could be concluded that CCV at low doses can be used as a natural antioxidant to alleviate oxidative injuries of DOX.

  5. The role of testosterone in coordinating male life history strategies: The moderating effects of the androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphism.

    Gettler, Lee T; Ryan, Calen P; Eisenberg, Dan T A; Rzhetskaya, Margarita; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Feranil, Alan B; Bechayda, Sonny Agustin; Kuzawa, Christopher W

    2017-01-01

    Partnered fathers often have lower testosterone than single non-parents, which is theorized to relate to elevated testosterone (T) facilitating competitive behaviors and lower T contributing to nurturing. Cultural- and individual-factors moderate the expression of such psychobiological profiles. Less is known about genetic variation's role in individual psychobiological responses to partnering and fathering, particularly as related to T. We examined the exon 1 CAG (polyglutamine) repeat (CAGn) within the androgen receptor (AR) gene. AR CAGn shapes T's effects after it binds to AR by affecting AR transcriptional activity. Thus, this polymorphism is a strong candidate to influence individual-level profiles of "androgenicity." While males with a highly androgenic profile are expected to engage in a more competitive-oriented life history strategy, low androgenic men are at increased risk of depression, which could lead to similar outcomes for certain familial dynamics, such as marriage stability and parenting. Here, in a large longitudinal study of Filipino men (n=683), we found that men who had high androgenicity (elevated T and shorter CAGn) or low androgenicity (lower T and longer CAGn) showed elevated likelihood of relationship instability over the 4.5-year study period and were also more likely be relatively uninvolved with childcare as fathers. We did not find that CAGn moderated men's T responses to the fatherhood transition. In total, our results provide evidence for invested fathering and relationship stability at intermediate levels of androgenicity and help inform our understanding of variation in male reproductive strategies and the individual hormonal and genetic differences that underlie it. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC as a model of chronic psychosocial stress in male rats.

    Kewir D Nyuyki

    Full Text Available Chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC is an adequate and reliable mouse model of chronic psychosocial stress, resulting in reduced body weight gain, reduced thymus and increased adrenal weight, long-lasting anxiety-like behaviour, and spontaneous colitis. Furthermore, CSC mice show increased corticotrophin (ACTH responsiveness to acute heterotypic stressors, suggesting a general mechanism which allows a chronically-stressed organism to adequately respond to a novel threat. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to extend the CSC model to another rodent species, namely male Wistar rats, and to characterize relevant physiological, immunological, and behavioural consequences; placing particular emphasis on changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis responsiveness to an acute heterotypic stressor. In line with previous mouse data, exposure of Wistar rats to 19 days of CSC resulted in a decrease in body weight gain and absolute thymus mass, mild colonic barrier defects and intestinal immune activation. Moreover, no changes in stress-coping behaviour or social preference were seen; again in agreement with the mouse paradigm. Most importantly, CSC rats showed an increased plasma corticosterone response to an acute heterotypic stressor (open arm, 5 min despite displaying similar basal levels and similar basal and stressor-induced plasma ACTH levels. In contrast to CSC mice, anxiety-related behaviour and absolute, as well as relative adrenal weights remained unchanged in CSC rats. In summary, the CSC paradigm could be established as an adequate model of chronic psychosocial stress in male rats. Our data further support the initial hypothesis that adrenal hyper-responsiveness to ACTH during acute heterotypic stressors represents a general adaptation, which enables a chronically-stressed organism to adequately respond to novel challenges.

  7. Females are more vulnerable to drug abuse than males: evidence from preclinical studies and the role of ovarian hormones.

    Anker, Justin J; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2011-01-01

    Human and animal research indicates the presence of sex differences in drug abuse. These data suggest that females, compared to males, are more vulnerable to key phases of the addiction process that mark transitions in drug use such as initiation, drug bingeing, and relapse. Recent data indicate that the female gonadal hormone estrogen may facilitate drug abuse in women. For example, phases of the menstrual cycle when estrogen levels are high are associated with enhanced positive subjective measures following cocaine and amphetamine administration in women. Furthermore, in animal research, the administration of estrogen increases drug taking and facilitates the acquisition, escalation, and reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. Neurobiological data suggest that estrogen may facilitate drug taking by interacting with reward- and stress-related systems. This chapter discusses sex differences in and hormonal effects on drug-seeking behaviors in animal models of drug abuse. The neurobiological basis of these differences and effects are also discussed.

  8. Mesenchymal stem cells from human umbilical cord ameliorate testicular dysfunction in a male rat hypogonadism model

    Zhi-Yuan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgen deficiency is a physical disorder that not only affects adults but can also jeopardize children′s health. Because there are many disadvantages to using traditional androgen replacement therapy, we have herein attempted to explore the use of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of androgen deficiency. We transplanted CM-Dil-labeled human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into the testes of an ethane dimethanesulfonate (EDS-induced male rat hypogonadism model. Twenty-one days after transplantation, we found that blood testosterone levels in the therapy group were higher than that of the control group (P = 0.037, and using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry, we observed that some of the CM-Dil-labeled cells expressed Leydig cell markers for cytochrome P450, family 11, subfamily A, polypeptide 1, and 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. We then recovered these cells and observed that they were still able to proliferate in vitro. The present study shows that mesenchymal stem cells from human umbilical cord may constitute a promising therapeutic modality for the treatment of male hypogonadism patients.

  9. Effects on locomotion and memory in 2 models of cerebral hypoperfusion in male Wistar rats.

    Martínez-Díaz, J A; García, L I; Hernández, M E; Aranda-Abreu, G E

    2015-09-01

    Cerebral ischaemia is one of the most common neurological diseases worldwide. Its many sequelae range from motor and sensory symptoms to cognitive decline and dementia. Animal models of cerebral ischaemia/hypoperfusion elicit effects on long term memory; however, the effects of these procedures on short term memory are not clearly understood and effects induced by alternative hypoperfusion models are completely unknown. We evaluated the effects of 2 cerebral hyperperfusion models on memory in 3-month-old male rats. Episodic memory and working memory were assessed using the new object recognition test and the spontaneous alteration test, respectively. Neurological assessment was also performed, along with an open field test to evaluate locomotor activity. Rats in both hyperperfusion models displayed no cognitive changes. Rats with unilateral left-sided ligation plus temporary ligation of the right carotid tended to show slightly impaired performance on the new object recognition test on the second day after the procedure. In contrast, the group with permanent unilateral ligation tended to display alterations in working and episodic memory 9 days after the procedure, but they subsequently recovered. Despite these differences, both hypoperfusion groups displayed clear signs of motor impairment 2 days after the procedure, as reflected by their decreased locomotor activity during the open field test. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Male Role Norms Inventory-Short Form (MRNI-SF): development, confirmatory factor analytic investigation of structure, and measurement invariance across gender.

    Levant, Ronald F; Hall, Rosalie J; Rankin, Thomas J

    2013-04-01

    The current study reports the development from the Male Role Norms Inventory-Revised (MRNI-R; Levant, Rankin, Williams, Hasan, & Smalley, 2010) of the 21-item MRNI-Short Form (MRNI-SF). Confirmatory factor analysis of MRNI-SF responses from a sample of 1,017 undergraduate participants (549 men, 468 women) indicated that the best fitting "bifactor" model incorporated the hypothesized 7-factor structure while explicitly modeling an additional, general traditional masculinity ideology factor. Specifically, each item-level indicator loaded on 2 factors: a general traditional masculinity ideology factor and a specific factor corresponding to 1 of the 7 hypothesized traditional masculinity ideology norms. The bifactor model was assessed for measurement invariance across gender groups, with findings of full configural invariance and partial metric invariance, such that factor loadings were equivalent across the gender groups for the 7 specific factors but not for the general traditional masculinity ideology factor. Theoretical explanations for this latter result include the potential that men's sense of self or identity may be engaged when responding to questions asking to what extent they agree or disagree with normative statements about their behavior, a possibility that could be investigated in future research by examining the associations of the general and specific factors with measures of masculine identity. Additional exploratory invariance analyses demonstrated latent mean differences between men and women on 4 of the 8 factors, and equivocal results for invariance of item intercepts, item uniquenesses, and factor variances-covariances.

  11. The Role Model Effect on Gender Equity: How are Female College Students Influenced by Female Teaching Assistants in Science?

    Ebert, Darilyn

    The gender gap of women in science is an important and unresolved issue in higher education and occupational opportunities. The present study was motivated by the fact that there are typically fewer females than males advancing in science, and therefore fewer female science instructor role models. This observation inspired the questions: Are female college students influenced in a positive way by female science teaching assistants (TAs), and if so how can their influence be measured? The study tested the hypothesis that female TAs act as role models for female students and thereby encourage interest and increase overall performance. To test this "role model" hypothesis, the reasoning ability and self-efficacy of a sample of 724 introductory college biology students were assessed at the beginning and end of the Spring 2010 semester. Achievement was measured by exams and course work. Performance of four randomly formed groups was compared: 1) female students with female TAs, 2) male students with female TAs, 3) female students with male TAs, and 4) male students with male TAs. Based on the role model hypothesis, female students with female TAs were predicted to perform better than female students with male TAs. However, group comparisons revealed similar performances across all four groups in achievement, reasoning ability and self-efficacy. The slight differences found between the four groups in student exam and coursework scores were not statistically significant. Therefore, the results did not support the role model hypothesis. Given that both lecture professors in the present study were males, and given that professors typically have more teaching experience, finer skills and knowledge of subject matter than do TAs, a future study that includes both female science professors and female TAs, may be more likely to find support for the hypothesis.

  12. A stylized computational model of the head for the reference Japanese male

    Yamauchi, M.; Ishikawa, M.; Hoshi, M.

    2005-01-01

    Computational models of human anatomy, along with Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations, have been used by Snyder et al. [MIRD Pamphlet No. 5, revised (The Society of Nuclear Medicine, New York, 1978)], Cristy and Eckerman [ORNL/TM-8381/VI, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (1987)] and Zubal et al. [Med. Phys. 21, 299-302 (1994)] to estimate internal organ doses from internal and external radiation sources. These were created using physiological data from Caucasoid subjects but not from other races. There is a need for research to determine whether the obvious differences from the Caucasoid anatomy make these models unsuitable for estimating the absorbed dose in other races such as the Mongoloid. We used the cranial region of the adult Japanese male to represent the Mongoloid race. This region contains organs that are highly sensitive to radiation. The cranial region of a physical phantom produced by KYOTO KAGAKU Co., LTD. using numerical data from a Japanese Reference Man [Tanaka, Nippon Acta. Radiol. 48, 509-513 (1988)] was used to supply the data for the geometry of a stylized computational model. Our computational model was constructed with equations rather than voxel-based, in order to deal with as small a number of parameters as possible in the computer simulation experiment. The accuracy of our computational model was checked by comparing simulated experimental results obtained with MCNP4C with actual doses measured with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) inside the physical phantom from which our computational model was constructed. The TLDs, whose margin of error is less than ±10%, were arranged at six positions. Co-60 was used as the radiation source. The irradiated dose was 2 Gy in terms of air kerma. In the computer simulation experiments, we used our computational model and Cristy's computational model, whose component data are those of the tissue substitute materials and of the human body as published in ICRU Report 46. The

  13. Structural equation modeling identifies markers of damage and function in the aging male Fischer 344 rat.

    Grunz-Borgmann, Elizabeth A; Nichols, LaNita A; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; Spagnoli, Sean; Trzeciakowski, Jerome P; Parrish, Alan R

    2016-06-01

    The male Fischer 344 rat is an established model to study progressive renal dysfunction that is similar, but not identical, to chronic kidney disease (CKD) in humans. These studies were designed to assess age-dependent alterations in renal structure and function at late-life timepoints, 16-24 months. Elevations in BUN and plasma creatinine were not significant until 24 months, however, elevations in the more sensitive markers of function, plasma cystatin C and proteinuria, were detectable at 16 and 18 months, respectively. Interestingly, cystatin C levels were not corrected by caloric restriction. Urinary Kim-1, a marker of CKD, was elevated as early as 16 months. Klotho gene expression was significantly decreased at 24 months, but not at earlier timepoints. Alterations in renal structure, glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, were noted at 16 months, with little change from 18 to 24 months. Tubulointerstitial inflammation was increased at 16 months, and remained similar from 18 to 24 months. A SEM (structural equation modeling) model of age-related renal dysfunction suggests that proteinuria is a marker of renal damage, while urinary Kim-1 is a marker of both damage and function. Taken together, these results demonstrate that age-dependent nephropathy begins as early as 16 months and progresses rapidly over the next 8 months. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Preventing HIV Transmission Among Partners of HIV-Positive Male Sex Workers in Mexico City: A Modeling Study.

    Monteiro, João Filipe G; Marshall, Brandon D L; Escudero, Daniel; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; González, Andrea; Flanigan, Timothy; Operario, Don; Mayer, Kenneth H; Lurie, Mark N; Galárraga, Omar

    2015-09-01

    Mexico has a concentrated HIV epidemic, with male sex workers constituting a key affected population. We estimated annual HIV cumulative incidence among male sex workers' partners, and then compared incidence under three hypothetical intervention scenarios: improving condom use; and scaling up HIV treatment as prevention, considering current viral suppression rates (CVS, 60.7 %) or full viral suppression among those treated (FVS, 100 %). Clinical and behavioral data to inform model parameterization were derived from a sample (n = 79) of male sex workers recruited from street locations and Clínica Condesa, an HIV clinic in Mexico City. We estimated annual HIV incidence among male sex workers' partners to be 8.0 % (95 % CI: 7.3-8.7). Simulation models demonstrated that increasing condom use by 10 %, and scaling up HIV treatment initiation by 50 % (from baseline values) would decrease the male sex workers-attributable annual incidence to 5.2, 4.4 % (CVS) and 3.2 % (FVS), respectively. Scaling up the number of male sex workers on ART and implementing interventions to ensure adherence is urgently required to decrease HIV incidence among male sex workers' partners in Mexico City.

  15. An experimental test of the role of structural blue and melanin-based chestnut coloration in aggressive contests in male eastern bluebirds

    Austin eMercadante

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Male eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis have feathers with either structurally based blue coloration or melanin-based chestnut coloration, and they hold territories during the breeding season that they defend vigorously. We tested whether the melanin pigmentation or structural coloration of feathers serve as signals during intrasexual aggressive encounters by placing color-modified stuffed bluebirds in male territories. We recorded the time to attack and the intensity of attacks on each model, and we then compared the response to color-enhanced versus color-reduced models. Male bluebirds attacked models with brighter and more chromatic blue coloration significantly more often than they attacked models with darker and less chromatic blue coloration. In contrast, the darkness of the chestnut breast coloration did not have a significant effect on the rate at which models were attacked. We conclude that territorial male bluebirds perceive intruding males with brighter blue coloration as a greater threat than males with drabber blue coloration, presumably because blue coloration is a signal of fighting ability. In contrast, the chestnut coloration of breast feathers appears to be a signal of gender and sexual maturity and not a graded signal of social status.

  16. Integrative rodent models for assessing male reproductive toxicity of environmental endocrine active substances

    Jacques Auger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present review, we first summarize the main benefits, limitations and pitfalls of conventional in vivo approaches to assessing male reproductive structures and functions in rodents in cases of endocrine active substance (EAS exposure from the postulate that they may provide data that can be extrapolated to humans. Then, we briefly present some integrated approaches in rodents we have recently developed at the organism level. We particularly focus on the possible effects and modes of action (MOA of these substances at low doses and in mixtures, real-life conditions and at the organ level, deciphering the precise effects and MOA on the fetal testis. It can be considered that the in vivo experimental EAS exposure of rodents remains the first choice for studies and is a necessary tool (together with the epidemiological approach for understanding the reproductive effects and MOA of EASs, provided the pitfalls and limitations of the rodent models are known and considered. We also provide some evidence that classical rodent models may be refined for studying the multiple consequences of EAS exposure, not only on the reproductive axis but also on various hormonally regulated organs and tissues, among which several are implicated in the complex process of mammalian reproduction. Such models constitute an interesting way of approaching human exposure conditions. Finally, we show that organotypic culture models are powerful complementary tools, especially when focusing on the MOA. All these approaches have contributed in a combinatorial manner to a better understanding of the impact of EAS exposure on human reproduction.

  17. The role of estrogen G-protein coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) and sexual experience in sexual incentive motivation in male rats.

    Hawley, W R; Battista, C; Divack, S R; Morales Núñez, N B

    2017-08-01

    Male rats exhibit reductions in sexual motivation following systemic administration of drugs that inhibit the conversion of testosterone to estrogen, which indicates that estrogen signaling plays a role in male rat sexual motivation. Given that estrogen G-protein coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) is expressed in brain areas that are important for male sexual behaviors and endocrine function, the primary aim of the current study was to examine the role that GPR30 plays in sexual motivation in both sexually naïve and sexually experienced male rats. Following the final treatment with either a GPR30 antagonist (G-15) or vehicle control, male rats were placed into the center chamber of a larger three-chambered testing arena that was designed to assess sexual incentive motivation. A sexually receptive stimulus female rat and a stimulus male rat were individually confined to one of the two smaller chambers that were each separated by a perforated partition from the larger end chambers, which test rats had access to. Relative to vehicle treated rats, male rats treated with G-15 exhibited a reduction in the percentage of time spent in the vicinity of a sexually receptive female rat. Although G-15 reduced sexual incentive motivation independent of sexual experience, only sexually-naïve rats treated with G-15 did not exhibit a preference for the sexually receptive stimulus female rat. Collectively, these results indicate that interference with estrogen signaling at GPR30 reduces sexual motivation and that the lack of preference for a sexually receptive female rat over a male rat following G-15 treatment is abrogated by previous sexual experience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The male role in cervical cancer El papel del varón en el cáncer cervical

    Xavier Castellsagué

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental, clinical, and epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that genital Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs are predominantly sexually transmitted. Epidemiological studies in virginal and HPV-negative women clearly indicate that sexual intercourse is virtually a necessary step for acquiring HPV. As with any other sexually transmitted disease (STD men are implicated in the epidemiological chain of the infection. Penile HPVs are predominantly acquired through sexual contacts. Sexual contacts with women who are prostitutes play an important role in HPV transmission and in some populations sex workers may become an important reservoir of high-risk HPVs. Acting both as "carriers" and "vectors" of oncogenic HPVs male partners may markedly contribute to the risk of developing cervical cancer in their female partners. Thus, in the absence of screening programs, a woman's risk of cervical cancer may depend less on her own sexual behavior than on that of her husband or other male partners. Although more rarely than women, men may also become the "victims" of their own HPV infections as a fraction of infected men are at an increased risk of developing penile and anal cancers. Male circumcision status has been shown to reduce the risk not only of acquiring and transmitting genital HPVs but also of cervical cancer in their female partners. More research is needed to better understand the natural history and epidemiology of HPV infections in men.Evidencia experimental, clínica y epidemiológica demuestra que los papilomavirus humanos (VPH genitales son predominantemente de transmisión sexual. Estudios experimentales en mujeres vírgenes y en mujeres VPH-negativas indican de forma clara que el coito es virtualmente un paso necesario para adquirir el VPH. Como ocurre con cualquier otra infección de transmisión sexual (ITS los varones están implicados en la cadena epidemiológica de la infección. Los VPH en el pene son predominantemente adquiridos a

  19. The Role of Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-Related Stigma on HPV Vaccine Decision-Making among College Males

    Jones, Georden; Perez, Samara; Huta, Veronika; Rosberger, Zeev; Lebel, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The goals of the present study are (1) to identify sociodemographic and psychosocial predictors of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related stigma and (2) to examine the relationship between HPV-related stigma in predicting HPV vaccine decision-making among college males. Participants: Six hundred and eighty college males aged 18--26 from 3…

  20. Role of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Stimulation Test in Diagnosing Gonadotropin Deficiency in Both Males and Females with Delayed Puberty

    Qi-Hong Sun

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Our data suggest that isolated use of the gonadorelin stimulation test is almost sufficient to discriminate between HH and CDP in males, but unnecessary in females. The most useful predictor is serum basal or peak LH to differentiate these two disorders in males, but serum basal LH or FSH in females.

  1. An Investigation of Sex-Related Slang Vocabulary and Sex-Role Orientation Among Male and Female University Students

    Kutner, Nancy G.; Brogan, Donna

    1974-01-01

    Undergraduate males, undergraduate females, and graduate student nurses (female) were asked to list all the slang expressions they knew for 17 sex-related stimulus words. Males listed a significantly larger total number of slang expressions than either female group. (Author)

  2. Factors Associated With Tobacco Smoking Among Male Adolescents: the Role of Psychologic, Behavioral, and Demographic Risk Factors

    Barati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Tobacco smoking among adolescents has been a concern for researchers and health organizations in recent years. However, predisposing factors to smoking initiation among Iranian adolescents are not well recognized. Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking and to investigate the role of psychologic, behavioral, and demographic risk factors in adolescents' smoking status. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 810 male adolescents recruited through cluster random sampling method in Hamadan in 2014. The participants received a self-administered questionnaire that contained questions about tobacco smoking behavior and demographic, behavioral, and psychologic variables. Data were analyzed by SPSS16 through independent-samples t test, Chi square, and logistic regression. Results A total of 139 persons (17.1% were tobacco smoker and the mean (SD age at smoking initiation was 13.7 (2.2 years. Sense of need, decreasing stress, having a smoker friend, and inability to reject smoking suggestion were common reasons associated with tobacco smoking (P < 0.05. In addition, statistically significant differences between tobacco smokers and nonsmokers were found in the age, grade, mother's job, and education (P < 0.05. In comparison to non-smokers, tobacco smokers evaluated a typical smoker as less immature, more popular, more attractive, more self-confident, more independent, and less selfish person (P < 0.05. Conclusions The results showed that the effect of several psychosocial, behavioral, and demographic risk factors on adolescents' smoking status. Thus, design and implementation of interventions based on the results of the present study may be effective in preventing tobacco smoking among adolescents.

  3. Role of nucleus of the solitary tract noradrenergic neurons in post-stress cardiovascular and hormonal control in male rats.

    Bundzikova-Osacka, Jana; Ghosal, Sriparna; Packard, Benjamin A; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Herman, James P

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress causes hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity and cardiovascular dyshomeostasis. Noradrenergic (NA) neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) are considered to play a role in these changes. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that NTS NA A2 neurons are required for cardiovascular and HPA axis responses to both acute and chronic stress. Adult male rats received bilateral microinjection into the NTS of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to lesion A2 neurons [cardiovascular study, n = 5; HPA study, n = 5] or vehicle [cardiovascular study, n = 6; HPA study, n = 4]. Rats were exposed to acute restraint stress followed by 14 d of chronic variable stress (CVS). On the last day of testing, rats were placed in a novel elevated plus maze (EPM) to test post-CVS stress responses. Lesions of NTS A2 neurons reduced the tachycardic response to acute restraint, confirming that A2 neurons promote sympathetic activation following acute stress. In addition, CVS increased the ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency power for heart rate variability, indicative of sympathovagal imbalance, and this effect was significantly attenuated by 6-OHDA lesion. Lesions of NTS A2 neurons reduced acute restraint-induced corticosterone secretion, but did not affect the corticosterone response to the EPM, indicating that A2 neurons promote acute HPA axis responses, but are not involved in CVS-mediated HPA axis sensitization. Collectively, these data indicate that A2 neurons promote both cardiovascular and HPA axis responses to acute stress. Moreover, A2 catecholaminergic neurons may contribute to the potentially deleterious enhancement of sympathetic drive following chronic stress.

  4. Voxel-based models representing the male and female ICRP reference adult - the skeleton

    Zankl, M.; Eckerman, K.F.; Bolch, W.E.

    2007-01-01

    For the forthcoming update of organ dose conversion coefficients, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) will use voxel-based computational phantoms due to their improved anatomical realism compared with the class of mathematical or stylized phantoms used previously. According to the ICRP philosophy, these phantoms should be representative of the male and female reference adults with respect to their external dimensions, their organ topology and their organ masses. To meet these requirements, reference models of an adult male and adult female have been constructed at the GSF, based on existing voxel models segmented from tomographic images of two individuals whose body height and weight closely resemble the ICRP Publication 89 reference values. The skeleton is a highly complex structure of the body, composed of cortical bone, trabecular bone, red and yellow bone marrow and endosteum ('bone surfaces' in their older terminology). The skeleton of the reference phantoms consists of 19 individually segmented bones and bone groups. Sub-division of these bones into the above-mentioned constituents would be necessary in order to allow a direct calculation of dose to red bone marrow and endosteum. However, the dimensions of the trabeculae, the cavities containing bone marrow and the endosteum layer lining these cavities are clearly smaller than the resolution of a normal CT scan and, thus, these volumes could not be segmented in the tomographic images. As an attempt to represent the gross spatial distribution of these regions as realistically as possible at the given voxel resolution, 48 individual organ identification numbers were assigned to various parts of the skeleton: every segmented bone was subdivided into an outer shell of cortical bone and a spongious core; in the shafts of the long bones, a medullary cavity was additionally segmented. Using the data from ICRP Publication 89 on elemental tissue composition, from ICRU Report 46 on material

  5. Softened food reduces weight loss in the streptozotocin-induced male mouse model of diabetic nephropathy.

    Nørgaard, Sisse A; Sand, Fredrik W; Sørensen, Dorte B; Abelson, Klas Sp; Søndergaard, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    The streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mouse is a widely used model of diabetes and diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, it is a well-known issue that this model is challenged by high weight loss, which despite supportive measures often results in high euthanization rates. To overcome these issues, we hypothesized that supplementing STZ-induced diabetic mice with water-softened chow in addition to normal chow would reduce weight loss, lower the need for supportive treatment, and reduce the number of mice reaching the humane endpoint of 20% weight loss. In a 15 week STZ-induced DN study we demonstrated that diabetic male mice receiving softened chow had reduced acute weight loss following STZ treatment ( p = 0.045) and additionally fewer mice were euthanized due to weight loss. By supplementing the diabetic mice with softened chow, no mice reached 20% weight loss whereas 37.5% of the mice without this supplement reached this humane endpoint ( p = 0.0027). Excretion of corticosterone metabolites in faeces was reduced in diabetic mice on softened chow ( p = 0.0007), suggesting lower levels of general stress. Finally, it was demonstrated that the water-softened chow supplement did not significantly affect the induction of key disease parameters, i.e. %HbA1C and albuminuria nor result in abnormal teeth wear. In conclusion, supplementation of softened food is refining the STZ-induced diabetic mouse model significantly by reducing stress, weight loss and the number of animals sacrificed due to humane endpoints, while maintaining the key phenotypes of diabetes and nephropathy.

  6. A Model-Based Analysis of Chemical and Temporal Patterns of Cuticular Hydrocarbons in Male Drosophila melanogaster

    Kent, Clement; Azanchi, Reza; Smith, Ben; Chu, Adrienne; Levine, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Drosophila Cuticular Hydrocarbons (CH) influence courtship behaviour, mating, aggregation, oviposition, and resistance to desiccation. We measured levels of 24 different CH compounds of individual male D. melanogaster hourly under a variety of environmental (LD/DD) conditions. Using a model-based analysis of CH variation, we developed an improved normalization method for CH data, and show that CH compounds have reproducible cyclic within-day temporal patterns of expression which differ between LD and DD conditions. Multivariate clustering of expression patterns identified 5 clusters of co-expressed compounds with common chemical characteristics. Turnover rate estimates suggest CH production may be a significant metabolic cost. Male cuticular hydrocarbon expression is a dynamic trait influenced by light and time of day; since abundant hydrocarbons affect male sexual behavior, males may present different pheromonal profiles at different times and under different conditions. PMID:17896002

  7. A model-based analysis of chemical and temporal patterns of cuticular hydrocarbons in male Drosophila melanogaster.

    Clement Kent

    Full Text Available Drosophila Cuticular Hydrocarbons (CH influence courtship behaviour, mating, aggregation, oviposition, and resistance to desiccation. We measured levels of 24 different CH compounds of individual male D. melanogaster hourly under a variety of environmental (LD/DD conditions. Using a model-based analysis of CH variation, we developed an improved normalization method for CH data, and show that CH compounds have reproducible cyclic within-day temporal patterns of expression which differ between LD and DD conditions. Multivariate clustering of expression patterns identified 5 clusters of co-expressed compounds with common chemical characteristics. Turnover rate estimates suggest CH production may be a significant metabolic cost. Male cuticular hydrocarbon expression is a dynamic trait influenced by light and time of day; since abundant hydrocarbons affect male sexual behavior, males may present different pheromonal profiles at different times and under different conditions.

  8. Business model innovation: the role of leadership

    Foss, Nicolai, J.; Saebi, Tina

    2015-01-01

    We draw on the complementarity literature in economics and management research to dimensionalize business models innovations. Specifically, such innovation can be dimensionalized in terms of the depth and the breadth of the changes to the company’s business model that they imply. In turn, different business model innovations are associated with different management challenges and require different leadership interventions to become successful.

  9. Perinatal administration of aromatase inhibitors in rodents as animal models of human male homosexuality: similarities and differences.

    Olvera-Hernández, Sandra; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we briefly review the evidence supporting the existence of biological influences on sexual orientation. We focus on basic research studies that have affected the estrogen synthesis during the critical periods of brain sexual differentiation in male rat offspring with the use of aromatase inhibitors, such as 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17 (ATD) and letrozole. The results after prenatal and/or postnatal treatment with ATD reveal that these animals, when adults, show female sexual responses, such as lordosis or proceptive behaviors, but retain their ability to display male sexual activity with a receptive female. Interestingly, the preference and sexual behavior of these rats vary depending upon the circadian rhythm.Recently, we have established that the treatment with low doses of letrozole during the second half of pregnancy produces male rat offspring, that when adults spend more time in the company of a sexually active male than with a receptive female in a preference test. In addition, they display female sexual behavior when forced to interact with a sexually experienced male and some typical male sexual behavior when faced with a sexually receptive female. Interestingly, these males displayed both sexual behavior patterns spontaneously, i.e., in absence of exogenous steroid hormone treatment. Most of these features correspond with those found in human male homosexuals; however, the "bisexual" behavior shown by the letrozole-treated rats may be related to a particular human population. All these data, taken together, permit to propose letrozole prenatal treatment as a suitable animal model to study human male homosexuality and reinforce the hypothesis that human sexual orientation is underlied by changes in the endocrine milieu during early development.

  10. A Diverging View of Role Modeling in Medical Education

    Gurjit Sandhu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Research in the area of role modeling has primarily focused on the qualities and attributes of exceptional role models, and less attention has been given to the act of role modeling itself (Elzubeir & Rizk, 2001; Jochemsen-van der Leeuw, van Dijk, van Etten-Jamaludin, & Wieringa-de Waard, 2013; Wright, 1996; Wright, Wong, & Newill, 1997. A standardized understanding of role modeling in medical education remains elusive (Kenny, Mann, & MacLeod, 2003. This is problematic given that role modeling is pervasively documented as an approach to teaching (Reuler & Nardone, 1994. Our study attempts to fill a void in this body of research by looking at what faculty are thinking, saying, and doing when they say they are role modeling. Individual semi-structured interviews with faculty members were conducted in the Department of General Surgery at Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative methods for themes surrounding teaching and role modeling. Three major themes emerged from the data: (1 faculty members think they are teaching when they are acting professionally; (2 faculty members become aware of teaching opportunities and act on them; and (3 faculty members employ evidence-based teaching methods, but they are incorrectly labeling them as “role modeling.” As a whole, our findings should help distinguish between role modeling as roles and responsibilities enacted while doing one’s job well, and teaching as facilitated instruction that helps connect knowledge with action (Clayton, 2006; Fassbinder, 2007. Contributing to a better understanding of how teaching is separate from role modeling has the potential to improve the scope and quality of teaching, ultimately enhancing the learning experience for trainees.

  11. The roles of testicular nuclear receptor 4 (TR4 in male fertility-priapism and sexual behavior defects in TR4 knockout mice

    Bao Bo-Ying

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful reproductive efforts require the establishment of a situation favorable for reproduction that requires integration of both behavior and internal physiological events. TR4 nuclear receptor is known to be involved in male fertility via controlling spermatogenesis, yet its roles in regulating other biological events related to reproduction have not been completely revealed. Methods Male TR4 knockout (TR4-/- and wild type mice were used for the sexual behavior and penile dysfunction studies. Mice were sacrificed for histological examination and corresponding genes profiles were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Reporter gene assays were performed. Results We describe an unexpected finding of priapism in TR4-/- mice. As a transcriptional factor, we demonstrated that TR4 transcriptionally modulates a key enzyme regulating penis erection and neuronal nitric oxide synthese NOS (nNOS. Thereby, elimination of TR4 results in nNOS reduction in both mRNA and protein levels, consequently may lead to erectile dysfunction. In addition, male TR4-/- mice display defects in sexual and social behavior, with increased fear or anxiety, as well as reduced mounting, intromission, and ejaculation. Reduction of ER alpha, ER beta, and oxytocin in the hypothalamus may contribute to defects in sexual behavior and stress response. Conclusions Together, these results provide in vivo evidence of important TR4 roles in penile physiology, as well as in male sexual behavior. In conjunction with previous finding, TR4 represents a key factor that controls male fertility via regulating behavior and internal physiological events.

  12. The Role of Work-Related Skills and Career Role Models in Adolescent Career Maturity.

    Flouri, Eirini; Buchanan, Ann

    2002-01-01

    Using data for 2,722 British adolescents explores whether work-related skills and career role models are associated with career maturity when sociodemographic characteristics, family support, and personal characteristics are controlled. Having work-related skills and having a career role model were positively associated with career maturity.…

  13. Role modelling in medical education: the importance of teaching skills.

    Burgess, Annette; Oates, Kim; Goulston, Kerry

    2016-04-01

    By observation of role models, and participation in activities, students develop their attitudes, values and professional competencies. Literature suggests that clinical skills and knowledge, personality, and teaching skills are three main areas that students consider central to the identification of positive role models. The aim of this study was to explore junior medical students' opinions of the ideal attributes of a good role model in clinical tutors. The study was conducted with one cohort (n = 301) of students who had completed year 1 of the medical programme in 2013. All students were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding the ideal attributes of a good role model in a clinical tutor. The questionnaire consisted of seven closed items and one open-ended question. The response rate to the questionnaire was 265/301 (88%). Although students found all three key areas important in a good role model, students emphasised the importance of excellence in teaching skills. Specifically, students see good role models as being able to provide a constructive learning environment, a good understanding of the curriculum and an ability to cater to the learning needs of all students. Students see good role models as being able to provide a constructive learning environment While acknowledging the importance of a patient-centred approach, as well as clinical knowledge and skills, our findings reinforce the importance of the actual teaching abilities of role models within medical education. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The Effects of Melatonin with Memantin on MPTP-Induced Parkinson Model in Male Mice

    Reza Talebi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Oxidative stress and severe neuro-excitation have significant effects on pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease and agents with antioxidant property can potentially prevent these effects. Herein we examined potential protective effects of melatonin as an antioxidant agent and memantine as an uncompetitive receptor of NMDA, on a model of Parkinson’s disease induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP. Materials and Methods: Male mice were divided into 8 groups with 7 mice in each group: saline, ethanol, melatonin, memantin, MPTP, melatonin+MPTP, memantin+ MPTP, melatonin+ memantin+ MPTP. All of agents were injected intraperitoneally once a day for 14 days before beam traversal test. Dopaminergic neurons of the Substantia Nigra Pars compacta (SNPC were determined by immunohistochemical and were counted. Results: Melatonin improved notably movement dysfunction resulted of MPTP such as the number of errors, paces and the time of movement during behavioral test and also the counting of neurons of Substantia Nigra Pars Compacta. Memantin had a synergic effect on the most of improvements. However, the level of improvement and retrieval of signs was not as in saline and ethanol groups. Conclusion: Melatonin especially together with memantine is able to prevent some of the MPTP-induced dysfunctions. However, the protective effects were not enogh, probably because of the amount of dose and the time of injection.

