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Sample records for male nm exercising

  1. Rejuvenation of the male scalp using 1,927 nm non-ablative fractional thulium fiber laser.

    Boen, Monica; Wilson, Monique J Vanaman; Goldman, Mitchel P; Wu, Douglas C

    2017-07-01

    The male scalp undergoes extensive photodamage due to a high prevalence of androgenic alopecia and exposure to ultraviolet radiation. This photodamage presents as solar lentigines, fine rhytides, and keratosis, and can prematurely age a patient. In this study, we demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the fractionated 1,927 nm thulium fiber laser using high density and high energy settings to achieve rejuvenation of the male scalp after a single treatment session. Four male patients with Fitzpatrick skin types II-III and extensive photodamage on the scalp underwent one treatment with the fractional non-ablative 1,927 nm thulium fiber laser. The patients had a 60-90% improvement in dyspigmentation, lentigines, and keratosis. No adverse events were observed and the patients tolerated the procedure well. This case series is the first report in the literature demonstrating the successful rejuvenation of the scalp using the 1,927 nm thulium fiber laser. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:475-479, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Growth Hormone Receptor Antagonist Treatment Reduces Exercise Performance in Young Males

    Goto, K.; Doessing, S.; Nielsen, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    between the groups in terms of changes in serum free fatty acids, glycerol, (V) over dotO(2), or relative fat oxidation. Conclusion: GH might be an important determinant of exercise capacity during prolonged exercise, but GHR antagonist did not alter fat metabolism during exercise. (J Clin Endocrinol......Context: The effects of GH on exercise performance remain unclear. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the effects of GH receptor (GHR) antagonist treatment on exercise performance. Design: Subjects were treated with the GHR antagonist pegvisomant or placebo for 16 d. After the treatment...... period, they exercised to determine exercise performance and hormonal and metabolic responses. Participants: Twenty healthy males participated in the study. Intervention: Subjects were treated with the GHR antagonist (n = 10; 10 mg/d) or placebo (n = 10). After the treatment period, they performed...

  3. Effects of smoking and aerobic exercise on male college students' metabolic syndrome risk factors.

    Kim, Jee-Youn; Yang, Yuhao; Sim, Young-Je

    2018-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim was to investigate the effects of university students' smoking and aerobic exercise on metabolic syndrome risk factors. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three male students were randomly assigned to the following groups: exercise smoker (n=6), non-exercise smoker (n=6), exercise non-smoker (n=6), and non-exercise non-smoker (n=5). A basketball exercise program was conducted three times per week (70 minutes per session) for 8 weeks with exercise intensity set at 50-80% of heart rate reserve. After 8 weeks, the variables of risk factors for metabolic syndrome were obtained. [Results] Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were significantly decreased in the exercise non-smoker group and significantly increased in the non-exercise smoker group. Waist circumference was significantly reduced in both exercise groups regardless of smoking and significantly increased in the non-exercise smoker group. Triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose showed no differences between the groups. [Conclusion] Obesity and smoking management should be conducted together for students as well as for those with metabolic syndrome risk factors. It is recommended that more students participate in such programs, and exercise programs should be further developed and diversified to prevent metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Long-term moderate treadmill exercise promotes stress-coping strategies in male and female rats.

    Lalanza, Jaume F; Sanchez-Roige, Sandra; Cigarroa, Igor; Gagliano, Humberto; Fuentes, Silvia; Armario, Antonio; Capdevila, Lluís; Escorihuela, Rosa M

    2015-11-05

    Recent evidence has revealed the impact of exercise in alleviating anxiety and mood disorders; however, the exercise protocol that exerts such benefit is far from known. The current study was aimed to assess the effects of long-term moderate exercise on behavioural coping strategies (active vs. passive) and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal response in rats. Sprague-Dawley male and female rats were exposed to 32-weeks of treadmill exercise and then tested for two-way active avoidance learning (shuttle-box). Two groups were used as controls: a non-handled sedentary group, receiving no manipulation, and a control group exposed to a stationary treadmill. Female rats displayed shorter escape responses and higher number of avoidance responses, reaching criterion for performance earlier than male rats. In both sexes, exercise shortened escape latencies, increased the total number of avoidances and diminished the number of trials needed to reach criterion for performance. Those effects were greater during acquisition in female rats, but remained over the shuttle-box sessions in treadmill trained male rats. In females, exercise did not change ACTH and corticosterone levels after shuttle-box acquisition. Collectively, treadmill exercise improved active coping strategies in a sex-dependent manner. In a broader context, moderate exercise could serve as a therapeutic intervention for anxiety and mood disorders.

  5. Adolescent Male Athletes: Body Image, Diet, and Exercise.

    Parks, Pamela S. McKay; Read, Marsha H.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates and compares football players' (n=44) and cross-country runners' (n=30) body image concerns, attitudes toward eating, and reasons for exercising. Results revealed significant differences. Football players reported a more positive body image, whereas runners indicated a greater concern for weight control and more disordered eating…

  6. Food restriction causes low bone strength and microarchitectural deterioration in exercised growing male rats.

    Hattori, Satoshi; Park, Jong-Hoon; Agata, Umon; Oda, Masaya; Higano, Michito; Aikawa, Yuki; Akimoto, Takayuki; Nabekura, Yoshiharu; Yamato, Hideyuki; Ezawa, Ikuko; Omi, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bone disorders in young male athletes has not been well understood. We hypothesized that bone fragility is caused by low energy availability, due to insufficient food intake and excessive exercise energy expenditure in young male athletes. To examine this hypothesis, we investigated the influence of food restriction on bone strength and bone morphology in exercised growing male rats, using three-point bending test, dual-energy X-ray absormetry, and micro-computed tomography. Four-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into the following groups: the control (Con) group, exercise (Ex) group, food restriction (R) group, and food restriction plus exercise (REx) group after a 1-wk acclimatization period. Thirty-percent food restriction in the R and REx groups was carried out in comparison with that in the Con group. Voluntary running exercise was performed in the Ex and REx groups. The experimental period lasted 13 wk. At the endpoint of this experiment, the bone strength of the femurs and tibial BMD in the REx group were significantly lower than those in the Con group. Moreover, trabecular bone volume and cortical bone volume in the REx group were also significantly lower than those in the Con group. These findings indicate that food restriction causes low bone strength and microarchitectural deterioration in exercised growing male rats.

  7. The Release of Immunosuppressive Factor(s) in Young Males Following Exercise

    Tian, Ye; Nie, Jinlei; Tong, Tom K.; Baker, Julien S.

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that a suppressive protein, acting as an immune suppressor, is generated in animals and humans under particular stresses. However, studies related to immunosuppressive factors in response to the stress resulting from acute exercise are limited. This study compares the effects of pre- and post-exercise human serum on concanavalin A stimulated lymphocyte proliferation of mice. In the present study, blood samples in eight male undergraduates (age 21 ± 0.7 years) were taken befo...

  8. PRE-EXERCISE ARGININE SUPPLEMENTATION INCREASES TIME TO EXHAUSTION IN ELITE MALE WRESTLERS

    H.U. Yavuz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplements containing arginine are among the most popular ergogenics intended to enhance strength, power and muscle recovery associated with both anaerobic and aerobic exercise. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible effect of pre-exercise acute intake of arginine on performance and exercise metabolism during incremental exhaustive exercise in elite male wrestlers. Nine volunteer elite male wrestlers (24.7±3.8 years participated in this study. The test-retest protocol was used on the same subjects. The study was conducted using a cross-over design. A single dose of arginine (1.5 g · 10 kg-1 body weight or placebo was given to the subjects after 12 hours fasting (during the night for both test and retest. Subjects were allowed to drink water but not allowed to eat anything between arginine or placebo ingestion and the exercise protocol. An incremental exercise protocol was applied and oxygen consumption was measured during the exercise. Heart rate and plasma lactate levels were measured during the exercise and recovery. Results showed that in the same working loads there was no significant difference for the mean lactate levels and no difference in maximum oxygen consumption (arginine 52.47±4.01 mL · kg-1 · min-1, placebo 52.07±5.21 mL · kg-1 · min-1 or in maximum heart rates (arginine 181.09±13.57 bpm, placebo 185.89±7.38 bpm between arginine and placebo trials. Time to exhaustion was longer with arginine supplementation (1386.8±69.8 s compared to placebo (1313±90.8 s (p<0.05. These results suggest that L-arginine supplementation can have beneficial effects on exercise performance in elite male wrestlers but cannot explain the metabolic pathways which are responsible from these effects.

  9. Evidence for β-adrenergic modulation of sweating during incremental exercise in habitually trained males.

    Amano, Tatsuro; Shitara, Yosuke; Fujii, Naoto; Inoue, Yoshimitsu; Kondo, Narihiko

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the β-adrenergic contribution to sweating during incremental exercise in habitually trained males. Nine habitually trained and 11 untrained males performed incremental cycling until exhaustion (20 W/min). Bilateral forearm sweat rates (ventilated capsule) were measured at two skin sites that were transdermally administered via iontophoresis with either 1% propranolol (Propranolol, a nonselective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist) or saline (Control). The sweat rate was evaluated as a function of both relative (percentage of maximum workload) and absolute exercise intensities. The sweat rate at the Propranolol site was lower than the control during exercise at 80 (0.57 ± 0.21 and 0.45 ± 0.19 mg·cm -2 ·min -1 for Control and Propranolol, respectively) and 90% (0.74 ± 0.22 and 0.65 ± 0.17 mg·cm -2 ·min -1 , respectively) of maximum workload in trained males (all P 0.05). At the same absolute intensity, higher sweat rates on the control site were observed in trained males relative to the untrained during exercise at 160 (0.23 ± 0.20 and 0.04 ± 0.05 mg·cm -2 ·min -1 for trained and untrained, respectively) and 180 W (0.40 ± 0.20 and 0.13 ± 0.13 mg·cm -2 ·min -1 , respectively) (all P 0.05). We show that the β-adrenergic mechanism does modulate sweating during exercise at a submaximal high relative intensity in habitually trained males. The β-adrenergic mechanism may in part contribute to the greater sweat production in habitually trained males than in untrained counterparts during exercise. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We demonstrated for the first time that the β-adrenergic mechanism does modulate sweating (i.e., β-adrenergic sweating) during exercise using a localized β-adrenoceptor blockade in humans in vivo. β-Adrenergic sweating was evident in habitually trained individuals during exercise at a submaximal high relative intensity (80-90% maximal work). This observation advances

  10. Effects of Exercise on Memory Retrieval in Passive Avoidance Learning in Young Male Wistar Rats

    M. Mashhadi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesExercise seems to be a simple and widely practiced behavior that activates molecular and cellular signaling cascades involved in various central nervous system processes. There has been more attention to the effects of exercise on nervous system and memory during recent years. So, we decided to examine the effects of treadmill exercise on memory consolidation and retrieval in young rats by passive avoidance learning.MethodsIn this study fifty male Wistar rats (3-4 months old were randomly divided into five groups (n=10. Those in the control group were trained in passive avoidance box and tested 10 min, 24 hrs, 10 days and 3 months later. Two groups exercised in treadmill one hour at 17 m/min for 10 days and 3 months respectively and then were trained in passive avoidance box and tested 10 min and 24 hrs later. Data were analyzed using T and paired T tests. The other two groups for research effects of exercise in memory retrieval first were trained and tested 10 days and 24 hrs later and then exercised in treadmill like the other two groups; the latter groups were tested after exercise.ResultsThe obtained results showed that short–term (10 days and long – term(3 months exercise before training had significant (P<0.05 effects on memory consolidation in passive avoidance learning, but no difference was observed in latency time in passive avoidance between short–term (10 days and long–term(3 months exercise groups after training with before exercise. ConclusionOur results showed that physical activity produced a significant enhancement on learning and memory consolidation but there were no significant effects on memory retrieval. Keywords: Exercise; Mental Recall; Exercise Test; Retention (Psychology; rat, Avoidance Learning.

  11. Statins are related to impaired exercise capacity in males but not females.

    Bahls, Martin; Groß, Stefan; Ittermann, Till; Busch, Raila; Gläser, Sven; Ewert, Ralf; Völzke, Henry; Felix, Stephan B; Dörr, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    Exercise and statins reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD). Exercise capacity may be assessed using cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Whether statin medication is associated with CPET parameters is unclear. We investigated if statins are related with exercise capacity during CPET in the general population. Cross-sectional data of two independent cohorts of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) were merged (n = 3,500; 50% males). Oxygen consumption (VO2) at peak exercise (VO2peak) and anaerobic threshold (VO2@AT) was assessed during symptom-limited CPET. Two linear regression models related VO2peak with statin usage were calculated. Model 1 adjusted for age, sex, previous myocardial infarction, and physical inactivity and model 2 additionally for body mass index, smoking, hypertension, diabetes and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Propensity score matching was used for validation. Statin usage was associated with lower VO2peak (no statin: 2336; 95%-confidence interval [CI]: 2287-2,385 vs. statin 2090; 95%-CI: 2,031-2149 ml/min; P exercise capacity in males but not females. Sex specific effects of statins on cardiopulmonary exercise capacity deserve further research.

  12. The release of immunosuppressive factor(s) in young males following exercise.

    Tian, Ye; Nie, Jinlei; Tong, Tom K; Baker, Julien S

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that a suppressive protein, acting as an immune suppressor, is generated in animals and humans under particular stresses. However, studies related to immunosuppressive factors in response to the stress resulting from acute exercise are limited. This study compares the effects of pre- and post-exercise human serum on concanavalin A stimulated lymphocyte proliferation of mice. In the present study, blood samples in eight male undergraduates (age 21 ± 0.7 years) were taken before and immediately after ten sets of exercise consisting of 15 free and 30 10-kg loaded squat jumps in each set. The suppression of lymphocyte proliferation was analysed with high pressure liquid chromatography. It was noted from the result of gel chromatography columns that the post-exercise values of the suppression of lymphocyte proliferation, in comparison to corresponding pre-exercise values, were generally greater with significant differences observed in 7.5th-9th min post-exercise eluates (P exercise may lead to generation of immunosuppressive factor(s) in young males.

  13. The Release of Immunosuppressive Factor(s in Young Males Following Exercise

    Julien S. Baker

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that a suppressive protein, acting as an immune suppressor, is generated in animals and humans under particular stresses. However, studies related to immunosuppressive factors in response to the stress resulting from acute exercise are limited. This study compares the effects of pre- and post-exercise human serum on concanavalin A stimulated lymphocyte proliferation of mice. In the present study, blood samples in eight male undergraduates (age 21 ± 0.7 years were taken before and immediately after ten sets of exercise consisting of 15 free and 30 10-kg loaded squat jumps in each set. The suppression of lymphocyte proliferation was analysed with high pressure liquid chromatography. It was noted from the result of gel chromatography columns that the post-exercise values of the suppression of lymphocyte proliferation, in comparison to corresponding pre-exercise values, were generally greater with significant differences observed in 7.5th–9th min post-exercise eluates (P < 0.05. Such findings suggest that intense eccentric type exercise may lead to generation of immunosuppressive factor(s in young males.

  14. Validation of the exercise and eating disorder questionnaire in males with and without eating disorders.

    Danielsen, Marit; Bjørnelv, Sigrid; Bratberg, Grete Helen; Rø, Øyvind

    2018-03-14

    The need to consider gender when studying exercise in eating disorder (ED) has been underscored. The study aimed to test the psychometric properties and factor structure of the exercise and eating disorder (EED) questionnaire for males with and without ED, to highlight gender differences, and to explore issues relevant for a male version of the EED questionnaire. This cross sectional study included 258 male participants: 55 ED patients (inpatients and outpatients) and 203 student controls. The patient group consisted of 54.5% (n = 30) with AN, 18.2% (n = 10) with BN, 27.2% (n = 15) with unspecified ED. The ED sample was treated as transdiagnostic in all analyses. t Tests, chi-square test, correlations analyses, and a principal component analysis were conducted. The analyses confirmed that the EED questionnaire had adequate psychometric properties, and a four-factor solution: (a) compulsive exercise, (b) positive and healthy exercise, (c) awareness of bodily signals, and (d) weight and shape exercise. The questionnaire discriminated significantly (p < .01- < .001) between patients and controls on the global score, subscales, and 16 out of 18 individual items. Convergent validity was demonstrated by high correlations between the EED questionnaire and the eating disorder examination questionnaire (r = .65). The results indicated that the EED questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for males. It is a clinically derived, self-report questionnaire to assess compulsive exercise among ED patients, regarding attitudes and thoughts toward compulsive exercise and identification of treatment targets and priorities. © 2018 The Authors International Journal of Eating Disorders Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Beneficial effects of exercise training in heart failure are lost in male diabetic rats.

