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Sample records for male rats treated

  1. Mechanism of antifertility in male rats treated with 3-monochloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwack, Seung Jun; Kim, Soon Sun; Choi, Yo Woo; Rhee, Gyu Seek; Da Lee, Rhee; Seok, Ji Hyun; Chae, Soo Yeong; Won, Yong Hyuck; Lim, Kwon Jo; Choi, Kwang Sik; Park, Kui Lea; Lee, Byung Mu

    2004-12-01

    3-Monochloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) is a food contaminant that is often found in foods containing acid-hydrolyzed (AH) protein, like seasonings and savory food products. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 3-MCPD on male fertility, sperm, and hormonal levels and its antifertility mechanism. In vivo male fertility testing was performed to observe the adverse effects of 3-MCPD on the functioning of the male reproductive system and pregnancy outcome. 3-MCPD (0.01-5 mg/kg) was administered daily by gavage to Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rats for 4 wk. At the end of the pretreatment period, male rats were mated overnight with untreated females. Males successfully inducing pregnancy were sacrificed to assess sperm parameters, reproductive organ histopathology, and spermatogenesis. The resulting pregnant females were sacrificed on 20 of gestation to evaluate pregnancy outcome. The paternal administration of 3-MCPD (5 mg/kg) was found to result in adverse effects on male fertility and pregnancy outcome without inducing remarkable histopathological changes in testes and epididymides. Additionally, 3-MCPD (5 mg/kg) significantly reduced sperm motility, copulation, fertility indices, and the number of live fetuses showed steep dose-response curves. 3-MCPD did not affect spermatogenesis or induce hormonal changes in the blood and testes of male rats. An in vitro hormone assay using primary isolated Leydig cells showed no significant changes in related hormone levels after 3-MCPD treatment. To evaluate the effects of 3-MCPD on apoptotic induction and H+-ATPase levels in the testis and epididymis, 10 or 100 mg/kg of 3-MCPD was administered by gavage to male rats and testes and epididymides were examined at 3, 6, 12, and 24 h later. Apoptosis was not detected in the testes of animals treated with 100 mg/kg 3-MCPD. However, the level of H+-ATPase in the cauda epididymis was reduced by 3-MCPD treatment. These results indicate that 3-MCPD induced a

  2. Progeny of male rats treated with methadone: physiological and behavioural effects.

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    Joffe, J M; Peruzović, M; Milković, K

    1990-04-01

    Male rats were injected with methadone HCl (METH) at 5 mg/kg s.c. for 4 days prior to mating with drug-free females. Offspring resulting from these matings were compared with offspring of drug-free males. The progeny of METH-treated males gained less weight after weaning and had lighter thymuses as adults (but not in infancy). Gonadal weights did not differ in infancy or adulthood, and adrenal weights were heavier in female offspring in adulthood. In adulthood METH offspring were significantly different from controls on all behavioural tests used (open field activity, activity cage activity, passive avoidance latencies, shuttle box avoidances, and rotarod latencies), with the differences frequently affected by test order, days of testing, or sex of offspring. The effects in progeny of METH-treated males in the absence of differences in litter size or neonatal mortality indicate that paternal drug ingestion prior to mating can produce physiological and behavioural changes in progeny that are not dependent on detectable effects on early viability or growth.

  3. treated rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... nucleus, bizarre segmentation; (I) shows hypersegmentation, bizarre segmentation of neutrophils in the shape of ring nucleus with polychromatophilic RBCs. 1998; Muller and Tobin, 1980). The current study shows that rats administered C. edulis hydro-ethanol extract, orally for 28 days, developed anemia, ...

  4. The Histological Effects of L-arginine on Ventricular Myocardium in Iron Treated Male Rats

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    M Sofiabadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Iron overload is detrimental for the body and can create damage to different body tissues, such as myocardium by producing oxidative stress. Therefore, the antioxidant factors can neutralize iron induced damages. According to available reports, L-arginine as a precursor nitric oxide production has antioxidant effects. This study was carried out to evaluate the histological effects of iron overload on ventricular muscle and preventive role of L-arginine in male rats.
    Methods: In this experiment, 40 male rats with weight range of 300-250g were divided at random into five equal groups including:1- Control, 2- Iron (10mg/kg, ip, 3- Iron(10mg/kg, ip+L-arginine (1mg/ml, po, 4- Iron (50mg/kg, ip and 5- Iron (50mg/kg,ip+L-arginine(1mg/ml,po. After treatment (6 weeks, the animals were anesthetized and the samples of left apical ventricular myocardium were taken out and morphological studies were done following fixation with 10% formalin and H&E staining. Microscopic parameters under study were cell swelling, vessel dilatation and hypercongestion, cell necrosis and tissue deformity. The type and severity of damage to the tissue were also noted. Data were analyzed using chi-square statistical procedure, and Pvalue≤0.05 were considered to be significant. 
    Results: The data showed moderate changes in the ventricular myocardium of group 2 that was significant in comparison to the control group (P<0.05. The ventricular myocardium of group 3 showed low changes and wasn't significant in comparison to control group (P=0.84. The ventricular myocardium of the group 4 showed severe changes in comparison to the control group (P<0.01. The low change showed in the ventricular myocardium of group 5 that wasn't significant in comparison to the control group.

    Conclusion: This study showed

  5. Histophatologic changes of lung in asthmatic male rats treated with hydro-alcoholic extract of Plantago major and theophylline

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    Farah Farokhi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Plantago major (P. major is one of the medicinal crops in the world which has therapeutic properties for treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Theophylline is commonly used for the treatment of respiratory diseases. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of P. major on lung in asthmatic male rats. Materials and Methods: 32 male adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: The control group (C received normal saline; Asthma (A group received a normal diet; Asthma group treated with Theophylline (200 mg/kg b.w. (T; Asthma group which received p.major (100 mg/kg b.w. (P. Asthma was induced by citric acid, 0.1 mg in form of spraying. The injection of P.major extract and theophylline was administered intraperitoneally for four weeks. At the end of the treatment, all of the rats were sacrificed and lungs were taken out, fixed, and stained with H&E, toluidine blue, and PAS, then histological studies were followed with light microscope. Results: Results showed that, in asthmatic group, the mean number of mast cells was significantly increased (p<0.05. Thickness of alveolar epithelium and accumulation of glycoprotein in airways was increased. Moreover, in some of alveolar sac hemorrhaging was observed. Administration of p.major extract in asthmatic rats restored these changes towards normal group.Conclusion: The present study revealed that P. major compared with theophylline, has a protective effect on lung in asthmatic rats.

  6. Histophatologic changes of lung in asthmatic male rats treated with hydro-alcoholic extract of plantago major and theophylline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Farokhi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Plantago major (P. major is one of the medicinal crops in the world which has therapeutic properties for treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Theophylline is commonly used for the treatment of respiratory diseases. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of P. majoron lung in asthmatic male rats. Materials and Methods: 32 male adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: The control group (C received normal saline; Asthma (A group received a normal diet; Asthma group treated with Theophylline (200 mg/kg b.w. (T; Asthma group which received p.major (100 mg/kg b.w. (P. Asthma was induced by citric acid, 0.1 mg in form of spraying. The injection of P.major extract and theophylline was administered intraperitoneally for four weeks. At the end of the treatment, all of the rats were sacrificed and lungs were taken out, fixed, and stained with H&E, toluidine blue, and PAS, then histological studies were followed with light microscope. Results: Results showed that, in asthmatic group, the mean number of mast cells was significantly increased (p

  7. NMR-based plasma metabolomic discrimination for male fertility assessment of rats treated with Eurycoma longifolia extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Forough; Ibrahim, Baharudin; Teh, Chin-Hoe; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Chan, Kit-Lam

    2017-06-01

    Male infertility is one of the leading causes of infertility which affects many couples worldwide. Semen analysis is a routine examination of male fertility status which is usually performed on semen samples obtained through masturbation that may be inconvenient to patients. Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali, TA), native to Malaysia, has been traditionally used as a remedy to boost male fertility. In our recent studies in rats, upon the administration of high-quassinoid content extracts of TA including TA water (TAW), quassinoid-rich TA (TAQR) extracts, and a low-quassinoid content extract including quassinoid-poor TA (TAQP) extract, sperm count (SC) increased in TAW- and TAQR-treated rats when compared to the TAQP-treated and control groups. Consequently, the rats were divided into normal- (control and TAQP-treated) and high- (TAW- and TAQR-treated) SC groups [Ebrahimi et al. 2016]. Post-treatment rat plasma was collected. An optimized plasma sample preparation method was developed with respect to the internal standards sodium 3- (trimethylsilyl) propionate- 2,2,3,3- d4 (TSP) and deuterated 4-dimethyl-4-silapentane-1-ammonium trifluoroacetate (DSA). Carr-Purcell-Meibum-Gill (CPMG) experiments combined with orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was employed to evaluate plasma metabolomic changes in normal- and high-SC rats. The potential biomarkers associated with SC increase were investigated to assess fertility by capturing the metabolomic profile of plasma. DSA was selected as the optimized internal standard for plasma analysis due to its significantly smaller half-height line width (W h/2 ) compared to that of TSP. The validated OPLS-DA model clearly discriminated the CPMG profiles in regard to the SC level. Plasma profiles of the high-SC group contained higher levels of alanine, lactate, and histidine, while ethanol concentration was significantly higher in the normal-SC group. This approach might be a new alternative applicable to

  8. Sperm quality of male rats treated with aqueous extract of Enantia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of aqueous extract of Enantia chlorantha were studied on sperm motility, viability and counts in adult albino rats. Oral administration of 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of the extract daily for a week caused dose-dependent changes in the sperm motility and viability without a significant change in the sperm counts.

  9. Protective effect of pumpkin seed extract on sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and epididymal histology in adult male rats treated with cyclophosphamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei, S; Nikzad, H; Taghizadeh, M; Tameh, A A; Taherian, A; Moravveji, A

    2014-10-01

    Cancer treatment with cyclophosphamide (CP) may result in reproductive toxicity as one of its side effects. The pumpkin seed is a rich natural source of antioxidant. We have assessed the possible protective efficacy of pumpkin seed extract on sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and epididymal histology of CP-treated rats. Male adult Wistar rats were categorised into four groups. Group 1 served as control and received intraperitoneal (IP) injection of isotonic saline solution. Group 2 rats were treated with CP by IP injection in a single dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, only once. Group 3 and 4 received CP plus 300 and 600 mg/kg pumpkin seed extract respectively. Six weeks after treatment, sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and histopathological changes were examined. Results showed that, sperm characteristics in CP-treated rats were significantly decreased. Biochemical analysis results showed that the co-administration of 300 mg pumpkin seed extract could increase the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level significantly. In CP-treated rats, histopathological changes such as vacuolisation, disorganisation and separation of epididymal epithelium were observed as well. Interestingly, pumpkin seed extract could improve the above-mentioned parameters remarkably in CP-treated rats. Our findings indicated that pumpkin seed extract might be used as protective agent against CP-induced reproductive toxicity. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Histomorphological changes in induced benign prostatic hyperplasia with exogenous testosterone and estradiol in adult male rats treated with aqueous ethanol extract of Secamone afzelii

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    Godwin Mbaka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Secamone afzelii (S. afzelii used locally to manage benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH was used to treat exogenously induced BPH in adult male Wister rats. Male rats weighing 200 ± 10 g kg−1 had exogenous administration of testosterone and estradiol in staggered doses (three times weekly for three weeks. The induced animals were in five groups (6 rats per group. Groups 1 and 2 received extract at 200 and 400 mg kg−1 body weight (bwt by gavages for thirty days; group 3, finasteride (0.1 mg kg−1; group 4, untreated for thirty days; group 5, negative control, which was sacrificed twenty-one days after induction. Group 6 received extract (400 mg kg−1 and steroid hormones simultaneously; group 7, normal control. The extract caused marked decrease in prostate weight of BPH induced rats with the photomicrograph of the prostate showing extensive shrinkage of glandular tissue whereas glandular hyperplasia occurred in the negative control. Prostate specific antigen (PSA level significantly (p < 0.05 decreased in the treated groups compared to negative control. Treatment with the extract/finasteride caused significant decrease in testosterone to a level comparable to normal. The BPH induced rats treated with S. afzelii/finasteride recorded marked increase in the levels of antioxidant enzymes compared to the negative control. S. afzelii effectively ameliorated prostatic hyperplasia exogenously induced by causing extensive shrinkage of glands and stroma. It also exhibited antioxidant properties and showed to be a good prophylaxis.

  11. Pituitary and brain D2 receptor density measured in vitro and in vivo in EEDQ treated male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekman, A.; Eriksson, E.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of the alkylating compound N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ) on dopamine D2 receptor density in rat pituitary and brain was measured using in vitro and in vivo radioligand binding techniques. In the in vitro radioligand binding experiments EEDQ was found to reduce the density (B max ) of [ 3 H]-spiperone binding sites in the striatum by 86% while in the pituitary the corresponding decrease was only 37%. The affinity (K D ) of the remaining striatal and pituitary D2 receptors was not different in EEDQ treated animals as compared to controls. When D2 receptor density was measured in vivo the effect of EEDQ was less pronounced. Thus, in rats given EEDQ the specific binding of either of the two D2 ligands [ 3 H]-raclopride or [ 3 H]-spiperone in striatum and in the limbic forebrain was reduced by 45-62%; moreover, no significant decrease in pituitary D2 receptor density was observed. The data are discussed in relation to the finding that the same dose of EEDQ that failed to influence pituitary D2 receptor density as measured in vivo effectively antagonizes the prolactin decreasing effect of the partial D2 agonist (-)-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-n-propyl-piperidine [(-)-3-PPP

  12. Protective Effects of Long Term Administration of Zinc on Bone Metabolism Parameters in Male Wistar Rats Treated with Cadmium

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    Shiva Najafi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Violent poisoning by cadmium in human is created through drinks or meals which have packed in the metallic tins with cadmium plating. The symptoms of variation in the mineral metabolism of bones are observed and different conditions maybe appeared. The toxic (poisonous effect due to cadmium can be neutralized by intervening zinc. This study has been designed to investigate the protective effects of zinc for reducing the poisonous effects due to cadmium on the metabolism in the parameters related to the bone in rat. Methods In this experimental study, 48 male rats of wistar species were distributed in eight experimental groups and tested in the investigative lab of Falavarjan university. These groups were received 0.5 cc physiological serum, 0.5 mg/kg Zinc, 0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg Cadmium respectively and some groups were included in those were taken all there cadmium and zinc concentrations synchronously. Blood samples were taken in a 60 days period and those factors related to the bone metabolism were measured. The data were analyzed by 2-ANOVA Ways, complementary tests through software SPSS 16. Results The results showed that 0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg doses cadmium chloride caused to increase alkaline Phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and decrease albumin as compared with control group. Also, synchronous usage of all three cadmium chloride concentrations with zinc cause to decrease alkaline phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and increase albumin concentration. In a word, the other bone parameters have been significant in different cadmium and zinc doses (P < 0.05. Conclusions Findings showed that zinc can play a protective role on the metabolism parameters related to bone against to poisoning caused by cadmium.

  13. The in vivo antioxidant effect of vitamin C on hemogram in Paraquat treated male rats (rattus norvegicus

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    Benjamin Nnamdi Okolonkwo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat (PQ is one of the most used herbicide globally; applied around trees in orchards and between crop rows to control broad-leaved and grassy weeds. Its oxidation results in the formation of superoxides which causes damage to cellular components. In this study, we determined the antioxidant effect vitamin C has on hemograms [hemoglobin (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV and total white blood cells count] of rats under these toxic insults. The animals grouped (A-D, comprising subgroups without vitamin C (A1, B1, C1, D1 and subgroups on vitamin C (A2, B2, C2, D2, received different sub-lethal doses of PQ administered intraperitoneally monthly to the animals over a period of three months. The Hb values obtained were significantly reduced (P≤0.05 at month 1 and (P≤0.001 at months 2 and 3. These changes became more pronounced with increased dose and time. Vitamin C treated subgroups (B2, C2 and D2 had better Hb values than those without it (B1, C1 and D1 but the values were still significantly low when compared to the control subgroups (A1 and A2. This same trend was observed in the PCV results obtained. The Control subgroups showed that vitamin C treated subgroup (A2 had a more improved hemogram values than subgroup on water only (A1, but they were all higher than that of the test subgroups. These PQ induced anaemia were ameliorated by the subsequent administration of vitamin C, and continuous treatment with vitamin C restored the health status of the animals so treated.

  14. Protective effect of combined pumpkin seed and ginger extracts on sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and epididymal histology in adult male rats treated with cyclophosphamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaie, Somaieh; Nikzad, Hossein; Mahabadi, Javad Amini; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Azami-Tameh, Abolfazl; Taherian, Aliakbar; Sajjadian, Seyyed Mohammad Sajjad; Kamani, Mehran

    2016-09-01

    Reproductive toxicity is one of the side effects of cyclophosphamide (CP) in cancer treatment. Pumpkin seeds and Zingiber officinale are natural sources of antioxidants. We investigated the possible protective effect of combined pumpkin seed and Zingiber officinale extracts on sperm characteristics, epididymal histology and biochemical parameters of CP-treated rats. Male adult Wistar rats were divided randomly into six groups. Group 1, as a control, received an isotonic saline solution injection intraperitoneally (IP). Group 2 were injected IP with a single dose of CP (100 mg/kg) once. Groups 3 and 4 received CP plus 300 and 600 mg/kg combined pumpkin seed and Zingiber officinale extract (50:50). Groups 5 and 6 received only 300 and 600 mg/kg combined pumpkin seed and Zingiber officinale extract. Six weeks after treatment, sperm characteristics, histopathological changes and biochemical parameters were assessed. In CP-treated rats, motile spermatozoa were decreased, and abnormal or dead spermatozoa increased significantly (P < 0.001) but administration of the mixed extract improved sperm parameters. Epididymal epithelium and fibromascular thickness were also improved in extract-treated rats compared to control or CP groups. Biochemical analysis showed that the administration of combined extracts could increase the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level significantly in groups 3, 4, 5 and 6. Interestingly, the mixed extract could decrease most of the side effects of CP such as vacuolization and separation of epididymal tissue. Our findings indicated that the combined extracts might be used as a protective agent against CP-induced reproductive toxicity.

  15. Transcriptomics analysis and hormonal changes of male and female neonatal rats treated chronically with a low dose of acrylamide in their drinking water

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    Reyna Cristina Collí-Dulá

    Full Text Available Acrylamide is known to produce follicular cell tumors of the thyroid in rats. RccHan Wistar rats were exposed in utero to a carcinogenic dose of acrylamide (3 mg/Kg bw/day from gestation day 6 to delivery and then through their drinking water to postnatal day 35. In order to identify potential mechanisms of carcinogenesis in the thyroid glands, we used a transcriptomics approach. Thyroid glands were collected from male pups at 10 PM and female pups at 10 AM or 10 PM in order to establish whether active exposure to acrylamide influenced gene expression patterns or pathways that could be related to carcinogenesis. While all animals exposed to acrylamide showed changes in expected target pathways related to carcinogenesis such as DNA repair, DNA replication, chromosome segregation, among others; animals that were sacrificed while actively drinking acrylamide-laced water during their active period at night showed increased changes in pathways related to oxidative stress, detoxification pathways, metabolism, and activation of checkpoint pathways, among others. In addition, thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4, were increased in acrylamide-treated rats sampled at night, but not in quiescent animals when compared to controls. The data clearly indicate that time of day for sample collection is critical to identifying molecular pathways that are altered by the exposures. These results suggest that carcinogenesis in the thyroids of acrylamide treated rats may ensue from several different mechanisms such as hormonal changes and oxidative stress and not only from direct genotoxicity, as has been assumed to date. Keywords: Acrylamide, RccHan Wistar, Transcriptomics, Thyroid

  16. Chronic high-dose creatine has opposing effects on depression-related gene expression and behavior in intact and sex hormone-treated gonadectomized male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Patricia J; DeBold, Joseph F; Rios, Maribel; Kanarek, Robin B

    2015-03-01

    Creatine is an antioxidant, neuromodulator and key regulator of energy metabolism shown to improve depressive symptoms in humans and animals, especially in females. To better understand the pharmacological effects of creatine, we examined its influence on depression-related hippocampal gene expression and behaviors in the presence and absence of sex steroids. Sham-operated and gonadectomized male and female rats were fed chow alone or chow blended with either 2% or 4% w/w creatine monohydrate for five weeks before forced swim, open field, and wire suspension tests, or seven weeks total. Before supplementation, males were chronically implanted with an empty or a testosterone-filled (T) capsule (10-mm surface release), and females were administered progesterone (P, 250 μg), estradiol benzoate (EB, 2.5 μg), EB+P, or sesame oil vehicle weekly. Relative to non-supplemented shams, all hippocampal plasticity-related mRNAs measured, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tyrosine kinase B, doublecortin, calretinin, and calbindin, were downregulated in sham males given 4% creatine, and BDNF, doublecortin, and calbindin mRNAs were downregulated in sham females given 4% creatine. In contrast, combined 4% creatine+T in castrates prevented downregulation of BDNF, doublecortin, and calretinin mRNAs. Similarly, combined 4% creatine+EB+P in ovariectomized females attenuated downregulation of BDNF and calbindin mRNA levels. Moderate antidepressant and anxiolytic-like behaviors were observed in EB+P-treated ovariectomized females fed creatine, with similar trends in T-treated castrates fed creatine. Altogether, these data show that chronic, high-dose creatine has opposing effects on neuroplasticity-related genes and depressive behavior in intact and gonadectomized male and female rats. The dose and schedule of creatine used negatively impacted hippocampal neuronal integrity in otherwise healthy brains, possibly through negative compensatory changes in energy

  17. Morphometric variables of offspring of Quassia amara treated male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive toxicological action of Q. amara is well documented but no information exists on its effect on prenatal programming. Methods: Adult male rats (180-200g, n=5) were treated daily (p.o) with Q. amara extract (100 mg/kg) for 6 weeks. A control group received distilled water. After 5 weeks of treatment, female rats ...

  18. The effects of nitric oxide-cGMP pathway stimulation on dopamine in the medial preoptic area and copulation in DHT-treated castrated male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Satoru M; Wersinger, Scott R; Hull, Elaine M

    2007-08-01

    Dopamine (DA) in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) provides important facilitative influence on male rat copulation. We have shown that the nitric oxide-cGMP (NO-cGMP) pathway modulates MPOA DA levels and copulation. We have also shown that systemic estradiol (E(2)) maintains neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) immunoreactivity in the MPOA of castrates, as well as relatively normal DA levels. This effect of E(2) on nNOS probably accounts for at least some of the previously demonstrated behavioral facilitation by intra-MPOA E(2) administration in castrates. Therefore, we hypothesized that stimulation of the MPOA NO-cGMP pathway in dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treated castrates should restore DA levels and copulatory behaviors. Reverse-dialysis of a NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), increased extracellular DA in the MPOA of DHT-treated castrates and restored the ability to copulate to ejaculation in half of the animals. A cGMP analog, 8-Br-cGMP, also increased extracellular DA, though not as robustly, but did not restore copulatory ability. The effectiveness of the NO donor in restoring copulation and MPOA DA levels is consistent with our hypothesis. However, the lack of behavioral effects of 8-Br-cGMP, despite its increase in MPOA DA, suggests that NO may have additional mediators in the MPOA in the regulation of copulation. Furthermore, the suboptimal copulation seen in the NO donor-treated animals suggests the importance of extra-MPOA systems in the regulation of copulation.

  19. Functional morphology of pituitary -thyroid and -adrenocortical axes in middle-aged male rats treated with Vitex agnus castus essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šošić-Jurjević, Branka; Ajdžanović, Vladimir; Filipović, Branko; Trifunović, Svetlana; Jarić, Ivana; Ristić, Nataša; Milošević, Verica

    2016-09-01

    We previously reported that Vitex agnus-castus L. essential oil (VACEO), when administered to middle-aged males, exerts a bone-protective effect, induces silencing of locomotor activities and decreases pituitary prolactin immunopositivity. To further assess the putative endocrine effects of VACEO, we examined the pituitary-thyroid and -adrenocortical axes in our model. Sixteen-month-old Wistar rats were subcutaneously administered 60mg/kg of VACEO dissolved in sterile olive oil, while the control group received the same amount of vehicle alone for three weeks. Pituitaries, thyroids and adrenals were analyzed by qualitative and quantitative histological approaches. Concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxine and triiodothyronine (TH), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone in serum and in adrenal tissue were measured. In VACEO-treated rats, the relative volume density of pituitary thyrotrophs increased (p<0.001), while intensity of cytoplasmic TSHβ immunostaining decreased (p<0.001), consistent with elevated TSH in serum (p<0.01). The thyroid tissue was characterized by a micro-follicular structure, increased relative volume of follicular epithelium (p<0.05), decreased volume of luminal colloid (p<0.001) and increased basolateral expression of sodium-iodide symporter-immunopositivity (p<0.05). Serum TH also increased (p<0.01). The relative volume density of pituitary corticotrophs decreased (p<0.05), compatible with decline in circulating ACTH (p<0.05). Neither tissue nor serum corticosterone levels were affected by VACEO treatment. In conclusion, the observed changes in TSH and ACTH strongly indicate central endocrine effects of prolonged VACEO treatment. In this respect, production of ACTH decreased without impact on corticosterone production. Increase in serum concentration of both TH and TSH are not compatible with a negative feedback loop and suggest a major change in set-point regulation of the hypothalamic

  20. Induction of glutathione S-transferase placental form positive foci in liver and epithelial hyperplasia in urinary bladder, but no tumor development in male Fischer 344 rats treated with monomethylarsonic acid for 104 weeks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jun; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Salim, Elsayed I.; Wei Min; Doi, Kenichiro; Yoshida, Kaoru; Endo, Ginji; Morimura,; Fukushima, Shoji

    2003-01-01

    The carcinogenicity of monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), a major metabolite of inorganic arsenics in human and experimental animals, was investigated in male Fischer 344 rats. A total of 129 rats at 10 weeks of age were randomly divided into three groups and received drinking water containing MMA(V) at doses of 0 (Control), 50, and 200 ppm ad libitum for 104 weeks. No significant differences were found between the control and the MMA(V)-treated groups regarding clinical signs, mortality, hematological, and serum biochemistry findings. Quantitative analysis of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci in liver revealed a significant increase of numbers and areas in the 200 ppm MMA(V)-treated group. In the urinary bladder MMA(V) induced simple hyperplasia and significantly elevated the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive index in the urothelium. A variety of tumors developed in rats of all groups, including the controls, but all were histologically similar to those known to occur spontaneously in F344 rats and there were no significant differences among the groups. Thus, it could be concluded that, under the present experimental conditions, MMA(V) induced lesions in the liver and urinary bladder, but did not cause tumor development in male F344 rats even after 2 years exposure

  1. Effect of Saccharomyces Boulardii Cell Wall Extracts on Colon Cancer Prevention in Male F344 Rats Treated with 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Olivier; Aguilar-Uscanga, Blanca R; Vu, Khanh D; Salmieri, Stephane; Lacroix, Monique

    2018-01-01

    The effect of Saccharomyces boulardii cell wall extracts on colon cancer prevention in rats treated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine was investigated. A crude insoluble glucan (0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg/day) and a crude mannoprotein extract (0.3 and 3.0 mg/kg/day) were administered in rats by gavage for 12 weeks along with a high fat low fiber diet whereupon rats were sacrificed and aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were counted in the colon. Moreover, NAD(P)H: quinone reductase (QR) and harmful fecal enzymes (β-glucosidase and β-glucuronidase) were quantified in the liver and in the caecum, respectively. Results showed a reduction in ACF counts, a decreased β-glucuronidase activity and an increased QR activity when rats were treated only with insoluble glucan. While these enzymatic modulations may be constituted one of the mechanisms that is responsible for the reduction of ACF counts observed, the reduction of ACF counts caused by insoluble glucan should be addressed, at least, as a biomarker of their cancer-prevention properties. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrated that crude cell wall extract obtained from S. boulardii could have a potential role in colon cancer prevention in vivo by revealing the potential implication of QR and β-glucuronidase modulation.

  2. Localization of extracellular matrix laminin and fibronectin in male rats infected by candida albicans, with the property expected as facilitator molecules and treated by pomegranate extract and nystatin as antifungal substance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumolosasi, E.S.; Barlian, A.; Sukandar, E.Y.

    1998-12-16

    Candida albicans is one of the parasitic fungi that often infects the tissue's surface in human. Nystatin has been long known as the most potent antifungal drug. One of natural products, Punica granatum, was shown to have antifungal effect as the result of ten years' investigation. In this research, male rats that were infected by C. albicans orally for 24 hours were cured by P. granatum extract with a dose of 50 mg/200 g body weight and by Nystatin 9.10{sup 3} IU/200 g body weight. Fifteen hours later, the rats were sacrificed and the small intestines were prepared for histology with semithin sectioning method. Microscopic observations showed that the inflammation occurred in the small intestines of the infected rats without any medication. However, for the rats that were treated with P. granatum extract, the small intestine area was almost in the similar condition with nin-infected rats. The small intestine of the rats treated by Nystatin showed minor inflammation. The immunocytochemistry procedure in this research still need modification to be able to detect Laminin and Fibronectin and clarify their roles in the invasion of C. albicans. (author)

  3. Reproductive Toxicity of Triptolide in Male House Rat, Rattus rattus

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    Neena Singla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the toxic effect of triptolide fed in bait on reproduction of male house rat, Rattus rattus. Feeding of cereal based bait containing 0.2% triptolide to male R. rattus for 5 days in no-choice feeding test, leading to mean daily ingestion of 20.45 mg/kg bw of triptolide, was found effective in significantly (P≤0.05 reducing sperm motility and viability in cauda epididymal fluid by 80.65 and 75.14%, respectively, from that of untreated rats. Pregnancy rates were decreased by 100% in untreated cyclic female rats paired with male rats treated with 0.2% triptolide. Present studies suggest the potential of 0.2% triptolide bait in regulating reproductive output of R. rattus.

  4. Oxytocin mediates copulation-induced hypoalgesia of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futagami, Hiroko; Sakuma, Yasuo; Kondo, Yasuhiko

    2016-04-08

    Copulatory behavior has been reported to raise the pain threshold in male rats. In this study, we examined the effect of copulatory behavior with or without ejaculation on pain threshold measured by electrical shock via an electrode attached to the tail. It was demonstrated that ejaculation is not necessary to raise the pain threshold in male rats. In addition, we examined whether oxytocin, a hypothalamic neuropeptide, was involved in copulation-induced hypoalgesia. Sexually experienced males were subjected to stereotaxic implantation of a guide cannula targeting the lateral ventricle. After the recovery period, half of the males were intracerebroventricularly treated with an oxytocin antagonist (OTA, 100ng d(CH2)51,Tyr(Me)2,Thr4, Orn8,Tyr-NH29]-vasotocin/1μL saline) and the remaining half were administered saline without anesthesia. Fifteen minutes later, half of each group were given sexual behavior with receptive females. We found no effect of OTA on sexual activity. Immediately after ejaculation, pain threshold was measured. While raised pain threshold was observed after sexual behavior in saline-treated males, no change in pain threshold was found in OTA-treated males even after copulation. The results suggest that central oxytocin mediates copulation-induced hypoalgesia in male rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of Polyscias fruticosa (L. Harm (Araliaceae leaf extract on male fertility in male Wistar rats

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    ALEX BOYE

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polyscias fruticosa is used widely as food, disease remedy and as an ornamental across Afro-Asian countries. For instance, P. fruticosa is used traditionally as an anti-asthma, anti-tussive, and a muco-suppressant herbal remedy for asthmatics in Ghana. Although many studies have investigated the pharmacological basis of the ethnobotanical uses of P. fruticosa, however, its effect on the reproductive system remains completely unknown. Aim of study: This study assessed effects of Polyscias fruticosa leaf extract (PFE on male fertility and toxicity in adult male Wistar rats. Materials and methods: after crude preparation of PFE, it was subjected to qualitative phytochemical, thin layer chromatography (TLC and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS analyses. Effect of PFE was assessed on male fertility and toxicity by using healthy adult male Wistar rats. Rats were randomly assigned to: normal saline (5 ml/kg po, n = 5, Clomiphene Citrate (50 mg/kg po; n = 5 and PFE (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg po; n = 5 respectively groups and treated for 21 days. On day 22 rats were sacrificed and male fertility parameters (left testis weight, relative testis weight, caudal epididymal weight, caudal epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, sperm morphology and assessment of male sex hormones and testicular histology were assessed. Results: There were no significant changes in bodyweight, weight of left testis, weights of right and left caudal epididymides between treatments groups (PFE and clomiphene citrate and control. Caudal epididymal sperm count increased in PFE (100 and 500 mg/kg-treated rats relative to control. Sperm motility relatively increased in PFE-treated rats compared to control. Sperm abnormality decreased in PFE-treated rats; especially in PFE (100 mg/kg group compared to control. Serum testosterone levels decreased inversely with serum luteinizing hormone (LH levels in PFE-treated rats compared to control. There were minimal

  6. Mal-Development of the Penis and Loss of Fertility in Male Rats Treated Neonatally with Female Contraceptive 17α-Ethinyl Estradiol: A Dose-Response Study and a Comparative Study with a Known Estrogenic Teratogen Diethylstilbestrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Ensa; Braden, Tim D.; Williams, Carol S.; Williams, John W.; Bolden-Tiller, Olga; Goyal, Hari O.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to find a minimal dose of 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE) that is detrimental to the developing penis and fertility and to compare estrogenic effects between EE and diethylstilbestrol (DES). Neonatal rats received EE at 10 ng (1 μg/kg), 100 ng, 1 μg, or 10 μg per pup on alternate days from postnatal days 1 to 11 (dose-response study) or received EE or DES at 100 ng per pup daily from postnatal days 1 to 6 (comparative study). Effects of EE were dose dependent, with ≥ 100-ng dose inducing significant (p penis was malformed, characterized by underdeveloped os penis and accumulation of fat cells. Fertility was 0% in the ≥ 1-μg groups, in contrast to 60% in the 100-ng group and 100% in the 10-ng and control groups. Animals treated with ≥ 10 ng had significant reductions in the weight of bulbospongious muscle, testis, seminal vesicle, epididymal fat pad, and in epididymal sperm numbers. A comparison of EE and DES effects showed similar reductions in penile weight and length and the weight of bulbospongiosus muscle, testis, seminal vesicle, epididymis, and epididymal fat pad in both adolescent and adult rats. While 5/6 control males sired, only 1/6 in the EE group and 0/6 in the DES group sired. Hence, neonatal exposure to EE at 10 ng (environmentally relevant dose) adversely affects male reproductive organs. A dose ten times higher than this leads to permanently mal-developed penis and infertility. Furthermore, EE and DES exposures show similar level of toxicity to male reproductive organs. PMID:19729556

  7. Melatonin improves spatial navigation memory in male diabetic rats

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    Farrin Babaei-Balderlou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of melatonin as an antioxidant on spatial navigation memory in male diabetic rats. Thirty-two male white Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 20 g were divided into four groups, randomly: control, melatonin, diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic. Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg kg-1 streptozotocin. Melatonin was injected (10 mg kg-1 day-1, ip for 2 weeks after 21 days of diabetes induction. At the end of administration period, the spatial navigation memory of rats was evaluated by cross-arm maze. In this study lipid peroxidation levels, glutathione-peroxidase and catalase activities were measured in hippocampus. Diabetes caused to significant decrease in alternation percent in the cross-arm maze, as a spatial memory index, compared to the control group (p < 0.05, whereas administration of melatonin prevented the spatial memory deficit in diabetic rats. Also melatonin injection significantly increased the spatial memory in intact animals compared to the control group (p < 0.05. Assessment of hippocampus homogenates indicated an increase in lipid peroxidation levels and a decrease in GSH-Px and CAT activities in the diabetic group compared to the control animals, while melatonin administration ameliorated these indices in diabetic rats. In conclusion, diabetes induction leads to debilitation of spatial navigation memory in rats, and the melatonin treatment improves the memory presumably through the reduction of oxidative stress in hippocampus of diabetic rats.

  8. Progesterone impairs social recognition in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychowski, Meaghan E; Auger, Catherine J

    2012-04-01

    The influence of progesterone in the brain and on the behavior of females is fairly well understood. However, less is known about the effect of progesterone in the male system. In male rats, receptors for progesterone are present in virtually all vasopressin (AVP) immunoreactive cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the medial amygdala (MeA). This colocalization functions to regulate AVP expression, as progesterone and/or progestin receptors (PR)s suppress AVP expression in these same extrahypothalamic regions in the brain. These data suggest that progesterone may influence AVP-dependent behavior. While AVP is implicated in numerous behavioral and physiological functions in rodents, AVP appears essential for social recognition of conspecifics. Therefore, we examined the effects of progesterone on social recognition. We report that progesterone plays an important role in modulating social recognition in the male brain, as progesterone treatment leads to a significant impairment of social recognition in male rats. Moreover, progesterone appears to act on PRs to impair social recognition, as progesterone impairment of social recognition is blocked by a PR antagonist, RU-486. Social recognition is also impaired by a specific progestin agonist, R5020. Interestingly, we show that progesterone does not interfere with either general memory or olfactory processes, suggesting that progesterone seems critically important to social recognition memory. These data provide strong evidence that physiological levels of progesterone can have an important impact on social behavior in male rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Estradiol increases choice of cocaine over food in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Jared R; Adams, Julia; Bozadjian, Rachel V; Bubalo, Lana; Ploense, Kyle L; Kippin, Tod E

    2017-10-19

    Estradiol modulates the rewarding and reinforcing properties of cocaine in females, including an increase in selection of cocaine over alternative reinforcers. However, the effects of estradiol on male cocaine self-administration behavior are less studied despite equivalent levels of estradiol in the brains of adult males and females, estradiol effects on motivated behaviors in males that share underlying neural substrates with cocaine reinforcement as well as expression of estrogen receptors in the male brain. Therefore, we sought to characterize the effects of estradiol in males on choice between concurrently-available cocaine and food reinforcement as well as responding for cocaine or food in isolation. Male castrated rats (n=46) were treated daily with estradiol benzoate (EB) (5μg/0.1, S.C.) or vehicle (peanut oil) throughout operant acquisition of cocaine (1mg/kg, IV; FI20 sec) and food (3×45mg; FI20 sec) responding, choice during concurrent access and cocaine and food reinforcement under progressive ratio (PR) schedules. EB increased cocaine choice, both in terms of percent of trials on which cocaine was selected and the proportion of rats exhibiting a cocaine preference as well as increased cocaine, but not food, intake under PR. Additionally, within the EB treated group, cocaine-preferring rats exhibited enhanced acquisition of cocaine, but not food, reinforcement whereas no acquisition differences were observed across preferences in the vehicle treated group. These findings demonstrate that estradiol increases cocaine choice in males similarly to what is observed in females. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Tumorigenicity of sodium ascorbate in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S M; Anderson, T A; de Oliveira, L M; Arnold, L L

    1998-06-15

    Sodium ascorbate, like other sodium salts such as saccharin, glutamate, and bicarbonate, produces urinary alterations when fed at high doses to rats, which results in mild superficial urothelial cytotoxicity and regeneration but not tumors in a standard 2-year bioassay. Sodium saccharin was shown to produce a low incidence of bladder tumors in rats if administered in a two-generation bioassay. In the present study, we evaluated sodium ascorbate in a two-generation bioassay that involved feeding to the male and female parental F344 rats for 4 weeks before mating, feeding the dams during gestation and lactation, and then feeding the weaned (at 28 days of age) male F1 generation rats for the remainder of their lifetime (up to 128 weeks of the experiment). Dietary levels of 1.0, 5.0, and 7.0% sodium ascorbate were tested. At 5.0 and 7.0% sodium ascorbate, there was an increase in urinary bladder urothelial papillary and nodular hyperplasia and the induction of a few papillomas and carcinomas. There was a dose-responsive increase in renal pelvic calcification and hyperplasia and inhibition of the aging nephropathy of rats even at the level of 1% sodium ascorbate. Because the short-term urothelial effects of sodium ascorbate in rats are inhibited by treatments producing urinary acidification to pH sodium ascorbate to evaluate the long-term effects. The combination of 7.0% sodium ascorbate plus 2.78% NH4Cl in the diet was toxic, and the group was terminated early during the course of the experiment. The group fed 5.0% sodium ascorbate plus 2.04% NH4Cl showed complete inhibition of the urothelial effects of sodium ascorbate and significant inhibition of its renal effects. We also demonstrated the presence of a calcium phosphate-containing urinary precipitate in rats fed sodium ascorbate at all doses, in a dose-responsive manner. The formation of the precipitate was inhibited by coadministration with NH4Cl. The proliferative effects of sodium ascorbate on the male rat

  11. Serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine- treated rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... The effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) were studied on serum testosterone ... chloroquine are probably mediated via the generation of free radicals. ... Effects of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol on serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine-treated rats. Groups.

  12. The sensitivity of male rat reproductive organs to monosodium glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitthichai Iamsaard

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to investigate the sensitivity of the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, and sperm acrosome reaction (AR to monosodium L- glutamate (MSG in rats. Materials and methods. Rats were divided into four groups and fed with non-acidic MSG at 0.25, 3 or 6 g/kg body weight for 30 days or without MSG. The morphological changes in the reproductive organs were studied. The plasma testosterone level, epididymal sperm concentration, and sperm AR status were assayed. Results. Compared to the control, no significant changes were discerned in the morphology and weight of the testes, or the histological structures of epididymis, vas deferens and seminal vesicle. In contrast, significant decreases were detected in the weight of the epididymis, testosterone levels, and sperm concentration of rats treated with 6 g/kg body weight of MSG. The weight loss was evident in the seminal vesicle in MSG-administered rats. Moreover, rats treated with MSG 3 and 6 g/kg exhibited partial testicular damage, characterized by sloughing of spermatogenic cells into the seminiferous tubular lumen, and their plasma testosterone levels were significantly decreased. In the 6 g/kg MSG group, the sperm concentration was significantly decreased compared with the control or two lower dose MSG groups. In AR assays, there was no statistically significant difference between MSG-rats and normal rats. Conclusion. Testicular morphological changes, testosterone level, and sperm concentration were sensitive to high doses of MSG while the rate of AR was not affected. Therefore, the consumption of high dose MSG must be avoided because it may cause partial infertility in male.

  13. Toxicological evaluation of dimethoate in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, S.M.F.

    2004-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the harmful effects and biochemical changes caused by dimethoate, an organophosphorus insecticide, at two different doses which represents 1/50 of LD 5 0 (4.3 mg/kg body weight/day) or 1/10 of LD 5 0 (21.5 mg/kg body weight/day). After thirty days of daily oral administrations to male rats, serum total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol and high density lipoprotein levels were estimated. Also, its toxic effects on serum total protein, albumin, globulin and glucose levels were studied. The glucose level at the early periods after the treatment with dimethoate using D-(U-I4C) glucose was studied. The results showed significant increases in serum total lipids, triglycerides, y-globulin and glucose levels. On the other hand, cholesterol, HDL, total protein and albumin levels in serum of rats were decreased after dimethoate treatment. In conclusion, the data obtained in the present study indicated that dimethoate has harmful effects on the parameters under investigation after thirty days of daily treatments and also on glucose level after few hours of its administration compared to control rats

  14. Administration of an oxytocin receptor antagonist attenuates sexual motivation in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitzer, D S; Wells, T E; Hawley, W R

    2017-08-01

    In male rats, oxytocin impacts both sexual arousal and certain types of consummatory sexual behaviors. However, the role of oxytocin in the motivational aspects of sexual behavior has received limited attention. Given the role that oxytocin signaling plays in consummatory sexual behaviors, it was hypothesized that pharmacological attenuation of oxytocin signaling would reduce sexual motivation in male rats. Sexually experienced Long-Evans male rats were administered either an oxytocin receptor antagonist (L368,899 hydrochloride; 1mg/kg) or vehicle control into the intraperitoneal cavity 40min prior to placement into the center chamber of a three-chambered arena designed to assess sexual motivation. During the 20-minute test, a sexually experienced stimulus male rat and a sexually receptive stimulus female rat were separately confined to smaller chambers that were attached to the larger end chambers of the arena. However, physical contact between test and stimulus rats was prevented by perforated dividers. Immediately following the sexual motivation test, test male rats were placed with a sexually receptive female to examine consummatory sexual behaviors. Although both drug and vehicle treated rats exhibited a preference for the female, treatment with an oxytocin receptor antagonist decreased the amount of time spent with the female. There were no differences between drug and vehicle treated rats in either general activity, exploratory behaviors, the amount of time spent near the stimulus male rat, or consummatory sexual behaviors. Extending previous findings, these results indicate that oxytocin receptors are involved in sexual motivation in male rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of biliary conjugates of 4,4'-methylenedianiline in male versus female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kan; Cole, Richard B.; Santa Cruz, Vicente; Blakeney, Ernest W.; Kanz, Mary F.; Dugas, Tammy R.

    2008-01-01

    4,4'-Methylenedianiline (4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane; DAPM) is an aromatic diamine used in the production of numerous polyurethane foams and epoxy resins. Previous studies in rats revealed that DAPM initially injures biliary epithelial cells of the liver, that the toxicity is greater in female than in male rats, and that the toxic metabolites of DAPM are excreted into bile. Since male and female rats exhibit differences in the expression of both phase I and phase II enzymes, our hypothesis was that female rats either metabolize DAPM to more toxic metabolites or have a decreased capacity to conjugate metabolites to less toxic intermediates. Our objective was thus to isolate, characterize, and quantify DAPM metabolites excreted into bile in both male and female bile duct-cannulated Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were gavaged with [ 14 C]-DAPM, and the collected bile was subjected to reversed-phase HPLC with radioisotope detection. Peaks eluting from HPLC were collected and analyzed using electrospray MS and NMR spectroscopy. HPLC analysis indicated numerous metabolites in both sexes, but male rats excreted greater amounts of glutathione and glucuronide conjugates than females. Electrospray MS and NMR spectra of HPLC fractions revealed that the most prominent metabolite found in bile of both sexes was a glutathione conjugate of an imine metabolite of a 4'-nitroso-DAPM. Seven other metabolites were identified, including acetylated, cysteinyl-glycine, glutamyl-cysteine, glycine, and glucuronide conjugates. While our prior studies demonstrated increased covalent binding of DAPM in the liver and bile of female compared to male rats, in these studies, SDS-PAGE with autoradiography revealed 4-5 radiolabeled protein bands in the bile of rats treated with [ 14 C]-DAPM. In addition, these bands were much more prominent in female than in male rats. These studies thus suggest that a plausible mechanism for the increased sensitivity of female rats to DAPM toxicity may be decreased

  16. Opium can differently alter blood glucose, sodium and potassium in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Gholamreza Asadi; Rashidinejad, Hamid Reza; Aghaee, Mohammad Mehdi; Ahmadi, Jafar; Rahmani, Mohammad Reza; Mahmoodi, Mehdi; Azin, Hosein; Mirzaee, Mohammad Reza; Khaksari, Mohammad

    2008-04-01

    To determine the effects of opium on serum glucose, potassium and sodium in male and female Wistar rat, opium solution (60 mg/kg) injected intraperitoneally and the same volume of distilled water was used as control (7 rats in each group). Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 360 minutes after injection from orbit cavity and the values of serum glucose, sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)) were measured. The data were then analyzed by the repeated measure ANOVA based on sex and case-control group. P opium solution injection, in female rats compared to a control group. However, the male rats had this rise at 30, 60 and 120 minutes after opium solution injection compared to control group. While serum glucose in male rats was significantly higher than females at 30, 60 and 120 minutes, this value was higher in the female rats at 360 minutes. Therefore, serum glucose alterations following opium injection was significantly different in groups and in the sexes at different times. Sodium (Na(+)) rose at 60, 240 and 360 minutes significantly in all rats compared to control group. However, sodium alteration following opium injection was significantly different only between treated and control groups but sex-independent at all times. Potassium (K(+)) increased significantly at 60, 120, 240 and 360 minutes in male rats, compared to a control group. In female rats K(+) significantly raised at 30, 120, 240 and 360 minutes. Therefore, the alteration of K(+) in male and female rats was found time dependent and sex independent. According to our results, opium increased serum glucose in male and female rats differently, and it interferes with metabolic pathways differently on a gender dependent basis. Opium raised serum Na(+) and K(+), thus it interfere with water regulation and blood pressure via different mechanism.

  17. Disposition of citral in male Fischer rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diliberto, J.J.; Usha, G.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1988-01-01

    The disposition of citral, an essential oil occurring in many foods and fragrances, was studied in male Fischer rats after iv, po, and dermal treatments. The pattern of distribution and elimination was the same after iv or oral exposure. Urine was the major route of elimination of citral-derived radioactivity, followed by feces, 14 CO 2 , and expired volatiles. However, after dermal exposure, relatively less of the material was eliminated in the urine and more in the feces, suggesting a role for first-pass metabolism through the skin. Citral was almost completely absorbed orally; due to its extreme volatility, much of an applied dermal dose was lost. The citral remaining on the skin was fairly well absorbed. No effect of oral dose, from 5 to 500 mg/kg, was detected on disposition. Although the feces was a minor route of excretion, approximately 25% of the administered dose was eliminated via the bile within 4 hr of an iv dose. The metabolism of citral was both rapid and extensive. Within 5 min of an iv dose, no unmetabolized citral could be detected in the blood. Repeated exposure to citral resulted in an increase in biliary elimination, without any significant change in the pattern of urinary, fecal, or exhaled excretion. This suggests that citral may induce at least one pathway of its own metabolism. The rapid metabolism and excretion of this compound suggest that significant bioaccumulation of citral would not occur

  18. Evaluation of lipid profile and oxidative stress in STZ-induced rats treated with antioxidant vitamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Ayr Tavares de Almeida

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of supplementation of vitamin E on streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats by measuring blood glucose, changes in body weight, food and water intake, lipid profile, serum urea and creatinine level, and antioxidant enzyme activity. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control rats (GI; rats receiving vitamin E (GII; STZ-induced diabetic rats (GIII and STZ-induced diabetic rats treated with vitamin E (GIV. Vitamin E reduced (p<0.05 blood glucose and urea, improved the lipid profile (decreased the serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol and triacylglycerols, and increased HDL cholesterol and increased total protein in STZ-induced diabetic rats (GIV. Vitamin prevented changes in the activity of SOD and GSH-Px and in the concentration of lipid hydroperoxide. These results suggested that vitamin E improved hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia while inhibiting the progression of oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  19. Histophysiological study of aluminum chloride effect on male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Al-Mallah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to detect the effects of aluminum chloride AlCl3 on some pathophysiological features of adult male rats. Eighteen rats were divided to 3 groups of 6 animals each. These included untreated control and 2 treated groups received AlCl3 at the doses 40 and 80 mg/kg of body weight, orally and daily for 30 days. The following parameters were recorded: Body weight (weekly, central nervous system activity tests (weekly, hematological examinations at 15 and 30 days of experimentally and gross and histopathology for brain, liver, kidneys and heart at the day (30. The results showed a significant decrease in body weight mean of 3rd group (80 mg/kg at 4th week, a significant decrease in the activity associated with time progress in experiment by recording (moving onset, square crossed and rearing in 3 minutes, negative geotaxis tests, there were no significant differences between groups at pack cell volume and hemoglobin concentration with a significant decrease in total leukocyte count at 2nd group (40 mg/kg. Differential leukocyte count revealed significant increase in lymphocyte at day 30. Histopathological changes were neuronal vaculation and proliferation of microgelial cells in brain, vacular degeneration and lymphocytic infiltrations in hepatic parenchyma with mild portal fibrosis in liver, at kidneys there were cloudy swelling, coagulative necrosis to the renal tubular epithelium, more severely noticed at 3rd group, no pathological changes were noticed at myocardium and coronary arteries at both treated groups.

  20. Surgery and electrochemotherapy treatment of incompletely excised mammary carcinoma in two male pet rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    OpenAIRE

    LANZA, Andrea; PETTORALI, Michela; BALDI, Alfonso; SPUGNINI, Enrico P.

    2017-01-01

    Two male rats (Rattus norvegicus; 18 and 24 months old), were referred for treatment of large masses located in the axillary area. Following total body radiography and hematological and serum biochemical analysis, the rats were anesthetized, and the masses were surgically removed. Both lesions were diagnosed as mammary carcinoma based on histopathological diagnosis. The tumor beds were treated with two sessions of electrochemotherapy (ECT), two weeks apart. ECT involved cisplatin administrati...

  1. Prosocial effects of prolactin in male rats: Social recognition, social approach and social learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donhoffner, Mary E; Al Saleh, Samar; Schink, Olivia; Wood, Ruth I

    2017-11-01

    Prolactin (PRL) and oxytocin (OT) are pituitary hormones essential for lactation, but also promote sexual behavior. OT stimulates social behaviors, such as recognition, approach, and learning, but less is known about PRL in these behaviors. Since PRL and OT have complementary functions in reproduction, we hypothesized that PRL increases social recognition, approach, and learning. Male Long-Evans rats received ovine PRL (oPRL; 0.5, 2.0 or 5.0mg/kg), the PRL antagonist bromocriptine (0.1, 3.0 or 5.0mg/kg) or saline 20 mins before testing for recognition of familiar vs. unfamiliar stimulus males. Saline controls preferred the unfamiliar male (psocial approach, we determined if PRL restores approach 2h after defeat by an aggressive male. Defeated rats avoided the aggressive male. 2mg/kg oPRL, before or after defeat, restored approach towards the aggressive male (psocial learning, we tested social transmission of food preference. Rats choose between two unfamiliar flavors, one of which they have previously been exposed to through interaction with a demonstrator rat. Vehicle controls preferred chow with the demonstrated flavor over the novel flavor. oPRL-treated rats were similar. Bromocriptine-treated rats failed to show a preference. When tested one week later, only oPRL-treated rats preferred the demonstrated flavor. The results suggest that PRL is required for social recognition and learning, and that increasing PRL enhances social memory and approach, similar to OT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Tribulus terrestris on endocrine sensitive organs in male and female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino-Andrade, Anderson J; Morais, Rosana N; Spercoski, Katherinne M; Rossi, Stefani C; Vechi, Marina F; Golin, Munisa; Lombardi, Natália F; Greca, Cláudio S; Dalsenter, Paulo R

    2010-01-08

    Investigate the possible effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT) on endocrine sensitive organs in intact and castrated male rats as well as in a post-menopausal rat model using ovariectomized females. Three different dose levels of TT (11, 42 and 110 mg/kg/day) were administered to castrated males for 7 days and to intact males and castrated females for 28 days. In addition to TT treatment, all experiments also included a group of rats treated with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). In experiments using castrated males and females we also used testosterone and 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol, respectively, as positive controls for androgenicity and estrogenicity. Neither DHEA nor TT was able to stimulate androgen sensitive tissues like the prostate and seminal vesicle in both intact and castrated male rats. In addition, administration of TT to intact male rats for 28 days did not change serum testosterone levels as well as did not produce any quantitative change in the fecal excretion of androgenic metabolites. However, a slight increase in the number of homogenization-resistant spermatids was observed in rats treated with 11 mg/kg/day of TT extract. In ovariectomized females, TT did not produce any stimulatory effects in uterine and vaginal epithelia. Tribulus terrestris was not able to stimulate endocrine sensitive tissues such as the prostate, seminal vesicle, uterus and vagina in Wistar rats, indicating lack of androgenic and estrogenic activity in vivo. We also showed a positive effect of TT administration on rat sperm production, associated with unchanged levels of circulating androgens. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Nifedipine on Reproductive Functions in Male Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Nifedipine on Reproductive Functions in Male Rats. ... Background: After life itself, fertility is probably the most highly prized human possession. ... Animals in Group 3 were allowed another 30 days after drug withdrawal for recovery.

  4. STUDIES ON INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN MALE ALBINO RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABULYAZID, I.; ABBAS, O.A.; FAYEZ, V.

    2008-01-01

    Levanox, a hepato protective drug, and garlic powder have been considered as safe anti-oxidant agents. The present investigation refers to biochemical and molecular studies to evaluate the protective role of levanox and/or garlic powder toward CCl4-induced toxicity in adult male albino rats. CCl4 intoxication was attempted using a dose of 0.03 ml/kg of rat body weight.Pre-treatment with levanox (one capsule/ kg of rat body weight, each capsule contains 100 mg catechu, 7.5 mg dandelion, 75 mg termiric 2 % curcumin , 17.5 mg silymarin, 100 mg lecithin) was more effective than garlic powder (100mg/kg of rat body weight) in reducing CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity as revealed by its higher potency in reducing elevation of aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases in serum. Serum of control rats and those treated with levanox or garlic or CCl4 produced 13 types of proteins, differing in the molecular weight (MW) and densities, while those of levanox + garlic or garlic +CCl4 produced 14 bands differing in the MW and densities. The similarity index at the epigenetic level was also studied using the primers under study. The control sample produced one amplified DNA fragment with Rf of 0.73 and a molecular size (MS) of 67 base pair (bp) . Using the same primers, no amplified DNA fragment with the same MS was produced in the sample taken from levanox + garlic treated group.OPA-2 primer of sequence 5?- AGA TGC AGC C-3? produced one amplified DNA band with MS of 292 bp and Rf of 0.46 . However, the same primer produced one amplified DNA characteristic band with a molecular size of 363 bp and Rf of 0.43 in the sample of levanox + garlic group.In the control sample, OPA-4 primer of sequence 5? - ACG CAC AAC C-3? produced one amplified DNA band of MS of 299 bp and Rf of 0.43. The same primer produced one amplified characteristic DNA band with MS of 363 bp and Rf of 0.43 in the sample of levanox + garlic group.Dual treatment with levanox and garlic powder resulted in a

  5. Fresh onion juice enhanced copulatory behavior in male rats with and without paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouh, Mohammed Z; Daradka, Haytham M; Al Barbarawi, Mohammed M; Mustafa, Ayman G

    2014-02-01

    Onion (Allium cepa) is one of the most commonly cultivated species of the family Liliaceae, and has long been used in dietary and therapeutic applications. Treatment with fresh onion juice has been reported to promote testosterone production in male rats. Testosterone is the male sex hormone responsible for enhancing sexual libido and potency. This study aimed to investigate the effects of onion juice on copulatory behavior of sexually potent male rats and in male rats with paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction. Sexually experienced male rats were divided into seven groups: a control group, three onion juice-treated groups, a paroxetine-treated group, and two groups treated with paroxetine plus different doses of onion juice. At the end of the treatments, sexual behavior parameters and testosterone levels were measured and compared among the groups. Administration of onion juice significantly reduced mount frequency and latency and increased the copulatory efficacy of potent male rats. In addition, administration of onion juice attenuated the prolonged ejaculatory latency period induced by paroxetine and increased the percentage of ejaculating rats. Serum testosterone levels increased significantly by onion juice administration. However, a significant reduction in testosterone because of paroxetine therapy was observed. This reduction was restored to normal levels by administration of onion juice. This study conclusively demonstrates that fresh onion juice improves copulatory behavior in sexually potent male rats and in those with paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction by increasing serum testosterone levels.

  6. Effectiveness of low level laser therapy for treating male infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirovich Moskvin, Sergey; Ivanovich Apolikhin, Oleg

    2018-01-01

    In half of the cases, the infertility of the couple is due to the disorder of the male fertility. The leading factors that cause male infertility are urogenital infections, disorders of the immune system, testicular and prostate pathology, as well as endocrine disorders. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) is a very effective physical therapy method, used in many areas of medicine, including obstetrics and gynaecology, andrology and urology; and it is recommended as an integral part of the complex treatment of infertility. The literature review showed that LLLT is beneficial in treating male infertility. Laser can significantly improve the survival, motility and speed of movement of spermatozoa. Laser therapy of patients with prostatitis and vesiculitis can eliminate infiltrative-exudative changes, improve reproductive and copulatory functions. Local illumination of red (635 nm) and infrared (904 nm) spectra should be combined with intravenous laser blood illumination (ILBI) of red (635 nm) and ultraviolet (UV) (365 nm) spectra. PMID:29806585

  7. Testicular Morphometry and Histology of Male Wistar Rats and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of aqueous extract of Spondias mombin leaves on testicular characteristics and neonatal birth weights after oral treatment of male and female ... was no antifertility consequence of aqueous spondias mombin on the male wistar rat but insipient infertility was noticed with lower dosages for the female but none with ...

  8. Comparative toxicology of carfene in male and female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanin, M.M.; Tawfik, S.M.F.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the potential toxicity associated with daily oral administrations of carfene (2.5 mg/kg body weight) for 15 consecutive days on protein level in liver, kidney, brain and spleen tissues of male and female rats after 1, 5, 10 and 15 days of treatment. Evaluation of the trace elements, zinc and copper in serum, revealed that zinc level was decreased significantly while that of copper was increased in both male and female rats compared to controls. The incorporation rate of 14 C-isoleucine for synthesis of protein tended to decrease in liver tissues and increase in brain tissues of rats. Kidney and spleen tissues showed fluctuated changes. It was noticed in the present investigation that the incorporation rate of I4 C-radioactivity in different selected tissues under estimation was more pronounced in male than in female rats

  9. Effects of the hydromethanolic extract of Austroplenckia populnea (Celastraceae) on reproductive parameters of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaro, Renata; Di Stasi, Luiz; De Grava Kempinas, Wilma

    2002-09-01

    Austroplenckia populnea (Reiss.) Lundell. was selected for this study because it has been shown that some plants from the Celastraceae family have antifertility effects. Twelve adult male rats were treated with hydromethanolic extract made from the leaves, 500 mg/kg/day, orally, for 70 days. Distilled water was administered to the control animals (n = 10). At the end of the experiment, and before killing the rats, their sexual behavior was evaluated. The number of intromissions, latencies to first mount and ejaculation, and first intromission after ejaculation were significantly reduced in the treated group, but the total number of ejaculations did not differ from the control group. The weight and histology of the reproductive organs, sperm production, spermatogenesis, prostate fructose content, cauda epidydimides duct diameter, and sperm morphology were not affected. Sperm concentration in cauda epidydimides was significantly decreased. The results showed that A. populnea has effects on male rat reproduction, affecting the sexual behavior and epididymal sperm concentration.

  10. Chronic fluoxetine inhibits sexual behavior in the male rat: reversal with oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, J M; Binik, Y M; Pfaus, J G

    1999-06-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, used widely in the treatment of depression, progressively inhibit sexual orgasm in many patients and induce a transient inhibition of sexual desire. We attempted to model the effects of these drugs in sexually experienced male rats during tests of copulation in bilevel chambers. These chambers allow the study of both appetitive and consummatory sexual responses of male rats. Males were treated daily with fluoxetine hydrochloride (0, 1, 5, or 10 mg/kg) and tested for sexual behavior with receptive females at 4-day intervals. Rats were treated with oxytocin (200 ng/kg) or saline after ejaculations had decreased. Fluoxetine decreased ejaculatory responses of male rats in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, but left the copulatory efficiency of the males intact. In contrast, conditioned level changing, a measure of appetitive sexual excitement, was inhibited following acute and chronic treatment with 10 mg/kg, although tolerance may have developed to the effect of 5 mg/kg. Subsequent administration of oxytocin restored the ejaculatory response but not the measure of sexual excitement to baseline levels. The reversal by oxytocin of the fluoxetine-induced deficit in ejaculations is consistent with the hypothesis that serotonin suppresses ejaculatory mechanisms by interrupting the action of oxytocin, which normally accompanies sexual behavior. Co-administration of oxytocin may help to alleviate the predominant sexual side effect of serotonin reuptake blockers.

  11. Following Exhaustive Exercise in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reza Badalzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Long-term treatment of rats with cinnamon and regular training improved cardiac hemodynamic through an additive effect. The positive effects of cinnamon and regular training on cardiac function were associated with a reduced serum MDA level and an improved blood lipid profile.

  12. Ventilatory drive is enhanced in male and female rats following chronic intermittent hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, D; Skelly, J R; Bradford, A; O'Halloran, K D

    2009-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea is characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) due to recurrent apnoea. We have developed a rat model of CIH, which shows evidence of impaired respiratory muscle function. In this study, we wished to characterize the ventilatory effects of CIH in conscious male and female animals. Adult male (n=14) and female (n=8) Wistar rats were used. Animals were placed in chambers daily for 8 h with free access to food and water. The gas supply to one half of the chambers alternated between air and nitrogen every 90 s, for 8 h per day, reducing ambient oxygen concentration in the chambers to 5% at the nadir (intermittent hypoxia; n=7 male, n=4 female). Air supplying the other chambers was switched every 90 s to air from a separate source, at the same flow rates, and animals in these chambers served as controls (n=7 male, n=4 female). Ventilatory measurements were made in conscious animals (typically sleeping) after 10 days using whole-body plethysmography. Normoxic ventilation was increased in both male and female CIH-treated rats compared to controls but this did not achieve statistical significance. However, ventilatory drive was increased in CIH-treated rats of both sexes as evidenced by significant increases in mean and peak inspiratory flow. Ventilatory responses to acute hypoxia (F(I)O(2) = 0.10; 6 min) and hyperoxic hypercapnia (F(I)CO(2) = 0.05; 6 min) were unaffected by CIH treatment in male and female rats (P>0.05, ANOVA). We conclude that CIH increases respiratory drive in adult rats. We speculate that this represents a form of neural plasticity that may compensate for respiratory muscle impairment that occurs in this animal model.

  13. Fluoxetine-treated male wrasses exhibit low AVT expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semsar, Katharine; Perreault, Heidi A N; Godwin, John

    2004-12-17

    In many species, increasing serotonergic activity can reduce aggression and reverse dominance relationships. These effects may in part be mediated through interactions with the arginine vasotocin/vasopressin (AVT/AVP) system. We tested this hypothesis in a territorial coral reef fish, the bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum), by experimentally enhancing serotonergic neurotransmission, using the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine. Terminal phase (TP) males received 2 weeks of nightly intraperitoneal fluoxetine injections (6 microg/g body weight) and were then tested for their aggressive response to an intruder and killed to examine AVT phenotype in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus (POA), an area important to social behavior in fishes. Our previously published study demonstrated that fluoxetine-treated males are less aggressive [H.A.N. Perreault, K. Semsar, J. Godwin, Fluoxetine treatment decreases territorial aggression in a coral reef fish, Physiol. and Behav. 79 (2003) 719-724.]. Here, further study of these same fluoxetine-treated males shows approximately twofold lower AVT mRNA expression relative to saline-treated controls in all regions of the POA (all p0.4). This study experimentally supports the hypothesis that behavioral effects of SSRIs may be mediated in part through interactions with the AVT/AVP system. These results parallel findings from rodents and humans and are consistent with an indirect neurosteroidogenic rather than a solely direct serotonergic mechanism for SSRI effects on the AVT/AVP system. Furthermore, they suggest that SSRI effects on neuroendocrine function may be best modeled in animals with sensitive stress responses such as those found in nondomesticated animals.

