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Sample records for male overactive bladder

  1. Overactive Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nicola; Iglesia, Cheryl B

    2016-03-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a condition affecting millions of individuals in the United States. Anticholinergics are the mainstay of treatment. Bladder botulinum toxin injections have shown an improvement in symptoms of OAB equivalent to anticholinergic therapy. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation can decrease symptoms of urinary frequency and urge incontinence. Sacral neuromodulation for refractory patients has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of OAB, urge incontinence, and urinary retention. Few randomized, head-to-head comparisons of the different available alternatives exist; however, patients now have increasing options to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

  2. Overactive Bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... social interactions and everyday activities. Causes Normal bladder function The kidneys produce urine, which drains into your ... Sleep disturbances and interrupted sleep cycles Issues with sexuality Your doctor might recommend treatment of associated conditions, ...

  3. Clinical guidelines for male lower urinary tract symptoms associated with non-neurogenic overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Cheng Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this guideline is to direct urologists and patients regarding how to identify overactive bladder (OAB in male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS and to make an accurate diagnosis and establish treatment goals to improve the patients' quality of life (QoL. LUTS are commonly divided into storage, voiding, and postmicturition symptoms, and are highly prevalent in elderly men. LUTS can result from a complex interplay of pathophysiologic features that can include bladder dysfunction and bladder outlet dysfunction such as benign prostatic obstruction (BPO or poor relaxation of the urethral sphincter. Diagnosis of OAB in male LUTS leads to accurate diagnosis of pure OAB and bladder outlet-related OAB, and appropriate treatment in men with residual storage symptoms after treatment for LUTS.

  4. Overactive bladder in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Sophie; Bolduc, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a highly prevalent disorder in the pediatric population. This condition is especially troublesome for pediatric patients and their families when associated with incontinence, since it negatively affects self-esteem and impairs children’s development. From the patient’s perspective, urgency and urge incontinence can have a significant impact, negatively affecting their quality of life. For a therapy to have true benefit, changes must not only be statistically significant, but must also be perceived as meaningful by the patient. A stepwise approach is favoured to treat this pathology, starting with behavioural therapy, followed by medical management, and eventually more invasive procedures. Antimuscarinic agents are the mainstay of medical treatment for OAB. Oxybutynin is the most commonly used antimuscarinic in the pediatric population. However, some patients have a suboptimal response to antimuscarinics and many experience bothersome side effects, which have been documented with all antimuscarinics to a significantly higher degree than placebo. Although there have been reports about the use of tolterodine, fesoterodine, trospium, propiverine, and solifenacin in children, to date, only oxybutynin has been officially approved for pediatric use by medical authorities in North America. This review will address alternative treatment options for pediatric patients presenting with OAB, from conservative measures to more invasive therapies. PMID:28265325

  5. Medical management of overactive bladder

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    Sarvpreet S Ubee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Overactive bladder (OAB, as defined by the International Continence Society, is characterized by a symptom complex including urinary urgency with or without urge incontinence, usually associated with frequency and nocturia. OAB syndrome has an incidence reported from six European countries ranging between 12-17%, while in the United States; a study conducted by the National Overactive Bladder Evaluation program found the incidence at 17%. In Asia, the prevalence of OAB is reported at 53.1%. In about 75%, OAB symptoms are due to idiopathic detrusor activity; neurological disease, bladder outflow obstruction (BOO intrinsic bladder pathology and other chronic pelvic floor disorders are implicated in the others. OAB can be diagnosed easily and managed effectively with both non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapies. The first-line treatments are lifestyle interventions, bladder training, pelvic floor muscle exercises and anticholinergic drugs. Antimuscarinics are the drug class of choice for OAB symptoms; with proven efficacy, and adverse event profiles that differ somewhat.

  6. Pharmacologic management of overactive bladder

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    Sum Lam

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Sum Lam1,2, Olga Hilas1,31St. John’s University, College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Professions, Department of Clinical Pharmacy Practice, Queens, New York, USA; 2Division of Geriatric Medicine, Winthrop University Hospital, Mineola, New York, USA; 3Department of Pharmacy, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Cornell Medical Center, New York, New York, USAAbstract: Overactive bladder (OAB is a prevalent and costly condition that can affect any age group. Typical symptoms include urinary urgency, frequency, incontinence and nocturia. OAB occurs as a result of abnormal contractions of the bladder detrusor muscle caused by the stimulation of certain muscarinic receptors. Therefore, antimuscarinic agents have long been considered the mainstay of pharmacologic treatment for OAB. Currently, there are five such agents approved for the management of OAB in the United States: oxybutynin, tolterodine, trospium, solifenacin and darifenacin. This article summarizes the efficacy, contraindications, precautions, dosing and common side effects of these agents. All available clinical trials on trospium, solifenacin and darifenacin were reviewed to determine its place in therapy.Keywords: overactive bladder, urinary incontinence, pharmacologic management, antimuscarinic agents, anticholinergics

  7. Pelvic organ prolapse and overactive bladder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, T.A. de; Salvatore, S.; Cardozo, L.; Chapple, C.; Kelleher, C.; Kerrebroeck, P. van; Kirby, M.G.; Koelbl, H.; Espuna-Pons, M.; Milsom, I.; Tubaro, A.; Wagg, A.; Vierhout, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: In this review we try to shed light on the following questions: *How frequently are symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB) and is detrusor overactivity (DO) present in patients with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and is there a difference from women without POP? *Does the presence of OAB symptoms

  8. Pelvic organ prolapse and overactive bladder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, T.A. de; Salvatore, S.; Cardozo, L.; Chapple, C.; Kelleher, C.; Kerrebroeck, P. van; Kirby, M.G.; Koelbl, H.; Espuna-Pons, M.; Milsom, I.; Tubaro, A.; Wagg, A.; Vierhout, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: In this review we try to shed light on the following questions: *How frequently are symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB) and is detrusor overactivity (DO) present in patients with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and is there a difference from women without POP? *Does the presence of OAB symptoms d

  9. Fesoterodine for the treatment of overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzefos, Maria; Dolder, Christian; Olin, Jacqueline L

    2009-12-01

    To review pharmacologic, pharmacokinetic, efficacy, and safety data for fesoterodine and determine its role in the treatment of overactive bladder. A MEDLINE search (1966-July 2009) was conducted using the key words fesoterodine, tolterodine, muscarinic receptor antagonist, anticholinergic, overactive bladder, urge incontinence, efficacy, safety, adverse effect, pharmacology, pharmacokinetic, and receptor binding. All articles written in English that were identified from the data sources were evaluated, prioritizing randomized, controlled trials with human data. The references of published articles that we identified were examined for any additional studies appropriate for the review. Fesoterodine, a competitive muscarinic receptor antagonist, is converted to its active metabolite, 5-hydroxymethyltolterodine, by nonspecific esterases, bypassing the cytochrome P450 system. Two randomized controlled Phase 3 trials examined the safety and efficacy of fesoterodine in the treatment of overactive bladder. Fesoterodine was found to produce significant improvements in the treatment of overactive bladder symptoms compared with placebo. Post hoc analysis of these trials demonstrated significant improvements in health-related quality of life in patients with overactive bladder. Only one study included tolterodine, and direct comparisons between fesoterodine and tolterodine were not conducted. The most common treatment-emergent adverse effects associated with fesoterodine included dry mouth, constipation, urinary tract infection, and headache. Fesoterodine appears to be effective and generally safe for the treatment of overactive bladder. The efficacy and safety of fesoterodine in overactive bladder treatment seem to be at least similar to that of tolterodine. Although additional comparative trials are needed, based on available data, it does not appear that fesoterodine provides a substantial advantage over extended-release tolterodine in either efficacy or safety.

  10. [Overactive bladder syndrome: etiology, pathogenesis, treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, V H

    2013-01-01

    The article analyzes the causes of hyperactive detrusory contractions, considered etiopathogenesis and treatment of patients with overactive bladder syndrome (OBS). Two groups of patients with overactive bladder syndrome were examined, analyzed etiology, pathogenesis and treatment. A new method for increasing the threshold sensitivity of spinal centers under the OBS by using the local lesions of the mucous membrane of the bladder by electrical coagulation or local microwave hyperthermia of the prostate are proposed. The high efficiency of these methods in dealing with OBS is shown.

  11. Darifenacin for the treatment of overactive bladder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.F.M. Blok (Bertil); T. Corcos

    2007-01-01

    textabstractDarifenacin hydrobromide is a muscarinic receptor antagonist for once-daily treatment of overactive bladder (urinary urgency with or without urge incontinence, which may be associated with increased frequency of voiding and nocturia). Consistent with its high affinity for muscarinic M3

  12. How frequent are overactive bladder symptoms in women with urodynamic verification of an overactive bladder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeniel, Ahmet Özgür; Ergenoğlu, Mete Ahmet; Meseri, Reci; Aşkar, Niyazi; Itil, Ismail Mete

    2012-01-01

    To determine the relationship between overactive bladder symptoms and urodynamic verification of overactive bladder. Between June 2011 and November 2011, 159 patients underwent urodynamics (UDS) at our urogynecology unit in the Ege University Hospital. Of these, 95 patients who complained of urgency, did not have any overt neurological diseases, bladder outlet obstruction and did not take any medication affecting the lower urinary tract function were evaluated. SPSS (ver. 15.0) was used to evaluate the data and the chi-square test and t test for independent samples were used for analysis. The mean age was found to be 54.5±12. Frequency was the most frequent symptom in women with overactive bladder (OAB) (82.1%), nocturia (57.8%) and (57.8%) urgency urinary incontinence followed in frequency. Detrusor over activity incidence was found to be 38.9%. There was no significant relationship between the presence of detrusor over activity (DOA) and OAB symptoms. Leak at urodynamics was found in 46.3% and there is no significant association with detrusor overactivity. Total bladder capacity was found to be significantly lower in women who had DOA (p=0.000). It appears that overactive bladder symptoms do not predict detrusor over activity. Urodynamic investigation is not mandatory in the initial management of women with only OAB symptoms.

  13. Fesoterodine for the treatment of urinary incontinence and overactive bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Pamela Ellsworth

    2009-01-01

    Pamela EllsworthThe Alpert School of Medicine at Brown University Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Overactive bladder (OAB) is a highly prevalent condition, affecting males and females. The prevalence increases with age. Behavioral therapy and antimuscarinic therapy remain the first-line therapies for management of OAB. Despite improvements in symptoms, persistence with antimuscarinic therapy has remained low. Multiple factors including patient expectations, adverse effects and cost may affect pe...

  14. Influence of behavior modification on overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgio, Kathryn L

    2002-11-01

    Behavioral interventions have been used for decades to treat urge incontinence and other symptoms of overactive bladder. Perhaps the earliest form of treatment was the bladder drill, an intensive intervention designed to increase the interval between voids to establish a normal frequency of urination and normalization of bladder function. Bladder training is a modification of bladder drill that is conducted more gradually on an outpatient basis and has resulted in significant reduction of incontinence in older, community-dwelling women. Multicomponent behavioral training is another form of behavioral treatment that includes pelvic floor muscle training and exercise. This intervention focuses less on voiding habits and more on altering the physiologic responses of the bladder and pelvic floor muscles. Using biofeedback or other teaching methods, patients learn strategies to inhibit bladder contraction using pelvic floor muscle contraction and other urge suppression strategies. Although behavioral and drug therapies are known to be highly effective for reducing urge incontinence, few patients are cured with either treatment alone. Thus, future research should explore ways to enhance the effectiveness of these conservative therapies. Although the mechanisms by which behavioral treatments work have not been established, there is some evidence that behavioral and drug interventions may operate by different mechanisms, suggesting that they may have additive effects and that combining them may result in better outcomes. Future research needs to examine the mechanisms by which these therapies reduce incontinence and whether combining behavioral and drug treatment will result in better outcomes than either therapy alone.

  15. Overactive bladder – 18 years – Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Truzzi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Traditionally, the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome has been based on the use of oral medications with the purpose of reestablishing the detrusor stability. The recent better understanding of the urothelial physiology fostered conceptual changes, and the oral anticholinergics – pillars of the overactive bladder pharmacotherapy – started to be not only recognized for their properties of inhibiting the detrusor contractile activity, but also their action on the bladder afference, and therefore, on the reduction of the symptoms that constitute the syndrome. Beta-adrenergic agonists, which were recently added to the list of drugs for the treatment of overactive bladder, still wait for a definitive positioning – as either a second-line therapy or an adjuvant to oral anticholinergics. Conservative treatment failure, whether due to unsatisfactory results or the presence of adverse side effects, define it as refractory overactive bladder. In this context, the intravesical injection of botulinum toxin type A emerged as an effective option for the existing gap between the primary measures and more complex procedures such as bladder augmentation. Sacral neuromodulation, described three decades ago, had its indication reinforced in this overactive bladder era. Likewise, the electric stimulation of the tibial nerve is now a minimally invasive alternative to treat those with refractory overactive bladder. The results of the systematic literature review on the oral pharmacological treatment and the treatment of refractory overactive bladder gave rise to this second part of the review article Overactive Bladder – 18 years, prepared during the 1st Latin-American Consultation on Overactive Bladder.

  16. Overactive bladder – 18 years – Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truzzi, Jose Carlos; Gomes, Cristiano Mendes; Bezerra, Carlos A.; Plata, Ivan Mauricio; Campos, Jose; Garrido, Gustavo Luis; Almeida, Fernando G.; Averbeck, Marcio Augusto; Fornari, Alexandre; Salazar, Anibal; Dell’Oro, Arturo; Cintra, Caio; Sacomani, Carlos Alberto Ricetto; Tapia, Juan Pablo; Brambila, Eduardo; Longo, Emilio Miguel; Rocha, Flavio Trigo; Coutinho, Francisco; Favre, Gabriel; Garcia, José Antonio; Castaño, Juan; Reyes, Miguel; Leyton, Rodrigo Eugenio; Ferreira, Ruiter Silva; Duran, Sergio; López, Vanda; Reges, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Traditionally, the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome has been based on the use of oral medications with the purpose of reestablishing the detrusor stability. The recent better understanding of the urothelial physiology fostered conceptual changes, and the oral anticholinergics – pillars of the overactive bladder pharmacotherapy – started to be not only recognized for their properties of inhibiting the detrusor contractile activity, but also their action on the bladder afference, and therefore, on the reduction of the symptoms that constitute the syndrome. Beta-adrenergic agonists, which were recently added to the list of drugs for the treatment of overactive bladder, still wait for a definitive positioning – as either a second-line therapy or an adjuvant to oral anticholinergics. Conservative treatment failure, whether due to unsatisfactory results or the presence of adverse side effects, define it as refractory overactive bladder. In this context, the intravesical injection of botulinum toxin type A emerged as an effective option for the existing gap between the primary measures and more complex procedures such as bladder augmentation. Sacral neuromodulation, described three decades ago, had its indication reinforced in this overactive bladder era. Likewise, the electric stimulation of the tibial nerve is now a minimally invasive alternative to treat those with refractory overactive bladder. The results of the systematic literature review on the oral pharmacological treatment and the treatment of refractory overactive bladder gave rise to this second part of the review article Overactive Bladder – 18 years, prepared during the 1st Latin-American Consultation on Overactive Bladder. PMID:27176185

  17. Overactive bladder – 18 years – Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Carlos Truzzi; Cristiano Mendes Gomes; Bezerra, Carlos A.; Ivan Mauricio Plata; Jose Campos; Gustavo Luis Garrido; Almeida, Fernando G. [UNIFESP; Marcio Augusto Averbeck; Alexandre Fornari; Anibal Salazar; Arturo Dell’Oro; Caio Cintra; Carlos Alberto Ricetto Sacomani; Juan Pablo Tapia; Eduardo Brambila

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Traditionally, the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome has been based on the use of oral medications with the purpose of reestablishing the detrusor stability. The recent better understanding of the urothelial physiology fostered conceptual changes, and the oral anticholinergics – pillars of the overactive bladder pharmacotherapy – started to be not only recognized for their properties of inhibiting the detrusor contractile activity, but also their action on the bladder afferenc...

  18. Fahr syndrome unknown complication: overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuglu, Devrim; Yuvanç, Ercan; Bal, Fatih; Türkel, Yakup; Dağ, Ersel; Yılmaz, Erdal; Batislam, Ertan

    2014-01-01

    A 38-year-old male patient was admitted to our outpatient department because of frequency and urgency incontinence. During evaluation it was detected that the patient was suffering from frequency which was progressive for one year, feeling of incontinence, and urgency incontinence. There was no urologic pathology detected in patient's medical and family history. Neurologic consultation was requested due to his history of boredom, reluctance to do business, balance disorders, and recession for about 3 years. Brain computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed that amorphous calcifications were detected in the bilaterally centrum semiovale, basal ganglia, capsula interna, thalami, mesencephalon, pons and bulbus, and the bilateral cerebellar hemispheres. We have detected spontaneous neurogenic detrusor overactivity without sphincter dyssynergia after evaluating the voiding diary, cystometry, and pressure flow study. We consider the detrusor overactivity which occurred one year after the start of the neurological symptoms as the suprapontine inhibition and damage in the axonal pathways in the Fahr syndrome.

  19. Fahr Syndrome Unknown Complication: Overactive Bladder

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    Devrim Tuglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 38-year-old male patient was admitted to our outpatient department because of frequency and urgency incontinence. During evaluation it was detected that the patient was suffering from frequency which was progressive for one year, feeling of incontinence, and urgency incontinence. There was no urologic pathology detected in patient’s medical and family history. Neurologic consultation was requested due to his history of boredom, reluctance to do business, balance disorders, and recession for about 3 years. Brain computerized tomography (CT scan revealed that amorphous calcifications were detected in the bilaterally centrum semiovale, basal ganglia, capsula interna, thalami, mesencephalon, pons and bulbus, and the bilateral cerebellar hemispheres. We have detected spontaneous neurogenic detrusor overactivity without sphincter dyssynergia after evaluating the voiding diary, cystometry, and pressure flow study. We consider the detrusor overactivity which occurred one year after the start of the neurological symptoms as the suprapontine inhibition and damage in the axonal pathways in the Fahr syndrome.

  20. Translating overactive bladder questionnaires in 14 languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquadro, Catherine; Kopp, Zoe; Coyne, Karin S; Corcos, Jacques; Tubaro, Andrea; Choo, Myung-Soo; Oh, Seung June

    2006-03-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) affects millions of people worldwide. Identifying patients and measuring OAB's impact on symptom severity and patients' health-related quality-of-life is necessary to ensure proper treatment and facilitate communication among patients, clinicians, and caregivers. To accomplish this, the Overactive Bladder questionnaire (OAB-q) and its subsets instruments, the OAB-q Short-Form and the OAB-V8, were developed in U.S. English. To measure the impact of OAB cross-culturally, we performed the linguistic validation of these instruments in Danish, English (Canada), French (Canada and France), Italian (Switzerland), German (Switzerland), Korean, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese (Brazil), Romanian, Swedish, and Turkish. The linguistic validation was conducted following a rigorous method to ensure conceptual equivalence between the original and its translations. In each country, a specialist monitored the process, which included six steps: (1) two forward translations; (2) comparison and reconciliation of the translations; (3) back-translation; (4) comparison of the source and back-translation; (5) review by one urologist or gynecologist; and (6) a comprehension test using patients. The translation of symptom-related adjectives such as "uncomfortable," "sudden," "accidental," "uncontrollable" proved challenging. The subtle differences in the meaning of symptomatic items increased the difficulties to find equivalents. Issues regarding the appropriateness of certain concepts and idiomatic terms emerged during cognitive debriefing. The terms "urge," "desire," "urination," "commute," "drowsy," and "escape routes" were not retained literally and were replaced by colloquial expressions. The 14 versions of the OAB-q, OAB-q Short-Form, and OAB-V8 were successfully validated linguistically to facilitate data collection cross-culturally and the international comparison of symptom bother and health-related quality of life in patients with OAB.

  1. Mirabegron, a breakthrough in overactive bladder syndrome?

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    Almudena Maestro Nombela

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Overactive bladder syndrome is a condition with high prevalence, which has a negative impact on patients’ quality of life. A drug with a novel mechanism of action has been recently approved: mirabegron. The objective of this study is to review the scientific evidence available on mirabegron, with the aim to analyze its efficacy, safety and cost, and thus estimate its role within current pharmacotherapy. Methods: The effectiveness and safety of mirabegron were analyzed through an evaluation of scientific evidence. The cost of different pharmacological alternatives was calculated based on their Defined Daily Dose (DDD and their manufacturer’s sale price. Results: The use of mirabegron in the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome is supported by three randomized clinical trials, controlled with placebo, at 12 weeks. All three share the same primary efficacy variables (number of incontinence episodes per 24 hours and number of micturitions per 24 hours. Long-term efficacy data are based on a 12-month study, where efficacy outcomes were measured as secondary variables. In all studies, mirabegron showed a significant but modest effect. Some of the most frequently detected adverse effects were: hypertension, increase of glucose in blood, headache, urinary tract infections, constipation and tachycardia. Special attention must be paid to cardiovascular events. Conclusions: The clinical efficacy of mirabegron is very modest and comparable to that achieved with the other drugs approved for this indication. Moreover, it is more expensive than other therapeutic options. Cardiac risks and urinary infections only allow to consider it as an alternative option to anticholinergic drugs, when these are contraindicated, show no clinical efficacy, or cause unacceptable adverse effects.

  2. Overactive bladder – 18 years – Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Truzzi, Jose Carlos [UNIFESP; Gomes, Cristiano Mendes; Bezerra, Carlos A.; Plata, Ivan Mauricio; Campos, Jose; Garrido, Gustavo Luis; Almeida, Fernando G. [UNIFESP; Averbeck, Marcio Augusto; Fornari, Alexandre; Salazar, Anibal; Dell’Oro,Arturo; Cintra,Caio; Sacomani,Carlos Alberto Ricetto; Tapia, Juan Pablo; Brambila, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Traditionally, the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome has been based on the use of oral medications with the purpose of reestablishing the detrusor stability. The recent better understanding of the urothelial physiology fostered conceptual changes, and the oral anticholinergics – pillars of the overactive bladder pharmacotherapy – started to be not only recognized for their properties of inhibiting the detrusor contractile activity, but also their action on the blad...

  3. Sacral neuromodulation of nociceptive bladder overactivity in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaocun; Bandari, Jathin; Bansal, Utsav; Shen, Bing; Wang, Jicheng; Lamm, Vladimir; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C; Tai, Changfeng

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the effects of electrical stimulation of sacral dorsal/ventral roots on irritation-induced bladder overactivity, reveal possible different mechanisms under nociceptive bladder conditions, and establish a large animal model of sacral neuromodulation. Intravesical infusion of 0.5% acetic acid (AA) was used to irritate the bladder and induce bladder overactivity in cats under α-chloralose anesthesia. Electrical stimulation (5, 15, or 30 Hz) was applied to individual S1-S3 dorsal or ventral roots at or below motor threshold intensity. Repeated cystometrograms (CMGs) were performed with/without the stimulation to determine the inhibition of bladder overactivity. AA irritation induced bladder overactivity and significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the bladder capacity to 62.6 ± 11.7% of control capacity measured during saline CMGs. At threshold intensity for inducing reflex twitching of the anal sphincter or toe, S1/S2 dorsal root stimulation at 5 Hz but not at 15 or 30 Hz inhibited bladder overactivity and significantly (P < 0.05) increased bladder capacity to 187.3 ± 41.6% and 155.5 ± 9.7% respectively, of AA control capacity. Stimulation of S3 dorsal root or S1-S3 ventral roots was not effective. Repeated stimulation of S1-S3 dorsal root did not induced a post-stimulation inhibition. This study established a cat model of sacral neuromodualation of nociceptive bladder overactivity. The results revealed that the mechanisms underlying sacral neuromodulation are different for nociceptive and non-nociceptive bladder activity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Communicating under medical patriarchy: gendered doctor-patient communication between female patients with overactive bladder and male urologists in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Judy Yuen-Man

    2015-05-29

    Gender differences between patients and doctors markedly influence the quality of communication in treatment processes. Previous studies have shown that communication between patients and doctors of the same gender is usually more satisfactory, particularly for female patients. However, in Hong Kong, where urology is a male-dominated specialty, female patients typically require medical care from male doctors for diseases such as overactive bladder (OAB). The literature about gender-related doctor-patient communication predominantly involves people in non-Chinese communities, with few studies conducted with Chinese populations. However, the differences between Western and Chinese cultures are expected to result in different treatment and communication experiences. Furthermore, OAB has received little attention in many Chinese communities; few studies in the literature address the communication quality between OAB patients and their urologists in Chinese communities, particularly regarding female OAB patients' experiences when seeking treatment from male urologists. This study, therefore, investigated the doctor-patient communication between female OAB patients and male urologists in Hong Kong. This study adopted a qualitative research approach by conducting semistructured interviews with 30 female OAB patients on an individual basis from April 2012 to July 2012. The participants were purposively sampled from a patient self-help group for OAB patients in Hong Kong. The participants' communication experiences with male urologists were unpleasant. Embarrassment, feelings of not being treated seriously, not being understood, and not being given the autonomy to choose treatment approaches prevailed among the participants. Furthermore, the perceived lack of empathy from their urologists made the participants' communication experiences unpleasant. The gender and power differential between the participants and their urologists, which was contributed by the social and

  5. Fesoterodine for the treatment of urinary incontinence and overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Ellsworth

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Pamela EllsworthThe Alpert School of Medicine at Brown University Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Overactive bladder (OAB is a highly prevalent condition, affecting males and females. The prevalence increases with age. Behavioral therapy and antimuscarinic therapy remain the first-line therapies for management of OAB. Despite improvements in symptoms, persistence with antimuscarinic therapy has remained low. Multiple factors including patient expectations, adverse effects and cost may affect persistence. Fesoterodine is one of the newest antimuscarinic agent approved for the management of OAB. It is unique in that it shares the same active metabolite as tolterodine, 5-hydoxymethyltolterodine (5-HMT; however, this conversion is established via ubiquitous esterases and not via the cytochrome P450 system, thus providing a faster and more efficient conversion to 5-HMT. Fesoterodine is available in 2 doses, 4 mg and 8 mg. Clinical trials have established a dose response relationship in efficacy parameters as well as improvements in quality of life. As with all antimuscarinics, dry mouth and constipation are the more common side effects. A combination of medical therapy and behavioral therapy improves the overall outcome in management of OAB. Dose flexibility may help improve efficacy outcomes and patient education on the management of common adverse effects may improve tolerability with these agents.Keywords: overactive bladder, antimuscarinic agent, esterase, 5-HMT, fesoterodine

  6. Impact of Overactive Bladder Syndrome on Female Sexual Function

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    Serdar Toksöz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of female sexual dysfunction includes psychological, physiological and iatrogenic causes. Physiological and iatrogenic causes are abdominal surgery, menopause, smoking, spinal cord injuries and some antipsychotic, antihypertensive, and antidepressant drugs. When assessing sexual function, sexual function questionnaires, such as the Female Sexual Function Index, and the Sexual Function Questionnaire are used. The prevalence of female sexual dysfunction is 43% and it has been reported to increase depending on menopause and age. Estrogen, estrogen + testosterone and tibolone, PDE5, apomorphine, bupropion and flibanserin are used in the treatment of female sexual dysfunction. Overactive bladder is a disease affecting the quality of life and is characterized by urgency, frequency, nocturia and urge incontinence with especially filling phase of the bladder resulting from loss of detrusor muscle inhibition. The prevalence of overactive bladder in women in the United States has been reported to be 16.9%. Lower urinary tract symptoms and overactive bladder syndrome are not known how to cause female sexual dysfunction. Menopause and partner status were the most important predictors for female sexual dysfunction. It has been reported that overactive bladder syndrome and urinary incontinence provide prediction of development of female sexual dysfunction. Shame, fear of incontinence, and urinary incontinence as well as urge sensation during sexual intercourse in individuals with overactive bladder syndrome have been reported to be the main factors causing female sexual dysfunction. Pathophysiological relationship between the two disorders has not been elucidated and further clinical and experimental studies are needed in this regard.

  7. Intravesical prostatic protrusion correlates well with storage symptoms in elderly male patients with non-neurogenic overactive bladder

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    Shih-Yen Lu

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: In elderly male patients with non-neurogenic OAB, more severe storage symptoms are associated with a lower maximum flow rate and a more prominent IPP, indicating that a significant cause of male non-neurogenic OAB is prostate associated.

  8. Overactive bladder: Is there a link to the metabolic syndrome in men?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirby, M.G.; Wagg, A.; Cardozo, L.; Chapple, C.; Castro-Diaz, D.; Ridder, D. de; Espuna-Pons, M.; Haab, F.; Kelleher, C.; Kolbl, H.; Milsom, I.; Kerrebroeck, P. van; Vierhout, M.E.; Salvatore, S.; Tubaro, A.

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that a variety of metabolic, cardiovascular, and endocrine factors contribute to male pelvic health. In particular, a growing body of evidence suggests a relationship between lower urinary tract symptoms, benign prostatic hyperplasia, overactive bladder, erectile dy

  9. Overactive bladder symptom score to evaluate efficacy of solifenacin for the treatment of overactive bladder symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Ming; Wang Jianye; Yang Yong; An Ruihua; Wen Jianguo; Guan Zhichen; Zheng Shaobin

    2014-01-01

    Background Overactive bladder (OAB) is a series of symptoms with high prevalence in elderly people.This study was conducted using the overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS) to evaluate the efficacy of solifenacin succinate for the treatment of OAB.Methods This was a prospective,multicenter,single-arm,12-week study that enrolled 241 OAB patients.The patients received 5-10 mg/day solifenacin.Changes in OABSS,symptoms from voiding diary,perception of bladder condition (PPBC) score,international prostate symptom score (IPSS) and quality of life (QOL) were evaluated at weeks 0,4,and 12.The relationship between OABSS and PPBC score or parameters of voiding diary was also evaluated.Results At baseline,the mean OABSS for all patients was 9.41±2.40,and was reduced significantly at week 12 (-3.76 points; 61.21%,P <0.0001).The OABSS subscore,PPBC score,IPSS,and QOL were also significantly reduced during the study (P <0.0001).The overall incidence of adverse events was 19.91% (44 cases).The gastrointestinal system was the most commonly affected (11.31%).Around 5.88% of the cases had adverse events related to the genitourinary system.There was a strong correlation between OABSS and urinary symptoms that was recorded in the 3-day voiding dairy.Conclusions We showed that solifenacin was clinically effective for relieving OAB symptoms,considering the balance between efficacy,patients' well-being,and tolerability.OABSS integrates four OAB symptoms into a single score and can be a useful tool for research and clinical practice.

  10. Refractory overactive bladder: Beyond oral anticholinergic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald W Glinski

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In this review, we discuss the treatment of refractory overactive bladder (OAB that has not adequately responded to medication therapy and we propose an appropriate care pathway to the treatment of OAB. We also attempt to address the cost of OAB treatments. Materials and Methods: A selective expert review of the current literature on the subject of refractory OAB using MEDLINE was performed and the data is summarized. We also review our experience in treating refractory OAB. The role and outcomes of various treatment options for refractory OAB are discussed and combined therapy with oral anticholinergics is explored. Emerging remedies including intravesical botulinum toxin injection and pudendal neuromodulation are also reviewed, along with conventional surgical options. Results: In general behavioral therapy, pelvic floor electrical stimulation, magnetic therapy and posterior tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS, have shown symptom decreases in 50-80% of patients with OAB. Depending on the study, combination therapy with oral anticholinergics seems to improve efficacy of behavioral therapy and PTNS in approximately 10-30%. In multicenter, long-term randomized controlled trials, sacral neuromodulation has been shown to improve symptoms of OAB and OAB incontinence in up to 80% of the patients treated. Studies involving emerging therapies such as pudendal serve stimulation suggest that there may be a 15-20% increase in efficacy over sacral neuromodulation, but long-term studies are not yet available. Another emerging therapy, botulinum toxin, is also showing similar success in reducing OAB symptoms in 80-90% of patients. Surgical approaches, such as bladder augmentation, are a last resort in the treatment of OAB and are rarely used at this point unless upper tract damage is a concern and all other treatment options have been exhausted. Conclusion: The vast majority of OAB patients can be managed successfully by behavioral options with or

  11. Solifenacin in overactive bladder syndrome: pharmacoeconomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Iannazzo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The overactive bladder (OAB syndrome can be treated with behavioural, surgical and/or pharmaceutical interventions, mainly represented by antimuscarinic drugs. Solifenacin is a new antimuscarinic with selectivity for the bladder and it demonstrated good effectiveness, safety and tolerability. Scope of the present study is to investigate the pharmacoeconomic performance of the treatment with solifenacin, when compared to tolterodine and placebo, in Italian patients with OAB. The economic evaluation is performed with a simulation model, based on a Markov chain. The time horizon of the simulation is 52 weeks, with a 1-week cycle. The model simulates the outcomes and costs of the treatment with solifenacin (5 mg/die, tolterodine ER (4 mg/die and no treatment in a cohort representative of the Italian population with OAB (estimated in about 1,400 thousands patients. The cost analysis is conducted mainly in the perspective of the patient, since drugs for the treatment of OAB are currently not included in the Italian reimbursement list. The results show that both treatments produce significative improvements in symptoms and quality of life, with an increase in costs of about 540-640 Euro/year with solifenacin and of 680-780 Euro/year with tolterodine. In the cost-utility analysis, solifenacin dominates tolterodine since it results more effective and less costly, and its cost cost-utility ratio with respect to no treatment is in the range 7,600-18,600 Euro/QALY. In the subgroup of patients incontinent at baseline and who best respond to the therapy (responders, the increase in costs with solifenacin results of about 100-400 Euro/year and the cost-utility ratio is 600-4,200 Euro/QALY. A supplementary scenario has been elaborated to explore the consequences of a hypothetical reimbursement decision by the Italian NHS. In this scenario, the NHS cost perspective is considered and the antimuscarinic drugs are assumed to be reimbursed at a half of the current

  12. Overactive bladder – 18 years – part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truzzi, Jose Carlos; Gomes, Cristiano Mendes; Bezerra, Carlos A.; Plata, Ivan Mauricio; Campos, Jose; Garrido, Gustavo Luis; Almeida, Fernando G.; Averbeck, Marcio Augusto; Fornari, Alexandre; Salazar, Anibal; Dell'Oro, Arturo; Cintra, Caio; Sacomani, Carlos Alberto Ricetto; Tapia, Juan Pablo; Brambila, Eduardo; Longo, Emilio Miguel; Rocha, Flavio Trigo; Coutinho, Francisco; Favre, Gabriel; Garcia, José Antonio; Castaño, Juan; Reyes, Miguel; Leyton, Rodrigo Eugenio; Ferreira, Ruiter Silva; Duran, Sergio; López, Vanda; Reges, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Abstract: Overactive bladder syndrome is one of the lower urinary tract dysfunctions with the highest number of scientific publications over the past two decades. This shows the growing interest in better understanding this syndrome, which gathers symptoms of urinary urgency and increased daytime and nighttime voiding frequency, with or without urinary incontinence and results in a negative impact on the quality of life of approximately one out of six individuals – including both genders and almost all age groups. The possibility of establishing the diagnosis just from clinical data made patients' access to specialized care easier. Physiotherapy resources have been incorporated into the urological daily practice. A number of more selective antimuscarinic drugs with consequent lower adverse event rates were released. Recently, a new class of oral drugs, beta-adrenergic agonists has become part of the armamentarium for Overactive Bladder. Botulinum toxin injections in the bladder and sacral neuromodulation are routine modalities of treatment for refractory cases. During the 1st Latin-American Consultation on Overactive Bladder, a comprehensive review of the literature related to the evolution of the concept, epidemiology, diagnosis, and management was conducted. This text corresponds to the first part of the review Overactive Bladder 18-years. PMID:27176184

  13. Overactive bladder – 18 years – part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Truzzi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Abstract: Overactive bladder syndrome is one of the lower urinary tract dysfunctions with the highest number of scientific publications over the past two decades. This shows the growing interest in better understanding this syndrome, which gathers symptoms of urinary urgency and increased daytime and nighttime voiding frequency, with or without urinary incontinence and results in a negative impact on the quality of life of approximately one out of six individuals – including both genders and almost all age groups. The possibility of establishing the diagnosis just from clinical data made patients' access to specialized care easier. Physiotherapy resources have been incorporated into the urological daily practice. A number of more selective antimuscarinic drugs with consequent lower adverse event rates were released. Recently, a new class of oral drugs, beta-adrenergic agonists has become part of the armamentarium for Overactive Bladder. Botulinum toxin injections in the bladder and sacral neuromodulation are routine modalities of treatment for refractory cases. During the 1st Latin-American Consultation on Overactive Bladder, a comprehensive review of the literature related to the evolution of the concept, epidemiology, diagnosis, and management was conducted. This text corresponds to the first part of the review Overactive Bladder 18-years.

  14. The surgical management of the refractory overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Vasdev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The refractory overactive bladder is a clinically challenging entity to manage and affects millions of people worldwide. Current surgical treatment options include botulinum toxin type A, sacral neuromodulation, and bladder reconstruction surgery all of which require careful attention to the individual patients needs and circumstances. In our paper we present a detailed up-to-date review on all the above mentioned surgical techniques from current literature and briefly describe our units experience with sacral neuromodulation.

  15. Urinary ATP may be a dynamic biomarker of detrusor overactivity in women with overactive bladder syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Silva-Ramos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nowadays, there is a considerable bulk of evidence showing that ATP has a prominent role in the regulation of human urinary bladder function and in the pathophysiology of detrusor overactivity. ATP mediates nonadrenergic-noncholinergic detrusor contractions in overactive bladders. In vitro studies have demonstrated that uroepithelial cells and cholinergic nerves from overactive human bladder samples (OAB release more ATP than controls. Here, we compared the urinary ATP concentration in samples collected non-invasively from OAB women with detrusor overactivity and age-matched controls. METHODS: Patients with neurologic diseases, history of malignancy, urinary tract infections or renal impairment (creatinine clearance <70 ml/min were excluded. All patients completed a 3-day voiding diary, a 24 h urine collection and blood sampling to evaluate creatinine clearance. Urine samples collected during voluntary voids were immediately freeze-preserved for ATP determination by the luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay; for comparison purposes, samples were also tested for urinary nerve growth factor (NGF by ELISA. RESULTS: The urinary content of ATP, but not of NGF, normalized to patients' urine creatinine levels (ATP/Cr or urinary volume (ATP.Vol were significantly (P<0.05 higher in OAB women with detrusor overactivity (n = 34 than in healthy controls (n = 30. Significant differences between the two groups were still observed by boosting urinary ATP/Cr content after water intake, but these were not detected for NGF/Cr. In OAB patients, urinary ATP/Cr levels correlated inversely with mean voided volumes determined in a 3-day voiding diary. CONCLUSION: A high area under the receiver operator characteristics (ROC curve (0.741; 95% CI 0.62-0.86; P<0.001 is consistent with urinary ATP/Cr being a highly sensitive dynamic biomarker for assessing detrusor overactivity in women with OAB syndrome.

  16. Overactive bladder, differential diagnosis, and clinical utility of fesoterodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyndaele J-J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Jacques WyndaeleDepartment of Urology, Antwerp University, Antwerp, BelgiumAbstract: Overactive bladder is a symptom syndrome with urgency, frequency and, in many cases, nocturia. Urge incontinence is not present in all. There is no direct correlation with detrusor overactivity, an objective finding during urodynamic testing where involuntary contractions can be noticed. In the pathophysiology, much more attention has been given to the afferent/sensory arm of the micturition reflex in the last decade. Anatomical and infectious causes have to be diagnosed or ruled out. Diagnosis of overactive bladder is made mostly by history-taking, but other tests can be necessary in specific patients. Treatment consists of behavioral measures, a good explanation of the condition, training, and pelvic floor physiotherapy. Drugs are often used. Until recently, antimuscarinic drugs have been the mainstay of pharmacological therapy. Fesoterodine is a newer antimuscarinic agent which is more pharmacodynamically stable then tolterodine. Fesoterodine has been extensively researched using different dosages and compared with placebo and tolterodine, in different age groups, and under different conditions. Fesoterodine is superior to placebo and to tolterodine in the short term and long term. Its safety is very acceptable.Keywords: overactive bladder, fesoterodine, incontinence, urgency, lower urinary tract

  17. Neurophysiological modeling of bladder afferent activity in the rat overactive bladder model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choudhary, M. (Mahipal); E. van Asselt (Els); R. van Mastrigt (Ron); F. Clavica (Francesco)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe overactive bladder (OAB) is a syndrome-based urinary dysfunction characterized by “urgency, with or without urge incontinence, usually with frequency and nocturia”. Earlier we developed a mathematical model of bladder nerve activity during voiding in anesthetized rats and found that

  18. [PROSPECTS FOR THE TREATMENT OF IDIOPATHIC AND NEUROGENIC OVERACTIVE BLADDER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalov, A A; Korshunova, E S; Popov, G R; Khodyreva, L A; Dudareva, A A; Nizov, A N

    2015-01-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common problem in modern population. The main line of medical treatment of this condition is the use of M-cholinoblockers. Solifenacin has shown high selectivity for the bladder in preclinical studies. Data on the efficacy and safety of high-dose (10 mg/day) of solifenacin are insufficient. The study was aimed to the comparative evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of solifenacin at a dose of 5 and 10 mg/day. The study included 28 patients (17 women and 11 men), mean age was 41.3±6.7 years. All patients were divided into two groups. In Group 1 included 12 patients with idiopathic overactive bladder, the Group 2 (n=16) - with neurogenic overactive bladder. Depending on the effect obtained, in some patients the dose was increased to 10 mg/day 1 month after starting treatment. The duration of treatment was 12 weeks. Application of solifenacin at a dose of 5 mg in patients with overactive bladder significantly reduces the severity of symptoms. Increasing the dose was required in 3 (25%) patients with idiopathic OAB and in 10 (62.5%) - with neurogenic OAB. Patients unsatisfied by therapy with solifenacin 5 mg/ day initially had more severe symptoms of the disease - significantly more urgency frequency, incontinence episodes, and nocturia. The use of high doses of solifenacin increased the effectiveness of treatment. Statistical significance was achieved for all parameters evaluated. Against the background of increasing doses, the number ofadverse effects may increase, but within a month of therapy in most cases they are reduced.

  19. Overactive bladder is a negative predictor of achieving continence after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuta; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Fukuhara, Hiroshi; Sugihara, Toru; Miyazaki, Hideyo; Nakagawa, Tohru; Kume, Haruki; Igawa, Yasuhiko; Homma, Yukio

    2017-10-01

    To investigate predictors of continence outcomes after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. Clinical records of 272 patients who underwent robot-assisted radical prostatectomy were investigated. Preoperative Overactive Bladder Symptom Score, International Prostate Symptom Score and clinicopathological factors were investigated, and relationships between factors and recovery of continence after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy were assessed. The presence of overactive bladder was defined as having urgency for more than once a week and having ≥3 points according to the Overactive Bladder Symptom Score. Age (≤66 years) was significantly associated with continence within 6 months after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (P = 0.033). The absence of overactive bladder and lower Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (robot-assisted radical prostatectomy, Kaplan-Meier curves showed earlier recovery in "age ≤66 years," "prostate weight ≤40 g" and "overactive bladder symptom score robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  20. Overactive bladder: Is there a link to the metabolic syndrome in men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Michael G; Wagg, Adrian; Cardozo, Linda; Chapple, Christopher; Castro-Diaz, David; de Ridder, Dirk; Espuna-Pons, Montserrat; Haab, Francois; Kelleher, Con; Kölbl, Heinz; Milsom, Ian; Van Kerrebroeck, Philip; Vierhout, Mark; Salvatore, Stefano; Tubaro, Andrea

    2010-11-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that a variety of metabolic, cardiovascular, and endocrine factors contribute to male pelvic health. In particular, a growing body of evidence suggests a relationship between lower urinary tract symptoms, benign prostatic hyperplasia, overactive bladder, erectile dysfunction, and the metabolic syndrome. This article explores these relationships, focusing on the role of the autonomic nervous system and hyperinsulinemia, together with their implications for urological practice.

  1. Role of fesoterodine in the treatment of overactive bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Mansfield, Kylie J.

    2009-01-01

    Kylie J MansfieldGraduate School of Medicine, University of Wollongong, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Muscarinic receptors have long been the target receptors for treatment of patients with overactive bladder (OAB). These patients experience symptoms of urgency, urinary frequency and nocturia, with or without urge incontinence (the involuntary leakage of urine associated with urge). Fesoterodine, a pro-drug, structurally and functionally related to tolterodine, is the newest agent developed for the...

  2. Overactive bladder – 18 years – part I

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Carlos Truzzi; Cristiano Mendes Gomes; Bezerra, Carlos A.; Ivan Mauricio Plata; Jose Campos; Gustavo Luis Garrido; Almeida, Fernando G. [UNIFESP; Marcio Augusto Averbeck; Alexandre Fornari; Anibal Salazar; Arturo Dell'Oro; Caio Cintra; Carlos Alberto Ricetto Sacomani; Juan Pablo Tapia; Eduardo Brambila

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Abstract: Overactive bladder syndrome is one of the lower urinary tract dysfunctions with the highest number of scientific publications over the past two decades. This shows the growing interest in better understanding this syndrome, which gathers symptoms of urinary urgency and increased daytime and nighttime voiding frequency, with or without urinary incontinence and results in a negative impact on the quality of life of approximately one out of six individuals – including both gen...

  3. Overactive bladder – 18 years – part I

    OpenAIRE

    Truzzi, Jose Carlos [UNIFESP; Gomes, Cristiano Mendes; Bezerra, Carlos A.; Plata, Ivan Mauricio; Campos, Jose; Garrido, Gustavo Luis; Almeida, Fernando G. [UNIFESP; Averbeck, Marcio Augusto; Fornari, Alexandre; Salazar, Anibal; Dell’Oro,Arturo; Cintra,Caio; Sacomani,Carlos Alberto Ricetto; Tapia, Juan Pablo; Brambila, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Abstract: Overactive bladder syndrome is one of the lower urinary tract dysfunctions with the highest number of scientific publications over the past two decades. This shows the growing interest in better understanding this syndrome, which gathers symptoms of urinary urgency and increased daytime and nighttime voiding frequency, with or without urinary incontinence and results in a negative impact on the quality of life of approximately one out of six individuals – including bo...

  4. Overactive bladder and its effects on sexual dysfunction among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergenoglu, Ahmet M; Yeniel, Ahmet Özgür; Itil, Ismail Mete; Askar, Niyazi; Meseri, Reci; Petri, Eckhard

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the relation between overactive bladder (OAB) and sexual dysfunction in sexually active nurses without stress urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse. Prospective, observational study. Tertiary care center. 200 nurses, under 49 years of age. Data were obtained with Turkish language-validated questionnaires between January 2011 and June 2011. OAB was diagnosed using the Overactive Bladder Awareness Tool (OAB AT). Scores on the Overactive Bladder Symptom and Health-related Quality of Life Questionnaire Short Form (OABq-SF), the Health-related Quality of Life Questionnaire Short Form (HRQOL), and the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire Short Form (PISQ-12). Of the 127 enrolled volunteers, 51 were diagnosed with OAB. The mean age of the participants was 37.8 ± 7.3 years. After controlling for age, body mass index, and parity, OAB did not significantly affect PISQ-12 scores, but significantly worsened OABq-SF scores. No strong correlation was noted between the parts of the OABq-SF and the domains of the PISQ-12. OAB is a common problem among sexually active young women and significantly affects their quality of life. However, OAB-related sexual dysfunction plays a limited role among sexually active nurses. © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. Fesoterodine for the treatment of urinary incontinence and overactive bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a highly prevalent condition, affecting males and females. The prevalence increases with age. Behavioral therapy and antimuscarinic therapy remain the first-line therapies for management of OAB. Despite improvements in symptoms, persistence with antimuscarinic therapy has remained low. Multiple factors including patient expectations, adverse effects and cost may affect persistence. Fesoterodine is one of the newest antimuscarinic agent approved for the management of OAB. It is unique in that it shares the same active metabolite as tolterodine, 5-hydoxymethyltolterodine (5-HMT); however, this conversion is established via ubiquitous esterases and not via the cytochrome P450 system, thus providing a faster and more efficient conversion to 5-HMT. Fesoterodine is available in 2 doses, 4 mg and 8 mg. Clinical trials have established a dose response relationship in efficacy parameters as well as improvements in quality of life. As with all antimuscarinics, dry mouth and constipation are the more common side effects. A combination of medical therapy and behavioral therapy improves the overall outcome in management of OAB. Dose flexibility may help improve efficacy outcomes and patient education on the management of common adverse effects may improve tolerability with these agents. PMID:19956551

  6. Maternal Fructose Exposure Programs Metabolic Syndrome-Associated Bladder Overactivity in Young Adult Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wei-Chia; Tain, You-Lin; Wu, Kay L. H.; Leu, Steve; Chan, Julie Y. H.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal fructose exposure (MFE) programs the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in young adult offspring. Epidemiological data indicate that MetS may increase the risks of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. However, it remains unknown whether MFE programs MetS-associated bladder dysfunction in adult offspring. Using Sprague-Dawley rats, we investigated the effects of MFE during pregnancy and lactation on developmental programming of MetS-associated bladder dysfunction. In addition, next generation sequencing technology was used to identify potential transcripts involved in the programmed bladder dysfunction in adult male offspring to MFE. We found that MFE programmed the MetS-associated OAB symptoms (i.e., an increase in micturition frequency and a shortened mean inter-contractile interval) in young adult male offspring, alongside significant alterations in bladder transcripts, including Chrm2, Chrm3, P2rx1, Trpv4, and Vipr2 gene expression. At protein level, the expressions of M2-, M3-muscarinic and P2X1 receptor proteins were upregulated in the MFE bladder. Functionally, the carbachol-induced detrusor contractility was reduced in the MFE offspring. These data suggest that alterations in the bladder transcripts and impairment of the bladder cholinergic pathways may underlie the pathophysiology of programmed bladder dysfunction in adult offspring to MFE. PMID:27703194

  7. Transcutaneus electrical nerve stimulation for overactive bladder increases rectal motor activity in children: a randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, Iben; Hagstrøm, Søren; Siggaard, Charlotte

    Transcutaneus electrical nerve stimulation for overactive bladder increases rectal motor activity in children: a randomized controlled study......Transcutaneus electrical nerve stimulation for overactive bladder increases rectal motor activity in children: a randomized controlled study...

  8. Role of fesoterodine in the treatment of overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie J Mansfield

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Kylie J MansfieldGraduate School of Medicine, University of Wollongong, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Muscarinic receptors have long been the target receptors for treatment of patients with overactive bladder (OAB. These patients experience symptoms of urgency, urinary frequency and nocturia, with or without urge incontinence (the involuntary leakage of urine associated with urge. Fesoterodine, a pro-drug, structurally and functionally related to tolterodine, is the newest agent developed for the treatment of OAB. Fesoterodine is broken down to the active metabolite, 5-hydroxy-methyl-tolterodine (5-HMT by non-specific esterases. This metabolism results in the complete breakdown of the parent compound and is responsible for dose related improvements in clinical efficacy and health related quality of life. Like other antimuscarinic agents including tolterodine, fesoterodine is associated with improvements in clinical variables related both to bladder filling (decreasing micturition frequency and increasing mean voided volume and urgency (urgency and urge incontinence episodes. Improvements in health related quality of life following treatment with fesoterodine is indicated by improvements in 7 of the 9 variables measured by the King’s Health Questionnaire. Also like other antimuscarinic agents, fesoterodine use is associated with adverse events including dry mouth. However the incidence of dry mouth is reduced with fesoterodine, compared to oxybutynin, due to the improved bladder selectivity of 5-HMT.Keywords: fesoterodine, 5-hydroxymethyl-tolterodine, muscarinic, overactive bladder, urgency, incontinence

  9. Botulinum toxin A for the Treatment of Overactive Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Fan Hsieh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The standard treatment for overactive bladder starts with patient education and behavior therapies, followed by antimuscarinic agents. For patients with urgency urinary incontinence refractory to antimuscarinic therapy, currently both American Urological Association (AUA and European Association of Urology (EAU guidelines suggested that intravesical injection of botulinum toxin A should be offered. The mechanism of botulinum toxin A includes inhibition of vesicular release of neurotransmitters and the axonal expression of capsaicin and purinergic receptors in the suburothelium, as well as attenuation of central sensitization. Multiple randomized, placebo-controlled trials demonstrated that botulinum toxin A to be an effective treatment for patients with refractory idiopathic or neurogenic detrusor overactivity. The urinary incontinence episodes, maximum cystometric capacity, and maximum detrusor pressure were improved greater by botulinum toxin A compared to placebo. The adverse effects of botulinum toxin A, such as urinary retention and urinary tract infection, were primarily localized to the lower urinary tract. Therefore, botulinum toxin A offers an effective treatment option for patients with refractory overactive bladder.

  10. Overactive bladder, differential diagnosis, and clinical utility of fesoterodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Overactive bladder is a symptom syndrome with urgency, frequency and, in many cases, nocturia. Urge incontinence is not present in all. There is no direct correlation with detrusor overactivity, an objective finding during urodynamic testing where involuntary contractions can be noticed. In the pathophysiology, much more attention has been given to the afferent/sensory arm of the micturition reflex in the last decade. Anatomical and infectious causes have to be diagnosed or ruled out. Diagnosis of overactive bladder is made mostly by history-taking, but other tests can be necessary in specific patients. Treatment consists of behavioral measures, a good explanation of the condition, training, and pelvic floor physiotherapy. Drugs are often used. Until recently, antimuscarinic drugs have been the mainstay of pharmacological therapy. Fesoterodine is a newer antimuscarinic agent which is more pharmacodynamically stable then tolterodine. Fesoterodine has been extensively researched using different dosages and compared with placebo and tolterodine, in different age groups, and under different conditions. Fesoterodine is superior to placebo and to tolterodine in the short term and long term. Its safety is very acceptable.

  11. Botulinum toxin A for the Treatment of Overactive Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Po-Fan; Chiu, Hung-Chieh; Chen, Kuan-Chieh; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Chou, Eric Chieh-Lung

    2016-02-29

    The standard treatment for overactive bladder starts with patient education and behavior therapies, followed by antimuscarinic agents. For patients with urgency urinary incontinence refractory to antimuscarinic therapy, currently both American Urological Association (AUA) and European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines suggested that intravesical injection of botulinum toxin A should be offered. The mechanism of botulinum toxin A includes inhibition of vesicular release of neurotransmitters and the axonal expression of capsaicin and purinergic receptors in the suburothelium, as well as attenuation of central sensitization. Multiple randomized, placebo-controlled trials demonstrated that botulinum toxin A to be an effective treatment for patients with refractory idiopathic or neurogenic detrusor overactivity. The urinary incontinence episodes, maximum cystometric capacity, and maximum detrusor pressure were improved greater by botulinum toxin A compared to placebo. The adverse effects of botulinum toxin A, such as urinary retention and urinary tract infection, were primarily localized to the lower urinary tract. Therefore, botulinum toxin A offers an effective treatment option for patients with refractory overactive bladder.

  12. Efficacy and tolerability of fesoterodine in women with overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Peter K; Morrow, Jon D; Bavendam, Tamara; Creanga, Dana L; Nitti, Victor W

    2009-07-01

    We assessed fesoterodine efficacy and tolerability in women with overactive bladder (OAB). This post hoc analysis of pooled data from two clinical trials included 1,548 women with OAB randomized to placebo, fesoterodine 4 or 8 mg, or tolterodine extended release (ER) 4 mg (in 1 trial) for 12 weeks. Subjects completed 3-day bladder diaries at baseline and weeks 2 and 12 and rated Treatment Response at weeks 2 and 12. By weeks 2 and 12, all active-treatment groups showed significant improvements in all five bladder diary variables assessed and greater Treatment Response rates vs placebo. Fesoterodine 8 mg was significantly more efficacious than fesoterodine 4 mg and tolterodine ER in improving urgency urinary incontinence episodes and continent days per week. The most common adverse events were dry mouth and constipation, which were predominately mild or moderate. Fesoterodine is efficacious and well tolerated in women with OAB.

  13. The evaluation and management of refractory neurogenic overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpad, Raj; Kennelly, Michael J

    2014-10-01

    Patients with neurologic disease commonly develop overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms of urgency, frequency, and/or urge incontinence that remain bothersome despite oral pharmacologic therapy. Management of refractory OAB in the neurogenic population is a complex issue with no uniform treatment strategy. When treatment fails or patients generally are dissatisfied with the adverse effects of oral therapy, available options include sacral neuromodulation, percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS), botulinum toxin injections, and lower urinary tract reconstruction such as augmentation cystoplasty. A thorough knowledge and understanding of available and emerging treatment options for neurogenic detrusor overactivity is paramount to assisting clinicians in choosing an appropriate treatment. This article reviews the non-pharmacologic treatment options for neurogenic OAB, mainly botulinum toxin, neuromodulation, and lower urinary tract reconstruction, and discusses important relevant studies.

  14. Simplified bladder training augments the effectiveness of tolterodine in patients with an overactive bladder.

    OpenAIRE

    Mattiasson, Anders; Blaakaer, J; Høye, K; Wein, A J

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To compare the efficacy of tolterodine plus simplified bladder training (BT) with tolterodine alone in patients with an overactive bladder. PATIENTS AND METHODS In a multicentre, single-blind study at 51 Scandinavian centres, 505 patients aged >= 18 years with symptoms of urinary frequency (>= 8 micturitions/24 h) and urgency, with or without urge incontinence, were randomized to oral treatment with either tolterodine 2 mg twice daily plus simplified BT o...

  15. Is the Prevalence of Overactive Bladder Overestimated? A Population-Based Study in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In earlier studies, one in six adults had overactive bladder which may impair quality of life. However, earlier studies have either not been population-based or have suffered from methodological limitations. Our aim was to assess the prevalence of overactive bladder symptoms, based on a representative study population and using consistent definitions and exclusions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The aim of the study was to assess the age-standardized prevalence of overactive bla...

  16. Chapter 1: The conditions of neurogenic detrusor overactivity and overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haab, Francois

    2014-07-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a symptom syndrome consisting of urinary urgency, usually accompanied by frequency and nocturia, with or without urgency urinary incontinence (UUI), in the absence of a causative infection or pathological conditions. The prevalence of OAB is approximately 11-19% in both men and women, and leads to a significant negative effect on a patient's health-related quality of life (HRQOL). OAB is also associated with comorbidities such as urinary tract infection (UTI) and an increased risk of falls. Following behavioral therapy, anticholinergic agents are commonly prescribed, but these often fail because of lack of efficacy and/or poor tolerability. Evaluation of treatment success in OAB should include pre-defined, patient-centered goals. Patients for whom oral therapy has failed to meet such goals may be considered refractory to oral therapy and candidates for minimally invasive therapy. Neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) is a bladder dysfunction frequently observed in patients with conditions such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and spinal cord injury (SCI). Increased storage pressure can put the upper urinary tract at risk of deterioration and reducing this risk is a primary aim of therapy. Urinary incontinence (UI) is reported by approximately 50% of MS patients, and most SCI patients will develop some bladder dysfunction. NDO leads to a negative impact on HRQOL, independent of the impact of the primary condition. NDO patients in whom oral therapy has failed to normalize storage pressure may be considered refractory and are candidates for minimally invasive therapy.

  17. Sacral neuromodulation in overactive bladder: a review and current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhu T

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Troy Sukhu,1 Michael J Kennelly,2 Raj Kurpad1 1Department of Urology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 2Department of Urology, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC, USA Abstract: Overactive bladder (OAB symptoms of urgency, frequency, and urge incontinence currently affect a substantial portion of the population, especially as age increases. Sacral neuromodulation has become a popular option for refractory OAB symptoms over the past 2 decades. Studies have demonstrated that it is an effective treatment for OAB and urge incontinence as indicated by decreased number of voids, increased bladder capacity, and fewer leakage events. In addition, the effects have proved to be durable to multiple years following implantation. These benefits come at the expense of a high rate of adverse events, although with comparable long-term cost-effectiveness to botulinum toxin A. We aimed to review the literature that demonstrates that sacral neuromodulation continues to be an efficacious treatment for refractory OAB wet and dry patients, with continuously expanding indications. Keywords: urge incontinence, sacral neuromodulation, overactive bladder, refractory, voiding dysfunction

  18. Irritation induced bladder overactivity is suppressed by tibial nerve stimulation in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Changfeng; Chen, Mang; Shen, Bing; Wang, Jicheng; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C

    2011-07-01

    We investigated the effects of tibial nerve stimulation on bladder overactivity induced by acetic acid irritation. Cystometry was performed in 10 α-chloralose anesthetized female cats by infusing saline or acetic acid through a urethral catheter that was secured by a ligature around the urethra. Intravesical infusion of 0.25% acetic acid was used to irritate the bladder and induce bladder overactivity. Multiple cystometrograms were done before, during and after tibial nerve stimulation to determine the inhibitory effect on the micturition reflex. Infusion of 0.25% acetic acid irritated the bladder, induced bladder overactivity and significantly decreased bladder capacity to about 20% of control capacity measured during saline infusion. Tibial nerve stimulation at low (5 Hz) or high (30 Hz) frequency significantly increased bladder capacity to about 40% of saline control capacity when it was applied during acetic acid infusion cystometrogram. Bladder contraction amplitude was smaller during acetic acid irritation than during saline distention due to significantly smaller bladder capacity. Tibial nerve stimulation at 5 Hz increased bladder capacity and bladder contraction amplitude. Activation of somatic afferents in the tibial nerve of cats can partially reverse the bladder overactivity induced by intravesical administration of a chemical irritant that activates C-fiber afferent nerves. These data are consistent with clinical studies showing that tibial nerve neuromodulation is effective treatment for overactive bladder symptoms. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Chapter 5: Clinical data in neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) and overactive bladder (OAB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Francisco; Nitti, Victor

    2014-07-01

    Following use of botulinum toxin in the 1980s for the treatment of detrusor sphincter dyssynergia in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), the potential therapeutic value of this neurotoxin in urology has been the subject of much interest. The DIGNITY (Double-blind InvestiGation of purified Neurotoxin complex In neurogenic deTrusor overactivitY) clinical research program aimed to compare onabotulinumtoxinA with placebo in terms of efficacy and safety in patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) due to SCI or multiple sclerosis. The EMBARK clinical research program mirrored these aims in patients with overactive bladder with urinary incontinence (UI). Each program comprised two phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled studies. In all four trials, primary efficacy endpoints were met, and significant benefits of onabotulinumtoxinA versus placebo were demonstrated across a range of secondary endpoints, including measures of health-related quality of life. The most common adverse event across both programs was urinary tract infection. Interim analyses of data from ongoing long-term extensions to these phase III trials have provided promising evidence for the efficacy of repeated injections. While further investigation is recommended to enrich the dataset, the available evidence indicates that onabotulinumtoxinA provides an effective treatment option for these two populations, which were previously considered very difficult to treat.

  20. Fesoterodine: a new agent for treating overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Pamela; Berriman, Sandra J; Brodsky, Marina

    2009-03-01

    To review the efficacy and safety of fesoterodine, a new antimuscarinic for treating overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. Review of efficacy and safety data from the pivotal phase 3 trials of fesoterodine for the treatment of OAB. Although there were a number of additional end points, they were not included in the US prescribing information for fesoterodine and thus are not included in this article. OAB is a chronic condition affecting both men and women. The principal symptom is urgency, with or without urgency incontinence, with some patients experiencing increased daytime frequency and nocturia. In two 12-week, randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trials, fesoterodine 4 and 8 mg administered once daily were significantly better than placebo in alleviating OAB symptoms, as determined by changes in bladder diary variables. Both doses of fesoterodine were well tolerated. Fesoterodine is an efficacious, well-tolerated treatment for OAB.

  1. Overactive bladder in women with stress urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Neymark

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of the role of a functional component in the development of urination disorders in women with stress urination incontinence (SUI concurrent with imperative urge urination incontinence that is a manifestation of overactive bladder (OAB has become particularly relevant in recent years. Urodynamic study reveals the signs of SUI concurrent with detrusor overactivity. The purpose of the investigation was to improve the results of OAB treatment in women with SUI and to study a relationship between the clinical and urodynamic manifestations of the disease. Forty treated women with OAB and SUI were examined. All the patients received combination medical therapy: an Mcholinolytic (solifenacin 10 mg once daily in the morning, picamilonum 5 mg thrice daily, and exercises to strengthen pelvic floor muscles. The treatment lasted 3 months. After the treatment, urinary output and maximal urine flow rate changed, by reaching the normal values in patients with rapid and obstructive urination. Cystometric capacity was increased; involuntary detrusor contractions (spontaneous or provoked became fewer during bladder filling or they were absent at all. Our investigation has determined that the combination medical treatment whose basis is the M-cholinolytic drug solifenacin is effective in treating OAB in women with SUI. Thus, the combination medical treatment considerably reduces the degree of clinical symptoms of OAB in women with SUI and it is the first stage in the treatment of patients with mixed urinary incontinence. According to the results of the performed treatment and examination, the clinical effect was observed in 18 (72 % patients.

  2. Overactive bladder in women with stress urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Neymark

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of the role of a functional component in the development of urination disorders in women with stress urination incontinence (SUI concurrent with imperative urge urination incontinence that is a manifestation of overactive bladder (OAB has become particularly relevant in recent years. Urodynamic study reveals the signs of SUI concurrent with detrusor overactivity. The purpose of the investigation was to improve the results of OAB treatment in women with SUI and to study a relationship between the clinical and urodynamic manifestations of the disease. Forty treated women with OAB and SUI were examined. All the patients received combination medical therapy: an Mcholinolytic (solifenacin 10 mg once daily in the morning, picamilonum 5 mg thrice daily, and exercises to strengthen pelvic floor muscles. The treatment lasted 3 months. After the treatment, urinary output and maximal urine flow rate changed, by reaching the normal values in patients with rapid and obstructive urination. Cystometric capacity was increased; involuntary detrusor contractions (spontaneous or provoked became fewer during bladder filling or they were absent at all. Our investigation has determined that the combination medical treatment whose basis is the M-cholinolytic drug solifenacin is effective in treating OAB in women with SUI. Thus, the combination medical treatment considerably reduces the degree of clinical symptoms of OAB in women with SUI and it is the first stage in the treatment of patients with mixed urinary incontinence. According to the results of the performed treatment and examination, the clinical effect was observed in 18 (72 % patients.

  3. Behavioral therapies for overactive bladder: making sense of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Jill L

    2008-01-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a symptom-based syndrome characterized by the presence of urgency, which is defined as a sudden and compelling desire to void that cannot be postponed. OAB may significantly impact of quality of life. Numerous treatment options exist for OAB, including behavioral therapies such as pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation, bladder training, and dietary modification, as well as traditional therapies such as pharmacological therapy and neuromodulation. Behavioral therapies are considered the mainstay of treatment for urinary incontinence in general. However the efficacy of these noninvasive strategies for OAB treatment has not been well addressed in the literature. This article presents an overview of current evidence with attention to the clinical relevance of findings related to lifestyle modification, bladder training, and pelvic floor muscle training. Initial evidence suggests that obesity, smoking, and consumption of carbonated drinks are risk factors for OAB but there is less support for the contributory role of caffeine or the impact of caffeine reduction. The evidence supporting bladder training and pelvic floor muscle training is more consistent and a trend towards combining these therapies to treat OAB appears positive. Given the prevalence of OAB and growing support for the efficacy of behavioral treatments it is important and timely to augment existing evidence with well-designed multicenter trials.

  4. The relationship between overactive bladder and sexual activity in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Ankur S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: We assessed the relationships between bladder symptoms, demographic, and medical history variables and sexual dysfunction in women with overactive bladder (OAB disorder. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-eight women diagnosed with OAB completed self-administered questionnaires related to overall heath status, bladder function, and sexual function. Data were compiled for questionnaire responses, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine predictors of sexual dysfunction. RESULTS: Bothersome bladder symptoms were reported by superscript three 60% of the sample. Sixty-percent of the sample was sexually active in the past month. Difficulty with sexual arousal, orgasm, and sexual enjoyment were reported by about 25% of the women. Sexual partner status was the best predictor of sexual arousal, orgasm, and sexual enjoyment. Menopausal status emerged as an important predictor of arousal and sexual enjoyment. CONCLUSION: The majority of women with symptoms of OAB viewed these symptoms as bothersome. However, the extent of symptom bother did not predict aspects of female sexual dysfunction (FSD. Instead, menopausal and partner status emerged as the best predictors of FSD in our sample.

  5. Effect of caffeine on bladder function in patients with overactive bladder symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Supatra Lohsiriwat; Muthita Hirunsai; Bansithi Chaiyaprasithi

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of caffeine at the dose of 4.5 mg/kg on bladder function in overactive bladder (OAB) adults. Materials and Methods: Nine women and three men aged 21-40 years with OAB symptoms were included. Each subject drank 8 ml/kg of water with and without caffeine at two separate sessions. Cystometry and uroflowmetry were performed 30 minutes after each drink. The effects of caffeine on urodynamic parameters were compared. Results: After caffeine ingestion, the ...

  6. Fesoterodine dose response in subjects with overactive bladder syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khullar, Vik; Rovner, Eric S; Dmochowski, Roger; Nitti, Victor; Wang, Joseph; Guan, Zhonghong

    2008-05-01

    To compare the efficacy of fesoterodine 4 mg versus 8 mg in treating subjects with overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome. This is a pooled analysis of data from 2 randomized placebo (PBO)-controlled phase III trials. Eligible subjects with frequency and urgency or urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) were randomized to PBO or fesoterodine 4 or 8 mg for 12 weeks. Subjects assessed efficacy using 3-day bladder diaries recording the time of each void, urgency, and incontinence episode. Endpoints included treatment response (based on a 4-point Treatment Benefit scale) and change from baseline in micturitions, UUI episodes, mean volume voided, urgency episodes, and continent days. We assessed tolerability and safety by evaluating adverse events, residual urine volume, laboratory parameters, and treatment withdrawals. At the end of treatment, both doses of fesoterodine showed statistically significant improvements in all efficacy endpoints versus PBO (P Fesoterodine 8 mg performed significantly better than fesoterodine 4 mg in improving all diary variables (P fesoterodine than with PBO included dry mouth, constipation, and urinary tract infection. Both fesoterodine 4 and 8 mg are effective in improving OAB symptoms. The higher 8-mg dose provides additional benefit compared with the lower dose in improving most bladder diary variables, thus offering the possibility of dose flexibility and titration.

  7. Role of fesoterodine in the treatment of overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Kylie J

    2009-12-17

    Muscarinic receptors have long been the target receptors for treatment of patients with overactive bladder (OAB). These patients experience symptoms of urgency, urinary frequency and nocturia, with or without urge incontinence (the involuntary leakage of urine associated with urge). Fesoterodine, a pro-drug, structurally and functionally related to tolterodine, is the newest agent developed for the treatment of OAB. Fesoterodine is broken down to the active metabolite, 5-hydroxy-methyl-tolterodine (5-HMT) by non-specific esterases. This metabolism results in the complete breakdown of the parent compound and is responsible for dose related improvements in clinical efficacy and health related quality of life. Like other antimuscarinic agents including tolterodine, fesoterodine is associated with improvements in clinical variables related both to bladder filling (decreasing micturition frequency and increasing mean voided volume) and urgency (urgency and urge incontinence episodes). Improvements in health related quality of life following treatment with fesoterodine is indicated by improvements in 7 of the 9 variables measured by the King's Health Questionnaire. Also like other antimuscarinic agents, fesoterodine use is associated with adverse events including dry mouth. However the incidence of dry mouth is reduced with fesoterodine, compared to oxybutynin, due to the improved bladder selectivity of 5-HMT.