    Boudia, Dalila; Domergue, Valérie; Mateo, Philippe; Fazal, Loubina; Prud'homme, Mathilde; Prigent, Héloïse; Delcayre, Claude; Cohen-Solal, Alain; Garnier, Anne; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Samuel, Jane-Lise

    2017-12-01

    Exercise training has been demonstrated to have beneficial effects in patients with heart failure (HF) or diabetes. However, it is unknown whether diabetic patients with HF will benefit from exercise training. Male Wistar rats were fed either a standard (Sham, n = 53) or high-fat, high-sucrose diet ( n = 66) for 6 mo. After 2 mo of diet, the rats were already diabetic. Rats were then randomly subjected to either myocardial infarction by coronary artery ligation (MI) or sham operation. Two months later, heart failure was documented by echocardiography and animals were randomly subjected to exercise training with treadmill for an additional 8 wk or remained sedentary. At the end, rats were euthanized and tissues were assayed by RT-PCR, immunoblotting, spectrophotometry, and immunohistology. MI induced a similar decrease in ejection fraction in diabetic and lean animals but a higher premature mortality in the diabetic group. Exercise for 8 wk resulted in a higher working power developed by MI animals with diabetes and improved glycaemia but not ejection fraction or pathological phenotype. In contrast, exercise improved the ejection fraction and increased adaptive hypertrophy after MI in the lean group. Trained diabetic rats with MI were nevertheless able to develop cardiomyocyte hypertrophy but without angiogenic responses. Exercise improved stress markers and cardiac energy metabolism in lean but not diabetic-MI rats. Hence, following HF, the benefits of exercise training on cardiac function are blunted in diabetic animals. In conclusion, exercise training only improved the myocardial profile of infarcted lean rats fed the standard diet. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Exercise training is beneficial in patients with heart failure (HF) or diabetes. However, less is known of the possible benefit of exercise training for HF patients with diabetes. Using a rat model where both diabetes and MI had been induced, we showed that 2 mo after MI, 8 wk of exercise training failed to improve

  16. Effects of obesity and exercise on testicular leptin signal transduction and testosterone biosynthesis in male mice.

    Yi, Xuejie; Gao, Haining; Chen, Dequan; Tang, Donghui; Huang, Wanting; Li, Tao; Ma, Tie; Chang, Bo

    2017-04-01

    To explore the role of the testicular leptin and JAK-STAT[leptin (LEP)-JAK-STAT] pathway in testosterone biosynthesis during juvenile stages and exercise for weight loss, male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into normal-diet and high-fat diet groups. After 10 wk, mice in the high-fat diet-fed group were further divided randomly into obese control, obese moderate-volume exercise, and obese high-volume exercise groups. Mice in the obese moderate-volume exercise group were provided with 2 h/day, 6 days/wk swimming exercise for 8 wk, and mice in the obese high-volume exercise group underwent twice the amount of daily exercise intervention as the obese moderate-volume exercise group. The results showed that a high-fat diet causes obesity, leptin resistance, inhibition of the testicular LEP-JAK-STAT pathway, decreased mRNA and protein expression of steroidogenic factor-1, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, and the P -450 side-chain cleavage enzyme, a decrease in the serum testosterone-to-estradiol ratio, and declines in sperm quality parameters. Both moderate and high-volume exercise were able to reduce body fat and increase the mRNA and protein expression of LEP-JAK-STAT, but only moderate exercise significantly increased the mRNA and protein expression of steroidogenic factor-1, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, and P -450 side-chain cleavage enzyme and significantly reversed the serum testosterone-to-estradiol ratio and sperm quality parameters. These findings suggest that by impairing the testicular LEP-JAK-STAT pathway, early-stage obesity inhibits the biosynthesis of testosterone and sexual development and reduces male reproductive potential. Long-term moderate and high-volume exercise can effectively reduce body fat and improve obesity-induced abnormalities in testicular leptin signal transduction, whereas only moderate-volume exercise can reverse the negative impacts of obesity on male reproductive function. Copyright © 2017 the American

  17. Comparison of the effects of whole-body cooling during fatiguing exercise in males and females.

    Solianik, Rima; Skurvydas, Albertas; Pukėnas, Kazimieras; Brazaitis, Marius

    2015-08-01

    The effects of cold stress on exercise performance and fatigue have been thoroughly investigated only in males, and thus the general understanding of these effects relates only to males. The aim of this study was to determine whether whole-body cooling has different effects on performance during fatiguing exercise in males and females. Thirty-two subjects (18 males and 14 females) were exposed to acute cold stress by intermittent immersion in 14°C water until their rectal temperature reached 35.5°C or for a maximum of 170 min. Thermal responses and motor performance were monitored before and after whole-body cooling. Whole-body cooling decreased rectal, muscle and mean skin temperatures in all subjects (pCold stress decreased the fatigue index (FI) of a sustained 2-min maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) only in males (pbody cooling-induced decrease in the FI of a sustained MVC in males but not in females) supports the view of sex effects on performance during fatiguing exercise after whole-body cooling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Body mass index, exercise capacity, and mortality risk in male veterans with hypertension.

    Faselis, Charles; Doumas, Michael; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Kheirbek, Raya; Korshak, Lauren; Manolis, Athanasios; Pittaras, Andreas; Tsioufis, Costas; Papademetriou, Vasilios; Fletcher, Ross; Kokkinos, Peter

    2012-04-01

    Overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk of chronic diseases and mortality. Exercise capacity is inversely associated with mortality risk. However, little is known on the interaction between fitness, fatness, and mortality risk in hypertensive individuals. Thus, we assessed the interaction between exercise capacity, fatness, and all-cause mortality in hypertensive males. A graded exercise test was performed in 4,183 hypertensive veterans (mean age ± s.d.; 63.3 ± 10.5 years) at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Washington, DC. We defined three body weight categories based on body mass index (BMI): normal weight (BMI 7.5 METs). During a median follow-up period of 7.2 years, there were 1,000 deaths. The association between exercise capacity and mortality risk was strong, inverse, and graded. For each 1-MET increase in exercise capacity the adjusted risk was 20% for normal weight, 12% for overweight, and 25% for obese (P exercise capacity is associated with lower mortality risk in hypertensive males regardless of BMI. The risk for overweight and obese but fit individuals was significantly lower when compared to normal weight but unfit. These findings suggest that in older hypertensive men, it may be healthier to be fit regardless of standard BMI category than unfit and normal weight.

  19. Effects of the Nordic Hamstring exercise on sprint capacity in male football players

    Ishøi, Lasse; Hölmich, Per; Aagaard, Per

    2018-01-01

    This assessor-blinded, randomized controlled superiority trial investigated the efficacy of the 10-week Nordic Hamstring exercise (NHE) protocol on sprint performance in football players. Thirty-five amateur male players (age: 17-26 years) were randomized to a do-as-usual control group (CG; n = 1...

  20. Post-exercise blood flow restriction attenuates hyperemia similarly in males and females.

    Dankel, Scott J; Mouser, J Grant; Jessee, Matthew B; Mattocks, Kevin T; Buckner, Samuel L; Loenneke, Jeremy P

    2017-08-01

    Our laboratory recently demonstrated that post-exercise blood flow restriction attenuated muscle hypertrophy only in females, which we hypothesized may be due to alterations in post-exercise blood flow. The aim of this study is to test our previous hypothesis that sex differences in blood flow would exist when employing the same protocol. Twenty-two untrained individuals (12 females; 10 males) performed two exercise sessions, each involving one set of elbow flexion exercise to volitional failure on the right arm. The experimental condition had blood flow restriction applied for a 3 min post-exercise period, whereas the control condition did not. Blood flow was measured using an ultrasound at the brachial artery and was taken 1 and 4 min post-exercise. This corresponded to 1 min post inflation and 1 min post deflation in the experimental condition. There were no differences in the alterations in blood flow between the control and experimental conditions when examined across sex. Increases in blood flow [mean (standard deviation)] were as follows: males 1 min [control 764 (577) %; experimental 113 (108) %], males 4 min [control 346 (313) %; experimental 449 (371) %], females 1 min [control 558 (367) %; experimental 87 (105) %], and females 4 min [control 191 (183) %; experimental 328 (223) %]. It does not appear that the sex-specific attenuation of muscle hypertrophy we observed previously can be attributed to different alterations in post-exercise blood flow. Future studies may wish to replicate our previous training study, or examine alternative mechanisms which may be sex specific.

  1. Significance of repeated exercise testing with thallium-201 scanning in asymptomatic diabetic males

    Rubler, S.; Fisher, V.J.

    1985-01-01

    This study was conducted with asymptomatic middle-aged male subjects with diabetes mellitus to detect latent cardiac disease using noninvasive techniques. One group of 38 diabetic males (mean age 50.5 +/- 10.2 years) and a group of 15 normal males (mean age 46.9 +/- 10.0 years) participated in the initial trial; 13 diabetic patients and 7 control subjects were restudied 1-2 years later. Maximal treadmill exercise with a Bruce protocol and myocardial scintigraphy with thallium-201(201Tl) were used. Diabetic subjects on initial examination and retesting achieved a lower maximal heart rate and duration of exercise than control subjects. Abnormal electrocardiographic changes, thallium defects, or both were observed in 23/38 diabetic males (60.5%) on the first study and only one 65-year-old control subject had such findings. On retesting, the control subjects had no abnormalities while 76.9% of diabetic subjects had either 201Tl defects or ECG changes. We conclude that despite the fact that none of diabetic males had any clinical evidence or symptoms of heart disease, this high-risk group demonstrated abnormalities on exercise testing that merit careful subsequent evaluation and followup and could be an effective method of detecting early cardiac disease

  2. EFFECT OF MODERATE ALTITUDE ON PERIPHERAL MUSCLE OXYGENATION DURING LEG RESISTANCE EXERCISE IN YOUNG MALES

    Toshio Matsuoka

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Training at moderate altitude (~1800m is often used by athletes to stimulate muscle hypoxia. However, limited date is available on peripheral muscle oxidative metabolism at this altitude (1800AL. The purpose of this study was to determine whether acute exposure to 1800AL alters muscle oxygenation in the vastus lateralis muscle during resistance exercise. Twenty young active male subjects (aged 16 - 21 yr performed up to 50 repetitions of the parallel squat at 1800AL and near sea level (SL. They performed the exercise protocol within 3 h after arrival at 1800 AL. During the exercise, the changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (OxyHb in the vastus lateralis muscle, arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2, and heart rate were measured using near infrared continuous wave spectroscopy (NIRcws and pulse oximetry, respectively. Changes in OxyHb were expressed by Deff defined as the relative index of the maximum change ratio (% from the resting level. OxyHb in the vastus lateralis muscle decreased dramatically from the resting level immediately after the start of exercise at both altitudes. The Deff during exercise was significantly (p < 0.001 lower at 1800AL (60.4 ± 6.2 % than at near SL (74.4 ± 7.6 %. SpO2 during exercise was significantly (p < 0.001 lower at 1800AL (92.0 ± 1.7 % than at near SL (96.7 ± 1.2 %. Differences (SL - 1800AL in Deff during exercise correlated fairly strongly with differences in SpO2 during exercise (r = 0.660. These results suggested that acute exposure to moderate altitude caused a more dramatical decrease in peripheral muscle oxygenation during leg resistance exercise. It is salient to note, therefore , that peripheral muscle oxygenation status at moderate altitude could be evaluated using NIRcws and that moderate altitudes might be effectively used to apply hypoxic stress on peripheral muscles.

  3. Effects of mini trampoline exercise on male gymnasts' physiological parameters: a pilot study.

    Karakollukçu, M; Aslan, C S; Paoli, A; Bianco, A; Sahin, F N

    2015-01-01

    There are limited studies that indicate the effects of trampoline exercise on strength and other physiological parameters. This study aims to determine whether twelve weeks of trampoline exercise would have any effects on the physical and physiological parameters of male gymnasts. A number of 20 intercollegiate competitive male gymnasts (as experimental group) and 20 non-athlete male (as control group) participated voluntarily. Their anthropometric characteristics and the anaerobic power were measured and their back strength, vertical jump, standing long jump and 20 meter sprint performances were measured. As a result; whereas 12 weeks of trampoline exercise improved standing long jump (before 242.35±3.40 cm; after 251.70±2.95 cm) and also vertical jump, 20 meter sprint speed and anaerobic power of subjects. We did not observe significant changes on back strength performances (before 148.32±5.73 kg; after 148.10±5.71). The trampoline exercise protocol improved significantly speed, jump and anaerobic performances of the experimental group, while did not induced any changes on back strength performances. More studies are necessary to confirm the interesting results coming from this pilot intervention.

  4. Eccentric Exercises Reduce Hamstring Strains in Elite Adult Male Soccer Players: A Critically Appraised Topic.

    Shadle, Ian B; Cacolice, Paul A

    2017-11-01

    Clinical Scenario: Hamstring strains are a common sport-related injury, which may limit athletic performance for an extended period of time. These injuries are common in the soccer setting. As such, it is important to determine an appropriate prevention program to minimize the risk of such an injury for these athletes. Eccentric hamstring training may be an effective and practical hamstring strain prevention strategy. What is the effect of eccentric exercises on hamstring strain prevention in adult male soccer players? Summary of Key Findings: Current literature was searched for studies of level 2 evidence or higher that investigated the effect of eccentric exercises in preventing hamstring strains in adult male soccer players. Three articles returned from the literature search met the inclusion criteria. A fourth article looked at differences in strength gains between eccentric and concentric hamstring strengthening exercises, but did not record hamstring strain incidence. A fifth article, a systematic review, met all the criteria except for the correct population. Of the 3 studies, 2 were randomized control trails and 1 was a cohort study. Clinical Bottom Line: There is robust supportive evidence that eccentric hamstring exercises can prevent a hamstring injury to an elite adult male soccer player. Therefore, it is recommended that athletic trainers and other sports medicine providers evaluate current practices relating to reducing hamstring strains and consider implementing eccentric exercise based prevention programs. Strength of Recommendation: All evidence was attained from articles with a level of evidence 2b or higher, based on the Center for Evidence-Based Medicine (CEBM) criteria, stating that eccentric exercises can decrease hamstring strains.

  5. The Effect of High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise on Body Composition of Overweight Young Males

    M. Heydari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effect of a 12-week high intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE intervention on total body, abdominal, trunk, visceral fat mass, and fat free mass of young overweight males. Participants were randomly assigned to either exercise or control group. The intervention group received HIIE three times per week, 20 min per session, for 12 weeks. Aerobic power improved significantly (P0.05 occurred in levels of insulin, HOMA-IR, and blood lipids. Twelve weeks of HIIE resulted in significant reductions in total, abdominal, trunk, and visceral fat and significant increases in fat free mass and aerobic power.

  6. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption and exercise on the skeleton of adult male rats

    Reed, Adam H.; McCarty, Heidi L.; Evans, Glenda L.; Turner, Russell T.; Westerlind, Kim C.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors are known to affect skeletal development and integrity. Specifically, running has been reported to increase risk of fatigue fractures, whereas chronic alcohol consumption has been shown to reduce bone formation and bone mass. The combined effect of exercise and alcohol on the skeleton has yet to be explored, although alcohol consumption is common among certain physically active populations (e.g., military recruits, college athletes). It was hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption would accentuate the inherent risk associated with endurance running exercise. METHODS: Six-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups: baseline, exercise-alcohol diet, exercise-normal diet, sham-alcohol diet, and sham-normal diet. Alcohol-fed rats (35% caloric intake) received a liquid diet ad libitum. Normal animals were pair-fed the identical diet with a maltose dextrin caloric substitute. Exercise was conducted on a motorized treadmill 5 days/wk for 16 weeks. Sham rats were placed on a stationary treadmill for matching time periods. Fluorochrome labels were administered 3 days before baseline and at 10 and 2 days before animals were killed. Heart, soleus, and rectus femoris muscles were wet weighed to assess the effects of training. Tibiae were collected for static and dynamic histomorphometric measurements on cancellous and cortical bone. RESULTS: Muscle weights were larger in the exercised rats versus the sham rats. Alcohol had no significant effect on skeletal muscle weight but did result in larger heart weights in both alcohol-treated groups. Cancellous and periosteal bone formation rates were significantly decreased in the alcohol-fed rats versus rats on the normal diet and were associated with a significant reduction in trabecular thickness in the tibial metaphysis. Cortical and cross-sectional areas were also significantly lower in the alcohol-fed groups compared with the non-alcohol-fed groups. Exercise had no

  7. Changes of Physiological Tremor Following Maximum Intensity Exercise in Male and Female Young Swimmers

    Gajewski Jan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in postural physiological tremor following maximum intensity effort performed on arm ergometer by young male and female swimmers. Methods. Ten female and nine male young swimmers served as subjects in the study. Forearm tremor was measured accelerometrically in the sitting position before the 30-second Wingate Anaerobic Test on arm ergometer and then 5, 15 and 30 minutes post-test. Results. Low-frequency tremor log-amplitude (L1−5 increased (repeated factor: p < 0.05 from −7.92 ± 0.45 to −7.44 ± 0.45 and from −6.81 ± 0.52 to −6.35 ± 0.58 in women and men, respectively (gender: p < 0.05 5 minute post-test. Tremor log-amplitude (L15−20 increased (repeated factor: p < 0.001 from −9.26 ± 0.70 to −8.59 ± 0.61 and from −8.79 ± 0.65 to −8.39 ± 0.79 in women and men, respectively 5 minute post-test. No effect of gender was found for high frequency range.The increased tremor amplitude was observed even 30 minute post-exercise. Mean frequency of tremor spectra gradually decreased post-exercises (p < 0.001. Conclusions. Exercise-induced changes in tremor were similar in males and females. A fatigue produced a decrement in the mean frequency of tremor what suggested decreased muscle stiffness post-exercise. Such changes intremorafter exercise may be used as the indicator of fatigue in the nervous system.