  14. The effect of genistein on intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-induced cognitive deficits in male rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tourandokht Balouchnejadmojarad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract  Introduction: Intracerebroventricular (ICV injection of streptozotocin (STZ causes cognitive impairment in rats. The beneficial effect of genistein (GEN was investigated on ICV STZ-induced learning, memory, and cognitive impairment in male rats. Methods: For this purpose, rats were injected with ICV STZ bilaterally, on days 1 and 3 (3 mg/kg. The STZ-injected rats received GEN (1 mg/kg/day, p.o. starting one day pre-surgery for two weeks. The learning and memory performance was assessed using passive avoidance paradigm, and for spatial cognition evaluation, radial eight-arm maze (RAM task was used.  Results: It was found out that GEN-treated STZ-injected rats show higher correct choices and lower errors in RAM than vehicle-treated STZ-injected rats. In addition, GEN administration significantly attenuated learning and memory impairment in treated STZ-injected group in passive avoidance test.Discussion: These results demonstrate the effectiveness of GEN in preventing the cognitive deficits caused by ICV STZ in rats and its potential in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD.

  15. The effect of genistein on intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-induced cognitive deficits in male rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tourandokht Balouchnejadmojarad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract  Introduction: Intracerebroventricular (ICV injection of streptozotocin (STZ causes cognitive impairment in rats. The beneficial effect of genistein (GEN was investigated on ICV STZ-induced learning, memory, and cognitive impairment in male rats. Methods: For this purpose, rats were injected with ICV STZ bilaterally, on days 1 and 3 (3 mg/kg. The STZ-injected rats received GEN (1 mg/kg/day, p.o. starting one day pre-surgery for two weeks. The learning and memory performance was assessed using passive avoidance paradigm, and for spatial cognition evaluation, radial eight-arm maze (RAM task was used.  Results: It was found out that GEN-treated STZ-injected rats show higher correct choices and lower errors in RAM than vehicle-treated STZ-injected rats. In addition, GEN administration significantly attenuated learning and memory impairment in treated STZ-injected group in passive avoidance test.Discussion: These results demonstrate the effectiveness of GEN in preventing the cognitive deficits caused by ICV STZ in rats and its potential in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD.  

  16. Evaluation of androgenic activity of Mucuna pruriens in male rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens seed was tested for their possible androgenic activity in Wister male albino rats. The methanolic extract of M. pruriens plant was gavaged separately into 2 group of rat at similar doses of 1000 mg/kg b.wt and 1500 mg/kg b.wt for 30 days. At the end of the treatment, the animals were ...

  17. Effects of postnatal administration of diethylstilbestrol on puberty and thyroid function in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae-Ho; Kim, Tae Sung; Kang, Il Hyun; Kang, Tae Seok; Moon, Hyun Ju; Han, Soon-Young

    2009-10-01

    To examine the effects of diethylstilbestrol (DES) on male pubertal development and thyroid function, juvenile male Sprague-Dawley rats were given DES daily by oral intubation at doses of 10, 20 and 40 microg/kg/day from postnatal day 33 for 20 days. Prepuce separation was significantly delayed at the dose of 20 microg/kg/day and above in the DES-treated rats. DES treatment induced a significant reduction in the weights of testes, epididymides, the ventral prostate, seminal vesicles plus coagulating glands and fluid, levator ani bulbocavernosus muscles, Cowper's glands and the glans penis. The weights of the liver and adrenals increased in the DES-treated animals. DES caused a dose-dependent reduction in germ cells; in particular the spermatids were mainly affected. The serum levels of testosterone and luteinizing hormone were significantly reduced in the DES-treated groups, but that of estradiol decreased. No differences were observed in the serum thyroxine levels of the control and DES-treated groups. In microscopic observation of the DES-treated animals, degeneration of germ cells and tubular atrophy in the testis were noted, but there were no microscopic changes in the thyroid. These results indicate that DES affected the pubertal development of juvenile male rats and that its mode of action may be related to alterations in hormone levels.

  18. Histopathological effects of doxorubicin on pancreas in male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Ali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the histopathological side effects of doxorubicin on pancreas tissue in male albino rats Rattus norvegicus. This study were used 55 adult rats (2.5-3.5 month of age. The rats divided into two groups, the first group include (35 rats. The second group were (20 rats. Microscopial examination of pancreas lesion demonstrated oedema around the acini, swelling of the epithelial cells of acini, occurance of cystic fibrosis (mucoviscidosis at the concentration of (4,5 mg/kg of body weight ,occurrence of small islets that form of few cells and exocrine-endocrine transformation. There were thickness in the walls of blood vessels, thrombus, congestion of blood vessels, we conclude, that doxorubicin had histopathological effect on pancreas in sub-acute doses more than chronic doses.

  19. Modification Of Cesium Toxicity By Prussian Blue In Adult Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MANGOOD, S.A.; HAGGAG, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to asses the toxicological effects of stable cesium chloride, and investigate the possible therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB) in adult male albino rats.Thirty two adult male albino rats were used in this study and classified to 4 groups (8 rats/group) as follows:1- Group one (G1): rats were considered as controls and kept on the commercial diet without any treatments.2-Group two (G2): treated with daily oral cesium chloride (50 mg/300 g body weight).3-Group three (G3): treated with daily oral Prussian blue (250 mg/rats).4-Group four (G4): treated with cesium chloride at a daily oral dose of 50 mg/300 g body weight + Prussian blue at a daily oral dose of 250 mg/rats.All animals were administered the CsCl and/or PB via intubation tube and the duration of this study was 35 consecutive days. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht%), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), folic acid, vitamin B12, total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, ALT, AST, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, blood glucose, urea, creatinine, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), sodium, potassium, calcium and inorganic phosphorous and body weight were determined in all groups.The data obtained revealed that the intake of stable cesium chloride in adult male rats caused significant decreases in the Hb, hematocrit, folic acid, vitamin B12 and potassium contents, with significant increases in WBC count, urea and creatinine levels and no effect on the other parameters. On the other hand, PB as a therapeutic agent caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by CsCl with variable degrees leading to the conclusion that the therapeutic agents might provide a protection against the toxicological effects of CsCl.

  20. Heart dysfunction and fibrosis in rat treated with myocardial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because cardiovascular disease remains a serious problem in modern human society, the aim of this study was to establish the rat model animal and to compare the heart dysfunction and fibrosis with SD and LE rats when treated with myocardial ischemia and reperfusion operation. A 20-minute thoracotomy was performed ...

  1. Possible Outcome of Fenugreek Seeds Powder Administration on the Fertility of Female and Male Albino Rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, M F; El-Tawill, G.A., E-mail: gkyrillos@hotmail.co [Radiation Biology Department, National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2010-07-01

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an annual plant from the family of Papilionaceae-Leguminosae that has been credited with many medicinal properties. The current study aims to evaluate the possible fertility activity of fenugreek seeds powder on female and male albino rats. To achieve the theme, fenugreek seeds powder (200 mg/rat) were daily administered orally to both female and male Wistar rats for 15 and 30 consecutive days, after which the rats were sacrificed for both biochemical and histopathological observations. Fenugreek treatment significantly decreased the serum cholesterol levels in both female and male rats with a marked increase in the ovary and testis cholesterol levels following 30 days of consecutive administration. The circulating serum female hormones showed an initial elevation at the end of 15 days of fenugreek intake followed by a significant drop in the group of rats that continued to receive the daily fenugreek dose for 30 days. These observations were supported by the notable decline in the ovarian weights further validated by their ovarian histological sections revealing remarkable dissolution of some follicles and prominent abundance of inflammatory cells. In the 30 days interval treated males, the serum testosterone hormone concentrations significantly declined and the testis weights were reduced with evident damage to the seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissues as shown by the histopathological picture of testis tissue sections. Accordingly, it can be deduced that fenugreek seeds powder exert a significant antifertility adverse effect on the female and male rats when supplemented at a considerable dose for an extended time interval

  2. Effects of chronic treatment with fluvoxamine and paroxetine during adolescence on serotonin-related behavior in adult male rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, T.R. de; Snaphaan, L.J.A.E.; Pattij, T.; Veening, J.G.; Waldinger, M.D.; Cools, A.R.; Olivier, B.

    2006-01-01

    Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are designed to treat adults, but are increasingly prescribed for adolescents. SSRIs might cause permanent changes in serotonin-related behavior in adolescents, since their serotonergic system is still developing. Male Wistar rats were treated with

  3. Effect of Consuming Iodized Salt on Fertility Indices in Male Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mehrabani Natanzi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today about 27.4 percent of female 15-44 years and 1 percent of female in fertility age are affected by infertility. Iodine is a rare element that is essential for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Concentration of the thyroid hormones in blood under the influence of iodine intake and changes in thyroid hormones levels interact with reproductive system. Today, all the people of Iran consuming iodized salt regardless of iodine status in their body. In this study according to high prevalence of the infertility among young couples, iodized salt intake on fertility in male rats were investigated. Materials and Methods: In this study 20 male and 20 female adult Wistar rats were used. Twenty male adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. Including the control group and treatment group that received iodine and female adult Wistar were fed with a regular diet. Five male rats from each group were killed at the end of the fourth weeks in order to evaluate the possible effect of iodized salt on sperm analysis and weight of testis. After a month, male and female rats were placed in pairs in separate cages and their offspring were investigated in terms of number, gender and health. Results: The result of this study showed that the number of healthy offspring of treated male rats was significantly lower than the control group. Conclusion: Due to the negative effect of excessive iodine intake on fertility rate, it is recommended to couples to perform functional tests of their thyroid glands before intake of iodized salts.

  4. Neuronal Function in Male Sprague Dawley Rats During Normal Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idowu, A J; Olatunji-Bello, I I; Olagunju, J A

    2017-03-06

    During normal ageing, there are physiological changes especially in high energy demanding tissues including the brain and skeletal muscles. Ageing may disrupt homeostasis and allow tissue vulnerability to disease. To establish an appropriate animal model which is readily available and will be useful to test therapeutic strategies during normal ageing, we applied behavioral approaches to study age-related changes in memory and motor function as a basis for neuronal function in ageing in male Sprague Dawley rats. 3 months, n=5; 6 months, n=5 and 18 months, n=5 male Sprague Dawley Rats were tested using the Novel Object Recognition Task (NORT) and the Elevated plus Maze (EPM) Test. Data was analyzed by ANOVA and the Newman-Keuls post hoc test. The results showed an age-related gradual decline in exploratory behavior and locomotor activity with increasing age in 3 months, 6 months and 18 months old rats, although the values were not statistically significant, but grooming activity significantly increased with increasing age. Importantly, we established a novel finding that the minimum distance from the novel object was statistically significant between 3 months and 18 months old rats and this may be an index for age-related memory impairment in the NORT. Altogether, we conclude that the male Sprague Dawley rat show age-related changes in neuronal function and may be a useful model for carrying out investigations into the mechanisms involved in normal ageing.

  5. Olanzapine affects locomotor activity and meal size in male rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaal, Esther M.; Luijendijk, Mieneke C. M.; Evers, Simon S.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Adan, Roger A. H.

    2010-01-01

    Olanzapine is an antipsychotic drug that frequently induces weight gain accompanied by increased fat deposition as a side effect To investigate how olanzapine affects different aspects of energy balance we used male rats to determine effects on meal patterns food preference locomotor activity and

  6. Olanzapine affects locomotor activity and meal size in male rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaal, Esther M.; Luijendijk, Mieneke C. M.; Evers, Simon S.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Adan, Roger A. H.

    2010-01-01

    Olanzapine is an antipsychotic drug that frequently induces weight gain accompanied by increased fat deposition as a side effect. To investigate how olanzapine affects different aspects of energy balance, we used male rats to determine effects on meal patterns, food preference, locomotor activity

  7. Sodium arsenite-induced reproductive toxicities in male Wistar rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sodium arsenite-induced reproductive toxicities in male Wistar rats: role of Tridax procumbens leaf extract. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... In the present study, the effects of ethanol leaf extract of Tridax procumbens ... in Groups B to D as compared to Group A was significantly reduced (p<0.05).

  8. Effects of psychostimulants on social interaction in adult male rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlamberová, R.; Mikulecká, Anna; Macúchová, E.; Hrebíčková, I.; Ševčíková, M.; Nohejlová, K.; Pometlová, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 8 (2015), s. 776-785 ISSN 0955-8810 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : amphetamine * cocaine * male rats * 3,4 methylenedimethoxyamphetamine * psychostimulants * social behavior Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.000, year: 2015

  9. Reproductive ability of pubertal male and female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Zemunik

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Ten Fisher rats 50 to 55 days of age made up the pubertal group, and ten rats 90 to 95 days of age served as the controls. The testicular and epididymal weights and volumes of the pubertal males were lower than those of the controls (P0.05. At the beginning of gestation, the pubertal dams weighed less than the controls (P<0.001 but following uterectomy the body weights were equal. Pubertal dams delivered fewer pups than the controls (8.1 ± 2.5 vs 10.4 ± 1.3, P<0.05. There was no difference in the body weights of their offspring or in the weights of their placentas. The results suggest that, in contrast to their female counterparts, pubertal male rats are not fully mature and have not reached complete reproductive capacity at 50-55 days of age.

  10. [Study on sperm damage caused by trichloroethylene in male rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, De-sheng; Yang, Lin-qing; Huang, Sui; Liu, Jian-jun; Xu, Xin-yun; Huang, Hai-yan; Gong, Chun-mei; Hu, Gong-hua; Liu, Qing-cheng; Yang, Xi-fei; Hong, Wen-xu; Zhou, Li; Huang, Xin-feng; Yuan, Jian-hui; Zhuang, Zhi-xiong

    2013-11-01

    To study in vitro sperm damage caused by trichloroethylene in male rats. Sperms of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were collected 4 hours after being contaminated by trichloroethylene of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mmol/L in vitro. Giemsa staining was performed to observe the morphological changes of sperms, and flow cytometer was used to detect the changes in mitochondrial membrane potential. The sperm motilities in 6, 8, and 10 mmol/L trichloroethylene groups decreased significantly compared with that in control group (P trichloroethylene groups were significantly higher than that in control group (Ptrichloroethylene groups and control group (Ptrichloroethylene can reduce sperm motility and increase the aberration rate and apoptosis rate of sperms in male SD rats.

  11. Radioiron utilization and gossypol acetic acid in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tone, J.N.; Jensen, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    The 24-h incorporation of 59 Fe into circulating red blood cells, bone marrow, urine, liver, spleen, and skeletal muscle was measured in splenectomized and sham-splenectomized rats which had received a daily, oral dose of gossypol acetic acid (20 mg GAA/kg body wt) for 91 days. A significant decrease in total body weight gain was observed in all GAA treated animals. Splenectomized rats dosed with GAA exhibited a significant decrease in hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit and erythrocyte count. A significant increase in 59 Fe incorporation by red blood cells and a decrease in hepatic incorporation of 59 Fe indicate a preferential utilization of iron in erythropoiesis among GAA treated animals

  12. Hippocampus and cerebellum function following imipenem treatment in male and female rats: evaluation of sex differences during developmental stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golchin, Leila; Golchin, Lale; Vahidi, Ali Asghar; Shabani, Mohammad

    2013-02-15

    The B-Lactam antibiotics have been suggested to have some degree of neurotoxicity in experimental animals as well as in clinical situations. This study has been elucidated the alteration in hippocampal and cerebellum function following adolescent imipenem exposure in male and female rats. Hippocampus and cerebellum related behavioral dysfunction in imipenem -treated [intraperitoneally, 40 and 80 mg/kg/day for one week from 23-day-old] rats were analyzed using explorative, motor function, learning and memory tasks [grasping, rotarod, open field shuttle box and Morris water maze tests]. Exposure to imipenem especially in high dosage impaired the motor coordination in male and female rats. There weren't any differences in grasping time in male and female rats. When the rearing and grooming frequency of their recorded in open field test, both males and females were dramatically affected by exposure to imipenem. Compared to the saline, male and female rats trained one week after imipenem injection showed significant memory deficits in the shuttle box and Morris water maze tests. Results in this study suggested that animals treated with imipenem suffer from motor activity and cognitive impairment. However, hippocampal and cerebellum functions of male and female rats were profoundly affected by exposure to imipenem while no sex-differences in the most variable were evident.

  13. Effect of granulosis virus (virotecto) as bioinsecticide on some biochemical changes in male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, N.E; Ali, S.E

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study to determine the biochemical response of granulosis virus in male albino rats fed with potato treated with granulosis virus (0.15 g/Kg) against potato tuber moth in stores .It was carried out by evaluating the effect of daily feeding on treated potato for 5 weeks followed by withdrawal period for 10 days fed with normal diet on some biochemical and histological changes in kidney of male rats. A trail consists of 3 groups each one contain 18 rats, the first group fed on normal basal diet and served as control, the second group fed with 50% normal potato and 50% basal diet (potato group) and the third group fed with 50% basal diet and 50% potato treated with granulosis virus (virus group) through the experimental period. The obtained data revealed a significant reduction in final body weight and organs weight in both normal and treated potato groups. Sera collected at 2 and 5 weeks post feeding and at the end of withdrawal period, recorded significant disorders in some tested parameters. In addition, histological examination of kidney tissue showed different disorders in normal and treated groups.

  14. Spatial memory performance in androgen insensitive male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bryan A; Watson, Neil V

    2005-06-02

    Masculinization of the developing rodent brain critically depends on the process of aromatization of circulating testosterone (T) to its estrogenic metabolite 17beta-estradiol, which subsequently interacts with estrogen receptors to permanently masculinize the brain. However, it remains unclear what role other androgenic mechanisms may play in the process of masculinization. A novel way of examining this is through the study of male rats that express the tfm mutation of the androgen receptor (AR) gene; such males are fully androgen insensitive and manifest a female phenotype due to a failure of AR-mediated masculinization of peripheral structures. Because tfm-affected males develop secretory testes and have near-normal T titers during development, aromatization would be expected to proceed normally, and brain mechanisms may be developmentally masculinized despite the feminized periphery. We compared tfm-affected males (X(tfm)Y) with normal males and females in the Morris Water Maze, a task in which males typically perform better than females. Performance of tfm-affected males was intermediate between that of normal males and females. While an overall male superiority was found in the task, the X(tfm)Y group reached male-typical escape latencies faster than females. Furthermore, in the X(tfm)Y group, the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus was significantly larger than in females. These results support the suggestion that that AR mediated mechanisms contribute to the masculinization of spatial behaviours and hippocampal morphology, and this may be independent of estrogenic processes.

  15. Changes in radiosensitivity of male sex hormones in rats maintained on kelthane contaminated feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abughadeer, A.R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Alteration of sex hormones levels in male rats after whole body gamma irradiation (6.5 Gy) has been studied. The hormonal response of irradiated rats fed on experimental feed contaminated with organo chlorine insecticide 'kelthane' (200 mg/kg body weight) for different time intervals (3,6 and 12 weeks), has been also investigated. Investigations included measurements of testes/body weight ratio; Testosterone; Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH); luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin levels in serum and testes homogenate of treated rats. The data indicate that whole body gamma irradiation causes significant alteration in all tested parameters except for the testosterone level. Normal rats fed on 'kelthane' contaminated feed, showed significant alteration in all tested parameters, which increased with the prolongation of 'kelthane' exposure period. Double treatment of 'kelthane' and irradiation resulted in more pronounced alterations. It can be concluded that the male sex hormones in rats fed on 'kelthane', were more sensitive to whole body gamma irradiation. Moreover, male sex hormones have shown reliable reliable dose/effect relationship for either radiation or pesticide internal contamination. This suggests their possible use as markers in early diagnosis of radiation exposure and pesticides toxication syndromes. 3 tabs

  16. Hepatoprotective, Antihyperlipidemic, and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Moringa oleifera in Diabetic-induced Damage in Male Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omodanisi, Elizabeth I.; Aboua, Yapo G.; Chegou, Novel N.; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The number of individuals with diabetes is increasing daily, and diabetes is presently estimated to affect about 422 million adults worldwide. Conventional drugs used to treat diabetes are not without severe side effects, accessibility, and affordability. This study elucidates the potential effects of Moringa oleifera (MO) leaves extract to manage and treat diabetes induced in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 12/group): NC – nondiabetic rats (positive control), MO – nondiabetic-treated rats, DM – diabetic rats (negative control), DM + MO – diabetic-treated rats. Hepatic enzymes and biochemical parameters as well as antioxidant capacity and inflammatory cytokine levels were assessed. Levels of low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol were evaluated. Results: Oral administration of methanolic extract of MO (250 mg/kg) to diabetic rats for 42 days showed a significant reduction in hepatic enzyme markers and normalized lipid profile parameters in the serum compared to normal control group. Treatment also increased the level of antioxidant capacity and alleviated inflammatory biomarkers of the liver. Histology sections of the liver tissue showed protective effect of MO in treated rats. Conclusions: MO showed hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and lipid-lowering effects against streptozotocin-induced hepatotoxicity. Histological section demonstrated specific alterations in the liver of the diabetic and nondiabetic male Wistar rats while MO treatment revealed improvement in liver alterations. Abbreviations Used: IL 1: Interleukin 1, IL 6: Interleukin 16, MCP-1: Monocyte chemotactic protein, TNF-α: Tumor Necrotic factor alpha, ROS: Reactive oxygen species, MO: Moringa oleifera, STZ: Streptozotocin, SRC: Standard rat chow, ALP: Alkaline phosphatase, AST: Aspartate aminotransferase, ALT: Alanine aminotransferase, ORAC: Oxygen radical absorbance

  17. Reduced gluconeogenesis in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorski, J.R. (Kansas Univ., Kansas City, KS (USA). Dept. of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics); Weber, L.W.D.; Rozman, K. (Kansas Univ., Kansas City, KS (USA). Dept. of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen (GSF), Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Toxikologie)

    1990-01-01

    The effect of a usually lethal dose of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; 125 {mu}g/kg) was studied on the conversion of {sup 14}C-alanine into {sup 14}C-glucose in male Sprague-Dawley rats by established procedures (determination of plasma alanine and blood glucose by enzymatic assays and isolation of {sup 14}C-alanine and {sup 14}C-glucose from whole blood by column chromatography). TCDD-treated rats converted significantly (p < 0.05) less {sup 14}C-alanine into {sup 14}C-glucose than did their pair-fed or ad libitum-fed counterparts, indicating reduced gluconeogenesis as a result of TCDD treatment. This finding suggests that reduced gluconeogenesis in TCDD-treated rats contributed to the progressively developing, severe hypoglycemia observed in these animals. Corticosterone, a key hormone in gluconeogenesis, provides partial protection from TCDD-induced toxicity in hypophysectomized rats. Therefore, the conversion of {sup 14}C-alanine into {sup 14}C-glucose was also determined in hypophysectomized rats dosed with TCDD (125 {mu}g/kg) and given corticosterone (25 {mu}g/ml in drinking water). These rats also converted significantly (p < 0.05) less {sup 14}C-alanine into {sup 14}C-glucose than did their pair-fed counterparts. However, in contrast to non-hypophysectomized TCDD-treated rats, these rats maintained marginal normoglycemia even at 64 days after dosing with TCDD, which suggests that the partial protective effect of corticosterone in hypophysectomized, TCDD-treated rats is unrelated to its efffect on gluconeogenesis. The protection provided by corticosterone supplementation in TCDD toxicity is more likely due to reduced peripheral utilization of glucose enabling the animals to maintain marginal normoglycemia. (orig.).

  18. The role of estrogen G-protein coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) and sexual experience in sexual incentive motivation in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, W R; Battista, C; Divack, S R; Morales Núñez, N B

    2017-08-01

    Male rats exhibit reductions in sexual motivation following systemic administration of drugs that inhibit the conversion of testosterone to estrogen, which indicates that estrogen signaling plays a role in male rat sexual motivation. Given that estrogen G-protein coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) is expressed in brain areas that are important for male sexual behaviors and endocrine function, the primary aim of the current study was to examine the role that GPR30 plays in sexual motivation in both sexually naïve and sexually experienced male rats. Following the final treatment with either a GPR30 antagonist (G-15) or vehicle control, male rats were placed into the center chamber of a larger three-chambered testing arena that was designed to assess sexual incentive motivation. A sexually receptive stimulus female rat and a stimulus male rat were individually confined to one of the two smaller chambers that were each separated by a perforated partition from the larger end chambers, which test rats had access to. Relative to vehicle treated rats, male rats treated with G-15 exhibited a reduction in the percentage of time spent in the vicinity of a sexually receptive female rat. Although G-15 reduced sexual incentive motivation independent of sexual experience, only sexually-naïve rats treated with G-15 did not exhibit a preference for the sexually receptive stimulus female rat. Collectively, these results indicate that interference with estrogen signaling at GPR30 reduces sexual motivation and that the lack of preference for a sexually receptive female rat over a male rat following G-15 treatment is abrogated by previous sexual experience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sex Hormone-Related Functions in Regenerating Male Rat Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    FRANCAVILLA, ANTONIO; EAGON, PATRICIA K.; DiLEO, ALFREDO; POLIMENO, LORENZO; PANELLA, CARMINE; AQUILINO, A. MARIA; INGROSSO, MARCELLO; Van THIEL, DAVID H.; STARZL, THOMAS E.

    2011-01-01

    Sex hormone receptors were quantitated in normal male rat liver and in regenerating liver at several different times after partial (70%) hepatectomy. Both estrogen and androgen receptor content were altered dramatically by partial hepatectomy. Total hepatic content and nuclear retention of estrogen receptors increased, with the zenith evident 2 days after partial hepatectomy, corresponding to the zenith of mitotic index. Serum estradiol increased after 1 day, and reached a maximum at 3 days after surgery. In contrast, total and nuclear androgen receptor content demonstrated a massive decline at 1, 2, and 3 days after resection. Serum testosterone displayed a parallel decline. In addition, hepatic content of two androgen-responsive proteins was reduced to 15% and 13% of normal values during this period. The activity of these various proteins during regeneration of male rat liver is comparable to that observed in the liver of normal female rats. Taken together, these results indicate that partial hepatectomy induces a feminization of certain sexually dimorphic aspects of liver function in male rats. Furthermore, these data provide evidence that estrogens, but not androgens, may have an important role in the process of liver regeneration. PMID:3758617

  20. Drug specificity in drug versus food choice in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunstall, Brendan J; Riley, Anthony L; Kearns, David N

    2014-08-01

    Although different classes of drug differ in their mechanisms of reinforcement and effects on behavior, little research has focused on differences in self-administration behaviors maintained by users of these drugs. Persistent drug choice despite available reinforcement alternatives has been proposed to model behavior relevant to addiction. The present study used a within-subjects procedure, where male rats (Long-Evans, N = 16) were given a choice between cocaine (1.0 mg/kg/infusion) and food (a single 45-mg grain pellet) or between heroin (0.02 mg/kg/infusion) and food in separate phases (drug order counterbalanced). All rats were initially trained to self-administer each drug, and the doses used were based on previous studies showing that small subsets of rats tend to prefer drug over food reinforcement. The goal of the present study was to determine whether rats that prefer cocaine would also prefer heroin. Choice sessions consisted of 2 forced-choice trials with each reinforcer, followed by 14 free-choice trials (all trials separated by 10-min intertrial interval). Replicating previous results, small subsets of rats preferred either cocaine (5 of the 16 rats) or heroin (2 of the 16 rats) to the food alternative. Although 1 of the 16 rats demonstrated a preference for both cocaine and heroin to the food alternative, there was no relationship between degree of cocaine and heroin preference in individual rats. The substance-specific pattern of drug preference observed suggests that at least in this animal model, the tendencies to prefer cocaine or heroin in preference to a nondrug alternative are distinct behavioral phenomena.

  1. Effect of eplerenone on serum TNF-α levels in adriamycin induced heart failure male rat models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xuan Nan; Song Liping; Xing Haiyan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of eplerenone on serum TNF-α levels in adriamycin induced heart failure male rat models. Methods: Forty male rat models of adriamycin-induced heart failure were prepared with weekly intraperitoneal injection of adriamycin (4/mg/kg) for six weeks. Twenty surviving models were randomly divided into two groups: (1)eplerenone-treated group, n=10, treated with garage of eplerenone 200mg/kg/d for 12 weeks (2) non-treated group n=10. All the surviving models (group (1) n=8, group (2) n=6) were sacrificed after 12 weeks with left ventricular hemodynamic function parameters tested and serum TNF-α levels measured. Ten male rats without adriamycin administration served as controls. Results: Left ventricular hemodynamic parameters in the non-treated group were significantly worse than those in controls (P<0.05). The parameters in the eplerenone treated group were significantly better than those in the non-treated group (P<0.05). The serum TNF-α levels in the non-treated group were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). TNF-α levels in the eplerenone group were significantly lower than those in the non-treated group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Eplerenone could reduce the serum TNF-α levels in the rat models of heart failure. (authors)

  2. Testosterone influences spatial strategy preferences among adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spritzer, Mark D; Fox, Elliott C; Larsen, Gregory D; Batson, Christopher G; Wagner, Benjamin A; Maher, Jack

    2013-05-01

    Males outperform females on some spatial tasks, and this may be partially due to the effects of sex steroids on spatial strategy preferences. Previous work with rodents indicates that low estradiol levels bias females toward a striatum-dependent response strategy, whereas high estradiol levels bias them toward a hippocampus-dependent place strategy. We tested whether testosterone influenced the strategy preferences in male rats. All subjects were castrated and assigned to one of three daily injection doses of testosterone (0.125, 0.250, or 0.500 mg/rat) or a control group that received daily injections of the drug vehicle. Three different maze protocols were used to determine rats' strategy preferences. A low dose of testosterone (0.125 mg) biased males toward a motor-response strategy on a T-maze task. In a water maze task in which the platform itself could be used intermittently as a visual cue, a low testosterone dose (0.125 mg) caused a significant increase in the use of a cued-response strategy relative to control males. Results from this second experiment also indicated that males receiving a high dose of testosterone (0.500 mg) were biased toward a place strategy. A third experiment indicated that testosterone dose did not have a strong influence on the ability of rats to use a nearby visual cue (floating ball) in the water maze. For this experiment, all groups seemed to use a combination of place and cued-response strategies. Overall, the results indicate that the effects of testosterone on spatial strategy preference are dose dependent and task dependent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. α-Lipoic Acid Mitigates Arsenic-Induced Hematological Abnormalities in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali Ghosh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arsenic toxicity is a major global health problem and exposure via contaminated drinking water has been associated with hematological and other systemic disorders. The present investigation has been conducted in adult male rats to evaluate the protective ability of α-lipoic acid (ALA against such hematological disorders. Methods: Twenty-four adult male Wister rats (b.wt.130±10g were grouped and accordingly group I (control received the normal diet, group II (treated was given arsenic orally for 28 consecutive days as arsenic trioxide (3 mg/kgbw/rat/day whereas group III (supplemented received the same dose of arsenic along with ALA (25 mg/kgbw/rat/day as oral supplement. Hematological profile, plasma oxidant/antioxidant status, and erythrocyte morphology were assessed. Statistical analysis was done by one-way ANOVA using SPSS software (version 16.0. Results: Arsenic exposure caused reduction of erythrocyte (P=0.021, leucocyte (P<0.001, and hemoglobin (P=0.031 associated with echinocytic transformation as evidenced by light and scanning electron microscopic studies. The other significantly altered parameters include increased mean corpuscular volume (P=0.041 and lymphocytopenia (P<0.001 with insignificant neutropenia and eosinophilia. Altered serum oxidative balance as evidenced by decreased TAS (P<0.001 and increased TOS (P<0.001 with OSI (P<0.001 was also noted. The dietary supplementation of ALA has a beneficial effect against the observed (P<0.05 arsenic toxicities. It brings about the protection by restoring the hematological redox and inflammatory status near normal in treated rats. Arsenic-induced morphological alteration of erythrocytes was also partially attenuated by ALA supplementation. Conclusion: It is concluded that arsenicosis is associated with hematological alterations and ALA co-supplementation can partially alleviate these changes in an experimental male rat model.

  4. Neuroprotective Effect of Melatonin Against PCBs Induced Behavioural, Molecular and Histological Changes in Cerebral Cortex of Adult Male Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavithra, S; Selvakumar, K; Sundareswaran, L; Arunakaran, J

    2017-02-01

    There is ample evidence stating Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as neurotoxins. In the current study, we have analyzed the behavioural impact of PCBs exposure in adult rats and assessed the simultaneous effect of antioxidant melatonin against the PCBs action. The rats were grouped into four and treated intraperitoneally with vehicle, PCBs, PCBs + melatonin and melatonin alone for 30 days, respectively. After the treatment period the rats were tested for locomotor activity and anxiety behaviour analysis. We confirmed the neuronal damage in the cerebral cortex by molecular and histological analysis. Our data indicates that there is impairment in locomotor activity and behaviour of PCBs treated rats compared to control. The simultaneous melatonin treated rat shows increased motor coordination and less anxiety like behaviour compared to PCBs treated rats. Molecular and histological analysis supports that, the impaired motor coordination in PCBs treated rats is due to neurodegeneration in motor cortex region. The results proved that melatonin treatment improved the motor co-ordination and reduced anxiety behaviour, prevented neurodegeneration in the cerebral cortex of PCBs-exposed adult male rats.

  5. Dominant lethals following administration of tritium (THO) to rat males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagova, A.; Baev, I.; Bajrakova, A.

    1976-01-01

    Adult rat males were given a single intraperitoneal tritium (THO) injection at 0,01 or 0,001 mCi/g body weight (1/100 or 1/1000 of LDsub(50/30), respectively). Twelve days after treatment each male was mated to 3-5 intact females, and the latter were replaced by fresh ones every 12 following days over a 120-day period. Mated females were killed to score conceptions, corpora lutea, and live and dead embryos. Estimations were made of F 1 prenatal death rate (according to Bateman, 1958) and the frequency of induction of dominant lethal mutations (according to Roehrborn, 1970). The results observed indicated paternal exposure to tritium (THO) to produce dominant lethals both in pre- and post-meiotic germ cells in the rat. The extent of the genetic damage studied was found to depend on the amount of activity administered as well as on the time interval between treatment and conception. (author)

  6. Bone metabolism of male rats chronically exposed to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzoska, Malgorzata M.; Moniuszko-Jakoniuk, Janina

    2005-01-01

    Recently, based on a female rat model of human exposure, we have reported that low-level chronic exposure to cadmium (Cd) has an injurious effect on the skeleton. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether the exposure may also affect bone metabolism in a male rat model and to estimate the gender-related differences in the bone effect of Cd. Young male Wistar rats received drinking water containing 0, 1, 5, or 50 mg Cd/l for 12 months. The bone effect of Cd was evaluated using bone densitometry and biochemical markers of bone turnover. Renal handling of calcium (Ca) and phosphate, and serum concentrations of vitamin D metabolites, calcitonin, and parathormone were estimated as well. At treatment with 1 mg Cd/l, corresponding to the low environmental exposure in non-Cd-polluted areas, the bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) at the femur and lumbar spine (L1-L5) and the total skeleton BMD did not differ compared to control. However, from the 6th month of the exposure, the Z score BMD indicated osteopenia in some animals and after 12 months the bone resorption very clearly tended to an increase. The rats' exposure corresponding to human moderate (5 mg Cd/l) and especially relatively high (50 mg Cd/l) exposure dose- and duration-dependently disturbed the processes of bone turnover and bone mass accumulation leading to formation of less dense than normal bone tissue. The effects were accompanied by changes in the serum concentration of calciotropic hormones and disorders in Ca and phosphate metabolism. It can be concluded that low environmental exposure to Cd may be only a subtle risk factor for skeletal demineralization in men. The results together with our previous findings based on an analogous model using female rats give clear evidence that males are less vulnerable to the bone effects of Cd compared to females

  7. Methamphetamine affects social interaction in adult male rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pometlová, M.; Mikulecká, Anna; Šlamberová, Romana; Schutová, B.; Hrubá, L.; Rokyta, R.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 18, Suppl.1 (2007), S77-S77 ISSN 0955-8810. [Biennial Meeting of the European Behavioural Pharmacology Society /12./. 31.08.2007-03.09.2007, Tübingen] R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) 1A8610; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : metemphetamine * behavior * male rat Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  8. Effects of zinc supplementation on sexual behavior of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DMAB Dissanayake

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Effects of zinc on male sexual competence are poorly understood. Aim: To study the effects of different doses of zinc on the sexual competence of males using a rat model. Materials and Methods: Three subsets (eight in each subset of sexually experienced adult male rats were supplemented with three different oral doses of zinc sulphate (a daily dose of 1 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg respectively for two weeks. A subset of eight animals without zinc supplementation was used as the control group Sexual behavior was observed by placing them individually in cages with receptive females. Statistical Analysis : Data analysis was done using SPSS v10 for windows computer software. Results: Supplementation of 5 mg of zinc/day for two weeks led to a prolongation of ejaculatory latency; 711.6 sec. (SEM 85.47 vs. 489.50 sec. (SEM 67.66, P 0.05. However, partner preference index was positive and 5 mg zinc supplementation did not exert a significant adverse effect on the muscle strength and co-ordination. The subset of rats supplemented with 1 mg/day did not show a difference from the control group while supplementation with 10 mg/day led to a reduction of the libido index, number of mounts and intromissions. Conclusions : Zinc therapy improves sexual competence of male rats; the effect is dose dependent. Increase in the T levels is beneficial in this regard. However, increase in PRL is responsible for the reduced libido index. Further studies on pigs and monkeys are needed to evaluate the therapeutic use of zinc in sexual dysfunction.

  9. Variety of immune responses to chronic stress in rats male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Іlona S Polovynko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previously we have been carry out integrated quantitative estimation of neuroendocrine and immune responses to chronic restraint stress in male rats. Revealed that the value of canonical discriminant roots rats subjected to chronic stress different not only on the values of intact animals (by definition, but also among themselves. So we set a goal retrospectively divided stressed rats into three homogeneous groups. Material and methods. The experiment is at 50 white male rats. Of these 10 animals not subjected to any influences and 40 within 7 days subjected to moderate stress by daily 30-minute immobilization. The day after the completion of stressing in portion of the blood immunological parameters were determined by tests I and II levels of WHO. The spleen and thymus did smears for counting spleno- and thymocytograms. Results. The method of cluster analysis (k-means clustering formed three groups-clusters. For further analysis selected 18 parameters that members of each cluster differing minimum and maximum are different from members of other clusters (η2=0,73÷0,15; F=49,0÷3,26; p=10-6÷0,05. We stated that in 16 rats from cluster III the deviation 16 parameters in either side of the average norm almost identical and are in an acceptable range of ±0,5σ. Thus, the immune status of 40% of the rats subjected to moderate chronic stress was resistant to its factors. For the immune status of the 15 (37,5% rats cluster II typical moderate inhibition microphage, killer and T-cellular links in combination with a strong activation macrophage link. Poststressory changes in immunity in 9 rats (22,5% from cluster I differ from those in cluster II both qualitatively and quantitatively. In particular, the rats in this cluster were found no deviations from the norm or reaction blast transformation T-cells nor NK-lymphocytes levels. However, other parameters of T-link and microhage link suppressed more and settings macrophage link appeared

  10. The Protective Role of Ginger (Zingiber Officinales ) in Male Albino Rats Exposed to Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    The present work was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of preirradiation treatment with ginger (Zingiber Officinales) for 21 consecutive days before exposure in controlling post-irradiation hazards in male rats. Male albino rats weighing about 120±10 g were divided into four groups: ( I ) control, ( II ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg , ( III ) irradiated with 6 Gy and ( IV ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg before irradiated with 6 Gy gamma - radiation . The blood samples were collected from heart of animals 21 days after treatment with ginger and seven days post irradiation. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical analysts such as liver functions , lipid profile , kidney function and sex hormone. Whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) caused significant increase in (aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), cholesterol, triglycerides , glucose, urea and creatinine) while alkaline phosphatase showed no effect. Irradiation caused decrease in the contents of total protein , albumin and testosterone. Ginger treatment exerted noticeable amelioration in the studied biochemical parameters of the irradiated albino rats. The mechanism of action of ginger may be due to its antiinflammatory properties against whole body gamma irradiation

  11. Anti Lithiasis Activity of Avocado (Persea americana Mill Leaves Extract in White Male Rats

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    IETJE WIENTARSIH

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, avocado leaves have been used as traditional medicines for diureticum to cure urolithiasis. This research was to determine anti lithiasis activity of avocado leaves (Persea americana Mill extract on white male rats nefrolithiasis model induced by ethylene glycol. Ethanol extraction method was used to get extract of avogadro leaves. Twenty adult male white rats were divided into 4 different induction treatments i.e. aquadest, ethylene glycol 0.75% and ammonium chloride 2%, and extract of avocado leaves with different levels of 100 and 300 mg/kg bw respectively. Their body weight was measured daily to determine their growth ratio. And at the end of the trial, the kidney was analyzed its calcium level and inhibitory activity to formation of calcium oxalate crystals. The results showed that the amount of calcium level in the kidney of rats treated with extract of avogadro leaves was significantly decreased than that of rats treated with ethylene glycol 0.75% and ammonium chloride 2% (P < 0.05. The extract avocado leaves as a herbal remedy can be recommended as a phytotherapeutic agent especially for preventive action for urolithiasis diseases.

  12. Disposition of perfluorodecanoic acid in male and female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanden Heuvel, J.P.; Kuslikis, B.I.; Van Rafelghem, M.J.; Peterson, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The elimination, tissue distribution, and metabolism of [1-14C]PFDA were examined in male and female rats for 28 days after a single ip dose (9.4 mumol/kg, 5 mg/kg). A sex difference in the fecal elimination of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) was observed with 51 and 24% of the administered 14C being recovered in the feces of male and female rats, respectively, by 28 days post-treatment. The cumulative excretion of PFDA-derived 14C in the urine in 28 days was less than 5% of the administered dose in both sexes. The sex-related difference in the rate of fecal elimination resulted in the observed difference in whole body elimination t1/2 of PFDA in males (t1/2 = 23 days) and females (t1/2 = 45 days). The liver contained the highest concentration of PFDA-derived 14C in both males and females, followed by the plasma and kidneys. The heart, fat pads, testes, and gastrocnemius muscle of males, and the ovaries of females contained much lower concentrations of PFDA. The reason for the high percentage of the ip dose of [1-14C]PFDA in the liver (53% males and 41% females, 2 hr post-treatment) was further examined using an in situ nonrecirculating liver perfusion technique. It was shown that approximately 25% of the [14C]PFDA in the perfusate was extracted by the liver in a single pass. The basis for the sex difference in fecal elimination of PFDA does not appear to be due to a sex difference in biliary excretion. In a 6-hr period, male and female rats with kidneys ligated eliminated essentially the same percentage dose of [14C]PFDA into bile. We had hypothesized that the persistence of PFDA in rats was due to formation of a PFDA-containing lipids. However, no evidence that PFDA is conjugated to form persistent hybrid lipids was obtained, nor were polar metabolites of PFDA detected in urine or bile

  13. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Sadeghipour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L. was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia.

  14. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghipour, Alireza; Ilchizadeh Kavgani, Ali; Ghahramani, Reza; Shahabzadeh, Saleh; Anissian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.) was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight) for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia. PMID:25295067

  15. Microarray analysis of thioacetamide-treated type 1 diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devi, Sachin S.; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that diabetes imparts high sensitivity to numerous hepatotoxicants. Previously, we have shown that a normally non-lethal dose of thioacetamide (TA, 300 mg/kg) causes 90% mortality in type 1 diabetic (DB) rats due to inhibited tissue repair allowing progression of liver injury. On the other hand, DB rats exposed to 30 mg TA/kg exhibit delayed tissue repair and delayed recovery from injury. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism of impaired tissue repair and progression of liver injury in TA-treated DB rats by using cDNA microarray. Gene expression pattern was examined at 0, 6, and 12 h after TA challenge, and selected mechanistic leads from microarray experiments were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR and further investigated at protein level over the time course of 0 to 36 h after TA treatment. Diabetic condition itself increased gene expression of proteases and decreased gene expression of protease inhibitors. Administration of 300 mg TA/kg to DB rats further elevated gene expression of proteases and suppressed gene expression of protease inhibitors, explaining progression of liver injury in DB rats after TA treatment. Inhibited expression of genes involved in cell division cycle (cyclin D1, IGFBP-1, ras, E2F) was observed after exposure of DB rats to 300 mg TA/kg, explaining inhibited tissue repair in these rats. On the other hand, DB rats receiving 30 mg TA/kg exhibit delayed expression of genes involved in cell division cycle, explaining delayed tissue repair in these rats. In conclusion, impaired cyclin D1 signaling along with increased proteases and decreased protease inhibitors may explain impaired tissue repair that leads to progression of liver injury initiated by TA in DB rats

  16. Activation of PPAR by Rosiglitazone Does Not Negatively Impact Male Sex Steroid Hormones in Diabetic Rats

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    Mahmoud Mansour

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR activation decreased serum testosterone (T in women with hyperthecosis and/or polycystic ovary syndrome and reduced the conversion of androgens to estradiol (E2 in female rats. This implies modulation of female sex steroid hormones by PPAR. It is not clear if PPAR modulates sex steroid hormones in diabetic males. Because PPAR activation by thiazolidinedione increased insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes, understanding the long term impact of PPAR activation on steroid sex hormones in males is critical. Our objective was to determine the effect of PPAR activation on serum and intratesticular T, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and E2 concentrations in male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats treated with the PPAR agonist rosiglitazone (a thiazolidinedione. Treatment for eight weeks increased PPAR mRNA and protein in the testis and elevated serum adiponectin, an adipokine marker for PPAR activation. PPAR activation did not alter serum or intratesticular T concentrations. In contrast, serum T level but not intratesticular T was reduced by diabetes. Neither diabetes nor PPAR activation altered serum E2 or gonadotropins FSH and LH concentrations. The results suggest that activation of PPAR by rosiglitazone has no negative impact on sex hormones in male ZDF rats.

  17. Influence of Gamma Aminobutyric Acid on Some Biochemical Alterations in Irradiated and Streptozotocin Treated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.S.M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of GABA on some metabolic complications in STZ-treated, γ- irradiated and STZ-treated-γ-irradiated rats. Animals sacrificed 3 weeks after the different treatments showed that the intraperitoneal administration of STZ (60 mg/Kg) to male albino Sprague Dawley rats induced hyperglycemia and insulin deficiency (DM type 1). While whole body γ-irradiation with 6 Gy using Cs-137 source provoked hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance (DM type 2) and whole body γ-irradiation of STZ-treated rats induced hyperglycemia, insulin deficiency and insulin resistance. Dyslipidemia (elevated triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL-C and decreased HDL-C) was recorded in STZ-treated, γ-irradiated and STZ-treated-γ-irradiated rats. Oxidative stress evidenced by significant decreases of SOD, catalase and GSH-Px activities and significant increases of MDA and AOPP was recorded in pancreas, liver and kidney tissues. Oxidative stress in pancreatic tissues was associated with damage of islets of Langerhans and significant decreases of GABA level and GAD activity. Oxidative stress in liver was accompanied by significant elevation of serum ALT and AST activities. Oxidative stress in kidney tissues was associated with significant increases of urea and creatinine levels. The administration of GABA daily via gavages (200 mg/Kg/day) during 3 weeks to STZ-treated, γ-irradiated and STZ-treated-γ-irradiated rats rectified insulin, glucose and lipid levels, reduced oxidative stress in pancreatic tissues accompanied by regenerating pancreatic islets of Langerhans and elevation of GABA level and GAD activity. GABA reduced also oxidative stress in liver and kidney tissues accompanied by lower serum ALT and AST activities and urea and creatinine levels

  18. Effects of buddleja officinalis total flavonoids on serum testosterone level of castrated male rats with xeroma

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    Wen-Juan Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe buddleja officinalis total flavonoids' effect on the basal tear secretion amount, tear film stability, lacrimal gland histomorphology and serum testosterone level of castrated male rat model with xeroma, to study the mechanism of rat xeroma caused by buddleja officinalis total flavones' anti-sex hormones disorders.MEATHODS: A total of 150 Wistar male rats of 1 month old, weighted about 200g, were randomly divided into 5 groups with 30 rats in each group with A representing normal group; B representing sham operation group; C representing surgery control group; D representing group treated with androgen; E representing group treated with buddleja officinalis total flavonoids. For the groups C, D, E, the bilateral testicle and epididymis were excised; For group B, scrota were incised without removal of the testicles, as the sham operation group; For group A, nothing was done. One week after modeling when the wound was to be healed, drug was given to each group. Respectively at the 1st month, 3rd, and 5th months after treatment, 10 rats were randomly selected in each group, to receive Schirmer I test, tear breakup time measurement. Blood serum testosterone levels were tested in the fifth month. RESUITS: For groups D and E, the Schirmer I test measurements were significantly higher than that of group C(PPPCONCLUSION: Decreased androgen levels can lead to xeroma, and removal of bilateral testes and epididymis can successfully establish the animal models of xeroma in rats caused by decreased androgen levels. Buddleja officinalis total flavonoids have androgenic effect, which produces the similar treatment effect of xeroma with testosterone propionate. Buddleja officinalis total flavonoids may become a new treatment for xeroma.

  19. Mondia whitei (Periplocaceae prevents and Guibourtia tessmannii (Caesalpiniaceae facilitates fictive ejaculation in spinal male rats

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    Watcho Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mondia whitei and Guibourtia tessmannii are used in Cameroon traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the pro-ejaculatory effects of the aqueous and organic solvent extracts of these plants in spinal male rats. Methods In spinal cord transected and urethane-anesthetized rats, two electrodes where inserted into the bulbospongiosus muscles and the ejaculatory motor pattern was recorded on a polygraph after urethral and penile stimulations, intravenous injection of saline (0.1 ml/100 g, dopamine (0.1 μM/kg, aqueous and organic solvent plant extracts (20 mg/kg. Results In all spinal rats, urethral and penile stimulations always induced the ejaculatory motor pattern. Aqueous or hexane extract of Mondia whitei (20 mg/kg prevented the expression of the ejaculatory motor pattern. The pro-ejaculatory effects of dopamine (0.1 μM/kg were not abolished in spinal rats pre-treated with Mondia whitei extracts. Aqueous and methanolic stem bark extracts of Guibourtia tessmannii (20 mg/kg induced fictive ejaculation characterized by rhythmic contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscles followed sometimes with expulsion of seminal plugs. In rats pre-treated with haloperidol (0.26 μM/kg, no ejaculatory motor pattern was recorded after intravenous injection of Guibourtia tessmannii extracts (20 mg/kg. Conclusion These results show that Mondia whitei possesses preventive effects on the expression of fictive ejaculation in spinal male rats, which is not mediated through dopaminergic pathway; on the contrary, the pro-ejaculatory activities of Guibourtia tessmannii require the integrity of dopaminergic system to exert its effects. The present findings further justify the ethno-medicinal claims of Mondia whitei and Guibourtia tessmannii.

  20. Apelin-13 increased food intake with serum ghrelin and leptin levels in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saral, S; Alkanat, M; Sumer, A; Canpolat, S

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to explain the role of apelin-13 on body weight, food and water intake with serum leptin, ghrelin, neuropeptid Y (NPY) and peptid YY (PYY) levels in male rat. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley male rats were used for the study. The rats were injected SP (0.9 %) intraperitoneally (i.p) in the control group and 30 (AP30), 100 (AP100) and 300 (AP300) µg/kg apelin-13 in the study groups, respectively, 10 min before the transition to dark period, for 10 days. During the experimental period, with light and dark periods of food and water intake, body weights were recorded in rats. Rats were euthanized and serum samples were obtained. In serum samples leptin, ghrelin, NPY and PYY levels were measured with specific ELISA kit. Apelin-13 was increased body weights in all three (AP30, AP100 and AP300) groups compared with the control group. AP100 and AP300 groups had increased food intake in the dark and the cumulative period, but in the light period food intake values were not significantly increased (p > 0.05). As for the value of water intake, compared with the control group, all dose of apelin-13 increased water intake during the dark and the cumulative period. There was no significant change in water intake in the light period. On the other hand, compared with the control group, serum leptin levels were found to increase in the groups administered 100 and 300 µg/kg of apelin-13 (p Ghrelin levels were found high in all groups treated with apelin-13. Serum levels of NPY decreased only in the 300 µg/kg apelin-13 treated group (p 0.05). Apelin-13 increases body weight in rats as well as food and water intake (dark and cumulative period). Additionally, ghrelin can mediate the orexigenic effect of apelin-13 in the regulation of food intake (Fig. 4, Ref. 37).

  1. Nigella sativa oil Ameliorates ionizing Radiation induced cellular injury in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, E.T.; El-Kady, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Nigella sativa (NS), commonly known as black seed, is a plant spices in which thymoquinone is the main active ingredient isolated from the black seeds. The seeds of Nigella sativa are used in herbal medicine all over the world for the treatment and prevention of a number of diseases. The aim of this study was focused on investigating the possible protective effect of NS against gamma radiation induced nephrotoxicity and inflammatory changes in male albino rats. Twenty four albino rats were divided into four equal groups as follows: control group, irradiated group (animals subjected to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy), treated group (rats treated with 0.2 ml/kg, i.p., NS oil for 4 weeks), and treated irradiated group (animals treated with 0.2 mL/kg, i.p., NS oil for 4 weeks then exposed to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy). The obtained results revealed that the administration of Nigella sativa oil to irradiated rats significantly ameliorated the changes induced in kidney antioxidant system; catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities as well as reduced glutathione concentration. Also, NS oil restored the kidney function indices (urea and creatinine) near normal level when compared with their equivalent values in irradiated rats. In addition, the changes in serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) activities were markedly improved compared to the corresponding values of irradiated group. The histopathological results showed distinctive pattern of ischemic renal injury in irradiated group, while in treated- irradiated group the renal tissues showed relatively well-preserved architecture with or without focal degeneration. In conclusion, NS acts in the kidney as a potent scavenger of free radicals to prevent or ameliorates the toxic effects of gamma irradiation as shown in the biochemical and histopathological study and also NS oil might provide substantial protection against

  2. Effect of pregnancy on cadmium-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizama, Y. (Akita Univ. School of Medicine, Japan); Nakamura, I.; Kurayama, R.; Hirasawa, F.; Kawai, K.

    1982-01-01

    It is well known that itai-itai disease with the osteopathy is broken out among multiparas, 40 years of age and up Japanese residents. In this paper we described an experimental study of effect of pregnancy on cadmium treated rats. Female mature rats were administered drinking water containing 50 and 200 ppm cadmium as CdCl/sub 2/. During 180 days of the experiment, three times of pregnancy were succesful, though slight depression of body weight gain was noticed in the 200 ppm group. The cadmium was accumulated in the kidneys, liver and bone proportionally to the amount of cadmium administered. No significant change was recognized in serum calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels after 180 days. Though cadmium 200 ppm treated rats showed slight histological lesions in the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney, there appeared to be no osteomalacia including excess formation of osteoid tissue.

  3. Chemoprotective effect of omega-3 fatty acids on thioacetamide induced hepatic fibrosis in male rats

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    Atef M. Al-Attar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The current study was designed to investigate the possible protective effect of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil on hepatic fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA in male rats. The experimental animals were divided into four groups. The first group was received saline solution and served as control. The second group was given 250 mg/kg body weight of TAA. The third group was treated with omega-3 fatty acids and TAA. The fourth group was given saline solution and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids. Treatment of rats with TAA for three and six weeks resulted in a significant decrease in body weight gain, while the value of liver/body weight ratio was statistically increased. Furthermore, the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase and total bilirubin were significantly increased. After three weeks of exposure to only TAA, liver sections showed an abnormal morphology characterized by noticeable fibrosis with the extracellular matrix collagen contents and damage of liver cells’ structure. Liver sections from rats treated with only TAA for six weeks revealed an obvious increase in extracellular matrix collagen content and bridging fibrosis. Treating TAA-intoxicated rats with omega-3 fatty acids significantly attenuated the severe physiological and histopathological changes. Finally, the present investigation suggests that omega-3 fatty acids could act against hepatic fibrosis induced by TAA due to its antioxidant properties, thus supporting its use in hepatic fibrosis therapy.

  4. Protective Effect of Vitamins E and C on Endosulfan-Induced Reproductive Toxicity in Male Rats

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    Hussain Kargar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of oxidative stress in endosulfan-induced reproductive toxicity has been implicated. This study was performed to evaluate the possible protective effect of vitamins E and C, against endosulfan-induced reproductive toxicity in rats.Methods: Fifty adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=10 each. The groups included a control receiving vehicle, a group treated with endosulfan (10 mg/kg/day alone, and three endosulfan-treated group receiving vitamin C (20 mg/kg/day, vitamin E (200 mg/kg/day, or vitamine C+vitamin E at the same doses. After 10 days of treatment, sperm parameters, plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, plasma testosterone and malondialdehyde (MDA levels in the testis were determined. Results: Oral administration of endosulfan caused a reduction in the sperm motility, viability, daily sperm production (DSP and increased the number of sperm with abnormal chromatin condensation. Endosulfan administration increased testis MDA and plasma LDH. Supplementation of vitamin C and vitamin E to endosulfan-treated rats reduced the toxic effect of endosulfan on sperm parameters and lipid peroxidation in the testis. Vitamin E was more protective than vitamin C in reducing the adverse effects of the endosulfan.Conclusion: The findings data suggest that administration of vitamins C and E ameliorated the endosulfan-induced oxidative stress and sperm toxicity in rat. The effect of vitamin E in preventing endosulfan-induced sperm toxicity was superior to that of vitamin C.

  5. Protective effect of vitamins e and C on endosulfan-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takhshid, Mohammad Ali; Tavasuli, Ali Reza; Heidary, Yazdan; Keshavarz, Mojtaba; Kargar, Hussain

    2012-09-01

    The role of oxidative stress in endosulfan-induced reproductive toxicity has been implicated. This study was performed to evaluate the possible protective effect of vitamins E and C, against endosulfan-induced reproductive toxicity in rats. Fifty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=10 each). The groups included a control receiving vehicle, a group treated with endosulfan (10 mg/kg/day) alone, and three endosulfan-treated group receiving vitamin C (20 mg/kg/day), vitamin E (200 mg/kg/day), or vitamine C+vitamin E at the same doses. After 10 days of treatment, sperm parameters, plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), plasma testosterone and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the testis were determined. Oral administration of endosulfan caused a reduction in the sperm motility, viability, daily sperm production (DSP) and increased the number of sperm with abnormal chromatin condensation. Endosulfan administration increased testis MDA and plasma LDH. Supplementation of vitamin C and vitamin E to endosulfan-treated rats reduced the toxic effect of endosulfan on sperm parameters and lipid peroxidation in the testis. Vitamin E was more protective than vitamin C in reducing the adverse effects of the endosulfan. The findings data suggest that administration of vitamins C and E ameliorated the endosulfan-induced oxidative stress and sperm toxicity in rat. The effect of vitamin E in preventing endosulfan-induced sperm toxicity was superior to that of vitamin C.

  6. Effects of microcurrent stimulation on Hyaline cartilage repair in immature male rats (Rattus norvegicus

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    de Campos Ciccone Carla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, we investigate the effects of microcurrent stimulation on the repair process of xiphoid cartilage in 45-days-old rats. Methods Twenty male rats were divided into a control group and a treated group. A 3-mm defect was then created with a punch in anesthetized animals. In the treated group, animals were submitted to daily applications of a biphasic square pulse microgalvanic continuous electrical current during 5 min. In each application, it was used a frequency of 0.3 Hz and intensity of 20 μA. The animals were sacrificed at 7, 21 and 35 days after injury for structural analysis. Results Basophilia increased gradually in control animals during the experimental period. In treated animals, newly formed cartilage was observed on days 21 and 35. No statistically significant differences in birefringent collagen fibers were seen between groups at any of the time points. Treated animals presented a statistically larger number of chondroblasts. Calcification points were observed in treated animals on day 35. Ultrastructural analysis revealed differences in cell and matrix characteristics between the two groups. Chondrocyte-like cells were seen in control animals only after 35 days, whereas they were present in treated animals as early as by day 21. The number of cuprolinic blue-stained proteoglycans was statistically higher in treated animals on days 21 and 35. Conclusion We conclude that microcurrent stimulation accelerates the cartilage repair in non-articular site from prepuberal animals.

  7. Effects of microcurrent stimulation on hyaline cartilage repair in immature male rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos Ciccone, Carla; Zuzzi, Denise Cristina; Neves, Lia Mara Grosso; Mendonça, Josué Sampaio; Joazeiro, Paulo Pinto; Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marretto

    2013-01-19

    In this study, we investigate the effects of microcurrent stimulation on the repair process of xiphoid cartilage in 45-days-old rats. Twenty male rats were divided into a control group and a treated group. A 3-mm defect was then created with a punch in anesthetized animals. In the treated group, animals were submitted to daily applications of a biphasic square pulse microgalvanic continuous electrical current during 5 min. In each application, it was used a frequency of 0.3 Hz and intensity of 20 μA. The animals were sacrificed at 7, 21 and 35 days after injury for structural analysis. Basophilia increased gradually in control animals during the experimental period. In treated animals, newly formed cartilage was observed on days 21 and 35. No statistically significant differences in birefringent collagen fibers were seen between groups at any of the time points. Treated animals presented a statistically larger number of chondroblasts. Calcification points were observed in treated animals on day 35. Ultrastructural analysis revealed differences in cell and matrix characteristics between the two groups. Chondrocyte-like cells were seen in control animals only after 35 days, whereas they were present in treated animals as early as by day 21. The number of cuprolinic blue-stained proteoglycans was statistically higher in treated animals on days 21 and 35. We conclude that microcurrent stimulation accelerates the cartilage repair in non-articular site from prepuberal animals.

  8. The Use of Statin Substitutes to Improve the Lipid Profile in Liver Dysfunctional Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, M.M.; Michael, M.I.

    2010-01-01

    More attention has been drawn to different strategies for prevention of cardiovascular associated with liver dysfunction. The aim of the present study is to compare between statin and free fat- milk supplemented with multivitamins in hyperlipidaemic male rats with or without liver dysfunction induced by CCl4. The animals were allocated to 7 equal experimental groups (16 rats each): control group, hypercholesterolemic group, hypercholestero-lemic-statin group, hypercholesterolemic-free fat milk-multivitamins group, hypercholesterolemic-CCl4 group, hypercholesterolemic-CCl4-statin group, and hypercholesterolemic-CCl4- fat-free milk-multivita-mins group. After one month half of the rats of each group were decapitated and the rest of the animals were decapitated after two months. Lipid profile, relative liver weight, liver function, CPK and LDH were determined. The effectiveness of statin drug in the management of blood lipids was confirmed without improving or worsening liver functions. Meanwhile, this effectiveness worsened in hypercholesterolemic rats treated with CCl4 as compared to hypercholesterolemic group. Administration of fat-free milk with multivitamins, as an alternative remedy for statin drug, has improved lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats and it revealed no changes in liver enzymes in hypercholesterolemic rats with liver dysfunction indicating the favorable use of them as hypolipotropic agent without affecting liver metabolism

  9. Treating Mental Illness among Diabetic Black Male Adolescents: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Andrae; Fields, Lashawnda; O'Dwyer, Curtis; Scott, Marquisha Lawrence; Joe, Sean

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To examine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for treatment evidence for Black male adolescents suffering from comorbid mental illness and diabetes mellitus. Method: A review of the studies published in English-language journals was conducted. Results: We found no RCT focused on Black males with diabetes mellitus Type 2 (DMT2).…

  10. Hepatoprotective effect of Crocus sativus (saffron petals extract against acetaminophen toxicity in male Wistar rats

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    Arash Omidi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Acetaminophen (APAP toxicity is known to be common and potentially fatal. This study aims to investigate the protective effects of hydroalcoholic extract, remaining from Crocus sativus petals (CSP against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by measuring the blood parameters and studying the histopathology of liver in male rats. Materials and Methods: Wister rats (24 were randomly assigned into four groups including: I healthy, receiving normal saline; II Intoxicated, receiving only APAP (600 mg/kg; III pre-treated with low dose of CSP (10 mg /kg and receiving APAP (600 mg/kg; IV pre-treated with high dose of CSP (20 mg/kg and receiving APAP (600 mg/kg. Results: The APAP treatment resulted in higher levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and bilirubin, along with lower total protein and albumin concentration than the control group. The administration of CSP with a dose of 20 mg/kg was found to result in lower levels of AST, ALT and bilirubin, with a significant higher concentration of total protein and albumin. The histopathological results regarding liver pathology, revealed sever conditions including cell swelling, severe inflammation and necrosis in APAP-exposed rats, which was quiet contrasting compared to the control group. The pre-treated rats with low doses of ‍CSP showed hydropic degeneration with mild necrosis in centrilobular areas of the liver, while the same subjects with high doses of ‍CSP appeared to have only mild hepatocyte degeneration. Conclusions: Doses of 20 mg/kg of CSP ameliorates APAP–induced acute liver injury in rats. It was concluded that the antioxidant property of CSP resulted in reducing the oxidative stress complications of toxic levels of APAP in intoxicated rats.

  11. A Mechanism for the induction of renal tumours in male Fischer 344 rats by short-chain chlorinated paraffins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnasuriya, Gayathri D; Elcombe, Barbara M; Foster, John R; Elcombe, Clifford R

    2010-03-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) cause kidney tumours in male rats, but not in female rats or mice of either sex. Male rat-specific tumours also occur in rats dosed with a range of compounds including 1,4- dichlorobenzene (DCB) and d-limonene (DL). These compounds bind to a male rat-specific hepatic protein, alpha-2-urinary globulin (α2u), and form degradationresistant complexes in the kidney. The resulting accumulation of α2u causes cell death and sustained regenerative cell proliferation, which in turn leads to the formation of renal tumours. To investigate whether the SCCP, Chlorowax 500C (C500C), causes tumours via the accumulation of α2u male rats were orally dosed with either C500C (625 mg/kg of body weight), DCB (300 mg/kg of body weight), or DL (150 mg/kg of body weight) for 28 consecutive days. An increase in renal α2u and cell proliferation was observed in DCB- and DL-treated rats but not in C500C-treated rats. C500C caused peroxisome proliferation and a down-regulation of α2u synthesis in male rat liver. This down-regulation occurred at the transcriptional level. Since less α2u was produced in C500C-treated rats, there was less available for accumulation in the kidney hence a typical α2u nephropathy did not appear. However, the administration of a radiolabelled SCCP, [14C]polychlorotridecane (PCTD), to male rats demonstrated its binding to renal α2u. Thus, it is possible that SCCPs bind to α2u and cause a slow accumulation of the protein in the kidney followed by delayed onset of α2u nephropathy. As a consequence of these findings in the current experiments, while evidence exists implicating α2u-globulin in the molecular mechanism of action of the C500C, the classic profile of a α2u-globulin nephropathy seen with other chemicals such as DCB and DL was not reproduced during this experimental protocol.

