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Sample records for male rats control

  1. Growth control of the cranial base. A study with experimentally bipedal male rats

    Smit-Vis, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study the postnatal development of the skull, particularly that of the cranial base, was studied in experimentally bipedal male rats, up to the age of 46 weeks. A total of 81 bipedal rats and a control group of 90 animals were studied. It was found that, as compared with control rats, the bipedal rats had a definitely more spherical skull. This was the result of an increased height and a stronger dorsal flexion of the anterior cranial base. As to the chondrocranial elements, the basi-occipital bone reached, on the average, the same length in bipedal rats as in controls. However, the basisphenoid bone was significantly shorter. Arguments are given to relate the latter phenomenon to the altered shape of the neurocranium. The conclusion is drawn that, in this experimental approach, chondrocranial growth at the intersphenoidal synchondrosis is controlled not only by intrinsic genetic factors but also by local epigenetic and/or environmental factors.

  2. A new role for GABAergic transmission in the control of male rat sexual behavior expression.

    Rodríguez-Manzo, Gabriela; Canseco-Alba, Ana

    2017-03-01

    GABAergic transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) exerts a tonic inhibitory influence on mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons' activity. Blockade of VTA GABA A receptors increases dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Increases in NAcc dopamine levels typically accompany sexual behavior display. Copulation to satiety is characterized by the instatement of a long lasting (72h) sexual behavior inhibition and the mesolimbic system appears to be involved in this phenomenon. GABAergic transmission in the VTA might play a role in the maintenance of this long lasting sexual inhibitory state. To test this hypothesis, in the present work we investigated the effect of GABA A receptor blockade in sexually exhausted males 24h after copulation to satiety, once the sexual inhibitory state is established, and compared it with its effect in sexually experienced rats. Results showed that low doses of systemically administered bicuculline induced sexual behavior expression in sexually exhausted rats, but lacked an effect on copulation of sexually experienced animals. Intra-VTA bilateral infusion of bicuculline did not modify sexual behavior of sexually experienced rats, but induced sexual behavior expression in all the sexually exhausted males. Hence, GABA plays a role in the control of sexual behavior expression at the VTA. The role played by GABAergic transmission in male sexual behavior expression of animals with distinct sexual behavior conditions is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ketogenic diet does not impair spatial ability controlled by the hippocampus in male rats.

    Fukushima, Atsushi; Ogura, Yuji; Furuta, Miyako; Kakehashi, Chiaki; Funabashi, Toshiya; Akema, Tatsuo

    2015-10-05

    A ketogenic diet was recently shown to reduce glutamate accumulation in synaptic vesicles, decreasing glutamate transmission. We questioned whether a ketogenic diet affects hippocampal function, as glutamate transmission is critically involved in visuospatial ability. In the present study, male Wistar rats were maintained on a ketogenic diet containing 10% protein and 90% fat with complements for 3 weeks to change their energy expenditure from glucose-dependent to fat-dependent. Control rats were fed a diet containing 10% protein, 10% fat, and 80% carbohydrates. The fat-dependent energy expenditure induced by the ketogenic diet led to decreased body weight and increased blood ketone production, though the rats in the two groups consumed the same number of calories. The ketogenic diet did not alter food preferences for the control or high-fat diet containing 10% protein, 45% fat, and 45% carbohydrates. Anxiety in the open field was not altered by ingestion the ketogenic diet. However, rats fed the ketogenic diet performed better in the Y-maze test than rats fed the control diet. No difference was observed between the two groups in the Morris water maze test. Finally, Western blot revealed that the hippocampal expression of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate receptor subunit 1 (GluR1) was significantly increased in mice fed a ketogenic diet. These results suggest that hippocampal function is not impaired by a ketogenic diet and we speculate that the fat-dependent energy expenditure does not impair visuospatial ability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Sex Steroids on the Spinal Gastrin-Releasing Peptide System Controlling Male Sexual Function in Rats.

    Oti, Takumi; Takanami, Keiko; Ito, Saya; Ueda, Takashi; Matsuda, Ken Ichi; Kawata, Mitsuhiro; Soh, Jintetsu; Ukimura, Osamu; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Sakamoto, Hirotaka

    2018-04-01

    The gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) system in the lumbosacral spinal cord controls male sexual function in rats. In contrast, in female rats, GRP neurons could scarcely be detected around puberty when circulating ovarian steroid hormones such as estradiol and progesterone levels are increasing. However, little information is available on feminizing or demasculinizing effects of ovarian steroids on the central nervous system in female puberty and adulthood. In this study, to visualize the spinal GRP neurons in vivo, we generated a GRP-promoter-Venus transgenic (Tg) rat line and studied the effects of the sex steroid hormones on GRP expression in the rat lumbar cord by examining the Venus fluorescence. In these Tg rats, the sexually dimorphic spinal GRP neurons controlling male sexual function were clearly labeled with Venus fluorescence. As expected, Venus fluorescence in the male lumbar cord was markedly decreased after castration and restored by chronic androgen replacement. Furthermore, androgen-induced Venus expression in the spinal cord of adult Tg males was significantly attenuated by chronic treatment with progesterone but not with estradiol. A luciferase assay using a human GRP-promoter construct showed that androgens enhance the spinal GRP system, and more strikingly, that progesterone acts to inhibit the GRP system via an androgen receptor-mediated mechanism. These results demonstrate that circulating androgens may play an important role in the spinal GRP system controlling male sexual function not only in rats but also in humans and that progesterone could be an important feminizing factor in the spinal GRP system in females during pubertal development.

  5. Effect of kasoline on male rats reproductive system in control and after irradiation in low dose

    Konoplya, E.F.; Vereshchako, G.G.; Khodosovskaya, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    It was studied morphofunctional status of reproductive system and several haematological parameters of male rats after administration of kasoline without any another treatment or before following irradiation in low dose (1 Gy). Kasoline is biological active substance obtained from castoreum. In intact animals this medical drug heightened relative weight of testis, epidydimisis, prostate gland and seminal vesicles; number of mature sex cells, extracted from epidydimisis and DNA contents in testiculare tissue. Kasoline possesses specific radioprotective properties that resulted in restoration of leukocytes number in blood, in grown number of spermatozoids, extracted from epidydimisis, and considerable increase of DNA value in the testis tissue. Obtained effects were more prominent at 30 and 90 days after irradiation. (authors)

  6. Epigenetic control of vasopressin expression is maintained by steroid hormones in the adult male rat brain

    Auger, Catherine J.; Coss, Dylan; Auger, Anthony P.; Forbes-Lorman, Robin M.

    2011-01-01

    Although some DNA methylation patterns are altered by steroid hormone exposure in the developing brain, less is known about how changes in steroid hormone levels influence DNA methylation patterns in the adult brain. Steroid hormones act in the adult brain to regulate gene expression. Specifically, the expression of the socially relevant peptide vasopressin (AVP) within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) of adult brain is dependent upon testosterone exposure. Castration dramatically reduces and testosterone replacement restores AVP expression within the BST. As decreases in mRNA expression are associated with increases in DNA promoter methylation, we explored the hypothesis that AVP expression in the adult brain is maintained through sustained epigenetic modifications of the AVP gene promoter. We find that castration of adult male rats resulted in decreased AVP mRNA expression and increased methylation of specific CpG sites within the AVP promoter in the BST. Similarly, castration significantly increased estrogen receptor α (ERα) mRNA expression and decreased ERα promoter methylation within the BST. These changes were prevented by testosterone replacement. This suggests that the DNA promoter methylation status of some steroid responsive genes in the adult brain is actively maintained by the presence of circulating steroid hormones. The maintenance of methylated or demethylated states of some genes in the adult brain by the presence of steroid hormones may play a role in the homeostatic regulation of behaviorally relevant systems. PMID:21368111

  7. Neural mechanisms of female sexual behavior in the rat; comparison with male ejaculatory control.

    Veening, J.G.; Coolen, L.M.; Gerrits, P.O.

    2014-01-01

    The sequential organization of sexual behavior of the female rat is described, eventually leading to the lordotic posture, shown during mating. A complex set of signals: olfactory, cutaneous sensory as well as genitosensory, is guiding the female to this specific posture, eventually. Genitosensory

  8. Neural mechanisms of female sexual behavior in the rat; comparison with male ejaculatory control

    Veening, J.G.; Coolen, L. M.; Gerrits, P.O.

    The sequential organization of sexual behavior of the female rat is described, eventually leading to the lordotic posture, shown during mating. A complex set of signals: olfactory, cutaneous sensory as well as genitosensory, is guiding the female to this specific posture, eventually. Genitosensory

  9. Daily fluctuation of hepatic P450 monooxygenase activities in male rats is controlled by the suprachiasmatic nucleus but remains unaffected by adrenal hormones.

    Furukawa, T; Manabe, S; Watanabe, T; Sehata, S; Sharyo, S; Okada, T; Mori, Y

    1999-09-01

    Hepatic P450 monooxygenase activities, which strongly influence the efficacy and/or toxicity of drugs, are known to fluctuate daily. We also know that the P450 activities assessed by measurement of 7-alkoxycoumarin O-dealkylase (ACD) activities fluctuate daily, with apparently high values during the dark period in male rats. However, there is little knowledge about the factors that regulate daily fluctuation of P450 monooxygenase activities. In the present study using rats, we induced lesions in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the brain, the known site of the body's internal clock, and examined the effects on the daily fluctuation of the ACD activities to clarify the relationship between the SCN and the daily fluctuation of P450 monooxygenase activities. In addition, adrenalectomy was performed to re-evaluate the influence of adrenal hormones on the P450 activities. Our results indicated that daily fluctuations of the hepatic ACD activities were completely eliminated in the SCN-lesioned rats. However, the ACD activities in the adrenalectomized rats showed apparent daily fluctuations with high values during the dark period and low values during the light period. Therefore, this study demonstrated that the daily fluctuation of the hepatic P450 monooxygenase activities in male rats is controlled by the SCN but remains unaffected by the adrenal hormones.

  10. Toxicological evaluation of dimethoate in male rats

    Tawfik, S.M.F.

    2004-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the harmful effects and biochemical changes caused by dimethoate, an organophosphorus insecticide, at two different doses which represents 1/50 of LD 5 0 (4.3 mg/kg body weight/day) or 1/10 of LD 5 0 (21.5 mg/kg body weight/day). After thirty days of daily oral administrations to male rats, serum total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol and high density lipoprotein levels were estimated. Also, its toxic effects on serum total protein, albumin, globulin and glucose levels were studied. The glucose level at the early periods after the treatment with dimethoate using D-(U-I4C) glucose was studied. The results showed significant increases in serum total lipids, triglycerides, y-globulin and glucose levels. On the other hand, cholesterol, HDL, total protein and albumin levels in serum of rats were decreased after dimethoate treatment. In conclusion, the data obtained in the present study indicated that dimethoate has harmful effects on the parameters under investigation after thirty days of daily treatments and also on glucose level after few hours of its administration compared to control rats

  11. Role of nucleus of the solitary tract noradrenergic neurons in post-stress cardiovascular and hormonal control in male rats.

    Bundzikova-Osacka, Jana; Ghosal, Sriparna; Packard, Benjamin A; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Herman, James P

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress causes hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity and cardiovascular dyshomeostasis. Noradrenergic (NA) neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) are considered to play a role in these changes. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that NTS NA A2 neurons are required for cardiovascular and HPA axis responses to both acute and chronic stress. Adult male rats received bilateral microinjection into the NTS of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to lesion A2 neurons [cardiovascular study, n = 5; HPA study, n = 5] or vehicle [cardiovascular study, n = 6; HPA study, n = 4]. Rats were exposed to acute restraint stress followed by 14 d of chronic variable stress (CVS). On the last day of testing, rats were placed in a novel elevated plus maze (EPM) to test post-CVS stress responses. Lesions of NTS A2 neurons reduced the tachycardic response to acute restraint, confirming that A2 neurons promote sympathetic activation following acute stress. In addition, CVS increased the ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency power for heart rate variability, indicative of sympathovagal imbalance, and this effect was significantly attenuated by 6-OHDA lesion. Lesions of NTS A2 neurons reduced acute restraint-induced corticosterone secretion, but did not affect the corticosterone response to the EPM, indicating that A2 neurons promote acute HPA axis responses, but are not involved in CVS-mediated HPA axis sensitization. Collectively, these data indicate that A2 neurons promote both cardiovascular and HPA axis responses to acute stress. Moreover, A2 catecholaminergic neurons may contribute to the potentially deleterious enhancement of sympathetic drive following chronic stress.

  12. Comparative toxicology of carfene in male and female rats

    Hassanin, M.M.; Tawfik, S.M.F.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the potential toxicity associated with daily oral administrations of carfene (2.5 mg/kg body weight) for 15 consecutive days on protein level in liver, kidney, brain and spleen tissues of male and female rats after 1, 5, 10 and 15 days of treatment. Evaluation of the trace elements, zinc and copper in serum, revealed that zinc level was decreased significantly while that of copper was increased in both male and female rats compared to controls. The incorporation rate of 14 C-isoleucine for synthesis of protein tended to decrease in liver tissues and increase in brain tissues of rats. Kidney and spleen tissues showed fluctuated changes. It was noticed in the present investigation that the incorporation rate of I4 C-radioactivity in different selected tissues under estimation was more pronounced in male than in female rats

  13. Effect of honey consumption on intestinal motility in male albino rats ...

    Summary: This study investigated the effects of honey on intestinal motility and transit using twenty (20) male albino rats of Wistar strain weighing 210-220g. The rats were randomly grouped into control and honey-fed (test) groups of ten (10) rats each. The control group was fed on normal rat chow ( Pfizer Company, Nigeria ) ...

  14. Combined treatment with melatonin and insulin improves glycemic control, white adipose tissue metabolism and reproductive axis of diabetic male rats.

    Oliveira, Ariclecio Cunha de; Andreotti, Sandra; Sertie, Rogério António Laurato; Campana, Amanda Baron; de Proença, André Ricardo Gomes; Vasconcelos, Renata Prado; Oliveira, Keciany Alves de; Coelho-de-Souza, Andrelina Noronha; Donato-Junior, José; Lima, Fábio Bessa

    2018-04-15

    Melatonin treatment has been reported to be capable of ameliorating metabolic diabetes-related abnormalities but also to cause hypogonadism in rats. We investigated whether the combined treatment with melatonin and insulin can improve insulin resistance and other metabolic disorders in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes during neonatal period and the repercussion of this treatment on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. At the fourth week of age, diabetic animals started an 8-wk treatment with only melatonin (0.2 mg/kg body weight) added to drinking water at night or associated with insulin (NHP, 1.5 U/100 g/day) or only insulin. Animals were then euthanized, and the subcutaneous (SC), epididymal (EP), and retroperitoneal (RP) fat pads were excised, weighed and processed for adipocyte isolation for morphometric analysis as well as for measuring glucose uptake, oxidation, and incorporation of glucose into lipids. Hypothalamus was collected for gene expression and blood samples were collected for biochemical assays. The treatment with melatonin plus insulin (MI) was capable of maintaining glycemic control. In epididymal (EP) and subcutaneous (SC) adipocytes, the melatonin plus insulin (MI) treatment group recovered the insulin responsiveness. In the hypothalamus, melatonin treatment alone promoted a significant reduction in kisspeptin-1, neurokinin B and androgen receptor mRNA levels, in relation to control group. Combined treatment with melatonin and insulin promoted a better glycemic control, improving insulin sensitivity in white adipose tissue (WAT). Indeed, melatonin treatment reduced hypothalamic genes related to reproductive function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Melatonin improves spatial navigation memory in male diabetic rats

    Farrin Babaei-Balderlou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of melatonin as an antioxidant on spatial navigation memory in male diabetic rats. Thirty-two male white Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 20 g were divided into four groups, randomly: control, melatonin, diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic. Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg kg-1 streptozotocin. Melatonin was injected (10 mg kg-1 day-1, ip for 2 weeks after 21 days of diabetes induction. At the end of administration period, the spatial navigation memory of rats was evaluated by cross-arm maze. In this study lipid peroxidation levels, glutathione-peroxidase and catalase activities were measured in hippocampus. Diabetes caused to significant decrease in alternation percent in the cross-arm maze, as a spatial memory index, compared to the control group (p < 0.05, whereas administration of melatonin prevented the spatial memory deficit in diabetic rats. Also melatonin injection significantly increased the spatial memory in intact animals compared to the control group (p < 0.05. Assessment of hippocampus homogenates indicated an increase in lipid peroxidation levels and a decrease in GSH-Px and CAT activities in the diabetic group compared to the control animals, while melatonin administration ameliorated these indices in diabetic rats. In conclusion, diabetes induction leads to debilitation of spatial navigation memory in rats, and the melatonin treatment improves the memory presumably through the reduction of oxidative stress in hippocampus of diabetic rats.

  16. Reproductive ability of pubertal male and female rats

    T. Zemunik

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Ten Fisher rats 50 to 55 days of age made up the pubertal group, and ten rats 90 to 95 days of age served as the controls. The testicular and epididymal weights and volumes of the pubertal males were lower than those of the controls (P0.05. At the beginning of gestation, the pubertal dams weighed less than the controls (P<0.001 but following uterectomy the body weights were equal. Pubertal dams delivered fewer pups than the controls (8.1 ± 2.5 vs 10.4 ± 1.3, P<0.05. There was no difference in the body weights of their offspring or in the weights of their placentas. The results suggest that, in contrast to their female counterparts, pubertal male rats are not fully mature and have not reached complete reproductive capacity at 50-55 days of age.

  17. Progesterone impairs social recognition in male rats.

    Bychowski, Meaghan E; Auger, Catherine J

    2012-04-01

    The influence of progesterone in the brain and on the behavior of females is fairly well understood. However, less is known about the effect of progesterone in the male system. In male rats, receptors for progesterone are present in virtually all vasopressin (AVP) immunoreactive cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the medial amygdala (MeA). This colocalization functions to regulate AVP expression, as progesterone and/or progestin receptors (PR)s suppress AVP expression in these same extrahypothalamic regions in the brain. These data suggest that progesterone may influence AVP-dependent behavior. While AVP is implicated in numerous behavioral and physiological functions in rodents, AVP appears essential for social recognition of conspecifics. Therefore, we examined the effects of progesterone on social recognition. We report that progesterone plays an important role in modulating social recognition in the male brain, as progesterone treatment leads to a significant impairment of social recognition in male rats. Moreover, progesterone appears to act on PRs to impair social recognition, as progesterone impairment of social recognition is blocked by a PR antagonist, RU-486. Social recognition is also impaired by a specific progestin agonist, R5020. Interestingly, we show that progesterone does not interfere with either general memory or olfactory processes, suggesting that progesterone seems critically important to social recognition memory. These data provide strong evidence that physiological levels of progesterone can have an important impact on social behavior in male rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Study on sperm damage caused by trichloroethylene in male rats].

    Wu, De-sheng; Yang, Lin-qing; Huang, Sui; Liu, Jian-jun; Xu, Xin-yun; Huang, Hai-yan; Gong, Chun-mei; Hu, Gong-hua; Liu, Qing-cheng; Yang, Xi-fei; Hong, Wen-xu; Zhou, Li; Huang, Xin-feng; Yuan, Jian-hui; Zhuang, Zhi-xiong

    2013-11-01

    To study in vitro sperm damage caused by trichloroethylene in male rats. Sperms of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were collected 4 hours after being contaminated by trichloroethylene of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mmol/L in vitro. Giemsa staining was performed to observe the morphological changes of sperms, and flow cytometer was used to detect the changes in mitochondrial membrane potential. The sperm motilities in 6, 8, and 10 mmol/L trichloroethylene groups decreased significantly compared with that in control group (P trichloroethylene groups were significantly higher than that in control group (Ptrichloroethylene groups and control group (Ptrichloroethylene can reduce sperm motility and increase the aberration rate and apoptosis rate of sperms in male SD rats.

  19. Assessment of Polyscias fruticosa (L. Harm (Araliaceae leaf extract on male fertility in male Wistar rats

    ALEX BOYE

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polyscias fruticosa is used widely as food, disease remedy and as an ornamental across Afro-Asian countries. For instance, P. fruticosa is used traditionally as an anti-asthma, anti-tussive, and a muco-suppressant herbal remedy for asthmatics in Ghana. Although many studies have investigated the pharmacological basis of the ethnobotanical uses of P. fruticosa, however, its effect on the reproductive system remains completely unknown. Aim of study: This study assessed effects of Polyscias fruticosa leaf extract (PFE on male fertility and toxicity in adult male Wistar rats. Materials and methods: after crude preparation of PFE, it was subjected to qualitative phytochemical, thin layer chromatography (TLC and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS analyses. Effect of PFE was assessed on male fertility and toxicity by using healthy adult male Wistar rats. Rats were randomly assigned to: normal saline (5 ml/kg po, n = 5, Clomiphene Citrate (50 mg/kg po; n = 5 and PFE (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg po; n = 5 respectively groups and treated for 21 days. On day 22 rats were sacrificed and male fertility parameters (left testis weight, relative testis weight, caudal epididymal weight, caudal epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, sperm morphology and assessment of male sex hormones and testicular histology were assessed. Results: There were no significant changes in bodyweight, weight of left testis, weights of right and left caudal epididymides between treatments groups (PFE and clomiphene citrate and control. Caudal epididymal sperm count increased in PFE (100 and 500 mg/kg-treated rats relative to control. Sperm motility relatively increased in PFE-treated rats compared to control. Sperm abnormality decreased in PFE-treated rats; especially in PFE (100 mg/kg group compared to control. Serum testosterone levels decreased inversely with serum luteinizing hormone (LH levels in PFE-treated rats compared to control. There were minimal

  20. Tumorigenicity of sodium ascorbate in male rats.

    Cohen, S M; Anderson, T A; de Oliveira, L M; Arnold, L L

    1998-06-15

    Sodium ascorbate, like other sodium salts such as saccharin, glutamate, and bicarbonate, produces urinary alterations when fed at high doses to rats, which results in mild superficial urothelial cytotoxicity and regeneration but not tumors in a standard 2-year bioassay. Sodium saccharin was shown to produce a low incidence of bladder tumors in rats if administered in a two-generation bioassay. In the present study, we evaluated sodium ascorbate in a two-generation bioassay that involved feeding to the male and female parental F344 rats for 4 weeks before mating, feeding the dams during gestation and lactation, and then feeding the weaned (at 28 days of age) male F1 generation rats for the remainder of their lifetime (up to 128 weeks of the experiment). Dietary levels of 1.0, 5.0, and 7.0% sodium ascorbate were tested. At 5.0 and 7.0% sodium ascorbate, there was an increase in urinary bladder urothelial papillary and nodular hyperplasia and the induction of a few papillomas and carcinomas. There was a dose-responsive increase in renal pelvic calcification and hyperplasia and inhibition of the aging nephropathy of rats even at the level of 1% sodium ascorbate. Because the short-term urothelial effects of sodium ascorbate in rats are inhibited by treatments producing urinary acidification to pH sodium ascorbate to evaluate the long-term effects. The combination of 7.0% sodium ascorbate plus 2.78% NH4Cl in the diet was toxic, and the group was terminated early during the course of the experiment. The group fed 5.0% sodium ascorbate plus 2.04% NH4Cl showed complete inhibition of the urothelial effects of sodium ascorbate and significant inhibition of its renal effects. We also demonstrated the presence of a calcium phosphate-containing urinary precipitate in rats fed sodium ascorbate at all doses, in a dose-responsive manner. The formation of the precipitate was inhibited by coadministration with NH4Cl. The proliferative effects of sodium ascorbate on the male rat

  1. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Administration Induces Amnesia in Male Sprague Dawley Rats and Exacerbates Recovery from Functional Deficits Induced by a Controlled Cortical Impact Injury.

    Rastafa I Geddes

    Full Text Available Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids like conjugated linoleic acids (CLA are required for normal neural development and cognitive function and have been ascribed various beneficial functions. Recently, oral CLA also has been shown to increase testosterone (T biosynthesis, which is known to diminish traumatic brain injury (TBI-induced neuropathology and reduce deficits induced by stroke in adult rats. To test the impact of CLA on cognitive recovery following a TBI, 5-6 month old male Sprague Dawley rats received a focal injury (craniectomy + controlled cortical impact (CCI; n = 17 or Sham injury (craniectomy alone; n = 12 and were injected with 25 mg/kg body weight of Clarinol® G-80 (80% CLA in safflower oil; n = 16 or saline (n = 13 every 48 h for 4 weeks. Sham surgery decreased baseline plasma progesterone (P4 by 64.2% (from 9.5 ± 3.4 ng/mL to 3.4 ± 0.5 ng/mL; p = 0.068, T by 74.6% (from 5.9 ± 1.2 ng/mL to 1.5 ± 0.3 ng/mL; p 0.05 animals by post-injury day 29, but rapidly reversed by post-injury day 1 the hypoadrenalism in Sham (11-DOC: 372.6 ± 36.6 ng/mL; corticosterone: 202.6 ± 15.6 ng/mL and CCI-injured (11-DOC: 384.2 ± 101.3 ng/mL; corticosterone: 234.6 ± 43.8 ng/mL animals. In Sham surgery animals, CLA did not alter body weight, but did markedly increase latency to find the hidden Morris Water Maze platform (40.3 ± 13.0 s compared to saline treated Sham animals (8.8 ± 1.7 s. In CCI injured animals, CLA did not alter CCI-induced body weight loss, CCI-induced cystic infarct size, or deficits in rotarod performance. However, like Sham animals, CLA injections exacerbated the latency of CCI-injured rats to find the hidden MWM platform (66.8 ± 10.6 s compared to CCI-injured rats treated with saline (30.7 ± 5.5 s, p < 0.05. These results indicate that chronic treatment of CLA at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight in adult male rats over 1-month 1 does not reverse craniectomy- and craniectomy + CCI-induced hypogonadism, but does reverse

  2. Monoamine levels in the nucleus accumbens correlate with male sexual behavior in middle-aged rats.

    Tsai, Houng-Wei; Shui, Hao-Ai; Liu, Hang-Shen; Tai, Mei-Yun; Tsai, Yuan-Feen

    2006-02-01

    The correlation between monoamine levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and male sexual behavior was studied in middle-aged rats. Male rats (18-19months) were assigned to three groups: (1) Group MIE consisted of rats showing mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations; (2) Group MI was composed of rats showing mounts and intromissions, but no ejaculation; and (3) Group NC were non-copulators showing no sexual behavior. Young adult rats (4-5months), displaying complete copulatory behavior, were used as the control group. Levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin, and norepinephrine and their metabolites in the NAcc were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. No difference was seen in DA levels between MIE rats and young controls, whereas DA levels in NC rats were significantly lower than those in both MIE and MI rats. Serotonin levels in NC rats were significantly higher than those in MIE and MI rats. Conversely, norepinephrine levels in NC rats were lower than those in MIE rats. These results suggest that monoamine levels in the NAcc correlate with sexual performance in male rats and that changes in NAcc monoamine levels might affect male sexual behavior in middle-aged rats.

  3. Changes in Dendritic Architecture: Not Your ?Usual Suspect? in Control of the Onset of Puberty in Male Rats

    Hemond, Peter J.; O?Boyle, Michael P.; Hemond, Zoe; Gay, Vernon L.; Suter, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Until the recent past, the search for the underlying drive for the pubertal increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) hormone from the GnRH-containing neurons in the hypothalamus was largely focused on extrinsic factors. The most recent evidence however indicates changes in the structure of GnRH neurons themselves may contribute to this fundamental event in development. Based on our studies in males, dendritic architecture is not static from birth until adulthood. Instead, dendrites u...

  4. Postnatal exposure to PCB 153 and PCB 180, but not to PCB 52, produces changes in activity level and stimulus control in outbred male Wistar Kyoto rats

    Walaas S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are a class of organic compounds that bioaccumulate due to their chemical stability and lipophilic properties. Humans are prenatally exposed via trans-placental transfer, through breast milk as infants, and through fish, seafood and fatty foods as adolescents and adults. Exposure has several reported effects ranging from developmental abnormalities to cognitive and motor deficiencies. In the present study, three experimental groups of rats were orally exposed to PCBs typically found in human breast milk and then behaviorally tested for changes in measures of stimulus control (percentage lever-presses on the reinforcer-producing lever, activity level (responses with IRTs > 0.67 s, and responses with short IRTs ( Methods Male offspring from Wistar Kyoto (WKY/NTac dams purchased pregnant from Taconic Farms (Germantown, NY were orally given PCB at around postnatal day 8, 14, and 20 at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight at each exposure. Three experimental groups were exposed either to PCB 52, PCB 153, or PCB 180. A fourth group fed corn oil only served as controls. From postnatal day 25, for 33 days, the animals were tested for behavioral changes using an operant procedure. Results PCB exposure did not produce behavioral changes during training when responding was frequently reinforced using a variable interval 3 s schedule. When correct responses were reinforced on a variable interval 180 s schedule, animals exposed to PCB 153 or PCB 180 were less active than controls and animals exposed to PCB 52. Stimulus control was better in animals exposed to PCB 180 than in controls and in the PCB 52 group. Also, the PCB 153 and PCB 180 groups had fewer responses with short IRTs than the PCB 52 group. No effects of exposure to PCB 52 were found when compared to controls. Conclusions Exposure to PCBs 153 and 180 produced hypoactivity that continued at least five weeks after the last exposure. No effects of

  5. Testosterone influences spatial strategy preferences among adult male rats.

    Spritzer, Mark D; Fox, Elliott C; Larsen, Gregory D; Batson, Christopher G; Wagner, Benjamin A; Maher, Jack

    2013-05-01

    Males outperform females on some spatial tasks, and this may be partially due to the effects of sex steroids on spatial strategy preferences. Previous work with rodents indicates that low estradiol levels bias females toward a striatum-dependent response strategy, whereas high estradiol levels bias them toward a hippocampus-dependent place strategy. We tested whether testosterone influenced the strategy preferences in male rats. All subjects were castrated and assigned to one of three daily injection doses of testosterone (0.125, 0.250, or 0.500 mg/rat) or a control group that received daily injections of the drug vehicle. Three different maze protocols were used to determine rats' strategy preferences. A low dose of testosterone (0.125 mg) biased males toward a motor-response strategy on a T-maze task. In a water maze task in which the platform itself could be used intermittently as a visual cue, a low testosterone dose (0.125 mg) caused a significant increase in the use of a cued-response strategy relative to control males. Results from this second experiment also indicated that males receiving a high dose of testosterone (0.500 mg) were biased toward a place strategy. A third experiment indicated that testosterone dose did not have a strong influence on the ability of rats to use a nearby visual cue (floating ball) in the water maze. For this experiment, all groups seemed to use a combination of place and cued-response strategies. Overall, the results indicate that the effects of testosterone on spatial strategy preference are dose dependent and task dependent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Changes in dendritic architecture: not your "usual suspect" in control of the onset of puberty in male rats.

    Hemond, Peter J; O'Boyle, Michael P; Hemond, Zoe; Gay, Vernon L; Suter, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Until the recent past, the search for the underlying drive for the pubertal increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) hormone from the GnRH-containing neurons in the hypothalamus was largely focused on extrinsic factors. The most recent evidence however indicates changes in the structure of GnRH neurons themselves may contribute to this fundamental event in development. Based on our studies in males, dendritic architecture is not static from birth until adulthood. Instead, dendrites undergo a dramatic remodeling during the postnatal period which is independent of testosterone and occurs before the pubertal increase in GnRH release. First, the number of dendrites emanating from somata is reduced between infancy and adulthood. Moreover, a dendrite of adult GnRH neurons invariability arises at angle of 180°from the axon as opposed to the extraordinary variability in location during infancy. In fact, in some neurons from infants, no dendrite even resides in the adult location. Thus, there is a spatially selective remodeling of primary dendrites. Secondly, dendrites of GnRH neurons from infants were highly branched prior to assuming the compact morphology of adults. Finally, other morphological aspects of GnRH neurons such as total dendritic length, the numbers of dendrite branches and the lengths of higher order branches were significantly greater in infants than adults, indicating a consolidation of dendritic arbors. Activity in multi-compartment models of GnRH neurons, suggest the impact of structure on neuronal activity is exerted with both active and passive dendrites. Thus, passive properties make a defining contribution to function. Accordingly, changes in morphology alone are likely to have functional consequences for the pattern of activity in GnRH neurons. Our findings suggest structural remodeling of dendrites during the postnatal period likely facilitates repetitive action potentials and thus, GnRH release at the time of puberty.

  7. Effects of zinc supplementation on sexual behavior of male rats

    DMAB Dissanayake

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Effects of zinc on male sexual competence are poorly understood. Aim: To study the effects of different doses of zinc on the sexual competence of males using a rat model. Materials and Methods: Three subsets (eight in each subset of sexually experienced adult male rats were supplemented with three different oral doses of zinc sulphate (a daily dose of 1 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg respectively for two weeks. A subset of eight animals without zinc supplementation was used as the control group Sexual behavior was observed by placing them individually in cages with receptive females. Statistical Analysis : Data analysis was done using SPSS v10 for windows computer software. Results: Supplementation of 5 mg of zinc/day for two weeks led to a prolongation of ejaculatory latency; 711.6 sec. (SEM 85.47 vs. 489.50 sec. (SEM 67.66, P 0.05. However, partner preference index was positive and 5 mg zinc supplementation did not exert a significant adverse effect on the muscle strength and co-ordination. The subset of rats supplemented with 1 mg/day did not show a difference from the control group while supplementation with 10 mg/day led to a reduction of the libido index, number of mounts and intromissions. Conclusions : Zinc therapy improves sexual competence of male rats; the effect is dose dependent. Increase in the T levels is beneficial in this regard. However, increase in PRL is responsible for the reduced libido index. Further studies on pigs and monkeys are needed to evaluate the therapeutic use of zinc in sexual dysfunction.

  8. Bone metabolism of male rats chronically exposed to cadmium

    Brzoska, Malgorzata M.; Moniuszko-Jakoniuk, Janina

    2005-01-01

    Recently, based on a female rat model of human exposure, we have reported that low-level chronic exposure to cadmium (Cd) has an injurious effect on the skeleton. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether the exposure may also affect bone metabolism in a male rat model and to estimate the gender-related differences in the bone effect of Cd. Young male Wistar rats received drinking water containing 0, 1, 5, or 50 mg Cd/l for 12 months. The bone effect of Cd was evaluated using bone densitometry and biochemical markers of bone turnover. Renal handling of calcium (Ca) and phosphate, and serum concentrations of vitamin D metabolites, calcitonin, and parathormone were estimated as well. At treatment with 1 mg Cd/l, corresponding to the low environmental exposure in non-Cd-polluted areas, the bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) at the femur and lumbar spine (L1-L5) and the total skeleton BMD did not differ compared to control. However, from the 6th month of the exposure, the Z score BMD indicated osteopenia in some animals and after 12 months the bone resorption very clearly tended to an increase. The rats' exposure corresponding to human moderate (5 mg Cd/l) and especially relatively high (50 mg Cd/l) exposure dose- and duration-dependently disturbed the processes of bone turnover and bone mass accumulation leading to formation of less dense than normal bone tissue. The effects were accompanied by changes in the serum concentration of calciotropic hormones and disorders in Ca and phosphate metabolism. It can be concluded that low environmental exposure to Cd may be only a subtle risk factor for skeletal demineralization in men. The results together with our previous findings based on an analogous model using female rats give clear evidence that males are less vulnerable to the bone effects of Cd compared to females

  9. The sensitivity of male rat reproductive organs to monosodium glutamate

    Sitthichai Iamsaard

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to investigate the sensitivity of the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, and sperm acrosome reaction (AR to monosodium L- glutamate (MSG in rats. Materials and methods. Rats were divided into four groups and fed with non-acidic MSG at 0.25, 3 or 6 g/kg body weight for 30 days or without MSG. The morphological changes in the reproductive organs were studied. The plasma testosterone level, epididymal sperm concentration, and sperm AR status were assayed. Results. Compared to the control, no significant changes were discerned in the morphology and weight of the testes, or the histological structures of epididymis, vas deferens and seminal vesicle. In contrast, significant decreases were detected in the weight of the epididymis, testosterone levels, and sperm concentration of rats treated with 6 g/kg body weight of MSG. The weight loss was evident in the seminal vesicle in MSG-administered rats. Moreover, rats treated with MSG 3 and 6 g/kg exhibited partial testicular damage, characterized by sloughing of spermatogenic cells into the seminiferous tubular lumen, and their plasma testosterone levels were significantly decreased. In the 6 g/kg MSG group, the sperm concentration was significantly decreased compared with the control or two lower dose MSG groups. In AR assays, there was no statistically significant difference between MSG-rats and normal rats. Conclusion. Testicular morphological changes, testosterone level, and sperm concentration were sensitive to high doses of MSG while the rate of AR was not affected. Therefore, the consumption of high dose MSG must be avoided because it may cause partial infertility in male.

  10. Opium can differently alter blood glucose, sodium and potassium in male and female rats.

    Karam, Gholamreza Asadi; Rashidinejad, Hamid Reza; Aghaee, Mohammad Mehdi; Ahmadi, Jafar; Rahmani, Mohammad Reza; Mahmoodi, Mehdi; Azin, Hosein; Mirzaee, Mohammad Reza; Khaksari, Mohammad

    2008-04-01

    To determine the effects of opium on serum glucose, potassium and sodium in male and female Wistar rat, opium solution (60 mg/kg) injected intraperitoneally and the same volume of distilled water was used as control (7 rats in each group). Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 360 minutes after injection from orbit cavity and the values of serum glucose, sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)) were measured. The data were then analyzed by the repeated measure ANOVA based on sex and case-control group. P opium solution injection, in female rats compared to a control group. However, the male rats had this rise at 30, 60 and 120 minutes after opium solution injection compared to control group. While serum glucose in male rats was significantly higher than females at 30, 60 and 120 minutes, this value was higher in the female rats at 360 minutes. Therefore, serum glucose alterations following opium injection was significantly different in groups and in the sexes at different times. Sodium (Na(+)) rose at 60, 240 and 360 minutes significantly in all rats compared to control group. However, sodium alteration following opium injection was significantly different only between treated and control groups but sex-independent at all times. Potassium (K(+)) increased significantly at 60, 120, 240 and 360 minutes in male rats, compared to a control group. In female rats K(+) significantly raised at 30, 120, 240 and 360 minutes. Therefore, the alteration of K(+) in male and female rats was found time dependent and sex independent. According to our results, opium increased serum glucose in male and female rats differently, and it interferes with metabolic pathways differently on a gender dependent basis. Opium raised serum Na(+) and K(+), thus it interfere with water regulation and blood pressure via different mechanism.

  11. Disposition of citral in male Fischer rats

    Diliberto, J.J.; Usha, G.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1988-01-01

    The disposition of citral, an essential oil occurring in many foods and fragrances, was studied in male Fischer rats after iv, po, and dermal treatments. The pattern of distribution and elimination was the same after iv or oral exposure. Urine was the major route of elimination of citral-derived radioactivity, followed by feces, 14 CO 2 , and expired volatiles. However, after dermal exposure, relatively less of the material was eliminated in the urine and more in the feces, suggesting a role for first-pass metabolism through the skin. Citral was almost completely absorbed orally; due to its extreme volatility, much of an applied dermal dose was lost. The citral remaining on the skin was fairly well absorbed. No effect of oral dose, from 5 to 500 mg/kg, was detected on disposition. Although the feces was a minor route of excretion, approximately 25% of the administered dose was eliminated via the bile within 4 hr of an iv dose. The metabolism of citral was both rapid and extensive. Within 5 min of an iv dose, no unmetabolized citral could be detected in the blood. Repeated exposure to citral resulted in an increase in biliary elimination, without any significant change in the pattern of urinary, fecal, or exhaled excretion. This suggests that citral may induce at least one pathway of its own metabolism. The rapid metabolism and excretion of this compound suggest that significant bioaccumulation of citral would not occur

  12. Resident intruder paradigm-induced aggression relieves depressive-like behaviors in male rats subjected to chronic mild stress

    Wei, Sheng; Ji, Xiao-wei; Wu, Chun-ling; Li, Zi-fa; Sun, Peng; Wang, Jie-qiong; Zhao, Qi-tao; Gao, Jie; Guo, Ying-hui; Sun, Shi-guang; Qiao, Ming-qi

    2014-01-01

    Background Accumulating epidemiological evidence shows that life event stressors are major vulnerability factors for psychiatric diseases such as major depression. It is also well known that the resident intruder paradigm (RIP) results in aggressive behavior in male rats. However, it is not known how resident intruder paradigm-induced aggression affects depressive-like behavior in isolated male rats subjected to chronic mild stress (CMS), which is an animal model of depression. Material/Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: non-stressed controls, isolated rats subjected to the CMS protocol, and resident intruder paradigm-exposed rats subjected to the CMS protocol. Results In the sucrose intake test, ingestion of a 1% sucrose solution by rats in the CMS group was significantly lower than in control and CMS+RIP rats after 3 weeks of stress. In the open-field test, CMS rats had significantly lower open-field scores compared to control rats. Furthermore, the total scores given the CMS group were significantly lower than in the CMS+RIP rats. In the forced swimming test (FST), the immobility times of CMS rats were significantly longer than those of the control or CMS+RIP rats. However, no differences were observed between controls and CMS+RIP rats. Conclusions Our data show that aggressive behavior evoked by the resident intruder paradigm could relieve broad-spectrum depressive-like behaviors in isolated adult male rats subjected to CMS. PMID:24911067

  13. Administration of an oxytocin receptor antagonist attenuates sexual motivation in male rats.

    Blitzer, D S; Wells, T E; Hawley, W R

    2017-08-01

    In male rats, oxytocin impacts both sexual arousal and certain types of consummatory sexual behaviors. However, the role of oxytocin in the motivational aspects of sexual behavior has received limited attention. Given the role that oxytocin signaling plays in consummatory sexual behaviors, it was hypothesized that pharmacological attenuation of oxytocin signaling would reduce sexual motivation in male rats. Sexually experienced Long-Evans male rats were administered either an oxytocin receptor antagonist (L368,899 hydrochloride; 1mg/kg) or vehicle control into the intraperitoneal cavity 40min prior to placement into the center chamber of a three-chambered arena designed to assess sexual motivation. During the 20-minute test, a sexually experienced stimulus male rat and a sexually receptive stimulus female rat were separately confined to smaller chambers that were attached to the larger end chambers of the arena. However, physical contact between test and stimulus rats was prevented by perforated dividers. Immediately following the sexual motivation test, test male rats were placed with a sexually receptive female to examine consummatory sexual behaviors. Although both drug and vehicle treated rats exhibited a preference for the female, treatment with an oxytocin receptor antagonist decreased the amount of time spent with the female. There were no differences between drug and vehicle treated rats in either general activity, exploratory behaviors, the amount of time spent near the stimulus male rat, or consummatory sexual behaviors. Extending previous findings, these results indicate that oxytocin receptors are involved in sexual motivation in male rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Inhibin activity in male rat reproductive organs during treatment with dihydrotestosterone

    Gladkova, A.I.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the inhibin level in the male reproductive system is studied. Hormones were determined in the peripheral blood of the donor rats by radioimmunoassay. Inhibin activity in the male rats is shown. DHT caused a very small increase in inhibin activity in the testis. Further study of relations between androgens and inhibin at peripheral and central levels will facilitate fertility control

  15. Effect of Nifedipine on Reproductive Functions in Male Rats ...

    Effect of Nifedipine on Reproductive Functions in Male Rats. ... Background: After life itself, fertility is probably the most highly prized human possession. ... Animals in Group 3 were allowed another 30 days after drug withdrawal for recovery.

  16. [Cellphone electromagnetic radiation damages the testicular ultrastructure of male rats].

    Gao, Xiao-Hui; Hu, Hui-Rong; Ma, Xue-Lian; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Guo-Hong

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the influence of cellphone electromagnetic radiation (CER) on the testicular ultrastructure and the apoptosis of spermatogenic cells in male rats.atability, feasibility, applicability, and controllability in the construction of experimental animal models, we compared the major anatomic features of the penis of 20 adult beagle dogs with those of 10 adult men. Using microsurgical techniques, we performed cross-transplantation of the penis in the 20 (10 pairs) beagle dogs and observed the survival rate of the transplanted penises by FK506+MMF+MP immune induction. We compared the relevant indexes with those of the 10 cases of microsurgical replantation of the amputated penis. Thirty adult male SD rats were equally randomized into a 2 h CER, a 4 h CER, and a normal control group, the former two groups exposed to 30 days of 900 MHz CER for 2 and 4 hours a day, respectively, while the latter left untreated. Then the changes in the ultrastructure of the testis tissue were observed under the transmission electron microscope and the apoptosis of the spermatogenic cells was determined by TUNEL. Compared with the normal controls, the rats of the 2 h CER group showed swollen basement membrane of seminiferous tubules, separated tight junction of Sertoli cells, increased cell intervals, apparent vacuoles and medullization in some mitochondria, and increased apoptosis of spermatogenic cells, mainly the apoptosis of primary spermatocytes (P<0.05 ). In comparison with the 2 h CER group, the animals of the 4 h CER group exhibited swollen basement membrane of seminiferous tubules, more separated tight junction of Sertoli cells, wider cell intervals, incomplete membrane of spermatogonial cells, fragments of cytoplasm, nuclear pyknosis and notch, slight dilation of perinuclear space, abnormalities of intracellular mitochondria with vacuoles, fuzzy structure, and fusion or disappearance of some cristae, and increased damage of mitochondria and apoptosis of spermatogenic

  17. Effects of D-004, a lipid extract of the fruit of the Cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia) or the lipidosterolic extract of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) on the sexual activity in male rats: A controlled, experimental study.

    Fernández, Lilia C; Mas, Rosa; Fernández, Julio; Mendoza, Sarahí; Gámez, Rafael; Pardo, Balia

    2008-02-01

    The etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is not completely understood, but hormonal changes in aging men seem to be pivotal. Dihydrotestosterone, a potent, active metabolite of testosterone, is formed by the enzymatic action of prostate 5α-reductase and causes cell growth and hyperplasia. Consistent with this action, male sexual dysfunction has been clinically documented to be among the drug-related adverse events associated with 5α-reductase inhibitors. The lipidosterolic extract of saw palmetto (LESP) fruit (Serenoa repens) has been used to treat BPH. D-004, a lipid extract of Roystonea regia Royal palm fruit, has been found to prevent prostatic hyperplasia induced by testoste-rone in rodents and to competitively inhibit prostate 5α-reductase activity in vitro. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of D-004 and LESP, administered as single or repeated doses, on the sexual activity in male rats. This controlled, experimental study was conducted at the Pharmacology Department, Centre of Natural Products, National Centre for Scientific Research, Havana City, Cuba. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 250 to 300 g were randomized into 5 groups: 2 groups treated orally with D-004 (400 and 800 mg/kg); 2 groups treated orally with LESP (400 and 800 mg/kg); and 1 control group orally administered a water vehicle. Sexual activity behavior (the number of mounts and intromissions, mount latency, and intromission latency) was assessed during 2 observation periods: 90 minutes after the initial dose and at the end of the 30-day treatment. Latency was defined as time elapsed between the first mount and intromission. A total of 50 rats (mean [SD] age, 10 [3] weeks; mean [SD] weight, 295 [10] g) were included in the experiment. There were no significant difterences in the mean number of mounts, intromissions, mount latency, or intromission latency in the groups treated with single or repeated doses of D-004 or LESP (400 and 800 mg/kg) compared with the

  18. Postnatal early overnutrition causes long-term renal decline in aging male rats.

    Yim, Hyung Eun; Yoo, Kee Hwan; Bae, In Sun; Hong, Young Sook; Lee, Joo Won

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the influence of postnatal early overnutrition on renal pathophysiological changes in aging rats. Three or 10 male pups per mother were assigned to either the small litter (SL) or normal litter (control) groups, respectively, during the first 21 d of life. The effects of early postnatal overnutrition were determined at 12 mo. SL rats weighed more than controls between 4 d and 6 mo of age (P renal cortex were higher in SL rats (P aging SL rats (P aging kidney and can lead to systolic hypertension with reduced intrarenal renin activity.

  19. Effect of honey on the reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress.

    Haron, M N; Mohamed, M

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to prenatal stress is associated with impaired reproductive function in male rat offspring. Honey is traditionally used by the Malays for enhancement of fertility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of honey on reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress. Dams were divided into four groups (n = 10/group): control, honey, stress and honey + stress groups. Dams from honey and honey + stress groups received oral honey (1.2 g kg(-1) body weight) daily from day 1 of pregnancy, meanwhile dams from stress and honey + stress groups were subjected to restraint stress (three times per day) from day 11 of pregnancy until delivery. At 10 weeks old, each male rat offspring was mated with a regular oestrus cycle female. Male sexual behaviour and reproductive performance were evaluated. Then, male rats were euthanised for assessment on reproductive parameters. Honey supplementation during prenatal restraint stress significantly increased testis and epididymis weights as well as improved the percentages of abnormal spermatozoa and sperm motility in male rat offspring. In conclusion, this study might suggest that supplementation of honey during pregnancy seems to reduce the adverse effects of restraint stress on reproductive organs weight and sperm parameters in male rat offspring. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Testicular Morphometry and Histology of Male Wistar Rats and ...

    The effects of aqueous extract of Spondias mombin leaves on testicular characteristics and neonatal birth weights after oral treatment of male and female ... was no antifertility consequence of aqueous spondias mombin on the male wistar rat but insipient infertility was noticed with lower dosages for the female but none with ...

  1. Reproductive Toxicity of Triptolide in Male House Rat, Rattus rattus

    Neena Singla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the toxic effect of triptolide fed in bait on reproduction of male house rat, Rattus rattus. Feeding of cereal based bait containing 0.2% triptolide to male R. rattus for 5 days in no-choice feeding test, leading to mean daily ingestion of 20.45 mg/kg bw of triptolide, was found effective in significantly (P≤0.05 reducing sperm motility and viability in cauda epididymal fluid by 80.65 and 75.14%, respectively, from that of untreated rats. Pregnancy rates were decreased by 100% in untreated cyclic female rats paired with male rats treated with 0.2% triptolide. Present studies suggest the potential of 0.2% triptolide bait in regulating reproductive output of R. rattus.

  2. STUDIES ON INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN MALE ALBINO RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS)

    ABULYAZID, I.; ABBAS, O.A.; FAYEZ, V.

    2008-01-01

    Levanox, a hepato protective drug, and garlic powder have been considered as safe anti-oxidant agents. The present investigation refers to biochemical and molecular studies to evaluate the protective role of levanox and/or garlic powder toward CCl4-induced toxicity in adult male albino rats. CCl4 intoxication was attempted using a dose of 0.03 ml/kg of rat body weight.Pre-treatment with levanox (one capsule/ kg of rat body weight, each capsule contains 100 mg catechu, 7.5 mg dandelion, 75 mg termiric 2 % curcumin , 17.5 mg silymarin, 100 mg lecithin) was more effective than garlic powder (100mg/kg of rat body weight) in reducing CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity as revealed by its higher potency in reducing elevation of aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases in serum. Serum of control rats and those treated with levanox or garlic or CCl4 produced 13 types of proteins, differing in the molecular weight (MW) and densities, while those of levanox + garlic or garlic +CCl4 produced 14 bands differing in the MW and densities. The similarity index at the epigenetic level was also studied using the primers under study. The control sample produced one amplified DNA fragment with Rf of 0.73 and a molecular size (MS) of 67 base pair (bp) . Using the same primers, no amplified DNA fragment with the same MS was produced in the sample taken from levanox + garlic treated group.OPA-2 primer of sequence 5?- AGA TGC AGC C-3? produced one amplified DNA band with MS of 292 bp and Rf of 0.46 . However, the same primer produced one amplified DNA characteristic band with a molecular size of 363 bp and Rf of 0.43 in the sample of levanox + garlic group.In the control sample, OPA-4 primer of sequence 5? - ACG CAC AAC C-3? produced one amplified DNA band of MS of 299 bp and Rf of 0.43. The same primer produced one amplified characteristic DNA band with MS of 363 bp and Rf of 0.43 in the sample of levanox + garlic group.Dual treatment with levanox and garlic powder resulted in a

  3. Prostate response to prolactin in sexually active male rats

    Garcia Luis I

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prostate is a key gland in the sexual physiology of male mammals. Its sensitivity to steroid hormones is widely known, but its response to prolactin is still poorly known. Previous studies have shown a correlation between sexual behaviour, prolactin release and prostate physiology. Thus, here we used the sexual behaviour of male rats as a model for studying this correlation. Hence, we developed experimental paradigms to determine the influence of prolactin on sexual behaviour and prostate organization of male rats. Methods In addition to sexual behaviour recordings, we developed the ELISA procedure to quantify the serum level of prolactin, and the hematoxilin-eosin technique for analysis of the histological organization of the prostate. Also, different experimental manipulations were carried out; they included pituitary grafts, and haloperidol and ovine prolactin treatments. Data were analyzed with a One way ANOVA followed by post hoc Dunnet test if required. Results Data showed that male prolactin has a basal level with two peaks at the light-dark-light transitions. Consecutive ejaculations increased serum prolactin after the first ejaculation, which reached the highest level after the second, and started to decrease after the third ejaculation. These normal levels of prolactin did not induce any change at the prostate tissue. However, treatments for constant elevations of serum prolactin decreased sexual potency and increased the weight of the gland, the alveoli area and the epithelial cell height. Treatments for transient elevation of serum prolactin did not affect the sexual behaviour of males, but triggered these significant effects mainly at the ventral prostate. Conclusion The prostate is a sexual gland that responds to prolactin. Mating-induced prolactin release is required during sexual encounters to activate the epithelial cells in the gland. Here we saw a precise mechanism controlling the release of prolactin

  4. Peripubertal castration of male rats, adult open field ambulation and partner preference behavior.

    Brand, T; Slob, A K

    1988-09-15

    The validity of the hypothesis put forward earlier, that testicular secretions during puberty have an organizing effect on open field ambulation was examined. Male rats were castrated or sham-operated at days 21, 43 or 70. At the age of 17 weeks the males were tested in an automated, octagonal open field (3 consecutive days, 3 min/day) for locomotor activity. Male rats castrated at day 21 or day 43 ambulated more than sham-castrated controls. Males castrated at day 70 did not differ from sham-castrated controls. It thus appears that pubertal testicular secretion(s) organize adult open field locomotor activity in male rats. From 18 weeks of age partner preference behavior was tested in the same open field apparatus with one adjacent cage containing an ovariectomized female and an opposite one containing an ovariectomized female brought into heat. The females in the adjacent cages were separated from the experimental males in the octagonal cage by wire mesh. Peripubertally castrated males did not show a clear-cut partner preference, whereas the intact males preferred the vicinity of the estrous female. There were no differences among the males castrated either before, during or after puberty. Testosterone treatment (crystalline T in silastic capsules) caused peripubertally castrated males to prefer the estrous female. Thus, adult partner preference behavior does not seem to be organized by peripubertal testicular androgens.

  5. Following Exhaustive Exercise in Male Rats

    reza Badalzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Long-term treatment of rats with cinnamon and regular training improved cardiac hemodynamic through an additive effect. The positive effects of cinnamon and regular training on cardiac function were associated with a reduced serum MDA level and an improved blood lipid profile.

  6. Studies On The Effect of Selenium And Vitamin (E) on Irradiated Male rats

    Mohamed, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the protective role of intraperitoneally administered selenium and/or vitamin E on γ- radiation induced injury in adult male albino rats. Male albino rats(120-140 gm), were divided into the following groups:1- Control group: consisted of 10 rats. 2- Irradiated group: consisted of 10 rats exposed to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose level of 6 (Gy). 3- Injected -irradiated group: consisted of 90 rats intraperitoneally administered with selenium (Na 2 SeO 3 ) at a dose level of 0.2 mg/Kg body weight or with vitamin E (di-αtocopheryl acetate) at a dose level of 10 mg/kg body weight or with combined dose of selenium and vitamin E (0.2 mg/Kg body weight + 10 mg/Kg body weight)

  7. The effect of nicotine pre-exposure on demand for cocaine and sucrose in male rats.

    Schwartz, Lindsay P; Kearns, David N; Silberberg, Alan

    2018-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine how nicotine pre-exposure affects the elasticity of demand for intravenous cocaine and for sucrose pellets in adult male rats. In Experiment 1, demand for cocaine was assessed in rats that had nicotine in their drinking water. Nicotine pre-exposure significantly decreased rats' willingness to defend cocaine consumption as the price (measured as the number of responses per cocaine infusion) increased compared with a control group with no nicotine pre-exposure. That is, nicotine increased the elasticity of demand for cocaine infusions. Experiment 2 repeated the first experiment, but with rats working for sucrose pellets instead of cocaine. Nicotine pre-exposure had no effect on the elasticity of demand for sucrose. This pattern of results suggests that nicotine pre-exposure can reduce the reinforcing effects of cocaine, but not sucrose, in adult male rats.

  8. The Effect of Hindlimb Suspension on the Reproductive System of Young Male Rats

    Tou, Janet; Grindeland, R.; Baer, L.; Guran, G.; Fung, C.; Wade, C.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Colonization of space requires the ability to reproduce in reduced gravity. Following spaceflight, astronauts and male rats exhibit decreased testosterone (T). This has important implications as T effects the testes and accessory sex glands. To our knowledge no studies have examined the effects of spaceflight on accessory sex glands. Due to the rarity of spaceflight opportunities, ground models have been used to simulate weightlessness. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of long-term (21 d) weightlessness on the reproductive system of male rats. Weightlessness was simulated using the Morey-Holton hindlimb suspension (HLS) model. Age 10 week old, male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing (209.0 +9.7g) were randomly assigned (n=10/group) to either HLS or ambulatory control. In HLS rats, testes mass was 33% lower (pmale rats. This discrepancy may have been due to the age of animal and timing of sampling. T levels vary dramatically during testes development as well as within normal diurnal cycles. In young HLS rats, testes weight was reduced but not plasma T. Subsequently there was no effect on accessory sex glands. However, this may not be the case in older rats. More studies using standardized methods are needed to gain a better understanding of male reproduction function and capability in weightlessness. Funding provided by NASA.

  9. Evaluation of androgenic activity of Mucuna pruriens in male rats ...

    Methanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens seed was tested for their possible androgenic activity in Wister male albino rats. The methanolic extract of M. pruriens plant was gavaged separately into 2 group of rat at similar doses of 1000 mg/kg b.wt and 1500 mg/kg b.wt for 30 days. At the end of the treatment, the animals were ...

  10. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: A BNCT approach

    Goodarzi, Samereh; Pazirandeh, Ali; Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin; Baghban Khojasteh, Nasrin

    2012-01-01

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. - Highlights: ► Boron distribution in male and female rats' normal brain was studied in this research. ► Coronal sections of animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. ► Alpha and Lithium tracks were counted using alpha autoradiography. ► Different boron concentration was seen in brain sections of male and female rats. ► The highest boron concentration was seen in 4 h after boron compound injection.

  11. Histophysiological study of aluminum chloride effect on male rats

    K. H. Al-Mallah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to detect the effects of aluminum chloride AlCl3 on some pathophysiological features of adult male rats. Eighteen rats were divided to 3 groups of 6 animals each. These included untreated control and 2 treated groups received AlCl3 at the doses 40 and 80 mg/kg of body weight, orally and daily for 30 days. The following parameters were recorded: Body weight (weekly, central nervous system activity tests (weekly, hematological examinations at 15 and 30 days of experimentally and gross and histopathology for brain, liver, kidneys and heart at the day (30. The results showed a significant decrease in body weight mean of 3rd group (80 mg/kg at 4th week, a significant decrease in the activity associated with time progress in experiment by recording (moving onset, square crossed and rearing in 3 minutes, negative geotaxis tests, there were no significant differences between groups at pack cell volume and hemoglobin concentration with a significant decrease in total leukocyte count at 2nd group (40 mg/kg. Differential leukocyte count revealed significant increase in lymphocyte at day 30. Histopathological changes were neuronal vaculation and proliferation of microgelial cells in brain, vacular degeneration and lymphocytic infiltrations in hepatic parenchyma with mild portal fibrosis in liver, at kidneys there were cloudy swelling, coagulative necrosis to the renal tubular epithelium, more severely noticed at 3rd group, no pathological changes were noticed at myocardium and coronary arteries at both treated groups.

  12. Histopathological effects of doxorubicin on pancreas in male albino rats

    I.A. Ali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the histopathological side effects of doxorubicin on pancreas tissue in male albino rats Rattus norvegicus. This study were used 55 adult rats (2.5-3.5 month of age. The rats divided into two groups, the first group include (35 rats. The second group were (20 rats. Microscopial examination of pancreas lesion demonstrated oedema around the acini, swelling of the epithelial cells of acini, occurance of cystic fibrosis (mucoviscidosis at the concentration of (4,5 mg/kg of body weight ,occurrence of small islets that form of few cells and exocrine-endocrine transformation. There were thickness in the walls of blood vessels, thrombus, congestion of blood vessels, we conclude, that doxorubicin had histopathological effect on pancreas in sub-acute doses more than chronic doses.

  13. Oxytocin mediates copulation-induced hypoalgesia of male rats.

    Futagami, Hiroko; Sakuma, Yasuo; Kondo, Yasuhiko

    2016-04-08

    Copulatory behavior has been reported to raise the pain threshold in male rats. In this study, we examined the effect of copulatory behavior with or without ejaculation on pain threshold measured by electrical shock via an electrode attached to the tail. It was demonstrated that ejaculation is not necessary to raise the pain threshold in male rats. In addition, we examined whether oxytocin, a hypothalamic neuropeptide, was involved in copulation-induced hypoalgesia. Sexually experienced males were subjected to stereotaxic implantation of a guide cannula targeting the lateral ventricle. After the recovery period, half of the males were intracerebroventricularly treated with an oxytocin antagonist (OTA, 100ng d(CH2)51,Tyr(Me)2,Thr4, Orn8,Tyr-NH29]-vasotocin/1μL saline) and the remaining half were administered saline without anesthesia. Fifteen minutes later, half of each group were given sexual behavior with receptive females. We found no effect of OTA on sexual activity. Immediately after ejaculation, pain threshold was measured. While raised pain threshold was observed after sexual behavior in saline-treated males, no change in pain threshold was found in OTA-treated males even after copulation. The results suggest that central oxytocin mediates copulation-induced hypoalgesia in male rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Effect of tail-suspension on the reproduction of adult male rats].

    Zhou, Dang-xia; Qiu, Shu-dong; Wang, Zhi-yong; Zhang, Jie

    2006-04-01

    To study the effects on the male reproduction in adult male rats and its mechanisms through simulated weightlessness using tail-suspension, in order to do a basic works of exploring the effects on human being's reproduction in outer space. Forty Spraque-Dawley adult male rats were randomly divided into four groups, two experimental groups and two control groups. Rats in the two experimental groups were tail-suspended for 14 d and 28 d respectively, then we examined the weight and morphology of testis, the quality and amount of sperm, also tested the serum hormone by radioimmunoassay and analyzed apoptosis rate of testicular cells by TUNEL in the experimental rats and control rats. After tail-suspension, the weight of testis, the sperm count and sperm motility significantly decreased (P 0.05). These changes were not significant between two experimental groups (P > 0.05). In addition, the seminiferous tubules became atrophy with the reduction of the layers of seminiferous epithelium, and sperm amount in lumens of seminiferous tubules decreased in experimental groups. The above were more remarkable in the 28 d experimental group. Simulating weightlessness has a harmful effect on reproduction of adult male rats. These may be caused by inducing apoptosis. The blocking apoptosis of testicular cells may be useful in improving the harmful effect.

  15. Vasopressin V1a receptors are present in the carotid body and contribute to the control of breathing in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Żera, Tymoteusz; Przybylski, Jacek; Grygorowicz, Tomasz; Kasarełło, Kaja; Podobińska, Martyna; Mirowska-Guzel, Dagmara; Cudnoch-Jędrzejewska, Agnieszka

    2018-04-01

    Vasopressin (AVP) maintains body homeostasis by regulating water balance, cardiovascular system and stress response. AVP inhibits breathing through central vasopressin 1a receptors (V1aRs). Chemoreceptors within carotid bodies (CBs) detect chemical and hormonal signals in the bloodstream and provide sensory input to respiratory and cardiovascular centers of the brainstem. In the study we investigated if CBs contain V1aRs and how the receptors are involved in the regulation of ventilation by AVP. We first immunostained CBs for V1aRs and tyrosine hydroxylase, a marker of chemoreceptor type I (glomus) cells. In urethane-anesthetized adult Sprague-Dawley male rats, we then measured hemodynamic and respiratory responses to systemic (intravenous) or local (carotid artery) administration of AVP prior and after systemic blockade of V1aRs. Immunostaining of CBs showed colocalization of V1aRs and tyrosine hydroxylase within glomus cells. Systemic administration of AVP increased mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and decreased respiratory rate (RR) and minute ventilation (MV). Local administration of AVP increased MV and RR without significant changes in MABP or heart rate. Pretreatment with V1aR antagonist abolished responses to local and intravenous AVP administration. Our findings show that chemosensory cells within CBs express V1aRs and that local stimulation of the CB with AVP increases ventilation, which is contrary to systemic effects of AVP manifested by decreased ventilation. The responses are mediated by V1aRs, as blockade of the receptors prevents changes in ventilation. We hypothesize that excitatory effects of AVP within the CB provide a counterbalancing mechanism for the inhibitory effects of systemically acting AVP on the respiration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Tribulus terrestris on endocrine sensitive organs in male and female Wistar rats.

    Martino-Andrade, Anderson J; Morais, Rosana N; Spercoski, Katherinne M; Rossi, Stefani C; Vechi, Marina F; Golin, Munisa; Lombardi, Natália F; Greca, Cláudio S; Dalsenter, Paulo R

    2010-01-08

    Investigate the possible effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT) on endocrine sensitive organs in intact and castrated male rats as well as in a post-menopausal rat model using ovariectomized females. Three different dose levels of TT (11, 42 and 110 mg/kg/day) were administered to castrated males for 7 days and to intact males and castrated females for 28 days. In addition to TT treatment, all experiments also included a group of rats treated with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). In experiments using castrated males and females we also used testosterone and 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol, respectively, as positive controls for androgenicity and estrogenicity. Neither DHEA nor TT was able to stimulate androgen sensitive tissues like the prostate and seminal vesicle in both intact and castrated male rats. In addition, administration of TT to intact male rats for 28 days did not change serum testosterone levels as well as did not produce any quantitative change in the fecal excretion of androgenic metabolites. However, a slight increase in the number of homogenization-resistant spermatids was observed in rats treated with 11 mg/kg/day of TT extract. In ovariectomized females, TT did not produce any stimulatory effects in uterine and vaginal epithelia. Tribulus terrestris was not able to stimulate endocrine sensitive tissues such as the prostate, seminal vesicle, uterus and vagina in Wistar rats, indicating lack of androgenic and estrogenic activity in vivo. We also showed a positive effect of TT administration on rat sperm production, associated with unchanged levels of circulating androgens. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Prosocial effects of prolactin in male rats: Social recognition, social approach and social learning.

    Donhoffner, Mary E; Al Saleh, Samar; Schink, Olivia; Wood, Ruth I

    2017-11-01

    Prolactin (PRL) and oxytocin (OT) are pituitary hormones essential for lactation, but also promote sexual behavior. OT stimulates social behaviors, such as recognition, approach, and learning, but less is known about PRL in these behaviors. Since PRL and OT have complementary functions in reproduction, we hypothesized that PRL increases social recognition, approach, and learning. Male Long-Evans rats received ovine PRL (oPRL; 0.5, 2.0 or 5.0mg/kg), the PRL antagonist bromocriptine (0.1, 3.0 or 5.0mg/kg) or saline 20 mins before testing for recognition of familiar vs. unfamiliar stimulus males. Saline controls preferred the unfamiliar male (psocial approach, we determined if PRL restores approach 2h after defeat by an aggressive male. Defeated rats avoided the aggressive male. 2mg/kg oPRL, before or after defeat, restored approach towards the aggressive male (psocial learning, we tested social transmission of food preference. Rats choose between two unfamiliar flavors, one of which they have previously been exposed to through interaction with a demonstrator rat. Vehicle controls preferred chow with the demonstrated flavor over the novel flavor. oPRL-treated rats were similar. Bromocriptine-treated rats failed to show a preference. When tested one week later, only oPRL-treated rats preferred the demonstrated flavor. The results suggest that PRL is required for social recognition and learning, and that increasing PRL enhances social memory and approach, similar to OT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Propolis Protection from Toxicity Caused by Aluminium Chloride in Male Rats

    Mangood, S.A.; Kamal, A.M.; Haggag, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Propolis is a resinous natural hive product derived from plant exudate collected by honey bees and has been extensively used in folk medicine. The present study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of propolis in alleviating the toxicity of aluminium chloride (AlCl 3 )on some hematological and biochemical parameters of male albino rats. Twenty four male albino rats were arranged into 4 equal groups; control group, aluminium group (34 mg AlCl 3 /kg/day), propolis group (100μg propolis/rat)and aluminium plus propolis group. Rats were orally administered their respective doses daily for 30 days. AlCl 3 caused significant decrease in hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell count (RBC), hematocrit (Ht), total and differential leucocyte count (TLC) when compared to control. On the other hand, aluminium administration caused a significant increase in urea, uric acid, creatinin, bilirubin, the content of phosphorous, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and asparate aminotransferase (AST) and significant decrease in total protein, albumin, globulin and calcium when compared to control. The administration of propolis alleviated the toxic effect of AlCl 3 in experimental rats. It could be concluded thal propolis my afford protection from toxicity caused by aluminium chloride in male albino rats

  19. Neuronal Function in Male Sprague Dawley Rats During Normal Ageing.

    Idowu, A J; Olatunji-Bello, I I; Olagunju, J A

    2017-03-06

    During normal ageing, there are physiological changes especially in high energy demanding tissues including the brain and skeletal muscles. Ageing may disrupt homeostasis and allow tissue vulnerability to disease. To establish an appropriate animal model which is readily available and will be useful to test therapeutic strategies during normal ageing, we applied behavioral approaches to study age-related changes in memory and motor function as a basis for neuronal function in ageing in male Sprague Dawley rats. 3 months, n=5; 6 months, n=5 and 18 months, n=5 male Sprague Dawley Rats were tested using the Novel Object Recognition Task (NORT) and the Elevated plus Maze (EPM) Test. Data was analyzed by ANOVA and the Newman-Keuls post hoc test. The results showed an age-related gradual decline in exploratory behavior and locomotor activity with increasing age in 3 months, 6 months and 18 months old rats, although the values were not statistically significant, but grooming activity significantly increased with increasing age. Importantly, we established a novel finding that the minimum distance from the novel object was statistically significant between 3 months and 18 months old rats and this may be an index for age-related memory impairment in the NORT. Altogether, we conclude that the male Sprague Dawley rat show age-related changes in neuronal function and may be a useful model for carrying out investigations into the mechanisms involved in normal ageing.