  15. Effect of taking dietary supplement on hematological and biochemical parameters in male bodybuilders an equation model

    Meamar, Rokhsareh; Maracy, Mohammad; Nematollahi, Shahrzad; Yeroshalmi, Shemouil; Zamani-Moghaddam, Ali; Ghazvini, Mohammad Reza Aghaye

    2015-01-01

    Background: The improved physical action following administration of supplements to bodybuilders was supported by changes in laboratory parameters. Despite the fact that these supplements are sometimes associated both advantage and side effects, this study were conducted for the purpose of evaluating the possible effects of some commonly used supplements in bodybuilders on the hematological and biochemical parameters. Materials and Methods: In this study, we included 40 male bodybuilders as cases and 40 controls in the age group of 20-40 years. They used different kinds of supplements for 1 year. In general, all the supplements used were classified into two groups: hormonal and non-hormonal. Laboratory tests were requested for evaluation of hematological and biochemical parameters. Results: In an equation model, we found that weight (P = 0.024), duration of bodybuilding (P bodybuilders. The available supplements are unchecked and not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). More studies should be designed for a better and precise administration of each supplement in athletes. PMID:26793253

  16. Probabilistic Role Models and the Guarded Fragment

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2004-01-01

    We propose a uniform semantic framework for interpreting probabilistic concept subsumption and probabilistic role quantification through statistical sampling distributions. This general semantic principle serves as the foundation for the development of a probabilistic version of the guarded fragm...... fragment of first-order logic. A characterization of equivalence in that logic in terms of bisimulations is given....

  17. Probabilistic role models and the guarded fragment

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We propose a uniform semantic framework for interpreting probabilistic concept subsumption and probabilistic role quantification through statistical sampling distributions. This general semantic principle serves as the foundation for the development of a probabilistic version of the guarded fragm...... fragment of first-order logic. A characterization of equivalence in that logic in terms of bisimulations is given....

  18. Application of Radial Basis Function Methods in the Development of a 95th Percentile Male Seated FEA Model.

    Vavalle, Nicholas A; Schoell, Samantha L; Weaver, Ashley A; Stitzel, Joel D; Gayzik, F Scott

    2014-11-01

    Human body finite element models (FEMs) are a valuable tool in the study of injury biomechanics. However, the traditional model development process can be time-consuming. Scaling and morphing an existing FEM is an attractive alternative for generating morphologically distinct models for further study. The objective of this work is to use a radial basis function to morph the Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) average male model (M50) to the body habitus of a 95th percentile male (M95) and to perform validation tests on the resulting model. The GHBMC M50 model (v. 4.3) was created using anthropometric and imaging data from a living subject representing a 50th percentile male. A similar dataset was collected from a 95th percentile male (22,067 total images) and was used in the morphing process. Homologous landmarks on the reference (M50) and target (M95) geometries, with the existing FE node locations (M50 model), were inputs to the morphing algorithm. The radial basis function was applied to morph the FE model. The model represented a mass of 103.3 kg and contained 2.2 million elements with 1.3 million nodes. Simulations of the M95 in seven loading scenarios were presented ranging from a chest pendulum impact to a lateral sled test. The morphed model matched anthropometric data to within a rootmean square difference of 4.4% while maintaining element quality commensurate to the M50 model and matching other anatomical ranges and targets. The simulation validation data matched experimental data well in most cases.

  19. Fiona, Phyllida and the ‘F’-Word: the theatrical practice(s of women playing the male roles in Shakespeare

    Stephanie Tillotson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the theatrical practice of women performing traditionally male roles in Shakespeare. Whilst historically the phenomenon is nothing new, since the 1970s the practice has been particularly associated with the politics of feminism. This article proposes to examine this connection in order to explore how far the convention of casting women in the male roles of Shakespeare has been influenced by changing social, political, and cultural discourses. It will do so by considering two specific manifestations of the theatrical practice: firstly, the National Theatre’s 1995/6 Richard II directed by Deborah Warner, in which Fiona Shaw played the eponymous male character and secondly the 2012/13 all-female Julius Caesar, directed by Phyllida Lloyd for the Donmar Warehouse. Moreover, it will locate these two productions, separated by seventeen years and the turn of a century, within their specific historical, theatrical, and theoretical contexts. Through an analysis of the material conditions that gave rise to the contemporary receptions of these two productions, the objective of this article is to draw conclusions concerning the differing ways in which, through casting women in the male roles of Shakespeare, theatre practitioners have created particular theatrical conversations with their audiences.

  20. The Effects of Perceived Barriers, Role Models, and Acculturation on the Career Self-Efficacy and Career Consideration of Hispanic Women

    Rivera, Lourdes M.; Blumberg, Fran; Chen, Eric C.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Flores, Lisa Y.

    2007-01-01

    This study used path analysis to examine the relationship between perceived barriers, acculturation, and role model influence on the career self-efficacy and career considerations of a sample of Hispanic women. Two path models were examined. The male-dominated model accounted for 15% of the variance, and the female-dominated model accounted for…

  1. A role for acoustic distortion in novel rapid frequency modulation behaviour in free-flying male mosquitoes.

    Simões, Patrício M V; Ingham, Robert A; Gibson, Gabriella; Russell, Ian J

    2016-07-01

    We describe a new stereotypical acoustic behaviour by male mosquitoes in response to the fundamental frequency of female flight tones during mating sequences. This male-specific free-flight behaviour consists of phonotactic flight beginning with a steep increase in wing-beat frequency (WBF) followed by rapid frequency modulation (RFM) of WBF in the lead up to copula formation. Male RFM behaviour involves remarkably fast changes in WBF and can be elicited without acoustic feedback or physical presence of the female. RFM features are highly consistent, even in response to artificial tones that do not carry the multi-harmonic components of natural female flight tones. Comparison between audiograms of the robust RFM behaviour and the electrical responses of the auditory Johnston's organ (JO) reveals that the male JO is tuned not to the female WBF per se but, remarkably, to the difference between the male and female WBFs. This difference is generated in the JO responses as a result of intermodulation distortion products (DPs) caused by non-linear interaction between male-female flight tones in the vibrations of the antenna. We propose that male mosquitoes rely on their own flight tones in making use of DPs to acoustically detect, locate and orientate towards flying females. We argue that the previously documented flight-tone harmonic convergence of flying male and female mosquitoes could be a consequence of WBF adjustments so that DPs generated through flight-tone interaction fall within the optimal frequency ranges for JO detection. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Evaluation of the Role of Ginger, Cisplatin and Radiation in the Treatment of Chemically- Induced Cancer in Male Albino Rats

    Mohamed, Sh.M.G.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with ginger to evaluate its therapeutic effect against lung and kidney cancer and in combination with cisplatin as chemotherapy and radiotherapy in male Wistar albino rats (Rattus norvegicus). Studies involve investigating the therapeutic role of ginger for better restoration of certain haematological parameters: (white blood cells count, red blood cells count, haemoglobin content, hematocrit value and platelets count ) Besides biochemical parameters (serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) level, advanced oxidative protein product (AOPP), urea, creatinine and uric acid ). Tissue parameters in both kidney and lung tissues: were estimated by determining the activity of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD); as well as by determining the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Nitric oxide (NO) and histopathological changes of kidney and lung tissues. Cancer induced a significant decrease in WBCs, RBCs, Hb, Hct value and platelets count with a significant increase in the serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) level, advanced oxidative protein product (AOPP), urea, creatinine and uric acid. Besides, it produced high levels of lung and kidney Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Nitric oxide (NO) with significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Ginger + cisplatin + radiation manifested good amelioration against NDMA + CCl 4 group in the studied haematological and biochemical parameters. In histological investigation showed that rat groups treated with ginger alone showed no deviation from control group. While rats injected with NDMA + CCl 4 showed sever degenerative changes. On the other hand, groups injected with NDMA + CCl4 and treated with ginger + cisplatin + radiation group showed an even more remarkable effect showing histopathological lung and kidney profiles close to those of the control group when compared with NDMA + CCl 4

  3. Male-specific deficits in natural reward learning in a mouse model of neurodevelopmental disorders

    Grissom, N M; McKee, S E; Schoch, H; Bowman, N; Havekes, R; O'Brien, W T; Mahrt, E; Siegel, S; Commons, K; Portfors, C; Nickl-Jockschat, T; Reyes, T M; Abel, T

    Neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders, are highly male biased, but the underpinnings of this are unknown. Striatal dysfunction has been strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental disorders, raising the question of whether there are sex differences in

  4. Central neuropeptide Y plays an important role in mediating the adaptation mechanism against chronic stress in male rats.

    Yang, Yu; Babygirija, Reji; Zheng, Jun; Shi, Bei; Sun, Weinan; Zheng, Xiaojiao; Zhang, Fan; Cao, Yu

    2018-02-07

    Exposure to continuous life stress often causes gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Studies have shown that neuropeptide Y (NPY) counteracts the biological actions of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF), and is involved in the termination of the stress response. However, in chronic repeated restraint stress (CRS) conditions, the actions of NPY on GI motility remain controversial. To evaluate the role of NPY in mediation of the adaptation mechanism and GI motility in CRS conditions, a CRS rat model was set up. Central CRF and NPY expression levels were analyzed, serum corticosterone and NPY concentrations were measured, and GI motor function was evaluated. The NPY Y1 receptor antagonist BIBP-3226 was centrally administered before stress loading, and on days, 1-5, of repeated stress, the central CRF and the serum corticosterone concentrations were measured. In addition, gastric and colonic motor functions were evaluated. The elevated central CRF expression and corticosterone concentration caused by acute stress began to fall after 3 days of stress loading, while central NPY expression and serum NPY began to increase. GI dysmotility also returned to a normal level. Pretreatment with BIBP-3226 abolished the adaptation mechanism, and significantly increased CRF expression and the corticosterone concentration, which resulted in delayed gastric emptying and accelerated fecal pellet output. Inhibited gastric motility and enhanced distal colonic motility were also recorded. CRS-produced adaptation, over-expressed central CRF, and GI dysmotility observed in acute restraint stress were restored to normal levels. Central NPY via the Y1 receptor plays an important role in mediating the adaptation mechanism against chronic stress. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  5. Extinction and reinstatement to cocaine-associated cues in male and female juvenile rats and the role of D1 dopamine receptor.

    Brenhouse, Heather C; Thompson, Britta S; Sonntag, Kai C; Andersen, Susan L

    2015-08-01

    Extinction of behaviors in response to drug-associated cues and prevention of reinstatement are integral for addiction treatment, and can reverse or ameliorate the harmful consequences of drug use. The mechanisms controlling extinction and reinstatement involve prefrontal cortical dopamine receptors, which change in expression and activity during the juvenile and adolescent transitions until they mature in adulthood. Little is known about the role that PFC D1 dopamine receptors play in extinction of drug-paired associations early in life. We used extinction of place preferences for cocaine in juvenile male and female rats following genetic, cell-specific overexpression of D1 on glutamatergic cells in the PFC. All subjects needed to demonstrate cocaine preferences for inclusion in the extinction studies. Here, male juveniles with a preference to 10 mg/kg cocaine took longer to extinguish preferences compared to both male adults and female juveniles. Female juveniles extinguished more rapidly than male juveniles at 20 mg/kg cocaine. Overexpression of D1 in juvenile males significantly facilitated extinction relative to juvenile male controls, whereas D1 prolonged expression of extinction in adults overexpressing D1 and adolescents who naturally have elevated D1 expression. These data suggest that an immature D1 profile in juveniles prevented the learning of new associations, and D1 overexpression may provide sufficient activity to facilitate extinction learning. D1 overexpression reduced reinstatement to a priming dose of cocaine in juvenile males. Together, these data show D1 expression may re-program motivational circuitry to facilitate extinction learning during juvenility that is normally unavailable to juveniles and that sex differences exist. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Distinct and Cooperative Roles of amh and dmrt1 in Self-Renewal and Differentiation of Male Germ Cells in Zebrafish.

    Lin, Qiaohong; Mei, Jie; Li, Zhi; Zhang, Xuemei; Zhou, Li; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2017-11-01

    Spermatogenesis is a fundamental process in male reproductive biology and depends on precise balance between self-renewal and differentiation of male germ cells. However, the regulative factors for controlling the balance are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the roles of amh and dmrt1 in male germ cell development by generating their mutants with Crispr/Cas9 technology in zebrafish. Amh mutant zebrafish displayed a female-biased sex ratio, and both male and female amh mutants developed hypertrophic gonads due to uncontrolled proliferation and impaired differentiation of germ cells. A large number of proliferating spermatogonium-like cells were observed within testicular lobules of the amh -mutated testes, and they were demonstrated to be both Vasa- and PH3-positive. Moreover, the average number of Sycp3- and Vasa-positive cells in the amh mutants was significantly lower than in wild-type testes, suggesting a severely impaired differentiation of male germ cells. Conversely, all the dmrt1 -mutated testes displayed severe testicular developmental defects and gradual loss of all Vasa-positive germ cells by inhibiting their self-renewal and inducing apoptosis. In addition, several germ cell and Sertoli cell marker genes were significantly downregulated, whereas a prominent increase of Insl3-positive Leydig cells was revealed by immunohistochemical analysis in the disorganized dmrt1 -mutated testes. Our data suggest that amh might act as a guardian to control the balance between proliferation and differentiation of male germ cells, whereas dmrt1 might be required for the maintenance, self-renewal, and differentiation of male germ cells. Significantly, this study unravels novel functions of amh gene in fish. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  7. Extinction and reinstatement to cocaine-associated cues in male and female juvenile rats and the role of D1 dopamine receptor

    Brenhouse, Heather C.; Thompson, Britta S.; Sonntag, Kai C.; Andersen, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Extinction of behaviors in response to drug-associated cues and prevention of reinstatement are integral for addiction treatment, and can reverse or ameliorate the harmful consequences of drug use. The mechanisms controlling extinction and reinstatement involve prefrontal cortical dopamine receptors, which change in expression and activity during the juvenile and adolescent transitions until they mature in adulthood. Little is known about the role that PFC D1 dopamine receptors play in extinction of drug-paired associations early in life. We used extinction of place preferences for cocaine in juvenile male and female rats following genetic, cell-specific overexpression of D1 on glutamatergic cells in the PFC. All subjects needed to demonstrate cocaine preferences for inclusion in the extinction studies. Here, male juveniles with a preference to 10 mg/kg cocaine took longer to extinguish preferences compared to both male adults and female juveniles. Female juveniles extinguished more rapidly than male juveniles at 20 mg/kg cocaine. Overexpression of D1 in juvenile males significantly facilitated extinction relative to juvenile male controls, whereas D1 prolonged expression of extinction in adults overexpressing D1 and adolescents who naturally have elevated D1 expression. These data suggest that an immature D1 profile in juveniles prevented the learning of new associations, and D1 overexpression may provide sufficient activity to facilitate extinction learning. D1 overexpression reduced reinstatement to a priming dose of cocaine in juvenile males. Together, these data show D1 expression may re-program motivational circuitry to facilitate extinction learning during juvenility that is normally unavailable to juveniles and that sex differences exist. PMID:25749358

  8. Black Adolescent Males: Intersections Among Their Gender Role Identity and Racial Identity and Associations With Self-Concept (Global and School).

    Buckley, Tamara R

    2017-09-12

    Intersectional approaches for understanding identity have gained momentum in the social sciences. Black adolescent males are often perceived as threatening, underachieving, and hypermasculine, which is reinforced through media outlets and psychological research that portray them as a monolith rather than a heterogeneous group with multiple intersecting identities. This cross-sectional study of 70 Black adolescent males between 14 and 18 years old simultaneously explores their race and gender identities and associations with self-concept (global and school). Results demonstrated that participants reported a combination of feminine and masculine gender roles, rather than hypermasculine. A canonical correlation analysis found that Black racial identity attitudes (RIAS-L) and gender roles simultaneously contributed to significant relationships with total and school self-concept. Study limitations and future directions for research and practice are discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  9. The peculiarities of pedagogical training of senior male students to perform social role of husband and father

    Ivanna Kulyk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article features and maintenance of pedagogical preparation of senior youthspupilsopen up to implementation of social roles of man and father.Key words: pedagogical preparation, senior youths-pupils, social role of man andfather

  10. The influence of role models in undergraduate nurse education.

    Jack, Kirsten; Hamshire, Claire; Chambers, Alison

    2017-12-01

    To explore the concept of role modelling in undergraduate nurse education and its effect on the personal and professional development of student nurses. Effective educative strategies are important for student nurses, who have to cope with learning in both clinical and university settings. Given the contemporary issues facing nurse education and practice in the United Kingdom (UK), it is timely and important to undertake pedagogical research into the concept of role modelling as an effective educative method. A descriptive narrative approach. Unstructured interviews were conducted with 14 current/recently discontinued students from Adult and Mental Health branches of nursing degree programmes in the north-west region of England, United Kingdom (UK). Data were thematically analysed. Students valued exposure to positive role models in clinical and university settings and viewed them as beneficial to their learning. Exposure to negative role models occurred, and this provided students with opportunities to consider the type of nurse they aspired to become. In some cases, students' exposure to perceived poor practice had an adverse effect on their learning and led to negative feelings about nursing work. Clinical staff might be perceived as more relevant role models than those in the university setting although there were still opportunities for academic staff to model professional behaviours. The study found that role modelling is an effective way to support learning and led to student satisfaction across both clinical and university settings. The findings support the use of role models in nurse education, and further research about conscious positive modelling of practice is required. Exploring the use of role models is important when examining ways in which the quality of nurse education might be developed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Modeling the Drift Towards Sex Role Deviance.

    James, Jennifer; Vitaliano, Peter Paul

    The interrelationships of deviant life experiences and current status, i.e., prostitution versus non-prostitution, were investigated by the application of multivariate analyses. Variables were studied involving early home life, pregnancy history, sexual history, and criminal involvement. Based on the analyses, three models were developed that…

  12. Hepatic injury induces contrasting response in liver and kidney to chemicals that are metabolically activated: Role of male sex hormone

    Kim, Young C.; Yim, Hye K.; Jung, Young S.; Park, Jae H.; Kim, Sung Y.

    2007-01-01

    Injury to liver, resulting in loss of its normal physiological/biochemical functions, may adversely affect a secondary organ. We examined the response of the liver and kidney to chemical substances that require metabolic activation for their toxicities in mice with a preceding liver injury. Carbon tetrachloride treatment 24 h prior to a challenging dose of carbon tetrachloride or acetaminophen decreased the resulting hepatotoxicity both in male and female mice as determined by histopathological examination and increases in serum enzyme activities. In contrast, the renal toxicity of the challenging toxicants was elevated markedly in male, but not in female mice. Partial hepatectomy also induced similar changes in the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of a challenging toxicant, suggesting that the contrasting response of male liver and kidney was associated with the reduction of the hepatic metabolizing capacity. Carbon tetrachloride pretreatment or partial hepatectomy decreased the hepatic xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme activities in both sexes but elevated the renal p-nitrophenol hydroxylase, p-nitroanisole O-demethylase and aminopyrine N-demethylase activities significantly only in male mice. Increases in Cyp2e1 and Cyp2b expression were also evident in male kidney. Castration of males or testosterone administration to females diminished the sex-related differences in the renal response to an acute liver injury. The results indicate that reduction of the hepatic metabolizing capacity induced by liver injury may render secondary target organs susceptible to chemical substances activated in these organs. This effect may be sex-specific. It is also suggested that an integrated approach should be taken for proper assessment of chemical hazards

  13. Prostatitis and male infertility.

    Alshahrani, Saad; McGill, John; Agarwal, Ashok

    2013-11-01

    The prostate gland plays an important role in male reproduction. Inflammation of the prostate gland (prostatitis) is a common health problem affecting many young and middle aged men. Prostatitis is considered a correctable cause of male infertility, but the pathophysiology and appropriate treatment options of prostatitis in male infertility remain unclear. This literature review will focus on current data regarding prostatitis and its impact on male infertility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Confirmatory factor analytic investigation of variance composition, gender invariance, and validity of the Male Role Norms Inventory-Adolescent-revised (MRNI-A-r).

    Levant, Ronald F; McDermott, Ryon C; Hewitt, Amber A; Alto, Kathleen M; Harris, Kyle T

    2016-10-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis of responses to the Male Role Norms Inventory-Adolescent-revised (MRNI-A-r) from 384 middle school students (163 boys, 221 girls) indicated that the best fit to the data was a bifactor model incorporating the hypothesized 3-factor structure while explicitly modeling an additional, general factor. Specifically, each item-level indicator loaded simultaneously on 2 factors: a general traditional masculinity ideology factor and a specific factor corresponding to 1 of the 3 hypothesized masculine norms for adolescents: Emotionally Detached Dominance, Toughness, and Avoidance of Femininity. Invariance testing across gender supported metric invariance for the general factor only. Although item loadings on the general factor were similar across boys and girls, the specific factor loadings varied substantially, with many becoming nonsignificant in the presence of the general factor for girls. A structural regression analysis predicting latent variables of the Meanings of Adolescent Masculinity Scale (MAMS), the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Discipline, School Difficulties, and Positive Behavior Scale (DSDPBS) indicated that the general factor was a strong predictor of MAMS for both genders and DSDPBS for girls. Findings indicate that the MRNI-A-r general factor is a valid and reliable indicator of overall internalization of traditional masculinity ideology in adolescents; however, the specific factors may have different meanings for boys as compared with girls and lack validity in the presence of the general factor. These findings are consistent with a developmental perspective of gender ideology that views adolescence as a time when a differentiated cognitive schema of masculine norms is beginning to develop. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Adding intrapreneurial role in HR business partner model: (an extension in the HR business partner model)

    Bashir, Jibran; Afzal, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The Purpose of this paper is to introduce a concept, whereby extending the Dave Ulrich’s HR business partner model by adding fifth Role – The HR Intrapreneur Role – in the existing model. This will be done by combining two separate concepts “Four Roles HR Business Partner Model” and “Intrapreneurial HR”, resulting in a five roles HR Business Partner Model. Design/methodology/approach: This paper is introducing a new concept through theoretical research. Findings: H...

  16. Implementing two nurse practitioner models of service at an Australian male prison: A quality assurance study.

    Wong, Ides; Wright, Eryn; Santomauro, Damian; How, Raquel; Leary, Christopher; Harris, Meredith

    2018-01-01

    To examine the quality and safety of nurse practitioner services of two newly implemented nurse practitioner models of care at a correctional facility. Nurse practitioners could help to meet the physical and mental health needs of Australia's growing prison population; however, the nurse practitioner role has not previously been evaluated in this context. A quality assurance study conducted in an Australian prison where a primary health nurse practitioner and a mental health nurse practitioner were incorporated into an existing primary healthcare service. The study was guided by Donabedian's structure, processes and outcomes framework. Routinely collected information included surveys of staff attitudes to the implementation of the nurse practitioner models (n = 21 staff), consultation records describing clinical processes and time use (n = 289 consultations), and a patient satisfaction survey (n = 29 patients). Data were analysed descriptively and compared to external benchmarks where available. Over the two-month period, the nurse practitioners provided 289 consultations to 208 prisoners. The presenting problems treated indicated that most referrals were appropriate. A significant proportion of consultations involved medication review and management. Both nurse practitioners spent more than half of their time on individual patient-related care. Overall, multidisciplinary team staff agreed that the nurse practitioner services were necessary, safe, met patient need and reduced treatment delays. Findings suggest that the implementation of nurse practitioners into Australian correctional facilities is acceptable and feasible and has the potential to improve prisoners' access to health services. Structural factors (e.g., room availability and limited access to prisoners) may have reduced the efficiency of the nurse practitioners' clinical processes and service implementation. Results suggest that nurse practitioner models can be successfully integrated into a

  17. Advantages of using the CRISPR/Cas9 system of genome editing to investigate male reproductive mechanisms using mouse models.

    Young, Samantha A M; Aitken, R John; Ikawa, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    Gene disruption technology has long been beneficial for the study of male reproductive biology. However, because of the time and cost involved, this technology was not a viable method except in specialist laboratories. The advent of the CRISPR/Cas9 system of gene disruption has ushered in a new era of genetic investigation. Now, it is possible to generate gene-disrupted mouse models in very little time and at very little cost. This Highlight article discusses the application of this technology to study the genetics of male fertility and looks at some of the future uses of this system that could be used to reveal the essential and nonessential genetic components of male reproductive mechanisms.

  18. Modeling the population-level effects of male circumcision as an HIV-preventive measure: a gendered perspective.

    Jonathan Dushoff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence from biological, epidemiological, and controlled intervention studies has demonstrated that male circumcision (MC protects males from HIV infection, and MC is now advocated as a public-health intervention against HIV. MC provides direct protection only to men, but is expected to provide indirect protection to women at risk of acquiring HIV from heterosexual transmission. How such indirect protection interacts with the possibility that MC campaigns will lead to behavior changes, however, is not yet well understood. Our objective here is to investigate the link between individual-level effects of MC campaigns and long-term population-level outcomes resulting from disease dynamics, looking at both genders separately, over a broad range of parameters. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We use simple mathematical models of heterosexual transmission to investigate the potential effects of a circumcision scale-up, combined with possible associated behavioral disinhibition. We examine patterns in expected long-term prevalence using a simple equilibrium model based on transmission factors, and validate our results with ODE-based simulations, focusing on the link between effects on females and those on males.We find that the long-term population-level effects on females and males are not strongly linked: there are many possible ways in which an intervention which reduces prevalence in males might nonetheless increase prevalence in females. CONCLUSIONS: Since an intervention that reduces long-term male prevalence could nonetheless increase long-term female prevalence, MC campaigns should explicitly consider both the short-term and long-term effects of MC interventions on females. Our findings strongly underline the importance of pairing MC programs with education, support programs and HIV testing and counseling, together with other prevention measures.

  19. Increased oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hypothalamus of diabetic male mice in the insulin receptor substrate-2 knockout model

    Canelles, Sandra; Argente, Jesús; Barrios, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Insulin receptor substrate-2-deficient (IRS2−/−) mice are considered a good model to study the development of diabetes because IRS proteins mediate the pleiotropic effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin on metabolism, mitogenesis and cell survival. The hypothalamus might play a key role in the early onset of diabetes, owing to its involvement in the control of glucose homeostasis and energy balance. Because some inflammatory markers are elevated in the hypothalamus of diabetic IRS2−/− mice, our aim was to analyze whether the diabetes associated with the absence of IRS2 results in hypothalamic injury and to analyze the intracellular mechanisms involved. Only diabetic IRS2−/− mice showed increased cell death and activation of caspase-8 and -3 in the hypothalamus. Regulators of apoptosis such as FADD, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and p53 were also increased, whereas p-IκB and c-FLIPL were decreased. This was accompanied by increased levels of Nox-4 and catalase, enzymes involved in oxidative stress. In summary, the hypothalamus of diabetic IRS2−/− mice showed an increase in oxidative stress and inflammatory markers that finally resulted in cell death via substantial activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Conversely, non-diabetic IRS2−/− mice did not show cell death in the hypothalamus, possibly owing to an increase in the levels of circulating IGF-I and in the enhanced hypothalamic IGF-IR phosphorylation that would lead to the stimulation of survival pathways. In conclusion, diabetes in IRS2-deficient male mice is associated with increased oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hypothalamus. PMID:27013528

  20. The Managerial Roles of Academic Library Directors: The Mintzberg Model.

    Moskowitz, Michael Ann

    1986-01-01

    A study based on a model developed by Henry Mintzberg examined the internal and external managerial roles of 126 New England college and university library directors. Survey results indicate that the 97 responding directors were primarily involved with internal managerial roles and work contacts. (CDD)

  1. Varicocele and Male Factor Infertility Treatment : A New Meta-analysis and Review of the Role of Varicocele Repair

    Baazeem, Abdulaziz; Belzile, Eric; Ciampi, Antonio; Dohle, Gert; Jarvi, Keith; Salonia, Andrea; Weidner, Wolfgang; Zini, Armand

    2011-01-01

    Context: Varicocele is a common condition, found in many men who present for infertility evaluation. Objective: To assess the effect of varicocelectomy on male infertility. Evidence acquisition: A literature search was performed using Embase and Medline. Literature reviewed included meta-analyses

  2. HIV behavioural risks and the role of work environment among Chinese male sex workers in Hong Kong.

    Wong, William C W; Leung, Phil W S; Li, C W

    2012-01-01

    Male sex workers are a highly marginalised group in Hong Kong and it is increasingly so with an influx of them travelling from mainland China to work as "freelance" sex workers. This study aimed to measure important work environment variables that might affect the likelihood of condom use among male sex workers working in Hong Kong. A cross-sectional survey of 161 participants recruited by snowball and convenience sampling methods through outreach workers of a local non-governmental organization was conducted in 2007-2008. Only 27.4%, 54.7% and 42.6% reported consistent condom use when engaging in oral, anal and vaginal sex, respectively. Logistic regression shows unsafe sex was nearly four times (OR=3.41; 95%CI 1.51-7.69) as common in institutionalised male sex workers as among their independent counterparts. Lack of condoms provided at workplaces was a major barrier in this socio-legal context and was strongly associated with condom non-use amongst institutionalised sex workers (OR= 10.86; 95%CI 2.94-40.17). The present study finds that when compared with independent Male sex workers (MSWs), institutionalised MSWs were older, less educated, earned a higher income but more likely to engage in unsafe sex with their clients and their partners. Public health physicians must work with law-enforcing authorities to provide clear guidelines to remove these HIV prevention barriers.

  3. The Role of Machismo and the Hispanic Family in the Etiology and Treatment of Alcoholism in Hispanic American Males.

    Panitz, Daniel R.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Discusses alcohol abuse among Hispanic males of Mexican and Puerto Rican origin and the cultural and familial factors which both enable alocholism and serve as tools in overcoming it. The positive ideals of machismo may be enlisted in family therapy through supportive rather than reconstructive therapies. (Author/JAC)

  4. The relationship between female brooding and male nestling provisioning: does climate underlie geographic variation in sex roles?

    Yoon, Jongmin; Sofaer, Helen R.; Sillett, T. Scott; Morrison, Scott A.; Ghalambor, Cameron K.

    2017-01-01

    Comparative studies of populations occupying different environments can provide insights into the ecological conditions affecting differences in parental strategies, including the relative contributions of males and females. Male and female parental strategies reflect the interplay between ecological conditions, the contributions of the social mate, and the needs of offspring. Climate is expected to underlie geographic variation in incubation and brooding behavior, and can thereby affect both the absolute and relative contributions of each sex to other aspects of parental care such as offspring provisioning. However, geographic variation in brooding behavior has received much less attention than variation in incubation attentiveness or provisioning rates. We compared parental behavior during the nestling period in populations of orange-crowned warblers Oreothlypis celata near the northern (64°N) and southern (33°N) boundaries of the breeding range. In Alaska, we found that males were responsible for the majority of food delivery whereas the sexes contributed equally to provisioning in California. Higher male provisioning in Alaska appeared to facilitate a higher proportion of time females spent brooding the nestlings. Surprisingly, differences in brooding between populations could not be explained by variation in ambient temperature, which was similar between populations during the nestling period. While these results represent a single population contrast, they suggest additional hypotheses for the ecological correlates and evolutionary drivers of geographic variation in brooding behavior, and the factors that shape the contributions of each sex.

  5. The CEO's role in business model reinvention.

    Govindarajan, Vijay; Trimble, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Fending off new competitors is a perennial struggle for established companies. Govindarajan and Trimble, of Dartmouth's Tuck School of Business, explain why: Many corporations become too comfortable with their existing business models and neglect the necessary work of radically reinventing them. The authors map out an alternative in their "three boxes" framework. They argue that while a CEO manages the present (box 1), he or she must also selectively forget the past (box 2) in order to create the future (box 3). Infosys chairman N.R. Narayana Murthy mastered the three boxes to reinvigorate his company and greatly increased its changes of enduring for generations.

  6. Effect of eplerenone on serum TNF-α levels in adriamycin induced heart failure male rat models

    Xuan Nan; Song Liping; Xing Haiyan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of eplerenone on serum TNF-α levels in adriamycin induced heart failure male rat models. Methods: Forty male rat models of adriamycin-induced heart failure were prepared with weekly intraperitoneal injection of adriamycin (4/mg/kg) for six weeks. Twenty surviving models were randomly divided into two groups: (1)eplerenone-treated group, n=10, treated with garage of eplerenone 200mg/kg/d for 12 weeks (2) non-treated group n=10. All the surviving models (group (1) n=8, group (2) n=6) were sacrificed after 12 weeks with left ventricular hemodynamic function parameters tested and serum TNF-α levels measured. Ten male rats without adriamycin administration served as controls. Results: Left ventricular hemodynamic parameters in the non-treated group were significantly worse than those in controls (P<0.05). The parameters in the eplerenone treated group were significantly better than those in the non-treated group (P<0.05). The serum TNF-α levels in the non-treated group were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). TNF-α levels in the eplerenone group were significantly lower than those in the non-treated group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Eplerenone could reduce the serum TNF-α levels in the rat models of heart failure. (authors)

  7. Are Universities Role Models for Communities? A Gender Perspective

    Felicia Cornelia MACARIE; Octavian MOLDOVAN

    2012-01-01

    The present paper explores the degree in which universities could/should serve as role models for communities from the perspective of gender integration. Although the theoretical/ moral answer would be affirmative (universities should be in such a position that would allow local communities to regard them as role models of gender integration), the primary empirical analysis leads to another conclusion. A brief theoretical review (that connects gender discrimination, sustainable development, u...

  8. Functional Relationship between Obesity and Male Reproduction: from Humans to Animal Models

    Teerds, K.J.; Rooij, de D.G.; Keijer, J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increase in the incidence of obesity has a substantial societal health impact. Contrasting reports have been published on whether overweight and obesity affect male fertility. To clarify this, we have reviewed published data on the relation between overweight/obesity, semen

  9. A strategy for principals to manage role conflict as experienced by male and female educators / Gaopotlake Puxley Boweni

    Boweni, Gaopotlake Puxley

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this research is to develop a management strategy for school principals to assist educators deal with role conflict. Role conflict has proved to be one of the stumbling blocks towards educators’ career advancement as well as bringing and causing unnecessary tension at home. The nature of the educators’ home and the workplace roles has changed dramatically over the years as a result of the democratic dispensation. No longer is the work of a woman solely in the home whereas the...

  10. Rethinking board role performance: Towards an integrative model

    Babić Verica M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the board role evolution analysis which took place simultaneously with the development of different corporate governance theories and perspectives. The purpose of this paper is to provide understanding of key factors that make a board effective in the performance of its role. We argue that analysis of board role performance should incorporate both structural and process variables. This paper’s contribution is the development of an integrative model that aims to establish the relationship between the board structure and processes on the one hand, and board role performance on the other.

  11. Roles of piRNAs in microcystin-leucine-arginine (MC-LR) induced reproductive toxicity in testis on male offspring.

    Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Huan; Benson, Mikael; Han, Xiaodong; Li, Dongmei

    2017-07-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the toxic effects on the testis of the male offspring of MC-LR exposure during fetal and lactational periods. Pregnant females were distributed into two experimental groups: control group and MC-LR group which were exposed to 0 and 10 μg/L of MC-LR, respectively, through drinking water separately during fetal and lactational periods. At the age of 30 days after birth, the male offspring were euthanized. The body weight, testis index, and histomorphology change were observed and the global changes of piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) expression were evaluated. The results revealed that MC-LR was found in the testis of male offspring, body weight and testis index decreased significantly, and testicular tissue structure was damaged in the MC-LR group. In addition, the exposure to MC-LR resulted in an altered piRNA expression profile and an increase of the cell apoptosis and a decrease of the cell proliferation in the testis of the male offspring. It was reasonable to speculate that the toxic effects on reproductive system of the male offspring in MC-LR group might be mediated by piRNAs through the regulation of the target genes. As far as we are aware, this is the first report showing that MC-LR could play a role in disorder of proliferative and cell apoptosis in the testis of the male offspring by the maternal transmission effect of toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The role of money in modern macro models

    Seitz, Franz; Schmidt, Markus A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is the starting point of a series of analyses aiming at re-discovering the role of money for monetary policy purposes. It provides an overview of the role of money in modern macro models. In particular, we are focussing on New Keynesian and New Monetarist models to investigate their main findings and most significant shortcomings in considering money properly. As a further step, we ask about the role of financial intermediaries in this respect. In dealing with these issues, we dist...