  12. Sustained glucagon-like peptide 1 expression from encapsulated transduced cells to treat obese diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moralejo, Daniel; Yanay, Ofer; Kernan, Kelly; Bailey, Adam; Lernmark, Ake; Osborne, William

    2011-04-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are two prevalent chronic diseases that have become a major public health concern in industrialized countries. T2D is characterized by hyperglycemia and islet beta cell dysfunction. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) promotes β cell proliferation and neogenesis and has a potent insulinotropic effect. Leptin receptor deficient male rats are obese and diabetic and provide a model of T2D. We hypothesized that their treatment by sustained expression of GLP-1 using encapsulated cells may prevent or delay diabetes onset. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) retrovirally transduced to secrete GLP-1 were seeded into TheraCyte(TM) encapsulation devices, implanted subcutaneously and rats were monitored for diabetes. Rats that received cell implants showed mean plasma GLP-1 level of 119.3 ± 10.2pM that was significantly elevated over control values of 32.4 ± 2.9pM (P<0.001). GLP-1 treated rats had mean insulin levels of 45.9 ± 2.3ng/ml that were significantly increased over control levels of 7.3±1.5ng/ml (P<0.001). In rats treated before diabetes onset elevations in blood glucose were delayed and rats treated after onset became normoglycemic and showed improved glucose tolerance tests. Untreated diabetic rats possess abnormal islet structures characterized by enlarged islets with α-cell infiltration and multifocal vacuolization. GLP-1 treatment induced normalization of islet structures including a mantle of α-cells and increased islet mass. These data suggest that encapsulated transduced cells may offer a potential long term treatment of patients. Copyright © 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of aqueous extract of celery (Apium graveolens L. leaves on spermatogenesis in healthy male rats

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    Ameneh Hardani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nowadays, a lot of attention has been paid to the therapeutic properties of herbs, including evaluation of the effects of these plants on fertility in laboratory animals. Apium graveolens L. (celery has been widely used in traditional medicine for treatment of various disorders including impotency. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of A. graveolens on testicular tissue and spermatogenesis in healthy male rats. Materials and Methods: In this research, 24 apparently healthy male rats were divided into three groups, including eight rats in each. The first group as control received only distilled water 1 ml/animal/day. The second and third groups orally received 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. of the extract, respectively, for 30 days. The day after the last administration of the extract, the rats were sacrificed, the testes were removed entirely, and the morphometric studies were carried out. Epididymal sperm count and histological studies of testicular tissue were conducted. Results: The comparison between the treated and control groups revealed a remarkable increase in the seminiferous tubules diameter, testes volume (p≤0.001, and the number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and spermatozoa. Furthermore, the increase in the number of spermatids and epididymal weight were only significant at high doses of the extract (p≤ 0.05. Conclusions: The results from this study indicated that administration of celery leaf extract may improve spermatogenesis process and also be useful for some sperm fertility parameters.

  14. Immunomodulatory potential of Anacyclus pyrethrum (L.) and Mucuna pruriens (L.) In male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, F; Shahid, M; Riaz, M; Atta, A; Fatima, H

    2017-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the immunomodulatory potential of Anacyclus pyrethrum roots and Mucuna pruriens seeds in male albino rats. The roots of A. pyrethrum and seeds of M. pruriens were extracted with methanolic solvent (70:30) and administered at dose concentrations of 50, 100 and 200 mg/Kg body weight to healthy male rats. The immune system of rats was suppressed by injecting carbon tetrachloride to animals in the toxic control group and test group animals. Cell-mediated immune response of animals was examined by performing neutrophil adhesion test and the humoral immune response was evaluated by determining serum immunoglobulin levels of the animals under study. The administration of methanolic extracts of A. pyrethrum roots and M. pruriens seeds significantly (p less than 0.05) increased the neutrophil adhesion to the nylon fiber. Increase in % neutrophil adhesion was observed in animals treated with 200 mg of each plant extract. Significant (p less than 0.05) improvement in immunoglobulin levels was recorded in the extract treated group animals, showing that the root extract of A. pyrethrum and seed extract of M. pruriens have immunomodulatory potential. We therefore conclude that the tested extracts can be used as immunomodulatory agents to stimulate the immune system.

  15. Therapeutic Efficacy of Ginger, Cisplatin and Radiation on Chemically-Induced Cancer in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Beih, N.M.; Galal, S.M.; Fahmy, N.M.; Abd El-Azime, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the in vivo effect of dietary supplementation with ginger to evaluate its therapeutic effect against lung and kidney cancer and in combination with cisplatin as chemotherapy and radiotherapy in male albino rats. 54 male albino rats were divided into nine groups of 6 animals each, all animals were allowed to food and water ad libitum . Group I was treated with 0.5 ml saline, orlly for 12 consecutive weeks serve as con - trol group Group II injected with N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ); all groups were injected with NDMA + CCl 4 for 6 weeks. Group III were given ginger for 6 consecutive weeks (200 mg/kg, b.wt./day). Group IV animals received cisplatin, group V irradiated with 2 Gy, group VI treated with ginger then irradiated, group VII treated with ginger then injected with cisplatin, group VIII injected with cisplatin then irradiated and group IX treated with ginger and cisplatin then irradiated. Antioxidant status in both kidney and lung tissues were estimated by determining the activity of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD); as well as the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Nitric oxide (NO). In parallel to histopathological investigations of lung and kidney tissues. In addition, Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-α) level, advanced oxidative protein product (AOPP), urea, creatinine and uric acid. Remarkable disturbances were observed in the levels of all tested parameters in NDMA + CCl 4 group. On the other hand, rats injected with the cancer agents then treated with cisplatin+radiation showed moderate improvements in the studied parameters while, treatment with ginger + cisplatin + radiation ameliorated the levels of the disturbed bio

  16. Carvacrol and Pomegranate Extract in Treating Methotrexate-Induced Lung Oxidative Injury in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Hadice Selimoğlu; Şen, Velat; Bozkurt, Mehtap; Türkçü, Gül; Güzel, Abdulmenap; Sezgi, Cengizhan; Abakay, Özlem; Kaplan, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was designed to evaluate the effects of carvacrol (CRV) and pomegranate extract (PE) on methotrexate (MTX)-induced lung injury in rats. Material/Methods A total of 32 male rats were subdivided into 4 groups: control (group I), MTX treated (group II), MTX+CRV treated (group III), and MTX+PE treated (group IV). A single dose of 73 mg/kg CRV was administered intraperitoneally to rats in group III on Day 1 of the investigation. To group IV, a dose of 225 mg/kg of PE was administered via orogastric gavage once daily over 7 days. A single dose of 20 mg/kg of MTX was given intraperitoneally to groups II, III, and IV on Day 2. The total duration of experiment was 8 days. Malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were measured from rat lung tissues and cardiac blood samples. Results Serum and lung specimen analyses demonstrated that MDA, TOS, and OSI levels were significantly greater in group II relative to controls. Conversely, the TAC level was significantly reduced in group II when compared to the control group. Pre-administering either CRV or PE was associated with decreased MDA, TOS, and OSI levels and increased TAC levels compared to rats treated with MTX alone. Histopathological examination revealed that lung injury was less severe in group III and IV relative to group II. Conclusions MTX treatment results in rat lung oxidative damage that is partially counteracted by pretreatment with either CRV or PE. PMID:25326861

  17. Determination of rat vertebral bone compressive fatigue properties in untreated intact rats and zoledronic-acid-treated, ovariectomized rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, J.E.M.; Ruchselman, M.; Rietbergen, van B.; Bouxsein, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Compressive fatigue properties of whole vertebrae, which may be clinically relevant for osteoporotic vertebral fractures, were determined in untreated, intact rats and zoledronic-acid-treated, ovariectomized rats. Typical fatigue behavior was found and was similar to that seen in other

  18. Hypotensive effect of aqueous extract of jamu antiatherosclerosis in male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tristantini, Dewi; Amelinda, Kelly

    2018-02-01

    For many years, Averrhoa carambola L leaves, Mimusops elengi Linn leaves and Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb are used empirically in Indonesian traditional medicine to treat hypertension. This study was conducted to investigate the hypotensive effect of Averrhoa carambola L leaves, Mimusops elengi Linn leaves, and Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb extract (Jamu Antiatherosclerosis) in hypertensive induced rats. The effect of aqueous extract of jamu antiatherosclerosis on diastolic and systolic blood pressure was determined in sodium chloride induced rats. Twenty-four male rats weighted 160-200 g were randomly divided into 6 groups of 4 rats. The groups are consisting of normal control (without treatment), positive control (induced and given captopril 1.35 mg / 200 g body weight of rats), negative control (induced and standard feed), dosage controls (induced and given the extract of jamu antiatherosclerosis) each group with 3 different doses. The composition is dose I (13.2 mg / 200 g body weight of rats), dose II (26.4 mg / 200 g body weight of rats ml) and dose III (52.8 mg / 200 g body weight of rats). Blood pressure were measured via non-invasive blood pressure. The blood pressure was decreased in all dose. However, dose III has the highest blood pressure reducing effect that is 29.42 mmHg or 25.14% for diastolic blood pressure and 34.58 mmHg or 22.03% for systolic blood pressure. This performance equals to 91.15% and 93.56% of captopril activity in decreasing diastolic and systolic blood pressure. The aqueous extract has blood pressure lowering property that can be used as antihypertension herbal medicine.

  19. Effect of honey consumption on intestinal motility in male albino rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: This study investigated the effects of honey on intestinal motility and transit using twenty (20) male albino rats of Wistar strain weighing 210-220g. The rats were randomly grouped into control and honey-fed (test) groups of ten (10) rats each. The control group was fed on normal rat chow ( Pfizer Company, Nigeria ) ...

  20. Reproductive effects of the psychoactive beverage ayahuasca in male Wistar rats after chronic exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana de Fátima Andrade Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract Ayahuasca is a psychoactive beverage used ancestrally by indigenous Amazonian tribes and, more recently, by Christian religions in Brazil and other countries. This study aimed to investigate the reproductive effects of this beverage in male Wistar rats after chronic exposure. The rats were treated by gavage every other day for 70 days at 0 (control, 1×, 2×, 4× and 8× the dose used in a religious ritual (12 animals per group, and animals euthanized on the 71st day. Compared to controls, there was a significant decrease in food consumption and body weight gain in rats from the 4× and 8× groups, and a significant increase in the brain and stomach relative weight at the 8× group. There was a significant increase in total serum testosterone, and a decrease in spermatic transit time and spermatic reserves in the epididymis caudae in the 4× group, but not in the highest dose group. No significant changes were found in the other reproductive endpoints (spermatozoid motility and morphology, total spermatozoid count and daily sperm production, and histology of testis and epididymis. This study identified a no-observed-adverse-effect-level for chronic and reproductive effects of ayahuasca in male Wistar rats at 2× the ritualistic dose, which corresponds in this study to 0.62 mg/kg bw N, N-dimethyltryptamine, 6.6 mg/kg bw harmine and 0.52 mg/kg bw harmaline. A potential toxic effect of ayahuasca in male rats was observed at the 4× dose, with a non-monotonic dose–response. Studies investigating the role of ayahuasca components in regulating testosterone levels are needed to better understand this action.

  1. Protective Effect of Vitamin E Against Lead-induced Memory and Learning Impairment in Male Rats

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    Salehi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Lead (Pb2+ is a neurotoxin substance that has been known for its adverse effects on central nervous system and memory. Previous studies reported the potential effect of vitamin E as a memory enhancer. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to assess the protective effects of vitamin E against Pb-induced amnesia. Materials and Methods Forty-eight male Wistar rats (200-250 g were divided equally into the saline, Pb, Pb + vitamin E, and vitamin E alone groups. To induce Pb toxicity, rats received water that contained 0.2% Pb instead of regular water for 1 month. Rats pretreated, treated or post treated with vitamin E (150 mg/kg for 2 months. Passive avoidance learning was assessed using Shuttle-Box after two months. Retention was tested 24 and 48 hours after training. Results The results showed that Pb caused impairment in acquisition and retrieval processes in passive avoidance learning. Vitamin E reversed learning and memory deficits in pre, post or co- exposure with Pb (P < 0.001. Conclusions According to the results of this study, administration of vitamin E to rats counteracts the negative effects of Pb on learning and memory. To more precisely extrapolate these findings to humans, future clinical studies are warranted.

  2. POTENTIAL ESTROGENIC EFFECTS OF BISPHENOL-A IN MALE RATS AND BENEFICIAL ADMINISTRATION OF SOME ANTIOXIDANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAZEN, G.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Bisphenol-A is a chemical compound which is used primarily as a monomer in the manufacture of numerous chemical products. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential harmful effects of bisphenol-A on reproductive system of male rats and was designed to clarify the ability of zinc or selenium to improve this perturbation in the reproductive function of rats.As a result of bisphenol-A treatment, number of sperms, testis total protein, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase were decreased significantly. This effect was concomitant with a significant decrease in serum testosterone level. On the other hand, bisphenol-A caused a significant elevation in the abnormality of sperm (sperm malformed head or tail or head and tail) and testis total lipid. However, a significant increment was obtained in serum FSH, LH, PRL, E2 and progesterone levels when compared with their corresponding normal control rats.Moreover, the administration of zinc or selenium to treated rats with bisphenol-A rats led to a remarkable amelioration in all previous parameters

  3. The Protective Role of Lettuce oil (Lactuca sativa) against Radiation induced Biological Hazards in Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Magied, N.; Ahmed, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to clarify the potential role of lettuce oil against damages induced in rats due to exposure to gamma radiation. Adult male albino rats (120-150 g) were divided into 4 groups each of 12 animals. The first group was considered control animals. The second group received, via gavages, lettuce oil (200 mg/Kg body weight) for 3 weeks. The third group was subjected to a single dose of 6.5Gy whole body gamma irradiation. The fourth group received lettuce oil for 3 weeks then was exposed to radiation. Blood samples were collected 1 and 7 days post irradiation. Exposure of rats to gamma irradiation caused a significant increase in the level of glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), malondialdehyde (MDA) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) while a significant decrease was recorded in glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities, white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin content (Hb), haematocrit percentage (Hct%), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), platelets (PLT), leutinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone hormone . In rats treated with lettuce oil then exposed to radiation, the results showed an improvement in all previous parameters. It could be concluded that lettuce oil might reduce the biological hazards in rats induced by gamma irradiation

  4. Curcumin administration suppress acetylcholinesterase gene expression in cadmium treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacob; Oboh, Ganiyu; Fadaka, Adewale Oluwaseun; Olatunji, Babawale Peter; Akomolafe, Seun

    2017-09-01

    Curcumin, the main polyphenolic component of turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizomes have been reported to exert anticholinesterase potential with limited information on how they regulate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) gene expression. Hence, this study sought to evaluate the effect of curcumin on cerebral cortex acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and their mRNA gene expression level in cadmium (Cd)-treated rats. Furthermore, in vitro effect of different concentrations of curcumin (1-5μg/mL) on rat cerebral cortex AChE activity was assessed. Animals were divided into six groups (n=6): group 1 serve as control (without Cd) and receive saline/vehicle, group 2 receive saline plus curcumin at 25mg/kg, group 3 receive saline plus curcumin 50mg/kg, group 4 receive Cd plus vehicle, group 5 receive Cd plus curcumin at 25mg/kg and group 6 receive Cd plus curcumin at 50mg/kg. Rats received Cd (2.5mg/kg) and curcumin (25 and 50mg/kg, respectively) by oral gavage for 7days. Acetylcholinesterase activity was measured by Ellman's method and AChE expression was carried out by a quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay. We observed that acute administration of Cd increased acetylcholinesterase activity and in addition caused a significant (Pcurcumin inhibited AChE activity and alters AChE mRNA levels when compared to Cd-treated group. In addition, curcumin inhibits rat cerebral cortex AChE activity in vitro. In conclusion, curcumin exhibit anti-acetylcholinesterase activity and suppressed AChE mRNA gene expression level in Cd exposed rats, thus providing some biochemical and molecular evidence on the therapeutic effect of this turmeric-derived compound in treating neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pathological effects of anabolic steroid (Sustanon® on liver of male rats

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    E.R. Al-Kennany

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present pathological study on the male rats aims to investigate the effects on liver tissue induced by repeated administration of three doses of sustanon for four periods. The experiment was done on the 100 adult male rats randomly divided into five groups 20 rats in each group. The first group is considered as a negative control treated with diet and water only. The second group is considered a positive control treated weekly for 60 days with sesame oil intramuscularly while groups III, IV and V treated with diluted sustanon in 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly weekly for 60 days respectively. Blood was collected in a period 15, 30 and 60 days after treatment for measurements liver function tests ALT (alanine aminotransferase and AST (aspartate aminotransferas enzymes. Then the animals were dissected to take samples in a period 15, 30 and 60 days after treatment for histopathological examination, then 5 rats were lefted in each group in the diet and water for 30 days after last treatment for examination the above mentioned parameters. The results revealed the presence of significantly increasing of liver enzyme activation represented by ALT and AST at level P<0.05 compared with control groups. The value of these levels were higher in group V in a day 60 after treatment and its continue to increase even after stopping treatment and remained on diet and water only for 30 days. Pathologically, all treated groups with sustanon revealed gross and histopathological changes in liver tissue, there were enlargement and congestion gross. Histopathologically, the liver sections elucidate cellular swelling, vacuolar degeneration in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes in addition to fatty change and programmed cell death in all groups during a period 15, 30 and 60 days these changes continue even after stopping the treatment for 30 days but portal fibrosis has been observed.It has been concluded from this study that sustanon in concentration 5, 10

  6. Dobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats

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    Couet Jacques

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intravenously under continuous imaging of the heart by a 12 MHz ultrasound probe. Results Dobutamine stress echocardiography reduced gradually LV diastolic and systolic dimensions. Ejection fraction increased by a mean of +24% vs. baseline. Heart rate increased progressively without reaching a plateau. Changes in LV dimensions and ejection fraction reached a plateau after a mean of 4 minutes at a constant infusion rate. Conclusion DSE can be easily performed in rats. The normal response is an increase in heart rate and ejection fraction and a decrease in LV dimensions. A plateau in echocardiographic measurements is obtained after 4 minutes of a constant infusion rate in most animals.

  7. Effect of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. (burdock) roots on the sexual behavior of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JianFeng, Cao; PengYing, Zhang; ChengWei, Xu; TaoTao, Huang; YunGui, Bai; KaoShan, Chen

    2012-02-01

    Arctium lappa L. root has traditionally been recommended as an aphrodisiac agent. It is used to treat impotence and sterility in China, and Native Americans included the root in herbal preparations for women in labor. However, its use has not been scientifically validated. The present study therefore investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots on sexual behavior in normal male rats. Seventy-five albino male rats were randomly divided into five groups of 15 rats each. Rats in group 1 (control) were administered 10 mL/kg body weight distilled water (vehicle), group 2 received 60 mg/kg body weight sildenafil citrate (Viagra), while those in groups 3, 4, and 5 were given 300, 600, and 1,200 mg/kg body weight, respectively, of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots in the same volume. Female albino rats were made receptive by hormonal treatment. Sexual behavior parameters in male rats were monitored on days 3, 7 and 15 by pairing with receptive females (1:3). Male serum testosterone concentrations and potency were also determined. Oral administration of Arctium lappa L. roots extract at 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight significantly increased the frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequency (p Arctium lappa L. roots enhances sexual behavior in male rats. The aphrodisiac effects of the plant extract may be related to the presence of flavonoids, saponins, lignans and alkaloids, acting via a multitude of central and peripheral mechanisms. These results thus support the traditional use of Arctium lappa L. root extract for treating impotence and sterility.

  8. Effect of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. (burdock roots on the sexual behavior of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JianFeng Cao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arctium lappa L. root has traditionally been recommended as an aphrodisiac agent. It is used to treat impotence and sterility in China, and Native Americans included the root in herbal preparations for women in labor. However, its use has not been scientifically validated. The present study therefore investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots on sexual behavior in normal male rats. Methods Seventy-five albino male rats were randomly divided into five groups of 15 rats each. Rats in group 1 (control were administered 10 mL⁄kg body weight distilled water (vehicle, group 2 received 60 mg/kg body weight sildenafil citrate (Viagra, while those in groups 3, 4, and 5 were given 300, 600, and 1,200 mg/kg body weight, respectively, of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots in the same volume. Female albino rats were made receptive by hormonal treatment. Sexual behavior parameters in male rats were monitored on days 3, 7 and 15 by pairing with receptive females (1:3. Male serum testosterone concentrations and potency were also determined. Results Oral administration of Arctium lappa L. roots extract at 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight significantly increased the frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequency (p Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots enhances sexual behavior in male rats. The aphrodisiac effects of the plant extract may be related to the presence of flavonoids, saponins, lignans and alkaloids, acting via a multitude of central and peripheral mechanisms. These results thus support the traditional use of Arctium lappa L. root extract for treating impotence and sterility.

  9. [Cellphone electromagnetic radiation damages the testicular ultrastructure of male rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao-Hui; Hu, Hui-Rong; Ma, Xue-Lian; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Guo-Hong

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the influence of cellphone electromagnetic radiation (CER) on the testicular ultrastructure and the apoptosis of spermatogenic cells in male rats.atability, feasibility, applicability, and controllability in the construction of experimental animal models, we compared the major anatomic features of the penis of 20 adult beagle dogs with those of 10 adult men. Using microsurgical techniques, we performed cross-transplantation of the penis in the 20 (10 pairs) beagle dogs and observed the survival rate of the transplanted penises by FK506+MMF+MP immune induction. We compared the relevant indexes with those of the 10 cases of microsurgical replantation of the amputated penis. Thirty adult male SD rats were equally randomized into a 2 h CER, a 4 h CER, and a normal control group, the former two groups exposed to 30 days of 900 MHz CER for 2 and 4 hours a day, respectively, while the latter left untreated. Then the changes in the ultrastructure of the testis tissue were observed under the transmission electron microscope and the apoptosis of the spermatogenic cells was determined by TUNEL. Compared with the normal controls, the rats of the 2 h CER group showed swollen basement membrane of seminiferous tubules, separated tight junction of Sertoli cells, increased cell intervals, apparent vacuoles and medullization in some mitochondria, and increased apoptosis of spermatogenic cells, mainly the apoptosis of primary spermatocytes (P<0.05 ). In comparison with the 2 h CER group, the animals of the 4 h CER group exhibited swollen basement membrane of seminiferous tubules, more separated tight junction of Sertoli cells, wider cell intervals, incomplete membrane of spermatogonial cells, fragments of cytoplasm, nuclear pyknosis and notch, slight dilation of perinuclear space, abnormalities of intracellular mitochondria with vacuoles, fuzzy structure, and fusion or disappearance of some cristae, and increased damage of mitochondria and apoptosis of spermatogenic

  10. Reduced hippocampal dendritic spine density and BDNF expression following acute postnatal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate in male Long Evans rats.

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    Catherine A Smith

    Full Text Available Early developmental exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP has been linked to a variety of neurodevelopmental changes, particularly in rodents. The primary goal of this work was to establish whether acute postnatal exposure to a low dose of DEHP would alter hippocampal dendritic morphology and BDNF and caspase-3 mRNA expression in male and female Long Evans rats. Treatment with DEHP in male rats led to a reduction in spine density on basal and apical dendrites of neurons in the CA3 dorsal hippocampal region compared to vehicle-treated male controls. Dorsal hippocampal BDNF mRNA expression was also down-regulated in male rats exposed to DEHP. No differences in hippocampal spine density or BDNF mRNA expression were observed in female rats treated with DEHP compared to controls. DEHP treatment did not affect hippocampal caspase-3 mRNA expression in male or female rats. These results suggest a gender-specific vulnerability to early developmental DEHP exposure in male rats whereby postnatal DEHP exposure may interfere with normal synaptogenesis and connectivity in the hippocampus. Decreased expression of BDNF mRNA may represent a molecular mechanism underlying the reduction in dendritic spine density observed in hippocampal CA3 neurons. These findings provide initial evidence for a link between developmental exposure to DEHP, reduced levels of BDNF and hippocampal atrophy in male rats.

  11. Testosterone like Activity of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Mucuna pruriens Seeds and its Effects on Serum Biochemical Metabolites in Immature Male Rats

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    Nazir Ahmad*, Zia-ur-Rahman1, Nafees Akhtar and Shujait Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone like activity of seeds of Mucuna pruriens and its effects on serum biochemical metabolites in immature male rats were investigated. Forty eight immature male rats were divided into four equal groups. Rats of groups A and B were orally given ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Mucuna pruriens seeds daily at the dose rate of 500 mg/kg body weight, respectively, for 14 days. Rats of group C were injected with testosterone at the dose rate of 2.5 mg/kg body weight daily, while rats of group D served as controls. After 7 days, six rats from each group were euthanized, while the remaining six rats from each group were euthanized after 14 days of treatment. Rats given ethanolic extract gained higher weight compared to controls (P<0.05. Testis weight was the highest in rats treated with testosterone. The effect of treatments on the weight of the liver and the kidneys was non significant. Rats given ethanolic or aqueous extract had higher serum testosterone concentration than controls. Similarly, rats given ethanolic or aqueous extract had higher serum total proteins, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol compared to controls. Moreover, ethanolic extract treated rats also had higher total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol than aqueous extract treated rats. However, differences in serum total proteins, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol between control and testosterone injected rats were non significant. Serum triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and ALT activity did not differ among rats of four groups. Serum AST activity and urea were lower in rats treated with ethanolic or aqueous extract compared to controls. Thus, seeds of Mucuna pruriens had testosterone like activity and increased serum total proteins, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol, with no adverse effects on the serum LDL cholesterol, liver or kidney functions.

  12. Prostate response to prolactin in sexually active male rats

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    Garcia Luis I

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prostate is a key gland in the sexual physiology of male mammals. Its sensitivity to steroid hormones is widely known, but its response to prolactin is still poorly known. Previous studies have shown a correlation between sexual behaviour, prolactin release and prostate physiology. Thus, here we used the sexual behaviour of male rats as a model for studying this correlation. Hence, we developed experimental paradigms to determine the influence of prolactin on sexual behaviour and prostate organization of male rats. Methods In addition to sexual behaviour recordings, we developed the ELISA procedure to quantify the serum level of prolactin, and the hematoxilin-eosin technique for analysis of the histological organization of the prostate. Also, different experimental manipulations were carried out; they included pituitary grafts, and haloperidol and ovine prolactin treatments. Data were analyzed with a One way ANOVA followed by post hoc Dunnet test if required. Results Data showed that male prolactin has a basal level with two peaks at the light-dark-light transitions. Consecutive ejaculations increased serum prolactin after the first ejaculation, which reached the highest level after the second, and started to decrease after the third ejaculation. These normal levels of prolactin did not induce any change at the prostate tissue. However, treatments for constant elevations of serum prolactin decreased sexual potency and increased the weight of the gland, the alveoli area and the epithelial cell height. Treatments for transient elevation of serum prolactin did not affect the sexual behaviour of males, but triggered these significant effects mainly at the ventral prostate. Conclusion The prostate is a sexual gland that responds to prolactin. Mating-induced prolactin release is required during sexual encounters to activate the epithelial cells in the gland. Here we saw a precise mechanism controlling the release of prolactin

  13. Effect of D-ribose-L-cysteine on aluminum induced testicular damage in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falana, Benedict; Adeleke, Opeyemi; Orenolu, Mulikat; Osinubi, Abraham; Oyewopo, Adeoye

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of D-ribose and L-cysteine on aluminum-induced testicular damage in male Sprague-Dawley rats. A total number of thirty-five (35) adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups (AD). Group A (comprised five (5) rats) was designated the Control Group that received Physiological Saline; while groups B, C, and D (comprised ten (10) rats) were given 75 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg of body weight of aluminum chloride respectively for 39 days. At day 40, the aluminum-treated groups were subdivided into sub-groups (B1, C1, D1) comprising of five (5) rats each, and 30 mg/kg body weight of Riboceine were administered for twenty (20) days. Groups B, C and D remained on the normal dosage of aluminum chloride for three more weeks (59 days). Andrological parameters (Sperm count, motility, morphology and testosterone) in the aluminum-treated Groups B and C showed no significant difference in their mean values when compared with their control counterparts, whereas there was a significant reduction in the andrological parameters in Group D rats when compared with the Control animals. Histoarchitecture of the testes "stain with H&E" of Group A, B and C rats appeared normal while Group D rats showed testicular damages with several abnormal seminiferous tubules with incomplete maturation of germinal cell layers and absence of spermatozoa in their lumen; Leydig cells appear hyperplastic. Group B1, C1 and D1 andrological and histological parameters appeared normal. Riboceine treatment significantly attenuates aluminum-induced testicular toxicity in male Sprague-Dawley in rats.

  14. Effects of anabolic steroid treatment associated with physical training in adipose tissue of male Wistar rats

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    Marcela de Paiva Foletto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic androgenic-steroids (AAS include a broad class of synthetic derivatives of testosterone, being nandrolone decanoate the most widely used in sports environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic effects of nandrolone decanoate in sedentary and trained adult male rats. We established four experimental groups: sedentary control, sedentary treated, trained control and trained treated. The training had consisted of running on a treadmill for nine weeks. Treated animals received intramuscular injections of nandrolone decanoate (0.5 mg kg-1 during the last four weeks of physical training. The training time as the drug used were not sufficient to significantly reduce body weight gain, but caused a significative decrease on diameter of adipocytes and in the amount of adipose tissue stored, as well as decreased the plasma levels of glucose and total cholesterol.

  15. Juvenile female rats, but not male rats, show renewal, reinstatement, and spontaneous recovery following extinction of conditioned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chun Hui J; Ganella, Despina E; Kim, Jee Hyun

    2017-12-01

    Anxiety disorders emerge early, and girls are significantly more likely to develop anxiety compared to boys. However, sex differences in fear during development are poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated juvenile male and female rats in the relapse behaviors following extinction of conditioned fear. In all experiments, 18-d-old rats first received three white-noise-footshock pairings on day 1. On day 2, extinction involved 60 white-noise alone trials. In experiment 1, we examined renewal by testing the rats in either the same or different context as extinction on day 3. Male rats did not show renewal, however, female rats showed renewal. Experiment 2 investigated reinstatement by giving rats either a mild reminder footshock or context exposure on day 3. When tested the next day, male rats did not show reinstatement, whereas female rats showed reinstatement. Experiment 3 investigated spontaneous recovery by testing the rats either 1 or 5 d following extinction. Male rats did not show any spontaneous recovery whereas female rats did. Taken together, fear regulation appear to be different in males versus females from early in development, which may explain why girls are more prone to suffer from anxiety disorders compared to boys. © 2017 Park et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  16. Mast cell concentration and skin wound contraction in rats treated with Brazilian pepper essential oil (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevão, Lígia Reis Moura; Medeiros, Juliana Pinto de; Simões, Ricardo Santos; Arantes, Rosa Maria Esteves; Rachid, Milene Alvarenga; Silva, Regildo Márcio Gonçalves da; Mendonça, Fábio de Souza; Evêncio-Neto, Joaquim

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate wound contraction and the concentration of mast cells in skin wounds treated with 5% BPT essential oil-based ointment in rats. Twenty rats, male, of adult age, were submitted to skin surgery on the right (RA) and left antimeres (LA) of the thoracic region. They were divided into two groups: control (RA - wounds receiving daily topical application of vaseline and lanolin) and treated (LA - wounds treated daily with the topical ointment). The skin region with wounds were collected at days 4, 7, 14 and 21 after surgery. Those were fixed in 10% formaldehyde and later processed for paraffin embedding. Sections were obtained and stained by H.E for histopathology analysis. The degree of epithelial contraction was measured and mast cell concentration were also evaluated. The treated group showed higher mast cell concentrations (poil increases mast cell concentration and promotes skin wound contraction in rats.

  17. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Moriya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects.

  18. Analysis of some biochemical and haematological parameters for Mucuna pruriens (DC) seed powder in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwudi, Ndukwe Henry; Simeon, Omale; Chinyere, Aguiyi John

    2011-10-01

    The biochemical and haematological effects of the seed powder of Mucuna pruriens in male rats were evaluated to establish some biological properties of this potential biopesticide currently undergoing investigation. The result showed that Mucuna pruriens seed extract produced a significant (p<0.05) increase in white blood cell (WBC) count, as well as in bilirubin concentrations, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), protein and creatinine levels measured. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly reduced (P<0.05) in comparison with the experimental control. PCV, Hb, albumin level and WBC differential counts gave no significant difference between treated and control groups. The results revealed metabolic imbalance in the rats which suggests a mild cholestasis effect of the extract.

  19. Percutaneous absorption of triadimefon in the adult and young male and female rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knaak, J.B.; Yee, K.; Ackerman, C.R.; Zweig, G.; Wilson, B.W.

    1984-01-01

    The percutaneous absorption of 14 C-phenoxy ring labeled triadimefon was studied in adult and young male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Triadimefon was applied (41.1 to 46.4 micrograms/cm2) in 0.2 ml of acetone to areas comprising 3% of the body surface (7.0 to 14.5 cm2). Thirty-six animals were treated at the initiation of each study. Groups of three animals were subsequently killed at 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, and 192 hr after treatment. Skin from the treated area as well as blood, heart, liver, kidneys, remaining carcass, urine, and feces were analyzed for 14 C by scintillation counting techniques. Based on 14 C counts, triadimefon was lost more rapidly from the skin of young animals (t 1/2, 20 to 25 hr) than from the skin of adult animals (t 1/2, 29 to 53 hr). Recovery studies indicated that adult males, adult females, young males, and young females, respectively, absorbed 53, 82, 57, and 52% of the dose. The rest of the dose based on material balance was presumably lost by evaporation. Approximately 2.5 to 3.9% of the dose penetrated the skin in one hour and was available for absorption. The rate of entry triadimefon into blood was 2 to 2.5 times faster for young than that observed in adult animals. Elimination of it from blood was faster in the case of the young animals. Triadimefon was absorbed through the skins of the adult male, adult female, young male, and young female rats, respectively, at rates of 0.20, 0.50, 0.58, and 0.48 micrograms/hr/cm2 of skin

  20. Monoamine levels in the nucleus accumbens correlate with male sexual behavior in middle-aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Houng-Wei; Shui, Hao-Ai; Liu, Hang-Shen; Tai, Mei-Yun; Tsai, Yuan-Feen

    2006-02-01

    The correlation between monoamine levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and male sexual behavior was studied in middle-aged rats. Male rats (18-19months) were assigned to three groups: (1) Group MIE consisted of rats showing mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations; (2) Group MI was composed of rats showing mounts and intromissions, but no ejaculation; and (3) Group NC were non-copulators showing no sexual behavior. Young adult rats (4-5months), displaying complete copulatory behavior, were used as the control group. Levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin, and norepinephrine and their metabolites in the NAcc were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. No difference was seen in DA levels between MIE rats and young controls, whereas DA levels in NC rats were significantly lower than those in both MIE and MI rats. Serotonin levels in NC rats were significantly higher than those in MIE and MI rats. Conversely, norepinephrine levels in NC rats were lower than those in MIE rats. These results suggest that monoamine levels in the NAcc correlate with sexual performance in male rats and that changes in NAcc monoamine levels might affect male sexual behavior in middle-aged rats.

  1. Sperm parameters of male Wistar rats treated with Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Annacardium occidentale is a medicinal plant with several biological properties. Phytochemical screening of its leaf and stem bark was reported to be rich in alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins and saponins. Many plant extract with these phytochemicals are reputed for their antifertility activities. This study was ...

  2. THE SERUM PROTEIN FRACTIONS IN THYMOQUINONE TREATED RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Güllü; S, Dede

    2016-01-01

    TQ has been used as treatment and preventive agent for many diseases over the years. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of TQ supplement on fractions of serum proteins. Fourteen male Wistar-Albino rats (200-250 g weight) were used as material for two groups; (control (C) and thymoquinone (TQ) respectively. Each group contained seven rats. The control group had only corn oil, while the TQ group was dissolved in corn oil. 30 mg/kg/day were given by oral gavage for four weeks. The serum protein fractions were identified using cellulose acetate technique. The total protein level and albumin, α-1, α-2 fractions and A/G ratio have showed no difference between groups (p>0.05). β-globulin fractions of TQ group were higher than control's (pfractions may have originated from elevation or decline synthesis, or activities of containing proteins.

  3. Reproductive potential of male catfish treated with gel extract of Aloe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reproductive potential of male catfish treated with gel extract of Aloe vera plant was studied using twelve male fish weighing 500-560g.The fish were divided into 3 groups; A, B and C with four fish in each group. Group A was treated with 2% Aloe vera gel while group B was treated with 3% and Group C the control was ...

  4. Anabolic effect of Hibiscus rosasinensis Linn. leaf extracts in immature albino male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olagbende-Dada, S O; Ezeobika, E N; Duru, F I

    2007-01-01

    Many plants remedies have been employed in solving man's health needs especially the nutritive value which enhances health living. Aphrodisiac plants are plants with anabolic properties i.e. they help in protein synthesis and enhances sexual abilities in males. They are also known as androgenic plants because their properties are similar to that of androgen a male hormone. Cold aqueous extract of Hibiscus rosasinensis leaves is reported by local traditional practioners in Western Nigeria to be aphrodisiac. To investigate the anabolic properties of Hibiscus rosasinensis. Three groups (8/group) of immature male rats of known weights were administered equal doses of aqueous (cold and hot) and alcoholic extracts of Hibiscus rosasinensis leaves for 8 weeks. The gain in body and isolated sexual organs (testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate) weights were determined after treatment and compared to the value obtained from a fourth untreated group which served as the control. Section through the testes of both the treated and untreated rats were also examined microscopically and displayed as a photomicrograph for comparism. All data were statistically analysed and displaced in graphic form. Over the 8 weeks of treatment, the control, the cold aqueous extract dosed, hot aqueous extract dosed and alcoholic extract dosed rats gained 8%, 15%, 18% and 22% in body weights respectively. The increase in the weight of testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate of the alcoholic extract dosed rats was 19%, 30%, 31% and 40% respectively. The anabolic effect of the leaf extracts of H. rosasinensis is hereby established. More work needs to be done on these leaf extracts to know their effect on the gonadotrophin hormones which regulate the activity of the androgens in relation to spermatogenesis.

  5. Rapid and acute effects of estrogen on time perception in male and female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen ePleil

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in the rapid and acute effects of estrodiol on time perception were investigated in adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Because estrodiol has been shown to increase striatal dopamine release, it may be able to modify time perception and timed performance by increasing the speed of an internal clock in a manner similar to indirect dopamine agonists such as amphetamine and cocaine. Two groups of females (neonatally estradiol-treated/adult ovariectomized and neonatally oil-treated/adult ovariectomized and 2 groups of males (neonatally castrated and adult castrated were trained in a 2 s vs. 8 s duration bisection procedure and tested using intermediate signal durations. After obtaining oil-injected baseline psychometric functions over several days, rats were administered 5μg of estradiol for 4 days and behaviorally evaluated 30 min following each injection. This oil-estradiol administration cycle was subsequently repeated 3 times following the re-establishment of baseline training. Results revealed significant sex differences in the initial baseline functions that were not modifiable by organizational hormones, with males’ duration bisection functions shifted horizontally to the left of females’. Upon the first administration of estradiol, females, but not males, showed a significant, transient leftward shift in their bisection functions, indicative of an increase in clock speed. After extensive retraining in the duration bisection procedure, rats that were exposed to gonadal hormones during the first week of life showed a significant rightward shift in their bisection functions on the fourth day of estradiol administration during each cycle, suggesting a decrease in clock speed. Taken together, our results support the view that there are multiple mechanisms of estrogens’ action in the striatum that modulate dopaminergic activity and are differentially organized by gonadal steroids during early brain development.

  6. Effect of Qiangji Jianli Yin on sex hormones in male rat models of splenoasthenic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhixi; Xu Zhiwei; Liu Xiaobin; Zhao Hui; Chen Jinyan; Li Zhiqiang; He Zanhou

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of Qiangji Jianli Yin on male rat models of splenoasthenic syndrome through changes of serum sex hormones (T, E 2 ), amylase and histologic changes of spleen, thymus, adrenals as well as to study the material foundation of spleno-renal mutual correlationship in traditional Chinese medicine. Methods: Rat models male of splenoasthenic syndrome were established with daily gavage of rhubarb decoction (2ml 2 and amylase levels were determined with RIA on d10 and d20 and the animals were sacrificed on d20 to procure spleen, thymus and adrenals for histologic study. Control rats (n=10) were given daily gavage of distilled water only. Results: Serum E 2 and T levels in the splenoasthenic syndrome models without treatment were significantly higher than those in controls rats on dl0 (P 2 levels increased further but T levels dropped markedly and were significantly lower than those in untreated group (P 2 , T on d10 were much less in the models treated with Qiangji Jianli Yin with maintenance of E 2 /T ratio. On d20 the serum E 2 levels, though increased, were much lower than those in untreated group, hence the E 2 /T ratio was also much lower than that in untreated group and differed less from that in controls. Serum amylase levels on d10 and d20 in the splenoastheic models without treatment were significantly lower than those in controls rats (P 2 might be the material foundation responsible for the spleno-renal interrelationship. Histologic changes of spleen, thymus and adrenals might be the evidence of the traditional Chinese medicine theory of 'splenoasthenic would induce renal deficiency'. (authors)

  7. Di-(2 ethylhexyl phthalate and flutamide alter gene expression in the testis of immature male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Frank H

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We previously demonstrated that the androgenic and anti-androgenic effects of endocrine disruptors (EDs alter reproductive function and exert distinct effects on developing male reproductive organs. To further investigate these effects, we used an immature rat model to examine the effects of di-(2 ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and flutamide (Flu on the male reproductive system. Immature male SD rats were treated daily with DEHP and Flu on postnatal days (PNDs 21 to 35, in a dose-dependent manner. As results, the weights of the testes, prostate, and seminal vesicle and anogenital distances (AGD decreased significantly in response to high doses of DEHP or Flu. Testosterone (T levels significantly decreased in all DEHP- treated groups, whereas luteinizing hormone (LH plasma levels were not altered by any of the two treatments at PND 36. However, treatment with DEHP or Flu induced histopathological changes in the testes, wherein degeneration and disorders of Leydig cells, germ cells and dilatation of tubular lumen were observed in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, hyperplasia and denseness of Leydig, Sertoli and germ cells were observed in rats given with high doses of Flu. The results by cDNA microarray analysis indicated that 1,272 genes were up-regulated by more than two-fold, and 1,969 genes were down-regulated in response to DEHP, Flu or both EDs. These genes were selected based on their markedly increased or decreased expression levels. These genes have been also classified on the basis of gene ontology (e.g., steroid hormone biosynthetic process, regulation of transcription, signal transduction, metabolic process, biosynthetic process.... Significant decreases in gene expression were observed in steroidogenic genes (i.e., Star, Cyp11a1 and Hsd3b. In addition, the expression of a common set of target genes, including CaBP1, Vav2, Plcd1, Lhx1 and Isoc1, was altered following exposure to EDs, suggesting that they may be marker genes to

  8. The Antidiabetic Activity of Nigella sativa and Propolis on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad A. El Rabey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare the ameliorative effect of Nigella sativa and propolis methanol extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats and treating diabetic nephropathy. Forty male Albino rats were divided into four groups; the first group was the negative control fed standard diet. The other 30 rats were injected with streptozotocin to induce diabetes by a single intravenous injection and then divided equally into three groups; the second group was the positive diabetic control; the third and the fourth groups were treated orally with 20% w/w Nigella sativa seeds methanol extract and propolis methanol extract (20% w/w, respectively. The rats of the second group showed increased glucose levels and lipid peroxide accompanied with reduction in superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione-S-transferase enzyme activities compared with the negative control. Carboxymethyl lysine, interleukin-6, and immunoglobulins were also increased as a result of diabetes. Kidney function parameters were also elevated, while potassium and sodium levels were decreased. Moreover, tissues of kidney and pancreas showed severe histopathological changes. Treating the diabetic rats with Nigella sativa and propolis methanol extract in the third and fourth groups, respectively, ameliorated all altered biochemical and pathological examinations approaching the negative control. Propolis was more effective than Nigella sativa.

  9. Embryotoxicity of benzalkonium chloride in vaginally treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttar, H S

    1985-12-01

    The effects of the spermicide benzalkonium chloride (BKC) were studied on the conceptus of rat. Single doses (0, 25, 50, 100 or 200 mg kg-1) of aqueous solutions of BKC were administered intravaginally (1 ml kg-1) on gestational day 1. The vulval metallic clips, used to prevent leakage of the solution, were removed 24 h post-treatment. Fetuses were obtained and examined for malformations on day 21 of gestation. slight to copious amounts of vaginal discharge and vaginitis were noticed in rats treated with the two largest doses of BKC. A dose-related increase in resorptions and fetal death, reduction in litter size and weight were observed in BKC-treated dams. The conceptus loss seemed to occur both before and after implantation. BKC did not cause any discernible visceral malformations, although minor sternal defects occurred in fetuses exposed to 100 and 200 mg kg-1 of the spermicide. These results suggest that single vaginal application of BKC is embryo- and fetocidal in the rat at a dose about 143 times higher than that recommended for controlling conception in women.

  10. Acceleration of skin wound healing by low-dose indirect ionizing radiation in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Nasrollah; Farjah, Gholam Hossein; Ghadimi, Behnam; Zanjani, Hajar; Heshmatian, Behnam

    2017-08-01

    A recent hypothesis has revealed that low-dose irradiation (LDI) with ionizing radiation might have a promoting effect on fracture healing. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of direct (electron beam) and indirect (gamma-ray) low-dose ionizing irradiations on the wound healing process in male rats. In 72 male rats, a full-thickness wound was incised. The animals were randomly assigned to three groups, each with 24 rats. The first two groups were named IG-I and IG-II and respectively exposed to electron and gamma-radiations (75 cGy) immediately after the surgical procedure. The third group was considered as the control (CG) and remained untreated. Skin biopsies from the subgroups were collected on days 3, 7, 15, and 21 after the operation and evaluated using histological and biomechanical methods. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's post hoc test using SPSS 20 software. Histological studies of tissues showed that the mean number of fibroblasts, macrophages, blood vessel sections, and neutrophils on the third and seventh days after the surgery in the gamma-treated group was higher than that in both other groups. In contrast, on day 21, the mean number of mentioned cells in the gamma-treated group was lower than in the other two groups. In addition, the mean maximum stress value was significantly greater in the gamma-treated group. Results of this study showed that gamma-ray irradiation is effective in the acceleration of wound healing. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  11. Acceleration of skin wound healing by low-dose indirect ionizing radiation in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrollah Jabbari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A recent hypothesis has revealed that low-dose irradiation (LDI with ionizing radiation might have a promoting effect on fracture healing. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of direct (electron beam and indirect (gamma-ray low-dose ionizing irradiations on the wound healing process in male rats. In 72 male rats, a full-thickness wound was incised. The animals were randomly assigned to three groups, each with 24 rats. The first two groups were named IG–I and IG–II and respectively exposed to electron and gamma-radiations (75 cGy immediately after the surgical procedure. The third group was considered as the control (CG and remained untreated. Skin biopsies from the subgroups were collected on days 3, 7, 15, and 21 after the operation and evaluated using histological and biomechanical methods. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's post hoc test using SPSS 20 software. Histological studies of tissues showed that the mean number of fibroblasts, macrophages, blood vessel sections, and neutrophils on the third and seventh days after the surgery in the gamma-treated group was higher than that in both other groups. In contrast, on day 21, the mean number of mentioned cells in the gamma-treated group was lower than in the other two groups. In addition, the mean maximum stress value was significantly greater in the gamma-treated group. Results of this study showed that gamma-ray irradiation is effective in the acceleration of wound healing.

  12. Eucalyptus globulus extract protects upon acetaminophen-induced kidney damages in male rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhibi, Sabah; Mbarki, Sakhria; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2014-01-01

    Plants have historically been used in treating many diseases. Eucalyptus globules, a rich source of bioactive compounds, and have been shown to possess antioxidative properties. The purpose of this study, carried out on male Wistar rats, was to evaluate the beneficial effects of Eucalyptus globulus extract upon acetaminophen-induced damages in kidney. Our study is realized in the Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences of Sfax (Tunisia). 32 Wistar male rats; were divided into 4 batches: a control group (n=8), a group of rats treated with acetaminophen (goomg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection during 4 days (n=8), a group receiving Eucalyptus globulus extract (130 mg of dry leaves/kg/day) in drinking water during 42 days after 2 hours of acetaminophen administration (during 4 days) (n=8) and group received only Eucalyptus (n=8) during 42 days. After 6 weeks, animals from each group were rapidly sacrificed by decapitation. Blood serum was obtained by centrifugation. Under our experimental conditions, acetaminophen poisoning resulted in an oxidative stress evidenced by statistically significant losses in the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide-dismutase (SOD), glutathione-peroxidase (GPX) activities and an increase in lipids peroxidation level in renal tissue of acetaminophen-treated group compared with the control group. Acetaminophen also caused kidney damage as evident by statistically significant (p<0.05) increase in levels of creatinine and urea and decreased levels of uric acid and proteins in blood. Histological analysis demonstrated alteration of proximal tubules, atrophy of the glomerule and dilatation of urinary space. Previous administration of plant extract is found to alleviate this acetaminophen-induced damage. PMID:24856382

  13. Protective effect of some plant oils on diazinon induced hepatorenal toxicity in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atef M. Al-Attar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution and exposure to environmental pollutants are still some of the major global health issues. Pesticides have been linked to a wide range of health hazards. The toxicity of pesticides depends on several factors such as its chemical properties, doses, exposure period, exposure methods, gender, genetics, age, nutritional status and physiological case of exposed individuals. Medicinal plants, natural products and nutrition continue to play a central role in the healthcare system of large proportions of the world’s population. Alternative medicine plays an important role in health services around the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of olive, sesame and black seed oils on hepatorenal toxicity induced by diazinon (DZN in male rats. The experimental animals were divided into nine groups. The first group served as control. The second group was exposed to DZN. The third group was treated with olive oil and DZN. Rats of the fourth group were subjected to sesame oil and DZN. Rats of the fifth group were exposed to black seed oil and DZN. The sixth, seventh and eighth groups were supplemented with olive, sesame and black seed oils respectively. Rats of the ninth group were treated with corn oil. Levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase, total bilirubin, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and malondialdehyde were significantly increased in rats exposed to DZN. Moreover, levels of serum glutathione and superoxide dismutase were significantly decreased. Several histopathological changes were observed in the structures of liver and kidney due to DZN exposure. This study showed that these oils attenuated the physiological disturbances and histopathological alterations induced by DZN intoxication. Moreover, the antioxidant properties of these oils support the bioactive roles of its protective effects on DZN toxicity. This study therefore

  14. Prenatal testosterone exposure worsen the reproductive performance of male rat at adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Noroozzadeh, Mahsa; Zahediasl, Saleh; Ghasemi, Asghar; Piryaei, Abbas; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2013-01-01

    The reproductive system is extremely susceptible to environmental insults, for example exogenous steroids during gestational development and differentiation. Experimental induction of androgen excess during prenatal life in female animal models reprograms their reproductive physiology, however the fetal programming of the male reproductive system by androgen excess has not been well studied. We aimed to determine the effect of prenatal exposure of two different doses of testosterone on different gestational days, on the male reproductive system using a rat model. Sixteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups and two control groups. Experimental group І were subcutaneously injected with 3 mg free testosterone on gestational days 16-19 and its controls received solvent for that time; experimental group П were subcutaneously injected with 20 mg free testosterone on day 20 of gestational period and its controls received solvent at the same time. The reproductive system morphology and function of 32 male offspring of these study groups were compared at days 6-30-60 of age and after puberty. The anogenital distance of the male offspring of both experimental groups had no significant differences on the different days of measurement, compared with controls. In the offspring of experimental group І, the testes weight, number of Sertoli, Spermatocyte and Spermatid cells, sperm count and motility and the serum concentration of testosterone after puberty were significantly decreased; except for reduction of sperm motility (pmale rat fetuses to excess testosterone disrupted reproductive function, an effect highly dependent on the time, duration and level of exposure. It seems that the reproductive system in individuals exposed to high levels of androgens during fetal life should be evaluated at puberty and likely to be treated.

  15. Hippocampal testosterone relates to reference memory performance and synaptic plasticity in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina eSchulz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Steroids are important neuromodulators influencing cognitive performance and synaptic plasticity. While the majority of literature concerns adrenal- and gonadectomized animals, very little is known about the natural endogenous release of hormones during learning. Therefore, we measured blood and brain (hippocampus, prefrontal cortex testosterone, estradiol, and corticosterone concentrations of intact male rats undergoing a spatial learning paradigm which is known to reinforce hippocampal plasticity. We found significant modulations of all investigated hormones over the training course. Corticosterone and testosterone were correlated manifold with behaviour, while estradiol expressed fewer correlations. In the recall session, testosterone was tightly coupled to reference memory performance, which is crucial for reinforcement of synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus. Intriguingly, prefrontal cortex and hippocampal levels related differentially to reference memory performance. Correlations of testosterone and corticosterone switched from unspecific activity to specific cognitive functions over training. Correspondingly, exogenous application of testosterone revealed different effects on synaptic and neuronal plasticity in trained versus untrained animals. While hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP of the field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP was prolonged in untrained rats, both the fEPSP- and the population spike amplitude-LTP was impaired in trained rats. Behavioural performance was unaffected, but correlations of hippocampal field potentials with behaviour were decoupled in treated rats. The data provide important evidence that besides adrenal, also gonadal steroids play a mechanistic role in linking synaptic plasticity to cognitive performance.

  16. Effects of 4-nonylphenol on oxidant/antioxidant balance system inducing hepatic steatosis in male rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansoumane Kourouma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An emerging literature suggests that early life exposure to 4-nonylphenol (4-NP, a widespread endocrine disrupting chemical, may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that intraperitoneal administration of 4-NP induces hepatic steatosis in rat. 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered with 4-NP (0, 2, 10 and 50 mg/kg b.wt in corn oil for 30 days. Liver histology, biochemical analysis and gene expression profiling were examined. After treatment, abnormal liver morphology and function were observed in the 4-NP-treated rat, and significant changes in gene expression an indicator of hepatic steatosis and apoptosis were observed compared with controls. Up-regulated genes involved in apoptosis, hepatotoxity and oxidative stress, increased ROS and decrease of antioxidant enzyme were observed in the 4-NP exposed rat. Extensive fatty accumulation in liver section and elevated serum GOT, GPT, LDH and γ-GT were also observed. Incidence and severity of liver steatosis was scored and taken into consideration (steatosis, ballooning and lobular inflammation. Hepatocytes apoptosis could promote NAFLD progression; Fas/FasL, TNF-α and Caspase-9 mRNA activation were important contributing factors to hepatic steatosis. These findings provide the first evidence that 4-NP affects the gene expression related to liver hepatotoxicity, which is correlated with hepatic steatosis.

  17. Melatonin protects against lead-induced hepatic and renal toxicity in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sokkary, Gamal H.; Abdel-Rahman, Gamal H.; Kamel, Esam S.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the potential protective effect of melatonin against the hepatic and renal toxicity of lead in male rats. Three groups of animals were used in this study (control, lead acetate-treated (100 mg/kg), and lead acetate plus melatonin (10 mg/kg) for 30 days. Levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) products, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, total glutathione (GSH), histopathological changes in the liver and kidneys were investigated. In addition, nuclear area (NA), nuclear volume (NV) and the ratio of nuclear volume/cellular volume (N/C) were measured in the liver. The results revealed increased LPO and decreased SOD, GSH, NA, NV and N/C in the studied organs of lead-treated rats. Histopathological observations showed severe damage in the liver and kidneys. Melatonin co-treatment to the lead-administered rats attenuated the increase of LPO and restored the activity of SOD and levels of GSH as well as the mean values of NA, NV and N/C. Also, the morphological damage in the liver and kidneys was reduced and the tissues appeared like those of controls. The present study suggests that melatonin may be useful in combating free radical-induced damage due to lead toxicity

  18. The Effect of Salmon Fish’s Oil on Avoidance Learning in Mature Male Rats

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    Seyed Ebrahim Hosseini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available  Background & Objective: There is plenty of fatty acids of omega-3 in Salmon Fish that affect brain development and function, therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of Salmon fish’s oil on learning avoidance in mature male rats.   Materials & Methods: In this empirical study, we used 40 mature male rats that were enrolled into control, sham and experimental groups. The control group was not treated. The sham group received only 1 ml saline daily, 3 experimental groups of different types received 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 ml/kg body weight respectively, for 28 days. For the evaluation of avoidance learning behavior, the shuttle box was used. The data was evaluated using ANOVA.    Results: The results suggest that consumption of salmon oil significantly increases in minimum and maximum doses (P<0.01 and average doses (P<0.001 the process of avoidance learning.   Conclusion: Salmon oil can lead to increased learning. Therefore, further investigation can be used to treat learning disorders and memory . 

  19. Effects of long-term administration of pantoprazole on bone mineral density in young male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszewska, Agnieszka; Nowak, Beata; Rzeszutko, Marta; Zduniak, Krzysztof; Szandruk, Marta; Jędrzejuk, Diana; Landwójtowicz, Marcin; Bolanowski, Marek; Pieśniewska, Małgorzata; Kwiatkowska, Joanna; Szeląg, Adam

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that long-term administration of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may decrease bone mineral density (BMD) and increase the risk of osteoporotic fractures. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of pantoprazole on bone metabolism in growing rats. The experiment was carried out on twenty-four young male Wistar rats divided into two groups receiving either pantoprazole at the dose of 3mg/kg or vehicle for 12 weeks. Femoral bone mineral density (BMD) and bone histomorphometry were assessed. Serum total calcium, inorganic phosphate and markers of bone turnover were measured. In pantoprazole-treated rats a decreased BMD was detected (0.2618±0.0133g/cm(2)vs. 0.2715±0.0073g/cm(2), p<0.05). Bone histomorphometry revealed a decrease in growth plate thickness (G.Pl.RTh.) (161.0±27.8μm vs. 195.0±20.8, p<0.05) in pantoprazole-treated animals. Serum total calcium level and osteocalcin concentrations were decreased in the pantoprazole-treated group (9.62±0.55mg/dl vs. 10.15±0.38mg/dl, p<0.05 and 242.7±44.4pg/ml vs. 342.5±123.3pg/ml, p<0.05, respectively). We observed that PPIs might have a negative impact on bone formation in growing rats mainly due to their inhibitory effects on the gastric proton pump, with probable deterioration of calcium absorption and decrease in growth plate thickness. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  20. Effect of two different extracts of red maca in male rats with testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Vasquez, Vanessa; Rodriguez, Daniella; Maldonado, Carmen; Mormontoy, Juliet; Portella, Jimmy; Pajuelo, Monica; Villegas, León; Gasco, Manuel

    2007-03-01

    To determine the effect of two different extracts of red maca in male rats. Prostatic hyperplasia was induced in male rats with testosterone enanthate (TE). The study comprised six groups: one control group (group 1), one group treated with TE (group 2), two groups treated with TE and aqueous extract of red maca (groups 3 and 4), one group treated with hydroalcoholic extract of red maca (group 5) and one group treated with finasteride (0.1 mg, group 6). Differences in the aqueous extract dependent on the length of time of boiling, whether for 2 or 3 hours, for groups 3 and 4 was assessed. Extracts of red maca contained 0.1 mg of benzylglucosinolate. Thereafter, a dose-response effect of different doses of benzylglucosinolates (0.02-0.08 mg) in red maca extracts was assessed. Prostate weight was similar in rats treated with freeze-dried aqueous extract of red maca prepared after 2 and 3 hours of boiling. Freeze-dried aqueous extract of red maca, hydroalcoholic extract of red maca and finasteride reduced prostate weight in rats with prostatic hyperplasia. No difference was observed between the data obtained from aqueous extract or hydroalcoholic extract of red maca. A dose dependent reduction of prostate weight was observed with the increase of the dose of benzylglucosinolates in red maca extracts. The present study showed that hydroalcoholic or aqueous extract of red maca containing 0.1 mg of benzylglucosinolate can reduce prostate size in male rats in which prostatic hyperplasia had been induced by TE.

  1. Effect of head irradiation with X-rays on neuroendocrine in male rats of hypothalamic arcuate nucleus lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Shouliang; Li Xiuyi; Wei Jun; Liu Shuzheng

    1992-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that neonatal administration of monosodium glutamine (MSG) results in clearly defined lesions of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. The present study showed that neuroendocrine function changed significantly in adulthood when baby rats were injected with MSG (4 mg/g BW, ip) 2 and 4 days after their birth. The serum LH, FSH, TSH and GH and serum and urine testosterone (TS) levels and pituitary cAMP content were lower in MSG treated rats than those of intact rats, but the serum PRL level increased significantly and the testicular cAMP content did not change. Forty eight hours after head irradiation with 10 Gy X-rays in the male rats treated with MSG, the serum LH, FSH, TSH and GH and serum and urine TS levels tended to decrease, while the serum PRL level tended to increase and the pituitary and testicular cAMP contents didn't change. The results suggest that the functional irregularity of neuroendocrine system in MSG treated rats with extensive lesions of hypothalamic arcuate nucleus were not so significant as those of intact rats in response to irradiation

  2. Changes in androgen receptor, estrogen receptor alpha, and sexual behavior with aging and testosterone in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Gore, Andrea C

    2010-07-01

    Reproductive aging in males is characterized by a diminution in sexual behavior beginning in middle age. We investigated the relationships among testosterone, androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) cell numbers in the hypothalamus, and their relationship to sexual performance in male rats. Young (3months) and middle-aged (12months) rats were given sexual behavior tests, then castrated and implanted with vehicle or testosterone capsules. Rats were tested again for sexual behavior. Numbers of AR and ERalpha immunoreactive cells were counted in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus and the medial preoptic nucleus, and serum hormones were measured. Middle-aged intact rats had significant impairments of all sexual behavior measures compared to young males. After castration and testosterone implantation, sexual behaviors in middle-aged males were largely comparable to those in the young males. In the hypothalamus, AR cell density was significantly (5-fold) higher, and ERalpha cell density significantly (6-fold) lower, in testosterone- than vehicle-treated males, with no age differences. Thus, restoration of serum testosterone to comparable levels in young and middle-aged rats resulted in similar preoptic AR and ERalpha cell density concomitant with a reinstatement of most behaviors. These data suggest that age-related differences in sexual behavior cannot be due to absolute levels of testosterone, and further, the middle-aged brain retains the capacity to respond to exogenous testosterone with changes in hypothalamic AR and ERalpha expression. Our finding that testosterone replacement in aging males has profound effects on hypothalamic receptors and behavior has potential medical implications for the treatment of age-related hypogonadism in men. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Insulin binding and glucose transport in adipocytes of acarbose-treated Zucker lean and obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasselli, J R; Flory, T; Fried, S K

    1987-01-01

    The intestinal glucosidase inhibitor acarbose was administered as a dietary admix (30 mg/100 g chow diet) to male Zucker obese and lean rats. After 15 weeks, epidiymal fat pads were removed and adipocytes isolated by collagenase digestion. Equilibrium binding of A-14 tyrosine 125I-insulin, and transport of U-14C-glucose was determined was adipocytes incubated for 50 min at 37 degrees C in 0-16000 pM insulin. Insulin binding/cell was enhanced two-fold in lean (P less than 0.01) and obese (n.s.) drug groups. In drug-treated leans, increased sensitivity of glucose transport to submaximally stimulating concentrations of insulin was observed (P less than 0.02). For both genotypes, acarbose mildly decreased insulin levels and body weight gain, although adipocyte size was unaffected. Results indicate that enhanced insulin binding accompanies metabolic improvements induced by acarbose in lean Zucker rats.

  4. Influence of head X-irradiation on neuroendocrine functions in thymectomized male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Shouliang

    1991-01-01

    The present study showed that the functions of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal and hypothalamic-adrenocortical systems changed in adult male rats thymectomized within 48 h after their birth. Two days later, head irradiation with 10 Gy x-rays was performed in the thymectomized male rats, serum LH and FSH, serum and urine testosterone and corticosterone, pituitary and testicular cAMP and hypothalamic β-EP and L-Enk contents were all reduced in different degrees, except the hypothalamic M-Enk content was increased, indicating that the changes were not in the same direction as those in intact male rats after head irradiation. These results suggest that the changes in head irradiated thymectomized male rats may differ from the changes seen in head irradiated intact male rats because of the influence of thymectomy on the neuroendocrine functions

  5. Immunohistochemical profile of some neurotransmitters and neurotrophins in the seminiferous tubules of rats treated by lonidamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, M; Bronzetti, E; Saso, L; Felici, L M; D'Ambrosio, A; Forte, F; Grande, C; Ortolani, F

    2007-01-01

    Lonidamine (LND) or [1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxylic acid] is an anticancer and antispermatogenic drug that exerts a large number of effects on tumor cells and germ cells. Sexually mature male Sprague-Dawley rats were housed at 22 degrees C on a 12-h light/12-h dark cycle 1 week before the experiments, with free access to food and water. LND was suspended in 0.5% methylcellulose at a concentration of 10 mg/mL and administered orally at the dose of 10 mL/kg (b.w.) as a single dose. Control rats received an equal amount of vehicle. Testes were removed, fixed for 24 h in 2% glutaraldehyde and 2% paraformaldehyde in 0.1 M sodium phosphate (pH 7.2 at 22 degrees C), rinsed with the same buffer, and stored at room temperature. From each sample, a block of tissue was removed by sectioning through the organ. After dehydration in ethanol at increasing concentrations (70-100%), each block was embedded in paraffin and serial 5 mm thick sections were cut using a rotatory microtome. The immunoreactivity for NTs has been observed in spermatogonia of untreated rats, while the rats treated with LND showed an immunohistochemical localization in all the stages of germinal cells. The generally well-expressed immunoreactivity for the neurotrophins receptors in treated rats observed in our study is presumably attributable to alterations of the receptors' structure and/or expression leading to changes of the activity, affinity, localization or protein interactions that may depend on sensitization of ion channels (induced by LND). Neurotrophins (NTs) appear to be interesting proteins for the modulation of sperm maturation and motility with a prominent role for the nerve growth factor (NGF), that may exert an autocrine or paracrine role. We therefore investigated the location and distribution of immunoreactivity for some neurotransmitters (SP, VIP, CGRP, nNOS, Chat), neurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, NT-3) and their own receptors (TrKA, TrKB, TrKC, p75) in the seminiferous tubules

  6. Immunohistochemical profile of some neurotransmitters and neurotrophins in the seminiferous tubules of rats treated by lonidamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Artico

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Lonidamine (LND or [1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl-1H-indazole-3- carboxylic acid] is an anticancer and antispermatogenic drug that exerts a large number of effects on tumor cells and germ cells. Sexually mature male Sprague-Dawley rats were housed at 22°C on a 12-h light/12-h dark cycle 1 week before the experiments, with free access to food and water. LND was suspended in 0.5% methylcellulose at a concentration of 10 mg/mL and administered orally at the dose of 10 mL/kg (b.w. as a single dose. Control rats received an equal amount of vehicle. Testes were removed, fixed for 24 h in 2% glutaraldehyde and 2% paraformaldehyde in 0.1 M sodium phosphate (pH 7.2 at 22°C, rinsed with the same buffer, and stored at room temperature. From each sample, a block of tissue was removed by sectioning through the organ. After dehydration in ethanol at increasing concentrations (70-100%, each block was embedded in paraffin and serial 5 mm thick sections were cut using a rotatory microtome. The immunoreactivity for NTs has been observed in spermatogonia of untreated rats, while the rats treated with LND showed an immunohistochemical localization in all the stages of germinal cells. The generally well-expressed immunoreactivity for the neurotrophins receptors in treated rats observed in our study is presumably attributable to alterations of the receptors’ structure and/or expression leading to changes of the activity, affinity, localization or protein interactions that may depend on sensitization of ion channels (induced by LND. Neurotrophins (NTs appear to be interesting proteins for the modulation of sperm maturation and motility with a prominent role for the nerve growth factor (NGF, that may exert an autocrine or paracrine role.We therefore investigated the location and distribution of immunoreactivity for some neurotransmitters (SP, VIP, CGRP, nNOS, Chat, neurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, NT-3 and their own receptors (TrKA, TrKB, TrKC, p75 in the seminiferous tubules of

  7. Protective role of ginger on lead induced derangement in plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels of male sprague dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, F.; Ayub, M.; Shaukat, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lead is one of the most serious environmental threats to human health especially in developing countries. It damages multiple body systems including the reproductive system. Ginger's antioxidant and androgenic activity is reported in multiple animal studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effect of Zingiber officinale (ginger) on lead induced derangement in plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels of male rats. Methods: Sixty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used in this study in four groups. Group A served as normal control, Group B received 0.3% lead acetate in drinking water, Group C and group D received supplementary 0.5 and 1 gm/Kg bodyweight of ginger respectively along with lead acetate in drinking water. Five rats from each group were sacrificed at the end of 2nd, 4th and 6th weeks. Serum testosterone and LH levels were analysed using ELISA technique. Results: After co administration with different doses of ginger, serum testosterone level which was significantly decreased in lead treated group, showed a significant rise as compared to lead treated group. LH levels which had exhibited no significant change by lead treatment, after co administration with different doses of ginger, again showed no significant change. Conclusion: Oral administration of ginger ameliorated lead induced testicular toxicity in male rats by increasing serum testosterone level at all durations which might be a product of both its androgenic and antioxidant properties. (author)

  8. The Effects of Combination of High Intensity Intermittent Exercise and Supplement Flaxseed Oil 1 ICAM- Plasma Concentration in Male Rats

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    Y Khademi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is rooted in inflammation and inflammation is along with the increase of ICAM-1. The aim of the present study was to review the effect of combination of high interval training and flaxseed oil supplementation on plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 30 rats were selected and divided into six groups of five male rats, including (1 control, (2 training, (3 10 mg/kg Flaxseed oil, (4 30 mg/kg Flaxseed oil, (5 training with 10 mg/kg Flaxseed oil and (6 training with 30 mg/kg Flaxseed oil. Groups of 2, 5 and 6 were trained with high intensity interval training for 10 weeks and five sessions per week, also groups 3 to 6 received flaxseed oil for 10 weeks. For statistical analysis of data two way ANOVA test was used (p≤0.05. Results: 10 weeks  treating high intensity interval training  for 10 weeks had significant effect on the increase of the plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of male rats (p=0.001. Nevertheless, Taking 10 weeks 10 and 30 mg/kg flaxseed oil supplementation for 10 weeks has significant effect on reducing  the plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of rats (p=0.001. Training and taking flaxseed oil supplementation have interactional effect on reduingc the plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of male rats (p=0.001. Conclusion: Combination of high intensity interval training and flaxseed oil supplementation has interactional effects on the improvement of plasma concentration of ICAM-1 in male rats.