  20. Olanzapine affects locomotor activity and meal size in male rats

    van der Zwaal, Esther M.; Luijendijk, Mieneke C. M.; Evers, Simon S.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Adan, Roger A. H.

    2010-01-01

    Olanzapine is an antipsychotic drug that frequently induces weight gain accompanied by increased fat deposition as a side effect To investigate how olanzapine affects different aspects of energy balance we used male rats to determine effects on meal patterns food preference locomotor activity and

  1. Olanzapine affects locomotor activity and meal size in male rats

    van der Zwaal, Esther M.; Luijendijk, Mieneke C. M.; Evers, Simon S.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Adan, Roger A. H.

    2010-01-01

    Olanzapine is an antipsychotic drug that frequently induces weight gain accompanied by increased fat deposition as a side effect. To investigate how olanzapine affects different aspects of energy balance, we used male rats to determine effects on meal patterns, food preference, locomotor activity

  2. Sodium arsenite-induced reproductive toxicities in male Wistar rats ...

    Sodium arsenite-induced reproductive toxicities in male Wistar rats: role of Tridax procumbens leaf extract. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... In the present study, the effects of ethanol leaf extract of Tridax procumbens ... in Groups B to D as compared to Group A was significantly reduced (p<0.05).

  3. Effects of psychostimulants on social interaction in adult male rats

    Šlamberová, R.; Mikulecká, Anna; Macúchová, E.; Hrebíčková, I.; Ševčíková, M.; Nohejlová, K.; Pometlová, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 8 (2015), s. 776-785 ISSN 0955-8810 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : amphetamine * cocaine * male rats * 3,4 methylenedimethoxyamphetamine * psychostimulants * social behavior Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.000, year: 2015

  4. Testosterone potentiates the hypoxic ventilatory response of adult male rats subjected to neonatal stress.

    Fournier, Sébastien; Gulemetova, Roumiana; Joseph, Vincent; Kinkead, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Neonatal stress disrupts development of homeostatic systems. During adulthood, male rats subjected to neonatal maternal separation (NMS) are hypertensive and show a larger hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR), with greater respiratory instability during sleep. Neonatal stress also affects sex hormone secretion; hypoxia increases circulating testosterone of NMS (but not control) male rats. Given that these effects of NMS are not observed in females, we tested the hypothesis that testosterone elevation is necessary for the stress-related increase of the HVR in adult male rats. Pups subjected to NMS were placed in an incubator for 3 h per day from postnatal day 3 to 12. Control pups remained undisturbed. Rats were reared until adulthood, and the HVR was measured by plethysmography (fractional inspired O2 = 0.12, for 20 min). We used gonadectomy to evaluate the effects of reducing testosterone on the HVR. Gonadectomy had no effect on the HVR of control animals but reduced that of NMS animals below control levels. Immunohistochemistry was used to quantify androgen receptors in brainstem areas involved in the HVR. Androgen receptor expression was generally greater in NMS rats than in control rats; the most significant increase was noted in the caudal region of the nucleus tractus solitarii. We conclude that the abnormal regulation of testosterone is important in stress-related augmentation of the HVR. The greater number of androgen receptors within the brainstem may explain why NMS rats are more sensitive to testosterone withdrawal. Based on the similarities of the cardiorespiratory phenotype of NMS rats and patients suffering from sleep-disordered breathing, these results provide new insight into its pathophysiology, especially sex-based differences in its prevalence. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  5. Impairment of male reproduction in adult rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate in utero

    Pushpalatha, T.; Ramachandra Reddy, P.; Sreenivasula Reddy, P.

    Hydroxyprogesterone caproate is one of the most effective and widely used drugs for the treatment of uterine bleeding and threatened miscarriage in women. Hydroxyprogesterone caproate was administered to pregnant rats in order to assess the effect of intraperitoneal exposure to supranormal levels of hydroxyprogesterone caproate on the male reproductive potential in the first generation. The cauda epididymal sperm count and motility decreased significantly in rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate during embryonic development, when compared with control rats. The levels of serum testosterone decreased with an increase in follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in adult rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate during the embryonic stage. It was suggested that the impairment of male reproductive performance could be mediated through the inhibition of testosterone production.

  6. Pubertal dependent effects of cadmium on episodic prolactin secretion in male rats

    Lafuente, A.; Alvarez-Demanuel, E.; Marquez, N. [Fac. de Cienicas, Orense (Spain). Lab. de Toxicologia; Esquifino, A.I. [Dept. Bioquimica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, 28040-Madrid (Spain)

    1999-02-01

    This work was undertaken to assess if exposure to cadmium related to puberty may affect the episodic pattern of prolactin. Male rats were submitted to cadmium exposure, from day 30 to 60 or from day 60 to 90 of life respectively, at a dose of 50 ppm in the drinking water. Control age-matched rats received cadmium-free water. Prepubertal cadmium administration decreased mean serum prolactin levels and the absolute amplitude of the prolactin pulses. Subchronic exposure to cadmium of adult rats decreased mean serum prolactin levels, the absolute amplitude of the prolactin pulses and their duration, and the mean half-life of the hormone. These results suggest that subchronic cadmium exposure changes the secretory pattern of prolactin in adult male rats in a puberty-dependent way. (orig.) With 1 fig., 1 tab., 37 refs.

  7. Long-term moderate treadmill exercise promotes stress-coping strategies in male and female rats.

    Lalanza, Jaume F; Sanchez-Roige, Sandra; Cigarroa, Igor; Gagliano, Humberto; Fuentes, Silvia; Armario, Antonio; Capdevila, Lluís; Escorihuela, Rosa M

    2015-11-05

    Recent evidence has revealed the impact of exercise in alleviating anxiety and mood disorders; however, the exercise protocol that exerts such benefit is far from known. The current study was aimed to assess the effects of long-term moderate exercise on behavioural coping strategies (active vs. passive) and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal response in rats. Sprague-Dawley male and female rats were exposed to 32-weeks of treadmill exercise and then tested for two-way active avoidance learning (shuttle-box). Two groups were used as controls: a non-handled sedentary group, receiving no manipulation, and a control group exposed to a stationary treadmill. Female rats displayed shorter escape responses and higher number of avoidance responses, reaching criterion for performance earlier than male rats. In both sexes, exercise shortened escape latencies, increased the total number of avoidances and diminished the number of trials needed to reach criterion for performance. Those effects were greater during acquisition in female rats, but remained over the shuttle-box sessions in treadmill trained male rats. In females, exercise did not change ACTH and corticosterone levels after shuttle-box acquisition. Collectively, treadmill exercise improved active coping strategies in a sex-dependent manner. In a broader context, moderate exercise could serve as a therapeutic intervention for anxiety and mood disorders.

  8. Spatial memory performance in androgen insensitive male rats.

    Jones, Bryan A; Watson, Neil V

    2005-06-02

    Masculinization of the developing rodent brain critically depends on the process of aromatization of circulating testosterone (T) to its estrogenic metabolite 17beta-estradiol, which subsequently interacts with estrogen receptors to permanently masculinize the brain. However, it remains unclear what role other androgenic mechanisms may play in the process of masculinization. A novel way of examining this is through the study of male rats that express the tfm mutation of the androgen receptor (AR) gene; such males are fully androgen insensitive and manifest a female phenotype due to a failure of AR-mediated masculinization of peripheral structures. Because tfm-affected males develop secretory testes and have near-normal T titers during development, aromatization would be expected to proceed normally, and brain mechanisms may be developmentally masculinized despite the feminized periphery. We compared tfm-affected males (X(tfm)Y) with normal males and females in the Morris Water Maze, a task in which males typically perform better than females. Performance of tfm-affected males was intermediate between that of normal males and females. While an overall male superiority was found in the task, the X(tfm)Y group reached male-typical escape latencies faster than females. Furthermore, in the X(tfm)Y group, the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus was significantly larger than in females. These results support the suggestion that that AR mediated mechanisms contribute to the masculinization of spatial behaviours and hippocampal morphology, and this may be independent of estrogenic processes.

  9. Protein and energy metabolism of young male Wistar rats fed conjugated linoleic acid as structured triacylglycerol

    Jørgensen, H.; Hansen, C. H.; Mu, Huiling

    2010-01-01

    Twelve 4-week-old male Wistar rats weighing 100 g were fed diets semi-ad libitum for 22 d containing either 1.5% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-diet) or high oleic sunflower oil (Control-diet). The CLA was structured triacylglycerol with predominantly cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 fatty acid...

  10. Effect of Consuming Iodized Salt on Fertility Indices in Male Adult Rats

    M. Mehrabani Natanzi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today about 27.4 percent of female 15-44 years and 1 percent of female in fertility age are affected by infertility. Iodine is a rare element that is essential for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Concentration of the thyroid hormones in blood under the influence of iodine intake and changes in thyroid hormones levels interact with reproductive system. Today, all the people of Iran consuming iodized salt regardless of iodine status in their body. In this study according to high prevalence of the infertility among young couples, iodized salt intake on fertility in male rats were investigated. Materials and Methods: In this study 20 male and 20 female adult Wistar rats were used. Twenty male adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. Including the control group and treatment group that received iodine and female adult Wistar were fed with a regular diet. Five male rats from each group were killed at the end of the fourth weeks in order to evaluate the possible effect of iodized salt on sperm analysis and weight of testis. After a month, male and female rats were placed in pairs in separate cages and their offspring were investigated in terms of number, gender and health. Results: The result of this study showed that the number of healthy offspring of treated male rats was significantly lower than the control group. Conclusion: Due to the negative effect of excessive iodine intake on fertility rate, it is recommended to couples to perform functional tests of their thyroid glands before intake of iodized salts.

  11. Ventilatory drive is enhanced in male and female rats following chronic intermittent hypoxia.

    Edge, D; Skelly, J R; Bradford, A; O'Halloran, K D

    2009-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea is characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) due to recurrent apnoea. We have developed a rat model of CIH, which shows evidence of impaired respiratory muscle function. In this study, we wished to characterize the ventilatory effects of CIH in conscious male and female animals. Adult male (n=14) and female (n=8) Wistar rats were used. Animals were placed in chambers daily for 8 h with free access to food and water. The gas supply to one half of the chambers alternated between air and nitrogen every 90 s, for 8 h per day, reducing ambient oxygen concentration in the chambers to 5% at the nadir (intermittent hypoxia; n=7 male, n=4 female). Air supplying the other chambers was switched every 90 s to air from a separate source, at the same flow rates, and animals in these chambers served as controls (n=7 male, n=4 female). Ventilatory measurements were made in conscious animals (typically sleeping) after 10 days using whole-body plethysmography. Normoxic ventilation was increased in both male and female CIH-treated rats compared to controls but this did not achieve statistical significance. However, ventilatory drive was increased in CIH-treated rats of both sexes as evidenced by significant increases in mean and peak inspiratory flow. Ventilatory responses to acute hypoxia (F(I)O(2) = 0.10; 6 min) and hyperoxic hypercapnia (F(I)CO(2) = 0.05; 6 min) were unaffected by CIH treatment in male and female rats (P>0.05, ANOVA). We conclude that CIH increases respiratory drive in adult rats. We speculate that this represents a form of neural plasticity that may compensate for respiratory muscle impairment that occurs in this animal model.

  12. [Hindlimb antigravity muscles' reaction in male and female rats to the deficit of functional loading].

    Il'ina-Kakueva, E I

    2002-01-01

    Histological and histomorphometric comparison of the antigravity muscles of rats of both sexes was performed following 30-d unloading of their hind limbs by head-down suspension. It was shown that growth rate of control males was higher as compared to control females. This is attributed to the synergic effects of somatotropin and testosterone on metabolism and growth of males and only somatotropin in females. Load deprivation of the hind limbs inhibited body mass gain in all animals; however, this inhibition was twice as great in males. Increase of the soleus and gastrocnemius in the control males in this experiment was slightly ahead of the muscle mass gain in the females. The histomorphometric investigation of the cross-section area of myofibers did not reveal differences between males and females either in the control or suspension. No difference was found in percent of various types of fibers in the control males and females. In the soleus of the suspended rats, a part of slow fibers had transformed into fast ones without any sex-related particularities. The conclusion was made that despite the significant difference in the hormonal profile, the reaction of males and females to insufficient weight loading of the antigravity muscles was alike.

  13. Effects of diuron on male rat reproductive organs: a developmental and postnatal study.

    Fernandes, Glaura S A; Favareto, Ana Paula A; Fernandez, Carla D B; Bellentani, Fernanda F; Arena, Arielle C; Grassi, Tony F; Kempinas, Wilma G; Barbisan, Luís F

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to determine whether developmental exposure (perinatal and juvenile) to the herbicide diuron exerted adverse effects on adult rat male reproductive system. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received basal diet or diet containing diuron at 500 or 750 ppm from gestational day 12 (GD 12) until the end of lactation period (postnatal day 21, PND 21). After weaning male offspring received basal diet or diet containing diuron until PND 42 (peripubertal age). At PND 90, adult male rats from each experimental group were anesthetized and euthanized for evaluation of body and reproductive organ weights, sperm parameters, plasma testosterone levels, and testicular and epididymal histopathology. Male offspring exposed to diuron at 750 ppm displayed reduced body weight at PND 10, 21, 42, and 90 compared to controls. At PND 90, diuron treatment did not induce significant change in daily sperm production, sperm morphology and motility, and testosterone levels compared to controls. In conclusion, diuron at 750 ppm induced male offspring toxicity but these alterations were not permanent, as evidenced by absence of reproductive-system alterations in adult Sprague Dawley rats.

  14. Correlation of catecholamine levels in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and reduced sexual behavior in middle-aged male rats.

    Chen, Joyce C; Tsai, Houng-Wei; Yeh, Kuei-Ying; Tai, Mei-Yun; Tsai, Yuan-Feen

    2008-07-01

    The correlation between dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) levels in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and male sexual behavior was examined in middle-aged rats. Male rats (18-19 months) were divided into: (a) Group MIE, consisting of rats showing mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations; (b) Group MI, composed of rats showing mounts and intromissions, but no ejaculation; and (c) Group NC, consisting of noncopulators. Young adult rats (4-5 months) displaying complete copulatory behavior were used as the control. Tissue levels of DA, NE, and DA metabolites in the BNST were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. DA, but not NE, levels in MIE rats were significantly lower than those in young controls. DA and NE levels in MIE rats were significantly higher than those in NC rats. These results suggest that DA and NE in the BNST might play an important role in the control of male sexual behavior in middle-aged rats.

  15. Sex Hormone-Related Functions in Regenerating Male Rat Liver

    FRANCAVILLA, ANTONIO; EAGON, PATRICIA K.; DiLEO, ALFREDO; POLIMENO, LORENZO; PANELLA, CARMINE; AQUILINO, A. MARIA; INGROSSO, MARCELLO; Van THIEL, DAVID H.; STARZL, THOMAS E.

    2011-01-01

    Sex hormone receptors were quantitated in normal male rat liver and in regenerating liver at several different times after partial (70%) hepatectomy. Both estrogen and androgen receptor content were altered dramatically by partial hepatectomy. Total hepatic content and nuclear retention of estrogen receptors increased, with the zenith evident 2 days after partial hepatectomy, corresponding to the zenith of mitotic index. Serum estradiol increased after 1 day, and reached a maximum at 3 days after surgery. In contrast, total and nuclear androgen receptor content demonstrated a massive decline at 1, 2, and 3 days after resection. Serum testosterone displayed a parallel decline. In addition, hepatic content of two androgen-responsive proteins was reduced to 15% and 13% of normal values during this period. The activity of these various proteins during regeneration of male rat liver is comparable to that observed in the liver of normal female rats. Taken together, these results indicate that partial hepatectomy induces a feminization of certain sexually dimorphic aspects of liver function in male rats. Furthermore, these data provide evidence that estrogens, but not androgens, may have an important role in the process of liver regeneration. PMID:3758617

  16. Negative Effect of Zinc on Testes, Testosterone and Gonadotrophins Levels in Adult Male Wistar Rats

    D. Sohrabi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesThe toxic effects of zinc leading to sebaceous gland closure, skin eczema and blister have been previously demonstrated in other studies. The aim of this study is to determine the chronic effects of zinc chloride (ZnCl2 on testicular tissues, testosterone and gonadotrophins in adult male Wistar rats.Methods Twenty four Adult male Wistar rats were divided in to two groups of study and control with each group consisting of 12 rats. Study group rats received 10 mg/kg interaperitoneal Zinc chloride in normal saline (N.S every other day for 30 days. Control group rats received N.S during this time. Blood sample for hormonal evaluation were collected from hearts of these rats. The rats were destroyed and their testes were removed and fixed in a 10% formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde solution.ResultsThe results of this study showed a significant decrease in the level of LH and testosterone hormone among the rats in the study group compared to the control group with p< 0.001 and p< 0.01 respectively. Study of fine structure of testicular cells and tissues in the study group rats revealed swelling of mitochondria, increase in smooth endoplasmic reticulum vacuolization and lysosomic granules (Autophagic vacuoles in cytosol of their germinal cells.ConclusionBased on the results of this study consumption of large amount of compounds which contain zinc should be controlled and limited among men. There is a need for further studies to evaluate and determine the reversibility of most hormonal and physiological changes due to usage of zinc containing compounds.Keywords: Zinc Chloride; Testis; Testosterone; Gonadotrophins

  17. Negative Effect of Zinc on Testes, Testosterone and Gonadotrophins Levels in Adult Male Wistar Rats

    D Sohrabi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives

    The toxic effects of zinc leading to sebaceous gland closure, skin eczema and blister have been previously demonstrated in other studies. The aim of this study is to determine the chronic effects of zinc chloride (ZnCl2   on testicular tissues, testosterone and gonadotrophins in adult male Wistar rats.

     

    Methods

    Twenty four Adult male Wistar rats were divided in to two groups of study and control with each group consisting of 12 rats. Study group rats received 10 mg/kg interaperitoneal Zinc chloride in normal saline (N.S every other day for 30 days. Control group rats received N.S during this time. Blood sample for hormonal evaluation were collected from hearts of these rats. The rats were destroyed and their testes were removed and fixed in a 10% formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde solution.

     

    Results

    The results of this study showed a significant decrease in the level of LH and testosterone hormone among the rats in the study group compared to the control group with p< 0.001  and

    p< 0.01 respectively. Study of fine structure of testicular cells and tissues in the study group rats  revealed swelling of mitochondria, increase in smooth endoplasmic reticulum vacuolization and lysosomic granules (Autophagic vacuoles in cytosol of their germinal cells.

     

    Conclusion

    Based on the results of this study consumption of large amount of compounds which contain zinc should be controlled and limited among men. There is a need for further studies to evaluate and determine the reversibility of most hormonal and physiological changes due to usage of zinc containing compounds.

  18. Drug specificity in drug versus food choice in male rats.

    Tunstall, Brendan J; Riley, Anthony L; Kearns, David N

    2014-08-01

    Although different classes of drug differ in their mechanisms of reinforcement and effects on behavior, little research has focused on differences in self-administration behaviors maintained by users of these drugs. Persistent drug choice despite available reinforcement alternatives has been proposed to model behavior relevant to addiction. The present study used a within-subjects procedure, where male rats (Long-Evans, N = 16) were given a choice between cocaine (1.0 mg/kg/infusion) and food (a single 45-mg grain pellet) or between heroin (0.02 mg/kg/infusion) and food in separate phases (drug order counterbalanced). All rats were initially trained to self-administer each drug, and the doses used were based on previous studies showing that small subsets of rats tend to prefer drug over food reinforcement. The goal of the present study was to determine whether rats that prefer cocaine would also prefer heroin. Choice sessions consisted of 2 forced-choice trials with each reinforcer, followed by 14 free-choice trials (all trials separated by 10-min intertrial interval). Replicating previous results, small subsets of rats preferred either cocaine (5 of the 16 rats) or heroin (2 of the 16 rats) to the food alternative. Although 1 of the 16 rats demonstrated a preference for both cocaine and heroin to the food alternative, there was no relationship between degree of cocaine and heroin preference in individual rats. The substance-specific pattern of drug preference observed suggests that at least in this animal model, the tendencies to prefer cocaine or heroin in preference to a nondrug alternative are distinct behavioral phenomena.

  19. Estradiol increases choice of cocaine over food in male rats.

    Bagley, Jared R; Adams, Julia; Bozadjian, Rachel V; Bubalo, Lana; Ploense, Kyle L; Kippin, Tod E

    2017-10-19

    Estradiol modulates the rewarding and reinforcing properties of cocaine in females, including an increase in selection of cocaine over alternative reinforcers. However, the effects of estradiol on male cocaine self-administration behavior are less studied despite equivalent levels of estradiol in the brains of adult males and females, estradiol effects on motivated behaviors in males that share underlying neural substrates with cocaine reinforcement as well as expression of estrogen receptors in the male brain. Therefore, we sought to characterize the effects of estradiol in males on choice between concurrently-available cocaine and food reinforcement as well as responding for cocaine or food in isolation. Male castrated rats (n=46) were treated daily with estradiol benzoate (EB) (5μg/0.1, S.C.) or vehicle (peanut oil) throughout operant acquisition of cocaine (1mg/kg, IV; FI20 sec) and food (3×45mg; FI20 sec) responding, choice during concurrent access and cocaine and food reinforcement under progressive ratio (PR) schedules. EB increased cocaine choice, both in terms of percent of trials on which cocaine was selected and the proportion of rats exhibiting a cocaine preference as well as increased cocaine, but not food, intake under PR. Additionally, within the EB treated group, cocaine-preferring rats exhibited enhanced acquisition of cocaine, but not food, reinforcement whereas no acquisition differences were observed across preferences in the vehicle treated group. These findings demonstrate that estradiol increases cocaine choice in males similarly to what is observed in females. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of the hydromethanolic extract of Austroplenckia populnea (Celastraceae) on reproductive parameters of male rats.

    Mazaro, Renata; Di Stasi, Luiz; De Grava Kempinas, Wilma

    2002-09-01

    Austroplenckia populnea (Reiss.) Lundell. was selected for this study because it has been shown that some plants from the Celastraceae family have antifertility effects. Twelve adult male rats were treated with hydromethanolic extract made from the leaves, 500 mg/kg/day, orally, for 70 days. Distilled water was administered to the control animals (n = 10). At the end of the experiment, and before killing the rats, their sexual behavior was evaluated. The number of intromissions, latencies to first mount and ejaculation, and first intromission after ejaculation were significantly reduced in the treated group, but the total number of ejaculations did not differ from the control group. The weight and histology of the reproductive organs, sperm production, spermatogenesis, prostate fructose content, cauda epidydimides duct diameter, and sperm morphology were not affected. Sperm concentration in cauda epidydimides was significantly decreased. The results showed that A. populnea has effects on male rat reproduction, affecting the sexual behavior and epididymal sperm concentration.

  1. Effect of gasoline fumes on reproductive function in male albino rats.

    Owagboriaye, Folarin O; Dedeke, Gabriel A; Ashidi, Joseph S; Aladesida, Adeyinka A; Olooto, Wasiu E

    2018-02-01

    The increase in the frequency of exposure to gasoline fumes and the growing incidence of infertility among humans has been a major concern and subject of discussion over the years in Nigeria. We therefore present the reproductive effect of gasoline fumes on inhalation exposure in 40 male albino rats. The rats were randomized into five experimental treatments (T) with eight rats per treatment. T1 (control) was exposed to distilled water while T2, T3, T4, and T5 were exposed to gasoline fumes in exposure chambers for 1, 3, 5, and 9 h daily respectively for 12 weeks. Serum level of testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, oxidative stress markers in the testicular tissue, epididymal sperm health assessment, and testicular histopathology of the rats were used as a diagnostic marker of reproductive dysfunction. Significant (p percentage motility in the exposed rats were observed. Significant (p < 0.05) increased in abnormal sperm cells characterized by damaged head, bent tail, damaged tail, and without head were also observed in the exposed rats. Histopathologically, severe degenerative testicular architectural lesions characterized by alterations in all the generations of sperm cells and reduction of interstitial cells were seen in the exposed rats. Gasoline fume is thus said to interfere with spermatogenesis and impair fertility in male gonad.

  2. Dominant lethals following administration of tritium (THO) to rat males

    Yagova, A.; Baev, I.; Bajrakova, A.

    1976-01-01

    Adult rat males were given a single intraperitoneal tritium (THO) injection at 0,01 or 0,001 mCi/g body weight (1/100 or 1/1000 of LDsub(50/30), respectively). Twelve days after treatment each male was mated to 3-5 intact females, and the latter were replaced by fresh ones every 12 following days over a 120-day period. Mated females were killed to score conceptions, corpora lutea, and live and dead embryos. Estimations were made of F 1 prenatal death rate (according to Bateman, 1958) and the frequency of induction of dominant lethal mutations (according to Roehrborn, 1970). The results observed indicated paternal exposure to tritium (THO) to produce dominant lethals both in pre- and post-meiotic germ cells in the rat. The extent of the genetic damage studied was found to depend on the amount of activity administered as well as on the time interval between treatment and conception. (author)

  3. The effects of celery leave extract on male hormones in rats

    Kooti Wesam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Celery (Apium graveolens belongs to the Umbelliferae family, and has a plenty of nutritional and pharmaceutical applications. The presence of phytoestrogenic compounds has been reported in this plant. These compounds may affect the pituitary-gonad axis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of hydro-alcoholic extracts of celery leaves on serum levels of testosterone, LH and FSH in male rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 32 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups, eight rats included in each. The control group did not receive any treatment. The placebo group received distilled water and the case groups received 200 and 300 mg/kg/B.W of hydro-alcoholic celery leaf extract for 20 consecutive days by oral administration. After completion of the treatment, the rats were anesthetized and blood sampling from their heart was carried out. Then, serum levels of testosterone, LH and FSH were measured using immunoassay methods. The obtained data were analyzed by the SPSS using the statistical ANOVA test. Results: The level of LH in the case group receiving 200 mg/kg B.W of celery extract showed a significant decrease compared with the control and placebo groups (P0.05. Conclusion: The result of the present study shows that in the administered dose, celery extract does not have any considerable side effect on the secretion of hormones in male rats.

  4. Fresh onion juice enhanced copulatory behavior in male rats with and without paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction.

    Allouh, Mohammed Z; Daradka, Haytham M; Al Barbarawi, Mohammed M; Mustafa, Ayman G

    2014-02-01

    Onion (Allium cepa) is one of the most commonly cultivated species of the family Liliaceae, and has long been used in dietary and therapeutic applications. Treatment with fresh onion juice has been reported to promote testosterone production in male rats. Testosterone is the male sex hormone responsible for enhancing sexual libido and potency. This study aimed to investigate the effects of onion juice on copulatory behavior of sexually potent male rats and in male rats with paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction. Sexually experienced male rats were divided into seven groups: a control group, three onion juice-treated groups, a paroxetine-treated group, and two groups treated with paroxetine plus different doses of onion juice. At the end of the treatments, sexual behavior parameters and testosterone levels were measured and compared among the groups. Administration of onion juice significantly reduced mount frequency and latency and increased the copulatory efficacy of potent male rats. In addition, administration of onion juice attenuated the prolonged ejaculatory latency period induced by paroxetine and increased the percentage of ejaculating rats. Serum testosterone levels increased significantly by onion juice administration. However, a significant reduction in testosterone because of paroxetine therapy was observed. This reduction was restored to normal levels by administration of onion juice. This study conclusively demonstrates that fresh onion juice improves copulatory behavior in sexually potent male rats and in those with paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction by increasing serum testosterone levels.

  5. Prenatal exposure to aflatoxin B1: developmental, behavioral, and reproductive alterations in male rats

    Supriya, Ch.; Reddy, P. Sreenivasula

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) inhibits androgen biosynthesis as a result of its ability to form a high-affinity complex with the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. The results of the present study demonstrate the postnatal effects of in utero exposure to AfB1 in the rat. Pregnant Wistar rats were given 10, 20, or 50 μg AfB1/kg body weight daily from gestation day (GD) 12 to GD 19. At parturition, newborns were observed for clinical signs and survival. All animals were born alive and initially appeared to be active. Male pups from control and AfB1-exposed animals were weaned and maintained up to postnatal day (PD) 100. Litter size, birth weight, sex ratio, survival rate, and crown-rump length of the pups were significantly decreased in AfB1-exposed rats when compared to controls. Elapsed time (days) for testes to descend into the scrotal sac was significantly delayed in experimental pups when compared to control pups. Behavioral observations such as cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, surface rightening activity, ascending wire mesh, open field behavior, and exploratory and locomotory activities were significantly impaired in experimental pups. Body weights and the indices of testis, cauda epididymis, prostate, seminal vesicles, and liver were significantly reduced on PD 100 in male rats exposed to AfB1 during embryonic development when compared with controls. Significant reduction in the testicular daily sperm production, epididymal sperm count, and number of viable, motile, and hypo-osmotic tail coiled sperm was observed in experimental rats. The levels of serum testosterone and activity levels of testicular hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner with a significant increase in the serum follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in experimental rats. Deterioration in the testicular and cauda epididymal architecture was observed in experimental rats. The results of fertility

  6. Methamphetamine affects social interaction in adult male rats

    Pometlová, M.; Mikulecká, Anna; Šlamberová, Romana; Schutová, B.; Hrubá, L.; Rokyta, R.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 18, Suppl.1 (2007), S77-S77 ISSN 0955-8810. [Biennial Meeting of the European Behavioural Pharmacology Society /12./. 31.08.2007-03.09.2007, Tübingen] R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) 1A8610; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : metemphetamine * behavior * male rat Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  7. Variety of immune responses to chronic stress in rats male

    Іlona S Polovynko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previously we have been carry out integrated quantitative estimation of neuroendocrine and immune responses to chronic restraint stress in male rats. Revealed that the value of canonical discriminant roots rats subjected to chronic stress different not only on the values of intact animals (by definition, but also among themselves. So we set a goal retrospectively divided stressed rats into three homogeneous groups. Material and methods. The experiment is at 50 white male rats. Of these 10 animals not subjected to any influences and 40 within 7 days subjected to moderate stress by daily 30-minute immobilization. The day after the completion of stressing in portion of the blood immunological parameters were determined by tests I and II levels of WHO. The spleen and thymus did smears for counting spleno- and thymocytograms. Results. The method of cluster analysis (k-means clustering formed three groups-clusters. For further analysis selected 18 parameters that members of each cluster differing minimum and maximum are different from members of other clusters (η2=0,73÷0,15; F=49,0÷3,26; p=10-6÷0,05. We stated that in 16 rats from cluster III the deviation 16 parameters in either side of the average norm almost identical and are in an acceptable range of ±0,5σ. Thus, the immune status of 40% of the rats subjected to moderate chronic stress was resistant to its factors. For the immune status of the 15 (37,5% rats cluster II typical moderate inhibition microphage, killer and T-cellular links in combination with a strong activation macrophage link. Poststressory changes in immunity in 9 rats (22,5% from cluster I differ from those in cluster II both qualitatively and quantitatively. In particular, the rats in this cluster were found no deviations from the norm or reaction blast transformation T-cells nor NK-lymphocytes levels. However, other parameters of T-link and microhage link suppressed more and settings macrophage link appeared

  8. Disposition of perfluorodecanoic acid in male and female rats

    Vanden Heuvel, J.P.; Kuslikis, B.I.; Van Rafelghem, M.J.; Peterson, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The elimination, tissue distribution, and metabolism of [1-14C]PFDA were examined in male and female rats for 28 days after a single ip dose (9.4 mumol/kg, 5 mg/kg). A sex difference in the fecal elimination of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) was observed with 51 and 24% of the administered 14C being recovered in the feces of male and female rats, respectively, by 28 days post-treatment. The cumulative excretion of PFDA-derived 14C in the urine in 28 days was less than 5% of the administered dose in both sexes. The sex-related difference in the rate of fecal elimination resulted in the observed difference in whole body elimination t1/2 of PFDA in males (t1/2 = 23 days) and females (t1/2 = 45 days). The liver contained the highest concentration of PFDA-derived 14C in both males and females, followed by the plasma and kidneys. The heart, fat pads, testes, and gastrocnemius muscle of males, and the ovaries of females contained much lower concentrations of PFDA. The reason for the high percentage of the ip dose of [1-14C]PFDA in the liver (53% males and 41% females, 2 hr post-treatment) was further examined using an in situ nonrecirculating liver perfusion technique. It was shown that approximately 25% of the [14C]PFDA in the perfusate was extracted by the liver in a single pass. The basis for the sex difference in fecal elimination of PFDA does not appear to be due to a sex difference in biliary excretion. In a 6-hr period, male and female rats with kidneys ligated eliminated essentially the same percentage dose of [14C]PFDA into bile. We had hypothesized that the persistence of PFDA in rats was due to formation of a PFDA-containing lipids. However, no evidence that PFDA is conjugated to form persistent hybrid lipids was obtained, nor were polar metabolites of PFDA detected in urine or bile

  9. Chronic Co-species Housing Mice and Rats Increased the Competitiveness of Male Mice.

    Liu, Ying-Juan; Li, Lai-Fu; Zhang, Yao-Hua; Guo, Hui-Fen; Xia, Min; Zhang, Meng-Wei; Jing, Xiao-Yuan; Zhang, Jing-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Xu

    2017-03-01

    Rats are predators of mice in nature. Nevertheless, it is a common practice to house mice and rats in a same room in some laboratories. In this study, we investigated the behavioral and physiological responsively of mice in long-term co-species housing conditions. Twenty-four male mice were randomly assigned to their original raising room (control) or a rat room (co-species-housed) for more than 6 weeks. In the open-field and light-dark box tests, the behaviors of the co-species-housed mice and controls were not different. In a 2-choice test of paired urine odors [rabbit urine (as a novel odor) vs. rat urine, cat urine (as a natural predator-scent) vs. rabbit urine, and cat urine vs. rat urine], the co-species-housed mice were more ready to investigate the rat urine odor compared with the controls and may have adapted to it. In an encounter test, the rat-room-exposed mice exhibited increased aggression levels, and their urines were more attractive to females. Correspondingly, the levels of major urinary proteins were increased in the co-species-housed mouse urine, along with some volatile pheromones. The serum testosterone levels were also enhanced in the co-species-housed mice, whereas the corticosterone levels were not different. The norepinephrine, dopamine, and 5-HT levels in the right hippocampus and striatum were not different between the 2. Our findings indicate that chronic co-species housing results in adaptation in male mice; furthermore, it appears that long-term rat-odor stimuli enhance the competitiveness of mice, which suggests that appropriate predator-odor stimuli may be important to the fitness of prey animals. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. [Reference curves for assessing the physical growth of male Wistar rats].

    Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; Gómez Campos, Rossana; Vargas Vitoria, Rodrigo; Hochmuller Fogaça, Rosalvo Tadeu; de Arruda, Miguel

    2013-11-01

    Wistar rats are one of the most popular strains routinely used for research in the laboratory to serve as an important research tool, so it requires strict control of variables such as age, sex and body weight, and Thus to extrapolate the results to the human model. To develop reference curves for assessing the physical growth of male Wistar rats according to chronological age and somatic maturation from a non-invasive. The subjects studied were 731 male Wistar rats transversely. We assessed age, body weight and body surface. LMS method was used to construct percentile curves based on weight and somatic maturation. The proposed physical growth curves are used to track the physical growth and nutritional status diagnosis of male Wistar rats. Budgets by cutting points are: P3, P10, P25, P50, P75, P90 and P97. The results suggest that scientists from different areas can use such references, in order to extrapolate somatic growth phases of the laboratory rat and the human model is a non-invasive alternative to assess growth and nutritional status. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of antioxidant supplements in adult male albino rats intoxicated with methomyl

    Tawfik, S.M.F.M.; EI-Sherbiny, E.M.; Afifi, E.A.A.

    2007-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate and determine the protective effect of intraperitoneal administration of trace mineral selenium (Se) and antioxidant vitamins E and pantothenic acid (PA) to male albino rats intoxicated with methomyl pesticide. Four groups of rats were used in this study. The data obtained revealed that methomyl caused disturbances in liver functions, which were elucidated through ALT and AST levels, and in the levels of serum glucose and insulin. Also, the levels of serum total protein, albumin, total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol and acethylcholinesterase activity were significantly changed from those found in control rats for different periods. Treatment of rats with the antioxidant supplements ameliorated to some extent most of the disturbances in the mentioned biochemical parameter levels. The data concluded that such antioxidants could provide some protection against pesticide-induced toxicity

  12. Influence Of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale) Supplementation Against GAMMA Rays Induced Immunosuppression In Male Rats

    Mangood, S.A.; Kassab, F.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of ginger (Zingiber officinale) supplementation against gamma rays-induced immunosuppression in male albino rats was investigated in the present study. Twenty four male albino rats were divided into four equal groups; control group (receiving no treatment), ginger group where the rats received ginger orally at a dose of 15 g/rat/day for 120 consecutive days, gamma radiation group which subjected to a single 6 Gy whole body gamma radiation and gamma radiation plus ginger group where each rat after taking daily 15 g of ginger for 120 consecutive days was subjected to 6 Gy whole body irradiation. Complete blood pictures and immunoglobulin G (IgG) and M (IgM) were estimated and spleen tissue was also examined histologically. The data obtained revealed that exposure to 6 Gy of gamma radiation caused significant decrease in the body weight, spleen weight, IgG, IgM, erythroide and leucoid elements and produced histological damage in spleen tissue. On the other hand, ginger as a protective agent, caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by irradiation especially immunoglobulins leading to the conclusion that ginger supplementation for 120 days caused modulation of the humoral immune response in irradiated rats. In conclusion, these findings indicated that ginger has the regulatory effect against gamma rays-induced immunosuppression.

  13. Developmental programming of vascular dysfunction by prenatal and postnatal zinc deficiency in male and female rats.

    Mendes Garrido Abregú, Facundo; Gobetto, María Natalia; Juriol, Lorena Vanesa; Caniffi, Carolina; Elesgaray, Rosana; Tomat, Analía Lorena; Arranz, Cristina

    2018-06-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition during intrauterine and postnatal growth may program cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. We examined whether moderate zinc restriction in male and female rats throughout fetal life, lactation and/or postweaning growth induces alterations that can predispose to the onset of vascular dysfunction in adulthood. Female Wistar rats were fed low- or control zinc diets from pregnancy to offspring weaning. After weaning, offspring were fed either a low- or a control zinc diet until 81 days. We evaluated systolic blood pressure (SBP), thoracic aorta morphology, nitric oxide (NO) system and vascular reactivity in 6- and/or 81-day-old offspring. At day 6, zinc-deficient male and female offspring showed a decrease in aortic NO synthase (NOS) activity accompanied by an increase in oxidative stress. Zinc-deficient 81-day-old male rats exhibited an increase in collagen deposition in tunica media, as well as lower activity of endothelial NOS (eNOS) that could not be reversed with an adequate zinc diet during postweaning life. Zinc deficiency programmed a reduction in eNOS protein expression and higher SBP only in males. Adult zinc-deficient rats of both sexes showed reduced vasodilator response dependent on eNOS activity and impaired aortic vasoconstrictor response to angiotensin-II associated with alterations in intracellular calcium mobilization. Female rats were less sensitive to the effects of zinc deficiency and exhibited higher eNOS activity and/or expression than males, without alterations in SBP or aortic histology. This work strengthens the importance of a balanced intake of micronutrients during perinatal growth to ensure adequate vascular function in adult life. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sexual activity increases the number of newborn cells in the accessory olfactory bulb of male rats.

    Wendy ePortillo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In rodents, sexual behavior depends on the adequate detection of sexually relevant stimuli. The olfactory bulb (OB is a region of the adult mammalian brain undergoing constant cell renewal by continuous integration of new granular and periglomerular neurons in the accessory (AOB and main (MOB olfactory bulbs. The proliferation, migration, survival, maturation, and integration of these new cells to the OB depend on the stimulus that the subjects received. We have previously shown that 15 days after females control (paced the sexual interaction an increase in the number of cells is observed in the AOB. No changes are observed in the number of cells when females are not allowed to control the sexual interaction. In the present study we investigated if in male rats sexual behavior increases the number of new cells in the OB. Male rats were divided in five groups: 1 males that did not receive any sexual stimulation, 2 males that were exposed to female odors, 3 males that mated for 1 h and could not pace their sexual interaction, 4 males that paced their sexual interaction and ejaculated 1 time and 5 males that paced their sexual interaction and ejaculated 3 times. All males received three injections of the DNA synthesis marker bromodeoxyuridine at 1h intervals, starting 1h before the beginning of the behavioral test. Fifteen days later, males were sacrificed and the brains were processed to identify new cells and to evaluate if they differentiated into neurons. The number of newborn cells increased in the granular cell layer (also known as the internal cell layer of the AOB in males that ejaculated one or three times controlling (paced the rate of the sexual interaction. Some of these new cells were identified as neurons. In contrast, no significant differences were found in the mitral cell layer (also known as the external cell layer and glomerular cell layer of the AOB. In addition, no significant differences were found between groups in the MOB in

  15. Gestational chronic mild stress: Effects on acoustic startle in male offspring of rats

    Hougaard, K.S.; Mandrup, Karen; Kjaer, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of scientific studies indicate that maternal stress during pregnancy influences fetal development of the nervous system and thereby the behavioural phenotype. We have previously reported attenuated prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reaction in adult female rats derived...... paradigm of stressors affected the PPI response pattern in male rats. In prenatally manipulated males, the PPI response differed statistically significantly, depending on prior exposure to an episode of postnatal acute stress (blood sampling under restraint). In contrast, the PPI response in control males...... was unaffected by this postnatal experience. The present work supports the hypothesis that the maternal environment is a long-term determinant of phenotypic differences in sensitivity to stressors....

  16. Food restriction causes low bone strength and microarchitectural deterioration in exercised growing male rats.

    Hattori, Satoshi; Park, Jong-Hoon; Agata, Umon; Oda, Masaya; Higano, Michito; Aikawa, Yuki; Akimoto, Takayuki; Nabekura, Yoshiharu; Yamato, Hideyuki; Ezawa, Ikuko; Omi, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bone disorders in young male athletes has not been well understood. We hypothesized that bone fragility is caused by low energy availability, due to insufficient food intake and excessive exercise energy expenditure in young male athletes. To examine this hypothesis, we investigated the influence of food restriction on bone strength and bone morphology in exercised growing male rats, using three-point bending test, dual-energy X-ray absormetry, and micro-computed tomography. Four-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into the following groups: the control (Con) group, exercise (Ex) group, food restriction (R) group, and food restriction plus exercise (REx) group after a 1-wk acclimatization period. Thirty-percent food restriction in the R and REx groups was carried out in comparison with that in the Con group. Voluntary running exercise was performed in the Ex and REx groups. The experimental period lasted 13 wk. At the endpoint of this experiment, the bone strength of the femurs and tibial BMD in the REx group were significantly lower than those in the Con group. Moreover, trabecular bone volume and cortical bone volume in the REx group were also significantly lower than those in the Con group. These findings indicate that food restriction causes low bone strength and microarchitectural deterioration in exercised growing male rats.

  17. Sexual odor discrimination and physiological profiles in adult male rats after a neonatal, short term, reversible nasal obstruction.

    Thornton, S N; Padzys, G S; Trabalon, M

    2014-05-01

    The present study was designed to examine behavioral responses (interpreted as preferences) to olfactory cues (nest bedding odor and odors of estrous and anestrus females) in adult male rats after they had a short term reversible, bilateral, nasal obstruction (RbNO) as developing rat pups. These results were compared to behavior of control (untreated) and sham operated male littermates. Behavioral tests and physiological parameters were analyzed 90 days after recovery of nasal breathing. Experiments investigated the time spent in arms or the center of a maze of male rats in response to odors from the nest bedding or from adult females. There were no differences in responses between untreated, sham and RbNO adult male rats to fresh and nest bedding odors. RbNO males spent more time in the center of the maze when given a choice of estrus or anestrus female odors, or bedding odors from untreated or sham operated female rats. In contrast untreated and sham male rats preferred the odors of estrous females and of untreated or sham females. Plasma corticosterone levels in the males increased during the behavioral tests. Plasma testosterone levels were significantly lower in RbNO males compared to untreated males and did not increase during the behavioral tests compared to sham operated males. Males from all groups had similar preferences for the odor of bedding from adult RbNO females. Plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were increased in RbNO adults. In conclusion, short term nasal obstruction in males while juvenile has long term consequences on hormones and behavioral preferences, thus potential partner selection when adult. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Modification Of Cesium Toxicity By Prussian Blue In Adult Male Albino Rats

    MANGOOD, S.A.; HAGGAG, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to asses the toxicological effects of stable cesium chloride, and investigate the possible therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB) in adult male albino rats.Thirty two adult male albino rats were used in this study and classified to 4 groups (8 rats/group) as follows:1- Group one (G1): rats were considered as controls and kept on the commercial diet without any treatments.2-Group two (G2): treated with daily oral cesium chloride (50 mg/300 g body weight).3-Group three (G3): treated with daily oral Prussian blue (250 mg/rats).4-Group four (G4): treated with cesium chloride at a daily oral dose of 50 mg/300 g body weight + Prussian blue at a daily oral dose of 250 mg/rats.All animals were administered the CsCl and/or PB via intubation tube and the duration of this study was 35 consecutive days. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht%), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), folic acid, vitamin B12, total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, ALT, AST, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, blood glucose, urea, creatinine, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), sodium, potassium, calcium and inorganic phosphorous and body weight were determined in all groups.The data obtained revealed that the intake of stable cesium chloride in adult male rats caused significant decreases in the Hb, hematocrit, folic acid, vitamin B12 and potassium contents, with significant increases in WBC count, urea and creatinine levels and no effect on the other parameters. On the other hand, PB as a therapeutic agent caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by CsCl with variable degrees leading to the conclusion that the therapeutic agents might provide a protection against the toxicological effects of CsCl.

  19. Hypotensive effect of aqueous extract of jamu antiatherosclerosis in male rats

    Tristantini, Dewi; Amelinda, Kelly

    2018-02-01

    For many years, Averrhoa carambola L leaves, Mimusops elengi Linn leaves and Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb are used empirically in Indonesian traditional medicine to treat hypertension. This study was conducted to investigate the hypotensive effect of Averrhoa carambola L leaves, Mimusops elengi Linn leaves, and Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb extract (Jamu Antiatherosclerosis) in hypertensive induced rats. The effect of aqueous extract of jamu antiatherosclerosis on diastolic and systolic blood pressure was determined in sodium chloride induced rats. Twenty-four male rats weighted 160-200 g were randomly divided into 6 groups of 4 rats. The groups are consisting of normal control (without treatment), positive control (induced and given captopril 1.35 mg / 200 g body weight of rats), negative control (induced and standard feed), dosage controls (induced and given the extract of jamu antiatherosclerosis) each group with 3 different doses. The composition is dose I (13.2 mg / 200 g body weight of rats), dose II (26.4 mg / 200 g body weight of rats ml) and dose III (52.8 mg / 200 g body weight of rats). Blood pressure were measured via non-invasive blood pressure. The blood pressure was decreased in all dose. However, dose III has the highest blood pressure reducing effect that is 29.42 mmHg or 25.14% for diastolic blood pressure and 34.58 mmHg or 22.03% for systolic blood pressure. This performance equals to 91.15% and 93.56% of captopril activity in decreasing diastolic and systolic blood pressure. The aqueous extract has blood pressure lowering property that can be used as antihypertension herbal medicine.

  20. Apelin-13 increased food intake with serum ghrelin and leptin levels in male rats.

    Saral, S; Alkanat, M; Sumer, A; Canpolat, S

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to explain the role of apelin-13 on body weight, food and water intake with serum leptin, ghrelin, neuropeptid Y (NPY) and peptid YY (PYY) levels in male rat. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley male rats were used for the study. The rats were injected SP (0.9 %) intraperitoneally (i.p) in the control group and 30 (AP30), 100 (AP100) and 300 (AP300) µg/kg apelin-13 in the study groups, respectively, 10 min before the transition to dark period, for 10 days. During the experimental period, with light and dark periods of food and water intake, body weights were recorded in rats. Rats were euthanized and serum samples were obtained. In serum samples leptin, ghrelin, NPY and PYY levels were measured with specific ELISA kit. Apelin-13 was increased body weights in all three (AP30, AP100 and AP300) groups compared with the control group. AP100 and AP300 groups had increased food intake in the dark and the cumulative period, but in the light period food intake values were not significantly increased (p > 0.05). As for the value of water intake, compared with the control group, all dose of apelin-13 increased water intake during the dark and the cumulative period. There was no significant change in water intake in the light period. On the other hand, compared with the control group, serum leptin levels were found to increase in the groups administered 100 and 300 µg/kg of apelin-13 (p Ghrelin levels were found high in all groups treated with apelin-13. Serum levels of NPY decreased only in the 300 µg/kg apelin-13 treated group (p 0.05). Apelin-13 increases body weight in rats as well as food and water intake (dark and cumulative period). Additionally, ghrelin can mediate the orexigenic effect of apelin-13 in the regulation of food intake (Fig. 4, Ref. 37).

  1. Acute predator stress impairs the consolidation and retrieval of hippocampus-dependent memory in male and female rats.

    Park, Collin R; Zoladz, Phillip R; Conrad, Cheryl D; Fleshner, Monika; Diamond, David M

    2008-04-01

    We have studied the effects of an acute predator stress experience on spatial learning and memory in adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. All rats were trained to learn the location of a hidden escape platform in the radial-arm water maze (RAWM), a hippocampus-dependent spatial memory task. In the control (non-stress) condition, female rats were superior to the males in the accuracy and consistency of their spatial memory performance tested over multiple days of training. In the stress condition, rats were exposed to the cat for 30 min immediately before or after learning, or before the 24-h memory test. Predator stress dramatically increased corticosterone levels in males and females, with females exhibiting greater baseline and stress-evoked responses than males. Despite these sex differences in the overall magnitudes of corticosterone levels, there were significant sex-independent correlations involving basal and stress-evoked corticosterone levels, and memory performance. Most importantly, predator stress impaired short-term memory, as well as processes involved in memory consolidation and retrieval, in male and female rats. Overall, we have found that an intense, ethologically relevant stressor produced a largely equivalent impairment of memory in male and female rats, and sex-independent corticosterone-memory correlations. These findings may provide insight into commonalities in how traumatic stress affects the brain and memory in men and women.

  2. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis) Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

    Neveen M. El-Sherif; Noha Mohy Issa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Naphthalene (NA) is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group), G...

  3. Leptin and glucocorticoid signaling pathways in the hypothalamus of female and male fructose-fed rats

    Vojnović-Milutinović Danijela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in leptin and glucocorticoid signaling pathways in the hypothalamus of male and female rats subjected to a fructose-enriched diet were studied. The level of expression of the key components of the leptin signaling pathway (neuropeptide Y /NPY/ and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 /SOCS3/, and the glucocorticoid signaling pathway (glucocorticoid receptor /GR/, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 /11βHSD1/ and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase /H6PDH/ did not differ between fructose-fed rats and control animals of both genders. However, in females, a fructose-enriched diet provoked increases in the adiposity index, plasma leptin and triglyceride concentrations, and displayed a tendency to decrease the leptin receptor (ObRb protein and mRNA levels. In male rats, the fructose diet caused elevations in plasma non-esterified fatty acids and triglycerides, as well as in both plasma and hypothalamic leptin concentrations. Our results suggest that a fructose-enriched diet can induce hyperleptinemia in both female and male rats, but with a more pronounced effect on hypothalamic leptin sensitivity in females, probably contributing to the observed development of visceral adiposity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41009

  4. Effect of Acute Administration of loganin on Spatial Memory in Diabetic Male Rats

    Gisou Mohaddes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Diabetes is associated with memory and learning disorder. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of acute oral administration of loganin on memory in diabetic male rats. Methods: 42 male Wistar rats (250-300 g were divided into six groups: Control, Diabetic (1 week, Diabetic (12 weeks, Loganin, Diabetic (1 week + Loganin, Diabetic (12 weeks + Loganin. Diabetes was induced by IP injection of Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg. Loganin (40 mg/kg, po was administrated 1 hour before test. Then, spatial memory was compared between groups with Morris Water Maze tests. Results: Administration of loganin during acquisition, significantly (p<0.05 decreased both escape latency and traveled distance to find hidden platform in 1 and 12 weeks diabetic rats. In evaluation of recall phase of memory, loganin significantly (p<0.05 increased time and distance spent in the target quadrant in 1 and 12 weeks diabetic rats. Conclusion: Acute administration of loganin could improve spatial memory in diabetic rats.

  5. Lack of beneficial effect of activated charcoal in lead induced testicular toxicity in male albino rats

    Samuel James Offor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Lead is a multi-organ toxicant implicated in various diseases including testicular toxicity. In search of cheap and readily available antidote this study has investigated a beneficial role of activated charcoal in lead induced testicular toxicity in male albino rats. Materials and Method: Eighteen male albino rats were divided into three groups of six rats per group. Group 1 (control rats received deionised water (10 ml/kg, group 2 was given lead acetate solution 60 mg/kg and group 3 rats were given lead acetate (60 mg/kg followed by Activated charcoal, AC (1000 mg/kg by oral gavage daily for 28 days. Absolute and relative weights of testis, epididymal sperm reserve, testicular sperm count, percent sperm motility and percent sperm viability were monitored. Results: AC failed to show any significant beneficial effect in ameliorating lead induced testicular toxicity. Conclusions: There seem to be a poor adsorption on lead onto AC in vivo.

  6. Comparison between the Hypolipidemic Activity of Parsley and Carob in Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats

    Haddad A. El Rabey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is commonly associated with obesity that leads to heart diseases and diabetes. The hepatocardioprotective activity of parsley and carob methanol extract was tested in hypercholesterolemic male rats. Twenty-four male albino rats were divided into four groups (n=6. Group 1 was the negative control group fed with fat rich diet, group 2 (G2 was hypercholesterolemic rats fed with fat rich diet with 2% cholesterol, and group 3 and group 4 (G3 and G4 were hypercholesterolemic rats supplemented with 2% cholesterol and cotreated with 20% w/w parsley seed methanol extract and 20% w/w carob legume methanol extract, respectively. The experiment was conducted for eight weeks. The positive hypercholesterolemic rats showed significant increase in serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase-mb, liver function enzymes, and decrease in the high density lipoproteins (HDL. Moreover, heart and liver tissues were ameliorated and nearly restored their normal appearance. It could be concluded that both parsley and carob extracts supplementations have a protective effect against hyperlipidemia and improved the histological alteration in heart and liver tissues. The methanol extract of parsley appeared to be more efficient than that of carob in lowering hypercholesterolemia.

  7. Comparison between the Hypolipidemic Activity of Parsley and Carob in Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats

    Al-Seeni, Madeha N.; Al-Ghamdi, Habibah B.

    2017-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is commonly associated with obesity that leads to heart diseases and diabetes. The hepatocardioprotective activity of parsley and carob methanol extract was tested in hypercholesterolemic male rats. Twenty-four male albino rats were divided into four groups (n = 6). Group 1 was the negative control group fed with fat rich diet, group 2 (G2) was hypercholesterolemic rats fed with fat rich diet with 2% cholesterol, and group 3 and group 4 (G3 and G4) were hypercholesterolemic rats supplemented with 2% cholesterol and cotreated with 20% w/w parsley seed methanol extract and 20% w/w carob legume methanol extract, respectively. The experiment was conducted for eight weeks. The positive hypercholesterolemic rats showed significant increase in serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase-mb, liver function enzymes, and decrease in the high density lipoproteins (HDL). Moreover, heart and liver tissues were ameliorated and nearly restored their normal appearance. It could be concluded that both parsley and carob extracts supplementations have a protective effect against hyperlipidemia and improved the histological alteration in heart and liver tissues. The methanol extract of parsley appeared to be more efficient than that of carob in lowering hypercholesterolemia. PMID:29094044

  8. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

    Alireza Sadeghipour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L. was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia.

  9. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

    Sadeghipour, Alireza; Ilchizadeh Kavgani, Ali; Ghahramani, Reza; Shahabzadeh, Saleh; Anissian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.) was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight) for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia. PMID:25295067

  10. Cypermethrin induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats: protective role of Tribulus terrestris.

    Sharma, Poonam; Huq, Amir Ul; Singh, Rambir

    2013-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate role of ethanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris (EETT) against alpha-cypermethrin induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats. 24 male Wistar rats weighing about 250-300g were divided in four groups. Group-I was control. alpha-cypermethrin (3.38 mg kg-1b.wt.) was given to group-IlI for 28 days. In Group-Ill, alpha-cypermethrin and EETT (100 mg kg -1b.wt.) were administered in combination for 28 days. Rats in group-IV were given EETT for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed, testes and epididymis were removed and sperm characteristics, sex hormones and various biochemical parameters were studied. Decrease in weight of testes and epididymis, testicular sperm head count, sperm motility, live sperm count, serum testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), leutinizing hormone (LH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total protein content and increase in sperm abnormalities and lipid peroxidation (LPO) level was observed in rats exposed to cypermethrin. In combination group-Ill, EETT treatment ameliorated alpha-cypermethrin induced damage. EETT treatment in group-IV increased testes and epididymis weight, sperm head counts, sperm motility, live sperm counts, testosterone, FSH, LH, GSH, CAT, SOD, GST, GR, GPx and total protein content. The study suggested that Tribulus terrestris plant possess reproductive system enhancement and antioxidant activity.

  11. The Effect of Antiepileptic Drug of Lamotrigine, on the Function of Reproductive Hormones in Male Rats

    R. Khezri Motlagh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lamotrigine is one of the never anti-epileptic drug. In this study the effects of lamotrigine have been observed on serum concentration of LH (Luteinizing hormone, FSH (Follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone ,body and testis weight in male rat. Methods: The animal used in this experiment were 40 adult male rat from wistar race which were divided in to 5 group of 8.consisting of control group which received nothings, Sham group which received 0.2 ml distilled water via oral. Experimental group which received 100, 200, 400 mg/kg lamotrigine via oral after 14th day body weight were measured in all group and then the blood sample was taken from heart and concentration of LH.FSH, testosterone was measured. In addition the testis were separated and testis weight were measured in all group. Results: The result show that concentration of LH in experimental group did not show significant difference in compared with control group but in experimental group received 400mg/kg of lamotrigine  show a significant decrease in concentration of FSH and testosterone in comparison with control group .In addition lamotrigine had effect and testis weight in middle and high dose was reduce. Conclusion: Lamotrigine, an antiepileptic drug, reduced reproductive activity by inhibiting of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in adult male rats.

  12. Dobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats

    Couet Jacques

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intravenously under continuous imaging of the heart by a 12 MHz ultrasound probe. Results Dobutamine stress echocardiography reduced gradually LV diastolic and systolic dimensions. Ejection fraction increased by a mean of +24% vs. baseline. Heart rate increased progressively without reaching a plateau. Changes in LV dimensions and ejection fraction reached a plateau after a mean of 4 minutes at a constant infusion rate. Conclusion DSE can be easily performed in rats. The normal response is an increase in heart rate and ejection fraction and a decrease in LV dimensions. A plateau in echocardiographic measurements is obtained after 4 minutes of a constant infusion rate in most animals.

  13. α-Lipoic Acid Mitigates Arsenic-Induced Hematological Abnormalities in Adult Male Rats

    Sonali Ghosh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arsenic toxicity is a major global health problem and exposure via contaminated drinking water has been associated with hematological and other systemic disorders. The present investigation has been conducted in adult male rats to evaluate the protective ability of α-lipoic acid (ALA against such hematological disorders. Methods: Twenty-four adult male Wister rats (b.wt.130±10g were grouped and accordingly group I (control received the normal diet, group II (treated was given arsenic orally for 28 consecutive days as arsenic trioxide (3 mg/kgbw/rat/day whereas group III (supplemented received the same dose of arsenic along with ALA (25 mg/kgbw/rat/day as oral supplement. Hematological profile, plasma oxidant/antioxidant status, and erythrocyte morphology were assessed. Statistical analysis was done by one-way ANOVA using SPSS software (version 16.0. Results: Arsenic exposure caused reduction of erythrocyte (P=0.021, leucocyte (P<0.001, and hemoglobin (P=0.031 associated with echinocytic transformation as evidenced by light and scanning electron microscopic studies. The other significantly altered parameters include increased mean corpuscular volume (P=0.041 and lymphocytopenia (P<0.001 with insignificant neutropenia and eosinophilia. Altered serum oxidative balance as evidenced by decreased TAS (P<0.001 and increased TOS (P<0.001 with OSI (P<0.001 was also noted. The dietary supplementation of ALA has a beneficial effect against the observed (P<0.05 arsenic toxicities. It brings about the protection by restoring the hematological redox and inflammatory status near normal in treated rats. Arsenic-induced morphological alteration of erythrocytes was also partially attenuated by ALA supplementation. Conclusion: It is concluded that arsenicosis is associated with hematological alterations and ALA co-supplementation can partially alleviate these changes in an experimental male rat model.

  14. Cytogenetic changes in the liver of progeny of irradiated male rats

    Kropacova, K.; Slovinska, L.; Misurova, E. [P.J. Safarik Univ., Kosice (Slovakia)

    2002-06-01

    The transgenerational transmission of radiation damage of rat genom was studied on the basis of cytogenetic changes in somatic cells (hepatocytes). It was found, that the irradiation of rat males with dose of 3 Gy of gamma radiation caused latent cytogenetic damage to the liver, which was expressed during the course of an induced proliferation of hepatocytes (by partial hepatectomy) by lower proliferative activity and a high frequency of chromosomal aberrations. In the progeny of irradiated males (in the F{sub 1} generation), the radiation damage to DNA was manifested by similar changes, i.e. by lower proliferation activity and increase in ''spontaneous'' chromosomal aberration occurrence in liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. Irradiating the progeny of irradiated males (the total radiation load of the progeny being 3 Gy+3 Gy) caused slighter changes in compared with irradiating the progeny of non-irradiated control males (the total radiation load of the progeny being 0 Gy+3 Gy), which suggests some kind of adaptive response, which was also found in other experimental systems and parameters. An analogous course of RNA and DNA quantitative changes in the liver of the F{sub 0} and F{sub 1} generations of rats confirms the partial transmission of radiation damage of genom to the progeny. (author)

  15. Juvenile female rats, but not male rats, show renewal, reinstatement, and spontaneous recovery following extinction of conditioned fear.

    Park, Chun Hui J; Ganella, Despina E; Kim, Jee Hyun

    2017-12-01

    Anxiety disorders emerge early, and girls are significantly more likely to develop anxiety compared to boys. However, sex differences in fear during development are poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated juvenile male and female rats in the relapse behaviors following extinction of conditioned fear. In all experiments, 18-d-old rats first received three white-noise-footshock pairings on day 1. On day 2, extinction involved 60 white-noise alone trials. In experiment 1, we examined renewal by testing the rats in either the same or different context as extinction on day 3. Male rats did not show renewal, however, female rats showed renewal. Experiment 2 investigated reinstatement by giving rats either a mild reminder footshock or context exposure on day 3. When tested the next day, male rats did not show reinstatement, whereas female rats showed reinstatement. Experiment 3 investigated spontaneous recovery by testing the rats either 1 or 5 d following extinction. Male rats did not show any spontaneous recovery whereas female rats did. Taken together, fear regulation appear to be different in males versus females from early in development, which may explain why girls are more prone to suffer from anxiety disorders compared to boys. © 2017 Park et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  16. Xanthohumol lowers body weight and fasting plasma glucose in obese male Zucker fa/fa rats.

    Legette, Leecole L; Luna, Arlyn Y Moreno; Reed, Ralph L; Miranda, Cristobal L; Bobe, Gerd; Proteau, Rosita R; Stevens, Jan F

    2013-07-01

    Obesity contributes to increased risk for several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Xanthohumol, a prenylated flavonoid from hops (Humulus lupulus), was tested for efficacy on biomarkers of metabolic syndrome in 4 week old Zucker fa/fa rats, a rodent model of obesity. Rats received daily oral doses of xanthohumol at 0, 1.86, 5.64, and 16.9 mg/kg BW for 6 weeks. All rats were maintained on a high fat (60% kcal) AIN-93G diet for 3 weeks to induce severe obesity followed by a normal AIN-93G (15% kcal fat) diet for the last 3 weeks of the study. Weekly food intake and body weight were recorded. Plasma cholesterol, glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels were assessed using commercial assay kits. Plasma and liver tissue levels of XN and its metabolites were determined by liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma and liver tissue levels of xanthohumol were similar between low and medium dose groups and significantly (peffect on body weight and plasma glucose levels. The highest dose group (n=6) had significantly lower plasma glucose levels compared to the control group (n=6) in male but not female rats. There was also a significant decrease in body weight for male rats in the highest dose group (16.9 mg/kg BW) compared to rats that received no xanthohumol, which was also not seen for female rats. Plasma cholesterol, insulin, triglycerides, and MCP-1 as well as food intake were not affected by treatment. The findings suggest that xanthohumol has beneficial effects on markers of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. The Protective Role of Ginger (Zingiber Officinales ) in Male Albino Rats Exposed to Gamma Irradiation

    Osman, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    The present work was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of preirradiation treatment with ginger (Zingiber Officinales) for 21 consecutive days before exposure in controlling post-irradiation hazards in male rats. Male albino rats weighing about 120±10 g were divided into four groups: ( I ) control, ( II ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg , ( III ) irradiated with 6 Gy and ( IV ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg before irradiated with 6 Gy gamma - radiation . The blood samples were collected from heart of animals 21 days after treatment with ginger and seven days post irradiation. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical analysts such as liver functions , lipid profile , kidney function and sex hormone. Whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) caused significant increase in (aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), cholesterol, triglycerides , glucose, urea and creatinine) while alkaline phosphatase showed no effect. Irradiation caused decrease in the contents of total protein , albumin and testosterone. Ginger treatment exerted noticeable amelioration in the studied biochemical parameters of the irradiated albino rats. The mechanism of action of ginger may be due to its antiinflammatory properties against whole body gamma irradiation

  18. Effects of aqueous extract of celery (Apium graveolens L. leaves on spermatogenesis in healthy male rats

    Ameneh Hardani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nowadays, a lot of attention has been paid to the therapeutic properties of herbs, including evaluation of the effects of these plants on fertility in laboratory animals. Apium graveolens L. (celery has been widely used in traditional medicine for treatment of various disorders including impotency. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of A. graveolens on testicular tissue and spermatogenesis in healthy male rats. Materials and Methods: In this research, 24 apparently healthy male rats were divided into three groups, including eight rats in each. The first group as control received only distilled water 1 ml/animal/day. The second and third groups orally received 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. of the extract, respectively, for 30 days. The day after the last administration of the extract, the rats were sacrificed, the testes were removed entirely, and the morphometric studies were carried out. Epididymal sperm count and histological studies of testicular tissue were conducted. Results: The comparison between the treated and control groups revealed a remarkable increase in the seminiferous tubules diameter, testes volume (p≤0.001, and the number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and spermatozoa. Furthermore, the increase in the number of spermatids and epididymal weight were only significant at high doses of the extract (p≤ 0.05. Conclusions: The results from this study indicated that administration of celery leaf extract may improve spermatogenesis process and also be useful for some sperm fertility parameters.

  19. The Use of Statin Substitutes to Improve the Lipid Profile in Liver Dysfunctional Male Albino Rats

    Amer, M.M.; Michael, M.I.