  8. Fesoterodine for overactive bladder: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kanchan; Kaur, Kirandeep; Aulakh, Baldev Singh; Kaushal, Sandeep

    2010-10-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a chronic condition affecting both men and women, with prevalence increasing with age. Antimuscarinics form the cornerstone of treatment of OAB. Fesoterodine, a nonselective muscarinic-receptor antagonist, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in late 2008 for once daily, oral administration in the treatment of OAB to relieve the symptoms of urinary urge incontinence, urgency, and frequency. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the mechanism of action of and clinical trial data for fesoterodine, and to discuss the present status of fesoterodine in the management of OAB. The MEDLINE and Google Scholar databases were searched (June 1, 1999-December 1, 2009) using the terms fesoterodine, overactive bladder, and muscarinic antagonists. Full-text articles in English were selected for reference, and articles presenting the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, and data from clinical trials were included. The parameters measured were tolerability, efficacy, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Trials involving animals and Phase I studies were excluded. The initial literature search yielded 48 papers. A total of 20 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In two 12-week, randomized, multicenter, Phase III clinical trials involving patients with increased micturition frequency and urgency and/or urinary urge incontinence (n = 836 and 1132 in each trial), both fesoterodine 4 and 8 mg were associated with significantly improved symptoms of OAB (frequency of micturition, urgency, and urge incontinence) compared with placebo (P fesoterodine 4 and 8 mg led to treatment satisfaction in ∼80% of patients (of 516 enrolled) who were initially unsatisfied with their previous treatment. A review of the literature suggests that fesoterodine is an efficacious and well-tolerated treatment option for patients with OAB.

  9. Development of oxybutynin chloride topical gel for overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucente VR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Vincent R Lucente1, David R Staskin2, Elise De31Institute of Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Allentown, PA, USA; 2Division of Urology, St Elizabeth’s Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 3Urological Institute of Northeastern New York, Albany, NY, USAAbstract: Overactive bladder (OAB is an age-related syndrome often associated with urinary incontinence. Symptoms of OAB, such as urgency, frequency, and nocturia, can be treated effectively with inhibitors of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Antimuscarinic agents promote relaxation of the detrusor muscle and may modulate afferent neuronal signals involved in the regulation of the micturition reflex. Despite the availability of an increasing number of oral antimuscarinic agents, treatment persistence among patients with OAB generally appears to be low. This may be attributed, at least in part, to the common occurrence of anticholinergic adverse effects, such as dry mouth, constipation, and dizziness. Oxybutynin is a well-established antimuscarinic agent that is available in a variety of formulations. Transdermal formulations have been developed to avoid the first-pass hepatic and gastrointestinal drug metabolism responsible for the anticholinergic adverse effects often observed with oral delivery of oxybutynin. Oxybutynin chloride topical gel (OTG is a formulation of oxybutynin that was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in January 2009. OTG was the result of a systematic evidence-based effort to develop a formulation that preserves the efficacy of oral oxybutynin formulations while eliminating most of their anticholinergic adverse effects. Additional emphasis was put on creating a transdermal formulation with minimal potential for application-site skin reactions. The formulation and pharmacokinetic properties of OTG are reviewed in the context of recently published efficacy and tolerability data from a large multicenter, placebo

  10. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EFFICACY AND TOLERABILITY OF SOLIFENACIN AND TOLTERODINE IN OVERACTIVE BLADDER

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayarangan; Rajaram; Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the efficacy and tolerability of solifenacin and tolterodine in overactive bladder. MATERIALS & METHODS It is an open label, comparative, randomised, parallel group and prospective study. 30 patients suffering from overactive bladder were divided into two groups. They were randomised to receive either solifenacin (5 mg once daily) or tolterodine (2 mg twice daily) for 4 weeks. At baseline, 2 weeks and 4 weeks they were assessed for average number of micturition...

  11. Early onset of fesoterodine efficacy in subjects with overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Howard B; Morrow, Jon D; Gong, Jason; Tseng, Li-Jung; Schneider, Tim

    2011-02-01

    To assess the onset of efficacy of fesoterodine 4 mg once daily on overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms after 1 week of treatment. This was a prespecified analysis of data collected during the first week of a 12-week, open-label, single-arm, flexible-dose study of fesoterodine. Eligible subjects were adult men and women (aged ≥ 18 years) who reported urinary frequency (eight or more micturitions per 24 h) and urgency (three or more episodes per 24 h) in 5-day bladder diaries at baseline, and dissatisfaction with previous tolterodine or tolterodine extended-release treatment received within 2 years of screening. All subjects received fesoterodine 4 mg once daily during the first 4 weeks of treatment (with an optional dose increase to fesoterodine 8 mg after week 4). Early onset of efficacy of fesoterodine 4 mg was assessed based on changes from baseline to week 1 in variables recorded in 5-day bladder diaries, including total micturitions, urgency episodes, urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) episodes and nocturnal micturitions. Urgency and severe urgency episodes were defined as those rated ≥ 3 and ≥ 4, respectively, on the five-point Urinary Sensation Scale (USS) (1 = no urgency, 5 = UUI); frequency-urgency sum (a combined measure of micturition frequency and urgency) was defined as the sum of all USS ratings. All bladder diary variables, including total and nocturnal micturitions, UUI episodes, urgency episodes, severe urgency episodes and frequency-urgency sum per 24 h, were significantly improved (all P fesoterodine 4 mg compared to baseline. The diary-dry rate at week 1 (i.e. subjects with at least one UUI episode at baseline who subsequently reported no UUI episodes on week 1 diary) was 38%. In this open-label study of subjects with OAB who had been previously treated and dissatisfied with tolterodine, fesoterodine 4 mg showed a rapid onset of efficacy at 1 week. © 2010 THE AUTHORS. JOURNAL COMPILATION © 2010 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  12. Tolterodine Tartrate Proniosomal Gel Transdermal Delivery for Overactive Bladder

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    Rajan Rajabalaya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to formulate and evaluate side effects of transdermal delivery of proniosomal gel compared to oral tolterodine tartrate (TT for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB. Proniosomal gels are surfactants, lipids and soy lecithin, prepared by coacervation phase separation. Formulations were analyzed for drug entrapment efficiency (EE, vesicle size, surface morphology, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, in vitro skin permeation, and in vivo effects. The EE was 44.87%–91.68% and vesicle size was 253–845 nm for Span formulations and morphology showed a loose structure. The stability and skin irritancy test were also carried out for the optimized formulations. Span formulations with cholesterol-containing formulation S1 and glyceryl distearate as well as lecithin containing S3 formulation showed higher cumulative percent of permeation such as 42% and 35%, respectively. In the in vivo salivary secretion model, S1 proniosomal gel had faster recovery, less cholinergic side effect on the salivary gland compared with that of oral TT. Histologically, bladder of rats treated with the proniosomal gel formulation S1 showed morphological improvements greater than those treated with S3. This study demonstrates the potential of proniosomal vesicles for transdermal delivery of TT to treat OAB.

  13. Self-consciousness/Awareness and Bladder Sensations: Comparative Study of Overactive Bladder Patients and Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijens, Desiree; Marcelissen, Tom; Drossaerts, Jamie; Heeringa, Rhea; Degaillier, Sam; Leue, Carsten; van Koeveringe, Gommert

    2017-08-31

    To explore differences in bladder sensations between patients with overactive bladder (OAB) and healthy volunteers by evaluating self-consciousness, self-awareness and affective complaints. A prospective, observational study was performed comparing patients with OAB symptoms and healthy volunteers. During 3 days subjects filled out sensation-related bladder diaries (SR-BD), Self-Consciousness Questionnaires (SCS), Self-Awareness Questionnaire (SSAS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The SSAS was filled out at the second void of the first day. In total, 134 participants were included (66 volunteers and 68 patients). Patients had lower voided volumes (193 mL vs 270 mL, P self-awareness than volunteers, indicating that OAB patients may attribute different values to body signals. Future research is required to elaborate our knowledge on the perceived sensations and labeling of emotions in OAB. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Role of liposome in treatment of overactive bladder and interstitial cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Ya Hung

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Intravesical (local therapy of agents has been effective in delaying or preventing recurrence of superficial bladder cancer. This route of drug administration has also shown tremendous promise in the treatment of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS and overactive bladder without systemic side effects. Liposomes are lipid vesicles composed of phospholipid bilayers surrounding an aqueous core. They can incorporate drug molecules, both hydrophilic and hydrophobic, and show greater uptake into cells via endocytosis. Intravesical liposomes have therapeutic effects on IC/PBS patients, mainly because of their ability to form a protective lipid film on the urothelial surface. Recent studies have shown the sustained efficacy and safety of intravesical instillation of botulinum toxin formulated with liposomes (lipo-BoNT for the treatment of refractory overactive bladder This review considers the current status of intravesical liposomes or liposomal mediated drug delivery for the treatment of IC/PBS and overactive bladder.

  15. Inhibition of bladder overactivity by a combination of tibial neuromodulation and tramadol treatment in cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Mally, Abhijith D.; Ogagan, P. Dafe; Shen, Bing; Wang, Jicheng; Roppolo, James R.; de Groat, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Our recent study in cats revealed that inhibition of bladder overactivity by tibial nerve stimulation (TNS) depends on the activation of opioid receptors. TNS is a minimally invasive treatment for overactive bladder (OAB), but its efficacy is low. Tramadol (an opioid receptor agonist) is effective in treating OAB but elicits significant adverse effects. This study was to determine if a low dose of tramadol (expected to produce fewer adverse effects) can enhance the TNS inhibition of bladder overactivity. Bladder overactivity was induced in α-chloralose-anesthetized cats by an intravesical infusion of 0.25% acetic acid (AA) during repeated cystometrograms (CMGs). TNS (5 Hz) at two to four times the threshold intensity for inducing toe movement was applied during CMGs before and after tramadol (0.3–7 mg/kg iv) to examine the interaction between the two treatments. AA irritation significantly reduced bladder capacity to 24.8 ± 3.3% of the capacity measured during saline infusion. TNS alone reversibly inhibited bladder overactivity and significantly increased bladder capacity to 50–60% of the saline control capacity. Tramadol administered alone in low doses (0.3–1 mg/kg) did not significantly change bladder capacity, whereas larger doses (3–7 mg/kg) increased bladder capacity (50–60%). TNS in combination with tramadol (3–7 mg/kg) completely reversed the effect of AA. Tramadol also unmasked a prolonged (>2 h) TNS inhibition of bladder overactivity that persisted after termination of the stimulation. The results suggest a novel treatment strategy for OAB by combining tibial neuromodulation with a low dose of tramadol, which is minimally invasive with a potentially high efficacy and fewer adverse effects. PMID:22496406

  16. Comparison of fesoterodine and tolterodine in patients with overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, Christopher R; Van Kerrebroeck, Philip E; Jünemann, Klaus-Peter; Wang, Joseph T; Brodsky, Marina

    2008-11-01

    To compare, in a post hoc analysis of a phase III trial, the maximum recommended doses of fesoterodine (8 mg) and tolterodine (4 mg) for improving overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), as fesoterodine effectively reduces OAB symptoms vs placebo. Eligible patients with frequency (> or =eight voids/24 h) and either urgency (> or =six episodes over 3 days) or urgency urinary incontinence (UUI; > or =three episodes over 3 days) were randomized to placebo, fesoterodine 4 or 8 mg, or tolterodine extended-release (ER) 4 mg for 12 weeks; fesoterodine 4 mg data were published elsewhere. Patients completed a 3-day bladder diary in which they recorded the time of each void, voided volume (VV), and the severity of urgency. A post hoc inferential analysis was conducted on the primary endpoint (voids/24 h), the two co-primary endpoints (UUI episodes/24 h and treatment response), several secondary endpoints (severe urgency plus UUI per 24 h, mean VV (MVV)/void, and continent days/week), HRQoL, using the King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ) and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF), and self-reported bladder-related problems. A subanalysis also assessed all endpoints for patients who were incontinent at baseline. Tolerability and safety were assessed by evaluating adverse events, residual urine volume, laboratory variables and treatment withdrawals. By week 12, patients with OAB in both active-treatment groups showed significant improvements in most bladder diary variables and treatment response rates compared with placebo. Fesoterodine 8 mg was statistically significantly better than tolterodine ER 4 mg for improving UUI episodes, severe urgency plus UUI, mean VV, and number of continent days/week. In addition, the fesoterodine and tolterodine ER groups showed significantly greater improvements in HRQoL than the placebo group, with positive changes in most domains of the KHQ and an improvement in

  17. Down-regulation of nerve growth factor expression in the bladder by antisense oligonucleotides as new treatment for overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Mahendra; Kawamorita, Naoki; Tyagi, Vikas; Sugino, Yoshio; Chancellor, Michael; Yoshimura, Naoki; Tyagi, Pradeep

    2013-08-01

    Nerve growth factor over expression in the bladder has a role in overactive bladder symptoms via the mediation of functional changes in bladder afferent pathways. We studied whether blocking nerve growth factor over expression in bladder urothelium by a sequence specific gene silencing mechanism would suppress bladder overactivity and chemokine expression induced by acetic acid. Female Sprague-Dawley® rats anesthetized with isoflurane were instilled with 0.5 ml saline, scrambled or TYE™ 563 labeled antisense oligonucleotide targeting nerve growth factor (12 μM) alone or complexed with cationic liposomes for 30 minutes. The efficacy of nerve growth factor antisense treatments for acetic acid induced bladder overactivity was assessed by cystometry. Bladder nerve growth factor expression levels and cellular distribution were quantified by immunofluorescence staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Effects on bladder chemokine expression were measured by Luminex® xMAP® analysis. Liposomes were needed for bladder uptake of oligonucleotide, as seen by the absence of bright red TYE 563 fluorescence in rats instilled with oligonucleotide alone. At 24 hours after liposome-oligonucleotide treatment baseline bladder activity during saline infusion was indistinct in the sham and antisense treated groups with a mean ± SEM intercontraction interval of 348 ± 55 and 390 ± 120 seconds, respectively. Acetic acid induced bladder overactivity was shown by a decrease in the intercontraction interval to a mean of 33.2% ± 4.0% of baseline in sham treated rats. However, the reduction was blunted to a mean of 75.8% ± 3.4% of baseline in rats treated with liposomal antisense oligonucleotide (p antisense treatment, as shown by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reduced nerve growth factor immunoreactivity in the urothelium. Increased nerve growth factor in bladder tissue was associated with sICAM-1, sE-selectin, CXCL-10 and 1, leptin, MCP-1 and vascular endothelial

  18. Lumbosacral spinal segmental contributions to tibial and pudendal neuromodulation of bladder overactivity in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Utsav; Fuller, Thomas W; Jiang, Xuewen; Bandari, Jathin; Zhang, Zhaocun; Shen, Bing; Wang, Jicheng; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C; Tai, Changfeng

    2017-08-01

    To determine the spinal segmental afferent contributions to tibial and pudendal inhibition of bladder overactivity. Intravesical infusion of 0.5% acetic acid was used to irritate the bladder and induce bladder overactivity in anesthetized cats. Tibial or pudendal nerve stimulation was used to suppress the bladder overactivity and increase bladder capacity during cystometry. L5-S3 dorsal roots ipsilateral to the stimulation were exposed by a laminectomy and transected sequentially during the experiments to determine the role of individual dorsal roots in tibial or pudendal neuromodulation. Transection of L5 dorsal root had no effect. Transection of L6 dorsal root in four cats produced an average 18% reduction in tibial inhibition, which is not a significant change when averaged in the group of 10 cats. Transection of L7 dorsal root completely removed the tibial inhibition without changing reflex bladder activity or pudendal inhibition. Transection of S1 dorsal root reduced the pudendal inhibition, after which transection of S2 dorsal root completely removed the pudendal inhibition. Transection of S3 dorsal root had no effect. The control bladder capacity was increased only by transection of S2 dorsal root. This study in cats revealed that tibial and pudendal neuromodulation of reflex bladder overactivity depends on activation of primary afferent pathways that project into different spinal segments. This difference may be related to the recent observation in cats that the two types of neuromodulation have different mechanisms of action. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. OnabotulinumtoxinA for the treatment of overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox L

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lindsey Cox, Anne P Cameron Department of Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Abstract: OnabotulinumtoxinA injection is a safe and effective treatment for adults with refractory overactive bladder. There is sufficient level 1 evidence to support offering onabotulinumtoxinA injections as a second-line treatment to patients who have failed behavioral therapy and oral medications such as antimuscarinics and β3 agonists. An intradetrusor injection of 100 U of onabotulinumtoxinA is likely the optimal dose to balance risks and benefits, and this is the dose approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Improvement in urgency urinary incontinence episodes, as well as symptom scores and quality of life, were seen in around 60%–65% of patients, and were significantly improved compared with those on placebo. Most studies have reported a duration of symptom relief ranging from 6 to 12 months, with repeat injections being safe and efficacious. Overall, the risk of urinary retention was around 6% across the study populations. Keywords: urgency urinary incontinence, urinary retention, nocturia, frequency

  20. Update on tolterodine extended-release for treatment of overactive bladder

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    Tola Omotosho

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Tola Omotosho, Chi Chiung Grace ChenWomen’s Center for Pelvic Health, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Overactive bladder is a prevalent condition which negatively impacts quality of life and puts a significant economical burden on society. First-line therapy often includes pharmacotherapy with antimuscarinic medications, and numerous research studies have demonstrated that tolterodine extended-release (ER is an efficacious and tolerable formulation of this class of medication. This review provides an update on the clinical use of tolterodine ER, detailing the current literature on its efficacy, tolerability, adverse effects, and comparability with other commonly prescribed medications for the treatment of overactive bladder.Keywords: antimuscarinics, efficacy, quality of life, overactive bladder, tolterodine, urgency, urge urinary incontinence

  1. Comparison of solifenacin and fesoterodine in treatment of overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Önder; Köstü, Bülent; Bakacak, Murat; Aytaç-Tohma, Yusuf; Çoşkun, Bora; Avcı, Fazıl; Efe, Erkan

    2015-10-01

    To compare the use of solifenacin and fesoterodine in treatment of overactive bladder (OAB). This prospective study was conducted on patients diagnosed with OAB who presenting to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Urology, School of Medicine, Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University, Kahramanmaraş, Turkey between October 2013 and August 2014. Patients were randomized into 2 groups. Group 1 (n=60) received 5 mg solifenacin per day, while Group 2 (n=59) received 4 mg fesoterodine per day. All the patients' OAB symptom scores (OABSS) in weeks 0, 4, and 12 were recorded. In addition, treatment costs and side effects of the drugs were evaluated. Average OABSS (score 1) was determined as: 9.5 ± 2.8 for Group 1 and 10.7 ± 1.8 for Group 2 at week 0; 2.2 ± 1.2 (Group 1) and 2.4 ± 1.3 (Group 2) at week 4 (score 2); and 1.3 ± 0.5 for Group 1 and 1.3 ± 0.6 for Group 2 at week 12 (score 3). In addition, no statistically significant difference was found between the scores (p=0.062 (score 1), p=0.464 (score 2), and p=0.527 (score 3). The discontinuation rate of medication due to its side effects was 0 (0%) for Group 1, and 6 (10.2%) for Group 2. Intragroup changes in the scores 1-2, 1-3, and 2-3 values was statistically significant in both groups (p less than 0.001). No significant difference was found between the OABSS of these 2 drugs. However, discontinuation of drugs due to side effects was more frequent in fesoterodine.

  2. Gabapentin for overactive bladder and nocturia after anticholinergic failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong T. Kim

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We reviewed our experience with the use of gabapentin to treat symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB and nocturia in patients who have failed conventional anticholinergic therapy. METHODS: Thirty-one patients referred to us with refractory (OAB and/or nocturia were treated with oral gabapentin. All the patients had tried or remained on antimuscarinic drugs during treatment. Twenty-four of 31 complained of bothersome symptoms during day and night and the other seven had primary complaints of nocturia. Initial gabapentin doses ranged from 100-300 mg at bedtime. Dose was slowly titrated up to 3,000 mg based on patients' symptomatology and tolerability. RESULTS:The mean age was 51 years old (range 27-78. There were 13 men and 18 women. The median steady state dose chosen by the patient after initial titration was 600 mg/day. Fourteen of 31 patients reported subjective improvement of their frequency and 8 have been on the medication for over 12 months with persistent efficacy. For the 14 improved patients, mean frequency/24 hours decreased from 14.1 ± 2.2 to10.0 + 2.1. Three patients with primary nocturia reported improvement from a mean of 4.0 ± 1.3 to 1.0 ± 0.3 episodes/night. Six patients stopped taking the drug within one month due to side effects mostly described as drowsiness or lethargy. CONCLUSION: Fourteen of 31 patients with refractory (OAB and nocturia improved with oral gabapentin. Gabapentin was generally well tolerated and can be considered in selective patients when conventional modalities have failed.

  3. Readability analysis of online health information about overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Kevin; Shee, Kevin; Yap, Ronald L

    2017-09-01

    Despite the prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) and the widespread accessibility of patient education information on the Internet, the readability of this information and its potential impact on patient decision-making are not known. This study evaluates the readability of OAB material online in the context of website ownership and the Health on the Net standard for information reliability. Three Internet search platforms were queried daily with OAB-related keywords for 30 days. Readability analysis was performed using the SMOG test, Dale-Chall readability formula, and Fry readability graph. Websites were stratified by ownership type and Health on the Net certification to compare readability metrics. After 270 total searches, 57 websites were analyzed. Mean SMOG reading grade was 10.7 (SD = 1.6) and 10.1 in an adjusted calculation to reduce overestimation from medical jargon. Mean Dale-Chall score was 9.2 (SD = 0.9), or grade 13-15. Mean Fry graph coordinates (177 syllables, 5.9 sentences) corresponded to grade 15. Only seven sites (12%) were predicted to be readable by the average adult with an eighth-grade reading level. Mean reading grades were not significantly different between academic versus commercial sites and Health on the Net-certified versus non-certified sites. A large majority of online information about OAB treatment exceeds the reading ability of most adults. Neither websites sponsored by academic institutions nor those certified by the Health on the Net standard have easier readability. The readability of health information online may be distinct from reliability in the context of urological literacy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Combination of Foot Stimulation and Tramadol Treatment Reverses Irritation Induced Bladder Overactivity in Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mally, Abhijith D.; Zhang, Fan; Matsuta, Yosuke; Shen, Bing; Wang, Jicheng; Roppolo, James R.; de Groat, William C.; Tai, Changfeng

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We determined whether transcutaneous electrical foot stimulation combined with a low dose of tramadol (Sigma-Aldrich®) could completely suppress bladder overactivity. Materials and Methods Repeat cystometrograms were performed in 18 α-chloralose anesthetized cats by infusing the bladder with saline or 0.25% acetic acid. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation (5 Hz) of the cat hind foot at 2 to 4 times the threshold intensity needed to induce observable toe movement was applied to suppress acetic acid induced bladder overactivity. Tramadol (1 to 3 mg/kg intravenously) was administered to enhance foot inhibition. Results Acetic acid irritated the bladder, induced bladder overactivity and significantly decreased bladder capacity to a mean ± SE of 26% ± 5% of saline control capacity (p tramadol, foot stimulation at 2 and 4 threshold intensity applied during acetic acid cystometrograms significantly increased bladder capacity to a mean of 47% ± 5% and 62% ± 6% of saline control capacity, respectively (p tramadol (1 mg/kg) only slightly changed bladder capacity to a mean of 39% ± 2% of saline control capacity (p >0.05), while 3 mg/kg significantly increased capacity to 85% ± 14% that of control (p tramadol combined with foot stimulation increased bladder capacity to a mean of 71% ± 18% (2 threshold intensity) and 84% ± 14% (4 threshold intensity), respectively, which did not significantly differ from saline control capacity. In addition, long lasting (greater than 1.5 to 2 hours) post-stimulation inhibition was induced by foot stimulation combined with 3 mg/kg tramadol treatment. Conclusions This study suggests a new treatment strategy for overactive bladder by combining foot stimulation with a low dose of tramadol, which is noninvasive and has potentially high efficacy and fewer adverse effects. PMID:23088991

  5. The patient perspective on overactive bladder: a mixed-methods needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipetto, Frank A; Fulda, Kimberly G; Holthusen, Amy E; McKeithen, Thomas M; McFadden, Pam

    2014-05-14

    While overactive bladder is often managed in the primary care setting, a number of barriers including embarrassment, poor communication, and low patient adherence contribute to the under-treatment of patients with burdensome urinary symptoms. In order to address these challenges, it is crucial to have a fundamental understanding of patient perspectives toward OAB and urinary symptoms. To meet this aim, researchers designed and conducted a study to identify patients' knowledge, experiences and attitudes, barriers to treatment adherence, and desires and tendencies regarding patient/clinician communications. A mixed-methods qualitative/quantitative needs assessment of patients with overactive bladder and/or urinary symptoms. Researchers conducted in-depth qualitative interviews via telephone with 40 patients. Interview results informed the design and dissemination of a quantitative survey, which was completed by 200 self-selected respondents who had previously identified themselves as having overactive bladder or bladder problems. Statistical and qualitative analysis of results were conducted. Among survey respondents, an average of 3.5 years elapsed between symptom onset and seeking diagnosis by a physician. In the long term most patients do not experience improvement in symptoms. Medication non-adherence is common and is related to therapy effectiveness and adverse effects. Patients clearly indicate that communication and patient/physician relationships are important to them and they would prefer the clinician initiate the conversation on overactive bladder. Patient experiences, perspectives, and attitudes toward their bladder symptoms differ in many ways from clinicians' assumptions. The significant time gap between symptom onset and diagnosis indicates ongoing need for screening and diagnosis of overactive bladder. Contrary to guideline recommendations, urinalysis and physical examination are not widely used in clinical practice. Many patients experience no

  6. Efficacy of Tadalafil once daily versus Fesoterodine in the treatment of overactive bladder in older patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Atti, L

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (5-PDEi) show a potential therapeutic use in the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) and male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The aim of this study was to evaluating the efficacy on OAB symptoms, impact on quality of life and sexual function of tadalafil 5mg once daily in older patients versus fesoterodine 8 mg. 108 consecutive patients diagnosed with OAB were divided into 2 groups: Group A: 56 patients treated with tadalafil 5 mg once daily; Group B: 52 patients treated with fesoterodine 8 mg, both groups treated for a period of 12 weeks. Eligible patients were men aged ≥ 65 years with OAB symptoms, including urgency and increased frequency during a period of ≥ 1 year and urgency urinary incontinence during a period of ≥ 6 months before enrolment. Patients were asked to complete the 3-day voiding diary prior each scheduled visit at weeks 0, 4 and 12. During these visits, they were administered: Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS), International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS), International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and Quality of life (QoL). Not statistically significant differences emerged between the two groups at baseline, both patient groups had similar age and BMI; in each treatment group, the proportion of men ≥ 75 years was approximately 65%. From the results of our study, we can say that a treatment once a day with tadalafil improves not only significantly: micturition/24 hours (p fesoterodine treatment, but also the quality of life (p fesoterodine 8 mg is efficacious in the treatment of the symptoms of OAB in older adults, improving also the quality of life and sexual and social life.

  7. Relationship between overactive bladder and irritable bowel syndrome: a large-scale internet survey in Japan using the overactive bladder symptom score and Rome III criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Seiji; Hashizume, Kazumi; Wada, Naoki; Hori, Jyunichi; Tamaki, Gaku; Kita, Masafumi; Iwata, Tatsuya; Kakizaki, Hidehiro

    2013-04-01

    WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: There is known to be an association between overactive bladder (OAB) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The study investigates the association between OAB and IBS using an internet-based survey in Japan. It is the first to investigate the prevalence and severity of OAB in the general population using the OAB symptom score questionnaire. To investigate the association between overactive bladder (OAB) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) by using an internet-based survey in Japan. Questionnaires were sent via the internet to Japanese adults. The overactive bladder symptom score was used for screening OAB, and the Japanese version of the Rome III criteria for the diagnosis of IBS was used for screening this syndrome. The overall prevalence of OAB and IBS was 9.3% and 21.2%, respectively. Among the subjects with OAB, 33.3% had concurrent IBS. The prevalence of OAB among men was 9.7% and among women it was 8.9%, while 18.6% of men and 23.9% of women had IBS. Concurrent IBS was noted in 32.0% of men and 34.8% of women with OAB. Taking into account a high rate of concurrent IBS in patients with OAB, it seems to be important for physicians to assess the defaecation habits of patients when diagnosing and treating OAB. © 2012 The Authors. BJU International © 2012 BJU International.

  8. Long-term safety, tolerability and efficacy of fesoterodine treatment in subjects with overactive bladder symptoms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerrebroeck, P.E.V.A. van; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.; Berriman, S.; Padmanabhan Aiyer, L.; Carlsson, M.; Guan, Z.

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess the long-term safety, tolerability and efficacy of fesoterodine treatment in subjects with overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. METHODS: This was an open-label extension study of a 12-week, double-blind fesoterodine study. During open-label treatment, all

  9. Association of Urinary Urgency and Delay Time of Micturition in Women With Overactive Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Kyung Kgi; Huh, Jung Sik

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Accurately measuring urinary urgency is important for diagnosing overactive bladder (OAB) and quantifying improvements in treatment outcome. Various methods have been recommended for evaluating urinary urgency, but these methods assess individual perceptions and preferences. To overcome the subjectivity in measuring urinary urgency, we evaluated the relationship between uroflowmetric parameters and urinary urgency in women with OAB. Methods Consecutive female patients with lower urina...

  10. The effect of urinary incontinence and overactive bladder symptoms on quality of life in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, CH; de Leeuw, JRJ; Roovers, JPWR; Heintz, APM

    2002-01-01

    Objective To assess the consequences that the symptoms of urinary incontinence and an overactive bladder have on the quality of life in young, community-dwelling women. Subjects and methods A population-based, cross-sectional cohort study was conducted in women aged 20-45 years. Urogenital symptoms

  11. Predictive factors for overactive bladder symptoms after pelvic organ prolapse surgery.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, T.A. de; Kluivers, K.B.; Withagen, M.I.J.; Milani, A.L.; Vierhout, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: This study focussed on the factors which predict the presence of symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB) after surgery for pelvic organ prolapse (POP). METHODS: Consecutive women who underwent POP surgery with or without the use of vaginal mesh materials in the years 2004-2

  12. Long-Term Safety and Efficacy of Solifenacin in Children and Adolescents with Overactive Bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newgreen, Donald; Bosman, Brigitte; Hollestein-Havelaar, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate long-term safety and efficacy of once-daily oral solifenacin suspension in children (aged 5-<12 years) and adolescents (aged 12-<18 years) with overactive bladder. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 40-week, open-label extension of a 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. OUTCOM...

  13. Is the prevalence of overactive bladder overestimated? A population-based study in Finland.

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    Kari A O Tikkinen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In earlier studies, one in six adults had overactive bladder which may impair quality of life. However, earlier studies have either not been population-based or have suffered from methodological limitations. Our aim was to assess the prevalence of overactive bladder symptoms, based on a representative study population and using consistent definitions and exclusions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The aim of the study was to assess the age-standardized prevalence of overactive bladder defined as urinary urgency, with or without urgency incontinence, usually with urinary frequency and nocturia in the absence of urinary tract infection or other obvious pathology. In 2003-2004, a questionnaire was mailed to 6,000 randomly selected Finns aged 18-79 years who were identified from the Finnish Population Register Centre. Information on voiding symptoms was collected using the validated Danish Prostatic Symptom Score, with additional frequency and nocturia questions. Corrected prevalence was calculated with adjustment for selection bias due to non-response. The questionnaire also elicited co-morbidity and socio-demographic information. Of the 6,000 subjects, 62.4% participated. The prevalence of overactive bladder was 6.5% (95% CI, 5.5% to 7.6% for men and 9.3% (CI, 7.9% to 10.6% for women. Exclusion of men with benign prostatic hyperplasia reduced prevalence among men by approximately one percentage point (to 5.6% [CI, 4.5% to 6.6%]. Among subjects with overactive bladder, urgency incontinence, frequency, and nocturia were reported by 11%, 23%, and 56% of men and 27%, 38%, and 40% of women, respectively. However, only 31% of men and 35% of women with frequency, and 31% of subjects of both sexes with nocturia reported overactive bladder. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate a prevalence of overactive bladder as low as 8% suggesting that, in previous studies, occurrence has been overestimated due to vague criteria and selected study

  14. Dose-escalating study of the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of fesoterodine in children with overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Bimal; El-Tahtawy, Ahmed; Wang, Ellen Q; Darekar, Amanda; Cossons, Nandini; Crook, Tim J; Scholfield, David; Reddy, Pramod

    2012-08-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of fesoterodine, and assess the utility of 3-day bladder diaries (exploratory objective) in pediatric subjects with neurogenic detrusor overactivity or idiopathic overactive bladder (OAB). In this 8-week open-label study, subjects (8-17 years, >25 kg) received fesoterodine 4 mg for 4 weeks, then 8 mg for 4 weeks. Blood samples were obtained at weeks 4 and 8. Of 21 subjects enrolled, 11 had neurogenic detrusor overactivity and 10 had idiopathic OAB; 1 discontinued (personal reasons). Mean age and weight were 13.2 years and 54.0 kg for boys (n = 12) and 13.1 years and 49.2 kg for girls (n = 9). 5-Hydroxy-methyltolterodine plasma concentrations did not differ by diagnosis and were consistent with predictions based on adult data. Treatment-related adverse events (all mild or moderate) included 1 event each of dry mouth, constipation, dry eyes and blurred vision, and 2 events each of nausea and increased post-void residual volume. Three-day bladder diaries proved feasible. Oral administration of fesoterodine in pediatric subjects (>25 kg) with idiopathic OAB or neurogenic detrusor overactivity produced steady-state plasma 5-hydroxy-methyltolterodine exposures similar to those in adults. The doses given were well tolerated. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Tolterodine reduces the number of urge incontinence episodes in patients with an overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquetin, B; Wyndaele, J

    2001-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of tolterodine compared to placebo in patients with an overactive bladder. A double-blind, multi-centre phase III study in France and Belgium 251 patients with overactive bladder symptoms, and urodynamically verified detrusor overactivity, were randomised to receive 4-week treatment with either placebo or tolterodine 1 or 2mg twice daily (bd). Efficacy was evaluated from patient micturition diaries. Safety and tolerability endpoints were also evaluated. After 4-week treatment, the number of incontinence episodes/24h decreased significantly relative to placebo in the tolterodine 1 and 2 mgbd groups (P=0.045 and P=0.0089, respectively). Both dosages of tolterodine increased volume voided per micturition compared with placebo (P=0.055 and P=0.056, respectively), although significant decreases in micturition frequency were not apparent. Tolterodine was safe and well tolerated, few patients were withdrawn due to adverse events. Dry mouth, mainly of mild-to-moderate intensity, was the most common adverse event. No clinically relevant changes in blood pressure or laboratory safety variables were reported. Tolterodine is effective, safe and well tolerated for the treatment of symptoms of an overactive bladder, particularly urge incontinence.

  16. Oxybutynin and Tolterodine in a Trial for Treatment of Overactive Bladder in Iranian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Elham Aziminekoo; Zinat Ghanbari; Shahrzad Hashemi; Maryam Nemati; Fedyeh Haghollahi; Nasim Shokuhi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and side effects of Oxybutinin in comparison to tolterodine in treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) with detrussor overactivity (DOA) in Iranian women. Materials and methods One hundred Iranian old women with clinical symptoms of OAB who show IDO in the filling cystometry participated in this randomized double-blinded parallel-group by using two kinds of the drugs for 4- week course (2 mg tolterodine twice-daily, or oxybutinin 5 mg, three times a day) in al...

  17. Surgical access for electrical stimulation of the pudendal and dorsal genital nerves in the overactive bladder: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, F.M.J.; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.; Rijkhoff, N.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The anatomy of the pudendal nerve and its nerve branches, especially the dorsal nerve of the penis and clitoris (dorsal genital nerves), and the clinical application of electrical stimulation of these nerves in patients with overactive bladder syndrome and detrusor overactivity are

  18. Pain during ice water test distinguishes clinical bladder hypersensitivity from overactivity disorders

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    Bountra Chas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bladder cooling reflex (BCR i.e. uninhibited detrusor contractions evoked by intravesical instillation of cold saline, is a segmental reflex believed to be triggered by menthol sensitive cold receptors in the bladder wall, with the afferent signals transmitted by C fibres. The BCR is a neonatal reflex that becomes suppressed by descending signals from higher centres at approximately the time when the child gains full voluntary control of voiding. It re-emerges in adults with neurogenic detrusor overactivity as a consequence of loss of central descending inhibition, resulting from conditions such as spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis. We have recently shown an increase of nerve fibres expressing the cool and menthol receptor TRPM8 in both overactive (IDO and painful bladder syndrome (PBS, but its functional significance is unknown. We have therefore studied the bladder cooling reflex and associated sensory symptoms in patients with PBS and overactivity disorders. Methods The BCR, elicited by ice water test (IWT was performed in patients with painful bladder syndrome (PBS, n = 17, idiopathic detrusor overactivity (IDO, n = 22, neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO, n = 4 and stress urinary incontinence (as controls, n = 21. The IWT was performed by intravesical instillation of cold saline (0 – 4°C. A positive IWT was defined as presence of uninhibited detrusor contraction evoked by cold saline, associated with urgency or with fluid expulsion. Patients were asked to report and rate any pain and cold sensation during the test. Results A positive IWT was observed in IDO (6/22, 27.3% and NDO (4/4, 100% patients, but was negative in all control and PBS patients. Thirteen (76.5% PBS patients reported pain during the IWT, with significantly higher pain scores during ice water instillation compared to the baseline (P = 0.0002, or equivalent amount of bladder filling (100 mls with saline at room temperature (P = 0.015. None

  19. Patient perspectives in the management of overactive bladder, focus on transdermal oxybutynin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tondalaya Gamble

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Tondalaya Gamble, Peter SandEvanston Continence Center, Division of Urogynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Evanston Northwestern Healthcare, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Evanston, IllinoisAbstract: Overactive bladder syndrome (OAB is a constellation of distressing symptoms that significantly impair quality of life, sexual function, and work productivity, and imposes a significant economic burden to society. Pharmacological treatment with antimuscarinic agents, behavioral modification, bladder retraining, and/or pelvic floor exercises are often used alone or in combination as the mainstay treatment in the management of OAB. Oxybutynin has been used in the treatment of OAB for over 20 years with proven efficacy and is often the comparator in drug treatment trials. Oral formulations of oxybutynin have proven efficacy, but not without significant antimuscarinic effects, which reduce patient persistence with medical treatment. Low levels of patient persistence with oral formulations of oxybutynin provided an impetus for the development of a transdermal oxybutynin delivery system. The oxybutynin transdermal formulation has been found to have side effects similar to that of a placebo in randomized controlled trials while providing excellent efficacy. Patient persistence with therapy, improved quality of life, sexual function and interpersonal relationships have been observed with use of the transdermal oxybutynin delivery system. Its twice weekly dosing, low side effect profile, and high efficacy have made it a good choice for initial treatment of overactive bladder syndrome.Keywords: overactive bladder syndrome, oxybutynin, transdermal delivery

  20. Current role of treatment in men with lower urinary tract symptoms combined with overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hwan Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH are highly prevalent in older men. The storage subcategory of LUTS is synonymous with overactive bladder (OAB syndrome, which is an empirical diagnosis. Traditionally, alpha-blockers are widely prescribed to manage the LUTS of BPH, although storage symptoms may persist in many men despite treatment. Therefore, because therapies that target the prostate often fail to alleviate storage symptoms, they may not be the appropriate therapy for OAB. In past years, most physicians appeared to give more weight in elderly men to voiding symptoms than to storage symptoms and to be more concerned with initial treatment with anticholinergics for males with storage symptoms. Considering the recent increase in data on the efficacy and safety of combination treatment with alpha receptor antagonists and antimuscarinic agents, the standard pharmacologic treatment of patients with LUTS combined with OAB should be an alpha receptor antagonist and an antimuscarinic agent. Beta-3 adrenoreceptor agonists may also potentially be useful for the treatment of male LUTS combined with OAB.

  1. Changes of neuregulin-1(NRG-1) expression in a rat model of overactive bladder induced by partial urethral obstruction: is NRG-1 a new biomarker of overactive bladder?

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Hoon; Han, Dong Seok; Yuk, Seung Mo

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine whether neuregulin-1(NRG-1) is a potential new biomarker of overactive bladder (OAB) induced by partial urethral obstruction in a rat model of OAB and to evaluate the urothelium as a therapeutic target of OAB. Methods Female Sprague–Dawley rats were separated into three 20-animal groups: normal, OAB, and 5-hydroxymethyl tolterodine (5-HMT)-treated OAB. In the OAB and OAB + 5-HMT groups, the urethra of each animal was partially obstructed; the OAB + 5-HMT group received...

  2. Contribution of opioid and metabotropic glutamate receptor mechanisms to inhibition of bladder overactivity by tibial nerve stimulation.

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    Matsuta, Yosuke; Mally, Abhijith D; Zhang, Fan; Shen, Bing; Wang, Jicheng; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C; Tai, Changfeng

    2013-07-15

    The contribution of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) and opioid receptors to inhibition of bladder overactivity by tibial nerve stimulation (TNS) was investigated in cats under α-chloralose anesthesia using LY341495 (a group II mGluR antagonist) and naloxone (an opioid receptor antagonist). Slow infusion cystometry was used to measure the volume threshold (i.e., bladder capacity) for inducing a large bladder contraction. After measuring the bladder capacity during saline infusion, 0.25% acetic acid (AA) was infused to irritate the bladder, activate the nociceptive C-fiber bladder afferents, and induce bladder overactivity. AA significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced bladder capacity to 26.6 ± 4.7% of saline control capacity. TNS (5 Hz, 0.2 ms) at 2 and 4 times the threshold (T) intensity for inducing an observable toe movement significantly increased bladder capacity to 62.2 ± 8.3% at 2T (P < 0.01) and 80.8 ± 9.2% at 4T (P = 0.0001) of saline control capacity. LY341495 (0.1-5 mg/kg iv) did not change bladder overactivity, but completely suppressed the inhibition induced by TNS at a low stimulus intensity (2T) and partially suppressed the inhibition at high intensity (4T). Following administration of LY341495, naloxone (0.01 mg/kg iv) completely eliminated the high-intensity TNS-induced inhibition. However, without LY341495 treatment a 10 times higher dose (0.1 mg/kg) of naloxone was required to completely block TNS inhibition. These results indicate that interactions between group II mGluR and opioid receptor mechanisms contribute to TNS inhibition of AA-induced bladder overactivity. Understanding neurotransmitter mechanisms underlying TNS inhibition of bladder overactivity is important for the development of new treatments for bladder disorders.

  3. Fesoterodine: a novel muscarinic receptor antagonist for the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome.

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    Michel, Martin C

    2008-07-01

    Fesoterodine is a newly approved drug for the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome. The aim of this study was to review the preclinical and clinical data on fesoterodine. The study involved a search of the Medline database and the proceedings volumes of urological congresses. Fesoterodine functions as an orally active prodrug that is converted to the active metabolite 5-hydroxymethyltolterodine by non-specific esterases. 5-Hydroxymethyltolterodine is a muscarinic receptor antagonist. Fesoterodine is primarily eliminated as inactive metabolites along with significant renal excretion as the unchanged active metabolite 5-hydroxymethyltolterodine. Fesoterodine is indicated for use at doses of 4 and 8 mg once daily. In clinical studies both doses of fesoterodine were consistently superior to placebo in improving the symptoms of overactive bladder syndrome, with 8 mg/day having significantly greater effects than 4 mg/day.

  4. Does fesoterodine have a role in the treatment of poorly managed patients with overactive bladder?

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    Morris V

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vikky Morris,1 Adrian Wagg21Geriatric Medicine, Taunton Hospital Somerset, UK; 2Division of Geriatric Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, CanadaAbstract: Overactive bladder (OAB, a clinically defined symptom complex comprising urinary urgency, usually accompanied by urinary frequency and nocturia, with or without urgency incontinence, is common and has a markedly negative impact on the sufferer's quality of life. Following conservative and lifestyle management, the current pharmacological mainstay of treatment is antimuscarinic therapy. This review explores the role of fesoterodine, a relatively recently introduced antimuscarinic agent, in the treatment of patients who may have had a suboptimal response to initial therapy, who have switched treatment from tolterodine, or may be at risk of receiving poor treatment because of either multimorbidity or complex polypharmacy.Keywords: elderly, fesoterodine, overactive bladder, urgency incontinence

  5. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder.

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    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans.

  6. Profile of mirabegron in the treatment of overactive bladder: place in therapy

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    Sharaf A

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ala’a Sharaf, Hashim Hashim Female and Functional Urology Unit, Bristol Urological Institute, Bristol, UK Abstract: Mirabegron is a relatively new drug introduced to treat overactive bladder syndrome. It can be used either on its own or as part of a combination. This drug has been extensively studied, with a good number of Phase II and Phase III trials showing promising outcomes. These studies show that mirabegron is an effective, well-tolerated drug, which could have some adverse effects of concern. In this review, we look at the trials on mirabegron, as well as its pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, and side effects as documented in the literature. Keywords: mirabegron, overactive bladder disorder, antimuscarinics

  7. Chapter 4: Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) and neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO).

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    Nambiar, Arjun; Lucas, Malcolm

    2014-07-01

    This chapter focuses on the position of botulinum toxin type A in the treatment pathway for overactive bladder (OAB) and neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction associated with neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO), and the recommendations of the major international guideline groups. Recommendations of different guideline groups may vary, especially when evidence is weak, often because of differences in methodology and panel composition. Relevant guidelines from the European Association of Urology, American Urological Association, and the UK National Institute for Care and Clinical Excellence were reviewed, and the recommendations that form the basis of the treatment algorithms have been discussed. Any differences between guidelines have been highlighted and special emphasis made on the position of botulinum toxin type A in these pathways. In all the reviewed guidelines, botulinum toxin type A is recommended, alongside sacral nerve neuromodulation, to treat OAB and NDO in patients who have failed oral therapy. The evidence base is consistent, but further evidence is required regarding optimal dosing regimens and injection technique.

  8. Tolterodine: a review of its use in the treatment of overactive bladder.

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    Clemett, D; Jarvis, B

    2001-01-01

    Tolterodine is a competitive muscarinic receptor antagonist that shows in vivo selectivity for the bladder over the salivary glands compared with oxybutinin. Results of randomised double-blind placebo-controlled studies indicate that tolterodine 4 mg/day (administered as immediate-release tablets 2mg twice daily or extended-release capsules 4mg daily) is superior to placebo in improving micturition diary variables in patients with overactive bladder. Moreover, tolterodine 2mg twice daily is as effective as oxybutynin 5mg 3 times daily. Maximum treatment effects with both drugs occurred after 5 to 8 weeks of treatment and improvements were maintained during long term treatment for up to 24 months. In a pooled analysis of four 12-week studies, equivalent and significant reductions in micturition frequency (-2.3 and -2.0 vs -1.4, p tolterodine 2mg twice daily and oxybutynin 5mg 3 times daily compared with placebo. Functional bladder capacity was also significantly increased. Improvements in patient perceptions of their urgency symptoms and of problems caused by their bladder condition were significantly greater during treatment with tolterodine than with placebo. Tolterodine was generally well tolerated in clinical trials of up to 24 months' duration. Dry mouth was the most frequent adverse event. The incidence (40 vs 78%, p tolterodine 2mg twice daily than oxybutynin 5mg 3 times daily. Additionally, a 23% lower incidence of dry mouth was reported with once daily extended-release tolterodine capsules than with twice daily immediate-release tablets (p tolterodine was low and similar to that of placebo. Tolterodine was well tolerated in elderly patients and no serious tolerability concerns were identified. Tolterodine is the first antimuscarinic agent to specifically developed for the treatment of overactive bladder. The functional selectivity of tolterodine for the bladder translates into good efficacy and tolerability in patients, including the elderly, with

  9. Predictors of Response to Intradetrusor Botulinum Toxin-A Injections in Patients with Idiopathic Overactive Bladder

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    Brian L. Cohen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate whether there are any demographic or urodynamic differences in patients with idiopathic overactive bladder (I-OAB that respond and do not respond to intradetrusor injections of botulinum toxin-A (BTX-A. Methods. This represents a secondary analysis of data collected from an investigator initiated randomized trial designed to evaluate clinical differences in outcomes for 100 versus 150 U BTX-A in patients with I-OAB. Preinjection demographic and urodynamic data were collected. Patients were evaluated 12 weeks after injection and were determined to be responders or nonresponders as defined by our criteria. Statistical comparisons were made between groups. Results. In patients with overactive bladder without incontinence (OAB-Dry, there were no variables that could be used to predict response to BTX-A. On univariate analysis, younger patients with overactive bladder with incontinence (OAB-Wet were more likely to respond to BTX-A than older patients. However, this relationship was no longer statistically significant on multivariate analysis. Conclusions. We were unable to identify any preinjection demographic or urodynamic parameters that could aid in predicting which patients will achieve clinical response to BTX-A. Future studies are necessary to further evaluate this question.

  10. Relationship Between the Use of Diuretics and Overactive Bladder in Patients with Heart Failure

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    Bulent Altunoluk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB in outpatient heart failure patients and to evaluate the clinical and laboratory parameters that may be associated with OAB. Material and Method: The study included 84 patients (59 males, 25 females; mean age 62.3 ± 10.8 years who admitted as heart failure patients. OAB syndrome was determined according to OAB-validated 8-question awareness tool (OAB-V8 scores and data on demographic variables were collected from medical record.  The patients were divided into two groups depending on the presence (group I or absence (group II of OAB symptoms. The clinical parameters potentially related with OAB were compared between the two groups. Results: There were forty-three patients (51.2 % with OAB (group I and 41 patients (48.8 % without OAB (group II. Only the frequency of combined diuretics usage (aldosterone antagonist and loop diuretics was significantly higher (27.4% vs. 14.3%; p=0.021 in group I. Other clinical and laboratory findings were similar between the groups. Discussion: The current study demonstrated that OAB was a common syndrome in patients with heart failure and it was associated with combined use of diuretics.  

  11. Inhibitory Effect and Possible Mechanism of Intraurethral Stimulation on Overactive Bladder in Female Rats.

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    Tian, Yu; Liao, Limin; Wyndaele, Jean Jacques

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the inhibitory effect and possible mechanism of intraurethral stimulation on overactive bladder (OAB) induced by acetic acid irritation. Cystometry was performed in 13 urethane-anesthetized female rats. Intravesical infusion of 0.5% acetic acid was used to irritate the bladder and induce OAB. Multiple cystometrograms were performed with mirabegron, continuous stimulation, mirabegron plus continuous stimulation, and β3-adrenoceptor antagonist plus continuous stimulation to determine the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect by intraurethral stimulation. Infusion of acetic acid significantly decreased bladder capacity. Intraurethral stimulation at 2.5 Hz plus mirabegron significantly increased bladder capacity and decreased the nonvoiding contraction count. The changes were strongly inhibited after the β3-adrenoceptor antagonist was administered. Activation of urethral afferent nerves can reverse OAB, which activates C-fiber afferent nerves. This animal study indicates that intraurethral stimulation may interfere with OAB through hypogastric nerve activation and pudendal nerve neuromodulation.

  12. Correlation between overactive bladder symptom score and neuropsychological parameters in Alzheimer’s disease patients with lower urinary tract symptom

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    Jung, Ha Bum; Choi, Don Kyoung; Lee, Seong Ho; Cho, Sung Tae; Na, Hae Ri; Park, Moon Ho

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To examine an association between the overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS) and neuropsychological parameters. Moreover, we investigate the factors that affect each item in the questionnaire. Materials and Methods A total of 376 patients (males: 184; females: 192) with probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD) were recruited. Cognitive testing was conducted using the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale, Global Deterioration Scale (GDS), and Barthel Activities of Daily Living (ADL). Lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS) was assessed using OABSS and voiding diary. Results The prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) (defined as OABSS ≥3 with an urgency score of ≥2) in patients with AD was 72.6%. Among the OAB subjects, the most common severity of symptom was moderate (72.6%), followed by mild (21.2%), and severe (5.8%). It was found that OABSS had a very high correlation with aging (r=0.75; p<0.001). When compared with neuropsychological parameters, it was found that OABSS was highly correlated with the CDR scores (r=0.446; p<0.001). However, no significant correlation was found between the changes in OABSS scores and those in other neuropsychological parameters. Based on the individual symptom scores, urgency incontinence was highly correlated with the CDR scores (r=0.43; p<0.001). Conclusions OABSS is a useful tool in assessing AD patients with LUTS. There was a consistent positive association between OABSS severity, including urgency incontinence, and CDR scores. PMID:27802001

  13. Urodynamic investigation of cyclophosphamide-induced overactive bladder in conscious rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Feng; LIU Di; HAN Xiao-min; LI Wen-cheng; PANG Zi-li; LI Bing; ZHANG Xiao-ping; XIAO Ya-jun; ZENG Fu-qing

    2012-01-01

    Background Overactive bladder (OAB) can be caused by many factors such as inflammation,bladder outlet obstruction,neurogenic factors.We performed an intraperitoneal (ip) injection of cyclophosphamide to induce cystitis in rats,which causes their detrusors to overact,to provide a valuable disease model for discussing OAB pathogenesis and to study effective curing methods.Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats were induced to form cystitis by cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg,ip).The day after the injection,two catheters were inserted into each rat's bladder to study its urodynamics.The BL-410 model bio-function experimental system was used to monitor bladder pressure while the rats were conscious.Unstable detrusor contractions appear in the urine storage period as a standard to determine OAB,and the positive rate was calculated.Urodynamic parameters such as bladder basal pressure (BP),maximum voiding pressure (MVP),intercontraction interval (ICI),spontaneous activity (SA),maximum cystometric capacity (MCC),and bladder compliance (BC) were recorded in each group,and a light microscope was used to observe the pathological changes in the rat bladder tissue.Results The detrusor instability rate of the model group was 83.33%.The MVP,MCC and BC of rats in the model group were lower than the control group (P <0.01),and the BP,ICI and SA of the model group rats were higher than the control group (P <0.01).The difference between the control group and the model group is statistically significant.The model group rats' bladder walls swelled and bled,the submucosa thickened and leukocyte infiltration became serious.Conclusions Acute cystitis and OAB symptoms can be induced by ip injections of cyclophosphamide in rats.This can provide a valuable animal model to study OAB in human beings.

  14. Chapter 2: Pathophysiology of neurogenic detrusor overactivity and the symptom complex of "overactive bladder".

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    Chapple, Christopher

    2014-07-01

    It is now clearly recognized that the function of the lower urinary tract represents a complex interaction between the bladder and its outlet, acting under the control of the central nervous system. While in the past attention has principally focused on the motor (efferent) control of the bladder, sensory (afferent) innervation is now known to be an important therapeutic target. This change in emphasis is strongly supported by both basic science and clinical evidence demonstrating the efficacy of therapy directed at the afferent system. This chapter summarizes the neurophysiological control mechanism that underpins normal lower urinary tract function, emphasizing the importance of the afferent system as a potential therapeutic target.

  15. A short review of drug-food interactions of medicines treating overactive bladder syndrome.

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    Paśko, Paweł; Rodacki, Tomasz; Domagała-Rodacka, Renata; Owczarek, Danuta

    2016-12-01

    Background Overactive bladder syndrome is a condition where one or more of the symptoms such as pollakiuria, urgent need to urinate, nocturia and urinary incontinence is observed. Its prevalence ranges between 7 and 27 % in men and 9-43 % in women. The role of a pharmacist is to educate the patient on medications administration scheme, and drug interactions with particular food or food components. Aim of the review To assess a potential impact of food and fruit juice on the pharmacokinetic and therapeutic effects of medications used in treating overactive bladder syndrome. This information will enhance pharmaceutical care and is vital and helpful for pharmacists counseling their patients. Method In order to gather information on interactions of medications employed in bladder dysfunctions, the English language reports published in the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane and CINAHL database over the years 1996-2015 were studied. Additionally, other resources, namely drugs.com, Medscape, UpToDate, Micromedex, Medical Letter, as well as Stockley Drugs Interaction electronic publication were included in the study. The analysis also covered product data sheets for particular medicinal products. Results Meals and the consumption of grapefruit juice were found to exert a diversified effect on the pharmacokinetics of drugs employed in overactive bladder syndrome therapy. Neither tolterodine, nor mirabegron interact with food and citrus fruit juice, whereas darifenacin, fesoterodine, oxybutynin and solifenacin do interact with grapefruit and others citrus fruit juice. The effects of such interactions may potentially be negative to patients. Trospium absorption is significantly decreased by food. Conclusion For selected medicines used in treating bladder dysfunctions food and grapefruit juice consumption may significantly affect efficacy and safety of the therapy. All information on the topic is likely to enhance the quality of pharmaceutical care.

  16. Insulin relaxes bladder via PI3K/AKT/eNOS pathway activation in mucosa: unfolded protein response-dependent insulin resistance as a cause of obesity-associated overactive bladder

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    Leiria, Luiz O; Sollon, Carolina; Báu, Fernando R; Mónica, Fabíola Z; D’Ancona, Carlos L; De Nucci, Gilberto; Grant, Andrew D; Anhê, Gabriel F; Antunes, Edson

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the role of insulin in the bladder and its relevance for the development of overactive bladder (OAB) in insulin-resistant obese mice. Bladders from male individuals who were involved in multiple organ donations were used. C57BL6/J mice were fed with a high-fat diet for 10 weeks to induce insulin-resistant obesity. Concentration–response curves to insulin were performed in human and mouse isolated mucosa-intact and mucosa-denuded bladders. Cystometric study was performed in terminally anaesthetized mice. Western blot was performed in bladders to detect phosphorylated endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) (Ser1177) and the phosphorylated protein kinase AKT (Ser473), as well as the unfolded protein response (UPR) markers TRIB3, CHOP and ATF4. Insulin (1–100 nm) produced concentration-dependent mouse and human bladder relaxations that were markedly reduced by mucosal removal or inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/eNOS pathway. In mouse bladders, insulin produced a 3.0-fold increase in cGMP levels (P insulin-induced phosphorylation of AKT and eNOS in bladder mucosa. Obese mice showed greater voiding frequency and non-voiding contractions, indicating overactive detrusor smooth muscle. Insulin failed to relax the bladder or to increase cGMP in the obese group. Insulin-stimulated AKT and eNOS phosphorylation in mucosa was also impaired in obese mice. The UPR markers TRIB3, CHOP and ATF4 were increased in the mucosa of obese mice. The UPR inhibitor 4-phenyl butyric acid normalized all the functional and molecular parameters in obese mice. Our data show that insulin relaxes human and mouse bladder via activation of the PI3K/AKT/eNOS pathway in the bladder mucosa. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-dependent insulin resistance in bladder contributes to OAB in obese mice. PMID:23478138

  17. Factors Associated with Therapeutic Efficacy of Intravesical OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection for Overactive Bladder Syndrome.

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    Sheng-Mou Hsiao

    Full Text Available To analyze the predictors of therapeutic efficacy after intravesical botulinum toxin A injection for overactive bladder syndrome (OAB refractory to antimuscarinic therapy.All consecutively OAB patients, who visited the urologic outpatient clinics of a medical center and refractory to antimuscarinic treatment, were prospectively enrolled. All enrolled patients received intravesical injection of 100 U onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox. The Global Response Assessment (GRA score ≥ 2 at 3 months after Botox injection was defined as a successful treatment, otherwise failed.Overall, 89 patients received intravesical injection. Eighty patients, including 42 men and 38 women, had received follow-up at 3 months. The overall success rate was 63.8%. The global response assessment, urgency severity score, urgency, urgency urinary incontinence and frequency episodes, and functional bladder capacity improved after treatment. However, post-void residual volume (PVR increased, and voiding efficiency (VE decreased after treatment. Female gender (odds ratio = 3.75 was the only independent factor associated with the success. Female gender (coefficient = 0.74, low baseline overactive bladder symptoms score (coefficient = -0.12 and the presence of OAB-wet (coefficient = 0.79 were independent factors associated with therapeutic efficacy (i.e., GRA score. VE (odds ratio = 0.062 was the only predictor for a large PVR at 3 months. The optimum cutoff value of VE was <87% with the area under the ROC curve being 0.64 (sensitivity = 63.8%, specificity = 57.1%.The therapeutic effects of Botox can persist till 6 months after treatment. Female gender, low overactive bladder symptoms score and OAB-wet are associated better therapeutic efficacy, and low baseline VE is associated with large PVR. These findings can serve as an initial guide or assist in consultation regarding the treatment of OAB patients with Botox injection.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01657409.

  18. Benefit-risk assessment of tolterodine in the treatment of overactive bladder in adults.

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    Garely, Alan D; Burrows, Lara

    2004-01-01

    Overactive bladder is associated with symptoms of urgency, with or without urge incontinence, usually with daytime frequency and nocturia in the absence of local pathological factors. Muscarinic receptor antagonists (antimuscarinics) are the first-line pharmacotherapy. Tolterodine, a competitive, nonselective antimuscarinic specifically developed for the treatment of overactive bladder, demonstrated tissue selectivity for the bladder over the parotid gland in an animal model. As of March 5, 2003, the immediate-release (IR) formulation had been approved in 72 countries and the extended-release (ER) formulation had been approved in 28 countries, and tolterodine had been administered to 5 million patients. This review evaluates the benefit-risk profile of tolterodine in the treatment of adults with overactive bladder, summarising clinical trial and postmarketing surveillance data. Tolterodine has been found to significantly reduce micturition frequency, urgency perception and the number of episodes of urge incontinence and increase the volume voided per micturition. Dry mouth, an antimuscarinic class effect, is the most commonly reported adverse effect but is mostly mild to moderate in severity. Serious adverse effects are reported infrequently. Based on summary and review of postmarketing surveillance and clinical trial safety data received by the market authorization holder and contained in the Periodic Safety Update Reports for tolterodine, several monitored serious events of the gastrointestinal tract (e.g. ileus or haemorrhage), nervous system (e.g. syncope, convulsions and memory disorders) and cardiovascular system (e.g. ventricular arrhythmia, atrial fibrillation, palpitations, bradycardia, transient ischaemic attacks and hypertension) were not considered related to tolterodine. QT or corrected QT (QTc) prolongation was not observed in any of the five cases of verified ventricular arrhythmia in patients administered tolterodine; there is insufficient evidence

  19. Prominent complaint: a guide to medical therapy of overactive bladder syndrome in older women.

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    Jafarabadi, Mina; Ghanbari, Zinat; Hashemi, Shahrzad; Nemati, Maryam; Haghollahi, Fedyeh; Azimi Nekoo, Elham

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate Overactive bladder (OAB) with detrusor overactivity (DOA) following oxybutynin or tolterodine treatment in recommended doses at a four-week course. A total of 100 Iranian women 45 years or older with urgency that also showed idiopathic detrusor overactivity (IDO) in the filling phase of their cystometry were included in the current study. In this double-blinded trial two parallel groups were randomized by using two kinds of the antimuscarinic drugs for a four- week course [oxybutinin 5mg, t.d.s. or Tolterodin 2mg, b.i.d.] in the same  packages. Data were collected from three-day frequency volume chart (FVC) one month before and after the treatment course. The effectiveness of each drug was compared using the paired, samples t-test. Patients' improvement regarding urinary urgency, frequency and urge incontinence after treatment in both groups was seen, but mean improvements in the terms of urgency and urge incontinence were larger in patients who were treated by oxybutynin. Night-time frequency was shown to be improved by a significantly larger score by tolterodine. Discontinuation of treatment due to adverse events had no significant difference in two groups. Four-week treatment with oxybutynin was better than tolterodine IR in improving urgency and urge incontinence, but there were not statistically significant difference between them. In planning a course of treatment especially in the elderly, the difference in the group of symptoms that reduce patients' quality of life should be considered. Physicians should consider the patient's prominent symptom in selection of anti-muscarinic drugs for the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome especially in elderly patients.

  20. Prominent complaint: a guide to medical therapy of overactive bladder syndrome in older women.

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    Mina Jafarabadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate Overactive bladder (OAB with detrusor overactivity (DOA following oxybutynin or tolterodine treatment in recommended doses at a four-week course. A total of 100 Iranian women 45 years or older with urgency that also showed idiopathic detrusor overactivity (IDO in the filling phase of their cystometry were included in the current study. In this double-blinded trial two parallel groups were randomized by using two kinds of the antimuscarinic drugs for a four- week course [oxybutinin 5mg, t.d.s. or Tolterodin 2mg, b.i.d.] in the same  packages. Data were collected from three-day frequency volume chart (FVC one month before and after the treatment course. The effectiveness of each drug was compared using the paired, samples t-test. Patients' improvement regarding urinary urgency, frequency and urge incontinence after treatment in both groups was seen, but mean improvements in the terms of urgency and urge incontinence were larger in patients who were treated by oxybutynin. Night-time frequency was shown to be improved by a significantly larger score by tolterodine. Discontinuation of treatment due to adverse events had no significant difference in two groups. Four-week treatment with oxybutynin was better than tolterodine IR in improving urgency and urge incontinence, but there were not statistically significant difference between them. In planning a course of treatment especially in the elderly, the difference in the group of symptoms that reduce patients' quality of life should be considered. Physicians should consider the patient's prominent symptom in selection of anti-muscarinic drugs for the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome especially in elderly patients.

  1. Behavioral Intervention versus Pharmacotherapy or Their Combinations in the Management of Overactive Bladder Dysfunction

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    Khanh Tran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Overactive bladder syndrome (OAB refers to individuals with the following symptoms: urinary urgency, increased urinary frequency, and urge incontinence. These symptoms are not life threatening but can cause embarrassment and significantly impact quality of life. There are numerous treatment options for OAB, including behavioral therapy, traditional pharmacological therapy or a combination of the two. These options are considered the mainstay of treatment for OAB. We carried out a comprehensive systematic review of the available literature on the effectiveness of behavioral intervention, anticholinergic drugs, and their combination in the management of adults with overactive bladder, with emphasis on results from clinical trials and primary literature. Each treatment intervention is efficacious, and the choice should be based on the patient's severity of symptoms, tolerability, compliance and satisfaction with the treatment. Based on available literature, management of OAB using a combination of behavioral therapy and drug intervention is the most efficacious in terms of patient satisfaction, perceived improvement, and reduction of bladder symptoms. It is also the most practical and cost effective for optimal management of patients with OAB. Pharmacological treatment, in addition to behavioral therapy, remains important in the management of adults with OAB syndrome.

  2. Efficacy of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation in the Treatment of Overactive Bladder

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    Rekha, Kaja; Srinivasan, Krishnamurthy Jayashree

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Overactive Bladder (OAB) accounts for 40-70% cases of incontinence. The etiology is unknown though detrusor instability is found in urodynamic evaluation of almost all cases. Detrusor instability or hyperreflexia can be inhibited by direct inhibition of impulses in the pre-ganglionic afferent neuron or by inhibition of bladder pre-ganglionic neurons of the efferent limb of micturition reflex. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) is based on the gate control theory of abolishing the local micturition reflex arc. Aim To assess the effectiveness and safety of TENS in idiopathic OAB. Materials and Methods It is a prospective experimental study to evaluate the effectiveness of TENS v/s placebo in reducing OAB symptoms. (n1=20, n2 =20). Ten treatment sessions (5 sessions/week) of 30 minutes, were conducted. Results There was a significant improvement in Overactive Bladder Symptom Scores (OABSS) in TENS group and 2 patients were completely dry following TENS therapy. Conclusion In elderly women, patients with OAB where other co-medications have their own anticholinergic side effects and impairment of cognition is a concern, TENS can be a useful intervention. TENS units are safe, economical and easily commercially available. PMID:27891403

  3. Impact of daily number of urgency urinary incontinence episodes on overactive bladder patient reported outcomes.

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    Angulo, J C; Brenes, F J; Lizarraga, I; Rejas, J; Trillo, S; Ochayta, D; Arumi, D

    2016-04-01

    To explore the impact of urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) on well-being in non-institutionalized patients with overactive bladder (OAB) in a community sample. A cross-sectional web-based study was conducted in the general population, including males and females, >18 years of age. Patients with probable OAB were identified using a validated algorithm together with a score ≥8 on the OAB-V8 scale. Presence of coping behavior was considered determinant for the clinical diagnosis of OAB. Individual well-being was determined through a battery of patient-reported outcomes (PRO) measurements including assessment of health-related quality of life (EQ-5D), sleep disturbances (MOS Sleep), and life satisfaction (LISAT-8). Patients were grouped according to the number of daily UUI episodes (UUI severity): 0 (dry OAB),1, 2-3, or ≥4. Multivariate analysis to evaluate factors independently affecting quality of life was undertaken. A total of 396 patients (52.5% women, mean age: 55.3 [11.1] years, OAB-V8 mean score: 14.5 [7.9]) out of 2035 subjects participating from the general population met the criteria for OAB: 203 (51.3%) with 0episodes, 119 (30.1%) with 1, 52 (13.1%) with 2 or 3, and 22 (5.6%) with ≥4 episodes. A statistically significant linear adjusted association was found between number of UUI episodes and PRO scores. Participants with more episodes had poorer health profiles and self-evaluated quality of life, worse life satisfaction, and more sleep disturbances and fewer hours of sleep per night. Number of incontinence episodes was independent factor to affect quality of life using both LISAT-8 and MOS questionnaires. Severity of UUI was significantly associated with poorer individual well-being in subjects with OAB in a community sample in Spain. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Does fesoterodine have a role in the treatment of poorly managed patients with overactive bladder?

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    Morris, Vikky; Wagg, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB), a clinically defined symptom complex comprising urinary urgency, usually accompanied by urinary frequency and nocturia, with or without urgency incontinence, is common and has a markedly negative impact on the sufferer's quality of life. Following conservative and lifestyle management, the current pharmacological mainstay of treatment is antimuscarinic therapy. This review explores the role of fesoterodine, a relatively recently introduced antimuscarinic agent, in the treatment of patients who may have had a suboptimal response to initial therapy, who have switched treatment from tolterodine, or may be at risk of receiving poor treatment because of either multimorbidity or complex polypharmacy.

  5. Profile of mirabegron in the treatment of overactive bladder: place in therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, Ala’a; Hashim, Hashim

    2017-01-01

    Mirabegron is a relatively new drug introduced to treat overactive bladder syndrome. It can be used either on its own or as part of a combination. This drug has been extensively studied, with a good number of Phase II and Phase III trials showing promising outcomes. These studies show that mirabegron is an effective, well-tolerated drug, which could have some adverse effects of concern. In this review, we look at the trials on mirabegron, as well as its pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, and side effects as documented in the literature. PMID:28255232

  6. Management of overactive bladder review: the role of percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elita Wibisono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Overactive bladder (OAB is a common condition that is experienced by around 455 million people (11% of the world population and associated with significant impact in patients’ quality of life. The first line treatments of OAB are conservative treatment and anti-muscarinic medication. For the refractory OAB patients, the treatment options available are surgical therapy, electrical stimulation, and botulinum toxin injection. Among them, percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS is a minimally invasive option that aims to stimulate sacral nerve plexus, a group of nerve that is responsible for regulation of bladder function. After its approval by food and drug administration (FDA in 2007, PTNS revealed considerable promise in OAB management. In this review, several non-comparative and comparative studies comparing PTNS with sham procedure, anti-muscarinic therapy, and multimodal therapy combining PTNS and anti-muscarinic had supportive data to this consideration.