  8. The Effect of Taurine on the Recovery from Eccentric Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Males

    Yanita McLeay

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Eccentric exercise is known to bring about microstructural damage to muscle, initiating an inflammatory cascade involving various reactive oxygen species. This, in turn, can significantly impair physical performance over subsequent days. Taurine, a powerful endogenous antioxidant, has previously been shown to have a beneficial effect on muscle damage markers and recovery when taken for a few days to several weeks prior to eccentric exercise. However, to date no studies have looked at the effects of supplementing over the days following eccentric exercise on performance recovery. Thus, this study aimed to determine whether supplementing with taurine over three days following eccentric exercise attenuated the rise in serum creatine kinase and improved performance recovery in males. In a blinded, randomized, crossover design, ten recreationally-fit male participants completed 60 eccentric contractions of the biceps brachii muscle at maximal effort. Following this, participants were supplemented with 0.1 g∙kg−1 body weight∙day−1 of either taurine or rice flour in capsules. Over the next three mornings participants underwent blood tests for the analysis of the muscle damage marker creatine kinase and carried out performance measures on the isokinetic dynamometer. They also continued to consume the capsules in the morning and evening. The entire protocol was repeated two weeks later on the alternate arm and supplement. Significant decreases were seen in all performance measures from pre- to 24-h post-eccentric exercise (p < 0.001 for both taurine and placebo, indicating the attainment of muscle damage. Significant treatment effects were observed only for peak eccentric torque (p < 0.05. No significant time × treatment effects were observed (all p > 0.05. Serum creatine kinase levels did not significantly differ over time for either treatments, nor between treatments (p > 0.05. These findings suggest that taurine supplementation taken twice

  9. Relationship between nutritional risk and exercise capacity in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in male patients

    Shan, Xizheng; Liu, Jinming; Luo, Yanrong; Xu, Xiaowen; Han, Zhiqing; Li, Hailing

    2015-01-01

    Objective The nutritional status of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients is associated with their exercise capacity. In the present study, we have explored the relationship between nutritional risk and exercise capacity in severe male COPD patients. Methods A total of 58 severe COPD male patients were enrolled in this study. The patients were assigned to no nutritional risk group (n=33) and nutritional risk group (n=25) according to the Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS, 2002) criteria. Blood gas analysis, conventional pulmonary function testing, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing were performed on all the patients. Results Results showed that the weight and BMI of the patients in the nutritional risk group were significantly lower than in the no nutritional risk group (Pnutritional risk group was significantly higher than that of the nutritional risk group (Pnutritional risk group were significantly lower than those of the no nutritional risk group (Pnutritional risk based on NRS 2002 in severe COPD male patients is supported by these results of this study. PMID:26150712

  10. Body cooling in human males by cold-water immersion after vigorous exercise.

    McDonald, A; Goode, R C; Livingstone, S D; Duffin, J

    1984-03-01

    Five male subjects were immersed to neck level in a whole-body water calorimeter (water temperature 19 degrees C) on two occasions. One immersion was preceded by 30 min of exercise on a treadmill at 80% of the subjects' maximum heart rate, while the other was preceded by no exercise (control). Ventilation, oxygen consumption, hand-grip strength, and heat loss (measured by calorimetry) results showed no significant differences between resting and exercise trials. Minute ventilation and oxygen consumption increased during the immersion but the magnitude of the increase varied among subjects. There was a significant decrease is isometric hand-grip strength after 30 min of immersion. Rectal temperatures fell faster (0.031 degree C +/- 0.004 degree C/min) for exercised subjects than for controls (0.019 degree C +/- 0.005 degree C/min) between 10 and 45 min of immersion (P less than 0.01). It appears that vigorous preimmersion exercise may shorten survival time in cold water due to an increase in cooling rate.

  11. Aerobic exercise training and burnout: a pilot study with male participants suffering from burnout

    2013-01-01

    Background Occupational burnout is associated with severe negative health effects. While stress management programs proved to have a positive influence on the well-being of patients suffering from burnout, it remains unclear whether aerobic exercise alleviates burnout severity and other parameters related to occupational burnout. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to pilot-test the potential outcomes of a 12-week exercise training to generate hypotheses for future larger scale studies. Methods The sample consisted of 12 male participants scoring high on the MBI emotional exhaustion and depersonalization subscales. The training program took place in a private fitness center with a 17.5 kcal/kg minimum requirement of weekly energy expenditure. Results The key findings are that increased exercise reduced overall perceived stress as well as symptoms of burnout and depression. The magnitude of the effects was large, revealing changes of substantial practical relevance. Additionally, profiles of mood states improved considerably after single exercise sessions with a marked shift towards an iceberg profile. Conclusion Among burnout patients, the findings provide preliminary evidence that exercise has the potential to reduce stress and prevent the development of a deeper depression. This has important health implications given that burnout is considered an antecedent of depressive disorders. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: ISRNCT01575743 PMID:23497731

  12. Effects of submaximal exercise with water ingestion on intraocular pressure in healthy human males

    Moura M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of exercise and water replacement on intraocular pressure (IOP have not been well established. Furthermore, it is not known whether the temperature of the fluid ingested influences the IOP response. In the present study we determined the effect of water ingestion at three temperatures (10, 24 and 38ºC; 600 ml 15 min before and 240 ml 15, 30 and 45 min after the beginning of each experimental session on the IOP of six healthy male volunteers (age = 24.0 ± 3.5 years, weight = 67.0 ± 4.8 kg, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak = 47.8 ± 9.1 ml kg-1 min-1. The subjects exercised until exhaustion on a cycle ergometer at a 60% VO2peak in a thermoneutral environment. IOP was measured before and after exercise and during recovery (15, 30 and 45 min using the applanation tonometry method. Skin and rectal temperatures, heart rate and oxygen uptake were measured continuously. IOP was similar for the right eye and the left eye and increased post-water ingestion under both exercising and resting conditions (P<0.05 but did not differ between resting and exercising situations, or between the three water temperatures. Time to exhaustion was not affected by the different water temperatures. Rectal temperature, hydration status, heart rate, oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide extraction and lactate concentration were increased by exercise but were not affected by water temperature. We conclude that IOP was not affected by exercise and that water ingestion increased IOP as expected, regardless of water temperature.

  13. Effects of Exercise on Memory Retrieval in Passive Avoidance Learning in Young Male Wistar Rats

    H Saadati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives

    Exercise seems to be a simple and widely practiced behavior that activates molecular and cellular signaling cascades involved in various central nervous system processes. There has been more attention to the effects of exercise on nervous system and memory during recent years. So, we decided to examine the effects of treadmill exercise on memory consolidation and retrieval in young rats by passive avoidance learning.

     

    Methods

    In this study fifty male Wistar rats (3-4 months old were randomly divided into five groups (n=10. Those in the control group were trained in passive avoidance box and tested 10 min, 24 hrs, 10 days and 3 months later. Two groups exercised in treadmill one hour at 17 m/min for 10 days and 3 months respectively and then were trained in passive avoidance box and tested 10 min and 24 hrs later. Data were analyzed using T and paired T tests.

    The other two groups for research effects of exercise in memory retrieval first were trained and tested 10 days and 24 hrs later and then exercised in treadmill like the other two groups; the latter groups were tested after exercise.

     

    Results

    The obtained results showed that short–term (10 days and long – term(3 months exercise before training had significant (P<0.05 effects on memory consolidation in passive avoidance learning, but no difference was observed in latency time in passive avoidance between short–term (10 days and long–term(3 months exercise groups after training with before exercise.

     

    Conclusion

    Our results showed that physical activity produced a significant enhancement on learning and memory consolidation but there were no significant effects on memory retrieval

  14. Response of Coagulation Indices to Two Types of Exercise of Eccentric and Isometric in Male Bodybuilding Athletes

    Maryam Azimpour

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Objectives: Although activation of blood coagulation system in response to physical activity has been identified to some extent, but the contribution of eccentric activity in comparison with isometric activity as resistance exercise, is not clear yet. Therefore, this research was carried out with the purpose of investigating the effect of one session of eccentric and isometric resistance exercise on some coagulation factors in male bodybuilders. Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 28 volunteers were randomly selected from male bodybuilders and divided into two experimental groups and one control group. One of the experimental groups performed eccentric exercise [controlled return (extension of the elbow flexion movement involving an eccentric contraction] and another group performed isometric exercises (holding barbell while flexing elbows at 45 degrees. In order to assess coagulation indices, blood sampling was performed 15 minutes before and immediately after the exercise. Results: Thromboplastin and prothrombin times did not significantly change immediately after the exercise, but the number of platelets significantly increased in both isometric and eccentric types of exercise immediately after the exercise. Conclusion: The results of isometric and eccentric acute resistance exercise showed that the exercise had no negative impact on blood coagulation factors, and increased coagulation system activity reflects the increased number of platelets. The difference between the results of researches carried out in this direction can be resulted from the difference between the exercise protocols, methods and measurement time, and level of preparedness of the participants in the research.

  15. Affective Responses to Acute Exercise in Elderly Impaired Males: The Moderating Effects of Self-Efficacy and Age.

    McAuley, Edward; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined relationships between perceptions of personal efficacy and affective responsibility to acute exercise in elderly male inpatients and outpatients at a Veterans Administration Medical Center. A significant change in feelings of fatigue was revealed over time but exercise effects on affect were shown to be moderated by perceptions of…

  16. Passive Heating Attenuates Post-exercise Cardiac Autonomic Recovery in Healthy Young Males

    Tiago Peçanha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Post-exercise heart rate (HR recovery (HRR presents a biphasic pattern, which is mediated by parasympathetic reactivation and sympathetic withdrawal. Several mechanisms regulate these post-exercise autonomic responses and thermoregulation has been proposed to play an important role. The aim of this study was to test the effects of heat stress on HRR and HR variability (HRV after aerobic exercise in healthy subjects. Twelve healthy males (25 ± 1 years, 23.8 ± 0.5 kg/m2 performed 14 min of moderate-intensity cycling exercise (40–60% HRreserve followed by 5 min of loadless active recovery in two conditions: heat stress (HS and normothermia (NT. In HS, subjects dressed in a whole-body water-perfused tube-lined suit to increase internal temperature (Tc by ~1°C. In NT, subjects did not wear the suit. HR, core and skin temperatures (Tc and Tsk, mean arterial pressure (MAP skin blood flow (SKBF, and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC were measured throughout and analyzed during post-exercise recovery. HRR was assessed through calculations of HR decay after 60 and 300 s of recovery (HRR60s and HRR300s, and the short- and long-term time constants of HRR (T30 and HRRt. Post-exercise HRV was examined via calculations of RMSSD (root mean square of successive RR intervals and RMS (root mean square residual of RR intervals. The HS protocol promoted significant thermal stress and hemodynamic adjustments during the recovery (HS-NT differences: Tc = +0.7 ± 0.3°C; Tsk = +3.2 ± 1.5°C; MAP = −12 ± 14 mmHg; SKBF = +90 ± 80 a.u; CVC = +1.5 ± 1.3 a.u./mmHg. HRR and post-exercise HRV were significantly delayed in HS (e.g., HRR60s = 27 ± 9 vs. 44 ± 12 bpm, P < 0.01; HRR300s = 39 ± 12 vs. 59 ± 16 bpm, P < 0.01. The effects of heat stress (e.g., the HS-NT differences on HRR were associated with its effects on thermal and hemodynamic responses. In conclusion, heat stress delays HRR, and this effect seems to be mediated by an attenuated parasympathetic

  17. Effect of Short-term Forced Exercise on Naloxone Induced Withdrawal Symptoms in Morphine Addicted Male Rats

    KH Saadipour

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Opioid dependence has been causing limitation in usage of morphine and other opioid drugs in pain control. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of short-term forced exercise on withdrawal syndrome in morphine addicted male rats. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was done in the physiology research center of Ahwas Jondishapour University of Medical Sciences. Twenty four young male Wistar rats, weighing 200-300gr, were randomly divided into four groups: no addiction and no exercise, no addiction and exercise, addiction and no exercise and addiction and exercise. The exercise groups underwent treadmill forced exercise for ten days. The first five days morphine was administrated (ip twice daily with increasing dose (5، 10، 20، 40, 50 mg/kg to addicted groups. Also single dose (50mg/kg of morphine was administrated to them on the 10th day of exercise. After administration of naloxone hydrochloride the withdrawal symptoms were evaluated for 5 minutes. The findings of this study were analyzed by SPSS software and One- way ANOVA (Tukey test. Results: The findings of this study showed that the withdrawal symptoms was elevated in exercise and addicted groups in comparison with control group (p<0.05 , p<0.01. However, most of withdrawal symptoms decreased in addicted and exercise group in comparison with addicted and no exercise group (p<0.01, p<0.001. Conclusion: The exercise could increase endogenous opioid and withdrawal symptoms in animals but reduce withdrawal symptoms in addicted and exercise groups compared to addicted and no exercise group. Its mechanism might be related to down regulation and low sensitivity of opioid receptors

  18. Watching television or listening to music while exercising failed to affect post-exercise food intake or energy expenditure in male adolescents.

    Livock, Holly; Barnes, Joel D; Pouliot, Catherine; LeBlanc, Allana G; Saunders, Travis J; Tremblay, Mark S; Prud'homme, Denis; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2018-08-01

    Watching television or listening to music while exercising can serve as motivating factors, making it more pleasant to exercise for some people. However, it is unknown whether these stimuli influence food intake and/or physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) for the remainder of the day, potentially impacting energy balance and weight control. We examined the effects of watching television or listening to music while exercising on post-exercise energy intake and expenditure. Our study was a randomized crossover design, in which 24 male adolescents (mean age: 14.9 ± 1.1 years) completed three 30-min experimental conditions consisting of walking/jogging on a treadmill at 60% of heart rate reserve while (1) watching television; (2) listening to music; or (3) exercising with no other stimulus (control). An ad libitum lunch was offered immediately after the experimental conditions, and a dietary record was used to assess food intake for the remainder of the day. An Actical accelerometer was used to estimate PAEE until bedtime. The primary outcome measure was post-exercise energy intake and expenditure (kJ). We found that exercising while watching television or listening to music did not significantly affect post-exercise energy intake or energy expenditure. Exercising on a treadmill was found to be significantly more enjoyable while watching television than with no stimulus present. Ratings of perceived exertion were not significantly different between conditions. Overall, our results suggest that watching television or listening to music while exercising does not impact post-exercise energy intake or expenditure in male adolescents, which may have positive implications for adolescents who may need additional motivation to participate in physical activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of exposure to muscular male models among men: exploring the moderating role of gym use and exercise motivation.

    Halliwell, Emma; Dittmar, Helga; Orsborn, Amber

    2007-09-01

    This study examines the effects of exposure to the muscular male body ideal on body-focused negative affect among male gym users and non-exercisers. As hypothesized, the impact of media exposure depended on men's exercise status. Non-exercisers (n = 58) reported greater body-focused negative affect after exposure to images of muscular male models than after neutral images (no model controls), whereas gym users (n = 58) showed a tendency for less body-focused negative affect after the model images than after the control images. Furthermore, the extent to which gym users were motivated to increase strength and muscularity moderated these exposure effects; men who reported stronger strength and muscularity exercise motivation reported a greater degree of self-enhancement after exposure to the muscular ideal. The findings are interpreted with respect to likely differences in motives for social comparisons.

  20. [High versus moderate intense running exercise - effects on cardiometabolic risk-factors in untrained males].

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Lell, M; Scharf, M; Fraunberger, L; von Stengel, S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction | The philosophy on how to improve cardiometabolic risk factors most efficiently by endurance exercise is still controversial. To determine the effect of high-intensity (interval) training (HI[I]T) vs. moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) training on cardiometabolic risk factors we conducted a 16-week crossover randomized controlled trial. Methods | 81 healthy untrained middle aged men were randomly assigned to a HI(I)T-group and a control-group that started the MICE running program after their control status. HI(I)T consisted of running exercise around or above the individual anaerobic threshold (≈ 80- 100 % HRmax); MICE focused on continuous running exercise at ≈ 65-77.5 % HRmax. Both protocols were comparable with respect to energy consumption. Study endpoints were cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), metabolic syndrome Z-score (MetS-Z-score), intima-media-thickness (IMT) and body composition. Results | VO2max-changes in this overweighed male cohort significantly (p=0.002) differ between HIIT (14.7 ± 9.3 %, p=0.001) and MICE (7.9 ± 7.4 %,p=0.001). LVMI, as determined via magnetic resonance imaging, significantly increased in both exercise groups (HIIT: 8.5 ± 5.4 %, p=0.001 vs. MICE: 5.3 ± 4.0 %, p=0.001), however the change was significantly more pronounced (p=0.005) in the HIIT-group. MetS-Z-score (HIIT: -2.06 ± 1.31, p=0.001 vs. MICE: -1.60 ± 1.77, p=0.001) and IMT (4.6 ± 5.9 % p=0.011 vs. 4.4 ± 8.1 %, p=0.019) did not show significant group-differences. Reductions of fat mass (-4.9 ± 9.0 %, p=0.010 vs. -9.5 ± 9.4, p=0.001) were significantly higher among the MICE-participants (p=0.034), however, the same was true (p=0.008) for lean body mass (0.5 ± 2.3 %, p=0.381 vs. -1.3 ± 2.0 %, p=0.003). Conclusion | In summary high-intensity interval training tends to impact cardiometabolic health more favorable compared with a moderate-intensity continuous endurance exercise protocol.

  1. Comparison of affective responses during and after low volume high-intensity interval exercise, continuous moderate- and continuous high-intensity exercise in active, untrained, healthy males.

    Niven, Ailsa; Thow, Jacqueline; Holroyd, Jack; Turner, Anthony P; Phillips, Shaun M

    2018-09-01

    This study compared affective responses to low volume high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) and high-intensity continuous exercise (HICE). Twelve untrained males ([Formula: see text] 48.2 ± 6.7 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ) completed MICE (30 min cycle at 85% of ventilatory threshold (VT)), HICE (cycle at 105% of VT matched with MICE for total work), and HIIE (10 x 6 s cycle sprints with 60 s recovery). Affective valence and perceived activation were measured before exercise, post warm-up, every 20% of exercise time, and 1, 5, 10, and 15 min post-exercise. Affective valence during exercise declined by 1.75 ± 2.42, 1.17 ± 1.99, and 0.42 ± 1.38 units in HICE, HIIE, and MICE, respectively, but was not statistically influenced by trial (P = 0.35), time (P = 0.06), or interaction effect (P = 0.08). Affective valence during HICE and HIIE was consistently less positive than MICE. Affective valence post-exercise was not statistically influenced by trial (P = 0.10) and at 5 min post-exercise exceeded end-exercise values (P = 0.048). Circumplex profiles showed no negative affect in any trial. Affective responses to low volume HIIE are similar to HICE but remain positive and rebound rapidly, suggesting it may be a potential alternative exercise prescription.

  2. No Evidence of Racial Differences in Endothelial Function and Exercise Blood Flow in Young, Healthy Males Following Acute Antioxidant Supplementation.

    Kappus, Rebecca M; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Rosenberg, Alexander J; Fernhall, Bo

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of acute antioxidant supplementation on endothelial function, exercise blood flow and oxidative stress biomarkers in 9 young African American compared to 10 Caucasian males (25.7±1.2 years). We hypothesized that African American males would have lower exercise blood flow and endothelial responsiveness compared to Caucasian males, and these responses would be improved following antioxidant supplementation. Ultrasonography was used to measure blood flow during handgrip exercise. Endothelial function was assessed using flow-mediated dilation, and lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring levels of malondialdehyde-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. African American males exhibited lower endothelial function than Caucasians at baseline (8.3±1.7 vs. 12.2±1.7%) and the difference was ameliorated with antioxidant supplementation (10.7±1.9% vs. 10.8±1.8%), but the interaction was not significant (p=0.10). There were no significant changes in malondialdehyde-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances following antioxidant supplementation. There was a significant increase in brachial blood flow and forearm vascular conductance with exercise but no differences with antioxidant supplementation. There were no group differences in exercise responses and no differences with antioxidant supplementation, suggesting a lack of influence of oxidative stress during exercise in this cohort. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. The response of circulating omentin-1 concentration to 16-week exercise training in male children with obesity.