  13. Role of taurine as a treatment for oxidative damage and sperm head abnormalities in irradiated mice and their male offspring

    El-Dawy, H.; Tawfik, S.S.; EI-Khafif, M.; Ragab, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    The efficiency of taurine therapy in treatment of male mice exposed to a dose of (3 Gy) whole body gamma irradiation and their male offspring was studied. Irradiated mice showed significant increase in plasma malonaldehyde (MDA) level and sperm head abnormality counts in all experiment interval times 1, 3 and 5 weeks. Administration of taurine (1% in drinking water) post-irradiation resulted in significant decrease in the effect of irradiation on MDA level and sperm head abnormalities count. The efficiency of taurine as radiotherapeutic agent is greatly dependent on its chemical properties as strong oxidants scavenger and biological activities as osmoregulator and membrane stabilizer. The probable mechanism of taurine was discussed, as it is a sulphydryl, heterocyclic-nitrogenous and pharmacological therapy

  14. Role of Mas receptor in renal blood flow response to angiotensin (1-7) in male and female rats.

    Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Safari, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic and clinical studies have shown that progression of renal disease in male is faster than that in female. However, the exact mechanisms are not well recognized. Angiotensin (1-7) (Ang 1-7) receptor, called "Mas", is an element in the depressor arm of renin angiotensin system (RAS), and its expression is enhanced in females. We test the hypothesis that Mas receptor (MasR) blockade (A779) attenuates renal blood flow (RBF) in response to infusion of graded doses of Ang 1-7 in female rats. Male and female Wistar rats were anesthetized and catheterized. Then, the mean arterial pressure (MAP), RBF, and controlled renal perfusion pressure (RPP) responses to infusion of graded doses of Ang 1-7 (100-1000 ng/kg/min i.v.) with and without A779 were measured in the animals. Basal MAP, RPP, RBF, and renal vascular resistance (RVR) were not significantly different between the two groups. After Ang 1-7 administration, RPP was controlled at a constant level. However, RBF increased in a dose-related manner in response to Ang 1-7 infusion in both male and female rats (Pdoserenal diseases.

  15. Protective role of ginger on lead induced derangement in plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels of male sprague dawley rats

    Riaz, F.; Ayub, M.; Shaukat, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lead is one of the most serious environmental threats to human health especially in developing countries. It damages multiple body systems including the reproductive system. Ginger's antioxidant and androgenic activity is reported in multiple animal studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effect of Zingiber officinale (ginger) on lead induced derangement in plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels of male rats. Methods: Sixty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used in this study in four groups. Group A served as normal control, Group B received 0.3% lead acetate in drinking water, Group C and group D received supplementary 0.5 and 1 gm/Kg bodyweight of ginger respectively along with lead acetate in drinking water. Five rats from each group were sacrificed at the end of 2nd, 4th and 6th weeks. Serum testosterone and LH levels were analysed using ELISA technique. Results: After co administration with different doses of ginger, serum testosterone level which was significantly decreased in lead treated group, showed a significant rise as compared to lead treated group. LH levels which had exhibited no significant change by lead treatment, after co administration with different doses of ginger, again showed no significant change. Conclusion: Oral administration of ginger ameliorated lead induced testicular toxicity in male rats by increasing serum testosterone level at all durations which might be a product of both its androgenic and antioxidant properties. (author)

  16. The role of melatonin in radiation induced biochemical disturbances in brain and thyroid gland in adult male albino rats

    Abdel Kader, S.M.; EI-Sherbiny, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    Radiation induced changes in adult male albino male rats before and after melatonin administration were monitored to detect some biochemical changes in brain and thyroid gland. The parameters monitored were dopamine (DA), norepinephdne (NE) and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in brain and triiodothyronine (T 3 ) thyroxine (T 4 ) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in serum of irradiated adult male albino rats before and after intraperitoneal injection of melatonin. Results indicated that 6.0 Gy whole body γ-irradiated rats showed gradual and significant decrease in DA, NE and GABA contents in different brain areas under investigation (cerebellum, pons+medulla oblongata, corpus striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus). The maximum effect of whole body γ-irradiation was observed after 21 days. Moreover, gradual and significant decrease in serum T 3 and T 4 levels were recorded after γ-irradiation. However, TSH level showed significant elevation throughout the experimental period. Melatonin at a dose level of 15 mg/kg b.wt. was intraperitoneally injected daily 30 minutes after 6.0 Gy whole body γ-irradiation, ameliorated DA, NE and GABA contents in different brain areas compared to those measured in irradiated rats. Moreover, melatonin gradually attenuated the effect of γ-irradiation on serum T 3 and T 4 levels to reach nearly the control level at day 21 after melatonin injection. However, melatonin ameliorated the elevated TSH level induced by γ-irradiation to reach its corresponding control value at day 21

  17. Male role endorsement explains negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men among students in Mexico more than in Germany

    Steffens, M.C.; Jonas, K.J.; Denger, L.

    2015-01-01

    Anti-gay attitudes vary across cultures because the larger social context plays a role in attitude formation. Psychological correlates of these attitudes have been investigated in the United States and Europe. Endorsement of traditional gender roles has emerged from that research as a central

  18. Ocular hemodynamics and glaucoma: the role of mathematical modeling.

    Harris, Alon; Guidoboni, Giovanna; Arciero, Julia C; Amireskandari, Annahita; Tobe, Leslie A; Siesky, Brent A

    2013-01-01

    To discuss the role of mathematical modeling in studying ocular hemodynamics, with a focus on glaucoma. We reviewed recent literature on glaucoma, ocular blood flow, autoregulation, the optic nerve head, and the use of mathematical modeling in ocular circulation. Many studies suggest that alterations in ocular hemodynamics play a significant role in the development, progression, and incidence of glaucoma. Although there is currently a limited number of studies involving mathematical modeling of ocular blood flow, regulation, and diseases (such as glaucoma), preliminary modeling work shows the potential of mathematical models to elucidate the mechanisms that contribute most significantly to glaucoma progression. Mathematical modeling is a useful tool when used synergistically with clinical and laboratory data in the study of ocular blood flow and glaucoma. The development of models to investigate the relationship between ocular hemodynamic alterations and glaucoma progression will provide a unique and useful method for studying the pathophysiology of glaucoma.

  19. "If You Are Not Circumcised, I Cannot Say Yes": The Role of Women in Promoting the Uptake of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in Tanzania.

    Haika Osaki

    Full Text Available Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC for HIV prevention in Tanzania was introduced by the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare in 2010 as part of the national HIV prevention strategy. A qualitative study was conducted prior to a cluster randomized trial which tested effective strategies to increase VMMC up take among men aged ≥20 years. During the formative qualitative study, we conducted in-depth interviews with circumcised males (n = 14, uncircumcised males (n = 16, and participatory group discussions (n = 20 with men and women aged 20-49 years in Njombe and Tabora regions of Tanzania. Participants reported that mothers and female partners have an important influence on men's decisions to seek VMMC both directly by denying sex, and indirectly through discussion, advice and providing information on VMMC to uncircumcised partners and sons. Our findings suggest that in Tanzania and potentially other settings, an expanded role for women in VMMC communication strategies could increase adult male uptake of VMMC services.

  20. Perspectives of Iranian male nursing students regarding the role of nursing education in developing a professional identity: a content analysis study.

    Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Salsali, Mahvash; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the perspectives of Iranian male nursing students regarding the role of nursing education in developing a professional identity. A qualitative design, based on the content analysis approach, was used to collect the data and analyze the perspectives of 14 Iranian male nursing students who were chosen by using a purposive sampling strategy. After the selection of the participants, semistructured interviews were held in order to collect the data. During the data analysis, three main themes emerged: "reality-expectation incompatibility", "being supported by the educational system", and "nursing image rectification". The second theme consisted of two categories: "feeling trusted" and "being defended". This study will be useful to nurse educators and administrators in relation to what constitutes nursing students' professional identity within the Iranian culture and context and how nursing education can play an effective role in developing their professional identity in order to devise strategies to attract male students to the nursing profession and promote their retention after graduation. © 2010 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2010 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  1. Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention: New Mathematical Models for Strategic Demand Creation Prioritizing Subpopulations by Age and Geography.

    Hankins, Catherine; Warren, Mitchell; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Over 11 million voluntary medical male circumcisions (VMMC) have been performed of the projected 20.3 million needed to reach 80% adult male circumcision prevalence in priority sub-Saharan African countries. Striking numbers of adolescent males, outside the 15-49-year-old age target, have been accessing VMMC services. What are the implications of overall progress in scale-up to date? Can mathematical modeling provide further insights on how to efficiently reach the male circumcision coverage levels needed to create and sustain further reductions in HIV incidence to make AIDS no longer a public health threat by 2030? Considering ease of implementation and cultural acceptability, decision makers may also value the estimates that mathematical models can generate of immediacy of impact, cost-effectiveness, and magnitude of impact resulting from different policy choices. This supplement presents the results of mathematical modeling using the Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0), the Actuarial Society of South Africa (ASSA2008) model, and the age structured mathematical (ASM) model. These models are helping countries examine the potential effects on program impact and cost-effectiveness of prioritizing specific subpopulations for VMMC services, for example, by client age, HIV-positive status, risk group, and geographical location. The modeling also examines long-term sustainability strategies, such as adolescent and/or early infant male circumcision, to preserve VMMC coverage gains achieved during rapid scale-up. The 2016-2021 UNAIDS strategy target for VMMC is an additional 27 million VMMC in high HIV-prevalence settings by 2020, as part of access to integrated sexual and reproductive health services for men. To achieve further scale-up, a combination of evidence, analysis, and impact estimates can usefully guide strategic planning and funding of VMMC services and related demand-creation strategies in priority countries. Mid-course corrections

  2. Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention: New Mathematical Models for Strategic Demand Creation Prioritizing Subpopulations by Age and Geography.

    Catherine Hankins

    Full Text Available Over 11 million voluntary medical male circumcisions (VMMC have been performed of the projected 20.3 million needed to reach 80% adult male circumcision prevalence in priority sub-Saharan African countries. Striking numbers of adolescent males, outside the 15-49-year-old age target, have been accessing VMMC services. What are the implications of overall progress in scale-up to date? Can mathematical modeling provide further insights on how to efficiently reach the male circumcision coverage levels needed to create and sustain further reductions in HIV incidence to make AIDS no longer a public health threat by 2030? Considering ease of implementation and cultural acceptability, decision makers may also value the estimates that mathematical models can generate of immediacy of impact, cost-effectiveness, and magnitude of impact resulting from different policy choices. This supplement presents the results of mathematical modeling using the Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0, the Actuarial Society of South Africa (ASSA2008 model, and the age structured mathematical (ASM model. These models are helping countries examine the potential effects on program impact and cost-effectiveness of prioritizing specific subpopulations for VMMC services, for example, by client age, HIV-positive status, risk group, and geographical location. The modeling also examines long-term sustainability strategies, such as adolescent and/or early infant male circumcision, to preserve VMMC coverage gains achieved during rapid scale-up. The 2016-2021 UNAIDS strategy target for VMMC is an additional 27 million VMMC in high HIV-prevalence settings by 2020, as part of access to integrated sexual and reproductive health services for men. To achieve further scale-up, a combination of evidence, analysis, and impact estimates can usefully guide strategic planning and funding of VMMC services and related demand-creation strategies in priority countries. Mid

  3. Disruption of the glutamate-glutamine cycle involving astrocytes in an animal model of depression for males and females

    Virginie Rappeneau

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women are twice as likely as men to develop major depression (MD. The brain mechanisms underlying this sex disparity are not clear. Disruption of the glutamate-glutamine cycle has been implicated in psychiatric disturbances. This study identifies sex-based impairments in the glutamate-glutamine cycle involving astrocytes using an animal model of depression. Methods: Male and female adult Long-Evans rats were exposed to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS for 21 days, using a modified resident-intruder paradigm. Territorial aggression was used for males and maternal aggression was used for females to induce depressive-like deficits for intruders. The depressive-like phenotype was assessed with intake for saccharin solution, weight gain, estrous cycle, and corticosterone (CORT. Behaviors displayed by the intruders during daily encounters with residents were characterized. Rats with daily handling were used as controls for each sex. Ten days after the last encounter, both the intruders and controls were subjected to a no-net-flux in vivo microdialysis to assess glutamate accumulation and extracellular glutamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc. The contralateral hemispheres were used for determining changes in astrocytic markers, including glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1. Results: Both male and female intruders reduced saccharin intake over the course of CSDS, compared to their pre-stress period and to their respective controls. Male intruders exhibited submissive/defensive behaviors to territorial aggression by receiving sideways threats and bites. These males showed reductions in striatal GLT-1 and spontaneous glutamine in the NAc, compared to controls. Female intruders exhibited isolated behaviors to maternal aggression, including immobility, rearing, and self-grooming. Their non-reproductive days were extended. Also, they showed reductions in prefrontal and accumbal GFAP+ cells and prefrontal GLT

  4. Disruption of the Glutamate–Glutamine Cycle Involving Astrocytes in an Animal Model of Depression for Males and Females

    Rappeneau, Virginie; Blaker, Amanda; Petro, Jeff R.; Yamamoto, Bryan K.; Shimamoto, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women are twice as likely as men to develop major depression. The brain mechanisms underlying this sex disparity are not clear. Disruption of the glutamate–glutamine cycle has been implicated in psychiatric disturbances. This study identifies sex-based impairments in the glutamate–glutamine cycle involving astrocytes using an animal model of depression. Methods: Male and female adult Long-Evans rats were exposed to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) for 21 days, using a modified resident-intruder paradigm. Territorial aggression was used for males and maternal aggression was used for females to induce depressive-like deficits for intruders. The depressive-like phenotype was assessed with intake for saccharin solution, weight gain, estrous cycle, and corticosterone (CORT). Behaviors displayed by the intruders during daily encounters with residents were characterized. Rats with daily handling were used as controls for each sex. Ten days after the last encounter, both the intruders and controls were subjected to a no-net-flux in vivo microdialysis to assess glutamate accumulation and extracellular glutamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). The contralateral hemispheres were used for determining changes in astrocytic markers, including glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1). Results: Both male and female intruders reduced saccharin intake over the course of CSDS, compared to their pre-stress period and to their respective controls. Male intruders exhibited submissive/defensive behaviors to territorial aggression by receiving sideways threats and bites. These males showed reductions in striatal GLT-1 and spontaneous glutamine in the NAc, compared to controls. Female intruders exhibited isolated behaviors to maternal aggression, including immobility, rearing, and selfgrooming. Their non-reproductive days were extended. Also, they showed reductions in prefrontal and accumbal GFAP+ cells and prefrontal GLT-1, compared to

  5. Male Wistar rats show individual differences in an animal model of conformity.

    Jolles, Jolle W; de Visser, Leonie; van den Bos, Ruud

    2011-09-01

    Conformity refers to the act of changing one's behaviour to match that of others. Recent studies in humans have shown that individual differences exist in conformity and that these differences are related to differences in neuronal activity. To understand the neuronal mechanisms in more detail, animal tests to assess conformity are needed. Here, we used a test of conformity in rats that has previously been evaluated in female, but not male, rats and assessed the nature of individual differences in conformity. Male Wistar rats were given the opportunity to learn that two diets differed in palatability. They were subsequently exposed to a demonstrator that had consumed the less palatable food. Thereafter, they were exposed to the same diets again. Just like female rats, male rats decreased their preference for the more palatable food after interaction with demonstrator rats that had eaten the less palatable food. Individual differences existed for this shift, which were only weakly related to an interaction between their own initial preference and the amount consumed by the demonstrator rat. The data show that this conformity test in rats is a promising tool to study the neurobiology of conformity.

  6. Factors influencing residents' evaluations of clinical faculty member teaching qualities and role model status.

    Arah, Onyebuchi A; Heineman, Maas J; Lombarts, Kiki M J M H

    2012-04-01

      Evaluations of faculty members are widely used to identify excellent or substandard teaching performance. In order to enable such evaluations to be properly interpreted and used in faculty development, it is essential to understand the factors that influence resident doctors' (residents) evaluations of the teaching qualities of faculty members and their perceptions of faculty members as role-model specialists.   We carried out a cross-sectional survey within a longitudinal study of the System for Evaluation of Teaching Qualities (SETQ) of clinical teachers. The study sample included 889 residents and 1014 faculty members in 61 teaching programmes spanning 22 specialties in 20 hospitals in the Netherlands. Main outcome measures included residents' (i) global and (ii) specific ratings of faculty member teaching qualities, and (iii) global ratings of faculty members as role-model specialists. Statistical analysis was conducted using adjusted multivariable logistic generalised estimating equations.   In total, 690 residents (77.6%) completed 6485 evaluations of 962 faculty members, 848 (83.6%) of whom also self-evaluated. More recently certified faculty members, those who had attended a teacher training programme, and those who spent more time teaching than seeing patients or conducting research were more likely to score highly on most teaching qualities. However, faculty members who had undergone teacher training were less likely to be seen as role models (odds ratio [OR] 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.59-0.88). In addition, faculty members were evaluated slightly higher by male than female residents on core teaching domains and overall teaching quality, but were less likely to be seen as role models by male residents (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.67-0.97). Lastly, faculty members had higher odds of receiving top scores in specific teaching domains from residents in the first 4 years of residency and were less likely to be considered as role models by more

  7. A male with unilateral microphthalmia reveals a role for TMX3 in eye development

    Chao, Ryan; Nevin, Linda; Agarwal, Pooja

    2010-01-01

    Anophthalmia and microphthalmia are important birth defects, but their pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. We studied a patient with severe unilateral microphthalmia who had a 2.7 Mb deletion at chromosome 18q22.1 that was inherited from his mother. In-situ hybridization showed that one...... of the deleted genes, TMX3, was expressed in the retinal neuroepithelium and lens epithelium in the developing murine eye. We re-sequenced TMX3 in 162 patients with anophthalmia or microphthalmia, and found two missense substitutions in unrelated patients: c.116G>A, predicting p.Arg39Gln, in a male...

  8. Reduction of dopamine level enhances the attractiveness of male Drosophila to other males.

    Liu, Tong; Dartevelle, Laurence; Yuan, Chunyan; Wei, Hongping; Wang, Ying; Ferveur, Jean-François; Guo, Aike

    2009-01-01

    Dopamine is an important neuromodulator in animals and its roles in mammalian sexual behavior are extensively studied. Drosophila as a useful model system is widely used in many fields of biological studies. It has been reported that dopamine reduction can affect female receptivity in Drosophila and leave male-female courtship behavior unaffected. Here, we used genetic and pharmacological approaches to decrease the dopamine level in dopaminergic cells in Drosophila, and investigated the consequence of this manipulation on male homosexual courtship behavior. We find that reduction of dopamine level can induce Drosophila male-male courtship behavior, and that this behavior is mainly due to the increased male attractiveness or decreased aversiveness towards other males, but not to their enhanced propensity to court other males. Chemical signal input probably plays a crucial role in the male-male courtship induced by the courtees with reduction of dopamine. Our finding provides insight into the relationship between the dopamine reduction and male-male courtship behavior, and hints dopamine level is important for controlling Drosophila courtship behavior.

  9. Establishment of detailed eye model of adult chinese male and dose conversion coefficients calculation under neutron exposure

    Zhu, Hongyu; Qiu, Rui; Ren, Li; Zhang, Hui; Li, Junli; Wu, Zhen; Li, Chunyan

    2017-01-01

    The human eye lens is sensitive to radiation. ICRP-118 publication recommended a reduction of the occupational annual equivalent dose limit from 150 to 20 mSv, averaged over defined periods of 5 y. Therefore, it is very important to build a detailed eye model for the accurate dose assessment and radiation risk evaluation of eye lens. In this work, a detailed eye model was build based on the characteristic anatomic parameters of the Chinese adult male. This eye model includes seven main structures, which are scleral, choroid, lens, iris, cornea, vitreous body and aqueous humor. The lens was divided into sensitive volume and insensitive volume based on different cell populations. The detailed eye model was incorporated into the converted polygon-mesh version of the Chinese reference adult male whole-body surface model. After the incorporation, dose conversion coefficients for the eye lens were calculated for neutron exposure at AP, PA and LAT geometries with Geant4, the neutron energies were from 0.001 eV to 10 MeV. The calculated lens dose coefficients were compared with those of ICRP-116 publication. Significant differences up to 97.47% were found at PA geometry. This could mainly be attributed to the different geometry characteristic of eye model and parameters of head in different phantom between the present work and ICRP-116 publication. (authors)

  10. ESTABLISHMENT OF DETAILED EYE MODEL OF ADULT CHINESE MALE AND DOSE CONVERSION COEFFICIENTS CALCULATION UNDER NEUTRON EXPOSURE.

    Zhu, Hongyu; Qiu, Rui; Wu, Zhen; Ren, Li; Li, Chunyan; Zhang, Hui; Li, Junli

    2017-12-01

    The human eye lens is sensitive to radiation. ICRP-118 publication recommended a reduction of the occupational annual equivalent dose limit from 150 to 20 mSv, averaged over defined periods of 5 y. Therefore, it is very important to build a detailed eye model for the accurate dose assessment and radiation risk evaluation of eye lens. In this work, a detailed eye model was build based on the characteristic anatomic parameters of the Chinese adult male. This eye model includes seven main structures, which are scleral, choroid, lens, iris, cornea, vitreous body and aqueous humor. The lens was divided into sensitive volume and insensitive volume based on different cell populations. The detailed eye model was incorporated into the converted polygon-mesh version of the Chinese reference adult male whole-body surface model. After the incorporation, dose conversion coefficients for the eye lens were calculated for neutron exposure at AP, PA and LAT geometries with Geant4, the neutron energies were from 0.001 eV to 10 MeV. The calculated lens dose coefficients were compared with those of ICRP-116 publication. Significant differences up to 97.47% were found at PA geometry. This could mainly be attributed to the different geometry characteristic of eye model and parameters of head in different phantom between the present work and ICRP-116 publication. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Lipolysis of emulsion models of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins is altered in male patients with abdominal aorta aneurysm

    J.J. Hosni

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of the lipid metabolism may play a role in the genesis of abdominal aorta aneurysm. The present study examined the intravascular catabolism of chylomicrons, the lipoproteins that carry the dietary lipids absorbed by the intestine in the circulation in patients with abdominal aorta aneurysm. Thirteen male patients (72 ± 5 years with abdominal aorta aneurysm with normal plasma lipid profile and 13 healthy male control subjects (73 ± 5 years participated in the study. The method of chylomicron-like emulsions was used to evaluate this metabolism. The emulsion labeled with 14C-cholesteryl oleate and ³H-triolein was injected intravenously in both groups. Blood samples were taken at regular intervals over 60 min to determine the decay curves. The fractional clearance rate (FCR of the radioactive labels was calculated by compartmental analysis. The FCR of the emulsion with ³H-triolein was smaller in the aortic aneurysm patients than in controls (0.025 ± 0.017 vs 0.039 ± 0.019 min-1; P < 0.05, but the FCR of14C-cholesteryl oleate of both groups did not differ. In conclusion, as indicated by the triglyceride FCR, chylomicron lipolysis is diminished in male patients with aortic aneurysm, whereas the remnant removal which is traced by the cholesteryl oleate FCR is not altered. The results suggest that defects in the chylomicron metabolism may represent a risk factor for development of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  12. Friends' drinking norms and male adolescents' alcohol consumption: The moderating role of performance-based peer influence susceptibility.

    Teunissen, Hanneke A; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Scholte, Ron H J; Spijkerman, Renske; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2016-12-01

    This study examined whether the relationship between friends' drinking norms and male adolescents' alcohol use is moderated by performance-based peer influence susceptibility. Seventy-three male adolescents (M = 17 years) from three schools in the Netherlands were exposed to the drinking norms of "peers" (electronic confederates) in a chat room experiment. These peers were either popular or unpopular, and conveyed pro- or anti-alcohol norms. Peer influence susceptibility was defined as the change in adolescents' answers before and after exposure to the peer norms. Multilevel regression analyses indicated that the relationship between friends' drinking norms and adolescents' alcohol use (assessed during eight weekends) was moderated by susceptibility to the pro-alcohol norms of popular peers. This relationship was stronger for adolescents who were highly susceptible. These findings suggest that a behavioral measure of peer influence susceptibility could be useful in alcohol prevention programs to select adolescents at risk for negative peer socialization. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigation of Peripheral Effects of Citrus Limon Essential Oil on Somatic Pain in Male Wistar Rats: Role of Histaminergic System

    Ali Mojtahedin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: One of the plants used in traditional medicine is lemon which has analgesic effect. However, little research has been performed on the analgesic effect of lemon and mechanisms of action with an emphasis on neurotransmitters systems. Therefore, the present study set to investigate the peripheral effects of lemon essential oil on somatic pain using formalin test with an emphasis on histaminergic system in male Wistar rats. Materiala & Methods: Sixty male rats weighing approximately 200-250g and aged 14-16 wk were divided into 10 groups: sham (Salin + Formalin 1% intraplantar, three treatment groups with lemon essential oil (EO (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg, three treatment groups with Chlorpheniramine (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, 1 treatment group with Histamine (10 mg/kg, 1 pretreatment group with Chlorpheniramine (20 mg/kg + EO (50mg/kg, and 1 pretreatment group with Histamine (10 mg/kg + EO (50 mg/kg. Formalin test was used to assess somatic pain. Data analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA. Results:  Intraperitoneal injection of lemon essential oil reduced the pain response induced by formalin in both phases (P<0.05. Pretreatment with chlorpheniramine and lemon essential oil enhanced the analgesic response in both phases (P<0.05. Conclusion: Lemon essential oil had analgesic effects, probably caused by the histaminergic system.

  14. A FEEDBACK MODEL FOR TESTICULAR-PITUITARY AXIS HORMONE KINETICS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE REGULATION OF THE PROSTATE IN ADULT MALE RATS

    The testicular-hypothalamic-pituitary axis regulates male reproductive system functions. A model describing the kinetics and dynamics of testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and luteinizing hormone (LH) was developed based on a model by Barton and Anderson (1997). The mode...

  15. Understanding Female Sport Attrition in a Stereotypical Male Sport within the Framework of Eccles's Expectancy-Value Model

    Guillet, Emma; Sarrazin, Philippe; Fontayne, Paul; Brustad, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    An empirical research study based upon the expectancy-value model of Eccles and colleagues (1983) investigated the effect of gender-role orientations on psychological dimensions of female athletes' sport participation and the likelihood of their continued participation in a stereotypical masculine activity. The model (Eccles et al., 1983) posits…

  16. MODEL ROLE PLAYING DALAM PEMBELAJARAN SIKLUS AKUNTANSI PERUSAHAAN DAGANG

    Jarot Tri Tri Bowo Santoso

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Accounting lesson is considered as a difficult lesson by most students in SMK/SMA. It is even sometimes worse with the less ability of accounting teachers to select learning methods thatcan attract students’ attention and thought. Therefore, it is necessary to find an alternative learning which can help students to involve in the real situation which is fun and memorable. The learning model which can fulfill the fun situation is the role playing. The steps to implement this model in the learning of accounting cycle for trade firm are to divide students in groups and to give each of them an opportunity to play a role. In practice, each student changers the role weekly based on the order. The model makesstuents easier to understand the basic accounting and leads the teachers evaluate the materials if the lack of conformity occurs during the learning.

  17. In silico analysis of candidate proteins sharing homology with Streptococcus agalactiae proteins and their role in male infertility.

    Parida, Rajeshwari; Samanta, Luna

    2017-02-01

    Leukocytospermia is a physiologic condition defined as human semen with a leukocyte count of >1 x 10 6 cells/ml that is often correlated with male infertility. Moreover, bacteriospermia has been associated with leukocytospermia ultimately leading to male infertility. We have found that semen samples with >1 x 10 6 /ml leukocytes and/or bacteriospermia have oxidative predominance as evidenced by augmented protein carbonyl and lipid peroxidation status of the semen which is implicated in sperm dysfunction. It has been reported that Streptococcus agalactiae is present in bacteriospermic samples. Previous research has shown that human leukocyte antigen beta chain paralog (HLA-DRB) alleles interact best with the infected sperm cells rather than the non-infected cells. Little is known about the interaction of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) present on leukocytes with the sperm upon bacterial infection and how it induces an immunological response which we have addressed by epitope mapping. Therefore, we examined MHC class II derived bacterial peptides which might have human sperm-related functional aspects. Twenty-two S. agalactiae proteins were obtained from PUBMED protein database for our study. Protein sequences with more than two accession numbers were aligned using CLUSTAL Omega to check their conservation pattern. Each protein sequence was then analyzed for T-cell epitope prediction against HLA-DRB alleles using the immune epitope database (IEDB) analysis tool. Out of a plethora of peptides obtained from this analysis, peptides corresponding to proteins of interest such as DNA binding response regulator, hyaluronate lyase and laminin binding protein were screened against the human proteome using Blastp. Interestingly, we have found bacterial peptides sharing homology with human peptides deciphering some of the important sperm functions. Antibodies raised against these probable bacterial antigens of fertility will not only help us understand the mechanism of

  18. Aerobic Fitness Linked to Cortical Brain Development in Adolescent Males: Preliminary Findings Suggest a Possible Role of BDNF Genotype

    Herting, Megan M.; Keenan, Madison F.; Nagel, Bonnie J.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic exercise has been shown to impact brain structure and cognition in children and adults. Exercise-induced activation of a growth protein known as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is thought to contribute to such relationships. To date, however, no study has examined how aerobic fitness relates to cortical brain structure during development and if BDNF genotype moderates these relationships. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and FreeSurfer, the current study examined how aerobic fitness relates to volume, thickness, and surface area in 34 male adolescents, 15 to 18 years old. Moreover, we examined if the val66met BDNF genotype moderated these relationships. We hypothesized that aerobic fitness would relate to greater thickness and volumes in frontal, parietal, and motor regions, and that these relationships would be less robust in individuals carrying a Met allele, since this genotype leads to lower BDNF expression. We found that aerobic fitness positively related to right rostral middle frontal cortical volume in all adolescents. However, results also showed BDNF genotype moderated the relationship between aerobic fitness and bilateral medial precuneus surface area, with a positive relationship seen in individuals with the Val/Val allele, but no relationship detected in those adolescents carrying a Met allele. Lastly, using self-reported levels of aerobic activity, we found that higher-fit adolescents showed larger right medial pericalcarine, right cuneus and left precuneus surface areas as compared to their low-fit peers. Our findings suggest that aerobic fitness is linked to cortical brain development in male adolescents, and that more research is warranted to determine how an individual’s genes may influence these relationships. PMID:27445764

  19. Aerobic Fitness Linked to Cortical Brain Development in Adolescent Males: Preliminary Findings Suggest a Possible Role of BDNF Genotype.

    Herting, Megan M; Keenan, Madison F; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic exercise has been shown to impact brain structure and cognition in children and adults. Exercise-induced activation of a growth protein known as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is thought to contribute to such relationships. To date, however, no study has examined how aerobic fitness relates to cortical brain structure during development and if BDNF genotype moderates these relationships. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and FreeSurfer, the current study examined how aerobic fitness relates to volume, thickness, and surface area in 34 male adolescents, 15 to 18 years old. Moreover, we examined if the val66met BDNF genotype moderated these relationships. We hypothesized that aerobic fitness would relate to greater thickness and volumes in frontal, parietal, and motor regions, and that these relationships would be less robust in individuals carrying a Met allele, since this genotype leads to lower BDNF expression. We found that aerobic fitness positively related to right rostral middle frontal cortical volume in all adolescents. However, results also showed BDNF genotype moderated the relationship between aerobic fitness and bilateral medial precuneus surface area, with a positive relationship seen in individuals with the Val/Val allele, but no relationship detected in those adolescents carrying a Met allele. Lastly, using self-reported levels of aerobic activity, we found that higher-fit adolescents showed larger right medial pericalcarine, right cuneus and left precuneus surface areas as compared to their low-fit peers. Our findings suggest that aerobic fitness is linked to cortical brain development in male adolescents, and that more research is warranted to determine how an individual's genes may influence these relationships.

  20. Understanding the partial protection of male circumcision for HIV prevention among women in Iringa Region, Tanzania: an ethnomedical model.

    Layer, Erica H; Beckham, Sarah W; Momburi, Romani B; Kennedy, Caitlin E

    2013-08-01

    Communicating the partial efficacy of male circumcision for HIV prevention is challenging. Understanding how people conceptualize risk can help programs communicate messages in a way that is understandable to local communities. This article explores women's ethnomedical model of disease transmission related to male circumcision in Iringa Region, Tanzania. We conducted in-depth interviews (IDIs) with 32 female partners of male circumcision clients and focus group discussions (FGDs) with married (n=3) and unmarried (n=3) women from November 2011 to February 2012. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and translated into English, and codes were developed based on emerging themes. While women understand that circumcised men are still at risk of HIV, risk is perceived to be low as long as both partners avoid abrasions during sexual intercourse and the man's penis is kept clean. Women said that HIV transmission only occurs when both partners have abrasions on their genitalia and mixing of blood occurs. Abrasions are thought to be the result of friction from fast or dry sex and are more likely to occur with uncircumcised men; thus, HIV can be prevented if a man is circumcised and couples have gentle, lubricated sex. In addition, women reported that the foreskin traps particles of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV, which can easily be passed on to female partners. In contrast, circumcised men are viewed as being able to clean themselves of disease particles and, therefore, do not easily acquire diseases or transmit them to female partners. These findings align with the scientific understanding of increased HIV risk associated with abrasions or microflora in the foreskin; however, the ethnomedical model differs from scientific understanding in that disease transmission can in fact occur without either of these conditions. Programs can build upon these findings to better convey risks along with the benefits of male circumcision.

  1. In-situ electric field and current density in Japanese male and female models for uniform magnetic field exposures

    Hirata, A.; Wake, K.; Watanabe, S.; Taki, M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study quantified the in situ electric field and induced current density in anatomically based numeric Japanese male and female models for exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields. A quasi-static FDTD method was applied to analyse this problem. The computational results obtained herein reveal that the 99. percentile value of the in situ electric field in the nerve tissue and the current density averaged over an area of 1 cm 2 of the nerve tissue (excluding non-nerve tissues in the averaging region) in the female models were less than 35 and 25%, respectively. These induced quantities in the Japanese models were smaller than those for European models reported in a previous study, which is mainly due to the difference in cross-sectional area of the body. (authors)

  2. Reversible lacrimal gland-protective regulatory T-cell dysfunction underlies male-specific autoimmune dacryoadenitis in the non-obese diabetic mouse model of Sjögren syndrome

    Lieberman, Scott M; Kreiger, Portia A; Koretzky, Gary A

    2015-01-01

    CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells are required to maintain immunological tolerance; however, defects in specific organ-protective Treg cell functions have not been demonstrated in organ-specific autoimmunity. Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice spontaneously develop lacrimal and salivary gland autoimmunity and are a well-characterized model of Sjögren syndrome. Lacrimal gland disease in NOD mice is male-specific, but the role of Treg cells in this sex-specificity is not known. This study aimed to determine if male-specific autoimmune dacryoadenitis in the NOD mouse model of Sjögren syndrome is the result of lacrimal gland-protective Treg cell dysfunction. An adoptive transfer model of Sjögren syndrome was developed by transferring cells from the lacrimal gland-draining cervical lymph nodes of NOD mice to lymphocyte-deficient NOD-SCID mice. Transfer of bulk cervical lymph node cells modelled the male-specific dacryoadenitis that spontaneously develops in NOD mice. Female to female transfers resulted in dacryoadenitis if the CD4+ CD25+ Treg-enriched population was depleted before transfer; however, male to male transfers resulted in comparable dacryoadenitis regardless of the presence or absence of Treg cells within the donor cell population. Hormone manipulation studies suggested that this Treg cell dysfunction was mediated at least in part by androgens. Surprisingly, male Treg cells were capable of preventing the transfer of dacryoadenitis to female recipients. These data suggest that male-specific factors promote reversible dysfunction of lacrimal gland-protective Treg cells and, to our knowledge, form the first evidence for reversible organ-protective Treg cell dysfunction in organ-specific autoimmunity. PMID:25581706

  3. Modeling Costs and Impacts of Introducing Early Infant Male Circumcision for Long-Term Sustainability of the Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Program.