  7. Association of overactive bladder and stress urinary incontinence in rats with pudendal nerve ligation injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Akira; Kita, Masafumi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Egawa, Shin; Chancellor, Michael B; de Groat, William C; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2008-05-01

    Approximately one-third of patients with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) also suffer from urgency incontinence, which is one of the major symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome. Pudendal nerve injury has been recognized as a possible cause for both SUI and OAB. Therefore, we investigated the effects of pudendal nerve ligation (PNL) on bladder function and urinary continence in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Conscious cystometry with or without capsaicin pretreatment (125 mg/kg sc), leak point pressures (LPPs), contractile responses of bladder muscle strips to carbachol or phenylephrine, and levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) protein and mRNA in the bladder were compared in sham and PNL rats 4 wk after the injury. Urinary frequency detected by a reduction in intercontraction intervals and voided volume was observed in PNL rats compared with sham rats, but it was not seen in PNL rats with capsaicin pretreatment that desensitizes C-fiber-afferent pathways. LPPs in PNL rats were significantly decreased compared with sham rats. The contractile responses of detrusor muscle strips to phenylephrine, but not to carbachol, were significantly increased in PNL rats. The levels of NGF protein and mRNA in the bladder of PNL rats were significantly increased compared with sham rats. These results suggest that pudendal nerve neuropathy induced by PNL may be one of the potential risk factors for OAB, as well as SUI. Somato-visceral cross sensitization between somatic (pudendal) and visceral (bladder) sensory pathways that increases NGF expression and alpha(1)-adrenoceptor-mediated contractility in the bladder may be involved in this pathophysiological mechanism.

  8. [New perspectives of treatment with fesoterodine fumarate in patients with overactive bladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Baquero, R; Madurga, B; García, M V; Fernández, M A; Rosety, J M; Álvarez-Ossorio, J L

    2013-02-01

    Evaluate the effect of the treatment with fesoterodine fumarate in patients with overactive bladder, as an alternative in case of failure of the usual anticholinergic treatment, due to either lack of therapeutic efficacy or due to intolerance to side effects. A retrospective review of 158 patients with overactive bladder was carried out. The patients were divided into two groups; the first group; 56 patients where the anticholinergic treatment showed to be ineffective, and the second group; 102 patients who presented intolerance to anticholinergic side effects. For the first group where fesoterodine fumarate was used to improve effectiveness of the anticholinergics, improvement in the components of urinary urgency (p=0.001), insufficient emptying (p=0.001), incontinence (p=0.009), and in the number of pads/day (pfesoterodine fumarate was used as an alternative to anticholinergics to avoid side effects, a high reduction in the incidence of dry mouth (pFesoterodine fumarate is an optimal treatment option when the clinical response to anticholinergics has not been satisfactory, either by the lack of therapeutic action or by intolerance to side effects, and especially when the treatment is expected to be long. Copyright © 2012 AEU. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Female Functional Constipation Is Associated with Overactive Bladder Symptoms and Urinary Incontinence

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    Takahiro Maeda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This noninterventional cross-sectional study aims to assess the association between functional constipation (FC and urinary symptoms in female patients with no treatment for urination and defecation. The Rome III criteria for evaluation of defecation, Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS for evaluation of urinary symptoms, and clinical features were investigated in 145 female patients. Latent FC and moderate to severe overactive bladder (OAB were defined on the basis of positivity for two or more of the Rome III criteria and an OABSS ≥ 6 with OABSS Q3 ≥ 2, respectively. In 60 latent FC patients, the OABSS was higher (5.0 versus 3.2, p=0.001, and concurrent moderate to severe OAB symptoms and OAB with urinary incontinence were more frequent than those in 85 nonlatent FC patients (33.3 versus 10.6%, p=0.001, and 31.7 versus 7.1%, p<0.001. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that moderate to severe OAB symptoms were a significant associated factor of latent FC (odds ratio (OR = 4.125, p=0.005, while latent FC was the only associated factor of moderate to severe OAB and OAB with urinary incontinence (OR = 4.227, p=0.005 and OR = 4.753, p=0.004. In conclusion, moderate to severe OAB symptoms are correlated with FC. Moreover, FC is related to moderate to severe OAB symptoms and to OAB with urinary incontinence.

  10. Perspectives on mirabegron in the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome: A new beta-3 adrenoceptor agonist

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    Chia-Hao Kuei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mirabegron, the first β3-adrenoceptor agonist introduced for use in clinical practice, differs from antimuscarinic agents in terms of mechanism of action. This review discusses various perspectives on mirabegron in terms of efficacy, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability for overactive bladder syndrome in studies conducted thus far. Mirabegron administered at daily doses of 25 mg, 50 mg, and 100 mg demonstrated significant improvements in micturition frequency, urgency incontinence, and mean volume voided/micturition as early as the first assessment, and these were maintained throughout the treatment course. Mirabegron seemed well tolerated. The most common adverse events observed with mirabegron in clinical trials were hypertension, nasopharyngitis, and urinary tract infection. The incidence of dry mouth was similar to that with placebo, between 3- and 5-fold lower than with 4 mg tolterodine extended release. Considering that dry mouth is the most bothersome adverse event associated with antimuscarinic drugs and often a reason for treatment discontinuation, mirabegron may be a valuable treatment option for these patients. The benefit of mirabegron (at doses of 50 mg and 100 mg was also evident in elderly patients and in both treatment-naive patients and those who previously discontinued antimuscarinic therapy. Mirabegron can also be used in combination with antimuscarinics or in addition to alpha blockers. Mirabegron may quickly become a standard treatment of overactive bladder syndrome.

  11. Oxybutynin extended release for the management of overactive bladder: a clinical review

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    AM Arisco

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available AM Arisco, EK Brantly, SR KrausUniversity of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Department of Urology, San Antonio, Texas, USAAbstract: Overactive bladder (OAB is a common condition which negatively impacts the quality of life of afflicted patients. This can result in alterations in social interactions at home, in the workplace and in the community, often leading to depression and poor self esteem as well as loss of productivity. Traditional mainstays of treatment include both behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy. Oxybutynin immediate release (IR represents the first such medication approved by the FDA specifically for treatment of OAB in 1975. Nevertheless, bothersome side effects in addition to thrice daily dosing often led to treatment cessation which raised the question that patients may actually prefer to live with their OAB symptoms rather than incur side effects or complex dosing schemes. Pharmacological advances ultimately led to development of a long-acting formulation of oxybutynin in the form of oxybutynin extended release (ER with the hope that this drug would maintain efficacy while decreasing bothersome side effects and improve compliance with the convenience of once daily dosing regimen. This paper will review the major clinical studies involving oxybutynin ER as well as its role in different patient populations and potential concerns with its use.Keywords: overactive bladder, urinary urge incontinence, antimuscarinic, oxybutynin 

  12. Overactive bladder: the importance of tailoring treatment to the individual patient

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    Drutz HP

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Harold P DrutzDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Ontario, CanadaOn behalf of the Specialist Advisory Group on OAB (Lake Como, Italy, June 2009Introduction: Overactive bladder (OAB is a prevalent and persistent condition that is often under-diagnosed and under-treated, and which frequently requires tailored treatment for successful management.Methods: This consensus opinion-based review summarizes the discussions of a group of experts in the field of OAB that were assembled to evaluate the importance of correct diagnosis and appropriate pharmacotherapy in patients with OAB.Results: A thorough diagnostic process is crucial for allowing exclusion of underlying medical issues and differentiation from genitourinary conditions other than OAB. In addition, selecting the most appropriate pharmacotherapy needs to be carefully considered in the context of each patient with OAB. In general, patients with OAB tend to be older with various comorbidities and often receiving multiple concomitant medications. Treatment decisions should take into consideration the differing potential for antimuscarinic medications to alter cognitive and cardiovascular functions, both of which may be compromised in this patient population.Conclusion: Tailoring treatment to individual patients by comprehensive patient assessment may lead to more effective management of patients with OAB, especially those receiving polypharmacy for comorbidities.Keywords: overactive bladder, diagnosis, antimuscarinics, cognitive function, cardiovascular 

  13. The effectiveness of foot reflexology and behavior treatment in patient with overactive bladder syndrome: A case report

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    Yasemin Aydın

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to determine the foot reflexology and activity of behavior therapy in the patients who have overactive bladder syndrome. In the study, behavior therapy (Bladder Training + Diet Modifications and foot reflexology were applied together. Foot reflexology treatment was performed for 12 sessions and each session took 45 to 60 minutes to complete. For data collection, a descriptive information form, The Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7, Urinary Diaries and The 24 Hour Pad Test were administered. Assessments were done in two steps (prior to treatment and 3 months after treatment. The primary outcome measure was the change in the diurnal micturition frequency. It was found that urgency and urgency incontinence episodes were significantly lower after treatment.  According to study findings, foot reflexology, which was added to behavior therapy (Bladder Training + Diet Modifications, reduced most of urinary symptoms and affected quality of life positively in women with overactive bladder complaints.

  14. The effectiveness of foot reflexology and behavior treatment in patient with overactive bladder syndrome: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Yasemin Aydın

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to determine the foot reflexology and activity of behavior therapy in the patients who have overactive bladder syndrome. In the study, behavior therapy (Bladder Training + Diet Modifications) and foot reflexology were applied together. Foot reflexology treatment was performed for 12 sessions and each session took 45 to 60 minutes to complete. For data collection, a descriptive information form, The Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7), Urinary Diarie...

  15. Correlation between psychological stress levels and the severity of overactive bladder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Henry; Gardner, Vivien; Vetter, Joel; Andriole, Gerald L

    2015-03-08

    The relationship between psychological stress and interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) has been well described. Even though there is some overlapping of symptoms between overactive bladder (OAB) and IC/BPS, there have been very few studies that specifically investigated the relationship between psychological stress and urinary symptoms in OAB patients who do not have pelvic pain. Here we examined the relationship between psychological stress levels and the severity of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. Patients diagnosed with OAB (n=51), IC/BPS (n=27), and age-matched healthy controls (n=30) participated in a case control study that inquired about their psychological stress levels using the perceived stress scale (PSS). PSS reported by the three patient groups were compared. Among OAB patients, their responses on the PSS was correlated to OAB symptoms using the following questionnaires: 1) international consultation on incontinence - urinary incontinence (ICIQ-UI), 2) international consultation on incontinence - overactive bladder (ICIQ-OAB), 3) OAB-q short form, 4) urogenital distress inventory (UDI-6), 5) incontinence impact questionnaire (IIQ-7), 6) urgency severity scale (USS), 7) numeric rating scales of urgency symptom, and 8) frequency symptom. Spearman's correlation tests were performed to examine the relationship between psychological stress levels and the severity of OAB symptoms. OAB patients reported psychological stress levels that were as high as IC/BPS patients (median 17.0 versus 18.0, p=0.818, Wilcoxon sum rank test), and significantly higher than healthy controls (17.0, versus 7.5, p=0.001). Among OAB patients, there was a positive correlation between perceived stress levels and urinary incontinence symptoms (ICIQ-UI, Spearman's correlation coefficient=0.39, p=0.007), and impacts on quality of life (UDI-6, IIQ-7, OAB-q quality of life subscale; Spearman's correlation coefficient=0.32, 0.31, 0.39, and p=0.028, 0.005, 0

  16. Symptom score change and patient versus doctor satisfaction in overactive bladder before and after anti-muscarinic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyavejchevin, Suvit

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate voiding symptoms and questionnaire score change before and after anti-muscarinic treatment and evaluate the correlation of agreement in patient and doctor satisfaction after treatment. Forty women newly diagnosed with overactive bladder (OAB), attending the urogynecology clinic at Chulalongkorn Hospital during April-June 2011 were recruited. Tolterodine 4 mg orally once daily was given for 4 weeks. A voiding diary and Thai version of the OAB questionnaires eight-item Overactive Bladder awareness tool (OAB-v8), Overactive Bladder Symptoms Score (OABSS) and Overactive Bladder QOL (OABq) were completed before and at the end of treatment. At the end of the trial, self-report patient satisfaction, and doctor satisfaction (according to symptom improvement in the voiding diary) were assessed. Student's t-test and weighted kappa coefficients were used in statistical analysis. Sample size was calculated from an OAB questionnaire pilot study with 20% addition for loss to follow up. All voiding parameters and questionnaire scores (OAB-v8, OABSS and OABq) were improved after treatment. Weighted kappa was only 0.06, between doctor and patient satisfaction. OAB-v8 and OABSS questionnaires can be used as screening and follow-up tools. There is poor agreement between patient and doctor satisfaction. Satisfaction should therefore be measured from the patient's perspective. © 2015 The Author. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Modeling dose-response relationships of the effects of fesoterodine in patients with overactive bladder

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    Cardozo Linda

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fesoterodine is an antimuscarinic for the treatment of overactive bladder, a syndrome of urgency, with or without urgency urinary incontinence (UUI, usually with increased daytime frequency and nocturia. Our objective was to develop predictive models to describe the dose response of fesoterodine. Methods Data from subjects enrolled in double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II and III trials were used for developing longitudinal dose-response models. Results The models predicted that clinically significant and near-maximum treatment effects would be seen within 3 to 4 weeks after treatment initiation. For a typical patient with 11 micturitions per 24 hours at baseline, predicted change was -1.2, -1.7, and -2.2 micturitions for placebo and fesoterodine 4 mg and 8 mg, respectively. For a typical patient with 2 UUI episodes per 24 hours at baseline, predicted change was -1.05, -1.26, and -1.43 UUI episodes for placebo and fesoterodine 4 mg and 8 mg, respectively. Increase in mean voided volume was estimated at 9.7 mL for placebo, with an additional 14.2 mL and 28.4 mL for fesoterodine 4 mg and 8 mg, respectively. Conclusions A consistent dose response for fesoterodine was demonstrated for bladder diary endpoints in subjects with overactive bladder, a result that supports the greater efficacy seen with fesoterodine 8 mg in post hoc analyses of clinical trial data. The dose-response models can be used to predict outcomes for doses not studied or for patient subgroups underrepresented in clinical trials. Trial Registration The phase III trials used in this analysis have been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00220363 and NCT00138723.

  18. Efficacy and tolerability of fesoterodine in older and younger subjects with overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Stephen R; Ruiz-Cerdá, José Luis; Martire, Diane; Wang, Joseph T; Wagg, Adrian S

    2010-12-01

    To assess the effect of age on fesoterodine efficacy and tolerability in subjects with an overactive bladder. The data from 2 randomized, 12-week studies of 1681 subjects treated with fesoterodine 4 or 8 mg or placebo were pooled and stratified by age. The subjects completed 3-day bladder diaries at baseline and weeks 2 and 12, the King's Health Questionnaire at baseline and week 12, and the Treatment Benefit Scale at week 12. Of the subjects aged fesoterodine 4 and 8 mg was associated with statistically significant improvements in the diary variables at week 12 versus placebo. Greater improvement in urgency urinary incontinence was seen with fesoterodine 8 mg versus 4 mg. For those aged ≥65 to fesoterodine 4 and 8 mg significantly improved all diary variables, except for the mean voided volume and micturition frequency, respectively, [corrected] versus placebo. In subjects aged ≥75 years, fesoterodine 8 mg significantly improved all diary variables, except for mean voided volume, versus placebo. No significant improvements were observed with fesoterodine 4 mg versus placebo. Fesoterodine significantly improved several King's Health Questionnaire domains versus placebo in all age groups. Fesoterodine 4 mg did not significantly improve any domains in subjects aged ≥75 years. In all age groups, the treatment response rates were significantly greater with both fesoterodine doses versus placebo. Dry mouth and constipation occurred more frequently in subjects aged ≥75 years receiving fesoterodine 8 mg than in those receiving fesoterodine 4 mg or placebo, although the discontinuation rates because of dry mouth and constipation were not increased. Fesoterodine 4 and 8 mg effectively treated overactive bladder symptoms in subjects aged Fesoterodine 8 mg was effective in subjects aged ≥75 years. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Modeling dose-response relationships of the effects of fesoterodine in patients with overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, Linda; Khullar, Vik; El-Tahtawy, Ahmed; Guan, Zhonghong; Malhotra, Bimal; Staskin, David

    2010-08-19

    Fesoterodine is an antimuscarinic for the treatment of overactive bladder, a syndrome of urgency, with or without urgency urinary incontinence (UUI), usually with increased daytime frequency and nocturia. Our objective was to develop predictive models to describe the dose response of fesoterodine. Data from subjects enrolled in double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II and III trials were used for developing longitudinal dose-response models. The models predicted that clinically significant and near-maximum treatment effects would be seen within 3 to 4 weeks after treatment initiation. For a typical patient with 11 micturitions per 24 hours at baseline, predicted change was -1.2, -1.7, and -2.2 micturitions for placebo and fesoterodine 4 mg and 8 mg, respectively. For a typical patient with 2 UUI episodes per 24 hours at baseline, predicted change was -1.05, -1.26, and -1.43 UUI episodes for placebo and fesoterodine 4 mg and 8 mg, respectively. Increase in mean voided volume was estimated at 9.7 mL for placebo, with an additional 14.2 mL and 28.4 mL for fesoterodine 4 mg and 8 mg, respectively. A consistent dose response for fesoterodine was demonstrated for bladder diary endpoints in subjects with overactive bladder, a result that supports the greater efficacy seen with fesoterodine 8 mg in post hoc analyses of clinical trial data. The dose-response models can be used to predict outcomes for doses not studied or for patient subgroups underrepresented in clinical trials. The phase III trials used in this analysis have been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00220363 and NCT00138723).

  20. 神经源性膀胱过度活动症的研究进展%Research Progress of Neurogenic Bladder Overactivity (review)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高轶; 廖利民

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenic overactivity bladder is a type of overactive bladder with high incidence. This paper reviewed the research prog-ress of neurogenic overactivity bladder in etiology, pathophysiology and treatment.%神经源性膀胱过度活动症是膀胱过度活动症中较为高发的一种类型。本文从神经源性膀胱过度活动症的病因、病理生理及治疗方面综述神经源性膀胱过度活动症的研究进展。

  1. Oxybutynin and tolterodine in a trial for treatment of overactive bladder in Iranian women.

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    Elham Aziminekoo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy and side effects of Oxybutinin in comparison to tolterodine in treatment of overactive bladder (OAB with detrussor overactivity (DOA in Iranian women.One hundred Iranian old women with clinical symptoms of OAB who show IDO in the filling cystometry participated in this randomized double-blinded parallel-group by using two kinds of the drugs for 4- week course (2 mg tolterodine twice-daily, or oxybutinin 5 mg, three times a day in alike packages. We collected data from 3-day FVC before and after the treatment course. The effectiveness of each drug was studied using the paired t-test and improvement after treatment between two groups was compared by independent T-test.Positive changes in urinary urgency, Frequency and Urge incontinence after treatment in both groups were seen but mean improvements in the all were larger in the patients who treated by oxybutinin especially in terms of urgency and Urge incontinence. Dry mouth was the most common side-effect in two groups. Unlike other studies it was higher in the tolterodine group but the difference was not significant.Four week treatment with oxybutinin was better than tolterodine in improving urgency and urge incontinence but there were not statistically significance between them.

  2. Daily Enema Regimen Is Superior to Traditional Therapies for Nonneurogenic Pediatric Overactive Bladder

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    Steve J. Hodges MD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of daily enemas for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB in children. This study was a prospective, controlled trial of 60 children with nonneurogenic OAB. The control patients (40 were treated with standard therapies, including timed voiding, constipation treatment with osmotic laxatives, anticholinergics, and biofeedback physical therapy, whereas the treatment patients (20 received only daily enemas and osmotic laxatives. On assessment of improvement of OAB symptoms, only 30% of the traditionally treated patients’ parents reported resolution of symptoms at 3 months, whereas 85% of enema patients did. At the onset of the study, the average pediatric voiding dysfunction score of all patients was 14, whereas on follow-up, the average scores for traditionally treated patients and enema-treated patients were 12 and 4, respectively. This study demonstrated that daily enema therapy is superior to traditional methods for the treatment of OAB.

  3. Evaluation of fesoterodine fumarate for the treatment of an overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Stephen; Dmochowski, Roger R

    2013-12-01

    Fesoterodine fumarate is an approved drug for overactive bladder. The aim of this study is to review the preclinical and most up to date clinical data on fesoterodine, with a special emphasis on its unique pharmacokinetic features and its implications on safety and tolerability in various patient populations. In this review, the authors extensively reviewed available literature via PubMed search regarding fesoterodine, covering its mechanism of action, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, safety, and tolerability. Fesoterodine is an anti-muscarinic agent with a unique pharmacokinetic profile. It is a prodrug that is rapidly metabolized to its active form by nonspecific plasma esterases. Its metabolism is independent of the cytochrome P450 enzyme system. This along with its dual excretion pathways and minimal central nervous system penetration leads to less variability in drug exposure and allowance of administration in those with mild to moderate renal and hepatic insufficiency and in the geriatric population.

  4. Impact of Dry Mouth on Fluid Intake and Overactive Bladder Symptoms in Women taking Fesoterodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbart, Steven J; Lewis, Rusell; Smith, Ariana L; Harvie, Heidi S; Miller, Janis M; Arya, Lily A

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the long-term relationships between dry mouth, fluid intake and overactive bladder symptoms in women undergoing treatment with fesoterodine. We hypothesized that women who experienced dry mouth would increase their fluid intake and worsen their urinary symptoms. We conducted a prospective ancillary study to a 9-month open-label trial of fesoterodine for women with urgency urinary incontinence. Fluid intake was measured and compared according to reported dry mouth. Multivariable analysis was used to study the interaction between dry mouth, fluid intake and urinary symptoms. During the study 407 women without dry mouth significantly reduced their fluid intake (mean decrease 172.1 ml, median 118.3 ml, p = 0.02), while 91 women with dry mouth did not (mean decrease 95.8 ml, median 118.3 ml, p = 0.54). On univariable analysis a greater proportion of women who experienced dry mouth reported improvement in their urinary symptoms compared to women without dry mouth (60.5% vs 47.2%, p = 0.03). On multivariable analysis black women were less likely to report dry mouth (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.9, p = 0.03) and older women were less likely to report improvement in urinary symptoms (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96-0.99, p = 0.003). Factors not associated with improvement in urinary symptoms on multiple regression were dry mouth, baseline fluid intake volume, change in fluid intake volume and caffeine intake volume. In women with overactive bladder receiving fesoterodine dry mouth may prevent restriction of fluid intake but does not diminish treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Impact of Dry Mouth on Fluid Intake and Overactive Bladder Symptoms in Women taking Fesoterodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbart, Steven J.; Lewis, Rusell; Smith, Ariana L; Harvie, Heidi H; Miller, Janis M; Arya, Lily A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the long-term relationships between dry mouth, fluid intake and overactive bladder symptoms in women undergoing treatment with fesoterodine. We hypothesize that women who experience dry mouth will increase their fluid intake and worsen their urinary symptoms. Materials and Methods We conducted a prospective ancillary study to a 9 month open-label trial of fesoterodine for women with urgency urinary incontinence. Fluid intake was measured and compared according to reported dry mouth. Multivariable analysis was used to study the interaction between dry mouth, fluid intake and urinary symptoms. Results During the study, women without dry mouth (n=407) significantly reduced their fluid intake (mean decrease of 172.1 mL, median decrease of 118.3 mL, p= 0.02), while women with dry mouth (n=91) did not (mean decrease of 95.8 mL, median decrease of 118.3 mL, p=0.54). On univariable analysis, a greater proportion of women who experienced dry mouth reported improvement in their urinary symptoms compared to women without dry mouth (60.5% versus 47.2%, p=0.03). On multivariable analysis, Black/ African American women were less likely to report dry mouth (OR 0.4 95%CI 0.2–0.9, p=0.03) and older women were less likely to report improvement in urinary symptoms (OR 0.98 95%CI 0.96–0.99, p= 0.003). Factors not associated with improvement in urinary symptoms on multiple regression were dry mouth, baseline fluid intake volume, change in fluid intake volume, and caffeine intake volume. Conclusions In women with overactive bladder receiving fesoterodine, dry mouth may prevent women from restricting fluid intake, but does not diminish treatment efficacy. PMID:26682757

  6. Adherence to fesoterodine in women with overactive bladder in routine clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simó, M; Porta, O; Pubill, J; Castillo, M T; Mora, I; Huguet, E; Ortega, J A; Martínez, E

    2015-05-01

    To assess the short-term compliance with fesoterodine treatment and to identify the reasons for lack of adherence and discontinuation in routine clinical practice. The secondary aim was to estimate the patient-reported outcomes. This was an observational retrospective, multicenter study conducted in a sample of women with overactive bladder on fesoterodine treatment for at least three months. Adherence to medication was assessed using the Morisky-Green test. Patient-reported outcomes were assessed using the Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form (ICIQ-SF), Overactive Bladder Questionnaire Short Form (OAB-qSF), and Treatment Benefit Scale (TBS). One hundred and twenty women with a mean age [standard deviation (SD)] of 62.2 (12.0) years with severe OAB [mean (SD) ICIQ-SF score 13.2 (4.0)] were included. 42.1% of the patients were considered compliant with fesoterodine treatment. The main causes for non-compliance/discontinuation stated by the remaining 57.9% of the patients were adverse events (62.2%) and lack of clinical benefits (20.0%). The illness status as well as the patient-perceived bother occasioned by the OAB symptoms and their impact on the quality of life improved significantly after three months on fesoterodine treatment (pfesoterodine and perceived the benefit that the treatment provided them three months after starting treatment. However, more than half of the study population failed to comply or discontinued the treatment mainly due to intolerance or lack of efficacy. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficacy of fesoterodine on nocturia and quality of sleep in Asian patients with overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Osamu; Hiro, Shintaro; Hotta, Shinichi; Mogami, Satoru; Yamagami, Hidetomi

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the efficacy of fesoterodine vs placebo on nocturia, sleep disturbance, and sleep-related quality of life (QoL) in patients with overactive bladder and nocturia. This posthoc analysis used data from a 12-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of fesoterodine 4 and 8 mg per day in Asian adults reporting ≥8 micturitions and ≥1 urgency urinary incontinence episodes per 24 hours at baseline. Patients who reported ≥1 nocturnal micturition/24 h were included in this analysis. Efficacy variables included change from baseline to week 12/end of treatment in nocturnal micturitions/24 h, nocturnal voided volume/micturition, and hours of undisturbed sleep. Sleep-related QoL was assessed using King's Health Questionnaire Sleep/Energy domain. Treatment comparisons were made using analysis of covariance. Among 555 patients, reductions in nocturnal micturitions with fesoterodine 4 mg (-0.63) and 8 mg (-0.77) were numerically greater vs placebo (-0.56), but differences were not significant (P >.05). When patients with a nocturnal polyuria index >33% were excluded, the decrease in nocturnal micturitions was significantly greater with fesoterodine 8 mg vs placebo (-0.24; P = .031). Increases in nocturnal voided volume/micturition were significantly greater with fesoterodine 4 (38.07 mL; P = .013) and 8 mg (42.05 mL; P fesoterodine 4 mg vs placebo (80 vs 54 minutes; P = .032); improvement in King's Health Questionnaire Sleep/Energy scores was significantly greater with fesoterodine 4 (P = .034) and 8 mg (P = .019) vs placebo. These results suggest that fesoterodine may reduce nocturnal micturitions and improve sleep quality and QoL in overactive bladder patients with nocturia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Correlation between body mass index and overactive bladder symptoms in pre-menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Palma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to establish a correlation between Overactive Bladder (OAB symptoms and Body Mass Index (BMI in women aged 20-45. Methods: We interviewed 1.050 women aged 20-45 in the area of Campinas, Brazil, to investigate the prevalence of overactive bladder symptoms. In this study, we used the ICIQ-OAB questionnaire (ICS standard, in its validated portuguese version and a specific questionnaire for the demographics, which includes information about BMI. Results: Overall, women with BMI ≥30 presented a significantly higher score than women with a lower BMI (18.5 - 24.9 (p=0.0066. In the analysis of individual symptoms, no significant differences were found regarding urinary frequency (p=0.5469. Women with BMI ≥30 presented more nocturia than women with BMI ranging between 18.5 and 24.9 (p=0.0154. Women in the group of BMI 25 - 29.9 presented more urgency than women with BMI 18.5 - 24.9 (p=0.0278. Significant difference was also found regarding urge-incontinence; women with BMI 25 - 29.9 presented a higher score than women in the group 18.5 - 24.9 (p= 0.0017. Analysis was also performed on the visual analogue scale regarding how much each symptom bothers the women (quality of life. There were no significant differences regarding frequency, nocturia or urgency but urgency incontinence bother was significant. Women with BMI 25 - 29.9 were more bothered by incontinence than women with BMI 18.5 - 24.9 (p=0.002. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study reinforces the correlation between BMI and OAB symptoms. Obese women present more OAB symptoms than non-obese women.

  9. Efficacy of fesoterodine compared with extended-release tolterodine in men and women with overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, David; Schneider, Tim; Kelleher, Con; Van Kerrebroeck, Philip; Swift, Steven; Creanga, Dana; Martire, Diane L

    2013-08-01

    To assess the efficacy of fesoterodine 8 mg vs extended-release (ER) tolterodine 4 mg for overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms in terms of patient-reported outcomes in women and in men. Pooled data from two 12-week, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy studies were analysed. Participants eligible for the studies were ≥18 years old, had self-reported OAB symptoms for ≥3 months in 3-day baseline diaries and had ≥8 micturitions and ≥1 urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) episode per 24 h. Individuals were randomized to fesoterodine (4 mg for 1 week then 8 mg for 11 weeks), ER tolterodine (4 mg), or placebo. Changes from baseline in 3-day bladder diary variables and scores from the Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC), Urgency Perception Scale (UPS), and Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q), were assessed, as was the 'diary-dry' rate (the proportion of subjects with >0 UUI episodes according to baseline diary and no UUI episodes according to post-baseline diary). The primary endpoint was the change from baseline to week 12 in UUI episodes. At week 12, women showed significantly greater improvement with fesoterodine 8 mg (n = 1374) than with ER tolterodine 4 mg (n = 1382) and placebo (n = 679) in UUI episodes (primary endpoint), micturition frequency, urgency episodes, and all other diary endpoints (except nocturnal micturitions versus ER tolterodine), and also in scores on the PPBC, UPS, and all OAB-q scales and domains (all P fesoterodine (63%) than with tolterodine (57%; P = 0.002) or placebo (48%; P fesoterodine 8 mg (n = 265) than with ER tolterodine (n = 275) for severe urgency and the OAB-q Symptom Bother domain and were also significantly greater with fesoterodine than with placebo (n = 133) for micturition frequency, urgency episodes, severe urgency episodes, PPBC responses and scores on all OAB-q scales and domains at week 12 (all P fesoterodine, 29%; ER tolterodine, 15%; placebo, 6%; men: fesoterodine, 21%; ER

  10. The inhibitory effects of pudendal nerve stimulation on bladder overactivity in spinal cord injury dogs: is early stimulation necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoqing; Liao, Limin; Dong, Qian; Ju, Yanhe

    2012-01-01

    To determine the inhibitory effects of pudendal nerve stimulation (5 Hz) on bladder overactivity at early and late stages of spinal cord injury in dogs. The study was performed in eight dogs with chronic spinal cord transection at the T9-T10 level. Group 1 (four dogs) underwent electrical stimulation of pudendal nerve one month after spinal cord transection. Group 2 (four dogs) underwent stimulation six months after spinal cord transection. The bladders were removed for histological examination of fibrosis after the stimulation. The bladder capacity and the compliance were significantly increased (p stimulation in group 1, but not in group 2. The nonvoiding contractions were inhibited in both groups by electrical stimulation. Collagen fiber was increased, while elastic fiber was significantly decreased (p stimulation can increase the bladder capacity and compliance only during the early period before the bladder wall becomes fibrosit and can inhibit the nonvoiding contraction during two stages. © 2012 International Neuromodulation Society.

  11. Fesoterodine for the Treatment of Nocturnal Urgency in Patients with Overactive Bladder Syndrome: An Analysis of Responders and Nonresponders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusid, Johnathan A; Weiss, Jeffrey P; Carlsson, Martin O; Mangan, Erin K

    2017-05-04

    A recent study demonstrated improvement in nocturnal urgency in patients with overactive bladder when treated with fesoterodine. In the current study we aimed to determine which bladder diary parameters predict the response to fesoterodine in these patients. Patients with nocturnal urgency completed a 2-week, single-blind placebo run in followed by 1:1 double-blind randomization to 12 weeks of fesoterodine or placebo. We analyzed bladder diary parameter changes from baseline to week 12, including the actual number of night voids (total number of nocturia episodes), maximum voided volume, nocturnal bladder capacity, Nocturnal Bladder Capacity Index (NBCi) (actual number of night voids - nocturnal urine volume/maximum voided volume - 1), nocturnal urine volume, the nocturia index (nocturnal urine volume/maximum voided volume) and the nocturnal polyuria index (nocturnal urine volume/24-hour volume). Additionally, we analyzed OAB-q (Overactive Bladder Questionnaire) changes. There was a linear relationship between the likelihood of being a responder for NBCi and the nocturia index. Responders had a significant decrease in nocturnal urine volume relative to baseline (-181.7 ml, p fesoterodine. Symptom improvement appears to be mediated by increases in typical rather than maximum nocturnal voided volumes. Symptom improvement was associated with improved quality of life. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Treatment of Overactive Bladder in the Elderly Female: The Case for Trospium, Oxybutynin, Fesoterodine and Darifenacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerren, Scott C; Gomelsky, Alex

    2015-10-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common constellation of lower urinary tract storage symptoms that causes a significant impact on a person's quality of life. The elderly may be disproportionally impacted by these symptoms due to concomitant poor mobility, comorbid conditions such as diabetes and heart failure, and polypharmacy. While behavioral modification and pelvic floor muscle training should be considered first-line treatment options, pharmacotherapy remains the backbone of the therapeutic regimen. Trospium, oxybutynin, fesoterodine, and darifenacin all have unique properties that may confer certain advantages in the elderly population. The hydrophilicity and quaternary amine structure of trospium may limit its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and thus minimize impact on cognition in the elderly. In its oral form, oxybutynin may have the most significant effect on cognition; however, the transdermal preparations may be favorable in the elderly population due to the ability to avoid first-pass metabolism and its limited antimuscarinic adverse effects. Fesoterodine may be the most extensively studied OAB medication in the elderly population. Darifenacin has a strong affinity for the M3 receptor in the bladder, while having a weak affinity for the M1 receptor commonly found in the brain. It must be noted that all muscarinic receptor antagonists are associated with common adverse effects to some degree, and frequent re-evaluation of the elderly patient is necessary to confirm the proper benefit-to-risk profile.

  13. Clinical utility of transdermal delivery of oxybutynin gel via a metered-dose pump in the management of overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagg A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Adrian WaggDepartment of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, CanadaAbstract: Oxybutynin is an efficacious treatment for overactive bladder, but its clinical utility is hampered by relative intolerability due to its side effect profile. Over the last few years, various attempts to enhance the tolerability of oxybutynin by varying the drug delivery mechanism have been introduced and have included extended release, rectal suppository, transdermal patch, and gel formulations. The recent introduction of a transdermal oxybutynin gel in a sachet form has been complemented by the administration of gel in a metered dose pump. This paper reviews the available evidence for transdermal oxybutynin gel and, where it exists, for the pump-based gel. The clinical utility of the pump-based gel is discussed.Keywords: urgency incontinence, overactive bladder, oxybutynin, transdermal

  14. Efficacy and Tolerability of Propiverine Hydrochloride in Patients With Neurogenic Detrusor Overactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    Neurogenic Urinary Bladder Disorder; Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic; Bladder Disorder, Neurogenic; Urinary Bladder Disorder, Neurogenic; Neurogenic Bladder Disorder; Urinary Bladder Neurogenic Dysfunction; Urologic Diseases; Overactive Detrusor Function; Urinary Incontinence

  15. Efficacy and safety of tolterodine in subjects with symptoms of overactive bladder: An open label, noncomparative, prospective, multicentric study

    OpenAIRE

    Anant Kumar

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of Tolterodine 2 mg twice daily in Indian subjects with symptoms of overactive bladder including frequency, ur-gency with or without urge incontinence. Methods: This multicentric open-label, noncompara-tive, prospective study was conducted at 7 centers across India. Eligible patients were assigned to treatment with Tab. Tolterodine 2 mg twice daily for 8 weeks. Subjects were seen at visit ](day 3 to 10), visit 2 (day 1) and after 8...

  16. "Seeing a doctor is just like having a date": a qualitative study on doctor shopping among overactive bladder patients in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Judy Yuen-Man

    2014-02-06

    Although having a regular primary care provider is noted to be beneficial to health, doctor shopping has been documented as a common treatment seeking behavior among chronically ill patients in different countries. However, little research has been conducted into the reasons behind doctor shopping behavior among patients with overactive bladder, and even less into how this behavior relates to these patients' illness and social experiences, perceptions, and cultural practices. Therefore, this study examines overactive bladder patients to investigate the reasons behind doctor shopping behavior. My study takes a qualitative approach, conducting 30 semi-structured individual interviews, with 30 overactive bladder patients in Hong Kong. My study found six primary themes that influenced doctor shopping behavior: lack of perceived need, convenience, work-provided medical insurance, unpleasant experiences with doctors, searching for a match doctor, and switching between biomedicine and traditional Chinese medicine. Besides the perceptual factors, participants' social environment, illness experiences, personal cultural preference, and cultural beliefs also intertwined to generate their doctor shopping behavior. Due to the low perceived need for a regular personal primary care physician, environmental factors such as time, locational convenience, and work-provided medical insurance became decisive in doctor shopping behavior. Patients' unpleasant illness experiences, stemming from a lack of understanding among many primary care doctors about overactive bladder, contributed to participants' sense of mismatch with these doctors, which induced them to shop for another doctor. Overactive bladder is a chronic bladder condition with very limited treatment outcome. Although patients with overactive bladder often require specialty urology treatment, it is usually beneficial for the patients to receive continuous, coordinated, comprehensive, and patient-centered support from their

  17. Long-term safety, tolerability and efficacy of fesoterodine treatment in subjects with overactive bladder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kerrebroeck, P E V; Heesakkers, J; Berriman, S; Padmanabhan Aiyer, L; Carlsson, M; Guan, Z

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the long-term safety, tolerability and efficacy of fesoterodine treatment in subjects with overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. This was an open-label extension study of a 12-week, double-blind fesoterodine study. During open-label treatment, all subjects received fesoterodine 8 mg for an initial 4 weeks, after which subjects could elect dose reduction to 4 mg or subsequent reescalation to 8 mg during clinic visits (dose reduction and reescalation each permitted once annually). The maximum allowable duration of open-label fesoterodine treatment ranged from 24 to 32 months across study sites. Safety and tolerability were evaluated via discontinuations, fesoterodine exposure, treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and subject-reported treatment tolerance. Three-day bladder diaries and other patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were assessed during the first 24 months of open-label treatment. PROs included evaluations of health-related quality of life [HRQL; King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ), and International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF)], severity of bladder-related problems and treatment satisfaction. Subjects completed 3-day diaries before open-label baseline and months 1, 4, 8, 12 and 24; the ICIQ-SF and measures of bladder-related problems and treatment satisfaction at open-label baseline and months 4, 12 and 24; and the KHQ at open-label baseline and months 12 and 24. Of the 417 eligible subjects who enrolled in the open-label extension, 61% continued fesoterodine treatment for > or = 24 months and 71% elected to maintain the fesoterodine 8-mg dose throughout treatment. No unexpected safety signals were observed. Most subjects rated treatment tolerance as at least 'good' throughout the study (> or = 88%). Dry mouth was the most commonly reported TEAE (34%) during open-label treatment, resulting in discontinuation in 2% of subjects (n = 8). Improvements from open-label baseline in OAB symptoms

  18. Effects of drug cessation after flexible-dose fesoterodine in patients with overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khullar, Vik; Cardozo, Linda; Kelleher, Con J; Hall, Timothy; Ryan, John; Ebel Bitoun, Caty; Darekar, Amanda; Arumi, Daniel; Wagg, Adrian

    2013-10-01

    To determine the course of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms after 4 weeks of no treatment following a 12-week study of the efficacy and safety of flexible-dose fesoterodine in patients with OAB who were enrolled in the UK healthcare system. There are limited data available on the natural time course of OAB symptoms after the cessation of treatment. In the open-label UK Study Assessing Flexible-dose Fesoterodine in Adults trial, patients aged ≥18 years with self-reported OAB symptoms for ≥3 months, a mean of at least eight micturitions per 24 h and three or more urgency episodes per 24 h on a 3-day bladder diary at baseline, and at least moderate bladder-related problems reported on the Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC) at baseline, were treated with fesoterodine for 12 weeks. All patients received fesoterodine 4 mg once daily for the first 4 weeks, at which time they could choose to increase the dose to 8 mg once daily, based on a discussion of treatment efficacy and tolerability with the investigator, or they could remain on fesoterodine 4 mg for the remaining 8 weeks. The 12-week treatment period was followed by a 4-week follow-up period of no fesoterodine treatment. Patients completed 3-day bladder diaries and the PPBC at baseline, week 4, end of treatment (week 12) and end of the follow-up period (week 16); the King's Health Questionnaire at baseline, end of treatment (week 12) and end of the follow-up period (week 16); and the Benefit, Satisfaction and Willingness to Continue questionnaire at week 12. After 12 weeks of fesoterodine treatment, patients had clinically meaningful improvements in bladder diary variables and King's Health Questionnaire domains; 79% (254/322) of patients reported an improvement on the PPBC. After 4 weeks of no treatment, most patients deteriorated back to week 4 levels or worse on all bladder diary and patient-reported outcomes. Patients who expressed a benefit from fesoterodine treatment, satisfaction

  19. The effect of penile vibratory stimulation on male fertility potential, spasticity and neurogenic detrusor overactivity in spinal cord lesioned individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Læssøe, Line; Sønksen, J

    2005-01-01

    Present the possibility for treatment of male infertility, spasticity, and neurogenic detrusor overactivity in spinal cord lesioned (SCL) individuals with penile vibratory stimulation (PVS).......Present the possibility for treatment of male infertility, spasticity, and neurogenic detrusor overactivity in spinal cord lesioned (SCL) individuals with penile vibratory stimulation (PVS)....

  20. Incidence and risk factors of recurrence of overactive bladder symptoms after discontinuation of successful medical treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Aram; Lee, Kyu-Sung; Kim, Tae Beom; Kim, Hyung Joon; Yoo, Eun Sang; Yun, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Duk Yoon; Jung, Suk Gun; Lee, Jun Taik; Kim, Jung Man; Oh, Cheol Kyu; Shin, Ju Hyun; Jeon, Seung Hyun; Lee, Seong Ho; Han, Chang Hee; Lee, Dong Hwan; Cho, Hyuk Jin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To identify incidence and risk factors of recurrence after discontinuation of successful antimuscarinic therapy in patients with overactive bladder (OAB). Materials and Methods This was a prospective, multicenter trial. Patients who had antimuscarinic agents for more than 12 weeks and showed successful response were enrolled. Successful response was defined as answering 'benefit' for patient perception of treatment benefit and answer lesser than 3 points in patient's perception of bladder condition (PPBC). The enrolled patients discontinued the antimuscarinics, and we evaluated their recurrence with PPBC and OAB symptom score (OABSS) at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Primary purpose was to identify the recurrence rate and secondary purpose was to reveal risk factors. Results Four hundred forty-one patients enrolled and 371 patients completed 6-month follow-up. The enrolled patients showed 1.6 points in PPBC, 2.9 points in OABSS and 1.4 points in IPSS (quality of life) which represented successful response after using antimuscarinics. The cumulative rates of recurrence were 25.6%, 42.3%, and 52.2% at 1, 3, 6 months, respectively. Among 177 patients who did not show recurrence at 6 months, 41 patients were followed up and 4 patients of the 41 patients (9.7%) showed recurrence at 12 months. On univariate and multivariate analyses of recurrence, OAB wet was the risk factor for recurrence after 6 months of discontinuation. Conclusions Discontinuation of antimuscarinic therapy after successful treatment resulted in high recurrence rate with time and OAB wet was the independent risk factor for recurrence. PMID:28097267

  1. Efficacy of fesoterodine over 24 hours in subjects with overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staskin, David; Michel, Martin C; Nitti, Victor; Morrow, Jon D; Wang, Joseph; Guan, Zhonghong

    2010-04-01

    Fesoterodine is an antimuscarinic agent indicated for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of fesoterodine versus placebo over selected intervals during a 24-hour period in subjects with OAB. In a post hoc analysis, data were analyzed from two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 12-week phase III trials in which subjects with a history of OAB symptoms for >or=6 months were treated with morning doses of fesoterodine 4 mg, fesoterodine 8 mg, or placebo. These trials are registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00220363 and NCT00138723). Changes were evaluated in number of micturitions, urgency episodes, urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) episodes, and mean voided volume (MVV) divided into three 8-hour intervals: 08:00-15:59 (daytime), 16:00-23:59 (evening), and 00:00-07:59 (nighttime). Comparisons with placebo were made using analysis of covariance (for least squares mean changes) and Wilcoxon rank sum test (for median percent changes); differences were considered significant at p fesoterodine 4 mg and fesoterodine 8 mg compared with placebo during each 8-hour time interval (all p fesoterodine doses compared with placebo during all time intervals (all p Fesoterodine 4 mg and 8 mg given once daily demonstrated efficacy over placebo for OAB symptoms during all three 8-hour intervals of a 24-hour period, thus providing clinical support for once-daily dosing. Limitations include that this was a post hoc analysis.

  2. Clinical efficacy, safety, and tolerability of once-daily fesoterodine in subjects with overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, Christopher; Van Kerrebroeck, Philip; Tubaro, Andrea; Haag-Molkenteller, Cornelia; Forst, Hans-Theo; Massow, Ute; Wang, Joseph; Brodsky, Marina

    2007-10-01

    To determine the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of fesoterodine in subjects with overactive bladder (OAB). This was a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled trial with tolterodine extended release (ER) to assess the efficacy and safety of fesoterodine. Eligible subjects (> or =18 yr) with increased micturition frequency and urgency and/or urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) were randomised to placebo, fesoterodine 4 mg, fesoterodine 8 mg, or tolterodine ER 4 mg for 12 wk. The primary efficacy variable was a change from baseline to week 12 in micturitions per 24 h. Co-primary end points included change from baseline to week 12 in UUI episodes per 24 h and Treatment Response ("yes" or "no," based on four-point treatment benefit scale). Secondary efficacy variables included mean volume voided per micturition, continent days per week, and number of urgency episodes. At the end of treatment, subjects taking fesoterodine 4 and 8 mg had significant (pfesoterodine 8 mg at most end points. Both doses of fesoterodine were significantly better than placebo in improving the symptoms of OAB and produced a significantly greater Treatment Response versus placebo. Efficacy was more pronounced with fesoterodine 8 mg compared with the other treatments. Active treatments were well tolerated.

  3. The Risk Factor and The Severity of Symptoms Relation in Women with Overactive Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulga Egilmez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate whether risk factors for overactive bladder (OAB in women are associated with symptom severity and to assess the impact of symptom severity on the quality of life. Material and Method: Symptoms of 100 female patients (aged, 47.70 ± 12.34 years who were diagnosed with OAB were assessed using the Boyarsky symptom score (BSS. Data for age, educational status, body mass index (BMI, chronic disease, vaginal deliveries, constipation, smoking, consumption of alcohol, tea, coffee, or carbonated drinks and diets involving spicy food were recorded. Subcategories for each factor regarding quantity were established. The findings were statistically correlated with the BSS and with each urinary symptom individually. Each patient%u2019s quality-of-life (QoL scores were correlated with the severity of each symptom and the total, obstructive and irritative BSS. Results: Urgency was related with BMI, spicy food, vaginal deliveries, menopause, and advanced age. Nocturia had a relation with menopause and advanced age. Total BSS was significantly correlated with coffee consumption. Irritative BSS was correlated with menopause and advanced age and obstructive BSS was correlated with constipation. Total and irritative BSS were both positively correlated with the QoL score. Discusion: Risk factors can affect the severity of symptoms and these factors should be considered when planning therapy.

  4. Neurological symptoms and signs in HTLV-1 patients with overactive bladder syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Tanajura Costa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare neurological symptoms and signs in HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers and HTLV-1 patients with overactive bladder (OB syndrome. METHODS: We studied 102 HTLV-1 positive individuals without HAM/TSP (HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of OB syndrome. Clinical interview, neurological exam and proviral load was performed in all patients. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with OB were more commonly female (84.3 vs. 60.8% of asymptomatics, p=0.01. The prevalence of neurological complaints was higher in OB group, especially hand or foot numbness and arm or leg weakness. There was no difference between the groups in neurological strength and reflexes. Weakness complaint remained strongly associated with OB in multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for sex and age [adjusted odds ratio and 95%CI 3.59 (1.45-8.88 in arms and 6.68 (2.63-16.93 in legs]. Proviral load was also different between the two groups with higher level on OB individuals.

  5. Oxybutynin extended release for the management of overactive bladder: a clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisco, A M; Brantly, E K; Kraus, S R

    2009-09-21

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common condition which negatively impacts the quality of life of afflicted patients. This can result in alterations in social interactions at home, in the workplace and in the community, often leading to depression and poor self esteem as well as loss of productivity. Traditional mainstays of treatment include both behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy. Oxybutynin immediate release (IR) represents the first such medication approved by the FDA specifically for treatment of OAB in 1975. Nevertheless, bothersome side effects in addition to thrice daily dosing often led to treatment cessation which raised the question that patients may actually prefer to live with their OAB symptoms rather than incur side effects or complex dosing schemes. Pharmacological advances ultimately led to development of a long-acting formulation of oxybutynin in the form of oxybutynin extended release (ER) with the hope that this drug would maintain efficacy while decreasing bothersome side effects and improve compliance with the convenience of once daily dosing regimen. This paper will review the major clinical studies involving oxybutynin ER as well as its role in different patient populations and potential concerns with its use.

  6. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation versus tolterodine for overactive bladder in women: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preyer, Oliver; Umek, Wolfgang; Laml, Thomas; Bjelic-Radisic, Vesna; Gabriel, Boris; Mittlboeck, Martina; Hanzal, Engelbert

    2015-08-01

    We performed a randomised controlled trial of percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) versus tolterodine for treating treatment naïve women with overactive bladder (OAB). 36 patients with symptoms of OAB were randomised to 3 months of treatment with weekly PTNS or tolterodine (2mg bid p.o.). The primary outcome measure was the difference of micturitions per 24h. The secondary outcome measure was the impact on quality of life (QoL) measured with a visual analogue scale (VAS) between baseline and after 3 months of therapy. Micturition frequencies did not decline significantly (p=0.13) over time and there were no significant treatment differences (p=0.96). QoL was significantly dependent from its level at baseline (p=0.002) and showed improvement over time compared to baseline measurements but no significant differences between both treatment groups (p=0.07). Incontinence episodes per 24h depended significantly on the level at baseline (p=0.0001) and declined significantly (p=0.03) during 3 months of therapy in both therapy groups. However no significant treatment differences on the reduction of incontinence episodes in 24h could be shown between both therapy groups (p=0.89). PTNS had fewer side effects than tolterodine (p=0.04). PTNS and tolterodine were both effective in reducing incontinence episodes and improving QoL in patients with OAB but not micturition frequencies. PTNS had fewer side effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The influence of melatonin and agomelatine on urodynamic parameters in experimental overactive bladder model – preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Dobrek

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Overactive bladder (OAB is a common disease entity with complex pathogenesis that involves neurogenic, myogenic and abnormal paracrine urothelial activity mechanisms. Our objective was to estimate bladder functioning in urodynamic studies in experimental, both acute (AOAB and chronic (COAB cyclophosphamide (CYP-evoked OAB model in response to melatonin (MLT; antioxidant and MT receptor agonist or agomelatine (AMT; MT receptor agonist and 5HT2C receptor antagonist.Material/Methods:Seven groups were studied: 1 – control, 2–4 – MLT treated AOAB and COAB rats, 5–7 – AMT treated AOAB and COAB rats. AOAB model was evoked by single CYP administration (IP 200 mg/kg body weight, while COAB one was induced by a four-time administration of CYP (IP 75 mg/kg body weight. Each group underwent urethane anesthesia to perform urodynamic recordings in resting conditions and after administration 50 (group 2 or 5, 75 (group 3 or 6 or 100 mg/kg (group 4 or 7 of melatonin (groups 2–4 or agomelatine (groups 5–7, followed by classical urodynamic parameters assessment.Results:Neither melatonin nor agomelatine did not affect urodynamic parameters in the AOAB rats. In COAB model, after 75 and 100 mg/kg of MLT we revealed an improvement in urodynamic parameters. AMT (75 and 100 mg/kg administration caused deterioration of urodynamic findings suggesting bladder overactivity exacerbation.Disscussion:In summary, melatonin ameliorates bladder overactivity in cyclophosphamide-induced COAB. Agomelatine, contrary to melatonin, aggravates bladder dysfunction in this group. These findings suggest that the improvement in urodynamic parameters after melatonin administration may be due to its antioxidative profile and is not related to MT receptors activation. However, agomelatine’s unfavorable action on the bladder, resulting in its overactivity in COAB group, may not only be the result of MT receptor activation without the concomitant antioxidative

  8. Relationship between serum cholinesterase level and urinary bladder activity in patients with or without overactive bladder and/or neurogenic bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Kimio; Onaga, Tomohiro; Nishijima, Saori; Miyazato, Minoru; Oshiro, Yoshinori; Hokama, Sanehiro; Uchida, Atsushi; Ogawa, Yoshihide

    2007-12-01

    We compared the serum cholinesterase (ChE) level and various parameters between patients with or without overactive bladder (OAB) and/or neurogenic bladder (NB). A total of 258 patients who met the following criteria were enrolled: the presence/absence of OAB and/or NB was documented, laboratory data were available, and liver and renal functions were normal. Patients were divided into the 3 groups: 1) a NB+/OAB+ group who had both NB and OAB, 2) a NB-/OAB+ group who had OAB alone, and 3) an OAB- group who did not have OAB. The relationship between the presence of OAB and various biochemical parameters were examined, as well as the therapeutic outcome in relation to the same biochemical parameters. Forty-three patients had both NB and OAB (NB+/OAB+), 66 patients had OAB without NB (NB-/OAB+), and 149 patients had no OAB (OAB-). Serum ChE, total protein, and albumin levels were lower in the NB-/OAB+ group than the NB+/OAB+ group or the OAB- group. In the NB-/OAB+ group, a higher serum albumin or ChE level was associated with a better therapeutic outcome. These results suggest that a decrease of serum ChE level is related to the occurrence of OAB and the poor response to treatment in OAB patients without NB.

  9. Add-on fesoterodine for residual storage symptoms suggestive of overactive bladder in men receiving α-blocker treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms.

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    Kaplan, Steven A; Roehrborn, Claus G; Gong, Jason; Sun, Franklin; Guan, Zhonghong

    2012-06-01

    Study Type - Therapy (RCT) Level of Evidence 1b What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Male lower urinary tract symptoms are often attributed to bladder outlet obstruction secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia and treated with drugs targeting the prostate. However, many men with storage lower urinary tract symptoms may not respond adequately to these agents. Antimuscarinics, with or without an α-blocker, may be effective for the treatment of the storage symptoms of overactive bladder in some men. Flexible-dose fesoterodine as an add-on treatment significantly improved urinary frequency and symptom bother, but not urgency episodes (primary endpoint), versus add-on placebo and was well tolerated in men with persistent overactive bladder symptoms despite receiving α-blocker. • To evaluate flexible-dose fesoterodine vs placebo in men with persistent overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms despite receiving α-blocker treatment • This was a double-blind, 12-week, flexible-dose trial. • Men with persistent storage symptoms (≥ 8 micturitions and ≥ 3 urgency episodes per 24 h) after receiving an α-blocker for ≥ 6 weeks were randomized to add-on fesoterodine 4 mg or placebo, with optional dose escalation to 8 mg at week 4 and reduction back to 4 mg at week 8 (or matching placebo adjustments). • Subjects completed 3-day diaries, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q), Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC), and Urgency Perception Scale (UPS) at baseline and weeks 4 and 12. • A total of 943 men were randomized and received at least one dose of study treatment (fesoterodine, n= 471; placebo, n= 472). • Among these, 251 (53%) in the fesoterodine group and 300 (64%) in the placebo group requested dose escalation at week 4 and 35 (7%) and 15 (3%) requested dose reduction at week 8. Changes from baseline to week 12 in urgency episodes (primary endpoint) in the fesoterodine (-3.2) and

  10. Effects of flexible-dose fesoterodine on overactive bladder symptoms and treatment satisfaction: an open-label study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyndaele, J-J; Goldfischer, E R; Morrow, J D; Gong, J; Tseng, L-J; Guan, Z; Choo, M-S

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of flexible-dose fesoterodine in subjects with overactive bladder (OAB) who were dissatisfied with previous tolterodine treatment. Methods: This was a 12-week, open-label, flexible-dose study of adults with OAB (≥ 8 micturitions and ≥ 3 urgency episodes per 24 h) who had been treated with tolterodine (immediate- or extended-release) for OAB within 2 years of screening and reported dissatisfaction with tolterodine treatment. Subjects received fesoterodine 4 mg once daily for 4 weeks; thereafter, daily dosage was maintained at 4 mg or increased to 8 mg based on the subject’s and physician’s subjective assessment of efficacy and tolerability. Subjects completed 5-day diaries, the Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC) and the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q) at baseline and week 12 and rated treatment satisfaction at week 12 using the Treatment Satisfaction Question (TSQ). Safety and tolerability were assessed. Results: Among 516 subjects treated, approximately 50% opted for dose escalation to 8 mg at week 4. Significant improvements from baseline to week 12 were observed in micturitions, urgency urinary incontinence episodes, micturition-related urgency episodes and severe micturition-related urgency episodes per 24 h (all pfesoterodine significantly improved OAB symptoms, HRQL, and rates of treatment satisfaction and was well tolerated in subjects with OAB who were dissatisfied with prior tolterodine therapy. PMID:19348029

  11. Efficacy and safety of flexible dose fesoterodine in men and women with overactive bladder symptoms including nocturnal urinary urgency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jeffrey P; Jumadilova, Zhanna; Johnson, Theodore M; Fitzgerald, Mary P; Carlsson, Martin; Martire, Diane L; Malhotra, Atul

    2013-04-01

    Awakening from sleep to urinate is the hallmark of nocturia, a condition that impacts several facets of health related quality of life and for which current therapy is suboptimal. Given the paucity of prospective data on antimuscarinics for the management of nocturia, we investigated the efficacy and safety of flexible dose fesoterodine for the treatment of nocturnal urgency in subjects with nocturia and overactive bladder. Subjects with 2 to 8 nocturnal urgency episodes per 24 hours began a 2-week, single-blind, placebo run-in followed by 1:1 randomization to 12 weeks of double-blind treatment with fesoterodine (4 mg daily for 4 weeks with an optional increase to 8 mg) or placebo using predefined criteria for nocturnal urgency episodes, nocturnal urine volume voided and total 24-hour urine volume voided. The primary end point was change from baseline to week 12 in the mean number of micturition related nocturnal urgency episodes per 24 hours. Overall 963 subjects were randomized from 2,990 screened, and 82% of subjects treated with fesoterodine and 84% of those treated with placebo completed the study. Significant improvements in the primary end point (-1.28 vs -1.07), in nocturnal micturitions per 24 hours (-1.02 vs -0.85) and in nocturnal frequency urgency sum (-4.01 vs -3.42) were observed with fesoterodine vs placebo (all p ≤0.01). Health related quality of life measures (overactive bladder questionnaire Symptom Bother -20.1 vs -16.5, sleep 22.3 vs 19.9 and other domains; all p fesoterodine. To our knowledge this is the first prospective study to assess antimuscarinic efficacy for reducing nocturnal urgency. Flexible dose fesoterodine significantly reduced nocturnal urgency episodes vs placebo in subjects with overactive bladder. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. NGF and HB-EGF: potential biomarkers that reflect the effects of fesoterodine in patients with overactive bladder syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Rim; Moon, Yeo Jung; Kim, Sei Kwang; Bai, Sang Wook

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) can be used to objectively assess overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) treatment outcome and to evaluate the effects of fixed-dose fesoterodine on OAB symptoms. This study included 124 participants (62 patients with OAB and 62 controls) in Severance Hospital between 2010 and 2012. In patients with OAB, 4 mg fesoterodine was administered once daily. Repeated evaluations of putative biomarker levels, urine creatinine (Cr) levels, and questionnaire responses, including the Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS) and the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB q), were performed from baseline to 16 weeks. Urinary levels of NGF/Cr (OAB: 1.13±0.9 pg/mg; control: 0.5±0.29 pg/mg) and HB-EGF/Cr (OAB: 8.73±6.55 pg/mg; control: 4.45±2.93 pg/mg) were significantly higher in subjects with OAB than in controls (pfesoterodine treatment, urinary NGF/Cr levels (baseline: 1.13±0.08 pg/mg; 16 weeks: 0.60±0.4 pg/mg; p=0.02) and HB-EGF/Cr levels significantly decreased (baseline: 8.73±6.55 pg/mg; 16 weeks: 4.72±2.69 pg/mg; p=0.03, respectively). Both the OABSS and OAB q scores improved (pfesoterodine improved OAB symptoms. Future studies are needed to further examine the significance of urinary NGF and HB-EGF levels as therapeutic markers for OAB.

  13. Efficacy of botulinum toxin type A 100 units versus 200 units for treatment of refractory idiopathic overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Abdelwahab

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a single intra detrusor injection of BoNTA comparing two different doses (100 U or 200 U in patients with idiopathic overactive bladder. Materials and Methods: A randomized prospective study evaluated the efficacy of BoNTA in management of refractory idiopathic overactive bladder and included 80 patients. All patients were assessed initially by taking a history, a physical examination, overactive bladder symptom score, urine analysis, routine laboratory investigations, KUB and pelviabdominal. OABSS was adjusted on all patients postoperative at 1,3,6,9 months also Urodynamic was done for all patients preoperative and postoperative at 3, 6, 9 months. Results: The mean age was 30.22±8.37 and 31.35±7.61 in group I and II respectively. There was no statistically difference between both groups in all parameters all over the study except at 9 months after treatment. Hematuria was observed 6 and 9 patients in group I and II respectively. Dysuria was observed in 6 and 15 patients in group I and II respectively. UTI was detected in 3 and 7 patients in group I and II respectively. Conclusion: A single-injection procedure of 100 U or 200 U BoNTA is an effective and safe treatment for patients with IOAB who failed anticholinergic regimens. OABSS and QoL were improved for 6 months; 100 U injections seemed to have comparable results with 200 U. There was a significant difference at month 9 towards 200 U with more incidences of adverse events.

  14. [Prevalence and characterization of overactive bladder detected in a population in Madrid with self-administered OAB-V3 questionnaire in Primary Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Javier C; Calderín, María P; Fernández, Yolanda; González, Miriam; Gómez, Esther; Herreros, Maria B; Peñasco, Purificación; Zapatero, Manuela; Dorado, Juan F

    2017-07-24

    Determining the prevalence of symptoms suggestive of overactive bladder (OAB) in a Spanish population and evaluate the impact of these symptoms on well-being and labour productivity in this population. Transversal study. Primary health care, Madrid, Spain. Males and females >30 years. Classification by primary care physicians with the Overactive Bladder Awareness Tool abbreviated version (OAB-V3). Subjects with score ≥3 and a similarly balanced control population with score <3 were clinically investigated. History, physical examination, urinalysis, sonography, general well-being scale and the questionnaires PPBC, OAB-q y WPAI-SHP. A total 923 subjects were screened, of which 209 (22.6%), 35% males and 65% females, had probable OAB. Age distribution increased from 11.1% in 4th decade to 44.4% in 9th decade. Kappa coefficient between suspected OAB and definite diagnosis was .83. The area under ROC curve for diagnosis based on OAB-V3 questionnaire and the presence of perceived bother and coping strategies was 92%. Subjects classified by score ≥3 had worse well-being, higher PPBC score and worse parameters on total OAB-q and transformed scores for each OAB-q subscale (P<.0001). In these subjects labour productivity was not affected (P=.14) but the capacity to perform regular activities was (P<.0001). OAB-V3 is a simple questionnaire to screen OAB with good predictive accuracy in a primary care setting and reveals important implications on health related quality of life issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Persistence and adherence to overactive bladder medications in Japan: A large nationwide real-world analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Daisuke; Uno, Satoshi; Van Schyndle, James; Fan, Alan; Kimura, Tomomi

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate persistence and adherence to mirabegron and antimuscarinics in Japan using data from two administrative databases. The present retrospective study evaluated insurance claims for employees and dependents aged ≤75 years, and pharmacy claims for outpatients. From October 2012 to September 2014, new users of mirabegron or five individual antimuscarinics indicated for overactive bladder in Japan (fesoterodine, imidafenacin, propiverine, solifenacin and tolterodine) were identified and followed for 1 year. Persistence with mirabegron and antimuscarinics were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Any associations between baseline characteristics (age, sex and previous medication use) and persistence were explored. Adherence was assessed using the medication possession ratio. In total, 3970 and 16 648 patients were included from the insurance and pharmacy claims databases, respectively. Mirabegron treatment was associated with longer median persistence compared with antimuscarinics (insurance claims: 44 [95% confidence intervals 37-56] vs 21 [14-28] to 30 [30-33] days, pharmacy claims: 105 [96-113] vs 62 [56-77] to 84 [77-86] days). The results were consistent when patients were stratified by age, sex and previous medication. Persistence rate at 1 year was higher for mirabegron (insurance claims: 14.0% [11.5-16.8%] vs 5.4% [4.1-7.0%] to 9.1% [5.3-14.2%], pharmacy claims: 25.9% [24.6-27.3%] vs 16.3% [14.0-18.6%] to 21.3% [20.2-22.4%]). Compared with each antimuscarinic, a higher proportion of mirabegron-treated patients had medication possession ratios ≥0.8. This large nationwide Japanese study shows that persistence and adherence are greater with mirabegron compared with five antimuscarinics. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  16. Efficacy, Safety and Tolerability of Fesoterodine in Asian Patients with Overactive Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Osamu; Nishizawa, Osamu; Takeda, Masayuki; Yoshida, Masaki; Choo, Myung-Soo; Gu Lee, Jeong; Tong-Long Lin, Alex; Lin, Ho-Hsiung; Andrew Yip, Wai-Chun; Isowa, Hitoshi; Hiro, Shintaro

    2011-04-01

    To assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of fesoterodine 4 and 8 mg once daily (QD) compared with placebo in Asian subjects with overactive bladder (OAB) after 12 weeks of treatment. This phase II, dose-finding study consisted of a 2-week placebo run-in period followed by a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, treatment period. Eligible subjects were aged ≥20 years with ≥8 micturitions per 24 h and ≥1 urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) episodes per 24 h reported in a 3-day diary. The subjects were randomized to receive placebo, fesoterodine 4 mg, or fesoterodine 8 mg QD for 12 weeks. Of 1232 subjects who entered the placebo run-in period, 951 received double-blind treatment. The mean number of UUI episodes per 24 h at baseline was 2.2 among the three treatment groups. The two fesoterodine groups showed statistically significant decreases from baseline in the mean number of UUI episodes per 24 h at week 12 (primary endpoint) compared with placebo. Most all-causality adverse events (e.g. dry mouth and constipation) were mild or moderate. The percentage of subjects with severe adverse events was low and similar among the treatment groups (placebo, 1.3%; fesoterodine 4 mg, 1.9%; fesoterodine 8 mg, 1.0%). Fesoterodine 4 and 8 mg QD were significantly better than placebo in improving OAB symptoms. Overall, the two fesoterodine dosing regimens were well tolerated. These results suggest that fesoterodine 4 and 8 mg QD are effective and well-tolerated treatments for OAB in Asian subjects. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Adverse event assessment of antimuscarinics for treating overactive bladder: a network meta-analytic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M Kessler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Overactive bladder (OAB affects the lives of millions of people worldwide and antimuscarinics are the pharmacological treatment of choice. Meta-analyses of all currently used antimuscarinics for treating OAB found similar efficacy, making the choice dependent on their adverse event profiles. However, conventional meta-analyses often fail to quantify and compare adverse events across different drugs, dosages, formulations, and routes of administration. In addition, the assessment of the broad variety of adverse events is dissatisfying. Our aim was to compare adverse events of antimuscarinics using a network meta-analytic approach that overcomes shortcomings of conventional analyses. METHODS: Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialized Trials Register, previous systematic reviews, conference abstracts, book chapters, and reference lists of relevant articles were searched. Eligible studies included randomized controlled trials comparing at least one antimuscarinic for treating OAB with placebo or with another antimuscarinic, and adverse events as outcome measures. Two authors independently extracted data. A network meta-analytic approach was applied allowing for joint assessment of all adverse events of all currently used antimuscarinics while fully maintaining randomization. RESULTS: 69 trials enrolling 26'229 patients were included. Similar overall adverse event profiles were found for darifenacin, fesoterodine, transdermal oxybutynin, propiverine, solifenacin, tolterodine, and trospium chloride but not for oxybutynin orally administered when currently used starting dosages were compared. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed generally applicable transparent network meta-analytic approach summarizes adverse events in an easy to grasp way allowing straightforward benchmarking of antimuscarinics for treating OAB in clinical practice. Most currently used antimuscarinics seem to be equivalent first choice drugs to start the treatment of OAB except for

  18. Adverse Event Assessment of Antimuscarinics for Treating Overactive Bladder: A Network Meta-Analytic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Thomas M.; Bachmann, Lucas M.; Minder, Christoph; Löhrer, David; Umbehr, Martin; Schünemann, Holger J.; Kessels, Alfons G. H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Overactive bladder (OAB) affects the lives of millions of people worldwide and antimuscarinics are the pharmacological treatment of choice. Meta-analyses of all currently used antimuscarinics for treating OAB found similar efficacy, making the choice dependent on their adverse event profiles. However, conventional meta-analyses often fail to quantify and compare adverse events across different drugs, dosages, formulations, and routes of administration. In addition, the assessment of the broad variety of adverse events is dissatisfying. Our aim was to compare adverse events of antimuscarinics using a network meta-analytic approach that overcomes shortcomings of conventional analyses. Methods Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialized Trials Register, previous systematic reviews, conference abstracts, book chapters, and reference lists of relevant articles were searched. Eligible studies included randomized controlled trials comparing at least one antimuscarinic for treating OAB with placebo or with another antimuscarinic, and adverse events as outcome measures. Two authors independently extracted data. A network meta-analytic approach was applied allowing for joint assessment of all adverse events of all currently used antimuscarinics while fully maintaining randomization. Results 69 trials enrolling 26′229 patients were included. Similar overall adverse event profiles were found for darifenacin, fesoterodine, transdermal oxybutynin, propiverine, solifenacin, tolterodine, and trospium chloride but not for oxybutynin orally administered when currently used starting dosages were compared. Conclusions The proposed generally applicable transparent network meta-analytic approach summarizes adverse events in an easy to grasp way allowing straightforward benchmarking of antimuscarinics for treating OAB in clinical practice. Most currently used antimuscarinics seem to be equivalent first choice drugs to start the treatment of OAB except for oral oxybutynin dosages

  19. Neurogenic bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neurogenic detrusor overactivity; NDO; Neurogenic bladder sphincter dysfunction; NBSD ... Disorders of the central nervous system commonly cause neurogenic bladder. These can include: Alzheimer disease Birth defects of ...