    2010-01-01

    More attention has been drawn to different strategies for prevention of cardiovascular associated with liver dysfunction. The aim of the present study is to compare between statin and free fat- milk supplemented with multivitamins in hyperlipidaemic male rats with or without liver dysfunction induced by CCl4. The animals were allocated to 7 equal experimental groups (16 rats each): control group, hypercholesterolemic group, hypercholestero-lemic-statin group, hypercholesterolemic-free fat milk-multivitamins group, hypercholesterolemic-CCl4 group, hypercholesterolemic-CCl4-statin group, and hypercholesterolemic-CCl4- fat-free milk-multivita-mins group. After one month half of the rats of each group were decapitated and the rest of the animals were decapitated after two months. Lipid profile, relative liver weight, liver function, CPK and LDH were determined. The effectiveness of statin drug in the management of blood lipids was confirmed without improving or worsening liver functions. Meanwhile, this effectiveness worsened in hypercholesterolemic rats treated with CCl4 as compared to hypercholesterolemic group. Administration of fat-free milk with multivitamins, as an alternative remedy for statin drug, has improved lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats and it revealed no changes in liver enzymes in hypercholesterolemic rats with liver dysfunction indicating the favorable use of them as hypolipotropic agent without affecting liver metabolism

  20. Reproductive effects of the psychoactive beverage ayahuasca in male Wistar rats after chronic exposure

    Alana de Fátima Andrade Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract Ayahuasca is a psychoactive beverage used ancestrally by indigenous Amazonian tribes and, more recently, by Christian religions in Brazil and other countries. This study aimed to investigate the reproductive effects of this beverage in male Wistar rats after chronic exposure. The rats were treated by gavage every other day for 70 days at 0 (control, 1×, 2×, 4× and 8× the dose used in a religious ritual (12 animals per group, and animals euthanized on the 71st day. Compared to controls, there was a significant decrease in food consumption and body weight gain in rats from the 4× and 8× groups, and a significant increase in the brain and stomach relative weight at the 8× group. There was a significant increase in total serum testosterone, and a decrease in spermatic transit time and spermatic reserves in the epididymis caudae in the 4× group, but not in the highest dose group. No significant changes were found in the other reproductive endpoints (spermatozoid motility and morphology, total spermatozoid count and daily sperm production, and histology of testis and epididymis. This study identified a no-observed-adverse-effect-level for chronic and reproductive effects of ayahuasca in male Wistar rats at 2× the ritualistic dose, which corresponds in this study to 0.62 mg/kg bw N, N-dimethyltryptamine, 6.6 mg/kg bw harmine and 0.52 mg/kg bw harmaline. A potential toxic effect of ayahuasca in male rats was observed at the 4× dose, with a non-monotonic dose–response. Studies investigating the role of ayahuasca components in regulating testosterone levels are needed to better understand this action.

  1. The Antinociceptive Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Borago Officinalis Flower in Male Rats Using Formalin Test.

    Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadimoghadm, Mahdieh; Shahraki, Ahmad Reza

    2015-10-01

    Borago officinalis flower (borage) is a known sedative in herbal medicine; the aim of the present study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of borage hydroalcoholic extract in formalin test male rats. Fifty-six adult male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups: Control groups of A (intact), B (saline), and C (Positive control) plus test groups of D, E, F, and G (n=8). The groups D, E, and F received 6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg, Borago officinalis flower hydroalcholic extract before the test, respectively but group G received 25 mg/kg borage extract and aspirin before the test. A biphasic pain was induced by injection of formalin 1%. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS software ver. 17 employing statistical tests of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney. The results were expressed as mean±SD. Statistical differences were considered significant at Ptest groups of D, E, F, and G significantly decreased compared to groups A and B, but this score did not show any difference compared to group C. Moreover, chronic pain behavior score in group G was significantly lower than all other groups. The results indicated that Borago officinalis hydroalcoholic extract affects the acute and chronic pain behavior response in formaline test male rats.

  2. Antihyperlipidemic effect of crude extract of saffron stigma (Crocus sativus in healthy male rats

    Iliass Lahmass

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated for the first time the antihyperlipidemic ef-fects of crude extract of stigmas from Crocus sativus (saffron against hyperlipidemia induced by tartrazine (synthetic dye in normal male rats. Thirty adult male albino rats weighing about 150 - 200 g, were divided into 5 groups (n = 6 and daily treatment was given orally. Clinical biochemis-try and metabolic parameters were evaluated at the end of the experiment and after 105 days. (n=6, for all groups. Our data revealed that the meta-bolic parameters like consumption of food and water, pH and urine vol-ume have not been affected; also the difference between liver, right kid-ney and heart weight was not significant. The levels of cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly increased in group 2 and group 3 compared to control group. There was no significant difference in the level of cholesterol and triglyceride in group 4. Treatment with saffron alone did not have any significant effects on the level of fat compared to control group. The oral administration of the crude extract of saffron revealed good hypolipidemic effects in adult male albino rats. These results suggest that aqueous saffron extract reduced plasma cholesterol and decreased triglyceride. Therefore, it could conceivably lead to suitable changes in blood lipid profiles. [J Med Allied Sci 2017; 7(1.000: 20-25

  3. Developmental toxicity of toluene in male rats: effects on semen quality, testis morphology, and apoptotic neurodegeneration

    Dalgaard, M.; Hossaini, A.; Hass, U.; Ladefoged, O. [Inst. of Food Safety and Toxicology, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Soborg (Denmark); Hougaard, K.S. [National Inst. of Occupational Health, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2001-04-01

    In one study, pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to 1200 ppm toluene by inhalation 6 h a day from gestational day (GD) 7 to postnatal day (PND) 18. Sperm analysis was performed in the adult male offspring at PND 110 by using computer-assisted sperm analysis. Toluene did not affect the semen quality of exposed rats. In another study, pregnant rats were exposed to 1800 ppm from GD 7 to GD 20, and the male offspring were killed at PND 11, 21 or 90. Paired testes weight, histopathology and immunoexpression of vimentin in Sertoli cells were used as markers of testis toxicity. In the brain, the number of apoptotic cells in the hippocampus and cerebellum were counted after visualisation by means of the TUNEL assay. Mean body weight in pups of exposed dams was lower than in pups from control litters. This decrease was still statistically significant at PND 11, but at PND 21 and 90 the body weight of toluene-exposed males tended to approach that of the controls. Absolute and relative testes weights were reduced in all three age groups, although not to a statistically significant degree. Histopathological examinations of the testis and immuno-expression of vimentin did not reveal any differences between toluene-exposed animals and control animals. In the hippocampus, almost no apoptosis was observed in any age group, and there were no differences in apoptotic neurodegeneration between male rats exposed to 1800 ppm and control animals at PND 11, 21 or 90. Generally, a marked increase in number of apoptotic cells was observed in cerebellar granule cells at PND 21 compared with the other age groups. Toluene induced a statistically significant increase in the number of apoptotic cells in the cerebellar granule layer at PND 21. The mean was increased from 37 in the control group to 71 in the toluene-exposed group. Thus, the granular cell layer in cerebellum is a highly relevant tissue with which to study toluene-induced apoptosis, because of the continuous migration of neurons and

  4. The role of estrogen G-protein coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) and sexual experience in sexual incentive motivation in male rats.

    Hawley, W R; Battista, C; Divack, S R; Morales Núñez, N B

    2017-08-01

    Male rats exhibit reductions in sexual motivation following systemic administration of drugs that inhibit the conversion of testosterone to estrogen, which indicates that estrogen signaling plays a role in male rat sexual motivation. Given that estrogen G-protein coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) is expressed in brain areas that are important for male sexual behaviors and endocrine function, the primary aim of the current study was to examine the role that GPR30 plays in sexual motivation in both sexually naïve and sexually experienced male rats. Following the final treatment with either a GPR30 antagonist (G-15) or vehicle control, male rats were placed into the center chamber of a larger three-chambered testing arena that was designed to assess sexual incentive motivation. A sexually receptive stimulus female rat and a stimulus male rat were individually confined to one of the two smaller chambers that were each separated by a perforated partition from the larger end chambers, which test rats had access to. Relative to vehicle treated rats, male rats treated with G-15 exhibited a reduction in the percentage of time spent in the vicinity of a sexually receptive female rat. Although G-15 reduced sexual incentive motivation independent of sexual experience, only sexually-naïve rats treated with G-15 did not exhibit a preference for the sexually receptive stimulus female rat. Collectively, these results indicate that interference with estrogen signaling at GPR30 reduces sexual motivation and that the lack of preference for a sexually receptive female rat over a male rat following G-15 treatment is abrogated by previous sexual experience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Qiangji Jianli Yin on sex hormones in male rat models of splenoasthenic syndrome

    Chen Zhixi; Xu Zhiwei; Liu Xiaobin; Zhao Hui; Chen Jinyan; Li Zhiqiang; He Zanhou

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of Qiangji Jianli Yin on male rat models of splenoasthenic syndrome through changes of serum sex hormones (T, E 2 ), amylase and histologic changes of spleen, thymus, adrenals as well as to study the material foundation of spleno-renal mutual correlationship in traditional Chinese medicine. Methods: Rat models male of splenoasthenic syndrome were established with daily gavage of rhubarb decoction (2ml 2 and amylase levels were determined with RIA on d10 and d20 and the animals were sacrificed on d20 to procure spleen, thymus and adrenals for histologic study. Control rats (n=10) were given daily gavage of distilled water only. Results: Serum E 2 and T levels in the splenoasthenic syndrome models without treatment were significantly higher than those in controls rats on dl0 (P 2 levels increased further but T levels dropped markedly and were significantly lower than those in untreated group (P 2 , T on d10 were much less in the models treated with Qiangji Jianli Yin with maintenance of E 2 /T ratio. On d20 the serum E 2 levels, though increased, were much lower than those in untreated group, hence the E 2 /T ratio was also much lower than that in untreated group and differed less from that in controls. Serum amylase levels on d10 and d20 in the splenoastheic models without treatment were significantly lower than those in controls rats (P 2 might be the material foundation responsible for the spleno-renal interrelationship. Histologic changes of spleen, thymus and adrenals might be the evidence of the traditional Chinese medicine theory of 'splenoasthenic would induce renal deficiency'. (authors)

  6. Antidiabetic Activity Test of Ethanolic Seri Leave’s (Muntingia Calabura L.) Extract in Male Rats Induced by Alloxan

    Herlina Herlina; Annisa Amriani; Indah Solihah; Rizky Sintya

    2018-01-01

    Antidiabetic activity test of ethanol extract of seri leave (Muntingia calabura L.) rats induced by alloxan has been done. Male wistar albino rats are used as animal models which divided into 6 groups, normal group (aquadest), negative control group (Na CMC 0,5%), positive control group (glibenclamide 0,43 mg/200 gBB), and 1, 2, and 3 treatment groups (ethanol extract of seri leave 65, 130, dan 260 mg/kgBB). Rats blood glucose level after induced intraperitoneally by alloxan 130 mg/kgBB can b...

  7. Evidence for diffuse central retinal edema in vivo in diabetic male Sprague Dawley rats.

    Bruce A Berkowitz

    Full Text Available Investigations into the mechanism of diffuse retinal edema in diabetic subjects have been limited by a lack of animal models and techniques that co-localized retinal thickness and hydration in vivo. In this study we test the hypothesis that a previously reported supernormal central retinal thickness on MRI measured in experimental diabetic retinopathy in vivo represents a persistent and diffuse edema.In diabetic and age-matched control rats, and in rats experiencing dilutional hyponatremia (as a positive edema control, whole central retinal thickness, intraretinal water content and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC, 'water mobility' were measured in vivo using quantitative MRI methods. Glycated hemoglobin and retinal thickness ex vivo (histology were also measured in control and diabetic groups. In the dilutional hyponatremia model, central retinal thickness and water content were supernormal by quantitative MRI, and intraretinal water mobility profiles changed in a manner consistent with intracellular edema. Groups of diabetic (2, 3, 4, 6, and 9 mo of diabetes, and age-matched controls were then investigated with MRI and all diabetic rats showed supernormal whole central retinal thickness. In a separate study in 4 mo diabetic rats (and controls, MRI retinal thickness and water content metrics were significantly greater than normal, and ADC was subnormal in the outer retina; the increase in retinal thickness was not detected histologically on sections of fixed and dehydrated retinas from these rats.Diabetic male Sprague Dawley rats demonstrate a persistent and diffuse retinal edema in vivo, providing, for the first time, an important model for investigating its pathogenesis and treatment. These studies also validate MRI as a powerful approach for investigating mechanisms of diabetic retinal edema in future experimental and clinical investigations.

  8. Hepatoprotective, Antihyperlipidemic, and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Moringa oleifera in Diabetic-induced Damage in Male Wistar Rats

    Omodanisi, Elizabeth I.; Aboua, Yapo G.; Chegou, Novel N.; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The number of individuals with diabetes is increasing daily, and diabetes is presently estimated to affect about 422 million adults worldwide. Conventional drugs used to treat diabetes are not without severe side effects, accessibility, and affordability. This study elucidates the potential effects of Moringa oleifera (MO) leaves extract to manage and treat diabetes induced in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 12/group): NC – nondiabetic rats (positive control), MO – nondiabetic-treated rats, DM – diabetic rats (negative control), DM + MO – diabetic-treated rats. Hepatic enzymes and biochemical parameters as well as antioxidant capacity and inflammatory cytokine levels were assessed. Levels of low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol were evaluated. Results: Oral administration of methanolic extract of MO (250 mg/kg) to diabetic rats for 42 days showed a significant reduction in hepatic enzyme markers and normalized lipid profile parameters in the serum compared to normal control group. Treatment also increased the level of antioxidant capacity and alleviated inflammatory biomarkers of the liver. Histology sections of the liver tissue showed protective effect of MO in treated rats. Conclusions: MO showed hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and lipid-lowering effects against streptozotocin-induced hepatotoxicity. Histological section demonstrated specific alterations in the liver of the diabetic and nondiabetic male Wistar rats while MO treatment revealed improvement in liver alterations. Abbreviations Used: IL 1: Interleukin 1, IL 6: Interleukin 16, MCP-1: Monocyte chemotactic protein, TNF-α: Tumor Necrotic factor alpha, ROS: Reactive oxygen species, MO: Moringa oleifera, STZ: Streptozotocin, SRC: Standard rat chow, ALP: Alkaline phosphatase, AST: Aspartate aminotransferase, ALT: Alanine aminotransferase, ORAC: Oxygen radical absorbance

  9. Chronic social instability increases anxiety-like behavior and ethanol preference in male Long Evans rats.

    Roeckner, Alyssa R; Bowling, Alexandra; Butler, Tracy R

    2017-05-01

    Chronic stress during adolescence is related to increased prevalence of anxiety disorders and alcohol use disorders in humans. This phenotype has been consistently recapitulated in animal models with male subjects, but models using female subjects are fewer. The aim of these studies was to test the hypothesis that chronic social instability (CSI) during adolescence engenders increased anxiety-like behavior, increased corticosterone, and greater ethanol intake and/or preference than control groups in male and female rats. A chronic social instability (CSI) procedure was conducted in separate cohorts of female and male adolescent Long Evans rats. CSI included daily social isolation for 1h, and then pair housing with a novel cage mate for 23h until the next 1h isolation period from PND 30-46. Control groups included social stability (SS), chronic isolation (ISO), and acute social instability (aSI). At PND 49-50, anxiety-like behavior was assessed on the elevated plus maze, and on PND 51 tails bloods were obtained for determination of corticosterone (CORT) levels. This was followed by 4weeks of ethanol drinking in a home cage intermittent access ethanol drinking paradigm (PND 55-81 for males, PND 57-83 for females). Planned contrast testing showed that the male CSI group had greater anxiety-like behavior compared controls, but group differences were not apparent for CORT. CSI males had significantly higher levels of ethanol preference during drinking weeks 2-3 compared to all other groups and compared to SS and ISO groups in week 4. For the female cohort, we did not observe consistent group differences in anxiety-like behavior, CORT levels were unexpectedly lower in the ISO group only compared to the other groups, and group differences were not apparent for ethanol intake/preference. In conclusion, chronic stress during adolescence in the form of social instability increases anxiety-like behavior and ethanol preference in male rats, consistent with other models of

  10. Prenatal testosterone exposure worsen the reproductive performance of male rat at adulthood.

    Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Noroozzadeh, Mahsa; Zahediasl, Saleh; Ghasemi, Asghar; Piryaei, Abbas; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2013-01-01

    The reproductive system is extremely susceptible to environmental insults, for example exogenous steroids during gestational development and differentiation. Experimental induction of androgen excess during prenatal life in female animal models reprograms their reproductive physiology, however the fetal programming of the male reproductive system by androgen excess has not been well studied. We aimed to determine the effect of prenatal exposure of two different doses of testosterone on different gestational days, on the male reproductive system using a rat model. Sixteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups and two control groups. Experimental group І were subcutaneously injected with 3 mg free testosterone on gestational days 16-19 and its controls received solvent for that time; experimental group П were subcutaneously injected with 20 mg free testosterone on day 20 of gestational period and its controls received solvent at the same time. The reproductive system morphology and function of 32 male offspring of these study groups were compared at days 6-30-60 of age and after puberty. The anogenital distance of the male offspring of both experimental groups had no significant differences on the different days of measurement, compared with controls. In the offspring of experimental group І, the testes weight, number of Sertoli, Spermatocyte and Spermatid cells, sperm count and motility and the serum concentration of testosterone after puberty were significantly decreased; except for reduction of sperm motility (pmale rat fetuses to excess testosterone disrupted reproductive function, an effect highly dependent on the time, duration and level of exposure. It seems that the reproductive system in individuals exposed to high levels of androgens during fetal life should be evaluated at puberty and likely to be treated.

  11. The effects of cinnamon on glycemic indexes and insulin resistance in adult male diabetic rats with streptozotocin

    SEbrahim Hosseini; STaereh Shojaei; SAli Hosseini

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is a common disease that for its treatment and control different methods are recommended such as the use of natural remedies and lifestyle modification. Since the use of herbal medicines have less side effects than many chemical drugs, hence, this study aimed to investigate the effect of cinnamon extract on blood glucose, insulin and insulin resistance in diabetic rats with streptozotocin. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted on 40 adult male rats,...

  12. Effects of postnatal administration of diethylstilbestrol on puberty and thyroid function in male rats.

    Shin, Jae-Ho; Kim, Tae Sung; Kang, Il Hyun; Kang, Tae Seok; Moon, Hyun Ju; Han, Soon-Young

    2009-10-01

    To examine the effects of diethylstilbestrol (DES) on male pubertal development and thyroid function, juvenile male Sprague-Dawley rats were given DES daily by oral intubation at doses of 10, 20 and 40 microg/kg/day from postnatal day 33 for 20 days. Prepuce separation was significantly delayed at the dose of 20 microg/kg/day and above in the DES-treated rats. DES treatment induced a significant reduction in the weights of testes, epididymides, the ventral prostate, seminal vesicles plus coagulating glands and fluid, levator ani bulbocavernosus muscles, Cowper's glands and the glans penis. The weights of the liver and adrenals increased in the DES-treated animals. DES caused a dose-dependent reduction in germ cells; in particular the spermatids were mainly affected. The serum levels of testosterone and luteinizing hormone were significantly reduced in the DES-treated groups, but that of estradiol decreased. No differences were observed in the serum thyroxine levels of the control and DES-treated groups. In microscopic observation of the DES-treated animals, degeneration of germ cells and tubular atrophy in the testis were noted, but there were no microscopic changes in the thyroid. These results indicate that DES affected the pubertal development of juvenile male rats and that its mode of action may be related to alterations in hormone levels.

  13. Safety assessment of Hibiscus sabdariffa after maternal exposure on male reproductive parameters in rats.

    de Arruda, Aline; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea L; Vieira, Maria do Carmo; Arena, Arielle Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae) is a species widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of some disorders. This study evaluated the effects of H. sabdariffa (HS) on the development of the male reproductive tract in rats following in utero exposure. Pregnant rats received 250 or 500 mg/kg of HS extract or vehicle from gestational day 12 until day 21 of lactation. Both doses of HS increased the body weight of male offspring at weaning, without compromising the puberty onset parameters. At puberty, there was a significant increase in the vas deferens absolute weight and a significant reduction in the relative weight of kidney at higher dose. These animals also presented a significant reduction in the sperm number in the caput/corpus of epididymis after exposure to both doses and a reduction in the sperm number in the cauda epididymis for the lower dose. At adulthood, the highest dose significantly reduced the sperm production in relation to controls and both doses provoked a reduction in the relative sperm number in the epididymis without affecting the sperm morphology. These findings demonstrated that maternal exposure to H. sabdariffa can adversely influence the male reproductive system in rats.

  14. Antispermatogenic, antiandrogenic activities of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth bark extract in male albino rats.

    Gupta, R S; Kachhawa, J B S; Chaudhary, R

    2006-03-01

    Methanolic extract of Albizia lebbeck bark when administered orally at the dose level of 100 mg/rat/day to male rats of proven fertility for 60 days did not cause any significant loss in their body weights but the weights of reproductive organs, i.e. testis, epididymides, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate were decreased in a significant manner when compared to controls. Sperm motility as well as sperm density were reduced significantly which resulted in reduction of male fertility by 100%. Marked decline in the germ cell population was noticed. Population of preleptotene, pachytene, secondary spermatocytes and step-19 spermatid were declined by 60.86%, 65.81%, 71.56% and 66.55%, respectively. Cross-sectional surface area of sertoli cells as well as the cells counts were found to be depleted significantly. Leydig cells nuclear area and number of mature Leydig cells were decreased by 60.03% and 51.56%, respectively. Serum testosterone levels showed significant reduction after A. lebbeck extract feeding. Oral administration of the extract did not affect red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) count, haemoglobin, haematocrit and glucose in the blood and cholesterol, protein, triglyceride and phospholipid in the serum. In conclusion, A. lebbeck bark extract administration arrests spermatogenesis in male rats without noticeable side effects.

  15. Limited Nesting Stress Alters Maternal Behavior and In Vivo Intestinal Permeability in Male Wistar Pup Rats.

    Nabila Moussaoui

    Full Text Available A few studies indicate that limited nesting stress (LNS alters maternal behavior and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis of dams and offspring in male Sprague Dawley rats. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of LNS on maternal behavior in Wistar rats, and on the HPA axis, glycemia and in vivo intestinal permeability of male and female offspring. Intestinal permeability is known to be elevated during the first week postnatally and influenced by glucocorticoids. Dams and neonatal litters were subjected to LNS or normal nesting conditions (control from days 2 to 10 postnatally. At day 10, blood was collected from pups for determination of glucose and plasma corticosterone by enzyme immunoassay and in vivo intestinal permeability by oral gavage of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 4kDa. Dams exposed to LNS compared to control showed an increase in the percentage of time spent building a nest (118%, self-grooming (69%, and putting the pups back to the nest (167%. LNS male and female pups exhibited a reduction of body weight by 5% and 4%, adrenal weights/100g body weight by 17% and 18%, corticosterone plasma levels by 64% and 62% and blood glucose by 11% and 12% respectively compared to same sex control pups. In male LNS pups, intestinal permeability was increased by 2.7-fold while no change was observed in females compared to same sex control. There was no sex difference in any of the parameters in control pups except the body weight. These data indicate that Wistar dams subjected to LNS during the first postnatal week have an altered repertoire of maternal behaviors which affects the development of the HPA axis in both sexes and intestinal barrier function in male offspring.

  16. The effect of chronic alcohol administration on bone mineral content and bone strength in male rats.

    Broulík, P D; Vondrová, J; Růzicka, P; Sedlácek, R; Zíma, T

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use has been identified as a risk factor for the development of osteoporosis. Eight male Wistar rats at two months of age were alcoho-fed (7.6 g 95 % ethanol/kg b.w. per day) to evaluate the effects of long-term administration (three months) of alcohol in drinking water. We have used a dose which is considered to be comparable to a dose of 1 liter of wine or 2.5 liters of 12(°) beer used in male adults daily. The bones were tested mechanically by a three-point bending test in a Mini Bionix (MTS) testing system. The bones from alcohol-fed rats were characterized by a reduction in bone density as well as in ash, calcium and phosphate content. In alcohol-fed rats the reduction in bone mineral density (10 %) was reflected by about 12 % reduction of mechanical strength of femur (158+/-5.5 vs. 178+/-3.2 N/mm(2)). Alcohol significantly altered femoral cortical thickness. In our experiment alcohol itself did not exert any antiandrogenic effect and it did not produce changes in the weight of seminal vesicles. Liver function test (GGT, ALP, AST) did not differ between alcohol-fed rats and control rats. Alcohol-induced bone loss is associated with increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. These results document the efficacy of alcohol at the dose of 7.6 g 95 % ethanol/kg b.w. to cause bone loss and loss of bone mechanical strength in intact rats. The results of the present study may be interpreted as supporting the hypothesis of alcohol as a risk factor for osteoporosis.

  17. Effects of buddleja officinalis total flavonoids on serum testosterone level of castrated male rats with xeroma

    Wen-Juan Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe buddleja officinalis total flavonoids' effect on the basal tear secretion amount, tear film stability, lacrimal gland histomorphology and serum testosterone level of castrated male rat model with xeroma, to study the mechanism of rat xeroma caused by buddleja officinalis total flavones' anti-sex hormones disorders.MEATHODS: A total of 150 Wistar male rats of 1 month old, weighted about 200g, were randomly divided into 5 groups with 30 rats in each group with A representing normal group; B representing sham operation group; C representing surgery control group; D representing group treated with androgen; E representing group treated with buddleja officinalis total flavonoids. For the groups C, D, E, the bilateral testicle and epididymis were excised; For group B, scrota were incised without removal of the testicles, as the sham operation group; For group A, nothing was done. One week after modeling when the wound was to be healed, drug was given to each group. Respectively at the 1st month, 3rd, and 5th months after treatment, 10 rats were randomly selected in each group, to receive Schirmer I test, tear breakup time measurement. Blood serum testosterone levels were tested in the fifth month. RESUITS: For groups D and E, the Schirmer I test measurements were significantly higher than that of group C(PPPCONCLUSION: Decreased androgen levels can lead to xeroma, and removal of bilateral testes and epididymis can successfully establish the animal models of xeroma in rats caused by decreased androgen levels. Buddleja officinalis total flavonoids have androgenic effect, which produces the similar treatment effect of xeroma with testosterone propionate. Buddleja officinalis total flavonoids may become a new treatment for xeroma.

  18. Effects of chronic mild stress on parameters of bone assessment in adult male and female rats

    Fabrício L. Valente

    Full Text Available Abstract: Osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease of high prevalence and has great impact on quality of life, because the effects on bone structure increase the risk of fractures, what may be very debilitating. Based on the observation that patients with depression have lower bone mineral density than healthy individuals, many studies have indicated that stress could be an aggravating factor for bone loss. This study evaluates the effect of a protocol of chronic mild stress (CMS on parameters of bone assessment in male and female rats. Five 5-monh-old rats of each sex underwent a schedule of stressor application for 28 days. Stressors included cold, heat, restraint, cage tilt, isolation, overnight illumination, and water and food deprivation. Five rats of each sex were kept under minimum intervention as control group. The animals were weighed at beginning and end of the period, and after euthanasia had their bones harvested. Femur, tibia and lumbar vertebrae were analyzed by bone densitometry. Biomechanical tests were performed in femoral head and diaphysis. Trabecular bone volume was obtained from histomorphometric analysis of femoral head and vertebral body, as well as of femoral midshaft cross-sectional measures. Not all parameters analyzed showed effect of CMS. However, tibial and L4 vertebral bone mineral density and cross-sectional cortical/medullar ratio of femoral shaft were lower in female rats submitted to the CMS protocol. Among male rats, the differences were significant for femoral trabecular bone volume and maximum load obtained by biomechanical test. Thus, it could be confirmed that CMS can affect the balance of bone homeostasis in rats, what may contribute to the establishment of osteopenia or osteoporosis.

  19. Using Castration Surgery in Male Rats to Demonstrate the Physiological Effects of Testosterone on Seminal Vesicle Anatomy in an Undergraduate Laboratory Setting

    Belanger, Rachelle M.; Conant, Stephanie B.; Grabowski, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Rats can be used as a model organism to teach physiological concepts in a laboratory setting. This article describes a two-part laboratory that introduces students to hypothesis testing, experimental design, the appropriate use of controls and surgical techniques. Students perform both a castration and sham-control surgery on male rats and test…

  20. POTENTIAL ESTROGENIC EFFECTS OF BISPHENOL-A IN MALE RATS AND BENEFICIAL ADMINISTRATION OF SOME ANTIOXIDANTS

    MAZEN, G.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Bisphenol-A is a chemical compound which is used primarily as a monomer in the manufacture of numerous chemical products. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential harmful effects of bisphenol-A on reproductive system of male rats and was designed to clarify the ability of zinc or selenium to improve this perturbation in the reproductive function of rats.As a result of bisphenol-A treatment, number of sperms, testis total protein, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase were decreased significantly. This effect was concomitant with a significant decrease in serum testosterone level. On the other hand, bisphenol-A caused a significant elevation in the abnormality of sperm (sperm malformed head or tail or head and tail) and testis total lipid. However, a significant increment was obtained in serum FSH, LH, PRL, E2 and progesterone levels when compared with their corresponding normal control rats.Moreover, the administration of zinc or selenium to treated rats with bisphenol-A rats led to a remarkable amelioration in all previous parameters

  1. Experimentally induced hyperthyroidism influences oxidant and antioxidant status and impairs male gonadal functions in adult rats.

    Asker, M E; Hassan, W A; El-Kashlan, A M

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present experiment was to study the effect of hyperthyroidism on male gonadal functions and oxidant/antioxidant biomarkers in testis of adult rats. Induction of hyperthyroidism by L-thyroxine (L-T4, 300 μg kg(-1) body weight) treatment once daily for 3 or 8 weeks caused a decrease in body weight gain as well as in absolute genital sex organs weight. The epididymal sperm counts and their motility were significantly decreased in a time-dependent manner following L-T4 treatment. Significant decline in serum levels of luteinising hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone along with significant increase in serum estradiol level was observed in hyperthyroid rats compared with euthyroid ones. Significant increase in malondialdehyde and nitric oxide concentration associated with significant decrease in superoxide dismutase and catalase activity was also noticed following hyperthyroidism induction. Both reduced glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase activity were increased in hyperthyroid rats compared with control rats. Marked histopathological alterations were observed in testicular section of hyperthyroid rats. These results provide evidence that hypermetabolic state induced by excess level of thyroid hormones may be a causative factor for the impairment of testicular physiology as a consequence of oxidative stress. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. The Protective Role of Lettuce oil (Lactuca sativa) against Radiation induced Biological Hazards in Male Rats

    Abdel-Magied, N.; Ahmed, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to clarify the potential role of lettuce oil against damages induced in rats due to exposure to gamma radiation. Adult male albino rats (120-150 g) were divided into 4 groups each of 12 animals. The first group was considered control animals. The second group received, via gavages, lettuce oil (200 mg/Kg body weight) for 3 weeks. The third group was subjected to a single dose of 6.5Gy whole body gamma irradiation. The fourth group received lettuce oil for 3 weeks then was exposed to radiation. Blood samples were collected 1 and 7 days post irradiation. Exposure of rats to gamma irradiation caused a significant increase in the level of glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), malondialdehyde (MDA) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) while a significant decrease was recorded in glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities, white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin content (Hb), haematocrit percentage (Hct%), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), platelets (PLT), leutinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone hormone . In rats treated with lettuce oil then exposed to radiation, the results showed an improvement in all previous parameters. It could be concluded that lettuce oil might reduce the biological hazards in rats induced by gamma irradiation

  3. Anabolic effect of Hibiscus rosasinensis Linn. leaf extracts in immature albino male rats.

    Olagbende-Dada, S O; Ezeobika, E N; Duru, F I

    2007-01-01

    Many plants remedies have been employed in solving man's health needs especially the nutritive value which enhances health living. Aphrodisiac plants are plants with anabolic properties i.e. they help in protein synthesis and enhances sexual abilities in males. They are also known as androgenic plants because their properties are similar to that of androgen a male hormone. Cold aqueous extract of Hibiscus rosasinensis leaves is reported by local traditional practioners in Western Nigeria to be aphrodisiac. To investigate the anabolic properties of Hibiscus rosasinensis. Three groups (8/group) of immature male rats of known weights were administered equal doses of aqueous (cold and hot) and alcoholic extracts of Hibiscus rosasinensis leaves for 8 weeks. The gain in body and isolated sexual organs (testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate) weights were determined after treatment and compared to the value obtained from a fourth untreated group which served as the control. Section through the testes of both the treated and untreated rats were also examined microscopically and displayed as a photomicrograph for comparism. All data were statistically analysed and displaced in graphic form. Over the 8 weeks of treatment, the control, the cold aqueous extract dosed, hot aqueous extract dosed and alcoholic extract dosed rats gained 8%, 15%, 18% and 22% in body weights respectively. The increase in the weight of testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate of the alcoholic extract dosed rats was 19%, 30%, 31% and 40% respectively. The anabolic effect of the leaf extracts of H. rosasinensis is hereby established. More work needs to be done on these leaf extracts to know their effect on the gonadotrophin hormones which regulate the activity of the androgens in relation to spermatogenesis.

  4. Segmental neuropathic pain does not develop in male rats with complete spinal transections.

    Hubscher, Charles H; Kaddumi, Ezidin G; Johnson, Richard D

    2008-10-01

    In a previous study using male rats, a correlation was found between the development of "at-level" allodynia in T6-7 dermatomes following severe T8 spinal contusion injury and the sparing of some myelinated axons within the core of the lesion epicenter. To further test our hypothesis that this sparing is important for the expression of allodynia and the supraspinal plasticity that ensues, an injury that severs all axons (i.e., a complete spinal cord transection) was made in 15 male rats. Behavioral assessments were done at level throughout the 30-day recovery period followed by terminal electrophysiological recordings (urethane anesthesia) from single medullary reticular formation (MRF) neurons receiving convergent nociceptive inputs from receptive fields above, at, and below the lesion level. None of the rats developed signs of at-level allodynia (versus 18 of 26 male rats following severe contusion). However, the terminal recording (206 MRF neurons) data resembled those obtained previously post-contusion. That is, there was evidence of neuronal hyper-excitability (relative to previous data from intact controls) to high- and low-threshold mechanical stimulation for "at-level" (dorsal trunk) and "above-level" (eyelids and face) cutaneous territories. These results, when combined with prior data on intact controls and severe/moderate contusions, indicate that (1) an anatomically incomplete injury (some lesion epicenter axonal sparing) following severe contusion is likely important for the development of allodynia and (2) the neuronal hyper-excitability at the level of the medulla is likely involved in nociceptive processes that are not directly related to the conscious expression of pain-like avoidance behaviors that are being used as evidence of allodynia.

  5. Effect of Sleep Deprivation on the Male Reproductive System in Rats.

    Choi, Ji Ho; Lee, Seung Hoon; Bae, Jae Hyun; Shim, Ji Sung; Park, Hong Seok; Kim, Young Sik; Shin, Chol

    2016-10-01

    There has been no study reporting on the influence of sleep deprivation on the male reproductive system including sperm quality. In this study, we hypothesized that sleep deprivation could lead to adverse effect on the male reproductive system. The rats were divided into three groups: 1) control (home-cage, n = 10); 2) SD4 (sleep deprivation for 4 days, n = 10); and 3) SD7 (sleep deprivation for 7 days, n = 10). Sleep deprivation was performed by a modified multiple platform method. Sperm quality (sperm motion parameters and counts), hormone levels (corticosterone and testosterone), and the histopathology of testis were evaluated and compared between the three groups. A statistically significant reduction (P = 0.018) was observed in sperm motility in the SD7 group compared to those of the control group. However, there were no significant differences in other sperm motion parameters, or in sperm counts of the testis and cauda epididymis between three groups. Compared with the control group, the SD4 (P = 0.033) and SD7 (P = 0.002) groups exhibited significant increases of corticosterone levels, but significant decreases of testosterone levels were found in the SD4 (P = 0.001) and SD7 (P Sleep deprivation may have an adverse effect on the male reproductive system in rats.

  6. Analysis of some biochemical and haematological parameters for Mucuna pruriens (DC) seed powder in male rats.

    Chukwudi, Ndukwe Henry; Simeon, Omale; Chinyere, Aguiyi John

    2011-10-01

    The biochemical and haematological effects of the seed powder of Mucuna pruriens in male rats were evaluated to establish some biological properties of this potential biopesticide currently undergoing investigation. The result showed that Mucuna pruriens seed extract produced a significant (p<0.05) increase in white blood cell (WBC) count, as well as in bilirubin concentrations, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), protein and creatinine levels measured. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly reduced (P<0.05) in comparison with the experimental control. PCV, Hb, albumin level and WBC differential counts gave no significant difference between treated and control groups. The results revealed metabolic imbalance in the rats which suggests a mild cholestasis effect of the extract.

  7. Effect of D-ribose-L-cysteine on aluminum induced testicular damage in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Falana, Benedict; Adeleke, Opeyemi; Orenolu, Mulikat; Osinubi, Abraham; Oyewopo, Adeoye

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of D-ribose and L-cysteine on aluminum-induced testicular damage in male Sprague-Dawley rats. A total number of thirty-five (35) adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups (AD). Group A (comprised five (5) rats) was designated the Control Group that received Physiological Saline; while groups B, C, and D (comprised ten (10) rats) were given 75 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg of body weight of aluminum chloride respectively for 39 days. At day 40, the aluminum-treated groups were subdivided into sub-groups (B1, C1, D1) comprising of five (5) rats each, and 30 mg/kg body weight of Riboceine were administered for twenty (20) days. Groups B, C and D remained on the normal dosage of aluminum chloride for three more weeks (59 days). Andrological parameters (Sperm count, motility, morphology and testosterone) in the aluminum-treated Groups B and C showed no significant difference in their mean values when compared with their control counterparts, whereas there was a significant reduction in the andrological parameters in Group D rats when compared with the Control animals. Histoarchitecture of the testes "stain with H&E" of Group A, B and C rats appeared normal while Group D rats showed testicular damages with several abnormal seminiferous tubules with incomplete maturation of germinal cell layers and absence of spermatozoa in their lumen; Leydig cells appear hyperplastic. Group B1, C1 and D1 andrological and histological parameters appeared normal. Riboceine treatment significantly attenuates aluminum-induced testicular toxicity in male Sprague-Dawley in rats.

  8. The effect of a single dose of morphine on muscle fatigue indices in male rats

    Sedigheh Amiresmaili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Endogenous opioids and addictive opiate drugs change many body functions. . Previous studies have referred to the effects of morphine on smooth and pulmonary muscles ., but the  effects of opioids on skeletal muscles is not known well. Thus, the current study aimed at assessing the effect of a single dose of morphine on muscle fatigue in male rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 male Wistar rats weighing 220-270 g were randomly divided into four equal groups: control (the mice were kept in their cages and received food and water, morphine receiving group, fatigue group (the mice in this group were kept running on  a treadmill . for120 minutes at a rate of 20 meters per minute, and morphine plus fatigue group. At the end of the experiments, blood samples were obtained from the corner of their eyes and were sent to the laboratory for measurement of muscle fatigue indexes including lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and creatine phosphokinase (CPK. Results: Administration of morphine to the fatigue group decreased running time compared with the control group (P=0.009. Furthermore, administration of morphine to the fatigue group significantly increased serum levels of LDH (P=0.009 and CPK (P=0.008. Conclusion: The present study showed that administration of a single dose of morphine in rats increases muscle fatigue biomarkers (LDH, CPK.

  9. Influence of head X-irradiation on neuroendocrine functions in thymectomized male rats

    Gong Shouliang

    1991-01-01

    The present study showed that the functions of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal and hypothalamic-adrenocortical systems changed in adult male rats thymectomized within 48 h after their birth. Two days later, head irradiation with 10 Gy x-rays was performed in the thymectomized male rats, serum LH and FSH, serum and urine testosterone and corticosterone, pituitary and testicular cAMP and hypothalamic β-EP and L-Enk contents were all reduced in different degrees, except the hypothalamic M-Enk content was increased, indicating that the changes were not in the same direction as those in intact male rats after head irradiation. These results suggest that the changes in head irradiated thymectomized male rats may differ from the changes seen in head irradiated intact male rats because of the influence of thymectomy on the neuroendocrine functions

  10. Evaluation of radio protective effects of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) in male rats

    Farag, M.F.S.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation is one of the most widespread sources of environmental stress in living environment which cause oxidative stress and metabolic changes. The basic purpose of this work was to determine the radio protective ability of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) seeds against whole body gamma irradiation of rats. The study was conducted on thirty two male rats which were classified into four equal groups. Control group: (normal, untreated). Coriander aqueous extract group (C.E.): rats received orally by gavage the aqueous extract of Coriander seed powder (300 mg/ kg b. wt. / day for 42 days). Irradiated group: rats were subjected to whole body irradiation at dose of 4 Gy delivered as a single exposure dose. Combined treatment group: rats received orally C.E. (300 mg/ kg b. wt. / day) for 42 days?at day 35 of C.E. treatment the rats were irradiated at dose level of 4 Gy. The animals exposed to gamma radiation showed a significant increase in serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), urea (U), creatinine (Cr), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). On the other hand, a significant decrease was recorded in serum total protein (T.P), albumin (Alb), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). A decrease of liver and kidney reduced glutathione (GSH) content, superoxides dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were reported. Treatment of rats with C.E. significantly reduced the radiation-induced serum biochemical disorders which was associated with significant amelioration in the oxidant / antioxidant status of liver and kidney tissues. It could be concluded that C.E. might protect from radiation induced damage due to its ability to scavenge free radicals.

  11. The Effects of Combination of High Intensity Intermittent Exercise and Supplement Flaxseed Oil 1 ICAM- Plasma Concentration in Male Rats

    Y Khademi; MA Azarbayejani; SA Hosseini

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is rooted in inflammation and inflammation is along with the increase of ICAM-1. The aim of the present study was to review the effect of combination of high interval training and flaxseed oil supplementation on plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 30 rats were selected and divided into six groups of five male rats, including (1) control, (2) training, (3) 10 mg/kg Flaxseed oil, (4) 30 mg/kg Flaxse...

  12. Modulating effect of the nootropic drug, piracetam on stress- and subsequent morphine-induced prolactin secretion in male rats.

    Matton, A.; Engelborghs, S.; Bollengier, F.; Finné, E.; Vanhaeist, L.

    1996-01-01

    1. The effect of the nootropic drug, piracetam on stress- and subsequent morphine-induced prolactin (PRL) secretion was investigated in vivo in male rats, by use of a stress-free blood sampling and drug administration method by means of a permanent indwelling catheter in the right jugular vein. 2. Four doses of piracetam were tested (20, 100, 200 and 400 mg kg-1), being given intraperitoneally 1 h before blood sampling; control rats received saline instead. After a first blood sample, rats we...

  13. Effects of butternut squash extract on dentate gyrus cell proliferation and spatial learning in male adult rats

    Mohsen Marzban; Sara Soleimani Asl; Hassan Fallah Huseini; Mahdi Tondar; Samira Choopani; Mehdi Mehdizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies reported that some plants, including butternut squash, exert positive effects on the brain. However, few studies have examined the effects of butternut squash on learning, memory, and neurogenesis. This study studied the effects of butternut squash extract on spatial learning and cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of healthy male rats. Thirty-five male Wistar rats were intrap-eritoneally injected with 0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg butternut squash extract once daily for 2 months. After the last administration, rat's spatial memory was studied using the Morris water maze. Finally, rats were sacrificed and hippocampal sections were prepared for light microscopy and bromodeoxyuridine immunohistochemistry studies. The results revealed that escape latency and swim distance decreased in all treatment groups compared with the control rats, and that the number of bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells in the dentate gyrus was significantly increased in the treatment groups compared with the controls. These findings suggest that butternut squash extract improves the learning and memory abilities of male rats, and increases the proliferation of dentate gyrus cells.

  14. Paradoxical sleep deprivation decreases serum testosterone and Leydig cells in male rats

    Fitranto Arjadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Chronic stress increases glucocorticoid levels and accelerates reduction in Leydig cells functions and numbers. Chronic stress models in the working place comprise sleep deprivation, sedentary stress, and physical stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of various work stress models, such as stress from paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD, immobilization, and footshock, on serum testosterone levels and number of Leydig cells in male albino rats. Methods This study was of experimental randomized post-test only with control group design using 24 male Wistar albino rats (Rattus norvegicus. The sample was divided into 4 groups: K1 (control, K2 (PSD, K3 (immobilization and K4 (footshock, receiving treatment for 25 days. Measured parameters were serum testosterone level and Leydig cell number. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for statistical analysis, followed by post hoc LSD. Results Mean serum testosterone levels (0.07 ± 0.08 ng/mL and Leydig cell numbers (4.22 ± l0.96 were lowest in the PSD stress model. Serum testosterone levels differed significantly between controls and PSD group (p=0.014, while there was a significant difference in numbers of Leydig cells between footshock stress and PSD (p=0.011 and between the three stress groups and controls (p=0.006. Conclusion This study demonstrated that PSD, immobilization and footshock stress significantly decreased serum testosterone levels and number of Leydig cells in male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus. The mechanism by which PSD affects serum testosterone is still unclear.

  15. Paradoxical sleep deprivation changes testicular malondialdehyde and caspase-3 expression in male rats

    Fitranto Arjadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Sleep deprivation is a significant problem among adult men and is considered as a risk factor for several diseases. Paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD induces Leydig cell apoptosis through elevation of corticosterone, with testicular malondialdehyde (MDA and Leydig cell caspase-3 expression as parameters. The aim of this study was to observe testicular MDA level and caspase-3 expression treated with paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD, immobilization, and footshock stress and to determine the stress model with a significant effect in white male rats (Rattus norvegicus . METHODS This experimental randomized study of posttest only with control group design was conducted on 24 white male Wistar strain rats, randomly allocated into four treatment groups, i.e. control (K1 without any stress treatment, PSD (KII, immobilization (KIII, and footshock stress (KIV. Treatments were given for 25 days to produce chronic stress. Testicular MDA concentration was examined by the ELISA method while caspase-3 was examined by the TUNEL method. RESULTS Mean testicular MDA concentration with one-way ANOVA test showed differences in means between the groups (p=0.000 and post hoc Tukey-HSD test showed significant results between PSD stress group versus control, immobilization and footshock stress groups. One-way ANOVA test showed a significant difference in caspase-3 expression in at least two treatment groups (p=0.008 and post-hoc Tuckey-LSD test showed significant differences between controls and all stress groups. CONCLUSION Sleep deprivation is a type of stress inducing changes in testicular MDA concentration and caspase-3 expression in male rat testes.

  16. Male sexual behavior and catecholamine levels in the medial preoptic area and arcuate nucleus in middle-aged rats.

    Chen, Joyce C; Tsai, Houng-Wei; Yeh, Kuei-Ying; Tai, Mei-Yun; Tsai, Yuan-Feen

    2007-12-12

    The correlation between male sexual behavior and catecholamine levels in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) and arcuate nucleus (ARN) was studied in middle-aged rats. Male rats (18-19 months) were assigned to three groups: (1) Group MIE, consisting of rats showing mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations; (2) Group MI, consisting of rats showing mounts and intromissions, but no ejaculation; and (3) Group NC, consisting of non-copulators showing no sexual behavior. Young adult rats (4-5 months) displaying complete copulatory behavior were used as the control group. Dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) tissue levels in the MPOA and ARN were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. There were no differences between MIE rats and young controls in DA or NE tissue levels in these two brain areas. Furthermore, no differences were found between the MI and NC groups in DA or NE tissue levels in either the MPOA or ARN. DA tissue levels in the MPOA and ARN in the MI and NC groups were significantly lower than those in the MIE group. NE tissue levels in the MPOA of the NC group were significantly lower than those in the MIE group, but no differences in NE tissue levels in the ARN were seen between the four groups. These results suggest that, in male rats, complete male sexual performance is related to tissue levels of DA, but not of NE, in the MPOA and/or ARN. Furthermore, ejaculatory behavior might be associated with critical DA tissue levels in the MPOA and/or ARN in middle-aged rats.

  17. The potential of sanrego (Lunasia amara) in enhancing fertility and anti-hyperglycemic effect in diabetic induced male rats

    Nor Raidah, R.; Mahanem M., N.; Mohd Shazrul Fazry, S.

    2014-09-01

    Study on the effects of Lunasia amara (LA) aqueous extract on male fertility and its anti-hyperglycemic activity was carried out. Twelve adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups for fertility test; control given orally distilled water (n=6) and treatment (n=6) given 60 mg/kg aqueous extract of LA for 42 days. On day 43, all rats were sacrificed and cauda epididymis was isolated for sperm quality analysis that includes parameter of sperm count, motility and viability. Anti-hyperglycemic study was done on five groups of male rats; I-normal control, II-Diabetic control and three other groups induced diabetic given 500 mg/kg metformin, 60 mg/kg LA and 120 mg/kg LA respectively. Diabetes was induced in the male rats by intravenous injection of 55 mg/kg streptozotocin. On day 7, the fasting blood glucose level was measured from blood drawn by tail snip. Results showed that aqueous extract of LA increased significantly (p sperm count (39.88 ± 2.33) × 106, viability 82.46 ± 1.91 % and progressive motility 76.00 ± 1.51and of sperm data in treated group compared to control group. LA aqueous extract at dose 120 mg/kg was significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose in the diabetic rats by 49.53 %. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of LA effective in increasing sperm quality of male rats and suggest that LA may possess anti-hyperglycemic property.

  18. Effects of 90-Day Feeding of Transgenic Maize BT799 on the Reproductive System in Male Wistar Rats

    Qian-ying Guo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BT799 is a genetically modified (GM maize plant that expresses the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. The Cry1Ac gene was introduced into maize line Zhen58 to encode the Bt crystal protein and thus produce insect-resistant maize BT799. Expression of Bt protein in planta confers resistance to Lepidopteran pests and corn rootworms. The present study was designed to investigate any potential effects of BT799 on the reproductive system of male rats and evaluate the nutritional value of diets containing BT799 maize grain in a 90-day subchronic rodent feeding study. Male Wistar rats were fed with diets containing BT799 maize flours or made from its near isogenic control (Zhen58 at a concentration of 84.7%, nutritionally equal to the standard AIN-93G diet. Another blank control group of male rats were treated with commercial AIN-93G diet. No significant differences in body weight, hematology and serum chemistry results were observed between rats fed with the diets containing transgenic BT799, Zhen58 and the control in this 13-week feeding study. Results of serum hormone levels, sperm parameters and relative organ/body weights indicated no treatment-related side effects on the reproductive system of male rats. In addition, no diet-related changes were found in necropsy and histopathology examinations. Based on results of the current study, we did not find any differences in the parameters tested in our study of the reproductive system of male rats between BT799 and Zhen58 or the control.

  19. The impact of adult vitamin D deficiency on behaviour and brain function in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Jacqueline H Byrne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is common in the adult population, and this has been linked to depression and cognitive outcomes in clinical populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adult vitamin D (AVD deficiency on behavioural tasks of relevance to neuropsychiatric disorders in male Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: Ten-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control or vitamin D deficient diet for 6 weeks prior to, and during behavioural testing. We first examined a range of behavioural domains including locomotion, exploration, anxiety, social behaviour, learned helplessness, sensorimotor gating, and nociception. We then assessed locomotor response to the psychomimetic drugs, amphetamine and MK-801. Attention and vigilance were assessed using the 5 choice serial reaction time task (5C-SRT and the 5 choice continuous performance task (5C-CPT and, in a separate cohort, working memory was assessed using the delay match to sample (DMTS task. We also examined excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in prefrontal cortex and striatum. RESULTS: AVD-deficient rats were deficient in vitamin D3 (<10 nM and had normal calcium and phosphate levels after 8-10 weeks on the diet. Overall, AVD deficiency was not associated with an altered phenotype across the range of behavioural domains tested. On the 5C-SRT AVD-deficient rats made more premature responses and more head entries during longer inter-trial intervals (ITI than control rats. On the 5C-CPT AVD-deficient rats took longer to make false alarm (FA responses than control rats. AVD-deficient rats had increases in baseline GABA levels and the ratio of DOPAC/HVA within the striatum. CONCLUSIONS: AVD-deficient rats exhibited no major impairments in any of the behavioural domains tested. Impairments in premature responses in AVD-deficient rats may indicate that these animals have specific alterations in striatal systems governing compulsive or reward-seeking behaviour.

  20. Hepatoprotective effect of Crocus sativus (saffron petals extract against acetaminophen toxicity in male Wistar rats

    Arash Omidi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Acetaminophen (APAP toxicity is known to be common and potentially fatal. This study aims to investigate the protective effects of hydroalcoholic extract, remaining from Crocus sativus petals (CSP against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by measuring the blood parameters and studying the histopathology of liver in male rats. Materials and Methods: Wister rats (24 were randomly assigned into four groups including: I healthy, receiving normal saline; II Intoxicated, receiving only APAP (600 mg/kg; III pre-treated with low dose of CSP (10 mg /kg and receiving APAP (600 mg/kg; IV pre-treated with high dose of CSP (20 mg/kg and receiving APAP (600 mg/kg. Results: The APAP treatment resulted in higher levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and bilirubin, along with lower total protein and albumin concentration than the control group. The administration of CSP with a dose of 20 mg/kg was found to result in lower levels of AST, ALT and bilirubin, with a significant higher concentration of total protein and albumin. The histopathological results regarding liver pathology, revealed sever conditions including cell swelling, severe inflammation and necrosis in APAP-exposed rats, which was quiet contrasting compared to the control group. The pre-treated rats with low doses of ‍CSP showed hydropic degeneration with mild necrosis in centrilobular areas of the liver, while the same subjects with high doses of ‍CSP appeared to have only mild hepatocyte degeneration. Conclusions: Doses of 20 mg/kg of CSP ameliorates APAP–induced acute liver injury in rats. It was concluded that the antioxidant property of CSP resulted in reducing the oxidative stress complications of toxic levels of APAP in intoxicated rats.

  1. Testosterone like Activity of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Mucuna pruriens Seeds and its Effects on Serum Biochemical Metabolites in Immature Male Rats

    Nazir Ahmad*, Zia-ur-Rahman1, Nafees Akhtar and Shujait Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone like activity of seeds of Mucuna pruriens and its effects on serum biochemical metabolites in immature male rats were investigated. Forty eight immature male rats were divided into four equal groups. Rats of groups A and B were orally given ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Mucuna pruriens seeds daily at the dose rate of 500 mg/kg body weight, respectively, for 14 days. Rats of group C were injected with testosterone at the dose rate of 2.5 mg/kg body weight daily, while rats of group D served as controls. After 7 days, six rats from each group were euthanized, while the remaining six rats from each group were euthanized after 14 days of treatment. Rats given ethanolic extract gained higher weight compared to controls (P<0.05. Testis weight was the highest in rats treated with testosterone. The effect of treatments on the weight of the liver and the kidneys was non significant. Rats given ethanolic or aqueous extract had higher serum testosterone concentration than controls. Similarly, rats given ethanolic or aqueous extract had higher serum total proteins, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol compared to controls. Moreover, ethanolic extract treated rats also had higher total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol than aqueous extract treated rats. However, differences in serum total proteins, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol between control and testosterone injected rats were non significant. Serum triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and ALT activity did not differ among rats of four groups. Serum AST activity and urea were lower in rats treated with ethanolic or aqueous extract compared to controls. Thus, seeds of Mucuna pruriens had testosterone like activity and increased serum total proteins, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol, with no adverse effects on the serum LDL cholesterol, liver or kidney functions.

  2. [Effect of External Irradiation and Immobilization Stress on the Reproductive System of Male Rats].

    Vereschako, G G; Tshueshova, N V; Gorokh, G A; Kozlov, I G; Naumov, A D

    2016-01-01

    We studied the state of the reproductive system of male rats after irradiation at a dose of 2.0 Gy, immobilization stress (6 hours/day for 7 days) and their combined effects. On the 30th day after the combined treatment (37 days after irradiation) a decrease in the testicular weight by almost 50% compared with the control and lesions connected with the process of spermatogenesis are observed. In the remote period--on the 60th day (67th after irradiation) the effect of irradiation and irradiation in combination with immobilization stress leads to a sharp drop in the number of epididymal sperm (up to 18% of the control), and a reduction of their viability. The reaction ofthe reproductive system to the immobilization stress is expressed in a certain increase in the mass of the testes and epididymis, moderate imbalances in the composition of spermatogenic cells in the testis tissue, and in the long term--in the increased number of epididymal sperm and the decrease in their viability. Changes of testosterone in the blood serum, especially significant for the combined effect, reflect impairments of the regulation of the reproductive system of males under these conditions. With regard to individual indicators of the reproductive system of male rats in some cases, the- combined effects of radiation and stress had a synergistic, or, on the contrary, antagonistic character.

  3. [Experimental study on fas expression of spermatogenic cell in male rats induced by fluorine].

    Xu, Rui; Shang, Weichao; Liu, Jianmin; Cheng, Xuemin; Ba, Yue; Huang, Hui; Cui, Liuxin

    2010-05-01

    To research the effect of fluorine on the expression of Fas protein, then study the mechanism of male reproductive toxicity induced by fluoride on molecular level. Thirty Wistar male rats were divided into control group, low-dose group and high-dose group. The NaF dosage for every group were 0,2 and 4g/L. The content of NaF in testis was measured by using fluorine selective electrode. Changes of testosterone and Fas protein were observed using the methods of radioimmunoassay, in situ hybridization. In addition, we observed the quality of spermatozoa. The testis fluoride content of two fluorine treatment groups were higher than that of control group (P Fluorin could reduce the level of serum testosterone, then activated the Fas/FasL system, which caused damage to the reprodutive system.

  4. Analysis of blood pressure dynamics in male and female rats using the continuous wavelet transform

    Pavlov, A N; Anisimov, A A; Matasova, E G; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O V; Kurths, J

    2009-01-01

    We study gender-related particularities in cardiovascular responses to stress and nitric oxide (NO) deficiency in rats using HR, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and a proposed wavelet-based approach. Blood pressure dynamics is analyzed: (1) under control conditions, (2) during immobilization stress and recovery and (3) during nitric oxide blockade by N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME). We show that cardiovascular sensitivity to stress and NO deficiency depends upon gender. Actually, in females the chronotropic effect of stress is more pronounced, while the pressor effect is weakened compared with males. We conclude that females demonstrate more favorable patterns of cardiovascular responses to stress and more effective NO control of cardiovascular activity than males

  5. Comparison of the validity of the use of the spontaneously hypertensive rat as a model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in males and females.

    Bayless, Daniel W; Perez, Maria C; Daniel, Jill M

    2015-06-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a commonly used and well-studied rodent model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sex differences in the cognitive symptoms of ADHD are reported. However, the female SHR rat is much less studied than its male counterpart. The goal of the current study was to assess the validity of the SHR rodent model of ADHD by examining attentional performance, inhibitory control, and hyperactivity in both male and female SHR rats. Adult SHR and control Wistar-Kyoto rats were trained on the 5-choice serial reaction time task, a self-paced test of attention and inhibitory control. This task requires animals to identify the location of a brief light stimulus among five possible locations under several challenging conditions. Analyses of percent correct revealed that attentional performance in SHR females was not significantly different from control females, whereas attentional performance in SHR males was significantly different from control males. Analyses of the number of premature responses revealed that SHR rats made more inhibitory control errors than did control rats and that this decrease in inhibitory control was present in both SHR males and females. Analyses of activity in the open field revealed that SHR rats were more hyperactive than were control rats and that this increased hyperactivity was present in both SHR males and females. The current findings have implications for the study of sex differences in ADHD and for the use of SHR rats as a model of ADHD in females. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Reduced hippocampal dendritic spine density and BDNF expression following acute postnatal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate in male Long Evans rats.

    Catherine A Smith

    Full Text Available Early developmental exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP has been linked to a variety of neurodevelopmental changes, particularly in rodents. The primary goal of this work was to establish whether acute postnatal exposure to a low dose of DEHP would alter hippocampal dendritic morphology and BDNF and caspase-3 mRNA expression in male and female Long Evans rats. Treatment with DEHP in male rats led to a reduction in spine density on basal and apical dendrites of neurons in the CA3 dorsal hippocampal region compared to vehicle-treated male controls. Dorsal hippocampal BDNF mRNA expression was also down-regulated in male rats exposed to DEHP. No differences in hippocampal spine density or BDNF mRNA expression were observed in female rats treated with DEHP compared to controls. DEHP treatment did not affect hippocampal caspase-3 mRNA expression in male or female rats. These results suggest a gender-specific vulnerability to early developmental DEHP exposure in male rats whereby postnatal DEHP exposure may interfere with normal synaptogenesis and connectivity in the hippocampus. Decreased expression of BDNF mRNA may represent a molecular mechanism underlying the reduction in dendritic spine density observed in hippocampal CA3 neurons. These findings provide initial evidence for a link between developmental exposure to DEHP, reduced levels of BDNF and hippocampal atrophy in male rats.

  7. Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) induction of α2u-globulin nephropathy in male, but not female rats

    Borghoff, S.J.; Hard, G.C.; Berdasco, N.M.; Gingell, R.; Green, S.M.; Gulledge, W.

    2009-01-01

    Male F-344 rats were administered corn oil (vehicle control), d-limonene (positive control, 300 mg/kg), or MIBK (1000 mg/kg) and female F-344 rats corn oil (vehicle control) or MIBK for 10 consecutive days by oral gavage. Approximately 24 h after the final dose the kidneys were excised and the left kidney prepared and evaluated for histological changes including protein (hyaline) droplet accumulation, immunohistochemical staining for α2u-globulin (α2u), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) to quantitate renal cell proliferation. The right kidney was prepared for quantitation of total protein and α2u using an ELISA. MIBK elicited an increase in protein droplets, accumulation of α2u, and renal cell proliferation in male, but not female rats, responses characteristic of α2u-mediated nephropathy. MIBK produced identical histopathological changes in the male rat kidney when compared to d-limonene, an acknowledged inducer of α2u-nephropathy except that the grade of severity tended to be slightly lower with MIBK. MIBK did not induce any effects in female rats. Therefore, renal histopathology, along with the other measures of α2u accumulation, provides additional weight of evidence to support the inclusion of MIBK in the category of chemicals exerting renal effects through a α2u-nephropathy-mediated mode-of-action

  8. Effects of 90-day feeding of transgenic Bt rice TT51 on the reproductive system in male rats.

    Wang, Er Hui; Yu, Zhou; Hu, Jing; Xu, Hai Bin

    2013-12-01

    Rice is a staple food crop; however, the threat of pests leads to a serious decline in its output and quality. The CryAb/CryAc gene, encodes a synthetic fusion Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal protein, was introduced into rice MingHui63 to produce insect-resistant rice TT51. This study was undertaken to investigate potential unintended effects of TT51 on the reproductive system in male rats. Male rats were treated with diets containing 60% of either TT51 or MingHui63 by weight, nutritionally balanced to an AIN93G diet, for 90days. An additional negative control group of rats were fed with a rice-based AIN93G diet. Body weights, food intake, hematology, serum chemistry, serum hormone levels, sperm parameters and relative organ/body weights were measured, and gross as well as microscopic pathology were examined. No diet-related significant differences in the values of response variables were observed between rats that were fed with diet containing transgenic TT51, MingHui63 and the control in this 90-day feeding study. In addition, necropsy and histopathology examination indicated no treatment-related changes. The results from the present study indicated that TT51 does not appear to exert any effect on the reproductive system in male rats compared with MingHui63 or the control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Immunomodulatory potential of Anacyclus pyrethrum (L.) and Mucuna pruriens (L.) In male albino rats.

    Yousaf, F; Shahid, M; Riaz, M; Atta, A; Fatima, H

    2017-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the immunomodulatory potential of Anacyclus pyrethrum roots and Mucuna pruriens seeds in male albino rats. The roots of A. pyrethrum and seeds of M. pruriens were extracted with methanolic solvent (70:30) and administered at dose concentrations of 50, 100 and 200 mg/Kg body weight to healthy male rats. The immune system of rats was suppressed by injecting carbon tetrachloride to animals in the toxic control group and test group animals. Cell-mediated immune response of animals was examined by performing neutrophil adhesion test and the humoral immune response was evaluated by determining serum immunoglobulin levels of the animals under study. The administration of methanolic extracts of A. pyrethrum roots and M. pruriens seeds significantly (p less than 0.05) increased the neutrophil adhesion to the nylon fiber. Increase in % neutrophil adhesion was observed in animals treated with 200 mg of each plant extract. Significant (p less than 0.05) improvement in immunoglobulin levels was recorded in the extract treated group animals, showing that the root extract of A. pyrethrum and seed extract of M. pruriens have immunomodulatory potential. We therefore conclude that the tested extracts can be used as immunomodulatory agents to stimulate the immune system.

  10. Antioxidant activity of eggplant (Solanum melongena) in male albino rats exposed to gamma irradiation

    Abdel-Magied, N.; Ahmed, A.G.; Abo zid, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential benefits of dietary supplementation of eggplant (Solanum melongena) as antioxidant against γ- rays-induced biochemical changes in male albino rats by estimating some of the components of antioxidant defense in the; liver glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA), serum aspartate amino transferase,(AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transaminase (GGT), cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C). Male albino rats (120-150 g) were divided into four groups as Control group, group 2 received diet supplemented with 10% of eggplant (Solanum melongnea) fruit for 21 successive days , group 3: irradiated with a single dose (6.5 Gy), group 4 received eggplant for 21 successive days then exposed to 6.5 Gy. All animals were sacrificed after 1, 3 and 8 days post irradiation. Rats exposed to γ-rays exhibited a profound elevation of AST, ALT, ALP and GGT activities, and lipid abnormalities .Noticeable drop in liver GSH content and SOD activity associated with increase of MDA was recorded. Treatment with dietary eggplant for 21 days before irradiation significantly abolished radiation induced elevations in MDA and significantly elevates hepatic GSH content and SOD activity. The levels of cholesterol, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C as well as the activities of AST, ALT, and GGT in serum were significantly ameliorated and noticeable improvement in the lipid profile levels

  11. Effect of granulosis virus (virotecto) as bioinsecticide on some biochemical changes in male albino rats

    Mohamed, N.E; Ali, S.E

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study to determine the biochemical response of granulosis virus in male albino rats fed with potato treated with granulosis virus (0.15 g/Kg) against potato tuber moth in stores .It was carried out by evaluating the effect of daily feeding on treated potato for 5 weeks followed by withdrawal period for 10 days fed with normal diet on some biochemical and histological changes in kidney of male rats. A trail consists of 3 groups each one contain 18 rats, the first group fed on normal basal diet and served as control, the second group fed with 50% normal potato and 50% basal diet (potato group) and the third group fed with 50% basal diet and 50% potato treated with granulosis virus (virus group) through the experimental period. The obtained data revealed a significant reduction in final body weight and organs weight in both normal and treated potato groups. Sera collected at 2 and 5 weeks post feeding and at the end of withdrawal period, recorded significant disorders in some tested parameters. In addition, histological examination of kidney tissue showed different disorders in normal and treated groups.

  12. Aphrodisiac Activity of the Aqueous Crude Extract of Purple Corn ( Zea mays) in Male Rats.

    Carro-Juárez, Miguel; Rodríguez-Santiago, Magdalena G; Franco, Miguel Angel; Hueletl-Soto, María Eugenia

    2017-10-01

    In the present study, the aphrodisiac properties of the purple corn ( Zea mays) in male rats were analyzed. The aqueous crude extract of purple corn (at 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg) was administered to ( a) copulating male rats and ( b) anesthetized and spinal cord transected male rats. Behavioral parameters of copulatory behavior and parameters of the genital motor pattern of ejaculation previous to its inhibition, under the influence of the purple corn extract, are described. Administration of the aqueous crude extract of purple corn significantly facilitates the arousal and execution of male rat sexual behavior without significant influences on the ambulatory behavior. In addition, purple corn extract elicit a significant increase in the number of discharges of the ejaculatory motor patterns and in the total number of genital motor patterns evoked in spinal rats. The present findings show that the aqueous crude extract of purple corn possesses aphrodisiac activity.

  13. Perfluorooctane Sulfonate-Induced Hepatic Steatosis in Male Sprague Dawley Rats Is Not Attenuated by Dietary Choline Supplementation.

    Bagley, Bradford D; Chang, Shu-Ching; Ehresman, David J; Eveland, Alan; Zitzow, Jeremiah D; Parker, George A; Peters, Jeffrey M; Wallace, Kendall B; Butenhoff, John L

    2017-12-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is an environmentally persistent chemical. Dietary 100 ppm PFOS fed to male mice and rats for 4 weeks caused hepatic steatosis through an unknown mechanism. Choline deficient diets can cause hepatic steatosis. A hepatic choline:PFOS ion complex was hypothesized to cause this effect in mice. This study tested whether dietary choline supplementation attenuates PFOS-induced hepatic steatosis in rats. Sprague Dawley rats (12/sex/group) were fed control, choline supplemented (CS), 100 ppm PFOS, or 100 ppm PFOS + CS diets for 3 weeks. Male rats fed both PFOS-containing diets had decreased serum cholesterol and triglycerides (TGs) on days 9, 16, and/or 23 and increased hepatic free fatty acids and TG (ie, steatosis). Female rats fed both PFOS diets had decreased serum cholesterol on days 9 and 16 and decreased hepatic free fatty acid and TG at termination (ie, no steatosis). Liver PFOS concentrations were similar for both sexes. Liver choline concentrations were increased in male rats fed PFOS (±CS), but the increase was lower in the PFOS + CS group. Female liver choline concentrations were not altered by any diet. These findings demonstrate a clear sex-related difference in PFOS-induced hepatic steatosis in the rat. Additional evaluated mechanisms (ie, nuclear receptor activation, mRNA upregulation, and choline kinase activity inhibition) did not appear to be involved in the hepatic steatosis. Dietary PFOS (100 ppm) induced hepatic steatosis in male, but not female, rats that was not attenuated by choline supplementation. The mechanism of lipid accumulation and the sex-related differences warrant further investigation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Utilization of Basil Extract as a Radioprotector in Male Rats

    Farag, M. F.S. [Food Irradiation Research Dep. National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-01-15

    Man is exposed to natural radiations from cosmic or terrestrial origins. Furthermore, it is well known that the gamma irradiation-induced biochemical alteration depends mostly on oxidative stress. Basil or sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) is known to have numerous pharmacological activities. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the radioprotective activity of basil in albino rats. The effect of basil aqueous extract (BAE) was evaluated on hepatic marker enzymes, sex hormones, lipid profile and antioxidant status. The results showed that - rays caused a significant increase in serum level of alanine and aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (ALT, AST, ALP and GT), cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and VLDL-C) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). A significant decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in serum was observed, compared with control group. Moreover, - rays induced a significant drop in the serum sex hormones levels testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). The BAE administered orally to rats has significantly modulated all the radiation-induced biochemical alterations. These findings showed that basil would exert a radioprotective properties.