    Emmanuel Njeuhmeli

    Full Text Available Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC has been shown to be an effective prevention strategy against HIV infection in males [1-3]. Since 2007, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR has supported VMMC programs in 14 priority countries in Africa. Today several of these countries are preparing to transition their VMMC programs from a scale-up and expansion phase to a maintenance phase. As they do so, they must consider the best approaches to sustain high levels of male circumcision in the population. The two alternatives under consideration are circumcising adolescents 10-14 years old over the long term or integrating early infant male circumcision (EIMC into maternal and child health programs. The paper presents an analysis, using the Decision Makers Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0, of the estimated cost and impact of introducing EIMC into existing VMMC programs in several countries in eastern and southern Africa. Limited cost data exist for the implementation of EIMC, but preliminary studies, such as the one detailed in Mangenah, et al. [4-5], suggest that the cost of EIMC may be less than that of adolescent and adult male circumcision. If this is the case, then adding EIMC to the VMMC program will increase the number of circumcisions that need to be performed but will not increase the total cost of the program over the long term. In addition, we found that a delayed or slow start-up of EIMC would not substantially reduce the impact of adding it to the program or increase cumulative long-term costs, which should make introduction of EIMC more feasible and attractive to countries contemplating such a program innovation.

  4. The role of sexual self-schema in a diathesis-stress model of sexual dysfunction.

    Cyranowski, Jill M; Aarestad, Susan L; Andersen, Barbara L

    1999-01-01

    Sexual self-schemas are cognitive generalizations regarding sexual aspects of the self that represent a core component of one's sexuality. We contend that individual differences in the sexual self-view represent an important cognitive diathesis for predicting sexual difficulty or dysfunction. We illustrate the role of sexual self-schemas on sexual behavior and responsiveness in healthy female and male samples. Next, we describe how diathesis-stress models of psychopathology have been applied to the sexual arena, and discuss the critical features of clinically useful diathesis variables. Drawing from these criteria, we examine the diathetic properties of sexual self-schemas. Finally, we discuss an empirical test of the proposed diathesis-stress interaction, reviewing the role of women's sexual self-views on sexual morbidity following diagnosis and treatment for gynecologic cancer.

  5. The role of sexual self-schema in a diathesis–stress model of sexual dysfunction

    CYRANOWSKI, JILL M.; AARESTAD, SUSAN L.; ANDERSEN, BARBARA L.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual self-schemas are cognitive generalizations regarding sexual aspects of the self that represent a core component of one’s sexuality. We contend that individual differences in the sexual self-view represent an important cognitive diathesis for predicting sexual difficulty or dysfunction. We illustrate the role of sexual self-schemas on sexual behavior and responsiveness in healthy female and male samples. Next, we describe how diathesis–stress models of psychopathology have been applied to the sexual arena, and discuss the critical features of clinically useful diathesis variables. Drawing from these criteria, we examine the diathetic properties of sexual self-schemas. Finally, we discuss an empirical test of the proposed diathesis–stress interaction, reviewing the role of women’s sexual self-views on sexual morbidity following diagnosis and treatment for gynecologic cancer. PMID:19587834

  6. Mediating Effects of Self-Efficacy in the Transtheoretical Model Among Adolescent Male Smokers in Korea

    Ok Kyung Ham, RN, PhD, CHES

    2009-03-01

    Conclusions: The study results will provide valuable information regarding how each predictor variable is connected and path through adoption of smoking cessation behavior. By understanding mechanisms of behavior change, health professionals could develop effective smoking cessation interventions with consideration of roles of self-efficacy in the smoking cessation behavior change. [Asian Nursing Research2009;3(1:15–23

  7. FoxO1 Plays an Important Role in Regulating ?-Cell Compensation for Insulin Resistance in Male Mice

    Zhang, Ting; Kim, Dae Hyun; Xiao, Xiangwei; Lee, Sojin; Gong, Zhenwei; Muzumdar, Radhika; Calabuig-Navarro, Virtu; Yamauchi, Jun; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Wang, Rennian; Bottino, Rita; Alvarez-Perez, Juan Carlos; Garcia-Oca?a, Adolfo; Gittes, George; Dong, H. Henry

    2016-01-01

    ?-Cell compensation is an essential mechanism by which ?-cells increase insulin secretion for overcoming insulin resistance to maintain euglycemia in obesity. Failure of ?-cells to compensate for insulin resistance contributes to insulin insufficiency and overt diabetes. To understand the mechanism of ?-cell compensation, we characterized the role of forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) in ?-cell compensation in mice under physiological and pathological conditions. FoxO1 is a key transcription factor that...

  8. Differences between proximal and distal portions of the male rabbit posterior urethra in the physiological role of muscarinic cholinergic receptors

    Nagahama, Katsushi; Tsujii, Toshihiko; Morita, Takashi; Azuma, Hiroshi; Oshima, Hiroyuki

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate functional differences between embryologically different portions of the posterior urethra of male rabbits in response to muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) stimulation using in vitro isometric tension experiments and radioligand binding studies. In the in vitro isometric tension experiments, carbachol, produced a dose-dependent contraction of the proximal portion under the resting state, but did not change the basal tone of the distal portion. Contraction of the proximal portion by 10−5 M noradrenaline (NA) was dose-dependently enhanced by carbachol either in the presence or absence of NG-nitro-L-arginine (NOARG). In contrast, carbachol induced relaxation of the distal portion contracted by 10−5 M NA, which was reversed to dose-dependent contraction in the presence of NOARG. Both portions of the urethra had a similar number of [3H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H]-QNB) binding sites (195.3±74.1 fmols mg−1 protein for the proximal portion and 146.5±8.5 fmols mg−1 protein for the distal portion) with similar affinities (115.0±45.4 pM for the proximal portion and 79.9± 2.9 pM for the distal portion). The concentration-response curves to carbachol in both portions were shifted to the right in a parallel manner in the presence of pirenzepine (an M1 antagonist), 11-[[2-[(diethylamino)methyl]-1-piperidinyl] acetyl]-5, 11-dihydro-6H-pyrido-2,3-b)-(1,4)-benzodiazepin-6-one (AFDX-116, an M2 antgonist) and 4-diphenyl-acetoxy-N-methyl-piperidine (4-DAMP, an M1/M3 antagonist). The pA2 values for pirenzepine, AFDX-116 and 4-DAMP were 7.5±0.1, 7.2±0.02 and 9.3±0.1 respectively for the contraction of the proximal portion, and 7.2±0.1, 7.1±0.2 and 9.1±0.2, respectively for the relaxation of the distal portion. In conclusion mAChR subtypes distribute in a similar fashion throughout the length of the male rabbit posterior urethra with the discrepant responses to carbachol attributable to the

  9. The Effect of Diazinon on Cholinesterase Activity in Plasma and Erythrocytes of Male and Female Rats and the Protective Role of Vitamin E

    F. Rahimi Anbarkeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diazinon (DZN is an organophosphate insecticide that one of the mechanisms of toxicity is the inhibition of cholinesterase. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of diazinon on cholinesterase activity in blood serum and erythrocytes of male and female rats and to assess the protective role of vitamin E. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, 60 adult wistar rats including 30 male and 30 female rats were selected and divided into 5 groups (n = 6: control group (without any intervention, sham group (received only pure olive oil daily, experimental group 1 (DZN daily, 60 mg/kg, experimental group 2 (received DZN+ vitamin E daily, with the same dose and experimental group 3(received vitamin E daily 200 mg/kg. Diazinon and solvent were injected intraperitoneally and vitamin E was given by gavage. After 2 weeks 3 ml blood was taken from the heart tissue, and titrimetric and Ellman’s method respectively were used for serum and erythrocyte cholinesterases activity assay. Results: In both genders, due to administration of diazinon, we observed significant reduction in serum and erythrocytes cholinesterase activity. The use of vitamin E increased serum and erythrocytes cholinesterase activity in experimental group 2 of female rats but inhibition in erythrocyte and serum cholinesterase activity was not recovered in experimental group 2 of male rats. Conclusion: According to a further reduction of these enzymes activity in female rats with the use of diazinon, it can be concluded that female rats are more sensitive than male rats and it seems that vitamin E as an antioxidants has a protective effect on cholinesterase activity and reduces the toxicity of DZN. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 21 (4:294-303

  10. Minority stress and relationship functioning among young male same-sex couples: An examination of actor-partner interdependence models.

    Feinstein, Brian A; McConnell, Elizabeth; Dyar, Christina; Mustanski, Brian; Newcomb, Michael E

    2018-05-01

    In different-sex couples, individual and partner stress can both have a negative impact on relationship functioning (actor and partner effects). Gay and bisexual men experience unique stress (sexual minority stress), but few studies have examined the effects of this stress on relationship functioning among young male couples. The current study examined (a) actor and partner effects of general and minority stress (internalized stigma, microaggressions, victimization, and outness) on relationship functioning (relationship quality and negative relationship interactions), (b) interactions between individual and partner stress as predictors of relationship functioning, and (c) dyadic coping and relationship length as moderators of actor and partner effects. Actor-partner interdependence models were tested using data from 153 young male couples. There was strong support for actor effects. Higher general stress and internalized stigma were associated with lower relationship quality, but only for those in longer relationships. Additionally, higher general stress, internalized stigma, and microaggressions, and lower outness, were associated with more negative relationship interactions. There was limited support for partner effects. Having a partner with higher internalized stigma was associated with more negative relationship interactions, but none of the other partner effects were significant. There was no support for individual and partner stress interacting to predict relationship functioning or for dyadic coping as a stress buffer. Findings highlight the influence of one's own experiences of general and minority stress on relationship functioning, but raise questions about how partner stress influences relationship functioning among young male couples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. A supply-demand model of fetal energy sufficiency predicts lipid profiles in male but not female Filipino adolescents.

    Kuzawa, C W; Adair, L S

    2004-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that the balance between fetal nutritional demand and maternal nutritional supply during pregnancy will predict lipid profiles in offspring measured in adolescence. A total of 296 male and 307 female Filipino offspring (aged 14-16 y) and mothers enrolled in a longitudinal birth cohort study (begun in 1983-84) had lipid profiles measured. Data on maternal height (as a proxy for offspring growth potential and thus fetal nutritional demand) and third trimester maternal arm fat area (as a proxy for maternal supply) were used to create four groups hypothesized to reflect a gradient of fetal energy sufficiency. As fetal energy sufficiency increased among males, there was a decrease in total cholesterol (TC) (Psupply-demand model did not predict any lipid outcome or clinical risk criteria. Our findings in males support the hypothesis that the balance between fetal nutritional demand and maternal nutritional supply has implications for future lipid profiles. The lack of significant associations in females adds to mounting evidence for sex differences in lipid metabolism programming, and may reflect sex differences in fetal nutritional demand. The National Science Foundation, the Mellon Foundation, the Nestle Foundation, and the Emory University Internationalization Program.

  12. The role of impulsivity in self-mutilators, suicide ideators and suicide attempters - a study of 1265 male incarcerated individuals.

    Carli, Vladimir; Jovanović, Nikolina; Podlesek, Anja; Roy, Alec; Rihmer, Zoltan; Maggi, Stefania; Marusic, Dragan; Cesaro, Caterina; Marusic, Andrej; Sarchiapone, Marco

    2010-06-01

    We explored differences between high and low-impulsive incarcerated individuals in the context of lifetime self-mutilation, suicide ideation and suicide attempt. A total of 1265 males detained in Italian penitentiary institutions were studied between January 2006 and December 2008. The study raters were specifically trained to discriminate between suicide attempters, ideators and self-mutilators. Participants completed the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Brown-Goodwin Assessment for Lifetime History of Aggression (BGLHA) and Buss and Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI). Based on BIS 7 total score distribution, two extreme quarters - high-impulsive group (n=306) and low-impulsive group (n=285) - were compared. Over 42% of participants had lifetime suicide ideation, 13% attempted suicide and 17% were self-mutilators. High-impulsive subjects were younger, more often single and with more prominent psychoticism, extraversion, aggression, hostility and resilience capacity. They were more frequently diagnosed with substance use disorders and engaged in self-mutilating behaviour. There was no difference in the rate of suicide attempts between the two groups. Although high-impulsive subjects were more prone to suicidal behaviour, it was not predicted by higher impulsivity when other psychological variables were accounted for. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. HIV among pregnant women in Moshi Tanzania: the role of sexual behavior, male partner characteristics and sexually transmitted infections

    Uriyo Jacqueline

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV in Tanzania, and factors contributing to this situation need to be identified. The objective of this study was to determine social, behavioral and biological risk factors of HIV infection among pregnant women in Moshi urban, Tanzania. In 2002 – 2004, consenting women (N = 2654, attending primary health clinics for routine antenatal care were interviewed, examined and biological samples collected for diagnosis of HIV and other sexually transmitted/reproductive tract infections. Results The prevalence of HIV was 6.9%. The risk for HIV was greater among women whose male partner; had other sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 15.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.39–27.20, traveled frequently (AOR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.22–2.65 or consumed alcohol daily (AOR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.06–2.67. Other independent predictors of HIV were age, number of sex partners, recent migration, and presence of bacterial vaginosis, genital ulcer, active syphilis and herpes simplex virus type 2. Conclusion Development of programs that actively involve men in HIV prevention is important in reducing transmission of HIV in this population. Further, interventions that focus on STI control, the mobile population, sexual risk behavior and responsible alcohol use are required.

  14. The role of non-epistemic values in engineering models

    Diekmann, S.; Peterson, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    We argue that non-epistemic values, including moral ones, play an important role in the construction and choice of models in science and engineering. Our main claim is that non-epistemic values are not only "secondary values" that become important just in case epistemic values leave some issues

  15. Female Leaders: Injurious or Inspiring Role Models for Women?

    Hoyt, Crystal L.; Simon, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    The impact of female role models on women's leadership aspirations and self-perceptions after a leadership task were assessed across two laboratory studies. These studies tested the prediction that upward social comparisons to high-level female leaders will have a relatively detrimental impact on women's self-perceptions and leadership aspirations…

  16. Modeling the Impact of Uganda’s Safe Male Circumcision Program: Implications for Age and Regional Targeting

    Kripke, Katharine; Vazzano, Andrea; Kirungi, William; Musinguzi, Joshua; Opio, Alex; Ssempebwa, Rhobbinah; Nakawunde, Susan; Kyobutungi, Sheila; Akao, Juliet N.; Magala, Fred; Mwidu, George; Castor, Delivette

    2016-01-01

    Background Uganda aims to provide safe male circumcision (SMC) to 80% of men ages 15–49 by 2016. To date, only 2 million men have received SMC of the 4.2 million men required. In response to age and regional trends in SMC uptake, the country sought to re-examine its targets with respect to age and subnational region, to assess the program’s progress, and to refine the implementation approach. Methods and Findings The Decision Makers’ Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0), was used in conjunction with incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM) to conduct this analysis. Population, births, deaths, and HIV incidence and prevalence were used to populate the model. Baseline male circumcision prevalence was derived from the 2011 AIDS Indicator Survey. Uganda can achieve the most immediate impact on HIV incidence by circumcising men ages 20–34. This group will also require the fewest circumcisions for each HIV infection averted. Focusing on men ages 10–19 will offer the greatest impact over a 15-year period, while focusing on men ages 15–34 offers the most cost-effective strategy over the same period. A regional analysis showed little variation in cost-effectiveness of scaling up SMC across eight regions. Scale-up is cost-saving in all regions. There is geographic variability in program progress, highlighting two regions with low baseline rates of circumcision where additional efforts will be needed. Conclusion Focusing SMC efforts on specific age groups and regions may help to accelerate Uganda’s SMC program progress. Policy makers in Uganda have already used model outputs in planning efforts, proposing males ages 10–34 as a priority group for SMC in the 2014 application to the Global Fund’s new funding model. As scale-up continues, the country should also consider a greater effort to expand SMC in regions with low MC prevalence. PMID:27410234

  17. Structural Model of the Effect of Psychological Capital on Success with Due to the Mediating Role of Commitment and Satisfaction

    M Golparvar; Z Mirzaie

    2016-01-01

    This research was administered with the aim of investigating structural model of the effect of psychological capital on career success with due to the mediating role of satisfaction and commitment among employees of Telecom Company. Research statistical population was male and female employees of Telecom in Isfahan city, who among them two hundred and eighty five persons were selected using convenience sampling. Research instruments were Nguyen et al. Psychological Capital questionnaire, Nabi...

  18. Neuropsychiatric Symptom Modeling in Male and Female C57BL/6J Mice after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury

    Tucker, Laura B.; Burke, John F.; Fu, Amanda H.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Psychiatric symptoms such as anxiety and depression are frequent and persistent complaints following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Modeling these symptoms in animal models of TBI affords the opportunity to determine mechanisms underlying behavioral pathologies and to test potential therapeutic agents. However, testing these symptoms in animal models of TBI has yielded inconsistent results. The goal of the current study was to employ a battery of tests to measure multiple anxiety- and depressive-like symptoms following TBI in C57BL/6J mice, and to determine if male and female mice are differentially affected by the injury. Following controlled cortical impact (CCI) at a parietal location, neither male nor female mice showed depressive-like symptoms as measured by the Porsolt forced-swim test and sucrose preference test. Conclusions regarding anxiety-like behaviors were dependent upon the assay employed; CCI-induced thigmotaxis in the open field suggested an anxiogenic effect of the injury; however, results from the elevated zero maze, light-dark box, and marble-burying tests indicated that CCI reduced anxiety-like behaviors. Fewer anxiety-like behaviors were also associated with the female sex. Increased levels of activity were also measured in female mice and injured mice in these tests, and conclusions regarding anxiety should be taken with caution when experimental manipulations induce changes in baseline activity. These results underscore the irreconcilability of results from studies attempting to model TBI-induced neuropsychiatric symptoms. Changes in injury models or better attempts to replicate the clinical syndrome may improve the translational applicability of rodent models of TBI-induced anxiety and depression. PMID:27149139

  19. A bridge role metric model for nodes in software networks.

    Bo Li

    Full Text Available A bridge role metric model is put forward in this paper. Compared with previous metric models, our solution of a large-scale object-oriented software system as a complex network is inherently more realistic. To acquire nodes and links in an undirected network, a new model that presents the crucial connectivity of a module or the hub instead of only centrality as in previous metric models is presented. Two previous metric models are described for comparison. In addition, it is obvious that the fitting curve between the Bre results and degrees can well be fitted by a power law. The model represents many realistic characteristics of actual software structures, and a hydropower simulation system is taken as an example. This paper makes additional contributions to an accurate understanding of module design of software systems and is expected to be beneficial to software engineering practices.

  20. Insulin signaling disruption in male mice due to perinatal bisphenol A exposure: Role of insulin signaling in the brain.

    Fang, Fangfang; Gao, Yue; Wang, Tingwei; Chen, Donglong; Liu, Jingli; Qian, Wenyi; Cheng, Jie; Gao, Rong; Wang, Jun; Xiao, Hang

    2016-03-14

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an environmental estrogenic endocrine disruptor, is widely used for producing polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Available data have shown that perinatal exposure to BPA contributes to peripheral insulin resistance, while in the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of perinatal BPA exposure on insulin signaling and glucose transport in the cortex of offspring mice. The pregnant mice were administrated either vehicle or BPA (100 μg/kg/day) at three perinatal stages. Stage I: from day 6 of gestation until parturition (P6-PND0 fetus exposure); Stage II: from lactation until delactation (PND0-PND21 newborn exposure) and Stage III: from day 6 of pregnancy until delactation (P6-PND21 fetus and newborn exposure). At 8 months of age for the offspring mice, the insulin signaling pathways and glucose transporters (GLUTs) were detected. Our data indicated that the insulin signaling including insulin, phosphorylated insulin receptor (IR), phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-AKT), phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3β (p-GSK3β) and phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated protein kinase (p-ERK) were significantly decreased in the brain. In parallel, GLUTs (GLUT1/3/4) were obviously decreased as well in BPA-treated group in mice brain. Noteworthily, the phosphorylated tau (p-tau) and amyloid precursor protein (APP) were markedly up-regulated in all BPA-treated groups. These results, taken together, suggest the adverse effects of BPA on insulin signaling and GLUTs, which might subsequently contribute to the increment of p-tau and APP in the brain of adult offspring. Therefore, perinatal BPA exposure might be a risk factor for the long-term neurodegenerative changes in offspring male mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prophylactic role of combined treatment with coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E against radiation injury in male rats

    Hussien, E.M.; Darwish, M.M.; Ali, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    The present work aims at investigating effects of whole body gamma irradiation of male albino rats at successive fractionated dose levels up to 8 Gy and the possible protection or curative control of these effects through the oral administration of Coenzyme Q10 (Co Q10) (200 mg/ kg body wt) and vitamin E (100 mg/ kg body wt) injected i.p 24 h before exposure of animals to each increment of gamma irradiation. The parameters of the study have been combined haematological values, including evaluation of different blood cells, erythrocyte counts (RBC), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), haematocrit percentage (Ht) and leucocyte counts (WBC), as well as certain serum biochemical parameters including transaminases AST and ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities known to be related to liver functional status. Besides body and particular organs, wt as well as serum Na + and K + levels have been also evaluated. The results obtained confirmed in general, significant decrease in whole body and organs wt, haematological disorders in form of lowering of RBC, WBC, Hb and Ht, as well as elevated AST, ALT and ALP activities in irradiated rats in both studied time intervals. A significant increase in the level of K + associated with a decrease in the level of Na + was also recorded in the serum of irradiated rats. As simultaneous administration of Co Q10 and vitamin E prior to irradiation prevented pathological changes of analyzed parameters, the results of this study confirmed efficient protection with use of these antioxidants against the health hazards induced by gamma radiation exposure

  2. Are boxer shorts really better? A critical analysis of the role of underwear type in male subfertility.

    Munkelwitz, R; Gilbert, B R

    1998-10-01

    Elevation of testicular temperature may result in arrest of spermatogenesis, abnormal semen parameters and sterility. It has been proposed that brief style underwear may produce scrotal hyperthermia and lead to clinical subfertility. Although this idea is regarded as dogma by many in the lay community and the changing of underwear type is a therapy frequently recommended by medical practitioners, there is a paucity of data measuring scrotal temperature as a function of underwear type. Scrotal, core and skin temperatures were measured in 97 consecutive men presenting for evaluation of primary clinical subfertility. These cases were categorized by underwear type to boxer or brief group. Semen analyses were obtained in all patients. Individuals from each group were compared to ascertain differences in temperature when wearing and not wearing underwear. Baseline semen parameters also were compared. In 14 subjects (crossover group) underwear type was changed to the alternative type and scrotal temperature measurements were repeated. Literature regarding underwear type, testicular temperature and/or fertility was reviewed and critically analyzed. Mean scrotal temperature plus or minus standard deviation was 33.8 +/- 0.8 C and 33.6 +/- 1.1 C in the boxer and brief group, respectively. There were no significant temperature differences between the groups. Differential temperatures comparing core to scrotal temperature and semen parameters also were not significantly different. These observations remained constant in the crossover group. The hyperthermic effect of brief style underwear has been exaggerated. In our study there was no difference in scrotal temperature depending on underwear type. It is unlikely that underwear type has a significant effect on male fertility. Routinely advising infertility patients to wear boxer shorts cannot be supported by available scientific evidence.

  3. The role of social environment on parental care: offspring benefit more from the presence of female than male helpers.

    Brouwer, Lyanne; van de Pol, Martijn; Cockburn, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Investment in offspring depends on the costs and benefits to the carer, which can vary with sex and social status. Investment also depends on the effort of others by allowing for compensation (load-lightening), with biparental care studies showing that this depends on the state and type of the other carer. By contrast, studies on cooperative breeders have solely focussed on the effects of group size rather than its composition (i.e. social environment). Here we propose and provide the first test of the 'Social Environment' hypothesis, that is, how the characteristics (here the sex) of other helpers present in the group affect parental care and how this in turn affects offspring fitness in cooperatively breeding red-winged fairy-wrens (Malurus elegans). Breeders provisioned nestlings at a higher rate than helpers, but there was no sex difference in provisioning rate. Compensation to increasing group size varied little with sex and status, but strongly depended on social environment. All group members reduced their provisioning rates in response to an increasing number of male (load-lightening), but not female helpers (additive care). As a result, nestlings received more food and grew faster in the presence of female helpers. The increased nestling growth did convey a fitness advantage due to a higher post-fledging survival to adulthood. Our study provides the first evidence that parental care can depend on social environment. This could be an important overlooked aspect to explain variation in parental care in cooperative breeders in general and in particular the enormous variation between the sexes, which we reveal in a literature overview. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

  4. The Protective Roles of Zinc and Magnesium in Cadmium-Induced Renal Toxicity in Male Wistar Rats

    Nasim Babaknejad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cadmium (Cd is a heavy metal that has widespread use. It enters the food chain in different ways, including soil and water. Cadmium can cause dysfunction of different body organs. Zinc (Zn and magnesium (Mg supplementation can have protective effects against cadmium toxicity due to their antagonistic and antioxidants properties. This study examines the influence of supplemental Zn and Mg on Cd renal toxicity. Methods: Young male Wistar rats were divided into six groups of five. The Cd group received 1 mg Cd/kg and the control group received 0.5 mg/kg normal saline (i.p.. The other four groups were administered 1 mg/kg Cd+0.5 mg/kg Zn, 1 mg/kg Cd+1.5 mg/kg Zn, 1 mg/kg Cd+ 0.5 mg/kg Mg, and 1 mg/kg Cd+ 1.5 mg/kg Mg (i.p. for 21 days. Then, serum sodium, potassium, urea, creatinine, and protein levels were measured. Results: The results indicated that creatinine and protein levels decreased while urea, sodium, and potassium levels increased as a result of Cd exposure. Co-administered Cd and Zn and Mg decreased urea and increased sodium serum level in comparison to the cadmium group. Treatment by Mg, contrary to co-administered Cd and Zn, reduced serum protein level compared to the cadmium group. Compared to the cadmium treated group, Zn and Mg treatment enhanced serum creatinine level and reduced serum potassium level. Conclusion: The findings seem to suggest that zinc and magnesium compounds, due to their antagonistic and antioxidant activities, can protect Cd renal toxic effects in a dose-dependent manner.

  5. Protective role of Scoparia dulcis plant extract on brain antioxidant status and lipidperoxidation in STZ diabetic male Wistar rats

    Latha Muniappan

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis on the occurrence of oxidative stress in the brain of rats during diabetes by measuring the extent of oxidative damage as well as the status of the antioxidant defense system. Methods Aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis plant was administered orally (200 mg/kg body weight and the effect of extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin and the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, hydroperoxides, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and reduced glutathione (GSH were estimated in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats. Glibenclamide was used as standard reference drug. Results A significant increase in the activities of plasma insulin, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and reduced glutathione was observed in brain on treatment with 200 mg/kg body weight of Scoparia dulcis plant extract (SPEt and glibenclamide for 6 weeks. Both the treated groups showed significant decrease in TBARS and hydroperoxides formation in brain, suggesting its role in protection against lipidperoxidation induced membrane damage. Conclusions Since the study of induction of the antioxidant enzymes is considered to be a reliable marker for evaluating the antiperoxidative efficacy of the medicinal plant, these findings suggest a possible antiperoxidative role for Scoparia dulcis plant extract. Hence, in addition to antidiabetic effect, Scoparia dulcis possess antioxidant potential that may be used for therapeutic purposes.

  6. Protective role of Scoparia dulcis plant extract on brain antioxidant status and lipidperoxidation in STZ diabetic male Wistar rats.

    Pari, Leelavinothan; Latha, Muniappan

    2004-11-02

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis on the occurrence of oxidative stress in the brain of rats during diabetes by measuring the extent of oxidative damage as well as the status of the antioxidant defense system. Aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis plant was administered orally (200 mg/kg body weight) and the effect of extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin and the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hydroperoxides, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were estimated in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Glibenclamide was used as standard reference drug. A significant increase in the activities of plasma insulin, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and reduced glutathione was observed in brain on treatment with 200 mg/kg body weight of Scoparia dulcis plant extract (SPEt) and glibenclamide for 6 weeks. Both the treated groups showed significant decrease in TBARS and hydroperoxides formation in brain, suggesting its role in protection against lipidperoxidation induced membrane damage. Since the study of induction of the antioxidant enzymes is considered to be a reliable marker for evaluating the antiperoxidative efficacy of the medicinal plant, these findings suggest a possible antiperoxidative role for Scoparia dulcis plant extract. Hence, in addition to antidiabetic effect, Scoparia dulcis possess antioxidant potential that may be used for therapeutic purposes.

  7. Preventative topical diclofenac treatment differentially decreases tumor burden in male and female Skh-1 mice in a model of UVB-induced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    Oberyszyn, Tatiana M.

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) light is the major environmental carcinogen contributing to non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) development. There are over 3.5 million NMSC diagnoses in two million patients annually, with men having a 3-fold greater incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) compared with women. Chronic inflammation has been linked to tumorigenesis, with a key role for the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme. Diclofenac, a COX-2 inhibitor and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, currently is prescribed to patients as a short-term therapeutic agent to induce SCC precursor lesion regression. However, its efficacy as a preventative agent in patients without evidence of precursor lesions but with significant UVB-induced cutaneous damage has not been explored. We previously demonstrated in a murine model of UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis that when exposed to equivalent UVB doses, male mice had lower levels of inflammation but developed increased tumor multiplicity, burden and grade compared with female mice. Because of the discrepancy in the degree of inflammation between male and female skin, we sought to determine if topical treatment of previously damaged skin with an anti-inflammatory COX-2 inhibitor would decrease tumor burden and if it would be equally effective in the sexes. Our results demonstrated that despite observed sex differences in the inflammatory response, prolonged topical diclofenac treatment of chronically UVB-damaged skin effectively reduced tumor multiplicity in both sexes. Unexpectedly, tumor burden was significantly decreased only in male mice. Our data suggest a new therapeutic use for currently available topical diclofenac as a preventative intervention for patients predisposed to cutaneous SCC development before lesions appear. PMID:23125227

  8. Biomimetic agent based modelling using male Frog calling behaviour as a case study

    Jørgensen, Søren V.; Demazeau, Yves; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    by individuals to generate their observed population behaviour. A number of existing agent-modelling frameworks are considered, but none have the ability to handle large numbers of time-dependent event-generating agents; hence the construction of a new tool, RANA. The calling behaviour of the Puerto Rican Tree...... Frog, E. coqui, is implemented as a case study for the presentation and discussion of the tool, and results from this model are presented. RANA, in its present stage of development, is shown to be able to handle the problem of modelling calling frogs, and several fruitful extensions are proposed...

  9. A new role-model for the future humanities?

    Caviglia, Francesco; Pedersen, Alex Young

    The Knowledge Building approach (henceforth, KB) is a constructionist approach to learn-ing that builds on a Popperian epistemology and the idea of bringing to education “both the goals and the processes of knowledge-creating organizations – as represented, for instance, in scientific research...... of citizens” who work together to design solutions for living better together, which the authors suggest being an equally productive role-model as the idea of a “scientific research groups and industrial design teams”, which is the standard role-model for KB prac-tice. The authors sees this alternative model...... groups and industrial design teams” (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 2014). KB is becoming a signature pedagogy (Shulman, 2005) for scientific disciplines, with nearly all educational interventions quoted by Scardamalia & Bereiter (2014) or presented at con-ferences focusing on natural sciences. Although...

  10. The Role of ?786T/C Polymorphism in the Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene in Males with Clinical and Biochemical Features of the Metabolic Syndrome

    Misiak, Blazej; Krolik, Marta; Kukowka, Anna; Lewera, Anna; Leszczynski, Przemyslaw; Stankiewicz-Olczyk, Joanna; Slezak, Ryszard

    2011-01-01

    Background. Extensive evidence, arising from models of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS3)-knockout mice supports the role of endothelial malfunction in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome (MS). Aims. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of −786T/C polymorphism in the etiology of MS and assess previously reported interaction with cigarette smoking. Methods. Based on International Diabetes Federation 2005 criteria, we recruited randomly 152 subjects with MS and 75 su...

  11. An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP reference adult male-internal electron sources

    Hough, Matthew; Johnson, Perry; Bolch, Wesley; Rajon, Didier; Jokisch, Derek; Lee, Choonsik

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a comprehensive electron dosimetry model of the adult male skeletal tissues is presented. The model is constructed using the University of Florida adult male hybrid phantom of Lee et al (2010 Phys. Med. Biol. 55 339-63) and the EGSnrc-based Paired Image Radiation Transport code of Shah et al (2005 J. Nucl. Med. 46 344-53). Target tissues include the active bone marrow, associated with radiogenic leukemia, and total shallow marrow, associated with radiogenic bone cancer. Monoenergetic electron emissions are considered over the energy range 1 keV to 10 MeV for the following sources: bone marrow (active and inactive), trabecular bone (surfaces and volumes), and cortical bone (surfaces and volumes). Specific absorbed fractions are computed according to the MIRD schema, and are given as skeletal-averaged values in the paper with site-specific values reported in both tabular and graphical format in an electronic annex available from http://stacks.iop.org/0031-9155/56/2309/mmedia. The distribution of cortical bone and spongiosa at the macroscopic dimensions of the phantom, as well as the distribution of trabecular bone and marrow tissues at the microscopic dimensions of the phantom, is imposed through detailed analyses of whole-body ex vivo CT images (1 mm resolution) and spongiosa-specific ex vivo microCT images (30 μm resolution), respectively, taken from a 40 year male cadaver. The method utilized in this work includes: (1) explicit accounting for changes in marrow self-dose with variations in marrow cellularity, (2) explicit accounting for electron escape from spongiosa, (3) explicit consideration of spongiosa cross-fire from cortical bone, and (4) explicit consideration of the ICRP's change in the surrogate tissue region defining the location of the osteoprogenitor cells (from a 10 μm endosteal layer covering the trabecular and cortical surfaces to a 50 μm shallow marrow layer covering trabecular and medullary cavity surfaces). Skeletal

  12. An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP reference adult male-internal electron sources

    Hough, Matthew; Johnson, Perry; Bolch, Wesley [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Rajon, Didier [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Jokisch, Derek [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Francis Marion University, Florence, SC (United States); Lee, Choonsik, E-mail: wbolch@ufl.edu [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2011-04-21

    In this study, a comprehensive electron dosimetry model of the adult male skeletal tissues is presented. The model is constructed using the University of Florida adult male hybrid phantom of Lee et al (2010 Phys. Med. Biol. 55 339-63) and the EGSnrc-based Paired Image Radiation Transport code of Shah et al (2005 J. Nucl. Med. 46 344-53). Target tissues include the active bone marrow, associated with radiogenic leukemia, and total shallow marrow, associated with radiogenic bone cancer. Monoenergetic electron emissions are considered over the energy range 1 keV to 10 MeV for the following sources: bone marrow (active and inactive), trabecular bone (surfaces and volumes), and cortical bone (surfaces and volumes). Specific absorbed fractions are computed according to the MIRD schema, and are given as skeletal-averaged values in the paper with site-specific values reported in both tabular and graphical format in an electronic annex available from http://stacks.iop.org/0031-9155/56/2309/mmedia. The distribution of cortical bone and spongiosa at the macroscopic dimensions of the phantom, as well as the distribution of trabecular bone and marrow tissues at the microscopic dimensions of the phantom, is imposed through detailed analyses of whole-body ex vivo CT images (1 mm resolution) and spongiosa-specific ex vivo microCT images (30 {mu}m resolution), respectively, taken from a 40 year male cadaver. The method utilized in this work includes: (1) explicit accounting for changes in marrow self-dose with variations in marrow cellularity, (2) explicit accounting for electron escape from spongiosa, (3) explicit consideration of spongiosa cross-fire from cortical bone, and (4) explicit consideration of the ICRP's change in the surrogate tissue region defining the location of the osteoprogenitor cells (from a 10 {mu}m endosteal layer covering the trabecular and cortical surfaces to a 50 {mu}m shallow marrow layer covering trabecular and medullary cavity surfaces). Skeletal

  13. Social Identity and Gender Inequities for Male Elementary Teachers

    River, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    For the last 10 years, the California Department of Education has reported that female teachers in California outnumbered male teachers two to one. The imbalance in teacher gender is a problem that affects elementary-age students and teaching staffs because the educated and caring male teachers who could be role models are largely absent from…

  14. Protective role of radish oil (raphson sativus) against gamma radiation on lipids and carbohydrate in male rats

    Omran, M.F.; Soliman, N.K.I.