    Zehsaz, Farzad; Farhangi, Negin; Ghahramani, Mehri

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of the 16-week exercise training program on serum omentin-1 in relation to change in insulin resistance in obese male children. Thirty-two obese male children, aged 9-12 years, were randomly assigned into Exercise Group (ExG; n = 16) and Control Group (CG; n = 16). ExG participated in a 16-week exercise training program which combined various forms of aerobic activities and resistance training. Body composition, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fasting glucose and insulin, homeostasis model assessment estimate of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR), blood lipids and serum omentin-1 were assessed before and after 16 weeks of training. Exercise training significantly decreased body mass (7.5%), BMI (7.6%), WC (4.3%), body fat % (15%), fasting insulin (18.5%), total cholesterol (TC) (5.4%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (17%) and triglyceride (TG) (7.4%) compared to CG. Between-groups comparison showed a considerable exercise-induced upregulation in omentin-1 (ES = 89; P Exercise training resulted in a significant increase in serum omentin-1 concentrations in children with obesity. The findings suggest that exercise-induced changes in omentin-1 may be associated with the beneficial effects of exercise on reduced insulin and weight lost.

  4. Including the Copenhagen Adduction Exercise in the FIFA 11+ Provides Missing Eccentric Hip Adduction Strength Effect in Male Soccer Players: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Harøy, Joar; Thorborg, Kristian; Serner, Andreas; Bjørkheim, André; Rolstad, Linn E; Hölmich, Per; Bahr, Roald; Andersen, Thor Einar

    2017-11-01

    The FIFA 11+ was developed as a complete warm-up program to prevent injuries in soccer players. Although reduced hip adduction strength is associated with groin injuries, none of the exercises included in the FIFA 11+ seem to specifically target hip adduction strength. To investigate the effect on eccentric hip adduction strength of the FIFA 11+ warm-up program with or without the Copenhagen adduction exercise. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. We recruited 45 eligible players from 2 U19 elite male soccer teams. Players were randomized into 2 groups; 1 group carried out the standard FIFA 11+ program, while the other carried out the FIFA 11+ but replaced the Nordic hamstring exercise with the Copenhagen adduction exercise. Both groups performed the intervention 3 times weekly for 8 weeks. Players completed eccentric strength and sprint testing before and after the intervention. Per-protocol analyses were performed, and 12 players were excluded due to low compliance (<67% of sessions completed). The main outcome was eccentric hip adduction strength (N·m/kg). Between-group analyses revealed a significantly greater increase in eccentric hip adduction strength of 0.29 Nm/kg (8.9%; P = .01) in favor of the group performing the Copenhagen adduction exercise, whereas no within-group change was noted in the group that used the standard FIFA 11+ program (-0.02 N·m/kg [-0.7%]; P = .69). Including the Copenhagen adduction exercise in the FIFA 11+ program increases eccentric hip adduction strength, while the standard FIFA 11+ program does not. Registration: Registration: ISRCTN13731446 (International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number registry).

  5. Effects of Exercise Induced Dehydration and Glycerol Rehydration on Anaerobic Power in Male Collegiate Wrestlers.

    McKenna, Zachary J; Gillum, Trevor L

    2017-11-01

    McKenna, ZJ and Gillum, TL. Effects of exercise induced dehydration and glycerol rehydration on anaerobic power in male collegiate wrestlers. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 2965-2968, 2017-Wrestlers attempting to reach a specific weight class often use rapid weight loss (RWL). Rapid weight loss is associated with high levels of dehydration, which may hinder athletic performance. Thus, there is a need for wrestlers to optimize rehydration after achieving a specific weight. We sought to observe the effects of RWL on anaerobic power and the impact of glycerol on rehydration and power in male collegiate wrestlers (n = 7, 19.75 ± 1.67 years, 76.8 ± 4.32 kg, 11.6 ± 4.32% body fat, 59.9 ± 6.42 ml·kg·min). Subjects were assessed for body mass (BM), hydration, and mean power output (Wmean) before exercise (pre), immediately after exercise (3% dehydrated), and 60 minutes after exercise (rehydrated). Participants ran at 70% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in a heated room (30° C) until 3% BM loss (BML). Subjects rehydrated drinking either 26 ml·kg of water (control) or a 3% glycerol (treatment) solution containing 26 ml·kg of water and 1 g·kg of glycerol. Participants lost 3.00 ± 0.31% (control) and 2.89 ± 0.26% (treatment) of their BM from the pre- to dehydrated conditions. Wmean (control: 659.29 ± 79.12, 651.43 ± 70.71, 659.71 ± 82.78; treatment: 647.71 ± 110.64, 644.57 ± 118.15, 638.14 ± 100.71) did not differ across time (p = 0.87) nor condition (p = 0.80). In addition, glycerol had no significant impact on acute hydration (control: urine-specific gravity [SG] = 1.019 ± 0.010; treatment: SG = 1.017 ± 0.017). These data show that 3% BML did not impair anaerobic performance, and furthermore that glycerol proved ineffective for rehydration in a match like scenario for the competing wrestler.

  6. A comparison of eating, exercise, shape, and weight related symptomatology in males with muscle dysmorphia and anorexia nervosa.

    Murray, Stuart B; Rieger, Elizabeth; Hildebrandt, Tom; Karlov, Lisa; Russell, Janice; Boon, Evelyn; Dawson, Robert T; Touyz, Stephen W

    2012-03-01

    In the context of the lack of nosological clarity surrounding muscle dysmorphia, this paper aims to compare the symptomatic profile of muscle dysmorphia and anorexia nervosa in males whilst using measures sensitive to indexing male body image concerns. Twenty-one male muscle dysmorphia patients, 24 male anorexia nervosa patients, and 15 male gym-using controls completed the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, the Muscle Dysmorphia Disorder Inventory, the Compulsive Exercise Test, and a measure of appearance-enhancing substance use. Men with muscle dysmorphia and anorexia nervosa demonstrated widespread symptomatic similarities spanning the domains of disturbed body image, disordered eating, and exercise behaviour, whilst differences were consistent with the opposing physiques pursued in each condition. Furthermore, correlational analyses revealed significant associations between scores on muscle dysmorphia and eating disorder measures. The present findings provide moderate support for the notion that muscle dysmorphia may be nosologically similar to anorexia nervosa. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Variations in leptin, nesfatin-1 and irisin levels induced by aerobic exercise in young trained and untrained male subjects

    Sermin Algul

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate the impacts of acute aerobic exercise on circulating levels of hormones associated with energy metabolism, namely leptin, nesfatin-1 and irisin, in trained and untrained male subjects and to determine whether the timing of the exercise (i.e. morning or night amplified these impacts. Thirty trained (19.2±0.7 years and 30 untrained (19.5±0.6 years male subjects performed two aerobic running exercises (3 days between tests to 64-76% of the subjects’ maximal heart rate for about 30 min. Pre- and post-exercise venous blood samples were taken and analysed for leptin, nesfatin-1 and irisin using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Paired samples and independent samples t-tests were used to analyse data. Irisin levels increased in all the subjects (p<0.001. In both groups, nesfatin-1 levels increased significantly after the night-time exercise (p<0.05. Importantly, leptin and nesfatin-1 levels varied among the trained and untrained groups: Both leptin and nesfatin-1 levels increased in 4 (13% and 12 (40% subjects, respectively, after the morning exercises, and they increased in 9 (30% and 10 (33% subjects, respectively, after the night-time exercise. They decreased in 5 (16% and 7 (23% subjects, respectively, after the morning exercise and in 6 (20% and 3 (10% subjects, respectively, after the night-time exercise. Exercise may result in increased energy consumption by altering irisin levels. However, due to variations among individuals, increasing leptin and nesfatin-1 levels by reducing food intake may not be applicable.

  8. The Joint Effects of Smoking and Alcohol Drinking on Lipid-Related Indices among Chinese Males-Comparing Exercise and Non-Exercise Groups.

    Yang, Jian; Ye, Jun; Guo, Qiao; Sun, Yining; Zheng, Yansong; Zhang, Yongliang

    2018-06-11

    Smoking and drinking are two predisposing factors for dyslipidemia. Exercise has been proposed as a strategy to improve the blood lipids. However, it remains unclear how smoking and drinking jointly affect blood lipids and whether exercise influences their effects. To evaluate the effects of smoking and drinking, either alone or in combination, on lipid-related indices in both exercise and non-exercise groups among Chinese men. This study was conducted in a health examination center between 2015 and 2016. A sample of 6,179 male subjects was divided into exercise and non-exercise groups. Logistic and linear regression analyses were used to calculate the odds ratios for abnormal lipid-related indices and correlation coefficients between smoking/drinking and lipid-related indices. In the study population, the percentage of stable smokers and stable drinkers was 46.3% (2,860/6,179) and 77.6% (4,795/6,179), respectively. An increased smoking amount was significantly associated with an elevated triglyceride (TG) level and a decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level. Heavier smokers had higher odds ratios for high TG and low HDL-C. Heavier drinkers had higher levels of total cholesterol (TC), TG, and HDL-C and higher odds ratios for high TC and high TG but lower odds ratio for low HDL-C. The exercise group had lower TG levels and higher HDL-C levels than did the non-exercise group. Both heavier smoking and heavier drinking were associated with poorer TG levels, and the results suggest that drinking may be helpful for HDL-C. Exercise may relieve the negative effects of smoking and drinking.

  9. Muscle and liver glycogen utilization during prolonged lift and carry exercise: male and female responses.

    Price, Thomas B; Sanders, Kimberly

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the use of carbohydrates by men and women during lift/carry exercise. Effects of menstrual cycle variation were examined in women. Twenty-five subjects (15 M, 10 F) were studied; age 25 ± 2y M, 26 ± 3y F, weight 85 ± 3 kg* M, 63 ± 3 kg F, and height 181 ± 2 cm* M, 161 ± 2 cm F (* P  Glycogen utilization was tracked with natural abundance C-13 NMR of quadriceps femoris and biceps brachialis muscles, and in the liver at rest and throughout the exercise period. Males completed more of the 180 min protocol than females [166 ± 9 min M, 112 ± 16 min* F (L), 88 ± 16 min** F (F) (* P  = 0.0036, ** P  glycogen depletion was similar between sexes and within females in L/F phases [4.7 ± 0.8 mmol/L-h M, 4.5 ± 2.4 mmol/L-h F (L), 10.3 ± 3.5 mmol/L-h F (F)]. Biceps glycogen depletion was greater in females [2.7 ± 0.9 mmol/L-h M, 10.3 ± 1.3 mmol/L-h* F (L), 16.8 ± 4.8 mmol/L-h** F (F) (* P  = 0.0004, ** P  = 0.0122)]. Resting glycogen levels were higher in females during the follicular phase ( P  = 0.0077). Liver glycogen depletion increased during exercise, but was not significant. We conclude that with non-normalized lift/carry exercise: (1) Based on their smaller size, women are less capable of completing and work their upper body harder than men. (2) Women and men work their lower body at similar levels. (3) Women store more quadriceps carbohydrate during the follicular phase. (4) The liver is not significantly challenged by this protocol. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  10. Variable-Intensity Simulated Team-Sport Exercise Increases Daily Protein Requirements in Active Males.

    Packer, Jeffrey E; Wooding, Denise J; Kato, Hiroyuki; Courtney-Martin, Glenda; Pencharz, Paul B; Moore, Daniel R

    2017-01-01

    Protein requirements are generally increased in strength and endurance trained athletes relative to their sedentary peers. However, less is known about the daily requirement for this important macronutrient in individuals performing variable intensity, stop-and-go type exercise that is typical for team sport athletes. The objective of the present study was to determine protein requirements in active, trained adult males performing a simulated soccer match using the minimally invasive indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method. After 2 days of controlled diet (1.2 g⋅kg -1 ⋅day -1 protein), seven trained males (23 ± 1 years; 177.5 ± 6.7 cm; 82.3 ± 6.1 kg; 13.5% ± 4.7% body fat; 52.3 ± 5.9 ml O 2 ⋅kg -1 ⋅min -1 ; mean ± SD) performed an acute bout of variable intensity exercise in the form of a modified Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (4 × 15 min of exercise over 75 min). Immediately after exercise, hourly meals were consumed providing a variable amount of protein (0.2-2.6 g⋅kg -1 ⋅day -1 ) and sufficient energy and carbohydrate (6 g⋅kg -1 ⋅day -1 ). Protein was provided as a crystalline amino acids modeled after egg protein with the exception of phenylalanine and tyrosine, which were provided in excess to ensure the metabolic partitioning of the indicator amino acid (i.e., [1- 13 C]phenylalanine included within the phenylalanine intake) was directed toward oxidation when protein intake was limiting. Whole body phenylalanine flux and 13 CO 2 excretion (F 13 CO 2 ) were determined at metabolic and isotopic steady state from urine and breath samples, respectively. Biphasic linear regression analysis was performed on F 13 CO 2 to determine the estimated average requirement (EAR) for protein with a safe intake defined as the upper 95% confidence interval. Phenylalanine flux was not impacted by protein intake ( P  = 0.45). Bi-phase linear regression ( R 2  = 0.64) of F 13 CO 2 resulted

  11. Variable-Intensity Simulated Team-Sport Exercise Increases Daily Protein Requirements in Active Males

    Jeffrey E. Packer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein requirements are generally increased in strength and endurance trained athletes relative to their sedentary peers. However, less is known about the daily requirement for this important macronutrient in individuals performing variable intensity, stop-and-go type exercise that is typical for team sport athletes. The objective of the present study was to determine protein requirements in active, trained adult males performing a simulated soccer match using the minimally invasive indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO method. After 2 days of controlled diet (1.2 g⋅kg−1⋅day−1 protein, seven trained males (23 ± 1 years; 177.5 ± 6.7 cm; 82.3 ± 6.1 kg; 13.5% ± 4.7% body fat; 52.3 ± 5.9 ml O2⋅kg−1⋅min-1; mean ± SD performed an acute bout of variable intensity exercise in the form of a modified Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (4 × 15 min of exercise over 75 min. Immediately after exercise, hourly meals were consumed providing a variable amount of protein (0.2–2.6 g⋅kg−1⋅day−1 and sufficient energy and carbohydrate (6 g⋅kg−1⋅day−1. Protein was provided as a crystalline amino acids modeled after egg protein with the exception of phenylalanine and tyrosine, which were provided in excess to ensure the metabolic partitioning of the indicator amino acid (i.e., [1-13C]phenylalanine included within the phenylalanine intake was directed toward oxidation when protein intake was limiting. Whole body phenylalanine flux and 13CO2 excretion (F13CO2 were determined at metabolic and isotopic steady state from urine and breath samples, respectively. Biphasic linear regression analysis was performed on F13CO2 to determine the estimated average requirement (EAR for protein with a safe intake defined as the upper 95% confidence interval. Phenylalanine flux was not impacted by protein intake (P = 0.45. Bi-phase linear regression (R2 = 0.64 of F13CO2 resulted in an EAR

  12. The effect of pilates exercise on improvement of functional tests in young male with patello-femoral pain syndrome

    Ahmet Gökhan YAZICI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study of the effect of Pilates exercise on improvement of functional Performance tests in young male with PFPS was the main purpose the present study. Material and Methods: The 11-young male (age: 26.41±1.04yr, height: 177.37±3.21cm, and weight: 177.37±3.21kg with PFPS, as exercise groups, performed the Pilates exercises for ten weeks, three sessions per week and one hour per session. Functional performance tests (Step-down, left and right and Single-leg press was assessed. All data were analysed using SPSS and the statistical significance level was set at p<0.05 and p<0.001. Results: The result of analysis indicated that significant difference found between pre- and post-test in exercise group in Step-down test (t=9.79, p<0.001 and Single-Leg Press (t=8.86, p<0.001 test. Conclusion: According to the results of the present research, it could be concluded that for improvement of daily activities and functional performance in young male with PFPS, Pilates exercise method is recommended.

  13. Fatigue and perceptual responses of heavier- and lighter-load isolated lumbar extension resistance exercise in males and females

    Charlotte Stuart

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background There is a lack of research considering acute fatigue responses to high- and low-load resistance training as well as the comparison between male and female responses. Furthermore, limited studies have considered fatigue response testing with the inclusion of perceptions of discomfort and exertion. Methods The present study included males (n = 9; 23.8 ± 6.4 years; 176.7 ± 6.2 cm; 73.9 ± 9.3 kg and females (n = 8; 21.3 ± 0.9 years; 170.5 ± 6.1 cm; 65.5 ± 10.8 kg who were assessed for differences in fatigue (i.e., loss of torque at maximal voluntary contraction (MVC immediately following isolated lumbar extension (ILEX exercise at heavy- (HL and light-(LL loads (80% and 50% MVC, respectively. Participants also reported perceptual measures of effort (RPE-E and discomfort (RPE-D between different resistance training protocols. Results Analysis of variance revealed significantly greater absolute and relative fatigue following LL compared to HL conditions (p < 0.001. Absolute fatigue significantly differed between males and females (p = 0.012, though relative fatigue was not significantly different (p = 0.160. However, effect sizes for absolute fatigue (HL; Males = −1.84, Females = −0.83; LL; Males = −3.11, Females = −2.39 and relative fatigue (HL; Males = −2.17, Females = −0.76; LL; Males = −3.36, Females = −3.08 were larger for males in both HL and LL conditions. RPE-E was maximal for all participants in both conditions, but RPE-D was significantly higher in LL compared to HL (p < 0.001 with no difference between males and females. Discussion Our data suggests that females do not incur the same degree of fatigue as males following similar exercise protocols, and indeed that females might be able to sustain longer exercise duration at the same relative loads. As such females should manipulate training variables accordingly, perhaps performing greater repetitions at a relative load, or using heavier relative

  14. Active Intervention Program Using Dietary Education and Exercise Training for Reducing Obesity in Mexican American Male Children

    Lee, Sukho; Misra, Ranjita; Kaster, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a 10-week active intervention program (AIP), which incorporates dietary education with exercise training, among 30 healthy Mexican American male children, aged 8-12 years, in Laredo, Texas. Participants were randomly divided into 3 groups: education (EDU), dietary education to participants and parents and…

  15. The effect of habitual waterpipe tobacco smoking on pulmonary function and exercise capacity in young healthy males: A pilot study.