  15. Utilization of Basil Extract as a Radioprotector in Male Rats

    Farag, M.F.S.

    2013-01-01

    Man is exposed to natural radiations from cosmic or terrestrial origins. Furthermore, it is well known that the gamma irradiation-induced biochemical alteration depends mostly on oxidative stress. Basil or sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) is known to have numerous pharmacological activities. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the radioprotective activity of basil in albino rats. The effect of basil aqueous extract (BAE) was evaluated on hepatic marker enzymes, sex hormones, lipid profile and antioxidant status. The results showed that - rays caused a significant increase in serum level of alanine and aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (ALT, AST, ALP and GT), cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and VLDL-C) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). A significant decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in serum was observed, compared with control group. Moreover, - rays induced a significant drop in the serum sex hormones levels testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). The BAE administered orally to rats has significantly modulated all the radiation-induced biochemical alterations. These findings showed that basil would exert a radioprotective properties.

  16. Assessment of testicular corticosterone biosynthesis in adult male rats.

    Naoyuki Maeda

    Full Text Available Corticosterone is synthesized in the adrenal glands and is circulated throughout the body to perform regulatory functions in various tissues. The testis is known to synthesize and secrete testosterone and other androgens. We developed an accurate method to measure steroid content using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. In the present study, significant levels of the precursor compounds of testosterone and corticosterone synthesis could be detected in rat testis using this method. After adrenalectomy, corticosterone remained in the blood and testicular tissue at approximately 1% of the amount present in the control testis. When the excised testicular tissue was washed and incubated with NADH, NADPH and progesterone, not only testosterone and its precursors but also 11-deoxycorticosterone and corticosterone were produced; the levels of 11-deoxycorticosterone and corticosterone increased with incubation time. The production rate of 11-deoxycorticosterone from progesterone was estimated to be approximately 1/20 that of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and the corticosterone level was approximately 1/10 that of testosterone. These ratios coincided with those in the testicular tissue of the adrenalectomized rats, indicating that corticosterone was synthesized in the testis and not in the blood. A primary finding of this study was that corticosterone and testosterone were synthesized in a 1/10-20 ratio in the testis. It is concluded that corticosterone, which has various functions, such as the regulation of glycolysis and mediating spermatogenesis, is produced locally in the testis and that this the local production is convenient and functional to respond to local needs.

  17. Effect of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. (burdock) roots on the sexual behavior of male rats.

    JianFeng, Cao; PengYing, Zhang; ChengWei, Xu; TaoTao, Huang; YunGui, Bai; KaoShan, Chen

    2012-02-01

    Arctium lappa L. root has traditionally been recommended as an aphrodisiac agent. It is used to treat impotence and sterility in China, and Native Americans included the root in herbal preparations for women in labor. However, its use has not been scientifically validated. The present study therefore investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots on sexual behavior in normal male rats. Seventy-five albino male rats were randomly divided into five groups of 15 rats each. Rats in group 1 (control) were administered 10 mL/kg body weight distilled water (vehicle), group 2 received 60 mg/kg body weight sildenafil citrate (Viagra), while those in groups 3, 4, and 5 were given 300, 600, and 1,200 mg/kg body weight, respectively, of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots in the same volume. Female albino rats were made receptive by hormonal treatment. Sexual behavior parameters in male rats were monitored on days 3, 7 and 15 by pairing with receptive females (1:3). Male serum testosterone concentrations and potency were also determined. Oral administration of Arctium lappa L. roots extract at 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight significantly increased the frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequency (p Arctium lappa L. roots enhances sexual behavior in male rats. The aphrodisiac effects of the plant extract may be related to the presence of flavonoids, saponins, lignans and alkaloids, acting via a multitude of central and peripheral mechanisms. These results thus support the traditional use of Arctium lappa L. root extract for treating impotence and sterility.

  18. Effect of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. (burdock roots on the sexual behavior of male rats

    JianFeng Cao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arctium lappa L. root has traditionally been recommended as an aphrodisiac agent. It is used to treat impotence and sterility in China, and Native Americans included the root in herbal preparations for women in labor. However, its use has not been scientifically validated. The present study therefore investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots on sexual behavior in normal male rats. Methods Seventy-five albino male rats were randomly divided into five groups of 15 rats each. Rats in group 1 (control were administered 10 mL⁄kg body weight distilled water (vehicle, group 2 received 60 mg/kg body weight sildenafil citrate (Viagra, while those in groups 3, 4, and 5 were given 300, 600, and 1,200 mg/kg body weight, respectively, of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots in the same volume. Female albino rats were made receptive by hormonal treatment. Sexual behavior parameters in male rats were monitored on days 3, 7 and 15 by pairing with receptive females (1:3. Male serum testosterone concentrations and potency were also determined. Results Oral administration of Arctium lappa L. roots extract at 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight significantly increased the frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequency (p Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots enhances sexual behavior in male rats. The aphrodisiac effects of the plant extract may be related to the presence of flavonoids, saponins, lignans and alkaloids, acting via a multitude of central and peripheral mechanisms. These results thus support the traditional use of Arctium lappa L. root extract for treating impotence and sterility.

  19. [Age-related aspects of male rats sexual behavior with different senescence rates].

    Amstislavskaia, T G; Gladkikh, D V; Belousova, I I; Maslova, L N; Kolosova, N G

    2010-01-01

    Social and sexual behavior of males Wistar and senescence-accelerated OXYS rats was studied. The experimental model excluding direct interaction between partners showed that the exploratory activity decreased with aging in rats of both strains, but social motivation didn't change. No interstrain differences in intensity of sexual motivation in the presence of an inaccessible receptive female were observed in 4-month rats. The level of sexual motivation of 12-month Wistar rats didn't differ from that of 4-month animals. However, in 12-month OXYS males, sexual motivation was decreased as compared to both 4- and 12-month Wistar rats. The same regularities were found under conditions of direct interaction with a partner. Behavioral changes in 12-month OXYS rats were considered as genetically determinate abnormality at the initial stage of sexual behavior, i.e., sexual motivation. The results suggest the accelerated senescence of the reproductive system of OXYS rats.

  20. Pathological effects of anabolic steroid (Sustanon® on liver of male rats

    E.R. Al-Kennany

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present pathological study on the male rats aims to investigate the effects on liver tissue induced by repeated administration of three doses of sustanon for four periods. The experiment was done on the 100 adult male rats randomly divided into five groups 20 rats in each group. The first group is considered as a negative control treated with diet and water only. The second group is considered a positive control treated weekly for 60 days with sesame oil intramuscularly while groups III, IV and V treated with diluted sustanon in 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly weekly for 60 days respectively. Blood was collected in a period 15, 30 and 60 days after treatment for measurements liver function tests ALT (alanine aminotransferase and AST (aspartate aminotransferas enzymes. Then the animals were dissected to take samples in a period 15, 30 and 60 days after treatment for histopathological examination, then 5 rats were lefted in each group in the diet and water for 30 days after last treatment for examination the above mentioned parameters. The results revealed the presence of significantly increasing of liver enzyme activation represented by ALT and AST at level P<0.05 compared with control groups. The value of these levels were higher in group V in a day 60 after treatment and its continue to increase even after stopping treatment and remained on diet and water only for 30 days. Pathologically, all treated groups with sustanon revealed gross and histopathological changes in liver tissue, there were enlargement and congestion gross. Histopathologically, the liver sections elucidate cellular swelling, vacuolar degeneration in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes in addition to fatty change and programmed cell death in all groups during a period 15, 30 and 60 days these changes continue even after stopping the treatment for 30 days but portal fibrosis has been observed.It has been concluded from this study that sustanon in concentration 5, 10

  1. Chemoprotective effect of omega-3 fatty acids on thioacetamide induced hepatic fibrosis in male rats

    Atef M. Al-Attar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The current study was designed to investigate the possible protective effect of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil on hepatic fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA in male rats. The experimental animals were divided into four groups. The first group was received saline solution and served as control. The second group was given 250 mg/kg body weight of TAA. The third group was treated with omega-3 fatty acids and TAA. The fourth group was given saline solution and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids. Treatment of rats with TAA for three and six weeks resulted in a significant decrease in body weight gain, while the value of liver/body weight ratio was statistically increased. Furthermore, the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase and total bilirubin were significantly increased. After three weeks of exposure to only TAA, liver sections showed an abnormal morphology characterized by noticeable fibrosis with the extracellular matrix collagen contents and damage of liver cells’ structure. Liver sections from rats treated with only TAA for six weeks revealed an obvious increase in extracellular matrix collagen content and bridging fibrosis. Treating TAA-intoxicated rats with omega-3 fatty acids significantly attenuated the severe physiological and histopathological changes. Finally, the present investigation suggests that omega-3 fatty acids could act against hepatic fibrosis induced by TAA due to its antioxidant properties, thus supporting its use in hepatic fibrosis therapy.

  2. Protective Effect of Vitamins E and C on Endosulfan-Induced Reproductive Toxicity in Male Rats

    Hussain Kargar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of oxidative stress in endosulfan-induced reproductive toxicity has been implicated. This study was performed to evaluate the possible protective effect of vitamins E and C, against endosulfan-induced reproductive toxicity in rats.Methods: Fifty adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=10 each. The groups included a control receiving vehicle, a group treated with endosulfan (10 mg/kg/day alone, and three endosulfan-treated group receiving vitamin C (20 mg/kg/day, vitamin E (200 mg/kg/day, or vitamine C+vitamin E at the same doses. After 10 days of treatment, sperm parameters, plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, plasma testosterone and malondialdehyde (MDA levels in the testis were determined. Results: Oral administration of endosulfan caused a reduction in the sperm motility, viability, daily sperm production (DSP and increased the number of sperm with abnormal chromatin condensation. Endosulfan administration increased testis MDA and plasma LDH. Supplementation of vitamin C and vitamin E to endosulfan-treated rats reduced the toxic effect of endosulfan on sperm parameters and lipid peroxidation in the testis. Vitamin E was more protective than vitamin C in reducing the adverse effects of the endosulfan.Conclusion: The findings data suggest that administration of vitamins C and E ameliorated the endosulfan-induced oxidative stress and sperm toxicity in rat. The effect of vitamin E in preventing endosulfan-induced sperm toxicity was superior to that of vitamin C.

  3. Protective effect of vitamins e and C on endosulfan-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats.

    Takhshid, Mohammad Ali; Tavasuli, Ali Reza; Heidary, Yazdan; Keshavarz, Mojtaba; Kargar, Hussain

    2012-09-01

    The role of oxidative stress in endosulfan-induced reproductive toxicity has been implicated. This study was performed to evaluate the possible protective effect of vitamins E and C, against endosulfan-induced reproductive toxicity in rats. Fifty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=10 each). The groups included a control receiving vehicle, a group treated with endosulfan (10 mg/kg/day) alone, and three endosulfan-treated group receiving vitamin C (20 mg/kg/day), vitamin E (200 mg/kg/day), or vitamine C+vitamin E at the same doses. After 10 days of treatment, sperm parameters, plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), plasma testosterone and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the testis were determined. Oral administration of endosulfan caused a reduction in the sperm motility, viability, daily sperm production (DSP) and increased the number of sperm with abnormal chromatin condensation. Endosulfan administration increased testis MDA and plasma LDH. Supplementation of vitamin C and vitamin E to endosulfan-treated rats reduced the toxic effect of endosulfan on sperm parameters and lipid peroxidation in the testis. Vitamin E was more protective than vitamin C in reducing the adverse effects of the endosulfan. The findings data suggest that administration of vitamins C and E ameliorated the endosulfan-induced oxidative stress and sperm toxicity in rat. The effect of vitamin E in preventing endosulfan-induced sperm toxicity was superior to that of vitamin C.

  4. A preliminary 13-week oral toxicity study of ginger oil in male and female Wistar rats.

    Jeena, Kottarapat; Liju, Vijayastelter B; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2011-12-01

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe, ginger, is a major spice extensively used in traditional medicine. The toxicity profile of ginger oil was studied by subchronic oral administration for 13 weeks at doses of 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg per day to 6 groups of Wistar rats (5/sex per dose). Separate groups of rats (5/sex per group) received either paraffin oil (vehicle) or were untreated and served as comparative control groups. There was no mortality and no decrease in body weight or food consumption as well as selective organ weights during the study period. Administration of ginger oil to rats did not produce any treatment-related changes in hematological parameters, hepatic, renal functions, serum electrolytes, or in histopathology of selected organs. The major component of ginger oil was found to be zingiberene (31.08%), and initial studies indicated the presence of zingiberene in the serum after oral dosing. These results confirmed that ginger oil is not toxic to male and female rats following subchronic oral administrations of up to 500 mg/kg per day (no observed adverse effect level [NOAEL]).

  5. Effects of 4-nonylphenol on oxidant/antioxidant balance system inducing hepatic steatosis in male rat

    Ansoumane Kourouma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An emerging literature suggests that early life exposure to 4-nonylphenol (4-NP, a widespread endocrine disrupting chemical, may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that intraperitoneal administration of 4-NP induces hepatic steatosis in rat. 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered with 4-NP (0, 2, 10 and 50 mg/kg b.wt in corn oil for 30 days. Liver histology, biochemical analysis and gene expression profiling were examined. After treatment, abnormal liver morphology and function were observed in the 4-NP-treated rat, and significant changes in gene expression an indicator of hepatic steatosis and apoptosis were observed compared with controls. Up-regulated genes involved in apoptosis, hepatotoxity and oxidative stress, increased ROS and decrease of antioxidant enzyme were observed in the 4-NP exposed rat. Extensive fatty accumulation in liver section and elevated serum GOT, GPT, LDH and γ-GT were also observed. Incidence and severity of liver steatosis was scored and taken into consideration (steatosis, ballooning and lobular inflammation. Hepatocytes apoptosis could promote NAFLD progression; Fas/FasL, TNF-α and Caspase-9 mRNA activation were important contributing factors to hepatic steatosis. These findings provide the first evidence that 4-NP affects the gene expression related to liver hepatotoxicity, which is correlated with hepatic steatosis.

  6. Effect of Marine Collagen Peptides on Physiological and Neurobehavioral Development of Male Rats with Perinatal Asphyxia

    Linlin Xu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Asphyxia during delivery produces long-term deficits in brain development. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of marine collagen peptides (MCPs, isolated from Chum Salmon skin by enzymatic hydrolysis, on male rats with perinatal asphyxia (PA. PA was performed by immersing rat fetuses with uterine horns removed from ready-to-deliver rats into a water bath for 15 min. Caesarean-delivered pups were used as controls. PA rats were intragastrically administered with 0.33 g/kg, 1.0 g/kg and 3.0 g/kg body weight MCPs from postnatal day 0 (PND 0 till the age of 90-days. Behavioral tests were carried out at PND21, PND 28 and PND 90. The results indicated that MCPs facilitated early body weight gain of the PA pups, however had little effects on early physiological development. Behavioral tests revealed that MCPs facilitated long-term learning and memory of the pups with PA through reducing oxidative damage and acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity in the brain, and increasing hippocampus phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (p-CREB and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression.

  7. Histopathological effects of sodium nitrite on the spleen of male and female rats

    Fateme Juibar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nitrite and nitrate are common additives in meat processed products. In spite of all technological advantages of nitrite, creation of nitrosamine carcinogenic substances causes a lot of concerns for use of these additives. In this study, the histopatological effects of sodium nitrite on the splenic tissue in adult male and female rats were evaluated. Material and method: In recent studies, 60 adult male and female rats strain Vistar, divided in 6 groups of 10. They were examined for 60 day, and they (male and female rats separately were divided in 175 mg/kg/day dose recipient group, 350 mg/kg/day dose recipient group and control group which was absorbed nitrite through drinking water. At the end of day 60, using cotton dipped in ether in the jar of anesthesia, were anesthetized. After anesthesia, blood from the left ventricle was taken .the spleen was taking out of body, and then tissue sections were prepared for testing tissue changes. The samples were stained with Hematoxilin- Eozin method. In both sex, factors like morphometric and morphologic from spleen tissue, body weight changes before and after test and blood NOx level was checked. After data collection, all data was analyzed by SPSS statistical software version 17 with using Independent sample t-test and ANOVA. P value of less than 0.05 were reported as statistically significant. Result: The results showed that consume of sodium nitrite, cause background inflammation type of Mononuclear in both sex, especially around the pulp. Also, in both sex NOx levels in the blood of animals in the group receiving 350 mg/ kg and group receiving 175 mg of sodium nitrite per kg compared with the control group, significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: Considering of this study and other studies, Nitrite can cause damage to blood vessels, liver, spleen and other organs. Also sodium nitrite has to switching to other food preservatives.

  8. Curcumin protects against tartrazine-mediated oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in male rats.

    El-Desoky, G E; Abdel-Ghaffar, A; Al-Othman, Z A; Habila, M A; Al-Sheikh, Y A; Ghneim, H K; Giesy, J P; Aboul-Soud, M A M

    2017-02-01

    Synthetic dyes have been reported to exert detrimental effects on the health of humans. This study evaluated the effects of a diet containing tartrazine (Tz) on rats which included: i) biochemical parameters including hepatic enzymes, kidney functions and profiles of lipids; ii) markers of oxidative stress in cells by measuring concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH); iii) activities of selected, key hepatic antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx); iv) pathologies of liver. Also, protective effects of three doses of curcumin (CUR), a natural food coloring agent, on these parameters in rats that had been co-exposed to Tz. Fifty Wistar male albino rats were randomly divided into five groups: Group I, control, where rats were fed a normal diet; Group II, rats were fed normal diets containing 7.5 mg Tz/kg diet, dry mass (dm); In Groups III, IV and V, rats were fed diets containing Tz plus 1.0, 2.0 or 4.0 g CUR/kg diet, dm, respectively. Whole blood was collected after 90 d of exposure, homogenates of liver were prepared and the above analyses were conducted. Exposure to Tz in the diet caused statistically significant (peffects on functions of liver and kidney and the profile of relative concentrations of lipids. CUR significantly (peffects on enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant and indicators of oxidative stress about rats fed Tz (Group II) to values in control rats. However, co-administration of 1.0 g CUR with Tz (Group III) exhibited a negligible effect on those parameters. The results of this study suggest benefits of the use of CUR, as a promising natural food additive to counteract oxidative stress caused by dietary exposure to the synthetic dye Tz due to potent protective antioxidant activity. Blending some natural food additives, such as CUR with diets containing synthetic dyes, could moderate potential effects of these artificial dyes. Decreasing or removing toxins in

  9. Characterization of biliary conjugates of 4,4'-methylenedianiline in male versus female rats

    Chen, Kan; Cole, Richard B.; Santa Cruz, Vicente; Blakeney, Ernest W.; Kanz, Mary F.; Dugas, Tammy R.

    2008-01-01

    4,4'-Methylenedianiline (4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane; DAPM) is an aromatic diamine used in the production of numerous polyurethane foams and epoxy resins. Previous studies in rats revealed that DAPM initially injures biliary epithelial cells of the liver, that the toxicity is greater in female than in male rats, and that the toxic metabolites of DAPM are excreted into bile. Since male and female rats exhibit differences in the expression of both phase I and phase II enzymes, our hypothesis was that female rats either metabolize DAPM to more toxic metabolites or have a decreased capacity to conjugate metabolites to less toxic intermediates. Our objective was thus to isolate, characterize, and quantify DAPM metabolites excreted into bile in both male and female bile duct-cannulated Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were gavaged with [ 14 C]-DAPM, and the collected bile was subjected to reversed-phase HPLC with radioisotope detection. Peaks eluting from HPLC were collected and analyzed using electrospray MS and NMR spectroscopy. HPLC analysis indicated numerous metabolites in both sexes, but male rats excreted greater amounts of glutathione and glucuronide conjugates than females. Electrospray MS and NMR spectra of HPLC fractions revealed that the most prominent metabolite found in bile of both sexes was a glutathione conjugate of an imine metabolite of a 4'-nitroso-DAPM. Seven other metabolites were identified, including acetylated, cysteinyl-glycine, glutamyl-cysteine, glycine, and glucuronide conjugates. While our prior studies demonstrated increased covalent binding of DAPM in the liver and bile of female compared to male rats, in these studies, SDS-PAGE with autoradiography revealed 4-5 radiolabeled protein bands in the bile of rats treated with [ 14 C]-DAPM. In addition, these bands were much more prominent in female than in male rats. These studies thus suggest that a plausible mechanism for the increased sensitivity of female rats to DAPM toxicity may be decreased

  10. Anti-aggressive effects of neuropeptide S independent of anxiolysis in male rats

    Daniela I Beiderbeck

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide S (NPS exerts robust anxiolytic and memory enhancing effects, but only in a non-social context. In order to study whether NPS affects aggressive behavior we used Wistar rats bred for low (LAB and high (HAB levels of innate anxiety-related behaviour, respectively, which were both described to display increased levels of aggression compared with Wistar rats not selectively bred for anxiety (NAB. Male LAB, HAB and NAB rats were tested for aggressive behavior towards a male intruder rat within their home cage (10 min, resident-intruder [RI] test. Intracerebroventricular (icv infusion of NPS (1 nmol significantly reduced inter-male aggression in LAB rats, and tended to reduce aggression in HAB and NAB males. However, local infusion of NPS (0.2 or 0.1 nmol NPS into either the nucleus accumbens or the lateral hypothalamus did not influence aggressive behavior. Social investigation in the RI test and general social motivation assessed in the social preference paradigm were not altered by icv NPS. The anti-aggressive effect of NPS is most likely not causally linked to its anxiolytic properties, as intraperitoneal administration of the anxiogenic drug pentylenetetrazole decreased aggression in LAB rats whereas the anxiolytic drug diazepam did not affect aggression of HAB rats. Thus, although NPS has so far only been shown to exert effects on non-social behaviors, our results are the first demonstration of anti-aggressive effects of NPS in male rats.

  11. Social instability stress in adolescent male rats reduces social interaction and social recognition performance and increases oxytocin receptor binding.

    Hodges, Travis E; Baumbach, Jennet L; Marcolin, Marina L; Bredewold, Remco; Veenema, Alexa H; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2017-09-17

    Social experiences in adolescence are essential for displaying context-appropriate social behaviors in adulthood. We previously found that adult male rats that underwent social instability stress (SS) in adolescence had reduced social interactions with unfamiliar peers compared with non-stressed controls (CTL). Here we determined whether SS altered social recognition and social reward and brain oxytocin and vasopressin receptor density in adolescence. We confirmed that SS rats spent less time interacting with unfamiliar peers than did CTL rats (p=0.006). Furthermore, CTL rats showed a preference for novel over familiar conspecifics in a social recognition test whereas SS rats did not, which may reflect reduced recognition, impaired memory, or reduced preference for novelty in SS rats. The reward value of social interactions was not affected by SS based on conditioned place preference tests and based on the greater time SS rats spent investigating stimulus rats than did CTL rats when the stimulus rat was behind wire mesh (p=0.03). Finally, oxytocin receptor binding density was higher in the dorsal lateral septum and nucleus accumbens shell in SS rats compared with CTL rats (p=0.02, p=0.01, respectively). No effect of SS was found for vasopressin 1a receptor binding density in any of the brain regions analyzed. We discuss the extent to which the differences in social behavior exhibited after social instability in adolescence involve changes in social salience and social competency, and the possibility that changes in oxytocin signaling in the brain underlie the differences in social behavior. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Beneficial effects of low dose Musa paradisiaca on the semen quality of male Wistar rats.

    Alabi, A S; Omotoso, Gabriel O; Enaibe, B U; Akinola, O B; Tagoe, C N B

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed at determining the effects of administration of mature green fruits of Musa paradisiaca on the semen quality of adult male Wistar rats. THE ANIMALS USED FOR THE STUDY WERE GROUPED INTO THREE: the control group, given 2 ml of double distilled water, a low dose group given 500 mg/kg/day and a high dose group given 1000 mg/kg/day of the plantain fruits, which was made into flour, and dissolved in 2 ml of double distilled water for easy oral administration. Significant increment in the semen parameters was noticed in animals that received a lower dose of the plantain flour, but those animals who received the high dose had marked and very significant reduction in sperm cell concentration and percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa. Musa paradisiaca should be consumed in moderate quantities in order to derive its beneficial effects of enhancing male reproductive functions.

  13. Effects of paternal obesity on growth and adiposity of male rat offspring.

    Lecomte, Virginie; Maloney, Christopher A; Wang, Kristy W; Morris, Margaret J

    2017-02-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that paternal obesity plays an important role in offspring health. Our previous work using a rodent model of diet-induced paternal obesity showed that female offspring from high-fat diet (HFD)-fed fathers develop glucose intolerance due to impairment of pancreatic insulin secretion. Here, we focused on the health outcomes of male offspring from HFD-fed fathers. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (3 wk old) were fed control (CD-F0) or HFD (HFD-F0) for 12 wk before mating with control-fed females. Male offspring were fed control diets for up to 8 wk or 6 mo. Although male offspring from HFD-F0 did not develop any obvious glucose metabolism defects in this study, surprisingly, a growth deficit phenotype was observed from birth to 6 mo of age. Male offspring from HFD-F0 had reduced birth weight compared with CD-F0, followed by reduced postweaning growth from 9 wk of age. This resulted in 10% reduction in body weight at 6 mo with significantly smaller fat pads and skeletal muscles. Reduced circulating levels of growth hormone (GH) and IGF-I were detected at 8 wk and 6 mo, respectively. Expression of adipogenesis markers was decreased in adipose tissue of HFD-F0 offspring at 8 wk and 6 mo, and expression of growth markers was decreased in muscle of HFD-F0 offspring at 8 wk. We propose that the reduced GH secretion at 8 wk of age altered the growth of male offspring from HFD-F0, resulting in smaller animals from 9 wk to 6 mo of age. Furthermore, increased muscle triglyceride content and expression of lipogenic genes were observed in HFD-F0 offspring, potentially increasing their metabolic risk. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats

    Chihiro Moriya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects.

  15. The Antidiabetic Activity of Nigella sativa and Propolis on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy in Male Rats

    Haddad A. El Rabey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare the ameliorative effect of Nigella sativa and propolis methanol extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats and treating diabetic nephropathy. Forty male Albino rats were divided into four groups; the first group was the negative control fed standard diet. The other 30 rats were injected with streptozotocin to induce diabetes by a single intravenous injection and then divided equally into three groups; the second group was the positive diabetic control; the third and the fourth groups were treated orally with 20% w/w Nigella sativa seeds methanol extract and propolis methanol extract (20% w/w, respectively. The rats of the second group showed increased glucose levels and lipid peroxide accompanied with reduction in superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione-S-transferase enzyme activities compared with the negative control. Carboxymethyl lysine, interleukin-6, and immunoglobulins were also increased as a result of diabetes. Kidney function parameters were also elevated, while potassium and sodium levels were decreased. Moreover, tissues of kidney and pancreas showed severe histopathological changes. Treating the diabetic rats with Nigella sativa and propolis methanol extract in the third and fourth groups, respectively, ameliorated all altered biochemical and pathological examinations approaching the negative control. Propolis was more effective than Nigella sativa.

  16. Early-life Social Isolation Impairs the Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone Neuronal Activity and Serotonergic System in Male Rats

    Tomoko eSoga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Social isolation in early life deregulates the serotonergic system of the brain, compromising reproductive function. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus are critical to the inhibitory regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal activity in the brain and release of luteinising hormone by the pituitary gland. Although GnIH responds to stress, the role of GnIH in social isolation-induced deregulation of the serotonin system and reproductive function remains unclear. We investigated the effect of social isolation in early life on the serotonergic–GnIH neuronal system using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP-tagged GnIH-transgenic rats. Socially isolated rats were observed for anxious and depressive behaviours. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined c-Fos protein expression in EGFP–GnIH neurons in 9-week-old adult male rats after 6 weeks post-weaning isolation or group -housing. We also inspected serotonergic fibre juxtapositions in EGFP–GnIH neurons in control and socially isolated male rats. Socially isolated rats exhibited anxious and depressive behaviours. The total number of EGFP–GnIH neurons was the same in control and socially isolated rats, but c-Fos expression in GnIH neurons was significantly reduced in socially isolated rats. Serotonin fibre juxtapositions on EGFP–GnIH neurons was also lower in socially isolated rats. In addition, levels of tryptophan hydroxylase mRNA expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus were significantly attenuated in these rats. These results suggest that social isolation in early life results in lower serotonin levels, which reduce GnIH neuronal activity and may lead to reproductive failure.

  17. Early-Life Social Isolation Impairs the Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone Neuronal Activity and Serotonergic System in Male Rats.

    Soga, Tomoko; Teo, Chuin Hau; Cham, Kai Lin; Idris, Marshita Mohd; Parhar, Ishwar S

    2015-01-01

    Social isolation in early life deregulates the serotonergic system of the brain, compromising reproductive function. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus are critical to the inhibitory regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal activity in the brain and release of luteinizing hormone by the pituitary gland. Although GnIH responds to stress, the role of GnIH in social isolation-induced deregulation of the serotonin system and reproductive function remains unclear. We investigated the effect of social isolation in early life on the serotonergic-GnIH neuronal system using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged GnIH transgenic rats. Socially isolated rats were observed for anxious and depressive behaviors. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined c-Fos protein expression in EGFP-GnIH neurons in 9-week-old adult male rats after 6 weeks post-weaning isolation or group housing. We also inspected serotonergic fiber juxtapositions in EGFP-GnIH neurons in control and socially isolated male rats. Socially isolated rats exhibited anxious and depressive behaviors. The total number of EGFP-GnIH neurons was the same in control and socially isolated rats, but c-Fos expression in GnIH neurons was significantly reduced in socially isolated rats. Serotonin fiber juxtapositions on EGFP-GnIH neurons were also lower in socially isolated rats. In addition, levels of tryptophan hydroxylase mRNA expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus were significantly attenuated in these rats. These results suggest that social isolation in early-life results in lower serotonin levels, which reduce GnIH neuronal activity and may lead to reproductive failure.

  18. A Novel Concept of Amino Acid Supplementation to Improve the Growth of Young Malnourished Male Rats.

    Furuta, Chie; Murakami, Hitoshi

    2018-01-01

    This study was aimed at understanding the relationship between plasma amino acids and protein malnutrition and at determining whether amino acid supplementation associated with malnutrition and growth improves linear growth in growing rats. Body length and plasma amino acids were measured in young male rats that were fed the following diet for 3 weeks, mimicking a low and imbalanced protein diets based on maize, a major staple consumed in developing countries: a 70% calorically restricted cornmeal-based diet (C), C + micronutrients (CM), CM + casein (CMC), CM + soy protein (CMS) or CMS + 0.3% lysine. A correlation analysis of linear growth and plasma amino acids indicated that lysine, tryptophan, branched-chain amino acids, methionine, and phenylalanine significantly correlated with body length. Supplementation with these 5 amino acids (AA1) significantly improved the body length in rats compared to CMC treatment whereas, nitrogen-balanced amino acid supplemented controls (AA2) did not (CM +1.2 ± 0.2, CMC +2.7 ± 0.3, CMS +2.1 ± 0.3, AA1 +2.8 ± 0.2, and AA2 +2.5 ± 0.3 cm). With securing proper amino acid balance, supplementing growth-related amino acids is more effective in improving linear growth in malnourished growing male rats. Analysis of the correlation between plasma amino acids and growth represents a powerful tool to determine candidate amino acids for supplementation to prevent malnutrition. This technology is adaptable to children in developing countries. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Melatonin protects against lead-induced hepatic and renal toxicity in male rats

    El-Sokkary, Gamal H.; Abdel-Rahman, Gamal H.; Kamel, Esam S.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the potential protective effect of melatonin against the hepatic and renal toxicity of lead in male rats. Three groups of animals were used in this study (control, lead acetate-treated (100 mg/kg), and lead acetate plus melatonin (10 mg/kg) for 30 days. Levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) products, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, total glutathione (GSH), histopathological changes in the liver and kidneys were investigated. In addition, nuclear area (NA), nuclear volume (NV) and the ratio of nuclear volume/cellular volume (N/C) were measured in the liver. The results revealed increased LPO and decreased SOD, GSH, NA, NV and N/C in the studied organs of lead-treated rats. Histopathological observations showed severe damage in the liver and kidneys. Melatonin co-treatment to the lead-administered rats attenuated the increase of LPO and restored the activity of SOD and levels of GSH as well as the mean values of NA, NV and N/C. Also, the morphological damage in the liver and kidneys was reduced and the tissues appeared like those of controls. The present study suggests that melatonin may be useful in combating free radical-induced damage due to lead toxicity

  20. Effect of chronic treatment with a cyclooxygenase inhibitor on reproductive parameters in male rat

    Saeed, S.A.; Anwar, N.; Khan, K.M.; Sarfraz, N.

    2009-01-01

    Indomethacin is a member of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) commonly used for treatment of gout, arthritis, and other inflammatory conditions. It has been shown to inhibit ovarian prostaglandins synthesis in mammals, birds, fish and reptiles. However, the effects of its chronic administration on male reproductive functions remain largely unknown. Using rat as a model, we studied the effect of chronic treatment with indomethacin on the male reproductive system. Methods: Testosterone was measured in the serum, testicular tissue, and testicular interstitial fluid by radioimmunoassay. Moreover, we also studied the direct effect of indomethacin in vitro on luteinizing hormone stimulated testosterone secretion from the Leydig cells isolated from various treatment groups. Results: Indomethacin treatment for 50 days caused a significant but reversible decrease in prostate weight, epididymal sperm reserves and sperm motility score compared with control rats (p<0.05). In vitro stimulation of Leydig cells isolated from treated rat's testes with luteinizing hormone (250 mu IU) produced significantly reduced testosterone compared with cells from control groups (p<0.05). Furthermore, stimulatory effect of luteinizing hormone on the control Leydig cells was significantly reduced when these cells were challenged with luteinizing hormone in the presence of indomethacin, (p<0.05). Testosterone concentration in the testicular tissue and testicular interstitial fluid reduced after indomethacin treatment (p<0.05). Conclusion: Due to its significant inhibition of key reproductive hormones, indomethacin effectively inhibits reproductive functions if used on a long-term basis. In his study, we have identified potential risks in the long-term use of cyclooxygenase inhibitors. (author)

  1. The Effect of the Alcoholic Extract of Walnut on the Testis Tissue of Adult Male Rats

    M Abedinzade

    2012-08-01

    Methods: In the present experimental study, forty adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 grams were divided into five groups. The control group did not receive any treatment. Normal saline was intraperitoneally injected to the control group. Experimental groups received three different doses of alcoholic extract of walnut: 10, 20 and 50 mg/ kg intraperitoneally/daily, respectively. The testes were removed from the abdomen and the tissue sections were studied. The gathered data were analyzed using One-way Analysis of variance and Tukey's range test. Results: Results indicated that walnut extract affect the development and maintenance of spermatogenesis to its final stages, and increased the number of sperms and interstitial cells in the testis. Alcoholic extract of walnut during the test instrument did not have much impact on the structure of the sperm tube tissue. Conclusion: The alcoholic extract of walnut led to the increased activity of the testis and interstitial cells, followed by an increase in sperm cells and reproductive activity of male rats.

  2. The Effect of Salmon Fish’s Oil on Avoidance Learning in Mature Male Rats

    Seyed Ebrahim Hosseini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available  Background & Objective: There is plenty of fatty acids of omega-3 in Salmon Fish that affect brain development and function, therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of Salmon fish’s oil on learning avoidance in mature male rats.   Materials & Methods: In this empirical study, we used 40 mature male rats that were enrolled into control, sham and experimental groups. The control group was not treated. The sham group received only 1 ml saline daily, 3 experimental groups of different types received 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 ml/kg body weight respectively, for 28 days. For the evaluation of avoidance learning behavior, the shuttle box was used. The data was evaluated using ANOVA.    Results: The results suggest that consumption of salmon oil significantly increases in minimum and maximum doses (P<0.01 and average doses (P<0.001 the process of avoidance learning.   Conclusion: Salmon oil can lead to increased learning. Therefore, further investigation can be used to treat learning disorders and memory . 

  3. The Effects of Combination of High Intensity Intermittent Exercise and Supplement Flaxseed Oil 1 ICAM- Plasma Concentration in Male Rats

    Y Khademi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is rooted in inflammation and inflammation is along with the increase of ICAM-1. The aim of the present study was to review the effect of combination of high interval training and flaxseed oil supplementation on plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 30 rats were selected and divided into six groups of five male rats, including (1 control, (2 training, (3 10 mg/kg Flaxseed oil, (4 30 mg/kg Flaxseed oil, (5 training with 10 mg/kg Flaxseed oil and (6 training with 30 mg/kg Flaxseed oil. Groups of 2, 5 and 6 were trained with high intensity interval training for 10 weeks and five sessions per week, also groups 3 to 6 received flaxseed oil for 10 weeks. For statistical analysis of data two way ANOVA test was used (p≤0.05. Results: 10 weeks  treating high intensity interval training  for 10 weeks had significant effect on the increase of the plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of male rats (p=0.001. Nevertheless, Taking 10 weeks 10 and 30 mg/kg flaxseed oil supplementation for 10 weeks has significant effect on reducing  the plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of rats (p=0.001. Training and taking flaxseed oil supplementation have interactional effect on reduingc the plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of male rats (p=0.001. Conclusion: Combination of high intensity interval training and flaxseed oil supplementation has interactional effects on the improvement of plasma concentration of ICAM-1 in male rats.

  4. Neuroprotective Effect of Melatonin Against PCBs Induced Behavioural, Molecular and Histological Changes in Cerebral Cortex of Adult Male Wistar Rats.

    Bavithra, S; Selvakumar, K; Sundareswaran, L; Arunakaran, J

    2017-02-01

    There is ample evidence stating Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as neurotoxins. In the current study, we have analyzed the behavioural impact of PCBs exposure in adult rats and assessed the simultaneous effect of antioxidant melatonin against the PCBs action. The rats were grouped into four and treated intraperitoneally with vehicle, PCBs, PCBs + melatonin and melatonin alone for 30 days, respectively. After the treatment period the rats were tested for locomotor activity and anxiety behaviour analysis. We confirmed the neuronal damage in the cerebral cortex by molecular and histological analysis. Our data indicates that there is impairment in locomotor activity and behaviour of PCBs treated rats compared to control. The simultaneous melatonin treated rat shows increased motor coordination and less anxiety like behaviour compared to PCBs treated rats. Molecular and histological analysis supports that, the impaired motor coordination in PCBs treated rats is due to neurodegeneration in motor cortex region. The results proved that melatonin treatment improved the motor co-ordination and reduced anxiety behaviour, prevented neurodegeneration in the cerebral cortex of PCBs-exposed adult male rats.

  5. Atrazine-induced reproductive tract alterations after transplacental and/or lactational exposure in male Long-Evans rats

    Rayner, Jennifer L.; Enoch, Rolondo R.; Wolf, Douglas C.; Fenton, Suzanne E.

    2007-01-01

    Studies showed that early postnatal exposure to the herbicide atrazine (ATR) delayed preputial separation (PPS) and increased incidence of prostate inflammation in adult Wistar rats. A cross-fostering paradigm was used in this study to determine if gestational exposure to ATR would also result in altered puberty and reproductive tissue effects in the male rat. Timed-pregnant Long-Evans (LE) rats were dosed by gavage on gestational days (GD) 15-19 with 100 mg ATR/kg body weight (BW) or 1% methylcellulose (controls, C). On postnatal day (PND)1, half litters were cross-fostered, creating 4 treatment groups; C-C, ATR-C, C-ATR, and ATR-ATR (transplacental-milk as source, respectively). On PND4, male offspring in the ATR-ATR group weighed significantly less than the C-C males. ATR-ATR male pups had significantly delayed preputial separation (PPS). BWs at PPS for C-ATR and ATR-ATR males were reduced by 6% and 9%, respectively, from that of C-C. On PND120, lateral prostate weights of males in the ATR-ATR group were significantly increased over C-C. Histological examination of lateral and ventral prostates identified an increased distribution of inflammation in the lateral prostates of C-ATR males. By PND220, lateral prostate weights were significantly increased for ATR-C and ATR-ATR, but there were no significant changes in inflammation in either the lateral or ventral prostate. These results suggest that in LE rats, gestational ATR exposure delays PPS when male offspring suckle an ATR dam, but leads to increased lateral prostate weight via transplacental exposure alone. Inflammation present at PND120 does not increase in severity with time

  6. Morphine Decreases Social Interaction of Adult Male Rats, While THC Does Not Affect It

    Šlamberová, R.; Mikulecká, Anna; Macúchová, E.; Hrebíčková, I.; Ševčíková, M.; Nohejlová, K.; Pometlová, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, Suppl.5 (2016), S547-S555 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : social behavior * opioids * morphine * cannabinoids * THC * male rats Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016

  7. A Coherent Pattern Among Social Behavior, Blood Pressure, Corticosterone and Catecholamine Measures in Individual Male Rats

    FOKKEMA, DS; SMIT, K; VANDERGUGTEN, J; KOOLHAAS, JM

    1988-01-01

    Behavioral and physiological responses of 18 chronically cannulated male TMD-S3 rats were assessed during various social interactions with conspecifics, both with and without the possibility for physical contact (social vs. psychosocial stimulation). Response magnitudes (behavior, blood pressure,

  8. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition ameliorates nicotine-induced sperm function decline in male rats

    Ibukun P. Oyeyipo

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Taken together, the present data indicate the abilities of l-NAME to ameliorate nicotine-induced spermatotoxic effects in male rats via a mechanism dependent on the circulating testosterone level.

  9. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF CURCUMA AMADA (MANGO - GINGER IN MALE ALBINO WISTAR RATS

    Kumari Bai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mango ginger ( Curcuma amada Roxb. has morphological resemblance with ginger, but imparts mango flavour. According to Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems , the biological activities include antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti - inflammatory, antiallergic, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. Hence curcuma amada aqueous extract for analgesic activity was evaluated in pain animal models. Pain is a most common complaint of many medical conditions, and pain control is one of t he most important therapeutic priorities. Curcuma Amada suppresses the inflammatory mediators associated with pain. However there is no scientific data suggestive of its analgesic activity. Hence this study was carried out to evaluate its role in central a nd peripheral models of pain. OBJECTIVE: To Evaluate rhizomes of Curcuma Amada for analgesic activity in male albino wistar rats . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Albino rats, the proven models for analgesic studies. They were obtained from the animal house of DR.B. R. Ambedkar Medical College. Animals were maintained as per CPCSEA guidelines . The aqueous extract of curcuma amada was used.4x2 groups of 6 Rats were used to ensure that results obtained were statistically significant using ANOVA test. Analgesic activity was assessed with the help of following screening methods . Acetic Acid Writhing Method using Acetic Acid . Tail Flick Method using the Analgesiometer . Tail Immersion Method using Hot Water (55 0 C . Hot Plate method using Hot Plate . RESULT S: Aqueous extract of curcuma amada significantly suppressed the 1% acetic acid induced writhing response in rats when compared to control group (Gum acacia. In Tail flick test and Hot plate test Curcuma Amada increases the latency period of pain (reaction time. In Tail im mersion test the test drug significantly (P < 0.001 reduces pain at 30 min when compared to control group at 60 min of oral administration. CONCLUSION : The present findings indicate that

  10. Study of the variations in apoptotic factors in hippocampus of male rats with posttraumatic stress disorder

    Behrang Alani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a stress-related psychosomatic disorder caused by occurrence of a traumatic event and the hippocampus volume of the patients with Post-traumatic stress disorder decreased. However, the mechanisms that cause such damage are not well-understood. The aim of this study is to detect the expression of apoptosis-related Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase-3 and Insulin-like growth Factor-I proteins in the hippocampus region in the Predatory stress rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 male wistar rats were divided into Predatory stress groups of 1d, 2d, 3d, 7d, 14d, 30d and a normal control group (N = 10. Rats were subjected to 5 min of predatory stress and then exposed to the elevated plus-maze (EPM. Serum corticosterone and Insulin-like growth factor-1 level of Hippocampus were measured by ELISA technique. The expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3 were detected by western blotting. Results: Rats spent significantly more time in closed arms of the elevated plus maze (EPM than control group after exposure to stress. Serum levels of corticosterone significantly increased at 2d-3d. The expression of hippocampal IGF-1 was significantly up-regulated at 1d-2d after stress. Both Bax and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 significantly peaked at Predatory stress 2d-14d. Caspase3 was significantly active among 2d-30 compared to the normal control. Conclusion: The activation of caspase-3 in the stress groups indicates that apoptosis may be one of the reasons inducing hippocampus atrophy and play roles in the pathogenesis of PTSD. Increase in hippocampus levels of IGF-1 during early PTSD might be involved in the early molecular inhibitory mechanism of apoptosis in PTSD.

  11. Effect of eplerenone on serum TNF-α levels in adriamycin induced heart failure male rat models

    Xuan Nan; Song Liping; Xing Haiyan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of eplerenone on serum TNF-α levels in adriamycin induced heart failure male rat models. Methods: Forty male rat models of adriamycin-induced heart failure were prepared with weekly intraperitoneal injection of adriamycin (4/mg/kg) for six weeks. Twenty surviving models were randomly divided into two groups: (1)eplerenone-treated group, n=10, treated with garage of eplerenone 200mg/kg/d for 12 weeks (2) non-treated group n=10. All the surviving models (group (1) n=8, group (2) n=6) were sacrificed after 12 weeks with left ventricular hemodynamic function parameters tested and serum TNF-α levels measured. Ten male rats without adriamycin administration served as controls. Results: Left ventricular hemodynamic parameters in the non-treated group were significantly worse than those in controls (P<0.05). The parameters in the eplerenone treated group were significantly better than those in the non-treated group (P<0.05). The serum TNF-α levels in the non-treated group were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). TNF-α levels in the eplerenone group were significantly lower than those in the non-treated group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Eplerenone could reduce the serum TNF-α levels in the rat models of heart failure. (authors)

  12. The Cholesterol Lowering Effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali Root Extract in Male Rats

    Ghasak G Faisal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the effect of Eurycoma longifolia Jack root extract on serum lipids in rats. Methods: Twenty-six mature male albino Wistar rats were used in this study. A group of 18 rats were fed a high fat and high cholesterol diet for 4 weeks, after which their lipid profile was compared to the control group, who were kept on a normal diet. The rats were then further divided into three groups, the Cf group that continued to feed on a high fat and cholesterol diet only, and group A and group B who continued on a high fat diet with the addition of 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg of Eurycoma longifolia Jack root extract respectively for 4 weeks. After the 4 week period, the rat's lipid profiles were analysed again. Results: Group A and B showed significant total cholesterol reduction when compared to the Cf group, 140 ± 7.23, 139.63 ± 7.95, 192.14 ± 8.96 mg/dL respectively (p < 0.001. The total cholesterol/HDL ratio in group A was 5 however there was a sharp increase in group B to a high-risk level of 9.2 indicating a significant drop in HDL levels. The LDL level increased significantly in both group A and B compared to the Cf group. Conclusions: Eurycoma longifolia Jack root extract is effective in lowering total cholesterol, however the dose needs to be adjusted to prevent an excessive decrease in HDL levels.

  13. Nigella sativa oil Ameliorates ionizing Radiation induced cellular injury in Male Albino Rats

    Mohamed, E.T.; El-Kady, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Nigella sativa (NS), commonly known as black seed, is a plant spices in which thymoquinone is the main active ingredient isolated from the black seeds. The seeds of Nigella sativa are used in herbal medicine all over the world for the treatment and prevention of a number of diseases. The aim of this study was focused on investigating the possible protective effect of NS against gamma radiation induced nephrotoxicity and inflammatory changes in male albino rats. Twenty four albino rats were divided into four equal groups as follows: control group, irradiated group (animals subjected to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy), treated group (rats treated with 0.2 ml/kg, i.p., NS oil for 4 weeks), and treated irradiated group (animals treated with 0.2 mL/kg, i.p., NS oil for 4 weeks then exposed to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy). The obtained results revealed that the administration of Nigella sativa oil to irradiated rats significantly ameliorated the changes induced in kidney antioxidant system; catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities as well as reduced glutathione concentration. Also, NS oil restored the kidney function indices (urea and creatinine) near normal level when compared with their equivalent values in irradiated rats. In addition, the changes in serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) activities were markedly improved compared to the corresponding values of irradiated group. The histopathological results showed distinctive pattern of ischemic renal injury in irradiated group, while in treated- irradiated group the renal tissues showed relatively well-preserved architecture with or without focal degeneration. In conclusion, NS acts in the kidney as a potent scavenger of free radicals to prevent or ameliorates the toxic effects of gamma irradiation as shown in the biochemical and histopathological study and also NS oil might provide substantial protection against

  14. THE MODULATION EFFECT OF MELATONIN AGAINST GAMMA IRRADIATION IN BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDIES ON MALE RATS

    ABDOU, M.I.; OSMAN, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to illustrate the radiomodulatory role of melatonin in the regulation of some biochemical and histopathological damage in case of total body irradiated rats.Male albino rats weighing 120-150 g were divided into four groups, group (I) control animals, group (II) animals received melatonin daily by gavages (3 mg/kg body weight) for two weeks, group (III) animals irradiated with 4 Gy Gamma rays and group (IV) animals irradiated with 4 Gy Gamma rays followed by daily administration with melatonin (3 mg/kg body weight) for two weeks. Rats were sacrificed on the 1st and 2nd week post-irradiation. Blood samples were collected for biochemical investigations. The activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), were determined as biomarkers of liver functions, urea and creatinine contents were measured as markers of kidney functions, creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were selected to evaluate heart damage. Alteration in the level of serum glucose was also determined. Tissue specimens from liver, kidney, heart and spleen were collected for the pathological studies.The results indicated that, the levels of liver enzymes, kidney functions and glucose were increased after irradiation of rats and reduced by the treatment with melatonin. These reductions were more noticed during the second weeks except in case of glucose which increased during the second week compared to the first week. On the other hand, heart enzymes levels were reduced by the effect melatonin which may be important for cardiopathological patients.Histopathological results showed that irradiation of rats induced tissue injuries in liver, kidney, heart and spleen.Melatonin treatment reduced these injuries to minimum.It could be concluded that, melatonin could be used as antioxidant to protect vital organs and their functions against irradiation since it works as free radicals

  15. Protective effect of some plant oils on diazinon induced hepatorenal toxicity in male rats

    Atef M. Al-Attar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution and exposure to environmental pollutants are still some of the major global health issues. Pesticides have been linked to a wide range of health hazards. The toxicity of pesticides depends on several factors such as its chemical properties, doses, exposure period, exposure methods, gender, genetics, age, nutritional status and physiological case of exposed individuals. Medicinal plants, natural products and nutrition continue to play a central role in the healthcare system of large proportions of the world’s population. Alternative medicine plays an important role in health services around the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of olive, sesame and black seed oils on hepatorenal toxicity induced by diazinon (DZN in male rats. The experimental animals were divided into nine groups. The first group served as control. The second group was exposed to DZN. The third group was treated with olive oil and DZN. Rats of the fourth group were subjected to sesame oil and DZN. Rats of the fifth group were exposed to black seed oil and DZN. The sixth, seventh and eighth groups were supplemented with olive, sesame and black seed oils respectively. Rats of the ninth group were treated with corn oil. Levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase, total bilirubin, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and malondialdehyde were significantly increased in rats exposed to DZN. Moreover, levels of serum glutathione and superoxide dismutase were significantly decreased. Several histopathological changes were observed in the structures of liver and kidney due to DZN exposure. This study showed that these oils attenuated the physiological disturbances and histopathological alterations induced by DZN intoxication. Moreover, the antioxidant properties of these oils support the bioactive roles of its protective effects on DZN toxicity. This study therefore

  16. Antidopaminergic-induced hypothalamic LHRH release and pituitary gonadotrophin secretion in 12 day-old female and male rats.

    Lacau-Mengido, I M; Becú-Villalobos, D; Thyssen, S M; Rey, E B; Lux-Lantos, V A; Libertun, C

    1993-12-01

    In previous studies we have shown that the developing rat provides an interesting physiologic model in which the dopaminergic control of both LH and FSH is well defined in contrast to the controversial results obtained in adult rats. We wished to establish the role of testosterone in antidopaminergic induced gonadotrophins release in 12 day-old male and female rats, and evaluate the effect of antidopaminergic drugs at the hypothalamic level during this developmental stage. Haloperidol, an antidopaminergic drug, increased both LH and FSH in female 12 day-old rats but not in male littermates. The effect was blocked by bromocriptine and not by phentolamine indicating that haloperidol acted on the dopaminergic receptor, and that unspecific stimulation of the noradrenergic system was not involved. Haloperidol was ineffective when female rats were previously ovariectomized and injected with testosterone propionate at 9 days of age. If females were treated on the day of birth with testosterone propionate, haloperidol-induced FSH and LH release was also abolished. In control males haloperidol had no effect on the release of LH or FSH. But if males were orchidectomized at birth or at 9 days of age, haloperidol released both LH and FSH during the infantile period. In an attempt to establish the site of action of antidopaminergic drugs on gonadotrophin release, hypothalami (mediobasal and preoptic-suprachiasmatic area) from 12 day-old infant female rats were perifused with either haloperidol or domperidone (2*10(-6) M). Both drugs increased LHRH release into the perifusate. Besides haloperidol did not modify the release of LH or FSH from adenohypophyseal cells incubated in vitro. We therefore conclude that antidopaminergic-induced gonadotrophins release is modulated by serum testosterone concentrations, and that the site of action is probably the LHRH-secreting neuron of the hypothalamus.

  17. Effect of preservation methods of oil palm sap (Elaeis guineensis) on the reproductive indices of male wistar rats.

    Ikegwu, Theophilus Maduabuchukwu; Okafor, Gabriel Ifeanyi; Ochiogu, Izuchukwu Shedrack

    2014-12-01

    Thirty male Wistar rats, split into five groups of six rats each, were administered different forms of oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) sap samples by gavage based on 1.5% of their weekly body weights. Group 1 which served as control received only water, group 2 received pasteurized palm sap (PPS), group 3 received market palm wine (MPW), group 4 received frozen palm sap (FPS), whereas group 5 received fresh palm sap (FrPS). Chemical composition of the sap samples was determined. Normal feed and water were fed ad libitum. After 2 months of treatment, each male rat group was allowed 7 days to mate with six female Wistar rats. Thereafter, blood and epididymal samples were collected for testosterone assay and sperm count, respectively, before they were humanely sacrificed and testicular tissues taken for testicular histology. Litter weight and size of the pups produced by the females of each group were determined at birth. The sap samples contained carbohydrate (0.01-11.71%), protein (1.56-1.95%), ash (0.22-0.35%), moisture (92.55-98.24%), and alcohol (0.26-3.50%). PPS-treated rat group had significantly (Psap, impacted negatively on the reproductive indices of male animals.

  18. Antihyperlipidemic effect of crude extract of saffron stigma (Crocus sativus) in healthy male rats

    Iliass Lahmass; Sabir Ouahhoud; Assia Sabouni; Mohammed Elyoubi; Redouane Benabbas; Rachid Elmoussaoui; Mohammed Choukri; Ennouamane Saalaoui

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated for the first time the antihyperlipidemic ef-fects of crude extract of stigmas from Crocus sativus (saffron) against hyperlipidemia induced by tartrazine (synthetic dye) in normal male rats. Thirty adult male albino rats weighing about 150 - 200 g, were divided into 5 groups (n = 6) and daily treatment was given orally. Clinical biochemis-try and metabolic parameters were evaluated at the end of the experiment and after 105 days. (n=6, for all groups). Our data ...

  19. Short-term isolation increases social interactions of male rats: A parametric analysis

    Niesink, R.J.M.; Ree, J.M. van

    1982-01-01

    Frequencies of social interactions were higher in pairs of short-term individually housed male Wistar rats as compared to group-housed animals. This was most pronounced when an individually housed rat and a group-housed conspecific were tested together in the morning under red light conditions.

  20. A study of the prostate, androgens and sexual activity of male rats

    Garcia Luis I

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prostate is a sexual gland that produces important substances for the potency of sperm to fertilize eggs within the female reproductive tract, and is under complex endocrine control. Taking advantage of the peculiar behavioral pattern of copulating male rats, we developed experimental paradigms to determine the influence of sexual behavior on the level of serum testosterone, prostate androgen receptors, and mRNA for androgen receptors in male rats displaying up to four consecutive ejaculations. Methods The effect of four consecutive ejaculations was investigated by determining levels of (i testosterone in serum by solid phase RIA, (ii androgen receptors at the ventral prostate with Western Blots, and (iii androgen receptors-mRNA with RT-PCR. Data were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA followed by a post hoc application of Dunnett's test if required. Results The constant execution of sexual behavior did not produce any change in the weight of the ventral prostate. Serum testosterone increased after the second ejaculation, and remained elevated even after four ejaculations. The androgen receptor at the ventral prostate was higher after the first to third ejaculations, but returned suddenly to baseline levels after the fourth ejaculation. The level of mRNA increased after the first ejaculation, continued to increase after the second, and reached the highest peak after the third ejaculation; however, it returned suddenly to baseline levels after the fourth ejaculation. Conclusion Four consecutive ejaculations by sexually experienced male rats had important effects on the physiological responses of the ventral prostate. Fast responses were induced as a result of sexual behavior that involved an increase and decrease in androgen receptors after one and four ejaculations, respectively. However, a progressive response was observed in the elevation of mRNA for androgen receptors, which also showed a fast decrease after four

  1. Protein-energy malnutrition at mid-adulthood does not imprint long-term metabolic consequences in male rats.

    Malta, Ananda; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Ribeiro, Tatiane Aparecida; Tófolo, Laize Peron; Abdennebi-Najar, Latifa; Vieau, Didier; Barella, Luiz Felipe; de Freitas Mathias, Paulo Cezar; Lisboa, Patrícia Cristina; de Oliveira, Júlio Cezar

    2016-06-01

    The long-term effects of the development of chronic metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and obesity have been associated with nutritional insults in critical life stages. In this study, we evaluated the effect of a low-protein diet on metabolism in mid-adulthood male rats. At 90 days of age, Wistar male rats were fed a low-protein diet (4.0 %, LP group) for 30 days, whereas control rats were fed a normal-protein diet (20.5 %, NP group) throughout their lifetimes. To allow for dietary rehabilitation, from 120 to 180 days of age, the LP rats were fed a normal-protein diet. Then, we measured body composition, fat stores, glucose-insulin homeostasis and pancreatic islet function. At 120 days of age, just after low-protein diet treatment, the LP rats displayed a strong lean phenotype, hypoinsulinemia, as assessed under fasting and glucose tolerance test conditions, as well as weak pancreatic islet insulinotropic response to glucose and acetylcholine (p protein diet rehabilitation, the LP rats displayed a slight lean phenotype (p  0.05). Taken together, the present data suggest that the effects of dietary restriction as a stressor in adulthood are reversible with dietary rehabilitation, indicating that adulthood is not a sensitive or critical time window for metabolic programming.

  2. Eucalyptus globulus extract protects upon acetaminophen-induced kidney damages in male rat

    Dhibi, Sabah; Mbarki, Sakhria; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2014-01-01

    Plants have historically been used in treating many diseases. Eucalyptus globules, a rich source of bioactive compounds, and have been shown to possess antioxidative properties. The purpose of this study, carried out on male Wistar rats, was to evaluate the beneficial effects of Eucalyptus globulus extract upon acetaminophen-induced damages in kidney. Our study is realized in the Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences of Sfax (Tunisia). 32 Wistar male rats; were divided into 4 batches: a control group (n=8), a group of rats treated with acetaminophen (goomg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection during 4 days (n=8), a group receiving Eucalyptus globulus extract (130 mg of dry leaves/kg/day) in drinking water during 42 days after 2 hours of acetaminophen administration (during 4 days) (n=8) and group received only Eucalyptus (n=8) during 42 days. After 6 weeks, animals from each group were rapidly sacrificed by decapitation. Blood serum was obtained by centrifugation. Under our experimental conditions, acetaminophen poisoning resulted in an oxidative stress evidenced by statistically significant losses in the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide-dismutase (SOD), glutathione-peroxidase (GPX) activities and an increase in lipids peroxidation level in renal tissue of acetaminophen-treated group compared with the control group. Acetaminophen also caused kidney damage as evident by statistically significant (p<0.05) increase in levels of creatinine and urea and decreased levels of uric acid and proteins in blood. Histological analysis demonstrated alteration of proximal tubules, atrophy of the glomerule and dilatation of urinary space. Previous administration of plant extract is found to alleviate this acetaminophen-induced damage. PMID:24856382

  3. Antiperoxidative Activity of Tetracarpidium conophorum Leaf Extract in Reproductive Organs of Male Rats

    Seun Funmilola Akomolafe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetracarpidium conophorum (Mull. Arg. Hutch. & Dalz is one of the many medicinal plants used in folklore as male fertility enhancers. This research was aimed at evaluating the anti-peroxidative activity of the leaves of this plant by determining their capacity to reduce malondialdehyde (MDA level in reproductive organs and accessory glands of rats. Adult male rats were administered orally with the aqueous leaf extract from T. conophorum at 50, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight for 21 consecutive days while clomiphene citrate (1.04 mg/kg body weight, a fertility drug was used as standard. The results of the study indicated that there was increase in relative organ weight, body weight, mean total food and water consumed by the treated groups. Testicular MDA level was highly significantly different from that of the control (p<0.0001 although a tentatively decreased MDA level was observed. However, MDA levels in the reproductive accessory glands, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate gland were insignificantly (p<0.05 lower than those of controls. The highest percentage decrease of MDA level (66.35, 42.68, 62.50 and 63.36% was observed at the highest concentration of the extract (1000 mg/kg in the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate gland respectively. These values were two-fold greater than the values obtained for the standard drug. Interestingly, the treatment of rats with the extract significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and the levels of GSH, vitamin C and total protein. Collectively, the results suggest that the extract from T. conophorum leaves had greater capacity to reduce lipid peroxidation in reproductive organs and accessory glands and thus, this plant may be useful in the treatment/management of reproductive cellular damage involving reactive oxygen species.

  4. Effect of Nigella sativa Linn oil on tramadol-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity in adult male albino rats

    A. Elkhateeb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the role of Nigella sativa Linn (NsL oil against subacute tramadol-induced hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity as well as oxidative stress in adult male albino rats. Sixty adult male albino rats were divided into four groups. Group I: control group; 30 rats equally subdivided into: Ia; −ve control group, Ib; +ve control group received saline, Ic; +ve control group received corn oil. Group II: 10 rats received NsL oil; 1 mg/kg in 1 ml corn oil/day, group III: 10 rats received tramadol; 30 mg/kg/day, group IV: 10 rats received tramadol + NsL oil in the previous doses. Treatments were given by gavage for 30 days. Then rats were sacrificed and specimens from the livers and kidneys were taken for biochemical and histopathological study. Biochemical data showed elevated liver enzymes; alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT, bilirubin as well as urea and creatinine in tramadol group. A significant increase in hepatic and renal malondialdehyde (MDA and a decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GPx levels were also noticed. Histological analysis of the liver showed vacuolated hepatocyte cytoplasm indicating hydropic degeneration with binucleated cells, apoptotic nuclei, congested central veins, cellular infiltration and hemorrhage. Kidney sections revealed atrophied glomeruli with collapsed tufts and wide Bowman's space, degenerated tubules, hemorrhage and mononuclear cellular infiltration. There was also an increase in area % of collagen fibers in both organs. Concomitant use of NsL oil with tramadol induced partial improvement in the hepato- and nephrotoxic effects. In conclusion, this study suggested that concomitant use of NsL oil with tramadol proved to be capable of ameliorating tramadol-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity which might be due to its antioxidant potential.

  5. Progeny of male rats treated with methadone: physiological and behavioural effects.

    Joffe, J M; Peruzović, M; Milković, K

    1990-04-01

    Male rats were injected with methadone HCl (METH) at 5 mg/kg s.c. for 4 days prior to mating with drug-free females. Offspring resulting from these matings were compared with offspring of drug-free males. The progeny of METH-treated males gained less weight after weaning and had lighter thymuses as adults (but not in infancy). Gonadal weights did not differ in infancy or adulthood, and adrenal weights were heavier in female offspring in adulthood. In adulthood METH offspring were significantly different from controls on all behavioural tests used (open field activity, activity cage activity, passive avoidance latencies, shuttle box avoidances, and rotarod latencies), with the differences frequently affected by test order, days of testing, or sex of offspring. The effects in progeny of METH-treated males in the absence of differences in litter size or neonatal mortality indicate that paternal drug ingestion prior to mating can produce physiological and behavioural changes in progeny that are not dependent on detectable effects on early viability or growth.

  6. Management of cisplatin toxicity and chromosomal aberration by vitamin E in male rats

    Ali, S.E.; Mohamed, N.E.; Salama, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most active antineoplastic drugs showing a broad therapeutic activity spectrum against different types of human neoplasms. To elvaute the subacute toxicity of the drug and to test the probable preventive effect of vitamin E in rats, forty-eight male albino rats were used in this study. Animals were classified into four groups, control, vitamin E, cisplatin and vitamin E with cisplatin. Vitamin E was administered orally at a dose of 2 mg/rat for two weeks prior to cisplatin intraperitoneal injection (5 mg/kg as a single dose) and then administration of vitamin E which was continued for two another weeks (end of experiment). The changes in body weight, counts of RBC and WBC, lipid peroxide, Na + , K + , chromosomal aberration and aldosterone hormone were recorded. Cisplatin administration caused 57.4% and 60% mortality at 3 and 5 weeks intervals. Regular intake of vitamin E induced significant role against the physiological disorders and chromosomal alterations occurred after cisplatin drug administration. The present study is directed to demonstrate the toxic effect of cisplatin on mortality, body weight, blood cells, aldosterone hormone, lipid peroxidation, Na + , K + , urea, creatinia as well as on chromosomal pattern and the efficacy of vitamin E in modulating cisplatin toxicity

  7. Lipofundin 20% induces hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in male Sprague Dawley rats

    L DelgadoRoche

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipofundin is a lipid emulsion used in parenteral nutrition. One of adverse effects reported for this kind of pharmaceutical products is the capacity to induce oxidative stress, which is an important contributor of many diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of Lipofundin administration on lipid profile and serum redox biomarkers, in order to determine if both events are responsible for the undesirable effects of this lipid emulsion. Male Sprague Dawley rats were intravenously administered with 2 mL/kg of Lipofundin 20% daily, for 8 days. Then, serum lipid profile and redox biomarkers were spectrophotometrically determined. A significant increase (p<0,05 of serum lipids and biomolecules damages was observed at the end of the experiment, while a reduction of antioxidant capacity was also detected in treated rats compared with controls. Our data demonstrated that Lipofundin 20% induces hyperlipidemia, which promotes an oxidative stress state in Sprague Dawley rats. [Vet. World 2012; 5(3.000: 133-137

  8. Effect of Atorvastatin on Orthodontic Tooth Movement in Male Wistar Rats

    MirHashemi, Amir Hossein; Afshari, Maryam; Alaeddini, Mojgan; Etemad-Moghadam, Shahroo; Dehpour, Ahmadreza; Sheikhzade, Sedigheh; Akhoundi, Mohammad Sadegh Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Statins are used as cholesterol-lowering drugs by many patients and have been recently shown to affect bone metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of atorvastatinon on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups of 12 samples each. Group A, served as control with no medication while groups B and C received a daily gavage of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as vehicle and atorvastatin (5 mg/kg) as test substance, respectively. In all three groups, 6mm nickel-titanium closed-coil springs were ligated between the maxillary incisors and first left molars to deliver an initial force of 60g. Tooth movement was measured following sacrifice, 21 days after appliance insertion. Root resorption, PDL width and osteoclast number were histologically evaluated and compared between the groups. Results: The mean amount of tooth movement was 0.62 mm in group A, 0.59 mm in group B and 0.38 mm in group C. OTM reduction following administration of atorvastatin was statistically significant (p0.05). Conclusion: According to the results obtained in the current study, atorvastatin appears to reduce tooth movement in rats; however its effect on osteoclasts, especially osteoclastic function, requires further investigation. PMID:24910664

  9. Protective Role Of Fresh Pomegranate Against Oxidative Damage In Whole Body Gamma Irradiated Male Albino Rats

    Kassab, F.M.A.; Taha, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty four male albino rats, body weight 100-130 g, were used to evaluate the protective role of fresh pomegranate fruit intake for 30 days on the damage induced by single dose of 6 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. The rats were randomly and equally divided into four groups: group (1): control, group (2): irradiated with 6 Gy, group (3): pomegranate for 30 days and group (4): pomegranate for 30 days followed by 6 Gy whole body irradiation. At the end of the experiment, all rats were sacrificed after 12 hours fasting then sera were separated for the determination of sugar, total antioxidant, lipid profile and liver and kidney functions. Results showed that gamma radiation caused significant decline (P<0.05) in serum total antioxidant, total protein, albumin, HDL-C and blood glucose with significant elevation (P<0.05) in other hepato-renal markers in addition to serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C. These changes were significantly attenuated in irradiated animals pre-treated with whole fresh pomegranate fruit leading to the conclusion that pre-intake of pomegranate fruit had a radio- protective effect. This protection of this whole fruit may be due to the increased total antioxidant level leading to free radical scavenging

  10. Neurogenesis and Helplessness are Mediated by Controllability in Males but not in Females

    Shors, Tracey J.; Mathew, Jason; Sisti, Helene M.; Edgecomb, Carol; Beckoff, Steven; Dalla, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have implicated neurogenesis in the hippocampus in animal models of depression, especially those related to controllability and learned helplessness. Here, we tested the hypothesis that uncontrollable, but not controllable stress would reduce cell proliferation in the hippocampus of male and female rats, and would relate to the expression of helplessness behavior. Methods To manipulate controllability, groups of male and female rats were trained in one session (acute stress) or over seven sessions (repeated stress) to escape a footshock, while yoked controls could not escape, but were exposed to the same amount of stress. Cell proliferation was assessed with immunohistochemistry of BrdU and immunofluorescence of BrdU and NeuN. Separate groups were exposed to either controllable or uncontrollable stress and their ability to learn to escape during training on a more difficult task was used as a behavioral measure of helplessness. Results Acute stress reduced cell proliferation in males, but did not affect proliferation in the female hippocampus. When animals were given the opportunity to learn to control the stress over days, males produced more cells than the yoked males without control. Repeated training with controllable stress did not influence proliferation in females. Under all conditions, males were more likely than females to express helplessness behavior, even males that were not previously stressed. Conclusions The modulation of neurogenesis by controllability was evident in males but not in females, as was the expression of helplessness behavior, despite the fact that men are less likely than women to experience depression. PMID:17306770

  11. Reversible antispermatogenic and antisteroidogenic activities of Feronia limonia fruit pulp in adult male rats

    Dhanapal, Ramaiyan; Ratna, J.Vijaya; Sarathchandran, I.; Gupta, Malaya

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the antispermatogenic and testicular antisteroidogenic activities of Feronia limonia fruit pulp southern India. Methods Fourty Wistar male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) were equally divided into four groups. Experimental groups were administered with the ethanolic extract of Feronia limonia (F. limoni) fruit pulp at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight once daily for 55 days. All treated rats had corresponding recovery groups. At the end of each treatment periods, various spermatological indices, tissue biochemicals and testicular enzymes levels were analysed. Blood profiles were also estimated. Results Compared with the control, the F. limonia fruit pulp at both dose levels did not decrease body weight, which were associated with decline in epididymal sperm count, motility, viability and increased percent of abnormal sperm. Further, F. limonia fruit pulp at 500 mg/kg body weight markedly reduced the epididymal and testicular protein content by 24.58% and 29.86%, respectively, as well as the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and Δ5-3β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase) levels by 42.82% and 38.08%, respectively, while a significant elevation was observed in testicular cholesterol and ascorbic acid content. A gradual recovery of all parameters was observed after 55 days of treatment withdrawal. No significant alterations in haematological indices were observed. Conclusions The present findings indicate that F. limonia fruit pulp may have reversible antispermatogenic and antisteroidogenic properties, and could partially support the traditional use as male contraceptive. PMID:23569995

  12. The role of melatonin in radiation induced biochemical disturbances in brain and thyroid gland in adult male albino rats

    Abdel Kader, S.M.; EI-Sherbiny, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    Radiation induced changes in adult male albino male rats before and after melatonin administration were monitored to detect some biochemical changes in brain and thyroid gland. The parameters monitored were dopamine (DA), norepinephdne (NE) and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in brain and triiodothyronine (T 3 ) thyroxine (T 4 ) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in serum of irradiated adult male albino rats before and after intraperitoneal injection of melatonin. Results indicated that 6.0 Gy whole body γ-irradiated rats showed gradual and significant decrease in DA, NE and GABA contents in different brain areas under investigation (cerebellum, pons+medulla oblongata, corpus striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus). The maximum effect of whole body γ-irradiation was observed after 21 days. Moreover, gradual and significant decrease in serum T 3 and T 4 levels were recorded after γ-irradiation. However, TSH level showed significant elevation throughout the experimental period. Melatonin at a dose level of 15 mg/kg b.wt. was intraperitoneally injected daily 30 minutes after 6.0 Gy whole body γ-irradiation, ameliorated DA, NE and GABA contents in different brain areas compared to those measured in irradiated rats. Moreover, melatonin gradually attenuated the effect of γ-irradiation on serum T 3 and T 4 levels to reach nearly the control level at day 21 after melatonin injection. However, melatonin ameliorated the elevated TSH level induced by γ-irradiation to reach its corresponding control value at day 21

  13. Preclinical Abuse Potential Assessment of Flibanserin: Effects on Intracranial Self-Stimulation in Female and Male Rats.