  9. Paradoxical sleep deprivation changes testicular malondialdehyde and caspase-3 expression in male rats

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    Fitranto Arjadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Sleep deprivation is a significant problem among adult men and is considered as a risk factor for several diseases. Paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD induces Leydig cell apoptosis through elevation of corticosterone, with testicular malondialdehyde (MDA and Leydig cell caspase-3 expression as parameters. The aim of this study was to observe testicular MDA level and caspase-3 expression treated with paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD, immobilization, and footshock stress and to determine the stress model with a significant effect in white male rats (Rattus norvegicus . METHODS This experimental randomized study of posttest only with control group design was conducted on 24 white male Wistar strain rats, randomly allocated into four treatment groups, i.e. control (K1 without any stress treatment, PSD (KII, immobilization (KIII, and footshock stress (KIV. Treatments were given for 25 days to produce chronic stress. Testicular MDA concentration was examined by the ELISA method while caspase-3 was examined by the TUNEL method. RESULTS Mean testicular MDA concentration with one-way ANOVA test showed differences in means between the groups (p=0.000 and post hoc Tukey-HSD test showed significant results between PSD stress group versus control, immobilization and footshock stress groups. One-way ANOVA test showed a significant difference in caspase-3 expression in at least two treatment groups (p=0.008 and post-hoc Tuckey-LSD test showed significant differences between controls and all stress groups. CONCLUSION Sleep deprivation is a type of stress inducing changes in testicular MDA concentration and caspase-3 expression in male rat testes.

  10. Effect of preservation methods of oil palm sap (Elaeis guineensis) on the reproductive indices of male wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegwu, Theophilus Maduabuchukwu; Okafor, Gabriel Ifeanyi; Ochiogu, Izuchukwu Shedrack

    2014-12-01

    Thirty male Wistar rats, split into five groups of six rats each, were administered different forms of oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) sap samples by gavage based on 1.5% of their weekly body weights. Group 1 which served as control received only water, group 2 received pasteurized palm sap (PPS), group 3 received market palm wine (MPW), group 4 received frozen palm sap (FPS), whereas group 5 received fresh palm sap (FrPS). Chemical composition of the sap samples was determined. Normal feed and water were fed ad libitum. After 2 months of treatment, each male rat group was allowed 7 days to mate with six female Wistar rats. Thereafter, blood and epididymal samples were collected for testosterone assay and sperm count, respectively, before they were humanely sacrificed and testicular tissues taken for testicular histology. Litter weight and size of the pups produced by the females of each group were determined at birth. The sap samples contained carbohydrate (0.01-11.71%), protein (1.56-1.95%), ash (0.22-0.35%), moisture (92.55-98.24%), and alcohol (0.26-3.50%). PPS-treated rat group had significantly (Psap, impacted negatively on the reproductive indices of male animals.

  11. Effects of 90-day feeding of transgenic Bt rice TT51 on the reproductive system in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Er Hui; Yu, Zhou; Hu, Jing; Xu, Hai Bin

    2013-12-01

    Rice is a staple food crop; however, the threat of pests leads to a serious decline in its output and quality. The CryAb/CryAc gene, encodes a synthetic fusion Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal protein, was introduced into rice MingHui63 to produce insect-resistant rice TT51. This study was undertaken to investigate potential unintended effects of TT51 on the reproductive system in male rats. Male rats were treated with diets containing 60% of either TT51 or MingHui63 by weight, nutritionally balanced to an AIN93G diet, for 90days. An additional negative control group of rats were fed with a rice-based AIN93G diet. Body weights, food intake, hematology, serum chemistry, serum hormone levels, sperm parameters and relative organ/body weights were measured, and gross as well as microscopic pathology were examined. No diet-related significant differences in the values of response variables were observed between rats that were fed with diet containing transgenic TT51, MingHui63 and the control in this 90-day feeding study. In addition, necropsy and histopathology examination indicated no treatment-related changes. The results from the present study indicated that TT51 does not appear to exert any effect on the reproductive system in male rats compared with MingHui63 or the control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The potential of sanrego (Lunasia amara) in enhancing fertility and anti-hyperglycemic effect in diabetic induced male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor Raidah, R.; Mahanem M., N.; Mohd Shazrul Fazry, S.

    2014-09-01

    Study on the effects of Lunasia amara (LA) aqueous extract on male fertility and its anti-hyperglycemic activity was carried out. Twelve adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups for fertility test; control given orally distilled water (n=6) and treatment (n=6) given 60 mg/kg aqueous extract of LA for 42 days. On day 43, all rats were sacrificed and cauda epididymis was isolated for sperm quality analysis that includes parameter of sperm count, motility and viability. Anti-hyperglycemic study was done on five groups of male rats; I-normal control, II-Diabetic control and three other groups induced diabetic given 500 mg/kg metformin, 60 mg/kg LA and 120 mg/kg LA respectively. Diabetes was induced in the male rats by intravenous injection of 55 mg/kg streptozotocin. On day 7, the fasting blood glucose level was measured from blood drawn by tail snip. Results showed that aqueous extract of LA increased significantly (p sperm count (39.88 ± 2.33) × 106, viability 82.46 ± 1.91 % and progressive motility 76.00 ± 1.51and of sperm data in treated group compared to control group. LA aqueous extract at dose 120 mg/kg was significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose in the diabetic rats by 49.53 %. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of LA effective in increasing sperm quality of male rats and suggest that LA may possess anti-hyperglycemic property.

  13. Effects of 90-Day Feeding of Transgenic Maize BT799 on the Reproductive System in Male Wistar Rats

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    Qian-ying Guo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BT799 is a genetically modified (GM maize plant that expresses the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. The Cry1Ac gene was introduced into maize line Zhen58 to encode the Bt crystal protein and thus produce insect-resistant maize BT799. Expression of Bt protein in planta confers resistance to Lepidopteran pests and corn rootworms. The present study was designed to investigate any potential effects of BT799 on the reproductive system of male rats and evaluate the nutritional value of diets containing BT799 maize grain in a 90-day subchronic rodent feeding study. Male Wistar rats were fed with diets containing BT799 maize flours or made from its near isogenic control (Zhen58 at a concentration of 84.7%, nutritionally equal to the standard AIN-93G diet. Another blank control group of male rats were treated with commercial AIN-93G diet. No significant differences in body weight, hematology and serum chemistry results were observed between rats fed with the diets containing transgenic BT799, Zhen58 and the control in this 13-week feeding study. Results of serum hormone levels, sperm parameters and relative organ/body weights indicated no treatment-related side effects on the reproductive system of male rats. In addition, no diet-related changes were found in necropsy and histopathology examinations. Based on results of the current study, we did not find any differences in the parameters tested in our study of the reproductive system of male rats between BT799 and Zhen58 or the control.

  14. Sexual differences in the excretion of organic and inorganic mercury by methyl mercury-treated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.J.; Fisher, H.L.; Sumler, M.R.; Mushak, P.; Hall, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    Adult male and female Long Evans rats received 1 mumole of methyl ( 203 Hg) mercuric chloride per kilogram sc. Whole-body retention of mercury and excretion of organic and inorganic mercury in urine and feces were monitored for 98 days after dosing. Females cleared mercury from the body more rapidly than did males. The major route of mercury excretion was feces. By 98 days after dosing, cumulative mercury excretion in feces accounted for about 51% of the dose in males and about 54% of the dose in females. For both sexes, about 33% of the dose was excreted in feces as inorganic mercury. Cumulative excretion of organic mercury in feces accounted for about 18 and 21% of the dose in males and females, respectively. Urinary excretion of mercury was quantitatively a smaller route for mercury clearance but important sexual differences in loss by this route were found. Over the 98-day experimental period, males excreted in urine about 3.2% of the dose and females excreted 7.5%. Cumulative organic Hg excretion in urine accounted for 1.8% of the dose in males and 5.3% of the dose in females. These sexual differences in urinary and fecal excretion of organic and inorganic mercury following methyl mercury treatment were consistent with previous reports of sexual differences in mercury distribution and retention in methyl mercury-treated rats, particularly sexual differences in organic mercury uptake and retention in the kidney. Relationships between body burdens of organic or inorganic Hg and output of these forms of Hg in urine and feces were also found to be influenced by the interval after MeHg treatment and by sex. Relationship between concentration of Hg in liver and feces and in kidney and urine differed for organic and inorganic Hg and depended upon sexual status and interval after MeHg treatment

  15. Using bosentan to treat paraquat poisoning-induced acute lung injury in rats.

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    Zhongchen Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paraquat poisoning is well known for causing multiple organ function failure (MODS and high mortality. Acute lung injury and advanced pulmonary fibrosis are the most serious complications. Bosentan is a dual endothelin receptor antagonist. It plays an important role in treating PF. There is no related literature on the use of bosentan therapy for paraquat poisoning. OBJECTIVE: To study the use of bosentan to treat acute lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis as induced by paraquat. METHOD: A total of 120 adult Wister male rats were randomly assigned to three groups: the paraquat poisoning group (rats were intragastrically administered with paraquat at 50 mg/kg body weight once at the beginning; the bosentan therapy group (rats were administered bosentan at 100 mg/kg body weight by intragastric administration half an hour after paraquat was administered, then the same dose was administered once a day; and a control group (rats were administered intragastric physiological saline. On the 3rd, 7th, 14th, and 21st days following paraquat exposure, rats were sacrificed, and samples of lung tissue and venous blood were collected. The levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, endothelin-1 (ET-1, and hydroxyproline (HYP in the plasma and lung homogenate were determined. Optical and electronic microscopes were used to examine pathological changes. RESULT: The TGF-β1, ET-1, and HYP of the paraquat poisoning group were significantly higher than in the control group, and they were significantly lower in the 21st day therapy group than in the paraquat poisoning group on the same day. Under the optical and electronic microscopes, lung tissue damage was observed to be more severe but was then reduced after bosentan was administered. CONCLUSION: Bosentan can reduce inflammation factor release. It has a therapeutic effect on acute lung injury as induced by paraquat.

  16. Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) ameliorates age-related deficits in water maze performance, especially in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, Daniel G; Hankosky, Emily R; Gulley, Joshua M; Juraska, Janice M

    2017-03-01

    Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) is commonly supplemented to maintain muscle in elderly and clinical populations and has potential as a nootropic. Previously, we have shown that in both male and female rats, long-term HMB supplementation prevents age-related dendritic shrinkage within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and improves cognitive flexibility and working memory performance that are both age- and sex-specific. In this study, we further explore the cognitive effects by assessing visuospatial learning and memory with the Morris water maze. Female rats were ovariectomized at 11months of age to model human menopause. At 12months of age, male and female rats received relatively short- or long-term (1- or 7-month) dietary HMB (450mg/kg/dose) supplementation twice a day prior to testing. Spatial reference learning and memory was assessed across four days in the water maze with four trials daily and a probe trial on the last day. Consistent with previous work, there were age-related deficits in water maze performance in both sexes. However, these deficits were ameliorated in HMB-treated males during training and in both sexes during probe trial performance. Thus, HMB supplementation prevented the age-related decrement in water maze performance, especially in male rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in the adult wistar male rats

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    M R Sailani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of alcohol extracts of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa that were used traditionally in medieval Persian medicine as male contraceptive drugs, on spermatogenesis in the adult male rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extracts of these plants were obtained by the maceration method. The male rats were injected intraperitionaly with C. sativa and R. graveolens 5% ethanol extracts at dose of 20 mg/day for 20 consecutive days, respectively. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, testicular function was assessed by epididymal sperm count. Result: The statistical results showed that the ethanol extracts of these plants reduced the number of sperms significantly ( P =0.00 in the treatment groups in comparison to the control group. The results also showed that the group, treated by extract of R. graveolens reduced spermatogenesis more than the group treated by extracts of C. sativa . Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the spermatogenesis reducing properties of the ethanol extracts of R. graveolens and C. sativa in the adult male wistar rats but more studies are necessary to reveal the mechanism of action that is involved in spermatogenesis.

  18. Efficacy of curcumin to reduce hepatic damage induced by alcohol and thermally treated oil in rats

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    Nasr A.M.N. El-Deen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigated the effect of curcumin on markers of oxidative stress and liver damage in rats that chronically ingested alcohol and heated oil. Nine groups of ten Wistar male rats received combinations of curcumin 100 mg/kg body weight daily, ethanol 5 mg/kg, 15% dietary sunflower oil and 15% heated sunflower oil for 12 weeks. Serum and liver tissue were collected. Groups 4-6, which had received compounds causing oxidative stress, showed increased serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein and reduced high density lipoprotein, protein and albumin, compared with the controls. Reductions were observed in glutathione peroxidase and reductase gene expression, superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, reduced glutathione concentration and catalase enzyme activity. Groups 7, 8 and 9 which received curcumin with heated oil, ethanol or both, showed lower elevations in serum and oxidative damage markers compared with the corresponding non-curcumin treated groups.It can be concluded that curcumin reduces markers of liver damage in rats treated with heated sunflower oil or ethanol.

  19. Aphrodisiac Activity of the Aqueous Crude Extract of Purple Corn ( Zea mays) in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro-Juárez, Miguel; Rodríguez-Santiago, Magdalena G; Franco, Miguel Angel; Hueletl-Soto, María Eugenia

    2017-10-01

    In the present study, the aphrodisiac properties of the purple corn ( Zea mays) in male rats were analyzed. The aqueous crude extract of purple corn (at 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg) was administered to ( a) copulating male rats and ( b) anesthetized and spinal cord transected male rats. Behavioral parameters of copulatory behavior and parameters of the genital motor pattern of ejaculation previous to its inhibition, under the influence of the purple corn extract, are described. Administration of the aqueous crude extract of purple corn significantly facilitates the arousal and execution of male rat sexual behavior without significant influences on the ambulatory behavior. In addition, purple corn extract elicit a significant increase in the number of discharges of the ejaculatory motor patterns and in the total number of genital motor patterns evoked in spinal rats. The present findings show that the aqueous crude extract of purple corn possesses aphrodisiac activity.

  20. Lipofundin 20% induces hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in male Sprague Dawley rats

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    L DelgadoRoche

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipofundin is a lipid emulsion used in parenteral nutrition. One of adverse effects reported for this kind of pharmaceutical products is the capacity to induce oxidative stress, which is an important contributor of many diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of Lipofundin administration on lipid profile and serum redox biomarkers, in order to determine if both events are responsible for the undesirable effects of this lipid emulsion. Male Sprague Dawley rats were intravenously administered with 2 mL/kg of Lipofundin 20% daily, for 8 days. Then, serum lipid profile and redox biomarkers were spectrophotometrically determined. A significant increase (p<0,05 of serum lipids and biomolecules damages was observed at the end of the experiment, while a reduction of antioxidant capacity was also detected in treated rats compared with controls. Our data demonstrated that Lipofundin 20% induces hyperlipidemia, which promotes an oxidative stress state in Sprague Dawley rats. [Vet. World 2012; 5(3.000: 133-137

  1. Protective Role Of Fresh Pomegranate Against Oxidative Damage In Whole Body Gamma Irradiated Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassab, F.M.A.; Taha, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty four male albino rats, body weight 100-130 g, were used to evaluate the protective role of fresh pomegranate fruit intake for 30 days on the damage induced by single dose of 6 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. The rats were randomly and equally divided into four groups: group (1): control, group (2): irradiated with 6 Gy, group (3): pomegranate for 30 days and group (4): pomegranate for 30 days followed by 6 Gy whole body irradiation. At the end of the experiment, all rats were sacrificed after 12 hours fasting then sera were separated for the determination of sugar, total antioxidant, lipid profile and liver and kidney functions. Results showed that gamma radiation caused significant decline (P<0.05) in serum total antioxidant, total protein, albumin, HDL-C and blood glucose with significant elevation (P<0.05) in other hepato-renal markers in addition to serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C. These changes were significantly attenuated in irradiated animals pre-treated with whole fresh pomegranate fruit leading to the conclusion that pre-intake of pomegranate fruit had a radio- protective effect. This protection of this whole fruit may be due to the increased total antioxidant level leading to free radical scavenging

  2. Efficacy of Clove Oil in Modulating Radiation-Induced Some Biochemical Disorders in Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nada, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the possible modulating efficacy of prolonged oral administration of clove oil against gamma irradiation-induced some biochemical disorders in male rats. Clove oil was orally administrated in a concentration of 200 mg/kg body wt daily for 21 days before irradiation at a single dose of 7 Gy and for 7 days post exposure. Transaminases (AST and ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lipid profile; cholesterol, triglycerides (T.G) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) as well as serum glucose level were determined. Also, liver reduced glutathione (GSH) content and lipid peroxidation were estimated in addition to the hepatic concentration levels of some trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, and Se). Rats exposed to ionizing radiation revealed transaminases disorders, lipid abnormalities, elevation in serum glucose, ALP activity as well as liver TBARS. A sharp drop in glutathione was recorded. Also, radiation induced alteration in hepatic trace element contents. The obtained data show that rats treated with clove oil before and after whole body gamma irradiation exhibited significant amelioration in liver marker enzymes, serum glucose and lipids as well as noticeable improvement in liver glutathione contents. Clove oil was also effective in minimizing lipid pr oxidation and trace element alteration induced by irradiation. It could be concluded that clove oil exerts a beneficial protective role against gamma irradiation

  3. Reversible antispermatogenic and antisteroidogenic activities of Feronia limonia fruit pulp in adult male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapal, Ramaiyan; Ratna, J.Vijaya; Sarathchandran, I.; Gupta, Malaya

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the antispermatogenic and testicular antisteroidogenic activities of Feronia limonia fruit pulp southern India. Methods Fourty Wistar male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) were equally divided into four groups. Experimental groups were administered with the ethanolic extract of Feronia limonia (F. limoni) fruit pulp at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight once daily for 55 days. All treated rats had corresponding recovery groups. At the end of each treatment periods, various spermatological indices, tissue biochemicals and testicular enzymes levels were analysed. Blood profiles were also estimated. Results Compared with the control, the F. limonia fruit pulp at both dose levels did not decrease body weight, which were associated with decline in epididymal sperm count, motility, viability and increased percent of abnormal sperm. Further, F. limonia fruit pulp at 500 mg/kg body weight markedly reduced the epididymal and testicular protein content by 24.58% and 29.86%, respectively, as well as the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and Δ5-3β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase) levels by 42.82% and 38.08%, respectively, while a significant elevation was observed in testicular cholesterol and ascorbic acid content. A gradual recovery of all parameters was observed after 55 days of treatment withdrawal. No significant alterations in haematological indices were observed. Conclusions The present findings indicate that F. limonia fruit pulp may have reversible antispermatogenic and antisteroidogenic properties, and could partially support the traditional use as male contraceptive. PMID:23569995

  4. Mitigating potential of Ginkgo biloba extract and melatonin against hepatic and nephrotoxicity induced by Bisphenol A in male rats

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    Mayssaa M. Wahby

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A is one of the anthropogenic chemicals produced worldwide, currently released into the environment and causes endocrine-disruption. The largest environmental compartments of BPA are abiotic associated with water and suspended solids that becomes an integrated part of the food chain. The present study aimed to examine the possible protective role of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE, melatonin and their combination against BPA-induced liver and kidney toxicity of male rats. Fifty rats were divided into five equal groups: control, BPA, BPA plus GBE, BPA plus melatonin and BPA plus GBE plus melatonin. The elevated activities of plasma ALT and AST in addition to increased levels of urea and creatinine concomitant with the decreased total plasma protein could reflect the injurious effect of BPA. Liver and kidney levels of TBARS were significantly increased, while GSH, SOD and GPX were decreased in BPA-treated rats. Also, CAT and GST activities were significantly disrupted in the liver and kidney of rats treated with BPA. Moreover, BPA significantly increased the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α in the liver and kidney tissues. The histopathological analysis confirmed these results. All the previous alterations in the liver and kidney could be ameliorated when BPA-treated rats were co-administrated either with GBE, melatonin or their combination. These natural substances could exhibit protective effects against BPA-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity owing to their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory potentials. Keywords: Bisphenol A, Ginkgo biloba extract, Melatonin, Lipid peroxidation, Antioxidant enzymes, Histopathological analysis

  5. Bioavailability in rats of bound residues from radishes treated with either radiolabeled dieldrin or carbofuran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.U.; Kacew, S.; Dupont, S.; Stratton, G.D. Jr.; Wheeler, W.B.

    1987-01-01

    The bioavailability of bound residues from radishes treated with [ 14 C]dieldrin and [ 14 C]carbofuran was investigated by feeding the rats 14 C material obtained after exhaustive solvent extraction. For comparison, nonextracted radishes were also fed to rats. The 14 C residues were predominantly excreted in feces. Urinary excretion of 14 C from rats fed nonextracted material was relatively greater than from those fed extracted radishes. The excreted material from rats fed dieldrin-treated radishes contained mainly parent compounds as residue. However, carbofuran and two of its metabolites, 3-hydroxycarbofuran and 3-ketocarbofuran, were present in feces and urine samples of rats fed carbofuran-treated radishes. These data demonstrated that bound residues in radishes treated with dieldrin and carbofuran have a low degree of bioavailability in rats. The results also show that bound residues in dieldrin-treated radishes would be more bioavailable than in the carbofuran-treated samples

  6. Characterization of untreated and treated male and female date palm leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlMaadeed, M.A.; Kahraman, Ramazan; Noorunnisa Khanam, P.; Al-Maadeed, Somaya

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sheshi female and male date palm leaves were treated with NaOH concentrations. ► Male leaves have lower mechanical properties and improved when treated by NaOH 2%. ► Female leaves have higher thermal stability. ► There are different properties for different types of date leaves. ► Leaves can be used as reinforcements for thermoplastic materials. -- Abstract: This paper describes the characterization of male and female date palm leaves from two different cultivars, Sheshi female and unknown male leaves. Characterization was done for both untreated and NaOH treated date palm leaves by infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopic techniques. To our knowledge, the difference in specious reaction to the treatment type of date palm fiber has not been investigated earlier. These leaves were treated with different concentrations of NaOH, 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 5% (w/w). The results from this investigation indicate that female leaves have better tensile properties which deteriorate with the increase of the alkali. The male leaves have lower tensile properties than female leaves and their mechanical properties are improved slightly by NaOH treatment. Female leaves have more pores than male leaves, this was proved and calculated by image analysis. Untreated female leaves have higher thermal stability (353 °C) than male leaves (343 °C). Both can be used as reinforcements in thermoplastic matrix materials whose processing temperatures are below 300 °C.

  7. [Age-related aspects of male rats sexual behavior with different senescence rates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstislavskaia, T G; Gladkikh, D V; Belousova, I I; Maslova, L N; Kolosova, N G

    2010-01-01

    Social and sexual behavior of males Wistar and senescence-accelerated OXYS rats was studied. The experimental model excluding direct interaction between partners showed that the exploratory activity decreased with aging in rats of both strains, but social motivation didn't change. No interstrain differences in intensity of sexual motivation in the presence of an inaccessible receptive female were observed in 4-month rats. The level of sexual motivation of 12-month Wistar rats didn't differ from that of 4-month animals. However, in 12-month OXYS males, sexual motivation was decreased as compared to both 4- and 12-month Wistar rats. The same regularities were found under conditions of direct interaction with a partner. Behavioral changes in 12-month OXYS rats were considered as genetically determinate abnormality at the initial stage of sexual behavior, i.e., sexual motivation. The results suggest the accelerated senescence of the reproductive system of OXYS rats.

  8. Lithium modulates the chronic stress-induced effect on blood glucose level of male rats

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    Popović Nataša

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we examined gross changes in the mass of whole adrenal glands and that of the adrenal cortex, as well as the serum corticosterone and glucose level of mature male Wistar rats subjected to three different treatments: animals subjected to chronic restraint-stress, animals injected with lithium (Li and chronically stressed rats treated with Li. Under all three conditions we observed hypertrophy of whole adrenals, as well as the adrenal cortices. Chronic restraint stress, solely or in combination with Li treatment, significantly elevated the corticosterone level, but did not change the blood glucose level. Animals treated only with Li exhibited an elevated serum corticosterone level and blood glucose level. The aim of our study was to investigate the modulation of the chronic stress-induced effect on the blood glucose level by lithium, as a possible mechanism of avoiding the damage caused by chronic stress. Our results showed that lithium is an agent of choice which may help to reduce stress-elevated corticosterone and replenish exhausted glucose storages in an organism.

  9. Urinary aminopeptidase activities as early and predictive biomarkers of renal dysfunction in cisplatin-treated rats.

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    Andrés Quesada

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the fluorimetric determination of alanyl- (Ala, glutamyl- (Glu, leucyl-cystinyl- (Cys and aspartyl-aminopeptidase (AspAp urinary enzymatic activities as early and predictive biomarkers of renal dysfunction in cisplatin-treated rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 8 each group received a single subcutaneous injection of either saline or cisplatin 3.5 or 7 mg/kg, and urine samples were taken at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 14 days after treatment. In urine samples we determined Ala, Glu, Cys and AspAp activities, proteinuria, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG, albumin, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL. Plasma creatinine, creatinine clearance and renal morphological variables were measured at the end of the experiment. CysAp, NAG and albumin were increased 48 hours after treatment in the cisplatin 3.5 mg/kg treated group. At 24 hours, all urinary aminopeptidase activities and albuminuria were significantly increased in the cisplatin 7 mg/kg treated group. Aminopeptidase urinary activities correlated (p0.259 with plasma creatinine, creatinine clearance and/or kidney weight/body weight ratio at the end of the experiment and they could be considered as predictive biomarkers of renal injury severity. ROC-AUC analysis was made to study their sensitivity and specificity to distinguish between treated and untreated rats at day 1. All aminopeptidase activities showed an AUC>0.633. We conclude that Ala, Cys, Glu and AspAp enzymatic activities are early and predictive urinary biomarkers of the renal dysfunction induced by cisplatin. These determinations can be very useful in the prognostic and diagnostic of renal dysfunction in preclinical research and clinical practice.

  10. Antidopaminergic-induced hypothalamic LHRH release and pituitary gonadotrophin secretion in 12 day-old female and male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacau-Mengido, I M; Becú-Villalobos, D; Thyssen, S M; Rey, E B; Lux-Lantos, V A; Libertun, C

    1993-12-01

    In previous studies we have shown that the developing rat provides an interesting physiologic model in which the dopaminergic control of both LH and FSH is well defined in contrast to the controversial results obtained in adult rats. We wished to establish the role of testosterone in antidopaminergic induced gonadotrophins release in 12 day-old male and female rats, and evaluate the effect of antidopaminergic drugs at the hypothalamic level during this developmental stage. Haloperidol, an antidopaminergic drug, increased both LH and FSH in female 12 day-old rats but not in male littermates. The effect was blocked by bromocriptine and not by phentolamine indicating that haloperidol acted on the dopaminergic receptor, and that unspecific stimulation of the noradrenergic system was not involved. Haloperidol was ineffective when female rats were previously ovariectomized and injected with testosterone propionate at 9 days of age. If females were treated on the day of birth with testosterone propionate, haloperidol-induced FSH and LH release was also abolished. In control males haloperidol had no effect on the release of LH or FSH. But if males were orchidectomized at birth or at 9 days of age, haloperidol released both LH and FSH during the infantile period. In an attempt to establish the site of action of antidopaminergic drugs on gonadotrophin release, hypothalami (mediobasal and preoptic-suprachiasmatic area) from 12 day-old infant female rats were perifused with either haloperidol or domperidone (2*10(-6) M). Both drugs increased LHRH release into the perifusate. Besides haloperidol did not modify the release of LH or FSH from adenohypophyseal cells incubated in vitro. We therefore conclude that antidopaminergic-induced gonadotrophins release is modulated by serum testosterone concentrations, and that the site of action is probably the LHRH-secreting neuron of the hypothalamus.

  11. Neonatal Overnutrition Increases Testicular Size and Expression of Luteinizing Hormone β-Subunit in Peripubertal Male Rats

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    Pilar Argente-Arizón

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Proper nutrition is important for growth and development. Maturation of the reproductive axis and the timing of pubertal onset can be delayed when insufficient nutrition is available, or possibly advanced with nutritional abundance. The childhood obesity epidemic has been linked to a secular trend in advanced puberty in some populations. The increase in circulating leptin that occurs in association with obesity has been suggested to act as a signal that an adequate nutritional status exists for puberty to occur, allowing activation of central mechanisms. However, obesity-associated hyperleptinemia is linked to decreased leptin sensitivity, at least in adults. Here, we analyzed whether neonatal overnutrition modifies the response to an increase in leptin in peripubertal male rats, as previously demonstrated in females. Wistar rats were raised in litters of 4 (neonatal overnutrition or 12 pups (controls per dam. Leptin was administered sc (3 µg/g body weight at postnatal day 35 and the rats killed 45 min or 2 h later. Postnatal overfeeding resulted in increased body weight and circulating leptin levels; however, we found no overweight-related changes in the mRNA levels of neuropeptides involved in metabolism or reproduction. In contrast, pituitary expression of luteinizing hormone (LH beta-subunit was increased in overweight rats, as was testicular weight. There were no basal differences between L4 and L12 males or in their response to leptin administration in pSTAT3 levels in the hypothalamus at either 45 min or 2 h. In contrast, pJAK2 was found to be higher at 45 min in L4 compared to L12 males regardless of leptin treatment, while at 2 h it was higher in L4 leptin-treated males compared to L12 leptin-treated males, as well as L4 vehicle-treated rats. There were no changes in response to leptin administration in the expression of the neuropeptides analyzed. However, serum LH levels rose only in L4 males in response to leptin, but

  12. Neonatal Overnutrition Increases Testicular Size and Expression of Luteinizing Hormone β-Subunit in Peripubertal Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argente-Arizón, Pilar; Castro-González, David; Díaz, Francisca; Fernández-Gómez, María J.; Sánchez-Garrido, Miguel A.; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A.

    2018-01-01

    Proper nutrition is important for growth and development. Maturation of the reproductive axis and the timing of pubertal onset can be delayed when insufficient nutrition is available, or possibly advanced with nutritional abundance. The childhood obesity epidemic has been linked to a secular trend in advanced puberty in some populations. The increase in circulating leptin that occurs in association with obesity has been suggested to act as a signal that an adequate nutritional status exists for puberty to occur, allowing activation of central mechanisms. However, obesity-associated hyperleptinemia is linked to decreased leptin sensitivity, at least in adults. Here, we analyzed whether neonatal overnutrition modifies the response to an increase in leptin in peripubertal male rats, as previously demonstrated in females. Wistar rats were raised in litters of 4 (neonatal overnutrition) or 12 pups (controls) per dam. Leptin was administered sc (3 µg/g body weight) at postnatal day 35 and the rats killed 45 min or 2 h later. Postnatal overfeeding resulted in increased body weight and circulating leptin levels; however, we found no overweight-related changes in the mRNA levels of neuropeptides involved in metabolism or reproduction. In contrast, pituitary expression of luteinizing hormone (LH) beta-subunit was increased in overweight rats, as was testicular weight. There were no basal differences between L4 and L12 males or in their response to leptin administration in pSTAT3 levels in the hypothalamus at either 45 min or 2 h. In contrast, pJAK2 was found to be higher at 45 min in L4 compared to L12 males regardless of leptin treatment, while at 2 h it was higher in L4 leptin-treated males compared to L12 leptin-treated males, as well as L4 vehicle-treated rats. There were no changes in response to leptin administration in the expression of the neuropeptides analyzed. However, serum LH levels rose only in L4 males in response to leptin, but with no change

  13. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption and exercise on the skeleton of adult male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Adam H.; McCarty, Heidi L.; Evans, Glenda L.; Turner, Russell T.; Westerlind, Kim C.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors are known to affect skeletal development and integrity. Specifically, running has been reported to increase risk of fatigue fractures, whereas chronic alcohol consumption has been shown to reduce bone formation and bone mass. The combined effect of exercise and alcohol on the skeleton has yet to be explored, although alcohol consumption is common among certain physically active populations (e.g., military recruits, college athletes). It was hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption would accentuate the inherent risk associated with endurance running exercise. METHODS: Six-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups: baseline, exercise-alcohol diet, exercise-normal diet, sham-alcohol diet, and sham-normal diet. Alcohol-fed rats (35% caloric intake) received a liquid diet ad libitum. Normal animals were pair-fed the identical diet with a maltose dextrin caloric substitute. Exercise was conducted on a motorized treadmill 5 days/wk for 16 weeks. Sham rats were placed on a stationary treadmill for matching time periods. Fluorochrome labels were administered 3 days before baseline and at 10 and 2 days before animals were killed. Heart, soleus, and rectus femoris muscles were wet weighed to assess the effects of training. Tibiae were collected for static and dynamic histomorphometric measurements on cancellous and cortical bone. RESULTS: Muscle weights were larger in the exercised rats versus the sham rats. Alcohol had no significant effect on skeletal muscle weight but did result in larger heart weights in both alcohol-treated groups. Cancellous and periosteal bone formation rates were significantly decreased in the alcohol-fed rats versus rats on the normal diet and were associated with a significant reduction in trabecular thickness in the tibial metaphysis. Cortical and cross-sectional areas were also significantly lower in the alcohol-fed groups compared with the non-alcohol-fed groups. Exercise had no

  14. A selective androgen receptor modulator with minimal prostate hypertrophic activity enhances lean body mass in male rats and stimulates sexual behavior in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, George F; Tannenbaum, Pamela; Sbriscia, Tifanie; Linton, Olivia; Lai, Muh-Tsann; Haynes-Johnson, Donna; Bhattacharjee, Sheela; Zhang, Xuqing; Sui, Zhihua; Lundeen, Scott G

    2007-08-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) ligands with tissue selectivity (selective androgen receptor modulators, or SARMs) have potential for treating muscle wasting, hypogonadism of aging, osteoporosis, female sexual dysfunction, and other indications. JNJ-28330835 is a nonsteroidal AR ligand with mixed agonist and antagonist activity in androgen-responsive cell-based assays. It is an orally active SARM with muscle selectivity in orchidectomized rat models. It stimulated growth of the levator ani muscle, stimulating maximal growth at a dose of 10 mg/kg. At the same time, JNJ-28330835 reduced prostate weight in intact rats by a mean of 30% at 10 mg/kg, while having no inhibitory effect on muscle. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor body composition, it prevented half of the loss of lean body mass associated with orchidectomy, and restored about 30% of lost lean mass to aged orchidectomized rats. It had agonist effects on markers of both osteoclast and osteoblast activity, suggesting that it reduces bone turnover. In a model of sexual behavior, JNJ-28330835 enhanced the preference of ovariectomized female rats for sexually intact male rats over nonsexual orchidectomized males. JNJ-28330835 is a prostate-sparing SARM with the potential for clinically beneficial effects in muscle-wasting diseases and sexual function disorders.

  15. Preclinical Abuse Potential Assessment of Flibanserin: Effects on Intracranial Self-Stimulation in Female and Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazenka, Matthew F; Blough, Bruce E; Negus, S Stevens

    2016-03-01

    Flibanserin is a serotonin receptor subtype 1A agonist and 2A antagonist that has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treating female sexual interest and arousal disorder. Little is known about the abuse potential of flibanserin. To examine abuse-related effects of flibanserin in rats using an intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure previously used to evaluate the abuse potential of other drugs. Adult female and male Sprague-Dawley rats with electrodes implanted in the medial forebrain bundle were trained to press a lever for electrical brain stimulation under a "frequency-rate" ICSS procedure. In this procedure, increasing frequencies of brain stimulation maintain increasing rates of responding. Drugs of abuse typically increase (or "facilitate") ICSS rates and produce leftward and upward shifts in ICSS frequency-rate curves, whereas drugs that lack abuse potential typically do not alter or only decrease ICSS rates. Initial studies determined the potency and time course of effects on ICSS produced by acute flibanserin administration (1.0, 3.2 and 10.0 mg/kg). Subsequent studies determined the effects of flibanserin (3.2-18 mg/kg) before and after a regimen of repeated flibanserin administration (5.6 mg/kg/d for 5 days). Effects of the abused stimulant amphetamine (1.0 mg/kg) were examined as a positive control. Flibanserin effects on ICSS frequency-rate curves in female and male rats were examined and compared with the effects of amphetamine. Baseline ICSS frequency-rate curves were similar in female and male rats. Acute and repeated administrations of flibanserin produced only decreases in ICSS rates, and rate-decreasing effects of the highest flibanserin dose (10 mg/kg) were greater in female than in male rats. In contrast to flibanserin, amphetamine produced an abuse-related increase in ICSS rates that did not differ between female and male rats. These results suggest that flibanserin has low abuse potential. In addition, this study

  16. Anti-aggressive effects of neuropeptide S independent of anxiolysis in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela I Beiderbeck

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide S (NPS exerts robust anxiolytic and memory enhancing effects, but only in a non-social context. In order to study whether NPS affects aggressive behavior we used Wistar rats bred for low (LAB and high (HAB levels of innate anxiety-related behaviour, respectively, which were both described to display increased levels of aggression compared with Wistar rats not selectively bred for anxiety (NAB. Male LAB, HAB and NAB rats were tested for aggressive behavior towards a male intruder rat within their home cage (10 min, resident-intruder [RI] test. Intracerebroventricular (icv infusion of NPS (1 nmol significantly reduced inter-male aggression in LAB rats, and tended to reduce aggression in HAB and NAB males. However, local infusion of NPS (0.2 or 0.1 nmol NPS into either the nucleus accumbens or the lateral hypothalamus did not influence aggressive behavior. Social investigation in the RI test and general social motivation assessed in the social preference paradigm were not altered by icv NPS. The anti-aggressive effect of NPS is most likely not causally linked to its anxiolytic properties, as intraperitoneal administration of the anxiogenic drug pentylenetetrazole decreased aggression in LAB rats whereas the anxiolytic drug diazepam did not affect aggression of HAB rats. Thus, although NPS has so far only been shown to exert effects on non-social behaviors, our results are the first demonstration of anti-aggressive effects of NPS in male rats.

  17. Effect of chronic treatment with a cyclooxygenase inhibitor on reproductive parameters in male rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, S.A.; Anwar, N.; Khan, K.M.; Sarfraz, N.

    2009-01-01

    Indomethacin is a member of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) commonly used for treatment of gout, arthritis, and other inflammatory conditions. It has been shown to inhibit ovarian prostaglandins synthesis in mammals, birds, fish and reptiles. However, the effects of its chronic administration on male reproductive functions remain largely unknown. Using rat as a model, we studied the effect of chronic treatment with indomethacin on the male reproductive system. Methods: Testosterone was measured in the serum, testicular tissue, and testicular interstitial fluid by radioimmunoassay. Moreover, we also studied the direct effect of indomethacin in vitro on luteinizing hormone stimulated testosterone secretion from the Leydig cells isolated from various treatment groups. Results: Indomethacin treatment for 50 days caused a significant but reversible decrease in prostate weight, epididymal sperm reserves and sperm motility score compared with control rats (p<0.05). In vitro stimulation of Leydig cells isolated from treated rat's testes with luteinizing hormone (250 mu IU) produced significantly reduced testosterone compared with cells from control groups (p<0.05). Furthermore, stimulatory effect of luteinizing hormone on the control Leydig cells was significantly reduced when these cells were challenged with luteinizing hormone in the presence of indomethacin, (p<0.05). Testosterone concentration in the testicular tissue and testicular interstitial fluid reduced after indomethacin treatment (p<0.05). Conclusion: Due to its significant inhibition of key reproductive hormones, indomethacin effectively inhibits reproductive functions if used on a long-term basis. In his study, we have identified potential risks in the long-term use of cyclooxygenase inhibitors. (author)

  18. Antiperoxidative Activity of Tetracarpidium conophorum Leaf Extract in Reproductive Organs of Male Rats

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    Seun Funmilola Akomolafe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetracarpidium conophorum (Mull. Arg. Hutch. & Dalz is one of the many medicinal plants used in folklore as male fertility enhancers. This research was aimed at evaluating the anti-peroxidative activity of the leaves of this plant by determining their capacity to reduce malondialdehyde (MDA level in reproductive organs and accessory glands of rats. Adult male rats were administered orally with the aqueous leaf extract from T. conophorum at 50, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight for 21 consecutive days while clomiphene citrate (1.04 mg/kg body weight, a fertility drug was used as standard. The results of the study indicated that there was increase in relative organ weight, body weight, mean total food and water consumed by the treated groups. Testicular MDA level was highly significantly different from that of the control (p<0.0001 although a tentatively decreased MDA level was observed. However, MDA levels in the reproductive accessory glands, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate gland were insignificantly (p<0.05 lower than those of controls. The highest percentage decrease of MDA level (66.35, 42.68, 62.50 and 63.36% was observed at the highest concentration of the extract (1000 mg/kg in the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate gland respectively. These values were two-fold greater than the values obtained for the standard drug. Interestingly, the treatment of rats with the extract significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and the levels of GSH, vitamin C and total protein. Collectively, the results suggest that the extract from T. conophorum leaves had greater capacity to reduce lipid peroxidation in reproductive organs and accessory glands and thus, this plant may be useful in the treatment/management of reproductive cellular damage involving reactive oxygen species.

  19. Effect of ascorbic acid on thyroid functions and some biochemical activities in rats treated with cadmium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sherbiny, E.M.; Osman, H.F.

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the role of oral administration of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in rats at a dose level of 100 mg/kg body weight in reducing disturbances caused by cadmium at a dose level of 1.2 mg CdCl 2 /Kg body weight (1/4 LD 50 ). Cadmium treatment induced thyroid dysfunction and disturbance in blood count and some elements in sera of male rats. The rats were divided into four groups. The first group (I) of rats served as normal control, the second group (II) was treated with CdCl 2 , the third group (III) was treated with CdCl 2 followed by 2 weeks rehabilitation and the fourth one (IV) was treated with CdCl 2 followed by ascorbic acid treatment. Serum total T3, total T4, hemoglobin, red blood cell count, and hematocrit value, blood indices as well as white blood cell count, total serum calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase were evaluated in all rats.The results revealed that treatment with cadmium in groups II and III led to significant decreases in T3 and T4 levels and most of blood count parameters.In rats treated with ascorbic acid, a non-significant improvement in serum T3 level was obtained, whereas, serum T4 level was significantly increased and its level was reached around corresponding control value. Also, ascorbic acid treatment led to significant increases in Hb, RBCs, Hct, MCV, MCH and MCHC values, which were comparable to those obtained in control, whereas WBCs count was slightly improved in group (IV) in comparison with both groups treated with Cd but it was highly significantly decreased in both groups treated with Cd as compared to control. Serum total calcium and alkaline phosphatase activity were non-significantly decreased, whereas inorganic phosphorus concentrations was significantly decreased in groups III and IV as compared to control

  20. Black Seed Thymoquinone Improved Insulin Secretion, Hepatic Glycogen Storage, and Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba M. A. Abdelrazek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the metabolic diseases having several complications. Nigella sativa oil (NSO might have beneficial effects in the treatment of diabetic complications. Thirty-two mature male Wistar rats were equally divided into four experimental groups: control, control NSO 2 mL/kg, streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic, and diabetic (STZ-induced treated with oral NSO 2 mg/kg for 30 days. Fasting blood glucose (FBG, insulin, and lipid profile levels were determined. Pancreatic and hepatic tissues were used for catalase and GSH. Histopathology, hepatic glycogen contents, insulin immunohistochemistry, and pancreatic islet morphometry were performed. NSO 2 mL/kg was noticed to decrease (P<0.05 FBG and increase (P<0.05 insulin levels in diabetic rats than in diabetic nontreated animals. Lipid profile showed significant (P<0.5 improvement in diabetic rats that received NSO 2 mL/kg than in the diabetic group. Both pancreatic and hepatic catalase and GSH activities revealed a significant (P<0.05 increment in the diabetic group treated with NSO than in the diabetic animals. NSO improved the histopathological picture and hepatic glycogen contents of the diabetic group as well as increased (P<0.05 insulin immunoreactive parts % and mean pancreatic islet diameter. NSO exerts ameliorative and therapeutic effects on the STZ-induced diabetic male Wistar rats.

  1. Effects of heat-induced food contaminant furan on reproductive system of male rats from weaning through postpuberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacaoğlu, Elif; Selmanoğlu, Güldeniz

    2010-05-01

    Furan (C(4)H(4)O) is a volatile, colorless liquid and is used in some segments of the chemical manufacturing industry. It is found in variety of foods such as coffee, jarred and canned foods that undergo heat treatment. This study was designed to investigate the effect of furan exposure on reproductive system of male rats. Three to four weeks old rats were exposed to furan at 2, 4 and 8 mg/kg/day doses by orally for 90 days. Hematology, weights, histology and morphometry of reproductive organs, serum LH and testosterone levels, sperm count and morphology and apoptosis in testis were evaluated. Slight changes were observed in hematological parameters of furan-treated rats. The weights of seminal vesicle reduced significantly whereas the weights of prostate increased significantly in the highest furan dose group. LH and testosterone levels decreased in furan-treated rats. Histological examinations have revealed that furan caused impairments in testis, epididymis and prostate gland. Furan showed no effects on sperm counts and morphology. On the other hand apoptotic cells in testis increased significantly. According to morphometrical examination, the epithelial heights and lumen diameters of the reproductive organs have changed in treatment groups. These results indicate that subchronic furan treatment induces toxicity of the male reproductive system. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Toxicological Aspects of Carbaryl on liver functions, lipid profile and thyroid hormones in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afifi, E.A.A.

    2003-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to show the toxicological effects of daily oral doses of carbaryl on different metabolic activities through biochemical determinations in male rats by feeding diet treated with 28 mg/kg for four consecutive weeks, followed by one and two weeks of recovery periods. Results revealed disturbance in liver functions which were elucidated through marked increases of serum glutamic oxalacetic (SGOT), glutamic pyruvic (SGPT) transaminases and alkaline phosphatase (SALP). Carbaryl also induced hypoglycemia, increase in liver glycogen content, decrease in kidney and brain glycogen, decrease in serum bilirubin and total lipids, reduction in blood cholesterol, increase in serum calcium with decrease in serum inorganic phosphorus. Thyroxine hormone(T 4 ) was increased while triiodothyronine (T 3 ) was decreased

  3. Effect of honey on the reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, M N; Mohamed, M

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to prenatal stress is associated with impaired reproductive function in male rat offspring. Honey is traditionally used by the Malays for enhancement of fertility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of honey on reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress. Dams were divided into four groups (n = 10/group): control, honey, stress and honey + stress groups. Dams from honey and honey + stress groups received oral honey (1.2 g kg(-1) body weight) daily from day 1 of pregnancy, meanwhile dams from stress and honey + stress groups were subjected to restraint stress (three times per day) from day 11 of pregnancy until delivery. At 10 weeks old, each male rat offspring was mated with a regular oestrus cycle female. Male sexual behaviour and reproductive performance were evaluated. Then, male rats were euthanised for assessment on reproductive parameters. Honey supplementation during prenatal restraint stress significantly increased testis and epididymis weights as well as improved the percentages of abnormal spermatozoa and sperm motility in male rat offspring. In conclusion, this study might suggest that supplementation of honey during pregnancy seems to reduce the adverse effects of restraint stress on reproductive organs weight and sperm parameters in male rat offspring. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Pathological Outcomes in Kidney and Brain in Male Fischer Rats Given Dietary Ochratoxin A, Commencing at One Year of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantle, Peter G.; Nolan, Christopher C.

    2010-01-01

    Malignant renal carcinoma, manifest in morbid ageing rats, is the striking component of an otherwise silent response after about nine months of exposure to ochratoxin A in the first year of life (daily intake ~100-250 µg/kg body weight). Reasons for the long latency are unclear, as is whether there would be a similar carcinogenic response if toxin exposure started at one year of age. Therefore, 24 male Fischer rats were given 100 µg ochratoxin A as a daily dietary contaminant for 35 weeks from age 50 weeks. Plasma ochratoxin A concentration reached a maximum value of ~8 µg/mL within one month of starting the toxin regimen. No renal carcinomas occurred. Four renal adenomas, two of which were only microscopic, were found among the six rats surviving for 110 weeks. The findings raise new questions about a difference between young adults and mature adults in sensitivity of male rats to the ochratoxin A-induced DNA damage necessary for renal carcinogenesis. A pilot histological study of perfuse-fixed brains of the toxin-treated rats showed no gross abnormalities, correlating with the consistent absence of behavioral or neurological disorders from chronic ochratoxin A exposure regimens in the range 100-250 µg/kg/day during the second half of life. Reasoned questioning concerning ochratoxin A as a neurotoxic mycotoxin is made. PMID:22069628

  5. Pathological Outcomes in Kidney and Brain in Male Fischer Rats Given Dietary Ochratoxin A, Commencing at One Year of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G. Mantle

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Malignant renal carcinoma, manifest in morbid ageing rats, is the striking component of an otherwise silent response after about nine months of exposure to ochratoxin A in the first year of life (daily intake ~100–250 µg/kg body weight. Reasons for the long latency are unclear, as is whether there would be a similar carcinogenic response if toxin exposure started at one year of age. Therefore, 24 male Fischer rats were given 100 µg ochratoxin A as a daily dietary contaminant for 35 weeks from age 50 weeks. Plasma ochratoxin A concentration reached a maximum value of ~8 µg/mL within one month of starting the toxin regimen. No renal carcinomas occurred. Four renal adenomas, two of which were only microscopic, were found among the six rats surviving for 110 weeks. The findings raise new questions about a difference between young adults and mature adults in sensitivity of male rats to the ochratoxin A-induced DNA damage necessary for renal carcinogenesis. A pilot histological study of perfuse-fixed brains of the toxin-treated rats showed no gross abnormalities, correlating with the consistent absence of behavioral or neurological disorders from chronic ochratoxin A exposure regimens in the range 100–250 µg/kg/day during the second half of life. Reasoned questioning concerning ochratoxin A as a neurotoxic mycotoxin is made.

  6. Tiron ameliorates oxidative stress and inflammation in titanium dioxide nanoparticles induced nephrotoxicity of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ashraf; Galal, Mona K; Ogaly, Hanan A; Ibrahim, Marwa A; Abd-Elsalam, Reham M; Noshy, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Although the widespread use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs), few studies were conducted on its hazard influence on human health. Tiron a synthetic vitamin E analog was proven to be a mitochondrial targeting antioxidant. The current investigation was performed to assess the efficacy of tiron against TiO 2 NPs induced nephrotoxicity. Eighty adult male rats divided into four different groups were used: group I was the control, group II received TiO2 NPs (100mg\\Kg BW), group III received TiO2 NPs plus tiron (470mg\\kg BW), and group IV received tiron alone. Urea, creatinine and total protein concentrations were measured in serum to assess the renal function. Antioxidant status was estimated by determining the activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde (MDA) level and glutathione concentration in renal tissue. As well as Renal fibrosis was evaluated though measuring of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) expression levels and histopathological examination. TiO 2 NPs treated rats showed marked elevation of renal indices, depletion of renal antioxidant enzymes with marked increase in MDA concentration as well as significant up-regulation in fibrotic biomarkers TGFβ1 and MMP9. Oral administration of tiron to TiO 2 NPs treated rats significantly attenuate the renal dysfunction through decreasing of renal indices, increasing of antioxidant enzymes activities, down-regulate the expression of fibrotic genes and improving the histopathological picture for renal tissue. In conclusion, tiron was proved to attenuate the nephrotoxicity induced by TiO 2 NPs through its radical scavenging and metal chelating potency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Histopathological and Reproductive Evaluation in Male Rats Fed Jatropha curcas Seed Cake with or without Alkaline Hydrolysis and Subjected to Heat Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira Sousa Moura, Laiane; Palomaris Mariano Souza, Domenica; Mendon?a, Simone; de Aquino Ribeiro, Jos? Ant?nio; Fernandes Sousa, Luciano; Tony Ramos, Adriano; Maiorka, Paulo C?sar; de Ara?jo, Vera L?cia; Mayumi Maruo, Viviane

    2017-01-01

    Jatropha curcas cake, a by-product of biodiesel production, is rich in protein and has potential to be used in livestock feed; however, the presence of antinutritional factors and phorbol esters limits its use. Thus, this study investigated toxicological and reproductive effects in male Wistar rats after subchronic exposure to J. curcas cake subjected to detoxification procedures. Rats were divided into seven groups (n = 10) and treated for 60 days. The control group received commercial feed,...

  8. Modulation of lung inflammation and immune markers in asthmatic rats treated by Portulaca oleracea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaveh, Mahsa; Eidi, Akram; Nemati, Ali; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies indicated anti-inflammatory effects for Portulaca oleracea in various inflammatory disorders. In this study, the effects of P. oleracea on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) levels of total protein (TP), Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and IgE in sensitized rats were examined. Materials and Methods: Male rats were randomly divided into six groups namely, control (group C), sensitized rats (group S), sensitized animal treated with three concentrations of the extract of P. oleracea and dexamethasone (n = 8 for each group). The levels of TP, PLA2 and IgE in BALF were measured. Results: The levels of TP, PLA2 and IgE were significantly increased in the BALF of group S compared to group C (p<0.001 for all cases). However, treatment of S rats with all concentrations of the extract, resulted in a significant and concentration-dependent reduction in BALF levels of TP, PLA2 and IgE compared to group S (p<0.001 for all cases except for the effect of the low extract concentration on TP). Dexamethasone treatment also led to significant reduction of TP, PLA2 and IgE (p<0.001 for all cases). The effect of dexamethasone treatment on PLA2 was significantly higher than the effects of all extract concentrations (p<0.001 for all cases). However, the effect of high extract concentration on TP and IgE was significantly higher than that of dexamethasone (p<0.001 both cases). Conclusion: The results indicated anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of P. oleracea in sensitized rats (as an animal model of asthma) which was equal or more marked than dexamethasone at studied concentrations. PMID:29062802

  9. Rats treated with Hypericum perforatum during pregnancy generate offspring with behavioral changes in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro V. Campos

    Full Text Available Abstract Drugs used in the treatment of depression can cross the placenta giving rise to questions regarding the effects these drugs exert on the fetus. Hypericum perforatum L., Hypericaceae, is a natural product used to treat depression. However, information about its toxicity and the occurrence of alterations in the central nervous system development of the offspring is scarce. This work assessed the behavior of adult male rats born from mothers treated with Hypericum extract during gestation and analyzed the fluorescence of the extract in different organs of mothers and fetuses. Male pups were divided into three treated groups, corresponding to the administration of the Hypericum extract to mothers at the dose levels of 36 mg/kg, 72 mg/kg and 144 mg/kg, and one control group in which the mothers received distilled water. At 90 days of age, the offspring underwent the following tests: rotarod, pentobarbital-induced sleep time, elevated plus maze, hole-board and forced swimming test. The observed fluorescence indicated the presence of the extract in all tissues analyzed. The obtained results suggest lasting changes in the performances displayed in the CNS, depression and anxiety tests, indicating that the use of Hypericum during gestation could interfere with the behavioral development of the offspring reducing anxiety and depression when they become adults. We suggest that these alterations are associated with the reprogramming of the brain regions related to changes in emotional reactivity.

  10. Modulating effect of the nootropic drug, piracetam on stress- and subsequent morphine-induced prolactin secretion in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matton, A.; Engelborghs, S.; Bollengier, F.; Finné, E.; Vanhaeist, L.

    1996-01-01

    1. The effect of the nootropic drug, piracetam on stress- and subsequent morphine-induced prolactin (PRL) secretion was investigated in vivo in male rats, by use of a stress-free blood sampling and drug administration method by means of a permanent indwelling catheter in the right jugular vein. 2. Four doses of piracetam were tested (20, 100, 200 and 400 mg kg-1), being given intraperitoneally 1 h before blood sampling; control rats received saline instead. After a first blood sample, rats were subjected to immobilization stress and received morphine, 6 mg kg-1, 90 min later. 3. Piracetam had no effect on basal plasma PRL concentration. 4. While in the non-piracetam-treated rats, stress produced a significant rise in plasma PRL concentration, in the piracetam-pretreated rats PRL peaks were attenuated, especially in the group given 100 mg kg-1 piracetam, where plasma PRL concentration was not significantly different from basal values. The dose-response relationship showed a U-shaped curve; the smallest dose had a minor inhibitory effect and the highest dose had no further effect on the PRL rise. 5. In unrestrained rats, morphine led to a significant elevation of plasma PRL concentration. After the application of immobilization stress it lost its ability to raise plasma PRL concentration in the control rats, but not in the piracetam-treated rats. This tolerance was overcome by piracetam in a significant manner but with a reversed dose-response curve; i.e. the smaller the dose of piracetam, the higher the subsequent morphine-induced PRL peak. 6. There is no simple explanation for the mechanism by which piracetam induces these contradictory effects. Interference with the excitatory amino acid system, which is also involved in opiate action, is proposed speculatively as a possible mediator of the effects of piracetam. PMID:8821540

  11. EFFICIENCY OF BORAGE SEEDS OIL AGAINST GAMMA IRRADIATION-INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN MALE RATS: POSSIBLE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Hala A H; Abdallah, Inas Z A; Yousef, Fatimah M; Huwait, Etimad A

    2017-01-01

    Borage ( Borago officinal L.) is an annual herbaceous plant of great interest because its oil contains a high percentage of γ-linolenic acid (GLA). The present work was carried out to detect fatty acids composition of the oil extracted from borage seeds (BO) and its potential effectiveness against γ-irradiation- induced hepatotoxicity in male rats. GC-MS analysis of fatty acids methyl esters of BO was performed to identify fatty acids composition. Sixty rats were divided into five groups (12 rats each): Control, irradiated; rats were exposed to (6.5 Gy) of whole body γ-radiation, BO (50 mg/kg b.wt), irradiated BO post-treated and irradiated BO prepost-treated. Six rats from each group were sacrificed at two time intervals 7 and 15 days post-irradiation. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels, lipids profile, as well as serum and hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxide (malondialdehyde) (MDA) levels were assessed. Histopathological examination of liver sections were also carried out. The results showed that the high contents of BO extracted by cold pressing, were linoleic acid (34.23%) and GLA (24.79%). Also, oral administration of BO significantly improved serum levels of liver enzymes, lipids profile, as well as serum and hepatic GSH and MDA levels (p<0.001) as compared with irradiated rats after 15 days post irradiation. Moreover, it exerted marked amelioration against irradiation-induced histopathological changes in liver tissues. The improvement was more pronounced in irradiated BO prepost-treated group than irradiated BO post-treated. BO has a beneficial role in reducing hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by radiation exposure. Therefore, BO may be used as a beneficial supplement for patients during radiotherapy treatment.

  12. Induction of dominant lethals in male mice treated as embryos with 35S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, K.S.; Reddy, P.P.; Reddy, O.S.

    1980-01-01

    Pregnant female mice were injected (ip) with 20 μCi of 35 S or 0.5 ml of saline (control) on 3.5 day of gestation. The animals were allowed to litter and the (CBA female x C 3 H/He male) F 1 males treated as embryos were tested at maturity (8-10 weeks) for dominant lethal incidence. Each male was mated to 3 untreated virgin females for a period of 3 weeks. The pregnant animals were killed at mid gestation and the uterine contents and corpora lutea were examined. There was a significant increase in the frequency of dominant lethals both at pre- and post-implantation stages in the treated group when compared to controls. As a result a significant increase in dead implantations/female and reduction in live implantations/female were noticed in the treated group. Thus the results clearly delineate the genetic effects of sulfur-35 in mice. (auth.)

  13. Prophylactic effect of coconut water (Cocos nucifera L.) on ethylene glycol induced nephrocalcinosis in male wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, M; Aggarwal, M; Puri, S; Singla, S K

    2013-01-01

    Many medicinal plants have been employed during ages to treat urinary stones though the rationale behind their use is not well established. Thus, the present study was proposed to evaluate the effect of coconut water as a prophylactic agent in experimentally induced nephrolithiasis in a rat model. The male Wistar rats were divided randomly into three groups. Animals of group I (control) were fed standard rat diet. In group II, the animals were administrated 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for the induction of nephrolithiasis. Group III animals were administrated coconut water in addition to ethylene glycol. All the treatments were continued for a total duration of seven weeks. Treatment with coconut water inhibited crystal deposition in renal tissue as well as reduced the number of crystals in urine. Furthermore, coconut water also protected against impaired renal function and development of oxidative stress in the kidneys. The results indicate that coconut water could be a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis.

  14. Morphine Decreases Social Interaction of Adult Male Rats, While THC Does Not Affect It

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlamberová, R.; Mikulecká, Anna; Macúchová, E.; Hrebíčková, I.; Ševčíková, M.; Nohejlová, K.; Pometlová, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, Suppl.5 (2016), S547-S555 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : social behavior * opioids * morphine * cannabinoids * THC * male rats Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016

  15. A Coherent Pattern Among Social Behavior, Blood Pressure, Corticosterone and Catecholamine Measures in Individual Male Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FOKKEMA, DS; SMIT, K; VANDERGUGTEN, J; KOOLHAAS, JM

    1988-01-01

    Behavioral and physiological responses of 18 chronically cannulated male TMD-S3 rats were assessed during various social interactions with conspecifics, both with and without the possibility for physical contact (social vs. psychosocial stimulation). Response magnitudes (behavior, blood pressure,

  16. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition ameliorates nicotine-induced sperm function decline in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibukun P. Oyeyipo

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Taken together, the present data indicate the abilities of l-NAME to ameliorate nicotine-induced spermatotoxic effects in male rats via a mechanism dependent on the circulating testosterone level.

  17. Effects of acrolein on the production of corticosterone in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yung-Hsing; Chou, Jou-Chun; Weng, Ting-Chun; Lieu, Fu-Kong; Lin, Jou-Yu; Yeh, Chii-Chang; Hu, Sindy; Wang, Paulus S; Idova, Galina; Wang, Shyi-Wu

    2016-07-01

    Acrolein, an α, β-unsaturated aldehyde, exists in a wide range of sources. Acrolein can be not only generated from all types of smoke but also produced endogenously from the metabolism by lipid peroxidation. The cellular influence of acrolein is due to its electrophilic character via binding to and depleting cellular nucleophiles. Although the toxicity of acrolein has been extensively studied, there is relatively little information about its impact on hormone release. This study aimed at the effect of acrolein on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (H-P-A) axis. In an in vivo study, male rats were administrated with acrolein for 1 or 3days. The plasma corticosterone in response to a single injection of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) increased slowly in acrolein-pretreated rats than in control rats. Further investigating the steroidogenic pathway, the protein expressions of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and the upper receptor-melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) were attenuated in acrolein-treated groups. Another experiment using trilostane showed less activity of P450scc in zona fasciculata-reticularis (ZFR) cells in acrolein-treated groups. In addition to the suppressed ability of corticosterone production in ZFR cells, acrolein even had extended influence at higher concentrations. The lower ACTH was observed in the plasma from acrolein-pretreated rats. In an in vitro study, ZFR cells were incubated with acrolein and the results showed that corticosterone concentrations in media were decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Acrolein also desensitized the response of the ZFR cells to ACTH. These results suggested that acrolein decreased the releasing ability of corticosterone via an inhibition on the response of ZFR cells to ACTH and the reduction of protein expressions of StAR and MC2R as well as the activity of P450scc in rat ZFR cells. The present evidences showed that the H-P-A axis was affected by the administration of acrolein. Copyright © 2016

  18. The Histological, Histomorphometrical and Histochemical Changes of Testicular Tissue in the Metformin Treated and Untreated Streptozotocin-Induced Adult Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Kianifard

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, diabetes was induced in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ at 45 mg kg-1 of body weight. A group comprised of 8 diabetic rats was treated with metformin at 100 mg kg-1 of body weight for reducing the elevated blood glucose level. The results revealed that, in the untreated diabetic rats, the body and testicular weight reduced in comparison with the control rats (P < 0.05 , the metformin treated diabetic rats showed body weight loss in comparison with the control group (P < 0.05. In the untreated diabetic rats, the blood glucose level significantly increased in comparison with control and metformin treated diabetic rats. Histomorphological examinations revealed a reduction in testicular capsule diameter, seminiferous tubules (STs and germinal epithelium height, increase of amorphous material of interstitial tissue, germ cell depletion, decrease in cellular population and activity and disruption of spermatogenesis in the untreated diabetic rats in comparison with control group. In metformin treated diabetic rats, the histomorphological alterations were seen in lesser part in comparison with untreated diabetic group. The results from this study proved that, there was a direct relationship between increased levels of blood glucose as a result of STZ-induced diabetes and the histomorphological changes of testicular tissue.