    Hawari, F I; Obeidat, N A; Ghonimat, I M; Ayub, H S; Dawahreh, S S

    2017-01-01

    Evidence regarding the health effects of habitual waterpipe smoking is limited, particularly in young smokers. Respiratory health and cardiopulmonary exercise tests were compared in young male habitual waterpipe smokers (WPS) versus non-smokers. 69 WPS (≥3 times/week for three years) and 69 non-smokers were studied. Respiratory health was assessed through the American Thoracic Society and the Division of Lung Diseases (ATS-DLD-78) adult questionnaire. Pulmonary function and cardiopulmonary exercise tests were performed. Self-reported respiratory symptoms, forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV 1 ), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV 1 /FVC ratio, forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC (FEF 25-75% ), peak expiratory flow (PEF), exercise time, peak end-tidal CO 2 tension (PetCO 2 ), subject-reported leg fatigue and dyspnea; peak O 2 uptake (VO 2 max), and end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) change from baseline (at peak exercise) were measured. WPS were more likely than non-smokers to report respiratory symptoms. WPS also demonstrated: shorter exercise time; lower peak VO 2 ; higher perceived dyspnea at mid-exercise; lower values of the following: FEV 1 , FVC, PEF, and EELV change. Habitual waterpipe tobacco smoking in young seemingly healthy individuals is associated with a greater burden of respiratory symptoms and impaired exercise capacity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Different Short-Term Mild Exercise Modalities Lead to Differential Effects on Body Composition in Healthy Prepubertal Male Rats

    D. M. Sontam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has a vital role in regulating and improving bone strength. Responsiveness of bone mass to exercise is age dependent with the prepubertal period suggested to be the most effective stage for interventions. There is a paucity of data on the effects of exercise on bone architecture and body composition when studied within the prepubertal period. We examined the effect of two forms of low-impact exercise on prepubertal changes in body composition and bone architecture. Weanling male rats were assigned to control (CON, bipedal stance (BPS, or wheel exercise (WEX groups for 15 days until the onset of puberty. Distance travelled via WEX was recorded, food intake measured, and body composition quantified. Trabecular and cortical microarchitecture of the femur were determined by microcomputed tomography. WEX led to a higher lean mass and reduced fat mass compared to CON. WEX animals had greater femoral cortical cross-sectional thickness and closed porosity compared to CON. The different exercise modalities had no effect on body weight or food intake, but WEX significantly altered body composition and femoral microarchitecture. These data suggest that short-term mild voluntary exercise in normal prepubertal rats can alter body composition dependent upon the exercise modality.

  17. Cross-sectional relationships of exercise and age to adiposity in60,617 male runners

    Williams, Paul T.; Pate, Russell R.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess in men whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 male runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1 percent), hip (47.1 percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Between 18 to 55 years old, the decline in BMI with weekly distance run (slope+-SE) was significantly greater in men 25-55 years old (slope+-:-0.036+-0.001 kg/m2 per km/wk) than in younger men (-0.020+-0.002 kg/m 2 per km/wk). Declines in waist circumference with running distance were also significantly greater in older than younger men (P<10-9 for trend),i.e., the slopes decreased progressively from -0.035+-0.004 cm per km/wk in 18-25 year old men to -0.097+-0.003 cm per km/wk in 50-55 year old men. Increases in BMI with age were greater for men who ran under 16km/wk than for longer distance runners. Waist circumference increased with age at all running levels, but the increase appeared to diminish by running further (0.259+-0.015 cm per year if running<8 km/wk and 0.154+-0.003 cm per year for>16 km/wk). In men over 50 years old, BMI declined -0.038+-0.001 kg/m2 per km/wk run when adjusted for age and declined -0.054+-0.003 kg/m2 (increased 0.021+-0.007 cm) per year of age when adjusted for running distance. Their waist circumference declined-0.096+-0.002 cm per km/wk run when adjusted for age and increased 0.021+-0.007 cm per year of age when adjusted for running distance. These cross-sectional data suggest that age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting mens adiposity, and support the proposition that vigorous physical activity must increase with age to prevent middle-age weight gain. We estimate that a man who ran 16 km/wk at age 25 would need to increase their weekly running distance by 65.7 km/wk by age 50 in order to maintain his same waist

  18. Oxidative stress and antioxidant responses to progressive resistance exercise intensity in trained and untrained males

    H Çakır-Atabek; F Özdemir; R Çolak

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between oxidative stress and some exercise components of resistance exercise (e.g. intensity, exercise volume) has not been clearly defined. Additionally, the oxidative stress markers may respond differently in various conditions. This study aims to determine the effects of progressive intensity of resistance exercise (RE) on oxidative stress and antioxidants in trained and untrained men, and also to investigate the possible threshold intensity required to evoke oxidative str...

  19. Alcohol and Exercise Affect Declining Kidney Function in Healthy Males Regardless of Obesity: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Kanda, Eiichiro; Muneyuki, Toshitaka; Suwa, Kaname; Nakajima, Kei

    2015-01-01

    Although lifestyle is associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases, there has been no sufficient evidence of lifestyles on incident chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this prospective cohort study is to investigate the effects of lifestyles on kidney function in healthy people. A total of 7473 healthy people were enrolled in this Saitama Cardiometabolic Disease and Organ Impairment Study, Japan. Data on alcohol consumption, exercise frequency, and sleep duration were collected. The outcome event was incident CKD or decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by >25% in 3 years. Subjects were classified into four groups according to body mass index and gender. Mean ± standard deviation of age was 38.8±10.5 years; eGFR, 78.1±15.2 ml/min/1.73 m2. In the male groups, multivariate logistic regression models showed that the outcome events were associated with a small amount of alcohol consumed (20 to 140 g of alcohol/week) (ref. more than 140 g of alcohol/week); non-obese male, adjusted odds ratio 1.366 (95% confidence interval, 1.086, 1.718); obese male (body mass index ≥25), 1.634 (1.160, 2.302); and with frequent exercise (twice a week or more) (ref. no exercise); non-obese male, 1.417 (1.144, 1.754); obese male, 1.842 (1.317, 2.577). Sleep duration was not associated with the outcome events. These findings suggest that, regardless of obesity, a small amount of alcohol consumed and high exercise frequency were associated with the increased risk of loss of kidney function in the male groups.

  20. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of a Bout of Circuit Resistance Exercise With Moderateintensity in Inactive Obese Males

    Asghari Jafarabadi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is a state characterized by a low-grade inflammation that leads to insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to assess serum interleukin-18 (IL-18, interleukin-6 (IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR in response to circuit resistance exercise in obese and normal-weight subjects with different levels of physical activity. Methods: Thirty-two healthy male students participated in the present study. Subjects were divided into 4 groups according to their BMI and level of physical activity: active obese (n=8, active non-obese (n=8, inactive obese (n=8, and inactive non-obese (n=8. To determine serum IL-6, IL-18, CRP, glucose and insulin concentrations, fasting and post-exercise blood samples were obtained. Subjects performed a bout of circuit resistance exercise in 2 sets with 10 repetitions at 60% of 1RM. Results: Obese subjects comparing non-obese ones showed significant increase in IL-6 and significant decrease in IL-18 concentrations in response to exercise (p<0.05. There was no significant difference between active normal and inactive normal subjects in response to exercise. Also, there were not significant differences in four groups in response to exercise. Discussion: The significant decrease in IL-18 concentration in the obese group comparing normal group in response to exercise was probably due to anti-inflammatory effects of exercise. Also, recommending this kind of exercise for obese persons with low level of physical activity can improve insulin resistance.

  1. Aerobic Physical Exercise Improved the Cognitive Function of Elderly Males but Did Not Modify Their Blood Homocysteine Levels

    Antunes, Hanna Karen M.; De Mello, Marco Túlio; de Aquino Lemos, Valdir; Santos-Galduróz, Ruth Ferreira; Camargo Galdieri, Luciano; Amodeo Bueno, Orlando Francisco; Tufik, Sergio; D'Almeida, Vânia

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical exercise influences homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations, cognitive function and the metabolic profile. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of regular physical exercise on Hcy levels, the metabolic profile and cognitive function in healthy elderly males before and after an endurance exercise program. Methods Forty-five healthy and sedentary volunteers were randomized into 2 groups: (1) a control group asked not to change their normal everyday activities and not to start any regular physical exercise program and (2) an experimental group trained at a heart rate intensity corresponding to ventilatory threshold 1 (VT-1) for 60 min/day 3 times weekly on alternate days for 6 months using a cycle ergometer. All volunteers underwent cognitive evaluations, blood sample analyses and ergospirometric assessments. Results A significant improvement in cognitive function was observed in the experimental group compared with the control group (p 0.05), but there was a significant increase in peak oxygen consumption and workload at VT-1 as well as a significant improvement in cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, urea, T3, T4 and prostate-specific antigen compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Conclusion The data suggest that a physical exercise program does not reduce Hcy levels in healthy elderly males, although it improves the cardiovascular and metabolic profile as well as cognitive function. PMID:25759715

  2. Voluntary and forced exercise influence the survival and body composition of ageing male rats differently.

    Narath, E; Skalicky, M; Viidik, A

    2001-11-01

    The importance of maintaining physical fitness by engaging in exercise in a life-long perspective as well as the avoidance of obesity has been emphasised in recent years by epidemiological studies on human populations as well as studies on laboratory rodents. In laboratory studies, voluntary running in wheels and forced training in a treadmill have been used with beneficial results. Restriction of the food intake of sedentary laboratory rodents can be regarded either as life prolongation or prevention of life shortening by obesity. We compared the effects of these interventions on male Sprague-Dawley rats from the age of 5 to 23 months in the following groups: (1) RW=voluntary running in wheels; (2) PW=fed to pair weight with RW animals; (3) TM=forced training in a treadmill; and (4) S1=sedentary with ad libitum access to food. Each group consisted of 32 animals, all housed individually in cages. Two RW animals died, five died in each of the PW and S1 groups and 10 in the TM group (pmuch they run.

  3. Effects of photobiomodulation therapy (pulsed LASER 904 nm) on muscle oxygenation and performance in exercise-induced skeletal muscle fatigue in young women: a pilot study

    Oliveira, Murilo X.; Toma, Renata L.; Jones, Brett J. L.; Cyprien, Thomas P.; Tier, Matthew R.; Wallace, Cameron A.; Renno, Ana C. M.; Sabapathy, Surendran; Laakso, E.-Liisa

    2017-02-01

    Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMt) has been used to increase muscle performance and improve recovery when applied before exercise. We aimed to evaluate the effects of PBMt using LASER on muscle oxygenation and performance. The study was a randomized, participant and assessor-blinded, within-subject crossover trial with placebo control to test the viability of the methods. Five physically active young women were randomly assigned to either placebo, or active PBMt (12 diode cluster probe; 904 nm; 60 mW; 250 Hz; 43.2 J per site, 129.6 J total) in contact over rectus femoris (RF) muscle of the dominant limb immediately before an isokinetic fatigue protocol. A one-week wash-out period preceded cross-over. Electromyography and isokinetic performance measures were evaluated. Absolute concentrations of deoxygenated haemoglobin and myoglobin (deoxy[Hb + Mb]) of the RF, an index of local microvascular fractional O2 extraction, was monitored continuously by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Total haemoglobin concentration as an indicator of microvascular haematocrit was calculated as the sum of the deoxy[Hb + Mb] and oxy[Hb + Mb] signals. PBMt pre-conditioning reduced time to peak torque when compared to placebo (P0.05). PBMt before exercise improves indicators of muscle performance, potentially by increasing local matching of bulk and microvascular O2 delivery relative to skeletal muscle O2 utilisation. Further work is required to understand the effect of PBMt on haemodynamic and metabolic characteristics of muscle.

  4. Exercise-induced hyperthermia syndrome (canine stress syndrome in four related male English springer spaniels

    Thrift E

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Thrift,1 Justin A Wimpole,2 Georgina Child,2 Narelle Brown,1 Barbara Gandolfi,3 Richard Malik4 1Animal Referral Hospital, 2Small Animal Specialist Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA; 4Centre for Veterinary Education, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Objective: This retrospective study describes the signalment, clinical presentation, diagnostic findings, and mode of inheritance in four young male English springer spaniel dogs with presumptive canine stress syndrome.Materials and methods: Appropriate cases were located through medical searches of medical records of two large private referral centers. Inclusion criteria comprised of English springer spaniel dogs with tachypnea and hyperthermia that subsequently developed weakness or collapse, with or without signs of hemorrhage, soon after a period of mild-to-moderate exercise. The pedigrees of the four affected dogs, as well as eleven related English springer spaniels, were then analyzed to determine a presumptive mode of genetic inheritance.Results: Four dogs met the inclusion criteria. All four were male, suggesting the possibility of a recessive sex-linked heritable disorder. Pedigree analysis suggests that more dogs may be potentially affected, although these dogs may have never had the concurrent triggering drug/activity/event to precipitate the clinical syndrome. There was complete resolution of clinical signs in three of the four dogs with aggressive symptomatic and supportive therapy, with one dog dying during treatment.Conclusion: Dogs with canine stress syndrome have the potential for rapid recovery if treated aggressively and the complications of the disease (eg, coagulopathy are anticipated. All four dogs were male, suggesting the possibility of a recessive sex-linked mode of inheritance. Further genetic analyses should be strongly considered by those

  5. The feasibility of an exercise intervention in males at risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma: a randomized controlled trial.

    Brooke M Winzer

    Full Text Available To investigate the feasibility and safety of a 24-week exercise intervention, compared to control, in males with Barrett's oesophagus, and to estimate the effect of the intervention, compared to control, on risk factors associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma development.A randomized controlled trial of an exercise intervention (60 minutes moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise five days/week over 24 weeks; one supervised and four unsupervised sessions versus attention control (45 minutes stretching five days/week over 24 weeks; one supervised and four unsupervised sessions in inactive, overweight/obese (25.0-34.9 kg/m2 males with Barrett's oesophagus, aged 18-70 years. Primary outcomes were obesity-associated hormones relevant to oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk (circulating concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein, and insulin resistance [HOMA]. Secondary outcomes included waist circumference, body composition, fitness, strength and gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms. Outcomes were measured at baseline and 24-weeks. Intervention effects were analysed using generalised linear models, adjusting for baseline value.Recruitment was difficult in this population with a total of 33 participants recruited (target sample size: n = 80; 97% retention at 24-weeks. Adherence to the exercise protocol was moderate. No serious adverse events were reported. A statistically significant intervention effect (exercise minus control was observed for waist circumference (-4.5 [95% CI -7.5, -1.4] cm; p < 0.01. Effects on primary outcomes were not statistically significant.This small, exploratory trial provides important information to inform future trial development including recruitment rates and estimates of effect sizes on outcomes related to oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk. Future trials should investigate a combined dietary and exercise intervention to achieve greater weight loss in this

  6. Exercise training and antioxidant supplementation independently improve cognitive function in adult male and female GFAP-APOE mice

    Kiran Chaudhari; Jessica M. Wong; Philip H. Vann; Nathalie Sumien

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if antioxidant supplementation, moderate exercise, and the combination of both treatments could ameliorate cognitive performance in adult mice and whether the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype as well as sex could influence the functional outcomes of the treatments. Methods: For a period of 16 weeks, separate groups of male and female mice expressing either the human APOE3 or APOE4 isoforms were fed either a control diet (NIH-31) or the co...

  7. Effects of caffeine on endurance capacity and psychological state in young females and males exercising in the heat.

    Suvi, Silva; Timpmann, Saima; Tamm, Maria; Aedma, Martin; Kreegipuu, Kairi; Ööpik, Vahur

    2017-01-01

    Acute caffeine ingestion is considered effective in improving endurance capacity and psychological state. However, current knowledge is based on the findings of studies that have been conducted on male subjects mainly in temperate environmental conditions, but some physiological and psychological effects of caffeine differ between the sexes. The purpose of this study was to compare the physical performance and psychological effects of caffeine in young women and men exercising in the heat. Thirteen male and 10 female students completed 2 constant-load walks (60% of thermoneutral peak oxygen consumption on a treadmill until volitional exhaustion) in a hot-dry environment (air temperature, 42 °C; relative humidity, 20%) after caffeine (6 mg·kg -1 ) and placebo (wheat flour) ingestion in a double-blind, randomly assigned, crossover manner. Caffeine, compared with placebo, induced greater increases (p exercise in the heat, but it has no impact on thermoregulation or endurance capacity in either gender. Under exercise-heat stress, caffeine reduces ratings of perceived exertion and fatigue in males but not in females.