    Lazenka, Matthew F; Blough, Bruce E; Negus, S Stevens

    2016-03-01

    Flibanserin is a serotonin receptor subtype 1A agonist and 2A antagonist that has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treating female sexual interest and arousal disorder. Little is known about the abuse potential of flibanserin. To examine abuse-related effects of flibanserin in rats using an intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure previously used to evaluate the abuse potential of other drugs. Adult female and male Sprague-Dawley rats with electrodes implanted in the medial forebrain bundle were trained to press a lever for electrical brain stimulation under a "frequency-rate" ICSS procedure. In this procedure, increasing frequencies of brain stimulation maintain increasing rates of responding. Drugs of abuse typically increase (or "facilitate") ICSS rates and produce leftward and upward shifts in ICSS frequency-rate curves, whereas drugs that lack abuse potential typically do not alter or only decrease ICSS rates. Initial studies determined the potency and time course of effects on ICSS produced by acute flibanserin administration (1.0, 3.2 and 10.0 mg/kg). Subsequent studies determined the effects of flibanserin (3.2-18 mg/kg) before and after a regimen of repeated flibanserin administration (5.6 mg/kg/d for 5 days). Effects of the abused stimulant amphetamine (1.0 mg/kg) were examined as a positive control. Flibanserin effects on ICSS frequency-rate curves in female and male rats were examined and compared with the effects of amphetamine. Baseline ICSS frequency-rate curves were similar in female and male rats. Acute and repeated administrations of flibanserin produced only decreases in ICSS rates, and rate-decreasing effects of the highest flibanserin dose (10 mg/kg) were greater in female than in male rats. In contrast to flibanserin, amphetamine produced an abuse-related increase in ICSS rates that did not differ between female and male rats. These results suggest that flibanserin has low abuse potential. In addition, this study

  14. Effects of anabolic steroid treatment associated with physical training in adipose tissue of male Wistar rats

    Marcela de Paiva Foletto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic androgenic-steroids (AAS include a broad class of synthetic derivatives of testosterone, being nandrolone decanoate the most widely used in sports environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic effects of nandrolone decanoate in sedentary and trained adult male rats. We established four experimental groups: sedentary control, sedentary treated, trained control and trained treated. The training had consisted of running on a treadmill for nine weeks. Treated animals received intramuscular injections of nandrolone decanoate (0.5 mg kg-1 during the last four weeks of physical training. The training time as the drug used were not sufficient to significantly reduce body weight gain, but caused a significative decrease on diameter of adipocytes and in the amount of adipose tissue stored, as well as decreased the plasma levels of glucose and total cholesterol.

  15. Neuronal Function in Male Sprague Dawley Rats During Normal ...

    olayemitoyin

    appropriate animal model which is readily available and will be useful to test therapeutic ... and locomotor activity with increasing age in 3 months, 6 months and 18 months old rats, although the values were not ... The mean life expectancy has.

  16. Intrauterine Growth Restriction Increases TNFα and Activates the Unfolded Protein Response in Male Rat Pups

    Emily S. Riddle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR programs adult disease, including obesity and insulin resistance. Our group previously demonstrated that IUGR dysregulates adipose deposition in male, but not female, weanling rats. Dysregulated adipose deposition is often accompanied by the release of proinflammatory signaling molecules, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα. TNFα contributes to adipocyte inflammation and impaired insulin signaling. TNFα has also been implicated in the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR, which impairs insulin signaling. We hypothesized that, in male rat pups, IUGR would increase TNFα, TNFR1, and components of the UPR (Hspa5, ATF6, p-eIF2α, and Ddit3 prior to the onset of obesity. We further hypothesized that impaired glucose tolerance would occur after the onset of adipose dysfunction in male IUGR rats. To test this hypothesis, we used a well-characterized rat model of uteroplacental insufficiency-induced IUGR. Our primary findings are that, in male rats, IUGR (1 increased circulating and adipose TNFα, (2 increased mRNA levels of UPR components as well as p-eIF2a, and (3 impaired glucose tolerance after observed TNFα increased and after UPR activation. We speculate that programmed dysregulation of TNFα and UPR contributed to the development of glucose intolerance in male IUGR rats.

  17. Male Wistar rats show individual differences in an animal model of conformity.

    Jolles, Jolle W; de Visser, Leonie; van den Bos, Ruud

    2011-09-01

    Conformity refers to the act of changing one's behaviour to match that of others. Recent studies in humans have shown that individual differences exist in conformity and that these differences are related to differences in neuronal activity. To understand the neuronal mechanisms in more detail, animal tests to assess conformity are needed. Here, we used a test of conformity in rats that has previously been evaluated in female, but not male, rats and assessed the nature of individual differences in conformity. Male Wistar rats were given the opportunity to learn that two diets differed in palatability. They were subsequently exposed to a demonstrator that had consumed the less palatable food. Thereafter, they were exposed to the same diets again. Just like female rats, male rats decreased their preference for the more palatable food after interaction with demonstrator rats that had eaten the less palatable food. Individual differences existed for this shift, which were only weakly related to an interaction between their own initial preference and the amount consumed by the demonstrator rat. The data show that this conformity test in rats is a promising tool to study the neurobiology of conformity.

  18. Effects of microcurrent stimulation on Hyaline cartilage repair in immature male rats (Rattus norvegicus

    de Campos Ciccone Carla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, we investigate the effects of microcurrent stimulation on the repair process of xiphoid cartilage in 45-days-old rats. Methods Twenty male rats were divided into a control group and a treated group. A 3-mm defect was then created with a punch in anesthetized animals. In the treated group, animals were submitted to daily applications of a biphasic square pulse microgalvanic continuous electrical current during 5 min. In each application, it was used a frequency of 0.3 Hz and intensity of 20 μA. The animals were sacrificed at 7, 21 and 35 days after injury for structural analysis. Results Basophilia increased gradually in control animals during the experimental period. In treated animals, newly formed cartilage was observed on days 21 and 35. No statistically significant differences in birefringent collagen fibers were seen between groups at any of the time points. Treated animals presented a statistically larger number of chondroblasts. Calcification points were observed in treated animals on day 35. Ultrastructural analysis revealed differences in cell and matrix characteristics between the two groups. Chondrocyte-like cells were seen in control animals only after 35 days, whereas they were present in treated animals as early as by day 21. The number of cuprolinic blue-stained proteoglycans was statistically higher in treated animals on days 21 and 35. Conclusion We conclude that microcurrent stimulation accelerates the cartilage repair in non-articular site from prepuberal animals.

  19. Effects of microcurrent stimulation on hyaline cartilage repair in immature male rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    de Campos Ciccone, Carla; Zuzzi, Denise Cristina; Neves, Lia Mara Grosso; Mendonça, Josué Sampaio; Joazeiro, Paulo Pinto; Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marretto

    2013-01-19

    In this study, we investigate the effects of microcurrent stimulation on the repair process of xiphoid cartilage in 45-days-old rats. Twenty male rats were divided into a control group and a treated group. A 3-mm defect was then created with a punch in anesthetized animals. In the treated group, animals were submitted to daily applications of a biphasic square pulse microgalvanic continuous electrical current during 5 min. In each application, it was used a frequency of 0.3 Hz and intensity of 20 μA. The animals were sacrificed at 7, 21 and 35 days after injury for structural analysis. Basophilia increased gradually in control animals during the experimental period. In treated animals, newly formed cartilage was observed on days 21 and 35. No statistically significant differences in birefringent collagen fibers were seen between groups at any of the time points. Treated animals presented a statistically larger number of chondroblasts. Calcification points were observed in treated animals on day 35. Ultrastructural analysis revealed differences in cell and matrix characteristics between the two groups. Chondrocyte-like cells were seen in control animals only after 35 days, whereas they were present in treated animals as early as by day 21. The number of cuprolinic blue-stained proteoglycans was statistically higher in treated animals on days 21 and 35. We conclude that microcurrent stimulation accelerates the cartilage repair in non-articular site from prepuberal animals.

  20. Acceleration of skin wound healing by low-dose indirect ionizing radiation in male rats.

    Jabbari, Nasrollah; Farjah, Gholam Hossein; Ghadimi, Behnam; Zanjani, Hajar; Heshmatian, Behnam

    2017-08-01

    A recent hypothesis has revealed that low-dose irradiation (LDI) with ionizing radiation might have a promoting effect on fracture healing. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of direct (electron beam) and indirect (gamma-ray) low-dose ionizing irradiations on the wound healing process in male rats. In 72 male rats, a full-thickness wound was incised. The animals were randomly assigned to three groups, each with 24 rats. The first two groups were named IG-I and IG-II and respectively exposed to electron and gamma-radiations (75 cGy) immediately after the surgical procedure. The third group was considered as the control (CG) and remained untreated. Skin biopsies from the subgroups were collected on days 3, 7, 15, and 21 after the operation and evaluated using histological and biomechanical methods. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's post hoc test using SPSS 20 software. Histological studies of tissues showed that the mean number of fibroblasts, macrophages, blood vessel sections, and neutrophils on the third and seventh days after the surgery in the gamma-treated group was higher than that in both other groups. In contrast, on day 21, the mean number of mentioned cells in the gamma-treated group was lower than in the other two groups. In addition, the mean maximum stress value was significantly greater in the gamma-treated group. Results of this study showed that gamma-ray irradiation is effective in the acceleration of wound healing. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  1. Acceleration of skin wound healing by low-dose indirect ionizing radiation in male rats

    Nasrollah Jabbari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A recent hypothesis has revealed that low-dose irradiation (LDI with ionizing radiation might have a promoting effect on fracture healing. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of direct (electron beam and indirect (gamma-ray low-dose ionizing irradiations on the wound healing process in male rats. In 72 male rats, a full-thickness wound was incised. The animals were randomly assigned to three groups, each with 24 rats. The first two groups were named IG–I and IG–II and respectively exposed to electron and gamma-radiations (75 cGy immediately after the surgical procedure. The third group was considered as the control (CG and remained untreated. Skin biopsies from the subgroups were collected on days 3, 7, 15, and 21 after the operation and evaluated using histological and biomechanical methods. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's post hoc test using SPSS 20 software. Histological studies of tissues showed that the mean number of fibroblasts, macrophages, blood vessel sections, and neutrophils on the third and seventh days after the surgery in the gamma-treated group was higher than that in both other groups. In contrast, on day 21, the mean number of mentioned cells in the gamma-treated group was lower than in the other two groups. In addition, the mean maximum stress value was significantly greater in the gamma-treated group. Results of this study showed that gamma-ray irradiation is effective in the acceleration of wound healing.

  2. Physical versus psychological social stress in male rats reveals distinct cardiovascular, inflammatory and behavioral consequences

    Padi, Akhila R.; Moffitt, Casey M.; Wilson, L. Britt; Wood, Christopher S.; Wood, Susan K.

    2017-01-01

    Repeated exposure to social stress can precipitate the development of psychosocial disorders including depression and comorbid cardiovascular disease. While a major component of social stress often encompasses physical interactions, purely psychological stressors (i.e. witnessing a traumatic event) also fall under the scope of social stress. The current study determined whether the acute stress response and susceptibility to stress-related consequences differed based on whether the stressor consisted of physical versus purely psychological social stress. Using a modified resident-intruder paradigm, male rats were either directly exposed to repeated social defeat stress (intruder) or witnessed a male rat being defeated. Cardiovascular parameters, behavioral anhedonia, and inflammatory cytokines in plasma and the stress-sensitive locus coeruleus were compared between intruder, witness, and control rats. Surprisingly intruders and witnesses exhibited nearly identical increases in mean arterial pressure and heart rate during acute and repeated stress exposures, yet only intruders exhibited stress-induced arrhythmias. Furthermore, re-exposure to the stress environment in the absence of the resident produced robust pressor and tachycardic responses in both stress conditions indicating the robust and enduring nature of social stress. In contrast, the long-term consequences of these stressors were distinct. Intruders were characterized by enhanced inflammatory sensitivity in plasma, while witnesses were characterized by the emergence of depressive-like anhedonia, transient increases in systolic blood pressure and plasma levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase. The current study highlights that while the acute cardiovascular responses to stress were identical between intruders and witnesses, these stressors produced distinct differences in the enduring consequences to stress, suggesting that witness stress may be more likely to produce long-term cardiovascular

  3. Effect of nonylphenol on male reproduction: Analysis of rat epididymal biochemical markers and antioxidant defense enzymes

    Aly, Hamdy A.A., E-mail: hamdyaali@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Domènech, Òscar [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Barcelona University (Spain); Banjar, Zainy M. [Department of Medical Biology, School of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-06-01

    The mechanism by which nonylphenol (NP) interferes with male reproduction is not fully elucidated. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of NP on male reproductive organ's weight, sperm characteristics, and to elucidate the nature and mechanism of action of NP on the epididymis. Adult male Wistar rats were gavaged with NP, dissolved in corn oil, at 0, 100, 200 or 300 mg/kg/day for 30 consecutive days. Control rats were gavaged with vehicle (corn oil) alone. Body weight did not show any significant change while, absolute testes and epididymides weights were significantly decreased. Sperm count in cauda and caput/corpus epididymides, and sperm motility was significantly decreased. Daily sperm production was significantly decreased in a dose-related manner. Sperm transit time in cauda epididymis was significantly decreased by 300 mg/kg, while in the caput/corpus epididymis it was significantly decreased by 200 and 300 mg/kg of NP. Plasma LDH was significantly increased while; plasma testosterone was significantly decreased in a dose-related pattern. In the epididymal sperm, NP decreased acrosome integrity, Δψm and 5′-nucleotidase activity. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) production and LPO were significantly increased in a dose-related pattern. The activities of SOD, CAT and GPx were significantly decreased in the epididymal sperm. In conclusion, this study revealed that NP treatment impairs spermatogenesis and has a cytotoxic effect on epididymal sperm. It disrupts the prooxidant and antioxidant balance. This leads oxidative stress in epididymal sperms of rat. Moreover, the reduction in sperm transit time may affect sperm quality and fertility potential. -- Highlights: ► The nature and mechanism of action of NP on rat epididymis were elucidated. ► NP decreased sperm count, motility, daily sperm production and sperm transit time. ► NP decreased sperm acrosome integrity, Δψm and 5′-nucleotidase activity. ► Plasma

  4. Effect of nonylphenol on male reproduction: Analysis of rat epididymal biochemical markers and antioxidant defense enzymes

    Aly, Hamdy A.A.; Domènech, Òscar; Banjar, Zainy M.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism by which nonylphenol (NP) interferes with male reproduction is not fully elucidated. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of NP on male reproductive organ's weight, sperm characteristics, and to elucidate the nature and mechanism of action of NP on the epididymis. Adult male Wistar rats were gavaged with NP, dissolved in corn oil, at 0, 100, 200 or 300 mg/kg/day for 30 consecutive days. Control rats were gavaged with vehicle (corn oil) alone. Body weight did not show any significant change while, absolute testes and epididymides weights were significantly decreased. Sperm count in cauda and caput/corpus epididymides, and sperm motility was significantly decreased. Daily sperm production was significantly decreased in a dose-related manner. Sperm transit time in cauda epididymis was significantly decreased by 300 mg/kg, while in the caput/corpus epididymis it was significantly decreased by 200 and 300 mg/kg of NP. Plasma LDH was significantly increased while; plasma testosterone was significantly decreased in a dose-related pattern. In the epididymal sperm, NP decreased acrosome integrity, Δψm and 5′-nucleotidase activity. Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) production and LPO were significantly increased in a dose-related pattern. The activities of SOD, CAT and GPx were significantly decreased in the epididymal sperm. In conclusion, this study revealed that NP treatment impairs spermatogenesis and has a cytotoxic effect on epididymal sperm. It disrupts the prooxidant and antioxidant balance. This leads oxidative stress in epididymal sperms of rat. Moreover, the reduction in sperm transit time may affect sperm quality and fertility potential. -- Highlights: ► The nature and mechanism of action of NP on rat epididymis were elucidated. ► NP decreased sperm count, motility, daily sperm production and sperm transit time. ► NP decreased sperm acrosome integrity, Δψm and 5′-nucleotidase activity. ► Plasma LDH was

  5. Skeletal effect of casein and whey protein intake during catch-up growth in young male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Masarwi, Majdi; Gabet, Yankel; Dolkart, Oleg; Brosh, Tamar; Shamir, Raanan; Phillip, Moshe; Gat-Yablonski, Galia

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the type of protein ingested influences the efficiency of catch-up (CU) growth and bone quality in fast-growing male rats. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were either fed ad libitum (controls) or subjected to 36 d of 40 % food restriction followed by 24 or 40 d of re-feeding with either standard rat chow or iso-energetic, iso-protein diets containing milk proteins - casein or whey. In terms of body weight, CU growth was incomplete in all study groups. Despite their similar food consumption, casein-re-fed rats had a significantly higher body weight and longer humerus than whey-re-fed rats in the long term. The height of the epiphyseal growth plate (EGP) in both casein and whey groups was greater than that of rats re-fed normal chow. Microcomputed tomography yielded significant differences in bone microstructure between the casein and whey groups, with the casein-re-fed animals having greater cortical thickness in both the short and long term in addition to a higher trabecular bone fraction in the short term, although this difference disappeared in the long term. Mechanical testing confirmed the greater bone strength in rats re-fed casein. Bone quality during CU growth significantly depends on the type of protein ingested. The higher EGP in the casein- and whey-re-fed rats suggests a better growth potential with milk-based diets. These results suggest that whey may lead to slower bone growth with reduced weight gain and, as such, may serve to circumvent long-term complications of CU growth.

  6. Steroidogenesis in the testes and the adrenals of adult male rats after γ-irradiation in utero at late pregnancy

    Suzuki, Keiko; Takahashi, Masakazu; Ishii-Ohba, Hiroko; Ikeda, Kiyomi; Inano, Hiroshi

    1990-01-01

    Pregnant rats were irradiated with 2.1Gy γ-ray of 60 Co at day 20 of gestation. Seventy days after birth, the body weight of the fetally irradiated male pups was significantly lower than the control. The testes, ventral prostates and seminal vesicles were atrophied by irradiation, whereas no decreased weight of the adrenals was observed. Histological examination of the testes of the irradiated rats revealed a complete disappearance of germinal cells. Sertoli cells and Leydig cells appeared normal, and no apparent histological difference was observed in the adrenals between the control and the irradiated rats. Examination of steroidgenesis in testes and adrenals led to the conclusion that irreversible damage was induced in spermatogenesis and androgen production by the fetal irradiation, whereas corticoidogenesis was not affected. (author)

  7. Toluene effects on the motor activity of adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent male Brown Norway rats.

    MacPhail, R C; Farmer, J D; Jarema, K A

    2012-01-01

    Life stage is an important risk factor for toxicity. Children and aging adults, for example, are more susceptible to certain chemicals than are young adults. In comparison to children, relatively little is known about susceptibility in older adults. Additionally, few studies have compared toxicant susceptibility across a broad range of life stages. Results are presented for behavioral evaluations of male Brown Norway rats obtained as adolescents (1 month), or young (4 months), middle-age (12 months) and senescent (24 months) adults. Motor activity was evaluated in photocell devices during 30-min sessions. Age-related baseline characteristics and sensitivity to toluene (0, 300, 650, or 1000mg/kg, p.o.) were determined. In Experiment 1, young-adult, middle-age and senescent rats were treated with corn-oil vehicle before five weekly test sessions. Baselines of horizontal and vertical activity decreased with age, but each age-group's averages remained stable across weeks of testing. Baseline activity of older rats was more variable than that of the young adults; older rats were also more variable individually from week to week. Toluene (1000mg/kg) increased horizontal activity proportionately more in senescent rats (ca. 300% of control) than in middle-age or young-adult rats (ca.145-175% of control). Experiment 2 established toluene dose-effect functions in individual adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent rats; each rat received all treatments, counterbalanced across four weekly sessions. Toluene produced dose-related increases in horizontal activity that increased proportionately with age. Experiment 3 replicated the effects of toluene (1000mg/kg) in Experiment 1, showing that toluene-induced increases in horizontal activity were greatest in the oldest rats. Collectively, the results show that aging increased susceptibility to toluene and also increased variability in toluene response. Given the rapid growth of the aged population, further research is

  8. Protective Effects of Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid in Lead Acetate Exposed Diabetic Male Rats: Evaluation of Blood Biochemical Parameters and Testicular Histopathology

    Alireza AYOUBI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of vitamin C against lead toxicity by measuring the blood parameters and studying histopathology of testis in diabetic male rats. Wister rats (42 were randomly assigned into7 groups: I healthy; II fed lead acetate only; III vitamin C administered only; IV diabetic; V diabetic rats administered by vitamin C; VI diabetic rats given lead acetate and VII diabetic rats received lead acetate and vitamin C. The diabetic and lead groups had higher glucose, cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and lower insulin and HDL concentration than the control group. It was found that vitamin C administration led to a lower level of blood glucose, cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides and higher HDL concentration in diabetic rats significantly. It was concluded that the antioxidant property of vitamin C resulted in reducing the oxidative stress complications of toxic levels of lead acetate in diabetic rats.

  9. Effects of Nicotine Exposure on In Vitro Metabolism of Chlorpyrifos in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Lee, Sookwang; Busby, Andrea L.; Timchalk, Charles; Poet, Torka S.

    2009-01-30

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a common organophosphate (OP) insecticide which is metabolized by CYP450s to the neurotoxic metabolite, chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPF-oxon) and a non-toxic metabolite, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP). The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of repeated in vivo nicotine exposures on CPF in vitro metabolism and marker substrate activities in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed subcutaneously with 1 mg nicotine/kg/, for up to 10 days. Animals showed signs of cholinergic crisis after the initial nicotine doses, but exhibited adaptation after a couple days of treatment. Rats were sacrificed on selected days 4 or 24 hr after the last nicotine-treatment. While CYP450 reduced CO spectra were not different across the treatments, the single nicotine dose group showed a 2-fold increase in CYP2E1 marker substrate (p-nitrophenol) activity 24 hr after a single nicotine treatment compared to saline controls. Conversely, repeated nicotine treatments resulted in decreased EROD marker substrate activity 4 hr after the 7th day of treatment. CPF-oxon Vmax and Km did not show significant changes across the different nicotine treatment groups. The Vmax describing the metabolism of CPF to TCP was increased on all groups (days 1, 7, and 10) 24 hr after nicotine treatment but were unchanged 4 hr after nicotine treatment. Results of this in vitro study suggest that repeated nicotine exposure (i.e., from smoking) may result in altered metabolism of CPF. Future in vivo experiments based on these results will be conducted to ascertain the impact of in vivo nicotine exposures on CPF metabolism in rats.

  10. Different stress modalities result in distinct steroid hormone responses by male rats

    M.L. Andersen

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Since both paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD and stress alter male reproductive function, the purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of PSD and other stressors (restraint, electrical footshock, cold and forced swimming, N = 10 per group on steroid hormones in adult Wistar male rats. Rats were submitted to chronic stress for four days. The stressors (footshock, cold and forced swimming were applied twice a day, for periods of 1 h at 9:00 and 16:00 h. Restrained animals were maintained in plastic cylinders for 22 h/day whereas PSD was continuous. Hormone determination was measured by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (testosterone, competitive immunoassay (progesterone and by radioimmunoassay (corticosterone, estradiol, estrone. The findings indicate that PSD (13.7 ng/dl, footshock (31.7 ng/dl and cold (35.2 ng/dl led to lower testosterone levels compared to the swimming (370.4 ng/dl and control (371.4 ng/dl groups. However, progesterone levels were elevated in the footshock (4.5 ng/ml and PSD (5.4 ng/ml groups compared to control (1.6 ng/ml, swimming (1.1 ng/ml, cold (2.3 ng/ml, and restrained (1.2 ng/ml animals. Estrone and estradiol levels were reduced in the PSD, footshock and restraint groups compared to the control, swimming and cold groups. A significant increase in corticosterone levels was found only in the PSD (299.8 ng/ml and footshock (169.6 ng/ml groups. These changes may be thought to be the full steroidal response to stress of significant intensity. Thus, the data suggest that different stress modalities result in distinct steroid hormone responses, with PSD and footshock being the most similar.

  11. Effects of GSM modulated radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation on permeability of blood-brain barrier in male & female rats.

    Sırav, Bahriye; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-09-01

    With the increased use of mobile phones, their biological and health effects have become more important. Usage of mobile phones near the head increases the possibility of effects on brain tissue. This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of pulse modulated 900MHz and 1800MHz radio-frequency radiation on the permeability of blood-brain barrier of rats. Study was performed with 6 groups of young adult male and female wistar albino rats. The permeability of blood-brain barrier to intravenously injected evans blue dye was quantitatively examined for both control and radio-frequency radiarion exposed groups. For male groups; Evans blue content in the whole brain was found to be 0.08±0.01mg% in the control, 0.13±0.03mg% in 900MHz exposed and 0.26±0.05mg% in 1800MHz exposed animals. In both male radio-frequency radiation exposed groups, the permeability of blood-brain barrier found to be increased with respect to the controls (pradiation exposure was found more effective on the male animals (p0.01). However 900MHz pulse modulated radio-frequency exposure was found effective on the permeability of blood-brain barrier of female animals. Results have shown that 20min pulse modulated radio-frequency radiation exposure of 900MHz and 1800MHz induces an effect and increases the permeability of blood-brain barrier of male rats. For females, 900MHz was found effective and it could be concluded that this result may due to the physiological differences between female and male animals. The results of this study suggest that mobile phone radation could lead to increase the permeability of blood-brain barrier under non-thermal exposure levels. More studies are needed to demonstrate the mechanisms of that breakdown. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Protective role of ginger on lead induced derangement in plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels of male sprague dawley rats

    Riaz, F.; Ayub, M.; Shaukat, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lead is one of the most serious environmental threats to human health especially in developing countries. It damages multiple body systems including the reproductive system. Ginger's antioxidant and androgenic activity is reported in multiple animal studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effect of Zingiber officinale (ginger) on lead induced derangement in plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels of male rats. Methods: Sixty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used in this study in four groups. Group A served as normal control, Group B received 0.3% lead acetate in drinking water, Group C and group D received supplementary 0.5 and 1 gm/Kg bodyweight of ginger respectively along with lead acetate in drinking water. Five rats from each group were sacrificed at the end of 2nd, 4th and 6th weeks. Serum testosterone and LH levels were analysed using ELISA technique. Results: After co administration with different doses of ginger, serum testosterone level which was significantly decreased in lead treated group, showed a significant rise as compared to lead treated group. LH levels which had exhibited no significant change by lead treatment, after co administration with different doses of ginger, again showed no significant change. Conclusion: Oral administration of ginger ameliorated lead induced testicular toxicity in male rats by increasing serum testosterone level at all durations which might be a product of both its androgenic and antioxidant properties. (author)

  13. Effect of epimedium pubescen flavonoid on bone mineral status and bone turnover in male rats chronically exposed to cigarette smoke.

    Gao, Shu-guang; Cheng, Ling; Li, Kang-hua; Liu, Wen-He; Xu, Mai; Jiang, Wei; Wei, Li-Cheng; Zhang, Fang-jie; Xiao, Wen-feng; Xiong, Yi-lin; Tian, Jian; Zeng, Chao; Sun, Jin-peng; Xie, Qiang; Lei, Guang-hua

    2012-06-19

    Epimedii herba is one of the most frequently used herbs in formulas that are prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and its main constituent is Epimedium pubescen flavonoid (EPF). However, it is unclear whether EPF during chronic exposure to cigarette smoke may have a protective influence on the skeleton. The present study investigated the effect of EPF on bone mineral status and bone turnover in a rat model of human relatively high exposure to cigarette smoke. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: controls, passive smoking groups and passive smoking rats administered EPF at three dosage levels (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day) in drinking water for 4 months. A rat model of passive smoking was prepared by breeding male rats in a cigarette-smoking box. Bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover markers, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical properties were examined. Smoke exposure decreased BMC and BMD, increased bone turnover (inhibited bone formation and stimulated its resorption), affected bone histomorphometry (increased trabecular separation and osteoclast surface per bone surface; decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, cortical thickness, bone formation rate and osteoblast surface per bone surface), and reduced mechanical properties. EPF supplementation during cigarette smoke exposure prevented smoke-induced changes in bone mineral status and bone turnover. The results suggest that EPF can prevent the adverse effects of smoke exposure on bone by stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone turnover and bone resorption.

  14. Endocrine processes underlying victory and defeat in the male rat

    Schuurman, Teunis

    1981-01-01

    The central questions of the present study were:1. does base line hormonal state determine agonistic behavior in male-male encounters? 2. does agonistic behavior affect hormonal state? Such an interrelationship between agonistic behavior and hormonal processes might serve as a regulatory system for

  15. Radioiron utilization and gossypol acetic acid in male rats

    Tone, J.N.; Jensen, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    The 24-h incorporation of 59 Fe into circulating red blood cells, bone marrow, urine, liver, spleen, and skeletal muscle was measured in splenectomized and sham-splenectomized rats which had received a daily, oral dose of gossypol acetic acid (20 mg GAA/kg body wt) for 91 days. A significant decrease in total body weight gain was observed in all GAA treated animals. Splenectomized rats dosed with GAA exhibited a significant decrease in hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit and erythrocyte count. A significant increase in 59 Fe incorporation by red blood cells and a decrease in hepatic incorporation of 59 Fe indicate a preferential utilization of iron in erythropoiesis among GAA treated animals

  16. The Effects of Lead Acetate on Sexual Behavior and the Level of Testosterone in Adult Male Rats

    Mokhtar Mokhtari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the present study, the oral effect of lead acetate on the parameters related to sexualbehavior as well as changes in the level of testosterone hormone in adult male rats have beeninvestigated.Materials and Methods: Forty adult male Wistar rats were allocated into five equal groups. Thecontrol group received nothing, the sham group received distilled water and the experimentalgroups received 25, 50 and 100mg/kg lead acetate orally, respectively for 28 days. The changesin testosterone hormone level and following sexual behavior parameters were investigated: mountlatency (ML, intromission latency (IL, post ejaculatory interval (PEI, mount frequency (MF,ejaculatory latency (EL, intromission frequency (IF, copulatory efficacy (CE and intercopulatoryinterval (ICI.Results: The levels of testosterone hormone in the groups that received 50 and 100 mg/kg leadacetate showed significant decreases in compared to the control group. Additionally, the same dosesof lead acetate caused significant increases in ML, IL, PEI and EL compared to the control group.No significant change was observed in MF, but a significant decrease was detected in IF and CEin the experimental group that received 100 mg/kg lead acetate when compared with the controlgroup. ICI showed significant decreases in the experimental groups that received 50 and 100 mg/kglead acetate compared to the control group.Conclusion: It can be concluded that ingestion of lead acetate affects some behavioral activitiesand the testosterone level of male rats. These effects might be conducted via the alteration of leydigcells following lead acetate poisoning.

  17. Interaction of angiotensin II with dispersed cells from the anterior pituitary of the male rat

    Paglin, S.; Stukenbrok, H.; Jamieson, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Membranes from 6-week-old male rat anterior pituitaries possess saturable binding sites for angiotensin II (AII; Kd . approximately 2 X 10(-9) M). The binding is specific since it can be competed for with [Sar1,Leu8]AII and is unaffected by the presence of insulin or cholecystokinin octapeptide at nanomolar concentrations. To find out which cell types specifically interact with AII, rat anterior pituitaries were enzymatically dispersed and exposed to [ 125 I]iodo-AII (2 nM) in the absence or presence of [Sar1,Leu8]AII (400 nM). The cells were then washed free of unbound ligand and processed for light and electron microscopic autoradiography. Distribution of autoradiographic grains revealed that three cell types were specifically labeled with [ 125 I]iodo-AII, namely mammotrophs, corticotrophs, and presumptive thyrotrophs. These cells were all labeled in the presence of [ 125 I]iodo-AII alone (experimentals), whereas only 10-30% of them were labeled when 400 nM [Sar1,Leu8]AII was included in the binding reaction (controls). The number of grains over the labeled cells in the controls was 20% of that found in the experimental cells. These results may imply that AII can regulate anterior pituitary functions under physiological conditions by interacting directly with its secretory cells

  18. Vitamin E improved bone strength and bone minerals in male rats given alcohol

    Syuhada Zakaria

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Alcohol consumption induces oxidative stress on bone, which in turn increases the risk of osteoporosis. This study determined the effects of vitamin E on bone strength and bone mineral content in alcohol-induced osteoporotic rats. Materials and Methods: Three months old Sprague Dawley male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: (I control group; (II alcohol (3 g/kg + normal saline; (III alcohol (3 g/kg + olive oil; (IV alcohol (3 g/kg + alpha-tocopherol (60 mg/kg and (V alcohol (3 g/kg + palm vitamin E (60 mg/kg. The treatment lasted for three months. Following sacrifice, the right tibia was subjected to bone biomechanical test while the lumbar (fourth and fifth lumbar and left tibia bones were harvested for bone mineral measurement. Results: Alcohol caused reduction in bone biomechanical parameters (maximum force, ultimate stress, yield stress and Young’s modulus and bone minerals (bone calcium and magnesium compared to control group (P

  19. Neural input is critical for arcuate hypothalamic neurons to mount intracellular signaling responses to systemic insulin and deoxyglucose challenges in male rats: implications for communication within feeding and metabolic control networks.

    Khan, Arshad M; Walker, Ellen M; Dominguez, Nicole; Watts, Alan G

    2014-02-01

    The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARH) controls rat feeding behavior in part through peptidergic neurons projecting to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVH). Hindbrain catecholaminergic (CA) neurons innervate both the PVH and ARH, and ablation of CA afferents to PVH neuroendocrine neurons prevents them from mounting cellular responses to systemic metabolic challenges such as insulin or 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG). Here, we asked whether ablating CA afferents also limits their ARH responses to the same challenges or alters ARH connectivity with the PVH. We examined ARH neurons for three features: (1) CA afferents, visualized by dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH)- immunoreactivity; (2) activation by systemic metabolic challenge, as measured by increased numbers of neurons immunoreactive (ir) for phosphorylated ERK1/2 (pERK1/2); and (3) density of PVH-targeted axons immunoreactive for the feeding control peptides Agouti-related peptide and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (αMSH). Loss of PVH DBH immunoreactivity resulted in concomitant ARH reductions of DBH-ir and pERK1/2-ir neurons in the medial ARH, where AgRP neurons are enriched. In contrast, pERK1/2 immunoreactivity after systemic metabolic challenge was absent in αMSH-ir ARH neurons. Yet surprisingly, axonal αMSH immunoreactivity in the PVH was markedly increased in CA-ablated animals. These results indicate that (1) intrinsic ARH activity is insufficient to recruit pERK1/2-ir ARH neurons during systemic metabolic challenges (rather, hindbrain-originating CA neurons are required); and (2) rats may compensate for a loss of CA innervation to the ARH and PVH by increased expression of αMSH. These findings highlight the existence of a hierarchical dependence for ARH responses to neural and humoral signals that influence feeding behavior and metabolism.

  20. Radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from cell phone causes defective testicular function in male Wistar rats.

    Oyewopo, A O; Olaniyi, S K; Oyewopo, C I; Jimoh, A T

    2017-12-01

    Cell phones have become an integral part of everyday life. As cell phone usage has become more widespread, concerns have increased regarding the harmful effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from these devices. The current study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the emitted radiation by cell phones on testicular histomorphometry and biochemical analyses. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 180-200 g were randomly allotted to control, group A (switched off mode exposure), group B (1-hr exposure), group C (2-hr exposure) and group D (3-hr exposure). The animals were exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation of cell phone for a period of 28 days. Histomorphometry, biochemical and histological investigations were carried out. The histomorphometric parameters showed no significant change (p electromagnetic radiation of cell phone leads to defective testicular function that is associated with increased oxidative stress and decreased gonadotropic hormonal profile. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Developmental toxicity of toluene in male rats: effects on semen quality, testis morphology, and apoptotic neurodegeneration

    Dalgaard, M.; Hossaini, A.; Hougaard, K.S.

    2001-01-01

    , the number of apoptotic cells in the hippocampus and cerebellum were counted after visualisation by means of the TUNEL assay. Mean body weight in pups of exposed darns was lower than in pops from control litters. This decrease was still statistically significant at PND 11, but at PND 21 and 90 the body...... in the toluene-exposed group. Thus, the granular cell layer in cerebellum is a highly relevant tissue with which to study toluene-induced apoptosis, because of the continuous migration of neurons and high frequency of neuronal apoptosis during the weaning period. In summary, it is concluded, that neither pre......- and postnatal exposure to 1200 ppm toluene nor prenatal exposure to 1800 ppm induced significant effects on the reproductive parameters investigated. However, prenatal exposure to 1800 ppm toluene did increase neuronal apoptosis in the cerebellum of weaned male rats, possibly by delaying postnatal migration...

  2. Evaluation of the potential Toxicity and Interaction of Methomyl and Diazinon Insecticides in Male Rats

    Hanna, L.A.; Fayez, V.

    2003-01-01

    The toxic effect of methomyl and/or diazinon given orally to male rats for 4 consecutive days at the level of 20% of their LD 50 , was investigated. Methomyl did not affect plasma choline esterase (Ch E) after four days of treatment. Serum testosterone, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma glutamyl transferase (gamma G T) were decreased, while bilirubin alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and uric acid were increased. Serum creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) was increased significantly while creatinine was not affected. Diazinon caused substantial decline in plasma Ch E activity after four days of treatment. Serum creatinine phosphokinase and testosterone were altered significantly while lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine levels were comparable to controls. Serum bilirubin, ALP and uric acid were increased while gamma G T was decreased. Co administration of the two insecticides lowered plasma Ch E activity more than diazinon did. The combined effect on CPK, ALP, testosterone, bilirubin and uric acid was greater than that produced from each insecticide acting independently

  3. The effect of food restriction on learning and memory of male Wistar rats: A behavioral analysis

    Mohammad Reza Vaez Mahdavi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Social inequality may have a significant negative effect on health. There are some evidences that social inequality and stressful conditions could lead to development and progression of various disorders. On the other hand, the results of some research studies have shown that reducing the consumed calorie could prolong the lifetime. In addition, limiting the consumed calorie could produce beneficial changes in the level of some hormones including blood insulin and may reduce body temperature. Meanwhile, food restriction could reduce genetic damage and may have protective effect against external toxins. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of food restriction on learning and memory of male rats using passive avoidance and Y-maze tests. Methods: For this purpose, male Wistar rats (n = 48 were divided into control, 3 experimental, and two negative and positive control groups. Control group received normal rat regimen for 6 weeks. The group with full restriction and non-isolated received 1/3 of the food regimen. The group with full restriction and isolation received 1/3 of the food regimen. The experimental group with two-weeks food restriction and non-isolated received 1/3 of the food regimen only for two weeks. Streptozotocin-diabetic rats with blood glucose higher than 250 mg/dl was considered as negative and positive control received vitamin E (10 mg/kg/day i.p. as an antioxidant. For evaluation of learning and memory, initial and step-through latencies and alternation behavior were analyzed using passive avoidance and Y-maze tests. Results: Regarding initial latency, there was a reduction in diabetic, vitamin-E treated, and group with 2-weeks food restriction and there was an increase in groups with full restriction and isolated and with full restriction as compared to control. Meanwhile, there were no significant differences among the groups, indicating that there were no changes in behavior

  4. Effect of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in the adult wistar male rats

    M R Sailani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of alcohol extracts of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa that were used traditionally in medieval Persian medicine as male contraceptive drugs, on spermatogenesis in the adult male rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extracts of these plants were obtained by the maceration method. The male rats were injected intraperitionaly with C. sativa and R. graveolens 5% ethanol extracts at dose of 20 mg/day for 20 consecutive days, respectively. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, testicular function was assessed by epididymal sperm count. Result: The statistical results showed that the ethanol extracts of these plants reduced the number of sperms significantly ( P =0.00 in the treatment groups in comparison to the control group. The results also showed that the group, treated by extract of R. graveolens reduced spermatogenesis more than the group treated by extracts of C. sativa . Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the spermatogenesis reducing properties of the ethanol extracts of R. graveolens and C. sativa in the adult male wistar rats but more studies are necessary to reveal the mechanism of action that is involved in spermatogenesis.

  5. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: A BNCT approach

    Goodarzi, Samereh, E-mail: samere.g@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pazirandeh, Ali, E-mail: paziran@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin, E-mail: behnamjameie@tums.ac.ir [Basic Science Department, Faculty of Allied Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baghban Khojasteh, Nasrin, E-mail: khojasteh_n@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron distribution in male and female rats' normal brain was studied in this research. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coronal sections of animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alpha and Lithium tracks were counted using alpha autoradiography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different boron concentration was seen in brain sections of male and female rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The highest boron concentration was seen in 4 h after boron compound injection.

  6. Effects of amlodipine on bone metabolism in male albino Wistar rats

    Iveta Gradošová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Amlodipine (dihydropyridine-type calcium channel blocker is a widely used agent for the treatment of hypertension in human and veterinary medicine but detailed information about its effects on bone metabolism are missing. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of amlodipine on bone metabolism in male albino Wistar rats. Amlodipine (0.3 mg/100 g body weight; gavage was administered to 8 rats for 8 weeks. Control group (n = 8 received aqua pro inj. (0.2 ml/100 g body weight; gavage. Bone marker concentrations of carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I and aminoterminal propeptide of procollagen type I in serum, and of bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP in both serum and bone homogenate were measured by enzyme immunoassay. We investigated the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 in proximal tibia using Western blotting, and bone mineral density was measured by Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry in lumbar and caudal vertebrae and in femoral areas. Mechanical properties of the femurs were measured by three-point bending of the shaft and compression testing of the femoral neck. After 8 weeks of amlodipine administration there was a significant decrease in serum concentrations of BALP (p = 0.0009 and CTX-I (p = 0.003, and the content of BALP in bone homogenate (p = 0.026 compared to the control. In addition, Western blot analysis indicated increased BMP-2 protein concentration after amlodipine administration. Our findings suggest that amlodipine has a retarding influence on bone metabolism in rats by decreasing bone turnover, which probably in consequence increases expression of BMP-2.

  7. Effects of protein restriction, melatonin administration, and short daylength on brain benzodiazepine receptors in prepubertal male rats

    Kennaway, D.J.; Royles, P.; Webb, H.; Carbone, F.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility that there are changes in brain benzodiazepine binding sites controlled by photoperiod was investigated in two strains of male rats. The hypothesis was tested by 3H-diazepam binding studies in various brain regions of prepubertal rats maintained in 14 or 10 h of light or treated with late-afternoon injections of melatonin (50 micrograms/day). Protein restriction was applied during the experiment to sensitize the animals to the treatments. Under the conditions employed, rats kept in short daylength throughout or kept on long photoperiod and given late-afternoon melatonin injections showed evidence of delayed puberty (seminal vesicle, ventral prostate, and testis weight decreased by 45%, 55%, and 60% respectively, compared to control rats). Binding measurements were made 1 h before and 2 and 5 h after the onset of darkness in the pubertal (42-day-old) or experimentally prepubertal rats. In the rats of the Porton strain (for which protein restriction was obligatory for the gonadal response) there was no consistent treatment or time effects on specific binding of 3H-diazepam to washed membranes of the hypothalamus, midbrain, or striatum. Similarly, there were no differences in the stimulation of 3H-diazepam binding by 100 microM GABA or the inhibition of binding by 50 microM N-acetyl 5 methoxy kynurenamine. By contrast, in Wistar rats, specific binding to midbrain membranes was reduced 5 h after dark compared to 2 h (37% saline; 20% melatonin) and the extent of stimulation by GABA in the hypothalamus was increased 5 h after darkness (35.6% to 46.7% saline; 37.4% to 50% melatonin). Melatonin treatment resulted in significantly higher specific binding in the hypothalamus 2 h after dark (10%, control fed; 20%, protein restricted) but reduced the GABA induced stimulation of binding in the midbrain (35.5% to 25%, control fed; 33.7% to 23.5%, protein restricted)

  8. Transient reversal of olfactory preference following castration in male rats: Implication for estrogen receptor involvement.

    Xiao, Kai; Chiba, Atsuhiko; Sakuma, Yasuo; Kondo, Yasuhiko

    2015-12-01

    We examined the effects of the sex steroid milieu on sexual odor preference of sexually-experienced male rats using an alternate choice paradigm after endocrine manipulations. Gonadally intact (GI) males showed a male typical preference, i.e. spent longer time sniffing estrous females than males or ovariectomized females. At 1-2 weeks after orchidectomy (ORx), the males exhibited a transient preference for sexually vigorous males, a female typical preference pattern, followed by a total loss of preference after 4 weeks. Subcutaneous implantation of a Silastic capsule containing formestane (4-OHA), an aromatase inhibitor, had no effect on the preference of gonadally intact rats, but successfully prevented the emergence of the female typical preference after ORx. Capsules containing testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), or estradiol benzoate (EB), but not those with cholesterol (CH), restored masculine typical preference in ORx males at 2 weeks after the placement. The feminine preference for males was observed at 2-3 weeks after removal of T or EB capsules, but not by the removal of DHT and CH capsules. The results suggest that either exogenous androgen or estrogen maintains the masculine typical odor preference. Estrogen itself or produced through aromatization of circulating T, induces a transient feminine typical preference at a certain decreased titer during its disappearance from the circulation. Estrogen at different titers might determine appearance of masculine or feminine typical olfactory preference in adult ORx rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Modulating effect of the nootropic drug, piracetam on stress- and subsequent morphine-induced prolactin secretion in male rats.

    Matton, A.; Engelborghs, S.; Bollengier, F.; Finné, E.; Vanhaeist, L.

    1996-01-01

    1. The effect of the nootropic drug, piracetam on stress- and subsequent morphine-induced prolactin (PRL) secretion was investigated in vivo in male rats, by use of a stress-free blood sampling and drug administration method by means of a permanent indwelling catheter in the right jugular vein. 2. Four doses of piracetam were tested (20, 100, 200 and 400 mg kg-1), being given intraperitoneally 1 h before blood sampling; control rats received saline instead. After a first blood sample, rats were subjected to immobilization stress and received morphine, 6 mg kg-1, 90 min later. 3. Piracetam had no effect on basal plasma PRL concentration. 4. While in the non-piracetam-treated rats, stress produced a significant rise in plasma PRL concentration, in the piracetam-pretreated rats PRL peaks were attenuated, especially in the group given 100 mg kg-1 piracetam, where plasma PRL concentration was not significantly different from basal values. The dose-response relationship showed a U-shaped curve; the smallest dose had a minor inhibitory effect and the highest dose had no further effect on the PRL rise. 5. In unrestrained rats, morphine led to a significant elevation of plasma PRL concentration. After the application of immobilization stress it lost its ability to raise plasma PRL concentration in the control rats, but not in the piracetam-treated rats. This tolerance was overcome by piracetam in a significant manner but with a reversed dose-response curve; i.e. the smaller the dose of piracetam, the higher the subsequent morphine-induced PRL peak. 6. There is no simple explanation for the mechanism by which piracetam induces these contradictory effects. Interference with the excitatory amino acid system, which is also involved in opiate action, is proposed speculatively as a possible mediator of the effects of piracetam. PMID:8821540

  10. Black Seed Thymoquinone Improved Insulin Secretion, Hepatic Glycogen Storage, and Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Rats

    Heba M. A. Abdelrazek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the metabolic diseases having several complications. Nigella sativa oil (NSO might have beneficial effects in the treatment of diabetic complications. Thirty-two mature male Wistar rats were equally divided into four experimental groups: control, control NSO 2 mL/kg, streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic, and diabetic (STZ-induced treated with oral NSO 2 mg/kg for 30 days. Fasting blood glucose (FBG, insulin, and lipid profile levels were determined. Pancreatic and hepatic tissues were used for catalase and GSH. Histopathology, hepatic glycogen contents, insulin immunohistochemistry, and pancreatic islet morphometry were performed. NSO 2 mL/kg was noticed to decrease (P<0.05 FBG and increase (P<0.05 insulin levels in diabetic rats than in diabetic nontreated animals. Lipid profile showed significant (P<0.5 improvement in diabetic rats that received NSO 2 mL/kg than in the diabetic group. Both pancreatic and hepatic catalase and GSH activities revealed a significant (P<0.05 increment in the diabetic group treated with NSO than in the diabetic animals. NSO improved the histopathological picture and hepatic glycogen contents of the diabetic group as well as increased (P<0.05 insulin immunoreactive parts % and mean pancreatic islet diameter. NSO exerts ameliorative and therapeutic effects on the STZ-induced diabetic male Wistar rats.

  11. Combined effects of chronic hyperglycaemia and oral aluminium intoxication on testicular tissue and some male reproductive parameters in Wistar rats.

    Akinola, O B; Biliaminu, S A; Adedeji, O G; Oluwaseun, B S; Olawoyin, O M; Adelabu, T A

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to either environmental toxicants or chronic hyperglycaemia could impair male reproductive function. However, the extent to which exposure to such toxicants, in the presence of pre-existing metabolic dysfunction, could affect male reproduction is unclear. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were exposed to oral aluminium chloride at 250 ppm for 30 days; followed by evaluation of caudal epididymal sperm count and motility, assay for serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone (T) and oestradiol; and assessment of testicular histology. Moreover, blood glucose was evaluated by the glucose oxidase method. In rats treated with streptozotocin (STZ) or aluminium (Al) alone, erosion of testicular parenchyma and stroma was observed. This effect was most severe in diabetic rats simultaneously exposed to Al; coupled with reduced caudal epididymal sperm count that was least in this (STZ+Al) group (18.75 × 10(6)  ml(-1) ) compared with controls (61.25 × 10(6)  ml(-1) ; P < 0.05), STZ group or Al group. Moreover, these reproductive perturbations (in the STZ+Al group) were associated with reduced sperm motility and significantly reduced serum FSH (P < 0.05); but elevated serum T and oestradiol (P < 0.05), compared with control. These suggest that diabetes-induced testicular lesion is exacerbated by simultaneous oral Al toxicity in Wistar rats. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Adolescent voluntary exercise attenuated hippocampal innate immunity responses and depressive-like behaviors following maternal separation stress in male rats.

    Sadeghi, Mahsa; Peeri, Maghsoud; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal

    2016-09-01

    Early life stressful events have detrimental effects on the brain and behavior, which are associated with the development of depression. Immune-inflammatory responses have been reported to contribute in the pathophysiology of depression. Many studies have reported on the beneficial effects of exercise against stress. However, underlying mechanisms through which exercise exerts its effects were poorly studied. Therefore, it applied maternal separation (MS), as a valid animal model of early-life adversity, in rats from postnatal day (PND) 2 to 14 for 180min per day. At PND 28, male Wistar albino rats were subjected to 5 experimental groups; 1) controls 2) MS rats 3) MS rats treated with fluoxetine 5mg/kg to PND 60, 4) MS rats that were subjected to voluntary running wheel (RW) exercise and 5) MS rats that were subjected to mandatory treadmill (TM) exercise until adulthood. At PND 60, depressive-like behaviors were assessed by using forced swimming test (FST), splash test, and sucrose preference test (SPT). Our results revealed that depressive-like behaviors following MS stress were associated with an increase in expression of toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr-4) and its main signaling protein, Myd88, in the hippocampal formation. Also, we found that voluntary (and not mandatory) physical exercise during adolescence is protected against depressant effects of early-life stress at least partly through mitigating the innate immune responses in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Maturation of kisspeptinergic neurons coincides with puberty onset in male rats

    Bentsen, Agnete H; Ansel, Laura; Simonneaux, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    receptor is the primary component in the initiation of puberty and where in the hypothalamus regulation of the kisspeptin/Kiss1R system occurs is unresolved. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we analyzed the level of Kiss1 mRNA and kisspeptin-immunoreactivity in the anteroventral...... periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and the arcuate nucleus of male rats along pubertal development. Neurons expressing Kiss1 mRNA were first detected at PND15, but increased significantly around puberty, and declined again in the adult rat. While virtually no immunoreactive cell bodies were detectable in the AVPV...... at any age, numerous kisspeptin-positive neurons in the arcuate nucleus were detected in the adult rat. Increasing doses of kisspeptin-54 given peripherally to male rats at PND15, 30, 45, and 60 evoked roughly similar effects, as revealed by the induction of c-Fos in the pituitary and secretion of LH...

  14. Prophylactic effect of coconut water (Cocos nucifera L.) on ethylene glycol induced nephrocalcinosis in male wistar rat.

    Gandhi, M; Aggarwal, M; Puri, S; Singla, S K

    2013-01-01

    Many medicinal plants have been employed during ages to treat urinary stones though the rationale behind their use is not well established. Thus, the present study was proposed to evaluate the effect of coconut water as a prophylactic agent in experimentally induced nephrolithiasis in a rat model. The male Wistar rats were divided randomly into three groups. Animals of group I (control) were fed standard rat diet. In group II, the animals were administrated 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for the induction of nephrolithiasis. Group III animals were administrated coconut water in addition to ethylene glycol. All the treatments were continued for a total duration of seven weeks. Treatment with coconut water inhibited crystal deposition in renal tissue as well as reduced the number of crystals in urine. Furthermore, coconut water also protected against impaired renal function and development of oxidative stress in the kidneys. The results indicate that coconut water could be a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis.

  15. Role of Mas receptor in renal blood flow response to angiotensin (1-7) in male and female rats.

    Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Safari, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic and clinical studies have shown that progression of renal disease in male is faster than that in female. However, the exact mechanisms are not well recognized. Angiotensin (1-7) (Ang 1-7) receptor, called "Mas", is an element in the depressor arm of renin angiotensin system (RAS), and its expression is enhanced in females. We test the hypothesis that Mas receptor (MasR) blockade (A779) attenuates renal blood flow (RBF) in response to infusion of graded doses of Ang 1-7 in female rats. Male and female Wistar rats were anesthetized and catheterized. Then, the mean arterial pressure (MAP), RBF, and controlled renal perfusion pressure (RPP) responses to infusion of graded doses of Ang 1-7 (100-1000 ng/kg/min i.v.) with and without A779 were measured in the animals. Basal MAP, RPP, RBF, and renal vascular resistance (RVR) were not significantly different between the two groups. After Ang 1-7 administration, RPP was controlled at a constant level. However, RBF increased in a dose-related manner in response to Ang 1-7 infusion in both male and female rats (Pdoserenal diseases.

  16. Effects of exposure to 50 Hz, 1 Gauss magnetic field on reproductive traits in male albino rats

    Islam M. Saadeldin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of extremely low frequency magnetic field ELF-MF (50 Hz/1 Gauss on male fertility were studied in rats. Twenty eight adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, 2 experimental groups exposed to magnetic field for 21 days and 2 control groups (sham exposed. The first exposed group was sacrificed at the end of the exposure period, and the second exposed group was kept for extra 48 days post exposure to assess the delayed effects of exposure. Significant decrease in the testes weights, sperm motility, sperm count, normal sperms and live sperms was detected in the exposed groups compared to control. Serum testosterone concentrations were significantly increased after 21 days of exposure, and then these changes were corrected after 48 days post exposure. Superoxide dismutase, catalase activities and α-tocopherol concentration were significantly decreased after 21 days of exposure, while the later became non-significant after 48 days post exposure. L-ascorbate concentration was significantly increased after 21 days of exposure, and returned to normal 48 days post exposure. Histopathological examination of the testis from the exposed rats showed a disruption in its architecture with an increase in Leydig cell number and activity, whereas 48 days post exposure, the testicular germ cell layers increased with presence of high apoptotic rates. In conclusion, prolonged exposure to 50 Hz, 1 Gauss MF is biologically toxic to the testicular functions with oxidative stress on spermatogenesis that subsequently may affect male fertility and his sexual efficiency.

  17. Ontogenic studies of the neural control of adenohypophyseal hormones in the rat: gonadotropins.

    Becú-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M; Libertun, C

    1990-12-01

    1. Serotonergic, dopaminergic, and opioid systems controlling luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion develop with particular characteristics in the male and female prepubertal rats. 2. Serotonergic pathways evoke a maximal release of LH and FSH in female rats from day 12 to day 20 of age, but not in males of the same age. 3. Antidopaminergic drugs increase LH and FSH levels only in the female infantile rats. This effect is absent at birth and disappears after 20 days of age. 4. Naloxone markedly increases gonadotropins in 12-day-old females. 5. On the other hand, in 12-day-old male rats some neurotropic drugs such as diazepam could enhance LH levels, the effect being absent at other ages or in female littermates. 6. A period of high sensitivity of gonadotropins to neurotropic drugs is present during the second and third weeks of life of the rat and it is related to the sexual differentiation of the brain.

  18. The Protective Effect of Omega-3 Against Thioacetamide Induced Lipid and Renal Dysfunction in Male Rats

    Davood Moghadamnia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Thioacetamide causes lipid and kidney dysfunction.Omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids prevent the progression of renal diseases. Objectives This study aimed to assess the protective effects of omega-3 fish oil supplement on thioacetamide induced lipid and kidney dysfunction in male rats. Methods In this experimental study, 42 male rats were divided into 6 groups of 7: control group sham group which received 0.4 mL olive oil as a solvent, Thioacetamide group receiving thioacetamide at a dose of 150 mg/kg once as intraperitoneal injection, Experimental groups of 1, 2 and 3 which received omega-3 fish oil supplement at the doses of 100, 200, 300 mg/kg orally for 3 months respectively and then they received thioacetamide at the dose of 150 mg/kg intraperitoneally for once. The levels of serum creatinine, BUN, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, FBS, triglyceride, sodium and potassium were measured. The pathological changes of tissue samples of the kidneys were studied after hematoxylin-eosin staining. The data were analyzed by SPSS-18 software and using one way ANOVA and Tukey as post hoc test. Significant level was considered to be P < 0.05. Results The mean serum levels of potassium in the second experimental group significantly decreased (5.26 ± 0.02 compared to the group receiving thioacetamide (6.50 ± 0. The mean serum sodium in all experimental groups decreased significantly compared to the group receiving thioacetamide. The mean serum levels of total cholesterol in experimental group 3 (66.80 ± 1.46 significantly decreased compared to the group receiving thioacetamide (84 ± 0.57. No significant changes were observed in the mean serum levels of FBS, BUN, HDL, LDL, triglycerides and creatinine in all experimental groups compared to the group receiving thioacetamide. All the experimental groups improved renal histological changes induced by thioacetamide and these protective effects were dose-dependent (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusions The results of

  19. Surgery and electrochemotherapy treatment of incompletely excised mammary carcinoma in two male pet rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    LANZA, Andrea; PETTORALI, Michela; BALDI, Alfonso; SPUGNINI, Enrico P.

    2017-01-01

    Two male rats (Rattus norvegicus; 18 and 24 months old), were referred for treatment of large masses located in the axillary area. Following total body radiography and hematological and serum biochemical analysis, the rats were anesthetized, and the masses were surgically removed. Both lesions were diagnosed as mammary carcinoma based on histopathological diagnosis. The tumor beds were treated with two sessions of electrochemotherapy (ECT), two weeks apart. ECT involved cisplatin administrati...

  20. Possible Outcome of Fenugreek Seeds Powder Administration on the Fertility of Female and Male Albino Rat

    Ibrahim, M F; El-Tawill, G.A., E-mail: gkyrillos@hotmail.co [Radiation Biology Department, National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2010-07-01

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an annual plant from the family of Papilionaceae-Leguminosae that has been credited with many medicinal properties. The current study aims to evaluate the possible fertility activity of fenugreek seeds powder on female and male albino rats. To achieve the theme, fenugreek seeds powder (200 mg/rat) were daily administered orally to both female and male Wistar rats for 15 and 30 consecutive days, after which the rats were sacrificed for both biochemical and histopathological observations. Fenugreek treatment significantly decreased the serum cholesterol levels in both female and male rats with a marked increase in the ovary and testis cholesterol levels following 30 days of consecutive administration. The circulating serum female hormones showed an initial elevation at the end of 15 days of fenugreek intake followed by a significant drop in the group of rats that continued to receive the daily fenugreek dose for 30 days. These observations were supported by the notable decline in the ovarian weights further validated by their ovarian histological sections revealing remarkable dissolution of some follicles and prominent abundance of inflammatory cells. In the 30 days interval treated males, the serum testosterone hormone concentrations significantly declined and the testis weights were reduced with evident damage to the seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissues as shown by the histopathological picture of testis tissue sections. Accordingly, it can be deduced that fenugreek seeds powder exert a significant antifertility adverse effect on the female and male rats when supplemented at a considerable dose for an extended time interval

  1. The control of male sexual responses.

    Courtois, Frédérique; Carrier, Serge; Charvier, Kathleen; Guertin, Pierre A; Journel, Nicolas Morel

    2013-01-01

    Male sexual responses are reflexes mediated by the spinal cord and modulated by neural circuitries involving both the peripheral and central nervous system. While the brain interact with the reflexes to allow perception of sexual sensations and to exert excitatory or inhibitory influences, penile reflexes can occur despite complete transections of the spinal cord, as demonstrated by the reviewed animal studies on spinalization and human studies on spinal cord injury. Neurophysiological and neuropharmacological substrates of the male sexual responses will be discussed in this review, starting with the spinal mediation of erection and its underlying mechanism with nitric oxide (NO), followed by the description of the ejaculation process, its neural mediation and its coordination by the spinal generator of ejaculation (SGE), followed by the occurrence of climax as a multisegmental sympathetic reflex discharge. Brain modulation of these reflexes will be discussed through neurophysiological evidence involving structures such as the medial preoptic area of hypothalamus (MPOA), the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), the periaqueductal gray (PAG), and the nucleus para-gigantocellularis (nPGI), and through neuropharmacological evidence involving neurotransmitters such as serotonin (5-HT), dopamine and oxytocin. The pharmacological developments based on these mechanisms to treat male sexual dysfunctions will complete this review, including phosphodiesterase (PDE-5) inhibitors and intracavernous injections (ICI) for the treatment of erectile dysfunctions (ED), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) for the treatment of premature ejaculation, and cholinesterase inhibitors as well as alpha adrenergic drugs for the treatment of anejaculation and retrograde ejaculation. Evidence from spinal cord injured studies will be highlighted upon each step.

  2. Alarm pheromone does not modulate 22-kHz calls in male rats.

    Muyama, Hiromi; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Inagaki, Hideaki; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2016-03-15

    Rats are known to emit a series of ultrasonic vocalizations, termed 22-kHz calls, when exposed to distressing stimuli. Pharmacological studies have indicated that anxiety mediates 22-kHz calls in distressed rats. We previously found that exposure to the rat alarm pheromone increases anxiety in rats. Therefore, we hypothesized that the alarm pheromone would increase 22-kHz calls in pheromone-exposed rats. Accordingly, we tested whether exposure to the alarm pheromone induced 22-kHz calls, as well as whether the alarm pheromone increased 22-kHz calls in response to an aversive conditioned stimulus (CS). Rats were first fear-conditioned to an auditory and contextual CS. On the following day, the rats were either exposed to the alarm pheromone or a control odor that was released from the neck region of odor-donor rats. Then, the rats were re-exposed to the aversive CS. The alarm pheromone neither induced 22-kHz calls nor increased 22-kHz calls in response to the aversive CS. In contrast, the control odor unexpectedly reduced the total number and duration of 22-kHz calls elicited by the aversive CS, as well as the duration of freezing. These results suggest that the alarm pheromone does not affect 22-kHz calls in rats. However, we may have found evidence for an appeasing olfactory signal, released from the neck region of odor-donor rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Can Ayahuasca and sleep loss change sexual performance in male rats?