  20. [Male urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, TA de; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2008-01-01

    *Urinary incontinence in males is gaining increasingly more attention. *Male urinary incontinence can be classified as storage incontinence due to overactive bladder syndrome or stress incontinence due to urethral sphincter dysfunction. *Most patients benefit from the currently available treatment o

  1. Response to fesoterodine in patients with an overactive bladder and urgency urinary incontinence is independent of the urodynamic finding of detrusor overactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitti, Victor W; Rovner, Eric S; Bavendam, Tamara

    2010-05-01

    To determine whether the presence of detrusor overactivity (DO) in patients with overactive bladder (OAB) and urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) is a predictor of the response to treatment with fesoterodine. This phase 2 randomized, multicentre, placebo-controlled trial consisted of a 1-week placebo run-in phase followed by an 8-week double-blind period. Eligible for the study were men and women aged 18-78 years with symptoms or signs of OAB with UUI; they were stratified into two balanced strata depending on the outcome of a baseline urodynamic assessment. By using this particular study design it was possible to investigate whether there were differences between the strata. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline to week 8 in mean voids/24 h. Secondary endpoints were the changes in UUI episodes/week, and for those patients with DO at baseline, the mean changes in volume at first involuntary contraction associated with a feeling of urgency, first desire to void, and strong desire to void, and change in maximum cystometric capacity. Because there were few patients the secondary analyses were considered exploratory. Overall, there were linear dose-response relationships for placebo and the fesoterodine groups for the reduction in the number of voids/24 h and UUI episodes/week. Compared with the placebo group, the least squares mean changes from baseline to week 8 in both variables were significantly improved in patients receiving fesoterodine 4 mg (P = 0.045 and 0.040, respectively), 8 mg (P fesoterodine treatment groups and worsened in the placebo group. Regardless of the presence of DO, the response to fesoterodine treatment was dose-proportional and associated with significant improvements in OAB symptoms, indicating that the response to OAB pharmacotherapy in patients with UUI was independent of the urodynamic diagnosis of DO.

  2. Re: Prospective Pilot Study of Mirabegron in Pediatric Patients with Overactive Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinharib Çitgez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available EDITORIAL COMMENT Overactive bladder (OAB is a highly prevalent disorder in the pediatric population. This event negatively affects and impairs children’s development. Antimuscarinics are the mainstay pharmacological management of OAB, but their side effects profile limits their use. Mirabegron, a new molecule with a distinct mechanism of action (b3-adrenoreceptor agonist, was recently approved as monotherapy for idiopathic OAB in adults but has not been studied in the pediatric population. Blais et al. have evaluated the efficacy and safety of mirabegron in the treatment of urinary incontinence in children with idiopathic OAB who were refractory to and/or intolerant of antimuscarinics. This prospective off-label study, using an adjusted-dose regimen of mirabegron (25-50 mg, included pediatric patients with refractory urinary incontinence due to OAB. Patients without symptom improvement or with partial response under intensive behavioral protocol and medical therapy (at least two different antimuscarinic agents were included in the study. Their primary outcome was better reported efficacy than with the use of prior anticholinergic medication. Secondary end points were tolerability and safety. Families were questioned for continence, side effects, compliance, and Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC questionnaire. A total of 58 patients (14 girls, 44 boys were enrolled in a mirabegron open-label trial. The median age at initiation of mirabegron was 10.1 years [interquartile range (IQR: 8.8-13.5]. The median duration of treatment was 11.5 months (IQR: 6.0-15.0. The median bladder capacity improved from 150 ml to 200 ml (p<0.001. Continence improved in 52 of 58, with 13 being completely dry. The median PPBC score improved from 4.0 to 2.0 (p<0.001. The authors also assessed the safety of mirabegron. All electrocardiogram and blood tests remained normal. No significant change in blood pressure (<5 mmHg and heart rate (fewer than five beats

  3. The analysis of incontinence episodes and other count data in patients with overactive bladder by Poisson and negative binomial regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martina, R; Kay, R; van Maanen, R; Ridder, A

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies in overactive bladder have traditionally used analysis of covariance or nonparametric methods to analyse the number of incontinence episodes and other count data. It is known that if the underlying distributional assumptions of a particular parametric method do not hold, an alternative parametric method may be more efficient than a nonparametric one, which makes no assumptions regarding the underlying distribution of the data. Therefore, there are advantages in using methods based on the Poisson distribution or extensions of that method, which incorporate specific features that provide a modelling framework for count data. One challenge with count data is overdispersion, but methods are available that can account for this through the introduction of random effect terms in the modelling, and it is this modelling framework that leads to the negative binomial distribution. These models can also provide clinicians with a clearer and more appropriate interpretation of treatment effects in terms of rate ratios. In this paper, the previously used parametric and non-parametric approaches are contrasted with those based on Poisson regression and various extensions in trials evaluating solifenacin and mirabegron in patients with overactive bladder. In these applications, negative binomial models are seen to fit the data well.

  4. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of flexible-dose fesoterodine in subjects with overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmochowski, Roger R; Peters, Kenneth M; Morrow, Jon D; Guan, Zhonghong; Gong, Jason; Sun, Franklin; Siami, Paul; Staskin, David R

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of flexible-dose fesoterodine vs placebo in subjects with overactive bladder (OAB). In a 12-week double-blind trial, subjects were randomized to fesoterodine 4 mg or placebo once daily, taken within 4 hours of bedtime. At week 2, subjects could increase the fesoterodine dose to 8 mg (sham escalation for placebo). Subjects completed 3-day bladder diaries, Patient Perception of Bladder Condition, and Urgency Perception Scale at baseline and weeks 2, 6, and 12 as well as OAB Questionnaire at baseline and week 12. Of 883 subjects, 63% and 73% of the fesoterodine (n = 438) and placebo (n = 445) groups, respectively, opted for dose escalation. Week 12 improvements from baseline in total micturitions, urgency episodes, urgency urinary incontinence episodes, frequency-urgency sum, and all OAB Questionnaire scales and domains, but not nocturnal micturitions or nocturnal urgency episodes, were significantly greater with fesoterodine than placebo (all P fesoterodine had improved Patient Perception of Bladder Condition and Urgency Perception Scale scores at weeks 2, 6, and 12 (P fesoterodine, 26%; placebo, 8%) and constipation (fesoterodine, 11%; placebo, 6%) were the most common adverse events. In both groups, 87% of the subjects completed the trial; 8% and 5% of the fesoterodine and placebo groups, respectively, discontinued because of an adverse event. Flexible-dose fesoterodine was efficacious and generally well tolerated for treatment of OAB symptoms. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Long-term safety, tolerability and efficacy of fesoterodine in subjects with overactive bladder symptoms stratified by age: pooled analysis of two open-label extension studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sand, P.K.; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.; Kraus, S.R.; Carlsson, M.; Guan, Z.; Berriman, S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous work has demonstrated the efficacy and safety of fesoterodine in older and younger subjects with overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. The effect of long-term fesoterodine treatment in different age groups has not been assessed. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine the impact of age

  6. Efficacy and tolerability of fesoterodine in men with overactive bladder: a pooled analysis of 2 phase III studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschorn, Sender; Jones, J Stephen; Oelke, Matthias; MacDiarmid, Scott; Wang, Joseph T; Guan, Zhonghong

    2010-05-01

    To assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of fesoterodine 4 and 8 mg in men with overactive bladder. This was a subanalysis of pooled data from 358 men enrolled in 2 double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trials. Subjects with frequency and urgency or urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) were randomized to fesoterodine 4 mg, fesoterodine 8 mg, or placebo for 12 weeks. Efficacy endpoints included bladder diary variables and subject-reported treatment response. By week 12, men treated with fesoterodine 4 or 8 mg had significantly greater median percentage improvements in micturition frequency, urgency episodes, and UUI episodes versus placebo and significantly greater percentages reported a treatment response versus placebo. Significant increases in mean voided volume (MVV) per micturition versus placebo occurred with fesoterodine 8 mg only. At week 12, fesoterodine 8 mg was significantly more efficacious than fesoterodine 4 mg in improving UUI episodes and MVV per micturition. The most commonly reported adverse events with fesoterodine 4 and 8 mg were dry mouth (12.5% and 37.7% vs 5.6% with placebo) and constipation (2.5% and 8.8% vs 0.8% with placebo). Symptoms suggestive of urinary retention were reported in 0.8%, 0.8%, and 5.3% of men in the placebo, fesoterodine 4 mg, and fesoterodine 8 mg groups, respectively; only 1 subject, in the fesoterodine 8 mg group, was catheterized. Fesoterodine 4 and 8 mg are generally safe, efficacious, and well tolerated for the treatment of overactive bladder symptoms in men. The 8 mg dose provides additional benefit and allows for treatment individualization. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Should we use the shorter Thai-version quality of life and symptoms questionnaires in women with overactive bladder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyavejchevin, Suvit; Liao, Limin; Lu, Shing-Hwa; Choo, Myung-Soo; Rabbani, Khalid Javed; Havanond, Piyalamporn

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to test: (i) the validation and reliability of the Thai versions of overactive bladder (OAB) questionnaires (the 8-item and 3-item Overactive Bladder Symptoms Score questionnaires [OAB-v8 and OAB-v3, respectively] and the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire [OAB-q]); and (ii) the correlation of the OAB-v8, OAB-v3, and the single-question Quality of Life Questionnaire (1-QoL) to the OAB-q in Thai women with OAB. During January to March 2011, 36 Thai women with OAB attending a urogynecology clinic at Chulalongkorn Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand were recruited. All questionnaires were given as a psychometric test twice, 2 weeks apart. Cronbach's alpha of the OAB-v8 was higher (and above 0.7) than OAB-v3 at both week 0 and week 2. The intraclass correlations (ricc ) were 0.64, 0.85, and 0.97 for the OABV8, OAB-v3, and OAB-q, respectively. The correlation coefficient (r) of OAB-v3 and OAB-q at weeks 0 and 2 (0.40 and 0.49) were lower than those for OAB-v8 and OAB-q at weeks 0 and 2 (0.62 and 0.62). All questions on the OAB-v3 had a lower weighted kappa than OAB-v8. There was no statistically significant difference in the OAB-q score in each level of 1-QoL score at week 0 (P = 0.12) and at week 2 (P = 0.29). The reliability of the OAB-v3 is poorer than that of the OAB-v8. The OAB-v3 is poorer correlated to the OAB-q than to the OAB-v8. A short questionnaire, such as the OAB-v3 and the 1-QoL, has poor reliability and is poorly correlated to the OAB-q and is not recommended as a replacement for the standard questionnaires, such as the OAB-q and the OAB-v8. The OAB-v3 should only be used in large screening populations where there are time limits. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Evaluation and treatment of the overactive bladder Avaliação e tratamento da bexiga hiperativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. Rovner

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The overactive bladder is characterized by symptoms of frequency, urgency, and urge incontinence, substantially affecting the quality of life of millions of people throughout the world. The symptoms are associated with significant social, psychological, occupational, domestic, physical, and sexual problems. Despite the considerable impact of this condition on quality of life, sufferers are often unwilling to discuss their problem with family members or health care professionals. This situation is unfortunate, for much can be done to alleviate the symptoms of this distressing condition. It is therefore of utmost importance that medical education about symptoms of the overactive bladder and other related problems be improved to help health care professionals identify and treat patients who will benefit from therapy. This article reviews current thinking regarding definition, epidemiology, quality of life effects, evaluation, and management of the overactive bladder.A bexiga hiperativa é caracterizada pelos sintomas de freqüência, urgência e urge-incontinência e afeta de forma significativa o estilo de vida de milhões de pessoas em todo o mundo. Os sintomas são responsáveis por problemas nas esferas social, psicológica, ocupacional, doméstica, física e sexual dos pacientes. Apesar do considerável impacto desta condição sobre a qualidade de vida, grande parte dos pacientes reluta em discutir o problema com membros da família ou profissionais de saúde. Esta situação é lamentável, já que existem muitas maneiras de aliviar os sintomas da hiperatividade vesical. Por essa razão, é fundamental que se aprimore a educação médica sobre os sintomas de hiperatividade vesical e outros problemas relacionados, de modo a preparar os profissionais de saúde a identificar e tratar os pacientes com esta condição. Este artigo é uma revisão dos conceitos atuais, definição, epidemiologia, efeitos sobre a qualidade de vida, avaliação e

  9. Bladder dysfunction changes from underactive to overactive after experimental traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Hai-Hong; Kokiko-Cochran, Olga N; Li, Kevin; Balog, Brian; Lin, Ching-Yi; Damaser, Margot S.; Lin, Vernon; Cheng, Julian Yaoan; Lee, Yu-Shang

    2012-01-01

    Although bladder dysfunction is common after traumatic brain injury (TBI), few studies have investigated resultant bladder changes and the detailed relationship between TBI and bladder dysfunction. The goal of this study was to characterize the effects of TBI on bladder function in an animal model. Fluid-percussion injury was used to create an animal model with moderate TBI. Female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent TBI, sham TBI or were not manipulated (naïve). All rats underwent filling cystomet...

  10. You are what you eat: the impact of diet on overactive bladder and lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Dudley; Giarenis, Ilias; Cardozo, Linda

    2014-09-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a clinical syndrome describing the symptom complex of urgency, with or without urgency incontinence and is usually associated with frequency and nocturia. The symptoms associated with OAB are common and whilst not life threatening are known to have a significant impact on the quality of life (QoL). There is increasing evidence that diet may have a significant role in the development of OAB symptoms. Whilst fluid in-take is known to affect lower urinary tract function the effects of caffeine, carbonated drinks and artificial sweeteners are less well understood. Consequently the aim of this paper is to review the evidence and investigate the effect of diet on lower urinary tract function and dysfunction.

  11. The use of botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of HTLV-1-associated overactive bladder refractory to conventional therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Abraão Carneiro Neto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Urinary symptoms occur in 19% of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1-infected patients who do not fulfill criteria for HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP and in almost 100% of HAM/TSP patients. Few studies have evaluated therapies for overactive bladder (OAB caused by HTLV-1 infection. This case report describes the effect of onabotulinum toxin A on the urinary manifestations of three patients with HAM/TSP and OAB symptoms. The patients were intravesically administered 200 units of Botox®. Their incontinence episodes improved, and their OAB symptoms scores (OABSS reduced significantly. These data indicate that Botox® should be a treatment option for OAB associated with HTLV-1 infection.

  12. Cost effectiveness of fesoterodine and tolterodine for the treatment of overactive bladder with urge urinary incontinence in Spain and Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Javier C; Valpas, Antti; Rejas, Javier; Linden, Kari; Kvasz, Marion; Snedecor, Sonya J

    2014-05-01

    Overactive bladder is a prevalent condition worldwide that is associated with a considerable burden, both on the patient and on society. Our objective was to assess the economic value of fesoterodine compared with tolterodine extended release (ER) for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) with urge urinary incontinence (UUI) in Spain and Finland. A decision-tree economic model estimated the 52-week costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) of OAB/UUI patients initiating treatment with fesoterodine 4 mg/day or tolterodine ER. Individuals were evaluated for treatment response (UUI fewer than one episode/day) and persistence at weeks 4, 12, and 24. Titration from fesoterodine 4 mg/day to 8 mg/day was permitted at week 4. At week 12, non-responders discontinued treatment permanently. Efficacy, discontinuation, and utility data were derived from four clinical trials of fesoterodine. OAB-related costs, including physician visits, laboratory tests, incontinence pads, and comorbidities (fracture, skin infection, urinary tract infections, depression, and nursing home) were also included. A total of 19.5 % and 18.0 % of fesoterodine and tolterodine ER patients remained on treatment until week 52, respectively. QALYs were higher with fesoterodine than tolterodine ER (0.762 vs. 0.760). In Spain, fesoterodine treatment had higher total costs than (generic) tolterodine ER (€6,697 vs. 6,597), resulting in a cost of €15,633/QALY gained. In Finland, fesoterodine was cost saving relative to (non-generic) tolterodine ER (€7,885 vs. 8,024). Sensitivity analysis confirmed that these findings were robust to the expected price decrease for generic tolterodine ER in Finland. Fesoterodine is cost effective or cost saving relative to tolterodine ER for the treatment of OAB with UUI in two European countries. Payers and prescribers should consider a broad scope of costs to make informed cost-conscious choices of antimuscarinic treatment.

  13. An observational study of patient satisfaction with fesoterodine in the treatment of overactive bladder: effects of additional educational material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, T; Arumi, D; Crook, T J; Sun, F; Michel, M C

    2014-09-01

    To compare the effects of additional educational material on treatment satisfaction of overactive bladder (OAB) patients treated with a muscarinic receptor antagonist. In an observational study of OAB patients being treated by their physician with fesoterodine for 4 months (FAKTEN study), sites were randomised to providing standard treatment or additional educational material including the SAGA tool. Patient satisfaction was assessed by three validated patient-reported outcomes including the Treatment Satisfaction Question. Because of premature discontinuation of the study, descriptive statistical analysis was performed. A total of 431 and 342 patients received standard treatment or additional educational material, respectively. At study end, 76.1% [95% CI = 71.3, 80.4] of patients with standard care and 79.6% [95% CI = 74.4, 84.1] with additional SAGA tool were satisfied with treatment (primary end-point). Comparable outcomes with and without the additional educational material were also found in various patient subgroups, at the 1-month time point, and for the other patient-reported outcomes. A notable exception was the subgroup of treatment-naïve patients in which the percentage of satisfied patients was 77.2% vs. 89.5% with standard treatment and additional SAGA tool, respectively (post hoc analysis). In an observational study, most overactive bladder patients were satisfied with fesoterodine treatment. Because of the small sample size, the study does not support or refute the hypothesis that adding the SAGA tool will improve patient satisfaction with treatment. The potential effect of additional educational material in treatment-naïve patients warrants further dedicated studies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Early low-frequency stimulation of the pudendal nerve can inhibit detrusor overactivity and delay progress of bladder fibrosis in dogs with spinal cord injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Liao, L; Chen, G; Zhang, F; Tian, Y

    2013-09-01

    To determine the inhibitory effects of pudendal nerve stimulation (5 Hz) on bladder overactivity at the early stage of spinal cord injury (SCI) in dogs, and to explore the possible effects on delayed progression of bladder fibrosis after SCI. The study was performed using six dogs with spinal cord transection at the T9–T10 level. Group 1 (three dogs) under went low-frequency electrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve 1 day after spinal cord transection. Group 2 (three dogs) underwent only spinal cord transection. All dogs underwent urodynamic examination at 1 and 3 months after SCI. The bladders were removed for histological examination of fibrosis at 3 months after SCI. Bladder capacity and compliance were significantly increased (Pstimulation in group 1 when compared with group 2 at 1 and 3 months after SCI. Non-voiding contractions (NVCs) were inhibited in group 1 compared with group 2. Collagen fibers were significantly increased and elastic fibers were significantly decreased (PEarly low-frequency pudendal nerve stimulation can inhibit detrusor overactivity (DO), increase bladder capacity and delay the progression of bladder fibrosis.

  15. Propiverine versus tolterodine: efficacy and tolerability in patients with overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jünemann, Klaus-Peter; Halaska, Michael; Rittstein, Tomas; Mürtz, Gerd; Schnabel, Frieder; Brünjes, Rainer; Nurkiewicz, Wojciech

    2005-09-01

    Propiverine and tolterodine were compared with respect to efficacy, tolerability and impact on the quality of life in the treatment of patients with idiopathic detrusor overactivity. In a randomised, double-blind, multicentre clinical trial, patients with idiopathic detrusor overactivity were treated with 15 mg propiverine twice daily or 2mg tolterodine twice daily over a period of 28 days. The maximum cystometric capacity was determined at baseline and after 4 weeks of therapy. The difference of both values was used as the primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints were voided volume per micturition, evaluation of efficacy (by the investigator), tolerability, post void residual urine, and quality of life. The mean maximum cystometric capacity increased significantly (p tolterodine group experienced adverse events. The most common adverse event, dry mouth, occurred in 20 patients in the propiverine group and in 19 patients in the tolterodine group. The scores for the quality of life improved comparably in both groups. The study demonstrates comparable efficacy, tolerability, and improvement in the quality of life of 15 mg propiverine twice-daily and 2mg tolterodine twice-daily in the treatment of the symptoms of idiopathic detrusor overactivity.

  16. Efficacy and safety of fesoterodine 8 mg in subjects with overactive bladder after a suboptimal response to tolterodine ER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, S A; Cardozo, L; Herschorn, S; Grenabo, L; Carlsson, M; Arumi, D; Crook, T J; Whelan, L; Scholfield, D; Ntanios, F

    2014-09-01

    To assess fesoterodine 8 mg efficacy over time and vs. placebo in subjects with overactive bladder (OAB) who responded suboptimally to tolterodine extended release (ER) 4 mg. In a 12-week, double-blind trial, subjects with self-reported OAB symptoms for ≥ 6 months, mean of ≥ 8 micturitions and ≥ 2 to fesoterodine (4 mg for 1 week, 8 mg for 11 weeks) or placebo once daily. Change from baseline to week 12 in UUI episodes (primary end-point) was analysed in step-wise fashion: first, baseline vs. week 12 for fesoterodine; if significant, then change from baseline to week 12 for fesoterodine vs. placebo. By week 12, subjects receiving fesoterodine 8 mg had significantly greater improvement from baseline vs. placebo in UUI episodes, urgency episodes and scores on the Patient Perception of Bladder Control, Urgency Perception Scale and OAB Questionnaire Symptom Bother and Health-Related Quality of Life scales and domains (all p fesoterodine 8 mg vs. placebo at week 12 (p fesoterodine, 16.6%, 51/308) and constipation (placebo, 1.3%, 4/301; fesoterodine, 3.9%, 12/308) were the most frequent adverse events. Subjects who responded suboptimally to tolterodine ER 4 mg showed significant improvements in UUI and other OAB symptoms and patient-reported outcomes, with good tolerability, during treatment with fesoterodine 8 mg vs. placebo. © 2014 The Authors International Journal of Clinical Practice Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Validation of a Dutch version of the Actionable 8-item screening questionnaire for neurogenic bladder overactivity in multiple sclerosis: an observational web-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Jongen, P.J.; Blok, B.F.; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.; Heerings, M.; Lemmens, W.A.J.G.; Donders, R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) the impact of urological symptoms on quality of life and daily activities is considerable. Yet, a substantial percentage of patients may not be urologically evaluated and thus fail to be treated concordantly. The 8-item Actionable questionnaire is a validated English screening tool for the detection of neurogenic bladder overactivity in MS. To enable the use of the 8-item Actionable in The Netherlands and Belgium we translated the questionn...

  18. Efficacy and safety of low-dose anticholinergics to treat men with lower urinary tract symptoms with overactive bladder: a retrospective study based on real life practice

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Kyung Kgi; Lee, Seung Hwan; Chung, Byung Ha; Kim, Su Jin; Kwak, Cheol; Son, Hwan Cheol; Kim, Sae Woong; Lee, Ji Youl

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether combination treatment using an ?-blocker and 2 mg of tolterodine could improve the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) as much as ?-blocker and 4 mg of tolterodine without voiding difficulties in real life practice. Methods: We restrospectively recruited patients who were treated at four urology clinics between January 2006 and May 2008. A total of 1,094 men with lower urinary tract symptoms/overactive bladder (LUTS/OAB) were assigned to one of three gr...

  19. Long-term safety, tolerability and efficacy of extended-release tolterodine in the treatment of overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreder, K; Mayne, C; Jonas, U

    2002-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the long-term safety, tolerability and efficacy of tolterodine extended-release (ER) in patients who had completed 12 weeks' treatment in a randomised, double-blind study comparing tolterodine ER 4 mg once daily (qd), tolterodine immediate-release (IR) 2mg twice daily and placebo. Of the 1377 patients completing the 12-week study, a total of 1077 (78%) chose to continue with 12 months' open-label treatment with tolterodine ER 4 mg once daily, irrespective of their previous treatment. Safety was assessed after 3, 6, 9 and 12 months' treatment in the study. Efficacy was evaluated from micturition diary variables and patients' perception of bladder condition and urgency following 3 and 12 months' treatment. 71% of patients completed the 12-month study. Tolterodine ER was safe and well tolerated. Adverse events of the general (14.5%), autonomic (13.2%), gastrointestinal (11.4%), respiratory (9.8%) and urinary (9.1%) systems were the most frequently reported. Dry mouth was the most common event, occurring in 12.9% of patients, and was generally mild in severity. Other adverse events occurred in less than 5% of patients. There was no increase in the frequency of adverse events with long-term relative to short-term treatment. The efficacy of tolterodine was maintained over the 12-month treatment period; relative to baseline there were reductions in the number of incontinence episodes per week (median change -83%) and micturitions per 24 hours (median change -21%) and an increase in volume voided (median change +25%) after 12 months' treatment. An improvement in patient perception of their bladder condition was found in 75% of patients completing the study, and 51% had an improvement in patient perception of urgency. Tolterodine ER 4mg qd displayed a favourable safety, tolerability and efficacy profile during 12 months' treatment of patients with overactive bladder.

  20. Onabotulinum toxin a (botox®) in the treatment of neurogenic bladder overactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrsted, Malene; Nordsten, Cecilie Bagi; Bagi, Per

    2012-01-01

    Botulinum toxin (BT) is a potent presynaptic neuromuscular blocking agent which induces selective, reversible muscle weakness for months when injected intramuscularly. During recent years BT has revolutionized the treatment of previously intractable symptoms of detrusor overactivity. Based...... techniques and dosages were described. The onset of the effect usually appeared before 2 weeks, and reached a peak within 2-6 weeks, with the clinical effect being maintained for approximately 6-8 months, or even longer. Depending on the dose, a number of patients developed high residual volume and clean...

  1. Total urgency and frequency score as a measure of urgency and frequency in overactive bladder and storage lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, Christopher R; Drake, Marcus J; Van Kerrebroeck, Philip; Cardozo, Linda; Drogendijk, Ted; Klaver, Monique; Van Charldorp, Karin; Hakimi, Zalmai; Compion, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    The term lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) encompasses a range of urinary symptoms, including storage symptoms (e.g. overactive bladder [OAB]) as well as voiding and post-micturition symptoms. Although treatment of male LUTS tends to focus on voiding symptoms, patients typically find storage symptoms the most bothersome. The core storage symptom is urgency, which drives the other main storage symptoms of increased daytime frequency, nocturia and incontinence. Although several validated questionnaires have been widely used to study urgency, few measure the two important storage parameters, urgency and frequency, in a single assessment. The total urgency and frequency score (TUFS) is a new validated tool that captures both variables and is derived from the Patient Perception of Intensity of Urgency Scale, which has been validated in patients with OAB and LUTS. The TUFS was first validated in OAB in the phase IIa BLOSSOM study, which was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of mirabegron, a β3 -adrenoceptor agonist, in 260 patients. The responsiveness of the TUFS to treatment has been confirmed in a further three large-scale randomized controlled trials of solifenacin in patients with OAB or LUTS. Changes in TUFS from baseline to end of treatment were consistent with changes in micturition diary variables in all four studies. Furthermore, the TUFS was significantly correlated with several health-related quality-of-life variables in the phase III NEPTUNE study. Thus, the TUFS appears to be useful for assessing improvements in major storage symptoms (urgency and frequency) in clinical trials.

  2. Effect of fesoterodine 4 mg on bladder diary and patient-reported outcomes during the first week of treatment in subjects with overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcos, Jacques; Angulo, Javier C; Garely, Alan D; Carlsson, Martin; Gong, Jason; Guan, Zhonghong

    2011-05-01

    To assess the onset of efficacy of fesoterodine 4 mg versus placebo in subjects with overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. Subjects who reported OAB symptoms for ≥ 3 months and recorded ≥ 8 micturitions and ≥ 1 urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) episode per 24 hours in 3-day baseline diaries were randomized to fesoterodine 4 mg, tolterodine extended release (ER) 4 mg, or placebo. This is an analysis of first week data from a 12-week, double-blind trial. ClinicalTrials.gov unique ID: NCT00444925. Baseline to week 1 changes in 3-day bladder diary variables, Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC), and Urgency Perception Scale (UPS) scores reported by subjects receiving fesoterodine 4 mg or placebo. By week 1, fesoterodine 4 mg (n = 679) was associated with significantly greater improvements compared with placebo (n = 334) in micturitions, urgency, severe urgency and UUI episodes, frequency-urgency sum, and MVV per 24 hours and 3-day diary-dry rate (all p fesoterodine 4 mg versus placebo (p = 0.0143); changes in UPS scores were not significantly different (p = 0.077). The results provide evidence that patients receiving fesoterodine 4 mg for their OAB symptoms may expect to experience a response as early as 1 week after initiating treatment. One limitation is that, although 65% of subjects had received treatment with antimuscarinics before the study, whether subjects were dissatisfied with previous treatment and reasons for dissatisfaction were not collected. This might affect the magnitude of outcome improvements. Also, it is not known whether the UPS is sensitive enough to detect treatment differences as early as week 1.

  3. Factors associated with dose escalation of fesoterodine for treatment of overactive bladder in people >65 years of age: A post hoc analysis of data from the SOFIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagg, Adrian; Darekar, Amanda; Arumi, Daniel; Khullar, Vik; Oelke, Matthias

    2015-06-01

    To investigate factors which may influence dose escalation of antimuscarinics for overactive bladder (OAB) in older patients and how dose escalation affects treatment efficacy. A post hoc analysis of data from the 12-week randomized, placebo controlled phase of the SOFIA study investigating treatment with fesoterodine in older people with OAB. Predictors and outcomes in patients aged ≥65 years with OAB who did or did not choose to escalate from fesoterodine 4 to 8 mg before the first dose-escalation choice point (week 4) and at the end of the study (week 12) were assessed. Variables which significantly increased likelihood of dose escalation were, at baseline, body mass index (OR: 1.06, 95% CI 1.01, 1.12; P = 0.0222), and male gender (OR: 2.06, 95% CI 1.28, 3.32; P = 0.0028) and at week 4, change from baseline in urgency episodes (OR: 1.12, 95% CI 1.05, 1.20; P = 0.0008), patient perception of bladder control (PPBC) (OR: 1.44, 95% CI 1.12, 1.84; P = 0.004). At week 12, dose escalation was associated with slightly reduced treatment outcomes compared to week 4 non-escalators. No baseline disease related factor associated with dose escalation was identified. Magnitude of change in urgency episodes and reduction in PPBC at 4 weeks were associated with dose escalation. These data may be of use to healthcare providers as they allow judgement to be made in individual patients, allowing treatment decisions to be made. At end of treatment, improvements in efficacy and quality of life were achieved in both escalators and non-escalators. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Transcutaneous parasacral electrical stimulation vs oxybutynin for the treatment of overactive bladder in children: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintiliano, Fábio; Veiga, Maria Luiza; Moraes, Marília; Cunha, Carolina; de Oliveira, Liliana Fajardo; Lordelo, Patrícia; Bastos Netto, José Murillo; Barroso Júnior, Ubirajara

    2015-05-01

    We determined the effectiveness of 2 methods to treat overactive bladder in children using intragroup and intergroup comparisons in a randomized clinical trial. Nine boys and 19 girls with a mean ± SD age of 6.4 ± 2.18 years were randomly divided into group 1-parasacral transcutaneous electrical stimulation with placebo drug and group 2-oxybutynin with sham scapular electrical therapy. Success was assessed by 1) the rate of complete symptom resolution, 2) a visual analog scale of 0 to 10, 3) the dysfunctional voiding score system, 4) voiding diary records, 5) Rome III criteria and 6) side effect frequency in each group. A total of 13 and 15 patients were randomized to groups 1 and 2, respectively. Symptoms completely resolved in 6 patients in group 1 (46%) and 3 in group 2 (20%) (p = 0.204). A statistically significant improvement was found in the 2 groups in the dysfunctional voiding score system and voiding diary records. However, no statistically significant difference was found between the groups in the visual analog scale score, voiding frequency, and maximum and mean voided volume (p = 0.295, 0.098, 0.538 and 0.650, respectively). Constipation improved in 100% of group 1 patients but in only 55% in group 2 (p = 0.031 vs 0.073). Group 1 showed no side effects while dry mouth, hyperthermia and hyperemia developed in 58%, 25% and 50% of group 2 patients (p = 0.002, 0.096 and 0.005, respectively). Treatment was discontinued by 13.3% of patients in group 2. Parasacral transcutaneous electrical stimulation was as effective as oxybutynin to treat overactive bladder in children. However, transcutaneous parasacral electrical stimulation was more effective against constipation and showed no detectable side effects. Oxybutynin was more effective for decreasing voiding frequency. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fesoterodine in patients with overactive bladder syndrome: can the severity of baseline urgency urinary incontinence predict dosing requirement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, Linda; Khullar, Vik; Wang, Joseph T; Guan, Zhonghong; Sand, Peter K

    2010-09-01

    To determine whether baseline urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) episodes predict the need for increased doses of fesoterodine in patients with overactive bladder (OAB), as clinicians would benefit from data that help to predict which patients require higher doses of antimuscarinics to manage UUI episodes. In this pooled analysis of data from two double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, patients were randomized to placebo or fesoterodine 4 or 8 mg for 12 weeks and stratified into tertiles (>0- or =4) according to the number of UUI episodes/24 h as recorded in 3-day bladder diaries at baseline. The change in mean UUI episodes/24 h from baseline to end of study was assessed using analysis of covariance. In a post hoc analysis of data from two clinical trials, there were significant reductions from baseline in UUI episodes for fesoterodine 4 and 8 mg vs placebo in patients (n) with >0- or =4 (481) UUI episodes at baseline (all P or =4 UUI episodes at baseline, fesoterodine 8 mg gave significantly greater mean reductions (-1.92 and -4.17, respectively) vs fesoterodine 4 mg (-1.43 and -3.31) (P fesoterodine 4 mg, 19%; and 8 mg, 35%) and constipation (placebo, 2%; fesoterodine 4 mg, 5%; and 8 mg, 6%). Fesoterodine 4 and 8 mg significantly reduced UUI episodes vs placebo; this effect appeared to be greater with fesoterodine 8 mg in patients with > or =2 UUI episodes/24 h at baseline. Fesoterodine was well tolerated, although higher doses increased the incidence of adverse events. These findings might aid the clinical identification of patients with OAB who would most benefit from increasing the dose of fesoterodine from 4 to 8 mg.

  6. Sustained improvement in patient-reported outcomes during long-term fesoterodine treatment for overactive bladder symptoms: pooled analysis of two open-label extension studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Con J; Dmochowski, Roger R; Berriman, Sandra; Kopp, Zoe S; Carlsson, Martin

    2012-08-01

    • To evaluate the effects of long-term fesoterodine treatment on health-related quality of life (HRQL) and treatment satisfaction in subjects with overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. • To determine the impact of gender and age on these effects. • This is a post hoc analysis of data pooled from identically designed open-label extensions of two randomized, double-blind, 12-week fesoterodine studies. • Initial treatment was once-daily fesoterodine 8 mg; subjects had the opportunity to receive open-label fesoterodine for ≥24 months. • After 1 month, subjects could elect dose reduction to 4 mg and subsequent re-escalation to 8 mg; dose reduction and re-escalation were each allowed once annually. • Changes in scores on the King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ), International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF) and a Likert scale evaluating severity of bladder-related problems were assessed at open-label baseline and months 12 and 24; treatment satisfaction was assessed at open-label baseline and at months 4, 12 and 24. • A total of 864 enrolled subjects were included (men, n= 182; women, n= 682; aged fesoterodine treatment was associated with sustained improvement in measures of health-related quality of life and bladder-related problems and with high treatment satisfaction in subjects with overactive bladder symptoms. • Effects of gender and age were minimal. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  7. [Bacterial ecology and resistance to antibiotics in patients with neurogenic overactive bladder treated with intravesical botulinum toxin injections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, J; Le Breton, F; Jousse, M; Haddad, R; Verollet, D; Guinet-Lacoste, A; Amarenco, G

    2014-10-01

    For the last ten years, botulinum neurotoxin type A has become the gold standard for the treatment of neurogenic overactive detrusor. Bacterial colonization is common for these patients using clean intermittent self-catheterization, and toxin injections are at risk of urinary tract infections. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of different germs and their resistance to antibiotics in patients with neurogenic bladder, treated with intravesical botulinum toxin injections. This epidemiologic study took place from September to October 2012 in a urodynamic and neurourology unit in a teaching hospital in Paris, France. Eighty patients with a valid urine culture according to our protocol, were included. Fourty-four culture were positive with 45 bacteria. We found an Escherichia coli in 42.5%, a Klebsiella pneumoniae in 7.5%, a Citrobacter freundii and an enterococcus in 2.5%, and a Staphylococcus aureus in 1.25%. Penicillin resistance were found in 51.11%, 3rd generation cephalosporins in 8.89%, quinolones in 28.89% and sulfamids in 24.44%. None were resistant to fosfomycin. E. coli was the most frequent bacterium. No resistance to fosfomycin was found. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Review of the efficacy and safety of fesoterodine for treating overactive bladder and urgency urinary incontinence in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagg, Adrian; Oelke, Matthias; Angulo, Javier C; Scholfield, David; Arumi, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common condition, with prevalence rates increasing with advancing age. Symptoms of OAB, including urgency urinary incontinence (UUI), are associated with various co-morbidities in elderly individuals (e.g., falls and fractures, functional impairment, and depression). The current mainstay of pharmacological therapy for OAB is antimuscarinic agents. Until recently, few studies had specifically evaluated the efficacy and safety of antimuscarinics in the treatment of OAB symptoms in elderly patients. This review summarises available evidence from the medical literature on the efficacy and safety of fesoterodine in elderly patients with OAB symptoms, including UUI. The data from unique placebo-controlled fesoterodine trials of elderly and vulnerable elderly patients, together with age-stratified data from post hoc analyses of fesoterodine trials, demonstrate that treatment with fesoterodine 4 or 8 mg results in statistically and clinically significant improvements in OAB symptoms and patient-reported outcomes in many elderly patients. The data indicate that the efficacy of fesoterodine in elderly patients is comparable with that in younger patients. Fesoterodine is generally well tolerated in elderly and vulnerable elderly patients, with low rates of urinary retention and little evidence of central nervous system events or impaired cognition. The data support a favourable benefit-to-risk ratio for fesoterodine in elderly and medically complex vulnerable elderly patients with OAB.

  9. Flexible-dose fesoterodine in elderly adults with overactive bladder: results of the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of fesoterodine in an aging population trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagg, Adrian; Khullar, Vik; Marschall-Kehrel, Daniela; Michel, Martin C; Oelke, Matthias; Darekar, Amanda; Bitoun, Caty E; Weinstein, David; Osterloh, Ian

    2013-02-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of flexible-dose fesoterodine in elderly adults with overactive bladder (OAB). Twelve-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Sixty-one outpatient clinics in Europe, Israel, and Turkey. Seven hundred ninety-four individuals aged 65 and older (47% male) with OAB symptoms for 3 months or longer, mean of eight or more micturitions and three or more urgency episodes per 24 hours, at least some moderate problems on Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC), and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of 20 or greater. Participants were randomized to fesoterodine or placebo for 12 weeks, with stratification according to age (>75 vs ≤ 75) and dosing time (morning vs evening). Participants receiving fesoterodine started on 4 mg and could increase to 8 mg at week 4 or 8 and de-escalate to 4 mg at week 8 (sham escalation for placebo). Changes from baseline in bladder-diary variables (primary endpoint, urgency episodes) and patient-reported outcomes including OAB Questionnaire, Treatment Benefit Scale (TBS), PPBC, Urgency Perception Scale (UPS), and OAB Satisfaction Questionnaire (OAB-S); all observed or reported adverse events. By week 8, 64% of fesoterodine-treated and 71% of placebo-treated participants opted for dose escalation. At week 12, the fesoterodine group had statistically significantly greater improvement than the placebo group in urgency episodes, micturitions, nocturnal micturitions, incontinence pad use, and OAB Questionnaire scores but not urgency urinary incontinence episodes. Responder rates on TBS, PPBC, UPS, and OAB-S were statistically significantly higher with fesoterodine. Improvements in most diary variables and participant-reported outcomes were greater with fesoterodine than placebo in participants in both age groups and when administered in the morning and evening. Rates of dry mouth and constipation were 34% and 9% with fesoterodine and 5% and 3% with placebo, respectively. Rates of

  10. NETUPITANT, A POTENT AND HIGHLY SELECTIVE NK1 RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST, ALLEVIATES ACETIC ACID-INDUCED BLADDER OVERACTIVITY IN ANESTHETIZED GUINEA-PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Palea

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tachykinins potently contract the isolated urinary bladder from a number of animal species and play an important role in the regulation of the micturition reflex. On the guinea-pig isolated urinary bladder we examined the effects of a new potent and selective NK1 receptor antagonist (netupitant on the contractions induced by a selective NK1 receptor agonist, SP-methylester (SP-OMe. Moreover, the effects of netupitant and another selective NK1 antagonist (L-733,060 were studied in anesthetized guinea-pigs using two experimental models, the isovolumetric bladder contractions and a model of bladder overactivity induced by intravesical administration of acetic acid (AA. Methods and Results. Detrusor muscle strips were mounted in 5 mL organ baths and isometric contractions to cumulative concentrations of SP-OME were recorded before and after incubation with increasing concentrations of netupitant. In anesthetized female guinea-pigs, reflex bladder activity was examined under isovolumetric conditions with the bladder distended with saline or during cystometry using intravesical infusion of acetic acid (AA. After a 30 min stabilization period, netupitant (0.1-3 mg/kg, i.v. or L-733,060 (3-10 mg/kg, i.v. were administered. In the detrusor muscle, netupitant produced a concentration-dependent inhibition (mean pKB = 9.24 of the responses to SP-OMe. Under isovolumetric conditions, netupitant or L-733,060 reduced bladder contraction frequency in a dose-dependent manner, but neither drug changed bladder contraction amplitude. In the AA model, netupitant dose-dependently increased intercontraction interval (ICI but had no effect on the amplitude of micturition (AM. L-733,060 dose-dependently increased ICI also but this effect was paralleled by a significant reduction of AM. Conclusion. Netupitant decreases the frequency of reflex bladder contractions without altering their amplitude, suggesting that this drug targets the afferent limb of the

  11. Fesoterodine clinical efficacy and safety for the treatment of overactive bladder in relation to patient profiles: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, Christopher; Oelke, Matthias; Kaplan, Steven A; Scholfield, David; Arumi, Daniel; Wagg, Adrian S

    2015-06-01

    To summarize published evidence on the pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of fesoterodine for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms in relation to patient clinical and demographic profiles. A systematic review of published articles on fesoterodine was conducted via a PubMed search. Articles were identified using the search term fesoterodine, with limits of human species and abstract available. Review and meta-analysis articles, validation studies, articles focused on treatment compliance/adherence, meeting abstracts, and articles not focused on oral fesoterodine administration in human subjects were excluded. Data from retained articles were summarized descriptively. Of 137 articles identified, 61 (15 articles on the pharmacology and 46 articles on the efficacy and/or safety of fesoterodine) met inclusion criteria. Superiority trials demonstrated the additional efficacy of fesoterodine 8 mg versus fesoterodine 4 mg and tolterodine extended release 4 mg in treating OAB. Prospective trials in specific patient populations indicated beneficial effects of fesoterodine in elderly patients, vulnerable elderly patients, patients dissatisfied with or with a suboptimal response to previous antimuscarinic therapy, patients with urge urinary incontinence (UUI) or nocturnal urgency, and men with persistent LUTS during alpha-blocker treatment. With two effective doses, the fesoterodine dose can be adjusted to achieve optimal efficacy and tolerability in individual patients. The most common adverse events during fesoterodine treatment are dry mouth and constipation. Extensive evidence demonstrates the efficacy and safety of fesoterodine in relieving OAB symptoms, including urgency, urinary frequency, UUI, and nocturnal urgency, in patients with various clinical and demographic profiles. Trial results provide valuable information on fesoterodine treatment in specific patient populations, including both elderly and vulnerable elderly patients. Potential

  12. Validation of a self-administered instrument to measure adherence to anticholinergic drugs in women with overactive bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andy, UU; Harvie, HS; Smith, AL; Propert, KJ; Bogner, HR; Arya, LA

    2015-01-01

    Aim To validate a self-administered instrument, the Medication Adherence Self-Report Inventory (MASRI) for measuring adherence to anti-cholinergic medication for overactive bladder (OAB). Methods Prospective study in 131 women with OAB treated with fesoterodine. Adherence was measured at 8 and 12 weeks using an interviewer administered Brief Medication Questionnaire (BMQ) that assesses barriers to adherence (criterion standard), the MASRI, and pill count. Construct, concurrent and discriminant validity of the MASRI was assessed. We hypothesized that women who were non-adherent as measured by the MASRI would be more likely to have a belief barrier than women who were adherent to medication. Results Women diagnosed as non-adherent by the MASRI were more likely to report a belief barrier to taking medication as compared to adherent women at 8weeks (80 v 38%, p<0.001) and at 12 weeks (70% v. 40%, p=0.003). Significant correlations were noted between adherence rates measured by the MASRI and the BMQ at 8 weeks (r=0.87, p<0.001) and 12 weeks (r=0.90, p<0.001). Moderate correlation was noted between the adherence rate as measured by the MASRI and pill count at 8 weeks (r=0.49, p=0.02) but not at 12 weeks (r=0.05, p=0.87). The MASRI correctly identified 93% and 96% of non-adherent women at 8 and 12 weeks, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity and positive likelihood ratio of the MASRI for predicting non-adherence was 91%, 82%, and 5.1 at 8 weeks and 90%, 85% and 6.1 at 12 weeks. Conclusions The MASRI is a valid self-administered tool for measuring adherence to anti-cholinergic medication in women with OAB. PMID:24719232

  13. Synergistic effect of iontophoresis and chemical enhancers on transdermal permeation of tolterodine tartrate for the treatment of overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Prasanthi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The objective of the study was to evaluate the synergistic transdermal permeation effect of chemical enhancers and iontophoresis technique on tolterodine tartrate (TT transdermal gel and to evaluate its pharmacokinetic properties. Materials and Methods Taguchi robust design was used for optimization of formulations. Skin permeation rates were evaluated using the Keshary-chein type diffusion cells in order to optimize the gel formulation. In-vivo studies of the optimized formulation were performed in a rabbit model and histopathology studies of optimized formulation were performed on rats. Results Transdermal gels were formulated successfully using Taguchi robust design method. The type of penetration enhancer, concentration of penetration enhancer, current density and pulse on/off ratio were chosen as independent variables. Type of penetration enhancer was found to be the significant factor for all the responses. Permeation parameters were evaluated when maximum cumulative amount permeated in 24 hours (Q24 was 145.71 ± 2.00µg/cm2 by CIT4 formulation over control (91.89 ± 2.30µg/cm2. Permeation was enhanced by 1.75 fold by CIT4 formulation. Formulation CIT4 containing nerolidol (5% and iontophoretic variables applied (0.5mA/cm2 and pulse on/off ratio 3:1 was optimized. In vivo studies with optimized formulation CIT4 showed increase in AUC and T1/2 when compared to oral suspension in rabbits. The histological studies showed changes in dermis indicating the effect of penetration enhancers and as iontophoresis was continued only for two cycles in periodic fashion so it did not cause any skin damage observed in the slides. Conclusion Results indicated that iontophoresis in combination with chemical enhancers is an effective method for transdermal administration of TT in the treatment of overactive bladder.

  14. Mirabegron for the treatment of overactive bladder: cost-effectiveness from US commercial health-plan and Medicare Advantage perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielage, Ronald C; Perk, Sinem; Campbell, Noll L; Klein, Timothy M; Posta, Linda M; Yuran, Thomas; Klein, Robert W; Ng, Daniel B

    2016-12-01

    The first class of oral pharmacologic treatments for overactive bladder (OAB) are antimuscarinics that are associated with poor persistence, anticholinergic adverse events, and increased anticholinergic burden (ACB) with risk of cognitive impairment. Mirabegron, a β3-adrenoceptor agonist, is an oral treatment that does not contribute to ACB and has early evidence of improved persistence. The objective of the analysis was to assess the cost-effectiveness of mirabegron for OAB vs six antimuscarinics in the US. A Markov state-transition model assessed US commercial health-plan and Medicare Advantage perspectives over a 3-year time horizon in an OAB patient population. Transition probabilities between five micturition and five incontinence severity states were derived from a network meta-analysis of 44 trials of oral OAB treatments. Therapy beginning with an oral OAB agent could discontinue or switch to another oral agent and could be followed by tibial nerve stimulation, sacral neuromodulation, or onabotulinumtoxinA. The primary outcome was cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Utilities were mapped from incontinence and micturition frequencies as well as demographics. Based on analysis of data from a large healthcare system, elevated ACB was associated with increased healthcare utilization and probability of cognitive impairment. From both commercial and Medicare Advantage perspectives, mirabegron was the most clinically effective treatment, while oxybutynin was the least expensive. Tolterodine immediate release (IR) was also on the cost-effectiveness frontier. The analysis estimated costs per QALY of $59,690 and $66,347 for mirabegron from commercial health plan and Medicare Advantage perspectives, respectively, compared to tolterodine IR. Other antimuscarinics were dominated. This analysis estimated that mirabegron is a cost-effective treatment for OAB from US commercial health plan and Medicare Advantage perspectives, due to fewer projected adverse events

  15. 帕金森病患者膀胱过动症状评估%Assessment of concomitant overactive bladder symptoms in Parkinson disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏雅荣; 任肖玉; 沈炜娣; 干静; 刘振国

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the prevalence and impact factors of overactive bladder symptoms (OABS) and the OABS influence on health related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Methods The overactive bladder questionnaire (OAB-q) and unified Parkinson disease rating scale (UPDRS) were used to evaluate 115 patients with idiopathic PD. The results were taken from PD patients and compared with those of 123 control subjects. Results The prevalence of OABS in PD patients was 47.0%. Compared with the control subjects, PD patients had higher overactive bladder symptom severity (OABSS) score (P=0. 000) and lower HRQL score. PD patients with OABS were lower in HRQL score than PD patients without OABS (P = 0. 003). The age and severity of PD were the impact factors of OABS. Conclusions OABS is a kind of common symptom in PD patients, which influenced the HRQL of PD patients seriously. OABS will be worse when the PD patients are older and PD is aggravated.%目的 分析PD患者膀胱过动症状(OABS)的患病率、影响因素以及OABS对PD患者生活质量(health related quality of life,HRQL)的影响.方法 运用膀胱过度活动症问卷(overactive bladder questionnaire,OAB-q)、统一帕金森病评分量表(UPDRS)对115例PD患者进行评估.结果 PD患者OABS患病率47.0%.PD组OABSS得分明显高于对照组(P=0.000);PD组的生活质量得分均低于对照组.年龄及帕金森病严重程度与PD患者OABS严重程度呈正相关.OAB组HRQL得分较非OAB组低(P=0.003).结论 OABS是PD患者中常见的非运动症状之一,OABS严重影响PD患者生活质量,年龄增长和PD病情恶化可增加OABS的严重程度.

  16. Long-term safety, tolerability, and efficacy of fesoterodine treatment in men and women with overactive bladder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpero, Harriette; Sand, Peter K; Kelleher, Con J; Berriman, Sandra; Bavendam, Tamara; Carlsson, Martin

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate long-term safety, tolerability, and efficacy of fesoterodine for men and women with overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. This was a post hoc analysis of data pooled from two open-label extensions (NCT00220402, NCT00220376) of double-blind studies. All subjects began open-label treatment with fesoterodine 8 mg once daily, with voluntary dose reduction to 4 mg and re-escalation to 8 mg each permitted once annually. Maximum allowable duration of open-label treatment ranged from 24 to 36 months. Safety and discontinuations were assessed throughout treatment; subject-reported treatment tolerability and 3-day bladder diaries were evaluated at open-label baseline and months 1, 4, 8, 12, and 24. A total of 185 men and 705 women enrolled; 83 men (45%) and 356 women (50%) continued open-label treatment for ≥ 24 months. Most men (84%) and women (75%) remained on fesoterodine 8 mg throughout open-label treatment. No new or unexpected safety signals were observed. Dry mouth was the most common treatment-emergent adverse event (men, 24%; women, 32%), rates of discontinuation due to dry mouth were low (men, 1%; women, 2%). Most men and women (≥ 91%) reported at least 'good' tolerance. For men and women, statistically significant improvements in urgency urinary incontinence episodes, micturitions, urgency episodes, and mean voided volume per micturition achieved between double-blind baseline and open-label baseline were sustained or further improved through month 24; significant improvements in most OAB symptoms were observed between double-blind baseline and month 24 when subjects were stratified by double-blind treatment (placebo, tolterodine extended release 4 mg, fesoterodine 4 mg, fesoterodine 8 mg). Limitations include the lack of a placebo control and that subjects completing double-blind treatment may have been more likely to tolerate or respond to long-term fesoterodine treatment. Long-term fesoterodine treatment was well tolerated and associated with

  17. Botulinum-A toxin injections into the detrusor muscle decrease nerve growth factor bladder tissue levels in patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannantoni, Antonella; Di Stasi, Savino M; Nardicchi, Vincenza; Zucchi, Alessandro; Macchioni, Lara; Bini, Vittorio; Goracci, Gianfrancesco; Porena, Massimo

    2006-06-01

    We investigated the effects of BTX-A on visceral afferent nerve transmission by measuring bladder tissue NGF levels in patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity before and after intravesical treatment with BTX-A. We also compared the bladder tissue NGF content with clinical and urodynamic data. A total of 23 patients underwent clinical evaluation and urodynamics with detection of the UDC threshold, maximum pressure and maximum cystometric capacity before, and at the 1 and 3-month followups. Endoscopic bladder wall biopsies were also obtained at the same time points. NGF levels were measured in tissue homogenate by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Promega, Madison, Wisconsin). At 1 and 3 months mean catheterization and incontinent episodes were significantly decreased (p BTX-A intravesical treatment induces a state of NGF deprivation in bladder tissue that persists at least up to 3 months. As caused by BTX-A, the decrease in acetylcholine release at the presynaptic level may induce a decrease in detrusor contractility and in NGF production by the detrusor muscle. Alternatively BTX-A can decrease the bladder level of neurotransmitters that normally modulate NGF production and release.

  18. The Impact of Gene Polymorphisms on the Success of Anticholinergic Treatment in Children with Overactive Bladder

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    Serhat Gurocak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the impact of gene polymorphisms on detrusor contraction-relaxation harmony in children with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS. Materials and Methods. Toilet trained children older than 5 years of age with LUTS and normal neurological examination underwent videourodynamic study. The control group was composed of age matched children with no voiding complaints. The study group who filled out the voiding dysfunction symptom score before and after the treatment received standard oxybutynin treatment and was reevaluated 1 year after treatment. Genomic DNA was isolated from all patients and subjected to PCR for amplification. Genotyping of ARGHEF10, ROCK2, ADRB3, and CYP3A4 was carried out with Polymerase Chain Reaction- Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method. Results. 34 (45% and 42 (55% patients were enrolled in the study and control group, respectively. ARGEF10 GG, ADRB3 TC, and CYP3A4 AG genotype patients displayed insignificant difference between pre- and posttreatment voiding dysfunction symptom score and bladder volumes. Conclusions. The polymorphism of genes in the cholinergic pathway did not significantly differ clinical parameters. On the other hand, polymorphic patients in the adrenergic pathway seemed to suffer from clinical disappointment. For this reason, we think that the neglected adrenergic pathway could be a new therapeutic target for the treatment of anticholinergic resistant LUTS in children.

  19. Propiverine: a review of its use in the treatment of adults and children with overactive bladder associated with idiopathic or neurogenic detrusor overactivity, and in men with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeage, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Propiverine is a well established antimuscarinic agent with a mixed mode of action in the treatment of symptoms associated with overactive bladder (OAB). As well as blocking muscarinic receptors in the detrusor muscle, the drug also inhibits cellular calcium influx, thereby diminishing muscle spasm. In patients with symptoms of OAB resulting from idiopathic detrusor overactivity (IDO) or neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO), propiverine demonstrated dose-dependent efficacy and tolerability, with adverse events consistent with those associated with all antimuscarinic agents. In adults with IDO, propiverine demonstrated similar efficacy to that of other antimuscarinic agents (including solifenacin, tolterodine, oxybutynin and imidafenacin) and, in adults with NDO, propiverine and oxybutynin demonstrated similar efficacy. Propiverine was generally well tolerated in these patient populations, with a lower incidence of dry mouth than that associated with oxybutynin. In men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and in whom the presence of benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) was implicated, propiverine administered as add-on therapy to an α(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist demonstrated similar or superior efficacy to that achieved with an α(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist alone, and combination therapy was particularly effective in patients with urinary storage symptoms. Combination therapy was generally well tolerated, but was associated with a higher incidence of adverse events than an α(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist alone. In children and adolescents with IDO/OAB or NDO, propiverine was generally more effective and better tolerated than oxybutynin. In conclusion, propiverine provides a valuable option for the treatment of adults and children with OAB associated with IDO or NDO, and in men with storage LUTS.

  20. Safety, Efficacy, and Persistence of Long-Term Mirabegron Treatment for Overactive Bladder in the Daily Clinical Setting: Interim (1-Year) Report from a Japanese Post-Marketing Surveillance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Daisuke; Tabuchi, Hiromi; Uno, Satoshi

    2017-08-01

    To report interim 1-year results from a 3-year surveillance study evaluating safety, efficacy, and persistence of long-term mirabegron for overactive bladder (OAB). Patients starting treatment with mirabegron for urinary urgency, daytime frequency, and urgency incontinence associated with OAB were registered and followed up for 3 years. Data were collected on adverse drug reactions (ADR), changes in OAB symptoms, changes in Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS), and treatment discontinuations. Treatment persistence rates were calculated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Eighty-one ADR were observed in 72/1139 patients (6.3%) through 1 year of mirabegron treatment, with the incidence highest during the first month. No significant change in residual urine volume was observed at any observation point up to 1 year of mirabegron treatment. Mirabegron was deemed "effective" in 883/1091 patients (80.9%) at 1 year/discontinuation. Total OABSS was decreased with statistical significance at 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year, or at discontinuation (P < 0.001 at each time point). Kaplan-Meier treatment persistence rates were 84.8% at 3 months, 77.6% at 6 months, and 66.0% at 1 year. Treatment persistence rates were similar for male and female patients but significantly higher for patients aged ≥65 years (67.3%; n = 908) compared with those aged <65 years (59.8%; n = 231; log-rank test: P = 0.032). Long-term OAB treatment with mirabegron was well-tolerated, with effectiveness maintained through 1 year. Mirabegron treatment persistence was higher than has been previously reported, and was greater in patients aged ≥65 years compared with those aged <65 years. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. A comprehensive non-clinical evaluation of the CNS penetration potential of antimuscarinic agents for the treatment of overactive bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegari, Ernesto; Malhotra, Bimal; Bungay, Peter J; Webster, Rob; Fenner, Katherine S; Kempshall, Sarah; LaPerle, Jennifer L; Michel, Martin C; Kay, Gary G

    2011-01-01

    AIMS To assess and compare the mechanisms of central nervous system (CNS) penetration of antimuscarinic overactive bladder (OAB) agents. METHODS Physical properties were computed or compiled from the literature. Rats were administered 5-hydroxymethyl tolterodine (HMT), darifenacin, oxybutynin, solifenacin, tolterodine or trospium subcutaneously. At 1 h postdose, plasma, brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations were determined using LC-MS/MS assays. Brain and plasma protein binding were determined in vitro. Permeability in the presence and absence of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was assessed in RRCK and MDCK-MDR1 transwell assays. RESULTS Oxybutynin displayed extensive CNS penetration, with brain : plasma ratios (B : P), unbound brain : unbound plasma ratios (Kp,free) and CSF : free plasma ratios each >1. Tolterodine (B : P = 2.95, Kp,free = 0.23 and CSF : free plasma = 0.16) and solifenacin (B : P = 3.04, Kp,free = 0.28 and CSF : free plasma = 1.41) showed significant CNS penetration but with some restriction from CNS as indicated by Kp,free values significantly <1. 5-HMT, darifenacin and trospium displayed much lower B : P (0.03–0.16), Kp,free (0.01–0.04) and CSF : free plasma (0.004–0.06), consistent with poor CNS penetration. Permeability in RRCK cells was low for trospium (0.63 × 10−6 cm s−1), moderate for 5-HMT (11.7 × 10−6 cm s−1) and high for darifenacin, solifenacin, tolterodine and oxybutynin (21.5–38.2 × 10−6 cm s−1). In MDCK-MDR1 cells 5-HMT, darifenacin and trospium, were P-gp substrates, whereas oxybutynin, solifenacin and tolterodine were not P-gp substrates. CONCLUSIONS Brain penetration was low for antimuscarinics that are P-gp substrates (5-HMT, darifenacin and trospium), and significant for those that are not P-gp substrates (oxybutynin, solifenacin and tolterodine). CNS adverse events reported in randomized controlled clinical trials show general alignment with the preclinical data described in

  2. 胆碱能M受体:膀胱过度活动症治疗的关键%The muscarinic receptor:the keypoint of overactive bladder's therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑吉琼

    2012-01-01

    膀胱过度活动症(overactive bladder,OAB)是一种以尿急症状为特征的症候群,常伴有尿频和夜尿症状,可伴或不伴有急迫性尿失禁.存在于膀胱逼尿肌的胆碱能M受体是介导OAB发生的关键.抗胆碱能药物是目前临床治疗OAB最基本的药物,在抑制膀胱逼尿肌不自主收缩、改善OAB症状方面发挥了重要作用.本文从分子结构、受体选择性、药代动力学、临床特点和药物不良反应等方面对目前常用的5种商品化的抗胆碱能药物进行综述.%Overactive bladder (OAB) is defined as a syndrome which represented by the characteristics of urgency, usually with frequency and nocturia,and with or without urge urinary incontinence. The muscarinic receptor, which locates in the detrusor of bladder, has been considered to be a key mediator of OAB. As the first-line medication in the management of OAB, the antimuscarinic agent plays an important role in inhibiting involuntary contraction of detrusor and relieving OAB symptoms. We herein review the molecular structure, receptor selectivity, pharmacokinetics, clinical application and adverse event of the five antimuscarinic agents commercially available in the market.

  3. Cost-effectiveness analysis of fesoterodine flexible dose in newly diagnosed patients with overactive bladder in routine clinical practice in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peral C

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carmen Peral,1 Francisco Sánchez-Ballester,2 José M García-Mediero,3 Jaime Ramos,1 Javier Rejas1 1Health Economics & Outcomes Research Department, Pfizer, Alcobendas (Madrid, 2Department of Urology, Hospital General Universitario de Valencia, Valencia, 3Department of Urology, Hospital MD Anderson Cancer Center Madrid, Madrid, Spain Objective: To carry out cost-effectiveness analysis from the Spanish National Health System perspective, of treating overactive bladder (OAB, in newly diagnosed patients with two flexible doses of fesoterodine in routine clinical practice.Patients and methods: Economic evaluation of flexible-dose fesoterodine in newly diagnosed patients, including two treatment groups: standard escalating from 4 to 8 mg or fast escalating to 8 mg. Costs were estimated from health care resources utilization related to OAB, and were expressed in 2015 Euros. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs were obtained from overactive bladder questionnaire-short form. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were carried out.Results: Three hundred and ninety symptomatic OAB patients treated with fesoterodine and newly diagnosed (141 in fast escalating group and 249 in standard escalating were analyzed. Adjusted health care total costs were not statistically different; difference −€4.1 (confidence interval: −153.3; 25.1 P=0.842. QALYs were higher in fast escalating to high dose vs standard escalating group, resulting in a cost of −€16,020/QALY gained for fast escalating vs standard escalating group.Conclusion: When the cost-effectiveness threshold is set at a maximum value of €30,000/QALY gained, fesoterodine fast escalating group was cost-effective vs standard escalating group 67.6% of the time. The treatment with fesoterodine, in female patients newly diagnosed, fast escalating to 8 mg was a cost-effective option relative to escalating traditionally from 4 to 8 mg, in the management of OAB in routine clinical practice

  4. Safety and efficacy of flexible-dose fesoterodine in British subjects with overactive bladder: insights into factors associated with dose escalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, Linda; Hall, Timothy; Ryan, John; Ebel Bitoun, Caty; Kausar, Imran; Darekar, Amanda; Wagg, Adrian

    2012-11-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of flexible-dose fesoterodine and factors associated with dose escalation in subjects with overactive bladder (OAB). In this 12-week, open-label study, 331 adults with OAB symptoms for ≥3 months, ≥8 micturitions and ≥3 urgency episodes per 24 h and who reported at least "some moderate" bladder-related problems were treated with fesoterodine 4 mg once daily for 4 weeks, with the option to escalate to 8 mg for the remaining 8 weeks based on discussion of efficacy and tolerability with the investigator. Factors influencing dose escalation were identified using stepwise logistic regression. Efficacy was assessed via 3-day bladder diaries and patient-reported outcomes. Of the subjects, 59 % dose escalated at week 4; 93 % of escalators cited insufficient clinical response. The decision to escalate was most often made by the subject (alone or with the investigator). Improvements from baseline were observed in diary and patient-reported outcomes at weeks 4 and 12. Smaller improvements in micturition frequency and worse bladder-related problems at week 4 were significantly associated with increased likelihood of dose escalation; baseline micturition frequency, age, sex, body mass index, antimuscarinic-associated adverse events and OAB symptom duration were not. Non-escalators had greater improvement from baseline to week 4 than escalators; by week 12, improvement was similar among escalators and non-escalators. Fesoterodine was well tolerated. Treatment with flexible-dose fesoterodine improved bladder diary and patient-reported outcomes. Lower clinical response was related to dose escalation; after escalation, response in escalators approached that of non-escalators.

  5. Efficacy and tolerability of fesoterodine versus tolterodine in older and younger subjects with overactive bladder: a post hoc, pooled analysis from two placebo-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBeau, Catherine E; Morrow, Jon D; Kraus, Stephen R; Creanga, Dana; Bavendam, Tamara

    2012-11-01

    To assess the efficacy and tolerability of fesoterodine 8 mg versus tolterodine extended release (ER) 4 mg in subjects with overactive bladder (OAB) stratified by age (fesoterodine (4 mg for 1 week, 8 mg for 11 weeks), tolterodine ER 4 mg, or placebo. Subjects completed 3-day bladder diaries, Urgency Perception Scale (UPS), Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC), and OAB questionnaire (OAB-q) at baseline and week 12. The primary endpoint in both studies was change from baseline to week 12 in UUI episodes. Among subjects fesoterodine versus tolterodine ER, and diary-dry rates were significantly higher. Among subjects 65-74 years (n = 990), improvements in mean voided volume per void, PPBC, and OAB-q Symptom Bother and Coping were significantly greater with fesoterodine versus tolterodine ER. Among subjects aged ≥75 years (n = 448), improvements in urgency episodes, severe urgency episodes, frequency-urgency sum, UPS, and OAB-q Symptom Bother were significantly greater with fesoterodine versus tolterodine ER. Both active treatments produced significant improvements in most outcomes versus placebo across age groups. Adverse event rates were similar among age groups. Fesoterodine 8 mg consistently improved several OAB-related variables versus tolterodine ER 4 mg in subjects aged <65, 65-74, and ≥75 years, with some differences reaching statistical significance, and was generally well tolerated. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Semiconditional electrical stimulation of pudendal nerve afferents stimulation to manage neurogenic detrusor overactivity in patients with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Jung Moon; Im, Hyung Tae; Lee, Kye-Wook; Kim, Sung Hoon; Hur, Dong Min

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of semiconditional electrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve afferents for the neurogenic detrusor overactivity in patients with spinal cord injury. Forty patients (36 males, 4 males) with spinal cord injury who had urinary incontinence and frequency, as well as felt bladder contraction with bladder filling sense or autonomic dysreflexic symptom participated in this study. Patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity were subdivided into complete injury and incomplete injury groups by ASIA classification and subdivided into tetraplegia and paraplegia groups by neurologic level of injury. Bladder function, such as bladder volumes infused to the bladder until the first occurrence of neurogenic detrusor overactivity (V(ini)) and the last contraction suppressed by electrical stimulation (V(max)) was measured by water cystometry (CMG) and compared with the results of each subgroup. Among the 40 subjects, 35 patients showed neurogenic detrusor overactivity in the CMG study. Among these 35 patients, detrusor overactivity was suppressed effectively by pudendal nerve afferent electrical stimulation in 32 patients. The infusion volume until the occurrence of the first reflex contraction (V(ini)) was 99.4±80.3 ml. The volume of saline infused to the bladder until the last contraction suppressed by semiconditional pudendal nerve stimulation (V(max)) was 274.3±93.2 ml, which was significantly greater than V(ini). In patients with good response to the pudendal nerve afferent stimulation, the bladder volume significantly increased by stimulation in all the patients. In this study, semiconditional electrical stimulation on the dorsal penile afferent nerve could effectively inhibit neurogenic detrusor overactivity and increase bladder volume in patients with spinal cord injury.

  7. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation versus electrical stimulation with pelvic floor muscle training for overactive bladder syndrome in women: results of a randomized controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaldazza, Carlo Vecchioli; Morosetti, Carolina; Giampieretti, Rosita; Lorenzetti, Rossana; Baroni, Marinella

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction This study compared percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) versus electrical stimulation with pelvic floor muscle training (ES + PFMT) in women with overactive bladder syndrome (OAB). Materials and Methods 60 women with OAB were enrolled. Patients were randomized into two groups. In group A, women underwent ES with PFMT, in group B women underwent PTNS. Results A statistically significant reduction in the number of daily micturitions, episodes of nocturia and urge incontinence was found in the two groups but the difference was more substantial in women treated with PTNS; voided volume increased in both groups. Quality of life improved in both groups, whereas patient perception of urgency improved only in women treated with PTNS. Global impression of improvement revealed a greater satisfaction in patients treated with PTNS. Conclusion This study demonstrates the effectiveness of PTNS and ES with PFMT in women with OAB, but greater improvements were found with PTNS.

  8. The novel β3-adrenoceptor agonist mirabegron reduces carbachol-induced contractile activity in detrusor tissue from patients with bladder outflow obstruction with or without detrusor overactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalø, Julie; Nordling, Jørgen; Bouchelouche, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    β(3)-Adrenoceptors are major players in detrusor relaxation and have been suggested as a new putative target for the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome. We determined the effects of mirabegron (YM178), a novel β(3)-adrenoceptor agonist, on carbachol-induced tone in isolated human detrusor......), respectively. The maximal relaxant effect of isoprenaline and mirabegron in the normal, BOO and BOO+DO detrusor was 37.7 ± 14.4% and 36.1 ± 23.3%, 14.4 ± 12.2% vs. 33.4 ± 21.0% and 18.3 ± 10.0% vs. 28.3 ± 12.2% (n=4, P>0.05), respectively. Mirabegron and isoprenaline reduced carbachol-induced tone in both...

  9. The concomitant use of fesoterodine and topical vaginal estrogen in the management of overactive bladder and sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chughtai, Bilal; Forde, James C; Buck, Jessica; Asfaw, Tirsit; Lee, Richard; Te, Alexis E; Kaplan, Steven A

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the combination effect of anti-muscarinic medication and topical vaginal estrogen in the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) and female sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women. After IRB approval, 23 female subjects who met the entry criteria were randomized into two groups: (1) fesoterodine (Toviaz®, Pfizer, NY) with topical vaginal estrogen (Premarin®, Pfizer, NY) once daily or (2) fesoterodine once daily alone. If 4 mg fesoterodine was tolerated at 1-week, the dose was increased to 8 mg. Primary endpoints were improvement in OAB symptom severity (Overactive Bladder Questionnaire, OAB-Q SF), improvement in OAB health-related quality of life (HRQL) (OAB-Q SF), and sexual function (Sexual Quality of Life-Female, SQOL-F) after 12 weeks. Secondary endpoint was change in total number of micturitions. After 12-weeks, the combination group had a significant improvement in OAB symptom severity (p = 0.006), HRQL (p = 0.029), and SQOL-F (0.0003). The fesoterodine alone group also had significant improvement in OAB symptom severity (p fesoterodine alone group, the combination group after 12-weeks had a reduced OAB symptom severity (10 versus 23.3; p = 0.35), higher HRQL (96.9 versus 84.6; p = 0.75), and higher SQOL-F (99 versus 81; p = 0.098). The total number of micturitions over 3 d was significantly reduced in the combination group (45-26, p = 0.03) between baseline and 12-weeks. The combined effect of fesoterodine and topical vaginal estrogen improved OAB symptoms and sexual function in postmenopausal women. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Cost-effectiveness analysis of fesoterodine flexible dose in newly diagnosed patients with overactive bladder in routine clinical practice in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peral, Carmen; Sánchez-Ballester, Francisco; García-Mediero, José M; Ramos, Jaime; Rejas, Javier

    2016-01-01

    To carry out cost-effectiveness analysis from the Spanish National Health System perspective, of treating overactive bladder (OAB), in newly diagnosed patients with two flexible doses of fesoterodine in routine clinical practice. Economic evaluation of flexible-dose fesoterodine in newly diagnosed patients, including two treatment groups: standard escalating from 4 to 8 mg or fast escalating to 8 mg. Costs were estimated from health care resources utilization related to OAB, and were expressed in 2015 Euros. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were obtained from overactive bladder questionnaire-short form. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were carried out. Three hundred and ninety symptomatic OAB patients treated with fesoterodine and newly diagnosed (141 in fast escalating group and 249 in standard escalating) were analyzed. Adjusted health care total costs were not statistically different; difference -€4.1 (confidence interval: -153.3; 25.1) P=0.842. QALYs were higher in fast escalating to high dose vs standard escalating group, resulting in a cost of -€16,020/QALY gained for fast escalating vs standard escalating group. When the cost-effectiveness threshold is set at a maximum value of €30,000/QALY gained, fesoterodine fast escalating group was cost-effective vs standard escalating group 67.6% of the time. The treatment with fesoterodine, in female patients newly diagnosed, fast escalating to 8 mg was a cost-effective option relative to escalating traditionally from 4 to 8 mg, in the management of OAB in routine clinical practice, from the Spanish National Health System perspective.