  8. Basic Training of Student’s Outdoor Club Increases Muscle Mass after Five Weeks of Exercise in Males

    Novie Salsabila

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aerobic and anaerobic exercises, may lead to increase muscle mass. The aim of this study was to determine the change in muscle mass during basic training of students’ outdoor club. Methods: This was an observational analytic study to college students who joined basic training of students’ outdoor club for 19 weeks. Subjects consisted of 17 male and 15 female students, measured five times consecutively by using Body Fat/Hydration monitor scale, with Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis principle. Data collection was performed five times, from February to July 2012 in Bandung. Statistical analysis was processed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. Results: The result in males showed the mean 43.35±3.15 on the initial measurement. The muscle mass further increased significantly after five, ten, fifteen, and nineteen weeks of exercise (43.73±3.18 (p0.05; 38.08±1.67 (p>0.05 ; 38.23±1.52 (p>0.05 ; 38.61±1.52 (p<0.05 vs 37.77±2.00 respectively. Conclusion: Basic training of student’s outdoor club increases muscle mass significantly after five weeks of exercise in males, but not in females

  9. Whole-Body Vibration Mimics the Metabolic Effects of Exercise in Male Leptin Receptor-Deficient Mice.

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Wenger, Karl H; Misra, Sudipta; Davis, Catherine L; Pollock, Norman K; Elsalanty, Mohammed; Ding, Kehong; Isales, Carlos M; Hamrick, Mark W; Wosiski-Kuhn, Marlena; Arounleut, Phonepasong; Mattson, Mark P; Cutler, Roy G; Yu, Jack C; Stranahan, Alexis M

    2017-05-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) has gained attention as a potential exercise mimetic, but direct comparisons with the metabolic effects of exercise are scarce. To determine whether WBV recapitulates the metabolic and osteogenic effects of physical activity, we exposed male wild-type (WT) and leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) mice to daily treadmill exercise (TE) or WBV for 3 months. Body weights were analyzed and compared with WT and db/db mice that remained sedentary. Glucose and insulin tolerance testing revealed comparable attenuation of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in db/db mice following TE or WBV. Both interventions reduced body weight in db/db mice and normalized muscle fiber diameter. TE or WBV also attenuated adipocyte hypertrophy in visceral adipose tissue and reduced hepatic lipid content in db/db mice. Although the effects of leptin receptor deficiency on cortical bone structure were not eliminated by either intervention, exercise and WBV increased circulating levels of osteocalcin in db/db mice. In the context of increased serum osteocalcin, the modest effects of TE and WBV on bone geometry, mineralization, and biomechanics may reflect subtle increases in osteoblast activity in multiple areas of the skeleton. Taken together, these observations indicate that WBV recapitulates the effects of exercise on metabolism in type 2 diabetes.

  10. Adolescent voluntary exercise attenuated hippocampal innate immunity responses and depressive-like behaviors following maternal separation stress in male rats.

    Sadeghi, Mahsa; Peeri, Maghsoud; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal

    2016-09-01

    Early life stressful events have detrimental effects on the brain and behavior, which are associated with the development of depression. Immune-inflammatory responses have been reported to contribute in the pathophysiology of depression. Many studies have reported on the beneficial effects of exercise against stress. However, underlying mechanisms through which exercise exerts its effects were poorly studied. Therefore, it applied maternal separation (MS), as a valid animal model of early-life adversity, in rats from postnatal day (PND) 2 to 14 for 180min per day. At PND 28, male Wistar albino rats were subjected to 5 experimental groups; 1) controls 2) MS rats 3) MS rats treated with fluoxetine 5mg/kg to PND 60, 4) MS rats that were subjected to voluntary running wheel (RW) exercise and 5) MS rats that were subjected to mandatory treadmill (TM) exercise until adulthood. At PND 60, depressive-like behaviors were assessed by using forced swimming test (FST), splash test, and sucrose preference test (SPT). Our results revealed that depressive-like behaviors following MS stress were associated with an increase in expression of toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr-4) and its main signaling protein, Myd88, in the hippocampal formation. Also, we found that voluntary (and not mandatory) physical exercise during adolescence is protected against depressant effects of early-life stress at least partly through mitigating the innate immune responses in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Reduction in plasma leucine after sprint exercise is greater in males than in females

    Esbjörnsson, M; Rooyackers, O; Norman, B

    2012-01-01

    There is a pronounced gender difference in the accumulation of plasma ammonia after sprint exercise. Ammonia is a key intermediate in amino acid metabolism, which implies that gender-related differences in plasma and muscle amino acid concentrations after sprint exercise exist. To study this, three...

  12. Influence of Structural Corrective and Respiratory Exercises on Cardiorespiratory Indices of Male Children Afflicted with Kyphosis

    Hasan Meamari

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion According to our findings, it can be concluded that there is an improvement in cardiopulmonary function indices following respiratory exercises. Keeping in mind the ease with which they can be performed and the fact they do not require special devices, it can be firmly stated that respiratory muscle exercises are more efficient than other corrective exercises during a brief intervention period (six weeks. With regard to the approved influence of structural corrective exercise in kyphosis in previous studies and its relatively inadequate influence in the present study, it seems that corrective exercises need a comparatively longer duration (probably 12 weeks to prove effective. A limitation of this study was the lack of controlling false habits in daily physical activities and postures that could have had an influence on kyphosis. Its evaluation is recommended for future studies.

  13. Exercise and the Prevention of Oesophageal Cancer (EPOC study protocol: a randomized controlled trial of exercise versus stretching in males with Barrett's oesophagus

    Reeves Marina M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and excessive body fat are considered principal causes of Barrett's oesophagus (a metaplastic change in the cells lining the oesophagus and its neoplastic progression, oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Metabolic disturbances including altered levels of obesity-related cytokines, chronic inflammation and insulin resistance have also been associated with oesophageal cancer development, especially in males. Physical activity may have the potential to abrogate metabolic disturbances in males with Barrett's oesophagus and elicit beneficial reductions in body fat and gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms. Thus, exercise may be an effective intervention in reducing oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk. However, to date this hypothesis remains untested. The 'Exercise and the Prevention of Oesophageal Cancer Study' will determine whether 24 weeks of exercise training will lead to alterations in risk factors or biomarkers for oesophageal adenocarcinoma in males with Barrett's oesophagus. Our primary outcomes are serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 as well as insulin resistance. Body composition, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptoms, cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength will also be assessed as secondary outcomes. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial of 80 overweight or obese, inactive males with Barrett's oesophagus will be conducted in Brisbane, Australia. Participants will be randomized to an intervention arm (60 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance training, five days per week or a control arm (45 minutes of stretching, five days per week for 24 weeks. Primary and secondary endpoints will be measured at baseline (week 0, midpoint (week 12 and at the end of the intervention (week 24. Discussion Due to the increasing incidence and very high mortality associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma

  14. Exercise and the Prevention of Oesophageal Cancer (EPOC) study protocol: a randomized controlled trial of exercise versus stretching in males with Barrett's oesophagus

    Winzer, Brooke M; Paratz, Jennifer D; Reeves, Marina M; Whiteman, David C

    2010-01-01

    Chronic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and excessive body fat are considered principal causes of Barrett's oesophagus (a metaplastic change in the cells lining the oesophagus) and its neoplastic progression, oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Metabolic disturbances including altered levels of obesity-related cytokines, chronic inflammation and insulin resistance have also been associated with oesophageal cancer development, especially in males. Physical activity may have the potential to abrogate metabolic disturbances in males with Barrett's oesophagus and elicit beneficial reductions in body fat and gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms. Thus, exercise may be an effective intervention in reducing oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk. However, to date this hypothesis remains untested. The 'Exercise and the Prevention of Oesophageal Cancer Study' will determine whether 24 weeks of exercise training will lead to alterations in risk factors or biomarkers for oesophageal adenocarcinoma in males with Barrett's oesophagus. Our primary outcomes are serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 as well as insulin resistance. Body composition, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptoms, cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength will also be assessed as secondary outcomes. A randomized controlled trial of 80 overweight or obese, inactive males with Barrett's oesophagus will be conducted in Brisbane, Australia. Participants will be randomized to an intervention arm (60 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance training, five days per week) or a control arm (45 minutes of stretching, five days per week) for 24 weeks. Primary and secondary endpoints will be measured at baseline (week 0), midpoint (week 12) and at the end of the intervention (week 24). Due to the increasing incidence and very high mortality associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma, interventions effective in

  15. Effect of aerobic exercise on Pancreas Beta-cells function in adult obese males

    Mojtaba Eizadi

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Aerobic exercise training increases beta cells function and decreases FBS in obese men. These findings support the hypothesis that regular physical activity postpones the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in adult obese subjects.

  16. Differential Impact of Acute High-Intensity Exercise on Circulating Endothelial Microparticles and Insulin Resistance between Overweight/Obese Males and Females

    Durrer, Cody; Robinson, Emily; Wan, Zhongxiao; Martinez, Nic; Hummel, Michelle L.; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Kilpatrick, Marcus W.; Little, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Background An acute bout of exercise can improve endothelial function and insulin sensitivity when measured on the day following exercise. Our aim was to compare acute high-intensity continuous exercise (HICE) to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) on circulating endothelial microparticles (EMPs) and insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese men and women. Methods Inactive males (BMI = 30 ± 3, 25 ± 6 yr, n = 6) and females (BMI = 28 ± 2, 21 ± 3 yr, n = 7) participated in three experimental trials in a randomized counterbalanced crossover design: 1) No exercise control (Control); 2) HICE (20 min cycling @ just above ventilatory threshold); 3) HIIE (10 X 1-min @ ∼90% peak aerobic power). Exercise conditions were matched for external work and diet was controlled post-exercise. Fasting blood samples were obtained ∼18 hr after each condition. CD62E+ and CD31+/CD42b- EMPs were assessed by flow cytometry and insulin resistance (IR) was estimated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Results There was a significant sex X exercise interaction for CD62E+ EMPs, CD31+/CD42b- EMPs, and HOMA-IR (all Pexercise type. There was a significant increase in HOMA-IR in males but a decrease in females following HIIE compared to Control (Pobese males and females appear to respond differently to acute bouts of high-intensity exercise. A single session of HICE and HIIE reduced circulating EMPs measured on the morning following exercise in males but in females CD62E+ EMPs were increased following HICE. Next day HOMA-IR paradoxically increased in males but was reduced in females following HIIE. Future research is needed to investigate mechanisms responsible for potential differential responses between males and females. PMID:25710559

  17. Effects of a Meal on the Hemorheologic Responses to Exercise in Young Males

    Jan Bilski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This study investigates the changes in hemorheologic parameters resulting from exercise followed by a standard meal. Methods. In twelve moderately active men a period of exercise on a bicycle ergometer for 30 min at 60% VO2max was followed by a test meal or by 30 min rest. Venous blood was sampled for further analysis at baseline, after exercise, and after the meal/rest period. Results. The elongation index (EI was reduced and a marked rise in plasma viscosity was observed after exercise. A significant decrease in half time of total aggregation (T1/2 and a rise in aggregation index (AI after exercise were observed; however, after the postexercise period these changes were reversed. Conclusion. The present study demonstrates that physical exercise causes several changes in blood rheology parameters, such as an increase of blood viscosity, a decrease in EI and an increase in AI, and a fall in the T1/2 values. The meal eaten in the postexercise period caused a further reduction in EI values indicating higher red cell rigidity, but not in plasma viscosity or aggregations indices. Such alterations in hemorheologic parameters should not impair the function of the cardiovascular system in fit and healthy people but it could constitute a serious risk under various pathophysiological conditions.

  18. Effects of a meal on the hemorheologic responses to exercise in young males.

    Bilski, Jan; Teległów, Aneta; Pokorski, Janusz; Nitecki, Jacek; Pokorska, Joanna; Nitecka, Ewa; Marchewka, Anna; Dąbrowski, Zbigniew; Marchewka, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the changes in hemorheologic parameters resulting from exercise followed by a standard meal. In twelve moderately active men a period of exercise on a bicycle ergometer for 30 min at 60% VO2max was followed by a test meal or by 30 min rest. Venous blood was sampled for further analysis at baseline, after exercise, and after the meal/rest period. The elongation index (EI) was reduced and a marked rise in plasma viscosity was observed after exercise. A significant decrease in half time of total aggregation (T 1/2) and a rise in aggregation index (AI) after exercise were observed; however, after the postexercise period these changes were reversed. The present study demonstrates that physical exercise causes several changes in blood rheology parameters, such as an increase of blood viscosity, a decrease in EI and an increase in AI, and a fall in the T 1/2 values. The meal eaten in the postexercise period caused a further reduction in EI values indicating higher red cell rigidity, but not in plasma viscosity or aggregations indices. Such alterations in hemorheologic parameters should not impair the function of the cardiovascular system in fit and healthy people but it could constitute a serious risk under various pathophysiological conditions.

  19. Irisin Response to Two Types of Exercise Training in Type 2 Diabetic Male Rats

    Mousa Khalafi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Irisin is an exercise-induced myokine that is reduced with type 2 diabetes and improves insulin resistance via the browning of white adipose tissues. However, irisin response to two types of exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes is unknown. Materials and Methods: In this study, 22 diabetic Wistar rats (Induced by high-fat diet and injections Stz were randomly assigned to 3 groups: high intensity interval exercise (HIIT, low intensity continuous training (LICT and control (C. Both HIIT and LICT groups trained on the treadmill 5 sessions per week for 8 weeks. Blood samples were taken 24 hours after the last training session and plasma irisin, insulin and glucose levels were measured. ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests were used to analyze data and the level of significance has been considered at p≤0.05. Results: Data analysis showed that plasma irisin levels in the HIIT group were significantly increased compared to the control group (p0.05. Plasma glucose in both HIIT and LICT groups was significantly decreased compared to the control group (p0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that exercise training can increase plasma irisin in rats with type 2 diabetes. However, these changes are partially dependent on the type of exercise training.

  20. Exercise coupled with dietary restriction reduces oxidative stress in male adolescents with obesity.

    Li, Chunyan; Feng, Feihu; Xiong, Xiaoling; Li, Rui; Chen, Ning

    2017-04-01

    The increased oxidative stress is usually observed in obese population, but the control of body weight by calorie restriction and/or exercise training can ameliorate oxidative stress. In order to evaluate oxidative stress in response to exercise and dietary restriction in obese adolescents, a total of 20 obese volunteers were enrolled in a 4-week intervention program including exercise training and dietary restriction. Body compositions and blood samples were analysed before and after 4-week intervention, and biomarkers associated with oxidative stress were examined. After 4-week exercise training coupled with dietary restriction, physical composition parameters including body mass, body mass index (BMI), lean body mass, body fat mass and fat mass ratio had obvious reduction by 12.43%, 13.51%, 5.83%, 25.05% and 14.52%, respectively. In addition, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) revealed a remarkable enhancement. On the other hand, protein carbonyls (PC) exhibited an obvious reduction. Moreover, total thiols and nitrites with respect to baseline revealed a reducing trend although no significant difference was observed. Therefore, the 4-week exercise intervention coupled with dietary restriction is benefit for the loss of body weight and the mitigation of oxidative stress in obese population so that it can be a recommendable intervention prescription for the loss of body weight.

  1. Acute and chronic effects of resistance exercise on the testosterone and cortisol responses in obese males: a systematic review.

    O'Leary, C B; Hackney, A C

    2014-01-01

    The biosynthesis and metabolism of testosterone and cortisol are altered by the high levels of adipose tissue and the constant state of low-grade inflammation of obesity. Resistance exercise (REx) has become one of the main lifestyle interventions prescribed to obese individuals due to its ability to positively influence body composition and some biomarkers, such as cholesterol and insulin resistance. Yet, little research has been done in obese examining the effects of REx on the testosterone and blood cortisol responses, two integral hormones in both exercise and obesity. The obese testosterone response to REx and whether or not it is blunted compared to lean individuals remains elusive. Conflicting findings concerning the blood cortisol response have also been reported, likely due to variance in REx protocol and the level of obesity in the participants in studies. Comparatively, both of these hormones have been extremely well studied in untrained lean males, which could be used as a basis for future research in obese males. However, without this endocrinological information, it is unknown if the current acute REx prescriptions are appropriate for eliciting a favorable acute endocrinological response, and ultimately, a positive chronic adaptation in obese males.