  19. Influence of argon on temperature modulation and neurological outcome in hypothermia treated rats following cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brücken, Anne; Bleilevens, Christian; Föhr, Philipp; Nolte, Kay; Rossaint, Rolf; Marx, Gernot; Fries, Michael; Derwall, Matthias

    2017-08-01

    Combining xenon and mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH) after cardiac arrest (CA) confers a degree of protection that is greater than either of the two interventions alone. However, xenon is very costly which might preclude a widespread use. We investigated whether the inexpensive gas argon would enhance hypothermia induced neurologic recovery in a similar manner. Following nine minutes of CA and three minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation 21 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive MTH (33°C for 6h), MTH plus argon (70% for 1h), or no treatment. A first day condition score assessed behaviour, motor activity and overall condition. A neurological deficit score (NDS) was calculated daily for seven days following the experiment before the animals were killed and the brains harvested for histopathological analysis. All animals survived. Animals that received MTH alone showed best overall neurologic function. Strikingly, this effect was abolished in the argon-augmented MTH group, where animals showed worse neurologic outcome being significant in the first day condition score and on day one to three and five in the NDS in comparison to MTH treated rats. Results were reflected by the neurohistopathological analysis. Our study demonstrates that argon augmented MTH does not improve functional recovery after CA in rats, but may even worsen neurologic function in this model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Inhibin activity in male rat reproductive organs during treatment with dihydrotestosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladkova, A.I.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the inhibin level in the male reproductive system is studied. Hormones were determined in the peripheral blood of the donor rats by radioimmunoassay. Inhibin activity in the male rats is shown. DHT caused a very small increase in inhibin activity in the testis. Further study of relations between androgens and inhibin at peripheral and central levels will facilitate fertility control

  1. Antihyperlipidemic effect of crude extract of saffron stigma (Crocus sativus) in healthy male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Iliass Lahmass; Sabir Ouahhoud; Assia Sabouni; Mohammed Elyoubi; Redouane Benabbas; Rachid Elmoussaoui; Mohammed Choukri; Ennouamane Saalaoui

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated for the first time the antihyperlipidemic ef-fects of crude extract of stigmas from Crocus sativus (saffron) against hyperlipidemia induced by tartrazine (synthetic dye) in normal male rats. Thirty adult male albino rats weighing about 150 - 200 g, were divided into 5 groups (n = 6) and daily treatment was given orally. Clinical biochemis-try and metabolic parameters were evaluated at the end of the experiment and after 105 days. (n=6, for all groups). Our data ...

  2. Short-term isolation increases social interactions of male rats: A parametric analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesink, R.J.M.; Ree, J.M. van

    1982-01-01

    Frequencies of social interactions were higher in pairs of short-term individually housed male Wistar rats as compared to group-housed animals. This was most pronounced when an individually housed rat and a group-housed conspecific were tested together in the morning under red light conditions.

  3. Toluene effects on the motor activity of adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent male Brown Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhail, R C; Farmer, J D; Jarema, K A

    2012-01-01

    Life stage is an important risk factor for toxicity. Children and aging adults, for example, are more susceptible to certain chemicals than are young adults. In comparison to children, relatively little is known about susceptibility in older adults. Additionally, few studies have compared toxicant susceptibility across a broad range of life stages. Results are presented for behavioral evaluations of male Brown Norway rats obtained as adolescents (1 month), or young (4 months), middle-age (12 months) and senescent (24 months) adults. Motor activity was evaluated in photocell devices during 30-min sessions. Age-related baseline characteristics and sensitivity to toluene (0, 300, 650, or 1000mg/kg, p.o.) were determined. In Experiment 1, young-adult, middle-age and senescent rats were treated with corn-oil vehicle before five weekly test sessions. Baselines of horizontal and vertical activity decreased with age, but each age-group's averages remained stable across weeks of testing. Baseline activity of older rats was more variable than that of the young adults; older rats were also more variable individually from week to week. Toluene (1000mg/kg) increased horizontal activity proportionately more in senescent rats (ca. 300% of control) than in middle-age or young-adult rats (ca.145-175% of control). Experiment 2 established toluene dose-effect functions in individual adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent rats; each rat received all treatments, counterbalanced across four weekly sessions. Toluene produced dose-related increases in horizontal activity that increased proportionately with age. Experiment 3 replicated the effects of toluene (1000mg/kg) in Experiment 1, showing that toluene-induced increases in horizontal activity were greatest in the oldest rats. Collectively, the results show that aging increased susceptibility to toluene and also increased variability in toluene response. Given the rapid growth of the aged population, further research is

  4. Influence of zinc on the biokinetics of Zn-65 and hepatic trace elements of ethanol treated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhawan, D.K.; Pathak, A.; Pathak, R.; Mahmood, A.

    2002-01-01

    Influence of zinc on the biokinetics of 65 Zn and hepatic trace elements of ethanol treated rats. The effect of zinc on the biokinetics of 65 Zn in liver and whole body and its relation to the hepatic levels of different elements was evaluated in male wistar rats under alcoholic conditions. The rats were segregated into four treatment groups viz., normal control, ethanol treated, zinc treated and combined zinc+ethanol treated. Animals were fed 3ml of 30% ethanol orally daily and zinc in the form of zinc sulfate (ZnSo 4 7H 2 O) was administrated to rats at a dose level of 227mg/L mixed in their drinking water for a total duration of 2 months. Whole body counting studies indicated that the Tb 1 i.e., the faster elimination of the radiotracer. On the contrary, Tb 2 i.e., the slower component was increased significantly following ethanol treatment. Percent uptake values of 65 Zn were found to be increased in liver, intestine, muscle and kidney and decreased in bone under alcoholic conditions. A significant elevation was noticed in in vitro uptake 65 Zn in ethanol treated animals. In the above said conditions, the values were reverted back to within normal limits upon zinc supplementation to these ethanol intoxicated animals, except in the case of in vitro 65 Zn uptake in liver where the uptake was further increased upon combined treatment. A significant decrease in zinc contents was noticed in ethanol treated rats, which however were raised to normal levels upon zinc supplementation. Copper levels, on the other hand, were found to be significantly enhanced in both ethanol fed and combined ethanol+zinc supplemented animals. Calcium levels were found to e significantly decreased in both ethanol and zinc treated rats, which however were further reduced upon zinc supplementation to ethanol fed rats. However, no significant change was observed in the concentrations of sodium and potassium in any of the treatment groups. Therefore, zinc appears to play a protective role by

  5. Adolescent voluntary exercise attenuated hippocampal innate immunity responses and depressive-like behaviors following maternal separation stress in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mahsa; Peeri, Maghsoud; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal

    2016-09-01

    Early life stressful events have detrimental effects on the brain and behavior, which are associated with the development of depression. Immune-inflammatory responses have been reported to contribute in the pathophysiology of depression. Many studies have reported on the beneficial effects of exercise against stress. However, underlying mechanisms through which exercise exerts its effects were poorly studied. Therefore, it applied maternal separation (MS), as a valid animal model of early-life adversity, in rats from postnatal day (PND) 2 to 14 for 180min per day. At PND 28, male Wistar albino rats were subjected to 5 experimental groups; 1) controls 2) MS rats 3) MS rats treated with fluoxetine 5mg/kg to PND 60, 4) MS rats that were subjected to voluntary running wheel (RW) exercise and 5) MS rats that were subjected to mandatory treadmill (TM) exercise until adulthood. At PND 60, depressive-like behaviors were assessed by using forced swimming test (FST), splash test, and sucrose preference test (SPT). Our results revealed that depressive-like behaviors following MS stress were associated with an increase in expression of toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr-4) and its main signaling protein, Myd88, in the hippocampal formation. Also, we found that voluntary (and not mandatory) physical exercise during adolescence is protected against depressant effects of early-life stress at least partly through mitigating the innate immune responses in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Haematological and Serum Biochemical Variables in rats Treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The haematology and serum biochemical effects of oral administration of the ethanolic extract of the root of Moringa oleifera at 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg were investigated in 30 mated female Wistar rats. The rats were assigned into five groups of six rats each. Group A was given 50mg/kg of the extract; group B, 100mg/kg; ...

  7. TGF-beta1 immunohistochemistry and promoter methylation in chronic renal failure rats treated with Uremic Clearance Granules.

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    Cheng-Bin Chen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was the explain the mechanism related to therapeutic effects of Uremic Clearance Granules (Niaoduqing Keli in Chinese on adenine-induced Chronic Renal Failure in rats. Thirty 8-week-old male Wistar rats were selected and randomly divided in to 3 groups: Normal Control Group (NCGconsisted of 10 rats, Chronic Renal Failure Pathological Control Group (PCG 10 rats, and Uremic Clearance Granules Treatment Group (UCG 10 rats. Each rat in PCG and UCG was fed with adenine-enriched diets, containing 10 g adenine per kg food for 6 weeks. After fed with adenine, each rat in UCG was administered orally with 2 ml solution of Uremic Clearance Granules for 6 weeks. The concentration of Uremic Clearance Granules solution was 0.42 g/ml which was 10 times of human. On days 42 and 84, the serum levels of creatinine, Blood Urea Nitrogen and homocysteine were determined. The methylation of TGFbeta1 promoter was tested by methylation-specific PCR. TGF-beta1 mRNA and protein expression in rat renal cortex were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR and Immunohistochemistry. (1 Experimented on model of Chronic Renal Failure in rats, the preparation was proved to be able to reduce serum creatinine, Blood Urea Nitrogen, and homocysteine (p<0.05, improve renal function. (2 The expression of TGF-beta1 in mRNA and protein level were down-regulated. (3 TGF-beta1 promoter was demethylated at some loci in PCG, and was recovered in UCG. After treatment with Uremic Clearance Granules, the Chronic Renal Failure Wistar rat's kidney function was recovered. The recovery may be result of the remethylation of TGF-beta1 promoter and then lead to TGF-beta1 be transcripted and translated normally. The experimental study explain the molecular mechanism by which Uremic Clearance Granules treat Chronic Renal Failure.

  8. Effects of chronic alternating cadmium exposure on the episodic secretion of prolactin in male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquifino, A.I. [Madrid Univ. (Spain). Facultad de Medicina Complutense; Marquez, N.; Alvarez-Demanuel, E.; Lafuente, A. [Vigo Univ., Orense (Spain). Lab. de Toxicologia

    1998-07-01

    Cadmium increases or decreases prolactin secretion depending on the dose and duration of the exposure to the metal. However, whether there are cadmium effects on the episodic prolactin secretion is less well known. This study was undertaken to address whether chronic alternating exposure to two different doses of cadmium affects the episodic pattern of prolactin and to what extent the effects of cadmium are age-dependent. Male rats were treated s.c. with cadmium chloride (0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg) from day 30 to 60, or from day 60 to 90 of age, with alteration of the doses every 4 days, starting with the smaller dose. Controls received vehicle every 4 days. The last dose of cadmium was given 48 h prior to the pulsatility study. Prolactin secretion in the 4 experimental groups studied was episodic and changed significantly after cadmium exposure. Cadmium administration from day 30 to 60 of life significantly decreased the mean half-life of prolactin. On the other hand, when administered from day 60 to 90 cadmium significantly decreased the mean as well as serum prolactin levels and the absolute amplitude of the prolactin pulses, their duration, the relative amplitude or the mean half-life of the hormone. The frequency of prolactin peaks was not changed by cadmium administration. The results indicate that low intermittent doses of cadmium chronically administered change the episodic secretion pattern of prolactin in rats. The effects of cadmium on prolactin secretion were age dependent. (orig.)

  9. The combined effect of laser and oral administration of Iranian propolis extract on skin wound healing in male rats

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    Nematollah Ghaibi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date, a lot of research has been carried out on the effect of medications and surgical methods on the treatment of wounds, but no ideal achievement has been obtained yet. This study was conducted to investigate the single and combined effect of laser and propolis on skin wound healing in male rats. Methods: 40 Wistar male rats (200-250 g were divided into 4 groups (n= 10. All animals were anesthetized and sterile skin wound was created by surgical scissors. Control group had no treatment, the second group was treated with laser (10 mW, the third group was treated with oral propolis (100 mg /kg; 3 times /day and the forth group was treated with both laser and propolis. The wound healing level was measured based on the wound area and urinary hydroxyproline content. Results: Urinary hydroxyproline content was increased in groups treated with laser, propolis and combined laser and propolis compared to the control group (P<0.01, 0.05 and 0.01, respectively. Also at the end of the treatment period, the wound extent was significantly lower in the laser, propolis, and combined laser and propolis groups than the control (P<0.05, 0.05 and 0.01, respectively. There was no significant difference between treatment groups. Conclusion: Our results showed that oral administration of propolis or low power laser radiation can increase the wound healing rate.

  10. Neuronal Function in Male Sprague Dawley Rats During Normal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    appropriate animal model which is readily available and will be useful to test therapeutic ... and locomotor activity with increasing age in 3 months, 6 months and 18 months old rats, although the values were not ... The mean life expectancy has.

  11. Evaluation of Fertility Disrupting Potentials of Abrus precatorius Seed Extracts in Male Rats for Arresting Spermatogenesis and Suppressed Fertility In Vivo

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    Saranika Talukder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to evaluate the contraceptive potentials of different chemical extracts of Abrus precatorius seeds in male albino rats. The active ingredients of crushed seeds were extracted with 60% aqueous acetone and then partitioned consecutively with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Water suspended chemical fractions at different doses were administered orally to the male rats for 40 days. Effects of different treatments on various male reproductive endpoints and contraceptive efficacy were evaluated. Oral administration of both organic (methanol soluble at 50 and 75 mg/kg BW and aqueous soluble of A. precatorius seed extracts caused infertility in study subjects at varying degrees. At necropsy, average weights of testes, epididymis, ventral prostate gland and seminal vesicles were decreased significantly. Histology of testes revealed marked atrophy of the seminiferous tubules characterized by disruption of the germinal epithelium and atrophy of the Leydig cells. Epididymis also showed histological alterations. Hormonal assay revealed a significant decrease in serum level of testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH that possibly resulted in suppressed spermatogenesis of male rats. These effects lead to the reduction of pregnancy rate of untreated fertile female rats while mated with the methanol extract (50 and 75 mg/kg BW and aqueous extract-treated male rats. The results show that A. precatorius seed extract causes suppression of spermatogenesis and fertility, thereby suggesting the potential of this plant in the regulation of male fertility.

  12. Morella serrata (Lam.) Killick stabilizes biomembrane and rejuvenates sexual competence in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiu, S; Ashafa, A O T

    2017-06-09

    Morella serrata L. is an indigenous medicinal plant to South and southern Africa with folkloric applications as aphrodisiac, laxative, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-hypertensive, antitussive and antidiabetic agent. This study evaluated the membrane stabilization and aphrodisiac potentials of its aqueous root extract in male Wistar rats. While the membrane stabilization of the extract was investigated against bovine erythrocytes (BE), the male rats for the aphrodisiac study were randomized into five groups with animals in group 1 given sterile placebo and served as control. The rats in group 2 were treated with 7.14mg/kg body weight of PowMaxM, while animals in groups 3, 4 and 5 were administered with the extract (100, 200 and 400mg/kg, respectively). All treatments (1mL) were done once daily for 4 weeks via oral gavaging and their mating behavioural, testicular, spermatogenetic and antioxidant parameters were evaluated. With the exception of the mount, intromission and post ejaculatory latencies that were dose-dependently reduced by the extract, other mating parameters were significantly improved when compared with the control. Similar patterns of significant improvement were also observed on the testes-body weight ratio, quality and viability of sperm cells as well as testicular concentrations of proteins, cholesterol, glycogen, testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone, leuitenizing hormone and glutathione (reduced) subsequent to treatment with the extract. Although, administration of M. serrata had no significant (p>0.05) effect on the testicular activity of gamma glutamyl transferase, those of lactate dehydrogenase, phosphatases (alkaline and acid), superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly (p<0.05) induced in the treated animals. The extract also conferred respective significant (p<0.05) membrane stabilization potential of 66.02% and 60.87% on the BE against hypotonic solution and heat-induced hemolysis relative to 62.14% and 40

  13. The Effect of Hindlimb Suspension on the Reproductive System of Young Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tou, Janet; Grindeland, R.; Baer, L.; Guran, G.; Fung, C.; Wade, C.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Colonization of space requires the ability to reproduce in reduced gravity. Following spaceflight, astronauts and male rats exhibit decreased testosterone (T). This has important implications as T effects the testes and accessory sex glands. To our knowledge no studies have examined the effects of spaceflight on accessory sex glands. Due to the rarity of spaceflight opportunities, ground models have been used to simulate weightlessness. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of long-term (21 d) weightlessness on the reproductive system of male rats. Weightlessness was simulated using the Morey-Holton hindlimb suspension (HLS) model. Age 10 week old, male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing (209.0 +9.7g) were randomly assigned (n=10/group) to either HLS or ambulatory control. In HLS rats, testes mass was 33% lower (pmale rats. This discrepancy may have been due to the age of animal and timing of sampling. T levels vary dramatically during testes development as well as within normal diurnal cycles. In young HLS rats, testes weight was reduced but not plasma T. Subsequently there was no effect on accessory sex glands. However, this may not be the case in older rats. More studies using standardized methods are needed to gain a better understanding of male reproduction function and capability in weightlessness. Funding provided by NASA.

  14. The influence of surgical transection and anastomosis on the rate of cell proliferation in the colonic epithelium of normal and DMH-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, D H; Tutton, P M

    1983-10-01

    Normal and DMH-treated male rats aged 18-20 weeks underwent surgical transection and anastomosis of the transverse colon. Animals were subsequently killed at intervals of 14, 30 and 72 days. Three hours prior to sacrifice animals were injected with vinblastine sulphate and mitotic indices were subsequently estimated in histological sections. Possible differences between experimental and control groups were tested using a Student's t-test. The results show that the accumulated mitotic indices in normal and DMH-treated colon are statistically similar. The results also show that transection and anastomosis stimulates cell division in both normal and DMH-treated colon and that the increase is of greater amplitude and more prolonged duration in the DMH-treated rats. Carcinomas developed close to the line of anastomosis in DMH-treated but not in control rats. The results support the hypothesis that non-specific injury to hyperplastic colonic epithelium promotes carcinogenesis.

  15. Intrauterine Growth Restriction Increases TNFα and Activates the Unfolded Protein Response in Male Rat Pups

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    Emily S. Riddle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR programs adult disease, including obesity and insulin resistance. Our group previously demonstrated that IUGR dysregulates adipose deposition in male, but not female, weanling rats. Dysregulated adipose deposition is often accompanied by the release of proinflammatory signaling molecules, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα. TNFα contributes to adipocyte inflammation and impaired insulin signaling. TNFα has also been implicated in the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR, which impairs insulin signaling. We hypothesized that, in male rat pups, IUGR would increase TNFα, TNFR1, and components of the UPR (Hspa5, ATF6, p-eIF2α, and Ddit3 prior to the onset of obesity. We further hypothesized that impaired glucose tolerance would occur after the onset of adipose dysfunction in male IUGR rats. To test this hypothesis, we used a well-characterized rat model of uteroplacental insufficiency-induced IUGR. Our primary findings are that, in male rats, IUGR (1 increased circulating and adipose TNFα, (2 increased mRNA levels of UPR components as well as p-eIF2a, and (3 impaired glucose tolerance after observed TNFα increased and after UPR activation. We speculate that programmed dysregulation of TNFα and UPR contributed to the development of glucose intolerance in male IUGR rats.

  16. Translation of mitochondrial proteins in digitonin-treated rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzela, S.; Wielburski, A.; Nelson, B.D.

    1981-01-01

    Although it is now clear that up to 13 peptides may be encoded in mammalian mitochondrial DNA there is little agreement concerning the numbers of stable translation products detectable in these mitochondria. Part of this uncertainty is due to the low rates of labeling of mammalian mitochondrial translations products resulting from the relatively slow growth rates of mammalian cells. Indeed, it is often necessary to isolate mammalian mitochondria in order to analyze their translation products, and the isolation procedures could conceivably lead to artifacts from proteolysis or from the early release of nascent peptides. To circumvent this problem, it would be desirable to have available a mammalian system which combines the advantage of high rates of labeling of mitochondrial proteins with rapid preparation times. The authors report the novel use of digitonin-treated rat hepatocytes, which provide such a system. This preparation, which is complete in <10 min, does not carry out cytosolic protein synthesis, but labels mitochondrial translation products at rates much higher than intact cells or isolated, in vitro labeled mitochondria. (Auth.)

  17. Male Wistar rats show individual differences in an animal model of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolles, Jolle W; de Visser, Leonie; van den Bos, Ruud

    2011-09-01

    Conformity refers to the act of changing one's behaviour to match that of others. Recent studies in humans have shown that individual differences exist in conformity and that these differences are related to differences in neuronal activity. To understand the neuronal mechanisms in more detail, animal tests to assess conformity are needed. Here, we used a test of conformity in rats that has previously been evaluated in female, but not male, rats and assessed the nature of individual differences in conformity. Male Wistar rats were given the opportunity to learn that two diets differed in palatability. They were subsequently exposed to a demonstrator that had consumed the less palatable food. Thereafter, they were exposed to the same diets again. Just like female rats, male rats decreased their preference for the more palatable food after interaction with demonstrator rats that had eaten the less palatable food. Individual differences existed for this shift, which were only weakly related to an interaction between their own initial preference and the amount consumed by the demonstrator rat. The data show that this conformity test in rats is a promising tool to study the neurobiology of conformity.

  18. Postnatal early overnutrition causes long-term renal decline in aging male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Hyung Eun; Yoo, Kee Hwan; Bae, In Sun; Hong, Young Sook; Lee, Joo Won

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the influence of postnatal early overnutrition on renal pathophysiological changes in aging rats. Three or 10 male pups per mother were assigned to either the small litter (SL) or normal litter (control) groups, respectively, during the first 21 d of life. The effects of early postnatal overnutrition were determined at 12 mo. SL rats weighed more than controls between 4 d and 6 mo of age (P renal cortex were higher in SL rats (P aging SL rats (P aging kidney and can lead to systolic hypertension with reduced intrarenal renin activity.

  19. Studies On The Effect of Selenium And Vitamin (E) on Irradiated Male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the protective role of intraperitoneally administered selenium and/or vitamin E on γ- radiation induced injury in adult male albino rats. Male albino rats(120-140 gm), were divided into the following groups:1- Control group: consisted of 10 rats. 2- Irradiated group: consisted of 10 rats exposed to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose level of 6 (Gy). 3- Injected -irradiated group: consisted of 90 rats intraperitoneally administered with selenium (Na 2 SeO 3 ) at a dose level of 0.2 mg/Kg body weight or with vitamin E (di-αtocopheryl acetate) at a dose level of 10 mg/kg body weight or with combined dose of selenium and vitamin E (0.2 mg/Kg body weight + 10 mg/Kg body weight)

  20. The effect of nicotine pre-exposure on demand for cocaine and sucrose in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lindsay P; Kearns, David N; Silberberg, Alan

    2018-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine how nicotine pre-exposure affects the elasticity of demand for intravenous cocaine and for sucrose pellets in adult male rats. In Experiment 1, demand for cocaine was assessed in rats that had nicotine in their drinking water. Nicotine pre-exposure significantly decreased rats' willingness to defend cocaine consumption as the price (measured as the number of responses per cocaine infusion) increased compared with a control group with no nicotine pre-exposure. That is, nicotine increased the elasticity of demand for cocaine infusions. Experiment 2 repeated the first experiment, but with rats working for sucrose pellets instead of cocaine. Nicotine pre-exposure had no effect on the elasticity of demand for sucrose. This pattern of results suggests that nicotine pre-exposure can reduce the reinforcing effects of cocaine, but not sucrose, in adult male rats.

  1. Peripubertal castration of male rats, adult open field ambulation and partner preference behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, T; Slob, A K

    1988-09-15

    The validity of the hypothesis put forward earlier, that testicular secretions during puberty have an organizing effect on open field ambulation was examined. Male rats were castrated or sham-operated at days 21, 43 or 70. At the age of 17 weeks the males were tested in an automated, octagonal open field (3 consecutive days, 3 min/day) for locomotor activity. Male rats castrated at day 21 or day 43 ambulated more than sham-castrated controls. Males castrated at day 70 did not differ from sham-castrated controls. It thus appears that pubertal testicular secretion(s) organize adult open field locomotor activity in male rats. From 18 weeks of age partner preference behavior was tested in the same open field apparatus with one adjacent cage containing an ovariectomized female and an opposite one containing an ovariectomized female brought into heat. The females in the adjacent cages were separated from the experimental males in the octagonal cage by wire mesh. Peripubertally castrated males did not show a clear-cut partner preference, whereas the intact males preferred the vicinity of the estrous female. There were no differences among the males castrated either before, during or after puberty. Testosterone treatment (crystalline T in silastic capsules) caused peripubertally castrated males to prefer the estrous female. Thus, adult partner preference behavior does not seem to be organized by peripubertal testicular androgens.

  2. Low dose DDT inhibition of hepatocarcinogenesis initiated by diethylnitrosamine in male rats: Possible mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushida, Masahiko; Sukata, Tokuo; Uwagawa, Satoshi; Ozaki, Keisuke; Kinoshita, Anna; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Morimura, Keiichirou; Okuno, Yasuyoshi; Fukushima, Shoji

    2005-01-01

    Previously we reported a tendency for reduction of the development of glutathione-S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci, recognized as preneoplastic changes in rat liver, by a low dose of 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT), which belongs to the same group of hepatic cytochrome P-450 inducers as phenobarbital and is itself a non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogen. In order to clarify the biological significance of this phenomenon, we investigated the reproducibility and changes in other parameters using an initiation-promotion model in which male F344 rats were treated with DDT at doses of 0, 0.005, 0.5, 500 ppm in the diet for 11 or 43 weeks after initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis with N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN). When 500 ppm DDT was applied, the formation of GST-P positive foci and tumor were markedly elevated. In contrast, induction of GST-P positive foci and liver tumors tended to be inhibited at a dose of 0.005 ppm, correlating with protein levels of cytochrome P450 2B1 and 3A2 (CYP2B1 and 3A2) and generation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative DNA damage. mRNA levels for 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1), an 8-OHdG repair enzyme, connexin 32 (Cx32), a major component of Gap junctions, and hepatic nuclear factor 1α (HNF-1α), a Cx32 regulator, were inversely correlated with GST-P positive foci and tumor formation. These results indicate that low dose DDT may indeed exhibit inhibitory effects on chemically initiated-rat hepatocarcinogenicity, in contrast to the promotion observed with high doses, and that this is related to changes in metabolizing enzymes, cell communication, and DNA damage and its repair

  3. The protective role of bee honey against the toxic effect of melamine in the male rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Seeni, Madeha N; El Rabey, Haddad A; Al-Solamy, Suad M

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to test the protective role of natural bee honey against melamine toxicity in the kidney of male albino rats. The dietary supplementation of melamine at a dose of 20,000 ppm for 28 days induced renal dysfunction, as reflected by a significant increase in kidney function parameters (urea, creatinine, and uric acid) and an increase in potassium levels. In addition, a decrease in catalase and glutathione-S-transferase and an increase in lipid peroxide in the kidney tissue homogenate were also observed. Histological changes in the melamine-treated group revealed hyperplasia and damage in kidney cells and the accumulation of melamine crystals in kidney tissues. Honey treatment for 28 days in rats concurrently administered melamine at a dose of 2.5 g/kg body weight for 28 days improved the kidney function, increased antioxidant enzymes, and decreased lipid peroxide levels. The morphology of the kidney cells of the melamine-fed rats was also improved as a result of honey treatment. In conclusion, this study revealed that natural bee honey protects the kidney against the adverse effects induced by melamine toxicity in male albino rats. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Combined effects of chronic hyperglycaemia and oral aluminium intoxication on testicular tissue and some male reproductive parameters in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinola, O B; Biliaminu, S A; Adedeji, O G; Oluwaseun, B S; Olawoyin, O M; Adelabu, T A

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to either environmental toxicants or chronic hyperglycaemia could impair male reproductive function. However, the extent to which exposure to such toxicants, in the presence of pre-existing metabolic dysfunction, could affect male reproduction is unclear. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were exposed to oral aluminium chloride at 250 ppm for 30 days; followed by evaluation of caudal epididymal sperm count and motility, assay for serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone (T) and oestradiol; and assessment of testicular histology. Moreover, blood glucose was evaluated by the glucose oxidase method. In rats treated with streptozotocin (STZ) or aluminium (Al) alone, erosion of testicular parenchyma and stroma was observed. This effect was most severe in diabetic rats simultaneously exposed to Al; coupled with reduced caudal epididymal sperm count that was least in this (STZ+Al) group (18.75 × 10(6)  ml(-1) ) compared with controls (61.25 × 10(6)  ml(-1) ; P < 0.05), STZ group or Al group. Moreover, these reproductive perturbations (in the STZ+Al group) were associated with reduced sperm motility and significantly reduced serum FSH (P < 0.05); but elevated serum T and oestradiol (P < 0.05), compared with control. These suggest that diabetes-induced testicular lesion is exacerbated by simultaneous oral Al toxicity in Wistar rats. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Arecoline augments cellular proliferation in the prostate gland of male Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Indraneel; Chatterjee, Aniruddha; Mondal, Anushree; Maiti, Bishwa Ranjan; Chatterji, Urmi

    2011-01-01

    Areca nut chewing is the fourth most popular habit in the world due to its effects as a mild stimulant, causing a feeling of euphoria and slightly heightened alertness. Areca nuts contain several alkaloids and tannins, of which arecoline is the most abundant and known to have several adverse effects in humans, specially an increased risk of oral cancer. On evaluating the effects of arecoline on the male endocrine physiology in Wistar rats, it was found that arecoline treatment led to an overall enlargement and increase in the wet weight of the prostate gland, and a two-fold increase in serum gonadotropin and testosterone levels. Since the prostate is a major target for testosterone, the consequences of arecoline consumption were studied specifically in the prostate gland. Arecoline treatment led to an increase in the number of rough endoplasmic reticulum and reduction of secretory vesicles, signifying a hyperactive state of the prostate. Increased expression of androgen receptors in response to arecoline allowed for enhanced effect of testosterone in the prostate of treated animals, which augmented cell proliferation, subsequently confirmed by an increase in the expression of Ki-67 protein. Cellular proliferation was also the outcome of concomitant over expression of the G 1 -to-S cell cycle regulatory proteins, cyclin D1 and CDK4, both at the transcriptional and translational levels. Taken together, the findings provide the first evidence that regular use of arecoline may lead to prostatic hyperplasia and hypertrophy, and eventually to disorders associated with prostate enlargement. - Highlights: → Effect of arecoline was investigated on the endocrine physiology of male Wistar rats. → Increase observed in prostate size, wet weight, serum testosterone and gonadotropins. → Arecoline increased RER, expression of androgen receptor and cellular proliferation. → Upregulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4 seen at transcriptional and translational levels. → It may cause

  6. Serum Biochemical, Histopathology and SEM Analyses of the Effects of the Indian Traditional Herb Wattakaka Volubilis Leaf Extract on Wistar Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Velmani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study investigated the protective effect of Wattakaka (W. volubilis leaf extract against streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (with six rats in each group and were fed ad libitum. The rats were fasted for sixteen hours before diabetes was induced by injecting a single dose of 90 mg/kg body weight of STZ in 0.9-percent normal saline through an intraperitoneal route. The five groups were as follows: Group 1: normal control (saline-treated, Group 2: untreated diabetic rats, Groups 3 and 4: diabetic rats treated orally with petroleum ether cold maceration extract (PEME of W. volubilis (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, and Group 5: diabetic rats treated orally with metformin (250 mg/kg body weight. All rats received treatment for 21 days. For the STZ-induced diabetic rats, the blood-glucose, α-amylase, total protein and alanine transaminase (ALT levels were measured on days 7,14 and 21 of the treatment with PEME of W. volubilis and the treatment with metformin. Histopathological changes in the liver were examined with hematoxylin-eosin staining. Morphological changes in the liver were also examined with glutaraldehyde fixation. Results: The treatments with PEME of W. volubilis and with metformin in experimental rats by oral injections for 21 days produced reductions in the levels of serum biochemical markers. Histopathology and scanning electron microscopy results showed that the administrations of PEME of W. volubilis and of metformin suppressed the generation of abnormal liver cells in the STZ-treated rats. Conclusion: These results suggest that both PEME of W. volubilis and metformin have a protective effect against STZ-induced diabetes.

  7. Increase in Bcl2 expression of penile and prostate cells of Sprague Dawley male rats following treatment with buceng (combination of Pimpinella alpina molk with Eurycoma longifolia Jack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiqurrachman Nasihun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment with buceng combination of Eurycoma longifolia Jack and Pimpinella alpine Molk has been proven to increase testosterone level, decrease apoptosis and caspase3 expression. Bcl2 is an antiapoptotic protein found in cytoplasm which inhibits cells apoptosis. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of buceng on Bcl2 expression on penile and prostate tissues of the rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 24 male Sprague Dawley rats of 90 days old, weighing ± 300 grams, were randomly assigned into four groups. Group A, normal rats. Group B, castrated rats and treated with buceng 100 mg/day, per oral (Cast-Bcg; Group C, castrated rats and treated with 2 ml of water as placebo against buceng (Cast-Plac. Group D, castrated rats, treated with mesterolone 6.75 mg/day, per oral, as exogenous testosterone (Cast-Mest. All rats were treated for 30 days. Manova test was used to analyze the different expression of Bcl2 among groups with significance level at p ≤ 0.05. Results: Castration was associated with significant decrease of Bcl2 expression in the penile and prostate tissues (53.0 and 50.9%, respectively compared to normal rats (82.6 and 84.2%, respectively, p < 0.001. Treatment with mesterolone reversed Bcl2 expression (77.1 and 78.1% to a near normal level. The same level of Bcl2 expression was also observed with buceng treatment (73.8 and 78.2%.Conclusion: The treatment with buceng could enhance Bcl2 expression in penile and prostate tissues, comparable to normal rats and mesterolone treated rats.

  8. Valnoctamide, which reduces rat brain arachidonic acid turnover, is a potential non-teratogenic valproate substitute to treat bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Hiren R; Ma, Kaizong; Chang, Lisa; Chen, Mei; Rapoport, Stanley I

    2017-08-01

    Valproic acid (VPA), used for treating bipolar disorder (BD), is teratogenic by inhibiting histone deacetylase. In unanaesthetized rats, chronic VPA, like other mood stabilizers, reduces arachidonic acid (AA) turnover in brain phospholipids, and inhibits AA activation to AA-CoA by recombinant acyl-CoA synthetase-4 (Acsl-4) in vitro. Valnoctamide (VCD), a non-teratogenic constitutional isomer of VPA amide, reported effective in BD, also inhibits recombinant Acsl-4 in vitro. VCD like VPA will reduce brain AA turnover in unanaesthetized rats. A therapeutically relevant (50mg/kg i.p.) dose of VCD or vehicle was administered daily for 30 days to male rats. AA turnover and related parameters were determined using our kinetic model, following intravenous [1- 14 C]AA in unanaesthetized rats for 10min, and measuring labeled and unlabeled lipids in plasma and high-energy microwaved brain. VCD, compared with vehicle, increased λ, the ratio of brain AA-CoA to unesterified plasma AA specific activities; and decreased turnover of AA in individual and total brain phospholipids. VCD's ability like VPA to reduce rat brain AA turnover and inhibit recombinant Acsl-4, and its efficacy in BD, suggest that VCD be further considered as a non-teratogenic VPA substitute for treating BD. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: A BNCT approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarzi, Samereh; Pazirandeh, Ali; Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin; Baghban Khojasteh, Nasrin

    2012-01-01

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. - Highlights: ► Boron distribution in male and female rats' normal brain was studied in this research. ► Coronal sections of animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. ► Alpha and Lithium tracks were counted using alpha autoradiography. ► Different boron concentration was seen in brain sections of male and female rats. ► The highest boron concentration was seen in 4 h after boron compound injection.

  10. Ursodeoxycholic acid alleviates cholestasis-induced histophysiological alterations in the male reproductive system of bile duct-ligated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Ramadan A; Mahmoud, Yomna I

    2014-12-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid is the most widely used drug for treating cholestatic liver diseases. However, its effect on the male reproductive system alterations associated with cholestasis has never been studied. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid on cholestasis-induced alterations in the male reproductive system. Cholestasis was induced by bile duct ligation. Bile duct-ligated rats had higher cholestasis biomarkers and lower levels of testosterone, LH and FSH than did the Sham rats. They also had lower reproductive organs weights, and lower sperm motility, density and normal morphology than those of Sham rats. Histologically, these animals suffered from testicular tubular atrophy, interstitial edema, thickening of basement membranes, vacuolation, and depletion of germ cells. After ursodeoxycholic acid administration, cholestasis-induced structural and functional alterations were significantly ameliorated. In conclusion, ursodeoxycholic acid can ameliorate the reproductive complications of chronic cholestasis in male patients, which represents an additional benefit to this drug. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

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    Neveen M. El-Sherif

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Naphthalene (NA is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group, Group II (NA treated group received NA at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day dissolved in 5 ml/kg corn oil orally by gastric tube, Group III (protected group received rosemary extract (10 ml/kg/day followed after 60 min by NA at the same previous dose orally by gastric tube. The experiment lasted 30 days. The following parameters were studied: Biochemical assessment of renal function, histological, immunohistochemical, morphometric studies and statistical analysis of the results. Results: NA treatment resulted in a highly significant increase in the mean values of serum urea and creatinine. NA induced histological changes in the form of glomerular congestion. Some glomeruli demonstrated marked mesangial expansion and hence that Bowman's spaces were almost completely obliterated. Shrinkage of renal glomeruli with widening of Bowman's spaces could also be seen. Focal tubular dilatation with appearance of casts inside the tubules was observed. Congested peritubular blood vessels and interstitial hemorrhage were also seen. The medullary region demonstrated vascular congestion and fibrosis. Focal cellular infiltration was presented in the interstitium. The renal cortex of NA treated rats showed a noticeable down regulation in alkaline phosphatase positive immunoreactive cells in some proximal convoluted tubules. NA induced up regulation of positive immunoreaction for inducible nitric oxide synthase in the proximal and distal convoluted tubules as well as in the collecting tubules

  12. Sertraline-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats: evaluation of possible underlying mechanisms

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    Ozlem Atli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to clarify the toxic effects of sertraline (SRT on the reproductive system of male rats and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Rats were treated orally with SRT at doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg kg−1 for 28 consecutive days. At the end of the treatment period, sperm concentration, sperm motility, and sperm morphology were investigated by computer-assisted sperm analysis system whereas sperm DNA damage was detected by comet assay. The oxidative status of the testes was investigated, and a histopathological examination was conducted. Serum testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, and luteinizing hormone (LH levels were measured to determine the effects of SRT on the spermatogenesis process. One-way ANOVA, post-hoc Dunnett′s T3 test for the sperm comet assay, and post-hoc Tukey′s test for the others were performed for statistical analysis. The results showed that SRT caused an increase in sperm DNA damage and induced histopathological lesions in all groups treated with SRT. There was abnormal sperm morphology and increased malondialdehyde (MDA in the 10 mg kg−1 treatment group. More dramatic changes were observed in the 20 mg kg−1 treatment group. Decreased sperm count was accompanied by a significant increase in abnormal sperm morphology, DNA damage, and degeneration in cellular-tubular structures. Serum LH and testosterone levels were elevated in the 20 mg kg−1 treatment group. Decreased glutathione (GSH and increased MDA were signs of enhanced oxidative stress (OS. In conclusion, SRT induced testicular toxicity in a dose-dependent manner and OS is suggested as a crucial mechanism.

  13. Study of Salvia Officinalis Hydroethanolic Extract on Serum Thyroid Hormone Levels in Hypothyroid Male Rat

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    N. Mirazi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Medicinal plants are widely used throughout the world. Hypothyroid-ism is an important hormonal disease that causes some disorders in body organs. Salvia offi-cinalis has been known as a medicinal plant since ancient times. In this study the Salvia offi-cinalis extract (SOE effects on thyroid hormones and TSH in hypothyroid rats have been investigated. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study the SOE extract was prepared and 40 male rats were randomly divided in five groups. Control, propylthiouracil (PTU in 4 groups + SOE. The animals were induced hypothyroidism by administration of PTU 0.1% orally in tap water for 14 days. The blood samples were collected and T3 & T4 and TSH hormones were analyzed. Hypothyroid groups were divided into 4 groups and received (PTU+ SOE 40 mg/kg +levothyroxine sodium, 15mcg/kg, orally in tap water and LV+ SOE. All test groups were treated with SOE and levothyroxine sodium for one week. The blood samples were col-lected and for T3 & T4 and TSH hormones were analyzed at the end of the 3rd week. All data were expressed as mean ± SEM and all statistical procedures were performed by MANOVA test.Results: Our results showed that the T3 & T4 plasma levels in hypothyroid animals treated by SOE had significant differences (P<0.05 compared with the control group. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the SOE has stimulatory effect on thyroid gland func-tion and raises plasma T3 & T4 levels.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 19 (4:27-35

  14. The Effect of Withania Somnifera Root Extract on Open Wound Healing in the Male Rats

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    N Ajand

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Healing cutaneous wounds is regarded as one of the most important issues in the medicine. Different chemical agents have been used in regard with promoting wound healing, most of which unfortunately present some side effects and defects. Since natural combinations have proposed less disadvantages, this study aimed to investigate the effect of Withania Somnifera root extract on cutaneous wound healing in the male rats. Methods: This study was performed on 36 rats weighing 180-220g that were divided into 6 groups (n=6. First, wounds (2x2 were made on the dorsal skin of the animals. The first group was left without treatment (control group, the second was treated with Eucerin(negative control, the third group received 1% of phenytoin cream and in the other groups, different concentrations of hydroalcoholic extract of Withania Somnifera (20%, 40%, 60% w/w combined with Eucerin base were administrated once per day. The area of wounds was measured by Autocad software every day, from the 2nd day to 14th day. The study data were analyzed via SPSS software (ver.16 at the significant level of P<0.05. Results:The reduction of incisional wound area in the all groups treated with root extract of Withania Somnifera  ointment was significantly higher on the 8th  day. Moreover, dose of 60% and 90% revealed better effects (p<0.001. Conclusion: The findings of the present study demonstrated that Withania Somnifera root, due to its significant reduction in the healing time as well as wound area, can be used as an effective material in regard with the cutaneous wound healing.

  15. Decreased in vitro fertility in male rats exposed to fluoride-induced oxidative stress damage and mitochondrial transmembrane potential loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izquierdo-Vega, Jeannett A.; Sanchez-Gutierrez, Manuel; Razo, Luz Maria del

    2008-01-01

    Fluorosis, caused by drinking water contamination with inorganic fluoride, is a public health problem in many areas around the world. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of environmentally relevant doses of fluoride on in vitro fertilization (IVF) capacity of spermatozoa, and its relationship to spermatozoa mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨ m ). Male Wistar rats were administered at 5 mg fluoride/kg body mass/24 h, or deionized water orally for 8 weeks. We evaluated several spermatozoa parameters in treated and untreated rats: i) standard quality analysis, ii) superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, iii) the generation of superoxide anion (O 2 ·- ), iv) lipid peroxidation concentration, v) ultrastructural analyses of spermatozoa using transmission electron microscopy, vi) ΔΨ m , vii) acrosome reaction, and viii) IVF capability. Spermatozoa from fluoride-treated rats exhibited a significant decrease in SOD activity (∼ 33%), accompanied with a significant increase in the generation of O 2 · (∼ 40%), a significant decrease in ΔΨ m (∼ 33%), and a significant increase in lipid peroxidation concentration (∼ 50%), relative to spermatozoa from the control group. Consistent with this finding, spermatozoa from fluoride-treated rats exhibited altered plasmatic membrane. In addition, the percentage of fluoride-treated spermatozoa capable of undergoing the acrosome reaction was decreased relative to control spermatozoa (34 vs. 55%), while the percentage fluoride-treated spermatozoa capable of oocyte fertilization was also significantly lower than the control group (13 vs. 71%). These observations suggest that subchronic exposure to fluoride causes oxidative stress damage and loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, resulting in reduced fertility

  16. Transcriptional profile of diuron-induced toxicity on the urinary bladder of male Wistar rats to inform mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlaseh, Shadia M; Bailey, Kathryn A; Hester, Susan D; Jones, Carlton; Ren, Hongzu; Cardoso, Ana Paula F; Oliveira, Maria Luiza C S; Wolf, Douglas C; de Camargo, João Lauro V

    2011-08-01

    Diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) is a substituted urea herbicide that induces rat urinary bladder urothelial tumors at high dietary levels (2500 ppm). The specific mode of action and molecular alterations triggered by diuron, however, have not been clarified. The present study evaluated the dose-dependent effects of mucosal alterations and transcriptional changes in the urinary bladder of rats exposed to diuron. Six-week-old male Wistar rats were treated with 0, 60, 125, 1250, and 2500 ppm of diuron in the diet for 20 weeks. Histologic examination showed urothelial hyperplasia present in rats treated with either 1250 or 2500 ppm of diuron but not 60 or 125 ppm. Comprehensive gene expression analyses of urothelial cell RNA were conducted using Affymetrix microarrays. The numbers of differentially expressed transcripts between each treatment group and control increased with diuron dose. Based on similar histology and gene expression responses, the treatment groups were regrouped into a high-dose (1250 and 2500 ppm) and low-dose group (60 and 125 ppm). These data suggest that persistent exposure to high dietary concentrations of diuron induces oxidative stress, increases cellular metabolism, and enhances cell death that is associated with sustained urothelial hyperplasia.

  17. Sperm abnormality toxicity due to cyclosporine A and the ameliorative effect of royal jelly in male rats

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    Azza M. Gawish

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The immunosuppressive drug, utilized widely in Egypt, cyclosporine A was studied to evaluate its toxicity in male rats. Animals were divided into a control (untreated, 3 groups treated intraperitoneally with 20, 40 and 60 m/kg cyclosporine A for 5, 10 and 15 days, respectively and 3 groups treated intraperitoneally with 20, 40 and 60 mg/kg of cyclosporine A plus 100 mg/kg royal jelly administrated orally. Toxicity evaluation was carried out using two main endpoints: reproductive study (sperm morphology and count abnormalities and biochemical changes in liver and testis (DNA amounts. The aim of this work is to study the protective role of royal jelly against sperm abnormalities in shape and count, and changes in DNA contents in liver and testis tissue induced in rats when treated by cyclosporine A with different doses (20–40–60 mg/kg/day for 5, 10, and 15 days in male rats and how the royal jelly can repair this changes. Our results showed that sperm abnormalities induced by cyclosporine A included deviation from normal shape in head and tail. Abnormal heads contained amorphous head and banana-shaped head, whereas the abnormal tails included divided and coiled tails. It also induced an insignificant effect on the total sperm counts after 5 days of injection with the drug combined with royal jelly. DNA contents were determined in rat liver and testis cells to illustrate the mutagenic effect of cyclosporine A and how the royal jelly can modulate this effect. From these results we concluded that cyclosporine A toxicity was dose and time dependent and should be administrated under special precautions and medical supervision. Using of royal jelly in combination with cyclosporine A drug decreased its toxic effect, so it's considered as protector.

  18. Distribution pattern of surgically treated symptomatic prolapsed lumbar and sacral intervertebral discs in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnamdi, Ibe Michael Onwuzuruike

    2013-09-01

    The pattern of distribution of surgically treated symptomatic prolapsed lumbar and sacral intervertebral discs has been published, though scantily, especially in males. We decided to look at our own series, compare and contrast ours with some of those published. We treated 88 locations of this lesion in 68 males. The clinical features were those of lower back pains, with or without radiation into the lower extremities, sensory loss and paresis of the limbs. There was a case of loss of urinary bladder and ano-rectal control. All lesions were confirmed through cauda-equinograms and treated under general anaesthesia in knee-chest position (MECCA position). The patients were followed up for 3-6 months post-operatively. There were 88 locations in 68 males of 21-70 years of age, with 29 prolapses occurring during the age range 31-40 years, while 54 locations were on the left and 48 at L4/5. The procedures were well tolerated by all patients and there were no post-operative complications. This lesion in our series occurred mostly on the left, at the L4/5 level and peaked at 31-40 years age range. The predictability of occurrence of this disease, using side, level and age is still not feasible in males from our series.

  19. Endocrine processes underlying victory and defeat in the male rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, Teunis

    1981-01-01

    The central questions of the present study were:1. does base line hormonal state determine agonistic behavior in male-male encounters? 2. does agonistic behavior affect hormonal state? Such an interrelationship between agonistic behavior and hormonal processes might serve as a regulatory system for

  20. Garlic (Allium sativum) feeding impairs Sertoli cell junctional proteins in male Wistar rat testis: microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, I; Nahdi, A; Atig, F; El May, A; El May, M V

    2016-12-01

    Sertoli cell junctions, such as adhesion junction (AJ), gap junction (GJ) and tight junction (TJ), are important for maintaining spermatogenesis. In previous studies, we showed the inhibitory effect of crude garlic (Allium sativum, As) on spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. The aim of this work was to complete our investigation on the impact of this plant, especially on Sertoli cell junctional proteins (SCJPs). During 1 month, 24 male rats were divided into groups: group control (0% of As) and treated groups fed 5%, 10% and 15% of As. Light and electron microscopy observations were performed to localise junctional proteins: connexin-43, Zona Occluding-1 and N-cadherin (immunohistochemistry) and to describe junctions. We showed that the specific cells involved in the localisation of the SCJP were similar in both control and treated groups, but with different immunoreactivity intensity between them. The electron microscopy observation focused on TJs between Sertoli cells, constituting the blood-testis barrier, showed ultrastructural changes such as fragmentation of TJs between adjacent Sertoli cell membranes and dilatation of rough endoplasmic reticulum saccules giving an aspect of scale to these junctions. We concluded that crude garlic consumption during 1 month induces perturbations on Sertoli cell junctions. These alterations can explain apoptosis in testicular germ cells previously showed. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Hematotoxicity and genotoxicity of mercuric chloride following subchronic exposure through drinking water in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujbiha, Mohamed Ali; Ben Salah, Ghada; Ben Feleh, Abdelraouf; Saoudi, Mongi; Kamoun, Hassen; Bousslema, Ali; Ommezzine, Asma; Said, Khaled; Fakhfakh, Faiza; El Feki, Abdelfattah

    2012-07-01

    Erythrocytes are a convenient model to understand the subsequent oxidative deterioration of biological macromolecules in metal toxicities. The present study examined the variation of hematoxic and genotoxic parameters following subchronic exposure of mercuric chloride via drinking water and their possible association with oxidative stress. Male rats were exposed to 50 ppm (HG1) and 100 ppm (HG2) of mercuric chloride daily for 90 days. A significant dose-dependent decrease was observed in red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean cell hemoglobin concentration in treated groups (HG1 and HG2) compared with controls. A significant dose-dependent increase was observed in lipid peroxidation; therefore, a significant variation was found in the antioxidant enzyme activities, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. Interestingly, mercuric chloride treatment showed a significant dose-dependent increase in frequency of total chromosomal aberration and in percentage of aberrant bone marrow metaphase of treated groups (p mercury treatment may be the major cause for chromosomal aberration as free radicals lead to DNA damage. These data will be useful in screening the antioxidant activities of natural products, which may be specific to the bone marrow tissue.

  2. Effect of Taurine on Cisplatin -Induced Nephrotoxicity and Hepatoxicity in Male Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noruzi M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cisplatin, Platinum co-ordinate complex is a widely used antineaplastic agent for treatment of metastatic tumors. Taurine is an organic acid and an endogenous antioxidant. In this study we investigated the protective effect of taurine as an endogenous antioxidant against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotexicity.Methods: 24 male albino rats (180-220 grams were divided into 4 groups (n=6: (1: saline-treated group (2: cisplatin-treated group (10mg/kg, ip (3: group that received taurine (400mg/kg, ip 1hr before cisplatin (10mg/kg, ip administration (4: taurine (400mg/kg, ip. The animals were killed 7days after treatment and then blood samples were collected.Results: The results of this study indicated that cisplatin significantly increased CRATININ, URE, ALT, AST levels as compared to control group. Moreover, taurine significantly decreased CRATININ, URE, ALT and AST levels compared to cisplatin group.Conclusion: According to this study taurine prevents the incease of Creatinin, BUN, ALT and AST levels assisted by cisplatin, which may be due to its antioxidant properties.Keywords: Cisplatin; Taurine; Hepatoxicity; Nephrotoxicity; Nephrons.

  3. Estrogen modulation of the ethanol-evoked myocardial oxidative stress and dysfunction via DAPK3/Akt/ERK activation in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mas, Mahmoud M.; Abdel-Rahman, Abdel A.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that male rats are protected against the hypotensive and myocardial depressant effects of ethanol compared with females. We investigated whether E 2 modifies the myocardial and oxidative effects of ethanol in male rats. Conscious male rats received ethanol (0.5, 1 or 1.5 g/kg i.v.) 30-min after E 2 (1 μg/kg i.v.) or its vehicle (saline), and hearts were collected at the conclusion of hemodynamic measurements for ex vivo molecular studies. Ethanol had no effect in vehicle-treated rats, but it caused dose-related reductions in LV developed pressure (LVDP), end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), rate of rise in LV pressure (dP/dt max ) and systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures in E 2 -pretreated rats. These effects were associated with elevated (i) indices of reactive oxygen species (ROS), (ii) malondialdehyde (MDA) protein adducts, and (iii) phosphorylated death-associated protein kinase-3 (DAPK3), Akt, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2). Enhanced myocardial anti-oxidant enzymes (heme oxygenase-1, catalase and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2) activities were also demonstrated. In conclusion, E 2 promotes ethanol-evoked myocardial oxidative stress and dysfunction in male rats. The present findings highlight the risk of developing myocardial dysfunction in men who consume alcohol while receiving E 2 for specific medical conditions. - Highlights: • Ethanol lowers blood pressure and causes LV dysfunction in E 2 -treated rats. • E 2 /ethanol aggravates cardiac oxidative state via of DAPK3/Akt/ERK activation. • E 2 /ethanol causes a feedback increase in cardiac HO-1, catalase and ALDH2. • Alcohol might increase risk of myocardial dysfunction in men treated with E 2

  4. Estrogen modulation of the ethanol-evoked myocardial oxidative stress and dysfunction via DAPK3/Akt/ERK activation in male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Mas, Mahmoud M., E-mail: mahelm@hotmail.com; Abdel-Rahman, Abdel A., E-mail: abdelrahmana@ecu.edu

    2015-09-15

    Evidence suggests that male rats are protected against the hypotensive and myocardial depressant effects of ethanol compared with females. We investigated whether E{sub 2} modifies the myocardial and oxidative effects of ethanol in male rats. Conscious male rats received ethanol (0.5, 1 or 1.5 g/kg i.v.) 30-min after E{sub 2} (1 μg/kg i.v.) or its vehicle (saline), and hearts were collected at the conclusion of hemodynamic measurements for ex vivo molecular studies. Ethanol had no effect in vehicle-treated rats, but it caused dose-related reductions in LV developed pressure (LVDP), end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), rate of rise in LV pressure (dP/dt{sub max}) and systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures in E{sub 2}-pretreated rats. These effects were associated with elevated (i) indices of reactive oxygen species (ROS), (ii) malondialdehyde (MDA) protein adducts, and (iii) phosphorylated death-associated protein kinase-3 (DAPK3), Akt, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2). Enhanced myocardial anti-oxidant enzymes (heme oxygenase-1, catalase and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2) activities were also demonstrated. In conclusion, E{sub 2} promotes ethanol-evoked myocardial oxidative stress and dysfunction in male rats. The present findings highlight the risk of developing myocardial dysfunction in men who consume alcohol while receiving E{sub 2} for specific medical conditions. - Highlights: • Ethanol lowers blood pressure and causes LV dysfunction in E{sub 2}-treated rats. • E{sub 2}/ethanol aggravates cardiac oxidative state via of DAPK3/Akt/ERK activation. • E{sub 2}/ethanol causes a feedback increase in cardiac HO-1, catalase and ALDH2. • Alcohol might increase risk of myocardial dysfunction in men treated with E{sub 2}.

  5. [Effect of tail-suspension on the reproduction of adult male rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dang-xia; Qiu, Shu-dong; Wang, Zhi-yong; Zhang, Jie

    2006-04-01

    To study the effects on the male reproduction in adult male rats and its mechanisms through simulated weightlessness using tail-suspension, in order to do a basic works of exploring the effects on human being's reproduction in outer space. Forty Spraque-Dawley adult male rats were randomly divided into four groups, two experimental groups and two control groups. Rats in the two experimental groups were tail-suspended for 14 d and 28 d respectively, then we examined the weight and morphology of testis, the quality and amount of sperm, also tested the serum hormone by radioimmunoassay and analyzed apoptosis rate of testicular cells by TUNEL in the experimental rats and control rats. After tail-suspension, the weight of testis, the sperm count and sperm motility significantly decreased (P 0.05). These changes were not significant between two experimental groups (P > 0.05). In addition, the seminiferous tubules became atrophy with the reduction of the layers of seminiferous epithelium, and sperm amount in lumens of seminiferous tubules decreased in experimental groups. The above were more remarkable in the 28 d experimental group. Simulating weightlessness has a harmful effect on reproduction of adult male rats. These may be caused by inducing apoptosis. The blocking apoptosis of testicular cells may be useful in improving the harmful effect.

  6. Androgen-mediated development of irradiation-induced thyroid tumors in rats: dependence on animal age during interval of androgen replacement in castrated males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, C.; Oslapas, R.; Nayyar, R.; Paloyan, E.

    1986-01-01

    When male Long-Evans rats at age 8 weeks were radiation treated (40 microCi Na131I), thyroid follicular adenomas and carcinomas were observed at age 24 months with a high incidence of 94%. Castration of males prior to irradiation significantly reduced this tumor incidence to 60%. When testosterone (T) was replaced in castrated, irradiated male rats, differentially increased incidences of thyroid tumors occurred. Immediate (age 2-6 mo) or early (age 6-12 mo) T replacement at approximate physiologic levels led to thyroid follicular tumor incidences of 100 and 82%, respectively, whereas intermediate (12-18 mo) or late (18-24 mo) T treatment led to only 70 and 73% incidences, respectively. Continuous T replacement (2-24 mo) in castrated irradiated male rats raised thyroid tumor incidence to 100%. Since elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is a reported requisite for development of radiation-associated thyroid tumors, the effects of T on serum TSH levels were examined. Mean serum TSH values in all irradiated animal groups were significantly elevated above age-matched nonirradiated animals at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Serum TSH levels were higher in continuous T-replaced irradiated castrates than in intact, irradiated males, whereas such intact male TSH levels were greater than those for irradiated castrates without T treatment. Interval T replacement in castrated male rats was associated with increased serum TSH levels during the treatment interval and with lowered TSH levels after discontinuation of T treatment, particularly in irradiated rats. However, when irradiated, castrated males received late T replacement (age 18-24 mo), there was no elevation of TSH at the end of the treatment interval. An indirect effect of T via early stimulation of TSH may be partly responsible for the high incidence of irradiation-induced thyroid tumors in rats

  7. Biochemical and histological changes in liver and kidney in male Wistar albino rats following exposure to Solignum®: a permethrincontaining wood preservative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley C. Patrick-Iwuanyanwu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed to determine the effect of sub-chronic exposure to Solignum®, a permethrin-containing wood preservative on biochemical and histological changes in liver and kidneys of male Wistar albino rats. Thirty-two male rats were randomly divided into four groups: control and three treatment concentrations containing 8 rats each. The treatment groups were exposed to Solignum® at dose rates of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (BW respectively per day orally for four weeks. Data obtained from the study showed a progressive increase in the body weight of rats in control whereas, rats treated with different concentrations (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg BW of Solignum® decreased significantly (≤0.05 especially at the end of the second and fourth week when compared with control. On the other hand, there was a significant decrease in the relative liver weights of rats treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg BW Solignum® while rats treated with 400 mg/kg BW showed a significant increase when compared with control. The relative weight of kidneys in experimental groups increased significantly when compared with control. Biochemical analysis results illustrated that there was a significant increase in marker enzymes namely alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity at the end of the fourth week. Similarly, total bilirubin, serum urea, creatinine and electrolytes (Na+, K+ and Cl- levels increased in a dose dependent manner in treated rats when compared with untreated control group. Serum total protein decreased significantly in experimental rats when compared with control. However, cholesterol and triglycerides showed no significant difference when compared with control. Histopathological examination of hepatocytes in treated rats was characterized by mild periportal inflammatory cells and cytoplasmic degeneration. Furthermore, histopathological examination of rat kidneys revealed inflammatory

  8. Biological response of rats fed with tofu treated with high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Préstamo, G; Arroyo, G

    2000-10-01

    Emerging technologies for food preservation have arisen in recent years, such as high-pressure (HP) hydrostatic treatment, and the biological response for this kind of food preservation is not well-known. Forty female rats (six weeks old) were used in the experiment to evaluate the biological effects of HP treatment of tofu. The animals were divided into groups that were fed with tofu (untreated), tofu treated with HP, and conventional food (as control) for 28 days. The glucose level, mineral content (calcium, potassium, zinc, and magnesium), shinbone maximum shear force, weight of the body, and weight of organs (heart, liver, spleen, and kidneys) were analyzed. The biological response for the rats was that significant differences were found in the calcium amount determined on the serum of the rats fed with untreated tofu and those fed with tofu treated with HP, and the calcium amount was lower on the rats fed with tofu treated with HP. Also, there were significant differences in the weight of the liver, and it was lower in the rats fed with tofu treated with HP. It was quite remarkable how the weight of the body and organs were smaller in the rats fed with tofu in comparison to the weight of the control rats. In the other components assayed no significant differences were found. HP produces a potential effect on tofu as it is observed in the rats response to the tofu treated with HP.

  9. Perinatal BPA Exposure Induces Hyperglycemia, Oxidative Stress and Decreased Adiponectin Production in Later Life of Male Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunzhe Song

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main object of the present study was to explore the effect of perinatal bisphenol A (BPA exposure on glucose metabolism in early and later life of male rat offspring, and to establish the potential mechanism of BPA-induced dysglycemia. Pregnant rats were treated with either vehicle or BPA by drinking water at concentrations of 1 and 10 µg/mL BPA from gestation day 6 through the end of lactation. We measured the levels of fasting serum glucose, insulin, adiponectin and parameters of oxidative stress on postnatal day (PND 50 and PND100 in male offspring, and adiponectin mRNA and protein expression in adipose tissue were also examined. Our results showed that perinatal exposure to 1 or 10 µg/mL BPA induced hyperglycemia with insulin resistance on PND100, but only 10 µg/mL BPA exposure had similar effects as early as PND50. In addition, increased oxidative stress and decreased adiponectin production were also observed in BPA exposed male offspring. Our findings indicated that perinatal exposure to BPA resulted in abnormal glucose metabolism in later life of male offspring, with an earlier and more exacerbated effect at higher doses. Down-regulated expression of adiponectin gene and increased oxidative stress induced by BPA may be associated with insulin resistance.

  10. Rats Born to Mothers Treated with Dexamethasone 15 cH Present Changes in Modulation of Inflammatory Process

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    Leoni V. Bonamin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As little information about the effect of ultra high dilutions of glucocorticoid in reproduction is available in the literature, pregnant female Wistar rats (N=12 were blindly subcutaneously treated during all gestational and lactation period with: dexamethasone 4 mg/kg diluted into dexamethasone 15 cH (mixed; or dexamethasone 4 mg/kg diluted in water; or dexamethasone 15 cH, or vehicle. Parental generation had body weight, food and water consumption monitored. The F1 generation was monitored regarding to newborn development. No birth occurred in both groups treated with dexamethasone 4 mg/kg. After 60 days from birth, 12 male F1 rats were randomly selected from each remaining group and inoculated subcutaneously with 1% carrageenan into the footpad, for evaluation of inflammatory performance. Edema and histopathology of the footpad were evaluated, using specific staining methods, immunohistochemistry and digital histomorphometry. Mothers treated with mixed dexamethasone presented reduced water consumption. F1 rats born to dexamethasone 15 cH treated females presented significant increase in mast cell degranulation, decrease in monocyte percentage, increase in CD18+ PMN cells, and early expression of ED2 protein, in relation to control. The results show that the exposure of parental generation to highly diluted dexamethasone interferes in inflammation modulation in the F1 generation.

  11. Sibutramine reduces feeding, body fat and improves insulin resistance in dietary-obese male Wistar rats independently of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael; Bing, Chen; King, Peter; Pickavance, Lucy; Heal, David; Wilding, John

    2001-01-01

    We studied the effects of the novel noradrenaline and serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor sibutramine on feeding and body weight in a rat model of dietary obesity, and whether it interacts with hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurones.Chow-fed and dietary-obese (DIO) male Wistar rats were given sibutramine (3 mg kg−1 day−1 p.o.) or deionized water for 21 days.Sibutramine decreased food intake throughout the treatment period in both dietary-obese rats (Psibutramine-treated dietary-obese rats (Psibutramine treatment (Psibutramine compared to untreated controls.The hypophagic and anti-obesity effects of sibutramine in dietary-obese Wistar rats appear not to be mediated by inhibition of ARC NPY neurones. PMID:11309262

  12. Transient reversal of olfactory preference following castration in male rats: Implication for estrogen receptor involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Kai; Chiba, Atsuhiko; Sakuma, Yasuo; Kondo, Yasuhiko

    2015-12-01

    We examined the effects of the sex steroid milieu on sexual odor preference of sexually-experienced male rats using an alternate choice paradigm after endocrine manipulations. Gonadally intact (GI) males showed a male typical preference, i.e. spent longer time sniffing estrous females than males or ovariectomized females. At 1-2 weeks after orchidectomy (ORx), the males exhibited a transient preference for sexually vigorous males, a female typical preference pattern, followed by a total loss of preference after 4 weeks. Subcutaneous implantation of a Silastic capsule containing formestane (4-OHA), an aromatase inhibitor, had no effect on the preference of gonadally intact rats, but successfully prevented the emergence of the female typical preference after ORx. Capsules containing testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), or estradiol benzoate (EB), but not those with cholesterol (CH), restored masculine typical preference in ORx males at 2 weeks after the placement. The feminine preference for males was observed at 2-3 weeks after removal of T or EB capsules, but not by the removal of DHT and CH capsules. The results suggest that either exogenous androgen or estrogen maintains the masculine typical odor preference. Estrogen itself or produced through aromatization of circulating T, induces a transient feminine typical preference at a certain decreased titer during its disappearance from the circulation. Estrogen at different titers might determine appearance of masculine or feminine typical olfactory preference in adult ORx rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Impairment of male reproduction in adult rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate in utero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpalatha, T.; Ramachandra Reddy, P.; Sreenivasula Reddy, P.