    2005-01-01

    The present work was carried out to investigate the effects of ionizing radiation on some biochemical parameters in rats. The rats were exposed to sublethal whole body gamma irradiation dose (1Gy x 4). The protective role of radish oil (Raphanus sativus) was evaluated by oral administration to rats before gamma radiation exposure and the lipid profile, serum glucose and liver glycogen were investigated. Exposed rats to gamma radiation showed significant alterations in the assayed parameters indicating disturbances in lipid and carbohydrate metabolisms. Oral administration of radish oil (Raphanus sativus) before gamma irradiation exerted marked ameliorations in the disorders induced by gamma radiation in most of the tested parameters such as lipid profile, serum glucose and liver glycogen

  15. Gender role models in fictional novels for emerging adult lesbians.

    Cook, Jennifer R; Rostosky, Sharon S; Riggle, Ellen D B

    2013-01-01

    Novels provide role models for young adult lesbians and thus may influence their identity development. This study focused on 16 lesbian protagonists identified in 11 young adult novels that received 2011 Lambda Literary Award nominations. Content analyses revealed six themes. Three themes defied traditional gender stereotypes: Asserting Oneself, Pursuing Intimacy with Another Woman, and Breaking Free of Constraints to Authentic Self-Expression. Three themes reinforced gender stereotypes: Negative Emotional Experiences Associated with Lesbian Identity, Traditional Masculine Gender Expression, and Traditional Gender Role-Based Sexual Scripts. Each theme is discussed in light of its possible contribution to lesbian identity development.

  16. Role of garlic oil and selenium as stimulators to some antioxidant defense system in irradiated male rats

    El-Gawish, M.A.; Abdel-Azeem, M.G.

    2002-01-01

    The increased level of lipid peroxide product; malondialdehyde (MDA) in various tissues of irradiated animals, may play a crucial role in damaging effects of exposure to ionizing radiation mediated by reactive free radicals generation. The protective efficiency of oral administration of garlic oil (500 mg/kg b.wt) three times weekly together with a single intraperitoneal injection of selenium (0.5 mg/kg b.wt) weekly for two weeks was examined on some antioxidant defense system as well as ultrastructural study in rats subjected to fractionated doses of gamma radiation up to a dose level of 6 Gy (1.5 Gy day after day). Exposure to gamma radiation induced a significant elevation in the level of malondialdehyde in plasma and liver and non-significant change was observed in superoxide dismutase activity (SOD). Also a significant increase was occurred in hepatic glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activity. The pretreatment of irradiated rats with garlic oil and selenium caused a significant decrease in elevated level of MDA and a significant increase in the activity of SOD, GSHPx and GSH contents in both blood and liver. Concerning the ultrastructure studies, liver of irradiated rats showed abnormal shape of nucleus and nucleus membrane, swollen mitochondria with ruptured cristae, rupture of endoplasmic reticulum and vaculated cytoplasm, while intestine of irradiated rats exhibited deformed, shortened and abnormal structure of microvilli, accumulation of nuclear chromatin and dilatation of terminal web layer. In group of rats treated with garlic oil and selenium before exposure to gamma radiation, noticeable amelioration in ultrastructure changes of liver and intestine induced by irradiation was observed indicating a beneficial radioprotective role of both garlic oil and selenium

  17. Aluminium and Gamma Irradiation Induced Oxidative Damage in Brain Tissue of Male Rats - Protective Role of Ferulic Acid

    Mansour, S.Z.; Hanafi, N.; Noaman, E.

    2011-01-01

    The current study was carried out to investigate the potential role of ferulic acid (FA) against Aluminium chloride (AlCl 3 ), γ- radiation either alone or combination induced oxidative stress in brain tissue of Wistar rats. The period of the experiment was eight weeks. Animals were administrated by aluminium chloride at a dose of 8.5 mg/kg/day and exposed to a single dose (4 Gy) of γ-radiation. FA was administered orally (50 mg/Kg body weight)/day. Histopathological observations and myeloid protein distribution were recorded in brain tissue. Induction of oxidative stress was recorded after all exposures. Brain tissue of AlCl 3 and γ- irradiation treatments either alone or combined revealed many altered changes and myeloid protein distribution. Also a decrease in serotonin concentration was recorded. An increase in Malonaldialdahyde (MDA) and acetylcholinesterase activity and percentage of saturated fatty acids in plasma and brain tissue was recorded. Reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) in blood and brain showed a significant decrease. Treatment of AlCl 3 loaded animals by FA showed simple atrophy as shrunken morphology saw in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and a decrease in myeloid protein deposition. FA treatment of AlCl 3 loaded or irradiated animals represented a significant increase in serotonin concentration and ameliorated affects on oxidative stress markers, acetylcholinesterase activity and percentage of saturated fatty acids in plasma and brain tissue. In conclusion FA has a role in reducing the oxidative stress of AlCl 3 and γ- irradiation on brain tissue of rats

  18. Protective Role of Carnitine against the Harmful Biological Effects of Paracetamol and Radiation Exposure in Male Albino Rats

    Abd El Rahman, N.A.

    2012-01-01

    L-carnitine, a natural component of mammalian tissue, is a necessary factor in the utilization of long-chain fatty acids to produce energy. Furthermore it has been shown to protect cells from per oxidative stress. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of L-carnitine on hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity induced by paracetamol, γ-radiation, and paracetamol + γ-radiation. Male albino rats were divided into 8 groups. 1-Control group: rats not subject to any treatment, 2-Carnitine group: rats received L-carnitine (0.5 ml/Kg body weight) via intraperitoneal injection during 21 days, 3-Paracetamol group: rats received paracetamol (50 mg/kg body) via intraperi-toneal injection during 21 days, 4- Carnitine + Paracetamol group: rats received L-carnitine in parallel to paracetamol treatment, 5- Radiation groups: rats were whole body gamma irradiated with 7 Gy, 6- Carnitine + Radiation group: rats received L-carnitine for 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation with 7Gy, 7- Paracetamol + Radiation group: rats received paracetamol during 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation, 8- Carnitine + Paracetamol + Radiation group: rats received L-carnitine parallel to paracetamol during 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation.The results demonstrated that rats receiving paracetamol, as well as whole body gamma irradiated rats and rats receiving paracetamol and irradiated showed a significant increase of alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and a significant decrease of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity indicating liver injury. A significant increase of urea, creatinine and uric acid levels was recorded also indicating kidney damage. Alteration in liver and kidney functions was accompanied by a significant increase in the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) associated with a significant decrease in glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide

  19. The regulation of cellular apoptosis by the ROS-triggered PERK/EIF2α/chop pathway plays a vital role in bisphenol A-induced male reproductive toxicity

    Yin, Li [Institute of Toxicology, College of Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Dai, Yanlin [Institute of Toxicology, College of Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Medical Laboratory Technology Department, Chuxiong Medical College, Yunnan 675005 (China); Cui, Zhihong; Jiang, Xiao; Liu, Wenbin; Han, Fei; Lin, Ao; Cao, Jia [Institute of Toxicology, College of Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Liu, Jinyi, E-mail: jinyiliutmmu@163.com [Institute of Toxicology, College of Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2017-01-01

    Bisphenol A (2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane, BPA) is ubiquitous in the environment, wildlife, and humans. Evidence from past studies suggests that BPA is associated with decreased semen quality. However, the molecular basis for the adverse effect of BPA on male reproductive toxicity remains unclear. We evaluated the effect of BPA on mouse spermatocytes GC-2 cells and adult mice, and we explored the potential mechanism of its action. The results showed that BPA inhibited cell proliferation and increased the apoptosis rate. The testes from BPA-treated mice showed fewer spermatogenic cells and sperm in the seminiferous tubules. In addition, BPA caused reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Previous study has verified that mitochondrion was the organelle affected by the BPA-triggered ROS accumulation. We found that BPA induced damage to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in addition to mitochondria, and most ER stress-related proteins were activated in cellular and animal models. Knocking down of the PERK/EIF2α/chop pathway, one of the ER stress pathways, partially recovered the BPA-induced cell apoptosis. In addition, an ROS scavenger attenuated the expression of the PERK/EIF2α/chop pathway-related proteins. Taken together, these data suggested that the ROS regulated PERK/EIF2α/chop pathway played a vital role in BPA-induced male reproductive toxicity. - Highlights: • BPA exposure caused the damage of the endoplasmic reticulum. • BPA exposure activated ER stress related proteins in male reproductive system. • ROS regulated PERK/EIF2α/chop pathway played a vital role in BPA-induced toxicity.

  20. The role of computer modelling in participatory integrated assessments

    Siebenhuener, Bernd; Barth, Volker

    2005-01-01

    In a number of recent research projects, computer models have been included in participatory procedures to assess global environmental change. The intention was to support knowledge production and to help the involved non-scientists to develop a deeper understanding of the interactions between natural and social systems. This paper analyses the experiences made in three projects with the use of computer models from a participatory and a risk management perspective. Our cross-cutting analysis of the objectives, the employed project designs and moderation schemes and the observed learning processes in participatory processes with model use shows that models play a mixed role in informing participants and stimulating discussions. However, no deeper reflection on values and belief systems could be achieved. In terms of the risk management phases, computer models serve best the purposes of problem definition and option assessment within participatory integrated assessment (PIA) processes

  1. Role of the ATPase/helicase maleless (MLE in the assembly, targeting, spreading and function of the male-specific lethal (MSL complex of Drosophila

    Morra Rosa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The male-specific lethal (MSL complex of Drosophila remodels the chromatin of the X chromosome in males to enhance the level of transcription of most X-linked genes, and thereby achieve dosage compensation. The core complex consists of five proteins and one of two non-coding RNAs. One of the proteins, MOF (males absent on the first, is a histone acetyltransferase that specifically acetylates histone H4 at lysine 16. Another protein, maleless (MLE, is an ATP-dependent helicase with the ability to unwind DNA/RNA or RNA/RNA substrates in vitro. Recently, we showed that the ATPase activity of MLE is sufficient for the hypertranscription of genes adjacent to a high-affinity site by MSL complexes located at that site. The helicase activity is required for the spreading of the complex to the hundreds of positions along the X chromosome, where it is normally found. In this study, to further understand the role of MLE in the function of the MSL complex, we analyzed its relationship to the other complex components by creating a series of deletions or mutations in its putative functional domains, and testing their effect on the distribution and function of the complex in vivo. Results The presence of the RB2 RNA-binding domain is necessary for the association of the MSL3 protein with the other complex subunits. In its absence, the activity of the MOF subunit was compromised, and the complex failed to acetylate histone H4 at lysine 16. Deletion of the RB1 RNA-binding domain resulted in complexes that maintained substantial acetylation activity but failed to spread beyond the high-affinity sites. Flies bearing this mutation exhibited low levels of roX RNAs, indicating that these RNAs failed to associate with the proteins of the complex and were degraded, or that MLE contributes to their synthesis. Deletion of the glycine-rich C-terminal region, which contains a nuclear localization sequence, caused a substantial level of retention of the

  2. A role based coordination model in agent systems

    ZHANG Ya-ying; YOU Jin-yuan

    2005-01-01

    Coordination technology addresses the construction of open, flexible systems from active and independent software agents in concurrent and distributed systems. In most open distributed applications, multiple agents need interaction and communication to achieve their overall goal. Coordination technologies for the Internet typically are concerned with enabling interaction among agents and helping them cooperate with each other.At the same time, access control should also be considered to constrain interaction to make it harmless. Access control should be regarded as the security counterpart of coordination. At present, the combination of coordination and access control remains an open problem. Thus, we propose a role based coordination model with policy enforcement in agent application systems. In this model, coordination is combined with access control so as to fully characterize the interactions in agent systems. A set of agents interacting with each other for a common global system task constitutes a coordination group. Role based access control is applied in this model to prevent unauthorized accesses. Coordination policy is enforced in a distributed manner so that the model can be applied to the open distributed systems such as Intemet. An Internet online auction system is presented as a case study to illustrate the proposed coordination model and finally the performance analysis of the model is introduced.

  3. Effect of electromagnetic waves from mobile phone on immune status of male rats: possible protective role of vitamin D.

    El-Gohary, Ola Ahmed; Said, Mona Abdel-Azeem

    2017-02-01

    There are considerable public concerns about the relationship between mobile phone radiation and human health. The present study assesses the effect of electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted from a mobile phone on the immune system in rats and the possible protective role of vitamin D. Rats were randomly divided into six groups: Group I: control group; Group II: received vitamin D (1000 IU/kg/day) orally; Group III: exposed to EMF 1 h/day; Group IV: exposed to EMF 2 h/day; Group V: exposed to EMF 1 h/day and received vitamin D (1000 IU/kg/day); Group VI: exposed to EMF 2 h/day and received vitamin D (1000 IU/kg/day). After 30 days of exposure time, 1 h/day EMF exposure resulted in significant decrease in immunoglobulin levels (IgA, IgE, IgM, and IgG); total leukocyte, lymphocyte, eosinophil and basophil counts; and a significant increase in neutrophil and monocyte counts. These changes were more increased in the group exposed to 2 h/day EMF. Vitamin D supplementation in EMF-exposed rats reversed these results when compared with EMF-exposed groups. In contrast, 7, 14, and 21 days of EMF exposure produced nonsignificant differences in these parameters among all experimental groups. We concluded that exposure to mobile phone radiation compromises the immune system of rats, and vitamin D appears to have a protective effect.

  4. Role of Some Micro nutrients in Ameliorating the Destructive Effect of Trichloroethylene on Kidney and Testes of Male Rats

    Nabrawy, F.M.; Ayad, S.K.; Abdou, M.I.; Mohamed, R.Y.; Sharada, H.M.; Abdalla, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widely used volatile compound to which considerable numbers of human are exposed via breathing , through the skin or through drinking water but rarely through food. The main symptoms of exposure are headache, dizziness, and confusion. Beyond the effects to the central nervous system, workplace exposure to TCE has been associated with toxic effects in many organs including kidney and testes.This work aim to investigate the role of vitamin C and / or zinc against the destructive effect of daily oral TCE intake through biochemical, tissue and DNA studies for kidney and testes during short (3 weeks) and long (15 weeks) terms. Also a hematological study for complete blood count (CBC) has been carried out.The results showed that TCE increases the level of urea creatinine and uric acid and decreases the level of total testosterone significantly. It also showed deformation in tissues and DNA degradation after short and long term treatment with TCE. Administration of vitamin C and/or zinc improved the disrupted effect of TCE oral intake in all the investigated parameters either significantly or non-significantly.It could be conclude d that, both occupational workers and normal people whom may be exposed to TCE can use vitamin C and/ or zinc to compensate the TCE hazardous effect

  5. Are Universities Role Models for Communities? A Gender Perspective

    Felicia Cornelia MACARIE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper explores the degree in which universities could/should serve as role models for communities from the perspective of gender integration. Although the theoretical/ moral answer would be affirmative (universities should be in such a position that would allow local communities to regard them as role models of gender integration, the primary empirical analysis leads to another conclusion. A brief theoretical review (that connects gender discrimination, sustainable development, universities and local communities is followed by an empirical analysis that compares the management structures of 12 Romanian Universities of Advanced Research and Education (the best Romanian universities according to a national ranking with those of four local communities where they are located (as geographic proximity would lead to a better diffusion of best practices. Contrary to initial expectations, even in higher education institutions, women are underrepresented both in executive and legislative positions. Since universities are subject to the same major patterns of gender discrimination (such as role theory, glass ceiling and glass elevator as private and public organizations, they lose the moral high ground that theory would suggest. However, medicine and pharmacy universities that can be connected with the traditional roles attributed to women provide better gender integration, but glass escalator phenomena remain present even in these limited fields.

  6. Sexy faces in a male paper wasp.

    de Souza, André Rodrigues; Alberto Mourão Júnior, Carlos; do Nascimento, Fabio Santos; Lino-Neto, José

    2014-01-01

    Sexually selected signals are common in many animals, though little reported in social insects. We investigated the occurrence of male visual signals mediating the dominance relationships among males and female choice of sexual partner in the paper wasp Polistes simillimus. Males have three conspicuous, variable and sexually dimorphic traits: black pigmentation on the head, a pair of yellow abdominal spots and body size differences. By conducting behavioral assays, we found that none of the three visual traits are associated with male-male dominance relationship. However, males with higher proportion of black facial pigmentation and bigger yellow abdominal spots are more likely chosen as sexual partners. Also, after experimentally manipulating the proportion of black pigment on males' face, we found that females may evaluate male facial coloration during the choice of a sexual partner. Thus, the black pigmentation on P. simillimus male's head appears to play a role as a sexually selected visual signal. We suggest that sexual selection is a common force in Polistes and we highlight the importance of this group as a model for the study of visual communication in insects.

  7. Sexy faces in a male paper wasp.

    André Rodrigues de Souza

    Full Text Available Sexually selected signals are common in many animals, though little reported in social insects. We investigated the occurrence of male visual signals mediating the dominance relationships among males and female choice of sexual partner in the paper wasp Polistes simillimus. Males have three conspicuous, variable and sexually dimorphic traits: black pigmentation on the head, a pair of yellow abdominal spots and body size differences. By conducting behavioral assays, we found that none of the three visual traits are associated with male-male dominance relationship. However, males with higher proportion of black facial pigmentation and bigger yellow abdominal spots are more likely chosen as sexual partners. Also, after experimentally manipulating the proportion of black pigment on males' face, we found that females may evaluate male facial coloration during the choice of a sexual partner. Thus, the black pigmentation on P. simillimus male's head appears to play a role as a sexually selected visual signal. We suggest that sexual selection is a common force in Polistes and we highlight the importance of this group as a model for the study of visual communication in insects.

  8. Acute physical and psychological stress effects on visceral hypersensitivity in male rat: role of central nucleus of the amygdala

    Hamideh Afzali

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute physical and psychological stress and temporary central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA block on stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity. Methods: Forty two male Wistar rats were used in this study. Animals were divided into 7 groups (n = 6; 1 – Control, 2 – physical stress, 3 – psychological stress, 4 – sham, 5 – lidocaine, 6 – lidocaine + physical stress and 7 – lidocaine + psychological stress. Stress induction was done using a communication box. Results: Abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR score was monitored one hour after stress exposure. AWR score significantly heightened at 20, 40 and 60 mmHg in the psychological stress group compared with control (p < 0.05, while, it was almost unchanged in other groups. This score was strikingly decreased at 20, 40 and 60 mmHg in lidocaine + psychological stress group compared with psychological stress with no tangible response on physical stress. Total stool weight was significantly increased in psychological stress group compared with control (0.72 ± 0.15, 0.1 ± 0.06 g (p < 0.05, but it did not change in physical stress compared to control group (0.16 ± 0.12, 0.1 ± 0.06 g (p < 0.05. Concomitant use of lidocaine with stress followed the same results in psychological groups (0.18 ± 0.2, 0.72 ± 0.15 g (p < 0.05, while it did not have any effect on physical stress group (0.25 ± 0.1, 0.16 ± 0.12 g (p < 0.05. Conclusions: Psychological stress could strongly affect visceral hypersensitivity. This effect is statistically comparable with physical stress. Temporary CeA block could also reduce visceral hypersensitivity post-acute psychological stress. Resumen: Objetivo: O objetivo desse estudo foi investigar os efeitos do estresse físico e psicológico agudo e bloqueio temporário do núcleo central da amídala (CeA na hipersensibilidade visceral induzida por estresse. M

  9. Relation between childhood maltreatment and severe intrafamilial male-perpetrated physical violence in Chinese community: the mediating role of borderline and antisocial personality disorder features.

    Liu, Na; Zhang, Yalin; Brady, Heward John; Cao, Yuping; He, Ying; Zhang, Yingli

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the role of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) features as mediators of the effects of childhood maltreatment on severe intrafamilial physical violence amongst Chinese male perpetrators. A cross-sectional survey and face-to-face interview were conducted to examine childhood maltreatment, personality disorder features, impulsivity, aggression, and severe intrafamilial physical violence in a community sample of 206 abusive men in China. The results suggest that ASPD or BPD features mediate between childhood maltreatment and intimate partner violence perpetration in Chinese abusive men. These findings may yield clinical and forensic implications for assessing the psychopathology of abusive men, and may steer the intervention of intimate partner violence. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Scientists as role models in space science outreach

    Alexander, D.

    The direct participation of scientists significantly enhances the impact of any E/PO effort. This is particularly true when the scientists come from minority or traditionally under-represented groups and, consequently, become role models for a large number of students while presenting positive counter-examples to the usual stereotypes. In this paper I will discuss the impact of scientists as role models through the successful implementation of a set of space physics games and activities, called Solar Week. Targetted at middle-school girls, the key feature of Solar Week is the "Ask a Scientist" section enabling direct interaction between participating students and volunteer scientists. All of the contributing scientists are women, serving as experts in their field and providing role models to whom the students can relate. Solar Week has completed four sessions with a total of some 140 edcuators and 12,000+ students in over 28 states and 9 countries. A major success of the Solar Week program has been the ability of the students to learn more about the scientists as people, through online biographies, and to discuss a variety of topics ranging from science, to careers and common hobbies.

  11. The Role of Biotransformation and Oxidative Stress in 3,5-Dichloroaniline (3,5-DCA) Induced Nephrotoxicity in Isolated Renal Cortical Cells from Male Fischer 344 Rats

    Racine, Christopher R.; Ferguson, Travis; Preston, Debbie; Ward, Dakota; Ball, John; Anestis, Dianne; Valentovic, Monica; Rankin, Gary O.

    2016-01-01

    Among the mono- and dichloroanilines, 3,5-Dichloroaniline (3,5-DCA) is the most potent nephrotoxicant in vivo and in vitro. However, the role of renal biotransformation in 3,5-DCA induced nephrotoxicity is unknown. The current study was designed to determine the in vitro nephrotoxic potential of 3,5-DCA in isolated renal cortical cells (IRCC) obtained from male Fischer 344 rats, and the role of renal bioactivation and oxidative stress in 3,5-DCA nephrotoxicity. IRCC (~4 million cells/ml) from male rats were exposed to 3,5-DCA (0-1.0 mM) for up to 120 min. In IRCC, 3,5-DCA was cytotoxic at 1.0 mM by 60 min as evidenced by the increased release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), but 120 min was required for 3,5-DCA 0.5 mM to increase LDH release. In subsequent studies, IRCC were exposed to a pretreatment (antioxidant or enzyme inhibitor) prior to exposure to 3,5-DCA (1.0 mM) for 90 min. Cytotoxicity induced by 3,5-DCA was attenuated by pretreatment with inhibitors of flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO; methimazole, N-octylamine), cytochrome P450 (CYP; piperonyl butoxide, metyrapone), or peroxidase (indomethacin, mercaptosuccinate) enzymes. Use of more selective CYP inhibitors suggested that the CYP 2C family contributed to 3,5-DCA bioactivation. Antioxidants (glutathione, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, α-tocopherol, ascorbate, pyruvate) also attenuated 3,5-DCA nephrotoxicity, but oxidized glutathione levels and the oxidized/reduced glutathione ratios were not increased. These results indicate that 3,5-DCA may be activated via several renal enzyme systems to toxic metabolites, and that free radicals, but not oxidative stress, contribute to 3,5-DCA induced nephrotoxicity in vitro. PMID:26808022

  12. Simulation modelling: educational development roles for learning technologists

    David Riley

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Simulation modelling was in the mainstream of CAL development in the 1980s when the late David Squires introduced this author to the Dynamic Modelling System. Since those early days, it seems that simulation modelling has drifted into a learning technology backwater to become a member of Laurillard's underutilized, 'adaptive and productive' media. Referring to her Conversational Framework, Laurillard constructs a pedagogic case for modelling as a productive student activity but provides few references to current practice and available resources. This paper seeks to complement her account by highlighting the pioneering initiatives of the Computers in the Curriculum Project and more recent developments in systems modelling within geographic and business education. The latter include improvements to system dynamics modelling programs such as STELLA®, the publication of introductory textbooks, and the emergence of online resources. The paper indicates several ways in which modelling activities may be approached and identifies some educational development roles for learning technologists. The paper concludes by advocating simulation modelling as an exemplary use of learning technologies - one that realizes their creative-transformative potential.

  13. Implications of Isoprostanes and Matrix Metalloproteinase-7 Having Potential Role in the Development of Colorectal Cancer in Males

    Mahmood Rasool

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundColorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common type of cancer and leading cause of death worldwide. Major risk factors involved in the development of CRC are increased dietary sources, genetics, and increasing age. Purpose of the study was to find the role of different variables in the progression of CRC.Methodology50 blood samples from CRC patients and 20 samples from control were collected. Serum was separated from the blood by centrifugation. This serum was assessed for several antioxidants like superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase, vitamin A, C, and E, and pro-oxidants such as malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs, and AGEs according to their respective protocols. Matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7 and isoprostanes were assessed by ELISA kits.ResultsLower levels of GSH (4.86 ± 0.78 vs 9.65 ± 1.13 μg/dl, SOD (0.08 ± 0.012 vs 0.46 ± 0.017 μg/dl, CAT (2.45 ± 0.03 vs 4.22 ± 0.19 μmol/mol of protein, and GRx (5.16 ± 0.06 vs 7.23 ± 0.36 μmol/ml in the diseased group were recorded as compared with control. Higher levels of GPx (6.64 ± 0.19 mmol/dl were observed in the subjects in comparison with control group (1.58 ± 0.30 mmol/dl. Highly significant decreased levels of vitamin A (0.81 ± 0.07 vs 2.37 ± 0.15 mg/ml, vitamin E (15.42 ± 1.26 vs 25.96 ± 2.19 mg/ml, and vitamin C (47.67 ± 7.69 vs 80.37 ± 10.21 mg/ml were observed in the patients in contrast to control group. The reversal of antioxidants in later stages of CRC may be due to compensatory mechanisms in cancerous cells. The levels of MDA (nmol/ml were also assessed, which shows significantly increased level in CRC patients as compared with control groups (3.67 ± 0.19 vs 1.31 ± 0.27. The levels of protein oxidation products [AGEs (2.74 ± 0.16 vs 0.84 ± 0.05 IU and AOPPs (1.32

  14. Evaluation of antidepressant-like effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Passiflora incarnata in animal models of depression in male mice

    Jafarpoor Nima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Passiflora incarnata (PI is one of the commonest herbal anti-anxiety and sedative agents. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antidepressant effect of hydroalcoholic extract of PI in forced swim test (FST and tail suspension test (TST in male mice. Methods: In this experimental study, 48 male mice were randomly divided into 6 groups of 8: Negative and positive control groups received normal saline (10 ml/kg, fluoxetine (20 mg/kg and imipramine (30 mg/kg, respectively and treatment groups received extracts of PI (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg. Immobility, swimming and climbing behaviors were recorded during 6-min. Results: All doses of PI extract compared to control group significantly reduced the duration of immobility time in both of two tests (p<0.001. Also, these extracts increased swimming time (p<0.001 without significant change of climbing time. Conclusion: PI has considerable antidepressant-like effect in animal models of depression. However, further studies are needed to determine its exact mechanism of action.

  15. Male Asian international students' perceived racial discrimination, masculine identity, and subjective masculinity stress: a moderated mediation model.

    Wong, Y Joel; Tsai, Pei-Chun; Liu, Tao; Zhu, Qingqing; Wei, Meifen

    2014-10-01

    This study examined male Asian international college students' perceptions of racial discrimination, subjective masculinity stress, centrality of masculine identity, and psychological distress by testing a moderated mediation model. Participants were 160 male Asian international college students from 2 large public universities. Participants' perceived racial discrimination was positively related to their subjective masculinity stress only at high (but not low) levels of masculine identity centrality. Additionally, subjective masculinity stress was positively related to psychological distress, although this association was stronger among those who reported high levels of masculine identity centrality. The authors also detected a moderated mediation effect in which subjective masculinity stress mediated the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress only at high (but not low) levels of masculine identity centrality. These findings contribute to the counseling psychology literature by highlighting the connections between race- and gender-related stressors as well as the relevance of masculine identity to an understanding of men's mental health. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Finding big shots: small-area mapping and spatial modelling of obesity among Swiss male conscripts.

    Panczak, Radoslaw; Held, Leonhard; Moser, André; Jones, Philip A; Rühli, Frank J; Staub, Kaspar

    2016-01-01

    In Switzerland, as in other developed countries, the prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased substantially since the early 1990s. Most of the analyses so far have been based on sporadic surveys or self-reported data and did not offer potential for small-area analyses. The goal of this study was to investigate spatial variation and determinants of obesity among young Swiss men using recent conscription data. A complete, anonymized dataset of conscription records for the 2010-2012 period were provided by Swiss Armed Forces. We used a series of Bayesian hierarchical logistic regression models to investigate the spatial pattern of obesity across 3,187 postcodes, varying them by type of random effects (spatially unstructured and structured), level of adjustment by individual (age and professional status) and area-based [urbanicity and index of socio-economic position (SEP)] characteristics. The analysed dataset consisted of 100,919 conscripts, out of which 5,892 (5.8 %) were obese. Crude obesity prevalence increased with age among conscripts of lower individual and area-based SEP and varied greatly over postcodes. Best model's estimates of adjusted odds ratios of obesity on postcode level ranged from 0.61 to 1.93 and showed a strong spatial pattern of obesity risk across the country. Odds ratios above 1 concentrated in central and north Switzerland. Smaller pockets of elevated obesity risk also emerged around cities of Geneva, Fribourg and Lausanne. Lower estimates were observed in North-East and East as well as south of the Alps. Importantly, small regional outliers were observed and patterning did not follow administrative boundaries. Similarly as with crude obesity prevalence, the best fitting model confirmed increasing risk of obesity with age and among conscripts of lower professional status. The risk decreased with higher area-based SEP and, to a lesser degree - in rural areas. In Switzerland, there is a substantial spatial variation in obesity risk

  17. Evidence Supporting a Role for Constitutive Ghrelin Receptor Signaling in Fasting-Induced Hyperphagia in Male Mice.

    Fernandez, Gimena; Cabral, Agustina; Andreoli, María F; Labarthe, Alexandra; M'Kadmi, Céline; Ramos, Jorge G; Marie, Jacky; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Epelbaum, Jacques; Tolle, Virginie; Perello, Mario

    2018-02-01

    Ghrelin is a potent orexigenic peptide hormone that acts through the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), a G protein-coupled receptor highly expressed in the hypothalamus. In vitro studies have shown that GHSR displays a high constitutive activity, whose physiological relevance is uncertain. As GHSR gene expression in the hypothalamus is known to increase in fasting conditions, we tested the hypothesis that constitutive GHSR activity at the hypothalamic level drives the fasting-induced hyperphagia. We found that refed wild-type (WT) mice displayed a robust hyperphagia that continued for 5 days after refeeding and changed their food intake daily pattern. Fasted WT mice showed an increase in plasma ghrelin levels, as well as in GHSR expression levels and ghrelin binding sites in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. When fasting-refeeding responses were evaluated in ghrelin- or GHSR-deficient mice, only the latter displayed an ∼15% smaller hyperphagia, compared with WT mice. Finally, fasting-induced hyperphagia of WT mice was significantly smaller in mice centrally treated with the GHSR inverse agonist K-(D-1-Nal)-FwLL-NH2, compared with mice treated with vehicle, whereas it was unaffected in mice centrally treated with the GHSR antagonists D-Lys3-growth hormone-releasing peptide 6 or JMV2959. Taken together, genetic models and pharmacological results support the notion that constitutive GHSR activity modulates the magnitude of the compensatory hyperphagia triggered by fasting. Thus, the hypothalamic GHSR signaling system could affect the set point of daily food intake, independently of plasma ghrelin levels, in situations of negative energy balance. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  18. Sensible biological models to be exposed to VDT (Video Display Terminal) radiations in human male reproduction

    Tritto, J.; North, M.-O.; Laverdure, A.M.; Surbeck, J.

    1999-01-01

    Temperature and environmental effects, particularly endocrine disrupters and EMF radiations, are actively investigated in human and non-human reproduction experimental models. Sensitivity and specificity of the different cell types of the testes seminiferous tubules in animals and in human are evaluated, showing a specific responsiveness of spermatogonia (SPG) and resting pachytene spermatocytes (SPC). At 32 o C the 24 h short-term cultures of biopsies of normal human testis show an expected low occurrence of apoptotic SPG (1 %) that increases to 3,4 % in peer samples exposed to VDT for the same period, with the appearance of apoptotic SPC (4,6 %). In samples from a thermically-impaired testis of the same subject the apoptotic occurrence of SPG is 2,6 % with 15,4 % for SPC after 24 h cultures. After 24 h exposure to VDT the apoptotic score is 7,6 % for SPG and 18,5 % for SPC in thermically impaired peer samples. With EMF-bioshields the apoptotic score for SPG is 0,8 % in normal 2,2 % for SPG and 13,8 % for SPC in T-impaired peer-samples. NMRS of the cultures fluids show a proportional production of lactate, corresponding to the different degrees of histopathological impairment of the samples. IVOS (Integrated Visual Optic System) analysis of sperm samples from thermically-impaired, not-repaired and repaired testes exposed to VDT shows sensible variations on straightness (STR), linearity (LIN) and lateral head displacement (LHD) parameters. To evaluate the thermic and non-thermic potential bioeffects of VDT on human spermatogenesis the specificity, the sensitivity and the reproducibility of the biological models on one side and the specificity of the methodologies on the other side must be provided. (author)

  19. Examining the DSM-5 alternative personality disorder model operationalization of antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy in a male correctional sample.

    Wygant, Dustin B; Sellbom, Martin; Sleep, Chelsea E; Wall, Tina D; Applegate, Kathryn C; Krueger, Robert F; Patrick, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    For decades, it has been known that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) is a nonadequate operationalization of psychopathy (Crego & Widiger, 2015). The DSM-5 alternative model of personality disorders provides an opportunity to rectify some of these long held concerns. The current study compared the Section III alternative model's trait-based conception of ASPD with the categorical model from the main diagnostic codes section of DSM-5 in terms of associations with differing models of psychopathy. We also evaluated the validity of the trait-based conception more broadly in relation to measures of antisocial tendencies as well as psychopathy. Participants were 200 male inmates who were administered a battery of self-report and interview-based researcher rating measures of relevant constructs. Analyses showed that Section III ASPD outperformed Section II ASPD in predicting scores on Hare's (2003) Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; r = .88 vs. .59). Additionally, aggregate scores for Section III ASPD performed well in capturing variance in differing ASPD and psychopathy measures. Finally, we found that the Section III ASPD impairment criteria added incrementally to the Section III ASPD traits in predicting PCL-R psychopathy and SCID-II ASPD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Altered attentional processing in male and female rats in a prenatal valproic acid exposure model of autism spectrum disorder.

    Anshu, Kumari; Nair, Ajay Kumar; Kumaresan, U D; Kutty, Bindu M; Srinath, Shoba; Laxmi, T Rao

    2017-12-01

    Attention is foundational to efficient perception and optimal goal driven behavior. Intact attentional processing is crucial for the development of social and communication skills. Deficits in attention are therefore likely contributors to the core pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Clinical evidence in ASD is suggestive of impairments in attention and its control, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We examined sustained, spatially divided attention in a prenatal valproic acid (VPA) model of ASD using the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT). As compared to controls, male and female VPA rats had progressively lower accuracy and higher omissions with increasing attentional demands during 5-CSRTT training, and showed further performance decrements when subjected to parametric task manipulations. It is noteworthy that although VPA exposure induced attentional deficits in both sexes, there were task parameter specific sex differences. Importantly, we did not find evidence of impulsivity or motivational deficits in VPA rats but we did find reduced social preference, as well as sensorimotor deficits that suggest pre-attentional information processing impairments. Importantly, with fixed rules, graded difficulty levels, and more time, VPA rats could be successfully trained on the attentional task. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study examining attentional functions in a VPA model. Our work underscores the need for studying both sexes in ASD animal models and validates the use of the VPA model in the quest for mechanistic understanding of aberrant attentional functions and for evaluating suitable therapeutic targets. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1929-1944. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. We studied rats prenatally exposed to valproic acid (VPA), an established rodent model of autism. Both male and female VPA rats had a range of attentional impairments with sex-specific characteristics

  1. Sex-Fair Education and the Male Experience.

    Scott, Kathryn P.