  11. Correlations among improvements in urgency urinary incontinence, health-related quality of life, and perception of bladder-related problems in incontinent subjects with overactive bladder treated with tolterodine or placebo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coyne Karin S

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies demonstrate that tolterodine extended release (ER significantly improves urgency urinary incontinence (UUI episodes. Instruments that measure patient-reported outcomes (PROs provide additional information that is valuable for assessing whether clinical improvements are meaningful to the patient. This study determined the correlation of changes in bladder diary variables and other PROs in subjects with overactive bladder (OAB. Methods Subjects with OAB, urinary frequency, and UUI were treated with 4 mg once-daily tolterodine ER or placebo for 12 weeks. Subjects completed 7-day bladder diaries, the Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC, and the King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ at baseline and week 12. Only subjects who reported at least some minor bladder-related problems at baseline (PPBC score ≥ 3 were included in this analysis. Results Reductions in UUI episodes per week were significantly greater in the tolterodine ER group (n = 500 compared with the placebo group (n = 487 at week 12 (-71% vs -33%, P P P r = 0.35,P r = 0.16–0.32, P ≤ 0.0011. Changes in PPBC scores and all KHQ domains were significantly correlated (r = 0.13–0.38, P ≤ 0.009 in the tolterodine ER group. Correlations among endpoints in the placebo group were similar to those observed in the tolterodine ER group. Conclusion Improvement in UUI episodes after 12 weeks of treatment with tolterodine ER or placebo was correlated with improvements in patients' perception of their bladder-related problems and health-related quality of life. Correlations were moderate in magnitude but statistically significant, suggesting that PROs are important and relevant measures for evaluating OAB treatment.

  12. Testing and Treating Women after Unsuccessful Conservative Treatments for Overactive Bladder or Mixed Urinary Incontinence: A Model-Based Economic Evaluation Based on the BUS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Pelham; Middleton, Lee J.; Deeks, Jonathan J.; Daniels, Jane P.; Latthe, Pallavi; Coomarasamy, Arri; Rachaneni, Suneetha; McCooty, Shanteela; Verghese, Tina S.; Roberts, Tracy E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the cost-effectiveness of bladder ultrasonography, clinical history, and urodynamic testing in guiding treatment decisions in a secondary care setting for women failing first line conservative treatment for overactive bladder or urgency-predominant mixed urinary incontinence. Design Model-based economic evaluation from a UK National Health Service (NHS) perspective using data from the Bladder Ultrasound Study (BUS) and secondary sources. Methods Cost-effectiveness analysis using a decision tree and a 5-year time horizon based on the outcomes of cost per woman successfully treated and cost per Quality-Adjusted Life-Year (QALY). Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses, and a value of information analysis are also undertaken. Results Bladder ultrasonography is more costly and less effective test-treat strategy than clinical history and urodynamics. Treatment on the basis of clinical history alone has an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of £491,100 per woman successfully treated and an ICER of £60,200 per QALY compared with the treatment of all women on the basis of urodynamics. Restricting the use of urodynamics to women with a clinical history of mixed urinary incontinence only is the optimal test-treat strategy on cost-effectiveness grounds with ICERs of £19,500 per woman successfully treated and £12,700 per QALY compared with the treatment of all women based upon urodynamics. Conclusions remained robust to sensitivity analyses, but subject to large uncertainties. Conclusions Treatment based upon urodynamics can be seen as a cost-effective strategy, and particularly when targeted at women with clinical history of mixed urinary incontinence only. Further research is needed to resolve current decision uncertainty. PMID:27513926

  13. Effect of Anti-Cholinergics with Tamsulosin for Treating Benign Prostate Hyperplasia Patients with an Overactive Bladder: A Clinico-Comparative Study

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    Prabhu Deva T

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Overactive bladder (OAB symptoms are due to detrusor over activity (DOA which is characterized by involuntary detrusor contractions during bladder filling. It may co-exist with BOO due to benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH in men. Hence, the study was designed to assess and compare the clinical efficacy of combination therapy of anti-muscarinics with α-blockers versus α-blockers monotherapy in BPH patients with OAB. Methods: This study was carried out in the urology department of a tertiary care hospital for a period of 4 months. Clinical and biochemistry reports of 90 patients were collected in designed case report forms. All statistical analyses were performed using IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences 17 and Graph Pad Prism 7.0. Results: The perceived change from baseline values was comparatively better in patients who received combination of tamsulosin with tolterodine than other two groups. All the three groups were effective in reducing the symptoms. Conclusion: Tamsulosin with tolterodine at a recommended dosage has shown to be clinically more effective than oxybutynin after 12 weeks of treatment for men with OAB in BPH. Patients with increased urinary retention risk should be carefully monitored during the course of treatment

  14. Safety and efficacy of fesoterodine fumarate in patients with overactive bladder: results of a post-marketing surveillance study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Heon; Lee, Sang Eun; Lee, Hahn-Ey; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of fesoterodine fumarate (fesoterodine; Toviaz ) in Korean patients with overactive bladder (OAB) in routine clinical practice. This was an open-label, non-interventional, prospective, post-marketing surveillance study submitted to the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. A total of 3109 patients aged ≥18 years with OAB symptoms were prescribed flexible doses of fesoterodine at the investigator's discretion. Safety was assessed based upon the reporting of adverse events (AEs). Efficacy was evaluated on the basis of patient self-assessment using a bladder diary as well as on the basis of investigator assessment in terms of overall clinical efficacy. A final analysis was performed on 3107 (99.9%) and 2978 (95.8%) patients for safety and efficacy analysis, respectively. The mean treatment duration of fesoterodine was 83.2 days. The incidence of AEs was 8.5% (265/3107). Common AEs that accounted for more than 1.0% of the total AE incidence included dry mouth (5.4%, 168/3107), constipation (1.5%, 48/3107) and micturition disorder (1.1%, 35/3107). Mean episodes of urinary frequency, urgency, and urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) per 24 hours decreased by 4.0, 2.4, and 0.8, respectively (all p fesoterodine is a well tolerated and effective treatment for Korean patients with OAB in routine clinical practice.

  15. Effects of voluntary dose escalation in a placebo-controlled, flexible-dose trial of fesoterodine in subjects with overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staskin, David; Khullar, Vik; Michel, Martin C; Morrow, Jon D; Sun, Franklin; Guan, Zhonghong; Dmochowski, Roger

    2011-11-01

    To characterize the response to fesoterodine treatment for overactive bladder (OAB) in subjects who did or did not choose to dose escalate in a flexible-dose study. Subjects were randomized to fesoterodine 4  mg or placebo. At week 2, subjects could remain on 4  mg (non-escalators) or choose to increase to 8  mg (escalators) for the remaining 10 weeks (sham escalation for placebo). Subjects completed 3-day bladder diaries at baseline, week 2 and week 12 noting micturitions, urgency episodes, and urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) episodes. Sixty-three per cent of 438 subjects randomized to fesoterodine and 73% of 445 randomized to placebo dose escalated. At baseline, fesoterodine escalators had significantly more micturitions and urgency episodes than fesoterodine non-escalators (P fesoterodine non-escalators versus escalators (P fesoterodine non-escalators and escalators (P > 0.05). The placebo escalator group did not demonstrate a similar response over placebo non-escalators following the dose escalation decision point. A rapid and robust response to fesoterodine 4  mg was demonstrated in non-escalators. Subjects who chose to dose escalate to fesoterodine 8  mg at week 2 showed significant improvement by week 12 versus baseline and week 2 (prior to escalation), as well as versus placebo. Dose escalation to 8  mg fesoterodine provided subjects with efficacy and tolerability similar to those who were satisfied with the 4-mg dose. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Re: Comparative Effectiveness of Combined Low- and Standart-Dose Trospium and Solifenacin for Moderate Overactive Bladder Symptoms in Elderly Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill V. Kosilov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Overactive bladder (OAB treatment is also a problem in elderly people. Treatment alternatives are limited especially in elderly patients who were resistant to standart antimuscarinic treatments. In this study, the authors examined a group of elderly patients with OAB, who had an episode of incontinence (EI three or less a day and unsatisfied with the treatment, and low dose (Trospium 15mg/day+Solifenacin 5 mg/day versus standart dose (Trospium 30mg/day+Solifenacin 10 mg/day trospium+solifenacin treatments were evaluated. The assignment of patients was random and blind in this placebo-controlled study. Urodynamic study, ICIQ-SF questionnaires and bladder diaries were used. Significant improvement in symptoms and urodynamic parameters were seen in both treatment groups. The frequency of EI in both of the main groups decreased by almost 2-fold compared to the initial data. Side effects were more in standart dose group. They concluded that, as the treatment efficacy of both groups was similiar, combination of these drugs in standart doses for such patients is excessive. Also the authors discussed that synergistic effects of combination of antimuscarinics were more effective than high doses. Search for non-invasive tretment alternatives in antimuscarinic resistant OAB is ongoing

  17. Comparison of fesoterodine and tolterodine extended release for the treatment of overactive bladder: a head-to-head placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschorn, Sender; Swift, Steven; Guan, Zhonghong; Carlsson, Martin; Morrow, Jon D; Brodsky, Marina; Gong, Jason

    2010-01-01

    To compare the efficacy and tolerability of fesoterodine 8 mg with tolterodine extended-release (ER) 4 mg and placebo in a randomized clinical trial of patients with an overactive bladder (OAB). In this 12-week double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, eligible patients reported OAB symptoms for > or = 3 months and recorded > or = 8 voids and > or = 1 urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) episode per 24 h in 3-day bladder diaries at baseline. Patients were randomized in a 2:2:1 ratio to fesoterodine (4 mg for 1 week then 8 mg for 11 weeks); tolterodine ER 4 mg; or placebo (with sham dose escalation for tolterodine ER and placebo). Endpoints were changes from baseline to week 12 in UUI episodes (primary endpoint), total and nocturnal voids, urgency episodes, severe urgency episodes, and frequency-urgency sum per 24 h; mean voided volume per void (MVV); and the OAB questionnaire (OAB-q), Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC), and Urgency Perception Scale (UPS). Safety and tolerability were assessed and summarized over the 12-week study period. Fesoterodine (636 patients) significantly improved UUI episodes at week 12 (primary endpoint) compared with tolterodine ER (641 patients; P = 0.017) and placebo (313 patients; P Fesoterodine also produced significantly greater improvements than tolterodine ER in MVV (P = 0.005). Fesoterodine significantly improved all diary endpoints compared with placebo (P fesoterodine (64%) than with tolterodine ER (57%; P = 0.015) and placebo (45%; P fesoterodine than placebo (all P fesoterodine group, 16% and 4% in the tolterodine ER group, and 6% and 3% with placebo, respectively. Discontinuations due to treatment-emergent adverse events were 6%, 4% and 2% in the fesoterodine, tolterodine ER, and placebo groups, respectively. In patients with OAB, fesoterodine 8 mg showed superior efficacy over tolterodine ER 4 mg and placebo in reducing UUI episodes (primary endpoint) and in improving most patient

  18. Efficacy and safety of propiverine and terazosine combination for one year in male patients with luts and detrusor overactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Can Sener

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To evaluate the long term efficacy and safety of the use of propiverine and terazosine combination in patients with LUTS and DO by a placebo controlled study. Materials and Methods One hundred patients were enrolled in the study. They were randomized into two groups (each group consisted of 50 patients. Terazosine and placebo were administered to the patients in Group 1 and terazosine plus propiverine HCL was administered to Group 2. The patients were evaluated by international prostate symptom score (IPSS, the first four questions of IPSS (IPSS4, the 8th question of IPSS (quality of life-QoL, overactive bladder symptom score questionnaire (OAB-q V8, PSA test, urodynamic studies, post voiding residue (PVR. All patients were followed for one year and were reassessed for comparison. Results IPSS, IPSS4, OAB symptoms, QoL score, PVR, and Qmax scores of the groups did not differ. After one year treatment, there was significant improvement in IPSS, IPSS4, OAB symptoms, QoL and Qmax values in Group 2. No significant improvement was noted for the same parameters in Group 1. Conclusion This is the first study to show long term safety and efficacy of anticholinergic therapy for patients with LUTS. In patients with OAB or DO, long term anticholinergic treatment may be regarded as a treatment option.

  19. The use of ultrasound-estimated bladder weight in diagnosing bladder outlet obstruction and detrusor overactivity in men with lower urinary tract symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadi Housami

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Measurement of bladder weight using ultrasound estimates of bladder wall thickness and bladder volume is an emerging clinical measurement technique that may have a role in the diagnosis of lower urinary tract dysfunction. We have reviewed available literature on this technique to assess current clinical status. Methods: A systematic literature search was carried out within PubMed and MedLine to identify relevant publications. These were then screened for relevance. Preliminary results from our clinical experiments using the technique are also included. Results: We identified 17 published papers concerning the technique which covered clinical studies relating ultrasound-estimated bladder wall thickness to urodynamic diagnosis in men, women, and children together with change in response to treatment of bladder outlet obstruction. The original manual technique has been challenged by a commercially available automated technique. Conclusion: Ultrasound-estimated bladder weight is a promising non-invasive technique for the categorization of storage and voiding disorders in both men and women. Further studies are needed to validate the technique and assess accuracy of diagnosis.

  20. Fesoterodine prescription fill patterns and evaluation of the YourWay patient support plan for patients with overactive bladder symptoms and physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocio, Jeffrey N; Brubaker, Linda; Schabert, Vernon F; Bavendam, Tamara; Chen, Chieh-I; Zou, Kelly H; Petrilla, Allison A; Burgio, Kathryn L

    2014-05-01

    Adherence with oral medication for overactive bladder syndrome is suboptimal. To improve adherence, the YourWay plan was developed to assist patients and health care providers in defining treatment expectations and facilitating communication. To evaluate medication adherence among patients with overactive bladder syndrome enrolled in the YourWay patient support plan, patient adoption of behavioral interventions, patient satisfaction with the plan, and physician experience with the plan. In this 13-week, single-arm, open-label, multicenter, noninterventional study, fesoterodine-naïve patients received a prescription for fesoterodine 4 or 8 mg and a packet including a 14-day fesoterodine sample, educational materials, and progress tracker. Patients registered for the YourWay plan, which included an educational resource kit, interactive voice-response calls, and optional online and mail support. The primary end point was the proportion of patients who filled a prescription for a ≥ 90-day supply of fesoterodine within 90 days of enrollment. Secondary end points were the proportion of patients who filled ≥ 1 prescription and ≥ 2 prescriptions (post hoc), patient evaluation of their experience and satisfaction with the YourWay plan, and differences between prescription fillers and nonfillers in plan adoption and assessment (post hoc). We surveyed an independent sample of physicians to assess their experience with YourWay. Of 500 study completers, 10.4% filled a prescription for a ≥ 90-day supply of fesoterodine. Of those filling a prescription, 26.2% filled ≥ 1 prescription and among those, 61.0% refilled their prescription at least once. Many behavioral recommendations were adopted by 82% to 94% of patients. Fillers were more likely to take fesoterodine as directed, whereas adoption of behavioral recommendations or plan satisfaction did not differ between fillers and nonfillers. Most patients reported that the plan was informative and feasible to implement

  1. [Synchronous male bladder cancer and breast cancer - a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Nobushige; Murai, Shinji; Kunugi, Chikara; Nakadai, Jyunpei; Oto, Ippei; Yoshikawa, Takahisa; Kitasato, Kenjiro; Shimizu, Hirotomo; Nakamura, Akihiko; Masuda, Aya; Miyazaki, Yasumasa; Ohashi, Masakazu; Jinno, Hiromitsu; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2014-11-01

    A 74-year-old man complained of blood in his urine over a 1-week period beginning in early October 2013, and was examined in the urology department of our hospital. A thorough examination revealed bladder cancer, and surgery was planned after two cycles of preoperative gemcitabine plus cisplatin chemotherapy. A chest computed tomography (CT) performed to evaluate the response to chemotherapy revealed a mass in the right breast. The patient had previously complained about the same site, and mammography and ultrasonography had suggested the possibility of a malignant mammary gland tumor. The results of aspiration cytology were Class V, and based on that finding, a diagnosis of cancer of the right breast was made. In February 2014, we performed a mastectomy, while preserving the pectoral muscles, along with sentinel node biopsy, total cystectomy, urethrectomy, pelvic lymph node dissection, and ureteroileal anastomosis. The histopathological diagnosis of the right breast tumor was invasive ductal carcinoma[scirrhous carcinoma, ly (+), v (-), g (+), f (+), s (+), nuclear grade 1=atypia 2+mitosis 1, EIC (-), ICT (-), NCAT (-)]. A micrometastatic tumor measuring approximately 1mm was observed in the sentinel lymph node. The breast disease was classified as pT1N1mi(sn)M0, Stage IIA, and the tumor was ER (+), PgR (+), HER2/neu (2+), and FISH (-). The bladder cancer was diagnosed as urothelial carcinoma, non-papillary, invasive G2>G3, pT2a; no pelvic lymph node metastases were detected, and it was classified as pT2aN0M0, Stage II. Synchronous male breast cancer and bladder cancer is a very rare condition, and we report the case with a review of the literature.

  2. Efficacy and safety of fesoterodine 8 mg in subjects with overactive bladder after a suboptimal response to tolterodine ER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, S A; Cardozo, L; Herschorn, S; Grenabo, L; Carlsson, M; Arumi, D; Crook, T J; Whelan, L; Scholfield, D; Ntanios, F

    2014-01-01

    Aims To assess fesoterodine 8 mg efficacy over time and vs. placebo in subjects with overactive bladder (OAB) who responded suboptimally to tolterodine extended release (ER) 4 mg. Methods In a 12-week, double-blind trial, subjects with self-reported OAB symptoms for ≥ 6 months, mean of ≥ 8 micturitions and ≥ 2 to fesoterodine (4 mg for 1 week, 8 mg for 11 weeks) or placebo once daily. Change from baseline to week 12 in UUI episodes (primary end-point) was analysed in step-wise fashion: first, baseline vs. week 12 for fesoterodine; if significant, then change from baseline to week 12 for fesoterodine vs. placebo. Results By week 12, subjects receiving fesoterodine 8 mg had significantly greater improvement from baseline vs. placebo in UUI episodes, urgency episodes and scores on the Patient Perception of Bladder Control, Urgency Perception Scale and OAB Questionnaire Symptom Bother and Health-Related Quality of Life scales and domains (all p fesoterodine 8 mg vs. placebo at week 12 (p fesoterodine, 16.6%, 51/308) and constipation (placebo, 1.3%, 4/301; fesoterodine, 3.9%, 12/308) were the most frequent adverse events. Conclusions Subjects who responded suboptimally to tolterodine ER 4 mg showed significant improvements in UUI and other OAB symptoms and patient-reported outcomes, with good tolerability, during treatment with fesoterodine 8 mg vs. placebo. PMID:24898471

  3. A small-animal pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic PET study of central serotonin 1A receptor occupancy by a potential therapeutic agent for overactive bladder.

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    Yosuke Nakatani

    Full Text Available Serotonin 1A (5-HT1A receptors have been mechanistically implicated in micturition control, and there has been a need for an appropriate biomarker surrogating the potency of a provisional drug acting on this receptor system for developing a new therapeutic approach to overactive bladder (OAB. Here, we analyzed the occupancy of 5-HT1A receptors in living Sprague-Dawley rat brains by a novel candidate drug for OAB, E2110, using positron emission tomography (PET imaging, and assessed the utility of a receptor occupancy (RO assay to establish a pharmacodynamic index translatable between animals and humans. The plasma concentrations inducing 50% RO (EC50 estimated by both direct and effect compartment models were in good agreement. Dose-dependent therapeutic effects of E2110 on dysregulated micturition in different rat models of pollakiuria were also consistently explained by achievement of 5-HT1A RO by E2110 in a certain range (≥ 60%. Plasma drug concentrations inducing this RO range and EC50 would accordingly be objective indices in comparing pharmacokinetics-RO relationships between rats and humans. These findings support the utility of PET RO and plasma pharmacokinetic assays with the aid of adequate mathematical models in determining the in vivo characteristics of a drug acting on 5-HT1A receptors and thereby counteracting OAB.

  4. Rationale for the Use of Anticholinergic Agents in Overactive Bladder With Regard to Central Nervous System and Cardiovascular System Side Effects

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    Onal, Bulent

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Central nervous system (CNS) and cardiovascular system (CVS) side effects of anticholinergic agents used to treat overactive bladder (OAB) are underreported. Hence, this review aimed to focus on the mechanisms of CNS and CVS side effects of anticholinergic drugs used in OAB treatment, which may help urologists in planning the rationale for OAB treatment. Materials and Methods PubMed/MEDLINE was searched for the key words "OAB," "anticholinergics," "muscarinic receptor selectivity," "blood-brain barrier," "CNS," and "CVS side effects." Additional relevant literature was determined by examining the reference lists of articles identified through the search. Results CNS and CVS side effects, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, the metabolism of these drugs, and the clinical implications for their use in OAB are presented and discussed in this review. Conclusions Trospium, 5-hydroxymethyl tolterodine, darifenacin, and solifenacin seem to have favorable pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties with regard to CNS side effects, whereas the pharmacodynamic features of darifenacin, solifenacin, and oxybutynin appear to have an advantage over the other anticholinergic agents (tolterodine, fesoterodine, propiverine, and trospium) with regard to CVS side effects. To determine the real-life situation, head-to-head studies focusing especially on CNS and CVS side effects of OAB anticholinergic agents are urgently needed. PMID:24363860

  5. Translation and Linguistic Validation of the Korean Version of the “Benefit, Satisfaction, and Willingness to Continue” Questionnaire for Patients With Overactive Bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to develop a Korean version of the Benefit, Satisfaction, and Willingness to Continue (BSW) questionnaire from the original version, with subsequent linguistic validation by Korean patients with overactive bladder who undergo active treatment by a physician. Methods Translation and linguistic validation were performed in January 2013. The validation process included permission for translation, forward translation, reconciliation, backward translation, cognitive debriefing, and proofreading. Results During the forward translation process, the terms or phrases of ‘benefit,’ ‘willingness,’ “have you had any benefit?,” “taking all things into account” were adjusted to be more appropriate expressions in the Korean language than those used in the original version. During the backward translation process, no changes were made in terms of the sematic equivalence. In the cognitive debriefing session, 5 patients were asked to fill in the answers within 5 minutes; most reported that the translated questions were clear and easy to understand. One patient felt the questions were a little bit difficult to understand; however, the panel decided not to change the expressions because the overall level of comprehension was high and the translated terms were accurate enough to convey the meaning of the original version of the BSW. Conclusions The present study showed a successful linguistic validation of the BSW questionnaire. Further studies are needed to assess of the psychometric properties of the BSW. PMID:27706015

  6. Clinical study of botulinum toxin type A injection on different positions of the bladder in female overactive bladder%膀胱不同部位注射A型肉毒素治疗女性难治性膀胱过度活动症的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杰荣; 谢克基; 刘国庆; 王剑锋; 朵永福; 张世林; 李春景

    2015-01-01

    in cases of group A had a better im‐provment than those of cases of group B .Conclusion Botulinum toxin type A injection on bladder is a new effective method for fe‐male refractory overactive bladder .Injection on detrusor and trigone of urinary bladder is better than injection only on detrusor .

  7. Estrogen receptors in the human male bladder, prostatic urethra, and prostate. An immunohistochemical and biochemical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, A; Balslev, E; Juul, B R;

    1995-01-01

    The distribution and quantity of estrogen receptors (ERs) in the human male bladder, prostatic urethra and the prostate were studied in eight males with recurrent papillomas of the bladder or monosymptomatic hematuria (median age 61 years), 14 men undergoing transurethral resection due to benign...... prostatic hyperplasia (median age 70 years), and nine men undergoing cystectomy due to malignant tumour of the bladder (median age 70 years). In the first group of patients, biopsies for immunohistochemical examination were obtained from the bladder vault, bottom, both side-walls, the trigone area......, and the mid-portion of the prostatic urethra, and in the second group from three locations of the prostatic urethra (bladder neck, mid-portion and veramontanum). In the third group, tissue specimens were taken from the vault of the bladder, prostatic urethra, and the prostate, for immunohistochemical as well...

  8. Economic impact of using fesoterodine for the treatment of overactive bladder with urge urinary incontinence in a vulnerable elderly population in the United States.

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    Qin, Lei; Luo, Xuemei; Zou, Kelly H; Snedecor, Sonya J

    2016-01-01

    To assess the costs of treating overactive bladder (OAB) with fesoterodine compared to no OAB pharmacotherapy among vulnerable elderly from the US payer perspective. A decision analytic cost model was developed to estimate the 52-week costs of a cohort of vulnerable elderly with OAB initiating treatment with fesoterodine or no OAB pharmacotherapy. Vulnerable elderly OAB patients were defined as those aged ≥65 years with self-reported urge urinary incontinence (UUI) symptoms for ≥3 months, 2-15 UUI episodes/day, and at risk of deteriorating health by a score of ≥3 on the Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES)-13. Patients were evaluated for fesoterodine treatment response (defined as no UUI episodes) and persistence at weeks 12, 26, and 52. The model included a hypothetical health plan with 100,000 elderly members. A total of 7096 vulnerable elderly subjects were identified as the model target population based on the percentage of vulnerable elderly and annual prevalence of OAB among vulnerable elderly. OAB-related costs included fesoterodine drug acquisition costs, healthcare resource use (inpatient hospitalization, outpatient visits, and physician office visits), and OAB-related co-morbidities (falls/fractures, urinary tract infections, depression, and nursing home admissions). All costs were inflated to 2013 US$ using the medical care component of the consumer price index (CPI). When 7096 vulnerable elderly OAB patients were treated with fesoterodine, US healthcare payers could save $11,463,981 per year, or $1616 per patient vs no OAB pharmacotherapy. Univariate one-way sensitivity analyses supported the robustness of the findings and showed results were most sensitive to changes in fesoterodine efficacy followed by annual costs of inpatient hospitalization. From a US payer perspective, treating vulnerable elderly OAB patients with fesoterodine was cost-saving compared to no OAB pharmacotherapy.

  9. Long-term safety, tolerability and efficacy of fesoterodine in subjects with overactive bladder symptoms stratified by age: pooled analysis of two open-label extension studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Peter K; Heesakkers, John; Kraus, Stephen R; Carlsson, Martin; Guan, Zhonghong; Berriman, Sandra

    2012-02-01

    Previous work has demonstrated the efficacy and safety of fesoterodine in older and younger subjects with overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. The effect of long-term fesoterodine treatment in different age groups has not been assessed. The aim was to determine the impact of age on the safety, tolerability and efficacy of long-term treatment with fesoterodine 8 mg in subjects with OAB syndrome. This was a pooled analysis of two identically designed open-label extensions of 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. The setting was urology and general practice offices. Subjects who participated in the 12-week, double-blind studies and opted to continue long-term, open-label treatment with fesoterodine were included. Subjects were initiated on fesoterodine 8 mg/day at open-label baseline. After 1 month, subjects could elect dose reduction to 4 mg/day and subsequent re-escalation to 8 mg; each was permitted once annually. Maximal duration of open-label treatment ranged from 24 to 36 months. Discontinuations, subject-reported treatment tolerance, and efficacy (3-day diaries) were assessed at open-label baseline and months 1, 4, 8, 12 and 24. A total of 890 subjects were treated (age fesoterodine 8 mg throughout treatment; this rate was highest among subjects aged ≥75 years (age fesoterodine 8 mg at each visit after open-label baseline up to 36 months. No new or unexpected safety signals were observed in any age group. Most subjects reported 'good' or 'excellent' treatment tolerance throughout the study (age fesoterodine (administered primarily as 8 mg) was well tolerated and associated with sustained improvements in OAB symptoms, irrespective of age.

  10. A randomised, double-blind, parallel design, multi-institutional, non-inferiority phase IV trial of imidafenacin versus fesoterodine for overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K-S; Park, B; Kim, J H; Kim, H G; Seo, J T; Lee, J G; Jang, Y; Choo, M-S

    2013-12-01

    Our objective was to compare the efficacy and safety of imidafenacin over fesoterodine in patients with overactive bladder (OAB). This study is a randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, fesoterodine-controlled study in patients with continuous OAB symptoms for ≥ 3 months, daily mean voiding frequency (DMVF) ≥ 8, and daily mean urgency or urgency incontinence frequency ≥ 2. A twice-daily 0.1 mg imidafenacin with placebo, or once-daily 4 mg fesoterodine with placebo were administered for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy end-point was the difference in DMVF at 12 weeks. The secondary efficacy end-points were differences in daily mean: (i) voiding frequency at 4 and 8 weeks; (ii) urgency frequency; (iii) urgency incontinence frequency; (iv) incontinence frequency; (v) nocturia frequency; and (vi) quality of life score. The variables for safety analysis were adverse events, vital signs, residual urine volume and clinical laboratory tests. An efficacy analysis was conducted in per-protocol patients and the safety analysis was conducted in all randomised patients. The differences in DMVF at 12 weeks were -3.38 ± 3.63 and -2.45 ± 3.73 in the imidafenacin and fesoterodine groups, respectively, and the difference was not significant between the two groups. Imidafenacin was non-inferior to fesoterodine, and the lower limit of 95% two-sided confidence intervals was -0.53. The other six secondary end-points and variables for safety analysis showed no difference between the two groups. Imidafenacin was non-inferior to fesoterodine in terms of efficacy, and showed no significant difference in terms of safety. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Health economics perspective of fesoterodine, tolterodine or solifenacin as first-time therapy for overactive bladder syndrome in the primary care setting in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Rejas, Javier; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Aguado-Jodar, Alba; Ruiz-Torrejón, Amador; Ibáñez-Nolla, Jordi; Kvasz, Marion

    2013-10-21

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is associated with high healthcare costs, which may be partially driven by drug treatment. There is little comparative data on antimuscarinic drugs with respect to resource use and costs. This study was conducted to address this gap and the growing need for naturalistic studies comparing health economics outcomes in adult patients with OAB syndrome initiating treatment with different antimuscarinic drugs in a primary care setting in Spain. Medical records from the databases of primary healthcare centres in three locations in Spain were assessed retrospectively. Men and women ≥18 years of age who initiated treatment with fesoterodine, tolterodine or solifenacin for OAB between 2008 and 2010 were followed for 52 weeks. Healthcare resource utilization and related costs in the Spanish National Health System were compared. Comparisons among drugs were made using multivariate general linear models adjusted for location, age, sex, time since diagnosis, Charlson comorbidity index, and medication possession ratio. A total of 1,971 medical records of patients (58.3% women; mean age, 70.1 [SD:10.6] years) initiating treatment with fesoterodine (n = 302), solifenacin (n = 952) or tolterodine (n = 717) were examined. Annual mean cost per patient was €1798 (95% CI: €1745; €1848). Adjusted mean (95% bootstrap CI) healthcare costs were significantly lower in patients receiving fesoterodine (€1639 [1542; 1725]) compared with solifenacin (€1780 [€1699; €1854], P = 0.022) or tolterodine (€1893 [€1815; €1969], P = 0.001). Cost differences occurred because of significantly fewer medical visits, and less use of absorbent products and OAB-related concomitant medication in the fesoterodine group. Compared with solifenacin and tolterodine, fesoterodine was a cost-saving therapy for treatment of OAB in the primary care setting in Spain.

  12. Effectiveness of Short Term Percutaneous Tibial Nerve Stimulation for Non-neurogenic Overactive Bladder Syndrome in Adults: A Meta-analysis

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    Elita Wibisono

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to evaluate the effectiveness of short-term PTNS for non-neurogenic OAB in adults systematically by comparing with sham procedure and other treatments. Methods: we performed a systematic review of cohort study. Data sources were MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, National Library for Health, Cochrane, and google scholar from 2005 through 2015. Meta-analysis was performed using the random effects model. Heterogeneity of effects was assessed by calculating I2 statistic. Statistical analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.3 for RCT meta-analysis. Results: we analized 11 randomised controlled trial (RCT and five prospective non-comparative studies with variable success rate. Based on percentage of responders, the results were 37.3% - 81.8% in PTNS group, 0% - 20.9% in sham group, 54.8% in anti-muscarinic group, and 89.7% in multimodal group. The decrease of voiding symptoms episodes per day was found in PTNS (0.7-4.5, sham (0.3-1.5, and anti-muscarinic (0.6-2.9 groups. In meta-analysis of four RCTs, the results favour PTNS over sham procedure with overall risk ratio of 7.32(95% CI of 1.69-32.16, p=0.09, I2=54%. Conclusion: there is an evidence of effectiveness of short term PTNS in treatment of non-neurogenic OAB. PTNS is proven significantly better than sham procedure. Key words: overactive bladder, percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation, sham, anti-muscarinic, voiding symptoms.

  13. Mitogenic effects of propoxur on male rat bladder urothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S M; Cano, M; Johnson, L S; StJohn, M K; Asamoto, M; Garland, E M; Thyssen, J H; Sangha, G K; van Goethem, D L

    1994-11-01

    Propoxur produces bladder tumors in rats, but not other species. The hyperplastic and tumorigenic effects do not occur if urinary pH is lowered by administering propoxur in a semi-synthetic diet or co-administering it with ammonium chloride (NH4Cl). We fed propoxur at 8000 p.p.m. in Altromin 1321 diet to male Wistar rats for 4 weeks, with or without NH4Cl as 10,000 p.p.m. of the diet. The urine of rats fed control diet with or without propoxur had a relatively high urinary pH (approximately 8); the addition of NH4Cl lowered the urinary pH by approximately 0.5-1.0 units. There was no evidence of urinary calculi or amorphous precipitate nor was there an increase in microcrystals or formation of different crystals than occur in normal rat urine. Propoxur produced hyperplasia of the urothelium, as observed by light and scanning electron microscopy, and increased the labeling index for proliferating cell nuclear antigen. These effects were significantly inhibited by co-administration with NH4Cl. There was no evidence of urothelial necrosis. Thus, the hyperplasia appears to result from a direct mitogenic effect of propoxur or a metabolite on the urothelium, rather than from toxicity and consequent regeneration. Based on the present study and previous investigations, the urothelial effects of propoxur in the rat are dependent on high urinary pH and high administered doses, factors which need to be incorporated into any mechanistic model for the chemical and into any extrapolation to potential effects in humans.

  14. Dose and aging effect on patients reported treatment benefit switching from the first overactive bladder therapy with tolterodine ER to fesoterodine: post-hoc analysis from an observational and retrospective study

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    Castro-Diaz David

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous randomized studies have demonstrated that fesoterodine significantly improves the Overactive Bladder (OAB symptoms and their assessment by patients compared with tolterodine extended-release (ER. This study aimed to assess the effect of aging and dose escalation on patient-reported treatment benefit, after changing their first Overactive Bladder (OAB therapy with tolterodine-ER to fesoterodine in daily clinical practice. Methods A post-hoc analysis of data from a retrospective, cross-sectional and observational study was performed in a cohort of 748 OAB adults patients (OAB-V8 score ≥8, who switched to fesoterodine from their first tolterodine-ER-based therapy within the 3–4 months before study visit. Effect of fesoterodine doses (4 mg vs. 8 mg and patient age ( Results Improvements were not affected by age. Fesoterodine 8 mg vs. 4 mg provides significant improvements in terms of treatment benefit [TBS 97.1% vs. 88.4%, p  Conclusions A change from tolterodine ER therapy to fesoterodine with dose escalation to 8 mg in symptomatic OAB patients, seems to be associated with greater improvement in terms of both patient-reported-treatment benefit and clinical global impression of change. Improvement was not affected by age.

  15. Dose and aging effect on patients reported treatment benefit switching from the first overactive bladder therapy with tolterodine ER to fesoterodine: post-hoc analysis from an observational and retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Diaz, David; Miranda, Pilar; Sanchez-Ballester, Francisco; Lizarraga, Isabel; Arumí, Daniel; Rejas, Javier

    2012-07-26

    Previous randomized studies have demonstrated that fesoterodine significantly improves the Overactive Bladder (OAB) symptoms and their assessment by patients compared with tolterodine extended-release (ER). This study aimed to assess the effect of aging and dose escalation on patient-reported treatment benefit, after changing their first Overactive Bladder (OAB) therapy with tolterodine-ER to fesoterodine in daily clinical practice. A post-hoc analysis of data from a retrospective, cross-sectional and observational study was performed in a cohort of 748 OAB adults patients (OAB-V8 score ≥8), who switched to fesoterodine from their first tolterodine-ER-based therapy within the 3-4 months before study visit. Effect of fesoterodine doses (4 mg vs. 8 mg) and patient age (Fesoterodine 8 mg vs. 4 mg provides significant improvements in terms of treatment benefit [TBS 97.1% vs. 88.4%, p fesoterodine with dose escalation to 8 mg in symptomatic OAB patients, seems to be associated with greater improvement in terms of both patient-reported-treatment benefit and clinical global impression of change. Improvement was not affected by age.

  16. Does sacral pulsed electromagnetic field therapy have a better effect than transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in patients with neurogenic overactive bladder?

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    Lamyaa A. Fergany

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The UDS showed that the effects of PEMFT in patients with neurogenic OAB secondary to suprasacral SCI was better than TENS for inducing an inhibitory effect on neurogenic detrusor overactivity.

  17. Cost effectiveness analysis of fesoterodine compared to mirabegron in first-line therapy setting for overactive bladder with urge urinary incontinence, from the Spanish National Health System perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, J C; Sánchez-Ballester, F; Peral, C; Rejas, J; Ramos, J; Snedecor, S J; Sudharshan, L; Liu, S; Luo, X

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of first-line treatment of Overactive Bladder (OAB) with fesoterodine relative to mirabegron, from the Spanish National Health System (NHS) perspective. A decision tree model was developed to represent a typical clinical process of 52-week of treatment for an OAB patient with urge urinary incontinence (UUI) initiating first-line therapy with fesoterodine 4mg, including optional titration to 8mg, vs.mirabegron 50mg. Efficacy data were obtained from a Bayesian indirect treatment meta-analysis. Patients with UUI of less than one episode/day were defined as treatment responder and persistence was assessed at weeks 4, 12 and 24. At week 12, non-responders discontinued treatment permanently. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were calculated based on time spent in responder and non-responder states. OAB-related drug and medical care costs including physician visits, laboratory tests, incontinence pads, and comorbidities (fracture, skin infection, urinary tract infections and depression) were modeled and expressed in €2015. At week 52, the percentage of responders was 20.8% for patients starting on fesoterodine 4mg who optionally titrated to 8mg and 19.4% for patients treated with mirabegron. QALYs were slightly higher with fesoterodine than mirabegron (0.7703vs. 0.7668, difference=0.0035). Fesoterodine treatment also had slightly higher total costs than mirabegron (3,296€vs. 3,217, difference=79€), resulting in a cost of 22,523/QALY€ gained for fesoterodine versus mirabegron. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis confirmed the slight advantage of fesoterodine with a 61.1% probability of being cost-effective at the 30,000€ willingness-to-pay for 1QALY threshold. Given the relatively small 1-year cost difference between the two treatments, fesoterodine can be considered a cost-effective option relative to mirabegron for the first-line management of OAB with UUI in Spain. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of antimuscarinics in the treatment of patients with overactive bladder in Spain: A decision-tree model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Fesoterodine, a new once daily antimuscarinic, has proven to be an effective, safe, and well-tolerated treatment in patients with overactive bladder (OAB). To date, no analysis has evaluated the economic costs and benefits associated with fesoterodine, compared to antimuscarinics in Spain. The purpose of this analysis was to assess the economic value of OAB treatment with fesoterodine relative to extended release tolterodine and solifenacin, from the societal perspective. Methods The economic model was based on data from two 12-week, randomized, double-blind, and multicenter trials comparing fesoterodine and tolterodine extended released (ER). Treatment response rates for solifenacin were extracted from the published literature. Discontinuation and efficacy were based on the results of a 12-week multinational randomized clinical trial extrapolated to 52 weeks. Changes in health related quality of life were assessed with the King's Health Questionnaire, which was transformed into preference-based utility values. Medical costs included (expressed in € 2010) were antimuscarinics, physician visits, laboratory tests, incontinence pads and the costs of OAB-related comorbidities, fractures, skin infections, urinary tract infections, depression, and nursing home admissions associated with incontinence. Time lost from work was also considered. Univariate sensitivity analyses were also performed. Results At week 12, continents accounted for 50.6%, 40.6% and 47.2% of patients in the fesoterodine, tolterodine, and solifenacin groups, respectively. By week 52, the projected proportions of patients remaining on therapy were 33.1%, 26.5% and 30.8%, respectively. The projected quality- adjusted life years (QALY) gain (compared to baseline) over the 52-week simulation period were 0.01014, 0.00846 and 0.00957, respectively. The overall treatment cost was estimated at €1,937, €2,089 and €1,960 for fesoterodine, tolterodine and solifenacin, respectively. Therefore

  19. Cost-effectiveness analysis of antimuscarinics in the treatment of patients with overactive bladder in Spain: A decision-tree model

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    Trocio Jeffrey

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fesoterodine, a new once daily antimuscarinic, has proven to be an effective, safe, and well-tolerated treatment in patients with overactive bladder (OAB. To date, no analysis has evaluated the economic costs and benefits associated with fesoterodine, compared to antimuscarinics in Spain. The purpose of this analysis was to assess the economic value of OAB treatment with fesoterodine relative to extended release tolterodine and solifenacin, from the societal perspective. Methods The economic model was based on data from two 12-week, randomized, double-blind, and multicenter trials comparing fesoterodine and tolterodine extended released (ER. Treatment response rates for solifenacin were extracted from the published literature. Discontinuation and efficacy were based on the results of a 12-week multinational randomized clinical trial extrapolated to 52 weeks. Changes in health related quality of life were assessed with the King's Health Questionnaire, which was transformed into preference-based utility values. Medical costs included (expressed in € 2010 were antimuscarinics, physician visits, laboratory tests, incontinence pads and the costs of OAB-related comorbidities, fractures, skin infections, urinary tract infections, depression, and nursing home admissions associated with incontinence. Time lost from work was also considered. Univariate sensitivity analyses were also performed. Results At week 12, continents accounted for 50.6%, 40.6% and 47.2% of patients in the fesoterodine, tolterodine, and solifenacin groups, respectively. By week 52, the projected proportions of patients remaining on therapy were 33.1%, 26.5% and 30.8%, respectively. The projected quality- adjusted life years (QALY gain (compared to baseline over the 52-week simulation period were 0.01014, 0.00846 and 0.00957, respectively. The overall treatment cost was estimated at €1,937, €2,089 and €1,960 for fesoterodine, tolterodine and solifenacin

  20. One - staged reconstruction of bladder exstrophy in male patients: long - term follow-up outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilcar Martins Giron

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction The surgical correction of bladder exstrophy remains challenging. In our institution, the repair has evolved from a staged repair to one-stage reconstruction. The one-stage reconstruction includes; bladder closure, Cantwell-Ransley neourethroplasty and abdominoplasty using groin flaps, without the need of pelvic ostheotomies. Repair of urinary continence (UC and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR is done after development of the infant. Objective To present our experience of our modified one-stage reconstruction of bladder exstrophy in male patients. Materials and Methods Medical records of male patients submitted to one-stage reconstruction of bladder exstrophy were analyzed retrospectively. Fifteen exstrophy bladder patients with mean age 4.2±7 years were treated at our institution between 1999-2013. Results 2 5 Conclusions One-stage reconstruction minimizes the number of surgical procedures required to achieve UC and potentiates bladder-neck function. The advantages of using groin flaps over current techniques for complete repair are the small risk for penile tissue loss and the avoidance of ostheotomies.

  1. One - staged reconstruction of bladder exstrophy in male patients: long - term follow-up outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giron, Amilcar Martins; Mello, Marcos Figueiredo; Carvalho, Paulo Afonso; Moscardi, Paulo Renato Marcelo; Lopes, Roberto Iglesias; Srougi, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction The surgical correction of bladder exstrophy remains challenging. In our institution, the repair has evolved from a staged repair to one-stage reconstruction. The one-stage reconstruction includes; bladder closure, Cantwell-Ransley neourethroplasty and abdominoplasty using groin flaps, without the need of pelvic ostheotomies. Repair of urinary continence (UC) and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is done after development of the infant. Objective To present our experience of our modified one-stage reconstruction of bladder exstrophy in male patients. Materials and Methods Medical records of male patients submitted to one-stage reconstruction of bladder exstrophy were analyzed retrospectively. Fifteen exstrophy bladder patients with mean age 4.2±7 years were treated at our institution between 1999-2013. Results 2 5 Conclusions One-stage reconstruction minimizes the number of surgical procedures required to achieve UC and potentiates bladder-neck function. The advantages of using groin flaps over current techniques for complete repair are the small risk for penile tissue loss and the avoidance of ostheotomies. PMID:28124539

  2. Muscular structure at the male bladder outlet examined with successive colloid in-embedded slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟丽东; 张平

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To re-examine the detailed anatomy of the muscular system at the bladder neck and proximal urethra in the male and to explore its function in urinary continence and micturition further. Methods:The pelvic organs, including bladder, prostate, and rectum, were obtained from 20 formalin-fixed adult male ca-davers and were removed from the pelvic cavity and embedded in celloidin in their entirety. The embedded block was cut into successive slices with an immersing-alcohol microtome. Results:Circular muscle fibers of the detrusor at the bladder outlet consist of the anterior downward projected circular muscle fibers of the bladder outlet ( AD-PC) , the bilateral accumulated circular fibers, and the posterior circular fibers of the bladder outlet. Together, these fibers concentrically surround the internal urethral orifice and trigone muscle. The lower part of the ADPC surrounds the ventral surface of the proximal urethra. Longitudinal muscle fibers are radially inserted into the circu-lar muscle around the internal urethral orifice. Numerous fibers from the ventral longitudinal muscle are inserted in-to the lower part of the ADPC. The upper part of the trigone muscle exists in bladder cavity;the lower part extends into the proximal urethra to surround the posterior and posterolateral surface of the urethra. Conclusions:The AD-PC and the upward extension of the rhabdosphincter comprise the anterior fibromuscular stroma. The circular mus-cle of the bladder outlet may be responsible for closure; the longitudinal muscle of the bladder outlet may be re-sponsible for opening of the internal urethral orifice and proximal urethra.

  3. Factors influencing bladder management in male patients with spinal cord injury: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engkasan, J P; Ng, C J; Low, W Y

    2014-02-01

    Qualitative study using individual in-depth interviews. The objective of this study was to explore the factors influencing the choice of bladder management for male patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Public hospitals in Malaysia. Semistructured (one-on-one) interviews of 17 patients with SCI; 7 were in-patients with a recent injury and 10 lived in the community. All had a neurogenic bladder and were on various methods of bladder drainage. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic analyses. The choice of bladder management was influenced by treatment attributes, patients' physical and psychological attributes, health practitioners' influences and social attributes. Participants were more likely to choose a treatment option that was perceived to be convenient to execute and helped maintain continence. The influence of potential treatment complications on decision making was more variable. Health professionals' and peers' opinions on treatment options had a significant influence on participants' decision. In addition, patients' choices depended on their physical ability to carry out the task, the level of family support received and the anticipated level of social activities. Psychological factors such as embarrassment with using urine bags, confidence in self-catheterization and satisfaction with the current method also influenced the choice of bladder management method. The choice of bladder management in people with SCI is influenced by a variety of factors and must be individualized. Health professionals should consider these factors when supporting patients in making decisions about their treatment options.

  4. Simplified scoring of the Actionable 8-item screening questionnaire for neurogenic bladder overactivity in multiple sclerosis : a comparative analysis of test performance at different cut-off points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, Peter Joseph; Blok, Bertil F.; Heesakkers, John P.; Heerings, Marco; Lemmens, Wim A.; Donders, Rogier

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Actionable questionnaire is an 8-item tool to screen patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) for neurogenic bladder problems, identifying those patients who might benefit from urological referral and bladder-specific treatment. The original scoring yields a total score of 0 to 24 with

  5. Simplified scoring of the Actionable 8-item screening questionnaire for neurogenic bladder overactivity in multiple sclerosis: a comparative analysis of test performance at different cut-off points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, P.J.; Blok, B.F.; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.; Heerings, M.; Lemmens, W.A.J.G.; Donders, R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Actionable questionnaire is an 8-item tool to screen patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) for neurogenic bladder problems, identifying those patients who might benefit from urological referral and bladder-specific treatment. The original scoring yields a total score of 0 to 24 with

  6. [Efficacy of combination therapy with mirabegron for anticholinergic-resistant neurogenic bladder: videourodynamic evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Naoki; Okazaki, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Shin; Hashizume, Kazumi; Kita, Masafumi; Matsumoto, Seiji; Kakizaki, Hidehiro

    2015-01-01

    Using a videourodynamic study, we examined the efficacy of combination therapy with mirabegron for anticholinergic-resistant neurogenic bladder. We retrospectively studied 7 patients with neurogenic bladder (5 males and 2 females) who had detrusor overactivity (DO) or low compliance bladder (<10 ml/cmH2O) despite taking anticholinergic medication. Bladder deformity was categorized from G0 to G3 by Ogawa's classification. Mean age of study patients was 51 years (25-76). Underlying diseases were spinal cord injury in 3 patients, spina bifida in 2, spinal cord infarction in 1, and post-radical hysterectomy in 1. Preceding anticholinergic medication was solifenacin 5 mg in 1 patient, solifenacin 10 mg in 5, and tolterodine 4 mg in 1. Before mirabegron, bladder deformity was G1 in 4 patients, G2 in 1 and G3 in 2, and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) was detected in 3 patients. Five and 4 patients had detrusor overactivity and low compliance bladder, respectively. Videourodynamic study was reevaluated at a mean of 7 months (2- 12 months) after mirabegron. After mirabegron, urinary incontinence was improved in all patients. G3 bladder deformity was improved to G2 and G1 in one patient each, and VUR disappeared in all 3 patients. DO disappeared in 2 of the 5 patients, and bladder compliance was improved in all 4 patients with low compliance bladder. In conclusion, combination therapy of mirabegron is effective and beneficial for anticholinergic-resistant neurogenic bladder.

  7. Simulation Research on Inhibition Effect of Overactive Bladder After Spinal Cord Injury Using Low Frequency Electrical Stimulation%低频电刺激对脊髓损伤后膀胱过度活动抑制的仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董谦; 张旭; 陈国庆; 廖利民; 孙晨; 崔南

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨低频脉冲(0~10Hz)刺激时,不同刺激波形对脊髓损伤后逼尿肌反射亢进诱发的膀胱过度活动症的结果,以寻求抑制膀胱过度活动的最优刺激波形.方法 首先根据McNeal的神经纤维电缆模型,基于Frankenhaeuser-Huxley (FH) 方程建立有髓神经纤维的膜外点电极刺激的仿真系统,评价低频电刺激中的四种波形,即正向脉冲、负向脉冲、双向对称脉冲、双向不对称脉冲的效果.通过电刺激脊髓损伤犬的阴部神经实验,验证仿真条件下最优刺激波形的临床效果.结果 仿真实验表明双向不对称脉冲的抑制效果最佳;动物实验表明以3V、0.1ms的正向脉冲为起始脉冲,结合1V、0.3ms的负向脉冲的双向不对称波形的抑制效果为最优.结论 低频脉冲刺激脊髓损伤犬阴部神经时,正向脉冲在前的双向不对称脉冲的刺激波形仿真效果最佳,并适用于临床实验,能够有效抑制膀胱过度活动,保护神经避免电化学损伤.%Objective To investigate the effects of various stimulus waveforms in low frequency (0 10Hz) on the inhibition of overactive bladder, caused by detrusor hyperreflexia after spinal cord injury, and find a new stimulus waveform which can inhibit the bladder overactivity effectively. Methods According to the McNeal' s lumped circuit model theory of the myelinated axon, a simulation system based on the Frankenhaeuser-Huxley (FH) equations was built at first, to study the nerve fiber' s responses of several stimulus waveforms. Four kinds of stimulus waveforms were anodal pulse , cathodal pulse , biphasic symmetrical pulse and biphasic asymmetrical pulse. The clinic performance of the best stimulus waveform from the simulation results was also validated by stimulating pudendal nerve of the male Beagle dogs, which were spinal cord injured. The simulation results demonstrated that biphasic asymmetrical pulse was the best stimulus pattern in the low frequency

  8. Systematic evaluation for treatment with acupuncture for overactive bladder syndrome%针刺治疗膀胱过度活动症的系统评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐海蓉; 刘志顺; 赵宏

    2011-01-01

    Objective It is to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of the treatment with acupuncture for overactive bladder syndrome ( OAB ) by evidence-hased medicine. Methods Key words such as acupuncture, electroacupuncture, body acupunture, scalp acupunture, laser acupunture, auricular acupunture, percussopunctator, acupressure, fluid acupunture, OAB , urgent micturition syndrome, frequent-urgent micturition syndrome were used to retrieval English and Chinese database such as MEDLINE, EMBASE, CBM to collect randomrized-controlled clinical trials including treatment group treated with acupuncture only or combined with other therapy and control group treated with medicine or blank. Micturition diary , urinal pad test, life quality questions were used as test indexes. Method quality evaluation. daia scavenge and analysis was respectively performed on by two evaluators. Meta analysis was done by RevMan 4. 2. Results 6 randomrized-controlled clinical trials about treatment for OAB with acupuncture were according to the collecting standard. Daily micturition f'requency degree effective rate WMD was 14.48( 95% CI 7. 14 - 29. 38 ), effective scores of inferior urinary passage symptom WMD - 1. 21 ( 95% CI - 1. 93 -0. 49 ), question scores of urinary incontinence WMD -2. 28( 95% CI - 3. 10 - 1. 46 ). Conclusion The treatment with acupuncture for OAB is safe. Its improveMent for daily micturition frequency degree effective rate, effective scores of inferior urinary passage symptoM , question scores of urinary incontinence was better than that of control group, but its efficiency on other evaluating indexes of OAB still needs more study to explore.%目的 运用循证医学方法 系统评价针刺治疗膀胱过度活动症的有效性及安全性.方法 以针刺、电针、体针、头针、激光针、耳针、梅花针、耳穴压豆、水针和膀胱过度活动症、膀胱过度活动综合征、尿急综合征、尿频-尿急综合征等为主题词,检

  9. Case-control study of bladder cancer in New Jersey. I. Occupational exposures in white males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, J B; Stemhagen, A; Mogielnicki, A P; Altman, R; Abe, T; Mason, T J

    1984-05-01

    The occupational bladder cancer risk for New Jersey white males was estimated with the use of both industry-job title-based and exposure-based analyses of data from 658 incident cases and 1,258 general population controls. The overall bladder cancer risk attributable to occupational exposures was estimated as 20-22%. A wide variety of employment categories and exposures contributed to this risk. Odds ratios were significantly high for employment as garage and gas station workers and food counter workers and/or cooks and for exposure to leather, rubber, paint, printing ink, and other organic compounds. Odds ratios for textile mill workers, chemical workers, and metal workers for the a priori high-risk employment category and odds ratios for those exposed to dyes, chlorinated compounds, and rubber showed significant differences between younger and older subjects. Bladder cancer risk associated with occupational exposures was not limited to persons with initial exposures before 25 years of age. However, there was significantly decreasing risk for bladder cancer with increasing age at first exposure for chemical workers and metal workers and for the a priori high-risk materials and metals. Drivers and/or deliverymen and miscellaneous laborers had significantly increasing bladder cancer risk with increasing duration of employment.

  10. Bladder pain syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanno, Philip; Nordling, Jørgen; Fall, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome is a deceptively intricate symptom complex that is diagnosed on the basis of chronic pelvic pain, pressure, or discomfort perceived to be related to the urinary bladder, accompanied by at least one other urinary symptom. It is a diagnosis of exclusion in a patient who has ex...... can be challenging, and misdiagnosis as a psychological problem, overactive bladder, or chronic urinary infection has plagued patients with the problem....

  11. Superiority of fesoterodine 8 mg vs 4 mg in reducing urgency urinary incontinence episodes in patients with overactive bladder: results of the randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled EIGHT trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, Christopher; Schneider, Tim; Haab, François; Sun, Franklin; Whelan, Laurence; Scholfield, David; Dragon, Erika; Mangan, Erin

    2014-09-01

    To assess the superiority of fesoterodine 8 mg vs 4 mg for improvement in urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) episodes and other diary variables, diary-dry rate (proportion of patients with >0 UUI episodes on baseline diary and 0 UUI episodes on post-baseline diary), and improvements in measures of symptom bother, health-related quality of life (HRQL), and other patient-reported outcomes (PROs). This was a 12-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational trial of men and women aged ≥18 years with overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms including UUI (ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01302067). Patients were randomised (2:2:1) to receive fesoterodine 8 mg, fesoterodine 4 mg, or placebo once daily; those randomised to fesoterodine 8 mg started with fesoterodine 4 mg once daily for 1 week, then 8 mg once daily for the remaining 11 weeks. Patients completed bladder diaries at baseline and weeks 4 and 12 and the Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC), Urgency Perception Scale (UPS), and Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q) at baseline and week 12. The primary endpoint was change from baseline to week 12 in UUI episodes per 24 h. At week 12, patients receiving fesoterodine 8 mg (779 patients) had significantly greater reductions from baseline in UUI episodes, micturitions, and urgency episodes than patients receiving fesoterodine 4 mg (790) or placebo (386); diary-dry rate was significantly higher in the fesoterodine 8-mg group vs the fesoterodine 4-mg and placebo groups (all P fesoterodine 8 mg also had significantly greater improvements in scores on the PPBC, UPS, and all OAB-q scales and domains than patients receiving fesoterodine 4 mg or placebo (all P fesoterodine 4 mg had significantly greater improvements in UUI episodes, urgency episodes, and micturitions; significantly higher diary-dry rates; and significantly greater improvement in PPBC scores and OAB-q scores than patients receiving placebo (all P fesoterodine groups (placebo group, 3

  12. Comparative Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of Long-Term Use of Imidafenacin and Solifenacin in Patients with Overactive Bladder: A Prospective, Open, Randomized, Parallel-Group Trial (the LIST Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayoshi Zaitsu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Overactive bladder (OAB is a chronic disease, but comparative trials of anticholinergics, which are commonly used for treatment of OAB, have generally been performed for up to 12 weeks only. There is no comparative study of a long-term intervention. Methods. We conducted a 52-week prospective randomized comparative study to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of two anticholinergics. Results. Forty-one Japanese patients with untreated OAB were randomly assigned to imidafenacin and solifenacin groups. There was no difference in OABSS and KHQ scores between the two groups, but the severity and incidence of adverse events caused by the anticholinergics showed increased differences between the groups with time. The severity of dry mouth and the incidence of constipation were significantly lower in the imidafenacin group (=0.0092 and =0.0013, resp.. Conclusions. This study is the first long-term trial to show differences in the properties of anticholinergics that were not detected in short-term studies. Since OAB is a chronic disease, we conclude that imidafenacin is preferable to solifenacin from a perspective of safety.

  13. A pooled analysis of the efficacy of fesoterodine for the treatment of overactive bladder, and the relationship between safety, co-morbidity and polypharmacy in patients aged 65 years or older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagg, Adrian; Arumi, Daniel; Herschorn, Sender; Angulo Cuesta, Javier; Haab, Francois; Ntanios, Fady; Carlsson, Martin; Oelke, Matthias

    2017-01-04

    overactive bladder (OAB) is a common condition in older persons. Antimuscarinic treatment remains the mainstay of treatment of OAB but clinicians have been reluctant to prescribe this to older patients. This study examined efficacy and safety information from patients >65 in fesoterodine trials to reaffirm efficacy and to explore the relationships between treatment emergent adverse events (TEAEs), coexisting medication and co-morbidity. data from 10 double-blind, placebo-controlled studies were analysed. A logistic regression analysis, where TEAE incidence was predicted by treatment, prior antimuscarinic treatment, number of coexisting medications, number of concomitant diseases and all possible combinations of two-way interaction terms with treatment was conducted. of 4,040 patients who participated in trials; fesoterodine treatment was associated with statistically significant reductions in all disease-related and patient-reported outcomes compared to placebo. There was a significant increase in the likelihood of reporting a TEAE in association with the number of coexistent medications (odds ratio (OR) = 1.028, 95% CI: 1.0143-1.044, P fesoterodine treatment led to clinically meaningful improvements across all included patient reported outcomes. The number of concomitant conditions had the greatest influence on the likelihood of an adverse event being reported. CNS TEAE were not associated with fesoterodine dose and were low across all categories of concomitant disease and coexisting medication. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The effect of semiconditional dorsal penile nerve electrical stimulation on capacity and compliance of the bladder with deformity in spinal cord injury patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y-H; Kim, S-H; Kim, J M; Im, H T; Choi, I S; Lee, K W

    2012-04-01

    Bladder capacity, bladder compliance, the volume of the first overactive contraction, maximal volume during cystometry (CMG) and the vesicoureteral reflux, bladder wall deformity before and after semiconditional stimulation on DPN. To evaluate the effect of the semiconditional electrical stimulation on dorsal penile nerve (DPN) to improve the complicated bladder function in male with spinal cord injury (SCI). Semiconditional stimulation system and urodynamic laboratory in a university hospital. Six men (age, 33-59 years) with SCI incurred from 38 to 156 months before this study. semiconditional stimulation parameters were set during CMG and semiconditional stimulation on DPN by surface electrodes via Empi Focus stimulator was applied from 14 to 28 days, at home. Parameters about bladder function were measured before and after stimulation applied. All parameters for bladder after semiconditional stimulation were increased. Also, the vesicoureteral reflux and bladder wall deformity was improved in five of six patients. Semiconditional electrical stimulation on DPN effectively suppresses neurogenic detrusor overactivity and distend the bladder physiologically in the SCI patient with a complicated bladder. The bladder capacity and compliance as well as the bladder wall deformity were improved as a result of this treatment.

  15. Urinary incontinence and overactive bladder in patients attending the family practice physicians office: a pan-Slovenian cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor But

    2013-04-01

    Conclusions: Both, UI and OAB represent a significant problem among patients attending the family practice physician office. It seems that the knowledge of both dysfunctions is satisfactory among physicians. The majority of patients would tell their doctors about UI and OAB and would also receive appropriate instructions regarding the bladder training and PFMT, both methods being very important for the prevention and treatment of these dysfunctions.

  16. The efficacy and safety of solifenacin vesicare therapy in patients with overactive bladder%琥珀酸索利那新治疗膀胱过度活动症的疗效及安全性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡海峰; 陈刚; 岐宏政; 汪自力; 杨进; 易炜; 王云汉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe and evaluate the efficacy and safety of solifenacin vesicare therapy in patients with overactive bladder. Methods 60 patients with overactive bladder were enrolled in the trial and assigned to treatment group and control group(n = 30 each). Solifenacin vesicare was taken(5mg qd after breakfast for 4 weeks)in treatment group.and tolterodine was taken(2mg bid for 4 weeks)in control group. The efficacy of solifenacin vesicare and tolterod-ine was assessed by OABSS and IPSS at 0-week. 2nd-week. 4th-week. Results After treatment, two groups of patients with urinary urgency, urinary frequency, nocturia increased, urinary incontinence symptoms were improved apparently, the difference was not statistically significant (P>0. 05). Adverse reactions of drug in treatment group including xerosto-ma,visual field obscure, palpitations, rash and constipation were all lower than those in control group(P<0. 05). Conclusion The rociverine therapy for patients with bladder spasm after transurethral resection of prostate is effective and safe.%目的 观察琥珀酸索利那新治疗膀胱过度活动症的疗效及其安全性.方法 采用随机、双盲法将60例诊断为膀胱过度活动症(OAB)的患者分为治疗组和对照组各30例.治疗组给予琥珀酸索利那新每日1次,每次5mg,早饭后口服,疗程为4周;对照组给予酒石酸托特罗定片每日2次,每次2mg,早晚口服,疗程4周.对两组患者均使用膀胱过度活动症症状评分表(OABSS)和国际前列腺症状评分(IPSS)的3个储尿期症状指标进行服药0、2、4周评分.结果 经过治疗,两组患者尿急、尿频、夜尿增多、尿失禁症状均有明显好转,但差异没有统计学意义(P>0.05).琥珀酸索利那新比酒石酸托特罗定的口干、视力模糊、心悸、皮疹、便秘副作用出现率低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 与酒石酸托特罗定相比,琥珀酸索利那新是治疗OAB更安全有效的药物.

  17. 膀胱过度活动症患者症状发作的环境诱因%Environmental Provocative Factors of Onset of Symptoms in Patients with Overactive Bladder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜丽媚; 蔡雪跃

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨膀胱过度活动症(overactive bladder ,OAB)患者症状发作时的环境诱因。方法便利抽取2013年1月至2014年3月在温州医科大学附属第二医院门诊诊治的76例O AB患者为研究对象,应用自行设计的半结构式问卷调查该组患者发生尿急和尿失禁时的环境诱因,并量化每个患者面对某个诱因时OAB发作的频率(很少=1,有时=2,经常=3,通常=4,总是=5)。结果所有患者(100%)均报告至少1个因素与尿急相关,921.%的患者(n=70)报告至少1个因素与尿失禁相关;尿急或尿失禁关系最为密切的环境因素有去洗手间的路上、早晨醒来、外出回家开门时、感觉到寒冷时、由卧位站起、看见自来水、想到要去洗手间和因其他原因(除小便)在洗手间时。结论几乎所有的OAB患者均存在某一环境诱因能够诱发尿急或尿失禁发作,条件反射可能与症状发作有关。%Objective To explore the environmental provocative factors for onset of symptoms in patients with overactive bladder (OAB) .Methods By convenience sampling ,76 cases of OAB patients were selected and investigated by using self-designed semi-structured questionnaire of the provocative factors of urinary urgency and incontinence .The frequency of OAB was quantified in each patients (rarely=1 ,sometimes=2 , frequently=3 ,often=4 ,always=5) .Results All 100% of patients reported at least one factor associated with urinary urgency ,92 1.% (n=70) reported at least one factor associated with urinary incontinence .The several environmental factors most closely associated with urinary urgency or incontinence were on the way to the bathroom ,waking up in the morning ,opening the front door ,feeling the cold weather ,standing up from the supine ,seeing running water ,thinking of going to the bathroom ,in the bathroom for another rea-son besides urinating .Conclusion Almost all OAB patients have

  18. Tamsulosin combined with solifenacin for benign prostatic hyperplasia complicated with overactive bladder%索利那新联合坦索罗辛治疗前列腺增生合并膀胱出口梗阻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘胜; 余昆; 李风; 余志海; 杨忠新; 夏宗禹

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨索利那新联合坦索罗辛治疗良性前列腺增生(benign prostatic hyperplasia,BPH)合并膀胱出口梗阻(bladderoutlet obstruction,BOO)的有效性及安全性.方法:选择未经治疗且无严重BOO的BPH患者105例进行为期12周的治疗;随机分成Ⅰ、Ⅱ两组,Ⅰ组(n=50)单用坦索罗辛(0.2 mg,每晚),Ⅱ组(n=55)联合服用坦索罗辛(0.2 mg,每晚)和索利那新(5 mg,1次/d).两组分别在治疗前后以国际前列腺症状评分(international prostate symptoms score,IPSS)、生活质量评估(quality of life,QOL)、膀胱过度活动症评分(overactive bladder sypmtom score,OABSS)、最大尿流率(maximum flow rate,Qmax)以及24 h排尿次数、尿急次数、急迫性尿失禁次数和尿潴留次数为评估指标,观察其有效性及安全性.结果:服药12周后,可评价病例97例;两组治疗前后IPSS、QOL、Qmax及24 h排尿次数均得到显著改善(P<0.05);Ⅱ组治疗后OABSS评分以及储尿期症状(尿急、尿频、急迫性尿失禁)明显优于Ⅰ组[(4.82±1.15 vs.9.27±2.10)、(3.31 ±0.18 vs.6.82±2.15)、(8.02 ±2.15 vs.10.13 ±2.07)、(0.50±0.13 vs.2.03±0.87),P<0.05],而Qmax两组治疗后比较差异无统计学意义(15.81±2.56 vs.16.04±3.26,P>0.05);两组均未发生尿潴留,不良事件发生率Ⅰ组为4.3%、Ⅱ组为8.0%.结论:索利那新联合坦索罗辛能有效并安全地缓解BPH所合并的OAB症状,极大地改善了患者的生活质量.%Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of combined use of solifenacin and tamsulosin in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) accompanied by overactive bladder(OAB). Methods: Totally 105 cases of clinically diagnosed BPH without serious obstruction of urinary tract were selected and were randomly assigned to Ⅰ group(n=50) to receive 0.2 mg of tamsulosin once a day and Ⅱ group(n=55) to be treated with 0.2 mg of tamsulosin once a day plus 5 mg of solifenacin once a day at night,both for 12

  19. Long-term safety, tolerability and efficacy of flexible-dose fesoterodine in elderly patients with overactive bladder: open-label extension of the SOFIA trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagg, Adrian; Khullar, Vik; Michel, Martin C; Oelke, Matthias; Darekar, Amanda; Bitoun, Caty Ebel

    2014-01-01

    To assess the long-term safety, tolerability, and efficacy of flexible-dose fesoterodine in elderly patients with OAB. Patients aged ≥65 years who completed a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial were eligible for the 12-week, open-label (OL) extension phase. Patients who received double-blind placebo started on fesoterodine 4 mg and could increase to 8 mg after 4 or 8 weeks of OL treatment, while fesoterodine-treated patients continued on their double-blind dose; only one dose escalation or de-escalation was permitted. Discontinuations and adverse events (AEs) were monitored, and patients completed 3-day bladder diaries and patient-reported outcomes at the beginning and end of the 12-week OL phase. Six hundred fifty-four patients entered the 12-week OL extension (mean age 72 years; 52% women). AEs were reported by 30.7% and 48.1% of patients who had received double-blind fesoterodine and placebo, respectively; 1.9% and 9.4%, discontinued due to AEs, respectively. Patients who received double-blind fesoterodine maintained their efficacy response. After 12 weeks of OL treatment, efficacy outcomes in patients who received double-blind placebo were similar to those who had received double-blind fesoterodine. On average, the efficacy response was maintained for the duration of the study. Fesoterodine was well tolerated and improvements in OAB symptoms and quality of life measures were not diminished with longer-term treatment of patients aged ≥65 years. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Single Large Bladder Stone in a Young Male Adult with Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Halalsheh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bladder stones are caused when minerals are built up in the bladder, especially if the bladder is incompletely emptied. These stones will pass while they are small. Otherwise, they get stuck to the bladder wall or ureter. If this happens, they gradually gather more mineral crystals, becoming larger over time. Primary hyperparathyroidism is usually caused by a tumor within the parathyroid gland, and elevated calcium levels can cause digestive symptoms, psychiatric abnormalities, bone disease and multiple kidney stones.