    Alvarenga, T A; Polesel, D N; Matos, G; Garcia, V A; Costa, J L; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L

    2014-10-01

    The ingestion of the beverage Ayahuasca usually occurs in religious ceremonies that are performed during the night leading to sleep deprivation. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the acute effects of Ayahuasca upon the sexual response of sleep deprived male rats. One group of sexually experienced male Wistar rats were submitted to a paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) protocol for 96h, while another group spent the same amount of time in the home cage (CTRL). After this period, either saline or Ayahuasca drink (250, 500 and 1000μgmL(-1)) was administered by gavage and sexual behavior and hormonal concentrations were measured. Ayahuasca alone significantly decreased sexual performance at all doses. However, in sleep deprived rats, the lower dose increased sexual performance while the intermediate dose produced a detrimental effect on sexual response compared to the CTRL rats at the same dose. Regarding the hormonal analyses, a lower testosterone concentration was observed in sleep-deprived saline rats in relation to the CTRL group. Progesterone was significantly lower only in PSD rats at the dose 500μgmL(-1) compared with CTRL-500μgmL(-1) group. Corticosterone was unchanged among the groups evaluated. Our results suggest that Ayahuasca intake markedly impaired sexual performance alone, but, when combined with sleep deprivation, had significant, but heterogeneous, effects on male sexual response. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Effect of laminaria japonica polysaccharides (LJP) on radiation damage of testis tissue in male rats

    Ren Shicheng; Luo Qiong; Yang Mingliang; Yang Jiajuan; Yan Jun; Li Zhuoneng; Wang Lihong; Cui Xiaoyan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of laminaria japonica polysaccharides (LJP) on local radiation damage of testis tissue in male rats. Methods: The Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: the normal group, the model group, positive control group and LJP treatment group (50 mg·kg -1 ·d -1 ). LJP was applied to the treatment group for 10 d before local irradiation with γ-ray (6.0 Gy). The morphological change of the testis, organ index of testis and epididymides, sperm count, motility rate, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malonic aldehyde (MDA) contents were measured. Results: LJP could make the damaged testis recover to near normal, elevate the organ index of testis and epididymides, promote the sperm count and motility rate, increase the activity of SOD and decrease the contents of MDA in testis tissue. Conclusions: LJP could inhibit testis tissue damage induced by local radiation, hence enhance the significant radioprotective effect to testis tissue. LJP has the conspicuous protective effect on radiation damage of testis tissue. (authors)

  5. Effects of the neonicotinoid insecticide, clothianidin, on the reproductive organ system in adult male rats.

    Bal, Ramazan; Türk, Gaffari; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Yılmaz, Ökkes; Kuloğlu, Tuncay; Baydaş, Gıyasettin; Naziroğlu, Mustafa; Yener, Zabit; Etem, Ebru; Tuzcu, Zeynep

    2013-10-01

    Clothianidin (CTD) is a novel, broad-spectrum insecticide. In the current study, it was aimed to study the effect of subchronic exposure to low doses of CTD (2, 8 and 24 mg/kg body weight/day) on the reproductive system in adult rats. CTD treatment did not significantly change serum testosterone level or sperm parameters (e.g. concentration, motility and morphology), but caused significant decreases in weights of epididymis, right cauda epididymis and seminal vesicles. CTD treatment did not cause sperm DNA fragmentation and did not change the apoptotic index in the seminiferous tubules and levels of α-tocopherol and glutathione, but increased the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and cholesterol levels significantly at all doses. CTD exposure caused significant elevations in palmitic, linoleic and arachidonic acids in testis in all CTD-exposed groups. There was a drop in 20:4/18:2 (arachidonic acid/linoleic acid) ratio and an increase in 18:1n-9/18:0 (oleic acid/stearic acid) ratios in all CTD groups, in comparison to the control group. In conclusion, CTD had little detectable detrimental effects on the reproductive system of male rats over the measured parameters.

  6. Effects of chronic alternating cadmium exposure on the episodic secretion of prolactin in male rats

    Esquifino, A.I. [Madrid Univ. (Spain). Facultad de Medicina Complutense; Marquez, N.; Alvarez-Demanuel, E.; Lafuente, A. [Vigo Univ., Orense (Spain). Lab. de Toxicologia

    1998-07-01

    Cadmium increases or decreases prolactin secretion depending on the dose and duration of the exposure to the metal. However, whether there are cadmium effects on the episodic prolactin secretion is less well known. This study was undertaken to address whether chronic alternating exposure to two different doses of cadmium affects the episodic pattern of prolactin and to what extent the effects of cadmium are age-dependent. Male rats were treated s.c. with cadmium chloride (0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg) from day 30 to 60, or from day 60 to 90 of age, with alteration of the doses every 4 days, starting with the smaller dose. Controls received vehicle every 4 days. The last dose of cadmium was given 48 h prior to the pulsatility study. Prolactin secretion in the 4 experimental groups studied was episodic and changed significantly after cadmium exposure. Cadmium administration from day 30 to 60 of life significantly decreased the mean half-life of prolactin. On the other hand, when administered from day 60 to 90 cadmium significantly decreased the mean as well as serum prolactin levels and the absolute amplitude of the prolactin pulses, their duration, the relative amplitude or the mean half-life of the hormone. The frequency of prolactin peaks was not changed by cadmium administration. The results indicate that low intermittent doses of cadmium chronically administered change the episodic secretion pattern of prolactin in rats. The effects of cadmium on prolactin secretion were age dependent. (orig.)

  7. Effects of acrolein on the production of corticosterone in male rats.

    Yeh, Yung-Hsing; Chou, Jou-Chun; Weng, Ting-Chun; Lieu, Fu-Kong; Lin, Jou-Yu; Yeh, Chii-Chang; Hu, Sindy; Wang, Paulus S; Idova, Galina; Wang, Shyi-Wu

    2016-07-01

    Acrolein, an α, β-unsaturated aldehyde, exists in a wide range of sources. Acrolein can be not only generated from all types of smoke but also produced endogenously from the metabolism by lipid peroxidation. The cellular influence of acrolein is due to its electrophilic character via binding to and depleting cellular nucleophiles. Although the toxicity of acrolein has been extensively studied, there is relatively little information about its impact on hormone release. This study aimed at the effect of acrolein on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (H-P-A) axis. In an in vivo study, male rats were administrated with acrolein for 1 or 3days. The plasma corticosterone in response to a single injection of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) increased slowly in acrolein-pretreated rats than in control rats. Further investigating the steroidogenic pathway, the protein expressions of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and the upper receptor-melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) were attenuated in acrolein-treated groups. Another experiment using trilostane showed less activity of P450scc in zona fasciculata-reticularis (ZFR) cells in acrolein-treated groups. In addition to the suppressed ability of corticosterone production in ZFR cells, acrolein even had extended influence at higher concentrations. The lower ACTH was observed in the plasma from acrolein-pretreated rats. In an in vitro study, ZFR cells were incubated with acrolein and the results showed that corticosterone concentrations in media were decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Acrolein also desensitized the response of the ZFR cells to ACTH. These results suggested that acrolein decreased the releasing ability of corticosterone via an inhibition on the response of ZFR cells to ACTH and the reduction of protein expressions of StAR and MC2R as well as the activity of P450scc in rat ZFR cells. The present evidences showed that the H-P-A axis was affected by the administration of acrolein. Copyright © 2016

  8. Effect Of Extensive Use Of Garlic In Feed On Normal And Irradiated Stressed Male Rats

    KASSAB, F.M.A.; ABDEL-KHALEK, L.G.; KAMAL, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Fifty mature male albino rats were used in the present study to evaluate the effect of using crude garlic for one month on general heath condition and to compare between garlic intakes pre and post-irradiated stressed rats.Fresh minced cloves (8-10) of garlic were added to the rat diet twice per day for 30 days in garlic group and for 7 and 15 days prior to and after 4 Gy irradiation in pre and post-irradiated garlic groups, respectively. The results denoted that the extensive use of garlic in food improved the general condition in non-stressed rats while in irradiated stressed rats, the immediate intake of garlic after radiation was more efficient in ameliorating the undesirable radiation effects, where some biochemical and hematological parameters were examined in pre and post-garlic intake such as Hb, RBCs, platelets, T 3 , testosterone and insulin.

  9. Long-term effects of x-ray irradiation on reproductive function in male rats

    Varga, S.V.; Demchenko, V.N.; Chajkovskaya, L.V.; Reznikov, A.G.

    1994-01-01

    Reproductive function in male rats was studied in 1, 3 and 6 months after x-ray irradiation at doses of 2 and 3 Gy. It was been established that long-term effects of irradiation at a dose of 3 Gy are manifested through decrease in spermatozoa content in the epididymis and reduction of nucleie acid and protein content in the testes. Fertility of male rats under study significantly lowered shortly after irradiation and full recovery of fecundating ability was observed 6 months later. The effect of irradiation with a dose of 2 Gy was less pronounced

  10. SOCIAL PLAY BEHAVIOR IS ALTERED IN THE MALE RAT DUE TO PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO THE ANTIANDROGEN VINCLOZOLIN

    Abstract:During mammalian sexual differentiation, androgens, and specifically, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, are critical for the organization of the male phenotype. In rats, social play behavior is organized by androgens during the neonatal period. Males play more ...

  11. Relationship of adipocyte size to hyperphagia in developing male obese Zucker rats.

    Vasselli, J R; Fiene, J A; Maggio, C A

    1992-01-01

    In growing male obese Zucker rats, hyperphagia reaches a maximum or "breakpoint" and declines at an earlier age with high fat than with chow-type diets. A serial adipose tissue biopsy technique was used to correlate changes of retroperitoneal adipocyte size and feeding behavior in 5- to 7-wk-old male lean and obese rats fed laboratory chow or a 35% fat diet until 30 wk of age. Although chow-fed groups had significantly greater cumulative intake, fat-fed groups had significantly greater body weight gain, retroperitoneal depot weight, and adipocyte number. Mean adipocyte size increased continuously in chow-fed groups but decreased over weeks 20-30 in fat-fed groups, reflecting increased adipocyte number. In fat-fed obese rats, hyperphagia reached a breakpoint at 11 wk and disappeared by 13 wk. In chow-fed obese rats, hyperphagia reached a breakpoint at 15-16 wk and disappeared by 19 wk. Biopsy samples revealed that adipocyte size of fat-fed obese rats was already close to maximal at 10 wk (1.12 micrograms lipid), while that of chow-fed obese rats only approached maximal at 20 wk (0.81 microgram lipid). At these time points, lipoprotein lipase activity paralleled adipocyte size. These data indicate that the duration of the growing obese rat's hyperphagia coincides with adipocyte filling and suggest the existence of feeding stimulatory and inhibitory signals from adipose tissue.

  12. Behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences of juvenile stress combined with adult immobilization in male rats.

    Fuentes, Silvia; Carrasco, Javier; Armario, Antonio; Nadal, Roser

    2014-08-01

    Exposure to stress during childhood and adolescence increases vulnerability to developing several psychopathologies in adulthood and alters the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the prototypical stress system. Rodent models of juvenile stress appear to support this hypothesis because juvenile stress can result in reduced activity/exploration and enhanced anxiety, although results are not always consistent. Moreover, an in-depth characterization of changes in the HPA axis is lacking. In the present study, the long-lasting effects of juvenile stress on adult behavior and HPA function were evaluated in male rats. The juvenile stress consisted of a combination of stressors (cat odor, forced swim and footshock) during postnatal days 23-28. Juvenile stress reduced the maximum amplitude of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels (reduced peak at lights off), without affecting the circadian corticosterone rhythm, but other aspects of the HPA function (negative glucocorticoid feedback, responsiveness to further stressors and brain gene expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone and corticosteroid receptors) remained unaltered. The behavioral effects of juvenile stress itself at adulthood were modest (decreased activity in the circular corridor) with no evidence of enhanced anxiety. Imposition of an acute severe stressor (immobilization on boards, IMO) did not increase anxiety in control animals, as evaluated one week later in the elevated-plus maze (EPM), but it potentiated the acoustic startle response (ASR). However, acute IMO did enhance anxiety in the EPM, in juvenile stressed rats, thereby suggesting that juvenile stress sensitizes rats to the effects of additional stressors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Interaction between Antagonist of Cannabinoid Receptor and Antagonist of Adrenergic Receptor on Anxiety in Male Rat

    Alireza Komaki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anxiety is among the most common and treatable mental disorders. Adrenergic and cannabinoid systems have an important role in the neurobiology of anxiety. The elevated plus-maze (EPM has broadly been used to investigate anxiolytic and anxiogenic compounds. The present study investigated the effects of intraperitoneal (IP injection of cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist (AM251 in the presence of alpha-1 adrenergic antagonist (Prazosin on rat behavior in the EPM. Methods: In this study, the data were obtained from male Wistar rat, which weighing 200- 250 g. Animal behavior in EPM were videotaped and saved in computer for 10 min after IP injection of saline, AM251 (0.3 mg/kg, Prazosin (0.3 mg/kg and AM251 + Prazosin, subsequently scored for conventional indices of anxiety. During the test period, the number of open and closed arms entries, the percentage of entries into the open arms of the EPM, and the spent time in open and closed arms were recorded. Diazepam was considered as a positive control drug with anxiolytic effect (0.3, 0.6, 1.2 mg/kg. Results: Diazepam increased the number of open arm entries and the percentage of spent time on the open arms. IP injection of AM251 before EPM trial decreased open arms exploration and open arm entry. Whereas, Prazosin increased open arms exploration and open arm entry. This study showed that both substances in simultaneous injection have conflicting effects on the responses of each of these two compounds in a single injection. Discussion: Injection of CB1 receptor antagonist may have an anxiogenic profile in rat, whereas adrenergic antagonist has an anxiolytic effect. Further investigations are essential for better understanding of anxiolytic and anxiogenic properties and neurobiological mechanisms of action and probable interactions of the two systems.

  14. Interaction between Antagonist of Cannabinoid Receptor and Antagonist of Adrenergic Receptor on Anxiety in Male Rat.

    Komaki, Alireza; Abdollahzadeh, Fatemeh; Sarihi, Abdolrahman; Shahidi, Siamak; Salehi, Iraj

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety is among the most common and treatable mental disorders. Adrenergic and cannabinoid systems have an important role in the neurobiology of anxiety. The elevated plus-maze (EPM) has broadly been used to investigate anxiolytic and anxiogenic compounds. The present study investigated the effects of intraperitoneal (IP) injection of cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist (AM251) in the presence of alpha-1 adrenergic antagonist (Prazosin) on rat behavior in the EPM. In this study, the data were obtained from male Wistar rat, which weighing 200- 250 g. Animal behavior in EPM were videotaped and saved in computer for 10 min after IP injection of saline, AM251 (0.3 mg/kg), Prazosin (0.3 mg/kg) and AM251 + Prazosin, subsequently scored for conventional indices of anxiety. During the test period, the number of open and closed arms entries, the percentage of entries into the open arms of the EPM, and the spent time in open and closed arms were recorded. Diazepam was considered as a positive control drug with anxiolytic effect (0.3, 0.6, 1.2 mg/kg). Diazepam increased the number of open arm entries and the percentage of spent time on the open arms. IP injection of AM251 before EPM trial decreased open arms exploration and open arm entry. Whereas, Prazosin increased open arms exploration and open arm entry. This study showed that both substances in simultaneous injection have conflicting effects on the responses of each of these two compounds in a single injection. Injection of CB1 receptor antagonist may have an anxiogenic profile in rat, whereas adrenergic antagonist has an anxiolytic effect. Further investigations are essential for better understanding of anxiolytic and anxiogenic properties and neurobiological mechanisms of action and probable interactions of the two systems.

  15. Effects of Exercise on Memory Retrieval in Passive Avoidance Learning in Young Male Wistar Rats

    M. Mashhadi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesExercise seems to be a simple and widely practiced behavior that activates molecular and cellular signaling cascades involved in various central nervous system processes. There has been more attention to the effects of exercise on nervous system and memory during recent years. So, we decided to examine the effects of treadmill exercise on memory consolidation and retrieval in young rats by passive avoidance learning.MethodsIn this study fifty male Wistar rats (3-4 months old were randomly divided into five groups (n=10. Those in the control group were trained in passive avoidance box and tested 10 min, 24 hrs, 10 days and 3 months later. Two groups exercised in treadmill one hour at 17 m/min for 10 days and 3 months respectively and then were trained in passive avoidance box and tested 10 min and 24 hrs later. Data were analyzed using T and paired T tests. The other two groups for research effects of exercise in memory retrieval first were trained and tested 10 days and 24 hrs later and then exercised in treadmill like the other two groups; the latter groups were tested after exercise.ResultsThe obtained results showed that short–term (10 days and long – term(3 months exercise before training had significant (P<0.05 effects on memory consolidation in passive avoidance learning, but no difference was observed in latency time in passive avoidance between short–term (10 days and long–term(3 months exercise groups after training with before exercise. ConclusionOur results showed that physical activity produced a significant enhancement on learning and memory consolidation but there were no significant effects on memory retrieval. Keywords: Exercise; Mental Recall; Exercise Test; Retention (Psychology; rat, Avoidance Learning.

  16. Effects of different timing of stress on corticosterone, BDNF and memory in male rats.

    Radahmadi, Maryam; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Sharifi, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Nasrin

    2015-02-01

    Learning and memory seem to be affected by chronic stress. Previous reports have considered chronic stress as a precipitating factor of different neuropsychological disorders, while others reported neurobiological adaptations following stress. The present study investigated the effects of chronic stress before, after, and during learning on the changes of learning and memory, on serum and hippocampal levels of corticosterone (CORT), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and body weight in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=10) including Control (Co), Stress-Learning-Rest (St-L-Re), Rest-Learning-Stress (Re-L-St), and Stress-Learning-Stress (St-L-St) groups. The chronic restraint stress was applied 6 h/day for 21 days. Moreover, the passive avoidance test was used to assess memory deficit, 1, 7, and 21 days after training. At the end of experiments, CORT and BDNF levels were measured. The findings did not support adaptation in chronic stress conditions. The acquisition time as well as the short and mid-term memories was significantly impaired in the St-L-Re group. Short, mid, and long-term memories were significantly impaired in the Re-L-St and St-L-St groups compared with the Co group, as a result of the enhancement of CORT and reduction of BDNF levels. In the St-L-St group, changes in memory functions were less pronounced than in the Re-L-St group. Also, body weight declined following the chronic stress, while recovery period enhanced the body weight gain in stressed rats. It can be concluded that a potential time-dependent involvement of stress and recovery period on the level of BDNF. Longer duration time of chronic stress might promote adaptive effects on memory and CORT level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tiron ameliorates oxidative stress and inflammation in titanium dioxide nanoparticles induced nephrotoxicity of male rats.

    Morgan, Ashraf; Galal, Mona K; Ogaly, Hanan A; Ibrahim, Marwa A; Abd-Elsalam, Reham M; Noshy, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Although the widespread use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs), few studies were conducted on its hazard influence on human health. Tiron a synthetic vitamin E analog was proven to be a mitochondrial targeting antioxidant. The current investigation was performed to assess the efficacy of tiron against TiO 2 NPs induced nephrotoxicity. Eighty adult male rats divided into four different groups were used: group I was the control, group II received TiO2 NPs (100mg\\Kg BW), group III received TiO2 NPs plus tiron (470mg\\kg BW), and group IV received tiron alone. Urea, creatinine and total protein concentrations were measured in serum to assess the renal function. Antioxidant status was estimated by determining the activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde (MDA) level and glutathione concentration in renal tissue. As well as Renal fibrosis was evaluated though measuring of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) expression levels and histopathological examination. TiO 2 NPs treated rats showed marked elevation of renal indices, depletion of renal antioxidant enzymes with marked increase in MDA concentration as well as significant up-regulation in fibrotic biomarkers TGFβ1 and MMP9. Oral administration of tiron to TiO 2 NPs treated rats significantly attenuate the renal dysfunction through decreasing of renal indices, increasing of antioxidant enzymes activities, down-regulate the expression of fibrotic genes and improving the histopathological picture for renal tissue. In conclusion, tiron was proved to attenuate the nephrotoxicity induced by TiO 2 NPs through its radical scavenging and metal chelating potency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Carbaryl and Deltamethrin Pesticides on Some Pituitary Hormones of Male Albino Rats

    Abdel-Kader, S.M.; Ezz El-Arab, A.; Aly, M.A.S.

    2005-01-01

    This investigation aims to study the effects of oral administrations of 1/10 LD 5 0 of both carbaryl and deltamethrin pesticides on some pituitary hormones of male rats namely; adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), beta-endorphin (b-end) and prolactin hormone (prol). At different time intervals of 1,3,7 and 10 days, blood samples were collected and sera were separated and analyzed for hormonal assessment using RIA technique. The data clarified that daily oral administrations of 1/10 LD 5 0 of both carbaryl (28.6 mg/kg body weight) and deltamethrin (12.8 mg/kg body weight) to male albino rats resulted in gradual and significant decreases in serum ACTH recording 70.60% and 71.75% as compared to control on the 1 0 ''th day of carbaryl and deltamethrin treatments, respectively. Similarly, serum TSH and GH levels were significantly decreased one day after treatment showing their maximum decreases on the 1 0t h day recording 30.09% and 40.25% for TSH and 43.84% and 41.47% for GH after treatment with carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. Moreover, serum b-endorphin level showed maximum and significant decreases of 29.47% and 33.28% on day 10 of treatment with carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. On the other hand, serum prolactin level was significantly increased one day after treatment showing its maximum increase at the end of the experimental period recording 92.06% and 84.52% for carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. From the present data, it could be suggested that the pituitary gland is a major target for the two pesticides carbaryl and deltamethrin which have the potential to influence the modulation of endocrine system via the hypothalamus pituitary axis

  19. Male rats that differ in novelty exploration demonstrate distinct patterns of sexual behavior

    Cummings, Jennifer A.; Clinton, Sarah M.; Perry, Adam N.; Akil, Huda; Becker, Jill B.

    2014-01-01

    High versus low novelty exploration predicts a variety of behavioral differences. For example, rats selectively-bred for high novelty exploration (bred High Responders, bHR) exhibit exaggerated aggression, impulsivity, and proclivity to addictive behaviors compared to low novelty-reactive rats (bred Low Responders, bLRs), which are characterized by a high anxiety/depressive-like phenotype. Since bHR/bLR rats exhibit differences in dopaminergic circuitry and differential response to rewarding stimuli (i.e., psychostimulants, food), the present study examined whether they also differ in another key hedonic behavior – sex. Thus, adult bHR/bLR males were given five 30-min opportunities to engage in sexual activity with a receptive female. Sexual behavior and motivation were examined and compared between the groups. The bHR/bLR phenotype affected both sexual motivation and behavior, with bLR males demonstrating reduced motivation for sex compared with bHR males (i.e., fewer animals copulated, longer latency to engage in sex). The bHR males required more intromissions at a faster pace per ejaculation than did bLR males. Thus, neurobiological differences that affect motivation for drugs of abuse, aggression, and impulsivity in rats also affect sexual motivation and performance. PMID:23398441

  20. Chronic fluoxetine inhibits sexual behavior in the male rat: reversal with oxytocin.

    Cantor, J M; Binik, Y M; Pfaus, J G

    1999-06-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, used widely in the treatment of depression, progressively inhibit sexual orgasm in many patients and induce a transient inhibition of sexual desire. We attempted to model the effects of these drugs in sexually experienced male rats during tests of copulation in bilevel chambers. These chambers allow the study of both appetitive and consummatory sexual responses of male rats. Males were treated daily with fluoxetine hydrochloride (0, 1, 5, or 10 mg/kg) and tested for sexual behavior with receptive females at 4-day intervals. Rats were treated with oxytocin (200 ng/kg) or saline after ejaculations had decreased. Fluoxetine decreased ejaculatory responses of male rats in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, but left the copulatory efficiency of the males intact. In contrast, conditioned level changing, a measure of appetitive sexual excitement, was inhibited following acute and chronic treatment with 10 mg/kg, although tolerance may have developed to the effect of 5 mg/kg. Subsequent administration of oxytocin restored the ejaculatory response but not the measure of sexual excitement to baseline levels. The reversal by oxytocin of the fluoxetine-induced deficit in ejaculations is consistent with the hypothesis that serotonin suppresses ejaculatory mechanisms by interrupting the action of oxytocin, which normally accompanies sexual behavior. Co-administration of oxytocin may help to alleviate the predominant sexual side effect of serotonin reuptake blockers.

  1. Maternal omega-3 supplementation increases fat mass in male and female rat offspring

    Beverly Sara Muhlhausler

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Adipogenesis and lipogenesis are highly sensitive to the nutritional environment in utero and in early postnatal life. Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA inhibit adipogenesis and lipogenesis in adult rats, however it is not known whether supplementing the maternal diet with omega-3 LCPUFA results in reduced fat deposition in the offspring. Female Albino Wistar rats were fed either a standard chow (Control, n=10 or chow designed to provide ~15mg/kg/day of omega-3 LCPUFA, chiefly as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, throughout pregnancy and lactation (Omega-3, n=11 and all pups were weaned onto a commercial rat chow. Blood and tissues were collected from pups at 3wks and 6wks of age and weights of visceral and subcutaneous fat depots recorded. The expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the subcutaneous and visceral fat depots were determined using qRT-PCR. Birth weight and postnatal growth were not different between groups. At 6 weeks of age, total percentage body fat was significantly increased in both male (5.09 ± 0.32% vs 4.56 ± 0.2%, P<0.04 and female (5.15 ± 0.37% vs 3.89 ± 0.36%, P<0.04 offspring of omega-3 dams compared to controls. The omega-3 LCPUFA content of erythrocyte phospholipids (as a % of total fatty acids was higher in omega-3 offspring (6.7 ± 0.2 % vs 5.6 ± 0.2%, P<0.001. There was no effect of maternal omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation on the expression of adipogenic or lipogenic genes in the offspring in either the visceral or subcutaneous fat depots. We have therefore established that an omega-3 rich environment during pregnancy and lactation in a rodent model increases fat accumulation in both male and female offspring, particularly in subcutaneous depots, but that this effect is not mediated via upregulation adipogenic/lipogenic gene transcription. These data suggest that maternal n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy/lactation may not be an effective strategy for reducing fat deposition in

  2. Morella serrata (Lam.) Killick stabilizes biomembrane and rejuvenates sexual competence in male Wistar rats.

    Sabiu, S; Ashafa, A O T

    2017-06-09

    Morella serrata L. is an indigenous medicinal plant to South and southern Africa with folkloric applications as aphrodisiac, laxative, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-hypertensive, antitussive and antidiabetic agent. This study evaluated the membrane stabilization and aphrodisiac potentials of its aqueous root extract in male Wistar rats. While the membrane stabilization of the extract was investigated against bovine erythrocytes (BE), the male rats for the aphrodisiac study were randomized into five groups with animals in group 1 given sterile placebo and served as control. The rats in group 2 were treated with 7.14mg/kg body weight of PowMaxM, while animals in groups 3, 4 and 5 were administered with the extract (100, 200 and 400mg/kg, respectively). All treatments (1mL) were done once daily for 4 weeks via oral gavaging and their mating behavioural, testicular, spermatogenetic and antioxidant parameters were evaluated. With the exception of the mount, intromission and post ejaculatory latencies that were dose-dependently reduced by the extract, other mating parameters were significantly improved when compared with the control. Similar patterns of significant improvement were also observed on the testes-body weight ratio, quality and viability of sperm cells as well as testicular concentrations of proteins, cholesterol, glycogen, testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone, leuitenizing hormone and glutathione (reduced) subsequent to treatment with the extract. Although, administration of M. serrata had no significant (p>0.05) effect on the testicular activity of gamma glutamyl transferase, those of lactate dehydrogenase, phosphatases (alkaline and acid), superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly (p<0.05) induced in the treated animals. The extract also conferred respective significant (p<0.05) membrane stabilization potential of 66.02% and 60.87% on the BE against hypotonic solution and heat-induced hemolysis relative to 62.14% and 40

  3. Inhibition of Estradiol Synthesis Impairs Fear Extinction in Male Rats

    Graham, Bronwyn M.; Milad, Mohammed R.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging research has demonstrated that the sex hormone estradiol regulates fear extinction in female rodents and women. Estradiol may also regulate fear extinction in males, given its role in synaptic plasticity in both sexes. Here we report that inhibition of estradiol synthesis during extinction training, via the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole,…

  4. Antiaggressive activity of central oxytocin in male rats

    Calcagnoli, F.; de Boer, S.F.; Althaus, M.; den Boer, J.A.; Koolhaas, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    A substantial body of research suggests that the neuropeptide oxytocin promotes social affiliative behaviors in a wide range of animals including humans. However, its antiaggressive action has not been unequivocally demonstrated in male laboratory rodents. Our primary goal was to examine the

  5. Neonatal Overnutrition Increases Testicular Size and Expression of Luteinizing Hormone β-Subunit in Peripubertal Male Rats

    Pilar Argente-Arizón

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Proper nutrition is important for growth and development. Maturation of the reproductive axis and the timing of pubertal onset can be delayed when insufficient nutrition is available, or possibly advanced with nutritional abundance. The childhood obesity epidemic has been linked to a secular trend in advanced puberty in some populations. The increase in circulating leptin that occurs in association with obesity has been suggested to act as a signal that an adequate nutritional status exists for puberty to occur, allowing activation of central mechanisms. However, obesity-associated hyperleptinemia is linked to decreased leptin sensitivity, at least in adults. Here, we analyzed whether neonatal overnutrition modifies the response to an increase in leptin in peripubertal male rats, as previously demonstrated in females. Wistar rats were raised in litters of 4 (neonatal overnutrition or 12 pups (controls per dam. Leptin was administered sc (3 µg/g body weight at postnatal day 35 and the rats killed 45 min or 2 h later. Postnatal overfeeding resulted in increased body weight and circulating leptin levels; however, we found no overweight-related changes in the mRNA levels of neuropeptides involved in metabolism or reproduction. In contrast, pituitary expression of luteinizing hormone (LH beta-subunit was increased in overweight rats, as was testicular weight. There were no basal differences between L4 and L12 males or in their response to leptin administration in pSTAT3 levels in the hypothalamus at either 45 min or 2 h. In contrast, pJAK2 was found to be higher at 45 min in L4 compared to L12 males regardless of leptin treatment, while at 2 h it was higher in L4 leptin-treated males compared to L12 leptin-treated males, as well as L4 vehicle-treated rats. There were no changes in response to leptin administration in the expression of the neuropeptides analyzed. However, serum LH levels rose only in L4 males in response to leptin, but

  6. Neonatal Overnutrition Increases Testicular Size and Expression of Luteinizing Hormone β-Subunit in Peripubertal Male Rats

    Argente-Arizón, Pilar; Castro-González, David; Díaz, Francisca; Fernández-Gómez, María J.; Sánchez-Garrido, Miguel A.; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A.

    2018-01-01

    Proper nutrition is important for growth and development. Maturation of the reproductive axis and the timing of pubertal onset can be delayed when insufficient nutrition is available, or possibly advanced with nutritional abundance. The childhood obesity epidemic has been linked to a secular trend in advanced puberty in some populations. The increase in circulating leptin that occurs in association with obesity has been suggested to act as a signal that an adequate nutritional status exists for puberty to occur, allowing activation of central mechanisms. However, obesity-associated hyperleptinemia is linked to decreased leptin sensitivity, at least in adults. Here, we analyzed whether neonatal overnutrition modifies the response to an increase in leptin in peripubertal male rats, as previously demonstrated in females. Wistar rats were raised in litters of 4 (neonatal overnutrition) or 12 pups (controls) per dam. Leptin was administered sc (3 µg/g body weight) at postnatal day 35 and the rats killed 45 min or 2 h later. Postnatal overfeeding resulted in increased body weight and circulating leptin levels; however, we found no overweight-related changes in the mRNA levels of neuropeptides involved in metabolism or reproduction. In contrast, pituitary expression of luteinizing hormone (LH) beta-subunit was increased in overweight rats, as was testicular weight. There were no basal differences between L4 and L12 males or in their response to leptin administration in pSTAT3 levels in the hypothalamus at either 45 min or 2 h. In contrast, pJAK2 was found to be higher at 45 min in L4 compared to L12 males regardless of leptin treatment, while at 2 h it was higher in L4 leptin-treated males compared to L12 leptin-treated males, as well as L4 vehicle-treated rats. There were no changes in response to leptin administration in the expression of the neuropeptides analyzed. However, serum LH levels rose only in L4 males in response to leptin, but with no change

  7. Maternal swimming exercise during pregnancy attenuates anxiety/depressive-like behaviors and voluntary morphine consumption in the pubertal male and female rat offspring born from morphine dependent mothers.

    Torabi, Masoumeh; Pooriamehr, Alireza; Bigdeli, Imanollah; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein

    2017-10-17

    This study was designed to examine whether maternal swimming exercise during pregnancy would attenuate prenatally morphine-induced anxiety, depression and voluntary consumption of morphine in the pubertal male and female rat offspring. Pregnant rats during the development of morphine dependence were allowed to swim (30-45min/d, 3days per a week) on gestational days 11-18. Then, the pubertal male and female rat offspring were tested for the elevated plus-maze (EPM), sucrose preference test (SPT) and voluntary morphine consumption using a two-bottle choice (TBC) paradigm. The results showed that male and female rat offspring born of the swimmer morphine-dependent mothers exhibited an increase in EPM open arm time and entries, higher levels of sucrose preference than their sedentary control mothers. Voluntary consumption of morphine was less in the male and female rat offspring born of the swimmer morphine-dependent mothers as compared with their sedentary control mothers during three periods of the intake of drug. Thus, swimming exercise in pregnant morphine dependent mothers decreased anxiety, depressive-like behavior and also the voluntary morphine consumption in the pubertal male and female offspring, which may prevent prenatally morphine-induced behavioral sensitization in offspring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Early life stress impairs social recognition due to a blunted response of vasopressin release within the septum of adult male rats.

    Lukas, Michael; Bredewold, Remco; Landgraf, Rainer; Neumann, Inga D; Veenema, Alexa H

    2011-07-01

    Early life stress poses a risk for the development of psychopathologies characterized by disturbed emotional, social, and cognitive performance. We used maternal separation (MS, 3h daily, postnatal days 1-14) to test whether early life stress impairs social recognition performance in juvenile (5-week-old) and adult (16-week-old) male Wistar rats. Social recognition was tested in the social discrimination test and defined by increased investigation by the experimental rat towards a novel rat compared with a previously encountered rat. Juvenile control and MS rats demonstrated successful social recognition at inter-exposure intervals of 30 and 60 min. However, unlike adult control rats, adult MS rats failed to discriminate between a previously encountered and a novel rat after 60 min. The social recognition impairment of adult MS rats was accompanied by a lack of a rise in arginine vasopressin (AVP) release within the lateral septum seen during social memory acquisition in adult control rats. This blunted response of septal AVP release was social stimulus-specific because forced swimming induced a rise in septal AVP release in both control and MS rats. Retrodialysis of AVP (1 μg/ml, 3.3 μl/min, 30 min) into the lateral septum during social memory acquisition restored social recognition in adult MS rats at the 60-min interval. These studies demonstrate that MS impairs social recognition performance in adult rats, which is likely caused by blunted septal AVP activation. Impaired social recognition may be linked to MS-induced changes in other social behaviors like aggression as shown previously. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The different effects of lithium and tamoxifen on memory formation and the levels of neurotrophic factors in the brain of male and female rats.

    Valvassori, Samira S; Borges, Cenita P; Varela, Roger B; Bavaresco, Daniela V; Bianchini, Guilherme; Mariot, Edemilson; Arent, Camila O; Resende, Wilson R; Budni, Josiane; Quevedo, João

    2017-09-01

    Lithium (Li) is a mood-stabilizing drug used in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). Recently, preclinical studies have demonstrated the potential of tamoxifen (TMX) in the treatment of acute episodes of BD. However, the prolonged use of TMX for mood disorders treatment is controversial. In this study, we evaluated the effects of TMX or Li on cognitive behavior, as well as the levels of neurotrophic factors in the brain of male and female rats. Male and female Wistar rats received administrations of water (control group), TMX or Li via gavage for a period of 28days; the rats were then subjected to the open-field test (to evaluate spontaneous locomotion), and the novel object recognition and step-down inhibitory avoidance tests (to evaluate cognition). The levels of NGF, BDNF and GDNF were evaluated in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of the subject rats. No significant differences were observed in the open-field and inhibitory avoidance tests after drug administration in either the male or female rats. The administration of TMX, but not Li, decreased the recognition index of both the male and female rats in the object recognition test. The chronic administration of TMX decreased, whereas Li increased the levels of BDNF in the hippocampus of both the male and female rats. Tamoxifen decreased the levels of NGF in the hippocampus of female rats. In conclusion, it can be suggested that long-term treatments with TMX can lead to significant cognitive impairments by reducing the levels of neurotrophic factors in the brain of rats. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Protective Role of Carnitine against the Harmful Biological Effects of Paracetamol and Radiation Exposure in Male Albino Rats

    Abd El Rahman, N.A.

    2012-01-01

    L-carnitine, a natural component of mammalian tissue, is a necessary factor in the utilization of long-chain fatty acids to produce energy. Furthermore it has been shown to protect cells from per oxidative stress. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of L-carnitine on hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity induced by paracetamol, γ-radiation, and paracetamol + γ-radiation. Male albino rats were divided into 8 groups. 1-Control group: rats not subject to any treatment, 2-Carnitine group: rats received L-carnitine (0.5 ml/Kg body weight) via intraperitoneal injection during 21 days, 3-Paracetamol group: rats received paracetamol (50 mg/kg body) via intraperi-toneal injection during 21 days, 4- Carnitine + Paracetamol group: rats received L-carnitine in parallel to paracetamol treatment, 5- Radiation groups: rats were whole body gamma irradiated with 7 Gy, 6- Carnitine + Radiation group: rats received L-carnitine for 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation with 7Gy, 7- Paracetamol + Radiation group: rats received paracetamol during 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation, 8- Carnitine + Paracetamol + Radiation group: rats received L-carnitine parallel to paracetamol during 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation.The results demonstrated that rats receiving paracetamol, as well as whole body gamma irradiated rats and rats receiving paracetamol and irradiated showed a significant increase of alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and a significant decrease of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity indicating liver injury. A significant increase of urea, creatinine and uric acid levels was recorded also indicating kidney damage. Alteration in liver and kidney functions was accompanied by a significant increase in the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) associated with a significant decrease in glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide

  11. Histopathological and Reproductive Evaluation in Male Rats Fed Jatropha curcas Seed Cake with or without Alkaline Hydrolysis and Subjected to Heat Treatment

    Teixeira Sousa Moura, Laiane; Palomaris Mariano Souza, Domenica; Mendon?a, Simone; de Aquino Ribeiro, Jos? Ant?nio; Fernandes Sousa, Luciano; Tony Ramos, Adriano; Maiorka, Paulo C?sar; de Ara?jo, Vera L?cia; Mayumi Maruo, Viviane

    2017-01-01

    Jatropha curcas cake, a by-product of biodiesel production, is rich in protein and has potential to be used in livestock feed; however, the presence of antinutritional factors and phorbol esters limits its use. Thus, this study investigated toxicological and reproductive effects in male Wistar rats after subchronic exposure to J. curcas cake subjected to detoxification procedures. Rats were divided into seven groups (n = 10) and treated for 60 days. The control group received commercial feed,...

  12. The Histological Effects of L-arginine on Ventricular Myocardium in Iron Treated Male Rats

    M Sofiabadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Iron overload is detrimental for the body and can create damage to different body tissues, such as myocardium by producing oxidative stress. Therefore, the antioxidant factors can neutralize iron induced damages. According to available reports, L-arginine as a precursor nitric oxide production has antioxidant effects. This study was carried out to evaluate the histological effects of iron overload on ventricular muscle and preventive role of L-arginine in male rats.
    Methods: In this experiment, 40 male rats with weight range of 300-250g were divided at random into five equal groups including:1- Control, 2- Iron (10mg/kg, ip, 3- Iron(10mg/kg, ip+L-arginine (1mg/ml, po, 4- Iron (50mg/kg, ip and 5- Iron (50mg/kg,ip+L-arginine(1mg/ml,po. After treatment (6 weeks, the animals were anesthetized and the samples of left apical ventricular myocardium were taken out and morphological studies were done following fixation with 10% formalin and H&E staining. Microscopic parameters under study were cell swelling, vessel dilatation and hypercongestion, cell necrosis and tissue deformity. The type and severity of damage to the tissue were also noted. Data were analyzed using chi-square statistical procedure, and Pvalue≤0.05 were considered to be significant. 
    Results: The data showed moderate changes in the ventricular myocardium of group 2 that was significant in comparison to the control group (P<0.05. The ventricular myocardium of group 3 showed low changes and wasn't significant in comparison to control group (P=0.84. The ventricular myocardium of the group 4 showed severe changes in comparison to the control group (P<0.01. The low change showed in the ventricular myocardium of group 5 that wasn't significant in comparison to the control group.

    Conclusion: This study showed

  13. Morphologic and biochemical changes in male rat lung after surgical and pharmacological castration

    M.S. Ojeda

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the rat lung was studied by light microscopy in different situations: after surgical and pharmacological castration and after administration of testosterone to the castrated rat to determine if the androgen is required to maintain the normal morphology of the lung. We also determined the effect of flutamide on the phospholipid composition of both the surfactant and microsomes of the lung. Rats were separated into five groups: I - control non-castrated rats, II - castrated rats sacrificed 21 days after castration, III - castrated rats that received testosterone daily from day 2 to day 21 after castration, IV - castrated rats that received testosterone from day 15 to day 21 after castration, and V - control rats injected with flutamide for 7 days. The amount of different phospholipids in the surfactant and microsomes of the lung was measured in group I and V rats. At the light microscopy level, the surgical and pharmacological castration provoked alterations in the morphology of the lung, similar to that observed in human lung emphysema. The compositions of surfactant and microsomes of the lung were similar to those previously reported by us for the surgically castrated rats. These results indicate that androgens are necessary for the normal morphology as well as for some metabolic aspects of the lung.

  14. Effect of two different extracts of red maca in male rats with testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia.

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Vasquez, Vanessa; Rodriguez, Daniella; Maldonado, Carmen; Mormontoy, Juliet; Portella, Jimmy; Pajuelo, Monica; Villegas, León; Gasco, Manuel

    2007-03-01

    To determine the effect of two different extracts of red maca in male rats. Prostatic hyperplasia was induced in male rats with testosterone enanthate (TE). The study comprised six groups: one control group (group 1), one group treated with TE (group 2), two groups treated with TE and aqueous extract of red maca (groups 3 and 4), one group treated with hydroalcoholic extract of red maca (group 5) and one group treated with finasteride (0.1 mg, group 6). Differences in the aqueous extract dependent on the length of time of boiling, whether for 2 or 3 hours, for groups 3 and 4 was assessed. Extracts of red maca contained 0.1 mg of benzylglucosinolate. Thereafter, a dose-response effect of different doses of benzylglucosinolates (0.02-0.08 mg) in red maca extracts was assessed. Prostate weight was similar in rats treated with freeze-dried aqueous extract of red maca prepared after 2 and 3 hours of boiling. Freeze-dried aqueous extract of red maca, hydroalcoholic extract of red maca and finasteride reduced prostate weight in rats with prostatic hyperplasia. No difference was observed between the data obtained from aqueous extract or hydroalcoholic extract of red maca. A dose dependent reduction of prostate weight was observed with the increase of the dose of benzylglucosinolates in red maca extracts. The present study showed that hydroalcoholic or aqueous extract of red maca containing 0.1 mg of benzylglucosinolate can reduce prostate size in male rats in which prostatic hyperplasia had been induced by TE.

  15. Stimulation of the medial amygdala enhances medial preoptic dopamine release: implications for male rat sexual behavior.

    Dominguez, J M; Hull, E M

    2001-11-02

    Increased dopamine (DA) in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) facilitates male sexual behavior. A major source of innervation to the MPOA is the medial amygdala (MeA). We now report that chemical stimulation of the MeA enhanced levels of extracellular MPOA DA in anesthetized male rats. These results suggest that DA activity in the MPOA can be regulated by input from the MeA to the MPOA.

  16. Oxytocin Differentially Affects Sucrose Taking and Seeking in Male and Female Rats

    Zhou, Luyi; Ghee, Shannon M.; See, Ronald E.; Reichel, Carmela M.

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin has a modulatory role in natural and drug reward processes. While the role of oxytocin in pair bonding and reproduction has been extensively studied, sex differences in conditioned and unconditioned behavioral responses to oxytocin treatment have not been fully characterized. Here, we determined whether male and female rats would show similar dose response curves in response to acute oxytocin on measures of locomotor activity, sucrose seeking, and sucrose intake. Male and freely cycl...

  17. A comparative study of the anorectic and behavioral effects of fenproporex on male and female rats.

    Mattei, R; Carlini, E A

    1996-08-01

    The anorectic and behavioral effects of fenproporex (Fenp, 10 mg/kg, ip) and methamphetamine (Met, 2.5 mg/kg, ip), a prototypical example of an amphetamine-like drug, were studied in male and female Wistar rats (5 and 3 months of age, respectively, at the beginning of the experiments) after acute (immediately after a single dose) or chronic treatment (after 60 days of administration). For the evaluation of the experimental parameters six groups of eight rats each were utilized for food intake and stereotyped behavior and six groups of nine rats each for body weight and motor activity. Similar anorectic effects (decreased food intake in grams: saline (Sal): 12.8 +/- 2.5, Met: 4.7 +/- 4.0, and Fenp: 4.4 +/- 20; decreased weight gain: Sal: 38 +/- 10, Met: 25 +/- 1.0, and Fenp: 27 +/- 3.0) were induced by both drugs in male rats. Female rats, however, required larger doses (20 mg/kg Fenp and 5.0 mg/kg Met) for a complete blockade of food intake. The behavioral tests were carried out 30, 60, 120, 180 and 300 min after drug administration and on day 1 and day 60 immediately after the treatment, for stereotypy and motor activity, respectively (male rats: Met: 3.8 +/- 0.3, Fenp: 6.0 +/- 0.9, and female rats: Met: 15.4 +/- 1.9, Fenp: 9.7 +/- 1.3). Though stereotyped behavior such as sniffing, continuous licking, and false bites was observed in all animals, this was more evident and prolonged in female rats. Both drugs also increased motor activity (male rats, acute treatment: Met: 608 +/- 419, Fenp: 677 +/- 354; chronic treatment: Met: 701 +/- 423, Fenp: 908 +/- 479; female rats, acute treatment: Met: 817 +/- 350, Fenp: 1177 +/- 282; chronic treatment: Met: 623 +/- 274, Fenp: 1511 +/- 573) with female rats once again showing greater sensitivity both after acute and chronic treatment. Our data indicate that fenproporex, like methamphetamine, has a stimulating effect on the central nervous system, indicating an action on the dopaminergic systems. These data further suggest

  18. The Protective Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Ginger) on Ethanol-Induced Reproductive Toxicity in Male Rats.

    Akbari, Abolfazl; Nasiri, Khadijeh; Heydari, Mojtaba; Mosavat, Seyed Hamdollah; Iraji, Aida

    2017-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the prophylactic effect of ginger extract on ethanol-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats. Twenty-eight adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups and treated daily for 28 days as follows: control, control-ginger (1 g/kg of body weight [BW]/day by gavage), ethanol group (ethanol 4 g/kg of BW/day by gavage), and ginger-ethanol group. At the end of the experiment, all the rats were sacrificed and their testes were removed and used for measurement of the total homocysteine (tHcy), trace elements, antioxidant enzymes activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA). The results in the ethanol group indicate that ethanol decreased antioxidant enzymes activity and increased MDA and tHcy compared with the control groups ( P < .05). In ginger-ethanol group, ginger improved antioxidant enzymes activity and reduced tHcy and MDA compared to ethanol group ( P < .05). It can be concluded that ginger protects the ethanol-induced testicular damage and improves the hormonal levels, trace elements, antioxidant enzymes activity, and decreases tHcy and MDA.

  19. Peripubertal Caffeine Exposure Impairs Longitudinal Bone Growth in Immature Male Rats in a Dose- and Time-Dependent Manner.

    Choi, Yun-Young; Choi, Yuri; Kim, Jisook; Choi, Hyeonhae; Shin, Jiwon; Roh, Jaesook

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the dose- and time-dependent effects of caffeine consumption throughout puberty in peripubertal rats. A total of 85 male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: control and caffeine-fed groups with 20, 60, or 120 mg/kg/day through oral gavage for 10, 20, 30, or 40 days. Caffeine decreased body weight gain and food consumption in a dose- and time-dependent manner, accompanied by a reduction in muscle and body fat. In addition, it caused a shortening and lightening of leg bones and spinal column. The total height of the growth plate decreased sharply at 40 days in the controls, but not in the caffeine-fed groups, and the height of hypertrophic zone in the caffeine-fed groups was lower than in the control. Caffeine increased the height of the secondary spongiosa, whereas parameters related to bone formation, such as bone area ratio, thickness and number of trabeculae, and bone perimeter, were significantly reduced. Furthermore, serum levels of IGF-1, estradiol, and testosterone were also reduced by the dose of caffeine exposure. Our results demonstrate that caffeine consumption can dose- and time-dependently inhibit longitudinal bone growth in immature male rats, possibly by blocking the physiologic changes in body composition and hormones relevant to bone growth.

  20. Toxic effects of some synthetic food colorants and/or flavor additives on male rats.

    El-Wahab, Hanan Mohamed Fathy Abd; Moram, Gehan Salah El-Deen

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the broadest toxic effect of some synthetic additives of colorants and/or flavors on different body organs and metabolic aspects in rats. A number of chemical food color and flavor additives are routinely added during processing to improve the aesthetic appearance of the dietary items. However, many of them are toxic after prolonged use. In this experiment, a total of 100 male albino rats of Spargue Dawley strain were divided into 10 groups: G(1) was fed basal diet and served as control, G(2): basal diet + Brilliant blue (blue dye, No. 2, 124 mg/kg diet), G(3): basal diet + carmoisine (red dye, No. 3, 70 mg/kg diet), G(4): basal diet + tartrazine (yellow dye, FD & C yellow No. 5, 75 mg/kg diet), G(5): basal diet + trans-anethole (4.5 g/kg diet) G(6): basal diet + propylene glycol (0.25 g/kg diet), G(7): basal diet + vanillin(1.25 g/kg diet), G(8): basal diet + Brilliant blue + propylene glycol, G(9): basal diet + carmoisine + trans-anethole, G(10): basal diet + tartrazine + vanillin for 42 successive days. All food colorants mixed with or without flavor additives induced a significant decrease in body weight, hemoglobin concentration and red blood cell count. Also there was a significant decrease in reduced glutathione content; glutathione-S-transferase and superoxide dismutase activities in both blood and liver compared to control group. On the other hand, a significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase activities, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, total protein and albumin were observed in all test groups when compared to control group. Finally, it is advisable to limit the uses of these food colorants and/or food flavor additives especially those used by children.

  1. Interaction of Zinc Chloride with an Aromatase Inhibitor (Letrozole on Anxiety in Adult Male Rats

    Sahar Charghan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Aromatase is an enzyme converts androstenedione and testosterone to estrone and estradiol, respectively. According to the role of testosterone and zinc in reducing anxiety and the relation between androgenic system function and zinc supplementations, in this research, the effect of zinc chloride injection was analysed in rats which aromatase enzyme was inhibited by aromatase inhibitor (letrozole. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats (weighing 225±25 g were used. Animals were divided into 12 groups and based on their weight, aromatase inhibitor (letrozole was injected (subcutaneously, and 30 minutes later, ZnCl2 or its solvent (saline was injected intra-peritoneal. Control group was received both solvents (DMSO and saline respectively. Anxiety levels were tested in the elevated plus maze 30 minutes after the last injection, and thereafter, open field was used for measurement of the locomotors activity of animals. Results: The results showed a significant decrease in the percentage of time spent in open arms in letrozole (1.25 mg/kg treated group as compared to that of solvent group. The locomotors activity significantly decreased between letrozole (1.25 mg/kg with the control group. The combined groups received letrozole (2.5 mg/kg and different amounts of zinc chloride (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg, significantly reduced (p<0.05 the percentage of time spent in the open arm, comparing to the control group. Groups that received the combination of zinc chloride (2.5 mg/kg and different amounts of letrozole (1.25, 5, 10 mg/kg, showed no significant difference in the percentage of entry and time spent in the open arms. Conclusion: Totally, the present study suggests that letrozole alone increased anxiety and decreased locomotors activity and could interfere with anxiolytic effect of ZnCl2 as well.

  2. Mesenchymal stem cells from human umbilical cord ameliorate testicular dysfunction in a male rat hypogonadism model

    Zhi-Yuan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgen deficiency is a physical disorder that not only affects adults but can also jeopardize children′s health. Because there are many disadvantages to using traditional androgen replacement therapy, we have herein attempted to explore the use of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of androgen deficiency. We transplanted CM-Dil-labeled human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into the testes of an ethane dimethanesulfonate (EDS-induced male rat hypogonadism model. Twenty-one days after transplantation, we found that blood testosterone levels in the therapy group were higher than that of the control group (P = 0.037, and using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry, we observed that some of the CM-Dil-labeled cells expressed Leydig cell markers for cytochrome P450, family 11, subfamily A, polypeptide 1, and 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. We then recovered these cells and observed that they were still able to proliferate in vitro. The present study shows that mesenchymal stem cells from human umbilical cord may constitute a promising therapeutic modality for the treatment of male hypogonadism patients.

  3. Short-term enrichment makes male rats more attractive, more defensive and alters hypothalamic neurons.

    Rupshi Mitra

    Full Text Available Innate behaviors are shaped by contingencies built during evolutionary history. On the other hand, environmental stimuli play a significant role in shaping behavior. In particular, a short period of environmental enrichment can enhance cognitive behavior, modify effects of stress on learned behaviors and induce brain plasticity. It is unclear if modulation by environment can extend to innate behaviors which are preserved by intense selection pressure. In the present report we investigate this issue by studying effects of relatively short (14-days environmental enrichment on two prominent innate behaviors in rats, avoidance of predator odors and ability of males to attract mates. We show that enrichment has strong effects on both the innate behaviors: a enriched males were more avoidant of a predator odor than non-enriched controls, and had a greater rise in corticosterone levels in response to the odor; and b had higher testosterone levels and were more attractive to females. Additionally, we demonstrate decrease in dendritic length of neurons of ventrolateral nucleus of hypothalamus, important for reproductive mate-choice and increase in the same in dorsomedial nucleus, important for defensive behavior. Thus, behavioral and hormonal observations provide evidence that a short period of environmental manipulation can alter innate behaviors, providing a good example of gene-environment interaction.

  4. Role of Vitamin C As A Potent Antioxidant in Acute Radiation Induced Liver Disease (RILD) Among Male Albino Rats

    Ezz El Arab, A.; Ayad, S.K.Y.; El Fouly, A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated the role of vitamin C as antioxidant in alleviating organ damage caused by gamma irradiation. The present study was conducted to find out the effect of vitamin C on liver biochemical functions such as serum ALT, AST, albumin and bilirubin after experimental liver damage induced by gamma irradiation. Rats irradiated with gamma radiation were used as a model of liver injury terminating with necro inflammatory activity and acute hepatitis. Forty male albino rats were classified into 6 groups (G0-G5). G0 included 8 male albino rats that were divided to 2 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup). Both subgroups were exposed to gamma irradiation with 6 Gy as a single dose. The first subgroup was left for 3 weeks then serum and liver samples were collected while in the second subgroup, 2 rats were died and the remaining 2 rats were left for 6 weeks then serum and liver samples were collected. G1 was the negative control while in the rest groups, the whole body of rats was exposed to gamma irradiation of dose 8 Gy divided to 2 doses (4 Gy/one dose) at one week interval in between. G2 included 12 albino rats divided into 3 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup). The whole body of albino rats of G2 was exposed to 8 Gy gamma irradiation that divided as mentioned before. Serum and liver samples were collected after one day, two days and four days after last dose of irradiation. G3 also included 8 rats that were divided into 2 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup) and whole body was exposed to 8 Gy gamma irradiation that were divided as mentioned before. Serum and liver samples were collected after one week for one subgroup and 2 weeks for other subgroup after last dose of irradiation. The rest 2 groups (4 rats/group) were exposed to 8Gy gamma irradiation divided as before, but the rats in one group were orally supplemented with low dose of vitamin C. G4 and the others were supplemented with high dose of vitamin C for 2 weeks starting after last dose of irradiation (G5) then serum

  5. Inhibitory effects of central neuropeptide Y on the somatotropic and gonadotropic axes in male rats are independent of adrenal hormones.

    Sainsbury, A; Herzog, H

    2001-03-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the hypothalamus exerts multiple physiological functions including stimulation of adipogenic pathways such as feeding and insulin secretion as well as inhibition of the somatotropic and gonadotropic axes. Since hypothalamic NPY-ergic activity is increased by negative energy balance, NPY enables coordinated regulation of growth and reproduction in parallel with energy availability. Chronic pathological increases in central NPY-ergic activity contribute to obesity. Many of the adipogenic effects of NPY are specifically dependent on adrenal glucocorticoids. However, in the current study we show that central NPY does not require adrenal hormones to inhibit the somatotropic and gonadotropic axes in rats. Male adrenalectomized and sham-operated normal rats were intracerebroventricularly (ICV) infused with NPY (15 microg/day) or saline for 5-7 days, and plasma leptin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and testosterone were assayed, and epididymal white adipose tissue (WATe) was weighed. In normal intact rats, WATe weight and leptinemia were significantly increased by NPY, and these effects were prevented by adrenalectomy. In normal rats, NPY markedly reduced plasma IGF-1 levels (470 +/- 40 versus 1260 +/- 90 ng/ml) and testosterone (0.53 +/- 0.28 versus 5.4 +/- 0.80 nmol/l in saline-infused controls, p < 0.0001). Adrenalectomy decreased plasma IGF-1 concentrations to 290 +/- 30 (p < 0.0001 versus normal rats), which were significantly reduced further by NPY. However, adrenalectomy had no significant effect on basal nor on NPY-induced plasma testosterone concentrations. In conclusion unlike the stimulatory effects of NPY on fat mass and leptinemia, NPY-induced inhibition of the somatotropic and gonadotropic axes in male rats do not require adrenal hormones.

  6. Pair housing differentially affects motivation to self-administer cocaine in male and female rats.

    Westenbroek, Christel; Perry, Adam N; Becker, Jill B

    2013-09-01

    Female rats exhibit greater intake and motivation to self-administer cocaine. In females but not males, isolation by itself is a stressor, which could lead to increased drug intake. Therefore, we hypothesized that social housing would buffer against stress and reduce the motivation to self-administer cocaine primarily in females. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were housed individually or in same-sex pairs. The individually housed rats and one of each pair were allowed to self-administer (SA) a low dose of cocaine (0.2 mg/kg/inf) on a fixed ratio (FR1) schedule for one week. Motivation for cocaine SA was measured for an additional 2 weeks on a progressive ratio schedule. Isolated females had greater cocaine-intake on the FR1 schedule and greater motivation to take cocaine than males. Pair-housing in females, but not males, attenuated the motivation to take cocaine. Isolated females, but not males, showed escalation of their motivation to take cocaine, which was attenuated by pair housing of females. Concluding, the motivation to take cocaine escalates in females but not males, and pair-housing of females attenuates this escalation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Iron Enriched Bread Intake on the Oxidative Stress Indices in Male Wistar Rats

    Sharareh Heidari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Contrary to the proven benefits of iron, few concerns in producing the oxidative stress is remained problematic. Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate the oxidative stress in the male Wistar rats fed bread supplemented with iron in different doses i.e., 35 (basic, 70 (two fold, 140 (four fold, and 210 mg/kg (six fold with or without NaHCO3 (250 mg/kg. Methods In this experimental study Iron, ceruloplasmin, ferritin, total iron binding capacity (TIBC, albumin, total protein, uric acid and plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, catalase (CAT, malondialdehyde (MDA, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC, were evaluated in 30 rats at the first and last day of the experiment (day 30. In addition, phytic acid levels were detected in all baked breads. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and t test procedure though SPSS statistical software version 20. Results Serum iron level in rats that received basic level of iron plus NaHCO3 decreased significantly in the last day of the trial. Higher level of serum iron was seen in rats that received iron twofold, fourfold and sixfold and rats that received iron fourfold plus NaHCO3. Serum ceruloplasmin and ferritin in groups of rats that received fourfold level of iron plus NaHCO3 and rats that received iron sixfold showed a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05. Serum total protein and uric acid in rats that received basic level of iron plus NaHCO3 and rats that received twofold level of iron showed a significant decrease. Serum total protein levels in rats that received fourfold level of iron showed a significant decrease. Bread with NaHCO3 showed higher phytic acid levels than other groups. Conclusions These results indicate that oxidative stress was not induced, whereas some antioxidant activities were significantly changed in rats that received iron-enriched bread.

  8. Chronic irradiation of gonad tissue of the male rat

    Lemaire, G.; Maas, J.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of chronically irradiating rats' testes with daily gamma radiation doses of (1.4 - 8.6) x 10 -2 Gy for 71-140 days were studied. After about 30 days irradiation, the testes weights decrease and level off at about 75 days. Irradiation also caused the germ cells in the seminiferous tubules to disappear progressively, completely when the dose exceeded 6 x 10 -2 Gy/day and partially with the lower doses. At doses below 6 x 10 -2 Gy/day, there was also a delay in the spermatogenesis cycle with the spermatogonia and spermatocytes appearing to reach a new equilibrium, the level of which depended on the dose. (U.K.)

  9. Semisterility of the first male progeny of female rats given a fractionated x ray dose of 800 R with administration of cysteamine and cystamine

    Baev, I; Bairakova, A

    1975-01-01

    A total of 107 male Wistar rats were obtained six months after the fractional irradiation of females at a total x ray dose of 800 R (40 R per day for 20 days). Part of the females were irradiated without protection, and the rest received 5 mg cysteamine and 20 mg cystamine per rat each day before irradiation. The irradiated females were crossed with intact males. Fifteen males obtained from unirradiated parents served as controls. Males obtained from irradiated mothers and the control males were each housed with 7 intact females on attaining reproductive age. The females were killed on the 18th day after fertilization, and the living and dead embryos and the yellow bodies in each female were determined. The embryonic lethality in the male progeny whose mothers were irradiated with a fractionated dose of 800 R was 11 percent preimplantation with 9 percent postimplantation for a total of 19 percent for irradiated mothers given no radioprotective agent compared with 7 percent preimplantation with 5.5 percent postimplantation for a total of 12.5 percent in the control rats. For the cystamine-protected mothers the corresponding embryonic lethalities were 16.1 percent preimplantation with 10.5 percent postimplantation for a total of 26.6 percent, and for the cysteamine protected mothers, 14.3 percent preimplantation with 14.2 percent postimplantation for a total of 28.5 percent. Abouthalf of the males from the first generation of irradiated females showed a lowered fertility. 10 refs.

  10. Changes in radiosensitivity of male sex hormones in rats maintained on kelthane contaminated feed

    Abughadeer, A.R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Alteration of sex hormones levels in male rats after whole body gamma irradiation (6.5 Gy) has been studied. The hormonal response of irradiated rats fed on experimental feed contaminated with organo chlorine insecticide 'kelthane' (200 mg/kg body weight) for different time intervals (3,6 and 12 weeks), has been also investigated. Investigations included measurements of testes/body weight ratio; Testosterone; Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH); luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin levels in serum and testes homogenate of treated rats. The data indicate that whole body gamma irradiation causes significant alteration in all tested parameters except for the testosterone level. Normal rats fed on 'kelthane' contaminated feed, showed significant alteration in all tested parameters, which increased with the prolongation of 'kelthane' exposure period. Double treatment of 'kelthane' and irradiation resulted in more pronounced alterations. It can be concluded that the male sex hormones in rats fed on 'kelthane', were more sensitive to whole body gamma irradiation. Moreover, male sex hormones have shown reliable reliable dose/effect relationship for either radiation or pesticide internal contamination. This suggests their possible use as markers in early diagnosis of radiation exposure and pesticides toxication syndromes. 3 tabs

  11. The Establishment of Metabolic Syndrome Model by Induction of Fructose Drinking Water in Male Wistar Rats

    Norshalizah Mamikutty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metabolic syndrome can be caused by modification of diet by means of consumption of high carbohydrate and high fat diet such as fructose. Aims. To develop a metabolic syndrome rat model by induction of fructose drinking water (FDW in male Wistar rats. Methods. Eighteen male Wistar rats were fed with FDW 20% and FDW 25% for a duration of eight weeks. The physiological changes with regard to food and fluid intake, as well as calorie intake, were measured. The metabolic changes such as obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and hyperglycaemia were determined. Data was presented in mean ± SEM subjected to one-way ANOVA. Results. Male Wistar rats fed with FDW 20% for eight weeks developed significant higher obesity parameters compared to those fed with FDW 25%. There was hypertrophy of adipocytes in F20 and F25. There were also systolic hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperglycemia in both groups. Conclusion. We conclude that the metabolic syndrome rat model is best established with the induction of FDW 20% for eight weeks. This was evident in the form of higher obesity parameter which caused the development of the metabolic syndrome.

  12. Oxytocin Removes Estrous Female vs. Male Preference of Virgin Male Rats: Mediation of the Supraoptic Nucleus Via Olfactory Bulbs

    Xiao-Yu Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Social functions of oxytocin (OT have been explored extensively; however, relationship between the effect of intranasally applied OT (nasal OT on the social preference (SP and intracerebral actions of endogenous OT remains unclear. To resolve this question, we first observed effects of nasal OT on the SP of virgin young adult male rats toward unfamiliar virgin estrous female (EF vs. virgin male rats. The results showed that the test male rats exhibited significantly more times and longer duration accessing the female than the male, which were acutely eliminated by nasal OT. Then, we examined the approaches mediating nasal OT effects on the activity of potential brain targets in Western blots and found that nasal OT activated the olfactory bulbs (OBs and the supraoptic nucleus (SON, but not the piriform cortex, amygdala and hippocampus as shown by significant changes in the expression of c-Fos and/or phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (pERK 1/2. Moreover, microinjection of TTX into the OBs blocked nasal OT-evoked increases in pERK1/2 levels as well as the molecular association between ERK1/2 and OT-neurophysin in the SON. Electrolytic lesions of the lateral olfactory tract did not significantly change the basal levels of pERK 1/2 in the SON; however, upon nasal OT, pERK 1/2 levels in the SON reduced significantly. Lastly, microinjection of L-aminoadipic acid (gliotoxin into the SON to reduce OT levels reduced the duration of the test male’s accessing the EF and blocked the nasal OT-evoked increase in the duration of test male’s accessing the male while significantly increasing pERK1/2 levels in the amygdala. These findings reveal for the first time that nasal OT acutely eliminates virgin males’ SP to EFs via the OB-SON route and that OT neurons could mediate the social effects of nasal OT by suppressing social phobia generated in the amygdala.

  13. Mitigating potential of Ginkgo biloba extract and melatonin against hepatic and nephrotoxicity induced by Bisphenol A in male rats

    Mayssaa M. Wahby

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A is one of the anthropogenic chemicals produced worldwide, currently released into the environment and causes endocrine-disruption. The largest environmental compartments of BPA are abiotic associated with water and suspended solids that becomes an integrated part of the food chain. The present study aimed to examine the possible protective role of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE, melatonin and their combination against BPA-induced liver and kidney toxicity of male rats. Fifty rats were divided into five equal groups: control, BPA, BPA plus GBE, BPA plus melatonin and BPA plus GBE plus melatonin. The elevated activities of plasma ALT and AST in addition to increased levels of urea and creatinine concomitant with the decreased total plasma protein could reflect the injurious effect of BPA. Liver and kidney levels of TBARS were significantly increased, while GSH, SOD and GPX were decreased in BPA-treated rats. Also, CAT and GST activities were significantly disrupted in the liver and kidney of rats treated with BPA. Moreover, BPA significantly increased the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α in the liver and kidney tissues. The histopathological analysis confirmed these results. All the previous alterations in the liver and kidney could be ameliorated when BPA-treated rats were co-administrated either with GBE, melatonin or their combination. These natural substances could exhibit protective effects against BPA-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity owing to their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory potentials. Keywords: Bisphenol A, Ginkgo biloba extract, Melatonin, Lipid peroxidation, Antioxidant enzymes, Histopathological analysis

  14. The effects of co-administration of opium and morphine with nicotine during pregnancy on spatial learning and memory of adult male offspring rats.

    Sepehri, Gholamreza; Parsania, Shahrnaz; Hajzadeh, Mousa-Al-Reza; Haghpanah, Tahereh; Sheibani, Vahid; Divsalar, Kouros; Shekarforoush, Shahnaz; Afarinesh, Mohammad Reza

    2014-09-01

    Smoking opium/cigarette is a global health concern. The aim of this study was to examine learning and memory of rat male offsprings whose mothers had been exposed to either opium or morphine with nicotine during pregnancy. Wistar rats were used for the experiments. In the female rats, opium, morphine and nicotine dependencies were induced by daily injections of drug solution for 10 days before mating. Spatial memory was tested by Morris water maze test in male pups at the postnatal day 60. The duration that took until the rats found the platform in the maze and also their swimming speed were recorded. An increase in the platform finding duration was observed for the pups of dependent mothers in comparison with the control in the training trial (Popium/morphine and nicotine significantly decreased the time spent in the trigger zone to find the hidden platform (Peffect on the swimming speed in the probe test. However, no significant difference was observed in the learning and memory behavior of offspring whose mothers received morphine, opium, nicotine or the co-administration of either morphine or opium with nicotine. The present study showed that the opium, morphine and nicotine abuse and co-administration of opium/morphine with nicotine during pregnancy may cause deficits in spatial learning of male rat offspring. Based on our data, no synergistic effects of co-drug administration were observed on learning and memory in male rat offspring.

  15. The Effect of Pollen on Some Reproductive Parameters of Male Rats

    Güldeniz Selmanoğlu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Honeybee pollen is consumed as natural food in healthy human diet in many European and Asian countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pollen use on some reproductive parameters. In this study, mature male rats were fed on pollen of three different plant sources (Trifolium spp., Raphanus spp. and Cistus spp. at 60 mg/per animal/ per day over a 30-day period. At the end of the treatment, testosterone levels of rats were analysed and weights of testis, epididymis, prostate and seminal vesicle were recorded. In addition, epididymal sperms were counted. There were increases in testosterone levels, sperm counts and daily sperm production of rats fed with pollen of Raphanus spp. and Cistus spp. There were no significant changes in absolute weights, except in prostate weights. Also there were no changes in relative testis,prostate and seminal vesicle weights of rats fed on pollen, but relative epididymis weights of rats in pollen groups decreased. The results of this study show that bee pollen caused an increase in testosterone level and sperm counts of male rats. We suggest that bee pollen has an androgenic effect.

  16. Perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism impair behavioural development in male and female rats.

    Wijk, van N.; Rijntjes, E.; Heijning, van de B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism impair behavioural development in male and female rats. EXP PHYSIOL 00(0) 000-000, 0000. - A lack of thyroid hormone, i.e. hypothyroidism, during early development results in multiple morphological and functional alterations in the developing brain. In the

  17. Morphofunctional state of reproductive system in the male-rats, which were intrauterine irradiated

    Fedosenko, O.L.