    1982-01-01

    Describes how the traditional, agressive male role has been reinforced by social studies textbooks. The author recommends that teachers teach about new roles for males by presenting images of males in caring, nurturing, and expressive roles. (AM)

  2. Understanding young and older male drivers' willingness to drive while intoxicated: the predictive utility of constructs specified by the theory of planned behaviour and the prototype willingness model.

    Rivis, Amanda; Abraham, Charles; Snook, Sarah

    2011-05-01

    The present study examined the predictive utility of constructs specified by the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and prototype willingness model (PWM) for young and older male drivers' willingness to drive while intoxicated. A cross-sectional questionnaire was employed. Two hundred male drivers, recruited via a street survey, voluntarily completed measures of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, prototype perceptions, and willingness. Findings showed that the TPB and PWM variables explained 65% of the variance in young male drivers' willingness and 47% of the variance in older male drivers' willingness, with the interaction between prototype favourability and similarity contributing 7% to the variance explained in older males' willingness to drive while intoxicated. The findings possess implications for theory, research, and anti-drink driving campaigns. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Male Infertility

    ... hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands. Low testosterone (male hypogonadism) and other hormonal problems have a number of possible underlying causes. Defects of tubules that transport sperm. Many ... syndrome — in which a male is born with two X chromosomes and one ...

  4. Prophylactic role of curcumin in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis murine model.

    Arafa, Hossam M M; Hemeida, Ramadan A; El-Bahrawy, Ali I M; Hamada, Farid M A

    2009-06-01

    We have addressed in this study the possible protective role of the main principle of turmeric pigment; curcumin on a murine model of ulcerative colitis (UC). Colitis was induced by administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) (3% W/V) in drinking water to male Swiss albino rats for 5 consecutive days. DSS challenge induced UC model that was well characterized morphologically and biochemically. DSS produced shrinkage of colon length and increased the relative colon weight/length ratio accompanied by mucosal edema and bloody stool. Histologically, DSS produced submucosal erosions, ulceration, inflammatory cell infiltration and crypt abscess as well as epithelioglandular hyperplasia. The model was confirmed biochemically, and the test battery entailed elevated serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) and colonic activity of myleoperoxidase (MPO). Colonic glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity and its substrate concentration; GSH, were notably reduced, while lipid peroxidation, expressed as malondialdehyde (MDA) level, and total nitric oxide (NO) were significantly increased. Prior administration of curcumin (100mg/kg, IP) for 7 consecutive days ahead of DSS challenge mitigated the injurious effects of DSS and ameliorated all the altered biochemical parameters. These results suggest that curcumin could possibly have a protective role in ulcerative colitis probably via regulation of oxidant/anti-oxidant balance and modulation of the release of some inflammatory endocoids, namely TNF-alpha and NO.

  5. Adolescent and Young Adult Male Mental Health: Transforming System Failures Into Proactive Models of Engagement.

    Rice, Simon M; Purcell, Rosemary; McGorry, Patrick D

    2018-03-01

    Adolescent and young adult men do poorly on indicators of mental health evidenced by elevated rates of suicide, conduct disorder, substance use, and interpersonal violence relative to their female peers. Data on global health burden clearly demonstrate that young men have a markedly distinct health risk profile from young women, underscoring different prevention and intervention needs. Evidence indicates that boys disconnect from health-care services during adolescence, marking the beginning of a progression of health-care disengagement and associated barriers to care, including presenting to services differently, experiencing an inadequate or poorly attuned clinical response, and needing to overcome pervasive societal attitudes and self-stigma to access available services. This review synthesizes key themes related to mental ill health in adolescent boys and in young adult men. Key social determinants are discussed, including mental health literacy, self-stigma and shame, masculinity, nosology and diagnosis, and service acceptability. A call is made for focused development of policy, theory, and evaluation of targeted interventions for this population, including gender-synchronized service model reform and training of staff, including the e-health domain. Such progress is expected to yield significant social and economic benefits, including reduction to mental ill health and interpersonal violence displayed by adolescent boys and young adult men. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Wanted: role models - medical students’ perceptions of professionalism

    Byszewski Anna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transformation of medical students to become medical professionals is a core competency required for physicians in the 21st century. Role modeling was traditionally the key method of transmitting this skill. Medical schools are developing medical curricula which are explicit in ensuring students develop the professional competency and understand the values and attributes of this role. The purpose of this study was to determine student perception of professionalism at the University of Ottawa and gain insights for improvement in promotion of professionalism in undergraduate medical education. Methods Survey on student perception of professionalism in general, the curriculum and learning environment at the University of Ottawa, and the perception of student behaviors, was developed by faculty and students and sent electronically to all University of Ottawa medical students. The survey included both quantitative items including an adapted Pritzker list and qualitative responses to eight open ended questions on professionalism at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa. All analyses were performed using SAS version 9.1 (SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC, USA. Chi-square and Fischer’s exact test (for cell count less than 5 were used to derive p-values for categorical variables by level of student learning. Results The response rate was 45.6% (255 of 559 students for all four years of the curriculum. 63% of the responses were from students in years 1 and 2 (preclerkship. Students identified role modeling as the single most important aspect of professionalism. The strongest curricular recommendations included faculty-led case scenario sessions, enhancing interprofessional interactions and the creation of special awards to staff and students to “celebrate” professionalism. Current evaluation systems were considered least effective. The importance of role modeling and information on how to report lapses and breaches was

  7. A novel antioxidant formulation designed to treat male infertility associated with oxidative stress: promising preclinical evidence from animal models.

    Gharagozloo, P; Gutiérrez-Adán, A; Champroux, A; Noblanc, A; Kocer, A; Calle, A; Pérez-Cerezales, S; Pericuesta, E; Polhemus, A; Moazamian, A; Drevet, J R; Aitken, R J

    2016-02-01

    Does a novel antioxidant formulation designed to restore redox balance within the male reproductive tract, reduce sperm DNA damage and increase pregnancy rates in mouse models of sperm oxidative stress? Oral administration of a novel antioxidant formulation significantly reduced sperm DNA damage in glutathione peroxidase 5 (GPX5), knockout mice and restored pregnancy rates to near-normal levels in mice subjected to scrotal heat stress. Animal and human studies have documented the adverse effect of sperm DNA damage on fertilization rates, embryo quality, miscarriage rates and the transfer of de novo mutations to offspring. Semen samples of infertile men are known to be deficient in several key antioxidants relative to their fertile counterparts. Antioxidants alone or in combination have demonstrated limited efficacy against sperm oxidative stress and DNA damage in numerous human clinical trials, however these studies have not been definitive and an optimum combination has remained elusive. The efficacy of the antioxidant formulation was evaluated in two well-established mouse models of oxidative stress, scrotal heating and Gpx5 knockout (KO) mice, (n = 12 per experimental group), by two independent laboratories. Mice were provided the antioxidant product in their drinking water for 2-8 weeks and compared with control groups for sperm DNA damage and pregnancy rates. In the Gpx5 KO model, oxidative DNA damage was monitored in spermatozoa by immunocytochemical detection of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG). In the scrotal heat stress model, male fertility was tested by partnering with three females for 5 days. The percentage of pregnant females, number of vaginal plugs, resorptions per litter, and litter size were recorded. Using immunocytochemical detection of 8OHdG as a biomarker of DNA oxidation, analysis of control mice revealed that around 30% of the sperm population was positively stained. This level increased to about 60% in transgenic mice deficient in the

  8. 'Even though a man takes the major role, he has no right to abuse': future male leaders' views on gender-based violence in Sri Lanka.

    Darj, Elisabeth; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Lindmark, Gunilla; Axemo, Pia

    2017-01-01

    Distinct gender roles influence gender inequality and build the foundation for gender-based violence. Violence against women is a major public health problem in all societies, and a violation of human rights. Prevalence surveys on gender-based violence have been published from Sri Lanka, but qualitative studies on men's perceptions are lacking. The aim of this study was to explore young educated Sri Lankan men's perceptions of violence against women. Seven focus-group discussions were held. Men at the end of their university studies were purposefully selected. A topic guide was used, covering various scenarios of violence against women. Qualitative content analysis was carried out. Four categories were developed through the analytic process: fixed gender roles - patriarchal values are accepted in society, female mobility control, and slowly changing attitudes; violence not accepted but still exists - sexual harassment exists everywhere, different laws for different people, female tolerance of violence, and men's right to punish; multiple factors cause violence - alcohol, violent behavior is inherited, violence culturally accepted, low education, and lack of communication; and prevention of violence against women - both parents must engage and socialize girls and boys equally, life skills education, premarital counselling, working places value clarification, and more women in politics and boards are suggested. Medical and management students, possible future male leaders of the country, have suggestions of prevention strategies in life skills to reduce gender-based violence and to increase knowledge of health consequences with the aim of changing attitudes.

  9. Effects of body habitus on internal radiation dose calculations using the 5-year-old anthropomorphic male models

    Xie, Tianwu; Kuster, Niels; Zaidi, Habib

    2017-08-01

    Computational phantoms are commonly used in internal radiation dosimetry to assess the amount and distribution pattern of energy deposited in various parts of the human body from different internal radiation sources. Radiation dose assessments are commonly performed on predetermined reference computational phantoms while the argument for individualized patient-specific radiation dosimetry exists. This study aims to evaluate the influence of body habitus on internal dosimetry and to quantify the uncertainties in dose estimation correlated with the use of fixed reference models. The 5-year-old IT’IS male phantom was modified to match target anthropometric parameters, including body weight, body height and sitting height/stature ratio (SSR), determined from reference databases, thus enabling the creation of 125 5-year-old habitus-dependent male phantoms with 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th percentile body morphometries. We evaluated the absorbed fractions and the mean absorbed dose to the target region per unit cumulative activity in the source region (S-values) of F-18 in 46 source regions for the generated 125 anthropomorphic 5-year-old hybrid male phantoms using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended general purpose Monte Carlo transport code and calculated the absorbed dose and effective dose of five 18F-labelled radiotracers for children of various habitus. For most organs, the S-value of F-18 presents stronger statistical correlations with body weight, standing height and sitting height than BMI and SSR. The self-absorbed fraction and self-absorbed S-values of F-18 and the absorbed dose and effective dose of 18F-labelled radiotracers present with the strongest statistical correlations with body weight. For 18F-Amino acids, 18F-Brain receptor substances, 18F-FDG, 18F-L-DOPA and 18F-FBPA, the mean absolute effective dose differences between phantoms of different habitus and fixed reference models are 11.4%, 11.3%, 10.8%, 13.3% and 11.4%, respectively. Total body

  10. Novel inactivating mutations of the DCAF17 gene in American and Turkish families cause male infertility and female subfertility in the mouse model.

    Gurbuz, F; Desai, S; Diao, F; Turkkahraman, D; Wranitz, F; Wood-Trageser, M; Shin, Y-H; Kotan, L D; Jiang, H; Witchel, S; Gurtunca, N; Yatsenko, S; Mysliwec, D; Topaloglu, K; Rajkovic, A

    2018-04-01

    Loss-of-function DCAF17 variants cause hypogonadism, partial alopecia, diabetes mellitus, mental retardation, and deafness with variable clinical presentation. DCAF17 pathogenic variants have been largely reported in the Middle Eastern populations, but the incidence in American families is rare and animal models are lacking. Exome sequencing in 5 women with syndromic hypergonadotropic hypogonadism from 2 unrelated families revealed novel pathogenic variants in the DCAF17 gene. DCAF17 exon 2 (c.127-1G > C) novel homozygous variants were discovered in 4 Turkish siblings, while 1 American was compound heterozygous for 1-stop gain variant in exon 5 (c.C535T; p.Gln179*) and previously described stop gain variant in exon 9 (c.G906A; p.Trp302*). A mouse model mimicking loss of function in exon 2 of Dcaf17 was generated using CRISPR/Cas9 and showed female subfertility and male infertility. Our results identify 2 novel variants, and show that Dcaf17 plays a significant role in mammalian gonadal development and infertility. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Hybrid computational phantoms of the male and female newborn patient: NURBS-based whole-body models

    Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Hasenauer, Deanna; Williams, Jonathan L; Lee, Choonik; Bolch, Wesley E

    2007-01-01

    phantom is performed in three steps: polygonization of the voxel phantom, organ modeling via NURBS surfaces and phantom voxelization. Two 3D graphic tools, 3D-DOCTOR(TM) and Rhinoceros(TM), were utilized to polygonize the newborn voxel phantom and generate NURBS surfaces, while an in-house MATLAB(TM) code was used to voxelize the resulting NURBS model into a final computational phantom ready for use in Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations. A total of 126 anatomical organ and tissue models, including 38 skeletal sites and 31 cartilage sites, were described within the hybrid phantom using either NURBS or polygon surfaces. A male hybrid newborn phantom was constructed following the development of the female phantom through the replacement of female-specific organs with male-specific organs. The outer body contour and internal anatomy of the NURBS-based phantoms were adjusted to match anthropometric and reference newborn data reported by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in their Publication 89. The voxelization process was designed to accurately convert NURBS models to a voxel phantom with minimum volumetric change. A sensitivity study was additionally performed to better understand how the meshing tolerance and voxel resolution would affect volumetric changes between the hybrid-NURBS and hybrid-voxel phantoms. The male and female hybrid-NURBS phantoms were constructed in a manner so that all internal organs approached their ICRP reference masses to within 1%, with the exception of the skin (-6.5% relative error) and brain (-15.4% relative error). Both hybrid-voxel phantoms were constructed with an isotropic voxel resolution of 0.663 mm-equivalent to the ICRP 89 reference thickness of the newborn skin (dermis and epidermis). Hybrid-NURBS phantoms used to create their voxel counterpart retain the non-uniform scalability of stylized phantoms, while maintaining the anatomic realism of segmented voxel phantoms with respect to organ shape, depth and

  12. Teacher’s role model ingender education of students

    Elvira Dode

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender education as an important part of education, affects by the role and attitudes of teachers. Including gender perspective in schools is a prerequisite in alienable of human development, instead insuring gender equality it is considered as respecting human rights. Elimination of the gender stereotypes has a two-fold significance since itemsurest gender equality not only in the school system but even in the society as a whole. Gender stereotype messages, regardless by hidden or displayed form, unilaterally influence the development of the personality in its appearance as well as the formation of the individual. Children learn about gender identity simply by observing what happens in different circumstances around. In education exist gender disparities, which can be assessed by means of measurable indicators. So, the content of the curricula and instructive texts, the interactive relationships teacher-students, the institutional ambiance, etc. play an important role into the preservation and transmission of the gender disparity stereotypes through the messages they convey. The purpose of thestudy is to perform a systematic research in order to show the scale and shape in which gender stereotypes are portrayed and shown in social life, even through the role model of teacher and their affecting the education for a democratic society. To achieve this goal, we use the method of studying the existing literature; a detailed analysis of the questionnaires and interviews content with school directors and teachers of pre-university education in city: Shkodër, Tiranë, Elbasan, Pogradec, Korçë. Parents and teachers attitudes, seems to be a role model and affect the education of students. Therefore it is necessary before to teach students about gender equality, teachers need to be careful in their behavior about gender equality as an integral part of thinking. Need to have successful teacher, to get successful students otherwise should be successful

  13. Toxic effects of sub-chronic exposure of male albino rats to emamectin benzoate and possible ameliorative role of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil.

    El-Sheikh, El-Sayed A; Galal, Azza A A

    2015-05-01

    Emamectin benzoate (EB) is an avermectin insecticide used extensively in pest control on vegetable and field crops. Few studies have been done for evaluating adverse effects of EB. In the current study, we evaluated the toxic effects of EB on male rats and the possible ameliorative role of fennel essential oil (FEO). Thirty two male rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups. All groups were treated orally with distilled water (control group), 0.5mlFEOkg(-1) BW (FEO group), 2.5mgEBkg(-1) BW (EB group), and 0.5mlFEOkg(-1) BW+2.5mgEBkg(-1) BW (FEO+EB group) for 28 days. The obtained results showed that EB treatment resulted in a significant decrease in body weight, body weight gain, RBC count, Hb concentration, % PCV, MCV and MCHC. Moreover, EB significantly decreased total leukocyte, lymphocyte, monocyte and platelet count but significantly increased granulocyte count. EB markedly decreased total protein, albumin, globulin, IgG and IgM concentrations with a significant increase in TNF-α secretion. EB had a negative impact on the liver as it significantly increased ALT, ALP, and MDA, while decreasing SOD activity. Regarding to the histopathological examination, EB treatment induced coagulative necrosis and blood vessels congestion of the liver in treated rats. Furthermore, it resulted in depletion and necrosis of the white pulp of the spleen in treated rats. The co-administration of FEO with EB, however, improved the majority of parameters studied, suggesting that FEO is an important substance in decreasing toxic effects of EB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary Manipulations That Induce Ketosis Activate the HPA Axis in Male Rats and Mice: A Potential Role for Fibroblast Growth Factor-21.

    Ryan, Karen K; Packard, Amy E B; Larson, Karlton R; Stout, Jayna; Fourman, Sarah M; Thompson, Abigail M K; Ludwick, Kristen; Habegger, Kirk M; Stemmer, Kerstin; Itoh, Nobuyuki; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Tschöp, Matthias H; Seeley, Randy J; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M

    2018-01-01

    In response to an acute threat to homeostasis or well-being, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis is engaged. A major outcome of this HPA axis activation is the mobilization of stored energy, to fuel an appropriate behavioral and/or physiological response to the perceived threat. Importantly, the extent of HPA axis activity is thought to be modulated by an individual's nutritional environment. In this study, we report that nutritional manipulations signaling a relative depletion of dietary carbohydrates, thereby inducing nutritional ketosis, acutely and chronically activate the HPA axis. Male rats and mice maintained on a low-carbohydrate high-fat ketogenic diet (KD) exhibited canonical markers of chronic stress, including increased basal and stress-evoked plasma corticosterone, increased adrenal sensitivity to adrenocorticotropin hormone, increased stress-evoked c-Fos immunolabeling in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and thymic atrophy, an indicator of chronic glucocorticoid exposure. Moreover, acutely feeding medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) to rapidly induce ketosis among chow-fed male rats and mice also acutely increased HPA axis activity. Lastly, and consistent with a growing literature that characterizes the hepatokine fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) as both a marker of the ketotic state and as a key metabolic stress hormone, the HPA response to both KD and MCTs was significantly blunted among mice lacking FGF21. We conclude that dietary manipulations that induce ketosis lead to increased HPA axis tone, and that the hepatokine FGF21 may play an important role to facilitate this effect. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  15. Modulatory role of androgenic and estrogenic neurosteroids in determining the direction of synaptic plasticity in the CA1 hippocampal region of male rats.

    Pettorossi, Vito Enrico; Di Mauro, Michela; Scarduzio, Mariangela; Panichi, Roberto; Tozzi, Alessandro; Calabresi, Paolo; Grassi, Silvarosa

    2013-12-01

    Estrogenic and androgenic neurosteroids can rapidly modulate synaptic plasticity in the brain through interaction with membrane receptors for estrogens (ERs) and androgens (ARs). We used electrophysiological recordings in slices of young and adolescent male rats to explore the influence of sex neurosteroids on synaptic plasticity in the CA1 hippocampal region, by blocking ARs or ERs during induction of long-term depression (LTD) and depotentiation (DP) by low-frequency stimulation (LFS) and long-term potentiation (LTP) by high-frequency stimulation (HFS). We found that LTD and DP depend on ARs, while LTP on ERs in both age groups. Accordingly, the AR blocker flutamide affected induction of LTD reverting it into LTP, and prevented DP, while having no effect on HFS-dependent LTP. Conversely, ER blockade with ICI 182,780 (ICI) markedly reduced LTP, but did not influence LTD and DP. However, the receptor blockade did not affect the maintenance of either LTD or LTP. Moreover, we found that similar to LTP and LTD induced in control condition, the LTP unveiled by flutamide during LFS and residual LTP induced by HFS under ICI depended on N-methyl-d aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation. Furthermore, as the synaptic paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) was not affected by either AR or ER blockade, we suggest that sex neurosteroids act primarily at a postsynaptic level. This study demonstrates for the first time the crucial role of estrogenic and androgenic neurosteroids in determining the sign of hippocampal synaptic plasticity in male rat and the activity-dependent recruitment of androgenic and estrogenic pathways leading to LTD and LTP, respectively.

  16. Effects of testosterone replacement therapy on bone metabolism in male post-surgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: focus on the role of androgen receptor CAG polymorphism.

    Tirabassi, G; delli Muti, N; Gioia, A; Biagioli, A; Lenzi, A; Balercia, G

    2014-04-01

    The relationship between androgen receptor (AR) CAG polymorphism and bone metabolism is highly controversial. We, therefore, aimed to evaluate the independent role of AR CAG repeat polymorphism on bone metabolism improvement induced by testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in male post-surgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, a condition frequently associated with hypopituitarism and in which the effects of TRT have to be distinguished from those resulting from concomitant administration of pituitary function replacing hormones. 12 men affected by post-surgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism [mean duration of hypogonadism 8.3 ± 2.05 (SD) months] were retrospectively assessed before and after TRT (from 74 to 84 weeks after the beginning of therapy). The following measures were studied: parameters of bone metabolism [serum markers and bone mineral density (BMD)], pituitary dependent hormones and genetic analysis (AR CAG repeat number). Total testosterone, estradiol, free T4 (FT4) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) increased between the two phases, while follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) decreased. While serum markers did not vary significantly between the two phases, BMD improved slightly but significantly in all the studied sites. The number of CAG triplets correlated negatively and significantly with all the variations (Δ-) of BMDs. Conversely, Δ-testosterone correlated positively and significantly with all studied Δ-BMDs, while Δ-FSH, Δ-estradiol, Δ-FT4, and Δ-IGF-1 did not correlate significantly with any of the Δ-BMDs. Multiple linear regression analysis, after correction for Δ-testosterone, showed that CAG repeat length was negatively and significantly associated with ∆-BMD of all measured sites. Our data suggest that, in post-surgical male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, shorter AR CAG tract is independently associated with greater TRT-induced improvement of BMD.

  17. Communication Skills Training in Pediatric Oncology: Moving Beyond Role Modeling

    Feraco, Angela M.; Brand, Sarah R.; Mack, Jennifer W.; Kesselheim, Jennifer C.; Block, Susan D.; Wolfe, Joanne

    2018-01-01

    Communication is central to pediatric oncology care. Pediatric oncologists disclose life-threatening diagnoses, explain complicated treatment options, and endeavor to give honest prognoses, to maintain hope, to describe treatment complications, and to support families in difficult circumstances ranging from loss of function and fertility to treatment-related or disease-related death. However, parents, patients, and providers report substantial communication deficits. Poor communication outcomes may stem, in part, from insufficient communication skills training, overreliance on role modeling, and failure to utilize best practices. This review summarizes evidence for existing methods to enhance communication skills and calls for revitalizing communication skills training within pediatric oncology. PMID:26822066

  18. Communication Skills Training in Pediatric Oncology: Moving Beyond Role Modeling.

    Feraco, Angela M; Brand, Sarah R; Mack, Jennifer W; Kesselheim, Jennifer C; Block, Susan D; Wolfe, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    Communication is central to pediatric oncology care. Pediatric oncologists disclose life-threatening diagnoses, explain complicated treatment options, and endeavor to give honest prognoses, to maintain hope, to describe treatment complications, and to support families in difficult circumstances ranging from loss of function and fertility to treatment-related or disease-related death. However, parents, patients, and providers report substantial communication deficits. Poor communication outcomes may stem, in part, from insufficient communication skills training, overreliance on role modeling, and failure to utilize best practices. This review summarizes evidence for existing methods to enhance communication skills and calls for revitalizing communication skills training within pediatric oncology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Female role models in physics education in Ireland

    Chormaic, Síle Nic; Fee, Sandra; Tobin, Laura; Hennessy, Tara

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we consider the statistics on undergraduate student representation in Irish universities and look at student numbers in secondary (high) schools in one region in Ireland. There seems to be no significant change in female participation in physics from 2002 to 2011. Additionally, we have studied the influence of an educator's gender on the prevalence of girls studying physics in secondary schools in Co. Louth, Ireland, and at the postgraduate level in Irish universities. It would appear that strong female role models have a positive influence and lead to an increase in girls' participation in physics.

  20. Male Infertility

    ... to have a baby? If treatment doesn’t work, what are our other options? Resources National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, What Causes Male Infertility? Last Updated: May 30, 2017 This ...

  1. Male contraception.

    Amory, John K

    2016-11-01

    Although female contraceptives are very effective at preventing unintended pregnancy, some women can not use them because of health conditions or side-effects, leaving some couples without effective contraceptive options. In addition, many men wish to take active responsibility for family planning. Thus, there is a great need for male contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancies, of which 80-90 million occur annually. At present, effective male contraceptive options are condoms and vasectomy, which are not ideal for all men. Therefore, efforts are under way to develop novel male contraceptives. This paper briefly reviews the advantages and disadvantages of condoms and vasectomies and then discusses the research directed toward development of novel methods of male contraception. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Condoms - male

    Prophylactics; Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... your health care provider or pharmacy about emergency contraception ("morning-after pills"). PROBLEMS WITH CONDOM USE Some ...

  3. Male contraception

    Mathew, Vivek; Bantwal, Ganapathi

    2012-01-01

    Contraception is an accepted route for the control of population explosion in the world. Traditionally hormonal contraceptive methods have focused on women. Male contraception by means of hormonal and non hormonal methods is an attractive alternative. Hormonal methods of contraception using testosterone have shown good results. Non hormonal reversible methods of male contraception like reversible inhibition of sperm under guidanceare very promising. In this article we have reviewed the curren...

  4. Male sexuality.

    Ginsberg, Terrie B

    2010-05-01

    It should be recognized that sexuality in the aging male is of such import that a complete sexual history must be performed. By taking a complete sexual history, facts can be obtained that will allow for appropriate focus relating to a holistic evaluation and will enable us to dispel antiquated sexual myths pertaining to the aging male. If initiated by the history taker, questions concerning sexuality may be discussed more comfortably by the patient. Erectile dysfunction, male sexual response cycle, testosterone, sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, long-term illness, along with religion and culture are explored in this article with the aim of improving one's knowledge base, self reflection, and awareness of the importance of male sexuality. A complete understanding and appreciation of the aging male's medical history, surgical history, social history, and emotional history as well as his sexual, cultural, and religious concepts will allow the health care provider to better analyze information, and to recommend and provide appropriate advice and treatment to the aging male patient. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Barriers to becoming a female surgeon and the influence of female surgical role models.

    Kerr, Hui-Ling; Armstrong, Lesley Ann; Cade, Jennifer Ellen

    2016-10-01

    We aim to investigate the reasons that medical students and junior doctors who are women are less likely to pursue a career in surgery compared with their male counterparts. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to female final year medical students and female junior doctors in two UK hospitals between August and September 2012. Topics included career choice, attitudes to surgery, recognition of female surgical role models and perceived sexual discrimination. 50 medical students and 50 junior doctors were given our survey. We received a 96% response rate; 46 medical students and 50 junior doctors. 6/50 (12%) junior doctors planned a career in surgery compared with 14/46 (30%) medical students. 'Work-life balance' was the main reason cited for not wishing to pursue surgery (29/46 (63%) medical students and 25/50 (50%) junior doctors). 28/46 (61%) medical students and 28/50 (56%) junior doctors had encountered a female surgical role model; only five students and two junior doctors felt that these were influential in their career decision. Of those who had not, approximately 40% in each group felt that if they had, they may have considered surgery. Approximately 30% in each group had encountered female surgeons that had dissuaded them from a surgical career. Work-life balance is still cited by female junior doctors as being the main deterrent to a surgical career. The paucity of female role models and some perceived sexual discrimination may cause female doctors to discount surgery as a career. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. [The function of ERα in male reproductive system].

    Dong, Yu-Hang; Wei, Jin-Hua; Li, Zhen

    2014-12-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERs), including two sub-types ERα and ERβ, belong to the steroid hormone superfamily of nuclear receptors. ERα distributes in the male reproductive system and plays a crucial role in the regulation of male reproduction through estrogen-dependent and -independent ways. In this article, we mainly reviewed the molecular structure, mode of action and location of ERα in the male reproductive system, and explored the mechanism of ERα in regulating the male reproductive system by analyzing different animal models of disrupted ERα.

  7. Non-imidazole-based histamine H3 receptor antagonists with anticonvulsant activity in different seizure models in male adult rats

    Sadek B

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bassem Sadek,1 Ali Saad,1 Gniewomir Latacz,2 Kamil Kuder,2 Agnieszka Olejarz,2 Tadeusz Karcz,2 Holger Stark,3 Katarzyna Kieć-Kononowicz2 1Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates; 2Department of Technology and Biotechnology of Drugs, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland; 3Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Institute of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany Abstract: A series of twelve novel non-imidazole-based ligands (3–14 was developed and evaluated for its in vitro binding properties at the human histamine H3 receptor (hH3R. The novel ligands were investigated for their in vivo protective effects in different seizure models in male adult rats. Among the H3R ligands (3–14 tested, ligand 14 showed significant and dose-dependent reduction in the duration of tonic hind limb extension in maximal electroshock (MES-induced seizure model subsequent to acute systemic administration (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, whereas ligands 4, 6, and 7 without appreciable protection in MES model were most promising in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ model. Moreover, the protective effect observed for ligand 14 in MES model was lower than that observed for the reference drug phenytoin and was entirely abrogated when rats were co-administered with the brain-penetrant H1R antagonist pyrilamine (PYR but not the brain-penetrant H2R antagonist zolantidine (ZOL, demonstrating that histaminergic neurotransmission by activation of postsynaptically located H1Rs seems to be involved in the protective action. On the contrary, PYR and ZOL failed to abrogate the full protection provided by 4 in PTZ model and the moderate protective effect by 14 in strychnine (STR model. Moreover, the experimental and in silico estimation of properties such as metabolism was

  8. Dwarf males, large hermaphrodites and females in marine species: a dynamic optimization model of sex allocation and growth.

    Yamaguchi, Sachi; Sawada, Kota; Yusa, Yoichi; Iwasa, Yoh

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we investigate the evolutionarily stable schedule of growth and sex allocation for marine benthic species that contain dwarf males. We consider a population in an ephemeral microhabitat that receives a constant supply of larvae. Small individuals can immediately reproduce as a dwarf male or remain immature and grow. Large individuals allocate reproductive resources between male and female functions. The fraction c of newly settled individuals who remain immature and the sex allocation of large individuals m are quantities to evolve. In the stationary ESS, if the relative reproductive success of dwarf males is greater than the survivorship of immature individuals until they reach a mature size, then the population is a mixture of females and dwarf males. If the opposite inequality holds, the population is dominated by hermaphrodites and lacks dwarf males. There is no case in which a mixture of hermaphrodites and dwarf males to be the ESS in the stationary solution. The ESS can be solved by dynamic programming when the strategies depend on the age of the microhabitat (c(t) and m(t)). Typically, the ESS schedule begins with a population composed only of hermaphrodites, which is replaced by a mixture of dwarf males and hermaphrodites and then by a mixture of dwarf males and pure females. The relative importance of these three phases depends on multiple parameters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Reasoned Action Model of Male Client Involvement in Commercial Sex Work in Kibera, A Large Informal Settlement in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Roth, Eric Abella; Ngugi, Elizabeth; Benoit, Cecilia; Jansson, Mikael; Hallgrimsdottir, Helga

    2014-01-01

    Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are epidemiologically important because they can form bridge groups linking high- and low-risk subpopulations. However, because male clients are hard to locate, they are not frequently studied. Recent research emphasizes searching for high-risk behavior groups in locales where new sexual partnerships form and the threat of HIV transmission is high. Sub-Saharan Africa public drinking venues satisfy these criteria. Accordingly, this study developed and implemented a rapid assessment methodology to survey men in bars throughout the large informal settlement of Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya, with the goal of delineating cultural and economic rationales associated with male participation in commercial sex. The study sample consisted of 220 male patrons of 110 bars located throughout Kibera's 11 communities. Logistic regression analysis incorporating a modified Reasoned Action Model indicated that a social norm condoning commercial sex among male peers and the cultural belief that men should practice sex before marriage support commercial sex involvement. Conversely, lacking money to drink and/or pay for sexual services were barriers to male commercial sex involvement. Results are interpreted in light of possible harm reduction programs focusing on FSWs' male clients.

  10. Role of Omega 3 fatty acids on radiation-induced oxidative and structural damage in different tissues of male albino rats

    Rezk, R.G.; Abou Zaid, N.M.; Ahmed, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids play a critical role in the development and function of the reproductive and central nervous systems. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels associated with histopathologic changes induced by gamma irradiation in the testis and brain of male albino rats. Rats were whole body exposed to radiation at a single dose of 3 Gy. Omega-3 fatty acids (0.4 gm/kg b wt/day) were given to rats, by gavages, for 15 consecutive days before irradiation and for 15 days after irradiation. Rats were sacrificed one and 15 days post irradiation .Biochemical analysis of testis and cerebral cortex samples showed that irradiation induced a significant increase in xanthine oxidase (XO) activity and lipid peroxidation end product malondialdehyde (MDA) and a decrease in the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) and activity of antioxidant enzymes; glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT).Histological examination of testis and cerebral cortex tissues showed spermatogonia degeneration, apoptosis and necrosis in the testis and neurons cell bodies with ill defined and even ruptured cell membrane and damaged blood capillaries in the cerebral cortex. Omega-3 administration has attenuated the toxic effects of radiation by decreasing the levels of MDA, and XO, and increasing the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, which was associated with amelioration of the histological injury markers in both testis and cerebral cortex. It could be postulated that omega-3 fatty acids as a multi-functional dietary supplement could exert a modulatory role in radiation- induced testis and cerebral cortex biochemical and histological changes through its antioxidant properties.

  11. ‘Even though a man takes the major role, he has no right to abuse’: future male leaders’ views on gender-based violence in Sri Lanka

    Darj, Elisabeth; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Lindmark, Gunilla; Axemo, Pia

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Distinct gender roles influence gender inequality and build the foundation for gender-based violence. Violence against women is a major public health problem in all societies, and a violation of human rights. Prevalence surveys on gender-based violence have been published from Sri Lanka, but qualitative studies on men’s perceptions are lacking. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore young educated Sri Lankan men’s perceptions of violence against women. Methods: Seven focus-group discussions were held. Men at the end of their university studies were purposefully selected. A topic guide was used, covering various scenarios of violence against women. Qualitative content analysis was carried out. Results: Four categories were developed through the analytic process: fixed gender roles – patriarchal values are accepted in society, female mobility control, and slowly changing attitudes; violence not accepted but still exists – sexual harassment exists everywhere, different laws for different people, female tolerance of violence, and men’s right to punish; multiple factors cause violence – alcohol, violent behavior is inherited, violence culturally accepted, low education, and lack of communication; and prevention of violence against women – both parents must engage and socialize girls and boys equally, life skills education, premarital counselling, working places value clarification, and more women in politics and boards are suggested. Conclusions: Medical and management students, possible future male leaders of the country, have suggestions of prevention strategies in life skills to reduce gender-based violence and to increase knowledge of health consequences with the aim of changing attitudes. PMID:28753081

  12. Being a Deaf Role Model: Deaf People's Experiences of Working with Families and Deaf Young People

    Rogers, Katherine D.; Young, Alys M.

    2011-01-01

    The experiences of being a deaf role model have been little explored in the literature. This paper explores the role of the deaf role model as perceived by d/Deaf adults who carried out this role, when working with deaf young people, parents of deaf children, and professionals who work with them. The data were collected from part of the evaluation…

  13. Homeostatic role of heterosynaptic plasticity: Models and experiments

    Marina eChistiakova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Homosynaptic Hebbian-type plasticity provides a cellular mechanism of learning and refinement of connectivity during development in a variety of biological systems. In this review we argue that a complimentary form of plasticity - heterosynaptic plasticity - represents a necessary cellular component for homeostatic regulation of synaptic weights and neuronal activity. The required properties of a homeostatic mechanism which acutely constrains the runaway dynamics imposed by Hebbian associative plasticity have been well-articulated by theoretical and modeling studies. Such mechanism(s should robustly support the stability of operation of neuronal networks and synaptic competition, include changes at non-active synapses, and operate on a similar time scale to Hebbian-type plasticity. The experimentally observed properties of heterosynaptic plasticity have introduced it as a strong candidate to fulfill this homeostatic role. Subsequent modeling studies which incorporate heterosynaptic plasticity into model neurons with Hebbian synapses (utilizing an STDP learning rule have confirmed its ability to robustly provide stability and competition. In contrast, properties of homeostatic synaptic scaling, which is triggered by extreme and long lasting (hours and days changes of neuronal activity, do not fit two crucial requirements for a hypothetical homeostatic mechanism needed to provide stability of operation in the face of on-going synaptic changes driven by Hebbian-type learning rules. Both the trigger and the time scale of homeostatic synaptic scaling are fundamentally different from those of the Hebbian-type plasticity. We conclude that heterosynaptic plasticity, which is triggered by the same episodes of strong postsynaptic activity and operates on the same time scale as Hebbian-type associative plasticity, is ideally suited to serve homeostatic role during on-going synaptic plasticity.