  2. Effect of pomegranate juice supplementation on matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 following exhaustive exercise in young healthy males

    Mazani, M.; Fard, A. S.; Baghi, A. N.; Nemati, A.; Mogadam, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of pomegranate juice supplementation on matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 serum levels and improving antioxidant function in young healthy males during exhaustive exercise. Methods: The study was conducted at Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2010-11 and comprised 28 healthy subjects in 18-24 age bracket. They were randomly divided into control and supplemented groups. One cup of pomegranate juice and one cup of tap water were given to supplemented and control groups daily for two weeks respectively. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and at the end of two weeks of intervention. The subjects were given one exhaustive exercise and then fasting blood samples were taken for testing blood glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and serum levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein, zinc, ceruloplasmin, matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9, malondialdehyde and total antioxidant capacity. Data was analysed using descriptive statistical tests, paired and independent sample t-test. Results: The blood levels of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and serum levels of total antioxidant capacity after exhaustive exercise in the supplemented group were significantly increased (p<0.05), while the content of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9, ceruloplasmin and malondialdehyde showed a significant decrease in comparison to the control group (p<0.05). Besides, there were no significant changes in other biochemical factors. Conclusion: Regular intake of pomegranate juice significantly modulates matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 serum levels of some inflammatory factors and thus protects against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative injury in young healthy males. (author)

  3. Exercise dependence and the drive for muscularity in male bodybuilders, power lifters, and fitness lifters.

    Hale, Bruce D; Roth, Andrew D; DeLong, Ryan E; Briggs, Michael S

    2010-06-01

    Researchers have hypothesized differences in exercise dependence and drive for muscularity between bodybuilders and power lifters, while others have not found the predicted differences. This study assessed 146 weight lifters (bodybuilders, n=59; power lifters, n=47; fitness lifters, n=40) on the Exercise Dependence Scale, Bodybuilding Dependence Scale, and the Drive for Muscularity Scale. Results showed that bodybuilders and power lifters were significantly higher than fitness lifters on EDS Total, 7 EDS scales, and the 3 BDS scales. In contrast, power lifters were found to be significantly higher on DMS Total and DMS Behavior scales than bodybuilders. The regression results suggest that exercise dependence may be directly related to the drive for muscularity. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. SPILANTHES ACMELLA AND PHYSICAL EXERCISE INCREASED TESTOSTERONE LEVELS AND OSTEOBLAST CELLS IN GLUCOCORTICOID-INDUCED OSTEOPOROSIS MALE MICE

    Hening Laswati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis is leading cause of secondary osteoporosis by decreasing formation activity and increasing resorption activity. Spilanthes acmella, is one of Indonesia medicinal plants that contain of polyphenol and flavonoids. Previously in vitro study showed that buthanol and water fraction from this plant have increased alkaline phosphatase that known as marker of bone formation. The objective of this study to analyze the effect of Spilanthes acmella  and physical exercise in increasing testosterone and  osteoblast cells of femoral’s trabecular glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis male mice. Method: This study using a posttest control group design, 36 male healthy mice (5 months old  were randomizely devided into 6 groups, there are : 1.Healthy control group (without induction dexamethaxone, 2.Osteoporosis groups (induction with dexamethaxone without treatment, 3.Positive control receive suspension alendronat, 4.70% Ethanol extract of Spilanthes acmella group, 5.Combination group of 70% extract ethanol of Spilanthes acmella and exercise, and 6.Exercise group  (walking using mice treadmill 10m/minute, 5-12 minutes 3 times a week. All of the intervention were given for 4 weeks. The serum levels of testosterone were determined using  immunoserology (ELISA and osteoblast cells were determined histomorphometry by light microscopy.  All statistical test were carried out using SPSS 23 and statistical significance was  set at p<0.05 for all analysis. The testosterone levels  between group were compared using Mann-Whitney test and osteoblast cells between group were compared with multiple comparison. Results: It showed that the alendronate group, combination group and the exercise group increasing testosterone level (p<0.05 from that osteoporotic group. There were also increasing osteoblast cells (p<0.05 in the alendronate group and combination group. There was no correlation between testosterone level and

  5. Additive effects of heating and exercise on baroreflex control of heart rate in healthy males.

    Peçanha, Tiago; Forjaz, Cláudia L M; Low, David A

    2017-12-01

    This study assessed the additive effects of passive heating and exercise on cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (cBRS) and heart rate variability (HRV). Twelve healthy young men (25 ± 1 yr, 23.8 ± 0.5 kg/m 2 ) randomly underwent two experimental sessions: heat stress (HS; whole body heat stress using a tube-lined suit to increase core temperature by ~1°C) and normothermia (NT). Each session was composed of a preintervention rest (REST1); HS or NT interventions; postintervention rest (REST2); and 14 min of cycling exercise [7 min at 40%HR reserve (EX1) and 7 min at 60%HR reserve (EX2)]. Heart rate and finger blood pressure were continuously recorded. cBRS was assessed using the sequence (cBRS SEQ ) and transfer function (cBRS TF ) methods. HRV was assessed using the indexes standard deviation of RR intervals (SDNN) and root mean square of successive RR intervals (RMSSD). cBRS and HRV were not different between sessions during EX1 and EX2 (i.e., matched heart rate conditions: EX1 = 116 ± 3 vs. 114 ± 3 and EX2 = 143 ± 4 vs. 142 ± 3 beats/min but different workloads: EX1 = 50 ± 9 vs. 114 ± 8 and EX2 = 106 ± 10 vs. 165 ± 8 W; for HS and NT, respectively; P heat stress to exercise does not affect cBRS and HRV. Alternatively, in workload-matched conditions, the addition of heat to exercise results in reduced cBRS and HRV compared with exercise in normothermia. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The present study assessed cardiac baroreflex sensitivity during the combination of heat and exercise stresses. This is the first study to show that prior whole body passive heating reduces cardiac baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation of heart rate during exercise. These findings contribute to the better understanding of the role of thermoregulation on cardiovascular regulation during exercise.

  6. Exercise

    ... decreased bone density with an increased risk of fracture, and shallow, inefficient breathing. An exercise program needs ... and-Soul (Feb. 2013 issue) (.pdf) Download Document Rehabilitation: Recommendations for Persons with MS (.pdf) Download Brochure ...

  7. Resistance exercise and aerobic exercise when paired with dietary energy restriction both reduce the clinical components of metabolic syndrome in previously physically inactive males.

    Potteiger, Jeffrey A; Claytor, Randal P; Hulver, Mathew W; Hughes, Michael R; Carper, Michael J; Richmond, Scott; Thyfault, John P

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare resistance exercise training (RT) to aerobic exercise training (AE) on the clinical risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) in physically inactive overweight males (age 27-48 years). Subjects with at least one risk factor for MetSyn performed RT (n = 13, age 35.1 ± 4.7 years, BMI 31.2 ± 2.7 kg/m(2)) or AE (n = 9, age 37.6 ± 4.9 years, BMI, 31.2 ± 3.2 kg/m(2)) for 6 months. Training frequency and exercise session duration were equal and by 3 months the subjects exercised 4 day/week for 45 min/session. Blood lipids and glucose, waist circumference, and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were measured at 0, 3, and 6 months. A MetSyn z score was calculated for each subject from triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, fasting glucose, waist circumference, and MAP. Statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. No significant differences existed between RT and AE groups at 0 month. AE showed a significant reduction in MetSyn z score from 0 (0.91 ± 3.57) to 6 months (-1.35 ± 2.95), while RT approached significance (p = 0.07) from 0 (0.09 ± 2.62) to 6 months (-1.30 ± 2.22). Triglycerides (mmol/L) significantly decreased in AE from 0 (1.93 ± 0.90) to 6 months (1.41 ± 0.70). Waist circumference (cm) significantly decreased in AE from 0 (106.8 ± 7.3) to 6 months (101.2 ± 6.5), and in RT from 0 (108.4 ± 9.0) to 6 months (105.7 ± 7.0). MAP (mmHg) decreased in RT from 0 (93.8 ± 5.8) to 6 months (87.5 ± 6.1) and in AE from 0 (97.6 ± 7.0) to 6 months (91.3 ± 6.8). With equal training frequency and exercise session duration, both RT and AE training, when paired with energy restriction improve the clinical risk factor profile for MetSyn.

  8. Oxidative stress and antioxidant responses to progressive resistance exercise intensity in trained and untrained males

    H Çakır-Atabek

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between oxidative stress and some exercise components of resistance exercise (e.g. intensity, exercise volume has not been clearly defined. Additionally, the oxidative stress markers may respond differently in various conditions. This study aims to determine the effects of progressive intensity of resistance exercise (RE on oxidative stress and antioxidants in trained and untrained men, and also to investigate the possible threshold intensity required to evoke oxidative stress. RE trained (N=8 and untrained (N=8 men performed the leg extension RE at progressive intensities standardized for total volume: 1x17 reps at 50% of one-repetition maximum (1RM; 1x14 reps at 60% of 1RM; 1x12 reps at 70% of 1RM; 2x5 reps at 80% of 1RM; and 3x3 reps at 90% of 1RM. Blood samples were drawn before (PRE and immediately after each intensity, and after 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 24 hours following the RE. Lipid-hydroperoxide (LHP significantly increased during the test and then decreased during the recovery in both groups (p0.05. Standardized volume of RE increased oxidative stress responses. Our study suggests that lower intensity (50% is enough to increase LHP, whereas higher intensity (more than 80% is required to evoke protein oxidation.

  9. Eating, Exercise, and Motivation in Male Marathon Runners: Identifying Risk Factors

    Fallat-Rundhaug, B. Jamie

    2011-01-01

    It is widely believed that athletes are in excellent physical and emotional health. This belief is perpetuated by studies that have found that regular and consistent participation in exercise provides both physical as well as psychological benefits. Those participating in endurance sports must follow stringent and physically demanding standards…

  10. In Pursuit of Success: Latino Male College Students Exercising Academic Determination and Community Cultural Wealth

    Pérez, David, II

    2017-01-01

    Discourse about Latino male college students centers on their low enrollment, persistence, and graduation rates. Two asset-based theoretical frameworks were used to understand how 21 Latino males' academic determination was nurtured and sustained by cultural wealth at selective institutions. Although most participants entered college with unclear…

  11. Tocotrienols and Whey Protein Isolates Substantially Increase Exercise Endurance Capacity in Diet -Induced Obese Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Aguila, Jay; McConell, Glenn K.; McAinch, Andrew J.; Mathai, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Obesity and impairments in metabolic health are associated with reductions in exercise capacity. Both whey protein isolates (WPIs) and vitamin E tocotrienols (TCTs) exert favorable effects on obesity-related metabolic parameters. This research sought to determine whether these supplements improved exercise capacity and increased glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese rats. Methods Six week old male rats (n = 35) weighing 187 ± 32g were allocated to either: Control (n = 9), TCT (n = 9), WPI (n = 8) or TCT + WPI (n = 9) and placed on a high-fat diet (40% of energy from fat) for 10 weeks. Animals received 50mg/kg body weight and 8% of total energy intake per day of TCTs and/or WPIs respectively. Food intake, body composition, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, exercise capacity, skeletal muscle glycogen content and oxidative enzyme activity were determined. Results Both TCT and WPI groups ran >50% longer (2271 ± 185m and 2195 ± 265m respectively) than the Control group (1428 ± 139m) during the run to exhaustion test (Pexercise endurance (2068 ± 104m). WPIs increased the maximum in vitro activity of beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA in the soleus muscle (Pexercise endurance by 50% in sedentary, diet-induced obese rats. These positive effects of TCTs and WPIs were independent of body weight, adiposity or glucose tolerance. PMID:27058737

  12. Effect of Aloe vera on some indicators of cell damage after a period of aerobic exercise in male athletes

    Barati Amir-Hosein

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aloe vera is a medicinal plant with antioxidant activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Aloe vera on some indicators of cell damage after a period of aerobic exercise in male athletes of 15-18 years old. Methods: In this clinical trial study, 20 male students with average weight of 64.85 ± 51 and height of 172.05 ± 6.4 were randomly assigned to 2 groups of Aloe vera supplement (n = 10 and placebo (n = 10. Then aerobic training was conducted for 4 weeks. The supplemented group took 3 capsules, each capsule contains 2 g of dried Aloe vera and placebo group took 3 capsules/day containing dextran after every meal. To determine the index of cell injury markers creatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and reactive protein C (CRP were determined and blood samples were collected 24 hours before and after each test. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and independent t test. Significance level was considered as P ≤ .05. Results: The use of Aloe vera during aerobic exercise significantly reduced LDH (P = .006 in the supplement group (15% reduction compared to placebo group and CRP with 11% reduction in the supplement group compared to placebo (P = .008. There was no significant reduction in CK. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that Aloe vera reduces cell damage and inflammation indicators. This result may reflect the role of Aloe vera as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent.

  13. Exercise capacity and all-cause mortality in male veterans with hypertension aged ≥70 years.

    Faselis, Charles; Doumas, Michael; Pittaras, Andreas; Narayan, Puneet; Myers, Jonathan; Tsimploulis, Apostolos; Kokkinos, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Aging, even in otherwise healthy subjects, is associated with declines in muscle mass, strength, and aerobic capacity. Older individuals respond favorably to exercise, suggesting that physical inactivity plays an important role in age-related functional decline. Conversely, physical activity and improved exercise capacity are associated with lower mortality risk in hypertensive individuals. However, the effect of exercise capacity in older hypertensive individuals has not been investigated extensively. A total of 2153 men with hypertension, aged ≥70 years (mean, 75 ± 4) from the Washington, DC, and Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Medical Centers, underwent routine exercise tolerance testing. Peak workload was estimated in metabolic equivalents (METs). Fitness categories were established based on peak METs achieved, adjusted for age: very-low-fit, 2.0 to 4.0 METs (n=386); low-fit, 4.1 to 6.0 METs (n=1058); moderate-fit, 6.1 to 8.0 METs (n=495); high-fit >8.0 METs (n=214). Cox proportional hazard models were applied after adjusting for age, body mass index, race, cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular medications, and risk factors. All-cause mortality was quantified during a mean follow-up period of 9.0 ± 5.5 years. There were a total of 1039 deaths or 51.2 deaths per 1000 person-years of follow-up. Mortality risk was 11% lower (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.86-0.93; Pexercise capacity. When compared with those achieving ≤4.0 METs, mortality risk was 18% lower (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.95; P=0.011) for the low-fit, 36% for the moderate-fit (hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.78; Pexercise capacity is associated with lower mortality risk in elderly men with hypertension. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Prevention of hamstring injuries in male soccer : Exercise programs and return to play

    van der Horst, N

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the studies reported in this thesis was to investigate strategies for the prevention of hamstring injuries. Hamstring injuries are the most prevalent muscle injury in soccer. In spite of efforts to reduce the occurrence of hamstring injuries in soccer, injury rates have not decreased over the last three decades. Therefore, research on hamstring injury prevention is necessary to reduce hamstring injury rates. Exercise programs to reduce soccer injuries are easy to implement during r...

  15. The Effect of Colostrum along with Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercise on Lipid Peroxidation and Total Antioxidant Capacity of Male Wistar Rats

    M Mogharnasi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: The consumption of food supplements in order to eliminate oxidative damages induced by exercise are common among athletes. Previous studies have shown that bovine colostrum has antioxidant properties, but no study has ever been done to evaluate its effectiveness on Oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity. The aim of study was to investigate the effects of bovine colostrum along with aerobic and anaerobic exercise on Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity in male Wistar rats.   Methods: In the present experimental study, 48 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups (control, colostrum supplement, aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise, colostrum supplements and aerobic exercise, colostrum supplements and anaerobic exercise. Colostrum group received daily for ten weeks dosing 300 mg /kg bovine colostrum powder orally. Exercising groups worked out three times a week for a period of 10 weeks on a custom-made treadmill for rodents. Blood samples were taken before and 24 hours after the last exercise session on an empty stomach. Data were analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, One Way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey at α<0.05.   Results: The plasma levels of oxidative stress index (MDA in all groups except colostrum supplement and anaerobic exercise compared with the control group was significantly reduced (p<0.05. The antioxidant capacity in all groups except anaerobic exercise group compared with the control group was significant increased (p<0.05.   Conclusions: The results indicated that colostrum supplementation with ten weeks of aerobic exercise had better effect on the control of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity compared to anaerobic exercise.    

  16. The Effect of Rope Jumping Exercise on Postural Control, Static and Dynamic Balance in Male Students with Cavus Foot

    Mahdi Ghaderiyan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Plantar foot is a very active part in leap activities, such as rope jumping and with its small surface playes an important role in balance control. In this research, the effect of 12 week rope jumping exercise was investigated on postural control and static and dynamic balance in 10-13 years old male students with cavus foot. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was done on 450 male students aged 13-10 years in Jarghouyeh sofla. After the initial evaluation by pedescope (qualitative and then measurement by a foot scanner (quantitative and Staheli index, 30 students were selected as samples and were divided into two groups (experimental and control, each 15 cases. To measure the postural control, a foot scanner device was used and changes in plantar center of pressure was recorded for 20 seconds. Static balance was evaluated with stork test and dynamic balance by Y balance test. The subjects of the experimental group participated in a rope jumping training protocol three 45-minute sessions per week for 12 weeks. In this period of time, the subjects of the control group did not participate in any regular physical activity program in this time. Data were analyzed using dependent and independent t-tests. The significance level was considered p<0/05. Results: A 12-week rope jumping exercise improved postural control and static and dynamic balance in patients with cavus foot, which this change was significant (p<0.001. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, rope jumping can be a useful exercise to improve static and dynamic balance and postural control in individuals with cavus foot.

  17. ISOMETRIC EXERCISE AND ITS EFFECT ON BLOOD PRESSURE AND HEART RATE, BEFORE AND AFTER TRAINING IN YOUNG HEALTHY MALES

    Mohammed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Isometric exercise is a normal part of everyday activities and many occupational tasks. Preventive services are important as they give physicians an opportunity and responsibility to promote regular physical activity, reduc e high blood pressure, and help in weight control. Physical inactivity is recognized as a risk factor for coronary artery disease. Regular aerobic physical activity increases exercise capacity and plays a role in both primary and secondary prevention of ca rdiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of isometric handgrip training on Blood pressure and Heart rate in healthy young males in the age group of 18 - 22 years. MATERIALS AND METHOD : Study subjects consisted of 30 healthy adult males in the age group of 18 - 22 yrs. Age and sex matched adults who were not active in sports or in physical activities constituted the control group (n=30. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded and eval uated after a defined protocol of handgrip sustained static (isometric contractions performed with the handgrip dynamometer at Rest and Post Exercise. BP and HR were recorded with the help of automated blood pressure monitor and power lab 8/30 series inst rument available in the Department of Physiology , Navodaya Medical college, Raichur. RESULTS: There was no change in Resting Blood pressure and Heart rate between the subject and control group before the training sessions. There was significant decrease in resting Blood pressure and Heart rate in trained subject group when compared to untrained control group after 5 weeks of training sessions. CONCLUSION : Isometric hand grip training is effective in lowering arterial pressure in normotensive subjects. Isome tric training may be an effective intervention in the prevention and treatment of hypertension

  18. The joint impact of habitual exercise and glycemic control on the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in middle-aged and older males.

    Michishita, Ryoma; Matsuda, Takuro; Kawakami, Shotaro; Tanaka, Satoshi; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Morito, Natsumi; Higaki, Yasuki

    2017-11-06

    This retrospective study evaluated the influence of the joint impact of habitual exercise and glycemic control on the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) during a 6-year follow-up period in middle-aged and older males. The study population included 303 males without a history of cardiovascular disease, stroke, renal dysfunction, or dialysis treatment. Their lifestyle behaviors regarding exercise and physical activity were evaluated using a standardized self-administered questionnaire. The participants were divided into four categories according to the performance or non-performance of habitual exercise and the presence or absence of hyperglycemia. After 6 years, 32 subjects (10.6%) developed CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate exercise and hyperglycemic subjects (log-rank test: p exercise (HR = 2.82, 95% confidence of interval (CI) = 1.07-7.36, p = 0.034) and that in hyperglycemic subjects who did not perform habitual exercise (HR = 5.89, 95% CI = 1.87-16.63, p = 0.003) were significantly higher in comparison to the subjects with a NGT who performed habitual exercise. These results suggest that the habitual exercise and good glycemic control and their combination were associated with the incidence of CKD.

  19. Exercise

    Idorn, Manja; thor Straten, Eivind Per

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that voluntary exercise leads to an influx of immune cells in tumors and a greater than 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across several mouse models. Improved immunological control of tumor progression may have important clinical implications in the prevention...