    2008-01-01

    The changes in cytogenetic studies and morphofunctional state of reproductive system in the male-rats, which were intrauterine irradiated. The alterations in relative mass organs, increase of number sperm cells and abnormal form of sperm cells in epididymis were ascertained. (authors)

  18. Investigation of the mechanism for phthalate-induced toxicity during male sexual differentiation in the rat.

    Male rats exposed to phthalate esters during sexual differentiation (GDI4-GDI8) display various reproductive developmental abnormalities later in adult life which are associated with declines in fetal testicular testosterone (T) production and insulin-like three hormone (lnsl-3...

  19. Histological changes in the vital organs of male rats following short ...

    Introduction: Beneficial effects of cannabis intake by any route of administration has since ages been trailed with controversial reports of scientific studies. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of short term exposure to smoke of Cannabis sativa on the vital organs (heart, lungs, liver, kidney and testes) of male rats.

  20. Splicing mutation in Sbf1 causes nonsyndromic male infertility in the rat

    Liška, F.; Chylíková, B.; Janků, M.; Šeda, Ondřej; Vernerová, Z.; Pravenec, Michal; Křen, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 152, č. 3 (2016), s. 215-223 ISSN 1470-1626 R&D Projects: GA CR(CZ) GA16-06548S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : Sbf1 (SET binding factor 1) gene mutation * male infertility * spontaneously hypertensive rat Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.100, year: 2016

  1. Organization of the motoneurons innervating the pelvic muscles of the male rat

    Schrøder, H D

    1980-01-01

    The cytoarchitecture of the motoneuron pool of the male rat was studied at the lumbo-sacral transition area, particularly in L6. In the latter segment a dorso-medial (DM), ventral (V), dorso-lateral (DL), and retrodorso-lateral group (RDL) could be defined. The DL group was associated...

  2. ANTIANDROGENIC EFFECTS OF VINCLOZOLIN ON MALE RATS ARE PARTIALLY ATTENUATED BY TESTOSTERONE PROPIONATE

    ANTIANDROGENIC EFFECTS OF VINCLOZOLIN ON MALE RATS ARE PARTIALLY ATTENUATED BY TESTOSTERONE PROPIONATECynthia Wolf1,2 , Joe Ostby1, Jonathan Furr 1, Gerald A. LeBlanc2, and L. Earl Gray, Jr.11 US Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL, RTD, RTP, NC 27711, 2 Departmen...

  3. IPRODIONE DELAYS MALE RAT PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT, REDUCING SERUM TESTOSTERONE AND EX VIVO TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION

    Iprodione (IPRO) is a dichlorophenyl dicarboximide fungicide similar to the androgen receptor (AR) antagonist vinclozolin. The current studies were designed to determine if IPRO would delay male rat pubertal development like vinclozolin and to identify the mechanism(s) of action...

  4. Pair-housing of male and female rats during chronic stress exposure results in gender-specific behavioral responses

    Westenbroek, C.; Snijders, T.A.B.; Den Boer, J.A.; Gerrits, Marjolein; Fokkema, D.S.; ter Horst, G.J

    Social support has a positive influence on the course of a depression and social housing of rats could provide an animal model for studying the neurobiological mechanisms of social support. Male and female rats were subjected to chronic footshock stress for 3 weeks and pair-housing of rats was used

  5. Maturation of kisspeptinergic neurons coincides with puberty onset in male rats

    Bentsen, Agnete H; Ansel, Laura; Simonneaux, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    receptor is the primary component in the initiation of puberty and where in the hypothalamus regulation of the kisspeptin/Kiss1R system occurs is unresolved. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we analyzed the level of Kiss1 mRNA and kisspeptin-immunoreactivity in the anteroventral...... periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and the arcuate nucleus of male rats along pubertal development. Neurons expressing Kiss1 mRNA were first detected at PND15, but increased significantly around puberty, and declined again in the adult rat. While virtually no immunoreactive cell bodies were detectable in the AVPV...... that the regulation of kisspeptin synthesis and release are key events in puberty onset in the male rat....

  6. Lead Intoxication On Protein Fractions, Testicular Tissues And Ameliorative Effect Of ANTOX On Male Albino Rats

    HASSANIN, M.M.; EL-MAHDY, A.A.; ZAKI, Z.T.; EMARAH, E.A.M.; HUSSEIN, A.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Lead (heavy metal) was given as lead acetate for two groups of adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus) in drinking water at dose level of 100 mg/litre for 3 and 6 weeks to evaluate its toxic effects on protein and its fractions by using electrophoresis technique, serum testosterone using radioimmunoassay and histological investigation of the testis of male rats.Administration of 100 mg/L lead acetate in drinking water for 3 and 6 weeks induced fluctuated changes in serum total proteins, protein fractions and significant decrease in serum testosterone hormone.Histopathological examination showed cellular changes and degeneration of the seminiferous tubules after 3 and 6 weeks of administration of lead acetate.The treatment of rats with antox (10 mg/kg) during the experimental period caused improvement in protein fraction and testosterone level, and the testes sections appeared more or less normal.

  7. The role of the dorsolateral tegmentum in the control of male sexual behavior: a reevaluation.

    Romero-Carbente, J C; Camacho, F J; Paredes, R G

    2006-06-30

    The medial preoptic area/anterior hypothalamus (MPOA/AH) plays a key role in the control of male sexual behavior. Independently of the type, MPOA/AH lesions permanently eliminate male sexual behavior in the rat. The MPOA/AH projects among other structures to the dorsolateral tegmentum (DLT). Bilateral electrolytic lesions of the DLT or the unilateral electrolytic destruction of the MPOA/HA combined with a contralateral electrolytic lesion of the DLT eliminate male sexual behavior. In the present experiment, we evaluated if neurotoxic lesions of the DLT produce the same behavioral deficits as those observed after electrolytic lesions. This would allow us to evaluate if neurons of the DLT or the fibers passing through this area are important in the control of male sexual behavior. To this aim, sexually experience male rats were tested for socio-sexual behavior, partner preference and motor execution in order to determine if the possible behavioral changes could be attributed to alterations in sexual motivation or motor execution. One week after the bilateral DLT lesions the animals were evaluated in the same behavioral tests. The lesions were identified by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neuronal nuclear protein (Neu-N) immunohistochemistry. No significant consistent effects upon sexual behavior were observed in any of the groups, including the group with clear bilateral damage of the DLT. A reduction in the percentage of males displaying ejaculation in the first post-lesion test was observed for all groups injected with quinolinic acid. No effects upon partner preference or motor coordination were observed after the lesion in any of the groups. The lack of effect of DLT neurotoxic lesions upon mating suggests that neurons of this structure are not involved in the control of male sexual behavior.

  8. Depression of nocturnal pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity in castrate male rats

    Rudeen, P.K.; Reiter, R.J.; Texas Univ., San Antonio

    1980-01-01

    Pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity was examined in intact rats, castrated rats, and in rats that had been castrated and had received testosterone proprionate. Castration resulted in significantly depressing nocturnal levels of pineal NAT (p<0.05) when compared to enzyme activity in intact rats. Testosterone proprionate administration restored plasma LH levels to normal values in castrate rats but did not induce nocturnal pineal enzyme activity to levels seen in the pineal glands of intact rats. The data substantiate the existence of a feedback control of pineal biosynthetic activity by the hypophyseal-gonadal system, but the identity of the hormone(s) responsible for regulation of pineal NAT activity is not known. (author)

  9. Slight hypercalcemia is not associated with positive responses in the Comet Assay in male rat liver.

    Thiel, Anette; Hamel, Annie; Schaefer, Katrien; Cardoso, Renato; Beilstein, Paul

    2017-08-01

    Maintenance of physiological levels of intracellular and extracellular calcium is essential for life. Increased intracellular calcium levels are involved in cell death (apoptosis and necrosis) and are associated with positive responses in the Comet assay in vitro. In addition, high calcium and vitamin D intakes were reported to induce apoptosis in adipose tissue in obese mice and to increase DNA-migration in the Comet assay. To investigate increased serum concentration of calcium as a potential confounding factor in the regulatory Comet assay in vivo, we induced mild hypercalcemia in male Wistar rats by 3-day continuous intravenous infusion of calcium gluconate and performed the Comet assay in the liver in line with regulatory guidelines. The results of the study showed that mild increases in serum calcium concentration (up to 1.4 times above the concurrent control) and increased urinary calcium concentration (up to 27.8 times above the concurrent control) results in clinical signs like mild tremor, faster respiration rate and decreased activity in a few animals. However, under the conditions of the study, no increase in the %Tail DNA in the Comet assay and no indication of liver damage as determined by histopathological means were observed. Thus, mild increases in plasma calcium did not lead to positive results in a genotoxicity assessment by the Comet assay in the rat liver. This result is important as it confirms the reliability of this assay for regulatory evaluation of safety. Copyright © 2017 DSM Nutritional Products AG. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Study of Salvia Officinalis Hydroethanolic Extract on Serum Thyroid Hormone Levels in Hypothyroid Male Rat

    N. Mirazi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Medicinal plants are widely used throughout the world. Hypothyroid-ism is an important hormonal disease that causes some disorders in body organs. Salvia offi-cinalis has been known as a medicinal plant since ancient times. In this study the Salvia offi-cinalis extract (SOE effects on thyroid hormones and TSH in hypothyroid rats have been investigated. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study the SOE extract was prepared and 40 male rats were randomly divided in five groups. Control, propylthiouracil (PTU in 4 groups + SOE. The animals were induced hypothyroidism by administration of PTU 0.1% orally in tap water for 14 days. The blood samples were collected and T3 & T4 and TSH hormones were analyzed. Hypothyroid groups were divided into 4 groups and received (PTU+ SOE 40 mg/kg +levothyroxine sodium, 15mcg/kg, orally in tap water and LV+ SOE. All test groups were treated with SOE and levothyroxine sodium for one week. The blood samples were col-lected and for T3 & T4 and TSH hormones were analyzed at the end of the 3rd week. All data were expressed as mean ± SEM and all statistical procedures were performed by MANOVA test.Results: Our results showed that the T3 & T4 plasma levels in hypothyroid animals treated by SOE had significant differences (P<0.05 compared with the control group. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the SOE has stimulatory effect on thyroid gland func-tion and raises plasma T3 & T4 levels.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 19 (4:27-35

  11. The Effect of Withania Somnifera Root Extract on Open Wound Healing in the Male Rats

    N Ajand

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Healing cutaneous wounds is regarded as one of the most important issues in the medicine. Different chemical agents have been used in regard with promoting wound healing, most of which unfortunately present some side effects and defects. Since natural combinations have proposed less disadvantages, this study aimed to investigate the effect of Withania Somnifera root extract on cutaneous wound healing in the male rats. Methods: This study was performed on 36 rats weighing 180-220g that were divided into 6 groups (n=6. First, wounds (2x2 were made on the dorsal skin of the animals. The first group was left without treatment (control group, the second was treated with Eucerin(negative control, the third group received 1% of phenytoin cream and in the other groups, different concentrations of hydroalcoholic extract of Withania Somnifera (20%, 40%, 60% w/w combined with Eucerin base were administrated once per day. The area of wounds was measured by Autocad software every day, from the 2nd day to 14th day. The study data were analyzed via SPSS software (ver.16 at the significant level of P<0.05. Results:The reduction of incisional wound area in the all groups treated with root extract of Withania Somnifera  ointment was significantly higher on the 8th  day. Moreover, dose of 60% and 90% revealed better effects (p<0.001. Conclusion: The findings of the present study demonstrated that Withania Somnifera root, due to its significant reduction in the healing time as well as wound area, can be used as an effective material in regard with the cutaneous wound healing.

  12. Neuropeptides in the posterodorsal medial amygdala modulate central cardiovascular reflex responses in awake male rats

    Quagliotto, E. [Departamento de Ciências Básicas da Saúde/Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Neurociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Casali, K.R. [Instituto de Ciência e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Dal Lago, P. [Departamento de Fisioterapia, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Rasia-Filho, A.A. [Departamento de Ciências Básicas da Saúde/Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Neurociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-11-21

    The rat posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) links emotionally charged sensory stimuli to social behavior, and is part of the supramedullary control of the cardiovascular system. We studied the effects of microinjections of neuroactive peptides markedly found in the MePD, namely oxytocin (OT, 10 ng and 25 pg; n=6/group), somatostatin (SST, 1 and 0.05 μM; n=8 and 5, respectively), and angiotensin II (Ang II, 50 pmol and 50 fmol; n=7/group), on basal cardiovascular activity and on baroreflex- and chemoreflex-mediated responses in awake adult male rats. Power spectral and symbolic analyses were applied to pulse interval and systolic arterial pressure series to identify centrally mediated sympathetic/parasympathetic components in the heart rate variability (HRV) and arterial pressure variability (APV). No microinjected substance affected basal parameters. On the other hand, compared with the control data (saline, 0.3 µL; n=7), OT (10 ng) decreased mean AP (MAP{sub 50}) after baroreflex stimulation and increased both the mean AP response after chemoreflex activation and the high-frequency component of the HRV. OT (25 pg) increased overall HRV but did not affect any parameter of the symbolic analysis. SST (1 μM) decreased MAP{sub 50}, and SST (0.05 μM) enhanced the sympathovagal cardiac index. Both doses of SST increased HRV and its low-frequency component. Ang II (50 pmol) increased HRV and reduced the two unlike variations pattern of the symbolic analysis (P<0.05 in all cases). These results demonstrate neuropeptidergic actions in the MePD for both the increase in the range of the cardiovascular reflex responses and the involvement of the central sympathetic and parasympathetic systems on HRV and APV.

  13. Neuropeptides in the posterodorsal medial amygdala modulate central cardiovascular reflex responses in awake male rats

    Quagliotto, E.; Casali, K.R.; Dal Lago, P.; Rasia-Filho, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    The rat posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) links emotionally charged sensory stimuli to social behavior, and is part of the supramedullary control of the cardiovascular system. We studied the effects of microinjections of neuroactive peptides markedly found in the MePD, namely oxytocin (OT, 10 ng and 25 pg; n=6/group), somatostatin (SST, 1 and 0.05 μM; n=8 and 5, respectively), and angiotensin II (Ang II, 50 pmol and 50 fmol; n=7/group), on basal cardiovascular activity and on baroreflex- and chemoreflex-mediated responses in awake adult male rats. Power spectral and symbolic analyses were applied to pulse interval and systolic arterial pressure series to identify centrally mediated sympathetic/parasympathetic components in the heart rate variability (HRV) and arterial pressure variability (APV). No microinjected substance affected basal parameters. On the other hand, compared with the control data (saline, 0.3 µL; n=7), OT (10 ng) decreased mean AP (MAP 50 ) after baroreflex stimulation and increased both the mean AP response after chemoreflex activation and the high-frequency component of the HRV. OT (25 pg) increased overall HRV but did not affect any parameter of the symbolic analysis. SST (1 μM) decreased MAP 50 , and SST (0.05 μM) enhanced the sympathovagal cardiac index. Both doses of SST increased HRV and its low-frequency component. Ang II (50 pmol) increased HRV and reduced the two unlike variations pattern of the symbolic analysis (P<0.05 in all cases). These results demonstrate neuropeptidergic actions in the MePD for both the increase in the range of the cardiovascular reflex responses and the involvement of the central sympathetic and parasympathetic systems on HRV and APV

  14. Effect of Γ-aminobutyric acid on kidney injury induced by renal ischemia-reperfusion in male and female rats: Gender-related difference.

    Vafapour, Marzieh; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Monajemi, Ramesh; Mazaheri, Safoora; Talebi, Ardeshir; Talebi, Nahid; Shirdavani, Soheyla

    2015-01-01

    The most important cause of kidney injury is renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), which is gender-related. This study was designed to investigate the protective role of Γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA (against IRI in male and female rats. Thirty-six female and male wistar rats were assigned to six experimental groups. The IRI was induced by clamping renal vessels for 45 min then was performed reperfusion for 24 h. The group sex posed to IRI were pretreated with GABA and were compared with the control groups. Serum levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, kidney weight, and kidney tissue damage score increased in the IRI alone groups, (P GABA decreased these parameters in female significantly (P GABA. Testis weight did not alter in male rats. Serum level of nitrite and kidney level of malondialdehyde (MDA) had no significant change in both female and male rats. Kidney level of nitrite increased significantly in female rats experienced IRI and serum level of MDA increased significantly in males that were exposed to IRI (P GABA could ameliorate kidney injury induced by renal IRI in a gender dependent manner.

  15. Effects of different concentrations of sugarcane alcohol on food intake and nutritional status of male and female periadolescent rats.

    Gonçalves de Orange, Luciana; Bion, Francisca Martins; Rolim de Lima, Cybelle

    2009-03-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of food and alcohol intake on the nutritional and metabolic status of male and female periadolescent rats submitted to single (15%) and multiple (10%, 20%, 30%) concentrations of hydroalcoholic solutions of sugar-based alcohol associated with a feed mixture. Thirty-six periadolescent Wistar rats were used and randomly arranged into three groups: Group A (control; 0% ethanol; six males and six females), Group B (15% ethanol; six males and six females), and Group C (10%, 20%, and 30% ethanol; six males and six females). Food consumption, body weight, water intake (mL), ethanol intake (g/kg/day), ethanol preference in relation to water and different concentrations, and serum biochemical dosages (glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein fraction, triglycerides, cholesterol/HDL [CT/HDL], albumin) were analyzed. Males from Group C ingested more feed than females, which consumed reducing amounts throughout the weeks studied. Males also had heavier body weight, which increased throughout the experimental period. The animals ingested more water (females ingested more than males) in the first experimental week. Group C had a higher ethanol intake and greater preference for ethanol over water in both genders than Group B, which decreased over the subsequent weeks. Serum glucose was lower in Group A, whereas the CT/HDL ratio was lower in Group C. These findings allow the conclusion that nutritional and metabolic impact resulting from alcohol intake is different between genders and between the different forms in which the drug is offered. It is important to warn the population about the concentrations of alcohol intake, which may influence the growth and development of adolescents, thereby compromising their quality of life.

  16. Effect of 8 weeks Resistance Training on BDNF and TrkB in the Hippocampus of Adult Male Rats

    S Mojtahedi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Exercise enhances the synaptic plasticity and neuroprotective effects in the adult brain. However, it remains unknown that how plasticity molecules change following types of training. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of eight weeks resistance training on protein levels of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor(BDNF and receptor of TrkB, in the hippocampus of adult male rats. Methods: In this experimental study, twelve adult male rats, 8 weeks of age, with an average weight of 200 to 225 grams were randomly divided into two groups, control and exercise respectively. The exercise was to increase the weight on the ladder. 24 hours after their last training session. The animals were killed and the hippocampus was removed for further testing. ELISA determined changes in protein levels. Data were analyzed by independent t test. Results: There was a significant difference between train and control groups In protein level of variables statically (p≤0.05. In addition, protein levels of BDNF and TrkB in the hippocampus of rats increased. Conclusion: Resistance training is beneficial for promoting hippocampal plasticity associated with BDNF signaling and consequently functional and cognitive benefits.

  17. Effect of Simultaneous Use of Ritalin with Grape Seed Extract on Passive Avoidance Learning in Adult Male Rats

    Tooba Karimizadeh Moneh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Ritalin is one of the drugs used in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. This study aimed to investigate the comparative effect of Ritalin with grape seed extract on passive avoidance learning in adult male rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 40 adult male Wistar rats divided randomly into 5 groups of 8 rats including control, sham and three experimental groups. The control group received no treatment. The sham group received 1 ml of distilled water per day. At the same time the experimental groups received 100 mg/kg grape seed extract, 1 mg/kg Ritalin or 100 mg/kg grape seed extract together with 1 mg/kg of Ritalin by gavage for 28 days. For measuring the amount of avoidance learning, Shuttle box was used. Data analyzed by ANOVA and consistent Tukey's tests using SPSS-18 software and p>0.05 considered as significant. Results: The results showed that Ritalin decreases the passive avoidance learning, while the grape seed extract alone or together with Ritalin increases passive avoidance learning. Conclusion:  The outcome of this research shows that taking Ritalin leads to decreasing passive avoidance learning. However, the simultaneous taking Ritalin with grape seed extract inhibits the Ritalin effect and increasing the learning.

  18. Susceptibility or resilience? Prenatal stress predisposes male rats to social subordination, but facilitates adaptation to subordinate status.

    Scott, Karen A; de Kloet, Annette D; Smeltzer, Michael D; Krause, Eric G; Flak, Jonathan N; Melhorn, Susan J; Foster, Michelle T; Tamashiro, Kellie L K; Sakai, Randall R

    2017-09-01

    Mood disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) affect a significant proportion of the population. Although progress has been made in the development of therapeutics, a large number of individuals do not attain full remission of symptoms and adverse side effects affect treatment compliance for some. In order to develop new therapies, there is a push for new models that better reflect the multiple risk factors that likely contribute to the development of depressive illness. We hypothesized that early life stress would exacerbate the depressive-like phenotype that we have previously observed in socially subordinate (SUB) adult male rats in the visible burrow system (VBS), a semi-natural, ethologically relevant environment in which males in a colony form a dominance hierarchy. Dams were exposed to chronic variable stress (CVS) during the last week of gestation, resulting in a robust and non-habituating glucocorticoid response that did not alter maternal food intake, body weight or litter size and weight. As adults, one prenatal CVS (PCVS) and one non-stressed (NS) male were housed in the VBS with adult females. Although there were no overt differences between PCVS and NS male offspring prior to VBS housing, a greater percentage of PCVS males became SUB. However, the depressive-like phenotype of SUB males was not exacerbated in PCVS males; rather, they appeared to better cope with SUB status than NS SUB males. They had lower basal plasma corticosterone than NS SUB males at the end of VBS housing. In situ hybridization for CRH in the PVN and CeA did not reveal any prenatal treatment or status effects, while NPY expression was higher within the MeA of dominant and subordinate males exposed to the VBS in comparison with controls, but with no effect of prenatal treatment. These data suggest that prenatal chronic variable stress may confer resilience to offspring when exposed to social stress in adulthood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone in lean and obese male Zucker rats

    White, B.D.; Corll, C.B.; Porter, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The obese Zucker rat is an animal model of human juvenile-onset obesity. These rats exhibit numerous endocrine and metabolic abnormalities. Adrenalectomy of obese rats has been shown to reduce or reverse several of these abnormalities, thereby implying that corticosterone may contribute to the expression of obesity in this animal. Furthermore, it has been shown that the circadian rhythm of plasma corticosterone is disturbed in obese Zucker rats resulting in elevated morning plasma corticosterone concentrations in obese rats as compared to lean rats. In a effort to better elucidate the mechanism of the elevated morning levels of plasma corticosterone, the metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone was determined in the morning for lean and obese male Zucker rats (12 to 20 weeks). Additionally, the biliary and urinary excretion of labeled corticosterone and/or its metabolites were determined. The metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone was significantly greater in obese rats than in their lean counterparts. Both the metabolic clearance rate and the volume of compartments significantly correlated with body weight. No correlation was found between body weight and the elimination rate constant. The increased metabolic clearance rate of obese rats appeared to be due to an increase in the physiologic distribution of corticosterone and not to an alteration in the enzymes responsible for corticosterone metabolism. It appears that the metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone in obese Zucker rats does not contribute to elevated morning concentrations of plasma corticosterone previously observed in these animals. It suggests that the adrenal corticosterone secretion rate must actually be greater than one would expect from the plasma corticosterone concentrations alone

  20. Effects of dose, species, and dosing vehicle on the disposition of methacrylonitrile (MAN) in male rats

    Sanchez, I.M.; Ghanayem, B.I.

    1991-01-01

    MAN is structurally similar to known carcinogen acrylontrile (AN), with nitriles having similar industrial uses. Current studies were designed to investigate the biological fate of 2- 14 C-MAN in rats. After gavage administration of 115, 11.5 or 1.15 mg MAN/kg in water, F344 male rats were placed in glass metabolism cages and urine, expired air and feces were collected. Rats were sacrificed at various times and concentration of MAN-derived radioactivity in tissues was determined. MAN was rapidly absorbed from the GI tract and distributed to all major tissues. Sixty-70% of the low and medium doses were exhaled as 14 CO 2 in 72 hr compared to 25% of the highest dose. While 40% of the highest dose was expired as organic volatiles in 72 hr, only 9-12% of the low and accounted for 20-30% of all doses within 72 hr after dosing. Comparison of MAN disposition in Sprague-Dawley (SD) and F344 rats at 115 mg/kg revealed that SD rats excreted a greater % of the dose as 14 CO 2 and in the urine than did F344 rats. Administration of 115 mg MAN/kg to SD male rats in safflower oil resulted in increased elimination of MAN-derived radioactivity as CO 2 , volatiles, and in the urine over that observed when administered in water. These results suggest that: (1) saturation of MAN metabolism occurs at high doses: (2) MAN metabolism and disposition differ with the strain of rats studied; (3) MAN disposition may vary with the dosing vehicle used; and (4) MAN metabolism and disposition is apparently different from that reported on AN

  1. Effect of Urtica Dioica Decoction on Serum Glucose and Lipid Profile in Stereptozotocin Induced Diabetic Male Rats

    Mohammad Reza Sahraki

    Full Text Available Background: Since Urtica dioica is a traditional treatment plant and is used for antihypertensive, antilipidemic and antidiabetic agents, this survey was carried out to evaluate the effect of Urtica dioica decoction on serum glucose and lipid profile in diabetic male rats induced by stereptozotocin (STZ. Materials and Methods: This experiment was performed on 30 Wistar-Albino male rats, weighing 200-250 g, which were divided in sham control (A, diabetic control (B and diabetic test groups (C randomly (N=10. Type I diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (65 mg/kg. Test group received 0.40-0.60 ml of Urtica dioica decoction for a month by gavages, control group (B received the same volume of distill water. Group (A did not receive any agent during the experiment period. Finally, animals were anesthetized, sacrificed and blood samples were collected from the cervical vein. Then, serum glucose and lipid profiles were measured by ordinary methods. Data were analyzed by SPSS-11, using ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests. Results were expressed as mean±SD, and statistical difference was considered significant by p<0.05.Results: Results in the present study showed that fasting blood glucose (FBS, total cholesterol (TCho, triglyceride (TG, LDL, food and water intake were significantly decreased in group C compared with those of group B, but body weight gain was significantly increased compared with that of control group (B.Conclusion: These results indicated that Urtica dioica decoction caused decreased FBS and improved serum lipids in diabetic male rats. Some more studies have shown the same mechanism.

  2. Precipitated withdrawal counters the adverse effects of subchronic cannabinoid administration on male rat sexual behavior.

    Riebe, Caitlin J; Lee, Tiffany T; Hill, Matthew N; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2010-03-26

    In the present study, sexual behavior of male rats was assessed following prolonged treatment with the CB(1) receptor agonist, HU-210 (0.1mg/mg/day for 10 days) under conditions of drug maintenance, spontaneous withdrawal and precipitated withdrawal (induced via administration of the CB(1) receptor antagonist AM251; 1mg/kg). Following subchronic cannabinoid treatment, sexual activity in male rats was impaired under both the drug maintenance and spontaneous withdrawal conditions, as revealed by a reduction in frequency of both intromissions and ejaculations. Notably, the induction of precipitated drug withdrawal reversed the negative effects of subchronic HU-210 treatment on sexual activity as seen by a reversal of the suppression of ejaculations. These data illustrate that, contrary to expectations, the impairments in male sexual activity following protracted cannabinoid administration are not due to drug withdrawal, per se, but are likely mediated by neuroadaptive changes provoked by repeated drug exposure. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of genistein on intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-induced cognitive deficits in male rat

    Tourandokht Balouchnejadmojarad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract  Introduction: Intracerebroventricular (ICV injection of streptozotocin (STZ causes cognitive impairment in rats. The beneficial effect of genistein (GEN was investigated on ICV STZ-induced learning, memory, and cognitive impairment in male rats. Methods: For this purpose, rats were injected with ICV STZ bilaterally, on days 1 and 3 (3 mg/kg. The STZ-injected rats received GEN (1 mg/kg/day, p.o. starting one day pre-surgery for two weeks. The learning and memory performance was assessed using passive avoidance paradigm, and for spatial cognition evaluation, radial eight-arm maze (RAM task was used.  Results: It was found out that GEN-treated STZ-injected rats show higher correct choices and lower errors in RAM than vehicle-treated STZ-injected rats. In addition, GEN administration significantly attenuated learning and memory impairment in treated STZ-injected group in passive avoidance test.Discussion: These results demonstrate the effectiveness of GEN in preventing the cognitive deficits caused by ICV STZ in rats and its potential in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD.

  4. The effect of genistein on intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-induced cognitive deficits in male rat

    Tourandokht Balouchnejadmojarad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract  Introduction: Intracerebroventricular (ICV injection of streptozotocin (STZ causes cognitive impairment in rats. The beneficial effect of genistein (GEN was investigated on ICV STZ-induced learning, memory, and cognitive impairment in male rats. Methods: For this purpose, rats were injected with ICV STZ bilaterally, on days 1 and 3 (3 mg/kg. The STZ-injected rats received GEN (1 mg/kg/day, p.o. starting one day pre-surgery for two weeks. The learning and memory performance was assessed using passive avoidance paradigm, and for spatial cognition evaluation, radial eight-arm maze (RAM task was used.  Results: It was found out that GEN-treated STZ-injected rats show higher correct choices and lower errors in RAM than vehicle-treated STZ-injected rats. In addition, GEN administration significantly attenuated learning and memory impairment in treated STZ-injected group in passive avoidance test.Discussion: These results demonstrate the effectiveness of GEN in preventing the cognitive deficits caused by ICV STZ in rats and its potential in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD.  

  5. The effect of developmental vitamin D deficiency in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats on decision-making using a rodent gambling task.

    Peak, J N; Turner, K M; Burne, T H J

    2015-01-01

    Developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency is a plausible risk factor for schizophrenia that has been associated with behavioural alterations including disruptions in latent inhibition and response inhibition. The rodent gambling task (rGT) assesses risk-based decision-making, which is a key cognitive deficit observed in schizophrenia patients. The primary aim of this study was to examine risk-based decision-making in DVD-deficient and control rats on the rGT. We also evaluated the performance of female Sprague-Dawley rats on the rGT for the first time. Adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats from control and vitamin D deficient dams were trained to perform the rGT in standard operant chambers and their performance and choice-preferences were assessed. Female rats were significantly faster to reach rGT training criteria compared with male rats and DVD-deficient rats were faster to reach training criteria than control animals. After reaching stable performance on the rGT DVD-deficient and control rats showed a significant preference for the optimal choice-option in the rGT, but there were no significant effects of sex or diet on these responses. DVD deficiency did not alter the decision-making processes on the rGT because no significant changes in choice-preferences were evident. This is the first study to demonstrate that once established, the performance of females is comparable to male Sprague-Dawley rats on the rGT. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dosimetry considerations in the enhanced sensitivity of male Wistar rats to chronic ethylene glycol-induced nephrotoxicity

    Corley, R.A.; Wilson, D.M.; Hard, G.C.; Stebbins, K.E.; Bartels, M.J.; Soelberg, J.J.; Dryzga, M.D.; Gingell, R.; McMartin, K.E.; Snellings, W.M.

    2008-01-01

    Male Wistar rats have been shown to be the most sensitive sex, strain and species to ethylene glycol-induced nephrotoxicity in subchronic studies. A chronic toxicity and dosimetry study was therefore conducted in male Wistar rats administered ethylene glycol via the diet at 0, 50, 150, 300, or 400 mg/kg/day for up to twelve months. Subgroups of animals were included for metabolite analysis and renal clearance studies to provide a quantitative basis for extrapolating dose-response relationships from this sensitive animal model in human health risk assessments. Mortality occurred in 5 of 20 rats at 300 mg/kg/day (days 111-221) and 4 of 20 rats at 400 mg/kg/day (days 43-193), with remaining rats at this dose euthanized early (day 203) due to excessive weight loss. Increased water consumption and urine volume with decreased specific gravity occurred at 300 mg/kg/day presumably due to osmotic diuresis. Calculi (calcium oxalate crystals) occurred in the bladder or renal pelvis at ≥ 300 mg/kg/day. Rats dying early at ≥ 300 mg/kg/day had transitional cell hyperplasia with inflammation and hemorrhage of the bladder wall. Crystal nephropathy (basophilic foci, tubule or pelvic dilatation, birefringent crystals in the pelvic fornix, or transitional cell hyperplasia) affected most rats at 300 mg/kg/day, all at 400 mg/kg/day, but none at ≤ 150 mg/kg/day. No significant differences in kidney oxalate levels, the metabolite responsible for renal toxicity, were observed among control, 50 and 150 mg/kg/day groups. At 300 and 400 mg/kg/day, oxalate levels increased proportionally with the nephrotoxicity score supporting the oxalate crystal-induced nephrotoxicity mode of action. No treatment-related effects on the renal clearance of intravenously infused 3 H-inulin, a marker for glomerular filtration, and 14 C-oxalic acid were observed in rats surviving 12 months of exposure to ethylene glycol up to 300 mg/kg/day. In studies with naive male Wistar and F344 rats (a less sensitive

  7. Effect of Amphetamine on Adult Male and Female Rats Prenatally Exposed to Methamphetamine

    Romana Šlamberová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the cross-sensitization induced by prenatal methamphetamine (MA exposure to adult amphetamine (AMP treatment in male and female rats. Rat mothers received a daily injection of MA (5 mg/kg or saline throughout the gestation period. Adult male and female offspring (prenatally MA- or saline-exposed were administered with AMP (5 mg/kg or saline (1 ml/kg in adulthood. Behaviour in unknown environment was examined in open field test (Laboras, active drug-seeking behaviour in conditioned place preference test (CPP, spatial memory in the Morris water maze (MWM, and levels of corticosterone (CORT were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA. Our data demonstrate that in Laboras test, AMP treatment in adulthood increased general locomotion (time and distance travelled regardless of the prenatal exposure and sex, while AMP increased exploratory activity (rearing only in prenatally MA-exposed animals. AMP induced sensitization only in male rats, but not in females when tested drug-seeking behaviour in the CPP test. In the spatial memory MWM test, AMP worsened the performance only in females, but not in males. On the other hand, males swam faster after chronic AMP treatment regardless of the prenatal drug exposure. EIA analysis of CORT levels demonstrated higher level in females in all measurement settings. In males, prenatal MA exposure and chronic adult AMP treatment decreased CORT levels. Thus, our data demonstrated that adult AMP treatment affects behaviour of adult rats, their spatial memory and stress response in sex-specific manner. The effect is also influenced by prenatal drug exposure.

  8. Effect of sildenafil (Viagra® on the genital reflexes of paradoxical sleep-deprived male rats

    M.L. Andersen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Since there is evidence that paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD elicits penile erection (PE and ejaculation (EJ, and that the erectile response of rats is mediated by nitric oxide, the present study sought to extend the latter finding by assessing the effects of sildenafil on the genital reflexes of male Wistar rats subjected to PSD. We also determined the influence of sildenafil on hormone concentrations. In the first experiment, sildenafil at doses ranging from 0.08 to 0.32 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally to rats that had been deprived of sleep for 4 days and to home cage controls (N = 8-10/group. The frequency of PE and EJ was measured for 60 min. PSD alone induced PE in 50% of the animals; however, a single injection of sildenafil did not significantly increase the percentage of rats displaying PE compared to PSD-saline or to home cage groups. PSD alone also induced spontaneous EJ, but this response was not potentiated by sildenafil in the dose range tested. Testosterone concentrations were significantly lower in PSD rats (137 ± 22 ng/dL than in controls (365 ± 38 ng/dL, whereas progesterone (0.9 ± 0.1 vs 5.4 ± 1 ng/mL and plasma dopamine (103.4 ± 30 vs 262.6 ± 77 pg/mL increased. These changes did not occur after sildenafil treatment. The data show that although sildenafil did not alter the frequency of genital reflexes, it antagonized hormonal (testosterone and progesterone and plasma dopamine changes induced by PSD. The stimulation of the genital reflexes by sildenafil did not result in potentiating effects in PSD rats.

  9. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats' Choices between Differently Priced Commodities.

    van Wingerden, Marijn; Marx, Christine; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers' sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to uncompensated budget conditions

  10. Garlic (Allium sativum) feeding impairs Sertoli cell junctional proteins in male Wistar rat testis: microscopy study.

    Hammami, I; Nahdi, A; Atig, F; El May, A; El May, M V

    2016-12-01

    Sertoli cell junctions, such as adhesion junction (AJ), gap junction (GJ) and tight junction (TJ), are important for maintaining spermatogenesis. In previous studies, we showed the inhibitory effect of crude garlic (Allium sativum, As) on spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. The aim of this work was to complete our investigation on the impact of this plant, especially on Sertoli cell junctional proteins (SCJPs). During 1 month, 24 male rats were divided into groups: group control (0% of As) and treated groups fed 5%, 10% and 15% of As. Light and electron microscopy observations were performed to localise junctional proteins: connexin-43, Zona Occluding-1 and N-cadherin (immunohistochemistry) and to describe junctions. We showed that the specific cells involved in the localisation of the SCJP were similar in both control and treated groups, but with different immunoreactivity intensity between them. The electron microscopy observation focused on TJs between Sertoli cells, constituting the blood-testis barrier, showed ultrastructural changes such as fragmentation of TJs between adjacent Sertoli cell membranes and dilatation of rough endoplasmic reticulum saccules giving an aspect of scale to these junctions. We concluded that crude garlic consumption during 1 month induces perturbations on Sertoli cell junctions. These alterations can explain apoptosis in testicular germ cells previously showed. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Biochemical Effects Of Aluminum On Some Selected Serum Enzymes Of Male Wistar Albino Rats

    Ogueche

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxic metals are widely found in our environment and humans are exposed to them via water contaminated air food and soil. Aluminum AL belongs to this group of toxic metals. Its neurological effects are well documented but effects on acid and alkaline phosphatases are poorly studied and this the essence of this study. Toxicity of aluminum was investigated based on the elevation of acid and alkali phosphatases in serum of male Wistar albino rats after days 7 and 14 of aluminum 0.38 3.8 and 38mgkg body weight administration respectively. The results showed significant increase p0.05 in serum acid phosphatase in the test animals given 38kgkg after days 14 while serum alkali phosphatase increased significantly p 0.05 in the test animals given 3.8 and 38 mgkg after days 7 and 14 when compared to the control animals. However lower dose 0.38mgkg showed increase in both serum acid and alkali phosphatases respectively but were statistically non-significant p0.05 at 7 and 14 as compared to control animals.

  12. Effect of Mucuna pruriens (Linn.) on sexual behavior and sperm parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rat.

    Suresh, Sekar; Prakash, Seppan

    2012-12-01

    Sexual dysfunction is one of the major secondary complications in the diabetic. Mucuna pruriens, a leguminous plant identified for its antidiabetic, aphrodisiac, and improving fertility properties, has been the choice of Indian traditional medicine. Objective of the present study was to analyze the efficacy of M. pruriens on male sexual behavior and sperm parameters in long-term hyperglycemic male rats. Male albino rats were divided as group I control, group II diabetes induced (streptozotocin [STZ] 60 mg/kg of body weight (b.w.) in 0.1 M citrate buffer), group III diabetic rats administered with 200 mg/kg b.w. of ethanolic extract of M. pruriens seed, group IV diabetic rats administered with 5 mg/kg b.w. of sildenafil citrate (SC), group V administered with 200 mg/kg b.w. of extract, and group VI administered with 5 mg/kg b.w. of SC. M. pruriens and SC were administered in single oral dosage per day for a period of 60 days. The animals were subjected to mating behavior analyses, libido, test of potency, and epididymal sperms were analyzed. The mating behavior, libido, test of potency, along with epididymal sperms were studied. The study showed significant reduction in sexual behavior and sperm parameters in group II. Daily sperm production (DSP) and levels of follicular stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone were significantly reduced in group II, whereas the animals with diabetes administered with seed extract of M. pruriens (group III) showed significant improvement in sexual behavior, libido and potency, sperm parameters, DSP, and hormonal levels when compared to group II. The present work reveals the potential efficacy of ethanolic seed extract of M. pruriens to improve male sexual behavior with androgenic and antidiabetic effects in the STZ-induced diabetic male rats. This study supports the usage of M. pruriens in the Indian system of medicine as sexual invigorator in diabetic condition and encourages performing similar study in men.

  13. Protective Effect of Coenzyme Q10 on Methamphetamine-Induced Apoptosis in Adult Male Rats

    Fatemeh Gholipour

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The negative consequence of methamphetamine abuse is due to neuropathologic changes in the brain, which reduces dopaminergic neurons and result in damage to different brain areas. Neurotoxicity induced by methamphetamine increases the oxidative stress and associated with neuronal apoptosis. The role of the antioxidant coenzyme Q10 probably produces its neuroprotective effects. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the protective effect of coenzyme Q10 on methamphetamine-induced apoptosis in adult male rats.Materials and Methods: Fifty Wistar eight-week adult rats randomly divided into 5 groups: Healthy control, methamphetamine injection (Meth, methamphetamine injection and CoQ10 5mg/kg treatment (Meth+Post CoQ10 5mg/kg, methamphetamine injection and CoQ10 10mg/kg treatment (Meth+Post CoQ10 10mg/kg, methamphetamine injection and CoQ10 20mg/kg treatment (Meth+Post CoQ10 20mg/kg. Methamphetamine with a purity of 96% with a dosage of 20 mg/kg was injected Intraperitoneal. Coenzyme Q10 for three treatment groups was injected intraperitoneally for 14 days in a dosage of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg/day. The protein expressions of Baxand Bcl2 were evaluated by western blotting technique.Results: Bax protein expression was significantly lower in Meth+Post CoQ10 5mg/kg (p=0.010 and so Meth+Post CoQ10 10mg/kg (p=0.004 comparing to Meth group. In addition, Bcl2 protein expression was significantly higher in Meth+Post CoQ10 5mg/kg comparing to Meth group (p=0.018. However, there were no significant differences between control and CoQ10 treatment groups. Bax/Bcl2 ratio was significantly lower in Meth+Post CoQ10 5mg/kg (p=0.005, Meth+Post CoQ10 10mg/kg (p=0.008 and Meth+Post CoQ10 20mg/kg (p=0.044 comparing to Meth group.Conclusion: We suggest that CoQ10 reduces the methamphetamine-induced apoptosis in the striatum of the rats through the reduction of apoptotic factors and increase of anti-apoptotic pathways.

  14. Galanin-like peptide stimulates feeding and sexual behavior via dopaminergic fibers within the medial preoptic area of adult male rats.

    Taylor, A; Madison, F N; Fraley, G S

    2009-03-01

    Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is located in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) of the hypothalamus and is known to regulate both food intake and sexual behaviors in adult male rats. We have previously demonstrated that ICV GALP administration elicits a significant fos response within the medial preoptic area (mPOA). GALP is known to stimulate both food intake and male-typical sex behavior, presumably by direct actions within the mPOA. Recent data from our and other labs have led us to suspect that GALP effects on sex behaviors are due to activation of incertohypothalamic dopaminergic neurons that terminate within the mPOA. To test the hypothesis that GALP activates mPOA dopaminergic systems, we utilized an immunolesion technique to eliminate dopaminergic fiber input to the mPOA via a dopamine transporter-specific toxin (DATSAP, n=8) and compared to control injections (SAP, n=8). All animals were sexually experienced adult male Long-Evans rats. DATSAP-treated male rats showed a significant (psexual behaviors compared to SAP controls. We found that elimination of dopaminergic fibers within the mPOA significantly (psexual behavior under normal mating paradigms. Injections of GALP (5.0 nmol) significantly increased (psexual behaviors in male rats by stimulating dopaminergic neurons that terminate within the mPOA.

  15. Histophatologic changes of lung in asthmatic male rats treated with hydro-alcoholic extract of Plantago major and theophylline

    Farah Farokhi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Plantago major (P. major is one of the medicinal crops in the world which has therapeutic properties for treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Theophylline is commonly used for the treatment of respiratory diseases. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of P. major on lung in asthmatic male rats. Materials and Methods: 32 male adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: The control group (C received normal saline; Asthma (A group received a normal diet; Asthma group treated with Theophylline (200 mg/kg b.w. (T; Asthma group which received p.major (100 mg/kg b.w. (P. Asthma was induced by citric acid, 0.1 mg in form of spraying. The injection of P.major extract and theophylline was administered intraperitoneally for four weeks. At the end of the treatment, all of the rats were sacrificed and lungs were taken out, fixed, and stained with H&E, toluidine blue, and PAS, then histological studies were followed with light microscope. Results: Results showed that, in asthmatic group, the mean number of mast cells was significantly increased (p<0.05. Thickness of alveolar epithelium and accumulation of glycoprotein in airways was increased. Moreover, in some of alveolar sac hemorrhaging was observed. Administration of p.major extract in asthmatic rats restored these changes towards normal group.Conclusion: The present study revealed that P. major compared with theophylline, has a protective effect on lung in asthmatic rats.

  16. Dose- dependent ameliorative effects of quercetin and l-Carnitine against atrazine- induced reproductive toxicity in adult male Albino rats.

    Abdel Aziz, Rabie L; Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed; Abo El-Ela, Fatma I; Hassan, Nour El-Houda Y; El-Nahass, El-Shaymaa; Ibrahim, Marwa A; Khalil, Abdel-Tawab A Y

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the protective effects of co-administration of Quercetin (QT) or l-Carnitine (LC) against the oxidative stress induced by Atrazine (ATZ) in the reproductive system of intact male Albino rats. 36 rats were divided equally into 6 groups. Rats in the control negative "CNT" group received 1.5 ml distilled water for 21 days. All rats in the other groups received ATZ (120 mg/kg bw) through gavage. Groups 3 and 4 were co-administered with either low or high dose of QT (10 "ATZLQT" and 50 "ATZHQT" mg/kg bw, respectively). Groups 5 and 6 were co-administered with either low or high dose of LC (200 "ATZLLC" and 400 "ATZHLC" mg/kg bw, respectively). At the end of the experiment, animals were sacrificed and all samples were collected. ATZ significantly increased serum level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Also, ATZ increased significantly the sperm cell abnormalities and reduced both testicular IgA and serum testosterone levels. Testicular DNA laddering % and CYP17A1 mRNA expression were significantly reduced in ATZ group. Interestingly, co-administration with low dose QT or different doses of LC succeeded to counteract the negative toxic effects of ATZ on serum oxidative stress indicators, serum testosterone levels, testicular IgA level and improved testicular CYP17A1 mRNA expression. In conclusion, QT in low dose and LC in both low and high doses exerted a significant protective action against the reproductive toxicity of ATZ, while higher dose of QT failed induce immune-stimulant effect against ATZ in adult male Albino rats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of epimedium pubescen flavonoid on bone mineral status and bone turnover in male rats chronically exposed to cigarette smoke

    Gao Shu-guang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epimedii herba is one of the most frequently used herbs in formulas that are prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and its main constituent is Epimedium pubescen flavonoid (EPF. However, it is unclear whether EPF during chronic exposure to cigarette smoke may have a protective influence on the skeleton. The present study investigated the effect of EPF on bone mineral status and bone turnover in a rat model of human relatively high exposure to cigarette smoke. Methods Fifty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: controls, passive smoking groups and passive smoking rats administered EPF at three dosage levels (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day in drinking water for 4 months. A rat model of passive smoking was prepared by breeding male rats in a cigarette-smoking box. Bone mineral content (BMC, bone mineral density (BMD, bone turnover markers, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical properties were examined. Results Smoke exposure decreased BMC and BMD, increased bone turnover (inhibited bone formation and stimulated its resorption, affected bone histomorphometry (increased trabecular separation and osteoclast surface per bone surface; decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, cortical thickness, bone formation rate and osteoblast surface per bone surface, and reduced mechanical properties. EPF supplementation during cigarette smoke exposure prevented smoke-induced changes in bone mineral status and bone turnover. Conclusion The results suggest that EPF can prevent the adverse effects of smoke exposure on bone by stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone turnover and bone resorption.

  18. Sibutramine reduces feeding, body fat and improves insulin resistance in dietary-obese male Wistar rats independently of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y

    Brown, Michael; Bing, Chen; King, Peter; Pickavance, Lucy; Heal, David; Wilding, John

    2001-01-01

    We studied the effects of the novel noradrenaline and serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor sibutramine on feeding and body weight in a rat model of dietary obesity, and whether it interacts with hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurones.Chow-fed and dietary-obese (DIO) male Wistar rats were given sibutramine (3 mg kg−1 day−1 p.o.) or deionized water for 21 days.Sibutramine decreased food intake throughout the treatment period in both dietary-obese rats (Psibutramine-treated dietary-obese rats (Psibutramine treatment (Psibutramine compared to untreated controls.The hypophagic and anti-obesity effects of sibutramine in dietary-obese Wistar rats appear not to be mediated by inhibition of ARC NPY neurones. PMID:11309262

  19. Biochemical studies on gamma irradiated male rats fed on whey protein concentrate

    Mohamed, N.E; Anwar, M.M.; El-bostany, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study carried out to investigate the possible role of whey protein protein concentrate in ameliorating some biochemical disorders induced in gamma irradiated male rats. Forty eight male albino rats were divided into four equal groups: Group 1 fed on normal diet during experimental period. Group 2 where the diet contain 15 % whey protein concentrate instead of soybean protein . Group 3 rats were exposed to whole body gamma radiation with single dose of 5 Gy and fed on the normal diet. Group 4 rate exposed to 5 Gy then fed on diet contain 15 % whey protein concentrate, the rats were decapitated after two and four weeks post irradiation. Exposure to whole body irradiation caused significant elevation of serum ALT, AST, glucose, urea, creatinine and total triiodothyronine with significant decrease in total protein, albumin and thyroxin. Irradiated rats fed on whey protein concentrate revealed significant improvement of some biochemical parameters. It could be conclude that whey protein concentrate may be considered as a useful protein source for reducing radiation injury via metabolic pathway.

  20. Acute and chronic dosing of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on male rat sexual behavior.

    Lentz, Aaron; Gravitt, Karla; Carson, Culley C; Marson, Lesley

    2007-03-01

    The use of natural remedies for the treatment of sexual disorders is under current investigation. For generations people of the rural community in Peru have used Lepidium meyenii Walpers (Maca), because of their belief that it improves fertility and sexual desire. To determine the acute and chronic effects of Maca on male sexual behavior and to examine chronic administration of Maca on anxiety. Ejaculatory and mounting behavior and postejaculatory interval. Anxiety tests using an elevated plus maze, locomotion, and social interaction with another male. Maca (25 and 100 mg/kg) was orally administered to male rats for 30 days. Male sexual behavior was monitored after acute, 7 and 21 days of treatment. Anxiety behavior and locomotion were measured at 28-29 days using the elevated plus maze and social interaction tests. Maca treatment did not produce large changes in male sexual behavior. However, an increase in ejaculation latency and postejaculatory interval was observed after both acute and 7 days of treatment. After 21 days of treatment Maca had no effect on sexual behavior. Chronic administration of Maca did not increase locomotion or anxiety. Acute and short-term administration of Maca produced a small effect of rat male sexual behavior and long-term administration did not increase anxiety.

  1. Antifertility effects of Oldenlandia affinis in male rats - a preliminary ...

    Testis histology revealed fewer spermatozoa or azoospermic seminiferous tubules in treated animals compared to controls with no change in neither tubule thickness nor Sertoli cell structure. O. affinis treatment caused a 17% decrease in sperm motility but there was no change in cauda epididymal sperm counts. However ...

  2. Activation of PPAR by Rosiglitazone Does Not Negatively Impact Male Sex Steroid Hormones in Diabetic Rats

    Mahmoud Mansour

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR activation decreased serum testosterone (T in women with hyperthecosis and/or polycystic ovary syndrome and reduced the conversion of androgens to estradiol (E2 in female rats. This implies modulation of female sex steroid hormones by PPAR. It is not clear if PPAR modulates sex steroid hormones in diabetic males. Because PPAR activation by thiazolidinedione increased insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes, understanding the long term impact of PPAR activation on steroid sex hormones in males is critical. Our objective was to determine the effect of PPAR activation on serum and intratesticular T, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and E2 concentrations in male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats treated with the PPAR agonist rosiglitazone (a thiazolidinedione. Treatment for eight weeks increased PPAR mRNA and protein in the testis and elevated serum adiponectin, an adipokine marker for PPAR activation. PPAR activation did not alter serum or intratesticular T concentrations. In contrast, serum T level but not intratesticular T was reduced by diabetes. Neither diabetes nor PPAR activation altered serum E2 or gonadotropins FSH and LH concentrations. The results suggest that activation of PPAR by rosiglitazone has no negative impact on sex hormones in male ZDF rats.

  3. Histophatologic changes of lung in asthmatic male rats treated with hydro-alcoholic extract of plantago major and theophylline

    Farah Farokhi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Plantago major (P. major is one of the medicinal crops in the world which has therapeutic properties for treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Theophylline is commonly used for the treatment of respiratory diseases. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of P. majoron lung in asthmatic male rats. Materials and Methods: 32 male adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: The control group (C received normal saline; Asthma (A group received a normal diet; Asthma group treated with Theophylline (200 mg/kg b.w. (T; Asthma group which received p.major (100 mg/kg b.w. (P. Asthma was induced by citric acid, 0.1 mg in form of spraying. The injection of P.major extract and theophylline was administered intraperitoneally for four weeks. At the end of the treatment, all of the rats were sacrificed and lungs were taken out, fixed, and stained with H&E, toluidine blue, and PAS, then histological studies were followed with light microscope. Results: Results showed that, in asthmatic group, the mean number of mast cells was significantly increased (p

  4. Effect of Saponins of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth bark on the reproductive system of male albino rats.

    Gupta, R S; Chaudhary, Rakesh; Yadav, Rajesh K; Verma, Suresh K; Dobhal, M P

    2005-01-04

    Oral administration of saponins isolated from Albizia lebbeck bark at the dose level of 50 mg/kg/b.w. per day for 60 days to male rats brought about a significant decrease in the weights of testes, epididymides, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate. The production of round spermatid was reduced by 73.04% in Albizia lebbeck treated rats. The population of preleptotene spermatocytes and spermatogonia were reduced by 65.07% and 47.48% and secondary spermatocytes by 73.41%, respectively. Cross sectional surface area of Sertoli cells as well as the cell counts were found to be depleted significantly. Leydig cell nuclear area and number of mature Leydig cells were decreased by 57.47% and 54.42%, respectively. Sperm motility as well as sperm density were reduced significantly. Albizia lebbeck reduced the fertility of male rats by 100%. There were no significant changes in RBC and WBC count, haemoglobin, haematocrit and glucose in the blood and cholesterol, protein, triglyceride and phospholipid in the serum. The protein, glycogen and cholesterol contents of the testes, fructose in the seminal vesicle and protein in epididymides were significantly decreased. Histoarchitecture of the testes showed vacuolization at primary spermatocytes stage. Highly reduced seminiferous tubular diameter and increased intertubular space were also observed when compared to controls.

  5. Biochemical and histological changes in liver and kidney in male Wistar albino rats following exposure to Solignum®: a permethrincontaining wood preservative

    Kingsley C. Patrick-Iwuanyanwu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed to determine the effect of sub-chronic exposure to Solignum®, a permethrin-containing wood preservative on biochemical and histological changes in liver and kidneys of male Wistar albino rats. Thirty-two male rats were randomly divided into four groups: control and three treatment concentrations containing 8 rats each. The treatment groups were exposed to Solignum® at dose rates of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (BW respectively per day orally for four weeks. Data obtained from the study showed a progressive increase in the body weight of rats in control whereas, rats treated with different concentrations (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg BW of Solignum® decreased significantly (≤0.05 especially at the end of the second and fourth week when compared with control. On the other hand, there was a significant decrease in the relative liver weights of rats treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg BW Solignum® while rats treated with 400 mg/kg BW showed a significant increase when compared with control. The relative weight of kidneys in experimental groups increased significantly when compared with control. Biochemical analysis results illustrated that there was a significant increase in marker enzymes namely alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity at the end of the fourth week. Similarly, total bilirubin, serum urea, creatinine and electrolytes (Na+, K+ and Cl- levels increased in a dose dependent manner in treated rats when compared with untreated control group. Serum total protein decreased significantly in experimental rats when compared with control. However, cholesterol and triglycerides showed no significant difference when compared with control. Histopathological examination of hepatocytes in treated rats was characterized by mild periportal inflammatory cells and cytoplasmic degeneration. Furthermore, histopathological examination of rat kidneys revealed inflammatory

  6. Short- and long-term reproductive effects of prenatal and lactational growth restriction caused by maternal diabetes in male rats

    Amorim Elaine MP

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A suboptimal intrauterine environment may have a detrimental effect on gonadal development and thereby increases the risk for reproductive disorders and infertility in adult life. Here, we used uncontrolled maternal diabetes as a model to provoke pre- and perinatal growth restriction and evaluate the sexual development of rat male offspring. Methods Maternal diabetes was induced in the dams through administration of a single i.v. dose of 40 mg/kg streptozotocin, 7 days before mating. Female rats presenting glycemic levels above 200 mg/dL after the induction were selected for the experiment. The male offspring was analyzed at different phases of sexual development, i.e., peripuberty, postpuberty and adulthood. Results Body weight and blood glucose levels of pups, on the third postnatal day, were lower in the offspring of diabetic dams compared to controls. Maternal diabetes also provoked delayed testicular descent and preputial separation. In the offspring of diabetic dams the weight of reproductive organs at 40, 60 and 90 days-old was lower, as well as sperm reserves and sperm transit time through the epididymis. However the plasma testosterone levels were not different among experimental groups. Conclusions It is difficult to isolate the effects directly from diabetes and those from IUGR. Although the exposure to hyperglycemic environment during prenatal life and lactation delayed the onset of puberty in male rats, the IUGR, in the studied model, did not influenced the structural organization of the male gonads of the offspring at any point during sexual development. However the decrease in sperm reserves in epididymal cauda and the acceleration in sperm transit time in this portion of epididymis may lead to an impairment of sperm quality and fertility potential in these animals. Additional studies are needed in attempt to investigate the fertility of animals with intrauterine growth restriction by maternal diabetes and

  7. Multigeneration reproduction and male developmental toxicity studies on atrazine in rats.

    DeSesso, John M; Scialli, Anthony R; White, Tacey E K; Breckenridge, Charles B

    2014-06-01

    Reproductive toxicity of Atrazine (ATR) was evaluated in two rat multigenerational studies. Development of male reproductive parameters was evaluated in separate studies after prenatal or postnatal exposure. In multigenerational studies, rats received dietary concentrations of 0, 10, 50, 100 or 500 ppm ATR. In separate studies in female rats, ATR was administered by gavage at 0, 1, 5, 25 or 125 mg/kg/day during pregnancy (GD6-21) or lactation (LD2-21). Plasma testosterone concentration, testicular and epididymal weights, and sperm counts were measured in male offspring on PND70 and 170. In the multigenerational studies, parental systemic toxicity occurred at 500 ppm (38.7 mg/kg/day), but reproductive endpoints were unaffected. In the prenatal study, maternal toxicity and embryo-fetal mortality occurred at 125 mg/kg/day. In male offspring, testosterone levels and sperm counts were unaffected, although the percentage of abnormal sperm increased at 125 mg/kg/day (PND 70) and 25 mg/kg/day (PND170). In the postnatal study, maternal toxicity and reduced body weights of male offspring occurred at 125 mg/kg/day. Additionally, reduced testicular (PND70, PND170) and epididymal (PND70) weights and increased numbers of abnormal sperm (PND70, PND170) were seen, but no changes in plasma testosterone or sperm counts. Dietary administration of ATR did not affect rat reproduction up to a parentally toxic dose of 38.7 mg/kg/day. Some effects on male reproductive system development occurred after high dose, bolus administration to dams, but doses were much higher than expected under normal use conditions. Thus, oral RfDs for ATR would be protective for reproductive effects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Effect of gibberellic acid on the quality of sperm and in vitro fertilization outcome in adult male rats

    Mohammadreza Hosseinchi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gibberellic acid (GA3 is a group of plant hormones identified in various plants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of GA3 on sperm parameters and in vitro fertilization (IVF. Fifty six adult male rats were divided into seven groups as, control, treatment and sham. Following 15, 30 and 45 days of GA3 and methanol alcohol (MA administration, rats were euthanized and epididymis tail was transferred to human tubular fluid (HTF medium containing 4 mg mL-1 bovine serum albumin (BSA .Total number of sperms, the percentage of live sperms, immature sperms and sperms with damaged chromatin and IVF were examined. The oocytes were obtained from immature rats after the injection of pregnant mare's serum (PMSG and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG hormones. Human tubular fluid was used as the fertilization medium and zygotes transferred to fresh 1-cell rat embryos culture medium (mR1ECM to reach the blastocyst stage. This study showed that GA3 could decrease the number of total sperms on days 30 and 45 in treated group comparison with the control and sham groups. Additionally, GA3 increased the immature sperms and sperms with damaged chromatin. The percentage of fertilization, two-cell embryos and blastocyst resulting from the treatment group on days 30 and 45 also decreased and showed significant differences with the control and sham groups (p < 0.05. The results obtained from this study indicated that the oral use of GA3 could reduce the fertility in rats by influencing the sperm number and the quality of sperm’s chromatins.

  9. Effect of continuous irradiation with low dose X-rays on the reproductive complications in male diabetic rats

    Zhao Hongguang; Xu Songbai; Li Pengwu; Wang Zhicheng; Lin Chenghe; Gong Shouliang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of 75 mGy irradiation on the apoptosis of spermatogenic cells and antioxidant capacity of serum and testis and hormone levels in male rats with diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: Rats were injected intraperitoneally with streptozotocin (STZ) to develop diabetes. The diabetic rats were irradiated with 75 mGy X-rays every other day for 4 weeks. Their survival rate and body weight were recorded 12 weeks after development of diabetes. The apeptosis percentage of germ cells was measured with flow cytometry and TUNEL method. The changes of anti-oxidation and gonadal hormone levels in serum and testis were measured with kits. Results: After the rats suffered from diabetes for 12 weeks, the survival rate in DM group was 25% (6/24), 100% in normal control group (16116). The survival rate in 75 mGy + DM group (9/16,56.25%) was obviously higher than that in the DM group (χ 2 = 4.00,P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the percentage of apaptotic spermatogenic cells in the diabetic rats was significantly larger than those in the normal control and irradiation groups (F = 5.496, P < 0.05). MDA and NO levels in serum and testis of diabetic rats were higher in varying degrees than that in the normal control, while the serum and testis MDA content in the 75 mGy + DM group were lower than those in the DM group especially in the testis (F = 10.644, P < 0.01). 75 mGy X-ray irradiation decreased NO content in the diabetic rats serum significantly (F = 14.379, P < 0.05) and increased NOS activity and TS, FSH level (F = 9.676, 43.194 and 5.282, respectively, P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). Conclusions: LDR could decrease the MDA level and NO content, and increase the antioxidant enzyme activity and TS and FSH levels in testis and serum of diabetic rats. (authors)

  10. Long-term feeding of hydroalcoholic extract powder of Lepidium meyenii (maca) enhances the steroidogenic ability of Leydig cells to alleviate its decline with ageing in male rats.

    Yoshida, K; Ohta, Y; Kawate, N; Takahashi, M; Inaba, T; Hatoya, S; Morii, H; Takahashi, K; Ito, M; Tamada, H

    2018-02-01

    This study examined whether feeding hydroalcoholic extract of Lepidium meyenii (maca) to 8-week-old (sexually maturing) or 18-week-old (mature) male rats for more than a half year affects serum testosterone concentration and testosterone production by Leydig cells cultured with hCG, 22R-hydroxycholesterol or pregnenolone. Testosterone concentration was determined in the serum samples obtained before and 6, 12, 18 and 24 weeks after the feeding, and it was significantly increased only at the 6 weeks in the group fed with the maca extract to maturing rats when it was compared with controls. Testosterone production by Leydig cells significantly increased when cultured with hCG by feeding the maca extract to maturing rats for 27 weeks (35 weeks of age) and when cultured with 22R-hydroxycholesterol by feeding it to mature rats for 30 weeks (48 weeks of age). Overall testosterone production by cultured Leydig cells decreased to about a half from 35 to 48 weeks of age. These results suggest that feeding the maca extract for a long time to male rats may enhance the steroidogenic ability of Leydig cells to alleviate its decline with ageing, whereas it may cause only a transient increase in blood testosterone concentration in sexually maturing male rats. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Effect of caricapryl-99 seed alkaloid extract on the serum levels of sex hormones and pituitary gonadotrophins in male albino rats.

    Udoh, P B; Udoh, F V; Umoren, E B; James, U W; Okeke, C P; Agwu, B

    2009-06-01

    Activity of alkaloid extract of caricapryl-99 seeds [Carica papaya Linn seeds] on the serum levels of steroid hormones was studied in adult male albino rats. Three tolerated doses obtained from the graph of percentage toxicity [10, 50 and 150 mg/kg] were separately administered orally, daily for three days to three groups of male rats [n=5] while group four of 5 rats received the vehicle [corn oil] as control. The results showed that 10 mg/kg/d caused increase serum levels of FSH and estrogen but decrease in the serum levels of LH and testosterone compared to control; 50 mg/kg/d elevated the serum levels of FSH, estrogen but inhibited testosterone; while 150 mg/kg/d pretreatments caused a significant decrease [pinfertility.

  12. The Effect of Diazinon on Cholinesterase Activity in Plasma and Erythrocytes of Male and Female Rats and the Protective Role of Vitamin E

    F. Rahimi Anbarkeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diazinon (DZN is an organophosphate insecticide that one of the mechanisms of toxicity is the inhibition of cholinesterase. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of diazinon on cholinesterase activity in blood serum and erythrocytes of male and female rats and to assess the protective role of vitamin E. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, 60 adult wistar rats including 30 male and 30 female rats were selected and divided into 5 groups (n = 6: control group (without any intervention, sham group (received only pure olive oil daily, experimental group 1 (DZN daily, 60 mg/kg, experimental group 2 (received DZN+ vitamin E daily, with the same dose and experimental group 3(received vitamin E daily 200 mg/kg. Diazinon and solvent were injected intraperitoneally and vitamin E was given by gavage. After 2 weeks 3 ml blood was taken from the heart tissue, and titrimetric and Ellman’s method respectively were used for serum and erythrocyte cholinesterases activity assay. Results: In both genders, due to administration of diazinon, we observed significant reduction in serum and erythrocytes cholinesterase activity. The use of vitamin E increased serum and erythrocytes cholinesterase activity in experimental group 2 of female rats but inhibition in erythrocyte and serum cholinesterase activity was not recovered in experimental group 2 of male rats. Conclusion: According to a further reduction of these enzymes activity in female rats with the use of diazinon, it can be concluded that female rats are more sensitive than male rats and it seems that vitamin E as an antioxidants has a protective effect on cholinesterase activity and reduces the toxicity of DZN. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 21 (4:294-303

  13. Mechanism of antifertility in male rats treated with 3-monochloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD).

    Kwack, Seung Jun; Kim, Soon Sun; Choi, Yo Woo; Rhee, Gyu Seek; Da Lee, Rhee; Seok, Ji Hyun; Chae, Soo Yeong; Won, Yong Hyuck; Lim, Kwon Jo; Choi, Kwang Sik; Park, Kui Lea; Lee, Byung Mu

    2004-12-01

    3-Monochloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) is a food contaminant that is often found in foods containing acid-hydrolyzed (AH) protein, like seasonings and savory food products. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 3-MCPD on male fertility, sperm, and hormonal levels and its antifertility mechanism. In vivo male fertility testing was performed to observe the adverse effects of 3-MCPD on the functioning of the male reproductive system and pregnancy outcome. 3-MCPD (0.01-5 mg/kg) was administered daily by gavage to Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rats for 4 wk. At the end of the pretreatment period, male rats were mated overnight with untreated females. Males successfully inducing pregnancy were sacrificed to assess sperm parameters, reproductive organ histopathology, and spermatogenesis. The resulting pregnant females were sacrificed on 20 of gestation to evaluate pregnancy outcome. The paternal administration of 3-MCPD (5 mg/kg) was found to result in adverse effects on male fertility and pregnancy outcome without inducing remarkable histopathological changes in testes and epididymides. Additionally, 3-MCPD (5 mg/kg) significantly reduced sperm motility, copulation, fertility indices, and the number of live fetuses showed steep dose-response curves. 3-MCPD did not affect spermatogenesis or induce hormonal changes in the blood and testes of male rats. An in vitro hormone assay using primary isolated Leydig cells showed no significant changes in related hormone levels after 3-MCPD treatment. To evaluate the effects of 3-MCPD on apoptotic induction and H+-ATPase levels in the testis and epididymis, 10 or 100 mg/kg of 3-MCPD was administered by gavage to male rats and testes and epididymides were examined at 3, 6, 12, and 24 h later. Apoptosis was not detected in the testes of animals treated with 100 mg/kg 3-MCPD. However, the level of H+-ATPase in the cauda epididymis was reduced by 3-MCPD treatment. These results indicate that 3-MCPD induced a

  14. Ameliorating effect of olive oil on fertility of male rats fed on genetically modified soya bean

    Thanaa A. F. El-Kholy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genetically modified soya bean (GMSB is a commercialized food. It has been shown to have adverse effects on fertility in animal trials. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO has many beneficial effects including anti-oxidant properties. The aim of this study is to elucidate if addition of EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects on reproductive organs of rats fed on GMSB containing diet. Methods: Forty adult male albino rats (150–180 g of Sprague Dawley strain were separated into four groups of 10 rats each: Group 1 – control group fed on basal ration, Group 2 – fed on basal ration mixed with EVOO (30%, Group 3 – fed on basal ration mixed with GMSB (15%, and Group 4 – fed on basal ration mixed with GMSB (15% and EVOO (30%. This feeding regimen was administered for 65 days. Blood samples were collected to analyze serum zinc, vitamin E, and testosterone levels. Histopathological and weight changes in sex organs were evaluated. Results: GMSB diet reduced weight of testis (0.66±0.06 vs. 1.7±0.06, p<0.001, epididymis (0.489±0.03 vs. 0.7±0.03, p<0.001, prostate (0.04±0.009 vs. 0.68±0.04, p<0.001, and seminal vesicles (0.057±0.01 vs. 0.8±0.04, p<0.001. GMSB diet adversely affected sperm count (406±7.1 vs. 610±7.8, p<0.001, motility (p<0.001, and abnormality (p<0.001. GMSB diet also reduced serum zinc (p<0.05, vitamin E (p<0.05, and testosterone (p<0.05 concentrations. EVOO diet had no detrimental effect. Addition of EVOO to GMSB diet increased the serum zinc (p<0.05, vitamin E (p<0.05, and testosterone (p<0.05 levels and also restored the weights of testis (1.35±0.16 vs. 0.66±0.06, p<0.01, epididymis (0.614±0.13 vs. 0.489±0.03, p<0.001, prostate (0.291±0.09 vs. 0.04±0.009, p<0.001, seminal vesicle (0.516±0.18 vs. 0.057±0.01, p<0.001 along with sperm count (516±3.1 vs. 406±7.1, p<0.01, motility (p<0.01, and abnormality (p<0.05. Conclusion: EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects of GMSB on reproductive organs in adult male

  15. Effect of quercetin on cadmium chloride-induced impairments in sexual behaviour and steroidogenesis in male Wistar rats.