  14. Effects of cisplatin on lipid peroxidation and the glutathione redox status in the liver of male rats: The protective role of selenium

    Trbojević Ivana S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of oxidative stress in cisplatin (CP toxicity and its prevention by pretreatment with selenium (Se was investigated. Male Wistar albino rats were injected with a single dose of cisplatin (7.5 mg CP/kg b.m., i.p. and selenium (6 mg Se/kg b.m, as Na2SeO3, i.p. alone or in combination. The results suggest that CP intoxication induces oxidative stress and alters the glutathione redox status: reduced glutathione (GSH, oxidized glutathione (GSSG and the GSH/GSSG ratio (GSH RI, resulting in increased lipid peroxidation (LPO in rat liver. The pretreatment with selenium prior to CP treatment showed a protective effect against the toxic influence of CP on peroxidation of the membrane lipids and an altering of the glutathione redox status in the liver of rats. From our results we conclude that selenium functions as a potent antioxidant and suggest that it can control CP-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

  15. Psychological predictors of problematic involvement in massively multiplayer online role-playing games: illustration in a sample of male cybercafé players.

    Billieux, Joël; Chanal, Julien; Khazaal, Yasser; Rochat, Lucien; Gay, Philippe; Zullino, Daniele; Van der Linden, Martial

    2011-01-01

    Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) are video games in which a large number of players interact with one another in a persistent virtual world. MMORPGs can become problematic and result in negative outcomes in daily living (e.g. loss of control on gaming behaviors, compromised social and individual quality of life). The aim of the present study is to investigate psychological predictors of problematic involvement in MMORPGs. Fifty-four males who played MMORPGs regularly were recruited in cybercafés and screened using the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale (which assesses 4 facets of impulsivity) and the Motivation to Play Online Questionnaire (which assesses personal motives to play online). Negative consequences due to excessive time spent on the Internet were assessed with the Internet Addiction Test. Multiple regression analysis showed that problematic use of MMORPGs is significantly predicted by: (1) high urgency (b = 0.45), and (2) a motivation to play for immersion (b = 0.35). This study showed that, for certain individuals (who are characterized by a proneness to act rashly in emotional contexts and motivated to play to be immersed in a virtual world), involvement in MMORPGs can become problematic and engender tangible negative consequences in daily life. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Overrepresentation of African American Males in Exclusionary Discipline: The Role of School-Based Mental Health Professionals in Dismantling the School to Prison Pipeline

    Jamilia J. Blake

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available African American males are at increased risk for experiencing disciplinary practices that exclude them from the school environment. It is believed that African American males’ overrepresentation in the receipt of these practices contributes to their involvement in the criminal justice system as they approach adolescence and enter adulthood. The connection of exclusionary discipline with incarceration rates is termed the School to Prison Pipeline. Although some scholars have identified school-wide initiatives as having potential in curtailing African American males’ overrepresentation in these punitive discipline practices, less discussion has focused on the role of school-based mental health professionals to address this issue. School-based mental health professionals possess a unique set of skills that may assist schools in decreasing African American males’ exposure to exclusionary discipline practices and consequently reducing their risk for adverse outcomes. The purpose of this review is to provide school-based mental health professionals with specific recommendations for reducing this negative educational experience.

  17. Role of garlic extract and silymarin compared to dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA in treatment of lead induced nephropathy in adult male albino rats

    Iman A. El-Khishin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead poisoning has been known as an important disorder that affects individuals through acute, sub-acute and chronic exposure in environmental and occupational settings. This study was conducted to compare the curative role of garlic combined with silymarin versus dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA in decreasing lead induced nephrotoxicity in adult male albino rats. The period of lead intoxication extended for 3 months followed by either 1 month treatment with garlic and silymarin or 5 days treatment with DMSA. Lead poisoning caused non-significant difference in kidney function tests (BUN and serum creatinine while, it caused significant elevation in kidney lead level, significant decrease in renal antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase and significant elevation in kidney malondialdehyde. Histologically, lead induced disorganization and shrinkage of glomeruli with sloughing and vaculation of epithelium, widening of Bowman's space and inflammatory infiltration in renal medulla. Treatment by garlic extract combined with silymarin as well as treatment with DMSA resulted in significant improvement in the affected parameters. Also, both methods of treatment resulted in improvement of the histopathological changes. It can be concluded that garlic extract combined to silymarin is comparable to DMSA in amelioration of lead induced nephrotoxicity.

  18. The physical and mental health of lesbian, gay male, and bisexual (LGB) older adults: the role of key health indicators and risk and protective factors.

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Emlet, Charles A; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Muraco, Anna; Erosheva, Elena A; Goldsen, Jayn; Hoy-Ellis, Charles P

    2013-08-01

    Based on resilience theory, this paper investigates the influence of key health indicators and risk and protective factors on health outcomes (including general health, disability, and depression) among lesbian, gay male, and bisexual (LGB) older adults. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with LGB older adults, aged 50 and older (N = 2,439). Logistic regressions were conducted to examine the contributions of key health indicators (access to health care and health behaviors), risk factors (lifetime victimization, internalized stigma, and sexual identity concealment), and protective factors (social support and social network size) to health outcomes, when controlling for background characteristics. The findings revealed that lifetime victimization, financial barriers to health care, obesity, and limited physical activity independently and significantly accounted for poor general health, disability, and depression among LGB older adults. Internalized stigma was also a significant predictor of disability and depression. Social support and social network size served as protective factors, decreasing the odds of poor general health, disability, and depression. Some distinct differences by gender and sexual orientation were also observed. High levels of poor general health, disability, and depression among LGB older adults are of major concern. These findings highlight the important role of key risk and protective factors, which significantly influences health outcomes among LGB older adults. Tailored interventions must be developed to address the distinct health issues facing this historically disadvantaged population.

  19. Sexy sons from re-mating do not recoup the direct costs of harmful male interactions in the Drosophila melanogaster laboratory model system.

    Orteiza, N; Linder, J E; Rice, W R

    2005-09-01

    The empirical foundation for sexual conflict theory is the data from many different taxa demonstrating that females are harmed while interacting with males. However, the interpretation of this keystone evidence has been challenged because females may more than counterbalance the direct costs of interacting with males by the indirect benefits of obtaining higher quality genes for their offspring. A quantification of this trade-off is critical to resolve the controversy and is presented here. A multi-generation fitness assay in the Drosophila melanogaster laboratory model system was used to quantify both the direct costs to females due to interactions with males and indirect benefits via sexy sons. We specifically focus on the interactions that occur between males and nonvirgin females. In the laboratory environment of our base population, females mate soon after eclosion and store sufficient sperm for their entire lifetime, yet males persistently court these nonvirgin females and frequently succeed in re-mating them. Females may benefit from these interactions despite direct costs to their lifetime fecundity if re-mating allows them to trade-up to mates of higher genetic quality and thereby secure indirect benefits for their offspring. We found that direct costs of interactions between males and nonvirgin females substantially exceeded indirect benefits through sexy sons. These data, in combination with past studies of the good genes route of indirect benefits, demonstrate that inter-sexual interactions drive sexually antagonistic co-evolution in this model system.

  20. Daily chronomics of proteomic profile in aging and rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease model in male Wistar rat and its modulation by melatonin.

    Jagota, Anita; Mattam, Ushodaya

    2017-08-01

    Aging is associated with changes in several basic parameters of circadian timing system (CTS) in mammals leading to circadian dysfunction. We had reported earlier that upon aging and in rotenone induced Parkinson's disease (RIPD) rat model there were significant alterations in the core clock genes expression levels and daily pulses. To identify biomarkers of aging and PD chronomics of proteomic day-night profiles in suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), pineal and substantia nigra (SN) in 3 month (m), 12, 24 m and RIPD rat model were studied at two time points i.e. Zeitgeber Time (ZT)-6 (mid-day) and ZT-18 (mid-night). Proteome analysis was done by using two dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis and the spots showing robust day-night variations were identified by using MALDI TOF/TOF analysis. In 3 m rats the number of proteins showing day-night variations were relatively more than 12, 24 m and RIPD rat model in SCN and SN. But in pineal there was increase in number of protein spots showing day-night variations in 24 m. Mass spectroscopy of the protein spots showing robust day night variation in aging and RIPD rats were identified. As melatonin, a multitasking molecule, an endogenous synchronizer of rhythm, an antioxidant and an antiaging drug, declines with aging, the effects of melatonin administration on differential alterations in chronomics of 2-D protein profiles in aging and RIPD male Wistar rats were studied. We report here that the melatonin could be playing an important role in modulating the chronomics of 2-D protein profiles. Additionally, various proteins were identified for the first time in this study showing significant day night variation in SCN, pineal and SN may prove useful towards targeting novel treatments for circadian dysfunction, good health and longevity.

  1. Information Security Role Model for Staff of Banking Structures

    A. O. Vybornov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Categories roles of information security employees of the banking organization are defined. Functional roles are described. The relationship between functional roles, employees, functions and authority are defined. The role of information security employees of the banking organization for information security system and information security management system are described. Recommendations for the implementation phases of the selection and appointment of the functional roles and to control the selection and role assignment information security employees of the banking organization are stated.

  2. High regenerative capacity of the liver and irreversible injury of male reproductive system in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis rat model.

    Bubnov, Rostyslav V; Drahulian, Maria V; Buchek, Polina V; Gulko, Tamara P

    2018-03-01

    Liver fibrosis (LF) is a chronic disease, associated with many collateral diseases including reproductive dysfunction. Although the normal liver has a large regenerative capacity the complications of LF could be severe and irreversible. Hormone and sex-related issues of LF development and interactions with male reproductive have not been finally studied. The aim was to study the reproductive function of male rats in experimental CCl 4 -induced liver fibrosis rat model, and the capability for restoration of both the liver and male reproduction system. Studies were conducted on 20 3-month old Wistar male rats. The experimental animals were injected with freshly prepared 50% olive oil solution of carbohydrate tetrachloride (CCl 4 ). On the 8th week after injection we noted the manifestations of liver fibrosis. The rats were left to self-healing of the liver for 8 weeks. All male rats underwent ultrasound and biopsy of the liver and testes on the 8th and 16th weeks. The male rats were mated with healthy females before CCl 4 injection, after modeling LF on the 8th week, and after self-healing of the liver. Pregnancy was monitored on ultrasound. On the 8th week of experiment we observed ultrasound manifestation of advanced liver fibrosis, including hepatosplenomegaly, portal hypertension. Ultrasound exam of the rat testes showed testicular degeneration, hydrocele, fibrosis, scarring, petrifications, size reduction, and restriction of testicular descent; testes size decreased from 1.24 ± 0.62 ml to 0.61 ± 0.13, p  reproductive system and altering of fertility: the offspring of male rats with advanced LF was 4.71 ± 0.53 born alive vs 9.55 ± 0.47 born from mating with healthy males, p  reproductive system.

  3. Male baldness.

    Clarke, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Male baldness is very common. Its effect on individuals is extremely variable, and in some people it will have a significant adverse effect on their quality of life. The objectives of this article are to help general practitioners (GPs) be aware of potential health problems related to male baldness, to have an approach to assessing hair loss and to be aware of treatment options. Male baldness is, most often, a normal occurrence, but it may have significant effects on a man's health. It may also be a pointer to other potential health issues. The GP is in the ideal position to conduct an initial evaluation, consider other health issues and advise on treatment options.

  4. Differentiating the levels of risk for muscle dysmorphia among Hungarian male weightlifters: a factor mixture modeling approach.

    Babusa, Bernadett; Czeglédi, Edit; Túry, Ferenc; Mayville, Stephen B; Urbán, Róbert

    2015-01-01

    Muscle dysmorphia (MD) is a body image disturbance characterized by a pathological preoccupation with muscularity. The study aimed to differentiate the levels of risk for MD among weightlifters and to define a tentative cut-off score for the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale (MASS) for the identification of high risk MD cases. Hungarian male weightlifters (n=304) completed the MASS, the Exercise Addiction Inventory, and specific exercise and body image related questions. For the differentiation of MD, factor mixture modeling was performed, resulting in three independent groups: low-, moderate-, and high risk MD groups. The estimated prevalence of high risk MD in this sample of weightlifters was 15.1%. To determine a cut-off score for the MASS, sensitivity and specificity analyses were performed and a cut-off point of 63 was suggested. The proposed cut-off score for the MASS can be useful for the early detection of high risk MD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Potential therapeutic and protective effect of curcumin against stroke in the male albino stroke-induced model rats.

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yan, Yi; Cao, Yi; Yang, Yongtao; Zhao, Qing; Jing, Rui; Hu, Jiayi; Bao, Juan

    2017-08-15

    The present study was carried out to understand the therapeutic effect of curcumin (CUR) against stroke in the experimental animal model. The study investigates the healing effect of CUR on mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation. Male albino, Wistar strain rats were used for the induction of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and reperfusion. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the determination of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the brain region. Western blot analysis was used to determine the protein expression levels of Bax, Bcl-2, p53, and Sirt1. The water level was determined in brain region by using standard method. Experimental results indicated that the use of CUR significantly reduced brain edema and water content. IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly reduced in the brain region following use of CUR. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) also reduced significantly after CUR treatment. Protein expression of p53 and Bax were significantly reduced, whereas Bcl-2 and Sirt1 were increased following CUR treatment. Taking all these data together, it is suggested that the use of CUR may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of stroke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Niosomes of Ascorbic Acid and α-Tocopherol in the Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Model in Male Rats

    Jaleh Varshosaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to prepare a stable iv injectable formulation of ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol in preventing the cerebral ischemia. Different niosomal formulations were prepared by Span and Tween mixed with cholesterol. The physicochemical characteristics of niosomal formulations were evaluated in vitro. For in vivo evaluation, the rats were made ischemic by middle cerebral artery occlusion model for 30 min and the selected formulation was used for determining its neuroprotective effect against cerebral ischemia. Neuronal damage was evaluated by optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The encapsulation efficiency of ascorbic acid was increased to more than 84% by remote loading method. The cholesterol content of the niosomes, the hydrophilicity potential of the encapsulated compounds, and the preparation method of niosomes were the main factors affecting the mean volume diameter of the prepared vesicles. High physical stability of the niosomes prepared from Span 40 and Span 60 was demonstrated due to negligible size change of vesicles during 6 months storage at 4–8°C. In vivo studies showed that ST60/Chol 35 : 35 : 30 niosomes had more neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemic injuries in male rats than free ascorbic acid.

  7. Niosomes of ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol in the cerebral ischemia-reperfusion model in male rats.

    Varshosaz, Jaleh; Taymouri, Somayeh; Pardakhty, Abbas; Asadi-Shekaari, Majid; Babaee, Abodolreza

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to prepare a stable iv injectable formulation of ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol in preventing the cerebral ischemia. Different niosomal formulations were prepared by Span and Tween mixed with cholesterol. The physicochemical characteristics of niosomal formulations were evaluated in vitro. For in vivo evaluation, the rats were made ischemic by middle cerebral artery occlusion model for 30 min and the selected formulation was used for determining its neuroprotective effect against cerebral ischemia. Neuronal damage was evaluated by optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The encapsulation efficiency of ascorbic acid was increased to more than 84% by remote loading method. The cholesterol content of the niosomes, the hydrophilicity potential of the encapsulated compounds, and the preparation method of niosomes were the main factors affecting the mean volume diameter of the prepared vesicles. High physical stability of the niosomes prepared from Span 40 and Span 60 was demonstrated due to negligible size change of vesicles during 6 months storage at 4-8(°)C. In vivo studies showed that ST60/Chol 35 : 35 : 30 niosomes had more neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemic injuries in male rats than free ascorbic acid.

  8. Medical students on the value of role models for developing 'soft skills'

    Adele

    of medical students, especially their doctor-patient interaction skills and .... how they adapted their own personalities with patients…] ... students learning from role models. Students .... Role models and the learning environment: essential elements in ... Paice E, Heard S, Moss F. How important are role models in making.

  9. Male depression in females?

    Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Yücel, Mete

    2010-02-01

    Scientific evidence for a male-typed depression ("male depression") is still limited, but mainly supports this concept with respect to single externalizing symptoms or symptom clusters. In particular, studies on non-clinical populations including males and females are lacking. The present study aims at assessing general well-being, the risk and the symptoms of male depression dependent on biological sex and gender-role orientation on instrumental (masculine) and expressive (feminine) personality traits in an unselected community sample of males and females. Students (518 males, 500 females) of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Germany, were asked to participate in a "stress study" and complete the following self-report questionnaires: the WHO-5 Well-being Index [Bech, P., 1998. Quality of Life in the Psychiatric Patient. Mosby-Wolfe, London], the Gotland Scale for Male Depression [Walinder, J., Rutz, W., 2001. Male depression and suicide. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 16 (suppl 2), 21-24] and the German Extended Personal Attribute Questionnaire [Runge, T.E., Frey, D., Gollwitzer, P.M., et al., 1981. Masculine (instrumental) and feminine (expressive) traits. A comparison between students in the United States and West Germany. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 12, 142-162]. General well-being of the students was significantly lower compared to population norms. Contrary to expectations, female students had a greater risk of male depression than male students (28.9% vs. 22.4%; p<0.05). Overall, prototypic depressive symptoms as well as externalizing symptoms were more pronounced in females. In the subgroup of those at risk for male depression, biological sex and kind of symptoms were unrelated. Principal component analyses revealed a similar symptom structure for males and females. Low scores on masculinity/instrumentality significantly predicted higher risk of male depression, independent of biological sex. The study sample is not

  10. The effect of Tributyltin on thyroid follicular cells of adult male albino rats and the possible protective role of green tea: a toxicological, histological and biochemical study.

    Badr El Dine, Fatma M M; Nabil, Iman M; Dwedar, Fatma I

    2017-01-01

    Tributyltin is one of the important and wide-spread persistent organic contaminants that accumulate in the food chain. It is suspected to cause endocrine-disrupting effects in mammals, due in part to its possible transfer through marine food chains and to the consumption of contaminated seafood. Was to study the possible toxic effect of Tributyltin on thyroid follicular cells of adult male albino rats and to evaluate the possible protective role of green tea. Forty-five adult male albino rats were included and randomly divided into 3 equal groups: a control group (Group I); Group II: received tributyltin chloride (TBT) dissolved in corn oil orally in a dose of 5 mg/kg for 30 days. Group III: received tributyltin chloride in the same dose with concomitant oral administration of green tea extract for 30 days. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed and blood samples were subjected to hormonal assay for T3, T4 and TSH levels. Malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione were assessed. The thyroid tissue was processed for histological and ultrastructure examination. The colloid area of thyroid follicles was evaluated morphometrically and statistically analyzed. A significant decrease in T3 and T4 levels and serum reduced glutathione in the group II when compared with the other groups. Furthermore, a significant increase in serum Malondialdehyde and TSH levels was recorded in group II treated group by comparison to the other two groups. Histopathological and ultrastructural changes of thyroid gland follicles were detected in tributyltin treated rats; the follicular cells appeared swollen and vacuolated. Epithelial stratification was noticed in some foci with excessive vacuolation of the colloid. Dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum filled with flocculent material and increased number of lysosomes were also detected together with variation in shape and size of the nuclei. A marked improvement in the histological features of thyroid follicles was noticed in

  11. Role Models for boosting mobility of women scientists in geosciences

    Avellis, Giovanna; Theodoridou, Magdalini

    2017-04-01

    More and more women today are choosing to study science and undertake scientific careers. Likewise mobility during one's career is increasingly important as research tends to be undertaken via international collaboration, often within networks based on the researchers mobility, especially in geosciences. We have developed an ebook on Role Models for boosting mobility of women scientists to showcase the careers of women scientists who have undertaken mobility during their careers. It is hoped that their stories will provide young women who are just starting out in their science careers with inspirational role models, and that these stories give them realistic information about career opportunities: many of them are women scientists in geosciences. These are not famous scientists, but rather real examples of people who express all the passion of the world of science. It is hoped that reading about successful scientists who have achieved a healthy work-life balance while moving to new locations will be particularly helpful for those individuals considering mobility in their own career. The ebook is available to be used by programs that support the development of systematic approaches to increasing the representation and advancement of women in science, engineering and technology, since mobility plays a key role in these programs. The stories contained herein will be useful to mentoring or advising program focusing on career, networking opportunities, discussion and grants opportunities in conjunction with mobility. There is still a gap between female graduates and the pool of female job applicants - even though the proportion of female graduate students and postdocs in most scientific fields is higher today than it is ever been. Therefore we suggest that focus should be placed on examining the real challenges which women need to overcome, particularly when "mobility" comes into play. Role models who have overcome these challenges will continue to play an important

  12. The Role of −786T/C Polymorphism in the Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene in Males with Clinical and Biochemical Features of the Metabolic Syndrome

    Blazej Misiak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Extensive evidence, arising from models of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS3-knockout mice supports the role of endothelial malfunction in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome (MS. Aims. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of −786T/C polymorphism in the etiology of MS and assess previously reported interaction with cigarette smoking. Methods. Based on International Diabetes Federation 2005 criteria, we recruited randomly 152 subjects with MS and 75 subjects without MS. Results. Allelic and genotype frequencies did not differ significantly between both groups. Total cholesterol level (CHOLT and intima-media thickness of carotid arteries were significantly higher in −786CC homozygotes, in comparison with −786TC and −786TT patients. Regarding current smoking status, −786C allele was associated with higher CHOLT than −786T allele. Conclusion. Our study indicates the putative role of −786T/C polymorphism in the development of hypercholesterolemia, in patients with MS, which might be enhanced by cigarette smoking.

  13. The Role of −786T/C Polymorphism in the Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene in Males with Clinical and Biochemical Features of the Metabolic Syndrome

    Misiak, Blazej; Krolik, Marta; Kukowka, Anna; Lewera, Anna; Leszczynski, Przemyslaw; Stankiewicz-Olczyk, Joanna; Slezak, Ryszard

    2011-01-01

    Background. Extensive evidence, arising from models of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS3)-knockout mice supports the role of endothelial malfunction in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome (MS). Aims. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of −786T/C polymorphism in the etiology of MS and assess previously reported interaction with cigarette smoking. Methods. Based on International Diabetes Federation 2005 criteria, we recruited randomly 152 subjects with MS and 75 subjects without MS. Results. Allelic and genotype frequencies did not differ significantly between both groups. Total cholesterol level (CHOLT) and intima-media thickness of carotid arteries were significantly higher in −786CC homozygotes, in comparison with −786TC and −786TT patients. Regarding current smoking status, −786C allele was associated with higher CHOLT than −786T allele. Conclusion. Our study indicates the putative role of −786T/C polymorphism in the development of hypercholesterolemia, in patients with MS, which might be enhanced by cigarette smoking. PMID:22164159

  14. The Role of -786T/C Polymorphism in the Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene in Males with Clinical and Biochemical Features of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    Misiak, Blazej; Krolik, Marta; Kukowka, Anna; Lewera, Anna; Leszczynski, Przemyslaw; Stankiewicz-Olczyk, Joanna; Slezak, Ryszard

    2011-01-01

    Background. Extensive evidence, arising from models of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS3)-knockout mice supports the role of endothelial malfunction in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome (MS). Aims. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of -786T/C polymorphism in the etiology of MS and assess previously reported interaction with cigarette smoking. Methods. Based on International Diabetes Federation 2005 criteria, we recruited randomly 152 subjects with MS and 75 subjects without MS. Results. Allelic and genotype frequencies did not differ significantly between both groups. Total cholesterol level (CHOLT) and intima-media thickness of carotid arteries were significantly higher in -786CC homozygotes, in comparison with -786TC and -786TT patients. Regarding current smoking status, -786C allele was associated with higher CHOLT than -786T allele. Conclusion. Our study indicates the putative role of -786T/C polymorphism in the development of hypercholesterolemia, in patients with MS, which might be enhanced by cigarette smoking.

  15. Modeling nonuniversal citation distributions: the role of scientific journals

    Yao, Zheng; Peng, Xiao-Long; Xu, Xin-Jian; Zhang, Li-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Whether a scientific paper is cited is related not only to the influence of its author(s) but also to the journal publishing it. Scientists, either proficient or less experienced, usually submit their most important work to prestigious journals which receive more citations than others. How to model the role of scientific journals in citation dynamics is of great importance. In this paper we address this issue through two approaches. One is the intrinsic heterogeneity of a paper determined by the impact factor of the journal publishing it. The other is the mechanism of a paper being cited which depends on its citations and prestige. We develop a model for citation networks via an intrinsic nodal weight function and an intuitive aging mechanism. The node’s weight is drawn from the distribution of impact factors of journals and the aging transition is a function of the citation and the prestige. The node-degree distribution of resulting networks shows nonuniversal scaling: the distribution decays exponentially for small degree and has a power-law tail for large degree, hence the dual behavior. The higher the impact factor of the journal, the larger the tipping point and the smaller the power exponent that are obtained. With the increase of the journal rank, this phenomenon will fade and evolve to pure power laws. (paper)

  16. Diethyl hexyl phthalate-induced changes in insulin signaling molecules and the protective role of antioxidant vitamins in gastrocnemius muscle of adult male rat

    Srinivasan, Chinnapaiyan; Khan, Adam Ismail; Balaji, Venkataraman; Selvaraj, Jayaraman; Balasubramanian, Karundevi

    2011-01-01

    Diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) is an endocrine disruptor, it influences various organ systems in human beings and experimental animals. DEHP reduced the serum testosterone and increased the blood glucose, estradiol, T 3 and T 4 in rats. However, the effect of DEHP on insulin signaling and glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle is not known. Adult male albino rats were divided into four groups: Group I: Control; Groups II and III: DEHP treated (dissolved in olive oil at a dose of 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight, respectively, once daily through gastric intubation for 30 days); and Group IV: DEHP (100 mg/kg body weight) plus vitamins E (50 mg/kg body weight) and C (100 mg/kg body weight) dissolved in olive oil and distilled water, respectively, once daily through gastric intubation for 30 days. On completion of treatment, animals were euthanized and perfused (whole body); gastrocnemius muscle was dissected out and subjected to assessment of various parameters. DEHP treatment increased the H 2 O 2 , hydroxyl radical levels and lipid peroxidation which disrupt the membrane integrity and insulin receptor. DEHP impaired the insulin signal transduction, glucose uptake and oxidation through decreased expression of plasma membrane GLUT4, which may partly be responsible for the elevation of fasting blood glucose level. The present study suggests that DEHP exposure affects glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle and is mediated through enhanced lipid peroxidation, impaired insulin signaling and GLUT4 expression in plasma membrane. Antioxidant vitamins (C and E) have a protective role against the adverse effect of DEHP. -- Highlights: ► DEHP treatment significantly decreased serum insulin and testosterone levels. ► Increased ROS and decreased glucose uptake were observed in DEHP treated animals. ► Impaired insulin signaling in gastrocnemius muscle was observed in DEHP treatment. ► Vitamins C and E alter ROS, glucose uptake, oxidation and insulin signaling molecules.

  17. Banana fruit pulp and peel involved in antianxiety and antidepressant effects while invigorate memory performance in male mice: Possible role of potential antioxidants.

    Samad, Noreen; Muneer, Aqsa; Ullah, Najeeb; Zaman, Aqal; Ayaz, M Mazhar; Ahmad, Ijaz

    2017-05-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the anti-stress and memory enhancing effects of banana (Musa sapientum L.) fruit pulp and peel extract in male mice. Locally bred albino Wistar mice were divided into control and 2 test groups (n=10). Control rats received drinking water while test groups were treated with banana fruit pulp (600 mg/kg; oral administration) and extract of banana peel (400mg/kg; oral administration). Behavioral activities of animals were monitored 14 days post administration of banana pulp and peel extract. Depression-like symptoms were measured by forced swimming test (FST). Anxiety like behavior was monitored using light-dark activity (LDA) test and plus maze activity (PMA) test and memory functions of rats were assessed by morris water maze (MWM) test. Following 2 weeks animals were decapitated and brain was removed for estimation of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), super oxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH). In the present study both banana peel and pulp increased the time spent in light box and open arm, suggesting anxiolytic effects. A significant decrease in immobility time was observed in FST in both banana pulp and peel treated animals suggesting antidepressant like effects. Moreover, learning and memory assessed by MWM showed decrease in time to reach platform in both short term and long term memory test suggested increased memory function in both banana pulp and peel treated animals as compared to control animals. The activities of all antioxidant enzymes were significantly (pbanana pulp and peel treated animals than control. It is concluded that both banana pulp and peel have anti-anxiety, antidepressant effect as well as strengthen the memory possibly via its antioxidant mechanism. Therefore, it is recommended that supplementation of banana could be taken a vital role in stress (anxiety and depression) relief and increased in memory function possibly by phyto-antioxidants.

  18. Study of the role of epididymal alpha-glucosidase in the fertility of male rats by the administration of the enzyme inhibitor castanospermine.

    Yeung, C H; Cooper, T G

    1994-11-01

    The activity of epididymal alpha-glucosidase in adult rats was rapidly suppressed to histochemically undetectable levels within 2 days by the continuous release of the enzyme inhibitor castanospermine via a peritoneal osmotic pump at a rate of 100-200 nmol h-1. It was established that mating activities overnight depleted 72% of the spermatozoa in the distal cauda, which was replenished in 2 days, and that fertility began to decline 3 weeks after efferent duct ligation. Male rats of proven mating proficiency and fertility were treated with castanospermine, or buffered saline as control, for up to 30 days and enzyme inhibition was confirmed at the end of treatment by histochemistry. Fertility was normal at the first mating test on day 7, significantly decreased at the second mating on day 9, but recovered in a stepwise manner at subsequent matings on days 12 and 14. Delaying the third mating until day 25 did not sustain the transient subfertility. However, prolonging sperm storage in the distal cauda epididymides and preventing replenishment with freshly matured spermatozoa, by efferent duct ligation for 14 days performed on day 15 during castanospermine administration, caused a decrease in fertility and a change in the kinematics of epididymal spermatozoa of the castanospermine-treated group. In control rats, binding of epididymal spermatozoa to Vicia faba, a lectin specific for glucose and glucosamine, and mannose and mannosamine residues, decreased from the proximal caput to the distal corpus coincident with the increase in alpha-glucosidase activity on the epithelial brush border. Lectin binding then increased in the cauda where enzyme activity was absent. However, castanospermine treatment did not significantly alter this binding profile. The findings suggest that epididymal alpha-glucosidase does not play a crucial role in the development of sperm fertilizing capacity, but may be involved in the preparation of spermatozoa for storage.

  19. Testosterone affects neural gene expression differently in male and female juncos: a role for hormones in mediating sexual dimorphism and conflict.

    Mark P Peterson

    Full Text Available Despite sharing much of their genomes, males and females are often highly dimorphic, reflecting at least in part the resolution of sexual conflict in response to sexually antagonistic selection. Sexual dimorphism arises owing to sex differences in gene expression, and steroid hormones are often invoked as a proximate cause of sexual dimorphism. Experimental elevation of androgens can modify behavior, physiology, and gene expression, but knowledge of the role of hormones remains incomplete, including how the sexes differ in gene expression in response to hormones. We addressed these questions in a bird species with a long history of behavioral endocrinological and ecological study, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis, using a custom microarray. Focusing on two brain regions involved in sexually dimorphic behavior and regulation of hormone secretion, we identified 651 genes that differed in expression by sex in medial amygdala and 611 in hypothalamus. Additionally, we treated individuals of each sex with testosterone implants and identified many genes that may be related to previously identified phenotypic effects of testosterone treatment. Some of these genes relate to previously identified effects of testosterone-treatment and suggest that the multiple effects of testosterone may be mediated by modifying the expression of a small number of genes. Notably, testosterone-treatment tended to alter expression of different genes in each sex: only 4 of the 527 genes identified as significant in one sex or the other were significantly differentially expressed in both sexes. Hormonally regulated gene expression is a key mechanism underlying sexual dimorphism, and our study identifies specific genes that may mediate some of these processes.

  20. Promoting success or preventing failure: cultural differences in motivation by positive and negative role models.

    Lockwood, Penelope; Marshall, Tara C; Sadler, Pamela

    2005-03-01

    In two studies, cross-cultural differences in reactions to positive and negative role models were examined. The authors predicted that individuals from collectivistic cultures, who have a stronger prevention orientation, would be most motivated by negative role models, who highlight a strategy of avoiding failure; individuals from individualistic cultures, who have a stronger promotion focus, would be most motivated by positive role models, who highlight a strategy of pursuing success. In Study 1, the authors examined participants' reported preferences for positive and negative role models. Asian Canadian participants reported finding negative models more motivating than did European Canadians; self-construals and regulatory focus mediated cultural differences in reactions to role models. In Study 2, the authors examined the impact of role models on the academic motivation of Asian Canadian and European Canadian participants. Asian Canadians were motivated only by a negative model, and European Canadians were motivated only by a positive model.

  1. On the role of model structure in hydrological modeling : Understanding models

    Gharari, S.

    2016-01-01

    Modeling is an essential part of the science of hydrology. Models enable us to formulate what we know and perceive from the real world into a neat package. Rainfall-runoff models are abstract simplifications of how a catchment works. Within the research field of scientific rainfall-runoff modeling,

  2. The roles of Dmrt (Double sex/Male-abnormal-3 Related Transcription factor) genes in sex determination and differentiation mechanisms: Ubiquity and diversity across the animal kingdom.

    Picard, Marion Anne-Lise; Cosseau, Céline; Mouahid, Gabriel; Duval, David; Grunau, Christoph; Toulza, Ève; Allienne, Jean-François; Boissier, Jérôme

    2015-07-01

    The Dmrt (Double sex/Male-abnormal-3 Related Transcription factor) genes have been intensively studied because they represent major transcription factors in the pathways governing sex determination and differentiation. These genes have been identified in animal groups ranging from cnidarians to mammals, and some of the genes functionally studied. Here, we propose to analyze (i) the presence/absence of various Dmrt gene groups in the different taxa across the animal kingdom; (ii) the relative expression levels of the Dmrt genes in each sex; (iii) the specific spatial (by organ) and temporal (by developmental stage) variations in gene expression. This review considers non-mammalian animals at all levels of study (i.e. no particular importance is given to animal models), and using all types of sexual strategy (hermaphroditic or gonochoric) and means of sex determination (i.e. genetic or environmental). To conclude this global comparison, we offer an analysis of the DM domains conserved among the different DMRT proteins, and propose a general sex-specific pattern for each member of the Dmrt gene family. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. An Approach to Enforcing Clark-Wilson Model in Role-based Access Control Model

    LIANGBin; SHIWenchang; SUNYufang; SUNBo

    2004-01-01

    Using one security model to enforce another is a prospective solution to multi-policy support. In this paper, an approach to the enforcing Clark-Wilson data integrity model in the Role-based access control (RBAC) model is proposed. An enforcement construction with great feasibility is presented. In this construction, a direct way to enforce the Clark-Wilson model is provided, the corresponding relations among users, transformation procedures, and constrained data items are strengthened; the concepts of task and subtask are introduced to enhance the support to least-privilege. The proposed approach widens the applicability of RBAC. The theoretical foundation for adopting Clark-Wilson model in a RBAC system with small cost is offered to meet the requirements of multi-policy support and policy flexibility.

  4. Comparison of the validity of the use of the spontaneously hypertensive rat as a model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in males and females.