    Hydroxyprogesterone caproate is one of the most effective and widely used drugs for the treatment of uterine bleeding and threatened miscarriage in women. Hydroxyprogesterone caproate was administered to pregnant rats in order to assess the effect of intraperitoneal exposure to supranormal levels of hydroxyprogesterone caproate on the male reproductive potential in the first generation. The cauda epididymal sperm count and motility decreased significantly in rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate during embryonic development, when compared with control rats. The levels of serum testosterone decreased with an increase in follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in adult rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate during the embryonic stage. It was suggested that the impairment of male reproductive performance could be mediated through the inhibition of testosterone production.

  14. Pubertal dependent effects of cadmium on episodic prolactin secretion in male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafuente, A.; Alvarez-Demanuel, E.; Marquez, N. [Fac. de Cienicas, Orense (Spain). Lab. de Toxicologia; Esquifino, A.I. [Dept. Bioquimica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, 28040-Madrid (Spain)

    1999-02-01

    This work was undertaken to assess if exposure to cadmium related to puberty may affect the episodic pattern of prolactin. Male rats were submitted to cadmium exposure, from day 30 to 60 or from day 60 to 90 of life respectively, at a dose of 50 ppm in the drinking water. Control age-matched rats received cadmium-free water. Prepubertal cadmium administration decreased mean serum prolactin levels and the absolute amplitude of the prolactin pulses. Subchronic exposure to cadmium of adult rats decreased mean serum prolactin levels, the absolute amplitude of the prolactin pulses and their duration, and the mean half-life of the hormone. These results suggest that subchronic cadmium exposure changes the secretory pattern of prolactin in adult male rats in a puberty-dependent way. (orig.) With 1 fig., 1 tab., 37 refs.

  15. Maturation of kisspeptinergic neurons coincides with puberty onset in male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Agnete H; Ansel, Laura; Simonneaux, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    receptor is the primary component in the initiation of puberty and where in the hypothalamus regulation of the kisspeptin/Kiss1R system occurs is unresolved. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we analyzed the level of Kiss1 mRNA and kisspeptin-immunoreactivity in the anteroventral...... periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and the arcuate nucleus of male rats along pubertal development. Neurons expressing Kiss1 mRNA were first detected at PND15, but increased significantly around puberty, and declined again in the adult rat. While virtually no immunoreactive cell bodies were detectable in the AVPV...... at any age, numerous kisspeptin-positive neurons in the arcuate nucleus were detected in the adult rat. Increasing doses of kisspeptin-54 given peripherally to male rats at PND15, 30, 45, and 60 evoked roughly similar effects, as revealed by the induction of c-Fos in the pituitary and secretion of LH...

  16. Effects of protein restriction, melatonin administration, and short daylength on brain benzodiazepine receptors in prepubertal male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennaway, D.J.; Royles, P.; Webb, H.; Carbone, F.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility that there are changes in brain benzodiazepine binding sites controlled by photoperiod was investigated in two strains of male rats. The hypothesis was tested by 3H-diazepam binding studies in various brain regions of prepubertal rats maintained in 14 or 10 h of light or treated with late-afternoon injections of melatonin (50 micrograms/day). Protein restriction was applied during the experiment to sensitize the animals to the treatments. Under the conditions employed, rats kept in short daylength throughout or kept on long photoperiod and given late-afternoon melatonin injections showed evidence of delayed puberty (seminal vesicle, ventral prostate, and testis weight decreased by 45%, 55%, and 60% respectively, compared to control rats). Binding measurements were made 1 h before and 2 and 5 h after the onset of darkness in the pubertal (42-day-old) or experimentally prepubertal rats. In the rats of the Porton strain (for which protein restriction was obligatory for the gonadal response) there was no consistent treatment or time effects on specific binding of 3H-diazepam to washed membranes of the hypothalamus, midbrain, or striatum. Similarly, there were no differences in the stimulation of 3H-diazepam binding by 100 microM GABA or the inhibition of binding by 50 microM N-acetyl 5 methoxy kynurenamine. By contrast, in Wistar rats, specific binding to midbrain membranes was reduced 5 h after dark compared to 2 h (37% saline; 20% melatonin) and the extent of stimulation by GABA in the hypothalamus was increased 5 h after darkness (35.6% to 46.7% saline; 37.4% to 50% melatonin). Melatonin treatment resulted in significantly higher specific binding in the hypothalamus 2 h after dark (10%, control fed; 20%, protein restricted) but reduced the GABA induced stimulation of binding in the midbrain (35.5% to 25%, control fed; 33.7% to 23.5%, protein restricted)

  17. Crataegus monogyna fruit aqueous extract as a protective agent against doxorubicin-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shalizar Jalali

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Doxorubicin (DOX is a broad spectrum chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of several malignancies. The use of DOX in clinical chemotherapy has been restricted due to its diverse toxicities, including reproductive toxicity. Crataegus monogyna (C. monogyna is one of the oldest medicinal plants that have been shown to be cytoprotective because of scavenging free radicals. The present study was undertaken to determine whether C. monogyna fruits aqueous extract could serve as a protective agent against reproductive toxicity during DOX treatment in a rat model through antioxidant-mediated mechanisms. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were allocated to four groups. Two groups of rats were treated with DOX at a dose of 4 mg/kg intraperitoneally on days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 (accumulated dose of 20 mg/kg. One of the groups received C. monogyna fruits aqueous extract at a dose of 20 mg/kg per day orally for 28 days along with DOX. A vehicle-treated control group and a C. monogyna control group were also included. Results: The DOX-treated group showed significant decreases in the body and organ weights and spermatogenic activities as well as many histological alterations. DOX treatment also caused a significant decrease in sperm count and motility with an increase in dead and abnormal sperms. Moreover, significant decrease in serum levels of testosterone and increased serum concentrations of FSH, LH, LDH, CPK, and SGOT were observed in DOX-treated rats. Notably, Crataegus co-administration caused a partial recovery in above-mentioned parameters. Conclusion: These findings indicated that doxorubicin can adversely damage the testicular tissue, while Crataegus co-administrationcould effectively prevent these adverse effects by effective inhibiting oxidative processes and restoration of antioxidant defense system.

  18. Conservatively treated perforation of the neovagina in a male to female transsexual patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amirian, Ilda; Gögenur, Ismail; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    An unknown number of patients have had male to female gender transformation. Various surgical techniques have been employed to construct the neovagina. The more traditional techniques include inverted penile grafts and vascular pedicle grafts, but also the small bowel and sigmoid colon have been ...... with contrast through the neovagina showed leakage from the neovaginal top. The patient was treated conservatively with antibiotics and discharged after 7 days....

  19. Resident intruder paradigm-induced aggression relieves depressive-like behaviors in male rats subjected to chronic mild stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Sheng; Ji, Xiao-wei; Wu, Chun-ling; Li, Zi-fa; Sun, Peng; Wang, Jie-qiong; Zhao, Qi-tao; Gao, Jie; Guo, Ying-hui; Sun, Shi-guang; Qiao, Ming-qi

    2014-01-01

    Background Accumulating epidemiological evidence shows that life event stressors are major vulnerability factors for psychiatric diseases such as major depression. It is also well known that the resident intruder paradigm (RIP) results in aggressive behavior in male rats. However, it is not known how resident intruder paradigm-induced aggression affects depressive-like behavior in isolated male rats subjected to chronic mild stress (CMS), which is an animal model of depression. Material/Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: non-stressed controls, isolated rats subjected to the CMS protocol, and resident intruder paradigm-exposed rats subjected to the CMS protocol. Results In the sucrose intake test, ingestion of a 1% sucrose solution by rats in the CMS group was significantly lower than in control and CMS+RIP rats after 3 weeks of stress. In the open-field test, CMS rats had significantly lower open-field scores compared to control rats. Furthermore, the total scores given the CMS group were significantly lower than in the CMS+RIP rats. In the forced swimming test (FST), the immobility times of CMS rats were significantly longer than those of the control or CMS+RIP rats. However, no differences were observed between controls and CMS+RIP rats. Conclusions Our data show that aggressive behavior evoked by the resident intruder paradigm could relieve broad-spectrum depressive-like behaviors in isolated adult male rats subjected to CMS. PMID:24911067

  20. The immunoreactivity of satellite glia of the spinal ganglia of rats treated with monosodium glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Ewa Krawczyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite glia of the peripheral nervous system ganglia provide metabolic protection to the neurons. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of monosodium glutamate administered parenterally to rats on the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, S-100β protein and Ki-67 antigen in the satellite glial cells. Adult, 60-day-old male rats received monosodium glutamate at two doses of 2 g/kg b.w. (group 1 and 4 g/kg b.w. (group 2 subcutaneously for 3 consecutive days. Animals in the control group (group C were treated with corresponding doses of 0.9% sodium chloride. Immediately after euthanasia, spinal ganglia of the lumbar region were dissected. Immunohistochemical peroxidase anti-peroxidase reactions were performed on the sections containing the examined material using antibodies against glial fibrillary acidic protein, S-100β and Ki-67. Next, morphological and morphometric analyses of immunopositive and immunonegative glia were conducted. The data were presented as the mean number of cells with standard deviation. Significant differences were analysed using ANOVA (P < 0.05. In all 63-day-old rats, immunopositivity for the examined proteins glia was observed. Increased number of cells expressing glial fibrillary acidic protein was demonstrated in group 2, whereas the number of S-100β-positive glia grew in the groups with the increasing doses of monosodium glutamate. The results indicate the early stage reactivity of glia in response to increased levels of glutamate in the extracellular space. These changes may be of a neuroprotective nature under the conditions of excitotoxicity induced by the action of this excitatory neurotransmitter.

  1. Long-term moderate treadmill exercise promotes stress-coping strategies in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalanza, Jaume F; Sanchez-Roige, Sandra; Cigarroa, Igor; Gagliano, Humberto; Fuentes, Silvia; Armario, Antonio; Capdevila, Lluís; Escorihuela, Rosa M

    2015-11-05

    Recent evidence has revealed the impact of exercise in alleviating anxiety and mood disorders; however, the exercise protocol that exerts such benefit is far from known. The current study was aimed to assess the effects of long-term moderate exercise on behavioural coping strategies (active vs. passive) and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal response in rats. Sprague-Dawley male and female rats were exposed to 32-weeks of treadmill exercise and then tested for two-way active avoidance learning (shuttle-box). Two groups were used as controls: a non-handled sedentary group, receiving no manipulation, and a control group exposed to a stationary treadmill. Female rats displayed shorter escape responses and higher number of avoidance responses, reaching criterion for performance earlier than male rats. In both sexes, exercise shortened escape latencies, increased the total number of avoidances and diminished the number of trials needed to reach criterion for performance. Those effects were greater during acquisition in female rats, but remained over the shuttle-box sessions in treadmill trained male rats. In females, exercise did not change ACTH and corticosterone levels after shuttle-box acquisition. Collectively, treadmill exercise improved active coping strategies in a sex-dependent manner. In a broader context, moderate exercise could serve as a therapeutic intervention for anxiety and mood disorders.

  2. Can Ayahuasca and sleep loss change sexual performance in male rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, T A; Polesel, D N; Matos, G; Garcia, V A; Costa, J L; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L

    2014-10-01

    The ingestion of the beverage Ayahuasca usually occurs in religious ceremonies that are performed during the night leading to sleep deprivation. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the acute effects of Ayahuasca upon the sexual response of sleep deprived male rats. One group of sexually experienced male Wistar rats were submitted to a paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) protocol for 96h, while another group spent the same amount of time in the home cage (CTRL). After this period, either saline or Ayahuasca drink (250, 500 and 1000μgmL(-1)) was administered by gavage and sexual behavior and hormonal concentrations were measured. Ayahuasca alone significantly decreased sexual performance at all doses. However, in sleep deprived rats, the lower dose increased sexual performance while the intermediate dose produced a detrimental effect on sexual response compared to the CTRL rats at the same dose. Regarding the hormonal analyses, a lower testosterone concentration was observed in sleep-deprived saline rats in relation to the CTRL group. Progesterone was significantly lower only in PSD rats at the dose 500μgmL(-1) compared with CTRL-500μgmL(-1) group. Corticosterone was unchanged among the groups evaluated. Our results suggest that Ayahuasca intake markedly impaired sexual performance alone, but, when combined with sleep deprivation, had significant, but heterogeneous, effects on male sexual response. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Propolis Protection from Toxicity Caused by Aluminium Chloride in Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangood, S.A.; Kamal, A.M.; Haggag, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Propolis is a resinous natural hive product derived from plant exudate collected by honey bees and has been extensively used in folk medicine. The present study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of propolis in alleviating the toxicity of aluminium chloride (AlCl 3 )on some hematological and biochemical parameters of male albino rats. Twenty four male albino rats were arranged into 4 equal groups; control group, aluminium group (34 mg AlCl 3 /kg/day), propolis group (100μg propolis/rat)and aluminium plus propolis group. Rats were orally administered their respective doses daily for 30 days. AlCl 3 caused significant decrease in hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell count (RBC), hematocrit (Ht), total and differential leucocyte count (TLC) when compared to control. On the other hand, aluminium administration caused a significant increase in urea, uric acid, creatinin, bilirubin, the content of phosphorous, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and asparate aminotransferase (AST) and significant decrease in total protein, albumin, globulin and calcium when compared to control. The administration of propolis alleviated the toxic effect of AlCl 3 in experimental rats. It could be concluded thal propolis my afford protection from toxicity caused by aluminium chloride in male albino rats

  4. Cholesterol biosynthesis in polychlorinated biphenyl-treated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kling, D.; Gamble, W.

    1982-01-01

    After administration of polychlorinated biphenly (PCB) at 0.055 (w/w) of the diet to Wistar rats for 30 days, followed by intraperitioneal injection of tritiated water, [ 14 C]mevalonate, and [ 14 C]acetate, there was a decrease in cholesterol biosynthesis in rat liver. No significant change in cholesterol formation was observed when PCB was administered at 0.01% (w/w) of the diet. In vitro inhibition of cholesterol synthesis by rat liver microsomes was observed with PCB. Squalene 2,3-oxidocyclase activity of rat liver microsomes was not significantly altered. Desmosterol delta 24 reductase activity was inhibited only at relatively high concentrations of PCB. There was increased incorporation of radioactivity into squalene and lanosterol, in vitro, in the presence of PCB. The primary inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis appears to be at the demethylation and rearrangement reactions between lanosterol and cholesterol in the biosynthetic pathway

  5. The Possible HEPATOPROTECTIVE Effect Of Taurine In Diethyl Nitrosamine (DEN) Treated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHAROUD, M.N.M.; ABD EL-MONEIM, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    Egypt occupies a progressed rank among the developing countries in prevalence of hepatic diseases and liver disorders. Hepatopathies are major public health problems in Egypt where hepatitis C virus (HCV) and schistosomia record a high prevalence which may account for the most serious clinical disorders e.g. liver cirrhosis and liver cancer.Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the most specific and potent mitogen of endothelial cells. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by increased pathologic angio genesis and increased level of the vascular endothelial growth factor. Taurine is clinically used as a protecting agent of the liver and recently, its chemo preventive effect on rat large bowel carcinogenesis was reported.In this study, forty male albino rats were used and diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) was used for inducing pathological changes in different organs while taurine was given to investigate the possible protective effects on liver tissue after DEN treatment.The results showed elevation in serum AST, ALT, ALP, urea, creatinine, cholesterol and triglycerides in DEN group. On the other hand, estimation of sex hormones exhibited marked decrease in testosterone and significant increase in estradiol levels in DEN group as compared to control and taurine groups.Pathological examination of rat liver showed that DEN induced peri portal inflammatory cellular infiltrate, piece meal necrosis and necro inflammatory activity as well as the appearance of areas of haemorrhage and ballooning in hepatocytes. Moreover, moderate to high expression of V EGF in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes and sinusoidal cells were clearly observed while in control and taurine groups, normal architecture of hepatic tissue of rats was found and normal distribution of V EGF as diffuse or focal granular cytoplasmic stain in rats liver were observed. The prophylactic group showed minimal and mild changes in the liver tissue with absence of necro inflammation and the V EGF expression

  6. Growth control of the cranial base. A study with experimentally bipedal male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit-Vis, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study the postnatal development of the skull, particularly that of the cranial base, was studied in experimentally bipedal male rats, up to the age of 46 weeks. A total of 81 bipedal rats and a control group of 90 animals were studied. It was found that, as compared with control rats, the bipedal rats had a definitely more spherical skull. This was the result of an increased height and a stronger dorsal flexion of the anterior cranial base. As to the chondrocranial elements, the basi-occipital bone reached, on the average, the same length in bipedal rats as in controls. However, the basisphenoid bone was significantly shorter. Arguments are given to relate the latter phenomenon to the altered shape of the neurocranium. The conclusion is drawn that, in this experimental approach, chondrocranial growth at the intersphenoidal synchondrosis is controlled not only by intrinsic genetic factors but also by local epigenetic and/or environmental factors.

  7. Effect Of Extensive Use Of Garlic In Feed On Normal And Irradiated Stressed Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KASSAB, F.M.A.; ABDEL-KHALEK, L.G.; KAMAL, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Fifty mature male albino rats were used in the present study to evaluate the effect of using crude garlic for one month on general heath condition and to compare between garlic intakes pre and post-irradiated stressed rats.Fresh minced cloves (8-10) of garlic were added to the rat diet twice per day for 30 days in garlic group and for 7 and 15 days prior to and after 4 Gy irradiation in pre and post-irradiated garlic groups, respectively. The results denoted that the extensive use of garlic in food improved the general condition in non-stressed rats while in irradiated stressed rats, the immediate intake of garlic after radiation was more efficient in ameliorating the undesirable radiation effects, where some biochemical and hematological parameters were examined in pre and post-garlic intake such as Hb, RBCs, platelets, T 3 , testosterone and insulin.

  8. Influence of hesperidin and vitamin C on glycemic parameters, lipid profile, and DNA damage in rats treated with sucrose overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA I.R. FRANKE

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We evaluated the influence of hesperidin and vitamin C (VitC on glycemic parameters, lipid profile, and DNA damage in male Wistar rats treated with sucrose overload. Rats were divided into six experimental groups: I-water control; II-sucrose control; III-hesperidin control; IV-VitC control; V-co-treatment of sucrose plus hesperidin; VI-co-treatment of sucrose plus VitC. We measured the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c, fasting glucose, and glycated hemoglobin (A1C. DNA damage was evaluated in blood and brain cells using the comet assay and the micronucleus test was used to evaluate chromosomal damages in the rat bone marrow. Co-treatment with VitC, but not with hesperidin, normalized the serum glucose. No effect of co-treatments was observed on A1C. The co-treatment with VitC or hesperidin did not influence the lipid profile (p>0.05. Rats co-treated with hesperidin had a significantly lower DNA damage level in blood (p0.05. Hesperidin and VitC showed different effects on sucrose and DNA damage levels. While VitC lowered the serum glucose, hesperidin reduced the DNA damage.

  9. Long-term effects of x-ray irradiation on reproductive function in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, S.V.; Demchenko, V.N.; Chajkovskaya, L.V.; Reznikov, A.G.

    1994-01-01

    Reproductive function in male rats was studied in 1, 3 and 6 months after x-ray irradiation at doses of 2 and 3 Gy. It was been established that long-term effects of irradiation at a dose of 3 Gy are manifested through decrease in spermatozoa content in the epididymis and reduction of nucleie acid and protein content in the testes. Fertility of male rats under study significantly lowered shortly after irradiation and full recovery of fecundating ability was observed 6 months later. The effect of irradiation with a dose of 2 Gy was less pronounced

  10. The effect of food restriction on learning and memory of male Wistar rats: A behavioral analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Vaez Mahdavi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Social inequality may have a significant negative effect on health. There are some evidences that social inequality and stressful conditions could lead to development and progression of various disorders. On the other hand, the results of some research studies have shown that reducing the consumed calorie could prolong the lifetime. In addition, limiting the consumed calorie could produce beneficial changes in the level of some hormones including blood insulin and may reduce body temperature. Meanwhile, food restriction could reduce genetic damage and may have protective effect against external toxins. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of food restriction on learning and memory of male rats using passive avoidance and Y-maze tests. Methods: For this purpose, male Wistar rats (n = 48 were divided into control, 3 experimental, and two negative and positive control groups. Control group received normal rat regimen for 6 weeks. The group with full restriction and non-isolated received 1/3 of the food regimen. The group with full restriction and isolation received 1/3 of the food regimen. The experimental group with two-weeks food restriction and non-isolated received 1/3 of the food regimen only for two weeks. Streptozotocin-diabetic rats with blood glucose higher than 250 mg/dl was considered as negative and positive control received vitamin E (10 mg/kg/day i.p. as an antioxidant. For evaluation of learning and memory, initial and step-through latencies and alternation behavior were analyzed using passive avoidance and Y-maze tests. Results: Regarding initial latency, there was a reduction in diabetic, vitamin-E treated, and group with 2-weeks food restriction and there was an increase in groups with full restriction and isolated and with full restriction as compared to control. Meanwhile, there were no significant differences among the groups, indicating that there were no changes in behavior

  11. SOCIAL PLAY BEHAVIOR IS ALTERED IN THE MALE RAT DUE TO PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO THE ANTIANDROGEN VINCLOZOLIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract:During mammalian sexual differentiation, androgens, and specifically, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, are critical for the organization of the male phenotype. In rats, social play behavior is organized by androgens during the neonatal period. Males play more ...

  12. Effect of gasoline fumes on reproductive function in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owagboriaye, Folarin O; Dedeke, Gabriel A; Ashidi, Joseph S; Aladesida, Adeyinka A; Olooto, Wasiu E

    2018-02-01

    The increase in the frequency of exposure to gasoline fumes and the growing incidence of infertility among humans has been a major concern and subject of discussion over the years in Nigeria. We therefore present the reproductive effect of gasoline fumes on inhalation exposure in 40 male albino rats. The rats were randomized into five experimental treatments (T) with eight rats per treatment. T1 (control) was exposed to distilled water while T2, T3, T4, and T5 were exposed to gasoline fumes in exposure chambers for 1, 3, 5, and 9 h daily respectively for 12 weeks. Serum level of testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, oxidative stress markers in the testicular tissue, epididymal sperm health assessment, and testicular histopathology of the rats were used as a diagnostic marker of reproductive dysfunction. Significant (p percentage motility in the exposed rats were observed. Significant (p < 0.05) increased in abnormal sperm cells characterized by damaged head, bent tail, damaged tail, and without head were also observed in the exposed rats. Histopathologically, severe degenerative testicular architectural lesions characterized by alterations in all the generations of sperm cells and reduction of interstitial cells were seen in the exposed rats. Gasoline fume is thus said to interfere with spermatogenesis and impair fertility in male gonad.

  13. Relationship of adipocyte size to hyperphagia in developing male obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasselli, J R; Fiene, J A; Maggio, C A

    1992-01-01

    In growing male obese Zucker rats, hyperphagia reaches a maximum or "breakpoint" and declines at an earlier age with high fat than with chow-type diets. A serial adipose tissue biopsy technique was used to correlate changes of retroperitoneal adipocyte size and feeding behavior in 5- to 7-wk-old male lean and obese rats fed laboratory chow or a 35% fat diet until 30 wk of age. Although chow-fed groups had significantly greater cumulative intake, fat-fed groups had significantly greater body weight gain, retroperitoneal depot weight, and adipocyte number. Mean adipocyte size increased continuously in chow-fed groups but decreased over weeks 20-30 in fat-fed groups, reflecting increased adipocyte number. In fat-fed obese rats, hyperphagia reached a breakpoint at 11 wk and disappeared by 13 wk. In chow-fed obese rats, hyperphagia reached a breakpoint at 15-16 wk and disappeared by 19 wk. Biopsy samples revealed that adipocyte size of fat-fed obese rats was already close to maximal at 10 wk (1.12 micrograms lipid), while that of chow-fed obese rats only approached maximal at 20 wk (0.81 microgram lipid). At these time points, lipoprotein lipase activity paralleled adipocyte size. These data indicate that the duration of the growing obese rat's hyperphagia coincides with adipocyte filling and suggest the existence of feeding stimulatory and inhibitory signals from adipose tissue.

  14. The Protective Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Ginger) on Ethanol-Induced Reproductive Toxicity in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Abolfazl; Nasiri, Khadijeh; Heydari, Mojtaba; Mosavat, Seyed Hamdollah; Iraji, Aida

    2017-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the prophylactic effect of ginger extract on ethanol-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats. Twenty-eight adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups and treated daily for 28 days as follows: control, control-ginger (1 g/kg of body weight [BW]/day by gavage), ethanol group (ethanol 4 g/kg of BW/day by gavage), and ginger-ethanol group. At the end of the experiment, all the rats were sacrificed and their testes were removed and used for measurement of the total homocysteine (tHcy), trace elements, antioxidant enzymes activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA). The results in the ethanol group indicate that ethanol decreased antioxidant enzymes activity and increased MDA and tHcy compared with the control groups ( P < .05). In ginger-ethanol group, ginger improved antioxidant enzymes activity and reduced tHcy and MDA compared to ethanol group ( P < .05). It can be concluded that ginger protects the ethanol-induced testicular damage and improves the hormonal levels, trace elements, antioxidant enzymes activity, and decreases tHcy and MDA.

  15. Improvement of sperm density in neem-oil induced infertile male albino rats by Ipomoea digitata Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanashyam Keshav Mahajan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Investigation has been carried out to validate folkloric claim of the potential of ID based on reproductive health status in experimentally induced male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Emulsified neem oil (ENO fed albino rats were orally administered root powder of ID suspended in water for the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 40 days. Change in organ weight, sperm density and motility, serum hormonal levels and histomorphological changes were evaluated. Results: Significant increase in the sperm density and the sperm motility (P< 0.01 along with increase in the testis, and epididymes weight in neem-oil induced infertile rats treated with ID at both dose levels. This effect is vis- and agrave;-vis to serum hormonal levels. Presence of beta-sitosterol in the root of ID likely to enhance the process of spermatogenesis as it is evident from histomorphological studies. Conclusion: Results of the present investigation reveal that ID is a good candidate for the management of male infertility. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 125-128

  16. Effect of Saponins of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth bark on the reproductive system of male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R S; Chaudhary, Rakesh; Yadav, Rajesh K; Verma, Suresh K; Dobhal, M P

    2005-01-04

    Oral administration of saponins isolated from Albizia lebbeck bark at the dose level of 50 mg/kg/b.w. per day for 60 days to male rats brought about a significant decrease in the weights of testes, epididymides, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate. The production of round spermatid was reduced by 73.04% in Albizia lebbeck treated rats. The population of preleptotene spermatocytes and spermatogonia were reduced by 65.07% and 47.48% and secondary spermatocytes by 73.41%, respectively. Cross sectional surface area of Sertoli cells as well as the cell counts were found to be depleted significantly. Leydig cell nuclear area and number of mature Leydig cells were decreased by 57.47% and 54.42%, respectively. Sperm motility as well as sperm density were reduced significantly. Albizia lebbeck reduced the fertility of male rats by 100%. There were no significant changes in RBC and WBC count, haemoglobin, haematocrit and glucose in the blood and cholesterol, protein, triglyceride and phospholipid in the serum. The protein, glycogen and cholesterol contents of the testes, fructose in the seminal vesicle and protein in epididymides were significantly decreased. Histoarchitecture of the testes showed vacuolization at primary spermatocytes stage. Highly reduced seminiferous tubular diameter and increased intertubular space were also observed when compared to controls.

  17. Male rats that differ in novelty exploration demonstrate distinct patterns of sexual behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jennifer A.; Clinton, Sarah M.; Perry, Adam N.; Akil, Huda; Becker, Jill B.

    2014-01-01

    High versus low novelty exploration predicts a variety of behavioral differences. For example, rats selectively-bred for high novelty exploration (bred High Responders, bHR) exhibit exaggerated aggression, impulsivity, and proclivity to addictive behaviors compared to low novelty-reactive rats (bred Low Responders, bLRs), which are characterized by a high anxiety/depressive-like phenotype. Since bHR/bLR rats exhibit differences in dopaminergic circuitry and differential response to rewarding stimuli (i.e., psychostimulants, food), the present study examined whether they also differ in another key hedonic behavior – sex. Thus, adult bHR/bLR males were given five 30-min opportunities to engage in sexual activity with a receptive female. Sexual behavior and motivation were examined and compared between the groups. The bHR/bLR phenotype affected both sexual motivation and behavior, with bLR males demonstrating reduced motivation for sex compared with bHR males (i.e., fewer animals copulated, longer latency to engage in sex). The bHR males required more intromissions at a faster pace per ejaculation than did bLR males. Thus, neurobiological differences that affect motivation for drugs of abuse, aggression, and impulsivity in rats also affect sexual motivation and performance. PMID:23398441

  18. Effects of diuron on male rat reproductive organs: a developmental and postnatal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Glaura S A; Favareto, Ana Paula A; Fernandez, Carla D B; Bellentani, Fernanda F; Arena, Arielle C; Grassi, Tony F; Kempinas, Wilma G; Barbisan, Luís F

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to determine whether developmental exposure (perinatal and juvenile) to the herbicide diuron exerted adverse effects on adult rat male reproductive system. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received basal diet or diet containing diuron at 500 or 750 ppm from gestational day 12 (GD 12) until the end of lactation period (postnatal day 21, PND 21). After weaning male offspring received basal diet or diet containing diuron until PND 42 (peripubertal age). At PND 90, adult male rats from each experimental group were anesthetized and euthanized for evaluation of body and reproductive organ weights, sperm parameters, plasma testosterone levels, and testicular and epididymal histopathology. Male offspring exposed to diuron at 750 ppm displayed reduced body weight at PND 10, 21, 42, and 90 compared to controls. At PND 90, diuron treatment did not induce significant change in daily sperm production, sperm morphology and motility, and testosterone levels compared to controls. In conclusion, diuron at 750 ppm induced male offspring toxicity but these alterations were not permanent, as evidenced by absence of reproductive-system alterations in adult Sprague Dawley rats.

  19. Interaction of Zinc Chloride with an Aromatase Inhibitor (Letrozole on Anxiety in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Charghan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Aromatase is an enzyme converts androstenedione and testosterone to estrone and estradiol, respectively. According to the role of testosterone and zinc in reducing anxiety and the relation between androgenic system function and zinc supplementations, in this research, the effect of zinc chloride injection was analysed in rats which aromatase enzyme was inhibited by aromatase inhibitor (letrozole. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats (weighing 225±25 g were used. Animals were divided into 12 groups and based on their weight, aromatase inhibitor (letrozole was injected (subcutaneously, and 30 minutes later, ZnCl2 or its solvent (saline was injected intra-peritoneal. Control group was received both solvents (DMSO and saline respectively. Anxiety levels were tested in the elevated plus maze 30 minutes after the last injection, and thereafter, open field was used for measurement of the locomotors activity of animals. Results: The results showed a significant decrease in the percentage of time spent in open arms in letrozole (1.25 mg/kg treated group as compared to that of solvent group. The locomotors activity significantly decreased between letrozole (1.25 mg/kg with the control group. The combined groups received letrozole (2.5 mg/kg and different amounts of zinc chloride (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg, significantly reduced (p<0.05 the percentage of time spent in the open arm, comparing to the control group. Groups that received the combination of zinc chloride (2.5 mg/kg and different amounts of letrozole (1.25, 5, 10 mg/kg, showed no significant difference in the percentage of entry and time spent in the open arms. Conclusion: Totally, the present study suggests that letrozole alone increased anxiety and decreased locomotors activity and could interfere with anxiolytic effect of ZnCl2 as well.

  20. Inhibition of Estradiol Synthesis Impairs Fear Extinction in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Bronwyn M.; Milad, Mohammed R.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging research has demonstrated that the sex hormone estradiol regulates fear extinction in female rodents and women. Estradiol may also regulate fear extinction in males, given its role in synaptic plasticity in both sexes. Here we report that inhibition of estradiol synthesis during extinction training, via the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole,…

  1. Antiaggressive activity of central oxytocin in male rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calcagnoli, F.; de Boer, S.F.; Althaus, M.; den Boer, J.A.; Koolhaas, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    A substantial body of research suggests that the neuropeptide oxytocin promotes social affiliative behaviors in a wide range of animals including humans. However, its antiaggressive action has not been unequivocally demonstrated in male laboratory rodents. Our primary goal was to examine the

  2. Ceftriaxone attenuates ethanol drinking and restores extracellular glutamate concentration through normalization of GLT-1 in nucleus accumbens of male alcohol-preferring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sujan C; Yamamoto, Bryan K; Hristov, Alexandar M; Sari, Youssef

    2015-10-01

    Alteration of glutamatergic-neurotransmission is a hallmark of alcohol dependence. We have previously reported that chronic ethanol-drinking downregulated glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) in nucleus accumbens (NAc) in male P rats in a manner that was reversed by ceftriaxone treatment. However, the effect of ceftriaxone on extracellular glutamate concentrations in NAc after chronic ethanol-drinking has not yet been studied. In the present study, male P rats were treated with ceftriaxone (100 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for five consecutive days following five-weeks of free choice ethanol (15% and 30%) drinking. In vivo microdialysis was performed to measure the extracellular glutamate concentrations in NAc and the effect of blockade of GLT-1 with dihydrokainic acid (DHK) on extracellular glutamate in NAc of ceftriaxone-treated rats was determined. Ceftriaxone treatment attenuated ethanol intake as well as ethanol preference. Extracellular glutamate was significantly higher in NAc after five-weeks of ethanol drinking in saline-treated compared to water control rats. Ceftriaxone treatment blocked the increase extracellular glutamate produced by ethanol intake. Blockade of GLT-1 by DHK reversed the effects of ceftriaxone on glutamate and implicated the role of GLT-1 in the normalization of extracellular glutamate by ceftriaxone. In addition, GLT-1 protein was decreased in ethanol exposed animals and ceftriaxone treatment reversed this deficit. Ceftriaxone treatment also increased glutamine synthetase activity in NAc but not in PFC as compared to ethanol drinking saline-treated rats. Our present study demonstrates that ceftriaxone treatment prevents ethanol drinking in part through normalization of extracellular glutamate concentrations in NAc of male P rats via GLT-1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Antimutagenic Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Aqueous Extract on Rats Treated with Monosodium Glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheller, Ana Carla Guidini Valentini; Kerkhoff, Jacqueline; Vieira Júnior, Gerardo Magela; de Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Sugui, Marina Mariko

    2017-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant of the Malvaceae family, commonly known as roselle. H. sabdariffa is known to contain antioxidant, cholesterol-lowering, antiobesity, insulin resistance reduction, antihypertensive, and skin cancer chemopreventive properties. This study evaluated the effects of H. sabdariffa aqueous extract against cyclophosphamide (CPA, 25 mg/Kg) induced damage to DNA in male Wistar rats by micronucleus test. Samples of H. sabdariffa calyx were obtained in the municipality of Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The aqueous extract was prepared by infusion and each animal received a daily dose of 400 mg/Kg by gavage for 15 consecutive days of treatment. The presence of anthocyanins was confirmed by ferric chloride test and phenolic compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography, with emphasis on the identification of rutin. The animals were sacrificed by deepening of anaesthesia to obtain bone marrow and determination of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. The group treated with the aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa revealed a 91% reduction in micronucleus frequency when compared with the positive control group. Under the conditions tested, H. sabdariffa L. presented a protective effect to CPA-induced damage to DNA of the treated animals, and it is a potential candidate as a chemopreventive agent against carcinogenesis.

  4. Antimutagenic Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Aqueous Extract on Rats Treated with Monosodium Glutamate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhoff, Jacqueline; Vieira Júnior, Gerardo Magela; de Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Sugui, Marina Mariko

    2017-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant of the Malvaceae family, commonly known as roselle. H. sabdariffa is known to contain antioxidant, cholesterol-lowering, antiobesity, insulin resistance reduction, antihypertensive, and skin cancer chemopreventive properties. This study evaluated the effects of H. sabdariffa aqueous extract against cyclophosphamide (CPA, 25 mg/Kg) induced damage to DNA in male Wistar rats by micronucleus test. Samples of H. sabdariffa calyx were obtained in the municipality of Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The aqueous extract was prepared by infusion and each animal received a daily dose of 400 mg/Kg by gavage for 15 consecutive days of treatment. The presence of anthocyanins was confirmed by ferric chloride test and phenolic compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography, with emphasis on the identification of rutin. The animals were sacrificed by deepening of anaesthesia to obtain bone marrow and determination of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. The group treated with the aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa revealed a 91% reduction in micronucleus frequency when compared with the positive control group. Under the conditions tested, H. sabdariffa L. presented a protective effect to CPA-induced damage to DNA of the treated animals, and it is a potential candidate as a chemopreventive agent against carcinogenesis. PMID:28197528

  5. Antimutagenic Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Aqueous Extract on Rats Treated with Monosodium Glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Guidini Valentini Gheller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant of the Malvaceae family, commonly known as roselle. H. sabdariffa is known to contain antioxidant, cholesterol-lowering, antiobesity, insulin resistance reduction, antihypertensive, and skin cancer chemopreventive properties. This study evaluated the effects of H. sabdariffa aqueous extract against cyclophosphamide (CPA, 25 mg/Kg induced damage to DNA in male Wistar rats by micronucleus test. Samples of H. sabdariffa calyx were obtained in the municipality of Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The aqueous extract was prepared by infusion and each animal received a daily dose of 400 mg/Kg by gavage for 15 consecutive days of treatment. The presence of anthocyanins was confirmed by ferric chloride test and phenolic compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography, with emphasis on the identification of rutin. The animals were sacrificed by deepening of anaesthesia to obtain bone marrow and determination of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. The group treated with the aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa revealed a 91% reduction in micronucleus frequency when compared with the positive control group. Under the conditions tested, H. sabdariffa L. presented a protective effect to CPA-induced damage to DNA of the treated animals, and it is a potential candidate as a chemopreventive agent against carcinogenesis.

  6. Male reproductive system parameters in a two-generation reproduction study of ammonium perfluorooctanoate in rats and human relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Raymond G; Kennedy, Gerald L; Olsen, Geary W; Butenhoff, John L

    2010-04-30

    Ammonium perfluorooctanoate (ammonium PFOA) is an industrial surfactant that has been used primarily as a processing aid in the manufacture of fluoropolymers. The environmental and metabolic stability of PFOA together with its presence in human blood and long elimination half-life have led to extensive toxicological studies in laboratory animals. Two recent publications based on observations from the Danish general population have reported: (1) a negative association between serum concentrations of PFOA in young adult males and their sperm counts and (2) a positive association among women with time to pregnancy. A two-generation reproduction study in rats was previously published (2004) in which no effects on functional reproduction were observed at doses up to 30mg ammonium PFOA/kg body weight. The article contained the simple statement: "In males, fertility was normal as were all sperm parameters". In order to place the recent human epidemiological data in perspective, herein we provide the detailed male reproductive parameters from that study, including sperm quality and testicular histopathology. Sperm parameters in rats from the two-generation study in all ammonium PFOA treatment groups were unaffected by treatment with ammonium PFOA. These observations reflected the normal fertility observations in these males. No evidence of altered testicular and sperm structure and function was observed in ammonium PFOA-treated rats whose mean group serum PFOA concentrations ranged up to approximately 50,000ng/mL. Given that median serum PFOA in the Danish cohorts was approximately 5ng/mL, it seems unlikely that concentrations observed in the general population, including those recently reported in Danish general population, could be associated causally with a real decrement in sperm number and quality.

  7. Utilization of Basil Extract as a Radioprotector in Male Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farag, M. F.S. [Food Irradiation Research Dep. National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-01-15

    Man is exposed to natural radiations from cosmic or terrestrial origins. Furthermore, it is well known that the gamma irradiation-induced biochemical alteration depends mostly on oxidative stress. Basil or sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) is known to have numerous pharmacological activities. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the radioprotective activity of basil in albino rats. The effect of basil aqueous extract (BAE) was evaluated on hepatic marker enzymes, sex hormones, lipid profile and antioxidant status. The results showed that - rays caused a significant increase in serum level of alanine and aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (ALT, AST, ALP and GT), cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and VLDL-C) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). A significant decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in serum was observed, compared with control group. Moreover, - rays induced a significant drop in the serum sex hormones levels testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). The BAE administered orally to rats has significantly modulated all the radiation-induced biochemical alterations. These findings showed that basil would exert a radioprotective properties.

  8. Utilization of Basil Extract as a Radioprotector in Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.F.S.

    2013-01-01

    Man is exposed to natural radiations from cosmic or terrestrial origins. Furthermore, it is well known that the gamma irradiation-induced biochemical alteration depends mostly on oxidative stress. Basil or sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) is known to have numerous pharmacological activities. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the radioprotective activity of basil in albino rats. The effect of basil aqueous extract (BAE) was evaluated on hepatic marker enzymes, sex hormones, lipid profile and antioxidant status. The results showed that - rays caused a significant increase in serum level of alanine and aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (ALT, AST, ALP and GT), cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and VLDL-C) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). A significant decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in serum was observed, compared with control group. Moreover, - rays induced a significant drop in the serum sex hormones levels testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). The BAE administered orally to rats has significantly modulated all the radiation-induced biochemical alterations. These findings showed that basil would exert a radioprotective properties.

  9. Assessment of testicular corticosterone biosynthesis in adult male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki Maeda

    Full Text Available Corticosterone is synthesized in the adrenal glands and is circulated throughout the body to perform regulatory functions in various tissues. The testis is known to synthesize and secrete testosterone and other androgens. We developed an accurate method to measure steroid content using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. In the present study, significant levels of the precursor compounds of testosterone and corticosterone synthesis could be detected in rat testis using this method. After adrenalectomy, corticosterone remained in the blood and testicular tissue at approximately 1% of the amount present in the control testis. When the excised testicular tissue was washed and incubated with NADH, NADPH and progesterone, not only testosterone and its precursors but also 11-deoxycorticosterone and corticosterone were produced; the levels of 11-deoxycorticosterone and corticosterone increased with incubation time. The production rate of 11-deoxycorticosterone from progesterone was estimated to be approximately 1/20 that of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and the corticosterone level was approximately 1/10 that of testosterone. These ratios coincided with those in the testicular tissue of the adrenalectomized rats, indicating that corticosterone was synthesized in the testis and not in the blood. A primary finding of this study was that corticosterone and testosterone were synthesized in a 1/10-20 ratio in the testis. It is concluded that corticosterone, which has various functions, such as the regulation of glycolysis and mediating spermatogenesis, is produced locally in the testis and that this the local production is convenient and functional to respond to local needs.

  10. Stimulation of the medial amygdala enhances medial preoptic dopamine release: implications for male rat sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, J M; Hull, E M

    2001-11-02

    Increased dopamine (DA) in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) facilitates male sexual behavior. A major source of innervation to the MPOA is the medial amygdala (MeA). We now report that chemical stimulation of the MeA enhanced levels of extracellular MPOA DA in anesthetized male rats. These results suggest that DA activity in the MPOA can be regulated by input from the MeA to the MPOA.

  11. Oxytocin Differentially Affects Sucrose Taking and Seeking in Male and Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Luyi; Ghee, Shannon M.; See, Ronald E.; Reichel, Carmela M.

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin has a modulatory role in natural and drug reward processes. While the role of oxytocin in pair bonding and reproduction has been extensively studied, sex differences in conditioned and unconditioned behavioral responses to oxytocin treatment have not been fully characterized. Here, we determined whether male and female rats would show similar dose response curves in response to acute oxytocin on measures of locomotor activity, sucrose seeking, and sucrose intake. Male and freely cycl...

  12. A comparative study of the anorectic and behavioral effects of fenproporex on male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, R; Carlini, E A

    1996-08-01

    The anorectic and behavioral effects of fenproporex (Fenp, 10 mg/kg, ip) and methamphetamine (Met, 2.5 mg/kg, ip), a prototypical example of an amphetamine-like drug, were studied in male and female Wistar rats (5 and 3 months of age, respectively, at the beginning of the experiments) after acute (immediately after a single dose) or chronic treatment (after 60 days of administration). For the evaluation of the experimental parameters six groups of eight rats each were utilized for food intake and stereotyped behavior and six groups of nine rats each for body weight and motor activity. Similar anorectic effects (decreased food intake in grams: saline (Sal): 12.8 +/- 2.5, Met: 4.7 +/- 4.0, and Fenp: 4.4 +/- 20; decreased weight gain: Sal: 38 +/- 10, Met: 25 +/- 1.0, and Fenp: 27 +/- 3.0) were induced by both drugs in male rats. Female rats, however, required larger doses (20 mg/kg Fenp and 5.0 mg/kg Met) for a complete blockade of food intake. The behavioral tests were carried out 30, 60, 120, 180 and 300 min after drug administration and on day 1 and day 60 immediately after the treatment, for stereotypy and motor activity, respectively (male rats: Met: 3.8 +/- 0.3, Fenp: 6.0 +/- 0.9, and female rats: Met: 15.4 +/- 1.9, Fenp: 9.7 +/- 1.3). Though stereotyped behavior such as sniffing, continuous licking, and false bites was observed in all animals, this was more evident and prolonged in female rats. Both drugs also increased motor activity (male rats, acute treatment: Met: 608 +/- 419, Fenp: 677 +/- 354; chronic treatment: Met: 701 +/- 423, Fenp: 908 +/- 479; female rats, acute treatment: Met: 817 +/- 350, Fenp: 1177 +/- 282; chronic treatment: Met: 623 +/- 274, Fenp: 1511 +/- 573) with female rats once again showing greater sensitivity both after acute and chronic treatment. Our data indicate that fenproporex, like methamphetamine, has a stimulating effect on the central nervous system, indicating an action on the dopaminergic systems. These data further suggest

  13. Testosterone potentiates the hypoxic ventilatory response of adult male rats subjected to neonatal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Sébastien; Gulemetova, Roumiana; Joseph, Vincent; Kinkead, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Neonatal stress disrupts development of homeostatic systems. During adulthood, male rats subjected to neonatal maternal separation (NMS) are hypertensive and show a larger hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR), with greater respiratory instability during sleep. Neonatal stress also affects sex hormone secretion; hypoxia increases circulating testosterone of NMS (but not control) male rats. Given that these effects of NMS are not observed in females, we tested the hypothesis that testosterone elevation is necessary for the stress-related increase of the HVR in adult male rats. Pups subjected to NMS were placed in an incubator for 3 h per day from postnatal day 3 to 12. Control pups remained undisturbed. Rats were reared until adulthood, and the HVR was measured by plethysmography (fractional inspired O2 = 0.12, for 20 min). We used gonadectomy to evaluate the effects of reducing testosterone on the HVR. Gonadectomy had no effect on the HVR of control animals but reduced that of NMS animals below control levels. Immunohistochemistry was used to quantify androgen receptors in brainstem areas involved in the HVR. Androgen receptor expression was generally greater in NMS rats than in control rats; the most significant increase was noted in the caudal region of the nucleus tractus solitarii. We conclude that the abnormal regulation of testosterone is important in stress-related augmentation of the HVR. The greater number of androgen receptors within the brainstem may explain why NMS rats are more sensitive to testosterone withdrawal. Based on the similarities of the cardiorespiratory phenotype of NMS rats and patients suffering from sleep-disordered breathing, these results provide new insight into its pathophysiology, especially sex-based differences in its prevalence. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  14. Effect of deltamethrin on transmission of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and thyroid hormones in adult male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-kader, S.M.; Abdel-Rahman, M.

    2005-01-01

    The oral administration of 1/5 LD 5 0 of deltamethrin for 15 days produced an increase in GABA content and a decrease in Cl - ions concentration in all tested brain areas (cerebellum, pons + medulla oblongata, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of adult male albino rats, almost at most time intervals. Deltamethrin also resulted in a significant decrease in serum TSH and increase in T 3 and T 4 levels in the treated rats. From the present results, it was found that deltamethrin decreased the passage of Cl - ions in the cells which might be, in part, due to a decrease of the transmission of GABA and an increase of the circulating thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine and thyroxine). Accordingly, deltamethrin may act as GABA antagonist and may act on the hypothalamus pituitary thyroid axis. In conclusion the elevation of thyroid hormones as well as the decrease in both CL - ions and GABA transmission which could be all together responsible for the impairment of motor activity, hyper excitability and seizure that occurred in rats treated with the pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin

  15. Effect of aluminum chloride on blood glucose level and lipid profile in normal, diabetic and treated diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konda, Venugopala Rao; Eerike, Madhavi; Chary, R Prasanth; Arunachalam, Ruckmani; Yeddula, Venkata Ramana; Meti, Vinayak; Devi, T Sobita

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to assess evaluate the effects of aluminum chloride (AlCl 3 ) on blood glucose and lipid levels in normal, diabetic, and glibenclamide-treated diabetic rats. Forty-two male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups of six each. Group I was normal control, Groups II and III were given AlCl 3 50 and 100 mg/kg, and Group IV to VII were administered with streptozotocin (STZ) (60 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. Group IV was diabetic control, Group V in addition was given AlCl 3 50 mg/kg, Group VI glibenclamide (10 mg/kg), and Group VII glibenclamide and AlCl 3 (50 mg/kg) per-oral daily for 28 days. Blood glucose and lipid levels were estimated at base line, after diabetes was set in and on the last day of study. Histopathological changes in pancreas, liver, and kidney were studied. No significant change was observed in blood glucose and lipid levels in Group I. Group II and III showed a dose-dependent significant increase in blood glucose was observed. Group V had a reduction in blood glucose but not to the nondiabetic level. Group VI had significant reduction in blood sugar. In Group VII, treated with glibenclamide and AlCl 3 , there was no significant change in blood glucose reduction compared to Group VI. Lipid levels were reduced in groups treated with AlCl 3 and glibenclamide and not in other groups. Gross tissue damage was seen in pancreas in STZ group and in liver and kidney in AlCl 3 groups. AlCl 3 administration in Wistar rats caused in significant hyperglycemia in normal rats, hypoglycemia in diabetic rats, and did not influenced hypoglycemic effect of glibenclamide and in addition, resulted in reduction in lipid levels.

  16. Contribution to the study of calcium metabolism in rats treated with tetracycline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, M.R.B.

    1980-01-01

    The tetracycline is one of the most used antibiotics. The interferences in the rats calcium metabolism were studied. Sixteen rats, R dutch type were treated with a 1 mg/100 g of corporal weight, of tetracycline twice a day, for 23 days. In the twentieth day of the treatment, a dose of Calcium 45 was administrated to verify thhe decay curve of the radionuclide plasmatic concentration. A control group of 16 rats was studied to compare the results. A significative decrease of the calcemy and of bone reabsorption in the group treated with tetracycline were observed. (L.M.J.)

  17. Effect of olive leaf alcoholic extract on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammadreza nasirzade

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R is present at various degrees in kidney transplants. Several studies suggest that renal ischemia reperfusion (RIR can induce acute kidney injury.  Liver diseases and neurological disorders related to kidney injury is a common clinical problem. Olive leaf is a significant source of bioactive phenolic compounds. They have better antioxidant capacity, anti-inflammatory and radical scavenging. In this study 50 male rats were allocated randomly into 5 groups: control (intact animals, group-1(I/R 60min+olive leaf extract, group-2 (I/R 60min, group-3(I/R 120min+olive leaf extractand group-4(I/R 120min.The animals  received 100 mg/kg olive leaf extract in0.5 ml drinking water using gavage for 28 days. Other animals received 0.5 ml normal saline by gavages. At the end of the treatment, the level of antioxidant enzymes including TAC, MDA, SOD and GPX were determined in renal tissue. Administration of olive leaf extract can significantly increase activity of TAC, GPX and SOD in group1and 3compared with group2and4. Also, MDA level in renal tissue of treated groups was significantly lower than ischemia-reperfusion groups (p

  18. Pair housing differentially affects motivation to self-administer cocaine in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenbroek, Christel; Perry, Adam N; Becker, Jill B

    2013-09-01

    Female rats exhibit greater intake and motivation to self-administer cocaine. In females but not males, isolation by itself is a stressor, which could lead to increased drug intake. Therefore, we hypothesized that social housing would buffer against stress and reduce the motivation to self-administer cocaine primarily in females. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were housed individually or in same-sex pairs. The individually housed rats and one of each pair were allowed to self-administer (SA) a low dose of cocaine (0.2 mg/kg/inf) on a fixed ratio (FR1) schedule for one week. Motivation for cocaine SA was measured for an additional 2 weeks on a progressive ratio schedule. Isolated females had greater cocaine-intake on the FR1 schedule and greater motivation to take cocaine than males. Pair-housing in females, but not males, attenuated the motivation to take cocaine. Isolated females, but not males, showed escalation of their motivation to take cocaine, which was attenuated by pair housing of females. Concluding, the motivation to take cocaine escalates in females but not males, and pair-housing of females attenuates this escalation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of gestational and chronic atrazine exposure on motor behaviors and striatal dopamine in male Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, Jennifer L.; Lansdell, Theresa A.; Lookingland, Keith J.; Baker, Lisa E.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the effects of environmentally relevant gestational followed by continued chronic exposure to the herbicide, atrazine, on motor function, cognition, and neurochemical indices of nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) activity in male rats. Dams were treated with 100 μg/kg atrazine, 10 mg/kg atrazine, or vehicle on gestational day 1 through postnatal day 21. Upon weaning, male offspring continued daily vehicle or atrazine gavage treatments for an additional six months. Subjects were tested in a series of behavioral assays, and 24 h after the last treatment, tissue samples from the striatum were analyzed for DA and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). At 10 mg/kg, this herbicide was found to produce modest disruptions in motor functioning, and at both dose levels it significantly lowered striatal DA and DOPAC concentrations. These results suggest that exposures to atrazine have the potential to disrupt nigrostriatal DA neurons and behaviors associated with motor functioning. - Highlights: • Male rats received gestational and chronic exposure to ATZ (10 mg/kg and 100 μg/kg). • ATZ altered locomotor activity and impaired motor coordination. • ATZ lowered striatal DA and DOPAC concentrations. • ATZ produced a potential anxiogenic effect. • ATZ did not impair performance in learning and memory assessments.

  20. The effects of gestational and chronic atrazine exposure on motor behaviors and striatal dopamine in male Sprague-Dawley rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Jennifer L., E-mail: Jennifer.l.walters@wmich.edu [Western Michigan University, Department of Psychology, 1903 W Michigan Ave, Kalamazoo, MI 49008-5439 (United States); Lansdell, Theresa A., E-mail: lansdel1@msu.edu [Michigan State University, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 1355 Bogue Street, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Lookingland, Keith J., E-mail: lookingl@msu.edu [Michigan State University, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 1355 Bogue Street, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Baker, Lisa E., E-mail: lisa.baker@wmich.edu [Western Michigan University, Department of Psychology, 1903 W Michigan Ave, Kalamazoo, MI 49008-5439 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to investigate the effects of environmentally relevant gestational followed by continued chronic exposure to the herbicide, atrazine, on motor function, cognition, and neurochemical indices of nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) activity in male rats. Dams were treated with 100 μg/kg atrazine, 10 mg/kg atrazine, or vehicle on gestational day 1 through postnatal day 21. Upon weaning, male offspring continued daily vehicle or atrazine gavage treatments for an additional six months. Subjects were tested in a series of behavioral assays, and 24 h after the last treatment, tissue samples from the striatum were analyzed for DA and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). At 10 mg/kg, this herbicide was found to produce modest disruptions in motor functioning, and at both dose levels it significantly lowered striatal DA and DOPAC concentrations. These results suggest that exposures to atrazine have the potential to disrupt nigrostriatal DA neurons and behaviors associated with motor functioning. - Highlights: • Male rats received gestational and chronic exposure to ATZ (10 mg/kg and 100 μg/kg). • ATZ altered locomotor activity and impaired motor coordination. • ATZ lowered striatal DA and DOPAC concentrations. • ATZ produced a potential anxiogenic effect. • ATZ did not impair performance in learning and memory assessments.

  1. Antioxidant Activities of Basella alba Aqueous Leave Extract In Blood, Pancreas, and Gonadal Tissues of Diabetic Male Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arokoyo, Dennis Seyi; Oyeyipo, Ibukun Peter; Du Plessis, Stefan Simon; Aboua, Yapo Guillaume

    2018-01-01

    Oxidative stress is frequently identified as a key element in the pathophysiology of many complications of diabetes mellitus, including reproductive complications. The antioxidant potential of medicinal plants have been suggested for therapeutic focus of diseases in recent reports. To investigate the effect of Basella alba (Ba) aqueous leave extract on diabetes-induced oxidative stress. Forty male Wistar rats (8-10 weeks) were randomly divided into four groups ( n = 10) and treated as follows; Control (C + Ns) and Diabetic (D + Ns) animals received oral normal saline 0.5 ml/100 g body weight daily, while Healthy Treatment (H + Ba) and Diabetic Treatment (D + Ba) rats were given Ba extract at an oral dose of 200 mg/kg body weight daily. Treatment was by gavage and lasted 4 weeks in all groups. Diabetes was induced in D + Ns and D + Ba rats by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg) and fasting blood sugar (FBS) recorded weekly in all rats afterwards. Animals were euthanized at the end of the experiment and blood samples, pancreas, testes, and epididymis were preserved for analysis of oxidative stress biomarkers. Oral administration of aqueous leave extract of Ba significantly ( P antioxidant power, but lower serum concentration of conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in D + Ba compared to D + Ns rats ( P antioxidant effects in the gonads by enhancing antioxidant parameters in circulating blood, but not necessarily in the gonadal tissues. Oral treatment of diabetic rats with aqueous leave extract of Basella alba exerts antioxidant effects in the gonads by enhancing antioxidant parameters in circulating blood, but not necessarily in the gonadal tissues. Abbreviations Used: AP - Antioxidant parameters, Ba - Basella alba , CAT - Catalase, CDs - Conjugated dienes, DM - Diabetes mellitus, FBS - Fasting blood sugar, FRAP - Ferric reducing antioxidant power, GSH - reduced glutathione, Ns - Normal saline, ORAC - oxygen radical

  2. Galanin-like peptide stimulates feeding and sexual behavior via dopaminergic fibers within the medial preoptic area of adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A; Madison, F N; Fraley, G S

    2009-03-01

    Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is located in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) of the hypothalamus and is known to regulate both food intake and sexual behaviors in adult male rats. We have previously demonstrated that ICV GALP administration elicits a significant fos response within the medial preoptic area (mPOA). GALP is known to stimulate both food intake and male-typical sex behavior, presumably by direct actions within the mPOA. Recent data from our and other labs have led us to suspect that GALP effects on sex behaviors are due to activation of incertohypothalamic dopaminergic neurons that terminate within the mPOA. To test the hypothesis that GALP activates mPOA dopaminergic systems, we utilized an immunolesion technique to eliminate dopaminergic fiber input to the mPOA via a dopamine transporter-specific toxin (DATSAP, n=8) and compared to control injections (SAP, n=8). All animals were sexually experienced adult male Long-Evans rats. DATSAP-treated male rats showed a significant (psexual behaviors compared to SAP controls. We found that elimination of dopaminergic fibers within the mPOA significantly (psexual behavior under normal mating paradigms. Injections of GALP (5.0 nmol) significantly increased (psexual behaviors in male rats by stimulating dopaminergic neurons that terminate within the mPOA.

  3. Effect of Iron Enriched Bread Intake on the Oxidative Stress Indices in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharareh Heidari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Contrary to the proven benefits of iron, few concerns in producing the oxidative stress is remained problematic. Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate the oxidative stress in the male Wistar rats fed bread supplemented with iron in different doses i.e., 35 (basic, 70 (two fold, 140 (four fold, and 210 mg/kg (six fold with or without NaHCO3 (250 mg/kg. Methods In this experimental study Iron, ceruloplasmin, ferritin, total iron binding capacity (TIBC, albumin, total protein, uric acid and plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, catalase (CAT, malondialdehyde (MDA, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC, were evaluated in 30 rats at the first and last day of the experiment (day 30. In addition, phytic acid levels were detected in all baked breads. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and t test procedure though SPSS statistical software version 20. Results Serum iron level in rats that received basic level of iron plus NaHCO3 decreased significantly in the last day of the trial. Higher level of serum iron was seen in rats that received iron twofold, fourfold and sixfold and rats that received iron fourfold plus NaHCO3. Serum ceruloplasmin and ferritin in groups of rats that received fourfold level of iron plus NaHCO3 and rats that received iron sixfold showed a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05. Serum total protein and uric acid in rats that received basic level of iron plus NaHCO3 and rats that received twofold level of iron showed a significant decrease. Serum total protein levels in rats that received fourfold level of iron showed a significant decrease. Bread with NaHCO3 showed higher phytic acid levels than other groups. Conclusions These results indicate that oxidative stress was not induced, whereas some antioxidant activities were significantly changed in rats that received iron-enriched bread.

  4. Antifertility effects of Oldenlandia affinis in male rats - a preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Testis histology revealed fewer spermatozoa or azoospermic seminiferous tubules in treated animals compared to controls with no change in neither tubule thickness nor Sertoli cell structure. O. affinis treatment caused a 17% decrease in sperm motility but there was no change in cauda epididymal sperm counts. However ...

  5. Negative Effect of Zinc on Testes, Testosterone and Gonadotrophins Levels in Adult Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sohrabi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesThe toxic effects of zinc leading to sebaceous gland closure, skin eczema and blister have been previously demonstrated in other studies. The aim of this study is to determine the chronic effects of zinc chloride (ZnCl2 on testicular tissues, testosterone and gonadotrophins in adult male Wistar rats.Methods Twenty four Adult male Wistar rats were divided in to two groups of study and control with each group consisting of 12 rats. Study group rats received 10 mg/kg interaperitoneal Zinc chloride in normal saline (N.S every other day for 30 days. Control group rats received N.S during this time. Blood sample for hormonal evaluation were collected from hearts of these rats. The rats were destroyed and their testes were removed and fixed in a 10% formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde solution.ResultsThe results of this study showed a significant decrease in the level of LH and testosterone hormone among the rats in the study group compared to the control group with p< 0.001 and p< 0.01 respectively. Study of fine structure of testicular cells and tissues in the study group rats revealed swelling of mitochondria, increase in smooth endoplasmic reticulum vacuolization and lysosomic granules (Autophagic vacuoles in cytosol of their germinal cells.ConclusionBased on the results of this study consumption of large amount of compounds which contain zinc should be controlled and limited among men. There is a need for further studies to evaluate and determine the reversibility of most hormonal and physiological changes due to usage of zinc containing compounds.Keywords: Zinc Chloride; Testis; Testosterone; Gonadotrophins

  6. Negative Effect of Zinc on Testes, Testosterone and Gonadotrophins Levels in Adult Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Sohrabi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives

    The toxic effects of zinc leading to sebaceous gland closure, skin eczema and blister have been previously demonstrated in other studies. The aim of this study is to determine the chronic effects of zinc chloride (ZnCl2   on testicular tissues, testosterone and gonadotrophins in adult male Wistar rats.

     

    Methods

    Twenty four Adult male Wistar rats were divided in to two groups of study and control with each group consisting of 12 rats. Study group rats received 10 mg/kg interaperitoneal Zinc chloride in normal saline (N.S every other day for 30 days. Control group rats received N.S during this time. Blood sample for hormonal evaluation were collected from hearts of these rats. The rats were destroyed and their testes were removed and fixed in a 10% formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde solution.

     

    Results

    The results of this study showed a significant decrease in the level of LH and testosterone hormone among the rats in the study group compared to the control group with p< 0.001  and

    p< 0.01 respectively. Study of fine structure of testicular cells and tissues in the study group rats  revealed swelling of mitochondria, increase in smooth endoplasmic reticulum vacuolization and lysosomic granules (Autophagic vacuoles in cytosol of their germinal cells.

     

    Conclusion

    Based on the results of this study consumption of large amount of compounds which contain zinc should be controlled and limited among men. There is a need for further studies to evaluate and determine the reversibility of most hormonal and physiological changes due to usage of zinc containing compounds.

  7. Antioxidant and Hypolipidemic Effects of Olive Oil in Normal and Diabetic Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhazza, I. M.

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus manifests itself in a wide variety of complications and the symptoms of the disease are multifactorial. The lipid hydroperoxide level and lipid profile were investigated in plasma of normal and Alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with olive oil for six weeks. Diabetic rats exhibited an increase in the levels of hydroperoxide, cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein (LDL), and a decrease in the level of high density lipoprotein (HDL). The administration of olive oil showed a better profile in the lipid as well as decreases in the concentration of lipid hydroperoxides either in normal or diabetic rats. The results are discussed according to antioxidant property of olive oil. (author)

  8. Chronic irradiation of gonad tissue of the male rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, G.; Maas, J.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of chronically irradiating rats' testes with daily gamma radiation doses of (1.4 - 8.6) x 10 -2 Gy for 71-140 days were studied. After about 30 days irradiation, the testes weights decrease and level off at about 75 days. Irradiation also caused the germ cells in the seminiferous tubules to disappear progressively, completely when the dose exceeded 6 x 10 -2 Gy/day and partially with the lower doses. At doses below 6 x 10 -2 Gy/day, there was also a delay in the spermatogenesis cycle with the spermatogonia and spermatocytes appearing to reach a new equilibrium, the level of which depended on the dose. (U.K.)

  9. The effects of celery leave extract on male hormones in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooti Wesam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Celery (Apium graveolens belongs to the Umbelliferae family, and has a plenty of nutritional and pharmaceutical applications. The presence of phytoestrogenic compounds has been reported in this plant. These compounds may affect the pituitary-gonad axis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of hydro-alcoholic extracts of celery leaves on serum levels of testosterone, LH and FSH in male rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 32 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups, eight rats included in each. The control group did not receive any treatment. The placebo group received distilled water and the case groups received 200 and 300 mg/kg/B.W of hydro-alcoholic celery leaf extract for 20 consecutive days by oral administration. After completion of the treatment, the rats were anesthetized and blood sampling from their heart was carried out. Then, serum levels of testosterone, LH and FSH were measured using immunoassay methods. The obtained data were analyzed by the SPSS using the statistical ANOVA test. Results: The level of LH in the case group receiving 200 mg/kg B.W of celery extract showed a significant decrease compared with the control and placebo groups (P0.05. Conclusion: The result of the present study shows that in the administered dose, celery extract does not have any considerable side effect on the secretion of hormones in male rats.

  10. The Establishment of Metabolic Syndrome Model by Induction of Fructose Drinking Water in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norshalizah Mamikutty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metabolic syndrome can be caused by modification of diet by means of consumption of high carbohydrate and high fat diet such as fructose. Aims. To develop a metabolic syndrome rat model by induction of fructose drinking water (FDW in male Wistar rats. Methods. Eighteen male Wistar rats were fed with FDW 20% and FDW 25% for a duration of eight weeks. The physiological changes with regard to food and fluid intake, as well as calorie intake, were measured. The metabolic changes such as obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and hyperglycaemia were determined. Data was presented in mean ± SEM subjected to one-way ANOVA. Results. Male Wistar rats fed with FDW 20% for eight weeks developed significant higher obesity parameters compared to those fed with FDW 25%. There was hypertrophy of adipocytes in F20 and F25. There were also systolic hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperglycemia in both groups. Conclusion. We conclude that the metabolic syndrome rat model is best established with the induction of FDW 20% for eight weeks. This was evident in the form of higher obesity parameter which caused the development of the metabolic syndrome.