  1. Evaluation of hyperdiploidy in the bladder epithelial cells of male F344 rats treated with ortho-phenylphenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, S; Eastmond, D A

    2003-05-09

    Ortho-phenylphenol (OPP) is a broad-spectrum fungicide and anti-bacterial agent that has been shown to cause bladder cancer in male F344 rats. An earlier study to investigate the potential role of aneuploidy in OPP-induced bladder carcinogenicity, failed to detect increases in frequencies of hyperdiploidy/polyploidy in treated animals, presumably due to the presence of polyploid cells in the bladder. To overcome this problem, we utilized a novel approach to determine increases in numerical alterations in the slowly dividing replicating cells of the rat bladder following treatment with OPP. Collagenase digestion of the bladder was used to enrich for actively-dividing cells and FISH in conjunction with BrdU was employed to detect hyperdiploidy in the replicating interphase cells. Initial studies were performed using FISH with a chromosome 4 probe. Follow-up studies were conducted with OPP and a positive control, vinblastine sulfate using probes for chromosomes 4 and 19. No significant increases in hyperdiploidy/polyploidy were seen in the replicating bladder cells of the OPP-treated rats using FISH with either the chromosome 4 or 19 probes. As expected, no significant increases in hyperdiploidy were seen in the non-replicating cells. In contrast, highly significant increases in hyperdiploidy/polyploidy, as detected using FISH with probes for either chromosome 4 or 19, were seen in the replicating cells from rats treated with a combination of OPP and vinblastine. The inability to detect increases in hyperdiploidy/polyploidy in the bladder of OPP-treated rats indicates that chromosome gain is unlikely to play a major role in the early genotoxic effects of OPP. However, the increase in hyperdiploidy/polyploidy induced by vinblastine sulfate in OPP-treated rats, clearly demonstrates that this approach using FISH in combination with BrdU is capable of detecting changes in chromosome number even in slowly-dividing tissues, such as the urinary bladder.

  2. Male bladder outlet obstruction : Time to re-evaluate the definition and reconsider our diagnostic pathway? ICI-RS 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademakers, Kevin; Drake, Marcus J; Gammie, Andrew; Djurhuus, Jens C; Rosier, Peter F W M; Abrams, Paul; Harding, Christopher

    The diagnosis of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in the male is dependent on measurements of pressure and flow made during urodynamic studies. The procedure of urodynamics and the indices used to delineate BOO are well standardized largely as a result of the work of the International Continence

  3. 生物反馈联合整体护理治疗膀胱过度活动疗效观察%The effect of biofeedback combined with holistic nursing care in treating overactive bladder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖宁

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨生物反馈联合整体护理治疗膀胱过度活动疗效。方法52例膀胱过度活动患者分为两组,治疗组给予生物反馈联合整体护理,对照组给予托特罗定,治疗2个月后观察疗效、副反应、遵医嘱程度。结果治疗组与对照组比较,治愈率、遵医嘱程度显著升高,显效率、副反应发生率显著下降(P<0.05),两组治疗后24h排尿次数均较治疗前显著下降(P<0.05),两组治疗后24h排尿次数、无效率,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论生物反馈联合整体护理患者遵医嘱程度高,可以明显减轻膀胱过度活动患者症状,副作用少。%Objective To study the clinical effects of biofeedback combined with holistic nursing care in treating overactive bladder. Methods 52 patients suffered with OAB were divided in two groups. Biofeedback combined with holistic nursing care and tolterodine tartrate tablets were used in different group respectively.Curative effects,side effects and rates of following doctor were recorded after 2 months. Results After 2 months treatment,the curative effects and rates of following doctor increased significantly in treatment group(P < 0.05).The improvement and side effects significantly decreased in treatment group, (P < 0.05). Conclusion Biofeedback combined with holistic nursing care was a good methods for OAB which could relieve symptoms and have few side effects.

  4. Presence of Cleaved Synaptosomal-Associated Protein-25 and Decrease of Purinergic Receptors P2X3 in the Bladder Urothelium Influence Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin Treatment for Overactive Bladder Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Tzu Liu

    Full Text Available To evaluate whether botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A injection and Lipotoxin (liposomes with 200 U of BoNT-A instillation target different proteins, including P2X3, synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A, and SNAP-25, in the bladder mucosa, leading to different treatment outcomes.This was a retrospective study performed in a tertiary teaching hospital. We evaluated the clinical results of 27 OAB patients treated with intravesical BoNT-A injection (n = 16 or Lipotoxin instillation (n = 11. Seven controls were treated with saline. Patients were injected with 100 U of BoNT-A or Lipotoxinin a single intravesical instillation. The patients enrolled in this study all had bladder biopsies performed at baseline and one month after BoNT-A therapy. Treatment outcome was measured by the decreases in urgency and frequency episodes at 1 month. The functional protein expressions in the urothelium were measured at baseline and after 1 month. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test and ordinal logistic regression were used to compare the treatment outcomes.Both BoNT-A injection and Lipotoxin instillation treatments effectively decreased the frequency of urgency episodes in OAB patients. Lipotoxin instillation did not increase post-void residual volume. BoNT-A injection effectively cleaved SNAP-25 (p < 0.01. Liposome encapsulated BoNT-A decreased urothelial P2X3 expression in the five responders (p = 0.04, while SNAP-25 was not significantly cleaved.The results of this study provide a possible mechanism for the therapeutic effects of BoNT-A for the treatment of OAB via different treatment forms. BoNT-A and Lipotoxin treatments effectively decreased the frequency of urgency episodes in patients with OAB.

  5. Biomatrices for bladder reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsueh-Kung; Madihally, Sundar V; Palmer, Blake; Frimberger, Dominic; Fung, Kar-Ming; Kropp, Bradley P

    2015-03-01

    There is a demand for tissue engineering of the bladder needed by patients who experience a neurogenic bladder or idiopathic detrusor overactivity. To avoid complications from augmentation cystoplasty, the field of tissue engineering seeks optimal scaffolds for bladder reconstruction. Naturally derived biomaterials as well as synthetic and natural polymers have been explored as bladder substitutes. To improve regenerative properties, these biomaterials have been conjugated with functional molecules, combined with nanotechology, or seeded with exogenous cells. Although most studies reported complete and functional bladder regeneration in small-animal models, results from large-animal models and human clinical trials varied. For functional bladder regeneration, procedures for biomaterial fabrication, incorporation of biologically active agents, introduction of nanotechnology, and application of stem-cell technology need to be standardized. Advanced molecular and medical technologies such as next generation sequencing and magnetic resonance imaging can be introduced for mechanistic understanding and non-invasive monitoring of regeneration processes, respectively.

  6. Nonselective Blocking of the Sympathetic Nervous System Decreases Detrusor Overactivity in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Shin Park

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The involuntary dual control systems of the autonomic nervous system (ANS in the bladder of awake spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs were investigated through simultaneous registrations of intravesical and intraabdominal pressures to observe detrusor overactivity (DO objectively as a core symptom of an overactive bladder. SHRs (n = 6 showed the features of overactive bladder syndrome during urodynamic study, especially DO during the filling phase. After injection of the nonselective sympathetic blocking agent labetalol, DO disappeared in 3 of 6 SHRs (50%. DO frequency decreased from 0.98 ± 0.22 min−1 to 0.28 ± 0.19 min−1 (p < 0.01, and DO pressure decreased from 3.82 ± 0.57 cm H2O to 1.90 ± 0.86 cm H2O (p < 0.05. This suggests that the DO originating from the overactive parasympathetic nervous system is attenuated by the nonselective blocking of the sympathetic nervous system. The detailed mechanism behind this result is still not known, but parasympathetic overactivity seems to require overactive sympathetic nervous system activity in a kind of balance between these two systems. These findings are consistent with recent clinical findings suggesting that patients with idiopathic overactive bladder may have ANS dysfunction, particularly a sympathetic dysfunction. The search for newer and better drugs than the current anticholinergic drugs as the mainstay for overactive bladder will be fueled by our research on these sympathetic mechanisms. Further studies of this principle are required.

  7. International Consultation on Incontinence-Research Society (ICI-RS) Report on Non-Invasive Urodynamics: The Need of Standardization of Ultrasound Bladder and Detrusor Wall Thickness Measurements to Quantify Bladder Wall Hypertrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Oelke

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Ultrasonic measurements of urinary bladders are suitable to quantify bladder wall hypertrophy due to bladder outlet obstruction, detrusor overactivity, or neurogenic bladder dysfunction in adult men or women and in children. Quantification of bladder wall hypertrophy seems to be useful

  8. The urinary bladder carcinogen propoxur does not produce genotoxic effects in the urinary bladder of Wistar male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatropoulos, M J; Duan, J-D; Schmuck, G; Williams, G M

    2015-09-01

    Propoxur (PPX) is a carbamate insecticide which induced urinary bladder cancer in Wistar rats when fed at 5000ppm in Altromin 1321 diet (1321). In the present investigation, PPX was studied for induction of several key events related to modes of action (MOA) of carcinogenicity in urinary bladders (UBs). Wistar rats were administered the compound for 28 days at 8000ppm in Provini Liba SA 3883 diet, which is similar to the 1321 diet. o-Anisidine HCl (AH) was used as a genotoxic UB carcinogenic comparator, and trisodium nitrilotriacetate (NTA) as an epigenetic UB carcinogen comparator. Along with the non-dosed control and three test substance groups (PPX, AH, NTA), four more groups were additionally fed 2% ammonium chloride (AC) in the diet to acidify the urine, since 1321 was reported to increase urinary pH. AC did acidify the urine, as expected, although the 3883 diet itself did not increase pH values above 8. In the alkaline comet assay, AH produced DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) in the UB urothelium (UBU) irrespective of AC administration, whereas PPX and NTA did not. In the nucleotide (32)P-postlabeling assay (NPL), AH produced DNA adducts irrespective of AC administration, whereas PPX and NTA did not. Routine (H&E) histopathology evaluation of the UBU did not reveal any hyperplasia or evidence of luminal microprecipitates or calculi in any of the groups. Assessment of UBU proliferation as measured by immunohistochemistry of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, revealed that NTA and NTA plus AC increased the replicating fraction (RF). Also AH plus AC, but not AH alone, increased the RF of UBU, whereas PPX groups were not significantly different from controls. Thus, the results reveal no evidence for DNA SSBs, binding, or alteration of DNA synthesis in the UBU by PPX, while demonstrating UBU DNA damage by AH and showing that NTA does not damage DNA, but causes increased UBU proliferation. The findings are in accord with a genotoxic MOA for AH, and an epigenetic

  9. Effectiveness and safety of solifenacin succinate in treatment of overactive bladder%琥珀酸索利那新治疗膀胱过度活动症的有效性及安全性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗笛; 廖利民

    2015-01-01

    膀胱过度活动症( OAB )是一组以尿急症状为特征的症候群,严重影响患者的生活质量。琥珀酸索利那新为新一代毒蕈碱型乙酰胆碱受体(M受体)拮抗剂,对于膀胱逼尿肌具有高选择性,可明显缓解OAB患者尿急、尿失禁症状,增加其每次排尿量、减少其排尿次数;可改善输尿管支架植入术后患者的下尿路症状。M受体拮抗剂的主要不良反应为口干、认知功能损害和尿潴留。与奥昔布宁、托特罗定等M受体拮抗剂比较,琥珀酸索利那新的口干和尿潴留发生率低,对认知功能的影响小,但对于存在高危因素(如联用其他抗胆碱药、基础疾病造成血脑屏障通透性改变等)或既往有不同程度认知损害的老年患者则存在诱发或加重认知功能损害的风险。服用琥珀酸索利那新的第1个月应密切关注患者残余尿量的变化,以降低急性尿潴留的风险。%Overactive bladder is a group of syndromes characterized by symptoms of urinary urgency,seriously affecting the quality of life of patients. Solifenacin succinate is a new generation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor( M receptor)antagonist with high selectivity for detrusor,and it can not only obviously relieve the symptoms of urgency and incontinence,increase urination and reduce micturition frequency,but also improve lower urinary tract symptoms for patients after implantation of ureteral stents. The main adverse reactions of M receptor antagonist are dry mouth,cognitive impairment and urinary retention. Compared with oxybutynin and tolterodine,the incidences of dry mouth and urinary retention caused by solifenacin succinate are low,and it also has less effect on cognitive function. But for the patient with high risk factors( such as combined use of other anticholinergic drugs and changes of blood brain barrier caused by primary diseases)and elderly patients with a history of cognitive impairment can

  10. Parkinson's disease combined with overactive bladder syndrome treated with acupuncture and medication%针药结合治疗帕金森病合并膀胱过度活动症

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈义良; 冯为菊; 张小莉

    2012-01-01

    目的:验证小剂量托特罗定结合电针治疗帕金森病(PD)合并膀胱过度活动症(OAB)的疗效.方法:将60例PD合并OAB患者随机分为针药组和西药组,每组30例.两组基础美多巴治疗量一致,均停用安坦等抗胆碱药物,针药组口服托特罗定1 mg,每日2次,结合电针百会、四神聪、印堂,每日1次;西药组口服托特罗定2 mg,每日2次.治疗6周后,观察两组治疗前后排尿变化、帕金森病综合量表(UPDRSⅢ)评分,并记录两组不良反应发生情况.结果:两组治疗后24 h平均排尿次数、24 h平均尿失禁次数、平均每次尿量均明显改善(均P<0.01),且针药组的改善程度优于西药组(均P<0.05);针药组治疗后UPDRSⅢ评分明显降低(P<0.05),且明显低于西药组(P<0.05);针药组不良反应明显少于西药组.结论:小剂量托特罗定结合电针治疗PD合并OAB疗效优于口服全量托特罗定,不良反应少,而且可改善PD患者的的运动症状.%Objective To evaluate the therapeutic effect of Parkinson's disease combined with overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) treated with combined therapy of oral administration of Tolterodine with low dose and elec-troacupuncture. Methods Sixty cases of Parkinson's disease combined with OAB were randomly divided into a combined acupuncture and medication group (group A) and a medication group (group B). 30 cases in each group. In both groups, Madopar basic doses were same, and anticholinergic agents such as Artane were stopped. In group A, Tolterodine was orally taken for 1 mg, twice a day; Baihui (GV 20), Sishengcong (EX-HN 1) and Yintang (EX-HN 3) were punctured with electroacupuncture, once a day. In group B, Tolterodine was orally taken for 2 mg, twice a day. After 6 weeks, the changes of urination and UPDRSUJ scores were observed, and the adverse reactions were recorded in both groups. Results After treatment, the frequency of average urination of 24 hours, frequency of incontinence of

  11. 锯叶棕提取物治疗BPH伴OAB的疗效观察%Effect study of saw palmetto extract in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia with overactive bladder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白立刚

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨锯叶棕提取物治疗BPH伴膀胱过度活动症(OAB)的临床疗效.方法:将2012年7月~2013年3月在我院诊断为BPH伴OAB患者100例随机分为研究组50例及对照组50例,研究组口服锯叶棕提取物(沙芭特)160 mg,每天2次;对照组口服坦索罗辛0.2 mg,每天1次.两组患者均服药8周,对比观察两组开始服药前、服药8周后的IPSS评分、OABSS评分、生活质量评分、最大尿流率(Qm.)、24 h排尿次数、夜尿次数、每次排尿量等指标,观察研究组用药前后的疗效.结果:两组患者OAB较治疗前均有明显好转,治疗前后各项指标差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);除max外,研究组与对照组其余观察指标治疗前后的变化值比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:锯叶棕提取物(沙芭特)对于BPH伴OAB有明显的治疗作用,临床疗效较好.%To evaluate the clinical efficacy of saw palmetto extract in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia patients with overactive bladder.Methods:100 case were included and were randomly divided into the trial group (50 cases) and control group(50 cases).Patients in trial group were adminstrated with saw palmetto extract at 160 mg and in control group were with tamsulosin at 0.2mg once daily for 8 weeks.The efficacy of treatment were assessed by changes before and after treatment in IPSS,OABSS,Quality of life score,Qmax aily frequency of micturition,the number of nocturia,voiding volumes.Results:There are significant differences in outcome in trial group between before and after treatment(P<0.05).There are no significant difference in the changes before and after treatment betweem two groups.There are significant differences in changes before and after treatment of subjective and objective outcome measures except for Qmax and voiding volumes(P<0.05).Conclusions:Combination saw palmetto extract in treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia patients with OAB has efficacy.

  12. 感觉相关的排尿日记在社区女性膀胱过度活动症中的应用研究%Utility of sensation related bladder diary to assess overactive bladder symptoms in community-dwelling women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    来永庆; 陈月英; 杨尚琪; 倪梁朝; 李贤新; 关志忱

    2012-01-01

    Objective Bladder diaries including bladder perception grades were analyzed to assess overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms in community-dwelling women 40 years of age or older. Methods Six hundred twenty women(mean age 58 years)completed a 3-day bladder diary. The perception grades were defined as follows ;0 = no bladder sensation , 1 = sensation of bladder filling without desire to void , 2 = desire to void, 3 = strong desire to void,4 = urgency without urge urinary incontinence (UUI) ,and 5 = urgency with UUI. Results 96 women(15. 5% ) had OAB symptoms on medical interview , including 74 (11. 9% ) without UUI ( OAB-Dry) and 22(3.5%)with UUI (OAB-Wet). In the analysis of 11 418 voids, the voided volume was significantly increased with the grades of perception. The 24 h voided volume in the OAB-Dry group was much more than the Normal group. The average voided volume in the OAB-Wet group was significantly less than in the OAB -Dry and the Normal groups. The mean voided volume at grade 3 in the Normal without urgency group was much more than volumes in any other group . In the analysis of grades 4 and 5, voided volumes in the OAB-Wet group were significantly less than those in the Normal and/or OAB-Dry groups. Conclusions Bladder diary including a new bladder perception grade was useful in assessing urinary sensation or incontinence as well as voiding pattern . The causes of symptoms such as urgency or urinary frequency may be different between the Normal ,OAB-Dry,and OAB-Wet groups.%目的 应用感觉相关的排尿日记评价40岁及以上的社区女性的膀胱过度活动症(OAB)发病情况.方法 620例女性(平均58岁)完成了3 d的感觉相关的排尿日记.膀胱感觉的定义:0级=膀胱没有感觉,1级=膀胱有涨满的感觉,但没有排尿的愿望,2级=有排尿愿望,3级=有强烈的排尿愿望,4级=有非常紧迫的排尿愿望,但没有急迫性尿失禁,5级=出现因尿急引起的漏尿.结果 96例(15.5%)有OAB症状,包括74例(11.9%)

  13. Micronuclei and cell proliferation as early biological markers of ortho-phenylphenol-induced changes in the bladder of male F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, S; Eastmond, D A

    2006-08-01

    ortho-Phenylphenol (OPP) and its sodium salt, sodium ortho-phenylphenate (SOPP), are widely used fungicides and antibacterial agents known to cause tumors in the bladders of male F344 rats. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that micronuclei and cell proliferation were induced in the bladders of treated rats by a high dose of OPP. In our present studies, we investigated the relationship in dose response between these two biomarkers and previously reported tumor formation in the bladders of male F344 rats. Significant non-linear increases in micronuclei (MN) and BrdU-labeling were seen in the bladder cells of rats treated with the 8000 and 12,500 ppm doses of OPP and at 20,000 ppm SOPP. CREST anti-kinetochore staining showed that the micronuclei originated from both chromosomal loss and breakage. In addition, increases in MN were detected in the bladder but not in the bone marrow, underscoring the value of assessing genotoxicity in the target organ. In summary, these studies clearly show that at high doses, OPP and SOPP are genotoxic to the rat bladder. These results also indicate that micronucleus formation and cell proliferation can detect early OPP-induced changes in the rat bladder and may be useful as biomarkers for bladder carcinogens.

  14. 前列腺增生症合并膀胱过度活动症相关因素研究%Study of BPH With Coexisting Overactive Bladder Dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国勇

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to use a systematic schedule ,including urodynamics.to describe the rate of coexisting overactive bladder(OAB) in patients with baldder outlet obstruction(BOO) caused by benign prostatic hyperplasis(BPH).We also identified differences between the paticents with pure BOO compared with BOO combined with OAB(BOO+OAB). Methods:One hundered and five men referred to our clinic due to LUTS were included. Patients with a history that might affect their bladder function were excluded . After cystometry and pressure-flow studies,the patients were divided into pure BOO and BOO+OAB. Of the 79 men .Results:64.6% had pure BOO.BOO+OAB was found in 35.4%. PSA,IPSS, volume ,voided volume , PVR , obstruction grade and OABSS differed significantly between the groups .The patients with BOO+OAB had a higher PSA,IPSS, volume ,OABSS, voided smaller volumes, PVR were smaller and were more obstructed .We found no differences in Age ,Cr or Q-max .There was a strong association between OAB and BOO, the percentage of OAB increasing with increased obstruction. Age ,Cr and Q-max did not predict whether the patients had a combined BOO+OAB or not . Conclusions:These finding indicate that BOO is a progressive disease , which in time causes pronounced obstruction and perhaps in itself contributes to the development of OAB.%目的:系统的通过尿流动力学检查,明确良性前列腺增生症合并膀胱过度活动症的相关因素,以利临床医师明确区分 BPH 的 LUTS症状是单纯 BOO 或 BOO+OAB,以具体病情制定进一步治疗.方法:105例有明确 LUTS 的 BPH 的患者.有影响膀胱功能的其他疾病除外.第一步均进行常规的病史、体格检查和 DRE ,IPSS、OABSS、年龄、血清肌酐、PSA、尿液的常规检查和培养等、B 超测定前列腺体积,第二部行尿流率检查:记录 Qmax、VV、PVR(残余尿量,导尿法);第三步:行尿流动力学膀胱充盈测压和压力-流率测定.第四步:

  15. Role of PKC and CaV1.2 in detrusor overactivity in a model of obesity associated with insulin resistance in mice.

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    Luiz O Leiria

    Full Text Available Obesity/metabolic syndrome are common risk factors for overactive bladder. This study aimed to investigate the functional and molecular changes of detrusor smooth muscle (DSM in high-fat insulin resistant obese mice, focusing on the role of protein kinase C (PKC and Ca(v1.2 in causing bladder dysfunction. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed with high-fat diet for 10 weeks. In vitro functional responses and cystometry, as well as PKC and Ca(v1.2 expression in bladder were evaluated. Obese mice exhibited higher body weight, epididymal fat mass, fasting glucose and insulin resistance. Carbachol (0.001-100 µM, α,β-methylene ATP (1-10 µM, KCl (1-300 mM, extracellular Ca(2+ (0.01-100 mM and phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu; 0.001-3 µM all produced greater DSM contractions in obese mice, which were fully reversed by the Ca(v1.2 blocker amlodipine. Cystometry evidenced augmented frequency, non-void contractions and post-void pressure in obese mice that were also prevented by amlodipine. Metformin treatment improved the insulin sensitivity, and normalized the in vitro bladder hypercontractility and cystometric dysfunction in obese mice. The PKC inhibitor GF109203X (1 µM also reduced the carbachol induced contractions. PKC protein expression was markedly higher in bladder tissues from obese mice, which was normalized by metformin treatment. The Ca(v1.2 channel protein expression was not modified in any experimental group. Our findings show that Ca(v1.2 blockade and improvement of insulin sensitization restores the enhanced PKC protein expression in bladder tissues and normalizes the overactive detrusor. It is likely that insulin resistance importantly contributes for the pathophysiology of this urological disorder in obese mice.

  16. Testosterone and 17β-estradiol induce glandular prostatic growth, bladder outlet obstruction, and voiding dysfunction in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Tristan M; Ricke, Emily A; Marker, Paul C; Miano, Joseph M; Mayer, Robert D; Timms, Barry G; vom Saal, Frederick S; Wood, Ronald W; Ricke, William A

    2012-11-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) are common in older men and can contribute to lower urinary tract symptoms that significantly impact quality of life. Few existing models of BOO and BPH use physiological levels of hormones associated with disease progression in humans in a genetically manipulable organism. We present a model of BPH and BOO induced in mice with testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E(2)). Male mice were surgically implanted with slow-releasing sc pellets containing 25 mg T and 2.5 mg E(2) (T+E(2)). After 2 and 4 months of hormone treatment, we evaluated voiding patterns and examined the gross morphology and histology of the bladder, urethra, and prostate. Mice treated with T+E(2) developed significantly larger bladders than untreated mice, consistent with BOO. Some mice treated with T+E(2) had complications in the form of bladder hypertrophy, diverticula, calculi, and eventual decompensation with hydronephrosis. Hormone treatment caused a significant decrease in the size of the urethral lumen, increased prostate mass, and increased number of prostatic ducts associated with the prostatic urethra, compared with untreated mice. Voiding dysfunction was observed in mice treated with T+E(2), who exhibited droplet voiding pattern with significantly decreased void mass, shorter void duration, and fewer sustained voids. The constellation of lower urinary tract abnormalities, including BOO, enlarged prostates, and voiding dysfunction seen in male mice treated with T+E(2) is consistent with BPH in men. This model is suitable for better understanding molecular mechanisms and for developing novel strategies to address BPH and BOO.

  17. Inosine Improves Neurogenic Detrusor Overactivity following Spinal Cord Injury.

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    Yeun Goo Chung

    Full Text Available Neurogenic detrusor overactivity and the associated loss of bladder control are among the most challenging complications of spinal cord injury (SCI. Anticholinergic agents are the mainstay for medical treatment of detrusor overactivity. However, their use is limited by significant side effects such that a search for new treatments is warranted. Inosine is a naturally occurring purine nucleoside with neuroprotective, neurotrophic and antioxidant effects that is known to improve motor function in preclinical models of SCI. However, its effect on lower urinary tract function has not been determined. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of systemic administration of inosine on voiding function following SCI and to delineate potential mechanisms of action. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent complete spinal cord transection, or cord compression by application of an aneurysm clip at T8 for 30 sec. Inosine (225 mg/kg or vehicle was administered daily via intraperitoneal injection either immediately after injury or after a delay of 8 wk. At the end of treatment, voiding behavior was assessed by cystometry. Levels of synaptophysin (SYP, neurofilament 200 (NF200 and TRPV1 in bladder tissues were measured by immunofluorescence imaging. Inosine administration decreased overactivity in both SCI models, with a significant decrease in the frequency of spontaneous non-voiding contractions during filling, compared to vehicle-treated SCI rats (p<0.05, including under conditions of delayed treatment. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated increased levels of the pan-neuronal marker SYP and the Adelta fiber marker NF200, but decreased staining for the C-fiber marker, TRPV1 in bladder tissues from inosine-treated rats compared to those from vehicle-treated animals, including after delayed treatment. These findings demonstrate that inosine prevents the development of detrusor overactivity and attenuates existing overactivity following SCI, and may

  18. [Conservative treatment in male urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner-Hermanns, R; Anding, R

    2014-03-01

    Prevalence, pathophysiology, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches of urinary incontinence are well studied in women; however, studies on male urinary incontinence focus on incontinence following surgery of the bladder or prostate, predominantly incontinence after radical prostatectomy. Aging men suffer from incontinence, most frequently urge incontinence (overactive bladder, OAB), nearly as often as women do.The domain of conservative therapy of urinary stress incontinence in men is pelvic floor training. It remains unclear whether biofeedback procedures, electrostimulation therapy, or magnetic stimulation therapy can enhance pelvic floor training. There are data suggesting that an off-label therapy with Duloxetin®, a selective serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SSNRI), improves urinary incontinence following radical prostatectomy. Antimuscarinic agents in combination with bladder training have been proven as safe and effective treatment in men with OAB. Data, however, suggest that men with OAB are far less frequently treated than women.

  19. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Bladder: New Parameters for Evaluating Voiding Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Macnab

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe innovative methodology for monitoring alterations in bladder oxygenation and haemodynamics in humans using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Concentrations of the chromophores oxygenated (O2Hb and deoxygenated (HHb haemoglobin and their sum (total haemoglobin differ during bladder contraction in health and disease. A wireless device that incorporates three paired light emitting diodes (wavelengths 760 and 850 nanometers and silicon photodiode detector collects data transcutaneously (10 Hz with the emitter/detector over the bladder during spontaneous bladder emptying. Data analysis indicates comparable patterns of change in chromophore concentration in healthy children and adults (positive trend during voiding, predominantly due to elevated O2Hb, but different changes in symptomatic subjects with characteristic chromophore patterns identified for voiding dysfunction due to specific pathophysiologies: bladder outlet obstruction (males, overactive bladder (females, and nonneurogenic dysfunction (children. Comparison with NIRS muscle data suggests altered bladder haemodynamics and/or oxygenation may underlie voiding dysfunction offering new insight into the causal physiology.

  20. Underactive Bladder in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yao-Chi; Plata, Mauricio; Lamb, Laura E; Chancellor, Michael B

    2015-11-01

    Overactive bladder is one of the most common bladder problems, but an estimated 20 million Americans have underactive bladder (UAB), which makes going to the bathroom difficult, increases the risk of urinary tract infections, and even leads to institutionalization. This article provides an overview of UAB in older adults, and discusses the prevalence, predisposing factors, cause, clinical investigations, and treatments. At present, there is no effective therapy for UAB. A great deal of work still needs to be done on understanding the pathogenesis and the development of effective therapies.

  1. Research on the effect of urine and motor function of acupuncture combined with half dose of tolterodine in the treatment of overactive bladder symdrom in Parkinson's Disease%针刺联合半量托特罗定对帕金森病合并膀胱过度活动症排尿及运动功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯为菊; 张小莉; 陈义良; 张前

    2012-01-01

    Objechtive To evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture combined with half dose of tolterodine in the treatment of overactive bladder symdrom in Parkinson's disease, and observe the movement function change and adverse reactions as well. Methods Sixty cases of Parkinsons disease patients accompanied with overactive bladder symdrom were divided into two groups randomly . 30 cases in the treatment group were treated with acupuncture in combination with half dose tolterodine lmg · d‐2 for 6 w , while the other 30 cases in the control group were treated with tolterodine 2mg · d‐2 for 6 w , and foundation treatment of Madopar amount between two group healed consistent , and anticholinergic drugs such as AnTan etc were discontinued. 24h average urine times, average number of urinary incontinence, average urine output, OABSS scores and Ⅲ UPDRS scores between the two groups were recorded. Results There was significant difference between the two groups before and after treatment ( P < 0. 01 ), and the efficacy in treatment group was superior to the control group . Both OABSS scores and Ⅲ UPDRS scores of treatment groups dropped( with P < 0. 01 and P <0. 05 separately ). What's more, the adverse reaction of the treatment group was less than that of the control group. Conclusion The efficacy of acupuncture in combination with half dose tolterodine is better than pure drugs treatment in Parkinsons disease with overactive bladder symdrom, with less side-effects , and function of delaying Parkinson s disease .%目的 观察针刺联合半量托特罗定对帕金森病(PD)合并膀胱过度活动症(OAB)的排尿及运动功能的影响和临床副作用.方法 对60例PD合并OAB患者随机分两组,治疗组30例予以针刺联合半量托特罗定(1mg·d-2)治疗6周,对照组予以全量托特罗定(2mg·d-2 )6周,两组基础美多巴治疗量一致,停用安坦等抗胆碱药物,观察两组治疗前后平均每次尿量、24小时平均尿次、24小时平均尿失

  2. Dose-dependent binding of ortho-phenylphenol to protein but not DNA in the urinary bladder of male F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, E S; Buchholz, B A; Vogel, J S; Turteltaub, K W; Eastmond, D A

    1999-08-15

    ortho-Phenylphenol (OPP) is a widely used fungicide and antibacterial agent that is also known to be highly effective in inducing bladder tumors in male F344 rats. At present, neither the role of the urinary bladder in the bioactivation of OPP metabolites nor the nature of the molecular target is understood. To address these issues, we investigated the relationship between OPP dosage and macromolecular adduct formation in the urinary bladder of male F344 rats. Male F344 rats were treated with 0, 15, 50, 125, 250, 500, 1000 mg/kg of OPP and its radiocarbon analogue via oral gavage. The dosed rats were euthanized after 24 h, and the proteins were extracted from the liver, kidney, and bladder. The amount of radioactivity associated with the extracted protein was quantified using highly sensitive accelerator mass spectrometry. Protein binding in liver and kidney exhibited a linear or modest curvilinear relationship over the dose range studied. In the urinary bladder, however, a pronounced nonlinear relationship between protein adduct levels and administered dose was observed. The measured protein adduct levels were in agreement with the predicted concentrations of phenylbenzoquinone based on a proposed mechanism involving free phenylhydroquinone autoxidation in the urine. Unlike protein binding, DNA adducts measured from the same bladder samples did not show a significant difference from the control group. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that OPP is an indirect acting carcinogen, and that regenerative hyperplasia due to OPP-metabolite cytotoxicity and/or binding of OPP metabolites to protein targets may play an important role in OPP-induced bladder carcinogenesis.

  3. 中老年隐性脊柱裂患病率及其与膀胱过度活动症相关性的研究%Morbidity of spina bifida occulta among middle-aged and elderly people and the relationship with overactive bladder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴军卫; 文建国; 邢玉荣; 牛建华; 谢佳丰; 冯全得; 尚小平; 李云龙; 冯锦锦

    2015-01-01

    .调查问卷包括个人基本信息、既往史、现病史,以及膀胱过度活动症症状评分(overactive bladder symptom score,OABSS)等.SBO及OAB患病率组间差异比较采用x2检验,OAB影响因素分析采用Logistic回归多因素分析法.结果 本研究有效样本量为1 061例,男471例,女590例.年龄40~100岁,平均(58.8±11.7)岁.160例诊断为SBO,男86例,女74例.SBO总患病率为15.1%(160/1 061),男性SBO患病率为18.3%(86/471),女性为12.5%(74/590),男性显著高于女性(P<0.05).145例诊断为OAB,男62例,女83例.OABSS评分平均为(7.26±2.54)分.OAB总患病率为13.7%(145/1 061),男性患病率为13.2%(62/471),女性为14.1%(83/590).Logistic回归分析结果表明SBO是OAB发病的的危险因素之一(OR =4.91,95% CI 3.20 ~7.53,P<0.05).结论 中老年SBO的患病率较高,SBO可能是中老年OAB发病的危险因素之一.

  4. Functional effects of the KCNQ modulators retigabine and XE991 in the rat urinary bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Frederik; Svalø, Julie; Sheykhzade, Majid

    2010-01-01

    The anticonvulsant retigabine has previously been reported to inhibit bladder overactivity in rats in vivo but the mechanism and site of action are not known. In the present study we investigated the effect of retigabine in isolated rat bladder tissue. Bladders from Sprague-Dawley rats were cut t...

  5. 重视和提高前列腺增生合并膀胱过度活动症患者生活质量%Devote much attention to improve quality of life of benign prostatic hypertrophy patients with overactive bladder symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖利民; 那彦群

    2010-01-01

    @@ 随着我国经济实力的增强、大众生活水平的提高以及文化教育程度的提升,人民群众对于生活质量的要求越来越高,这一点也体现在对疾病的诊疗和防治方面.人们对于恶性肿瘤等这类"置人于死地"的顽疾往往较为重视,但是常常忽略一些一般不危及生命、却严重影响患者生活质量的慢性疾病,膀胱过度活动症(overactive bladder,OAB)正属于这样的情况.因此,我们组织了本期重点栏目,以期对良性前列腺增生(benign prostatic hyperplasia,BPH)合并OAB这一重要临床问题进行全面阐述.

  6. Bladder Dysfunction and Vesicoureteral Reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Sillén

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this overview the influence of functional bladder disturbances and of its treatment on the resolution of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR in children is discussed. Historically both bladder dysfunction entities, the overactive bladder (OAB and the dysfunctional voiding (DV, have been described in conjunction with VUR. Treatment of the dysfunction was also considered to influence spontaneous resolution in a positive way. During the last decades, however, papers have been published which could not support these results. Regarding the OAB, a prospective study with treatment of the bladder overactivity with anticholinergics, did not influence spontaneous resolution rate in children with a dysfunction including also the voiding phase, DV and DES (dysfunctional elimination syndrome, most studies indicate a negative influence on the resolution rate of VUR in children, both before and after the age for bladder control, both with and without treatment. However, a couple of uncontrolled studies indicate that there is a high short-term resolution rate after treatment with flow biofeedback. It should be emphasized that the voiding phase dysfunctions (DV and DES are more severe than the genuine filling phase dysfunction (OAB, with an increased frequency of UTI and renal damage in the former groups. To be able to answer the question if treatment of bladder dysfunction influence the resolution rate of VUR in children, randomized controlled studies must be performed.

  7. Synchronous dual primary malignancy of urinary bladder and hypopharynx in a 62-year-old male patient: An extremely rare phenomenon

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    Kuna J

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of multiple primary malignancy (MPM is not uncommon. Nevertheless synchronous MPM involving urinary bladder and hypopharynx is an extremely unusual event.No such cases have been reported so far in English literature to our review. We report the case of 62-year-old male patient who presented with haematuria and later dysphagia to solids. Whole body 18F-fluro deoxy glucose positron emission tomography- computed tomography (18FFDG PET-CT revealed two distinct lesions one in hypopharynx and another in urinary bladder. Biopsy from the urinary bladder mass and the hypopharyngeal lesion were suggestive of urothelial carcinoma and poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma respectively. The patient was treated with concurrent chemo-radiotherapy to hypopharynx. Following treatment he had improvement of dysphagia. Haematuria had also stopped. Because of severe comorbidities the planned radical cystectomy or radiotherapy were deferred. Currently the patient is in symptomatic remission six months following treatment.

  8. Research on the curative effect of acupoint electrical nerve stimulation on the female patients with overactive bladder (air shower type)%穴位神经电刺激联合酒石酸托特罗定片治疗女性膀胱过度活动症临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王存志; 任书文; 闫一团

    2016-01-01

    目的:评价穴位神经电刺激治疗女性膀胱过度活动症(overactive bladder,OAB)患者的疗效。方法将符合入选标准的70例OAB患者按随机数字表法分为2组,每组35例。对照组口服酒石酸托特罗定,治疗组在对照组基础上联用穴位神经电刺激治疗。2组均治疗20 d。记录治疗前后OAB患者症状评分(Overactive Bladder Symptom Score, OABSS)、生活质量评估表(Quality of Life Assessment Schedule,QOL)评分,观察排尿日志变化,评价临床疗效。结果治疗后,治疗组OABSS总分[(4.54±0.34)分比(6.62±1.43)分,t=8.251]、尿急症状评分[(1.26±0.32)分比(2.78±0.43)分,t=16.535]、QOL评分[(1.65±0.35)分比(2.25±0.32)分,t=7.377]均低于对照组(P<0.01)。治疗组24 h排尿次数[(7.03±1.21)次比(9.63±1.32)次,t=8.466]、24 h尿急次数[(0.24±0.12)次比(1.32±0.63)次,t=9.819]、72 h尿失禁次数[(0.38±0.14)次比(1.09±0.36)次,t=10.718]、夜尿次数[(0.46±0.22)次比(1.35±0.36)次,t=11.167]均低于对照组(P<0.01),每次排尿量[(241.38±20.32)ml 比(184.82±21.43)ml,t=12.300]高于对照组(P<0.01)。治疗组总有效率为97.1%(33/34)、对照组为79.4(27/34),2组比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=5.100,P=0.024)。结论穴位神经电刺激可改善OAB患者尿频、尿急等症状,疗效优于单纯口服酒石酸托特罗定治疗。%Objective To study the effect of acupoint electrical nerve stimulation combined with tolterodine on the female patients with overactive bladder (OAB) and air shower type.Methods Seventy patients with OAB (air shower type) were randomly divided into treatment group and control group (35 patients in each group). The patients in both groups were given oral tolterodine, and the treatment group were added with the acupoint electrical nerve stimulation. Overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS), quality of life (QOL) score, urinary diary in both groups before treatment

  9. Transurethral bladder irrigation in male nursing intervention analysis of neurogenic bladder%经尿道膀胱冲洗对男性神经源性膀胱护理干预的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢粟梅; 李艳芬; 陈中英; 文琪; 孙群

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the transurethral bladder irrigation in male neurogenic bladder nursing intervention ef-fect and application value.Methods From September 2014 to June 2015,60 patients neurogenic bladder caused by spinal cord injury in our hospital were selected and randomly divided into control group (clean intermittent catheteriza-tion) and observation group (transurethral plasmakentic vaporization of bladder irrigation) based on clean intermittent catheterization,record the 1st,3rd,6th months average daily number of urethral catheterization in both groups,the average amount of urethral catheterization,bladder residual urine volume;Record fever,blood in urine,urinary tract infection and other adverse events;Compared two groups of bladder washing and complication treatment total cost.Results The 3rd,6th months average daily number of urethral catheterization,the average amount of urethral catheterization,bladder residual urine volume in the observation group compared with before intervention,with the siginificant difference (P﹤0.05);Com-pared with the control group and observation group,fewer daily urethral catheterization on average amount of urethral catheterization,bladder residual urine volume,with the siginificant difference(P﹤0.05).Observation group bladder washout and complication treatment combined cost less than that of control group;The complication rate of observation group was lower than those of control group (P﹤0.05).Conclusion Transurethral bladder irrigation can promote the urethral catheterization,reduce bladder residual urine volume and complications.It can be used widely in clinic.%目的:探讨经尿道膀胱冲洗在男性神经源性膀胱护理干预中的实施效果及应用价值。方法选取2014年9月~2015年6月本院门诊处收集的脊髓损伤导致的神经源性膀胱患者60例,随机分为对照组(清洁间歇性导尿)和观察组(清洁间歇性导尿基础上行经尿道膀胱冲洗),记录第1、3、6个

  10. Current Status of Overactive Bladder Syndrome in Female Nurses and Its Relationship with Toileting Behavior%女性护士膀胱过度活动症患病现状及其与排尿行为的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娜娜; 陈利钦; 吴臣; 刘妍; 王克芳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current status of overactive bladder syndrome(OAB)in female nurses and to explore the relationship between OAB and toileting behavior.Methods By using cross-sec-tional survey,totally 636 female nurses working in 3 Class Ⅲ Grade Ⅰ hospitals in Jinan were selected and investigated with Chinese version of international consultation on incontinence questionnaire-female lower urinary tract symptoms (ICIQ-FLUTS)and women’s toileting behavior scale.Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the unpleasant toileting behavior affects OAB.Results The prevalence of OAB among female nurses was 1 9 .2%,the urgency of urination and nocturnal enuresis were the most common symptom of OAB.The univatiate analysis showed that the menstrual status and personal urinary tract infection history and full bladder,preference of toileting location,urination without intention and hard urination had statistic signifancant affect OAB(all P<0.05). Logistisc regression showed that the bad toileting behavior of full bladder and urination without intension were the independent risk factors for OAB (all P<0.01).Conclusion The incidence of OAB among female nurses is higher than among Chinese women in general,bad toileting behavior especially the full bladder and urination without intention potential may be the risk factors for OAB,health education programs should be implemented to increase female nurses’knowledge of OAB and the correct toileting behavior,so as to enhance the importance of maintaining their bladder health.%目的:调查女性护士的膀胱过度活动症(overactive bladder,OAB)患病现状,并探讨 OAB与排尿行为的关系.方法采用多阶段整群抽样法,于2012年5-11月对济南市3所三级甲等医院的636名护士进行问卷调查,调查工具包括一般资料及健康状况问卷、国际尿失禁咨询委员会女性下尿路症状问卷(international consultation on incontinence

  11. Evidence for Bladder Urothelial Pathophysiology in Functional Bladder Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K. Keay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of the role of urothelium in regulating bladder function is continuing to evolve. While the urothelium is thought to function primarily as a barrier for preventing injurious substances and microorganisms from gaining access to bladder stroma and upper urinary tract, studies indicate it may also function in cell signaling events relating to voiding function. This review highlights urothelial abnormalities in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC, feline interstitial cystitis (FIC, and nonneurogenic idiopathic overactive bladder (OAB. These bladder conditions are typified by lower urinary tract symptoms including urinary frequency, urgency, urgency incontinence, nocturia, and bladder discomfort or pain. Urothelial tissues and cells from affected clinical subjects and asymptomatic controls have been compared for expression of proteins and mRNA. Animal models have also been used to probe urothelial responses to injuries of the urothelium, urethra, or central nervous system, and transgenic techniques are being used to test specific urothelial abnormalities on bladder function. BPS/IC, FIC, and OAB appear to share some common pathophysiology including increased purinergic, TRPV1, and muscarinic signaling, increased urothelial permeability, and aberrant urothelial differentiation. One challenge is to determine which of several abnormally regulated signaling pathways is most important for mediating bladder dysfunction in these syndromes, with a goal of treating these conditions by targeting specific pathophysiology.

  12. Avaliação da qualidade de vida e da perda urinária de mulheres com bexiga hiperativa tratadas com eletroestimulação transvaginal ou do nervo tibial Evaluation of quality of life and loss urine of women with overactive bladder treated with intravaginal or tibial nerve electro stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra de Menezes Franco

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um ensaio clínico prospectivo comparativo que objetivou comparar os efeitos do tratamento com eletroestimulação transvaginal (ET e do nervo tibial (ENT sobre a qualidade de vida (QV e queixas de perda urinária em mulheres com bexiga hiperativa. Participaram 42 pacientes com bexiga hiperativa ou incontinência urinária (IU mista e foram divididas para tratamento com ET ou ENT. A QV foi avaliada pelo questionário de QV genérico, o Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36 e um questionário específico para IU, o Incontinence Quality of Life Instrument (I-QOL. Os relatos de perdas urinárias e incômodos ocasionados foram avaliados, respectivamente, por meio do diário miccional de 24 horas e Escala Visual Analógica (EVA. O tratamento foi realizado uma vez por semana, totalizando doze semanas. O grupo da ENT teve melhora significativa em três domínios do I-QOL, na EVA, que avaliou o grau de incômodo causado pela IU e em quatro aspectos do diário miccional. No grupo de ET houve melhora significativa de dois domínios do SF-36, três domínios do I-QOL, na EVA e em quatro aspectos do diário. Houve melhora da QV em ambos os grupos, assim como uma diminuição das queixas de perda urinária, entretanto, o grupo que recebeu ET obteve melhora nos escores em dois domínios do questionário de QV genérico após o tratamento, que teve limitação por aspectos físicos e limitação por aspectos emocionais. O que não ocorreu com o grupo de ENT.This is a prospective comparative clinical study. This study aimed to compare the effects of intravaginal electrical stimulation therapy (IS and the tibial nerve (TNS on quality of life (QOL and complaints of urinary incontinence in women with overactive bladder. Participants 42 patients with overactive bladder or urinary incontinence (UI mix and were divided for treatment with IS or TNS. To assess QOL we used a generic QOL questionnaire, the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36 and

  13. Prospective study of risk of overactive bladder symptoms and delivery in women of reproductive age%社区育龄期女性膀胱过度活动症危险性与分娩相关性的前瞻性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇; 谢新接; 彭宇洁

    2014-01-01

    Objective To verify the presence of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms in premenopausal women and relate them with child-bearing data. Methods We interviewed 2104 women aged 20-45 years in the district of Longgang to investigate the prevalence of OAB symptoms. In this study we used the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Overactive Bladder (ICIQ-OAB) questionnaire (International Continence Society standard), in its validated chinese version and a specific questionnaire for the demographics. Results Overall, ICIQ-OAB questionnaire scores in descending order by multiparous, primiparous and nulliparous women. Multiparous women also presented more frequency than nulliparous women (P<0.000 1). Nulliparous women presented less nocturia than primiparous or multiparous women (P<0.000 1). No significant differences were found in urgency (P=0.068 2), and multiparous women presented more urgency incontinence than nulliparous ones (P=0.031 3). There were no significant differences between cesarean and vaginal delivery, but the scores of women who had vaginal delivery were higher than those who had cesareans. Conclusion From multiparous, primiparous to nulliparous women, with the increase in the number of deliveries the risk of OAB symptoms increase. Both types of delivery were related to higher ICIQ-OAB scores (more severe symptoms) than those of nulliparous women.%目的:验证绝经前期女性存在膀胱过度活动症(OAB)及其与分娩资料的相关性。方法本研究采用国际尿失禁咨询委员会问卷(ICIQ)-OAB 问卷(国际尿控协会标准)中文版本和人口数据问卷调查深圳市龙岗区某社区2104名,20~45岁女性OAB症状。结果 ICIQ-OAB问卷得分由高到低依次为经产妇、初产妇和未产妇。其中经产妇尿频发生率也比未产妇高(P<0.0001)。未产妇夜尿症发生率比初产妇和经产妇低(P<0.0001)。各组间急迫性尿失禁的发生率

  14. Clinical effects of Solifenacin on female overactive bladder symptoms secondary to uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection%索利那新在治疗女性单纯性下尿路感染继发膀胱过度活动症状的临床效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖波; 邓显忠; 李雨根; 陈小彬; 余晓东

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the efficacy and safety of Solifenacin on female overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms secondary to uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection. Methods Seventy-three adult female patients who had clinically diagnosed as OAB symptoms secondary to uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection were randomly divided into treatment group (41 cases) and control group (32 cases). Treatment group received Solifenacin , 5 mg orally qd , as well as OAB behavioral therapy , but control group was given only OAB behavioral therapy. The overactive bladder syndrome score (OABSS) was evaluated before and after antibiotic treatment in all the patients , and the treatment or observation time lasted four weeks after the antibiotic treatment were deactivated. Then OABSS scoring and the cure rate between two groups were compared. Results OABSS score of treatment group decreased significantly after receiving Solifenacin treatment one week , and the cure rate reached 56.10%, and two weeks later, the cure rate reached 92.68%. OABSS score of control group had no significant change one week after treatment and the cure rate was only 6.25%, but at the fourth week OABSS had decreased significantly and the cure rate reached 37.50%, which was still significantly lower than that of treatment group. There were no drug adverse events during treatment in both groups. Conclusions There is obvious clinical effect of solifenacin on female OAB symptoms secondary to uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection, which is safe and could significantly shorten the course of treatment.%目的:探讨索利那新在治疗女性单纯性下尿路感染继发膀胱过度活动(OAB)症状的临床效果,并评价其安全性.方法:临床上顺序收集73例诊断为单纯性下尿路感染继发OAB症状的成年女性患者,并随机分为治疗组(41 例)和对照组(32 例),治疗组予以琥珀酸索利那新,5 mg 口服,每天 1 次,同时辅助OAB行为治疗,对照组仅予以OAB行为治

  15. Efficacy of Solifenacin combined with Diazepam Tables in female patients with overactive bladder%索利那新联合地西泮治疗女性膀胱过度活动症的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢恩杰; 李培勇; 林丽珠; 黄毅彬; 周源源; 吴杰民

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the new solid joint stability in treatment of female bladder disease excessive activity. Method 108 ca-ses of urinary bladder excessive activity who were randomly selected into group A and group B A group was given solifenacin with 5 mg,1 times a day,valium 2. 5 mg,twice a day,the course of eight weeks,B group was given anisodamine piece,3 times a day,5 mg a time,valium 2. 5 mg twice a day,the course of eight weeks. Before and after treatment in patients with complete voiding diary,excessive activity in bladder disease score( OABSS)as the observation indexes. Results After 8 weeks treatment,the symptoms of all patients after treatment had different degrees of improvement,compared before and after treatment the difference was statistically significant(P<0. 05). Conclusion Solifenacin combined with Diazepam in treatment of female bladder disease abundance activities is a safe and effective treatment method,plays an impor-tant role in improving the life quality of patients.%目的:观察索利那新联合地西泮治疗女性膀胱过度活动症的有效性和安全性。方法:随机选取108例膀胱过度活动症患者,分成A组和B组。A组给予口服索利那新5 mg,1次/d,地西泮2.5 mg,2次/d,疗程8周。B组口服山莨菪碱片,3次/d,5 mg/次,地西泮2.5 mg,2次/d,疗程8周。患者治疗前后填写排尿日记,以膀胱过度活动症评分( OABSS)为观察指标。结果:经过8周治疗,所有患者A组和B组治疗后较治疗前症状均有不同程度的好转,治疗前后对比差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论:索利那新联合地西泮较山莨菪碱疗效好,是治疗女性膀胱多度活动症是一种安全、有效的治疗手段,对提高患者的生活质量具有重要作用。

  16. Severe lower urinary tract symptoms due to anteriorly located midline prostatic cyst arising from the bladder neck in a young male: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gürağaç

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT: Prostatic cysts are uncommon. These cysts are usually asymptomatic and are diagnosed incidentally during ultrasonographic examination. On rare occasions, they may cause drastic symptoms. CASE REPORT: We report on a case of severely symptomatic anteriorly located prostatic cyst arising from the bladder neck in a 30-year-old man presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms, without clinical evidence of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS, computed tomography (CT and cystourethroscopy demonstrated a projecting prostatic cyst that occupied the bladder neck at the precise twelve o'clock position. It was acting as a ball-valve, such that it obstructed the bladder outlet. Transurethral unroofing of the cyst was performed and the patient's obstructive symptoms were successfully resolved. Histopathological examination indicated a retention cyst. CONCLUSIONS: It should be borne in mind that midline prostate cysts can be a reason for bladder outlet obstruction in a young male. Such patients may have tremendous improvement in symptoms through transurethral unroofing of the cyst wall.

  17. Severe lower urinary tract symptoms due to anteriorly located midline prostatic cyst arising from the bladder neck in a young male: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guragac, Ali; Demirer, Zafer; Alp, Bilal Firat; Aydur, Emin, E-mail: zaferdemirer@mynet.com, E-mail: zaferdemirer1903@gmail.com [Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara (Turkey)

    2016-09-15

    Context: Prostatic cysts are uncommon. These cysts are usually asymptomatic and are diagnosed incidentally during ultrasonographic examination. On rare occasions, they may cause drastic symptoms. Case Report: We report on a case of severely symptomatic anteriorly located prostatic cyst arising from the bladder neck in a 30-year-old man presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms, without clinical evidence of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS), computed tomography (CT) and cystourethroscopy demonstrated a projecting prostatic cyst that occupied the bladder neck at the precise twelve o’clock position. It was acting as a ball-valve, such that it obstructed the bladder outlet. Transurethral unroofing of the cyst was performed and the patient’s obstructive symptoms were successfully resolved. Histopathological examination indicated a retention cyst. Conclusions: It should be borne in mind that midline prostate cysts can be a reason for bladder outlet obstruction in a young male. Such patients may have tremendous improvement in symptoms through transurethral unroofing of the cyst wall. (author)

  18. Detrusor overactivity does not predict bothersome storage symptoms after photoselective vaporization of the prostate with lithium triborate laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dybowski, B.A.; D'Ancona, F.C.H.; Langenhuijsen, J.F.; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To find out if detrusor overactivity (DO) is a predictor of moderate or severe storage lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) persisting 6 months after photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with bladder outlet obstruction proved by urodynamics who

  19. Longitudinal changes in isovolumetric bladder pressure in response to age-related prostate growth in 1,020 healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zeeuw, Sandra; Hop, Wim; Huang Foen Chung, John; van Mastrigt, Ron

    2014-01-01

    To non-invasively study if compensation and decompensation occurs in the urinary bladder of healthy male volunteers in response to benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) using the condom catheter method. Between 2001 and 2010, 1,020 healthy male volunteers were included in a longitudinal study based on three non-invasive urodynamic examinations during a 5-year follow-up. Inclusion criteria were an informed consent, the ability to void in a normal standing position and a minimum free flow rate of 5.4 ml/sec. Study parameters were prostate volume (PV), maximum free urinary flow rate (Q(max)) and bladder contractility, quantified by the maximum isovolumetric bladder pressure, measured in the condom (P(cond.max)). Volunteers also completed the International Prostate Symptom Score Form (IPSS). Within limitations, the included volunteers had a flat age distribution between 38 and 72 years. This made it possible to combine longitudinal analysis in a 5-year observation interval, with cross sectional analysis in a 35-year age range. Longitudinal analysis showed that with increasing age, PV increased with 1.9% per year, whereas Qmax decreased with 1.1% per year. IPSS increased with 1.1% per year when volunteers were older than 55 years. P(cond.max) increased during the 5-year longitudinal follow-up, but not in the cross sectional analysis. The difference between cross sectional and longitudinal results of the P(cond.max) may have been caused by compensation of the urinary bladder resulting in a selection effect. This would imply that compensation is a relatively fast process, taking approximately 5 years. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Bladder contractility is modulated by Kv7 channels in pig detrusor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalø, Julie; Bille, Michala; Parameswaran Theepakaran, Neeraja;

    2013-01-01

    Kv7 channels are involved in smooth muscle relaxation, and accordingly we believe that they constitute potential targets for the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome. We have therefore used myography to examine the function of Kv7 channels in detrusor, i.e. pig bladder, with a view...

  1. Cool and menthol receptor TRPM8 in human urinary bladder disorders and clinical correlations

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    Benham Christopher D

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent identification of the cold-menthol sensory receptor (TRPM8; CMR1, provides us with an opportunity to advance our understanding of its role in the pathophysiology of bladder dysfunction, and its potential mediation of the bladder cooling reflex. In this study, we report the distribution of the cool and menthol receptor TRPM8 in the urinary bladder in patients with overactive and painful bladder syndromes, and its relationship with clinical symptoms. Methods Bladder specimens obtained from patients with painful bladder syndrome (PBS, n = 16, idiopathic detrusor overactivity (IDO, n = 14, and asymptomatic microscopic hematuria (controls, n = 17, were immunostained using specific antibodies to TRPM8; nerve fibre and urothelial immunostaining were analysed using fibre counts and computerized image analysis respectively. The results of immunohistochemistry were compared between the groups and correlated with the Pain, Frequency and Urgency scores. Results TRPM8-immunoreactive staining was observed in the urothelium and nerve fibres scattered in the suburothelium. The nerve fibre staining was seen in fine-calibre axons and thick (myelinated fibres. There was marked increase of TRPM8-immunoreactive nerve fibres in IDO (P = 0.0249 and PBS (P Conclusion This study demonstrates increased TRPM8 in nerve fibres of overactive and painful bladders, and its relationship with clinical symptoms. TRPM8 may play a role in the symptomatology and pathophysiology of these disorders, and may provide an additional target for future overactive and painful bladder pharmacotherapy.

  2. Long-term efficacy and safety of tolterodine in children with neurogenic detrusor overactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Pramod P; Borgstein, Niels G; Nijman, Rien J M; Ellsworth, Pamela I

    2008-12-01

    We evaluated long-term (> or =12 months) efficacy and safety of tolterodine in children with neurogenic detrusor overactivity. Subjects successfully completed one of three 12-week, open-label studies and had stable neurologic disease and urodynamic evidence of neurogenic detrusor overactivity requiring intermittent catheterization. Drug formulation and dosing were based on age (4 months-4 years, tolterodine oral solution 0.2-2mg twice daily; 5-10 years, tolterodine oral solution 0.5-4 mg twice daily; 11-16 years, tolterodine extended-release capsules 2, 4, or 6 mg once daily). Daily doses were individualized for each subject. Efficacy was evaluated urodynamically and using parent-completed 3-day bladder diaries. Thirty subjects were enrolled. Functional bladder capacity (volume at first leakage, first sensation of bladder fullness or 40 cm H(2)O pressure) increased by month 12 in the younger age groups but not in the oldest subjects. Volume to first detrusor contraction >10 cm H(2)O pressure and detrusor leak point pressure did not change in any age group. The number of incontinence episodes per 24h decreased in all subjects, as did the number of catheterizations per 24h. Mean volume per catheterization increased in all subjects. Seven treatment-related adverse events were reported. Both tolterodine formulations were effective and well tolerated in children with neurogenic detrusor overactivity.

  3. Bladder Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Catheterization • Urinary Tract Infections: Indwelling (Foley) Catheter Bladder Management [ Download this pamphlet: "Bladder Management" - (PDF, 499KB) ] The ... and medication or surgery may be helpful. Bladder Management Foley or Suprapubic Catheter A tube is inserted ...

  4. Bladder biopsy

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    Biopsy - bladder ... A bladder biopsy can be done as part of a cystoscopy . Cystoscopy is a telescopic examination of the inside of the ... informed consent form before you have a bladder biopsy. In most cases, you are asked to urinate ...

  5. Bladder Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... frequent, urgent urination Bladder cancer Doctors diagnose bladder diseases using different tests. These include urine tests, x- ... National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  6. 非那雄胺联合M受体拮抗剂治疗前列腺增生合并膀胱过度活动症的疗效%Efficacy observation of finasteride combined with M-receptor antagonist in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia with overactive bladder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建龙; 王飞; 万奔; 伍建业

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察非那雄胺联合M受体拮抗剂(酒石酸托特罗定缓释片)治疗良性前列腺增生(BPH)伴膀胱过度活动症(OAB)患者的临床疗效. 方法 选择BPH伴OAB患者40例,口服非那雄胺(5 mg/d)和酒石酸托特罗定缓释片(4 mg/d)6个月,在治疗前和治疗6个月后分别评价国际前列腺症状评分(IPSS)、膀胱过度活动症评分(OABSS)、尿急次数、最大尿流率、残余尿量、前列腺体积等指标. 结果 治疗后IPSS评分(11.8±1.4)分、OABSS评分(4.6±2.6)分、尿急次数(1.2±1.9)次/周、最大尿流率(14.5±2.7)ml/s、残余尿量(25.2±2.6)ml、前列腺体积(46.2±2.2)ml,较治疗前(19.2±2.1)分、(9.3±1.8)分、(4.7±1.0)次/周、(10.2±2.2)ml/s、(34.6±3.2)ml、(57.6±1.3)ml差异有统计学意义(t=3.21、2.54、2.39、4.73、6.56、5.18,均P<0.05).40例患者均未出现尿潴留及明显不良反应. 结论 非那雄胺联合M受体拮抗剂治疗BPH伴OAB患者疗效显著,安全良好.%Objective To observe the efficacy of finasteride and M-receptor antagonist (tolterodine tartrate release tablet) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with overactive bladder (OAB).Methods 40 patients with BPH and OAB were treated with finasteride (5 mg,Qd) and tolterodine tartrate release tablet (4 mg,Qd) for 6 months.The clinical effects were evaluated by the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS),Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS),urgency rating scale,maximum flow rate,voiding volume,prostate volume before and after treatment.Results Compared with before treatment,the IPSS,OABSS,urgency rating scale,maximum flow rate,voiding volume,prostate volume were improved [(11.8±1.4) vs.(19.2±2.1),(4.6±2.6) vs.(9.3±1.8),(1.2±1.9) times/week vs.(4.7±1.0) times/week,(14.5±2.7) ml/s vs.(10.2±2.2) ml/s,(25.2±2.6) ml vs.(34.6±3.2) m1,(46.2±2.2) ml vs.(57.6±1.3) ml,all P<0.05] after treatment.No urinary retention and other adverse reactions were found

  7. 女性原发性膀胱过度活动症相关因素及生活质量的调查%Investigation of the related factors and quality of life in the female patients with primary overactive bladder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐土珍; 孙秋华; 黄啸; 吕伯东

    2014-01-01

    目的 调查女性原发性膀胱过度活动症(OAB)相关因素和患者生活质量状况,为临床治疗提供依据.方法 采用自制的一般资料调查问卷和King's健康问卷(KHQ)对107例女性原发性OAB患者进行调查,并采用Spearman相关分析法分析相关因素和生活质量状况的相关性.结果 女性原发性OAB与年龄、婚姻状况、分娩方式、分娩次数、体质量指数、有无慢性疾病等因素相关(P<0.05),而与文化程度、居住地、流产、饮食习惯等无明显相关(P>0.05);患者KHQ问卷中总体健康感受、排尿问题严重性、行为受限、运动受限、社交受限、个人生活、情感、睡眠及精力、症状应对方式、症状严重程度各维度得分分别为(61.44 ±14.68),(81.31 ±26.76),(32.54±28.63),(46.73±21.27),(27.91±23.75),(20.91±25.86),(47.90 ±28.19),(32.40 ±23.44),(14.49±17.02),(8.45±2.69)分.且各维度中排尿问题严重性、运动受限、社交受限、情感、症状应对方式、症状严重程度均与OAB症状评分表(OABSS)得分呈正相关(r=0.280,0.334,0.288,0.224,0.325,0.458;P<0.05).结论 女性原发性OAB症状与患者年龄、婚姻状况、分娩次数、体质量指数、是否伴随慢性疾病有关,OAB可不同程度地影响患者的生活质量.%Objective To investigate the related factors and quality of life in the female patients with primary overactive bladder (OAB) to provide the basis for the chnical treatment.Methods One hundred and seven female patients with primary OAB were surveyed by the questionnaire about the general data and the King' s Health Questionnaire (KHQ),and the correlation was analyzed by the Spearman.Results The occurrence of female patients with primary OAB was related to the age,marital status,mode of delivery,dehvery times,body mass index,with and without chronic diseases (P < 0.05),and was not related to the education,residential area,abortion and diet habits (P > 0.05).The scores of the

  8. Decreased intravesical adenosine triphosphate in patients with refractory detrusor overactivity and bacteriuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Colin A; Cheng, Ying; Mansfield, Kylie J; Parkin, Katrina; Mukerjee, Chinmoy; Moore, Kate H

    2013-04-01

    Although several studies have examined the relationship between adenosine triphosphate release from the urothelium and bladder sensations including painful filling and urgency, the association between bacteriuria and urothelial adenosine triphosphate release has not been well studied. We evaluated women with refractory detrusor overactivity who were experiencing an acute exacerbation of detrusor overactivity symptoms including frequency, urgency and nocturia (and/or urge incontinence). We measured changes in intravesical adenosine triphosphate levels in these women with and without bacteriuria. In this prospective cohort study women with refractory detrusor overactivity were invited to our unit during acute symptomatic exacerbation. On presentation a catheter urine specimen was collected and 50 ml normal saline instilled into the bladder to evoke gentle stretch, with removal after 5 minutes. Adenosine triphosphate concentrations were determined on fresh washings using a bioluminescence assay. The incidence of bacteriuria 10(3) cfu/ml or greater was 27% (15 of 56 specimens) during the 16-month study period. Adenosine triphosphate concentrations were lower during episodes of bacteriuria in the overall cohort (p = 0.0013) and paired samples from individual patients (p = 0.031) compared to episodes of sterile urine. In the first study on the subject to our knowledge, we demonstrated a striking difference between adenosine triphosphate levels measured in the presence and absence of bacteriuria in this patient group. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bladder exstrophy repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladder birth defect repair; Everted bladder repair; Exposed bladder repair; Repair of bladder exstrophy ... Bladder exstrophy repair involves two surgeries. The first surgery is to repair the bladder and the second one is to attach ...

  10. Bladder Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... does not include routine preventive screening for bladder cancer.If you do not treat bladder stones, you can have lasting damage. This includes repeat UTIs or injury to your bladder, kidney, or urethra. Questions to ask your doctor How do I ...

  11. Urodynamics post stroke in patients with urinary incontinence: Is there correlation between bladder type and site of lesion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Anupam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Assessment of bladder by urodynamic study (UDS in patients with urinary incontinence following stroke, and correlation with site of lesion. Study Design and Setting: Retrospective cross-sectional study in the neurological rehabilitation unit of a tertiary care institute. Materials and Methods: Forty patients (22 males with arterial or venous, ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, with urinary incontinence in the acute phase following the event, underwent UDS. Seventeen patients had right hemiplegia, 18 had left hemiplegia, and five had posterior circulation stroke with brainstem/cerebellar features. Bladder type was correlated with age, side, and site of lesion. Results: The mean age was 46.80 ± 16.65 years (range: 18-80 years. Thirty-six patients had arterial stroke and four had cortical venous thrombosis. UDS was performed after a mean of 28.32 ± 10.27 days (range: 8-53 days after the stroke. All but one patient had neurogenic bladder dysfunction, with 36 patients (90% having overactive detrusor (OD and three having underactive/areflexic detrusor. Among the 36 patients with OD, 25 patients (62.5% had OD without detrusor-sphincter dyssynergy (DSD and 11 (27.5% had OD with DSD. Bladder management was advised based on the UDS findings. No significant correlation ( P > 0.05 was found between type of bladder and age or side and site of lesion. Conclusions: UDS is a useful tool to assess and manage the bladder following stroke with urinary incontinence. In this study, no significant correlation was found between UDS findings and site of lesion.

  12. Experience with different botulinum toxins for the treatment of refractory neurogenic detrusor overactivity

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    Cristiano M. Gomes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To report our experience with the use of the botulinum toxin-A (BoNT/A formulations Botox® and Prosigne® in the treatment of neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: At a single institution, 45 consecutive patients with refractory urinary incontinence due to NDO received a single intradetrusor (excluding the trigone treatment with botulinum toxin type A 200 or 300 units. Botox was used for the first 22 patients, and Prosigne for the subsequent 23 patients. Evaluations at baseline and week 12 included assessment of continence and urodynamics. Safety evaluations included monitoring of vital signs, hematuria during the procedure, hospital stay, and spontaneous adverse event reports. RESULTS: A total of 42 patients were evaluated (74% male; mean age, 34.8 years. Significant improvements from baseline in maximum cystometric capacity (MCC, maximum detrusor pressure during bladder contraction, and compliance were observed in both groups (P < 0.05. Improvement in MCC was significantly greater with Botox versus Prosigne (+103.3% vs. +42.2%; P = 0.019. Continence was achieved by week 12 in 16 Botox recipients (76.2% and 10 Prosigne recipients (47.6%; P = 0.057. No severe adverse events were observed. Mild adverse events included 2 cases of transient hematuria on the first postoperative day (no specific treatment required, and 3 cases of afebrile urinary tract infection. CONCLUSIONS: Botox and Prosigne produce distinct effects in patients with NDO, with a greater increase in MCC with Botox. Further evaluation will be required to assess differences between these formulations.

  13. Lidocaine-prilocaine cream reduces catheter-related bladder discomfort in male patients during the general anesthesia recovery period: A prospective, randomized, case-control STROBE study.

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    Mu, Li; Geng, Li-Cheng; Xu, Hui; Luo, Man; Geng, Jing-Miao; Li, Li

    2017-04-01

    Urethral catheterization is a predictor of agitation during the general anesthesia recovery period. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of intraurethral 5% lidocaine and 25 mg/g prilocaine cream in reducing catheter-related bladder discomfort (CRBD) in male patients during the general anesthesia recovery period. Adult male patients undergoing elective operations that required urinary catheterization under general anesthesia were enrolled and assigned randomly to 2 groups. In the lidocaine-prilocaine cream group (n = 72), approximately 5 g of topical cream was spread in the preputial sac, the glans, the meatus, and on the urinary catheter surface before urinary catheterization. In the control group (n = 74), the urinary catheter was lubricated with lidocaine gel. The incidence and severity of CRBD were assessed 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes postoperatively. We found that the incidence of CRBD in the lidocaine-prilocaine cream group was significantly lower than in the control group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that lidocaine-prilocaine cream applications reduced moderate or severe CRBD. Thirty minutes postoperation was the most frequent time point for the incidence of CRBD. Application of lidocaine-prilocaine cream on the surface of the urinary catheter is an efficient and safe method to reduce the incidence and severity of CRBD.