    Bayless, Daniel W; Perez, Maria C; Daniel, Jill M

    2015-06-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a commonly used and well-studied rodent model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sex differences in the cognitive symptoms of ADHD are reported. However, the female SHR rat is much less studied than its male counterpart. The goal of the current study was to assess the validity of the SHR rodent model of ADHD by examining attentional performance, inhibitory control, and hyperactivity in both male and female SHR rats. Adult SHR and control Wistar-Kyoto rats were trained on the 5-choice serial reaction time task, a self-paced test of attention and inhibitory control. This task requires animals to identify the location of a brief light stimulus among five possible locations under several challenging conditions. Analyses of percent correct revealed that attentional performance in SHR females was not significantly different from control females, whereas attentional performance in SHR males was significantly different from control males. Analyses of the number of premature responses revealed that SHR rats made more inhibitory control errors than did control rats and that this decrease in inhibitory control was present in both SHR males and females. Analyses of activity in the open field revealed that SHR rats were more hyperactive than were control rats and that this increased hyperactivity was present in both SHR males and females. The current findings have implications for the study of sex differences in ADHD and for the use of SHR rats as a model of ADHD in females. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Differential metabolism of acrylonitrile to cyanide is responsible for the greater sensitivity of male vs female mice: role of CYP2E1 and epoxide hydrolases

    Chanas, Brian; Wang, Hongbing; Ghanayem, Burhan I.

    2003-01-01

    Acrylonitrile (AN) is a potent toxicant and a known rodent carcinogen. AN epoxidation to cyanoethylene oxide (CEO) via CYP2E1 and its subsequent metabolism via epoxide hydrolases (EH) to yield cyanide is thought to be responsible for the acute toxicity and mortality of AN. Recent reports showed that male mice are more sensitive than females to the acute toxicity/mortality of AN. The present work was undertaken to assess the metabolic and enzymatic basis for the greater sensitivity of male vs female mice to AN toxicity. Male and female wild-type and CYP2E1-null mice received AN at 0, 2.5, 10, 20, or 40 mg/kg by gavage. Cyanide concentrations were measured at 1 or 3 h after dosing. Current data demonstrated that cyanide levels in blood and tissues of AN-treated wild-type mice of both sexes were significantly greater than in vehicle-treated controls and increased in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, cyanide levels in AN-treated CYP2E1-null mice were not statistically different from those measured in vehicle-treated controls. Furthermore, higher levels of cyanide were detected in male wild-type mice vs females in association with greater sensitivity of males to the acute toxicity/mortality of this chemical. Using Western blot analysis, negligible difference in CYP2E1 expression with higher levels of soluble and microsomal EH (sEH and mEH) was detected in the liver of male vs female mice. In kidneys, male mice exhibited higher expression of both renal CYP2E1 and sEH than did female mice. In conclusion, higher blood and tissue cyanide levels are responsible for the greater sensitivity of male vs female mice to AN. Further, higher expression of CYP2E1 and EH in male mice may contribute to greater formation of CEO and its subsequent metabolism to yield cyanide, respectively

  6. Prosexual Effect of Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae, False Damiana, in a Model of Male Sexual Behavior

    R. Estrada-Reyes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae and Turnera diffusa Willd (Turneraceae are employed in traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs; however, there is no scientific evidence supporting the prosexual properties of C. mexicana. The aim of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of C. mexicana (Cm stimulates rat male sexual behavior in the sexual exhaustion paradigm. Sexually exhausted (SExh male rats were treated with Cm (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg, an aqueous extract of T. diffusa (Td, or yohimbine. The sexual exhaustion state in the control group was characterized by a low percentage of males exhibiting mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations and no males demonstrating mating behavior after ejaculation. Cm (320 mg/kg, Td, or yohimbine significantly increased the proportion of SExh rats that ejaculated and resumed copulation after ejaculation. In males that exhibited reversal of sexual exhaustion, Cm (320 mg/kg improved sexual performance by reducing the number of intromissions and shrinking ejaculation latency. The effects of treatments on sexual behavior were not related with alterations in general locomotion. In conclusion, the prosexual effects of Cm, as well as those of Td, are established at a central level, which supports the traditional use of C. mexicana for stimulating sexual activity.

  7. Prosexual Effect of Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae), False Damiana, in a Model of Male Sexual Behavior.

    Estrada-Reyes, R; Ferreyra-Cruz, O A; Jiménez-Rubio, G; Hernández-Hernández, O T; Martínez-Mota, L

    Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae) and Turnera diffusa Willd (Turneraceae) are employed in traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs; however, there is no scientific evidence supporting the prosexual properties of C. mexicana . The aim of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of C. mexicana (Cm) stimulates rat male sexual behavior in the sexual exhaustion paradigm. Sexually exhausted (SExh) male rats were treated with Cm (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg), an aqueous extract of T. diffusa (Td), or yohimbine. The sexual exhaustion state in the control group was characterized by a low percentage of males exhibiting mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations and no males demonstrating mating behavior after ejaculation. Cm (320 mg/kg), Td, or yohimbine significantly increased the proportion of SExh rats that ejaculated and resumed copulation after ejaculation. In males that exhibited reversal of sexual exhaustion, Cm (320 mg/kg) improved sexual performance by reducing the number of intromissions and shrinking ejaculation latency. The effects of treatments on sexual behavior were not related with alterations in general locomotion. In conclusion, the prosexual effects of Cm, as well as those of Td, are established at a central level, which supports the traditional use of C. mexicana for stimulating sexual activity.

  8. Inspiration from role models and advice for moving forward.

    Newman, Michelle G; McGinn, Lata K

    2012-12-01

    This Behavior Therapy series on overcoming the glass ceiling followed from a highly attended panel at ABCT on the same topic. The current paper summarizes the common themes across the various papers in this series with respect to obstacles prominent women have faced, and how we can learn from their stories to help inform the future. These themes include the importance of role models, messages from a supportive environment, difficulties balancing careers with children, coordinating careers with family, importance of taking charge of one's career, moving forward despite negative internal and external messages, and questions about whether things have changed substantially. In addition, this paper contains a summary of the helpful advice from accomplished women in academia for navigating the academic waters. It is our aspiration that going forward this series will stimulate other conversations as well as increase thought, behavior, solidarity, and awareness about this topic so that we can continue to work toward a future when things will continue to improve for women. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Decisions to use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) by male cancer patients: information-seeking roles and types of evidence used

    Evans, Maggie; Shaw, Alison; Thompson, Elizabeth A; Falk, Stephen; Turton, Pat; Thompson, Trevor; Sharp, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    therapies to use and sceptical about others, basing their choices on forms of 'evidence' that were personally meaningful: personal stories of individuals who had been helped by CAM; the long history and enduring popularity of some therapies; the plausibility of the mechanism of action; a belief or trust in individual therapies or their providers; scientific evidence. Scientific evidence ranked low in the men's personal decision-making about CAM, while it was recognised as important for NHS support for CAM. Conclusion These male cancer patients valued the support and guidance of 'trusted individuals' in making choices about CAM. Trusted health professionals could also play a significant role in helping patients to make informed choices. Any such dialogue must, however, acknowledge the different standards of evidence used by patients and clinicians to evaluate the benefits or otherwise of CAM therapies. Such open communication could help to foster an environment of mutual trust where patients are encouraged to discuss their interest in CAM, rather than perpetuate covert, undisclosed use of CAM with its attendant potential hazards. PMID:17683580

  10. Effect of normative masculinity on males' dysfunctional sexual beliefs, sexual attitudes, and perceptions of sexual functioning.

    Clarke, Michael J; Marks, Anthony D G; Lykins, Amy D

    2015-01-01

    Male sexual dysfunction is a prevalent and distressing condition, which may be exacerbated by the sufferer's perceptions of masculinity and normative sexual behavior. This study sought to investigate the effect of social context on males' beliefs regarding sexual behavior. The research examined the effect of male role modeling and masculine cues on males' dysfunctional sexual beliefs, sexual attitudes, and self-perceptions of sexual functioning. A sample of 140 male participants, with a mean age of 29 years, was exposed to pictorial and verbal cues that presented different versions of male behavior across three conditions. Results indicated that males exposed to models and cues of traditional masculinity showed significantly increased levels of dysfunctional sexual beliefs and traditional sexual attitudes relative to males exposed to models of modern masculinity. Results also indicated that males exposed to traditional masculine stimuli reported lower levels of sexual inhibition due to fear of performance failure than males exposed to models of modern masculinity. The potential role of social context is discussed in the development and maintenance of male sexual dysfunction and its implications for treatment.

  11. GI Joe or Average Joe? The impact of average-size and muscular male fashion models on men's and women's body image and advertisement effectiveness.

    Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Lee, Christina

    2010-06-01

    Increasing body size and shape diversity in media imagery may promote positive body image. While research has largely focused on female models and women's body image, men may also be affected by unrealistic images. We examined the impact of average-size and muscular male fashion models on men's and women's body image and perceived advertisement effectiveness. A sample of 330 men and 289 women viewed one of four advertisement conditions: no models, muscular, average-slim or average-large models. Men and women rated average-size models as equally effective in advertisements as muscular models. For men, exposure to average-size models was associated with more positive body image in comparison to viewing no models, but no difference was found in comparison to muscular models. Similar results were found for women. Internalisation of beauty ideals did not moderate these effects. These findings suggest that average-size male models can promote positive body image and appeal to consumers. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Why is young maternal age at first childbirth a risk factor for persistent delinquency in their male offspring? Examining the role of family and parenting factors.

    van Vugt, Eveline; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin

    2016-12-01

    Children born to mothers who were younger than average at their first childbirth are at increased risk for future persistent delinquent behaviour, but explanations for this remain unclear. Our aim was to identify possible family and parenting variables that may help explain this relationship. We hypothesised that parental stress, large number of children in the home, low socioeconomic status (including neighbourhood problems) and poor parenting would account for the link between early first motherhood and their offspring's delinquency. Four hundred and sixty-two boys were selected from the Pittsburgh Youth Study, a longitudinal study of a random sample of school boys in Pittsburgh, initially assessed half-yearly and then annually from 7 to 19 years of age, using self-reporting and other reporting methods. Indirect effect models were used to test relationships between variables. Higher levels of parental stress, poorer parent-child communication and caring for a larger number of children all mediated the relationship between maternal youth and persistent delinquency by their boys, but only explained about 20% of it. At least partial explanations of the relationship between a mother's age at first childbirth and persistent delinquency in her male offspring suggest that future research should test whether early interventions with younger mothers to decrease their sense of stress in parenting and improve their capacity for communication with their child(ren) may help to prevent persistent delinquency in their boys. Programmes designed to help young women make more informed and planned decisions about their pregnancies should also be evaluated. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Diethyl hexyl phthalate-induced changes in insulin signaling molecules and the protective role of antioxidant vitamins in gastrocnemius muscle of adult male rat

    Srinivasan, Chinnapaiyan; Khan, Adam Ismail; Balaji, Venkataraman; Selvaraj, Jayaraman; Balasubramanian, Karundevi, E-mail: kbala82@rediffmail.com

    2011-12-15

    Diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) is an endocrine disruptor, it influences various organ systems in human beings and experimental animals. DEHP reduced the serum testosterone and increased the blood glucose, estradiol, T{sub 3} and T{sub 4} in rats. However, the effect of DEHP on insulin signaling and glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle is not known. Adult male albino rats were divided into four groups: Group I: Control; Groups II and III: DEHP treated (dissolved in olive oil at a dose of 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight, respectively, once daily through gastric intubation for 30 days); and Group IV: DEHP (100 mg/kg body weight) plus vitamins E (50 mg/kg body weight) and C (100 mg/kg body weight) dissolved in olive oil and distilled water, respectively, once daily through gastric intubation for 30 days. On completion of treatment, animals were euthanized and perfused (whole body); gastrocnemius muscle was dissected out and subjected to assessment of various parameters. DEHP treatment increased the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, hydroxyl radical levels and lipid peroxidation which disrupt the membrane integrity and insulin receptor. DEHP impaired the insulin signal transduction, glucose uptake and oxidation through decreased expression of plasma membrane GLUT4, which may partly be responsible for the elevation of fasting blood glucose level. The present study suggests that DEHP exposure affects glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle and is mediated through enhanced lipid peroxidation, impaired insulin signaling and GLUT4 expression in plasma membrane. Antioxidant vitamins (C and E) have a protective role against the adverse effect of DEHP. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DEHP treatment significantly decreased serum insulin and testosterone levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased ROS and decreased glucose uptake were observed in DEHP treated animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impaired insulin signaling in gastrocnemius muscle was observed in DEHP treatment. Black

  14. The Role of Muscarinic Receptors on spasmolytic Activity of Hydroalcohlic Extract of Parsley(petroselinum crispumSeed in Adult Male Rat's Ileum

    Raede Tavalaee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: because of the side effects of chemical drugs, using plant drugs was considered during recent decades. Based on previous studies, various concentrations of plant extracts can reduce ileum contraction caused by KCl and carbachol. Therefore, in this study, the role of muscarinic receptors in anti-spasmolytic activity of hydroalcohlic extract of parsley(petroselinum crispumseed in adult male rat's ileum was investigated. Materials and Methods: The distal part of Wistar rat’s ileum was separated and its contractions were recorded under 1 gr stretching and 37oC temperature in the bathroom containing the solution of Tyrode by Isotonic method. The ileum tissue was inserted in separately in first group affected by KCl and parsley seed, in the second group affected by KCl and carbachol with concentration 10-2 mg/ml and after that parsley seed, the third group affected by carbachol with concentration 10-2 mg/ml and then the extraction of parsley seed and the fourth group affected by scopolamine with concentration 10-3 M and after that KCl and then the extraction of parsley seed. Results: Non-cumulative concentrations of extract reduced the ileum contraction caused by KCl (60mM in a concentration-dependent form (p<0.001. There was a significant difference between the effect of extract in the presence of carbachol and extract concentration 0.2 mg/ml (p<0.01. There was no significant difference between the effect of extract in the presence of carbachol without stimulating tissue by KCl (60mM with extract concentration 0.2mg/ml (p<0.05. There was no significant difference between the effect of extract in the presence of scopolamine with extract concentration 0.2mg/ml(p<0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that the hydroalcholic of parsley seed extract has a relaxatory effect on rat’s ileum. Carbachol with KCl has a synergistic effect on smooth muscle contraction of the ileum wall and muscarinic receptors do not involve in the

  15. Extract Against Toxic Sodium The Protective Role of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins Nitrites and Gamma Irradiation Induced Histological Changes in Intestine and Urinary Bladder of Male Albino Rats

    Abd El- Azeem, M.G.; El-Nashar, D.E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (a grape seed extract) possess a broad spectrum of biological activities. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of gamma radiation exposure and toxic sodium nitrites induced oxidative stress on the intestine and urinary bladder histologically and also to evaluate the possible protective role of proanthocyanidins. Seventy adult male albino rats, each weighing 95-105 g were used and divided into 7 groups as follows: The first group represents the control group. The second experimental group were exposed to 7 Gy gamma-rays as a single dose and sacrificed on the 7th day. The third experimental group received by a stomach tube daily 50 mg/kg b.wt of sodium nitrite for 4 weeks. The fourth experimental group received proanthocyanidins, Grape seed extracts (antioxidant) (100 mg/kg) body wt.) daily for seven days before irradiation and the continued for 14 days post irradiation. The fifth group of animals received grape seed extract after being exposed to gamma radiation for two weeks, while the sixth experimental group received the same antioxidant for seven days before and after received sodium nitrite (50 mg/kg) daily for 4 weeks. Finally, the seventh experimental groups was treated with the same antioxidant in same dose and time after received sodium nitrite for 4 weeks. The animals were then sacrificed on the end of each experimental duration. The results revealed that both gamma-radiation and sodium nitrite induced different histological changes in the intestine and urinary bladder of irradiated and sodium nitrite received animals. The effect of gamma radiation exposure showed marked degeneration of intestinal villi, vaculation in the lining epithelium cells and karyolytic nuclei. In addition, using sodium nitrite lead to necrosis of intestinal glandular cells. The effect of gamma radiation on urinary bladder was presented by, hyperplasia and vaculation of mucosal epithelium, congestion of blood capillaries. Rats from nitrite

  16. Male gametogenesis without centrioles.

    Riparbelli, Maria Giovanna; Callaini, Giuliano

    2011-01-15

    The orientation of the mitotic spindle plays a central role in specifying stem cell-renewal by enabling interaction of the daughter cells with external cues: the daughter cell closest to the hub region is instructed to self-renew, whereas the distal one starts to differentiate. Here, we have analyzed male gametogenesis in DSas-4 Drosophila mutants and we have reported that spindle alignment and asymmetric divisions are properly executed in male germline stem cells that lack centrioles. Spermatogonial divisions also correctly proceed in the absence of centrioles, giving rise to cysts of 16 primary spermatocytes. By contrast, abnormal meiotic spindles assemble in primary spermatocytes. These results point to different requirements for centrioles during male gametogenesis of Drosophila. Spindle formation during germ cell mitosis may be successfully supported by an acentrosomal pathway that is inadequate to warrant the proper execution of meiosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Modeling Developmental Changes in Functional Capacities and Soccer-Specific Skills in Male Players Aged 11-17 Years

    Valente-dos-Santos, Joao; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J.; Simoes, Filipe; Figueiredo, Antonio J.; Leite, Neiva; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Malina, Robert M.; Sherar, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the contributions of age. growth, skeletal maturation, playing position and training to longitudinal changes in functional and skill performance in male youth soccer. Players were annually followed over 5 years (n = 83, 4.4 measurements per player). Composite scores for

  18. Towards a Definition of Role-related Concepts for Business Modeling

    Meertens, Lucas Onno; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; Nieuwenhuis, Lambertus Johannes Maria

    2010-01-01

    Abstract—While several role-related concepts play an important role in business modeling, their definitions, relations, and use differ greatly between languages, papers, and reports. Due to this, the knowledge captured by models is not transferred correctly, and models are incomparable. In this

  19. Dissolving decision making? : Models and their roles in decision-making processes and policy at large

    Zeiss, Ragna; van Egmond, S.

    2014-01-01

    This article studies the roles three science-based models play in Dutch policy and decision making processes. Key is the interaction between model construction and environment. Their political and scientific environments form contexts that shape the roles of models in policy decision making.

  20. The role of protein in the sexual behaviour of males of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae: mating success, copula duration and number of copulations

    Iara Sordi Joachim-Bravo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigated the influence of protein ingestion during the early adult phase on the sexual behavior of males of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824. The following parameters were evaluated: mating success (ability to be chosen by females, number of copulations, and copula duration. Experiments were carried out using a fifteen-year old laboratory lineage with the occasional introduction of wild flies. Two groups of adult males fed a high-protein diet during their larval phase were given either a high-protein diet (based on Brewer's yeast, concentration = 6.5 g/100 ml or a no-protein diet. Both groups of males were exposed to females fed either a high-protein diet or a no-protein diet and were subsequently evaluated for the parameters listed above. All experiments were conducted at 25ºC, 70% R.H. and with a photoperiod of L12:D12. The number of copulations was the only parameter affected by adult diet. Males fed a high-protein diet and exposed to females fed a no-protein diet had a greater number of copulations compared with males fed a no-protein diet.

  1. Tobacco use among adolescent students and the influence of role models

    Sharma Rahul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Seventy per cent of premature deaths among adults are due to behavioral patterns that emerge in adolescence, including smoking. Objective: The objective was to study the prevalence of tobacco use among adolescent students in South Delhi and its epidemiological correlates. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Setting: Three schools and two colleges of South Delhi were chosen. There were 550 adolescent students aged 14-19. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done using proportions, the chi-square test, and multivariate logistic regression. Results: A total of 88 (16.0% students reported having ever tried cigarette or bidi smoking. The prevalence of current smoking was 7.1%. Exactly 10% (55 of the students reported having ever used smokeless forms of tobacco. The prevalence of tobacco use overall was found to be 20.9%, and was significantly higher (P=0.016 among the males than the females. Tobacco use was found to be significantly associated with having seen a brother/sister smoke (OR 5.15, best friend smoke (OR 2.92, and belonging to a nuclear family (OR 1.96. Conclusions: Tobacco use is still an important risk behavior among adolescent students. This study found a strong association of tobacco use by the adolescents with their having seen various role models ever smoking.

  2. Role of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmitters in behavioral alterations observed in rodent model of hepatic encephalopathy.

    Dhanda, Saurabh; Sandhir, Rajat

    2015-06-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the role of biogenic amines in behavioral alterations observed in rat model of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) following bile duct ligation (BDL). Male Wistar rats subjected to BDL developed biliary fibrosis after four weeks which was supported by altered liver function tests, increased ammonia levels and histological staining (Sirius red). Animals were assessed for their behavioral performance in terms of cognitive, anxiety and motor functions. The levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), epinephrine and norepinephrine (NE) were estimated in different regions of brain viz. cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum using HPLC along with activity of monoamine oxidase (MAO). Cognitive assessment of BDL rats revealed a progressive decline in learning, memory formation, retrieval, exploration of novel environment and spontaneous locomotor activity along with decrease in 5-HT and NE levels. This was accompanied by an increase in MAO activity. Motor functions of BDL rats were also altered which were evident from decrease in the time spent on the rotating rod and higher foot faults assessed using narrow beam walk task. A global decrease was observed in the DA content along with an increase in MAO activity. Histopathological studies using hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and cresyl violet exhibited marked neuronal degeneration, wherein neurons appeared more pyknotic, condensed and damaged. The results reveal that dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways are disturbed in chronic liver failure post-BDL which may be responsible for behavioral impairments observed in HE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of smartphone addiction in gambling passion and schoolwork engagement: a Dualistic Model of Passion approach

    Ibeawuchi K. Enwereuzor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are growing concerns that seem to suggest that students no longer engage in school-related activities as they ought to. Recent observation has revealed that students now spend excessive time participating in Internet gambling with their smartphone during school period. This trend could have far-reaching consequences on their schoolwork engagement and by extension, academic performance. Drawing on the Dualistic Model of Passion, this study therefore, examined the mediatory role of smartphone addiction in the gambling passion—schoolwork engagement relation. A cross-sectional design was adopted. Male undergraduates (N = 278 of a large public university in Nigeria who engage in Internet gambling participated in the study. They completed self-report measures of gambling passion, smartphone addiction, and schoolwork engagement. Results showed that harmonious gambling passion was not related to smartphone addiction whereas it was positively related to schoolwork engagement. Obsessive gambling passion had positive and negative relations with smartphone addiction and schoolwork engagement, respectively. Smartphone addiction was negatively related to schoolwork engagement and mediated only the obsessive gambling passion—schoolwork engagement relation but not that between harmonious gambling passion and schoolwork engagement. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  4. Role of smartphone addiction in gambling passion and schoolwork engagement: a Dualistic Model of Passion approach.

    Enwereuzor, Ibeawuchi K; Ugwu, Leonard I; Ugwu, Dorothy I

    There are growing concerns that seem to suggest that students no longer engage in school-related activities as they ought to. Recent observation has revealed that students now spend excessive time participating in Internet gambling with their smartphone during school period. This trend could have far-reaching consequences on their schoolwork engagement and by extension, academic performance. Drawing on the Dualistic Model of Passion, this study therefore, examined the mediatory role of smartphone addiction in the gambling passion-schoolwork engagement relation. A cross-sectional design was adopted. Male undergraduates ( N  = 278) of a large public university in Nigeria who engage in Internet gambling participated in the study. They completed self-report measures of gambling passion, smartphone addiction, and schoolwork engagement. Results showed that harmonious gambling passion was not related to smartphone addiction whereas it was positively related to schoolwork engagement. Obsessive gambling passion had positive and negative relations with smartphone addiction and schoolwork engagement, respectively. Smartphone addiction was negatively related to schoolwork engagement and mediated only the obsessive gambling passion-schoolwork engagement relation but not that between harmonious gambling passion and schoolwork engagement. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  5. A novel psychophysiological model of the effect of alcohol use on academic performance of male medical students of Belarusian State Medical University

    Menizibeya O. Welcome; Elena V. Pereverzeva; Vladimir A. Pereverzev

    2010-01-01

    Background: The blood glucose concentration might determine the degree of academic performance. Decrease in the glucose concentration leads to a lowering of cognitive functions. Objectives: To produce a model of students’ alcohol use based on glucose homeostasis control and cognitive functions.Methods: The study involved 13 male volunteers (8 moderate alcohol users and 5 non-alcohol users) – medical students and took 6.5 hours on fasting. Selection criteria were based on a screening survey co...

  6. The role of sleepiness on arterial stiffness improvement after CPAP therapy in males with obstructive sleep apnea: a prospective cohort study.

    Mineiro, Maria Alexandra; Silva, Pedro Marques da; Alves, Marta; Papoila, Ana Luísa; Marques Gomes, Maria João; Cardoso, João

    2017-12-08

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. This study aim to assess differences in changes in arterial stiffness of two groups of patients, defined as having daytime sleepiness or not, after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. A selected cohort of consecutive male patients, under 65 years old, with moderate to severe OSA and without great number of comorbidities was studied. The diagnosis was confirmed by home respiratory poligraphy. Sleepiness was considered with an Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) > 10. An ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) measurements were performed, before and after four months under CPAP. Compliant patients, sleepy and non-sleepy, were compared using linear mixed effects regression models. A further stratified analysis was performed with non-sleepy patients. Thirty-four patients were recruited, with mean age 55.2 (7.9) years, 38.2% were sleepy, 79.4% with hypertension, 61.8% with metabolic syndrome and 82.4% with dyslipidaemia. In univariable analysis, cf-PWV was strongly related to systolic BP parameters and age, but also to antihypertensive drugs (p = 0.030), metabolic syndrome (p = 0.025) and daytime sleepiness (p = 0.004). Sleepy patients had a more severe OSA, with AHI 44.8 (19.0) vs 29.7 (15.7) events/h (p = 0.018), but sleep study parameters were not associated with cf-PWV values. On multivariable regression, a significant interaction between time (CPAP) and sleepiness (p = 0.033) was found. There was a weak evidence of a cf-PWV reduction after CPAP treatment (p = 0.086), but the effects of treatment differed significantly between groups, with no changes in non-sleepy patients, while in sleepy patients a significant decrease was observed (p = 0.012). Evaluating non-sleepy patients group under CPAP therapy, results showed that both higher pulse pressure (p = 0.001) and lower LDL-cholesterol levels (p

  7. Study efficacy of new model of derivative clonazepam on hypnotic, sedative, blood hematology and evaluation reproductive function in male mice

    Adnan M. Jassim; Abbas G. Hamad; Mohammed Abed; Raad Saad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study includes the investigation of hypnotic and sedative effect of new generation agent synthesis from parent clonazepam and evaluates adverse effect on the reproductive system and an attempt to improve hypnotic effect and lower toxicity. Methods Sixteen male mice were randomly divided into four groups. The first day of treatment with single dose of 50 mg/kg intraperitoneal (IP) hypnotic effect then analgesic state was recorded in the 4th day of first week only after given...

  8. Role Models in Science - An Effective Dissemination Strategy

    Chatzichristou, Eleni; Daglis, Ioannis A.; Anastasiadis, Anastasios; Balasis, George; Bourdarie, Sebastien; Horne, Richard B.; Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Mann, Ian R.; Santolik, Ondrej; Turner, Drew L.; Giannakis, Omiros; Ropokis, George

    2014-05-01

    successful career path to both act as role model and to show the challenges that young scientists are facing today. The work leading to this paper has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE-2011-1) under grant agreement no. 284520 for the MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Energization and Loss) collaborative research project. This paper reflects only the authors' views and the Union is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.

  9. Tribulus terrestris extracts alleviate muscle damage and promote anaerobic performance of trained male boxers and its mechanisms: Roles of androgen, IGF-1, and IGF binding protein-3

    Yiming Ma

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Taking 1250 mg capsules containing TT extracts did not change muscle mass and plasma levels of testosterone, DHT, and IGF-1 but significantly alleviated muscle damage and promoted anaerobic performance of trained male boxers, which may be related to the decrease of plasma IGFBP-3 rather than androgen in plasma.

  10. "Who Do You Want Me to Be?" An Exploration of Female and Male Perceptions of "Imposed" Gender Roles in the Early Years

    Brownhill, Simon; Oates, Ruby

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an exploratory discussion surrounding the views and experiences of women and men who work/train in the early years (0-8 years) by bringing together select findings from two independent doctoral research projects. In an effort to weave together the voices of females and males working/training in the early years sector, this…

  11. The Role of Music in the Education of Young Male Workers in Nineteenth-Century Greece: The Case of Charity Institutions

    Barbaki, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents music teaching in nineteenth-century Greece orphanages and schools of destitute children, which were the main schools for vocational training of the working class in that period. Five representative institutions were selected. Music education for young male workers in nineteenth-century Greece was both in accord with and…

  12. Characterization of pollen-expressed bZIP protein interactions and the role of ATbZIP18 in the male gametophyte

    Gibalová, A.; Steinbachová, L.; Hafidh, S.; Bláhová, Veronika; Gadiou, Z.; Michailidis, Ch.; Müller, K.; Pleskot, Roman; Dupľáková, N.; Honys, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-17 ISSN 2194-7953 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : bZIP * transcription factors * regulatory network * male gametophyte * Y2H * pollen development Subject RIV: ED - Physiology; CE - Biochemistry (UOCHB-X) OBOR OECD: Physiology (including cytology); Biochemistry and molecular biology (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 2.629, year: 2016

  13. Predicting Intentions to Read Suicide Awareness Stories. The Role of Depression and Characteristics of the Suicidal Role Model.

    Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Arendt, Florian; Till, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    Research on factors that influence the intention to read suicide awareness material is lacking. To identify how social and state similarities between the featured protagonist of a suicide awareness story and the audience impact on the intent to read similar stories. Laboratory experiment with n = 104 students. Participants were randomly assigned to study groups. In the first group, the role model provided his personal story of crisis and was a student. In the second group, the content was identical but the model was socially dissimilar. The third group read about a topic unrelated to suicide. Depression, identification, and exposure intent were measured after the experiment. Conditional process analysis was carried out. In the group featuring a once-suicidal role model with high social similarity, depression in the audience increased the intention to read similar material in the future via identification with the role model; 82% of individuals wanted to read similar material in the future, but only 50% wanted to do so in the group featuring a dissimilar person. Exposure intention increases via identification when role model and audience characteristics align regarding social traits and the experience of depression. These factors are relevant when developing campaigns targeting individuals with stories of recovery.

  14. Modelling the Role of Cognitive Metaphors in Joint Decision Making

    van Ments, L.; Thilakarathne, D.J.; Treur, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a social agent model is presented for the influence of cognitive metaphors on joint decision making processes. The social agent model is based on mechanisms known from cognitive and social neuroscience and cognitive metaphor theory. The model was illustrated in particular for two

  15. I can do that: the impact of implicit theories on leadership role model effectiveness.

    Hoyt, Crystal L; Burnette, Jeni L; Innella, Audrey N

    2012-02-01

    This research investigates the role of implicit theories in influencing the effectiveness of successful role models in the leadership domain. Across two studies, the authors test the prediction that incremental theorists ("leaders are made") compared to entity theorists ("leaders are born") will respond more positively to being presented with a role model before undertaking a leadership task. In Study 1, measuring people's naturally occurring implicit theories of leadership, the authors showed that after being primed with a role model, incremental theorists reported greater leadership confidence and less anxious-depressed affect than entity theorists following the leadership task. In Study 2, the authors demonstrated the causal role of implicit theories by manipulating participants' theory of leadership ability. They replicated the findings from Study 1 and demonstrated that identification with the role model mediated the relationship between implicit theories and both confidence and affect. In addition, incremental theorists outperformed entity theorists on the leadership task.

  16. Economic Models of OPEC Behaviour and the Role of Saudi Arabia

    Nourah A. Al-Yousef

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies of OPEC have suggested ways of explaining the behaviour of OPEC as a group. The specific role of Saudi Arabia in the market and within OPEC has received attention from some authors. This study analyses the role of Saudi Arabia in these models and tries to find how much they explain the role of Saudi Arabia in the period from 1973 to the present. Models of OPEC behaviour are divided into four sets. The first set of models does not address the role of Saudi Arabia; they include...

  17. Application of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling to explore the role of kidney transporters in renal reabsorption of perfluorooctanoic acid in the rat

    Worley, Rachel Rogers; Fisher, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Renal elimination and the resulting clearance of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from the serum exhibit pronounced sex differences in the adult rat. The literature suggests that this is largely due to hormonally regulated expression of organic anion transporters (OATs) on the apical and basolateral membranes of the proximal tubule cells that facilitate excretion and reabsorption of PFOA from the filtrate into the blood. Previously developed PBPK models of PFOA exposure in the rat have not been parameterized to specifically account for transporter-mediated renal elimination. We developed a PBPK model for PFOA in male and female rats to explore the role of Oat1, Oat3, and Oatp1a1 in sex-specific renal reabsorption and excretion of PFOA. Descriptions of the kinetic behavior of these transporters were extrapolated from in vitro studies and the model was used to simulate time-course serum, liver, and urine data for intravenous (IV) and oral exposures in both sexes. Model predicted concentrations of PFOA in the liver, serum, and urine showed good agreement with experimental data for both male and female rats indicating that in vitro derived physiological descriptions of transporter-mediated renal reabsorption can successfully predict sex-dependent excretion of PFOA in the rat. This study supports the hypothesis that sex-specific serum half-lives for PFOA are largely driven by expression of transporters in the kidney and contribute to the development of PBPK modeling as a tool for evaluating the role of transporters in renal clearance. - Highlights: • The PBPK model for PFOA in the rat explores the role of OATs in sex-specific clearance. • Descriptions of OAT kinetics were extrapolated from in vitro studies. • Model predictions showed good fit with experimental data for male and female rats.

  18. Application of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling to explore the role of kidney transporters in renal reabsorption of perfluorooctanoic acid in the rat

    Worley, Rachel Rogers, E-mail: idz7@cdc.gov [Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Community Health Investigations, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Interdisciplinary Toxicology Program, University of Georgia, 341 Pharmacy South, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Fisher, Jeffrey [Interdisciplinary Toxicology Program, University of Georgia, 341 Pharmacy South, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Food and Drug Administration, National Center for Toxicological Research, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    ABSTRACT: Renal elimination and the resulting clearance of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from the serum exhibit pronounced sex differences in the adult rat. The literature suggests that this is largely due to hormonally regulated expression of organic anion transporters (OATs) on the apical and basolateral membranes of the proximal tubule cells that facilitate excretion and reabsorption of PFOA from the filtrate into the blood. Previously developed PBPK models of PFOA exposure in the rat have not been parameterized to specifically account for transporter-mediated renal elimination. We developed a PBPK model for PFOA in male and female rats to explore the role of Oat1, Oat3, and Oatp1a1 in sex-specific renal reabsorption and excretion of PFOA. Descriptions of the kinetic behavior of these transporters were extrapolated from in vitro studies and the model was used to simulate time-course serum, liver, and urine data for intravenous (IV) and oral exposures in both sexes. Model predicted concentrations of PFOA in the liver, serum, and urine showed good agreement with experimental data for both male and female rats indicating that in vitro derived physiological descriptions of transporter-mediated renal reabsorption can successfully predict sex-dependent excretion of PFOA in the rat. This study supports the hypothesis that sex-specific serum half-lives for PFOA are largely driven by expression of transporters in the kidney and contribute to the development of PBPK modeling as a tool for evaluating the role of transporters in renal clearance. - Highlights: • The PBPK model for PFOA in the rat explores the role of OATs in sex-specific clearance. • Descriptions of OAT kinetics were extrapolated from in vitro studies. • Model predictions showed good fit with experimental data for male and female rats.

  19. Premarital Contraceptives Usage among Male and Female Adolescents.

    Hornick, Joesph P.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Variables important in predicting female contraception usage were found to be those which involved dyadic commitment, conditions of love, self-esteem, and father's occupation (social class). The best predictors of male contraception usage involved experience in dating and internalization of role models via mother's and father's permissiveness.…

  20. Leadership Behavior of Male and Female Managers, 1984-2002

    Robinson, Jill L.; Lipman-Blumen, Jean

    2003-01-01

    Using data collected from 1984 to 2002 from 2,371 male and 1,768 female middle and senior managers in the United States, the authors of this article demonstrate not only that traditional gender role stereotypes do "not" hold up, but also that counterstereotypical patterns exist. Using the Connective Leadership Model, based on nine sets…