  11. [Reference curves for assessing the physical growth of male Wistar rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; Gómez Campos, Rossana; Vargas Vitoria, Rodrigo; Hochmuller Fogaça, Rosalvo Tadeu; de Arruda, Miguel

    2013-11-01

    Wistar rats are one of the most popular strains routinely used for research in the laboratory to serve as an important research tool, so it requires strict control of variables such as age, sex and body weight, and Thus to extrapolate the results to the human model. To develop reference curves for assessing the physical growth of male Wistar rats according to chronological age and somatic maturation from a non-invasive. The subjects studied were 731 male Wistar rats transversely. We assessed age, body weight and body surface. LMS method was used to construct percentile curves based on weight and somatic maturation. The proposed physical growth curves are used to track the physical growth and nutritional status diagnosis of male Wistar rats. Budgets by cutting points are: P3, P10, P25, P50, P75, P90 and P97. The results suggest that scientists from different areas can use such references, in order to extrapolate somatic growth phases of the laboratory rat and the human model is a non-invasive alternative to assess growth and nutritional status. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. Oxytocin Removes Estrous Female vs. Male Preference of Virgin Male Rats: Mediation of the Supraoptic Nucleus Via Olfactory Bulbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yu Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Social functions of oxytocin (OT have been explored extensively; however, relationship between the effect of intranasally applied OT (nasal OT on the social preference (SP and intracerebral actions of endogenous OT remains unclear. To resolve this question, we first observed effects of nasal OT on the SP of virgin young adult male rats toward unfamiliar virgin estrous female (EF vs. virgin male rats. The results showed that the test male rats exhibited significantly more times and longer duration accessing the female than the male, which were acutely eliminated by nasal OT. Then, we examined the approaches mediating nasal OT effects on the activity of potential brain targets in Western blots and found that nasal OT activated the olfactory bulbs (OBs and the supraoptic nucleus (SON, but not the piriform cortex, amygdala and hippocampus as shown by significant changes in the expression of c-Fos and/or phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (pERK 1/2. Moreover, microinjection of TTX into the OBs blocked nasal OT-evoked increases in pERK1/2 levels as well as the molecular association between ERK1/2 and OT-neurophysin in the SON. Electrolytic lesions of the lateral olfactory tract did not significantly change the basal levels of pERK 1/2 in the SON; however, upon nasal OT, pERK 1/2 levels in the SON reduced significantly. Lastly, microinjection of L-aminoadipic acid (gliotoxin into the SON to reduce OT levels reduced the duration of the test male’s accessing the EF and blocked the nasal OT-evoked increase in the duration of test male’s accessing the male while significantly increasing pERK1/2 levels in the amygdala. These findings reveal for the first time that nasal OT acutely eliminates virgin males’ SP to EFs via the OB-SON route and that OT neurons could mediate the social effects of nasal OT by suppressing social phobia generated in the amygdala.

  13. Influence Of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale) Supplementation Against GAMMA Rays Induced Immunosuppression In Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangood, S.A.; Kassab, F.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of ginger (Zingiber officinale) supplementation against gamma rays-induced immunosuppression in male albino rats was investigated in the present study. Twenty four male albino rats were divided into four equal groups; control group (receiving no treatment), ginger group where the rats received ginger orally at a dose of 15 g/rat/day for 120 consecutive days, gamma radiation group which subjected to a single 6 Gy whole body gamma radiation and gamma radiation plus ginger group where each rat after taking daily 15 g of ginger for 120 consecutive days was subjected to 6 Gy whole body irradiation. Complete blood pictures and immunoglobulin G (IgG) and M (IgM) were estimated and spleen tissue was also examined histologically. The data obtained revealed that exposure to 6 Gy of gamma radiation caused significant decrease in the body weight, spleen weight, IgG, IgM, erythroide and leucoid elements and produced histological damage in spleen tissue. On the other hand, ginger as a protective agent, caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by irradiation especially immunoglobulins leading to the conclusion that ginger supplementation for 120 days caused modulation of the humoral immune response in irradiated rats. In conclusion, these findings indicated that ginger has the regulatory effect against gamma rays-induced immunosuppression.

  14. The Effect of Pollen on Some Reproductive Parameters of Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güldeniz Selmanoğlu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Honeybee pollen is consumed as natural food in healthy human diet in many European and Asian countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pollen use on some reproductive parameters. In this study, mature male rats were fed on pollen of three different plant sources (Trifolium spp., Raphanus spp. and Cistus spp. at 60 mg/per animal/ per day over a 30-day period. At the end of the treatment, testosterone levels of rats were analysed and weights of testis, epididymis, prostate and seminal vesicle were recorded. In addition, epididymal sperms were counted. There were increases in testosterone levels, sperm counts and daily sperm production of rats fed with pollen of Raphanus spp. and Cistus spp. There were no significant changes in absolute weights, except in prostate weights. Also there were no changes in relative testis,prostate and seminal vesicle weights of rats fed on pollen, but relative epididymis weights of rats in pollen groups decreased. The results of this study show that bee pollen caused an increase in testosterone level and sperm counts of male rats. We suggest that bee pollen has an androgenic effect.

  15. Perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism impair behavioural development in male and female rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van N.; Rijntjes, E.; Heijning, van de B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism impair behavioural development in male and female rats. EXP PHYSIOL 00(0) 000-000, 0000. - A lack of thyroid hormone, i.e. hypothyroidism, during early development results in multiple morphological and functional alterations in the developing brain. In the

  16. Morphofunctional state of reproductive system in the male-rats, which were intrauterine irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedosenko, O.L.

    2008-01-01

    The changes in cytogenetic studies and morphofunctional state of reproductive system in the male-rats, which were intrauterine irradiated. The alterations in relative mass organs, increase of number sperm cells and abnormal form of sperm cells in epididymis were ascertained. (authors)

  17. Protein and energy metabolism of young male Wistar rats fed conjugated linoleic acid as structured triacylglycerol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, H.; Hansen, C. H.; Mu, Huiling

    2010-01-01

    Twelve 4-week-old male Wistar rats weighing 100 g were fed diets semi-ad libitum for 22 d containing either 1.5% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-diet) or high oleic sunflower oil (Control-diet). The CLA was structured triacylglycerol with predominantly cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 fatty acid...

  18. Investigation of the mechanism for phthalate-induced toxicity during male sexual differentiation in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male rats exposed to phthalate esters during sexual differentiation (GDI4-GDI8) display various reproductive developmental abnormalities later in adult life which are associated with declines in fetal testicular testosterone (T) production and insulin-like three hormone (lnsl-3...

  19. Histological changes in the vital organs of male rats following short ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Beneficial effects of cannabis intake by any route of administration has since ages been trailed with controversial reports of scientific studies. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of short term exposure to smoke of Cannabis sativa on the vital organs (heart, lungs, liver, kidney and testes) of male rats.

  20. Splicing mutation in Sbf1 causes nonsyndromic male infertility in the rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liška, F.; Chylíková, B.; Janků, M.; Šeda, Ondřej; Vernerová, Z.; Pravenec, Michal; Křen, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 152, č. 3 (2016), s. 215-223 ISSN 1470-1626 R&D Projects: GA CR(CZ) GA16-06548S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : Sbf1 (SET binding factor 1) gene mutation * male infertility * spontaneously hypertensive rat Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.100, year: 2016

  1. Organization of the motoneurons innervating the pelvic muscles of the male rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D

    1980-01-01

    The cytoarchitecture of the motoneuron pool of the male rat was studied at the lumbo-sacral transition area, particularly in L6. In the latter segment a dorso-medial (DM), ventral (V), dorso-lateral (DL), and retrodorso-lateral group (RDL) could be defined. The DL group was associated...

  2. ANTIANDROGENIC EFFECTS OF VINCLOZOLIN ON MALE RATS ARE PARTIALLY ATTENUATED BY TESTOSTERONE PROPIONATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANTIANDROGENIC EFFECTS OF VINCLOZOLIN ON MALE RATS ARE PARTIALLY ATTENUATED BY TESTOSTERONE PROPIONATECynthia Wolf1,2 , Joe Ostby1, Jonathan Furr 1, Gerald A. LeBlanc2, and L. Earl Gray, Jr.11 US Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL, RTD, RTP, NC 27711, 2 Departmen...

  3. IPRODIONE DELAYS MALE RAT PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT, REDUCING SERUM TESTOSTERONE AND EX VIVO TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iprodione (IPRO) is a dichlorophenyl dicarboximide fungicide similar to the androgen receptor (AR) antagonist vinclozolin. The current studies were designed to determine if IPRO would delay male rat pubertal development like vinclozolin and to identify the mechanism(s) of action...

  4. Pair-housing of male and female rats during chronic stress exposure results in gender-specific behavioral responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenbroek, C.; Snijders, T.A.B.; Den Boer, J.A.; Gerrits, Marjolein; Fokkema, D.S.; ter Horst, G.J

    Social support has a positive influence on the course of a depression and social housing of rats could provide an animal model for studying the neurobiological mechanisms of social support. Male and female rats were subjected to chronic footshock stress for 3 weeks and pair-housing of rats was used

  5. Ameliorating activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract against lead induced renal toxicity in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Y Amarnath; Chalamaiah, M; Ramesh, B; Balaji, G; Indira, P

    2014-05-01

    Lead poisoning has been known to be associated with structural and functional abnormalities of multiple organ systems of human body. The aim of this investigation was to study the renal protective effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract in lead induced toxicity rats. In this study renal glutathione (GSH) level, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and catalase enzymes were measured in lead nitrate (300 mg/kg BW), and lead nitrate plus ginger extract (150 mg/kg BW) treated rat groups for 1 week and 3 weeks respectively. The glutathione level and GSH dependent antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase, and catalase significantly (P < 0.05) increased in ginger extract treated rat groups. In addition, histological studies showed lesser renal changes in lead plus ginger extract treated rat groups than that of lead alone treated rat groups. These results indicate that ginger extract alleviated lead toxic effects by enhancing the levels of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase and catalase.

  6. Rat Plasma Oxidation Status After Nigella Sativa L. Botanical Treatment in CCL(4)-Treated Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Hengameh; Ranjbar, Akram; Baeeri, Maryam; Mohammadirad, Azadeh; Khorasani, Reza; Yasa, Narguess; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nigella sativa Linn. (family Ranunculaceae), commonly known as black cumin, is native to the Mediterranean area and has been used for thousands of years as a health and beauty aid. The present study investigated the protective effects of Nigella sativa (NS) extract (NSE) and oil (NSO) on CCl(4)-induced nitrosative stress and protein oxidation in rat. CCl(4) (0.8 mg/kg) was used as an aid for induction of nitrosative stress. In vitro antioxidant potential was tested in the presence of 2,4-dinitrophenylhyrdazine (DPPH) as an organic nitrogen radical. Doses of 0.2, 0.3, and 1 mg/kg of the NS extract and oil were administered to CCL(4)-treated rats for 10 days. At the end of treatment, blood was taken from rats under anesthesia and plasma was separated. The concentration of nitric oxide (NO), total antioxidant power (TAP), carbonyl molecules (CM) as measure of protein oxidation (PO), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and total thiol molecules (TTM) were measured in plasma. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant effects of NSE and NSO showed that the highest antioxidant activity (80%) was observed with the concentration of 10 and 20 mg/ml, respectively, that were equal to vitamin E (200 mg/ml). Administration of CCL(4) increased plasma PO, NO, TNF-alpha and decreased TAP and TTM. Both NSE and NSO showed significant protection against CCl(4)-induced changes in biochemical parameters, but not dose-dependently. Doses of 0.3 and 1 mg/kg were more effective than doses of 0.2 mg/kg for both NSE and NSO, but dose of 1 mg/kg was the most effective one. The results indicate the potential of NS in preventing CCL(4)-induced toxic nitrosative stress. It is concluded that NS has marked antioxidant potentials that may be beneficial in alleviating complications of many illnesses related to oxidative/nitrosative stress in humans, but preclinical safety measures should be completed before clinical trials.

  7. Prenatal exposure to aflatoxin B1: developmental, behavioral, and reproductive alterations in male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriya, Ch.; Reddy, P. Sreenivasula

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) inhibits androgen biosynthesis as a result of its ability to form a high-affinity complex with the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. The results of the present study demonstrate the postnatal effects of in utero exposure to AfB1 in the rat. Pregnant Wistar rats were given 10, 20, or 50 μg AfB1/kg body weight daily from gestation day (GD) 12 to GD 19. At parturition, newborns were observed for clinical signs and survival. All animals were born alive and initially appeared to be active. Male pups from control and AfB1-exposed animals were weaned and maintained up to postnatal day (PD) 100. Litter size, birth weight, sex ratio, survival rate, and crown-rump length of the pups were significantly decreased in AfB1-exposed rats when compared to controls. Elapsed time (days) for testes to descend into the scrotal sac was significantly delayed in experimental pups when compared to control pups. Behavioral observations such as cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, surface rightening activity, ascending wire mesh, open field behavior, and exploratory and locomotory activities were significantly impaired in experimental pups. Body weights and the indices of testis, cauda epididymis, prostate, seminal vesicles, and liver were significantly reduced on PD 100 in male rats exposed to AfB1 during embryonic development when compared with controls. Significant reduction in the testicular daily sperm production, epididymal sperm count, and number of viable, motile, and hypo-osmotic tail coiled sperm was observed in experimental rats. The levels of serum testosterone and activity levels of testicular hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner with a significant increase in the serum follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in experimental rats. Deterioration in the testicular and cauda epididymal architecture was observed in experimental rats. The results of fertility

  8. Maturation of kisspeptinergic neurons coincides with puberty onset in male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Agnete H; Ansel, Laura; Simonneaux, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    receptor is the primary component in the initiation of puberty and where in the hypothalamus regulation of the kisspeptin/Kiss1R system occurs is unresolved. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we analyzed the level of Kiss1 mRNA and kisspeptin-immunoreactivity in the anteroventral...... periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and the arcuate nucleus of male rats along pubertal development. Neurons expressing Kiss1 mRNA were first detected at PND15, but increased significantly around puberty, and declined again in the adult rat. While virtually no immunoreactive cell bodies were detectable in the AVPV...... that the regulation of kisspeptin synthesis and release are key events in puberty onset in the male rat....

  9. Lead Intoxication On Protein Fractions, Testicular Tissues And Ameliorative Effect Of ANTOX On Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HASSANIN, M.M.; EL-MAHDY, A.A.; ZAKI, Z.T.; EMARAH, E.A.M.; HUSSEIN, A.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Lead (heavy metal) was given as lead acetate for two groups of adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus) in drinking water at dose level of 100 mg/litre for 3 and 6 weeks to evaluate its toxic effects on protein and its fractions by using electrophoresis technique, serum testosterone using radioimmunoassay and histological investigation of the testis of male rats.Administration of 100 mg/L lead acetate in drinking water for 3 and 6 weeks induced fluctuated changes in serum total proteins, protein fractions and significant decrease in serum testosterone hormone.Histopathological examination showed cellular changes and degeneration of the seminiferous tubules after 3 and 6 weeks of administration of lead acetate.The treatment of rats with antox (10 mg/kg) during the experimental period caused improvement in protein fraction and testosterone level, and the testes sections appeared more or less normal.

  10. Kidney stone formation and antioxidant effects of Cynodon dactylon decoction in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshan, Alireza; Hayatdavoudi, Parichehr; Hadjzadeh, Mousa Al-Reza; Khajavi Rad, Abolfazl; Mohamadian Roshan, Nema; Abbasnezhad, Abbasali; Mousavi, Seyed Mojtaba; Pakdel, Roghayeh; Zarei, Batool; Aghaee, Azita

    2017-01-01

    The antioxidant capacity impairs in kidney and urinary bladder of animals with stone disease. Herbal medicine can improve the antioxidant condition of renal tissue. Cynodon dactylon ( C. dactylon ) is a medicinal plant with antioxidative and diuretic properties and different preparations of this plant have shown promising effects in stone disease. Assessment of the whole plant decoction to prevent kidney stone disease as well as its antioxidant effects was the aim of this paper. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 experimental groups (n=10). One group was left without treatment and four groups received ethylene glycol (1% v/v) in drinking water for 6 weeks. Three doses of Cynodon dactylon aqueous decoction (12.5, 50 and 200 mg/kg BW) were added to the drinking water of groups 3-5. Finally, water intake, 24-hour urine volume, MDA, total thiol concentration and FRAP value were measured in the serum and kidney tissues. The CaOx depositions were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Compared to the ethylene glycol-treated group, 200 mg/kg C. dactylon , lowered stone incidents, decreased urine volume, increased FRAP/g Cr (43%) and thiol content (p<0.05) with no significant alteration of water intake, MDA decreased significantly compared to C. dactylon 12.5 (p<0.01). Kidney weight increased and body weight decreased in ethylene glycol-treated group compared to the control group (p<0.05). A minimum dose of 200 mg/kg C. dactylon reduced stone formation and simultaneously increased total antioxidant power of serum and preserved MDA content and water.

  11. Evaluation of Glycemic and Lipid Profile of Offspring of Diabetic Wistar Rats Treated with Malpighia emarginata Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M. Barbalho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowing that maternal diabetes is related to hyperglycemia and fetal hyperinsulinemia, which affect the lipid metabolism, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Malpighia emarginata (acerola juice on the glycemic and lipid profile of offspring of diabetic and nondiabetic Wistar rats. The adult offspring of non-diabetic dams and of dams with severe streptozotocin-induced diabetes were divided into groups: G1, offspring (of control dams treated with water, G2, offspring (of diabetic dams treated with water, G3, male offspring (of control dams treated with acerola juice, and G4, male offspring (of diabetic dams treated with acerola juice. The offspring of diabetic dams treated with acerola juice showed significantly decreased levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and increased HDL-c. The use of acerola juice is a potential strategy to aid in the prevention of DM and dyslipidemia and its complications or to act as an auxiliary in the treatment of these diseases.

  12. Achilles tendon of wistar rats treated with laser therapy and eccentric exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Maria Verônica de; Silva, Carlos Henrique Osório; Silva, Micheline Ozana da; Costa, Marcela Bueno Martins da; Dornas, Raul Felipe; Borges, Andréa Pacheco Batista; Natali, Antônio José

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTIntroduction:Both laser therapy and eccentric exercises are used in tendon injuries. However, the association of these physiotherapeutic modalities is yet little investigated.Objective:To evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy associated to eccentric exercise (downhill walking) on Achilles tendinopathy of Wistar rats.Method:Eighteen Achilles tendon from 15 adult male Wistar rats were used. Tendons were distributed in six groups (laser, eccentric exercise, laser and eccentric e...

  13. Carbon dioxide in carbonated beverages induces ghrelin release and increased food consumption in male rats: Implications on the onset of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eweis, Dureen Samandar; Abed, Fida; Stiban, Johnny

    The dangerous health risks associated with obesity makes it a very serious public health issue. Numerous studies verified a correlation between the increase in obesity and the parallel increase in soft drink consumption among world populations. The effects of one main component in soft drinks namely the carbon dioxide gas has not been studied thoroughly in any previous research. Male rats were subjected to different categories of drinks and evaluated for over a year. Stomach ex vivo experiments were undertaken to evaluate the amount of ghrelin upon different beverage treatments. Moreover, 20 male students were tested for their ghrelin levels after ingestion of different beverages. Here, we show that rats consuming gaseous beverages over a period of around 1 year gain weight at a faster rate than controls on regular degassed carbonated beverage or tap water. This is due to elevated levels of the hunger hormone ghrelin and thus greater food intake in rats drinking carbonated drinks compared to control rats. Moreover, an increase in liver lipid accumulation of rats treated with gaseous drinks is shown opposed to control rats treated with degassed beverage or tap water. In a parallel study, the levels of ghrelin hormone were increased in 20 healthy human males upon drinking carbonated beverages compared to controls. These results implicate a major role for carbon dioxide gas in soft drinks in inducing weight gain and the onset of obesity via ghrelin release and stimulation of the hunger response in male mammals. Copyright © 2017 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sub-chronic indomethacin treatment and its effect on the male reproductive system of albino rats: possible protective role of black tea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagoji, Ishwar B; Hadimani, Gavishiddappa A; Yendigeri, Saeed M; Das, Kusal K

    2017-05-01

    Indomethacin is commonly used as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) to treat inflammation, arthritis and joint pains. Unfortunately, it has a wide range of adverse effects on the physiological system, including gonads. This study aimed to assess possible beneficial effects of black tea extract (BTE) against indomethacin-induced alteration of gonadal hormone levels in male rats. Adult male rats were divided into Group I (control), Group II (indomethacin, 5 mg/kg body weight [bwt.]; i.p., 21 days), Group III (BTE, 2.5 g tea leaf/dL of water, i.e. 2.5% of aqueous BTE, orally, 21 days) and Group IV (indomethacin+BTE, 21 days). Sperm count and motility, serum luteinising hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone, along with histopathology of testes were studied. One-way ANOVA, followed by post-hoc t-test were conducted. Indomethacin-treated rats showed significant decrease in testicular weight, sperm count, sperm motility, serum gonadotropins and testosterone concentrations. Histopathology of the testes showed tortuous and distorted seminiferous tubules, marked thickening of the tubular basement membrane, reduced spermatogenesis process (>30%) and marked decrease in the number of interstitial cells of Leydig in indomethacin-treated rats. Interestingly, rats supplemented with BTE showed remarkable improvements in testicular weight gain, sperm count and motility, serum gonadotropins and testosterone concentrations, along with testicular histopathology. The results suggest that BTE might have potential ameliorative effects against sub-chronic indomethacin-induced alteration of gonadal hormone levels in male albino rats.

  15. [Urethral stent to treat a refractory traumatic urethra stricture in a male hunting dog].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, S; Schneider, M; Peppler, C; Günther, C; Kramer, M

    2014-01-01

    In a 1.5-year-old male hunting dog, a urethral defect distal to the pelvic flexure and the resulting urethral fistula were treated with a mucosal graft and a transurethral catheter. Six months postoperatively a stricture of the urethra occurred. Following balloon dilatation, urination was normal. One month after dilatation, urethral narrowing relapsed and was treated using a combination of balloon dilatation and urethral stent implantation. Ten months following stent implantation the dog continued to show normal urination, although a deformation of the proximal part of the stent was diagnosed radiographically. During the 1-year follow-up no additional complications were observed. In the future, urethral stents may replace surgical resection of the narrowed urethral region and re-anastomosis of the urethra.

  16. Role of antioxidant supplements in adult male albino rats intoxicated with methomyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, S.M.F.M.; EI-Sherbiny, E.M.; Afifi, E.A.A.

    2007-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate and determine the protective effect of intraperitoneal administration of trace mineral selenium (Se) and antioxidant vitamins E and pantothenic acid (PA) to male albino rats intoxicated with methomyl pesticide. Four groups of rats were used in this study. The data obtained revealed that methomyl caused disturbances in liver functions, which were elucidated through ALT and AST levels, and in the levels of serum glucose and insulin. Also, the levels of serum total protein, albumin, total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol and acethylcholinesterase activity were significantly changed from those found in control rats for different periods. Treatment of rats with the antioxidant supplements ameliorated to some extent most of the disturbances in the mentioned biochemical parameter levels. The data concluded that such antioxidants could provide some protection against pesticide-induced toxicity

  17. Mild Thyroid Hormone Insufficiency During Development Compromises Activity-Dependent Neuroplasticity in the Hippocampus of Adult Male Rats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — behavioral measures of learning and memory in adult offspring of rats treated with thyroid hormone synthesis inhibitor, propylthiouracil. Electrophysiological...

  18. Developmental programming of vascular dysfunction by prenatal and postnatal zinc deficiency in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes Garrido Abregú, Facundo; Gobetto, María Natalia; Juriol, Lorena Vanesa; Caniffi, Carolina; Elesgaray, Rosana; Tomat, Analía Lorena; Arranz, Cristina

    2018-06-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition during intrauterine and postnatal growth may program cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. We examined whether moderate zinc restriction in male and female rats throughout fetal life, lactation and/or postweaning growth induces alterations that can predispose to the onset of vascular dysfunction in adulthood. Female Wistar rats were fed low- or control zinc diets from pregnancy to offspring weaning. After weaning, offspring were fed either a low- or a control zinc diet until 81 days. We evaluated systolic blood pressure (SBP), thoracic aorta morphology, nitric oxide (NO) system and vascular reactivity in 6- and/or 81-day-old offspring. At day 6, zinc-deficient male and female offspring showed a decrease in aortic NO synthase (NOS) activity accompanied by an increase in oxidative stress. Zinc-deficient 81-day-old male rats exhibited an increase in collagen deposition in tunica media, as well as lower activity of endothelial NOS (eNOS) that could not be reversed with an adequate zinc diet during postweaning life. Zinc deficiency programmed a reduction in eNOS protein expression and higher SBP only in males. Adult zinc-deficient rats of both sexes showed reduced vasodilator response dependent on eNOS activity and impaired aortic vasoconstrictor response to angiotensin-II associated with alterations in intracellular calcium mobilization. Female rats were less sensitive to the effects of zinc deficiency and exhibited higher eNOS activity and/or expression than males, without alterations in SBP or aortic histology. This work strengthens the importance of a balanced intake of micronutrients during perinatal growth to ensure adequate vascular function in adult life. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone in lean and obese male Zucker rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, B.D.; Corll, C.B.; Porter, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The obese Zucker rat is an animal model of human juvenile-onset obesity. These rats exhibit numerous endocrine and metabolic abnormalities. Adrenalectomy of obese rats has been shown to reduce or reverse several of these abnormalities, thereby implying that corticosterone may contribute to the expression of obesity in this animal. Furthermore, it has been shown that the circadian rhythm of plasma corticosterone is disturbed in obese Zucker rats resulting in elevated morning plasma corticosterone concentrations in obese rats as compared to lean rats. In a effort to better elucidate the mechanism of the elevated morning levels of plasma corticosterone, the metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone was determined in the morning for lean and obese male Zucker rats (12 to 20 weeks). Additionally, the biliary and urinary excretion of labeled corticosterone and/or its metabolites were determined. The metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone was significantly greater in obese rats than in their lean counterparts. Both the metabolic clearance rate and the volume of compartments significantly correlated with body weight. No correlation was found between body weight and the elimination rate constant. The increased metabolic clearance rate of obese rats appeared to be due to an increase in the physiologic distribution of corticosterone and not to an alteration in the enzymes responsible for corticosterone metabolism. It appears that the metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone in obese Zucker rats does not contribute to elevated morning concentrations of plasma corticosterone previously observed in these animals. It suggests that the adrenal corticosterone secretion rate must actually be greater than one would expect from the plasma corticosterone concentrations alone

  20. Food restriction causes low bone strength and microarchitectural deterioration in exercised growing male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Satoshi; Park, Jong-Hoon; Agata, Umon; Oda, Masaya; Higano, Michito; Aikawa, Yuki; Akimoto, Takayuki; Nabekura, Yoshiharu; Yamato, Hideyuki; Ezawa, Ikuko; Omi, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bone disorders in young male athletes has not been well understood. We hypothesized that bone fragility is caused by low energy availability, due to insufficient food intake and excessive exercise energy expenditure in young male athletes. To examine this hypothesis, we investigated the influence of food restriction on bone strength and bone morphology in exercised growing male rats, using three-point bending test, dual-energy X-ray absormetry, and micro-computed tomography. Four-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into the following groups: the control (Con) group, exercise (Ex) group, food restriction (R) group, and food restriction plus exercise (REx) group after a 1-wk acclimatization period. Thirty-percent food restriction in the R and REx groups was carried out in comparison with that in the Con group. Voluntary running exercise was performed in the Ex and REx groups. The experimental period lasted 13 wk. At the endpoint of this experiment, the bone strength of the femurs and tibial BMD in the REx group were significantly lower than those in the Con group. Moreover, trabecular bone volume and cortical bone volume in the REx group were also significantly lower than those in the Con group. These findings indicate that food restriction causes low bone strength and microarchitectural deterioration in exercised growing male rats.

  1. [Hindlimb antigravity muscles' reaction in male and female rats to the deficit of functional loading].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'ina-Kakueva, E I

    2002-01-01

    Histological and histomorphometric comparison of the antigravity muscles of rats of both sexes was performed following 30-d unloading of their hind limbs by head-down suspension. It was shown that growth rate of control males was higher as compared to control females. This is attributed to the synergic effects of somatotropin and testosterone on metabolism and growth of males and only somatotropin in females. Load deprivation of the hind limbs inhibited body mass gain in all animals; however, this inhibition was twice as great in males. Increase of the soleus and gastrocnemius in the control males in this experiment was slightly ahead of the muscle mass gain in the females. The histomorphometric investigation of the cross-section area of myofibers did not reveal differences between males and females either in the control or suspension. No difference was found in percent of various types of fibers in the control males and females. In the soleus of the suspended rats, a part of slow fibers had transformed into fast ones without any sex-related particularities. The conclusion was made that despite the significant difference in the hormonal profile, the reaction of males and females to insufficient weight loading of the antigravity muscles was alike.

  2. Chronic Co-species Housing Mice and Rats Increased the Competitiveness of Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying-Juan; Li, Lai-Fu; Zhang, Yao-Hua; Guo, Hui-Fen; Xia, Min; Zhang, Meng-Wei; Jing, Xiao-Yuan; Zhang, Jing-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Xu

    2017-03-01

    Rats are predators of mice in nature. Nevertheless, it is a common practice to house mice and rats in a same room in some laboratories. In this study, we investigated the behavioral and physiological responsively of mice in long-term co-species housing conditions. Twenty-four male mice were randomly assigned to their original raising room (control) or a rat room (co-species-housed) for more than 6 weeks. In the open-field and light-dark box tests, the behaviors of the co-species-housed mice and controls were not different. In a 2-choice test of paired urine odors [rabbit urine (as a novel odor) vs. rat urine, cat urine (as a natural predator-scent) vs. rabbit urine, and cat urine vs. rat urine], the co-species-housed mice were more ready to investigate the rat urine odor compared with the controls and may have adapted to it. In an encounter test, the rat-room-exposed mice exhibited increased aggression levels, and their urines were more attractive to females. Correspondingly, the levels of major urinary proteins were increased in the co-species-housed mouse urine, along with some volatile pheromones. The serum testosterone levels were also enhanced in the co-species-housed mice, whereas the corticosterone levels were not different. The norepinephrine, dopamine, and 5-HT levels in the right hippocampus and striatum were not different between the 2. Our findings indicate that chronic co-species housing results in adaptation in male mice; furthermore, it appears that long-term rat-odor stimuli enhance the competitiveness of mice, which suggests that appropriate predator-odor stimuli may be important to the fitness of prey animals. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Effects of dose, species, and dosing vehicle on the disposition of methacrylonitrile (MAN) in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, I.M.; Ghanayem, B.I.

    1991-01-01

    MAN is structurally similar to known carcinogen acrylontrile (AN), with nitriles having similar industrial uses. Current studies were designed to investigate the biological fate of 2- 14 C-MAN in rats. After gavage administration of 115, 11.5 or 1.15 mg MAN/kg in water, F344 male rats were placed in glass metabolism cages and urine, expired air and feces were collected. Rats were sacrificed at various times and concentration of MAN-derived radioactivity in tissues was determined. MAN was rapidly absorbed from the GI tract and distributed to all major tissues. Sixty-70% of the low and medium doses were exhaled as 14 CO 2 in 72 hr compared to 25% of the highest dose. While 40% of the highest dose was expired as organic volatiles in 72 hr, only 9-12% of the low and accounted for 20-30% of all doses within 72 hr after dosing. Comparison of MAN disposition in Sprague-Dawley (SD) and F344 rats at 115 mg/kg revealed that SD rats excreted a greater % of the dose as 14 CO 2 and in the urine than did F344 rats. Administration of 115 mg MAN/kg to SD male rats in safflower oil resulted in increased elimination of MAN-derived radioactivity as CO 2 , volatiles, and in the urine over that observed when administered in water. These results suggest that: (1) saturation of MAN metabolism occurs at high doses: (2) MAN metabolism and disposition differ with the strain of rats studied; (3) MAN disposition may vary with the dosing vehicle used; and (4) MAN metabolism and disposition is apparently different from that reported on AN

  4. Gestational chronic mild stress: Effects on acoustic startle in male offspring of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, K.S.; Mandrup, Karen; Kjaer, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of scientific studies indicate that maternal stress during pregnancy influences fetal development of the nervous system and thereby the behavioural phenotype. We have previously reported attenuated prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reaction in adult female rats derived...... paradigm of stressors affected the PPI response pattern in male rats. In prenatally manipulated males, the PPI response differed statistically significantly, depending on prior exposure to an episode of postnatal acute stress (blood sampling under restraint). In contrast, the PPI response in control males...... was unaffected by this postnatal experience. The present work supports the hypothesis that the maternal environment is a long-term determinant of phenotypic differences in sensitivity to stressors....

  5. Precipitated withdrawal counters the adverse effects of subchronic cannabinoid administration on male rat sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebe, Caitlin J; Lee, Tiffany T; Hill, Matthew N; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2010-03-26

    In the present study, sexual behavior of male rats was assessed following prolonged treatment with the CB(1) receptor agonist, HU-210 (0.1mg/mg/day for 10 days) under conditions of drug maintenance, spontaneous withdrawal and precipitated withdrawal (induced via administration of the CB(1) receptor antagonist AM251; 1mg/kg). Following subchronic cannabinoid treatment, sexual activity in male rats was impaired under both the drug maintenance and spontaneous withdrawal conditions, as revealed by a reduction in frequency of both intromissions and ejaculations. Notably, the induction of precipitated drug withdrawal reversed the negative effects of subchronic HU-210 treatment on sexual activity as seen by a reversal of the suppression of ejaculations. These data illustrate that, contrary to expectations, the impairments in male sexual activity following protracted cannabinoid administration are not due to drug withdrawal, per se, but are likely mediated by neuroadaptive changes provoked by repeated drug exposure. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Methylmercury chloride induces learning deficits in prenatally treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muesch, H.R.; Bornhausen, M.; Kriegel, H.; Greim, H.

    1978-01-01

    Methylmercury chloride (MMC) was given to pregnant rats on the 6th, 7th, 8th, and 9th day after conception in doses of 0.05 and 2.0 mg/kg/day. The female offspring of these animals were tested 90 days after birth for learning ability using operant conditioning procedures. The rats were kept at 90% of their normal body weight and trained in a lever-box to press a bar in order to obtain a food pellet. Significant differences in the acquisition speed became apparent when the ratio of bar presses to reward was increased in a classical contingency of differential reinforcement of high rates even at MMC-doses of 4 x 0.05 mg/kg. These differences were not found in the general motility level nor in motor coordination.

  7. Uncaria rhynchophylla (miq) Jack plays a role in neuronal protection in kainic acid-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Nou-Ying; Liu, Chung-Hsiang; Su, Shan-Yu; Jan, Ya-Min; Hsieh, Ching-Tou; Cheng, Chin-Yi; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2010-01-01

    Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq) Jack (UR) is one of many Chinese herbs. Our previous studies have shown that UR has both anticonvulsive and free radical-scavenging activities in kainic acid (KA)-treated rats. The aim of the present study was to use the effect of UR on activated microglia, nitric oxide synthase, and apoptotic cells to investigate its function in neuroproction in KA-treated rats. UR of 1.0 or 0.5 g/kg was orally administered for 3 days (first day, second day, and 30 min prior to KA administration on the third day), or 10 mg/kg (intraperitoneal injection, i.p.) N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) 30 min prior to KA (2 microg/2 microl) was injected into the right hippocampus region of Sprague-Dawly rats. ED1 (mouse anti rat CD68), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) immunoreactive cells and apoptotic cells were observed in the hippocampus region. The results indicated that 1.0 g/kg, 0.5 g/kg of UR and 10 mg/kg of L-NAME reduced the counts of ED1, nNOS, iNOS immunoreactive cells and apoptotic cells in KA-treated rats. This study demonstrates that UR can reduce microglia activation, nNOS, iNOS and apoptosis, suggesting that UR plays a neuro-protective role against neuronal damage in KA-treated rats.

  8. [Changes in serum lipids in rats treated with oral cooper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Corredor, O M; Carnevalí de Tatá, E; Reinosa-Füller, J; Contreras, Y; Ramírez de Fernández, M; Yánez-Domínguez, C

    2000-09-01

    Disturbances in lipid metabolism during copper deficiency in rats are well recognized. Copper deficiency is associated with the spontaneous retention of hepatic iron. Previous studies have reported that hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia are associated with elevated hepatic iron concentrations in copper deficient rats. There was a direct relationship between the magnitude of blood lipids and the concentration of hepatic iron. Based on these data, it has been hypothesized that iron was responsible for the development of lipemia of copper deficiency. In this study was determined the effect of increasing doses of Cu(10, 20 and 50 ppm) in the diet, on the serum total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides (triacylglicerols), phospholipids, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and liver iron and zinc concentrations in normal rats. The results were compared with normal rats that received a balanced diet containing 0.6 and 6 ppm of Cu, respectively. The results show that Cu-supplement diminished the cholesterol and triglyceride serum levels, increased the level of phospholipids, NEFA and concomitantly decreased the hepatic concentrations of Fe and Zn. There was a statistically significant (p Cu (r = -0.612), liver Fe and liver Zn (r = 0.837), liver Cu and liver Zn (r = -0.612), and serum triglycerides and liver Zn (r = 0.967). The mechanism(s) by which Fe and Zn determine these changes is not known; none of the enzymes that act in cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism and biosynthesis require Fe and/or Zn. The increase of NEFA is due to changes in the process of lipolysis and re-esterification of the fatty acids in blood. However, additional studies are needed for the precise mechanisms of this interrelationships to be clarified.

  9. Sex differences in social interaction of methamphetamine-treated rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlamberová, R.; Mikulecká, Anna; Pometlová, M.; Schutová, B.; Hrubá, L.; Deykun, K.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 7 (2011), s. 617-623 ISSN 0955-8810 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/10/0580 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : estrogen * methamphetamine * rat * sex difference * social behavior * testosterone Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.720, year: 2011

  10. The cytoskeleton of digitonin-treated rat hepatocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Fiskum, G; Craig, S W; Decker, G L; Lehninger, A L

    1980-01-01

    Treatment of isolated rat hepatocptes with low concentrations of digitonin increases the permeability of the plsma membrane to cytosolic proteins without causing release of organelles such as mitochondria into the surrounding medium. Electron microscopy showed that treatment of the cells with increasing concentations of digitonin results in a progressive loss in the continuity of the plasma membrane, while most other aspects of cellular morphology remain normal. Depletion of background staini...

  11. Effect of Amphetamine on Adult Male and Female Rats Prenatally Exposed to Methamphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Šlamberová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the cross-sensitization induced by prenatal methamphetamine (MA exposure to adult amphetamine (AMP treatment in male and female rats. Rat mothers received a daily injection of MA (5 mg/kg or saline throughout the gestation period. Adult male and female offspring (prenatally MA- or saline-exposed were administered with AMP (5 mg/kg or saline (1 ml/kg in adulthood. Behaviour in unknown environment was examined in open field test (Laboras, active drug-seeking behaviour in conditioned place preference test (CPP, spatial memory in the Morris water maze (MWM, and levels of corticosterone (CORT were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA. Our data demonstrate that in Laboras test, AMP treatment in adulthood increased general locomotion (time and distance travelled regardless of the prenatal exposure and sex, while AMP increased exploratory activity (rearing only in prenatally MA-exposed animals. AMP induced sensitization only in male rats, but not in females when tested drug-seeking behaviour in the CPP test. In the spatial memory MWM test, AMP worsened the performance only in females, but not in males. On the other hand, males swam faster after chronic AMP treatment regardless of the prenatal drug exposure. EIA analysis of CORT levels demonstrated higher level in females in all measurement settings. In males, prenatal MA exposure and chronic adult AMP treatment decreased CORT levels. Thus, our data demonstrated that adult AMP treatment affects behaviour of adult rats, their spatial memory and stress response in sex-specific manner. The effect is also influenced by prenatal drug exposure.

  12. Heart Rate Changes in Electroacupuncture Treated Polycystic Ovary in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadoss, Mukilan; Ramanathan, Gunasekaran; Subbiah, Angelie Jessica; Natrajan, Chidambaranathan

    2016-03-01

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common metabolic disorder, it affects both humans and animals. It may induce coronary heart disease, obesity and hyperandrogenism. Previous studies show that Low frequency Electroacupuncture (EA) have an effect on PCOS, however the exact pathway is unclear. To find the effect of EA on autonomic activity of the heart in Estradiol Valerate (EV) induced PCOS rats. Heart rate variability (HRV) was assessed in 3 groups: 1) Control; 2) PCOS rats; and 3) PCOS rats after EA treatment (n=8 in each group). From the time domain analysis and frequency domain analysis (linear measures) HRV analysis was done. EA stimulation was given at low frequency of 2Hz for 15 min on alternate days for 4-5 weeks. Collected data were statistically analysed using One-Way Analysis of Variance with the application of multiple comparisons of Tukey test. EA treatment group shows significant reduction in Heart Rate (HR) and low frequency, high frequency ratio (LF/HF); and increase in RR interval, Total Power (TP) when compared to PCOS group. The study concludes that EA treatment has a significant effect on reducing sympathetic tone and decreasing HR in PCOS.

  13. Vasopressin infusion into the lateral septum of adult male rats rescues progesterone-induced impairment in social recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychowski, M E; Mena, J D; Auger, C J

    2013-08-29

    It is well established that social recognition memory is mediated, in part, by arginine vasopressin (AVP). AVP cells within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and medial amygdala (MeA) send AVP-ergic projections to the lateral septum (LS). We have demonstrated that progesterone treatment decreases AVP immunoreactivity within the BST, the MeA and the LS, and that progesterone treatment impairs social recognition. These data suggested that progesterone may impair social recognition memory by decreasing AVP. In the present experiment, we hypothesized that infusions of AVP into the LS would rescue the progesterone-induced impairment in social recognition within adult male rats. One week after adult male rats underwent cannula surgery, they were given systemic injections of either a physiological dose of progesterone or oil control for 3 days. Four hours after the last injection, we tested social recognition memory using the social discrimination paradigm, a two-trial test that is based on the natural propensity for rats to be highly motivated to investigate novel conspecifics. Immediately after the first exposure to a juvenile, each animal received bilateral infusions of either AVP or artificial cerebrospinal fluid into the LS. Our results show that, as expected, control animals exhibited normal social discrimination. In corroboration with our previous results, animals given progesterone have impaired social discrimination. Interestingly, animals treated with progesterone and AVP exhibited normal social discrimination, suggesting that AVP treatment rescued the impairment in social recognition caused by progesterone. These data also further support a role for progesterone in modulating vasopressin-dependent behavior within the male brain. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Vasopressin infusion into the lateral septum of adult male rats rescues progesterone induced impairment in social recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychowski, Meaghan E.; Mena, Jesus D.; Auger, Catherine J.

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that social recognition memory is mediated, in part, by arginine vasopressin (AVP). AVP cells within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and medial amygdala (MeA) send AVP-ergic projections to the lateral septum (LS). We have demonstrated that progesterone treatment decreases AVP immunoreactivity within the BST, the MeA and the LS, and that progesterone treatment impairs social recognition. These data suggested that progesterone may impair social recognition memory by decreasing AVP. In the present experiment, we hypothesized that infusions of AVP into the LS would rescue the progesterone induced impairment in social recognition within adult male rats. One week after adult male rats underwent cannula surgery, they were given systemic injections of either a physiological dose of progesterone or oil control for three days. Four hours after the last injection, we tested social recognition memory using the social discrimination paradigm, a two-trial test that is based on the natural propensity for rats to be highly motivated to investigate novel conspecifics. Immediately after the first exposure to a juvenile, each animal received bilateral infusions of either AVP or artificial CSF (aCSF) into the LS. Our results show that, as expected, control animals exhibited normal social discrimination. In corroboration with our previous results, animals given progesterone have impaired social discrimination. Interestingly, animals treated with progesterone and AVP exhibited normal social discrimination, suggesting that AVP treatment rescued the impairment in social recognition caused by progesterone. These data also further support a role for progesterone in modulating vasopressin dependent behavior within the male brain. PMID:23639881

  15. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats' Choices between Differently Priced Commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wingerden, Marijn; Marx, Christine; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers' sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to uncompensated budget conditions

  16. Achilles tendon of wistar rats treated with laser therapy and eccentric exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Verônica de Souza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:Both laser therapy and eccentric exercises are used in tendon injuries. However, the association of these physiotherapeutic modalities is yet little investigated.Objective:To evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy associated to eccentric exercise (downhill walking on Achilles tendinopathy of Wistar rats.Method:Eighteen Achilles tendon from 15 adult male Wistar rats were used. Tendons were distributed in six groups (laser, eccentric exercise, laser and eccentric exercise, rest, contralateral tendon, and healthy tendon. Unilateral tendinopathy was surgically induced by transversal compression followed by scarification of tendon fibers. The treatments laser therapy (904 nm, 3J/cm² and/or eccentric exercise (downhill walking; 12 m/min; 50 min/day; 15o inclination treadmill began 24 hours after surgery and remained for 20 days. Clinical and biomechanical analyzes were conducted. Achilles tendon was macroscopically evaluated and the transversal diameter measured. Euthanasia was performed 21 days after lesion induction. Tendons of both limbs were collected and frozen at -20°C until biomechanical analysis, on which the characteristic of maximum load (N, stress at ultimate (MPa and maximum extension (mm were analyzed.Results:Swelling was observed within 72 hours postoperative. No fibrous adhesions were observed nor increase in transversal diameter of tendons. Animals with the exercised tendons, but not treated with laser therapy, presented lower (p=0.0000 locomotor capacity. No difference occurred be-tween groups for the biomechanical characteristics maximum load (p=0.4379, stress at ultimate (p=0.4605 and maximum extension (p=0.3820 evaluated, even considering healthy and contralateral tendons.Conclusion:The concomitant use of low-level laser and the eccentric exercise of downhill walking, starting 24 hours after surgically induced tendinopathy, do not result in a tendon with the same biomechanical resistance or elasticity

  17. Phorate-induced oxidative stress, DNA damage and transcriptional activation of p53 and caspase genes in male Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saquib, Quaiser; Attia, Sabry M.; Siddiqui, Maqsood A.; Aboul-Soud, Mourad A.M.; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.; Giesy, John P.; Musarrat, Javed

    2012-01-01

    Male Wistar rats exposed to a systemic organophosphorus insecticide, phorate [O,O-diethyl S-[(ethylthio) methyl] phosphorothioate] at varying oral doses of 0.046, 0.092 or 0.184 mg phorate/kg bw for 14 days, exhibited substantial oxidative stress, cellular DNA damage and activation of apoptosis-related p53, caspase 3 and 9 genes. The histopathological changes including the pyknotic nuclei, inflammatory leukocyte infiltrations, renal necrosis, and cardiac myofiber degeneration were observed in the liver, kidney and heart tissues. Biochemical analysis of catalase and glutathione revealed significantly lesser activities of antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation in tissues of phorate exposed rats. Furthermore, generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential in bone marrow cells confirmed phorate-induced oxidative stress. Significant DNA damage was measured through comet assay in terms of the Olive tail moment in bone marrow cells of treated animals as compared to control. Cell cycle analysis also demonstrated the G 2 /M arrest and appearance of a distinctive SubG 1 peak, which signified induction of apoptosis. Up-regulation of tumor suppressor p53 and caspase 3 and 9 genes, determined by quantitative real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, elucidated the activation of intrinsic apoptotic pathways in response to cellular stress. Overall, the results suggest that phorate induces genetic alterations and cellular toxicity, which can adversely affect the normal cellular functioning in rats. -- Highlights: ► This is the first report on molecular toxicity of phorate in an in vivo test system. ► Phorate induces biochemical and histological changes in liver, kidney and heart. ► Rats treated with phorate exhibited DNA damage in bone marrow cells. ► Phorate induces apoptosis, oxidative stress and alters mitochondrial fluorescence. ► Phorate induces transcriptional changes and enhanced activities of

  18. Phorate-induced oxidative stress, DNA damage and transcriptional activation of p53 and caspase genes in male Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saquib, Quaiser [Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Attia, Sabry M. [Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Siddiqui, Maqsood A. [Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Aboul-Soud, Mourad A.M. [Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, 12613 Giza (Egypt); Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A. [Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Giesy, John P. [Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biomedical and Veterinary Biosciences and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada S7N 5B3 (Canada); Zoology Department and Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824 (United States); Musarrat, Javed, E-mail: musarratj1@yahoo.com [Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, AMU, Aligarh (India)

    2012-02-15

    Male Wistar rats exposed to a systemic organophosphorus insecticide, phorate [O,O-diethyl S-[(ethylthio) methyl] phosphorothioate] at varying oral doses of 0.046, 0.092 or 0.184 mg phorate/kg bw for 14 days, exhibited substantial oxidative stress, cellular DNA damage and activation of apoptosis-related p53, caspase 3 and 9 genes. The histopathological changes including the pyknotic nuclei, inflammatory leukocyte infiltrations, renal necrosis, and cardiac myofiber degeneration were observed in the liver, kidney and heart tissues. Biochemical analysis of catalase and glutathione revealed significantly lesser activities of antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation in tissues of phorate exposed rats. Furthermore, generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential in bone marrow cells confirmed phorate-induced oxidative stress. Significant DNA damage was measured through comet assay in terms of the Olive tail moment in bone marrow cells of treated animals as compared to control. Cell cycle analysis also demonstrated the G{sub 2}/M arrest and appearance of a distinctive SubG{sub 1} peak, which signified induction of apoptosis. Up-regulation of tumor suppressor p53 and caspase 3 and 9 genes, determined by quantitative real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, elucidated the activation of intrinsic apoptotic pathways in response to cellular stress. Overall, the results suggest that phorate induces genetic alterations and cellular toxicity, which can adversely affect the normal cellular functioning in rats. -- Highlights: ► This is the first report on molecular toxicity of phorate in an in vivo test system. ► Phorate induces biochemical and histological changes in liver, kidney and heart. ► Rats treated with phorate exhibited DNA damage in bone marrow cells. ► Phorate induces apoptosis, oxidative stress and alters mitochondrial fluorescence. ► Phorate induces transcriptional changes and enhanced

  19. Lansoprazole increases testosterone metabolism and clearance in male Sprague-Dawley rats: implications for leydig cell carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulson, Michelle; Gibson, G. Gordon; Plant, Nick; Hammond, Tim; Graham, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Leydig cell tumours (LCTs) are frequently observed during rodent carcinogenicity studies, however, the significance of this effect to humans remains a matter of debate. Many chemicals that produce LCTs also induce hepatic cytochromes P450 (CYPs), but it is unknown whether these two phenomena are causally related. Our aim was to investigate the existence of a liver-testis axis wherein microsomal enzyme inducers enhance testosterone metabolic clearance, resulting in a drop in circulating hormone levels and a consequent hypertrophic response from the hypothalamic-pituitary-testis axis. Lansoprazole was selected as the model compound as it induces hepatic CYPs and produces LCTs in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with lansoprazole (150 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 14 days. Lansoprazole treatment produced effects on the liver consistent with an enhanced metabolic capacity, including significant increases in relative liver weights, total microsomal CYP content, individual CYP protein levels, and enhanced CYP-dependent testosterone metabolism in vitro. Following intravenous administration of [ 14 C]testosterone, lansoprazole-treated rats exhibited a significantly smaller area under the curve and significantly higher plasma clearance. Significant reductions in plasma and testicular testosterone levels were observed, confirming the ability of this compound to perturb androgen homeostasis. No significant changes in plasma LH, FSH, or prolactin levels were detected under our experimental conditions. Lansoprazole treatment exerted no marked effects on testicular testosterone metabolism. In summary, lansoprazole treatment induced hepatic CYP-dependent testosterone metabolism in vitro and enhanced plasma clearance of radiolabelled testosterone in vivo. These effects may contribute to depletion of circulating testosterone levels and hence play a role in the mode of LCT induction in lansoprazole-treated rats

  20. Cardiac oxidative stress following maternal separation stress was mitigated following adolescent voluntary exercise in adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahafi, Ehtramolsadat; Peeri, Maghsoud; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal; Azarbyjani, Mohammad Ali

    2018-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is known as a risk factor for the development of depression and its associated comorbidities, such as cardiomyopathy in depressed patients. Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of depression and cardiovascular diseases. Evidence indicates that regular physical activity has therapeutic effects on both mood and cardiovascular disorders. Therefore, the voluntary running wheel exercise (RW) during adolescence may be able to attenuate the negative impact of maternal separation stress (MS) as a valid animal model of depression on the behavior and cardiac mitochondrial function of adult rats. To do this, we applied MS to rat pups by separating them from their mothers for 180min during the postnatal day (PND) 2 to PND 14. Next, the animals were randomly divided into different treatment groups (fluoxetine [FLX] and RW) and received the treatments during adolescence, between PND 28 to PND 60. Then, we evaluated the effects of MS on the rat behaviors test, and finally, we assessed reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial glutathione, ATP and cytochrome c release in the cardiac tissue of animals. Our results showed that depressive-like behaviors following MS in adult male rats were associated with oxidative stress in cardiac tissue. Further, we found that treating animals with chronic FLX or RW during adolescence improved animal's behavior as well as cardiac mitochondrial function. The results of this study highlight the importance of adolescence as a period during which treating animals with non-pharmacological agents has significant protective effects against the negative influence of ELS on mood and cardiac energy hemostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sexual activity increases the number of newborn cells in the accessory olfactory bulb of male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy ePortillo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In rodents, sexual behavior depends on the adequate detection of sexually relevant stimuli. The olfactory bulb (OB is a region of the adult mammalian brain undergoing constant cell renewal by continuous integration of new granular and periglomerular neurons in the accessory (AOB and main (MOB olfactory bulbs. The proliferation, migration, survival, maturation, and integration of these new cells to the OB depend on the stimulus that the subjects received. We have previously shown that 15 days after females control (paced the sexual interaction an increase in the number of cells is observed in the AOB. No changes are observed in the number of cells when females are not allowed to control the sexual interaction. In the present study we investigated if in male rats sexual behavior increases the number of new cells in the OB. Male rats were divided in five groups: 1 males that did not receive any sexual stimulation, 2 males that were exposed to female odors, 3 males that mated for 1 h and could not pace their sexual interaction, 4 males that paced their sexual interaction and ejaculated 1 time and 5 males that paced their sexual interaction and ejaculated 3 times. All males received three injections of the DNA synthesis marker bromodeoxyuridine at 1h intervals, starting 1h before the beginning of the behavioral test. Fifteen days later, males were sacrificed and the brains were processed to identify new cells and to evaluate if they differentiated into neurons. The number of newborn cells increased in the granular cell layer (also known as the internal cell layer of the AOB in males that ejaculated one or three times controlling (paced the rate of the sexual interaction. Some of these new cells were identified as neurons. In contrast, no significant differences were found in the mitral cell layer (also known as the external cell layer and glomerular cell layer of the AOB. In addition, no significant differences were found between groups in the MOB in

  2. Taurine reverses sodium fluoride-mediated increase in inflammation, caspase-3 activity, and oxidative damage along the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedara, Isaac A; Olabiyi, Bolanle F; Ojuade, TeminiJesu D; Idris, Umar F; Onibiyo, Esther M; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2017-09-01

    Excessive exposure to fluoride is associated with male reproductive dysfunction in humans and animals. Taurine (2-aminoethane sulfonic acid) is a free intracellular β-amino acid with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties. However, the effect of taurine on fluoride-induced reproductive toxicity has not been reported. The present study investigated the influence of taurine on sodium fluoride (NaF)-induced functional changes along the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis in male rats. NaF was administered singly in drinking water at 15 mg·L -1 alone or orally co-administered by gavage with taurine at 100 and 200 mg·(kg body mass) -1 for 45 consecutive days. Results showed that taurine significantly prevented NaF-induced increase in oxidative stress indices as well as augmented antioxidant enzymes activities and glutathione level in the brain, testes, and epididymis of the treated rats. Moreover, taurine reversed NaF-induced elevation in inflammatory biomarkers and caspase-3 activity as well as histological damage in the brain, testes, and epididymis of the treated rats. The significant reversal of NaF-induced decreases in testosterone level and testicular activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase by taurine was accompanied by enhancement of sperm functional characteristics in the treated rats. Taurine may be a possible chemopreventive candidate against reproductive dysfunction resulting from fluoride exposure.

  3. Effect of Chinese traditional medicine anti-fatigue prescription on the concentration of the serum testosterone and cortisol in male rats under stress of maximum intensive training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Ling; Si Xulan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of chinese traditional medicine anti-fatigue prescription on the concentration of the serum testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) in male rats under the stress of maximum intensive training. Methods: Wistar male rat models of stress under maximum intensity training were established (n=40) and half of them were treated with Chinese traditional medicine anti-fatigue prescription twenty undisturbed rats served as controls. Testosterone and cortisol serum levels were determined with RIA at the end of the seven weeks' experiment. Results: Maximum intensive training would cause the level of the serum testosterone lowered, the concentration of the cortisol elevated and the ratio of T/C reduced. The serum T levels and T/C ratio were significantly lower and cortisol levels significantly higher in the untreated models than those in the treated models and controls (P<0.01). The levels of the two hormones were markedly corrected in the treated models with no significantly differences from those in the controls. However, the T/C ratio was still significantly lower than that in the controls (P <0.05) due to a relatively slightly greater degree of reduction of T levels. Conclusion: Anti-fatigue prescription can not only promote the recovery of fatigue after the maximum intensive training but also strengthen the anabolism of the rats. (authors)

  4. Enhaced D2-type receptor activity facilitates the development of conditioned same-sex partner preference in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibrian-Llanderal, Tamara; Rosas-Aguilar, Viridiana; Triana-Del Rio, Rodrigo; Perez, Cesar A; Manzo, Jorge; Garcia, Luis I; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2012-08-01

    Animal models have shown that the neural bases of social attachment, sexual preference and pair bonds, depend on dopamine D2-type receptor and oxytocin activity. In addition, studies have demonstrated that cohabitation can shape partner preference via conditioning. Herein, we used rats to explore the development of learned same-sex partner preferences in adulthood as a result of cohabitation during enhanced D2 activity. Experimental Wistar males (N=20), received saline or the D2 agonist (quinpirole) and were allowed to cohabitate during 24 h, with a stimulus male partner that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus. This was repeated every 4 days, for a total of three trials. Four days later they were drug-free tested for partner preference between the scented male partner and a sexually receptive female. Sexual partner preference was analyzed by measuring frequency and latency for appetitive and consummatory sexual behaviors, as well as non-contact erections. Social preference was also analyzed by measuring the frequency and latency of visits, body contacts and time spent together. Results indicated that only quinpirole-treated males displayed sexual and social preference for the scented male over the sexually receptive female. They spent more time together, displayed more body contacts, more female-like proceptive behaviors, and more non-contact erections. Accordingly, conditioned males appeared to be more sexually aroused and motivated by the known male than by a receptive female. We discuss the implications of this animal model on the formation of learned homosexual partner preferences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Copulation is reactivated by bromocriptine in male rats after reaching sexual satiety with a same sexual mate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Hernández, Jorge; Juárez, Jorge

    2015-11-01

    Male sexual satiety has been associated with a decrease in dopamine levels. Spontaneous recovery of copulatory behavior begins at least 72 h after sexual satiety is reached or in the condition in which a sexually-satiated male is exposed to a new receptive female distinct from the one with which sexual satiety was reached. The aim of the present study was to explore whether dopaminergic activation by bromocriptine (BrCr) can reactivate copulatory behavior with the same sexual mate immediately after sexual satiety is reached. Male rats were divided into three groups exposed to one of the following three conditions: 1) administration of 2 mg/kgs.c. of BrCr and exposure to the same female with whom sexual satiety was previously reached; 2) administration of 0.3 mLs.c. of the vehicle solution with exposure to the same female with whom sexual satiety was reached; and, 3) exposure to a new receptive female after sexual satiety was reached. Results showed that BrCr significantly reactivated copulatory capability in sexually-satiated males with the same receptive female. In contrast, no males in the vehicle group ejaculated with the same female after reaching sexual exhaustion. Copulation was reactivated by BrCr in a way similar to that observed in untreated males exposed to a new receptive female (i.e., the Coolidge effect). The reversal of sexual satiety in the males treated with BrCr could be explained by its action on D2 family receptors, which promotes a reactivation of sexual motivation at a level sufficient to allow renewed copulation with the same female mate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Leptin and glucocorticoid signaling pathways in the hypothalamus of female and male fructose-fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojnović-Milutinović Danijela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in leptin and glucocorticoid signaling pathways in the hypothalamus of male and female rats subjected to a fructose-enriched diet were studied. The level of expression of the key components of the leptin signaling pathway (neuropeptide Y /NPY/ and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 /SOCS3/, and the glucocorticoid signaling pathway (glucocorticoid receptor /GR/, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 /11βHSD1/ and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase /H6PDH/ did not differ between fructose-fed rats and control animals of both genders. However, in females, a fructose-enriched diet provoked increases in the adiposity index, plasma leptin and triglyceride concentrations, and displayed a tendency to decrease the leptin receptor (ObRb protein and mRNA levels. In male rats, the fructose diet caused elevations in plasma non-esterified fatty acids and triglycerides, as well as in both plasma and hypothalamic leptin concentrations. Our results suggest that a fructose-enriched diet can induce hyperleptinemia in both female and male rats, but with a more pronounced effect on hypothalamic leptin sensitivity in females, probably contributing to the observed development of visceral adiposity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41009

  7. Alterations of p75 neurotrophin receptor and Myelin transcription factor 1 in the hippocampus of perinatal phencyclidine treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jessica L; Newell, Kelly A; Matosin, Natalie; Huang, Xu-Feng; Fernandez-Enright, Francesca

    2015-12-03

    Postnatal administration of phencyclidine (PCP) in rodents causes major disturbances to neurological processes resulting in severe modifications to normal behavioral traits into adulthood. It is routinely used to model psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, producing many of the dysfunctional processes in the brain that are present in this devastating disorder, including elevated levels of apoptosis during neurodevelopment and disruptions to myelin and plasticity processes. Lingo-1 (or Leucine-rich repeat and immunoglobulin domain-containing protein) is responsible for negatively regulating neurite outgrowth and the myelination of axons. Recent findings using a postmortem human brain cohort showed that Lingo-1 signaling partners in the Nogo receptor (NgR)/p75/TNF receptor orphan Y (TROY) signaling complex, and downstream signaling partners With No Lysine (K) (WNK1) and Myelin transcription factor 1 (Myt1), play a significant part in schizophrenia pathophysiology. Here we have examined the implication of Lingo-1 and its signaling partners in a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia using PCP to determine if these pathways are altered in the hippocampus throughout different stages of neurodevelopment. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected subcutaneously with PCP (10mg/kg) or saline solution on postnatal days (PN) 7, 9, and 11. Rats (n=6/group) were sacrificed at PN12, 5weeks, or 14weeks. Relative expression levels of Lingo-1 signaling proteins were examined in the hippocampus of the treated rats. p75 and Myt1 were decreased (0.001≤p≤0.011) in the PCP treated rats at PN12. There were no significant changes in any of the tested proteins at 5weeks (p>0.05). At 14weeks, p75, TROY, and Myt1 were increased in the PCP treated rats (0.014≤p≤0.022). This is the first report of an alteration in Lingo-1 signaling proteins in the rat hippocampus, both directly after PCP treatment in early development and in adulthood. Based on our results, we propose that

  8. Effect of Acute Administration of loganin on Spatial Memory in Diabetic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisou Mohaddes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Diabetes is associated with memory and learning disorder. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of acute oral administration of loganin on memory in diabetic male rats. Methods: 42 male Wistar rats (250-300 g were divided into six groups: Control, Diabetic (1 week, Diabetic (12 weeks, Loganin, Diabetic (1 week + Loganin, Diabetic (12 weeks + Loganin. Diabetes was induced by IP injection of Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg. Loganin (40 mg/kg, po was administrated 1 hour before test. Then, spatial memory was compared between groups with Morris Water Maze tests. Results: Administration of loganin during acquisition, significantly (p<0.05 decreased both escape latency and traveled distance to find hidden platform in 1 and 12 weeks diabetic rats. In evaluation of recall phase of memory, loganin significantly (p<0.05 increased time and distance spent in the target quadrant in 1 and 12 weeks diabetic rats. Conclusion: Acute administration of loganin could improve spatial memory in diabetic rats.

  9. Lack of beneficial effect of activated charcoal in lead induced testicular toxicity in male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel James Offor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Lead is a multi-organ toxicant implicated in various diseases including testicular toxicity. In search of cheap and readily available antidote this study has investigated a beneficial role of activated charcoal in lead induced testicular toxicity in male albino rats. Materials and Method: Eighteen male albino rats were divided into three groups of six rats per group. Group 1 (control rats received deionised water (10 ml/kg, group 2 was given lead acetate solution 60 mg/kg and group 3 rats were given lead acetate (60 mg/kg followed by Activated charcoal, AC (1000 mg/kg by oral gavage daily for 28 days. Absolute and relative weights of testis, epididymal sperm reserve, testicular sperm count, percent sperm motility and percent sperm viability were monitored. Results: AC failed to show any significant beneficial effect in ameliorating lead induced testicular toxicity. Conclusions: There seem to be a poor adsorption on lead onto AC in vivo.

  10. Comparison between the Hypolipidemic Activity of Parsley and Carob in Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad A. El Rabey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is commonly associated with obesity that leads to heart diseases and diabetes. The hepatocardioprotective activity of parsley and carob methanol extract was tested in hypercholesterolemic male rats. Twenty-four male albino rats were divided into four groups (n=6. Group 1 was the negative control group fed with fat rich diet, group 2 (G2 was hypercholesterolemic rats fed with fat rich diet with 2% cholesterol, and group 3 and group 4 (G3 and G4 were hypercholesterolemic rats supplemented with 2% cholesterol and cotreated with 20% w/w parsley seed methanol extract and 20% w/w carob legume methanol extract, respectively. The experiment was conducted for eight weeks. The positive hypercholesterolemic rats showed significant increase in serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase-mb, liver function enzymes, and decrease in the high density lipoproteins (HDL. Moreover, heart and liver tissues were ameliorated and nearly restored their normal appearance. It could be concluded that both parsley and carob extracts supplementations have a protective effect against hyperlipidemia and improved the histological alteration in heart and liver tissues. The methanol extract of parsley appeared to be more efficient than that of carob in lowering hypercholesterolemia.

  11. Comparison between the Hypolipidemic Activity of Parsley and Carob in Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Seeni, Madeha N.; Al-Ghamdi, Habibah B.