  14. Botulinum Toxin to Treat Neurogenic Bladder.

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    Smith, Christopher P; Chancellor, Michael B

    2016-02-01

    Alteration in neural control from suprapontine areas to the nerves innervating the bladder can lead to bladder dysfunction and the development of a neurogenic bladder (NGB). Patients with NGB often suffer from urinary incontinence, which can lead to adverse events such as urinary tract infections and decubiti, in addition to creating a large care burden for family members or healthcare providers and significantly impairing patient quality of life. The common failure of anticholinergic medications has spurned the development of second-line treatments, including the use of botulinum toxin. OnabotulinumtoxinA (onaBoNT-A; BOTOX, Allergan, Inc.) was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2011 to treat neurogenic detrusor overactivity in patients with urinary incontinence resulting from a NGB. In this review the authors summarize pertinent results from key trials leading to FDA approval of onaBoNT-A as well as more recent long-term data.

  15. Psychiatric Disorders in HTLV-1-Infected Individuals with Bladder Symptoms.

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    Glória O Orge

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported high rates of depression and anxiety in HTLV-1 infected individuals with the neurological disease and in the asymptomatic phase. No study has investigated the rates in individuals that already show bladder symptoms without severe neurological changes; that is, during the oligosymptomatic phase. The present study investigated patients in this intermediate form on the spectrum of the infection.Participants answered a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Brazilian Version 5.0.0 (MINI PLUS and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Data analysis was performed in STATA statistical software (version 12.0. Depressive disorder was the most frequent comorbidity. Current depressive disorder was higher in the group of overactive bladder subjects (11.9%, and lifelong depression was more frequent in the HAM/TSP group (35%. The three groups had similar frequencies of anxiety disorders. Increased frequency and severity of anxiety and depression symptoms were observed in the overactive bladder group.The results suggest that individuals with overactive bladders need a more thorough assessment from the mental health perspective. These patients remain an understudied group regarding psychiatric comorbidities.

  16. Potential Effect of Liposomes and Liposome-Encapsulated Botulinum Toxin and Tacrolimus in the Treatment of Bladder Dysfunction.

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    Janicki, Joseph J; Chancellor, Michael B; Kaufman, Jonathan; Gruber, Michele A; Chancellor, David D

    2016-03-18

    Bladder drug delivery via catheter instillation is a widely used treatment for recurrence of superficial bladder cancer. Intravesical instillation of liposomal botulinum toxin has recently shown promise in the treatment of overactive bladder and interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, and studies of liposomal tacrolimus instillations show promise in the treatment of hemorrhagic cystitis. Liposomes are lipid vesicles composed of phospholipid bilayers surrounding an aqueous core that can encapsulate hydrophilic and hydrophobic drug molecules to be delivered to cells via endocytosis. This review will present new developments on instillations of liposomes and liposome-encapsulated drugs into the urinary bladder for treating lower urinary tract dysfunction.

  17. Multi-center randomized controlled trial of cognitive treatment, placebo, oxybutynin, bladder training, and pelvic floor training in children with functional urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gool, Jan D.; de Jong, Tom P. V. M.; Winkler-Seinstra, Pauline; Tamminen-Moebius, Tytti; Lax, Hildegard; Hirche, Herbert; Nijman, Rien J. M.; Hjalmas, Kelm; Jodal, Ulf; Bachmann, Hannsjoerg; Hoebeke, Piet; Vande Walle, Johan; Misselwitz, Joachim; John, Ulrike; Bael, An

    Objective Functional urinary incontinence causes considerable morbidity in 8.4% of school-age children, mainly girls. To compare oxybutynin, placebo, and bladder training in overactive bladder (OAB), and cognitive treatment and pelvic floor training in dysfunctional voiding (DV), a multi-center

  18. Neurogenic Bladder

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    Peter T. Dorsher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anomalies such as meningomyelocele and diseases/damage of the central, peripheral, or autonomic nervous systems may produce neurogenic bladder dysfunction, which untreated can result in progressive renal damage, adverse physical effects including decubiti and urinary tract infections, and psychological and social sequelae related to urinary incontinence. A comprehensive bladder-retraining program that incorporates appropriate education, training, medication, and surgical interventions can mitigate the adverse consequences of neurogenic bladder dysfunction and improve both quantity and quality of life. The goals of bladder retraining for neurogenic bladder dysfunction are prevention of urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, detrusor overdistension, and progressive upper urinary tract damage due to chronic, excessive detrusor pressures. Understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of micturition is essential to select appropriate pharmacologic and surgical interventions to achieve these goals. Future perspectives on potential pharmacological, surgical, and regenerative medicine options for treating neurogenic bladder dysfunction are also presented.

  19. Blebbistain, a myosin II inhibitor, as a novel strategy to regulate detrusor contractility in a rat model of partial bladder outlet obstruction.

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    Xinhua Zhang

    Full Text Available Partial bladder outlet obstruction (PBOO, a common urologic pathology mostly caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia, can coexist in 40-45% of patients with overactive bladder (OAB and is associated with detrusor overactivity (DO. PBOO that induces DO results in alteration in bladder myosin II type and isoform composition. Blebbistatin (BLEB is a myosin II inhibitor we recently demonstrated potently relaxed normal detrusor smooth muscle (SM and reports suggest varied BLEB efficacy for different SM myosin (SMM isoforms and/or SMM vs nonmuscle myosin (NMM. We hypothesize BLEB inhibition of myosin II as a novel contraction protein targeted strategy to regulate DO. Using a surgically-induced male rat PBOO model, organ bath contractility, competitive and Real-Time-RT-PCR were performed. It was found that obstructed-bladder weight significantly increased 2.74-fold while in vitro contractility of detrusor to various stimuli was impaired ∼50% along with decreased shortening velocity. Obstruction also altered detrusor spontaneous activities with significantly increased amplitude but depressed frequency. PBOO switched bladder from a phasic-type to a more tonic-type SM. Expression of 5' myosin heavy chain (MHC alternatively spliced isoform SM-A (associated with tonic-type SM increased 3-fold while 3' MHC SM1 and essential light chain isoform MLC(17b also exhibited increased relative expression. Total SMMHC expression was decreased by 25% while the expression of NMM IIB (SMemb was greatly increased by 4.5-fold. BLEB was found to completely relax detrusor strips from both sham-operated and PBOO rats pre-contracted with KCl, carbachol or electrical field stimulation although sensitivity was slightly decreased (20% only at lower doses for PBOO. Thus we provide the first thorough characterization of the response of rat bladder myosin to PBOO and demonstrate complete BLEB-induced PBOO bladder SM relaxation. Furthermore, the present study provides valuable

  20. Giant Intradiverticular Bladder Tumor

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    Noh, Mohamad Syafeeq Faeez Md; Aziz, Ahmad Fuad Abdul; Ghani, Khairul Asri Mohd; Siang, Christopher Lee Kheng; Yunus, Rosna; Yusof, Mubarak Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 74 Final Diagnosis: Giant intradiverticular bladder tumor with metastasis Symptoms: Hematuria Medication:— Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Urology Objective: Rare disease Background: Intradiverticular bladder tumors are rare. This renders diagnosis of an intradiverticular bladder tumor difficult. Imaging plays a vital role in achieving the diagnosis, and subsequently staging of the disease. Case Report: A 74-year-old male presented to our center with a few months history of constitutional symptoms. Upon further history, he reported hematuria two months prior to presentation, which stopped temporarily, only to recur a few days prior to coming to the hospital. The patient admitted to having lower urinary tract symptoms. However, there was no dysuria, no sandy urine, and no fever. Palpation of his abdomen revealed a vague mass at the suprapubic region, which was non tender. In view of his history and the clinical examination findings, an ultrasound of the abdomen and computed tomography (CT) was arranged. These investigations revealed a giant tumor that seemed to be arising from a bladder diverticulum, with a mass effect and hydronephrosis. He later underwent operative intervention. Conclusions: Intradiverticular bladder tumors may present a challenge to the treating physician in an atypical presentation; thus requiring a high index of suspicion and knowledge of tumor pathophysiology. As illustrated in our case, CT with its wide availability and multiplanar imaging capabilities offers a useful means for diagnosis, disease staging, operative planning, and follow-up. PMID:28246375

  1. Bladder Retraining

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    ... Complicated IC Cases Promising IC Diagnostic Tests Wrong Diagnosis IC Treatment Guideline IC Treatments IC Diet & Self Management Physical Therapy Antidepressants Antihistamines Pentosan Polysulfate Sodium Bladder Instillations Immunosuppresants ...

  2. Decline of seminal parameters in middle-aged males is associated with lower urinary tract symptoms, prostate enlargement and bladder outlet obstruction

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    Kristo Ausmees

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose We aimed to compare the associations between semen quality, associated reproductive indicators and the main prostate-related parameters in middle-aged men. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study on 422 middle-aged men who underwent the screening for prostate health. Their reproductive function, semen quality and prostate-related pathologies were investigated. Results Significant associations between semen quality and prostate-related parameters could be seen. Total sperm count and sperm density decreased along with the increase of the I-PSS score and total prostate volume. Also, the related lower urinary tract characteristics showed a negative correlation with main semen parameters for all investigated subjects. No significant differences in age, testicular size, and hormonal parameters were found between the subjects with or without lower urinary tract symptoms and prostate enlargement. Conclusions Our study suggests that altered seminal parameters in middle-aged men are associated with LUTS, prostate enlargement and/or bladder outlet obstruction. Although the assessments of prostate and lower urinary tract symptoms may not replace the semen parameters evaluating the male reproductive status, there is a need for further and more detailed investigations about the pathways behind these associations as well as possible related conditions.

  3. Original Research: Combined model of bladder detrusor smooth muscle and interstitial cells.

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    Rosenberg, Josef; Byrtus, Miroslav; Stengl, Milan

    2016-10-01

    Although patients with lower urinary tract symptoms constitute a large and still growing population, understanding of bladder detrusor muscle physiology remains limited. Understanding the interactions between the detrusor smooth muscle cells and other bladder cell types (e.g. interstitial cells, IC) that may significantly contribute to coordinating and modulating detrusor contractions represents a considerable challenge. Computer modeling could help to elucidate some properties that are difficult to address experimentally; therefore, we developed in silico models of detrusor smooth muscle cell and interstitial cells, coupled through gap junctions. The models include all of the major ion conductances and transporters described in smooth muscle cell and interstitial cells in the literature. The model of normal detrusor muscle (smooth muscle cell and interstitial cells coupled through gap junctions) completely reproduced the experimental results obtained with detrusor strips in the presence of several pharmacological interventions (ryanodine, caffeine, nimodipine), whereas the model of smooth muscle cell alone (without interstitial cells) failed to reproduce the experimental results. Next, a model of overactive bladder, a highly prevalent clinical condition in both men and women with increasing incidence at older ages, was produced by modifying several processes as reported previously: a reduction of Ca(2+)-release through ryanodine receptors and a reduction of Ca(2+)-dependent K(+)-conductance with augmented gap junctional coupling. This model was also able to reproduce the pharmacological modulation of overactive bladder. In conclusion, a model of bladder detrusor muscle was developed that reproduced experimental results obtained in both normal and overactive bladder preparations. The results indicate that the non-smooth muscle cells of the detrusor (interstitial cells) contribute significantly to the contractile behavior of bladder detrusor muscle and should not be

  4. Role of spinal GABAA receptors in pudendal inhibition of nociceptive and nonnociceptive bladder reflexes in cats.

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    Xiao, Zhiying; Reese, Jeremy; Schwen, Zeyad; Shen, Bing; Wang, Jicheng; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C; Tai, Changfeng

    2014-04-01

    Picrotoxin, an antagonist for γ-aminobutyric acid receptor subtype A (GABAA), was used to investigate the role of GABAA receptors in nociceptive and nonnociceptive reflex bladder activities and pudendal inhibition of these activities in cats under α-chloralose anesthesia. Acetic acid (AA; 0.25%) was used to irritate the bladder and induce nociceptive bladder overactivity, while saline was used to distend the bladder and induce nonnociceptive bladder activity. To modulate the bladder reflex, pudendal nerve stimulation (PNS) was applied at multiple threshold (T) intensities for inducing anal sphincter twitching. AA irritation significantly (P < 0.01) reduced bladder capacity to 34.3 ± 7.1% of the saline control capacity, while PNS at 2T and 4T significantly (P < 0.01) increased AA bladder capacity to 84.0 ± 7.8 and 93.2 ± 15.0%, respectively, of the saline control. Picrotoxin (0.4 mg it) did not change AA bladder capacity but completely removed PNS inhibition of AA-induced bladder overactivity. Picrotoxin (iv) only increased AA bladder capacity at a high dose (0.3 mg/kg) but significantly (P < 0.05) reduced 2T PNS inhibition at low doses (0.01-0.1 mg/kg). During saline cystometry, PNS significantly (P < 0.01) increased bladder capacity to 147.0 ± 7.6% at 2T and 172.7 ± 8.9% at 4T of control capacity, and picrotoxin (0.4 mg it or 0.03-0.3 mg/kg iv) also significantly (P < 0.05) increased bladder capacity. However, picrotoxin treatment did not alter PNS inhibition during saline infusion. These results indicate that spinal GABAA receptors have different roles in controlling nociceptive and nonnociceptive reflex bladder activities and in PNS inhibition of these activities.

  5. The role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the development of neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO).

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    Frias, Bárbara; Santos, João; Morgado, Marlene; Sousa, Mónica Mendes; Gray, Susannah M Y; McCloskey, Karen D; Allen, Shelley; Cruz, Francisco; Cruz, Célia Duarte

    2015-02-04

    Neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) is a well known consequence of spinal cord injury (SCI), recognizable after spinal shock, during which the bladder is areflexic. NDO emergence and maintenance depend on profound plastic changes of the spinal neuronal pathways regulating bladder function. It is well known that neurotrophins (NTs) are major regulators of such changes. NGF is the best-studied NT in the bladder and its role in NDO has already been established. Another very abundant neurotrophin is BDNF. Despite being shown that, acting at the spinal cord level, BDNF is a key mediator of bladder dysfunction and pain during cystitis, it is presently unclear if it is also important for NDO. This study aimed to clarify this issue. Results obtained pinpoint BDNF as an important regulator of NDO appearance and maintenance. Spinal BDNF expression increased in a time-dependent manner together with NDO emergence. In chronic SCI rats, BDNF sequestration improved bladder function, indicating that, at later stages, BDNF contributes NDO maintenance. During spinal shock, BDNF sequestration resulted in early development of bladder hyperactivity, accompanied by increased axonal growth of calcitonin gene-related peptide-labeled fibers in the dorsal horn. Chronic BDNF administration inhibited the emergence of NDO, together with reduction of axonal growth, suggesting that BDNF may have a crucial role in bladder function after SCI via inhibition of neuronal sprouting. These findings highlight the role of BDNF in NDO and may provide a significant contribution to create more efficient therapies to manage SCI patients.

  6. Early Fesoterodine Fumarate Administration Prevents Neurogenic Detrusor Overactivity in a Spinal Cord Transected Rat Model.

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    Biardeau, Xavier; Przydacz, Mikolaj; Aharony, Shachar; Loutochin, George; Campeau, Lysanne; Kyheng, Maeva; Corcos, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    In spinal cord injury, onset of detrusor overactivity (DO) is detrimental for quality of life (incontinence) and renal risk. Prevention has only been achieved with complex sophisticated electrical neuromodulation techniques. To assess the efficacy of early fesoterodine fumarate (FF) administration in preventing bladder overactivity in a spinal cord transected (SCT) rat model. 33 Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to 6 groups-Group 1: 3 normal controls; Group 2: 6 SCT controls; Group 3: 6 SCT rats + FF 0.18 mg/kg/d; Group 4: 6 SCT rats + FF 0.12 mg/kg/d; Group 5: 6 SCT rats + FF 0.18 mg/kg/d + 72-h wash-out period; Group 6: 6 SCT rats + FF 0.12 mg/kg/d + 72-h wash-out period. SCT was performed at T10. FF was continuously administered. Cystometry was undertaken 6 weeks after SCT in awake rats recording intermicturition pressure (IMP), baseline pressure, threshold pressure (Pthres) and maximum pressure (Pmax). Normal controls and SCT controls were initially compared using the Mann-Whitney U tests in order to confirm the SCT effect on cystometric parameters. The comparisons in cystometric and metabolic cage parameters between SCT controls and treated rats were done using post-hoc Dunn's tests for Kruskal-Wallis analysis. Statistical testing was conducted at the two-tailed α-level of 0.05. Pressure parameters were significantly higher in SCT control group compared to normal controls. Six weeks after SCT, IMP was significantly lower in low dose treated group than in SCT controls. Pmax was significantly lower in 3 treated groups compared to SCT controls. Pthres was significantly lower in full time treated groups than in SCT controls. Early administration of FF modulates bladder overactivity in a SCT rat model. Whereas short-term prevention has been demonstrated, the long-term should be further analyzed. Clinical application of these results should confirm this finding through randomized research protocols.

  7. Botulinum toxin A in the treatment of spinal cord injury patients with refractory neurogenic detrusor overactivity

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    Ronaldo A. Alvares

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of botulinum toxin type A injections in the detrusor muscle in patients with spinal cord injury and urinary incontinence due to detrusor overactivity and refractory to anticholinergic agents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 22 patients with spinal cord injuries, whose bladders were emptied by intermittent catheterization. All patients had detrusor overactivity and urinary incontinence that proved difficult to treat, despite using high doses of two different anticholinergics. The pre-treatment assessment included a complete urodynamic study and ultrasonography of the kidneys and urinary tract. A one-month follow-up was completed with urodynamic evaluation and the clinical response was evaluated through outpatient consultations and telephone contact. RESULTS: After the procedure, the maximum cystometric capacity and the bladder reflex volume increased, whereas the maximum detrusor pressure and compliance decreased. The mean duration of continence was 7 ± 7 months. In 18 patients (81.8%, it was necessary to administer anticholinergics to achieve continence. Five patients (22.7% had indication of reinjection, and augmentation cystoplasty was indicated in 9 patients (40.9%. CONCLUSION: The use of botulinum toxin in the treatment of neurogenic detrusor overactivity refractory to anticholinergics is an option before more invasive treatments, such as augmentation cystoplasty, are attempted. In our study as well as in the literature, there was improvement in most urodynamic parameters. Overall, 40.9% of patients underwent augmentation cystoplasty and 81.8% of patients needed anticholinergic agents to reach urinary continence. Further studies are necessary to improve the procedure and to achieve better clinical results.

  8. Detrusor Arreflexia as an End Stage of Neurogenic Bladder in HAM/TSP?

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    Matheus Tannus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The HTLV-1 virus is a known agent involved in the development of HAM/TSP. Past studies have typically observed patients with autonomic dysfunction consisting of detrusor overactivity and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia, with the occasional observation of underactive detrusor or detrusor arreflexia. However, studies have not yet evaluated the progression of neurogenic bladder over time. In this paper, we describe a HAM/TSP patient with the initial development of overactive detrusor, and subsequent development of detrusor arreflexia. Given a paucity of studies characterizing the effects of HTLV-1 on the autonomic nervous system, particularly aspects controlling continence, this patient's clinical course may represent one type of end point for patients with HAM/TSP and neurogenic bladder. Further cohort or case-series studies, with particular emphasis on the progression of neurogenic bladder, are needed to evaluate the significance of this described case in relation to typical disease progression patterns.

  9. AB204. Repeated intradetrusor botulinum toxin type A injections are still effective for patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity secondary to spinal cord injury in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Yang, Xinghua; Zeng, Jingwen; Huang, Maping; Liu, Qiuling; Huang, Jiebing; Huang, Tianhai; Xie, Keji; Jiang, Chonghe

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess effective outcomes following repeated treatment with intradetrusor botulinum toxin type A in patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO). Methods Patients with NDO secondary to spinal cord injury (SCI) were enrolled. Botulinum toxin type A 200 U detrusor injections by a rigid cystoscope were repeated. Primary outcomes were urodynamic variables including maximum detrusor pressure during first involuntary detrusor contraction (Pdetmax IDC) filling cystometry, detrusor compliance (DC). Secondary outcomes were improvement of the patient’s quality of life (QoL) measured by Incontinence-Specific Quality-of-Life Instrument (I-QoL), the validated short forms of Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6) and the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7). Related adverse events were recorded. Results From 2012 to 2014, 159 injections were performed in 52 patients (44 male, 8 female). The mean age was 36.67 years. The maximum number of repeated injections was five. BC increased from (4.03–7.45) to (6.96–10.86) mL/cmH2O, Pdetmax in bladder storage decreased from (42.80–79.52) to (26.40–43.33) cmH2O, respectively. The I-QoL, UDI-6 and IIQ-7 showed a consistent improvement after repeated injections. Conclusions Repeated intradetrusor botulinum toxin type A injections remain improve QoL in patients with NDO secondary to SCI.

  10. Altered detrusor gap junction communications induce storage symptoms in bladder inflammation: a mouse cyclophosphamide-induced model of cystitis.

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    Okinami, Takeshi; Imamura, Masaaki; Nishikawa, Nobuyuki; Negoro, Hiromitsu; Sugino, Yoshio; Yoshimura, Koji; Kanematsu, Akihiro; Hashitani, Hikaru; Ogawa, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) include storage, voiding and post-micturition symptoms, featuring many urological diseases. Storage symptoms are the most frequent among these and associated with overactive bladder and non-bacterial bladder inflammation such as interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). Gap junction, a key regulator of hyperactive conditions in the bladder, has been reported to be involved in pathological bladder inflammation. Here we report involvement of gap junction in the etiology of storage symptoms in bladder inflammation. In this study, cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis was adapted as a model of bladder inflammation. Cyclophosphamide-treated mice showed typical storage symptoms including increased urinary frequency and reduced bladder capacity, with concurrent up-regulation of connexin 43 (GJA1), one of the major gap junction proteins in the bladder. In isometric tension study, bladder smooth muscle strips taken from the treated mice showed more pronounced spontaneous contraction than controls, which was attenuated by carbenoxolone, a gap junction inhibitor. In voiding behavior studies, the storage symptoms in the treated mice characterized by frequent voiding were alleviated by 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid, another gap junction inhibitor. These results demonstrate that cyclophosphamide-induced mouse model of cystitis shows clinical storage symptoms related with bladder inflammation and that gap junction in the bladder may be a key molecule of these storage symptoms. Therefore, gap junction in the bladder might be an alternative therapeutic target for storage symptoms in bladder inflammation.

  11. Altered detrusor gap junction communications induce storage symptoms in bladder inflammation: a mouse cyclophosphamide-induced model of cystitis.

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    Takeshi Okinami

    Full Text Available Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS include storage, voiding and post-micturition symptoms, featuring many urological diseases. Storage symptoms are the most frequent among these and associated with overactive bladder and non-bacterial bladder inflammation such as interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS. Gap junction, a key regulator of hyperactive conditions in the bladder, has been reported to be involved in pathological bladder inflammation. Here we report involvement of gap junction in the etiology of storage symptoms in bladder inflammation. In this study, cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis was adapted as a model of bladder inflammation. Cyclophosphamide-treated mice showed typical storage symptoms including increased urinary frequency and reduced bladder capacity, with concurrent up-regulation of connexin 43 (GJA1, one of the major gap junction proteins in the bladder. In isometric tension study, bladder smooth muscle strips taken from the treated mice showed more pronounced spontaneous contraction than controls, which was attenuated by carbenoxolone, a gap junction inhibitor. In voiding behavior studies, the storage symptoms in the treated mice characterized by frequent voiding were alleviated by 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid, another gap junction inhibitor. These results demonstrate that cyclophosphamide-induced mouse model of cystitis shows clinical storage symptoms related with bladder inflammation and that gap junction in the bladder may be a key molecule of these storage symptoms. Therefore, gap junction in the bladder might be an alternative therapeutic target for storage symptoms in bladder inflammation.

  12. 良性前列腺增生合并膀胱过度活动症患者膀胱黏膜毒蕈碱型胆碱能受体 M2、M3亚型的表达及临床意义%Expression and Clinical Significance of Muscarinic Cholinergic Receptor M2 and M3 Subtypes in Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Overactive Bladder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张进生; 刘春林; 刘良颖; 李玮; 刘宁; 渠渊; 王立茹; 冯超; 吴宗山; 柴军; 张前

    2014-01-01

    Objective-To-investigate-the-changes-and-significance-of-the-expression-of-the-M-2-and-M3-receptors-of-the-urinary-bladder-mucosa-in-patients-with-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-(-BPH)-and-overactive-bladder-(-OAB)-.-Methods-From-May-2012-to-February-2013,-20-cases-of-BPH-were-studied-on-the-International-Prostate-Syndrome-Scoring-(IPSS),-Quality-Of-Life-(QOL),-OAB-syndrome-scoring-(OABSS),-and-urodynamics.According-to-OABSS-results,-the-patients-were-divided-into-either-BPH-group-(n=9)-or-BPH-and-OAB-group-(n=11).Mucosa-biopsies-under-the-cystoscopy-were-performed-in-all-the-cases-.The-expression-of-M2&M3-receptors-was-assayed-by-reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction-(-RT-PCR-)-.The-mRNA-expression-levels-of-M-2-&-M3-receptors-were-indicated-by-the--Ct-values.-Results-The-levels-of--Ct-of-M2-&-M3-receptors-were-significantly-lower-in-the-BPH-group-than-those-in-the-BPH-+OAB-group,-respectively-[M2:(-0.154-±0.641)-vs.(0.562-±0.762),-t=-2.241,-P=0.038;M3:(2.534-±0.816)-vs.(3.639-±1.019),-t=-2.630,-P=0.017],-which-implied-that-the-expression-of-M-2-and-M3-receptors-was-higher-in-the-BPH-group-than-that-in-the-BPH-+OAB-group.The-median-ratios-of-M2∶M3-in-both-groups-were-respectively-6.5206-(2.35-17.33)-and-7.9447-(2.10-23.83)-(Z=-1.102,-P=0.271).In-the-same-group,-the-expression-of-M2-was-higher-than-M3-in-both-groups-(t=-7.776,-P=0.000;t=-8.018,-P=0.000).The-expression-of-M3-receptors-was-negatively-correlated-to-OABSS-(r=-0.466,-P=0.039)-and-QOL-(r=-0.496,-P=0.026).-Conclusions-The-expression-of-M2-and-M3-receptors-is-decreased-and-the-ratio-of-M-2∶M3-is-increased-in-patients-with-BPH-and-OAB-,-which-may-play-an-important-role-in-the-development-of-OAB.The-decreasing-of-expression-of-M-3-receptor-exacerbates-the-OAB-degree-and-reduces-the-quality-of-patients-’-life.%目的:探讨良性前列腺增生( benign prostatic hyperplasia ,BPH)合并膀胱过度活动症( overactive bladder ,OAB)患者膀胱黏膜

  13. Bladder calculi complicating intermittent clean catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, M A; Sonda, L P; Diokno, A C; Vidyasagar, M

    1983-10-01

    Eight male patients on clean intermittent catheterization programs for neurogenic bladder dysfunction developed vesical calculi around pubic hairs inadvertently introduced into the bladder, acting as a nidus for incrustation. In three patients, the radiographic appearance of serpentine calcifications in the pelvis was highly consistent with calcareous deposits on strands of hair. Familiarity with this radiologic appearance should suggest the diagnosis in the appropriate clinical setting and help avoid misinterpretation of these calcifications, atypical of usual bladder stones.

  14. Bladder sensory desensitization decreases urinary urgency

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    Avelino António

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bladder desensitization has been investigated as an alternative treatment for refractory detrusor overactivity. Most open and controlled clinical trials conducted with intravesical RTX showed that desensitization delays the appearance of involuntary detrusor contractions during bladder filling and decreases the number of episodes of urgency incontinence. Urgency is being recognised as the fundamental symptom of overactive bladder (OAB, a symptomatic complex which recent epidemiological studies have shown to affect more than 10% of the Western population. As anti-muscarinic drugs, the first line treatment for OAB, are far from being able to fully control urgency, the opportunity to test other therapeutic approaches is created. The present work was, therefore, designed as an exploratory investigation to evaluate the effect of bladder desensitization on urinary urgency. Methods Twenty-three OAB patients with refractory urgency entered, after given informed consent, a 30 days run-in period in which medications influencing the bladder function were interrupted. At the end of this period patients filled a seven-day voiding chart where they scored, using a 0–4 scale, the bladder sensations felt before each voiding. Then, patients were instilled with 100 ml of 10% ethanol in saline (vehicle solution and 30 days later a second seven-day voiding chart was collected. Finally, patients were instilled with 100 ml of 50 nM RTX in 10% ethanol in saline. At 1 and 3 months additional voiding charts were collected. At the end of the vehicle and 3 months period patients were asked to give their subjective impression about the outcome of the treatment and about the willingness to repeat the previous instillation. Results At the end of the run-in period the mean number of episodes of urgency per week was 71 ± 12 (mean ± SEM. After vehicle instillation, the mean number of episodes of urgency was 56 ± 11, but only 4 patients (17% considered

  15. Novel targeted bladder drug-delivery systems: a review

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    Zacchè MM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Martino Maria Zacchè, Sushma Srikrishna, Linda Cardozo Department of Urogynaecology, King's College Hospital, London, UK Abstract: The objective of pharmaceutics is the development of drugs with increased efficacy and reduced side effects. Prolonged exposure of the diseased tissue to the drug is of crucial importance. Drug-delivery systems (DDSs have been introduced to control rate, time, and place of release. Drugs can easily reach the bladder through a catheter, while systemically administered agents may undergo extensive metabolism. Continuous urine filling and subsequent washout hinder intravesical drug delivery (IDD. Moreover, the low permeability of the urothelium, also described as the bladder permeability barrier, poses a major challenge in the development of the IDD. DDSs increase bioavailability of drugs, therefore improving therapeutic effect and patient compliance. This review focuses on novel DDSs to treat bladder conditions such as overactive bladder, interstitial cystitis, bladder cancer, and recurrent urinary tract infections. The rationale and strategies for both systemic and local delivery methods are discussed, with emphasis on new formulations of well-known drugs (oxybutynin, nanocarriers, polymeric hydrogels, intravesical devices, encapsulated DDSs, and gene therapy. We give an overview of current and future prospects of DDSs for bladder disorders, including nanotechnology and gene therapy. Keywords: drug targeting, drug-delivery system, bladder disorders

  16. An unusual foreign body in the bladder.

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    Bakshi G

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of its inaccessibility, every conceivable object has been inserted into the urinary bladder. Such patients may have a psychiatric disorder with a sexual perversion or inquisitiveness (as in children as the underlying cause. We report a case of an aluminum rod inserted into the urinary bladder by an adult male, which was removed successfully by surgery.

  17. Botulinum toxin A for the treatment of neurogenic detrusor overactivity in multiple sclerosis patients

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    S. Deffontaines-Rufin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO is common in patients who suffer from multiple sclerosis (MS. When the usual pharmacological treatment fails, botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A injections can be proposed. The safety and efficacy of this treatment are already well known, but only a few studies focus on its use in patients with MS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-one patients with MS underwent their first BTX-A injection for refractory NDO. They had clinical and urodynamic cystometry assessment before and three months after injection. The patients were divided in three groups according to treatment efficacy: full success (total urinary continence, no overactive detrusor, improvement, or total failure (urge incontinence and overactive detrusor. RESULTS: 77% of the patients had clinical improvement or full success of the treatment with a reduction of their urgency and incontinence. Significant urodynamic improvement after treatment was shown on different parameters: volume at first involuntary bladder contraction (p = 0.0000001, maximum cystometric capacity (p = 0.0035, maximum detrusor pressure (p = 0.0000001. 46% of the patients were in the "full success" group. 31% of the patients had a partial improvement. 23% of the patients had no efficacy of the treatment. Duration of MS was a predictive factor of treatment failure (p = 0.015. CONCLUSIONS: Despite that a full success was obtained in 46% of the cases, BTX-A injection therapy failed to treat refractory NDO in 23% of patients suffering from MS. Duration of the disease was a predictive factor for an inefficient treatment. The injection therapy should be considered as soon as oral anticholinergic drugs fail to reduce NDO.

  18. Comparison of Solifenacin monotherapy with Solifenacin and Doxazosin combination therapy for the treatment of severe overactive bladder with sexual dysfunction among youthful and middle-aged females%索利那新联合多沙唑嗪治疗中青年女性重度膀胱过度活动症伴性功能障碍的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王阳贇; 王曦龙; 施国伟; 何家扬; 章俊; 张燕宾

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the combination therapy of Solifenacin and Doxazosin for severe overactive bladder with sexual dysfunction among youthful and middle-aged females. Methods The OAB female patients with FSD who suffered from OAB and FSD sympotoms for at least 3 months were enrolled in a prospective study from October 2010 to September 2013. The inclusion criteria included ages among 25~40y, the mean frequency of micturition≥8 times per day, the frequency of nocturia≥2 times per day,voiding volume 0.05). There were significant statistical differences between the pre-treatment and post-treatment in the indicators of Patient's perception of bladder condition (PPBC), OABSS,maximum urethral pressur,detrusor pressure at maximal flow rate, bladder compliance, volume at first desire, maximal capacity, Qmax and FSFI (P=0.00), compared with baseline values. The values of PPBC, OABSS, volume at first desire, maximal capacity and FSFI were also significantly improved after treatment in single therapy (P=0.00), but maximum urethral pressure,detrusor pressure at maximal flow rate,bladder compliance and Qmax had no obvious differences between pre-treatment and post-treatment (P>0.05).The improvements of PPBC, OABSS,maximum urethral pressure, detrusor pressure at maximal flow rate, volume at first desire, maximal capacity and Qmax in combination group were expressively greater than that in monotherapy group (P0.05). There were no differences between the two groups in post-voiding residual and serum C-reactive protein (P>0.05). No acute urinary retention was found. Conclusion Both Solifenacin monotherapy and Solifenacin with Doxazosin combination therapy can ameliorate severe OAB and FSD symptoms among youthful and middle-aged females. The effects of Solifenacin with Doxazosin are superior to that of single use of Solifenacin.%目的:探讨索利那新联合多沙唑嗪治疗中青年女性重度膀胱过度活动症(OAB)伴性功能

  19. Scrotal Herniation of Bladder: A Case Report

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    Ali Hamidi Madani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Inguinal bladder hernia is a rare clinical condition, with 1–3% of all inguinal hernias involving the bladder. Any portion of the bladder may herniate, from a small portion or a diverticulum to most of the bladder. We present a 55-year-old male with an intermittent right scrotal mass of 6 months’ duration. The mass lesion protruded through the right inguinal canal before voiding and reduced after that. Scrotal sonography revealed a hypoechoic lesion in the scrotum that stretched cranially to the intra-abdominal portion of the bladder. Excretory urography showed a duplicated system in the left kidney and deviation of the left orifice to the right side of the trigon. Finally, cystography illustrated herniation of the bladder to the right scrotum. Surgical repair of the hernia was done with mesh. Follow-up cystography one month postoperatively revealed no herniation.

  20. Relationship between nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration, urinary symptoms, and bladder control in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winge, K; Friberg, L; Werdelin, L;

    2005-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) often have lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Studies have indicated a correlation between dopaminergic degeneration and LUTS and presence of overactive bladder. We evaluated 18 patients with Parkinson's disease using single-photon emission computerized...... tomography (SPECT) imaging of the dopamine transporter with [(123)I]-FP-CIT, and bladder symptoms were assessed using questionnaires and full urodynamic evaluation both in medicated state and after cessation. Bladder symptoms correlated with age, stage and severity of disease but not with uptake...... of the ligand in the striatum. Patients with bladder symptoms had a significant lower uptake in the striatum compared with patients without LUTS. In patients with severe bladder dysfunction, LUTS correlated with putamen/caudate ratio. The specific binding of the ligand did not correlate with urodynamics...

  1. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Neuroendocrine Bladder Cancer: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Prelaj, Arsela; Rebuzzi, Sara Elena; Magliocca, Fabio Massimo; Speranza, Iolanda; Corongiu, Emanuele; Borgoni, Giuseppe; Perugia, Giacomo; Liberti, Marcello; Bianco, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 71 Final Diagnosis: Neuroendocrine cancer bladder Symptoms: Dysuria • haematuria Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Transurethral resection of the bladder tumor Specialty: Oncology Objective: Rare disease Background: Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare and aggressive form of bladder cancer that mainly presents at an advanced stage. As a result of its rarity, it has been described in many case reports and reviews but few retrospective and prospective trials, sho...

  2. The role of muscarinic receptor subtypes on carbachol-induced contraction of normal human detrusor and overactive detrusor associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia

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    Tomonori Yamanishi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect of antimuscarinic antagonists on carbachol-induced contraction of normal human bladder and detrusor overactivity associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (DO/BPH. Samples of human bladder muscle were obtained from patients undergoing total cystectomy for bladder cancer (normal bladder, and those undergoing retropubic prostatectomy for BPH. All of the patients with DO/BPH had detrusor overactivity according to urodynamic studies. Detrusor muscle strips were mounted in 10-ml organ baths containing Krebs solution, and concentration–response curves for carbachol were obtained in the presence of antimuscarinic antagonists (4-DAMP, methoctramine, pirenzepine, tolterodine, solifenacin, trospium, propiverine, oxybutynin, and imidafenacin or vehicle. All antagonists competitively antagonized concentration–response curves to carbachol with high affinities in normal bladder. The rank order of mean pA2 values was as follows: trospium (10.1 > 4-DAMP (9.87, imidafenacin (9.3 > solifenacin (8.8 > tolterodine (8.6 > oxybutynin (8.3 > propiverine (7.7 > pirenzepine (7.4 > methoctramine (6.6. The effects of these antimuscarinic antagonists did not change when tested with DO/BPH bladder, suggesting that each antimuscarinic antagonist has a similar effect in this condition. Schild plots showed a slope corresponding to unity, except for propiverine with DO/BPH detrusor. In conclusion, M3-receptors mainly mediate contractions in human bladder strips with normal state and DO/BPH.

  3. AB321. SPR-48 The effects of myrbetriq on detrusor overactivity associated with suprasacral spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jillene M.; Degoski, Danielle J.; Fraser, Matthew O.

    2016-01-01

    Objective β3-adrenoceptor agonists (BARA) represent a novel mechanism of action for direct relaxation of urinary bladder smooth muscle. Myrbetriq (MYR) is an FDA approved BARA developed by Astellas Pharma, and has proven to be very useful for treating overactive bladder. Preliminary data from this laboratory demonstrated a remarkable effect of a rat-specific BARA, CL-316,243 (CL), on the hallmark attributes of neurogenic bladder subsequent to spinal cord injury (SCI). This included an increase in true bladder capacity (TBC), a decrease in the number and amplitude of non-voiding contractions (NVC) and an increased filling compliance (C). The current report reflects a formalized preclinical study of both the rat specific BARA, CL, and MYR, in order to provide preclinical support for utilization of MYR in treating SCI patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity. Methods Female rats (4 weeks post-SCI at T9–10, n=43, 10–11/group) were anesthetized with isoflurane and fitted with femoral vein, ureteral diversion and transvesical catheters. The animals were mounted in Ballman restraint cages to which they had been previously acclimated. Conscious cystometry was performed before and after 3 repeated vehicles (Veh 1–3) and 3 escalating 1/2 log doses of either CL or MYR, and their paired repeated vehicle controls (Veh 4–6) at 30-minute intervals. See figure for testing scheme protocol. Data were analyzed using ANOVA with repeated measures. PNVC count, MYR decreased maximal NVC amplitude, and CL increased C, relative to their respective repeated vehicle controls. Conclusions The results of these studies support the use BARA for the treatment of NDO secondary to SCI, as at least one of the drugs tested was able to distinguish themselves from their repeated vehicle control groups as having a positive effect for each of the four measures. Funding Source(s) an IIR grant from Astellas

  4. Intravesical application of rebamipide suppresses bladder inflammation in a rat cystitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funahashi, Yasuhito; Yoshida, Masaki; Yamamoto, Tokunori; Majima, Tsuyoshi; Takai, Shun; Gotoh, Momokazu

    2014-04-01

    We examined the effects of intravesical application of rebamipide (Otsuka Pharmaceutical, Tokyo, Japan) on bladder inflammation and overactivity in a chemically induced cystitis model. Female Sprague Dawley® rats under isoflurane anesthesia were injected with 150 mg/kg cyclophosphamide in the peritoneum, and 1 mM or 10 mM rebamipide or vehicle was administered in the bladder and remained for 1 hour. Control rats were injected with saline in the peritoneum and vehicle was administered in the bladder. The bladder was harvested at 48 hours. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed and the inflammation grade was assessed. The amount of myeloperoxidase was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Proinflammatory cytokines were quantified using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Cystometrogram was done in awake rats 48 hours after cyclophosphamide treatment to measure voiding reflex parameters. Histological evaluation revealed that bladder inflammation in cyclophosphamide treated rats was suppressed by rebamipide in a dose dependent manner. Up-regulated myeloperoxidase, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α expression in cyclophosphamide treated rats was also suppressed in rebamipide treated rats. Cystometrogram demonstrated that the intercontraction interval decreased in cyclophosphamide treated rats but was prolonged by rebamipide. Intravesical application of rebamipide suppressed bladder inflammation and overactivity in a dose dependent manner. This may provide a new treatment strategy for chemotherapy associated cystitis. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... future bladder cancer research through the Patient Survey Network. Read More... The JPB Foundation 2016 Bladder Cancer ... 2016 Young Investigator Awardees The Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network (BCAN) has announced the recipients of the 2016 ...

  6. Early Fesoterodine Fumarate Administration Prevents Neurogenic Detrusor Overactivity in a Spinal Cord Transected Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biardeau, Xavier; Przydacz, Mikolaj; Aharony, Shachar; Loutochin, George; Campeau, Lysanne; Kyheng, Maeva; Corcos, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Background In spinal cord injury, onset of detrusor overactivity (DO) is detrimental for quality of life (incontinence) and renal risk. Prevention has only been achieved with complex sophisticated electrical neuromodulation techniques. Purpose To assess the efficacy of early fesoterodine fumarate (FF) administration in preventing bladder overactivity in a spinal cord transected (SCT) rat model. Methods 33 Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to 6 groups–Group 1: 3 normal controls; Group 2: 6 SCT controls; Group 3: 6 SCT rats + FF 0.18 mg/kg/d; Group 4: 6 SCT rats + FF 0.12 mg/kg/d; Group 5: 6 SCT rats + FF 0.18 mg/kg/d + 72-h wash-out period; Group 6: 6 SCT rats + FF 0.12 mg/kg/d + 72-h wash-out period. SCT was performed at T10. FF was continuously administered. Cystometry was undertaken 6 weeks after SCT in awake rats recording intermicturition pressure (IMP), baseline pressure, threshold pressure (Pthres) and maximum pressure (Pmax). Normal controls and SCT controls were initially compared using the Mann-Whitney U tests in order to confirm the SCT effect on cystometric parameters. The comparisons in cystometric and metabolic cage parameters between SCT controls and treated rats were done using post-hoc Dunn’s tests for Kruskal-Wallis analysis. Statistical testing was conducted at the two-tailed α-level of 0.05. Results Pressure parameters were significantly higher in SCT control group compared to normal controls. Six weeks after SCT, IMP was significantly lower in low dose treated group than in SCT controls. Pmax was significantly lower in 3 treated groups compared to SCT controls. Pthres was significantly lower in full time treated groups than in SCT controls. Conclusion Early administration of FF modulates bladder overactivity in a SCT rat model. Whereas short-term prevention has been demonstrated, the long-term should be further analyzed. Clinical application of these results should confirm this finding through randomized research protocols. PMID:28060912

  7. The effect of indomethacin on the muscarinic induced contractions in the isolated normal guinea pig urinary bladder

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    Rahnama’i Mohammad S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the effect of prostaglandin depletion by means of COX-inhibition on cholinergic enhanced spontaneous contractions. Methods The urethra and bladder of 9 male guinea pigs (weight 270–300 g were removed and placed in an organ bath with Krebs’ solution. A catheter was passed through the urethra through which the intravesical pressure was measured. The muscarinic agonist arecaidine, the non-selective COX inhibitor indomethacin, and PGE2 were subsequently added to the organ bath. The initial average frequency and amplitude of spontaneous contractions in the first 2 minutes after arecaidine application were labelled Fini and Pini, respectively. The steady state frequency (Fsteady and amplitude (Psteady were defined as the average frequency and amplitude during the 5 minutes before the next wash out. Results Application of 1 μM PGE2 increased the amplitude of spontaneous contractions without affecting frequency. 10 μM of indomethacin reduced amplitude but not frequency. The addition of indomethacin did not alter Fini after the first application (p = 0.7665. However, after the second wash, Fini was decreased (p = 0.0005. Fsteady, Psteady and Pini were not significantly different in any of the conditions. These effects of indomethacin were reversible by PGE2 addition.. Conclusions Blocking PG synthesis decreased the cholinergically stimulated autonomous contractions in the isolated bladder. This suggests that PG could modify normal cholinergically evoked response. A combination of drugs inhibiting muscarinic receptors and PG function or production can then become an interesting focus of research on a treatment for overactive bladder syndrome.

  8. BCG Induced Necrosis of the Entire Bladder Urothelium

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    Malte Krönig

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Instillation therapy with attenuated tuberculosis bacteria (BCG can significantly reduce rates of recurrence of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Local and systemic side effects such as dysuria, irritative voiding symptoms or partial bladder contracture and systemic inflammation were reported. A 75 year-old male patient with recurrent non muscle invasive bladder cancer developed necrosis of the entire bladder urothelium more than six years after BCG instillation immunotherapy. The resulting irritative voiding symptoms and low bladder capacity required radical cystectomy. BCG instillation can cause severe side effects, which develop gradually and eventually need radical surgical therapy such as cystectomy without tumor recurrence.

  9. The NLRP3 Inflammasome Mediates Inflammation Produced by Bladder Outlet Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Francis M; Hill, Hayden M; Wood, Case M; Edmondson, Andrew T; Dumas, Aliya; Foo, Wen-Chi; Oelsen, James M; Rac, Goran; Purves, J Todd

    2016-05-01

    While bladder outlet obstruction is well established to elicit an inflammatory reaction in the bladder that leads to overactive bladder and fibrosis, little is known about the mechanism by which this is initiated. NLRs (NOD-like receptors) and the structures that they form (inflammasomes) have been identified as sensors of cellular damage, including pressure induced damage, and triggers of inflammation. Recently we identified these structures in the urothelium. In this study we assessed the role of the NLRP3 (NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3) inflammasome in bladder dysfunction resulting from bladder outlet obstruction. Bladder outlet obstruction was created in female rats by inserting a 1 mm outer diameter transurethral catheter, tying a silk ligature around the urethra and removing the catheter. Untreated and sham operated rats served as controls. Rats with bladder outlet obstruction were given vehicle (10% ethanol) or 10 mg/kg glyburide (a NLRP3 inhibitor) orally daily for 12 days. Inflammasome activity, bladder hypertrophy, inflammation and bladder function (urodynamics) were assessed. Bladder outlet obstruction increased urothelial inflammasome activity, bladder hypertrophy and inflammation, and decreased voided volume. Glyburide blocked inflammasome activation, reduced hypertrophy and prevented inflammation. The decrease in voided volume was also attenuated by glyburide mechanistically as an increase in detrusor contraction duration and voiding period. Results suggest the importance of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the induction of inflammation and bladder dysfunction secondary to bladder outlet obstruction. Arresting these processes with NLRP3 inhibitors may prove useful to treat the symptoms that they produce. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. What Is Bladder Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the bladder through a tube called the urethra . Start and spread of bladder cancer The wall of the bladder has several layers, ... called the renal pelvis ), the ureters, and the urethra. Patients with bladder cancer sometimes have other tumors in these places, so ...

  11. Complex bladder-exstrophy-epispadias management: Causes of failure of initial bladder closure

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    Kouame Dibi Bertin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of the initial closure of the complex bladder-exstrophy remains a challenge in pediatric surgery. This study describes a personal experience of the causes of failure of the initial closure and operative morbidity during the surgical treatment of bladder-exstrophy complex. From April 2000 to March 2014, four patients aged 16 days to 7 years and 5 months underwent complex exstrophy-epispadias repair with pelvic osteotomies. There were three males and one female. Three of them had posterior pelvic osteotomy, one had anterior innominate osteotomy. Bladder Closure: Bladder closure was performed in three layers. Our first patient had initial bladder closure with polyglactin 4/0 (Vicryl ® 4/0, concerning the last three patients, initial bladder closure was performed with polydioxanone 4/0 (PDS ® 4/0. The bladder was repaired leaving the urethral stent and ureteral stents for full urinary drainage for three patients. In one case, only urethral stent was left, ureteral drainage was not possible, because stents sizes were more important than the ureteral diameter. Out of a total of four patients, initial bladder closure was completely achieved for three patients. At the immediate postoperative follow-up, two patients presented a complete disunion of the abdominal wall and bladder despite an appropriate postoperative care. The absorbable braided silk (polyglactin used for the bladder closure was considered as the main factor in the failure of the bladder closure. The second cause of failure of the initial bladder closure was the incomplete urine drainage, ureteral catheterisation was not possible because the catheters sizes were too large compared with the diameters of the ureters. The failure of the initial bladder-exstrophy closure may be reduced by a closure with an absorbable monofilament silk and efficient urine drainage via ureteral catheterisation.

  12. Evaluation and Management of Neurogenic Bladder: What Is New in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Limin

    2015-08-10

    Neurogenic bladder (NB) or neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD), a dysfunction of the urinary bladder and urethra due to disease of the central nervous system or peripheral nerves, is a major global medical and social problem. Numerous nervous system abnormalities, such as: stroke, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, traumatic spinal cord injury, spinal cord tumors, congenital spina bifida, and diabetes, can cause NB/NLUTD. There are two major types of bladder control problems associated with NB/NLUTD: the bladder becomes either overactive or underactive depending on the nature, level, and extent of nerve damage. This review specifically focuses on the diagnosis and management of NB/NLUTD in China as well as on recent efforts to treat this disease.

  13. Does Reduction of Number of Intradetrusor Injection Sites of aboBoNTA (Dysport® Impact Efficacy and Safety in a Rat Model of Neurogenic Detrusor Overactivity?

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    Amélie Huynh Le Maux

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intradetrusor injections of Botulinum toxin A—currently onabotulinumtoxinA—is registered as a second-line treatment to treat neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO. The common clinical practice is 30 × 1 mL injections in the detrusor; however, protocols remain variable and standardization is warranted. The effect of reducing the number of injection sites of Dysport® abobotulinumtoxinA (aboBoNTA was assessed in the spinal cord-injured rat (SCI. Nineteen days post-spinalization, female rats received intradetrusor injections of saline or aboBoNTA 22.5 U distributed among four or eight sites. Two days after injection, continuous cystometry was performed in conscious rats. Efficacy of aboBoNTA 22.5 U was assessed versus aggregated saline groups on clinically-relevant parameters: maximal pressure, bladder capacity, compliance, voiding efficiency, as well as amplitude, frequency, and volume threshold for nonvoiding contractions (NVC. AboBoNTA 22.5 U significantly decreased maximal pressure, without affecting voiding efficiency. Injected in four sites, aboBoNTA significantly increased bladder capacity and compliance while only the latter when in eight sites. AboBoNTA significantly reduced NVC frequency and amplitude. This preclinical investigation showed similar inhibiting effects of aboBoNTA despite the number of sites reduction. Further studies are warranted to optimize dosing schemes to improve the risk-benefit ratio of BoNTA-based treatment modalities for NDO and further idiopathic overactive bladder.

  14. Does Reduction of Number of Intradetrusor Injection Sites of aboBoNTA (Dysport®) Impact Efficacy and Safety in a Rat Model of Neurogenic Detrusor Overactivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh Le Maux, Amélie; Pignol, Bernadette; Behr-Roussel, Delphine; Blachon, Jean-Luc; Chabrier, Pierre-Etienne; Compagnie, Sandrine; Picaut, Philippe; Bernabé, Jacques; Giuliano, François; Denys, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Intradetrusor injections of Botulinum toxin A—currently onabotulinumtoxinA—is registered as a second-line treatment to treat neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO). The common clinical practice is 30 × 1 mL injections in the detrusor; however, protocols remain variable and standardization is warranted. The effect of reducing the number of injection sites of Dysport® abobotulinumtoxinA (aboBoNTA) was assessed in the spinal cord-injured rat (SCI). Nineteen days post-spinalization, female rats received intradetrusor injections of saline or aboBoNTA 22.5 U distributed among four or eight sites. Two days after injection, continuous cystometry was performed in conscious rats. Efficacy of aboBoNTA 22.5 U was assessed versus aggregated saline groups on clinically-relevant parameters: maximal pressure, bladder capacity, compliance, voiding efficiency, as well as amplitude, frequency, and volume threshold for nonvoiding contractions (NVC). AboBoNTA 22.5 U significantly decreased maximal pressure, without affecting voiding efficiency. Injected in four sites, aboBoNTA significantly increased bladder capacity and compliance while only the latter when in eight sites. AboBoNTA significantly reduced NVC frequency and amplitude. This preclinical investigation showed similar inhibiting effects of aboBoNTA despite the number of sites reduction. Further studies are warranted to optimize dosing schemes to improve the risk-benefit ratio of BoNTA-based treatment modalities for NDO and further idiopathic overactive bladder. PMID:26694464

  15. Primary bladder neck obstruction may be determined by postural imbalances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerota, Tommaso Ciro; Zago, Matteo; Pisu, Stefano; Ciprandi, Daniela; Sforza, Chiarella

    2016-12-01

    Primary bladder neck obstruction (PBNO) is a frequent under-investigated urological condition in which the bladder neck fails to open adequately during voiding. In the majority of cases no known etiological factor can be found. In this study we propose a new hypothesis to explain the origin of the disease in young male patients with no neurological disorders. We suggest a possible role of an unbalanced biomechanics of the pelvis on urethral sphincters activity and on functional bladder capacity. To support the proposed hypothesis, we present pilot gait analysis data of young male patients with primary bladder neck obstruction.

  16. Blindness in a bladder cancer patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remón, J; Guardeño, R; Badía, A; Cardona, T; Picaza, J M; Lianes, P

    2007-02-01

    Blindness is an unusual symptom in the clinical course of cancer. When it appears it is necessary to differentiate between benign and malign causes. Brain metastases in bladder cancer are extremely rare. MRI is the best diagnostic option. We present a deaf-and-dumb male with subacute blindness, 12 months after the diagnosis of a metastatic bladder cancer. Computerised tomography scan and MRI revealed a mass into the pituitary gland and sella, probably of metastatic origin.

  17. Migrated Mesh Plug Masquerading as a Bladder Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dajani, Daoud; Aron, Monish

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The purpose of this case presentation is to demonstrate how erosion of mesh into the bladder can initially present with the same symptoms as bladder malignancy. Case Presentation: A 62-year-old Hispanic male presented with 2 years of hematuria along with imaging concerning for a bladder tumor. The patient underwent cystoscopy with biopsy of a lesion at the anterior bladder. It was ultimately determined that a mesh plug from a prior hernia repair had migrated into the bladder. The mesh plug was excised using the Da Vinci Si robot, which allowed for efficient mobilization of the bladder and other anatomic structures, as well as rapid recovery. Conclusion: Our case demonstrates the need to consider mesh erosion as a cause of hematuria and, furthermore, shows how the robotic approach can help facilitate excision of migrated mesh into the bladder. PMID:28164159

  18. Detrusor overactivity in diabetic and non-diabetic patients: is there a difference?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Golabek, Tomasz

    2013-07-22

    To compare urodynamic characteristics in patients with idiopathic detrusor overactivity (IDO) with those of an age matched cohort with diabetes mellitus (DM) and detrusor overactivity (DO). Secondly, to determine whether urodynamic features could help distinguish these two groups of patients.

  19. OnabotulinumtoxinA improves quality of life in patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancellor, Michael B; Patel, Vaishali; Leng, Wendy W; Shenot, Patrick J; Lam, Wayne; Globe, Denise R; Loeb, Alex L; Chapple, Christopher R

    2013-08-27

    To evaluate the effects of onabotulinumtoxinA on patient-reported outcomes including health-related quality of life (HRQOL), treatment satisfaction, and treatment goal attainment in patients with urinary incontinence (UI) due to neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO). In this multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase III, 52-week study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00311376), patients with UI due to NDO who were not adequately managed with anticholinergic therapy were treated with intradetrusor injections of onabotulinumtoxinA (200 or 300 U) or placebo (0.9% saline). HRQOL measures included the Incontinence Quality of Life (I-QOL) Questionnaire total score, and the 3 domain scores (avoidance and limiting behavior, psychosocial, and social embarrassment), the modified Overactive Bladder Patient Satisfaction with Treatment Questionnaire (OAB-PSTQ), and Patient Global Assessment. Assessments were made at baseline, posttreatment week 6 (primary time point), week 12, and at 12-week intervals. Patients (mean age of 46 years with 30.5 weekly UI episodes at baseline) were randomized to receive placebo (n = 149) or onabotulinumtoxinA (200 U [n = 135] or 300 U [n = 132]). At week 6, improvements from baseline in I-QOL Questionnaire total score were greater (p Patients who received onabotulinumtoxinA also reported greater improvement in the Patient Global Assessment than those in the placebo group (p ≤ 0.001 vs placebo). Patients with UI due to NDO reported greater improvement in HRQOL and treatment satisfaction with onabotulinumtoxinA than with placebo consistently across several patient-reported outcome instruments. This study provides Class I evidence that onabotulinumtoxinA intradetrusor injections (200 or 300 U) can improve quality of life measures in patients with NDO not adequately managed with anticholinergic therapy.

  20. The paediatric neuropathic bladder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spinal reflex arc that occurs when the bladder becomes autonomous from higher ... rise in the pressure v. time trace with bladder filling, representing a typical poorly .... reactions. Furthermore, new-generation anticholinergic agents, such.

  1. The use of cystometry in small rodents: a study of bladder chemosensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvin, Pieter; Everaerts, Wouter; Pinto, Silvia; Alpízar, Yeranddy A; Boudes, Mathieu; Gevaert, Thomas; Voets, Thomas; Nilius, Bernd; Talavera, Karel; De Ridder, Dirk

    2012-08-21

    The lower urinary tract (LUT) functions as a dynamic reservoir that is able to store urine and to efficiently expel it at a convenient time. While storing urine, however, the bladder is exposed for prolonged periods to waste products. By acting as a tight barrier, the epithelial lining of the LUT, the urothelium, avoids re-absorption of harmful substances. Moreover, noxious chemicals stimulate the bladder's nociceptive innervation and initiate voiding contractions that expel the bladder's contents. Interestingly, the bladder's sensitivity to noxious chemicals has been used successfully in clinical practice, by intravesically infusing the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin to treat neurogenic bladder overactivity. This underscores the advantage of viewing the bladder as a chemosensory organ and prompts for further clinical research. However, ethical issues severely limit the possibilities to perform, in human subjects, the invasive measurements that are necessary to unravel the molecular bases of LUT clinical pharmacology. A way to overcome this limitation is the use of several animal models. Here we describe the implementation of cystometry in mice and rats, a technique that allows measuring the intravesical pressure in conditions of controlled bladder perfusion. After laparotomy, a catheter is implanted in the bladder dome and tunneled subcutaneously to the interscapular region. Then the bladder can be filled at a controlled rate, while the urethra is left free for micturition. During the repetitive cycles of filling and voiding, intravesical pressure can be measured via the implanted catheter. As such, the pressure changes can be quantified and analyzed. Moreover, simultaneous measurement of the voided volume allows distinguishing voiding contractions from non-voiding contractions. Importantly, due to the differences in micturition control between rodents and humans, cystometric measurements in these animals have only limited translational value. Nevertheless, they are

  2. Obesity-Related Metabolic Syndrome: Mechanisms of Sympathetic Overactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paola Canale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome has increased worldwide over the past few years. Sympathetic nervous system overactivity is a key mechanism leading to hypertension in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Sympathetic activation can be triggered by reflex mechanisms as arterial baroreceptor impairment, by metabolic factors as insulin resistance, and by dysregulated adipokine production and secretion from visceral fat with a mainly permissive role of leptin and antagonist role of adiponectin. Chronic sympathetic nervous system overactivity contributes to a further decline of insulin sensitivity and creates a vicious circle that may contribute to the development of hypertension and of the metabolic syndrome and favor cardiovascular and kidney disease. Selective renal denervation is an emerging area of interest in the clinical management of obesity-related hypertension. This review focuses on current understanding of some mechanisms through which sympathetic overactivity may be interlaced to the metabolic syndrome, with particular regard to the role of insulin resistance and of some adipokines.

  3. Ultrasound: Bladder (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Ultrasound: Bladder KidsHealth > For Parents > Ultrasound: Bladder A A A What's in this article? ... español Ultrasonido: vejiga What It Is A bladder ultrasound is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  4. MANAGEMENT OF CARCINOMA BLADDER: A REVIEW LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurinderjit Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the bladder is a disease of the elderly. Bladder cancer is three times more common in males than in females and more common in whites than in blacks. Patients with bladder cancer have a 1% to 4% incidence of synchronous or metachronous upper t ract urothelial tumors. There are many risk factors for urothelial cancer, classified into (1 Genetic (2 chemical exposure, and (3 chronic irritation. Genetic abnormalities associated with CIS include alterations in the retinoblastoma gene (Rb, p53, an d PTEN. Chemical exposure has the most epidemiologic evidence to support it as an inciting agent (Aromatic amines, aniline dyes, and nitrites and nitrates. Chronic irritants include catheters, recurrent urinary track infections, Schistosoma haematobium, a nd irradiation. There are many studies that suggest high water consumption, vitamin intake, and various diets that are beneficial in preventing bladder cancer. However, none of these have shown any clear benefit with respect to prevention.

  5. Experimental model of bladder instability in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasteghin K.T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Propose a new experimental model of bladder instability in rabbits after partial bladder obstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty North Folk male rabbits, weighting 1,700 to 2,820 g (mean: 2,162 g were studied. The animals were distributed in 2 experimental groups, formed by 15 rabbits each: Group 1 - clinical control. In this group there was no surgical intervention; Group 2 - bladder outlet obstruction. In this group, after anesthetizing the animal, urethral cannulation with Foley catheter 10F was performed and then an adjustable plastic bracelet was passed around the bladder neck. It was then adjusted in order to not constrict the urethra. The following parameters were studied in M1 - pre-operative period; M2 - 4 weeks post-operatively moments: 1- urine culture; 2- cystometric study; 3- serum creatinine and BUN. RESULTS: Bladder weight was 2.5 times larger in the group with obstruction than in the control group. Cystometric evaluation showed a significant increase in maximal vesical volume in the final moment at Group G2. However, there was no statistically significant difference among the groups studied. There was no statistically significant difference between maximal detrusor pressure and vesical compliance in the different moments or in the studied groups. There was an absence of uninhibited detrusor contractions in all the animals in group 1, and involuntary contractions were detected in 93% of group 2 animals. There was no significant variation in BUN and serum creatinine either among the groups or in the same group. CONCLUSIONS: We observed in the group with obstruction a bladder weight 2.5 higher than normal bladders. We detected involuntary contractions in 93% of the animals in group 2, establishing this experimental model as appropriate to secondary bladder instability and partial bladder outlet obstruction.

  6. Neurogenic detrusor overactivity is associated with decreased expression and function of the large conductance voltage- and Ca(2+-activated K(+ channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiril L Hristov

    Full Text Available Patients suffering from a variety of neurological diseases such as spinal cord injury, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis often develop neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO, which currently lacks a universally effective therapy. Here, we tested the hypothesis that NDO is associated with changes in detrusor smooth muscle (DSM large conductance Ca(2+-activated K(+ (BK channel expression and function. DSM tissue samples from 33 patients were obtained during open bladder surgeries. NDO patients were clinically characterized preoperatively with pressure-flow urodynamics demonstrating detrusor overactivity, in the setting of a clinically relevant neurological condition. Control patients did not have overactive bladder and did not have a clinically relevant neurological disease. We conducted quantitative polymerase chain reactions (qPCR, perforated patch-clamp electrophysiology on freshly-isolated DSM cells, and functional studies on DSM contractility. qPCR experiments revealed that DSM samples from NDO patients showed decreased BK channel mRNA expression in comparison to controls. Patch-clamp experiments demonstrated reduced whole cell and transient BK currents (TBKCs in freshly-isolated DSM cells from NDO patients. Functional studies on DSM contractility showed that spontaneous phasic contractions had a decreased sensitivity to iberiotoxin, a selective BK channel inhibitor, in DSM strips isolated from NDO patients. These results reveal the novel finding that NDO is associated with decreased DSM BK channel expression and function leading to increased DSM excitability and contractility. BK channel openers or BK channel gene transfer could be an alternative strategy to control NDO. Future clinical trials are needed to evaluate the value of BK channel opening drugs or gene therapies for NDO treatment and to identify any possible adverse effects.

  7. Paraganglioma of the Urinary Bladder: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Yi Kang

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Paragangliomas of the urinary bladder are very rare. To date, there are no reliable methods for predicting their clinical behavior, so long-term follow-up is required. We describe a paraganglioma of the urinary bladder in a 32-year-old male who presented with painless gross hematuria. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a protruding mass with hematoma over the right lateral wall of the urinary bladder. The tumor was not completely resected by transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT due to intermingling with the bladder wall. Follow-up I131-metaiodobenzylguanidine was performed 3 weeks after surgery and suspected incomplete resection lesions were noted. Histologic examination of the tumor indicated paraganglioma of the urinary bladder. We also provide a brief review of the literature for comparison.

  8. A case-control study on the association between bladder cancer and prior bladder calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Tsai, Ming-Chieh; Lin, Ching-Chun; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2013-03-15

    Bladder calculus is associated with chronic irritation and inflammation. As there is substantial documentation that inflammation can play a direct role in carcinogenesis, to date the relationship between stone formation and bladder cancer (BC) remains unclear. This study aimed to examine the association between BC and prior bladder calculus using a population-based dataset. This case-control study included 2,086 cases who had received their first-time diagnosis of BC between 2001 and 2009 and 10,430 randomly selected controls without BC. Conditional logistic regressions were employed to explore the association between BC and having been previously diagnosed with bladder calculus. Of the sampled subjects, bladder calculus was found in 71 (3.4%) cases and 105 (1.1%) controls. Conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio (OR) of having been diagnosed with bladder calculus before the index date for cases was 3.42 (95% CI = 2.48-4.72) when compared with controls after adjusting for monthly income, geographic region, hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and renal disease, tobacco use disorder, obesity, alcohol abuse, and schistosomiasis, bladder outlet obstruction, and urinary tract infection. We further analyzed according to sex and found that among males, the OR of having been previously diagnosed with bladder calculus for cases was 3.45 (95% CI = 2.39-4.99) that of controls. Among females, the OR was 3.05 (95% CI = 1.53-6.08) that of controls. These results add to the evidence surrounding the conflicting reports regarding the association between BC and prior bladder calculus and highlight a potential target population for bladder cancer screening.

  9. Time-dependent effects of castration on the bladder function and histological changes in the bladder and blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magari, Tomohiro; Shibata, Yasuhiro; Arai, Seiji; Kashiwagi, Bunzo; Suzuki, Keiji; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effect of androgens on bladder blood flow (BBF), bladder function and histological changes in castrated male rats. Male Wistar rats were classified into unoperated group (control group), groups castrated at the age of 8 weeks (group 8wPC) and groups castrated at the age of 4 weeks (group 4wPC). Each rat was used at the age of 20 weeks. BBF was measured using fluorescent microspheres. Bladder cystometry was performed without anesthesia or restraint; the bladder was first irrigated with saline and then with 0.25% acetic acid (AA) solution. Maximum voiding pressure and voiding interval were measured. The bladder and iliac artery were histologically examined for differences in smooth muscle and quantity of collagen fiber to analyze the effect of castration on the smooth muscle content. No differences were noted in BBF following castration. The voiding intervals for all groups were shortened (P control group (Pcontrol group (Pblood vessels.

  10. Mouse bladder wall injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chi-Ling; Apelo, Charity A; Torres, Baldemar; Thai, Kim H; Hsieh, Michael H

    2011-07-12

    Mouse bladder wall injection is a useful technique to orthotopically study bladder phenomena, including stem cell, smooth muscle, and cancer biology. Before starting injections, the surgical area must be cleaned with soap and water and antiseptic solution. Surgical equipment must be sterilized before use and between each animal. Each mouse is placed under inhaled isoflurane anesthesia (2-5% for induction, 1-3% for maintenance) and its bladder exposed by making a midline abdominal incision with scissors. If the bladder is full, it is partially decompressed by gentle squeezing between two fingers. The cell suspension of interest is intramurally injected into the wall of the bladder dome using a 29 or 30 gauge needle and 1 cc or smaller syringe. The wound is then closed using wound clips and the mouse allowed to recover on a warming pad. Bladder wall injection is a delicate microsurgical technique that can be mastered with practice.

  11. URACHAL CARCINOMA IN BLADDER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛丽燕; 吕宁; 何祖根; 林冬梅; 刘秀云

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinicopathologic features and diagnostic criteria of urachal carcinoma in the bladder.Methods: Seven cases of urachal carcinoma in the bladder were analyzed retrospectively. Results: All the tumors were found locating in the dome of bladder. Of them, 4 were mucinous adenocarcinoma, one was well differentiated papillary enteric adenocarcinoma, one was well differentiated squamous carcinoma, and one was neuroendocrine carcinoma. Cystomorphous urachal remnants were found in 4 cases. The main complaint was hematuria and all patients underwent partial excision of bladder and urachus. Conclusion: Mucinous adenocarcinoma is the main histo-pathological type, and cystomorphous urachal remnants are often accompanied with urachal carcinoma in the bladder. The key diagnostic criteria of urachal carcinoma in bladder are site and histopathology. And to examine the specimens carefully to find the urachal remnants is important.

  12. Effect of Reflexology to Depressive Symptoms in Women With Overactive Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Yasemin; Aslan, Ergul; Yalcin, Onay

    2016-01-01

    This study is to determine the effect of foot reflexology on the level of depression in women with OAB. Study findings included in the study showed foot reflexology as a part of OAB treatment relieved urinary and depressive symptoms and had a positive effect on quality of life.

  13. Solifenacin in Multiple Sclerosis Patients with Overactive Bladder: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida van Rey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the efficacy and the effect on Qol of solifenacin for the treatment of OAB in MS patients. Patients and Methods. Thirty MS patients suffering from OAB were treated with solifenacin 5/10 mg for 8 weeks. The first 4 weeks patients received solifenacin 5 mg. At week 4 patients could request a dose increase to 10 mg. The efficacy was evaluated at 8 weeks. Results. After 4 weeks of treatment, 28 patients reported acceptable or no side effects. 17 continued the study with the 10 mg dosage, and 11 stayed on 5 mg solifenacin. Two patients withdrew from the study due to side effects. Solifenacin 5/10 mg for 8 weeks resulted in a significant decrease in number of micturitions and number of pads used per day compared to baseline. Also the severity of urgency prior to voiding decreased significantly, and an increase was seen in the volume per void. Twenty out of 30 patients chose to continue solifenacin therapy after termination of the study. The majority of patients reported global QoL improvement. Conclusions. Solifenacin is effective in the treatment of MS patients with OAB symptoms. This is the first study with solifenacin in a specific neurogenic patient group with a neurogenic disease-specific QoL outcome measure (MS-QoL 54.

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Bladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Treatment Bladder Cancer Screening Research Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Bladder Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on ...

  15. Functional effects of the KCNQ modulators retigabine and XE991 in the rat urinary bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Frederik; Svalø, Julie; Sheykhzade, Majid

    2010-01-01

    The anticonvulsant retigabine has previously been reported to inhibit bladder overactivity in rats in vivo but the mechanism and site of action are not known. In the present study we investigated the effect of retigabine in isolated rat bladder tissue. Bladders from Sprague-Dawley rats were cut...... transversally into rings and mounted on an isometric myograph. The average tension, the amplitude and frequency of bladder muscle twitches were measured. The bladder tissue was stimulated with carbachol, KCl (5, 10 and 60mM), and by electric field stimulation. Dose-response curves were obtained with increasing...... with EC50 values ranging from 3.3μM (20mM KCl) to 8.3μM (0.2μM carbachol). In support of a KCNQ-specific effect, retigabine had only weak effects after 60mM KCl pre treatment and all retigabine effects could be reversed by XE991. XE991 increased both the amplitude and mean tension of the bladder...