    Ujah, G A; Nna, V U; Agah, M I; Omue, L O; Leku, C B; Osim, E E

    2018-03-01

    Cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) has been reported to cause reproductive toxicity in male rats, mainly through oxidative stress. This study examined its effect on sexual behaviour, as one of the mechanisms of reproductive dysfunction, as well as the possible ameliorative effect of quercetin (QE) on same. Thirty male Wistar rats (10 weeks old), weighing 270-300 g, were used for this study. They were either orally administered 2% DMSO, CdCl 2 (5 mg/kg b.w.), QE (20 mg/kg b.w.) or CdCl 2 +QE, once daily for 4 weeks, before sexual behavioural studies. The 5th group received CdCl 2 for 4 weeks and allowed 4-week recovery period, before sexual behavioural test. Rats were sacrificed after sexual behavioural studies. The blood, testis and penis were collected for biochemical assays. Cadmium increased mount, intromission and ejaculatory latencies, but reduced their frequencies, compared to control. Serum nitric oxide increased, while penile cyclic guanosine monophosphate reduced in the CdCl 2 -exposed rats, compared to control. CdCl 2 increased testicular cholesterol, but reduced 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 17β-HSD activities, and testosterone concentration. QE better attenuated these negative changes compared to withdrawal of CdCl 2 treatment. In conclusion, CdCl 2 suppressed steroidogenesis, penile erection and sexual behaviour, with poor reversal following withdrawal, while QE attenuated these effects. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Morphine decreases social interaction of adult male rats, while THC does not affect it.

    Šlamberová, R; Mikulecká, A; Macúchová, E; Hrebíčková, I; Ševčíková, M; Nohejlová, K; Pometlová, M

    2016-12-22

    The aim of the present study was to compare effect of three low doses of morphine (MOR) and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on social behavior tested in Social interaction test (SIT). 45 min prior to testing adult male rats received one of the drugs or solvents: MOR (1; 2.5; 5 mg/kg); saline as a solvent for MOR; THC (0.5; 1; 2 mg/kg); ethanol as a solvent for THC. Occurrence and time spent in specific patterns of social interactions (SI) and non-social activities (locomotion and rearing) was video-recorded for 5 min and then analyzed. MOR in doses of 1 and 2.5 mg/kg displayed decreased SI in total. Detailed analysis of specific patterns of SI revealed decrease in mutual sniffing and allo-grooming after all doses of MOR. The highest dose (5 mg/kg) of MOR decreased following and increased genital investigation. Rearing activity was increased by lower doses of MOR (1 and 2.5 mg/kg). THC, in each of the tested doses, did not induce any specific changes when compared to matching control group (ethanol). However, an additional statistical analysis showed differences between all THC groups and their ethanol control group when compared to saline controls. There was lower SI in total, lower mutual sniffing and allo-grooming, but higher rearing in THC and ethanol groups than in saline control group. Thus, changes seen in THC and ethanol groups are seemed to be attributed mainly to the effect of the ethanol. Based on the present results we can assume that opioids affect SI more than cannabinoid.

  17. Antioxidant Activities of Basella alba Aqueous Leave Extract In Blood, Pancreas, and Gonadal Tissues of Diabetic Male Wistar Rats.

    Arokoyo, Dennis Seyi; Oyeyipo, Ibukun Peter; Du Plessis, Stefan Simon; Aboua, Yapo Guillaume

    2018-01-01

    Oxidative stress is frequently identified as a key element in the pathophysiology of many complications of diabetes mellitus, including reproductive complications. The antioxidant potential of medicinal plants have been suggested for therapeutic focus of diseases in recent reports. To investigate the effect of Basella alba (Ba) aqueous leave extract on diabetes-induced oxidative stress. Forty male Wistar rats (8-10 weeks) were randomly divided into four groups ( n = 10) and treated as follows; Control (C + Ns) and Diabetic (D + Ns) animals received oral normal saline 0.5 ml/100 g body weight daily, while Healthy Treatment (H + Ba) and Diabetic Treatment (D + Ba) rats were given Ba extract at an oral dose of 200 mg/kg body weight daily. Treatment was by gavage and lasted 4 weeks in all groups. Diabetes was induced in D + Ns and D + Ba rats by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg) and fasting blood sugar (FBS) recorded weekly in all rats afterwards. Animals were euthanized at the end of the experiment and blood samples, pancreas, testes, and epididymis were preserved for analysis of oxidative stress biomarkers. Oral administration of aqueous leave extract of Ba significantly ( P antioxidant power, but lower serum concentration of conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in D + Ba compared to D + Ns rats ( P antioxidant effects in the gonads by enhancing antioxidant parameters in circulating blood, but not necessarily in the gonadal tissues. Oral treatment of diabetic rats with aqueous leave extract of Basella alba exerts antioxidant effects in the gonads by enhancing antioxidant parameters in circulating blood, but not necessarily in the gonadal tissues. Abbreviations Used: AP - Antioxidant parameters, Ba - Basella alba , CAT - Catalase, CDs - Conjugated dienes, DM - Diabetes mellitus, FBS - Fasting blood sugar, FRAP - Ferric reducing antioxidant power, GSH - reduced glutathione, Ns - Normal saline, ORAC - oxygen radical

  18. EFFICIENCY OF BORAGE SEEDS OIL AGAINST GAMMA IRRADIATION-INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN MALE RATS: POSSIBLE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY.

    Khattab, Hala A H; Abdallah, Inas Z A; Yousef, Fatimah M; Huwait, Etimad A

    2017-01-01

    Borage ( Borago officinal L.) is an annual herbaceous plant of great interest because its oil contains a high percentage of γ-linolenic acid (GLA). The present work was carried out to detect fatty acids composition of the oil extracted from borage seeds (BO) and its potential effectiveness against γ-irradiation- induced hepatotoxicity in male rats. GC-MS analysis of fatty acids methyl esters of BO was performed to identify fatty acids composition. Sixty rats were divided into five groups (12 rats each): Control, irradiated; rats were exposed to (6.5 Gy) of whole body γ-radiation, BO (50 mg/kg b.wt), irradiated BO post-treated and irradiated BO prepost-treated. Six rats from each group were sacrificed at two time intervals 7 and 15 days post-irradiation. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels, lipids profile, as well as serum and hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxide (malondialdehyde) (MDA) levels were assessed. Histopathological examination of liver sections were also carried out. The results showed that the high contents of BO extracted by cold pressing, were linoleic acid (34.23%) and GLA (24.79%). Also, oral administration of BO significantly improved serum levels of liver enzymes, lipids profile, as well as serum and hepatic GSH and MDA levels (p<0.001) as compared with irradiated rats after 15 days post irradiation. Moreover, it exerted marked amelioration against irradiation-induced histopathological changes in liver tissues. The improvement was more pronounced in irradiated BO prepost-treated group than irradiated BO post-treated. BO has a beneficial role in reducing hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by radiation exposure. Therefore, BO may be used as a beneficial supplement for patients during radiotherapy treatment.

  19. Intratracheal instillation of cerium oxide nanoparticles induces hepatic toxicity in male Sprague-Dawley rats

    Nalabotu SK

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Siva K Nalabotu1,2, Madhukar B Kolli1,2, William E Triest3,4, Jane Y Ma5, Nandini DPK Manne2,6, Anjaiah Katta1,2, Hari S Addagarla2, Kevin M Rice2,6–8, Eric R Blough1,2,6,7,91Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Toxicology, Marshall University, Joan C Edwards School of Medicine; 2Center for Diagnostic Nanosystems, Marshall University; 3Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center; 4Section of Pathology, Department of Anatomy and Pathology, Joan C Edwards School of Medicine, Marshall University, Huntington; 5Health Effects Laboratory Division, NIOSH, Morgantown; 6Department of Biological Sciences; 7School of Kinesiology, College of Health Professions, Marshall University; 8Biotechnology Department, West Virginia State University; 9Department of Cardiology, Joan C Edwards School of Medicine, Marshall University Huntington, WV, USABackground: Cerium oxide (CeO2 nanoparticles have been posited to have both beneficial and toxic effects on biological systems. Herein, we examine if a single intratracheal instillation of CeO2 nanoparticles is associated with systemic toxicity in male Sprague-Dawley rats.Methods and results: Compared with control animals, CeO2 nanoparticle exposure was associated with increased liver ceria levels, elevations in serum alanine transaminase levels, reduced albumin levels, a diminished sodium-potassium ratio, and decreased serum triglyceride levels (P < 0.05. Consistent with these data, rats exposed to CeO2 nanoparticles also exhibited reductions in liver weight (P < 0.05 and dose-dependent hydropic degeneration, hepatocyte enlargement, sinusoidal dilatation, and accumulation of granular material. No histopathological alterations were observed in the kidney, spleen, and heart. Analysis of serum biomarkers suggested an elevation of acute phase reactants and markers of hepatocyte injury in the rats exposed to CeO2 nanoparticles.Conclusion: Taken together, these data suggest that

  20. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

    Neveen M. El-Sherif

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Naphthalene (NA is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group, Group II (NA treated group received NA at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day dissolved in 5 ml/kg corn oil orally by gastric tube, Group III (protected group received rosemary extract (10 ml/kg/day followed after 60 min by NA at the same previous dose orally by gastric tube. The experiment lasted 30 days. The following parameters were studied: Biochemical assessment of renal function, histological, immunohistochemical, morphometric studies and statistical analysis of the results. Results: NA treatment resulted in a highly significant increase in the mean values of serum urea and creatinine. NA induced histological changes in the form of glomerular congestion. Some glomeruli demonstrated marked mesangial expansion and hence that Bowman's spaces were almost completely obliterated. Shrinkage of renal glomeruli with widening of Bowman's spaces could also be seen. Focal tubular dilatation with appearance of casts inside the tubules was observed. Congested peritubular blood vessels and interstitial hemorrhage were also seen. The medullary region demonstrated vascular congestion and fibrosis. Focal cellular infiltration was presented in the interstitium. The renal cortex of NA treated rats showed a noticeable down regulation in alkaline phosphatase positive immunoreactive cells in some proximal convoluted tubules. NA induced up regulation of positive immunoreaction for inducible nitric oxide synthase in the proximal and distal convoluted tubules as well as in the collecting tubules

  1. Transcriptional profile of diuron-induced toxicity on the urinary bladder of male Wistar rats to inform mode of action.

    Ihlaseh, Shadia M; Bailey, Kathryn A; Hester, Susan D; Jones, Carlton; Ren, Hongzu; Cardoso, Ana Paula F; Oliveira, Maria Luiza C S; Wolf, Douglas C; de Camargo, João Lauro V

    2011-08-01

    Diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) is a substituted urea herbicide that induces rat urinary bladder urothelial tumors at high dietary levels (2500 ppm). The specific mode of action and molecular alterations triggered by diuron, however, have not been clarified. The present study evaluated the dose-dependent effects of mucosal alterations and transcriptional changes in the urinary bladder of rats exposed to diuron. Six-week-old male Wistar rats were treated with 0, 60, 125, 1250, and 2500 ppm of diuron in the diet for 20 weeks. Histologic examination showed urothelial hyperplasia present in rats treated with either 1250 or 2500 ppm of diuron but not 60 or 125 ppm. Comprehensive gene expression analyses of urothelial cell RNA were conducted using Affymetrix microarrays. The numbers of differentially expressed transcripts between each treatment group and control increased with diuron dose. Based on similar histology and gene expression responses, the treatment groups were regrouped into a high-dose (1250 and 2500 ppm) and low-dose group (60 and 125 ppm). These data suggest that persistent exposure to high dietary concentrations of diuron induces oxidative stress, increases cellular metabolism, and enhances cell death that is associated with sustained urothelial hyperplasia.

  2. Carbon dioxide in carbonated beverages induces ghrelin release and increased food consumption in male rats: Implications on the onset of obesity.

    Eweis, Dureen Samandar; Abed, Fida; Stiban, Johnny

    The dangerous health risks associated with obesity makes it a very serious public health issue. Numerous studies verified a correlation between the increase in obesity and the parallel increase in soft drink consumption among world populations. The effects of one main component in soft drinks namely the carbon dioxide gas has not been studied thoroughly in any previous research. Male rats were subjected to different categories of drinks and evaluated for over a year. Stomach ex vivo experiments were undertaken to evaluate the amount of ghrelin upon different beverage treatments. Moreover, 20 male students were tested for their ghrelin levels after ingestion of different beverages. Here, we show that rats consuming gaseous beverages over a period of around 1 year gain weight at a faster rate than controls on regular degassed carbonated beverage or tap water. This is due to elevated levels of the hunger hormone ghrelin and thus greater food intake in rats drinking carbonated drinks compared to control rats. Moreover, an increase in liver lipid accumulation of rats treated with gaseous drinks is shown opposed to control rats treated with degassed beverage or tap water. In a parallel study, the levels of ghrelin hormone were increased in 20 healthy human males upon drinking carbonated beverages compared to controls. These results implicate a major role for carbon dioxide gas in soft drinks in inducing weight gain and the onset of obesity via ghrelin release and stimulation of the hunger response in male mammals. Copyright © 2017 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Vasopressin infusion into the lateral septum of adult male rats rescues progesterone-induced impairment in social recognition.

    Bychowski, M E; Mena, J D; Auger, C J

    2013-08-29

    It is well established that social recognition memory is mediated, in part, by arginine vasopressin (AVP). AVP cells within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and medial amygdala (MeA) send AVP-ergic projections to the lateral septum (LS). We have demonstrated that progesterone treatment decreases AVP immunoreactivity within the BST, the MeA and the LS, and that progesterone treatment impairs social recognition. These data suggested that progesterone may impair social recognition memory by decreasing AVP. In the present experiment, we hypothesized that infusions of AVP into the LS would rescue the progesterone-induced impairment in social recognition within adult male rats. One week after adult male rats underwent cannula surgery, they were given systemic injections of either a physiological dose of progesterone or oil control for 3 days. Four hours after the last injection, we tested social recognition memory using the social discrimination paradigm, a two-trial test that is based on the natural propensity for rats to be highly motivated to investigate novel conspecifics. Immediately after the first exposure to a juvenile, each animal received bilateral infusions of either AVP or artificial cerebrospinal fluid into the LS. Our results show that, as expected, control animals exhibited normal social discrimination. In corroboration with our previous results, animals given progesterone have impaired social discrimination. Interestingly, animals treated with progesterone and AVP exhibited normal social discrimination, suggesting that AVP treatment rescued the impairment in social recognition caused by progesterone. These data also further support a role for progesterone in modulating vasopressin-dependent behavior within the male brain. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Vasopressin infusion into the lateral septum of adult male rats rescues progesterone induced impairment in social recognition

    Bychowski, Meaghan E.; Mena, Jesus D.; Auger, Catherine J.

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that social recognition memory is mediated, in part, by arginine vasopressin (AVP). AVP cells within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and medial amygdala (MeA) send AVP-ergic projections to the lateral septum (LS). We have demonstrated that progesterone treatment decreases AVP immunoreactivity within the BST, the MeA and the LS, and that progesterone treatment impairs social recognition. These data suggested that progesterone may impair social recognition memory by decreasing AVP. In the present experiment, we hypothesized that infusions of AVP into the LS would rescue the progesterone induced impairment in social recognition within adult male rats. One week after adult male rats underwent cannula surgery, they were given systemic injections of either a physiological dose of progesterone or oil control for three days. Four hours after the last injection, we tested social recognition memory using the social discrimination paradigm, a two-trial test that is based on the natural propensity for rats to be highly motivated to investigate novel conspecifics. Immediately after the first exposure to a juvenile, each animal received bilateral infusions of either AVP or artificial CSF (aCSF) into the LS. Our results show that, as expected, control animals exhibited normal social discrimination. In corroboration with our previous results, animals given progesterone have impaired social discrimination. Interestingly, animals treated with progesterone and AVP exhibited normal social discrimination, suggesting that AVP treatment rescued the impairment in social recognition caused by progesterone. These data also further support a role for progesterone in modulating vasopressin dependent behavior within the male brain. PMID:23639881

  5. Intrahippocampal administration of an androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide, can increase anxiety-like behavior in intact and DHT-replaced male rats.

    Edinger, Kassandra L; Frye, Cheryl A

    2006-08-01

    Testosterone (T) and its 5alpha-reduced metabolite, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), can decrease anxiety-like behavior; however, the mechanisms underlying these effects have not been established. First, we hypothesized that if T reduces anxiety-like behavior through actions of its 5alpha-reduced metabolite, DHT, then gonadectomy (GDX) would increase anxiety-like behavior, an effect which would be reversed by systemic administration of DHT. Second, we hypothesized that if T and DHT reduce anxiety-like behavior in part through actions at intracellular androgen receptors in the hippocampus, then administration of an androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide, directly to the hippocampus should increase anxiety-like behavior of intact and DHT-replaced, but not GDX, male rats. Inserts that were empty or contained flutamide were applied directly to the dorsal hippocampus of intact, GDX, or GDX and DHT-replaced rats 2 h prior to testing in the open field, elevated plus maze, or defensive freezing tasks. GDX rats exhibited significantly more anxiety-like behaviors than intact or DHT-replaced rats. Intact and DHT-replaced rats administered flutamide to the hippocampus showed significantly more anxiety-like behavior than did intact and DHT-replaced controls. However, flutamide alone did not increase anxiety-like behavior of GDX rats. Together, these findings suggest that androgens can decrease anxiety-like behavior of male rats in part through DHT's actions at androgen receptors in the hippocampus.

  6. Maternal separation diminishes α-adrenergic receptor density and function in renal vasculature from male Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    Loria, Analia S; Osborn, Jeffrey L

    2017-07-01

    Adult rats exposed to maternal separation (MatSep) are normotensive but display lower glomerular filtration rate and increased renal neuroadrenergic drive. The aim of this study was to determine the renal α-adrenergic receptor density and the renal vascular responsiveness to adrenergic stimulation in male rats exposed to MatSep. In addition, baroreflex sensitivity was assessed to determine a component of neural control of the vasculature. Using tissue collected from 4-mo-old MatSep and control rats, α 1 -adrenergic receptors (α 1 -ARs) were measured in renal cortex and isolated renal vasculature using receptor binding assay, and the α-AR subtype gene expression was determined by RT-PCR. Renal cortical α 1 -AR density was similar between MatSep and control tissues (B max = 44 ± 1 vs. 42 ± 2 fmol/mg protein, respectively); however, MatSep reduced α 1 -AR density in renal vasculature (B max = 47 ± 4 vs. 62 ± 4 fmol/mg protein, P adrenergic receptor expression and function in the renal vasculature could develop secondary to MatSep-induced overactivation of the renal neuroadrenergic tone. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. The effects of cinnamon on glycemic indexes and insulin resistance in adult male diabetic rats with streptozotocin

    SEbrahim Hosseini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is a common disease that for its treatment and control different methods are recommended such as the use of natural remedies and lifestyle modification. Since the use of herbal medicines have less side effects than many chemical drugs, hence, this study aimed to investigate the effect of cinnamon extract on blood glucose, insulin and insulin resistance in diabetic rats with streptozotocin. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted on 40 adult male rats, that were randomly divided into 4 groups including non diabetic control, diabetic control and two experimental groups receiving doses 60mg/kg of cinnamon extract for 3 and 6 weeks. At the end, by phlebotomizing of rats' heart, blood glucose and insulin were measured and using HOMA score insulin resistance was measured. To be normal data distribution, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was done and data analyzed by SPSS-20 software and ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests. Results: The results showed that in the group receiving the cinnamon extract, glycemic and insulin indexes were significantly adjusted. Conclusion: Cinnamon is probably due to have flavonoid and antioxidant compounds with antioxidant by increasing glucose uptake via the different body cells and due to reduction of oxidative stress level led to adjust glycemic and insulin indexes of blood

  8. Antidiabetic Effect of Hydroalcholic Urtica dioica Leaf Extract in Male Rats with Fructose-Induced Insulin Resistance

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Mohammadian, Maryam; Dianat, Mahin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Urtica dioica has been used as antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic herbal medicine. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica on fructose-induced insulin resistance rats. Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups including control, fructose, extract 50, extract 100 and extract 200. The control rat received vehicle, the fructose and extract groups received fructose 10% for eight weeks. The extract groups received single daily injection of vehicle, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for the two weeks. Blood glucose, insulin, last fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI), serum triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), alanin trasaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), leptin and LDL/HDL ratio were determined. Results: Compared to control group, daily administration of fructose was associated with significant increase in FIRI, blood glucose and insulin, significant decrease in lepin, and no significant change in TG, HDL, LDL, LDL/HDL ratio, VLDL, ALT, and ALP. The extract significantly decreased serum glucose, insulin, LDL and leptin, and LDL/HDL ratio and FIRI. It also significantly increased serum TG, VLDL, and AST, but did not change serum ALP. Conclusion: We suggest that Urtica dioica extract, by decreasing serum glucose, and FIRI, may be useful to improve type 2 diabetes mellitus. Also, by positive effect on lipid profile and by decreasing effect on leptin, it may improve metabolic syndrome. PMID:23115450

  9. Antidiabetic Effect of Hydroalcholic Urtica dioica Leaf Extract in Male Rats with Fructose-Induced Insulin Resistance

    Akram Ahangarpour

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urtica dioica has been used as antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic herbal medicine. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica on fructose-induced insulin resistance rats. Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups including control, fructose, extract 50, extract 100 and extract 200. The control rat received vehicle, the fructose and extract groups received fructose 10% for eight weeks. The extract groups received single daily injection of vehicle, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for the two weeks. Blood glucose, insulin, last fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI, serum triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, alanin trasaminase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, leptin and LDL/HDL ratio were determined.Results: Compared to control group, daily administration of fructose was associated with significant increase in FIRI, blood glucose and insulin, significant decrease in lepin, and no significant change in TG, HDL, LDL, LDL/HDL ratio, VLDL, ALT, and ALP. The extract significantly decreased serum glucose, insulin, LDL and leptin, and LDL/HDL ratio and FIRI. It also significantly increased serum TG, VLDL, and AST, but did not change serum ALP.Conclusion: We suggest that Urtica dioica extract, by decreasing serum glucose, and FIRI, may be useful to improve type 2 diabetes mellitus. Also, by positive effect on lipid profile and by decreasing effect on leptin, it may improve metabolic syndrome.

  10. HYSTOPATHOLOGIC CHANGES ON AORTA OF CIRRHOSIS MALE RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS INDUCTED BY ESCHERICIA COLI O55 : B5

    Tony Hartono

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The background of this study is to visualize histopathological changes on aorta of cirrhosis rats (Rattus norvegicus induced by endotoxin E. coli O55 : B5 This study was a laboratory experimental using complete randomized design with five treatments and five repetitions. Twenty five male Wistar rats were used as experimental model of cirrhosis by bile duct ligation (BDL technique. Three weeks after BDL, all cirrhosis experimental models were induced with a single intra venous injection of Eschericia coli endotoxin (3mg/kg b.b in 1 ml sterile saline, except those of five control rats that induced with sterile saline at the same volume only. Aortas of control rats group were excised at 6 hours after induction with sterile saline, whereas the other four groups were done at 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours after induction with endotoxin. The quantity of endothelial cell, discontinuity increment and the thickness of internal elastic lamina layer were observed to know histopathological changes on aorta. Histopathological changes were observed using a light mycroscope, dyscontinuity and thickness of internal elastic lamina were measured by reticular micrometer. The quantity of endothelial cell on control and observation interval of 6 and 12 hours as significant difference (P<0.05, which are bigger than that of 18 and 24 hours. Rats in the control group have the biggest quantity comparing to the other treatments. Discontinuity and thickness of internal elastic lamina layer had significant difference (P<0.05 on control, observation on 6 and 12 hours compared to observation on 18 and 24 hours after being induced with endotoxine. The highest discontinuity and the thinnest elastic lamina internal were obtained within observation on 24 hours. VCAM-1 expression on control group differ from observation on 6 and 12hours but all of them have significant difference to observation on 18 and 24 hours (P<0,05. The decrease of endothelial cell number is caused by

  11. The hepatic transcriptome of young suckling and aging intrauterine growth restricted male rats.

    Freije, William A; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Lee, Regina; Shin, Bo-Chul; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2015-04-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction leads to the development of adult onset obesity/metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, dyslipidemia, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/steatohepatitis. Continued postnatal growth restriction has been shown to ameliorate many of these sequelae. To further our understanding of the mechanism of how intrauterine and early postnatal growth affects adult health we have employed Affymetrix microarray-based expression profiling to characterize hepatic gene expression of male offspring in a rat model of maternal nutrient restriction in early and late life. At day 21 of life (p21) combined intrauterine and postnatal calorie restriction treatment led to expression changes in circadian, metabolic, and insulin-like growth factor genes as part of a larger transcriptional response that encompasses 144 genes. Independent and controlled experiments at p21 confirm the early life circadian, metabolic, and growth factor perturbations. In contrast to the p21 transcriptional response, at day 450 of life (d450) only seven genes, largely uncharacterized, were differentially expressed. This lack of a transcriptional response identifies non-transcriptional mechanisms mediating the adult sequelae of intrauterine growth restriction. Independent experiments at d450 identify a circadian defect as well as validate expression changes to four of the genes identified by the microarray screen which have a novel association with growth restriction. Emerging from this rich dataset is a portrait of how the liver responds to growth restriction through circadian dysregulation, energy/substrate management, and growth factor modulation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Radioprotective effects of soya and garlic oils in irradiated male rats

    Shabon, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Forty male albino rats were divided equally into four groups, the first group acted as control group, the second group was subjected to 5 Gy whole body gamma irradiation, the third group was injected intraperitoneally daily with soya oil (15 mg/kg b.w. for 14 days) before gamma irradiation and the fourth group was injected intraperitoneally daily with garlic oil (150/kg b.w. for 14 days) before gamma irradiation. Mortality percentage and body weight were recorded. Blood samples were collected one week post-gamma irradiation from all animals for biochemical analysis. Serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), total lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol were measured. Total proteins and albumin were measured using photometric methods. Globulin value was calculated by subtraction of albumin from total protein values. The results showed that gamma irradiation with dose level of 5 Gy induced retardation of live body weight and increased the mortality. The data also showed significant increases in TBARS, total lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol levels, whereas the levels of total proteins, albumin and globulin were significantly decreased. The soya oil or garlic oil injected pre-irradiation exerted noticeable amelioration in induced radiation changes on body weight, mortality, TBARS, lipid profiles and protein fractions

  13. Hematotoxicity and genotoxicity of mercuric chloride following subchronic exposure through drinking water in male rats.

    Boujbiha, Mohamed Ali; Ben Salah, Ghada; Ben Feleh, Abdelraouf; Saoudi, Mongi; Kamoun, Hassen; Bousslema, Ali; Ommezzine, Asma; Said, Khaled; Fakhfakh, Faiza; El Feki, Abdelfattah

    2012-07-01

    Erythrocytes are a convenient model to understand the subsequent oxidative deterioration of biological macromolecules in metal toxicities. The present study examined the variation of hematoxic and genotoxic parameters following subchronic exposure of mercuric chloride via drinking water and their possible association with oxidative stress. Male rats were exposed to 50 ppm (HG1) and 100 ppm (HG2) of mercuric chloride daily for 90 days. A significant dose-dependent decrease was observed in red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean cell hemoglobin concentration in treated groups (HG1 and HG2) compared with controls. A significant dose-dependent increase was observed in lipid peroxidation; therefore, a significant variation was found in the antioxidant enzyme activities, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. Interestingly, mercuric chloride treatment showed a significant dose-dependent increase in frequency of total chromosomal aberration and in percentage of aberrant bone marrow metaphase of treated groups (p mercury treatment may be the major cause for chromosomal aberration as free radicals lead to DNA damage. These data will be useful in screening the antioxidant activities of natural products, which may be specific to the bone marrow tissue.

  14. Short term toxicity of strawberry flavor and carmoisine color in male albino rats

    ElShamy, K.AI.; Morsy, F.A.; Elsheikh, E.A.B.; Hassanin, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the potential toxicity associated with oral administrations of the strawberry flavor and carmoisine color. The tested materials were given to the animals in their drinking water. Biochemical parameters were determined in liver, kidney and brain DNA and RNA contents.Sera was used for liver and kidney functions, lipid profile and thyroid hormones estimation. Histopathological, histochemical and cytophotometric studies were performed in liver and kidney tissues. Equal weights of flavoring and coloring agents were mixed at 0.1% w/v with drinking water. Forty adult male albino rats were assigned to four equal groups, two groups were served as controls and the remaining two groups received standard diet and water containing the tested materials for three and six week. There were no deaths and all the studied parameters were affected in a time dependent manner. Liver DNA contents were significantly decreased, kidney DNA contents tended to increase and brain DNA contents were significantly increased only after 6 weeks of treatment. RNA contents were significantly decreased in liver and brain

  15. The antiepileptic activity of Vitex agnus castus extract on amygdala kindled seizures in male rats.

    Saberi, Mehdi; Rezvanizadeh, Alireza; Bakhtiarian, Azam

    2008-08-22

    The antiepileptic activity of hydrophilic extract of Vitex agnus castus fruit (Vitex) was evaluated by the kindling model of epilepsy. Intact male rats (250-300 g) were stereotaxically implanted with a tripolar and two monopolar electrodes in amygdala and dura, respectively. The afterdischarge (AD) threshold was determined in each animal and stimulated daily until fully kindled. The animals were administered different doses (60, 120 or 180 mg/kg) of Vitex or 0.1 ml of hydro alcoholic solvent intra-peritoneally (i.p.) and kindling parameters including AD threshold, seizure stages (SS), afterdischarge duration (ADD), stage 4 latency (S4L) and stage 5 duration (S5D) were recorded 30 min post-injection. The obtained data showed that even low dose (60 mg/kg) of Vitex could significantly increase the AD threshold and decrease the ADD and S5D (PVitex at the dose of 120 mg/kg, induced significant increment in S4L (PVitex can reduce or prevent epileptic activity as demonstrated by reduction of ADD and S5D (length of convulsion) in a dose dependent manner. In conclusion, Vitex at appropriate dose can probably reduce or control epileptic activities.

  16. Effect of Taurine on Cisplatin -Induced Nephrotoxicity and Hepatoxicity in Male Rat

    Noruzi M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cisplatin, Platinum co-ordinate complex is a widely used antineaplastic agent for treatment of metastatic tumors. Taurine is an organic acid and an endogenous antioxidant. In this study we investigated the protective effect of taurine as an endogenous antioxidant against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotexicity.Methods: 24 male albino rats (180-220 grams were divided into 4 groups (n=6: (1: saline-treated group (2: cisplatin-treated group (10mg/kg, ip (3: group that received taurine (400mg/kg, ip 1hr before cisplatin (10mg/kg, ip administration (4: taurine (400mg/kg, ip. The animals were killed 7days after treatment and then blood samples were collected.Results: The results of this study indicated that cisplatin significantly increased CRATININ, URE, ALT, AST levels as compared to control group. Moreover, taurine significantly decreased CRATININ, URE, ALT and AST levels compared to cisplatin group.Conclusion: According to this study taurine prevents the incease of Creatinin, BUN, ALT and AST levels assisted by cisplatin, which may be due to its antioxidant properties.Keywords: Cisplatin; Taurine; Hepatoxicity; Nephrotoxicity; Nephrons.

  17. Effect of olive leaf alcoholic extract on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in adult male rats

    mohammadreza nasirzade

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R is present at various degrees in kidney transplants. Several studies suggest that renal ischemia reperfusion (RIR can induce acute kidney injury.  Liver diseases and neurological disorders related to kidney injury is a common clinical problem. Olive leaf is a significant source of bioactive phenolic compounds. They have better antioxidant capacity, anti-inflammatory and radical scavenging. In this study 50 male rats were allocated randomly into 5 groups: control (intact animals, group-1(I/R 60min+olive leaf extract, group-2 (I/R 60min, group-3(I/R 120min+olive leaf extractand group-4(I/R 120min.The animals  received 100 mg/kg olive leaf extract in0.5 ml drinking water using gavage for 28 days. Other animals received 0.5 ml normal saline by gavages. At the end of the treatment, the level of antioxidant enzymes including TAC, MDA, SOD and GPX were determined in renal tissue. Administration of olive leaf extract can significantly increase activity of TAC, GPX and SOD in group1and 3compared with group2and4. Also, MDA level in renal tissue of treated groups was significantly lower than ischemia-reperfusion groups (p

  18. Beneficial effects of exercise training in heart failure are lost in male diabetic rats.

    Boudia, Dalila; Domergue, Valérie; Mateo, Philippe; Fazal, Loubina; Prud'homme, Mathilde; Prigent, Héloïse; Delcayre, Claude; Cohen-Solal, Alain; Garnier, Anne; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Samuel, Jane-Lise

    2017-12-01

    Exercise training has been demonstrated to have beneficial effects in patients with heart failure (HF) or diabetes. However, it is unknown whether diabetic patients with HF will benefit from exercise training. Male Wistar rats were fed either a standard (Sham, n = 53) or high-fat, high-sucrose diet ( n = 66) for 6 mo. After 2 mo of diet, the rats were already diabetic. Rats were then randomly subjected to either myocardial infarction by coronary artery ligation (MI) or sham operation. Two months later, heart failure was documented by echocardiography and animals were randomly subjected to exercise training with treadmill for an additional 8 wk or remained sedentary. At the end, rats were euthanized and tissues were assayed by RT-PCR, immunoblotting, spectrophotometry, and immunohistology. MI induced a similar decrease in ejection fraction in diabetic and lean animals but a higher premature mortality in the diabetic group. Exercise for 8 wk resulted in a higher working power developed by MI animals with diabetes and improved glycaemia but not ejection fraction or pathological phenotype. In contrast, exercise improved the ejection fraction and increased adaptive hypertrophy after MI in the lean group. Trained diabetic rats with MI were nevertheless able to develop cardiomyocyte hypertrophy but without angiogenic responses. Exercise improved stress markers and cardiac energy metabolism in lean but not diabetic-MI rats. Hence, following HF, the benefits of exercise training on cardiac function are blunted in diabetic animals. In conclusion, exercise training only improved the myocardial profile of infarcted lean rats fed the standard diet. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Exercise training is beneficial in patients with heart failure (HF) or diabetes. However, less is known of the possible benefit of exercise training for HF patients with diabetes. Using a rat model where both diabetes and MI had been induced, we showed that 2 mo after MI, 8 wk of exercise training failed to improve

  19. Vitex agnus-castus essential oil affects thyroid C cells and bone metabolism in middle-aged male rats

    Pantelić Jasmina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ageing in men is accompanied by an increased occurrence of osteoporosis, but traditional hormonal replacement therapy elevates the risk of developing endocrine cancer. Vitex agnus-castus L. (Vac essential oil is commonly used as an alternative therapy for ageing symptoms in both men and women. It is known that calcitonin (CT, thyroid C cell hormone, inhibits bone resorption. The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the influence of Vac essential oil administration on the immunohistomorphometric features of thyroid C cells and bone metabolism in 16-month-old male Wistar rats. The first group of animals (n=8 was treated subcutaneously (s.c. with 60 mg/kg of Vac essential oil once a day for 3 weeks. Control animals (n=8 received sterile olive oil s.c. by the same schedule. After Vac treatment significant increases (p<0.05 were found in the volume of C cells (by 10% and serum CT level (by 27% compared with the controls. Serum osteocalcin (OC and calcium (Ca2+ levels were 31% and 8% lower (p<0.05 respectively, in comparison with the control group. These are the first experimental results suggesting that Vac essential oil stimulates thyroid C cells activity and decreases bone turnover in middle-aged male rats. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173009

  20. The combined effect of laser and oral administration of Iranian propolis extract on skin wound healing in male rats

    Nematollah Ghaibi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date, a lot of research has been carried out on the effect of medications and surgical methods on the treatment of wounds, but no ideal achievement has been obtained yet. This study was conducted to investigate the single and combined effect of laser and propolis on skin wound healing in male rats. Methods: 40 Wistar male rats (200-250 g were divided into 4 groups (n= 10. All animals were anesthetized and sterile skin wound was created by surgical scissors. Control group had no treatment, the second group was treated with laser (10 mW, the third group was treated with oral propolis (100 mg /kg; 3 times /day and the forth group was treated with both laser and propolis. The wound healing level was measured based on the wound area and urinary hydroxyproline content. Results: Urinary hydroxyproline content was increased in groups treated with laser, propolis and combined laser and propolis compared to the control group (P<0.01, 0.05 and 0.01, respectively. Also at the end of the treatment period, the wound extent was significantly lower in the laser, propolis, and combined laser and propolis groups than the control (P<0.05, 0.05 and 0.01, respectively. There was no significant difference between treatment groups. Conclusion: Our results showed that oral administration of propolis or low power laser radiation can increase the wound healing rate.

  1. Oxytocin differentially affects sucrose taking and seeking in male and female rats.

    Zhou, Luyi; Ghee, Shannon M; See, Ronald E; Reichel, Carmela M

    2015-04-15

    Oxytocin has a modulatory role in natural and drug reward processes. While the role of oxytocin in pair bonding and reproduction has been extensively studied, sex differences in conditioned and unconditioned behavioral responses to oxytocin treatment have not been fully characterized. Here, we determined whether male and female rats would show similar dose response curves in response to acute oxytocin on measures of locomotor activity, sucrose seeking, and sucrose intake. Male and freely cycling female rats received vehicle or oxytocin (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3mg/kg, IP) injections before behavioral tests designed to assess general motor activity, as well as sucrose self-administration and seeking. Lower doses of oxytocin decreased motor activity in a novel environment in females relative to males. Likewise, lower doses of oxytocin in females decreased responding for sucrose during maintenance of sucrose self-administration and reinstatement to sucrose-conditioned cues. However, sucrose seeking in response to a sucrose prime was only decreased by the highest oxytocin dose in both sexes. In general, oxytocin had similar effects in both sexes. However, females were more sensitive to lower doses of oxytocin than males. These findings are consistent with the notion that oxytocin regulates many of the same behaviors in males and females, but that the effects are typically more profound in females. Therapeutic use of oxytocin should include sex as a factor in determining dose regimens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Role of Antioxidants in Biochemical Disorders Induced by Arsenic in Adult male Rats

    Hassanin, M.M.; Zaki, Z.T.; Emarah, E.A.M.; Hussein, A.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation included biochemical, radiometric, molecular studies and histopathological examination to evaluate the protective role of Antox tablets toward Arsenic toxicity in adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus). Arsenic were given as sodium arsenate to different groups in drinking water at a dose of 100 mg/L, for 3 and 6 weeks led to severe tissue damage as revealed by an elevation of serum total protein and alteration of serum protein fractions. Using radioimmunoassay it was found that serum total testosterone level was significantly decreased. The decreased level of total testosterone paralleled the observed testicular damage. Treatment of male rats with antioxidant (Antox) along with arsenic led to an improvement in both the biochemical and histological alterations induced by arsenic. Thus the protective role of Antox is attributed to its antioxidant and free radicals scavenging properties of its components (selenium, vitamin A acetate, ascorbic acid and vitamin E).

  3. The influence of social environment in early life on the behavior, stress response, and reproductive system of adult male Norway rats selected for different attitudes to humans.

    Gulevich, R G; Shikhevich, S G; Konoshenko, M Yu; Kozhemyakina, R V; Herbeck, Yu E; Prasolova, L A; Oskina, I N; Plyusnina, I Z

    2015-05-15

    The influence of social disturbance in early life on behavior, response of blood corticosterone level to restraint stress, and endocrine and morphometric indices of the testes was studied in 2-month Norway rat males from three populations: not selected for behavior (unselected), selected for against aggression to humans (tame), and selected for increased aggression to humans (aggressive). The experimental social disturbance included early weaning, daily replacement of cagemates from days 19 to 25, and subsequent housing in twos till the age of 2months. The social disturbance increased the latent period of aggressive behavior in the social interaction test in unselected males and reduced relative testis weights in comparison to the corresponding control groups. In addition, experimental unselected rats had smaller diameters of seminiferous tubules and lower blood testosterone levels. In the experimental group, tame rats had lower basal corticosterone levels, and aggressive animals had lower hormone levels after restraint stress in comparison to the control. The results suggest that the selection in two directions for attitude to humans modifies the response of male rats to social disturbance in early life. In this regard, the selected rat populations may be viewed as a model for investigation of (1) neuroendocrinal mechanisms responsible for the manifestation of aggression and (2) interaction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal systems in stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Experimental gastritis leads to anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in female but not male rats

    2013-01-01

    Human and animals studies support the idea that there is a gender-related co-morbidity of pain-related and inflammatory gastrointestinal (GI) diseases with psychological disorders. This co-morbidity is the evidence for the existence of GI-brain axis which consists of immune (cytokines), neural (vagus nerve) and neuroendocrine (HPA axis) pathways. Psychological stress causes disturbances in GI physiology, such as altered GI barrier function, changes in motility and secretion, development of visceral hypersensitivity, and dysfunction of inflammatory responses. Whether GI inflammation would exert impact on psychological behavior is not well established. We examined the effect of experimental gastritis on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in male and female Sprague–Dawley rats, and evaluated potential mechanisms of action. Gastritis was induced by adding 0.1% (w/v) iodoacetamide (IAA) to the sterile drinking water for 7 days. Sucrose preference test assessed the depression-like behavior, open field test and elevated plus maze evaluated the anxiety-like behavior. IAA treatment induced gastric inflammation in rats of either gender. No behavioral abnormality or dysfunction of GI-brain axis was observed in male rats with IAA-induced gastritis. Anxiety- and depression-like behaviors were apparent and the HPA axis was hyperactive in female rats with IAA-induced gastritis. Our results show that gastric inflammation leads to anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in female but not male rats via the neuroendocrine (HPA axis) pathway, suggesting that the GI inflammation can impair normal brain function and induce changes in psychological behavior in a gender-related manner through the GI-to-brain signaling. PMID:24345032

  5. Mondia whitei (Periplocaceae prevents and Guibourtia tessmannii (Caesalpiniaceae facilitates fictive ejaculation in spinal male rats

    Watcho Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mondia whitei and Guibourtia tessmannii are used in Cameroon traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the pro-ejaculatory effects of the aqueous and organic solvent extracts of these plants in spinal male rats. Methods In spinal cord transected and urethane-anesthetized rats, two electrodes where inserted into the bulbospongiosus muscles and the ejaculatory motor pattern was recorded on a polygraph after urethral and penile stimulations, intravenous injection of saline (0.1 ml/100 g, dopamine (0.1 μM/kg, aqueous and organic solvent plant extracts (20 mg/kg. Results In all spinal rats, urethral and penile stimulations always induced the ejaculatory motor pattern. Aqueous or hexane extract of Mondia whitei (20 mg/kg prevented the expression of the ejaculatory motor pattern. The pro-ejaculatory effects of dopamine (0.1 μM/kg were not abolished in spinal rats pre-treated with Mondia whitei extracts. Aqueous and methanolic stem bark extracts of Guibourtia tessmannii (20 mg/kg induced fictive ejaculation characterized by rhythmic contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscles followed sometimes with expulsion of seminal plugs. In rats pre-treated with haloperidol (0.26 μM/kg, no ejaculatory motor pattern was recorded after intravenous injection of Guibourtia tessmannii extracts (20 mg/kg. Conclusion These results show that Mondia whitei possesses preventive effects on the expression of fictive ejaculation in spinal male rats, which is not mediated through dopaminergic pathway; on the contrary, the pro-ejaculatory activities of Guibourtia tessmannii require the integrity of dopaminergic system to exert its effects. The present findings further justify the ethno-medicinal claims of Mondia whitei and Guibourtia tessmannii.

  6. Dietary choline during periadolescence attenuates cognitive damage caused by neonatal maternal separation in male rats.

    Moreno Gudiño, Hayarelis; Carías Picón, Diamela; de Brugada Sauras, Isabel

    2017-07-01

    Choline (Ch) is an essential nutrient that acts as a cognitive facilitator when administered during perinatal periods, and it has been recognised as a 'pharmacological' agent that can ease cognitive dysfunctions provoked by exposure to damaging stimuli during early developmental stages. The aim of the present work is to determine whether providing a diet rich in Ch would reduce the severity of the memory deficit provoked by a neonatal stress episode in male adult rats. The effect of Ch on memory was measured using memory tasks such as object and place recognition. Ontogenetic manipulations were conducted during two sensitive developmental periods. During the first post-natal (PN) 14 days, only the male rat pups were selected and half of them were separated from the mother, group maternal separation (MS). Subsequently, during periadolescence (PN 21-60), the rats were exposed to a deficient (DEF = 0 g/kg Ch chloride), sufficient (CON = 1.1 g/kg Ch chloride), or supplemented (SUP = 5 g/kg Ch chloride) diets for this nutrient. The results indicated that for group MS, only rats fed with the SUP diet were able to recognise the familiar object and place that had been experienced 24 hours before, unlike groups DEF and CON. In addition, whereas rats in the non-separated group (No-MS) recognised the object independently of the diet, only rats that received a DEF diet failed to recognise the place, showing that a Ch deficit affects spatial memory tasks. These results show that Ch supplementation during periadolescence can attenuate the memory deficit provoked by extended neonatal stress.

  7. Genistein improves spatial learning and memory in male rats with elevated glucose level during memory consolidation

    Kohara, Yumi; Kawaguchi, Shinichiro; Kuwahara, Rika; Uchida, Yutaro; Oku, Yushi; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction due to higher blood glucose level has been reported previously. Genistein (GEN) is a phytoestrogen that we hypothesized might lead to improved memory, despite elevated blood glucose levels at the time of memory consolidation. To investigate this hypothesis, we compared the effects of orally administered GEN on the central nervous system in normal versus glucose-loaded adult male rats. A battery of behavioral assessments was carried out. In the MAZE test, which measured s...

  8. The Anti-Nociceptive Effect of Aloe. Vera Aqueous Extract in Fructose-Fed Male Rats

    Mohammad Reza Shahraki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A B S T R A C T Introduction: Aloe Vera extract is used as an anti-inflammatory and anti-bradikinin agent in laboratory animals. The aim of this survey was to evaluate the ant-nociceptive effect of A. Vera aqueous extract in fructose-fed male rats. Methods: Forty-five Wistar-Albino male rats were equally and randomly divided into five groups including sham operated and four test groups. Sham operated group consumed tap water and the test groups consumed fructoseenriched water. Test groups 2, 3 and 4 additionally received, 0, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg of A. Vera extract, respectively, whereas the other test group received distilled water daily. Tail flick reaction time, serum glucose and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT were measured. The results were analyzed by SPSS software using ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results were expressed as mean ± SD. Statistical differences were considered significant at p<0.05. Results: The results showed that tail flick reaction time significantly increased in test group 3 which received 200 mg/kg A. Vera extract comparing with that of sham operated group. However, OGTT and serum glucose value were significantly increased in all fructose-fed male rats comparing with those of sham operated group. Discussion: These results indicated that A. Vera aqueous extract can affect tail flick reaction time in fructose-fed male rats. Further studies are required to show the exact mechanism of anti-nociceptive effect of A. Vera extract.

  9. Sexual behaviour of male rats after gamma-irradiation: some radiobiological features

    Ushakov, I.B.; Rogacheva, I.V.; Stroganova, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    A pronounced and stable decrease in sexual motivation of male rats immediately after γ-irradiation of the head with a dose of 2.58 C/kg is shown. Exposure of the body to 1.29-2.58 C/kg radiation also inhibited sexual behaviour but only by the 45th-55th minute following irradiation: with higher doses some increase in sexual activity was observed immediately after irradiation

  10. Effects of Housing Conditions on Stress Responses, Feeding, and Drinking in Male and Female Rats

    1995-02-07

    and biochemical changes indicative of a stress response (Singh, D’Souza, & Singh, 1991 ; Peng, Lang, Drozdowicz, & Ohlsson-Wilhelm, 1989; Armario ...immunological, and biochemical changes indicative of stress (Peng et aI., 1989; Armario et aI. , 1987; Gamallo et aI. , 1986; Armario , Ortiz...et aI. , 19~9; Armario et aI. , 1987; Gamallo et aI. , 1986; Calhoun, 1962). Hypothesis 2. It was hypothesized that male rats would decrease food

  11. Effects of Stress and Nicotine on Cognitive Function in Male and Female Rats

    2016-05-20

    of Candidate: Raquel Mack Medical and Clinical Psychology Master of Science 2/9/2016 Thesis and Abstract Approved: ~62 Neil E. Grunberg, PhD ...Department of Military and Emergency Medicine Thesis Advisor Andrew Waters, PhD Department of Medical and Clinical Psychology Committee Member JIA...i EFFECTS OF STRESS AND NICOTINE ON COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN MALE AND FEMALE RATS by Raquel Mack Thesis

  12. Biochemical activity of the insecticide (diflubenzuron) residues on male albino rats

    Abdel- Naser, H.F.O.

    1997-01-01

    The toxicological studies of the insecticide. Diflubenzuron were investigated in experimental animals during 45th days feeding study. The studies carried out included treatment of wheat grains with 100 and 300 ppm DFB, this was accomplished by feeding male rats for 45 days (sub chronic toxicity study) on DFB incorporated in grains to monitor any possible change that might have been altered in the animal during that period. 6 tabs., 17 figs., 109 refs

  13. Anti Lithiasis Activity of Avocado (Persea americana Mill Leaves Extract in White Male Rats

    IETJE WIENTARSIH

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, avocado leaves have been used as traditional medicines for diureticum to cure urolithiasis. This research was to determine anti lithiasis activity of avocado leaves (Persea americana Mill extract on white male rats nefrolithiasis model induced by ethylene glycol. Ethanol extraction method was used to get extract of avogadro leaves. Twenty adult male white rats were divided into 4 different induction treatments i.e. aquadest, ethylene glycol 0.75% and ammonium chloride 2%, and extract of avocado leaves with different levels of 100 and 300 mg/kg bw respectively. Their body weight was measured daily to determine their growth ratio. And at the end of the trial, the kidney was analyzed its calcium level and inhibitory activity to formation of calcium oxalate crystals. The results showed that the amount of calcium level in the kidney of rats treated with extract of avogadro leaves was significantly decreased than that of rats treated with ethylene glycol 0.75% and ammonium chloride 2% (P < 0.05. The extract avocado leaves as a herbal remedy can be recommended as a phytotherapeutic agent especially for preventive action for urolithiasis diseases.

  14. Distribution of kappa opioid receptors in the brain of young and old male rats

    Maggi, R.; Limonta, P.; Dondi, D.; Martini, L.; Piva, F.

    1989-01-01

    The experiments to be described have been designed in order to: (a) provide new information on the concentrations of opioid kappa receptors in different regions of the brain of the male rats; and (b) to analyze whether the density of brain kappa receptors might be modified by the process of aging. The concentration of kappa receptors was investigated in the hypothalamus, amygdala, mesencephalon, corpus striatum, hippocampus, thalamus, frontal poles, anterior and posterior cortex collected from male rats of 2 and 19 months of age. 3 H-bremazocine (BRZ) was used as the ligand of kappa receptors, after protection of mu and delta receptors respectively with dihydromorphine and d-ala-d-leu-enkephalin. The results obtained show that: (1) in young male rats, the number of kappa opioid receptors is different in the various brain areas examined. (2) Aging exerts little influence on the number of kappa receptors in the majority of the brain structures considered. However in the amygdala and in the thalamus the number of kappa receptors was increased in old animals

  15. Effects of pyrethroid insecticide ICON (lambda cyhalothrin) on reproductive competence of male rats.

    Ratnasooriya, W D; Ratnayake, S S K; Jayatunga, Y N A

    2002-03-01

    To assess the effect of ICON (trade name of lambda-cyhalothrin) on sexual competence and fertility of male rats. Male rats were gavaged daily for 7 consecutive days with different doses of ICON (63 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg) or vehicle (distilled water). Their sexual behaviour and fertility were evaluated at different time points during treatment and post-treatment using receptive females. Treatment had no effect on fertility, but sexual competence was seriously impaired: libido (assessed in terms of pre-coital sexual behaviour, and numbers of mounting, intromission and ejaculation), sexual arousability/motivation (in terms of latencies for mounting, intromission and ejaculation), sexual vigour (judged by frequencies of mounting and intromission or copulatory efficiency). In addition, ICON suppressed intromission ratio, indicating erectile dysfunction. These effects on sexual function had a rapid onset and was reversible. ICON-induced sexual dysfunction was mediated by multiple mechanisms, mainly toxicity, stress, sedation and possibly via GABA and dopaminergic systems. Exposure to ICON may cause sexual dysfunction in male rats.

  16. Gestational Protein Restriction Increases Cardiac Connexin 43 mRNA levels in male adult rat offspring

    Rossini, Kamila Fernanda; de Oliveira, Camila Andrea; Rebelato, Hércules Jonas; Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marreto; Catisti, Rosana

    2017-01-01

    Background The dietary limitation during pregnancy influences the growth and development of the fetus and offspring and their health into adult life. The mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of gestational protein restriction (GPR) in the development of the offspring hearts are not well understood. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of GPR on cardiac structure in male rat offspring at day 60 after birth (d60). Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were fed a normal-protein (NP, 17% casein) or low-protein (LP, 6% casein) diet. Blood pressure (BP) values from 60-day-old male offspring were measured by an indirect tail-cuff method using an electro sphygmomanometer. Hearts (d60) were collected for assessment of connexin 43 (Cx43) mRNA expression and morphological and morphometric analysis. Results LP offspring showed no difference in body weight, although they were born lighter than NP offspring. BP levels were significantly higher in the LP group. We observed a significant increase in the area occupied by collagen fibers, a decrease in the number of cardiomyocytes by 104 µm2, and an increase in cardiomyocyte area associated with an increased Cx43 expression. Conclusion GPR changes myocardial levels of Cx43 mRNA in male young adult rats, suggesting that this mechanism aims to compensate the fibrotic process by the accumulation of collagen fibers in the heart interstitium. PMID:28678925

  17. Continuous place avoidance task reveals differences in spatial navigation in male and female rats.

    Cimadevilla, J M; Fenton, A A; Bures, J

    2000-01-01

    A new place navigation test was used to estimate the spatial orientation abilities of male and female rats. Animals had to avoid a room frame defined area on a rotating arena, entering of which was punished by mild footshock, i.e. rats had to avoid the same place in the room but different parts of the floor, which was rotated through the punished zone. Because of the rotation of the arena (one revolution per min), animals could not rely on intramaze cues and only extramaze landmarks could be used for accurate navigation. During 8 consecutive days rats were exposed to daily 40-min sessions, consisting of 20-min acquisition and 20-min extinction (shock discontinued). The position of the punished sector centered around one of the four mutually perpendicular azimuths was daily changed in a predetermined sequence. The results showed no male female differences during acquisition and better performance of males during extinction. The performance of females was not affected by estral cycle-related hormonal changes. The findings are discussed in the light of controversial results of research into sex differences in spatial abilities.

  18. Evaluation of Histopathological and Histomorphological Effects of Kombucha Extract (Camellia sinenesis on Stomach Surgical Wound Healing in Adult Male Rat

    Fariborz Moayer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Wounds healing especially as to surgical wounds is considered clinical problem. Kombucha is used as a food and adminstarted for wound healing. The aim of this study was to assess histopathological and histomorphometrical effect of Kombucha on surgical wound healing process in stomach of rat. Methods: Thirty adult male Wistar rats with 10-week-old and weighted between 200-250 g were randomly divided into two groups (Control and Experimenral. After anesthesia, rats’ stomach was removed and a gastrotomy incision with the length of 1 cm was made in greater curvature, thereafter, sutured in 2 layers. Experimental group received Kombucha extract (1 ml/100gbw and control group received normal saline (1 ml/100gbw daily for 14 days through the gavage. In 3, 7 and 14 days after operation, five rats of each group were euthanized and stomach tissue specimens were collected for histopatholocical study by H&E and Masson's trichrome staining. Histopathological and histomorphometrical studies of wound healing among the groups were carried out considering more effective agents on wound healing including proliferation of fibroblasts, angiogenesis, re-epithelialization and collagen organization in healing tissue. Results: The numbers of fibroblasts, capillary buds and organized collagen content in healing site of experimental group were significantly more than control group (p<0.05. The size of epithelial gap in experimental group was significantly lesser than control group (p<0.05. Conclusion: Based on the results, Kombucha extract possesses beneficial effects on healing of stomach surgical wounds in rats.

  19. Altered attentional processing in male and female rats in a prenatal valproic acid exposure model of autism spectrum disorder.

    Anshu, Kumari; Nair, Ajay Kumar; Kumaresan, U D; Kutty, Bindu M; Srinath, Shoba; Laxmi, T Rao

    2017-12-01

    Attention is foundational to efficient perception and optimal goal driven behavior. Intact attentional processing is crucial for the development of social and communication skills. Deficits in attention are therefore likely contributors to the core pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Clinical evidence in ASD is suggestive of impairments in attention and its control, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We examined sustained, spatially divided attention in a prenatal valproic acid (VPA) model of ASD using the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT). As compared to controls, male and female VPA rats had progressively lower accuracy and higher omissions with increasing attentional demands during 5-CSRTT training, and showed further performance decrements when subjected to parametric task manipulations. It is noteworthy that although VPA exposure induced attentional deficits in both sexes, there were task parameter specific sex differences. Importantly, we did not find evidence of impulsivity or motivational deficits in VPA rats but we did find reduced social preference, as well as sensorimotor deficits that suggest pre-attentional information processing impairments. Importantly, with fixed rules, graded difficulty levels, and more time, VPA rats could be successfully trained on the attentional task. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study examining attentional functions in a VPA model. Our work underscores the need for studying both sexes in ASD animal models and validates the use of the VPA model in the quest for mechanistic understanding of aberrant attentional functions and for evaluating suitable therapeutic targets. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1929-1944. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. We studied rats prenatally exposed to valproic acid (VPA), an established rodent model of autism. Both male and female VPA rats had a range of attentional impairments with sex-specific characteristics

  20. The Correlation of Plasma Levels of Apelin-13 with Insulin Resistance Index and Plasma Leptin of Diabetic Male Rats after 8-Week Aerobic Exercise

    Fahimeh Kazemi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The physiological role of apelin, an adipokine secreted by adipose tissue, in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes has been identified. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation of plasma levels of apelin-13 with insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR and plasma leptin of diabetic male rats after 8-week aerobic exercise. Materials and Methods: Peresent study was an experimental study with animal model. Twenty eight diabetic male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: Non-diabetic (n=9, control diabetic (n=9 and trained diabetic (n=10. Type 2 diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide and streptozotocin. The trained diabetic rat ran 8-week on treadmill progressively. After the training period, plasma levels of glucose, insulin, leptin and apelin-13 were measured and HOMA-IR was calculated. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation were used for analyzing data. p<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: A significant decrease in plasma levels of glucose, insulin and leptin and HOMA-IR in trained diabetic vs control diabetic rats, a significant increase in plasma levels of apelin in trained diabetic vs non-diabetic and control diabetic rats and a significant negative correlation of plasma levels of apelin with HOMA-IR and plasma leptin in trained diabetic rats was observed. Conclusion: In present study, 8-week aerobic training by improvement of insulin sensitivity (decrease of HOMA-IR and plasma leptin increased plasma levels of apelin-13 in diabetic male rats.

  1. Abstinence environment contributes to age differences in reinstatement of cocaine seeking between adolescent and adult male rats.

    Li, Chen; Frantz, Kyle J

    2017-07-01

    Extinction responding and cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking after 60-days of forced abstinence are attenuated in male rats that self-administered cocaine during adolescence, compared with adults. Given that environmental enrichment during abstinence decreases reinstatement among adults, a possible explanation for attenuated reinstatement among adolescents is that standard pair-housing in prior studies creates a more stimulating environment for younger rats. Therefore, we tested whether standard pair-housing is necessary for the attenuated reinstatement among adolescents by determining whether an impoverished environment during abstinence would increase reinstatement among adolescents, up to adult levels. Conversely, we also tested whether environmental enrichment could further decrease reinstatement among adolescents, and whether we could replicate effects of environmental enrichment to decrease reinstatement among adults down to adolescent levels (positive controls). Adolescent and adult male Wistar rats self-administered cocaine intravenously for 12days (fixed ratio 1; 0.36mg/kg per infusion; 2h sessions). Rats were then moved into enriched (grouped, large cages, novel toys), standard (pair-housed, shoebox cages), or impoverished (isolated, hanging cages) housing conditions. After 60days, extinction and cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking were tested, followed by drug-primed reinstatement (0, 5, 10mg/kg cocaine, i.p.). Consistent with previous results, extinction and cue-induced reinstatement were attenuated in adolescent-onset groups compared with adults; this age difference also extended to drug-primed reinstatement. In support of the present hypothesis, an impoverished environment during abstinence increased reinstatement among adolescents to levels that were not different from adult standard-housing levels. These data suggest that abstinence environment influences the enduring effects of cocaine among adolescents as well as adults

  2. The Effect of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Leaves of Vitex on the Gestation Indices of Male Rats

    Fereshteh Ramezanloo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phytoestrogens are some plant compounds with estrogenic biological effects which are found in many nutritional sources as soybean, flaxseed, and sesame. Vitex agnus-castus, also called Vitex, owns phytoestrogen properties. Studies have shown that phytoestrogens have different impacts on the gestation process and reproduction indices. Objective: The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Vitex extract on the gestation indices in the male rat as well as studying its histological properties in the rat testicles. Materials and Methods: The hydro-alcoholic extract of Vitex (in three doses of 165, 265 and 365 mg/kg, vehicle (normal saline and the hydro-alcoholic powder of soybean (120 mg/kg were respectively given to understudy, vehicle and positive control groups for 49 days. After weighing the rats in the 1st and 49th days, the blood samples of all groups were taken and tested for estradiol levels, testosterones, FSH and LH.Moreover, such reproductive indices as sperm count, sperm motion, and prostate and testicle weight were studied and samples were collected for histological studies. Results: Prescription of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Vitex (in three doses of 165, 265 and 365 mg/kg did not change the rat’s weight, significantly (P-value= 0.06. Hormonal studies reduced the progesterone, LH, and FSH compared to the vehicle group, significantly (P-value<0.05. In addition, the amount of estradiol was significantly more than the vehicle group and the most effect was observed at a dose of 365 mg/kg (P-value=0.02. Histological studies showed a reduction in existing spermatozoa in the seminiferous ducts. Conclusions: This study had shown that the Vitex extract had inhibiting effects on the gestation indices in male rat and due to its destructive effects on the testicle tissues, more studies were required.

  3. Sperm abnormality toxicity due to cyclosporine A and the ameliorative effect of royal jelly in male rats

    Azza M. Gawish

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The immunosuppressive drug, utilized widely in Egypt, cyclosporine A was studied to evaluate its toxicity in male rats. Animals were divided into a control (untreated, 3 groups treated intraperitoneally with 20, 40 and 60 m/kg cyclosporine A for 5, 10 and 15 days, respectively and 3 groups treated intraperitoneally with 20, 40 and 60 mg/kg of cyclosporine A plus 100 mg/kg royal jelly administrated orally. Toxicity evaluation was carried out using two main endpoints: reproductive study (sperm morphology and count abnormalities and biochemical changes in liver and testis (DNA amounts. The aim of this work is to study the protective role of royal jelly against sperm abnormalities in shape and count, and changes in DNA contents in liver and testis tissue induced in rats when treated by cyclosporine A with different doses (20–40–60 mg/kg/day for 5, 10, and 15 days in male rats and how the royal jelly can repair this changes. Our results showed that sperm abnormalities induced by cyclosporine A included deviation from normal shape in head and tail. Abnormal heads contained amorphous head and banana-shaped head, whereas the abnormal tails included divided and coiled tails. It also induced an insignificant effect on the total sperm counts after 5 days of injection with the drug combined with royal jelly. DNA contents were determined in rat liver and testis cells to illustrate the mutagenic effect of cyclosporine A and how the royal jelly can modulate this effect. From these results we concluded that cyclosporine A toxicity was dose and time dependent and should be administrated under special precautions and medical supervision. Using of royal jelly in combination with cyclosporine A drug decreased its toxic effect, so it's considered as protector.

  4. Heterosexual experience prevents the development of conditioned same-sex partner preference in male rats.

    Ramírez-Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Tecamachaltzi-Silvaran, Miriam B; Díaz-Estrada, Victor X; Chena-Becerra, Florencia; Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; Paredes-Ramos, Pedro; Manzo, Jorge; Garcia, Luis I; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2017-03-01

    Sexual partner preferences can be strengthened, weakened or even drastically modified via Pavlovian conditioning. For example, conditioned same-sex partner preference develops in sexually-naïve male rats that undergo same-sex cohabitation under the effects of quinpirole (QNP, D2 agonist). Here, we assessed the effect of prior heterosexual experience on the probability to develop a conditioned same-sex preference. Naïve or Sexually-experienced males received either Saline or QNP and cohabited during 24h with a male partner that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus. This was repeated every 4days for a total of three trials and resulted in four groups (Saline-naïve, Saline-experienced, QNP-naïve, QNP-experienced). Social and sexual preference were assessed four days after the last conditioning trial in a drug-free test in which experimental males chose between the scented familiar male and a novel sexually receptive female. Results showed that Saline-naïve, Saline-experienced and QNP-experienced displayed a clear preference for the female (opposite-sex). By contrast, only QNP-naïve males displayed a same-sex preference. Accordingly, QNP-experienced males were not affected by the conditioning process and continued to prefer females. We discuss the effects of copulation and D2 agonists on the facilitation and/or disruption of conditioned partner preferences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities in male and female rat macrophages by sex steroids

    Azevedo R.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Human and animal immune functions present sex dimorphism that seems to be mainly regulated by sex hormones. In the present study, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes total superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px were measured in intraperitoneal resident macrophages from adult male and female rats. In addition to comparing males and females, we also examined the regulation of these enzyme activities in macrophages by sex steroids. GSH-Px activity did not differ between male and female macrophages. However, both total SOD and CAT activities were markedly higher in females than in males (83 and 180%. Removal of the gonads in both males and females (comparison between castrated groups increased the difference in SOD activity from 83 to 138% and reduced the difference in CAT activity from 180 to 86%. Castration and testosterone administration did not significantly modify the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in male macrophages. Ovariectomy did not affect SOD or GSH-Px activity but markedly reduced (48% CAT activity. This latter change was fully reversed by estrogen administration, whereas progesterone had a smaller effect. These results led us to conclude that differences in the SOD and CAT activities may partially explain some of the differences in immune function reported for males and females. Also, estrogen is a potent regulator of CAT in macrophages and therefore this enzyme activity in macrophages may vary considerably during the menstrual cycle.

  6. Effects of genistein in the maternal diet on reproductive development and spatial learning in male rats.

    Ball, Evan R; Caniglia, Mary Kay; Wilcox, Jenna L; Overton, Karla A; Burr, Marra J; Wolfe, Brady D; Sanders, Brian J; Wisniewski, Amy B; Wrenn, Craige C

    2010-03-01

    Endocrine disruptors, chemicals that disturb the actions of endogenous hormones, have been implicated in birth defects associated with hormone-dependent development. Phytoestrogens are a class of endocrine disruptors found in plants. In the current study we examined the effects of exposure at various perinatal time periods to genistein, a soy phytoestrogen, on reproductive development and learning in male rats. Dams were fed genistein-containing (5 mg/kg feed) food during both gestation and lactation, during gestation only, during lactation only, or during neither period. Measures of reproductive development and body mass were taken in the male offspring during postnatal development, and learning and memory performance was assessed in adulthood. Genistein exposure via the maternal diet decreased body mass in the male offspring of dams fed genistein during both gestation and lactation, during lactation only, but not during gestation only. Genistein decreased anogenital distance when exposure was during both gestation and lactation, but there was no effect when exposure was limited to one of these time periods. Similarly, spatial learning in the Morris water maze was impaired in male rats exposed to geni