    2017-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is commonly associated with obesity that leads to heart diseases and diabetes. The hepatocardioprotective activity of parsley and carob methanol extract was tested in hypercholesterolemic male rats. Twenty-four male albino rats were divided into four groups (n = 6). Group 1 was the negative control group fed with fat rich diet, group 2 (G2) was hypercholesterolemic rats fed with fat rich diet with 2% cholesterol, and group 3 and group 4 (G3 and G4) were hypercholesterolemic rats supplemented with 2% cholesterol and cotreated with 20% w/w parsley seed methanol extract and 20% w/w carob legume methanol extract, respectively. The experiment was conducted for eight weeks. The positive hypercholesterolemic rats showed significant increase in serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase-mb, liver function enzymes, and decrease in the high density lipoproteins (HDL). Moreover, heart and liver tissues were ameliorated and nearly restored their normal appearance. It could be concluded that both parsley and carob extracts supplementations have a protective effect against hyperlipidemia and improved the histological alteration in heart and liver tissues. The methanol extract of parsley appeared to be more efficient than that of carob in lowering hypercholesterolemia. PMID:29094044

  12. Biochemical studies on gamma irradiated male rats fed on whey protein concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, N.E; Anwar, M.M.; El-bostany, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study carried out to investigate the possible role of whey protein protein concentrate in ameliorating some biochemical disorders induced in gamma irradiated male rats. Forty eight male albino rats were divided into four equal groups: Group 1 fed on normal diet during experimental period. Group 2 where the diet contain 15 % whey protein concentrate instead of soybean protein . Group 3 rats were exposed to whole body gamma radiation with single dose of 5 Gy and fed on the normal diet. Group 4 rate exposed to 5 Gy then fed on diet contain 15 % whey protein concentrate, the rats were decapitated after two and four weeks post irradiation. Exposure to whole body irradiation caused significant elevation of serum ALT, AST, glucose, urea, creatinine and total triiodothyronine with significant decrease in total protein, albumin and thyroxin. Irradiated rats fed on whey protein concentrate revealed significant improvement of some biochemical parameters. It could be conclude that whey protein concentrate may be considered as a useful protein source for reducing radiation injury via metabolic pathway.

  13. Cypermethrin induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats: protective role of Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Poonam; Huq, Amir Ul; Singh, Rambir

    2013-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate role of ethanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris (EETT) against alpha-cypermethrin induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats. 24 male Wistar rats weighing about 250-300g were divided in four groups. Group-I was control. alpha-cypermethrin (3.38 mg kg-1b.wt.) was given to group-IlI for 28 days. In Group-Ill, alpha-cypermethrin and EETT (100 mg kg -1b.wt.) were administered in combination for 28 days. Rats in group-IV were given EETT for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed, testes and epididymis were removed and sperm characteristics, sex hormones and various biochemical parameters were studied. Decrease in weight of testes and epididymis, testicular sperm head count, sperm motility, live sperm count, serum testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), leutinizing hormone (LH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total protein content and increase in sperm abnormalities and lipid peroxidation (LPO) level was observed in rats exposed to cypermethrin. In combination group-Ill, EETT treatment ameliorated alpha-cypermethrin induced damage. EETT treatment in group-IV increased testes and epididymis weight, sperm head counts, sperm motility, live sperm counts, testosterone, FSH, LH, GSH, CAT, SOD, GST, GR, GPx and total protein content. The study suggested that Tribulus terrestris plant possess reproductive system enhancement and antioxidant activity.

  14. Effect of gibberellic acid on the quality of sperm and in vitro fertilization outcome in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Hosseinchi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gibberellic acid (GA3 is a group of plant hormones identified in various plants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of GA3 on sperm parameters and in vitro fertilization (IVF. Fifty six adult male rats were divided into seven groups as, control, treatment and sham. Following 15, 30 and 45 days of GA3 and methanol alcohol (MA administration, rats were euthanized and epididymis tail was transferred to human tubular fluid (HTF medium containing 4 mg mL-1 bovine serum albumin (BSA .Total number of sperms, the percentage of live sperms, immature sperms and sperms with damaged chromatin and IVF were examined. The oocytes were obtained from immature rats after the injection of pregnant mare's serum (PMSG and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG hormones. Human tubular fluid was used as the fertilization medium and zygotes transferred to fresh 1-cell rat embryos culture medium (mR1ECM to reach the blastocyst stage. This study showed that GA3 could decrease the number of total sperms on days 30 and 45 in treated group comparison with the control and sham groups. Additionally, GA3 increased the immature sperms and sperms with damaged chromatin. The percentage of fertilization, two-cell embryos and blastocyst resulting from the treatment group on days 30 and 45 also decreased and showed significant differences with the control and sham groups (p < 0.05. The results obtained from this study indicated that the oral use of GA3 could reduce the fertility in rats by influencing the sperm number and the quality of sperm’s chromatins.

  15. Sweet potato Ipomoea Batatas Modulates Radiation-induced Oxidative damage in Liver and kidney of Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, M. M.; Farag, M. F. S.; Osman, N. N.

    2010-01-01

    Sweet potato Ipomoea Batatas, one of the major vegetable crops consumed worldwide, is rich in phytochemicals, which displayed antioxidant activities. This work aims at assessing the radio-protective properties of sweet potato tubers on liver and kidney tissues. Male albino rats were whole body exposed to 0.5 Gy day after day for a period of 20 days. Animal received orally prepared aqueous extract of sweet potato tubers (100 mg kg/body weight), one week before irradiation and during the period of radiation exposure. The results demonstrated that irradiation of rats induced a significant increase in lipid peroxides level measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concomitant with a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activity and glutathione (GSH) content in liver and kidney tissues. Administration of a freshly prepared aqueous extract of sweet potato tubers to rats, one week pre-irradiation and during the period of radiation exposure has significantly of ameliorated the oxidative stress in both tissues. The significant amelioration in oxidative stress was substantiated by improvement of liver and kidney enzymes Treatment of rats with sweet potato has significantly reduced the increase in serum alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, serum creatinine and urea levels. Furthermore, hyperglycemia and alteration in lipid profile manifested by a significant increase in triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and a significant decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), were improved in sweet potato-treated irradiated rats compared to those only irradiated. According to the results obtained in the present study, it could be concluded that sweet potato through its antioxidant activities could protect cellular membrane from radiation induced oxidative damage in animals and preserve the

  16. β3-Adrenergic receptors, adipokines and neuroendocrine activation during stress induced by repeated immune challenge in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csanova, Agnesa; Hlavacova, Natasa; Hasiec, Malgorzata; Pokusa, Michal; Prokopova, Barbora; Jezova, Daniela

    2017-05-01

    The main hypothesis of the study is that stress associated with repeated immune challenge has an impact on β 3 -adrenergic receptor gene expression in the brain. Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with increasing doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for five consecutive days. LPS treatment was associated with body weight loss and increased anxiety-like behavior. In LPS-treated animals of both sexes, β 3 -receptor gene expression was increased in the prefrontal cortex but not the hippocampus. LPS treatment decreased β 3 -receptor gene expression in white adipose tissue with higher values in males compared to females. In the adipose tissue, LPS reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, leptin and adiponectin gene expression, but increased interleukin-6 expression, irrespective of sex. Repeated immune challenge resulted in increased concentrations of plasma aldosterone and corticosterone with higher values of corticosterone in females compared to males. Concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in plasma were unaffected by LPS, while DHEA levels in the frontal cortex were lower in the LPS-treated animals compared to the controls. Thus, changes of DHEA levels in the brain take place irrespective of the changes of this neurosteroid in plasma. We have provided the first evidence on stress-induced increase in β 3 -adrenergic receptor gene expression in the brain. Greater reduction of β 3 -adrenergic receptor expression in the adipose tissue and of the body weight gain by repeated immune challenge in male than in female rats suggests sex differences in the role of β 3 -adrenergic receptors in the metabolic functions. LPS-induced changes in adipose tissue regulatory factors and hormone concentrations might be important for coping with chronic infections.

  17. Acute and chronic dosing of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on male rat sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Aaron; Gravitt, Karla; Carson, Culley C; Marson, Lesley

    2007-03-01

    The use of natural remedies for the treatment of sexual disorders is under current investigation. For generations people of the rural community in Peru have used Lepidium meyenii Walpers (Maca), because of their belief that it improves fertility and sexual desire. To determine the acute and chronic effects of Maca on male sexual behavior and to examine chronic administration of Maca on anxiety. Ejaculatory and mounting behavior and postejaculatory interval. Anxiety tests using an elevated plus maze, locomotion, and social interaction with another male. Maca (25 and 100 mg/kg) was orally administered to male rats for 30 days. Male sexual behavior was monitored after acute, 7 and 21 days of treatment. Anxiety behavior and locomotion were measured at 28-29 days using the elevated plus maze and social interaction tests. Maca treatment did not produce large changes in male sexual behavior. However, an increase in ejaculation latency and postejaculatory interval was observed after both acute and 7 days of treatment. After 21 days of treatment Maca had no effect on sexual behavior. Chronic administration of Maca did not increase locomotion or anxiety. Acute and short-term administration of Maca produced a small effect of rat male sexual behavior and long-term administration did not increase anxiety.

  18. Dielectric parameters of blood plasma of rats treated with cerium-144 and external irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzhidekova, E.; Kiradzhiev, G.; Paskalev, Z.; Miloslavov, V.

    1988-01-01

    Investigation was carried out of the dielectric parameters of blood plasma of male Wistar rats treated with cerium 144 in doses of 370 kBq/animal and external gamma irradiation in doses of 200 cGy and 400 cGy. The radioactive cerium was introduced intraperitoneally 1 h after the external irradiation with dose rate of 1,6 cGy/sec. The permittivity ε, the time of relaxation τ and the coefficient of Debaye κ of plasma protein molecules were determined at the 1st, 3rd, 10th, 15th, and 30th days after treatement for frequence ranges of 1,4, 2,2, 3,6 and 6 MHz. At the same terms the content of cerium 144 was measured in the organs of predilectional accumulation of cerium. It was established that the treatment only with cerium lead to most essential changes of dielectric parameters at frequence of 3,6 MHz. The external irradiation didn't influence essentially the kinetics of absorbed cerium. In combination of both radiation factors the action of cerium was predominant

  19. Xanthohumol lowers body weight and fasting plasma glucose in obese male Zucker fa/fa rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legette, Leecole L; Luna, Arlyn Y Moreno; Reed, Ralph L; Miranda, Cristobal L; Bobe, Gerd; Proteau, Rosita R; Stevens, Jan F

    2013-07-01

    Obesity contributes to increased risk for several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Xanthohumol, a prenylated flavonoid from hops (Humulus lupulus), was tested for efficacy on biomarkers of metabolic syndrome in 4 week old Zucker fa/fa rats, a rodent model of obesity. Rats received daily oral doses of xanthohumol at 0, 1.86, 5.64, and 16.9 mg/kg BW for 6 weeks. All rats were maintained on a high fat (60% kcal) AIN-93G diet for 3 weeks to induce severe obesity followed by a normal AIN-93G (15% kcal fat) diet for the last 3 weeks of the study. Weekly food intake and body weight were recorded. Plasma cholesterol, glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels were assessed using commercial assay kits. Plasma and liver tissue levels of XN and its metabolites were determined by liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma and liver tissue levels of xanthohumol were similar between low and medium dose groups and significantly (peffect on body weight and plasma glucose levels. The highest dose group (n=6) had significantly lower plasma glucose levels compared to the control group (n=6) in male but not female rats. There was also a significant decrease in body weight for male rats in the highest dose group (16.9 mg/kg BW) compared to rats that received no xanthohumol, which was also not seen for female rats. Plasma cholesterol, insulin, triglycerides, and MCP-1 as well as food intake were not affected by treatment. The findings suggest that xanthohumol has beneficial effects on markers of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Functional assessments and histopathology of hepatorenal tissues of rats treated with raw and processed herbs

    OpenAIRE

    Ojiako, Okey A.; Chikezie, Paul C.; Ukairo, Doris I.; Ibegbulem, Chiedozie O.; Nwaoguikpe, Reginald N.

    2017-01-01

    The present study ascertained the functional integrity of hepatic and renal tissues, concurrently with blood lipid patterns, of Wistar rats infused with CCl4 and treated with raw and hydrothermal processed herbs, namely, Monodora myristica, Chromolaena odorata, Buccholzia coriacea and Sphenostylis stenocarpa. Measurement of phytochemical contents of the herbs was according to standard methods. The rats were randomly designated on the bases of diets and treatments received for 28 consecutive d...

  1. Cytogenetic changes in the liver of progeny of irradiated male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropacova, K.; Slovinska, L.; Misurova, E. [P.J. Safarik Univ., Kosice (Slovakia)

    2002-06-01

    The transgenerational transmission of radiation damage of rat genom was studied on the basis of cytogenetic changes in somatic cells (hepatocytes). It was found, that the irradiation of rat males with dose of 3 Gy of gamma radiation caused latent cytogenetic damage to the liver, which was expressed during the course of an induced proliferation of hepatocytes (by partial hepatectomy) by lower proliferative activity and a high frequency of chromosomal aberrations. In the progeny of irradiated males (in the F{sub 1} generation), the radiation damage to DNA was manifested by similar changes, i.e. by lower proliferation activity and increase in ''spontaneous'' chromosomal aberration occurrence in liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. Irradiating the progeny of irradiated males (the total radiation load of the progeny being 3 Gy+3 Gy) caused slighter changes in compared with irradiating the progeny of non-irradiated control males (the total radiation load of the progeny being 0 Gy+3 Gy), which suggests some kind of adaptive response, which was also found in other experimental systems and parameters. An analogous course of RNA and DNA quantitative changes in the liver of the F{sub 0} and F{sub 1} generations of rats confirms the partial transmission of radiation damage of genom to the progeny. (author)

  2. Multigeneration reproduction and male developmental toxicity studies on atrazine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSesso, John M; Scialli, Anthony R; White, Tacey E K; Breckenridge, Charles B

    2014-06-01

    Reproductive toxicity of Atrazine (ATR) was evaluated in two rat multigenerational studies. Development of male reproductive parameters was evaluated in separate studies after prenatal or postnatal exposure. In multigenerational studies, rats received dietary concentrations of 0, 10, 50, 100 or 500 ppm ATR. In separate studies in female rats, ATR was administered by gavage at 0, 1, 5, 25 or 125 mg/kg/day during pregnancy (GD6-21) or lactation (LD2-21). Plasma testosterone concentration, testicular and epididymal weights, and sperm counts were measured in male offspring on PND70 and 170. In the multigenerational studies, parental systemic toxicity occurred at 500 ppm (38.7 mg/kg/day), but reproductive endpoints were unaffected. In the prenatal study, maternal toxicity and embryo-fetal mortality occurred at 125 mg/kg/day. In male offspring, testosterone levels and sperm counts were unaffected, although the percentage of abnormal sperm increased at 125 mg/kg/day (PND 70) and 25 mg/kg/day (PND170). In the postnatal study, maternal toxicity and reduced body weights of male offspring occurred at 125 mg/kg/day. Additionally, reduced testicular (PND70, PND170) and epididymal (PND70) weights and increased numbers of abnormal sperm (PND70, PND170) were seen, but no changes in plasma testosterone or sperm counts. Dietary administration of ATR did not affect rat reproduction up to a parentally toxic dose of 38.7 mg/kg/day. Some effects on male reproductive system development occurred after high dose, bolus administration to dams, but doses were much higher than expected under normal use conditions. Thus, oral RfDs for ATR would be protective for reproductive effects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Comparison of Analgesic and Hypoglycemic Effect of Hexanic and Alcohlic Extract of Fenugreek Seed in Male Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Nasri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Diabetes mellitus is recognized with severe metabolic complications. Many herbal medicines have been recommended for treatment of diabetes. In this study, the antidiabetic and analgesic effect of hexanic and alcohlic extract Trigonella-foenum graecum was investigated in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  Methods: Present study was carried out in 2011 at Guilan University of Medical Sciences, 48 male Sprague Dawley rats (230-300 gr were divided into six groups: control, type 1 diabetic, and 4 treat ed groups that received intraperitonealy hexanic and alcoholic extract of fenugreek (100, 200 mg/kg body weight for 28 days. Two experimental models were used (acetic acid, and hot-plate tests in order to characterize the analgesic effect. Blood glucose was measured with glucometer. Data analyzed with spss software 16 and one way ANOVA and Tukey tests. P<0.05 was statistically significant.  Results: Compared to control rats, both of the aqueous - alcoholic and Hexan ic extract significantly reduced blood glucose level in all diabetics groups. This effect was stronger in groups that received Hexanic extract (p<0.05 . All groups received the aqueous - alcoholic and Hexan ic extract showed analgesic effect but this effect was more clear in the Hexanic 200 mg/kg group (p<0.05.  Conclusion: Fenugreek extract possesses hypoglycemic , and analgesic effects .

  4. Prophylactic effect of coconut water (Cocos nucifera L. on ethylene glycol induced nephrocalcinosis in male wistar rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gandhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Many medicinal plants have been employed during ages to treat urinary stones though the rationale behind their use is not well established. Thus, the present study was proposed to evaluate the effect of coconut water as a prophylactic agent in experimentally induced nephrolithiasis in a rat model. Materials and Methods The male Wistar rats were divided randomly into three groups. Animals of group I (control were fed standard rat diet. In group II, the animals were administrated 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for the induction of nephrolithiasis. Group III animals were administrated coconut water in addition to ethylene glycol. All the treatments were continued for a total duration of seven weeks. Results and Conclusion Treatment with coconut water inhibited crystal deposition in renal tissue as well as reduced the number of crystals in urine. Furthermore, coconut water also protected against impaired renal function and development of oxidative stress in the kidneys. The results indicate that coconut water could be a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis.

  5. Prolactin release, oestrogens and proliferation of prolactin-secreting cells in the anterior pituitary gland of adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, R L; Machiavelli, G A; Romano, M I; Burdman, J A

    1986-03-01

    Relationships among the release of prolactin, the effect of oestrogens and the proliferation of prolactin-secreting cells were studied under several experimental conditions. Administration of sulpiride or oestradiol released prolactin and stimulated cell proliferation in the anterior pituitary gland of adult male rats. Clomiphene completely abolished the rise in cell proliferation, but did not interfere with the sulpiride-induced release of prolactin. Treatment with oestradiol plus sulpiride significantly increased serum prolactin concentrations and the mitotic index compared with the sum of the stimulation produced by both drugs separately. Bromocriptine abolished the stimulatory effect of oestradiol on the serum prolactin concentration and on cell proliferation. In oestradiol- and/or sulpiride-treated rats, 80% of the cells in mitoses were lactotrophs. The remaining 20% did not stain with antisera against any of the pituitary hormones. The number of prolactin-secreting cells in the anterior pituitary gland significantly increased after the administration of oestradiol or sulpiride. The results demonstrate that treatment with sulpiride and/or oestradiol increases the proliferation and the number of lactotrophs in the anterior pituitary gland of the rat.

  6. Vitex agnus-castus essential oil affects thyroid C cells and bone metabolism in middle-aged male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Jasmina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ageing in men is accompanied by an increased occurrence of osteoporosis, but traditional hormonal replacement therapy elevates the risk of developing endocrine cancer. Vitex agnus-castus L. (Vac essential oil is commonly used as an alternative therapy for ageing symptoms in both men and women. It is known that calcitonin (CT, thyroid C cell hormone, inhibits bone resorption. The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the influence of Vac essential oil administration on the immunohistomorphometric features of thyroid C cells and bone metabolism in 16-month-old male Wistar rats. The first group of animals (n=8 was treated subcutaneously (s.c. with 60 mg/kg of Vac essential oil once a day for 3 weeks. Control animals (n=8 received sterile olive oil s.c. by the same schedule. After Vac treatment significant increases (p<0.05 were found in the volume of C cells (by 10% and serum CT level (by 27% compared with the controls. Serum osteocalcin (OC and calcium (Ca2+ levels were 31% and 8% lower (p<0.05 respectively, in comparison with the control group. These are the first experimental results suggesting that Vac essential oil stimulates thyroid C cells activity and decreases bone turnover in middle-aged male rats. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173009

  7. Probable gamma-aminobutyric acid involvement in bisphenol A effect at the hypothalamic level in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Nancy; Pandolfi, Matías; Lavalle, Justina; Carbone, Silvia; Ponzo, Osvaldo; Scacchi, Pablo; Reynoso, Roxana

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on the neuroendocrine mechanism of control of the reproductive axis in adult male rats exposed to it during pre- and early postnatal periods. Wistar mated rats were treated with either 0.1% ethanol or BPA in their drinking water until their offspring were weaned at the age of 21 days. The estimated average dose of exposure to dams was approximately 2.5 mg/kg body weight per day of BPA. After 21 days, the pups were separated from the mother and sacrificed on 70 day of life. Gn-RH and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release from hypothalamic fragments was measured. LH, FSH, and testosterone concentrations were determined, and histological and morphometrical studies of testis were performed. Gn-RH release decreased significantly, while GABA serum levels were markedly increased by treatment. LH serum levels showed no changes, and FSH and testosterone levels decreased significantly. Histological studies showed abnormalities in the tubular organization of the germinal epithelium. The cytoarchitecture of germinal cells was apparently normal, and a reduction of the nuclear area of Leydig cells but not their number was observed. Taken all together, these results provide evidence of the effect caused by BPA on the adult male reproductive axis when exposed during pre- and postnatal period. Moreover, our findings suggest a probable GABA involvement in its effect at the hypothalamic level.

  8. Biological effects of pesticides on rats treated with carbon tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Kader, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of repeated oral doses of the organophosphorus pesticide, cytrolane on normal and pretreated rate with different oral doses of carbon tetrachloride. For that purpose the effect of cytrolane, CCl 4 and their potential interaction had been studied on brain and erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (Ache), plasma cholinesterase (Ch E), liver succinic dehydrogenase (SDH), serum alkaline phosphatase (SAP), liver succinic dehydrogenas (SDH), serum alkaline phosphatase (SAP), glutamic oxaloacetic (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic (GPT) transaminases. It also investigates the effect of an acute oral dose of cytrolane at short time intervals (1/2-24 hours) on brain and blood ache of normal and pretreated rate with a single oral dose of CCl 4 . The distribution and excretion of 1 4cc1 4 at different time intervals (2,6 and 24 hours) in normal rats and in rats pretreated with o.89 mg cytrolane/kg/day for a week had been determined in different organs, expired air, urine and faeces

  9. Liver Gene Expression Profiles of Rats Treated with Clofibric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Cécile; Desdouets, Chantal; Sacre-Salem, Béatrice; Gautier, Jean-Charles; Roberts, Ruth; Boitier, Eric

    2003-01-01

    Clofibric acid (CLO) is a peroxisome proliferator (PP) that acts through the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α, leading to hepatocarcinogenesis in rodents. CLO-induced hepatocarcinogenesis is a multi-step process, first transforming normal liver cells into foci. The combination of laser capture microdissection (LCM) and genomics has the potential to provide expression profiles from such small cell clusters, giving an opportunity to understand the process of cancer development in response to PPs. To our knowledge, this is the first evaluation of the impact of the successive steps of LCM procedure on gene expression profiling by comparing profiles from LCM samples to those obtained with non-microdissected liver samples collected after a 1 month CLO treatment in the rat. We showed that hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and laser microdissection itself do not impact on RNA quality. However, the overall process of the LCM procedure affects the RNA quality, resulting in a bias in the gene profiles. Nonetheless, this bias did not prevent accurate determination of a CLO-specific molecular signature. Thus, gene-profiling analysis of microdissected foci, identified by H&E staining may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogenesis in the rat by allowing identification of specific genes that are regulated by CLO in early pre-neoplastic foci. PMID:14633594

  10. Charge effect of a liposomal delivery system encapsulating simvastatin to treat experimental ischemic stroke in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos-Martorell M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mireia Campos-Martorell,1 Mary Cano-Sarabia,2 Alba Simats,1 Mar Hernández-Guillamon,1 Anna Rosell,1 Daniel Maspoch,2,3 Joan Montaner1,4 1Neurovascular Research Laboratory, Institut de Recerca Vall d’Hebron, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, 2Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2, CSIC and The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, 3Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA, 4Neurovascular Unit, Department of Neurology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Hospital Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona, Spain Background and aims: Although the beneficial effects of statins on stroke have been widely demonstrated both in experimental studies and in clinical trials, the aim of this study is to prepare and characterize a new liposomal delivery system that encapsulates simvastatin to improve its delivery into the brain. Materials and methods: In order to select the optimal liposome lipid composition with the highest capacity to reach the brain, male Wistar rats were submitted to sham or transitory middle cerebral arterial occlusion (MCAOt surgery and treated (intravenous [IV] with fluorescent-labeled liposomes with different net surface charges. Ninety minutes after the administration of liposomes, the brain, blood, liver, lungs, spleen, and kidneys were evaluated ex vivo using the Xenogen IVIS® Spectrum imaging system to detect the load of fluorescent liposomes. In a second substudy, simvastatin was assessed upon reaching the brain, comparing free and encapsulated simvastatin (IV administration. For this purpose, simvastatin levels in brain homogenates from sham or MCAOt rats at 2 hours or 4 hours after receiving the treatment were detected through ultra-high-protein liquid chromatography. Results: Whereas positively charged liposomes were not detected in brain or plasma 90 minutes after their administration, neutral and negatively charged liposomes

  11. In vitro and in vivo aphrodisiac properties of the seed extract from Allium tuberosum on corpus cavernosum smooth muscle relaxation and sexual behavior parameters in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xingli; Olatunji, Opeyemi J; Zhou, Yifeng; Hou, Xilin

    2017-12-01

    Allium tuberosum is a well-known spice as well as a herb in traditional Chinese medicine, used for increasing libido and treating erectile dysfunction. However, not many studies have been done to evaluate the sexual enhancing properties of A. tuberosum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the aphrodisiac and vasorelaxant properties of A. tuberosum on corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM) as well as checking the effect on enhancing male rat sexual behavior, libido, potency as well as its spermatogenic properties. The seeds were powdered and sequentially extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and butanol. Male Wistar rats were administered with graded doses of the n-BuOH extracts (ATB) of A. tuberosum (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) and Viagra was used as the positive control drug. The extract/drug was administered by gastric probe once daily for 45 days and the sexual behavior was analyzed by exposing the male rats to female rats in the estrus period. ATB relaxed corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (68.9%) at a concentration of 200 μg/ml. The results obtained from the animal studies indicated that ATB significantly increased mount frequency (MF), intromission frequency (IF), ejaculation frequency (EF), ejaculation latency (EL) and markedly reduced post ejaculatory interval (PEI), mount latency (ML), and intromission latency (IL). Furthermore, a remarkable increase in the test for potency was observed as witnessed by marked increase in erections, quick flips, long flips and total reflex. In addition, ATB significantly improved the sperm viability and count as well as increased the concentrations of testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and phosphatases in the treated animals. Thus our results suggest that A. tuberosum could stimulate sexual arousal and enhance sexual execution in male rats, thus providing valuable experimental evidence that A. tuberosum possesses sexual enhancing properties.

  12. Maternal exposure to anti-androgenic compounds, vinclozolin, flutamide and procymidone, has no effects on spermatogenesis and DNA methylation in male rats of subsequent generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inawaka, Kunifumi; Kawabe, Mayumi; Takahashi, Satoru; Doi, Yuko; Tomigahara, Yoshitaka; Tarui, Hirokazu; Abe, Jun; Kawamura, Satoshi; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2009-01-01

    To verify whether anti-androgens cause transgenerational effects on spermatogenesis and DNA methylation in rats, gravid Crl:CD(SD) female rats (4 or 5/group, gestational day (GD) 0 = day sperm detected) were intraperitoneally treated with anti-androgenic compounds, such as vinclozolin (100 mg/kg/day), procymidone (100 mg/kg/day), or flutamide (10 mg/kg/day), from GD 8 to GD 15. Testes were collected from F1 male pups at postnatal day (PND) 6 for DNA methylation analysis of the region (210 bp including 7 CpG sites) within the lysophospholipase gene by bisulfite DNA sequencing method. F0 and F1 males underwent the sperm analysis (count, motility and morphology), followed by DNA methylation analysis of the sperm. Remaining F1 males were cohabited with untreated-females to obtain F2 male pups for subsequent DNA methylation analysis of the testes at PND 6. These analyses showed no effects on spermatogenesis and fertility in F1 males of any treatment group. DNA methylation status in testes (F1 and F2 pups at PND 6) or sperms (F1 males at 13 weeks old) of the treatment groups were comparable to the control at all observation points, although DNA methylation rates in testes were slightly lower than those in sperm. In F0 males, no abnormalities in the spermatogenesis, fertility and DNA methylation status of sperm were observed. No transgenerational abnormalities of spermatogenesis and DNA methylation status caused by anti-androgenic compounds were observed.

  13. Maternal exposure to anti-androgenic compounds, vinclozolin, flutamide and procymidone, has no effects on spermatogenesis and DNA methylation in male rats of subsequent generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inawaka, Kunifumi; Kawabe, Mayumi; Takahashi, Satoru; Doi, Yuko; Tomigahara, Yoshitaka; Tarui, Hirokazu; Abe, Jun; Kawamura, Satoshi; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2009-06-01

    To verify whether anti-androgens cause transgenerational effects on spermatogenesis and DNA methylation in rats, gravid Crl:CD(SD) female rats (4 or 5/group, gestational day (GD) 0=day sperm detected) were intraperitoneally treated with anti-androgenic compounds, such as vinclozolin (100 mg/kg/day), procymidone (100 mg/kg/day), or flutamide (10 mg/kg/day), from GD 8 to GD 15. Testes were collected from F1 male pups at postnatal day (PND) 6 for DNA methylation analysis of the region (210 bp including 7 CpG sites) within the lysophospholipase gene by bisulfite DNA sequencing method. F0 and F1 males underwent the sperm analysis (count, motility and morphology), followed by DNA methylation analysis of the sperm. Remaining F1 males were cohabited with untreated-females to obtain F2 male pups for subsequent DNA methylation analysis of the testes at PND 6. These analyses showed no effects on spermatogenesis and fertility in F1 males of any treatment group. DNA methylation status in testes (F1 and F2 pups at PND 6) or sperms (F1 males at 13 weeks old) of the treatment groups were comparable to the control at all observation points, although DNA methylation rates in testes were slightly lower than those in sperm. In F0 males, no abnormalities in the spermatogenesis, fertility and DNA methylation status of sperm were observed. No transgenerational abnormalities of spermatogenesis and DNA methylation status caused by anti-androgenic compounds were observed.

  14. Acute gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment enhances extinction memory in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, L Y; Taha, M B; Cover, K K; Glynn, S S; Murillo, M; Lebron-Milad, K; Milad, M R

    2017-08-01

    Leuprolide acetate (LEU), also known as Lupron, is commonly used to treat prostate cancer in men. As a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor agonist, it initially stimulates the release of gonadal hormones, testosterone (T) and estradiol. This surge eventually suppresses these hormones, preventing the further growth and spread of cancer cells. Individuals receiving this treatment often report anxiety and cognitive changes, but LEU's effects on the neural mechanisms that are involved in anxiety during the trajectory of treatment are not well known. In this study, we examined the acute effects of LEU on fear extinction, hypothesizing that increased T levels following a single administration of LEU will facilitate extinction recall by altering neuronal activity within the fear extinction circuitry. Two groups of naïve adult male rats underwent a 3-day fear conditioning, extinction, and recall experiment. The delayed group (n=15) received a single injection of vehicle or LEU (1.2mg/kg) 3weeks before behavioral testing. The acute group (n=25) received an injection one day after fear conditioning, 30min prior to extinction training. Following recall, the brains for all animals were collected for c-fos immunohistochemistry. Blood samples were also collected and assayed for T levels. Acute administration of LEU increased serum T levels during extinction training and enhanced extinction recall 24h later. This enhanced extinction memory was correlated with increased c-fos activity within the infralimbic cortex and amygdala, which was not observed in the delayed group. These results suggest that the elevation in T induced by acute administration of LEU can influence extinction memory consolidation, perhaps through modification of neuronal activity within the infralimbic cortex and amygdala. This may be an important consideration in clinical applications of LEU and its effects on anxiety and cognition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Beneficial effects of exercise training in heart failure are lost in male diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudia, Dalila; Domergue, Valérie; Mateo, Philippe; Fazal, Loubina; Prud'homme, Mathilde; Prigent, Héloïse; Delcayre, Claude; Cohen-Solal, Alain; Garnier, Anne; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Samuel, Jane-Lise

    2017-12-01

    Exercise training has been demonstrated to have beneficial effects in patients with heart failure (HF) or diabetes. However, it is unknown whether diabetic patients with HF will benefit from exercise training. Male Wistar rats were fed either a standard (Sham, n = 53) or high-fat, high-sucrose diet ( n = 66) for 6 mo. After 2 mo of diet, the rats were already diabetic. Rats were then randomly subjected to either myocardial infarction by coronary artery ligation (MI) or sham operation. Two months later, heart failure was documented by echocardiography and animals were randomly subjected to exercise training with treadmill for an additional 8 wk or remained sedentary. At the end, rats were euthanized and tissues were assayed by RT-PCR, immunoblotting, spectrophotometry, and immunohistology. MI induced a similar decrease in ejection fraction in diabetic and lean animals but a higher premature mortality in the diabetic group. Exercise for 8 wk resulted in a higher working power developed by MI animals with diabetes and improved glycaemia but not ejection fraction or pathological phenotype. In contrast, exercise improved the ejection fraction and increased adaptive hypertrophy after MI in the lean group. Trained diabetic rats with MI were nevertheless able to develop cardiomyocyte hypertrophy but without angiogenic responses. Exercise improved stress markers and cardiac energy metabolism in lean but not diabetic-MI rats. Hence, following HF, the benefits of exercise training on cardiac function are blunted in diabetic animals. In conclusion, exercise training only improved the myocardial profile of infarcted lean rats fed the standard diet. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Exercise training is beneficial in patients with heart failure (HF) or diabetes. However, less is known of the possible benefit of exercise training for HF patients with diabetes. Using a rat model where both diabetes and MI had been induced, we showed that 2 mo after MI, 8 wk of exercise training failed to improve

  16. Phenolic extract of Parkia biglobosa fruit pulp stalls aflatoxin B1 – mediated oxidative rout in the liver of male rats

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    Taofeek O. Ajiboye

    Full Text Available The effect of phenolic extract of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. R. Br. ex G. Don, Fabaceae, pulp on aflatoxin B1 induced oxidative imbalance in rat liver was evaluated. Thirty-five male rats were randomized into seven groups of five animals each. Rats in group A served as control and received vehicle for drug administration (0.5% DMSO once daily at 24 h intervals for six weeks. Rats in groups B, D, E, F and G, received aflatoxin B1 (167 μg/kg body weight in 0.5% DMSO for three weeks, starting from the third week of the experimental period. Rats in Group C received 400 mg/kg bodyweight of the extract for six weeks, while groups D, E and F rats were treated with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg bodyweight of the extract for six weeks respectively. Group G rats received 100 mg/kg body weight of vitamin C. Aflatoxin B1-mediated decrease in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were significantly attenuated. Aflatoxin B1 mediated the elevation in malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl, and significantly lowered DNA fragmentation percentage. Overall, the phenolic extract of P. biglobosa pulp stalls aflatoxin B1-mediated oxidative rout by enhancing antioxidant enzyme activities leading to decreased lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and DNA fragmentation.

  17. The cytoskeleton of digitonin-treated rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiskum, G; Craig, S W; Decker, G L; Lehninger, A L

    1980-06-01

    Treatment of isolated rat hepatocptes with low concentrations of digitonin increases the permeability of the plsma membrane to cytosolic proteins without causing release of organelles such as mitochondria into the surrounding medium. Electron microscopy showed that treatment of the cells with increasing concentations of digitonin results in a progressive loss in the continuity of the plasma membrane, while most other aspects of cellular morphology remain normal. Depletion of background staining material from the cytosol by digitonin treatment of the cells greatly enhances the visualization of the cytoskeleton. The use of this technique, together with immunofluorescent light microscopy, has verified the presence of an actin-containing filamentous network at the hepatocyte cortex as well as intermediate filaments distributed throughout the cell. Digitonin is thus useful both for selectively permeabilizing the plasma membrane and for intensifying the appearance of intracellular structures such as microfilaments that are normally difficult to observe in cells such as hepatocytes.

  18. Follow up of acute gonococcal urethritis in males treated with norfloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chari KVR

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available This subject was undertaken to confirm the efficacy of norfloxacin in acute gonorrhoea and to note the relapse if any during the follow up period of 3 months. 27 male patients suffering from acute gonorrhoea were treated with 800 mgs of norfloxacin as single oral dose. In all cases, gonococci disappeared from urethral smears by 8 hours, urethral discharge subsided by 72 hrs, urine on naked eye examination cleared in 4 days except in 1 case and burning micturition subsided by 7 days. Cure rate was 100% in the study. No relapse was found at the end of follow up of 3 months. No adverse reactions were observed to norfloxacin except headache in 2 cases. Norfloxacin was safe and effective in the treatment of acute gonorrhoea.

  19. Oxytocin differentially affects sucrose taking and seeking in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Luyi; Ghee, Shannon M; See, Ronald E; Reichel, Carmela M

    2015-04-15

    Oxytocin has a modulatory role in natural and drug reward processes. While the role of oxytocin in pair bonding and reproduction has been extensively studied, sex differences in conditioned and unconditioned behavioral responses to oxytocin treatment have not been fully characterized. Here, we determined whether male and female rats would show similar dose response curves in response to acute oxytocin on measures of locomotor activity, sucrose seeking, and sucrose intake. Male and freely cycling female rats received vehicle or oxytocin (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3mg/kg, IP) injections before behavioral tests designed to assess general motor activity, as well as sucrose self-administration and seeking. Lower doses of oxytocin decreased motor activity in a novel environment in females relative to males. Likewise, lower doses of oxytocin in females decreased responding for sucrose during maintenance of sucrose self-administration and reinstatement to sucrose-conditioned cues. However, sucrose seeking in response to a sucrose prime was only decreased by the highest oxytocin dose in both sexes. In general, oxytocin had similar effects in both sexes. However, females were more sensitive to lower doses of oxytocin than males. These findings are consistent with the notion that oxytocin regulates many of the same behaviors in males and females, but that the effects are typically more profound in females. Therapeutic use of oxytocin should include sex as a factor in determining dose regimens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Role of Antioxidants in Biochemical Disorders Induced by Arsenic in Adult male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanin, M.M.; Zaki, Z.T.; Emarah, E.A.M.; Hussein, A.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation included biochemical, radiometric, molecular studies and histopathological examination to evaluate the protective role of Antox tablets toward Arsenic toxicity in adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus). Arsenic were given as sodium arsenate to different groups in drinking water at a dose of 100 mg/L, for 3 and 6 weeks led to severe tissue damage as revealed by an elevation of serum total protein and alteration of serum protein fractions. Using radioimmunoassay it was found that serum total testosterone level was significantly decreased. The decreased level of total testosterone paralleled the observed testicular damage. Treatment of male rats with antioxidant (Antox) along with arsenic led to an improvement in both the biochemical and histological alterations induced by arsenic. Thus the protective role of Antox is attributed to its antioxidant and free radicals scavenging properties of its components (selenium, vitamin A acetate, ascorbic acid and vitamin E).

  1. Experimental gastritis leads to anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in female but not male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Human and animals studies support the idea that there is a gender-related co-morbidity of pain-related and inflammatory gastrointestinal (GI) diseases with psychological disorders. This co-morbidity is the evidence for the existence of GI-brain axis which consists of immune (cytokines), neural (vagus nerve) and neuroendocrine (HPA axis) pathways. Psychological stress causes disturbances in GI physiology, such as altered GI barrier function, changes in motility and secretion, development of visceral hypersensitivity, and dysfunction of inflammatory responses. Whether GI inflammation would exert impact on psychological behavior is not well established. We examined the effect of experimental gastritis on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in male and female Sprague–Dawley rats, and evaluated potential mechanisms of action. Gastritis was induced by adding 0.1% (w/v) iodoacetamide (IAA) to the sterile drinking water for 7 days. Sucrose preference test assessed the depression-like behavior, open field test and elevated plus maze evaluated the anxiety-like behavior. IAA treatment induced gastric inflammation in rats of either gender. No behavioral abnormality or dysfunction of GI-brain axis was observed in male rats with IAA-induced gastritis. Anxiety- and depression-like behaviors were apparent and the HPA axis was hyperactive in female rats with IAA-induced gastritis. Our results show that gastric inflammation leads to anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in female but not male rats via the neuroendocrine (HPA axis) pathway, suggesting that the GI inflammation can impair normal brain function and induce changes in psychological behavior in a gender-related manner through the GI-to-brain signaling. PMID:24345032

  2. Identification of New Epididymal Luminal Fluid Proteins Involved in Sperm Maturation in Infertile Rats Treated by Dutasteride Using iTRAQ

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    Shu-Wu Xie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spermatozoa become mature and acquire fertilizing capacity during their passage through the epididymal lumen. In this study, we identified new epididymal luminal fluid proteins involved in sperm maturation in infertile rats by dutasteride, a dual 5α-reductase inhibitor, in order to provide potential epididymal targets for new contraceptives and infertility treatment. Methods: Male rats were treated with dutasteride for 28 consecutive days. We observed the protein expression profiles in the epididymal luminal fluids in infertile and normal rats using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ technique. The confidence of proteome data was validated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results: 1045 proteins were tested, and 23 of them presented different expression profiling in the infertile and normal rats. The seven proteins were down-regulated, and 16 proteins were up-regulated. Among the seven proteins which were significantly down-regulated by dutasteride in the epididymal luminal fluids, there were three β-defensins (Defb2, Defb18 and Defb39, which maybe the key proteins involved in epididymal sperm maturation and male fertility. Conclusions: We report for the first time that dutasteride influences the protein expression profiling in the epididymal luminal fluids of rats, and this result provides some new epididymal targets for male contraception and infertility therapy.

  3. Inguinal Abnormalities in Male Patients with Acetabular Fractures Treated Using an Ilioinguinal Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Firoozabadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Surgeons performing an ilioinguinal exposure for acetabular fracture surgery need to be aware of aberrant findings such as inguinal hernias and spermatic cord lesions. The purpose of this study is to report these occurrences in a clinical series of adult males undergoing acetabular fracture fixation and a series of adult male cadavers. The secondary aim is to characterize these abnormalities to aid surgeons in detecting these abnormalities preoperatively and coordinating a surgical plan with a general surgeon.Methods: Clinical study- Retrospective review of treated acetabular fractures through an ilioinguinal approach. Incidence of inguinal canal and spermatic cord abnormalities requiring general surgery consultation were identified. Corresponding CT scans were reviewed and radiographic characteristics of the spermatic cord abnormalities and/or hernias were noted.Cadaveric study- 18 male cadavers dissected bilaterally using an ilioinguinal exposure. The inguinal canal and the contents of the spermatic cord were identified and characterized.Results: Clinical Study- 5.7% (5/87 of patients had spermatic cord lesion and/or inguinal hernia requiring general surgical intervention. Preoperative pelvic CT scan review identified abnormalities noted intraoperatively in four of the five patients. Cord lipomas visualized as enlargements of the spermatic cord with homogeneous density. Hernias visualized as enlarged spermatic cords with heterogeneous density. Cadaver Study- 31% (11/36 of cadavers studied had spermatic cord and/or inguinal canal abnormalities. Average cord diameter in those with abnormalities was 24.9 mm (15-28 compared to 16 mm (11-22 in normal cords, which was statistically significant.Conclusion: The clinical and cadaveric findings emphasize the importance of understanding inguinal abnormalities and the value of detecting them preoperatively. The preoperative pelvic CT scans were highly sensitive in detecting inguinal abnormalities.

  4. Exaggerated acquisition and resistance to extinction of avoidance behavior in treated heroin-dependent males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheynin, Jony; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Beck, Kevin D.; Servatius, Richard J.; Casbolt, Peter A.; Haber, Paul; Elsayed, Mahmoud; Hogarth, Lee; Myers, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Addiction is often conceptualized as a behavioral strategy for avoiding negative experiences. In rodents, opioid intake has been associated with abnormal acquisition and extinction of avoidance behavior. Here, we tested the hypothesis that these findings would generalize to human opioid-dependent subjects. Method Adults meeting DSM-IV criteria for heroin-dependence and treated with opioid medication (n=27), and healthy controls (n=26), were recruited between March–October 2013 and given a computer-based task to assess avoidance behavior. On this task, subjects controlled a spaceship and could either gain points by shooting an enemy spaceship, or hide in safe areas to avoid on-screen aversive events. Results While groups did not differ on escape responding (hiding) during the aversive event, heroin-dependent males (but not females) made more avoidance responses during a warning signal that predicted the aversive event (ANOVA, sex × group interaction, p=0.007). This group was also slower to extinguish the avoidance response when the aversive event no longer followed the warning signal (p=0.011). This behavioral pattern resulted in reduced opportunity to obtain reward without reducing risk of punishment. Results suggest that differences in avoidance behavior cannot be easily explained by impaired task performance or by exaggerated motor activity in male patients. Conclusion This study provides evidence for abnormal acquisition and extinction of avoidance behavior in opioid-dependent patients. Interestingly, data suggest abnormal avoidance is demonstrated only by male patients. Findings shed light on cognitive and behavioral manifestations of opioid addiction, and may facilitate development of therapeutic approaches to help affected individuals. PMID:27046310

  5. Effects of prolonged agmatine treatment in aged male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushaidhi, M; Zhang, H; Liu, P

    2013-03-27

    Increasing evidence suggests that altered arginine metabolism contributes to cognitive decline during ageing. Agmatine, decarboxylated arginine, has a variety of pharmacological effects, including the modulation of behavioural function. A recent study demonstrated the beneficial effects of short-term agmatine treatment in aged rats. The present study investigated how intraperitoneal administration of agmatine (40mg/kg, once daily) over 4-6weeks affected behavioural function and neurochemistry in aged Sprague-Dawley rats. Aged rats treated with saline displayed significantly reduced exploratory activity in the open field, impaired spatial learning and memory in the water maze and object recognition memory relative to young rats. Prolonged agmatine treatment improved animals' performance in the reversal test of the water maze and object recognition memory test, and significantly suppressed age-related elevation in nitric oxide synthase activity in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. However, this prolonged supplementation was unable to improve exploratory activity and spatial reference learning and memory in aged rats. These findings further demonstrate that exogenous agmatine selectively improves behavioural function in aged rats. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of chronic alcohol administration on bone mineral content and bone strength in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broulík, P D; Vondrová, J; Růzicka, P; Sedlácek, R; Zíma, T

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use has been identified as a risk factor for the development of osteoporosis. Eight male Wistar rats at two months of age were alcoho-fed (7.6 g 95 % ethanol/kg b.w. per day) to evaluate the effects of long-term administration (three months) of alcohol in drinking water. We have used a dose which is considered to be comparable to a dose of 1 liter of wine or 2.5 liters of 12(°) beer used in male adults daily. The bones were tested mechanically by a three-point bending test in a Mini Bionix (MTS) testing system. The bones from alcohol-fed rats were characterized by a reduction in bone density as well as in ash, calcium and phosphate content. In alcohol-fed rats the reduction in bone mineral density (10 %) was reflected by about 12 % reduction of mechanical strength of femur (158+/-5.5 vs. 178+/-3.2 N/mm(2)). Alcohol significantly altered femoral cortical thickness. In our experiment alcohol itself did not exert any antiandrogenic effect and it did not produce changes in the weight of seminal vesicles. Liver function test (GGT, ALP, AST) did not differ between alcohol-fed rats and control rats. Alcohol-induced bone loss is associated with increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. These results document the efficacy of alcohol at the dose of 7.6 g 95 % ethanol/kg b.w. to cause bone loss and loss of bone mechanical strength in intact rats. The results of the present study may be interpreted as supporting the hypothesis of alcohol as a risk factor for osteoporosis.

  7. Effects of chronic mild stress on parameters of bone assessment in adult male and female rats

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    Fabrício L. Valente

    Full Text Available Abstract: Osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease of high prevalence and has great impact on quality of life, because the effects on bone structure increase the risk of fractures, what may be very debilitating. Based on the observation that patients with depression have lower bone mineral density than healthy individuals, many studies have indicated that stress could be an aggravating factor for bone loss. This study evaluates the effect of a protocol of chronic mild stress (CMS on parameters of bone assessment in male and female rats. Five 5-monh-old rats of each sex underwent a schedule of stressor application for 28 days. Stressors included cold, heat, restraint, cage tilt, isolation, overnight illumination, and water and food deprivation. Five rats of each sex were kept under minimum intervention as control group. The animals were weighed at beginning and end of the period, and after euthanasia had their bones harvested. Femur, tibia and lumbar vertebrae were analyzed by bone densitometry. Biomechanical tests were performed in femoral head and diaphysis. Trabecular bone volume was obtained from histomorphometric analysis of femoral head and vertebral body, as well as of femoral midshaft cross-sectional measures. Not all parameters analyzed showed effect of CMS. However, tibial and L4 vertebral bone mineral density and cross-sectional cortical/medullar ratio of femoral shaft were lower in female rats submitted to the CMS protocol. Among male rats, the differences were significant for femoral trabecular bone volume and maximum load obtained by biomechanical test. Thus, it could be confirmed that CMS can affect the balance of bone homeostasis in rats, what may contribute to the establishment of osteopenia or osteoporosis.

  8. Dietary choline during periadolescence attenuates cognitive damage caused by neonatal maternal separation in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Gudiño, Hayarelis; Carías Picón, Diamela; de Brugada Sauras, Isabel

    2017-07-01

    Choline (Ch) is an essential nutrient that acts as a cognitive facilitator when administered during perinatal periods, and it has been recognised as a 'pharmacological' agent that can ease cognitive dysfunctions provoked by exposure to damaging stimuli during early developmental stages. The aim of the present work is to determine whether providing a diet rich in Ch would reduce the severity of the memory deficit provoked by a neonatal stress episode in male adult rats. The effect of Ch on memory was measured using memory tasks such as object and place recognition. Ontogenetic manipulations were conducted during two sensitive developmental periods. During the first post-natal (PN) 14 days, only the male rat pups were selected and half of them were separated from the mother, group maternal separation (MS). Subsequently, during periadolescence (PN 21-60), the rats were exposed to a deficient (DEF = 0 g/kg Ch chloride), sufficient (CON = 1.1 g/kg Ch chloride), or supplemented (SUP = 5 g/kg Ch chloride) diets for this nutrient. The results indicated that for group MS, only rats fed with the SUP diet were able to recognise the familiar object and place that had been experienced 24 hours before, unlike groups DEF and CON. In addition, whereas rats in the non-separated group (No-MS) recognised the object independently of the diet, only rats that received a DEF diet failed to recognise the place, showing that a Ch deficit affects spatial memory tasks. These results show that Ch supplementation during periadolescence can attenuate the memory deficit provoked by extended neonatal stress.

  9. Hepatoprotective effects of Nigella sativa L and Urtica dioica L on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Mehmet; Coskun, Omer; Budancamanak, Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of Nigella sativa L (NS) and Urtica dioica L (UD) on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in CCl4-treated rats. METHODS: Fifty-six healthy male Wistar albino rats were used in this study. The rats were randomly allotted into one of the four experimental groups: A (CCl4-only treated), B (CCl4+UD treated), C (CCl4+NS treated) and D (CCl4+UD+NS treated), each containing 14 animals. All groups received CCl4 (0.8 mL/kg of body weight, sc, twice a week for 60 d). In addition, B, C and D groups also received daily i.p. injections of 0.2 mL/kg NS or/and 2 mL/kg UD oils for 60 d. Group A, on the other hand, received only 2 mL/kg normal saline solution for 60 d. Blood samples for the biochemical analysis were taken by cardiac puncture from randomly chosen-seven rats in each treatment group at beginning and on the 60th d of the experiment. RESULTS: The CCl4 treatment for 60 d increased the lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes, and also decreased the antioxidant enzyme levels. NS or UD treatment (alone or combination) for 60 d decreased the elevated lipid peroxidation and liver enzyme levels and also increased the reduced antioxidant enzyme levels. The weight of rats decreased in group A, and increased in groups B, C and D. CONCLUSION: NS and UD decrease the lipid per-oxidation and liver enzymes, and increase the anti-oxidant defense system activity in the CCl4-treated rats. PMID:16425366

  10. Genistein improves spatial learning and memory in male rats with elevated glucose level during memory consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Kohara, Yumi; Kawaguchi, Shinichiro; Kuwahara, Rika; Uchida, Yutaro; Oku, Yushi; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction due to higher blood glucose level has been reported previously. Genistein (GEN) is a phytoestrogen that we hypothesized might lead to improved memory, despite elevated blood glucose levels at the time of memory consolidation. To investigate this hypothesis, we compared the effects of orally administered GEN on the central nervous system in normal versus glucose-loaded adult male rats. A battery of behavioral assessments was carried out. In the MAZE test, which measured s...

  11. The Anti-Nociceptive Effect of Aloe. Vera Aqueous Extract in Fructose-Fed Male Rats

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    Mohammad Reza Shahraki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A B S T R A C T Introduction: Aloe Vera extract is used as an anti-inflammatory and anti-bradikinin agent in laboratory animals. The aim of this survey was to evaluate the ant-nociceptive effect of A. Vera aqueous extract in fructose-fed male rats. Methods: Forty-five Wistar-Albino male rats were equally and randomly divided into five groups including sham operated and four test groups. Sham operated group consumed tap water and the test groups consumed fructoseenriched water. Test groups 2, 3 and 4 additionally received, 0, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg of A. Vera extract, respectively, whereas the other test group received distilled water daily. Tail flick reaction time, serum glucose and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT were measured. The results were analyzed by SPSS software using ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results were expressed as mean ± SD. Statistical differences were considered significant at p<0.05. Results: The results showed that tail flick reaction time significantly increased in test group 3 which received 200 mg/kg A. Vera extract comparing with that of sham operated group. However, OGTT and serum glucose value were significantly increased in all fructose-fed male rats comparing with those of sham operated group. Discussion: These results indicated that A. Vera aqueous extract can affect tail flick reaction time in fructose-fed male rats. Further studies are required to show the exact mechanism of anti-nociceptive effect of A. Vera extract.

  12. Sexual behaviour of male rats after gamma-irradiation: some radiobiological features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushakov, I.B.; Rogacheva, I.V.; Stroganova, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    A pronounced and stable decrease in sexual motivation of male rats immediately after γ-irradiation of the head with a dose of 2.58 C/kg is shown. Exposure of the body to 1.29-2.58 C/kg radiation also inhibited sexual behaviour but only by the 45th-55th minute following irradiation: with higher doses some increase in sexual activity was observed immediately after irradiation

  13. Effects of Housing Conditions on Stress Responses, Feeding, and Drinking in Male and Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-07

    and biochemical changes indicative of a stress response (Singh, D’Souza, & Singh, 1991 ; Peng, Lang, Drozdowicz, & Ohlsson-Wilhelm, 1989; Armario ...immunological, and biochemical changes indicative of stress (Peng et aI., 1989; Armario et aI. , 1987; Gamallo et aI. , 1986; Armario , Ortiz...et aI. , 19~9; Armario et aI. , 1987; Gamallo et aI. , 1986; Calhoun, 1962). Hypothesis 2. It was hypothesized that male rats would decrease food

  14. Effects of Stress and Nicotine on Cognitive Function in Male and Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    of Candidate: Raquel Mack Medical and Clinical Psychology Master of Science 2/9/2016 Thesis and Abstract Approved: ~62 Neil E. Grunberg, PhD ...Department of Military and Emergency Medicine Thesis Advisor Andrew Waters, PhD Department of Medical and Clinical Psychology Committee Member JIA...i EFFECTS OF STRESS AND NICOTINE ON COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN MALE AND FEMALE RATS by Raquel Mack Thesis

  15. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis) Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Neveen M. El-Sherif; Noha Mohy Issa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Naphthalene (NA) is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group), G...

  16. Biochemical activity of the insecticide (diflubenzuron) residues on male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel- Naser, H.F.O.

    1997-01-01

    The toxicological studies of the insecticide. Diflubenzuron were investigated in experimental animals during 45th days feeding study. The studies carried out included treatment of wheat grains with 100 and 300 ppm DFB, this was accomplished by feeding male rats for 45 days (sub chronic toxicity study) on DFB incorporated in grains to monitor any possible change that might have been altered in the animal during that period. 6 tabs., 17 figs., 109 refs

  17. Disturbance of the gut microbiota in early-life selectively affects visceral pain in adulthood without impacting cognitive or anxiety-related behaviors in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, S M; Felice, V D; Nally, K; Savignac, H M; Claesson, M J; Scully, P; Woznicki, J; Hyland, N P; Shanahan, F; Quigley, E M; Marchesi, J R; O'Toole, P W; Dinan, T G; Cryan, J F

    2014-09-26

    Disruption of bacterial colonization during the early postnatal period is increasingly being linked to adverse health outcomes. Indeed, there is a growing appreciation that the gut microbiota plays a role in neurodevelopment. However, there is a paucity of information on the consequences of early-life manipulations of the gut microbiota on behavior. To this end we administered an antibiotic (vancomycin) from postnatal days 4-13 to male rat pups and assessed behavioral and physiological measures across all aspects of the brain-gut axis. In addition, we sought to confirm and expand the effects of early-life antibiotic treatment using a different antibiotic strategy (a cocktail of pimaricin, bacitracin, neomycin; orally) during the same time period in both female and male rat pups. Vancomycin significantly altered the microbiota, which was restored to control levels by 8 weeks of age. Notably, vancomycin-treated animals displayed visceral hypersensitivity in adulthood without any significant effect on anxiety responses as assessed in the elevated plus maze or open field tests. Moreover, cognitive performance in the Morris water maze was not affected by early-life dysbiosis. Immune and stress-related physiological responses were equally unaffected. The early-life antibiotic-induced visceral hypersensitivity was also observed in male rats given the antibiotic cocktail. Both treatments did not alter visceral pain perception in female rats. Changes in visceral pain perception in males were paralleled by distinct decreases in the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1, the α-2A adrenergic receptor and cholecystokinin B receptor. In conclusion, a temporary disruption of the gut microbiota in early-life results in very specific and long-lasting changes in visceral sensitivity in male rats, a hallmark of stress-related functional disorders of the brain-gut axis such as irritable bowel disorder. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  18. Treatment effect of l-Norvaline on the sexual performance of male rats with streptozotocin induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Abhijit; Singh, Mamta F; Singh, Vinod; Ram, Veerma; Bisht, Shradha

    2016-01-15

    Sexual impairment is an established risk factor in diabetes mellitus affecting about 75% of male diabetic population. In diabetes overexpression of arginase leads to decreased production of NO and diminished erectile response. Inhibition of arginase enzyme can lead to improvement in diabetes induced sexual dysfunction. In the present study diabetes mellitus was induced in adult male rats by intraperitoneal injection of single dose of streptozotocin (65mg/kg) in 0.1M Citrate buffer pH 4.5 and after 72h fasting serum glucose level was checked by glucose oxidase-peroxidase method and those animals showing FSG above 250mg/dl were selected. Diabetic animals were divided into four groups comprising six animals in each. l-Norvaline, potent arginase inhibitor was administered at a dose of 10mg/kg ip to the different groups of diabetic animals for a period of 30 days. Sildenafil at a dose of 5mg/kg orally was used as a standard drug. Mating behavior tests were performed at 0, 15th and 30th days. After 30 days, various biochemical and hormonal parameters (nitrates, LDH, urea, testosterone), testicular parameters (total protein, nitrates, LDH, total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, VLDL, HDL) were evaluated to find out the effect of l-Norvaline in sexual impairment. Sperm analysis was also carried out for the treated rats. l-Norvaline showed significant improvement in serum nitrates, urea, LDH, testosterone and testicular protein level as compared with diabetic group. It also improved sperm motility, count and viability in diabetic rats. Sildenafil showed no improvement in above parameters except restoration in serum nitrates level. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. A new role for GABAergic transmission in the control of male rat sexual behavior expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Manzo, Gabriela; Canseco-Alba, Ana

    2017-03-01

    GABAergic transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) exerts a tonic inhibitory influence on mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons' activity. Blockade of VTA GABA A receptors increases dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Increases in NAcc dopamine levels typically accompany sexual behavior display. Copulation to satiety is characterized by the instatement of a long lasting (72h) sexual behavior inhibition and the mesolimbic system appears to be involved in this phenomenon. GABAergic transmission in the VTA might play a role in the maintenance of this long lasting sexual inhibitory state. To test this hypothesis, in the present work we investigated the effect of GABA A receptor blockade in sexually exhausted males 24h after copulation to satiety, once the sexual inhibitory state is established, and compared it with its effect in sexually experienced rats. Results showed that low doses of systemically administered bicuculline induced sexual behavior expression in sexually exhausted rats, but lacked an effect on copulation of sexually experienced animals. Intra-VTA bilateral infusion of bicuculline did not modify sexual behavior of sexually experienced rats, but induced sexual behavior expression in all the sexually exhausted males. Hence, GABA plays a role in the control of sexual behavior expression at the VTA. The role played by GABAergic transmission in male sexual behavior expression of animals with distinct sexual behavior conditions is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Antinociceptive Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Borago Officinalis Flower in Male Rats Using Formalin Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadimoghadm, Mahdieh; Shahraki, Ahmad Reza

    2015-10-01

    Borago officinalis flower (borage) is a known sedative in herbal medicine; the aim of the present study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of borage hydroalcoholic extract in formalin test male rats. Fifty-six adult male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups: Control groups of A (intact), B (saline), and C (Positive control) plus test groups of D, E, F, and G (n=8). The groups D, E, and F received 6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg, Borago officinalis flower hydroalcholic extract before the test, respectively but group G received 25 mg/kg borage extract and aspirin before the test. A biphasic pain was induced by injection of formalin 1%. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS software ver. 17 employing statistical tests of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney. The results were expressed as mean±SD. Statistical differences were considered significant at Ptest groups of D, E, F, and G significantly decreased compared to groups A and B, but this score did not show any difference compared to group C. Moreover, chronic pain behavior score in group G was significantly lower than all other groups. The results indicated that Borago officinalis hydroalcoholic extract affects the acute and chronic pain behavior response in formaline test male rats.

  1. Antihyperlipidemic effect of crude extract of saffron stigma (Crocus sativus in healthy male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliass Lahmass

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated for the first time the antihyperlipidemic ef-fects of crude extract of stigmas from Crocus sativus (saffron against hyperlipidemia induced by tartrazine (synthetic dye in normal male rats. Thirty adult male albino rats weighing about 150 - 200 g, were divided into 5 groups (n = 6 and daily treatment was given orally. Clinical biochemis-try and metabolic parameters were evaluated at the end of the experiment and after 105 days. (n=6, for all groups. Our data revealed that the meta-bolic parameters like consumption of food and water, pH and urine vol-ume have not been affected; also the difference between liver, right kid-ney and heart weight was not significant. The levels of cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly increased in group 2 and group 3 compared to control group. There was no significant difference in the level of cholesterol and triglyceride in group 4. Treatment with saffron alone did not have any significant effects on the level of fat compared to control group. The oral administration of the crude extract of saffron revealed good hypolipidemic effects in adult male albino rats. These results suggest that aqueous saffron extract reduced plasma cholesterol and decreased triglyceride. Therefore, it could conceivably lead to suitable changes in blood lipid profiles. [J Med Allied Sci 2017; 7(1.000: 20-25

  2. Safety assessment of Hibiscus sabdariffa after maternal exposure on male reproductive parameters in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arruda, Aline; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea L; Vieira, Maria do Carmo; Arena, Arielle Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae) is a species widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of some disorders. This study evaluated the effects of H. sabdariffa (HS) on the development of the male reproductive tract in rats following in utero exposure. Pregnant rats received 250 or 500 mg/kg of HS extract or vehicle from gestational day 12 until day 21 of lactation. Both doses of HS increased the body weight of male offspring at weaning, without compromising the puberty onset parameters. At puberty, there was a significant increase in the vas deferens absolute weight and a significant reduction in the relative weight of kidney at higher dose. These animals also presented a significant reduction in the sperm number in the caput/corpus of epididymis after exposure to both doses and a reduction in the sperm number in the cauda epididymis for the lower dose. At adulthood, the highest dose significantly reduced the sperm production in relation to controls and both doses provoked a reduction in the relative sperm number in the epididymis without affecting the sperm morphology. These findings demonstrated that maternal exposure to H. sabdariffa can adversely influence the male reproductive system in rats.

  3. Distribution of kappa opioid receptors in the brain of young and old male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggi, R.; Limonta, P.; Dondi, D.; Martini, L.; Piva, F.

    1989-01-01

    The experiments to be described have been designed in order to: (a) provide new information on the concentrations of opioid kappa receptors in different regions of the brain of the male rats; and (b) to analyze whether the density of brain kappa receptors might be modified by the process of aging. The concentration of kappa receptors was investigated in the hypothalamus, amygdala, mesencephalon, corpus striatum, hippocampus, thalamus, frontal poles, anterior and posterior cortex collected from male rats of 2 and 19 months of age. 3 H-bremazocine (BRZ) was used as the ligand of kappa receptors, after protection of mu and delta receptors respectively with dihydromorphine and d-ala-d-leu-enkephalin. The results obtained show that: (1) in young male rats, the number of kappa opioid receptors is different in the various brain areas examined. (2) Aging exerts little influence on the number of kappa receptors in the majority of the brain structures considered. However in the amygdala and in the thalamus the number of kappa receptors was increased in old animals

  4. Antispermatogenic, antiandrogenic activities of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth bark extract in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R S; Kachhawa, J B S; Chaudhary, R

    2006-03-01

    Methanolic extract of Albizia lebbeck bark when administered orally at the dose level of 100 mg/rat/day to male rats of proven fertility for 60 days did not cause any significant loss in their body weights but the weights of reproductive organs, i.e. testis, epididymides, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate were decreased in a significant manner when compared to controls. Sperm motility as well as sperm density were reduced significantly which resulted in reduction of male fertility by 100%. Marked decline in the germ cell population was noticed. Population of preleptotene, pachytene, secondary spermatocytes and step-19 spermatid were declined by 60.86%, 65.81%, 71.56% and 66.55%, respectively. Cross-sectional surface area of sertoli cells as well as the cells counts were found to be depleted significantly. Leydig cells nuclear area and number of mature Leydig cells were decreased by 60.03% and 51.56%, respectively. Serum testosterone levels showed significant reduction after A. lebbeck extract feeding. Oral administration of the extract did not affect red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) count, haemoglobin, haematocrit and glucose in the blood and cholesterol, protein, triglyceride and phospholipid in the serum. In conclusion, A. lebbeck bark extract administration arrests spermatogenesis in male rats without noticeable side effects.

  5. The Effect of Antiepileptic Drug of Lamotrigine, on the Function of Reproductive Hormones in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Khezri Motlagh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lamotrigine is one of the never anti-epileptic drug. In this study the effects of lamotrigine have been observed on serum concentration of LH (Luteinizing hormone, FSH (Follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone ,body and testis weight in male rat.