  16. Comparisons of voided urine cytology, nuclear matrix protein-22 and bladder tumor associated antigen tests for bladder cancer of geriatric male patients in Taiwan, China%中国台湾老年男性膀胱癌检测中尿脱落细胞学、核基质蛋白22和膀胱癌相关抗原检测的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. H.Tsui; S.M.Chen; T. M. Wang; H. H. Juang; C. L.Chen; G.H.Sun; P. L.Chang

    2007-01-01

    目的:比较膀胱癌相关抗原(BTA TRAK),核基质蛋白22(NMP 22)和尿脱落细胞学(VUC)检测膀胱癌的结果.方法:共有135名老年人和50名健康志愿者参与了本研究并分为三组:(I)93名膀胱癌患者;(ii)42名尿良性症状患者;(iii)50名健康志愿者.用BTA TRAK和NMP 22试剂盒检测膀胱癌,用尿脱落细胞学比较筛查的灵敏性和特异性.结果:尿脱落细胞学、BTA TRAK和NMP 22的灵敏性和特异性分别为24%和97%、51%和73%、78%和73%.NMP 22的水平随肿瘤的级别升高而上升.在筛查检测中,BTA TRAK灵敏性最低,NMP22灵敏性最高,能辅助尿脱落细胞学检测膀胱癌.结论:NMP22比BTA TRAK更符合膀胱癌的分级.由于在医院或门诊无法获得细胞单位,NMP22很有希望成为一种筛查膀胱癌的工具.%Aim: To compare the results of bladder tumor associated antigen (BTA TRAK), nuclear matrix protein 22 (NMP 22) and voided urine cytology (VUC) in detecting bladder cancer. Methods: A total of 135 elderly male and 50 healthy volunteers enrolled in this study were classified into three groups: (i) 93 patients with bladder cancer; (ii) 42 patients with urinary benign conditions; and (iii) 50 healthy volunteers. BTA TRAK and NMP 22 kits were used to detect bladder cancer. Voided urine cytology was used to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the screening tests.Results: The sensitivity and specificity of cytology, BTA TRAK and NMP 22 were 24% and 97%, 51% and 73%,78% and 73%, respectively. The level of NMP 22 increased with tumor grading. The BTA TRAK kit has the lowest sensitivity among the screening tests. The NMP 22 with the best sensitivity can be an adjunct to cytology for evaluating bladder cancer. Conclusion: The NMP 22 test has a better correlation with the grading of the bladder cancer than BTA TRAK. As cytology units are typically not available in hospitals or in outpatient clinics, NMP 22 might be a promising tool for screening bladder cancer

  17. Urinary Bladder Cancer in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Samawi, Abdullah Saleh; Aulaqi, Saleh Mansoor

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study are to highlight the clinicopathological features of urinary bladder cancer in Yemen, and to describe the histological grading of urothelial neoplasms according to the World Health Organization and International Society of Urologic pathology (WHO/ISUP 1998) classification. Methods This is a descriptive record-based study of 316 cases of bladder cancer diagnosed by two pathologists at the Department of pathology, Sana'a University from 1st January 2005 to 30th April 2009. The diagnoses were made on hematoxylin and eosin stained sections and categorized according to WHO/ISUP 1998 classification. Results Out of 316 urinary bladder cancers, 248 (78%) were urothelial neoplasms, 53 (17%) were squamous cell carcinoma, 7 (2%) were adenocarcinoma, and 3 (1%) were rhabdomyosarcoma. The remaining cases were metastatic carcinomas (n=3), small cell carcinoma (n=1), and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=1). The urothelial neoplasms observed were carcinoma in situ 4 (2%), papilloma 7 (3%), papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential 26 (11%), papillary urothelial carcinoma of low grade 107 (43%), papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade 18 (7%), and non-papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade 85 (34%), with 60 years mean age for males and 58 years for females; along with a male to female ratio of 4:1. The peak incidence was observed in the 61-70 years age group. Conclusion This study documents a high frequency of urothelial neoplasms, mostly papillary urothelial carcinoma of low grade and non-papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade with male preponderance and peak incidence in 6th decade of age. PMID:24044060

  18. Urinary Bladder Cancer in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Saleh Al-Samawi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of this study are to highlight the clinicopathological features of urinary bladder cancer in Yemen, and to describe the histological grading of urothelial neoplasms according to the World Health Organization and International Society of Urologic pathology (WHO/ISUP 1998 classification.Methods: This is a descriptive record-based study of 316 cases of bladder cancer diagnosed by two pathologists at the Department of pathology, Sana'a University from 1st January 2005 to 30th April 2009. The diagnoses were made on hematoxylin and eosin stained sections and categorized according to WHO/ISUP 1998 classification.Results: Out of 316 urinary bladder cancers, 248 (78% were urothelial neoplasms, 53 (17% were squamous cell carcinoma, 7 (2% were adenocarcinoma, and 3 (1% were rhabdomyosarcoma. The remaining cases were metastatic carcinomas (n=3, small cell carcinoma (n=1, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=1. The urothelial neoplasms observed were carcinoma in situ 4 (2%, papilloma 7 (3%, papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential 26 (11%, papillary urothelial carcinoma of low grade 107 (43%, papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade 18 (7%, and non-papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade 85 (34%, with 60 years mean age for males and 58 years for females; along with a male to female ratio of 4:1. The peak incidence was observed in the 61-70 years age group.Conclusion: This study documents a high frequency of urothelial neoplasms, mostly papillary urothelial carcinoma of low grade and non-papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade with male preponderance and peak incidence in 6th decade of age.

  19. Posterior tibial nerve stimulation for treating neurologic bladder in women: a randomized clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Eftekhar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Overactive bladder (OAB is a disabling disorder. Treatment of cases with OAB includes behavioral, pharmacological, surgical interventions and peripheral electrical stimulation. The goal of this study was to determine effects of posterior tibial nerve stimulation on sexual function and pelvic disorders in women with Overactive bladder (OAB. Fifty women were randomly assigned to PTNS (posterior tibial nerve stimulation plus tolterodine or tolterodine alone treatment. Tolterodine group received 4 mg tolterodine daily for three months while the other group received this treatment plus percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation for 12 consequence weeks. Two in PTNS group and 8 in the control group withdrew from the study. Age, education level, and occupation status were not significantly different between two groups. Mean total FSFI and its subscales were not significantly different before and after treatment between two groups. Urine leakage associated with a feeling of urgency and loss of stool or gas from the rectum beyond patient's control became significantly different after treatment between two groups. Posterior tibial nerve stimulation could help urinary problems in women with a neurologic bladder.

  20. Multiple factors related to detrusor overactivity in Chinese patients with benign prostate hyperplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ning; MAN Li-bo; HE Feng; HUANG Guang-lin; WANG Hai; LI Gui-zhong; WANG Jian-wei; L(U) Yan-wei

    2012-01-01

    Background Detrusor overactivity (DO) is a known cause of lower urinary tract symptoms and occurs in 50%-75% of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) patients.We sought to investigate the clinical and urodynamic factors that are associated with the presence of DO in Chinese BPH patients.Methods Two hundred and eighty-seven consecutive patients with clinical BPH were retrospectively evaluated in this study.Each patient underwent urodynamic evaluation and completed the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS)and Quality of Life (QoL) questionnaire.Patients with neurological symptoms or other diseases likely to affect detrusor functions were strictly excluded.The 184 BPH patients included in the study were divided into groups according to the presence of DO as shown in urodynamic tests.Univariate analysis of factors associated with the presence of DO were performed using Student's t-test and the Mann-Whitney test; multivariate analysis used stepwise Logistic regressions.The relationship between degree of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) and DO was also investigated using a linear-by-linear association test.Results Of 184 BPH patients,DO was present in 76 (41.3%).On univariate analysis,patients with DO were older (P=0.000),and showed smaller maximal bladder capacity (MBC,P=0.000) and voided volume (P=0.000),higher maximal detrusor pressure (P=0.000) and projected isovolumetric pressure (PIP) (P=0.005),higher Abrams-Griffiths number (P=0.000) and degree of bladder outlet obstruction (P=0.000),higher IPSS (P=0.000) and irritative IPSS subscores (P=0.000).Stepwise Logistic regression analysis showed that PIP (OR=1.012,95% CI1.002-1.023,P=0.019),age (OR=1.030,95% CI 1.005-1.067,P=0.059),and MBC (OR=0.993,95% CI 0.990-0.996,P=0.000)were independent risk factors for DO in BPH patients.Linear-by-linear association tests indicated a positive linear association between DO and severity of BOO,with incidence of DO increasing with BOO grade (P=0.000).Conclusions In

  1. Stimulation of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels inhibits neurogenic contraction of human bladder from patients with urinary symptoms and reverses acetic acid-induced bladder hyperactivity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Fuente, José M; Fernández, Argentina; Cuevas, Pedro; González-Corrochano, Rocío; Chen, Mao Xiang; Angulo, Javier

    2014-07-15

    We have analysed the effects of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (BK) stimulation on neurogenic and myogenic contraction of human bladder from healthy subjects and patients with urinary symptoms and evaluated the efficacy of activating BK to relief bladder hyperactivity in rats. Bladder specimens were obtained from organ donors and from men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Contractions elicited by electrical field stimulation (EFS) and carbachol (CCh) were evaluated in isolated bladder strips. in vivo cystometric recordings were obtained in anesthetized rats under control and acetic acid-induced hyperactive conditions. Neurogenic contractions of human bladder were potentiated by blockade of BK and small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SK) but were unaffected by the blockade of intermediate calcium-activated potassium channels (IK). EFS-induced contractions were inhibited by BK stimulation with NS-8 or NS1619 or by SK/IK stimulation with NS309 (3µM). CCh-induced contractions were not modified by blockade or stimulation of BK, IK or SK. The anti-cholinergic agent, oxybutynin (0.3µM) inhibited either neurogenic or CCh-induced contractions. Neurogenic contractions of bladders from BPH patients were less sensitive to BK inhibition and more sensitive to BK activation than healthy bladders. The BK activator, NS-8 (5mg/kg; i.v.), reversed bladder hyperactivity induced by acetic acid in rats, while oxybutynin was ineffective. NS-8 did not significantly impact blood pressure or heart rate. BK stimulation specifically inhibits neurogenic contractions in patients with urinary symptoms and relieves bladder hyperactivity in vivo without compromising bladder contractile capacity or cardiovascular safety, supporting its potential therapeutic use for relieving bladder overactivity.

  2. Diabetic bladder dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guiming Liu; Firouz Daneshgari

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review studies on diabetic bladder dysfunction (DBD),a common and bothersome complication of diabetes mellitus.Data sources We performed a search of the English literature through PubMed.The key words used were "diabetes" and "bladder dysfunction" or "cystopathy".Our own data and perspective are included in the discussion.Study selection Studies containing data relevant to DBD were selected.Because of the limited length of this article,we also referenced reviews that contain comprehensive amalgamations of relevant literature.Results The classic symptoms of DBD are decreased bladder sensation,increased bladder capacity,and impaired bladder emptying with resultant elevated post-void residual urine.However,recent clinical and experimental evidence indicate a strong presence of storage problems such as urge incontinence in diabetes.Recent studies of DBD in animal models of type 1 diabetes have revealed temporal effects of diabetes,causing an early phase of compensatory bladder function and a later phase of decompensated bladder function.The pathophysiology of DBD is multifactorial,including disturbances of the detrusor,urothelium,autonomic nerves,and urethra.Polyuria and hyperglycemia play important but distinctive roles in induction of bladder dysfunction in type 1 diabetes.Polyuria causes significant bladder hypertrophy in the early stage of diabetes,whereas oxidative stress in the bladder caused by chronic hyperglycemia may play an important role in the late stage failure of bladder function.Conclusions DBD includes time-dependent and mixed manifestations.The pathological alterations include muscle,nerve,and urothelium.Polyuria and hyperglycemia independently contribute to the pathogenesis of DBD.Treatments for DBD are limited.Future clinical studies on DBD in type 1 and type 2 diabetes should be investigated separately.Animal studies of DBD in type 2 diabetes are needed,from the natural history to mechanisms.Further understanding of the molecular

  3. Bladder Perforation Secondary to Primary Systemic Amyloidosis

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    Christopher J. Dru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloidosis is a disorder of protein folding characterized by extracellular aggregation and deposition of amyloid protein fibrils. Light-chain amyloidosis, also known as primary systemic amyloidosis, is the most common form of the disease. We present a case of an 84-year-old male with a history of systemic primary amyloidosis causing genitourinary, cardiac, and autonomic dysfunction who presented with hematuria and hypotension secondary to bladder perforation. He underwent open repair of a large extraperitoneal bladder defect. He ultimately died as a result of medical complications from his disease.

  4. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the bladder: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Jeung Hee; Nam, Eun Sook [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-01

    Inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder is a rare benign lesion. Because it is difficult to differentiate from other tumors clinically and pathologically, histopathologic confirmation is needed, and to avoid unnecessary cystectomy, it should be included in the differential diagnosis. A 47-year-old male presented with hematuria and voiding difficulty. IVP revealed a triangular filling defect in the urinary bladder, and CT demonstrated the presence there of a strongly enhancing mass. We deseribe this case, in which inflammatory pseudotumor was diagnosed, and review literature.

  5. Bladder pain syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanno, Philip; Nordling, Jørgen; Fall, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome is a deceptively intricate symptom complex that is diagnosed on the basis of chronic pelvic pain, pressure, or discomfort perceived to be related to the urinary bladder, accompanied by at least one other urinary symptom. It is a diagnosis of exclusion in a patient who has...

  6. Primary and secondary overacting inferior oblique muscles: an ultrastructural study.

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, E.; Ludatscher, R. M.; Zonis, S

    1984-01-01

    Biopsy material from primary and secondary overacting inferior oblique muscles were examined by light and electron microscopy. Most muscle fibres were in different stages of atrophy. A high variation of alterations was encountered in all muscles. The most striking abnormalities were huge accumulations of mitochondria and muscle vacuolisation related mainly to the enlargement of the tubules of sarcoplasmic reticulum. The mitochondrial aggregates and vacuolisation occupied more muscle surface i...

  7. Sympathetic Overactivity in Chronic Kidney Disease: Consequences and Mechanisms

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    Jasdeep Kaur

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD is increasing worldwide, with more than 26 million people suffering from CKD in the United States alone. More patients with CKD die of cardiovascular complications than progress to dialysis. Over 80% of CKD patients have hypertension, which is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Another common, perhaps underappreciated, feature of CKD is an overactive sympathetic nervous system. This elevation in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA not only contributes to hypertension but also plays a detrimental role in the progression of CKD independent of any increase in blood pressure. Indeed, high SNA is associated with poor prognosis and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality independent of its effect on blood pressure. This brief review will discuss some of the consequences of sympathetic overactivity and highlight some of the potential pathways contributing to chronically elevated SNA in CKD. Mechanisms leading to chronic sympathoexcitation in CKD are complex, multifactorial and to date, not completely understood. Identification of the mechanisms and/or signals leading to sympathetic overactivity in CKD are crucial for development of effective therapeutic targets to reduce the increased cardiovascular risk in this patient group.

  8. Autonomic nervous system activity assessement by heart rate variability in experimental bladder outlet obstruction 

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    Łukasz Dobrek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A syndrome with urgency, with or without associated urine incontinence and usually accompanied by higher urinary frequency and nocturia has been named “overactive bladder; OAB”. OAB is an entity with complex pathophysiology, involving both myogenic and neurogenic (afferent / efferent bladder innervation disturbances. OAB symptoms accompany benign prostatic hypertrophy - BPH (“obstructive OAB”. The aim of the study was to estimate the autonomic nervous system activity (ANS in the experimental bladder outlet obstruction (BOO which was an animal model of the human BPH. The study was conducted using 30 female rats, divided into two groups: BOO animals (n=15, with surgically induced BOO (by partial ligation of the proximal urethra and control ones (n=15, which underwent sham procedure (without urethral ligation. Two weeks after the surgery, in both groups, ANS activity was estimated using time- and spectral analysis of the heart rate variability recordings. The bladder overactivity in BOO animals was confirmed using urodynamic recordings and bladder histological assessment, juxtaposed against the results of the control group. The key finding of our study was the development of autonomic disturbances in bladder outlet obstruction (BOO rats. Our study revealed that BOO animals were characterised by diminished rMSSD and spectral HRV parameters: TP, LF and HF, in comparison with the control group. The normalised nLF and nHF parameters did not differ significantly in both groups, although slight changes in the nLF (increased and nHF (decreased were noted in BOO group. The absolute VLF value was almost the same in both studied populations, however, the percentage part of this component in the appropriate HRV spectrum differed considerably in both studied groups. In BOO animals, VLF percentage amounted to about 90�20whereas in control animals this parameter reached only about 53�0of the total power spectrum.Thus, to sum up, our findings suggest

  9. The Impact of Increased Bladder Blood Flow on Storage Symptoms after Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate.

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    Keisuke Saito

    Full Text Available In order to investigate how holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP improves urinary storage symptoms, we assessed blood flow in the urinary bladder mucosa of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH before and after laser surgery. Seventy-four consecutive patients with BPH (median age 69 years, range; 53-88 underwent HoLEP at our institution and are included in this study. We prospectively assessed the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS, IPSS-QOL Score, the Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS, uroflowmetry, and blood flow in the urinary bladder, before and after surgery. Blood flow in the bladder mucosa was measured using the OMEGA FLOW (OMEGAWAVE, Tokyo, Japan laser Doppler flowmeter. The median volume of the enucleated adenomas was 45.0 g (range: 25.0 to 83.2. The median IPSS improved significantly from 20 (range: 6-35 to 3 (0-22 (p < 0.001; Wilcoxon signed-rank test, as did the storage symptoms score, which decreased from 13 (2-20 to 3 (1-8 (p < 0.001. Median bladder blood flow increased at the trigone from 9.57 ± 0.83 ml/sec to 17.60 ± 1.08 ml/sec. Multiple regression analysis for the improved storage symptom score eliminated all explanatory variables except increased bladder perfusion. The data suggest that HoLEP improves blood flow in the bladder mucosa, which independently leads to the improvement of storage symptoms.

  10. Inhibition of the cation channel TRPV4 improves bladder function in mice and rats with cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaerts, Wouter; Zhen, Xiaoguang; Ghosh, Debapriya; Vriens, Joris; Gevaert, Thomas; Gilbert, James P; Hayward, Neil J; McNamara, Colleen R; Xue, Fenqin; Moran, Magdalene M; Strassmaier, Timothy; Uykal, Eda; Owsianik, Grzegorz; Vennekens, Rudi; De Ridder, Dirk; Nilius, Bernd; Fanger, Christopher M; Voets, Thomas

    2010-11-02

    Reduced functional bladder capacity and concomitant increased micturition frequency (pollakisuria) are common lower urinary tract symptoms associated with conditions such as cystitis, prostatic hyperplasia, neurological disease, and overactive bladder syndrome. These symptoms can profoundly affect the quality of life of afflicted individuals, but available pharmacological treatments are often unsatisfactory. Recent work has demonstrated that the cation channel TRPV4 is highly expressed in urothelial cells and plays a role in sensing the normal filling state of the bladder. In this article, we show that the development of cystitis-induced bladder dysfunction is strongly impaired in Trpv4(-/-) mice. Moreover, we describe HC-067047, a previously uncharacterized, potent, and selective TRPV4 antagonist that increases functional bladder capacity and reduces micturition frequency in WT mice and rats with cystitis. HC-067047 did not affect bladder function in Trpv4(-/-) mice, demonstrating that its in vivo effects are on target. These results indicate that TRPV4 antagonists may provide a promising means of treating bladder dysfunction.

  11. A Rare Case: Sporadic Bladder Paraganglioma

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    Hakan Ercil

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Paraganglioma is a rare tumor which originates from paraganglia tissue from neural crest. Bladder paraganglioma is suggested to be from crommaffin cells by the remains of the embryological cells. In this report, we aimed to discuss the literature by a case of bladder paraganglioma. A 39 year old male applied to our clinic with gross hematuria. A 2x2 cm mass was revealed in urinary ultrasound. Paraganglioma was found in the resection specimen and partial cystectomy was performed to the patient. A six month follow up revealed no recurrences. Even though bladder paraganglioma is a rare disease, it should be kept in mind for differential diagnosis. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 794-799

  12. Bladder carcinoma: MDCT cystography and virtual cystoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panebianco, Valeria; Sciarra, Alessandro; Di Martino, Michele; Bernardo, Silvia; Vergari, Valeria; Gentilucci, Alessandro; Catalano, Carlo; Passariello, Roberto

    2010-06-01

    Bladder carcinoma is the most common tumor among the low urinary tract, accounting for 90% of cancer cases. Conventional cystoscopy represents the gold standard for diagnosis and local management of bladder carcinoma. As the prevalence of transitional cell carcinoma is four-fold greater in men than in women, the endoscopic procedure presents objective difficulties related to the length and bending of male urethra. The most important problems are represented by intense discomfort for the patient and bleeding; furthermore, the high cost, invasivity, and local complications such as infections and mechanical lesions are well-known drawbacks. Additionally, conventional cystoscopy does not provide information about extravescical extensions of the tumor. CT cystography, combined with virtual cystoscopy, is mandatory for TNM staging of the tumor and also is useful when conventional cystoscopy is inconclusive or cannot be performed. We presents the CT cystography findings with virtual endoscopy correlation and bladder carcinoma appearance.

  13. Surgical management of bladder transitional cell carcinoma in a vesicular diverticulum: case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Raheem, Omer A

    2012-02-01

    We report a case of primary transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of a bladder diverticum along with a literature review. A 55-year-old male presented with painless gross hematuria. A histological diagnosis of TCC within a bladder diverticulum was made following cystoscopical examination. Initially transurethral resection of bladder tumour with subsequent intravesical chemotherapy followed. As a result of recurrence and in view of bladder-sparing therapy, a distal partial cystectomy was performed. This report demonstrates that conservative bladder-sparing treatment can be achieved and subsequently followed by vigilant cystoscopy.

  14. Surgical management of bladder transitional cell carcinoma in a vesicular diverticulum: case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Raheem, Omer A

    2011-08-01

    We report a case of primary transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of a bladder diverticum along with a literature review. A 55-year-old male presented with painless gross hematuria. A histological diagnosis of TCC within a bladder diverticulum was made following cystoscopical examination. Initially transurethral resection of bladder tumour with subsequent intravesical chemotherapy followed. As a result of recurrence and in view of bladder-sparing therapy, a distal partial cystectomy was performed. This report demonstrates that conservative bladder-sparing treatment can be achieved and subsequently followed by vigilant cystoscopy.

  15. Paraganglioma of urinary bladder

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    Vinod Priyadarshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraganglioma of the urinary bladder are tumors of chromaffin tissue originating from the sympathetic innervations of the urinary bladder wall and are extremely rare. Being functional, in most of the cases they are recognized by their characteristic presentation of hypertensive crisis and postmicturition syncope. A silent presentation of a bladder paraganglioma is very unusual but quite dangerous as they are easily misdiagnosed and adequate peri-operative attention is not provided. Here, we are presenting one such silent paraganglioma in adult women who presented with only a single episode of hematuria and severe hypertensive crisis occur during its trans-urethral resection.

  16. Optogenetic Modulation of Urinary Bladder Contraction for Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hong; Hong, Jin Ki; Jang, Ja Yun; An, Jieun; Lee, Kyu-Sung; Kang, Tong Mook; Shin, Hyun Joon; Suh, Jun-Kyo Francis

    2017-01-01

    As current clinical approaches for lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction such as pharmacological and electrical stimulation treatments lack target specificity, thus resulting in suboptimal outcomes with various side effects, a better treatment modality with spatial and temporal target-specificity is necessary. In this study, we delivered optogenetic membrane proteins, such as channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) and halorhodopsin (NpHR), to bladder smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of mice using either the Cre-loxp transgenic system or a viral transfection method. The results showed that depolarizing ChR2-SMCs with blue light induced bladder contraction, whereas hyperpolarizing NpHR-SMCs with yellow light suppressed PGE2-induced overactive contraction. We also confirmed that optogenetic contraction of bladder smooth muscles in this study is not neurogenic, but solely myogenic, and that optogenetic light stimulation can modulate the urination in vivo. This study thus demonstrated the utility of optogenetic modulation of smooth muscle as a means to actively control the urinary bladder contraction with spatial and temporal accuracy. These features would increase the efficacy of bladder control in LUT dysfunctions without the side effects of conventional clinical therapies.

  17. Complications of untreated and ineffectively treated neurogenic bladder dysfunctions in children: our own practical classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, P; Zachwieja, J

    2016-04-01

    The neurogenic dysfunctions of the detrusor and the sphincter are caused by either a known congenital defect of the nervous system or by acquired damage to the nervous system. In patients with idiopathic bladder dysfunctions neurological examinations fail to reveal any pathology in the nervous system. The treatment strategy for the patient with detrusor-sphincter dysfunction should be based on a comprehensive functional and morphological evaluation. Clean Intermittent Catheterization is mandatory if voiding is ineffective. Reduced bladder capacity related to detrusor overactivity and decreased bladder walls compliance is successfully managed conservatively with oral anticholinergics. Conservative treatment prevents complications in the majority of patients. However, despite proper conservative treatment, some patients still develop complications. We propose our own practical classification of complications characteristic for the bladder and sphincter dysfunctions: 1. Urinary tract infections; 2. Urolithiasis; 3. Anatomic changes in the lower urinary tract; 4. Anatomic changes in the upper urinary tract; 5. Functional disturbances of kidneys parenchyma; 6. Urinary incontinence. Proposed practical classification of complications of bladder and sphincter dysfunctions is clear and simple. This classification can be used both in children with neurogenic and non-neurogenic dysfunctions. It is helpful in planning follow-up procedures and evaluation of treatment results.

  18. Optogenetic Modulation of Urinary Bladder Contraction for Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hong; Hong, Jin Ki; Jang, Ja Yun; An, Jieun; Lee, Kyu-Sung; Kang, Tong Mook; Shin, Hyun Joon; Suh, Jun-Kyo Francis

    2017-01-01

    As current clinical approaches for lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction such as pharmacological and electrical stimulation treatments lack target specificity, thus resulting in suboptimal outcomes with various side effects, a better treatment modality with spatial and temporal target-specificity is necessary. In this study, we delivered optogenetic membrane proteins, such as channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) and halorhodopsin (NpHR), to bladder smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of mice using either the Cre-loxp transgenic system or a viral transfection method. The results showed that depolarizing ChR2-SMCs with blue light induced bladder contraction, whereas hyperpolarizing NpHR-SMCs with yellow light suppressed PGE2-induced overactive contraction. We also confirmed that optogenetic contraction of bladder smooth muscles in this study is not neurogenic, but solely myogenic, and that optogenetic light stimulation can modulate the urination in vivo. This study thus demonstrated the utility of optogenetic modulation of smooth muscle as a means to actively control the urinary bladder contraction with spatial and temporal accuracy. These features would increase the efficacy of bladder control in LUT dysfunctions without the side effects of conventional clinical therapies. PMID:28098199

  19. Paraganglioma of the urinary bladder with pelvic metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiun-Hung Geng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 52-year-old male, diagnosed with paraganglioma of the urinary bladder, underwent transurethral resection of the bladder tumor 10 years ago. He was lost to follow-up after the operation but was recently admitted to our hospital for the treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer. However, refractory hypertension with palpitation was noted and a computed tomography scan revealed a round, well-defined mass at the right pelvic region. Retroperitoneal tumor excision surgery was performed and a subsequent pathological analysis revealed paraganglioma. The diagnosis of paraganglioma of the urinary bladder with pelvic metastasis was confirmed and his blood pressure returned to normal level without medication after the operation.

  20. An Unusual Case Of Urinary Bladder Arteriovenous Malformation

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gnanappiragasam, D

    2016-07-01

    A 45-year-old male presented with haematuria and urinary frequency. Computed Tomography (CT) urogram revealed gross thickening of the left bladder wall. Histology showed large vessels cuffed by eosinophonilic material suggestive of urinary bladder arteriovenous malformation (AVM). No further intervention was carried out as symptoms resolve after the resection. Follow up rigid cystoscopy and CT at 3 months showed resolution of all visible pathology and no evidence of recurrence.

  1. Long neglected neurogenic bladder

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    Pooja Binnani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary diversion is indicated for the management of the neurogenic bladder. However, there is a risk for developing pyocystitis in this type of patients. We present a case of young female who presented with a history of frequent urinary tract infection (UTI post urinary diversion for neurogenic bladder. Ever since she underwent simple cystectomy, there have been no further episodes of UTI.

  2. The inverse relationship between bladder and liver in 4-aminobiphenyl-induced DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Arup; Klaene, Joshua J; Li, Yun; Paonessa, Joseph D; Stablewski, Aimee B; Vouros, Paul; Zhang, Yuesheng

    2015-01-20

    Bladder cancer risk is significantly higher in men than in women. 4-Aminobiphenyl (ABP) is a major human bladder carcinogen from tobacco smoke and other sources. In mice, male bladder is more susceptible to ABP-induced carcinogenesis than female bladder, but ABP is more carcinogenic in the livers of female mice than of male mice. Here, we show that castration causes male mice to acquire female phenotype regarding susceptibility of bladder and liver to ABP. However, spaying has little impact on organ susceptibility to ABP. Liver UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are believed to protect liver against but sensitize bladder to ABP, as glucuronidation of ABP and its metabolites generally reduces their toxicity and promotes their elimination via urine, but the metabolites are labile in urine, delivering carcinogenic species to the bladder. Indeed, liver expression of ABP-metabolizing human UGT1A3 transgene in mice increases bladder susceptibility to ABP. However, ABP-specific liver UGT activity is significantly higher in wild-type female mice than in their male counterparts, and castration also significantly increases ABP-specific UGT activity in the liver. Taken together, our data suggest that androgen increases bladder susceptibility to ABP via liver, likely by modulating an ABP-metabolizing liver enzyme, but exclude UGT as an important mediator.

  3. Spontaneous bladder rupture in acute alcohol intoxication

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    Bahjat Barakat

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous bladder rupture is a rare condition that can be followed by an acute alcohol intoxication and can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We report a case diagnosed in a alcoholic young male who was admitted to our emergency room for epigastric pain. The case demonstrates the difficulties with diagnosis and the need for physicians who work in an emergency room to be aware of this condition.

  4. Urosepsis complicated by a spontaneous bladder perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutwak, Nancy; Dill, Curt

    2011-11-08

    The authors present a case of a 72-year-old diabetic male s/p pelvic irradiation for prostate carcinoma who arrived in the emergency department with complaints of shaking chills. After admission for urosepsis, he developed severe abdominal pain and examination revealed a diffusely tender abdomen. The patient was diagnosed with spontaneous urinary bladder perforation and underwent surgery. After several weeks of intravenous antibiotics, he was discharged with multiple drains in place and bilateral nephrostomy tubes.

  5. Spontaneous Bladder Perforation in an Infant Neurogenic Bladder: Laparoscopic Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cabezalí Barbancho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous bladder perforation is an uncommon event in childhood. It is usually associated with bladder augmentation. We are presenting a case of bladder rupture in an infant with neurogenic bladder without prior bladder surgery. Three days after lipomyelomeningocele excision the patient showed signs and symptoms of acute abdomen. The ultrasound exploration revealed significant amount of intraperitoneal free fluid and therefore a laparoscopic exploration was performed. A posterior bladder rupture was diagnosed and repaired laparoscopically. Currently, being 3 years old, she keeps successfully dry with clean intermittent catheterization. Neurogenic bladder voiding function can change at any time of its evolution and lead to complications. Early diagnosis of spontaneous bladder rupture is of paramount importance, so it is essential to think about it in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen.

  6. The alpha-2A adrenoceptor agonist guanfacine improves sustained attention and reduces overactivity and impulsiveness in an animal model of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagvolden Terje

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ADHD is currently defined as a cognitive/behavioral developmental disorder where all clinical criteria are behavioral. Overactivity, impulsiveness, and inattentiveness are presently regarded as the main clinical symptoms. There is no biological marker, but there is considerable evidence to suggest that ADHD behavior is associated with poor dopaminergic and noradrenergic modulation of neuronal circuits that involve the frontal lobes. The best validated animal model of ADHD, the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR, shows pronounced overactivity, impulsiveness, and deficient sustained attention. While dopamine release is decreased in SHR prefrontal cortex, norepinephrine concentrations are elevated. The noradrenergic system appears to be hyperactive as a result of impaired alpha-2A adrenoceptor regulation. Thus, the present study tested behavioral effects of the centrally acting alpha-2A adrenoceptor agonist guanfacine on SHR behavior. Methods The present study tested behavioral effects of guanfacine at doses of 0.075, 0.15, 0.30 and 0.60 mg base/kg i.p. in both male SHRs and their controls, the Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY. ADHD-like behavior was tested with a visual discrimination task measuring overactivity, impulsiveness and inattentiveness. Results The striking impulsiveness, overactivity, and reduced sustained attention during baseline conditions in the SHR improved by treatment with guanfacine. The most pronounced improvement in SHR behavior was seen following the two highest doses (0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg of guanfacine when SHR behaviors virtually normalized. The positive effects of the drug were most marked towards the end of the session. Conclusion The results indicate that guanfacine improved poor noradrenergic modulation of neuronal circuits that involve the frontal lobes in an animal model of ADHD. The present results support the beneficial effects of guanfacine on ADHD behavior reported clinically and experimentally in primate

  7. Urothelial carcinoma arising within bladder diverticulum—Report of a case and review of the literature

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    Hung-En Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bladder diverticulum is an outpouching of bladder mucosa through the musculature of the bladder wall. The incidence of bladder diverticulum in Taiwan is about 1.7% in children and 23.4% in adults. Intradiverticular carcinoma of urinary bladder is uncommon. It ranges from 0.8% to 14.3%. Here we report a case of urothelial carcinoma within a bladder diverticulum. A 60-year-old male patient had history of BPH under medical treatment and right ureteral stone treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL. He presented with painless gross hematuria about 3 months after ESWL. Intravenous pyelography showed a filling defect within the bladder diverticulum. Histopathological diagnosis of low grade urothelial carcinoma arising from the bladder diverticulum was made following cystoscopic biopsy. Laparoscopic partial cystectomy was performed with subsequent intravesical chemotherapy. Tumor recurrence was found not from the previous diverticulum but from another area during regular cystoscopy at the 6-month postoperative follow up. He underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor. Pathology revealed a noninvasive, high grade urothelial carcinoma. There was no further bladder tumor recurrence during the 1-year follow-up period. Bladder-sparing surgery with close cystoscopy follow up for intradiverticular urothelial carcinoma can be applied as an alternative treatment modality.

  8. Contractures and involuntary muscle overactivity in severe brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Marcus; Mehrholz, Jan; Rockstroh, Günter; Rückriem, Stefan; Koch, Rainer

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of contractures with an increase or reduction of non-spastic muscle overactivity due to severe cerebral damage. Forty-five patients with tetraparesis after severe cerebral damage were investigated. Three groups were defined based on the presence of spasticity (revealed as resistance to passive stretch (= hypertonia)), and the presence of contracture of the relevant knee joint: Group(s) (17 patients with hypertonia without contracture), Group(s+c) (20 patients with hypertonia and contracture), and Group(c) (eight patients without hypertonia and with contracture). In all groups spontaneous involuntary muscle activity was assessed continuously over a 12-hour period through isometric measurement of knee joint flexion torque. A mathematical algorithm differentiated an hourly muscle activity spectrum (PI(h)). The frequency of peaks (peaks(h)) from the activity spectrum was determined. We revealed that Group(s) had higher PI(h) and more frequent peaks(h) compared with Group(s+c) and Group(c) (p0.05). The presence of contractures was associated with lower involuntary muscle overactivity in terms of lower PI(h) and less frequent peaks(h), indicating that contractures may be associated with reduced non-spastic positive features of the upper motor neurone syndrome in patients with severe brain damage.

  9. Frequency of the superior rectus muscle overaction/contracture syndrome in unilateral fourth nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Andrea; Ugrin, Maria Cristina

    2009-12-01

    Superior oblique palsy is accompanied in most cases by overaction of the muscle's ipsilateral antagonist, the inferior oblique muscle. Overaction and contracture of the ipsilateral superior rectus muscle in patients with unilateral fourth (trochlear) nerve palsy is seldom discussed in the literature. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the frequency of superior rectus muscle overaction/contracture syndrome in patients with unilateral trochlear nerve palsy. The records of 198 patients with unilateral trochlear nerve palsy examined by the authors between July 1987 and July 2008 were reviewed retrospectively. All patients underwent complete eye examination with measurement of the deviation in the 9 positions of gaze and with the head tilted to both sides in all cooperative patients. Selection criteria for superior rectus muscle overaction/contracture syndrome in these patients were as follows: vertical deviation of 15(Delta) or larger in primary position, equal or larger hypertropia with the ipsilateral forced tilt test than with the eyes looking straight ahead, more than 5(Delta) hypertropia of the affected eye in horizontal gaze to the same side, hypertropia in all upgazes, and overaction of the contralateral superior oblique muscle. Of 198 patients, 33 (16.6%) met the selection criteria for superior rectus muscle overaction/contracture syndrome. Superior rectus muscle overaction/contracture syndrome frequently occurs in unilateral superior oblique palsy.

  10. Bladder Control Problems in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... special sensors to measure bodily functions, such as muscle contractions that control urination. A video monitor displays the ... symptoms of urgency incontinence. Mirabegron suppresses involuntary bladder ... brain signals the muscular bladder wall to tighten, squeezing urine out of ...

  11. The modern staged repair of classic bladder exstrophy: a detailed postoperative management strategy for primary bladder closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stec, Andrew A; Baradaran, Nima; Schaeffer, Anthony; Gearhart, John P; Matthews, Ranjiv I

    2012-10-01

    Successful primary bladder closure of classic bladder exstrophy sets the stage for development of adequate bladder capacity and eventual voided continence. The postoperative pathway following primary bladder closure at the authors' institution is quantitatively and qualitatively detailed. Sixty-five consecutive newborns (47 male) undergoing primary closure of classic bladder exstrophy were identified and data were extracted relating to immediate postoperative care. Overall success rate was utilized to validate the pathway. Mean age at time of primary closure was 4.6 days and mean hospital stay was 35.8 days. Osteotomy was performed in 19 patients (mean age 8.8 days), and was not required in 39 infants (mean age 2.9 days). All patients were immobilized for 4 weeks. Tunneled epidural analgesia was employed in 61/65 patients. All patients had ureteral catheters and a suprapubic tube, along with a comprehensive antibiotic regimen. Postoperative total parenteral nutrition was commonly administered, and enteral feedings started around day 4.6. Our success rate of primary closure was 95.4%. A detailed and regimented plan for bladder drainage, immobilization, pain control, nutrition, antimicrobial prophylaxis, and adequate healing time is a cornerstone for the postoperative management of the primary closure of bladder exstrophy. Copyright © 2011 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Generic method for automatic bladder segmentation on cone beam CT using a patient-specific bladder shape model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoot, A. J. A. J. van de, E-mail: a.j.schootvande@amc.uva.nl; Schooneveldt, G.; Wognum, S.; Stalpers, L. J. A.; Rasch, C. R. N.; Bel, A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hoogeman, M. S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Erasmus Medical Center, Groene Hilledijk 301, 3075 EA Rotterdam (Netherlands); Chai, X. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 875 Blake Wilbur Drive, Palo Alto, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to develop and validate a generic method for automatic bladder segmentation on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), independent of gender and treatment position (prone or supine), using only pretreatment imaging data. Methods: Data of 20 patients, treated for tumors in the pelvic region with the entire bladder visible on CT and CBCT, were divided into four equally sized groups based on gender and treatment position. The full and empty bladder contour, that can be acquired with pretreatment CT imaging, were used to generate a patient-specific bladder shape model. This model was used to guide the segmentation process on CBCT. To obtain the bladder segmentation, the reference bladder contour was deformed iteratively by maximizing the cross-correlation between directional grey value gradients over the reference and CBCT bladder edge. To overcome incorrect segmentations caused by CBCT image artifacts, automatic adaptations were implemented. Moreover, locally incorrect segmentations could be adapted manually. After each adapted segmentation, the bladder shape model was expanded and new shape patterns were calculated for following segmentations. All available CBCTs were used to validate the segmentation algorithm. The bladder segmentations were validated by comparison with the manual delineations and the segmentation performance was quantified using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), surface distance error (SDE) and SD of contour-to-contour distances. Also, bladder volumes obtained by manual delineations and segmentations were compared using a Bland-Altman error analysis. Results: The mean DSC, mean SDE, and mean SD of contour-to-contour distances between segmentations and manual delineations were 0.87, 0.27 cm and 0.22 cm (female, prone), 0.85, 0.28 cm and 0.22 cm (female, supine), 0.89, 0.21 cm and 0.17 cm (male, supine) and 0.88, 0.23 cm and 0.17 cm (male, prone), respectively. Manual local adaptations improved the segmentation

  13. Contractility of the guinea pig bladder measured in situ and in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Groen (Jan); R. van Mastrigt (Ron); J.L.H.R. Bosch (Ruud)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractTo study the relative importance of neurogenic factors in detrusor contractility and to relate a total bladder in vitro contractility model to a previously described bladder wall strip model, active intravesical pressure values were compared in situ and in vitro in eight male guinea pigs

  14. A three dimensional nerve map of human bladder trigone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, J Todd; Spruill, Laura; Rovner, Eric; Borisko, Elyse; McCants, Alden; Mugo, Elizabeth; Wingard, Ainsley; Trusk, Thomas C; Bacro, Thierry; Hughes, Francis M

    2017-04-01

    Central efferent and afferent neural pathways to and from the human urinary bladder are well-characterized, but the location and arborization of these nerves as they traverse the serosa, muscularis, and urothelial layers are not clearly defined. The purpose of this study was to create a three dimensional map of the innervation of the human bladder trigone from the extrinsic perivesical adventitial nerve trunks to the urothelium. A male and a female human bladder were harvested from fresh frozen cadavers and fixed in formalin. The bladder neck and trigone region were serially sectioned (5 μm) and every 20th slide was stained (S100), scanned and aligned to create 3D maps. Nerve penetration into the detrusor muscle occurs with the highest frequency at the bladder neck and interureteric ridge. Nerves traveling parallel to the bladder lumen do so in the adventitia, beyond the outer border of detrusor. In females, the depth of these nerve bands is uniform at 0.7-1.7 cm below the luminal surface, the outer limits of which include the anterior vaginal wall. In the male, depth is more variable owing to detrusor hypertrophy with the minimum depth of nerves approximately 0.5 cm near the interureteric ridge and over 1 cm near the bladder neck. Myelinated neural pathways traversing in the human bladder in the region of the trigone have a discreet regional density. This 3D map of trigonal innervation may provide guidance to more precisely direct therapies for urinary incontinence or pelvic pain. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:1015-1019, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Time-dependent effects of castration on the bladder function and histological changes in the bladder and blood vessels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomohiro Magari; Yasuhiro Shibata; Seiji Arai; Bunzo Kashiwagi; Keiji Suzuki; Kazuhiro Suzuki

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effect of androgens on bladder blood lfow (BBF), bladder function and histological changes in castrated male rats. Male Wistar rats were classiifed into unoperated group (control group), groups castrated at the age of 8 weeks (group 8wPC) and groups castrated at the age of 4 weeks (group 4wPC). Each rat was used at the age of 20 weeks. BBF was measured using lfuorescent microspheres. Bladder cystometry was performed without anesthesia or restraint;the bladder was ifrst irrigated with saline and then with 0.25%acetic acid (AA) solution. Maximum voiding pressure and voiding interval were measured. The bladder and iliac artery were histologically examined for differences in smooth muscle and quantity of collagen ifber to analyze the effect of castration on the smooth muscle content. No differences were noted in BBF following castration. The voiding intervals for all groups were shortened (P<0.001) following AA irrigation. No signiifcant difference was noted in the maximum voiding pressure. Histological changes were observed in bladder and iliac artery. Smooth muscle/collagen ratio at the bladder was lower in groups 8wPC and 4wPC compared to the control group (P<0.01), while that at the iliac artery was decreased in group 4wPC compared to the control group (P<0.001). In conclusion, our ifndings indicate that castration does not alter BBF, but leads to histological changes in the bladder as well as its associated blood vessels.

  16. Minimal invasive electrode implantation for conditional stimulation of the dorsal genital nerve in neurogenic detrusor overactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, F.M.J.; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.; Rijkhoff, N.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Experimental. OBJECTIVES: Electrical stimulation of the dorsal genital nerves (DGN) suppresses involuntary detrusor contractions (IDCs) in patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity (DO). The feasibility of minimal invasive electrode implantation near the DGN and the effectiveness

  17. Surveillance of bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.N. van der Aa (Madelon)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe urinary bladder together with the pyelum, ureters and urethra form the urinary tract system (figure 1.1); the system that is responsible for the excretion and collection of urine. With approximately 357,000 new cases per year worldwide, tumours of the urinary tract system contribute

  18. Is the Poly (L- Lactide- Co– Caprolactone) Nanofibrous Membrane Suitable for Urinary Bladder Regeneration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Tomasz; Warda, Karolina; Rasmus, Marta; Buchholz, Lukasz; Krzyzanowska, Sandra; Nakielski, Pawel; Chmielewski, Tomasz; Bodnar, Magdalena; Marszalek, Andrzej; Debski, Robert; Frontczak-Baniewicz, Malgorzata; Mikułowski, Grzegorz; Nowacki, Maciej; Kowalewski, Tomasz A.; Drewa, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare: a new five-layered poly (L–lactide–co–caprolactone) (PLC) membrane and small intestinal submucosa (SIS) as a control in rat urinary bladder wall regeneration. The five-layered poly (L–lactide–co–caprolactone) membrane was prepared by an electrospinning process. Adipose tissue was harvested from five 8-week old male Wistar rats. Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) were seeded in a density of 3×106 cells/cm2 onto PLC membrane and SIS scaffolds, and cultured for 5-7 days in the stem cell culture medium. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five equal groups. Augmentation cystoplasty was performed in a previously created dome defect. Groups: (I) PLC+ 3×106ADSCs; (II) SIS+ 3×106ADSCs; (III) PLC; (IV) SIS; (V) control. Cystography was performed after three months. The reconstructed urinary bladders were evaluated in H&E and Masson's trichrome staining. Regeneration of all components of the normal urinary bladder wall was observed in bladders augmented with cell-seeded SIS matrices. The urinary bladders augmented with SIS matrices without cells showed fibrosis and graft contraction. Bladder augmentation with the PLC membrane led to numerous undesirable events including: bladder wall perforation, fistula or diverticula formation, and incorporation of the reconstructed wall into the bladder lumen. The new five-layered poly (L–lactide–co–caprolactone) membrane possesses poorer potential for regenerating the urinary bladder wall compared with SIS scaffold. PMID:25162451

  19. [Urodynamic changes after bladder augmentation surgery in paediatric patients with myelomeningocele due to neurogenic bladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza Torres, Raúl Ignacio; Galarza-Flores, Mario Eduardo; Gómez-Castellanos, Julio Cesar; Barrera-de León, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Augmentation cystoplasty is a successful surgical procedure for the management of neurogenic bladder in children in order to improve urodynamic parameters. The aim of this article is to describe urodynamic changes after augmentation cystoplasty in children with myelomeningocele. A descriptive cross-sectional study including children aged 8-16 years with a myelomeningocele operated on for augmentation cystoplasty surgery with sigmoid colon segments due to a neurogenic bladder from the years 2003-2013. A urodynamic study was conducted before and after the surgical procedure. Non-probabilistic sample of consecutive cases. Descriptive statistics with frequencies and percentages, medians, and ranges. Inferential intra-group comparison with the Wilcoxon test and inter-group with Mann-Whitney U. SPSS 20.0 statistical package. The study included 50 patients, of whom 25 were male and 25 were female, with a median age of 12 years (range, 6-15 years). Bladder capacity improved from 52.8% to 95.9% (p<0.001), uninhibited contractions 1.4-1.8, contraction intensity 47-8.5 (p<0.001), mean pre-surgical and post-surgical filling pressure 40.8cm H2O and 11.0cm H2O, respectively (p<0.001), mean emptying pressure 48.5 vs. 3.6cm H2O (p<0.001), and bladder accommodation 4.6 vs. 41.3cm H2O (p<0.001). Augmentation cystoplasty with sigmoid colon significantly improved urodynamic parameters, such as bladder accommodation and filling pressure in children with myelomeningocele-associated neurogenic bladder. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  20. Bladder Cancer in an Inguinoscrotal Vesical Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Regis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 79-year-old male who, due to hematuria, underwent cystoscopy that showed a lesion in the bladder dome. Transurethral resection was attempted, but access to the tumor by this route was impossible. Given the findings, a body CT scan was performed showing an inguinoscrotal hernia with vesical carcinoma contained. Open surgical treatment of the vesical carcinoma contained within the inguinoscrotal hernia was performed in conjunction with the hernia repair. The anatomical pathology report confirmed a high-grade urothelial carcinoma (stage pT2b with a free resection margin of <1 mm. Adjuvant radiotherapy was selected for subsequent treatment. The presence of bladder tumor in an inguinoscrotal hernia is an uncommon finding and a diagnostic delay can be assumed. The initial therapeutic plan may need to be changed from the usual approaches due to the atypical presentation.

  1. Efficient intravesical therapy of bladder cancer with cationic doxorubicin nanoassemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin X

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Xun Jin,1 Peilan Zhang,1 Li Luo,1 Hao Cheng,1 Yunzu Li,1 Ting Du,1 Bingwen Zou,2 Maling Gou1 1State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, and Collaborative Innovation Center for Biotherapy, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Thoracic Oncology, Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Nanoparticles have promising applications in drug delivery for cancer therapy. Herein, we prepared cationic 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium propane/methoxypoly (ethyleneglycol (DPP nanoparticles to deliver doxorubicin (Dox for intravesical therapy of bladder cancer. The DPP micelles have a mean dynamic diameter of 18.65 nm and a mean zeta potential of +19.6 mV. The DPP micelles could prolong the residence of Dox in the bladder, enhance the penetration of Dox into the bladder wall, and improve cellular uptake of Dox. The encapsulation by DPP micelles significantly improved the anticancer effect of Dox against orthotopic bladder cancer in vivo. This work described a Dox-loaded DPP nanoparticle with potential applications in intravesical therapy of bladder cancer. Keywords: bladder cancer, drug delivery, nanoparticles, intravesical therapy

  2. Does urothelial cancer of bladder behave differently in young patients?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-hua; LI You-yuan; HU Zhi-quan; ZHU Hui; ZHUANG Qian-yuan; QI Yong; YE Zhang-qun

    2012-01-01

    Background Bladder urothelial cancer has been diagnosed at an increasing rate among young adults in China while the clinical outcomes remain highly controversial.To optimize the management of young patients with bladder cancer,we examined whether bladder urothelial cancer in young patients behaved differently from that in the elder patients.Methods From 1994 to 2008,a database of bladder urothelial cancer patients at a major tertiary medical center was retrospectively reviewed.The clinical and pathological parameters of patients who were less than 40 years of age and a series of patients older than 40 years of age as the control group during the same period were compared.A survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test,and Cox regression was performed to identify clinical parameters that affected the clinic outcomes.Results Young bladder cancer patients had a lower male-to-female ratio and were less likely to have advanced stages and high-grade cancers at the initial diagnosis.Tumors in young bladder cancer patients tended to be less multifocal at diagnosis.In addition,young patients had a lower recurrence rate and longer recurrence interval than older patients.The Kaplan-Meier curve and Log-rank test showed that young patients had significantly better cancer specific survival than old patients.The univariats and multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that tumor grade is the sole predictor for tumor recurrence in young patients.Conclusions Young patients with bladder cancer have favorable pathological features and clinical outcomes than older patients.These findings argue for more conservative management approaches for young patients with bladder cancer.

  3. Innovation in Bladder Cancer Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, H Barton; Lamm, Donald L; Kamat, Ashish M; Keefe, Stephen; Taylor, John A; Ingersoll, Molly A

    2016-10-01

    Bladder cancer is understudied despite its high prevalence and its remarkable response to immunotherapy. Indeed, funding for studies to explore mechanisms of tumor immunity and novel new therapeutics is disproportionately lower for bladder cancer in comparison with malignancies of the breast, prostate, or lung. However, the recent successes of checkpoint blockade therapy suggest that new therapeutic strategies are on the horizon for bladder cancer. Here, we give a perspective into the evolution of bladder cancer therapy, focusing on strategies to treat high-risk nonmuscle invasive disease, followed by a discussion of recent advances in the treatment of muscle invasive bladder cancer and their potential applicability to lower stage disease. Finally, we explore immunotherapeutic strategies, which have been demonstrated to be successful in the treatment of other malignancies, for their potential to treat and cure patients with nonmuscle and muscle invasive bladder cancer.

  4. Permeability and ultrastructure of human bladder epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, J; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Nielsen, S L;

    1983-01-01

    Leakage of tight junctions as observed with electron microscopy and demonstration of solute transport across bladder epithelium was investigated in 13 patients with different bladder diseases: urinary retention and infection, bladder tumours and interstitial cystitis. The latter group showed cons...

  5. The role of TRPM8 in the Guinea-pig bladder-cooling reflex investigated using a novel TRPM8 antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Jennifer C; Kirkup, Anthony J; Curry, John; Humphreys, Sian; O'Regan, Paul; Postlethwaite, Michael; Young, Kimberley C; Kitching, Linda; Ethell, Brian T; Winpenny, David; McMurray, Gordon

    2014-10-05

    Patients with overactive bladder often exhibit abnormal bladder contractions in response to intravesical cold saline (positive ice-water test). The molecular entity involved in cold sensation within the urinary bladder is unknown, but a potential candidate is the ion channel, transient receptor potential (melastatin)-8 (TRPM8). The objective of the present study was to investigate the role of TRPM8 in a bladder-cooling reflex evoked in anaesthetised guinea-pigs that is comparable to the positive ice-water test seen in patients. Guinea-pig TRPM8 was cloned from L6 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and expressed in HEK293 cells. Functional agonist- and cold-induced Ca2+ influx and electrophysiology assays were performed in these cells, and for comparison in HEK293 cells expressing human TRPM8, using a novel TRPM8 antagonist, the S-enantiomer of 1-phenylethyl 4-(benzyloxy)-3-methoxybenzyl (2-aminoethyl) carbamate hydrochloride (PBMC). Potency data from these assays was used to calculate intravenous infusion protocols for targeted plasma concentrations of PBMC in studies on micturition reflexes evoked by intravesical infusion of menthol or cold saline in anaesthetised guinea-pigs. Tissue expression of TRPM8 in guinea-pig bladder, urethra and in dorsal root ganglia neurones traced from the bladder was also investigated. TRPM8 mRNA and protein were detected in L6 dorsal root ganglia, bladder urothelium and smooth muscle. PBMC antagonised in vitro activation of human and guinea-pig TRPM8 and reversed menthol and cold-induced facilitation of the micturition reflex at plasma concentrations consistent with in vitro potencies. The present data suggest that the bladder-cooling reflex in the guinea-pig involves TRPM8. The potential significance of TRPM8 in bladder disease states deserves future investigation.

  6. Analysis of the Sonic Hedgehog signaling pathway in normal and abnormal bladder development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSouza, Kristin R; Saha, Monalee; Carpenter, Ashley R; Scott, Melissa; McHugh, Kirk M

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined the expression of Sonic Hedgehog, Patched, Gli1, Gli2, Gli3 and Myocardin in the developing bladders of male and female normal and megabladder (mgb-/-) mutant mice at embryonic days 12 through 16 by in situ hybridization. This analysis indicated that each member of the Sonic Hedgehog signaling pathway as well as Myocardin displayed distinct temporal and spatial patterns of expression during normal bladder development. In contrast, mgb-/- bladders showed both temporal and spatial changes in the expression of Patched, Gli1 and Gli3 as well as a complete lack of Myocardin expression. These changes occurred primarily in the outer mesenchyme of developing mgb-/- bladders consistent with the development of an amuscular bladder phenotype in these animals. These results provide the first comprehensive analysis of the Sonic Hedgehog signaling pathway during normal bladder development and provide strong evidence that this key signaling cascade is critical in establishing radial patterning in the developing bladder. In addition, the lack of detrusor smooth muscle development observed in mgb-/- mice is associated with bladder-specific temporospatial changes in Sonic Hedgehog signaling coupled with a lack of Myocardin expression that appears to result in altered patterning of the outer mesenchyme and poor initiation and differentiation of smooth muscle cells within this region of the developing bladder.

  7. Acacia Senegal gum exudate offers protection against cyclophosphamide-induced urinary bladder cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yahya, Abdulaziz A; Al-Majed, Abdulhakeem A; Gado, Ali M; Daba, Mohammad H; Al-Shabanah, Othman A; Abd-Allah, Adel R A

    2009-01-01

    Cylophosphamide (CYCL) is a strong anticancer and immunosuppressive agent but its urotoxicity presents one of the major toxic effects that limit its wide usage particularly in high dose regimens. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate Acacia Senegal gum exudate ,Gum Arabic (GA), for its possible role as a natural, nontoxic agent against CYCL-induced urotoxicity. Male Swiss albino rats were exposed to CYCL (150 mg/kg BW, once i.p) with or without GA oral supplementation (7.5 g/kg/day for 6 days) through drinking water. Glutathione (GSH), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Nitric oxide (NO) bladder contents were assessed. Responsiveness of the bladder rings to acetylcholine (ACh) in vitro, microscopic and macroscopic features are also investigated. CYCL produced pronounced harmful effects on bladder urothelial lining with significant increases in (MDA) and NO levels in the tissue homogenates. Bladder-GSH content is dropped by over 60% following CYCL injection. Bladder contractility, as measured by its responsiveness to ACh, recorded a marked reduction. The isolated bladders exhibited such macroscopic changes as severe edema, inflammation and extravasation. The bladder weight increased as well. Histological changes were evident in the form of severe congestion, petechial hemorrhage and chronic inflammatory reaction in the lamina propria accompanied with desquamated epithelia. GA, a potential protective agent, produced an almost complete reversal of NO induction, lipid peroxidation or cellular GSH bladder contents in the GA+CYCL-treated group. Likewise, bladder inflammation and edema were reduced. Bladder rings showed a remarkable recovery in their responsiveness to ACh. Bladder histological examination showed a near normal configuration and structural integrity, with a significant reduction in inflammation and disappearance of focal erosions. These remarkable effects of GA may be attributed to its ability to neutralize acrolein, the reactive metabolite of CYCL and/or the

  8. Predicting Refractory Detrusor Overactivity: Are There any Clues at Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie J Mansfield

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately one-third of patients diagnosed with detrusor overactivity (DO will be refractory to treatment with antimuscarinic drugs. In this study, we examined baseline clinical details and history of urinary tract infection (UTI, urodynamics parameters, urinary pH and ATP in voided urodynamic fluid for any prognostic factors that would allow prediction of the refractory state at the time of diagnosis. At follow-up (2 to 5 years, patients were characterised as responders or non-responders based on a >50% decrease in urge leaks and voids per 24 hours. Of the 61 patients who met the inclusion criteria, follow-up revealed that 25% of these did not respond to antimuscarinic therapy. There were no significant differences in urodynamic parameters in responders compared to non-responders. Patients with a greater number of leaks/week at baseline and a history of UTI were more likely to be non-responsive to antimuscarinic therapy. There was no difference in urinary pH or ATP concentration in voided urodynamic fluid in the two groups. The results indicate that severity of leakage at baseline history and a history of recurrent UTI appears to be poor prognostic features in patients with DO. These may be associated with the development of the ‘refractory’ state.

  9. Magnitude-range brightness variations of overactive K giants

    CERN Document Server

    Oláh, K; Kővári, Zs; Granzer, T; Strassmeier, K G; Kriskovics, L; Vida, K

    2014-01-01

    We study three representative, overactive spotted K giants (IL Hya, XX Tri, and DM UMa) known to exhibit V-band light variations between 0.65-1.05 mags. Our aim is to find the origin of their large brightness variation. We employ long-term phase-resolved multicolor photometry, mostly from automatic telescopes, covering 42 yr for IL Hya, 28 yr for XX Tri, and 34 yr for DM UMa. For one target, IL Hya, we present a new Doppler image from NSO data taken in late 1996. Effective temperatures for our targets are determined from all well-sampled observing epochs and are based on a V-I_C color-index calibration. The effective temperature change between the extrema of the rotational modulation for IL Hya and XX Tri is in the range 50-200 K. The bolometric flux during maximum of the rotational modulation, i.e., the least spotted states, varied by up to 39% in IL Hya and up to 54% in XX Tri over the course of our observations. We emphasize that for IL Hya this is just about half of the total luminosity variation that can...

  10. Postmortem MRI of bladder agenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Brendan R. [St George' s Hospital, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom); Weber, Martin A. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Bockenhauer, Detlef [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Nephrology, London (United Kingdom); Hiorns, Melanie P.; McHugh, Kieran [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    We report a 35-week preterm neonate with bladder agenesis and bilateral dysplastic kidneys. A suprapubic catheter was inadvertently inserted into one of the larger inferior cysts of the left dysplastic kidney. A postmortem MRI scan was performed with the findings being confirmed on autopsy. We are unaware of another postmortem MRI study demonstrating bladder agenesis. (orig.)

  11. Molecular Diagnosis in Bladder Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C.M. Zuiverloon (Tahlita)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractEpidemiologyBladder cancer (BC) is the most prevalent type of urothelial cancer and is associated with thehighest costs of all cancer types due to intensive patient surveillance. Because bladder tumorsfrequently recur, patients need to be monitored extensively [1-4]. Incidence increases

  12. Genetics Home Reference: bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Survivorship ClinicalTrials.gov (1 link) ClinicalTrials.gov Scientific Articles on PubMed (1 link) PubMed OMIM (1 link) BLADDER CANCER Sources for This Page American Cancer Society: What Are the Key Statistics for Bladder Cancer? Bryan RT, Hussain SA, James ...

  13. Phloroglucinol Protects the Urinary Bladder Via Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in a Rat Model of Cyclophosphamide-induced Interstitial Cystitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Qiang He; Wei-Tao Zhang; Chang-Hua Shi; Fang-Ming Wang; Xiao-Jun Tian; Lu-Lin Ma

    2015-01-01

    Background:Phloroglucinol plays an important role in oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.The effects of phloroglucinol have been proven in various disease models.The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy and possible mechanisms of phloroglucinol in the treatment of interstitial cystitis (IC).Methods:Thirty-two female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used in this study.IC was induced by intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (CYP).Rats were randomly allocated to one of four groups (n =8 per group):A control group,which was injected with saline (75 mg/kg; i.p.) instead of CYP on days 1,4,and 7; a chronic IC group,which was injected with CYP (75 mg/kg; i.p.) on days 1,4,and 7; a high-dose (30 mg/kg) phloroglucinol-treated group; and a low-dose (15 mg/kg) phloroglucinol-treated group.On day 8,the rats in each group underwent cystometrography (CMG),and the bladders were examined for evidence of oxidative stress and inflammation.Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by least square difference multiple comparison post-hoc test.Results:Histological evaluation showed that bladder inflammation in CYP-treated rats was suppressed by phloroglucinol.CMG revealed that the CYP treatment induced overactive bladder in rats that was reversed by phloroglucinol.Up-regulated tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 expression in the CYP-treated rats were also suppressed in the phloroglucinol treated rats.CYP treatment significantly increased myeloperoxidase activity as well as the decreased activities of catalase of the bladder,which was reversed by treatment with phloroglucinol.Conclusions:The application of phloroglucinol suppressed oxidative stress,inflammation,and overactivity in the bladder.This may provide a new treatment strategy for IC.

  14. Simple cyst of urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Yang

    2014-07-01

    Simple cysts are rare in the urinary bladder and can pose a diagnostic dilemma to both the urologist and the histopathologist. No case study was found in the database of Elsevier Science Direct, Spring-Link, or PubMed. We present two cases of subserous cyst in the bladder and discuss the diagnosis and treatment of the condition. The cystic lesion at bladder dome was detected by radiologic examination and confirmed by cystoscopy. In case 1, transurethral resection was first performed which was followed by partial cystectomy; In case 2, the cyst was removed with the urachus using laparoscopic surgery. The patients recovered uneventfully and the histopathology showed cysts in subserous layer of urinary bladder. The bladder cyst should be distinguished from urachal tumor, and laparoscopic partial cystectomy is the preferred operative procedure.

  15. Emerging Immunotargets in Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, Francesco; Ciccarese, Chiara; Vau, Nuno; Santoni, Matteo; Montironi, Rodolfo; Cheng, Liang; Marques, Rita C; Scarpelli, Marina; Fonseca, Jorge; Matrana, Marc R; Holger, Moch; Cascinu, Stefano; Tortora, Giampaolo; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer treatment, namely systemic therapy, was dominated in the last three decades due to the absence of newer therapeutic options other than chemotherapy regimens. Chemotherapy, by itself, both in first and second-line seems to have achieved the modest plateau of its possibilities at the cost of non-negligible toxicity. Targeted therapies, which changed the therapy of many different tumors, seem rather ineffective in bladder cancer. More recently, a new generation of Immunotherapy based regimens represent the most promising avenue for the future systemic treatment of bladder cancer. Checkpoint inhibition, namely PD1/PD-L1 pathway inhibition, showed impressive results in many other tumor types and are expected to become a major player in the treatment of bladder cancer. Other immunotherapy strategies such as fusion proteins represent distant, although promising, options. A brief overview of the current status of bladder cancer immunotherapy is presented.

  16. Increased bladder wall thickness is associated with severe symptoms and reduced bladder capacity in patients with bladder pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yu Wu

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: There are obvious differences in bladder CT scans of patients with symptoms of bladder pain due to different etiology. Increased BWT was associated with increased pain scores and decreased bladder capacity in patients with KC and IC. BWT on a CT scan might be considered a marker for the severity of bladder inflammation.

  17. Evaluation of Inferior Oblique Muscle Overaction Existence Time and Surgical Outcomes in Infantile Esotropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ragıp Ekmen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Evaluation of inferior oblique muscle overaction (IOOA existence time and surgical outcomes in infantile esotropia. Material and Method: A total of 100 patients who underwent operation for infantile esotropia (IE were included in the study. Full ophthalmic assessment, including ocular motility, best-corrected visual acuity, cycloplegic refraction, any of alternant prism cover test or Hirschberg/Krimsky test, was performed. Results: Forty-nine patients (49% were male and (51% were female. The mean age at IE diagnosis was 23.2±18.6 months. The mean follow-up time was 43.7±18.0 months. The mean horizontal deviation - corrected and uncorrected - was 36.75±10.45 PD and 40.05±8.39 PD, respectively. We found that there was no statistically significant relationship between existence time of IOOA and the age at IE diagnosis (p: 0.486, p: 0.251. IOOA was detected in 69 patients. Inferior oblique (IO muscle weakening procedures were performed in 45 of 69 patients. In 45 patients who had undergone surgery for IOOA, 24 (53.3% had bilateral IO recession, 10 (22.2% had bilateral IO tenotomy, 8 (17.7% had unilateral IO tenotomy, 1(2.2% had unilateral myectomy, 1 (2.2% had bilateral myectomy, and 1 (2.2% had bilateral anteroposition. IOOA degrees after IO recession and tenotomy surgery were found to be significantly lower than the preoperative values (p=0.0586, p=0.7258. Discussion: There was no statistically significant relationship between the existence time of IOOA and the age of IE diagnosis. We concluded that IO tenotomy and IO recession surgical techniques are effective and safe procedures for cases which have IOOA associated with IE. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 419-23

  18. [Bladder augmentation in children: experience with 15 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortes, L; Zambudio, G A

    1996-07-01

    From 1993 to 1995 bladder augmentation was performed in 11 female and 4 male patients from 1 to 13 years old (average age 6.7 years). Indications included neurogenic bladder, extrophy and epispadias with small bladder. A ventriculoperitoneal shunt had been performed in 6 patients for hydrocephalus. We used 22 segments since 5 patients had 2 segments. Segments included sigmoid in 12 cases, stomach in 5, small bowel in 1, cecum and appendix in 2. We have used the AMS-800 artificial urinary sphincter in 7 patients. Upper tracts and renal function have remained stable in these patients. Continence was achieved in 7 of 9 cases with augmentation, and in 6 of those patients with artificial urinary sphincter. The most common complication was leaks and the hematuria-dysuria syndrome when stomach was used.

  19. Interstitial Cells of Cajal in Bladder: Status and Prospects%膀胱ICC细胞的研究现状和展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 邓建平; 宋波; 李龙坤

    2012-01-01

    Interstitial c ells of Cajal (ICC) of the bladder has defined advances in the last decade, which belong to the same family as the better known ICC of the gastrointestinal tract.the apontaneous activity of bladder ICC rises from the relrase of internally stored Ca2+ and the opening of Ca2+ activated Cl2+ channels.Bladder ICC were fist deemed to pacemaker cells leading to myogenic activity of bladder smooth muscle.However, at present bladder ICC is considered modulater of bladder contraction.The bladder ICC in the pathological state seems more prominent than the physiological state, such as overactive bladder. Several reports have indicated that the numbers of ICC present in overactive bladder tissues are greater than those from normal tissues,and contractility of tissues from overactive bladders appears to be more sensitive to glivec. In the future.mechanisms and signaling pathways of the bladder ICC are to be clarified both in the pathological and physiological state.%膀胱ICC细胞(Interstitial cells of Cajal in bladder)早在上个世纪已被发现,与胃肠道ICC细胞同族,膀胱ICC以自发电活动为特性,源于胞内贮存钙离子释放和钙激活的氯同道开放引起自发短暂去极化.膀胱ICC细胞起初被理解为起搏细胞,其自发的电活动作为起搏器引起下游平滑肌的收缩,这种假说尚缺乏立足的直接证据,目前认为ICC细胞仅仅是膀胱平滑肌收缩活动的调节器,与上皮-传入神经以及神经-平滑肌的信号传递密切相关.病理状态下ICC细胞的作用似乎比生理状态下更为突出,例如膀胱过度活动症,多篇文献报道膀胱过度活动症患者膀胱的ICC细胞数目比正常增多,而且其平滑肌的收缩对酪氨酸激酶受体(tyrosine kinase receptor,c-Kit)拮抗剂格列卫更加敏感.未来膀胱ICC细胞的研究集中在阐明病理及生理状态下ICC的作用机制和信号通路.

  20. Three-dimensional stereology as a tool for evaluating bladder outlet obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Der Wijk, Jasper; Van Der Wijk, Jan; Horn, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Objective. In a pilot study we evaluated whether implementation of a novel 3D stereologic technique can prove that bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) is associated with morphologic changes in the bladder wall. Material and methods. Ten males (mean age 69.7 years; range 58-84 years) with lower urinary...... tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of BOO and five controls (mean age 48.6 years; range 43-53 years) without LUTS were studied. All participants underwent a full examination, including determination of the International Prostate Symptom Score, laboratory analysis and a urodynamic evaluation. A cold....... Conclusions. This pilot study shows that, even with the implementation of subtle morphometric techniques, there seems to be no relationship between the severity of BOO and bladder wall morphology. It is possible that interstitial collagen in the bladder wall increases with age. It seems that bladder wall...

  1. Glucocorticosteroid-sensitive inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the bladder in an adolescent: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Chuangyu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the bladder is a rare inflammatory bladder disease. The etiology and pathophysiology of this condition are still unclear. Few case reports have described inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the bladder in adults or children. Although benign, this disease is occasionally clinically aggressive and locally invasive, thus open surgical removal or complete transurethral resection is recommended. Case presentation We present the case of a biopsy-proven inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the