  20. Exercise addiction risk and health in male and female amateur endurance cyclists.

    Mayolas-Pi, Carmen; Simón-Grima, Javier; Peñarrubia-Lozano, Carlos; Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego; Moliner-Urdiales, Diego; Legaz-Arrese, Alejandro

    2017-03-01

    Background and aims To determine the relationship between the risk of exercise addiction (REA) and health status in amateur endurance cyclists. Methods In 859 (751 men and 108 women) cyclists and 718 inactive subjects (307 men and 411 women), we examined the REA (Exercise Addiction Inventory), training status (volume, frequency, experience, and performance), socioeconomic status, quality of life (QoL) (SF-12), quality of sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and cardiometabolic risk: body mass index, physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire), physical condition (International Fitness Scale), adherence to the Mediterranean diet (Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener), alcohol and tobacco consumption. Results In total, 17% of the cyclists showed evidence of REA and 83% showed low REA. REA occurred independent of age, sex, training, and socioeconomic status (all ps > .05). Regardless of REA, the cyclists displayed a better physical QoL and a lower cardiometabolic risk than the inactive subjects (all ps Addiction × Sex interaction in the other analyzed variables. Conclusion Our results suggest that an increased prevalence of REA limits the benefits that amateur endurance cycling has on mental health and quality of sleep.

  1. Effect of exercise on epinephrine turnover in trained and untrained male subjects

    Kjær, Michael; Christensen, N J; Sonne, B

    1985-01-01

    The kinetics underlying plasma epinephrine concentrations were studied. Six athletes (T) and six sedentary males (C) were given intravenous infusions of 3H-labeled epinephrine, after which arterial blood was drawn. They rested sitting and bicycled continuously to exhaustion (60 min at 125 W, 60 min...

  2. Male and female differences in health benefits derived from physical activity: implications for exercise prescription

    Hands, Beth; Larkin, Dawne; Cantell, Marja Helena; Rose, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Males are consistently reported as more physically active than females regardless of age or measure. Often, this difference results in females identified as under active and at risk of longterm poor health outcomes. In this paper a different perspective drawing on evidence from many sources is

  3. The efficacy of exercise referral as an intervention for Irish male prisoners presenting with mental health symptoms.

    O'Toole, Shay; Maguire, Jim; Murphy, Pearse

    2018-06-11

    Purpose The use of exercise as an intervention to improve health in the general population is well documented. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether an exercise referral scheme can be an effective health promotion tool for male prisoners in Ireland, presenting with mental health symptoms. Design/methodology/approach This mixed methods study with a pre- and post-intervention design was conducted in Mountjoy Prison, Dublin, which has a capacity for approximately 790 prisoners. Reliable and validated symptom assessment scales were used to assess levels of depression, anxiety, stress, self-esteem and anger amongst a sample of 40 prisoners pre- and post-intervention. The scales used were the Depression, Anxiety and Stress scale or DASS-42 (Lovibond and Lovibond, 1995), the Novaco Anger Scale (Novaco, 1994), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale ( Rosenberg, 1965 ) and the Zung Self-Rated Anxiety Scale (Zung, 1971). Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with a subset of the participants post-intervention to further test and contextualise the symptom ratings. The data gathered from the self-rating scales were imported into SPSS 22 for statistical testing for significance. Wilcoxon's signed-rank test was then used to measure significance of changes. Thematic analysis was performed on the qualitative data. Findings In the post-intervention, significant levels of improvement were achieved in the levels of depression, anxiety (DASS), anxiety (Zung), stress, anger, and self-esteem for 29 of the 30 prisoners who completed the study. The incidence of normal mood scores rose from 33 to 90 per cent after the intervention; the incidence of extremely severe scores for anxiety changed from 40 to 7 per cent, severe stress scores changed from 27 to 3 per cent, normal stress levels rose from 17 to 73 per cent, marked anger ratings reduced from 40 to 3 per cent and low self-esteem levels reduced from 20 per cent of participants pre-intervention to 7 per cent post

  4. The Impact of Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercises on the Level of Depression, Anxiety, Stress and Happiness of Non-Athlete Male

    Toktam Kianian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives Exercises bring about health. Therefore, knowing what kind of exercise is more effective in individuals’ spirituals health indices is important. Thus, the present study aims at comparing the impact of aerobic and anaerobic exercises on the level of depression, anxiety, stress, and happiness of nonathletic male students. Methods In this clinical trial study, sample included the nonathletic male students of Zahedan Azad University in 2014. 90 students were selected through convenience sampling and they were divided randomly into two experimental groups (aerobic and anaerobic and one control group. The aerobic group must do aerobic exercises and the anaerobic group must do anaerobic exercises for a period of 10 weeks (3 sessions a week, each lasted for 60 minutes. The data were collected using DASS-21 questionnaire for measuring the level of depression, anxiety and stress, and Oxford OHI questionnaire for measuring the amount of happiness before and after the intervention. The results were analyzed using statistical tests of MANCOVA in SPSS-13. Results The results showed that in both aerobic and anaerobic groups the mean score of depression, anxiety, stress and happiness improved after treatment. However, the improve in the mean score of anxiety, stress and happiness was more apparent in the anaerobic group. The results also showed that only stress and happiness resulted in a significant difference in different groups. Conclusions Both aerobic and anaerobic exercises result in reduction of stress and Anxiety. So it seems necessary to include such exercises in students’ daily schedule.

  5. Effects of plyometric training on maximal-intensity exercise and endurance in male and female soccer players.

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Vergara-Pedreros, Marcelo; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Martínez-Salazar, Cristian; Alvarez, Cristian; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; De La Fuente, Carlos I; Caniuqueo, Alexis; Alonso-Martinez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2016-01-01

    In a randomised controlled trial design, effects of 6 weeks of plyometric training on maximal-intensity exercise and endurance performance were compared in male and female soccer players. Young (age 21.1 ± 2.7 years) players with similar training load and competitive background were assigned to training (women, n = 19; men, n = 21) and control (women, n = 19; men, n = 21) groups. Players were evaluated for lower- and upper-body maximal-intensity exercise, 30 m sprint, change of direction speed and endurance performance before and after 6 weeks of training. After intervention, the control groups did not change, whereas both training groups improved jumps (effect size (ES) = 0.35-1.76), throwing (ES = 0.62-0.78), sprint (ES = 0.86-1.44), change of direction speed (ES = 0.46-0.85) and endurance performance (ES = 0.42-0.62). There were no differences in performance improvements between the plyometric training groups. Both plyometric groups improved more in all performance tests than the controls. The results suggest that adaptations to plyometric training do not differ between men and women.

  6. Post-weaning voluntary exercise exerts long-term moderation of adiposity in males but not in females in an animal model of early-onset obesity.

    Schroeder, Mariana; Shbiro, Liat; Gelber, Vered; Weller, Aron

    2010-04-01

    Given the alarming increase in childhood, adolescent and adult obesity there is an imperative need for understanding the early factors affecting obesity and for treatments that may help prevent or at least moderate it. Exercise is frequently considered as an effective treatment for obesity however the empirical literature includes many conflicting findings. In the present study, we used the OLETF rat model of early-onset hyperphagia-induced obesity to examine the influence of early exercise on peripheral adiposity-related parameters in both males and females. Rats were provided voluntary access to running wheels from postnatal day (PND) 22 until PND45. We examined fat pad weight (brown, retroperitoneal, inguinal and epididymal); inguinal adipocyte size and number; and leptin, adiponectin, corticosterone and creatinine levels. We also examined body weight, feeding efficiency and spontaneous intake. Early voluntary exercise reduced intake, adiposity and leptin in the OLETF males following a sharp reduction in adipocyte size despite a significant increase in fat cell number. Exercising males from the lean LETO control strain presented stable intake, but reduced body fat, feeding efficiency and increased plasma creatinine, suggesting an increment in muscle mass. OLETF females showed reduced feeding efficiency and liver fat, and a significant increase in brown fat. Exercising LETO control females increased intake, body weight and creatinine, but no changes in body fat. Overall, OLETF rats presented higher adiponectin levels than controls in both basal and post-exercise conditions. The results suggest an effective early time frame, when OLETF males can be successfully "re-programmed" through voluntary exercise; in OLETF females the effect is much more moderate. Findings expose sex-dependent peripheral mechanisms in coping with energy challenges. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A boxing-oriented exercise intervention for obese adolescent males: findings from a pilot study.

    Shultz, Sarah P; Stoner, Lee; Lambrick, Danielle M; Lane, Andrew M

    2014-12-01

    In New Zealand, obese Māori and Pasifika adolescents are at risk of numerous cardio-metabolic conditions with raising physical activity levels being proposed as a useful intervention. The present study used a mixed method design to explore the effects of a non-contact boxing-oriented training programme designed in terms of improvements to cardio-metabolic variables. Traditional recruitment strategies (media, referrals) were employed, with limited success leading to 3 adolescent boys (14-15 y) participating in the pilot intervention. Exercise sessions included 30 minutes of non-contact boxing training, followed by 30 minutes of progressive resistance training. Participants attended three 1h training sessions each week, for a total of 12 weeks. Physiological variables included anthropometric indices, visceral fat thickness, central blood pressures, central arterial stiffness (augmentation index: AIx), and carotid arterial stiffness (β). Results revealed that there was no trend for change in body weight (125.5 ± 12.1 kg vs. 126.5 ± 11.0 kg) or BMI (39.3 ± 4.1 kg·m(-2) vs. 39.0 ± 4.6 kg·m(-2)). However, there was a moderate decrease in visceral fat thickness (4.34 ± 2.51 cm vs 3.65 ± 1.11 cm, d = 0.36). There was no change in central pulse pressure (38.7 ± 7.3 mmHg vs. 38.3 ± 5.0 mmHg), however, there was a small improvement in β (3.01 ± 0.73 vs. 2.87 ± 0.84, d = 0.18). Focus group interview data with participants and their parents were used to explore issues related to motivation to participation. Results revealed participants commented on how the programme has led to new friendships, changes to their physical appearance, and increased physical fitness. Parents commented on increased self-confidence, better performance in school, and a willingness to take part in new activities. In conclusion, it appears participating in the boxing oriented training programme was motivating to participants who engaged and had some physiological benefits in obese

  8. The effects of a high-intensity free-weight back-squat exercise protocol on postural stability in resistance-trained males.

    Thiele, R M; Conchola, E C; Palmer, T B; DeFreitas, J M; Thompson, B J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a high-intensity free-weight back-squat exercise on postural stability characteristics in resistance-trained males. Eighteen college-aged (mean ± SD: age = 22.9 ± 2.9 years; height = 175.8 ± 6.4 cm; mass = 86.3 ± 9.3 kg), resistance-trained males performed postural stability testing before and after completing five sets of eight repetitions of back-squat exercises at 80% of one-repetition maximum. A commercial balance testing device was used to assess sway index at pre- and at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 min post-exercise. Each balance assessment consisted of four, 20-s static stance conditions: eyes-open firm surface, eyes-closed firm surface, eyes-open soft surface and eyes-closed soft surface. Sway index was greater (P = 0.001-0.020) at Post 0 than at all other time points. No differences (P > 0.05) were observed between any other time phases. Sway index was greater (P squat; however, sway index recovered within 5 min of exercise. Higher sway index values as a result of neuromuscular fatigue induced by a back-squat exercise may have performance and injury risk consequences to subsequent activities that rely on postural stability. However, these findings suggest balance impairments may recover in ~5 min following high-intensity lower body resistance exercise.

  9. A Boxing-Oriented Exercise Intervention for Obese Adolescent Males: Findings from a Pilot Study

    Sarah P. Shultz, Lee Stoner, Danielle M. Lambrick, Andrew M. Lane

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In New Zealand, obese Māori and Pasifika adolescents are at risk of numerous cardio-metabolic conditions with raising physical activity levels being proposed as a useful intervention. The present study used a mixed method design to explore the effects of a non-contact boxing-oriented training programme designed in terms of improvements to cardio-metabolic variables. Traditional recruitment strategies (media, referrals were employed, with limited success leading to 3 adolescent boys (14-15 y participating in the pilot intervention. Exercise sessions included 30 minutes of non-contact boxing training, followed by 30 minutes of progressive resistance training. Participants attended three 1h training sessions each week, for a total of 12 weeks. Physiological variables included anthropometric indices, visceral fat thickness, central blood pressures, central arterial stiffness (augmentation index: AIx, and carotid arterial stiffness (β. Results revealed that there was no trend for change in body weight (125.5 ± 12.1 kg vs. 126.5 ± 11.0 kg or BMI (39.3 ± 4.1 kg·m-2 vs. 39.0 ± 4.6 kg·m-2. However, there was a moderate decrease in visceral fat thickness (4.34 ± 2.51 cm vs 3.65 ± 1.11 cm, d = 0.36. There was no change in central pulse pressure (38.7 ± 7.3 mmHg vs. 38.3 ± 5.0 mmHg, however, there was a small improvement in β (3.01 ± 0.73 vs. 2.87 ± 0.84, d = 0.18. Focus group interview data with participants and their parents were used to explore issues related to motivation to participation. Results revealed participants commented on how the programme has led to new friendships, changes to their physical appearance, and increased physical fitness. Parents commented on increased self-confidence, better performance in school, and a willingness to take part in new activities. In conclusion, it appears participating in the boxing oriented training programme was motivating to participants who engaged and had some physiological benefits in obese

  10. Effect of Moderate-Intensity Exercise Versus Activities of Daily Living on 24-Hour Blood Glucose Homeostasis in Male Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    van Dijk, J.W.; Venema, M.; van Mechelen, W.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Hartgens, F.; van Loon, L.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-To investigate the impact of activities of daily living (ADL) versus moderateintensity endurance-type exercise on 24-h glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSdTwenty males with type 2 diabetes participated in a randomized crossover study consisting of

  11. The Association Between Effective Dose of Magnesium and Mild Compulsive Exercise on Spatial Learning, Memory, and Motor Activity of Adult Male Rats.

    Hajizade Ghonsulakandi, Shahnaz; Sheikh, Mahmuod; Dehghan Shasaltaneh, Marzieh; Chopani, Samira; Naghdi, Nasser

    2017-08-01

    One of the most important survival mechanisms is learning and memory processes. To emphasize the role of physical exercises and magnesium (Mg) in improvement of cognitive performance, we planned to investigate the effect of Mg and mild compulsive exercise on spatial learning and memory of adult male rats. Accordingly, we divided male Wistar rats into four groups: (I) control, (II) Mg treatment, (III) exercise, and (IV) Mg-exercise in the different dosages of Mg (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 mmol/kbw) were injected in the form of gavage during 1 week. Also, 1-week mild running on treadmill was used for exercise treatment. The Morris water maze (MWM) test and open field tool were used to evaluate spatial learning, memory, and motor activity, respectively. Our results clearly showed that 1 mmol/kbw Mg was applied as an effective dosage. Strikingly, 1-week mild exercise on treadmill had no significant effect on spatial motor activity, learning, and memory. Feeding 1 mmol/kbw Mg for a week showed a significant difference in learning and exploration stages. Compared to control animals, these results reveal exercise and Mg simultaneously had effect on learning and reminding. As a consequence, although mild exercise had no effect on motor activity and memory, Mg intake improved spatial learning, memory, and locomotor activity. The Mg feeding could be a promising supplemental treatment in the neurodegenerative disease. It is worthwhile to mention consumption of Mg leads to enhancement of memory, so animals find the hidden platform with the highest velocity.

  12. Intact Regulation of the AMPK Signaling Network in Response to Exercise and Insulin in Skeletal Muscle of Male Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: Illumination of AMPK Activation in Recovery From Exercise.

    Kjøbsted, Rasmus; Pedersen, Andreas J T; Hingst, Janne R; Sabaratnam, Rugivan; Birk, Jesper B; Kristensen, Jonas M; Højlund, Kurt; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P

    2016-05-01

    Current evidence on exercise-mediated AMPK regulation in skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is inconclusive. This may relate to inadequate segregation of trimeric complexes in the investigation of AMPK activity. We examined the regulation of AMPK and downstream targets ACC-β, TBC1D1, and TBC1D4 in muscle biopsy specimens obtained from 13 overweight/obese patients with T2D and 14 weight-matched male control subjects before, immediately after, and 3 h after exercise. Exercise increased AMPK α2β2γ3 activity and phosphorylation of ACCβ Ser(221), TBC1D1 Ser(237)/Thr(596), and TBC1D4 Ser(704) Conversely, exercise decreased AMPK α1β2γ1 activity and TBC1D4 Ser(318)/Thr(642) phosphorylation. Interestingly, compared with preexercise, 3 h into exercise recovery, AMPK α2β2γ1 and α1β2γ1 activity were increased concomitant with increased TBC1D4 Ser(318)/Ser(341)/Ser(704) phosphorylation. No differences in these responses were observed between patients with T2D and control subjects. Subjects were also studied by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps performed at rest and 3 h after exercise. We found no evidence for insulin to regulate AMPK activity. Thus, AMPK signaling is not compromised in muscle of patients with T2D during exercise and insulin stimulation. Our results reveal a hitherto unrecognized activation of specific AMPK complexes in exercise recovery. We hypothesize that the differential regulation of AMPK complexes plays an important role for muscle metabolism and adaptations to exercise. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  13. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid and exercise on bone mass in young male Balb/C mice

    O'Shea Marianne

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is an increase in obesity among the population of industrialized countries, and dietary supplementation with Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA has been reported to lower body fat mass. However, weight loss is generally associated with negative effects on bone mass, but CLA is reported to have beneficial effects on bone. Furthermore, another factor that is well established to have a beneficial effect on bone is exercise (EX. However, a combination therapy of CLA and EX on bone health has not been studied. In this paper, we report the beneficial effects of CLA and EX on bone, in four different groups of Balb-C young, male mice. There were 4 groups in our study: 1. Safflower oil (SFO sedentary (SED; 2. SFO EX; 3. CLA SED; 4. CLA EX. Two months old mice, under their respective treatment regimens were followed for 14 weeks. Mice were scanned in vivo using a DEXA scanner before and after treatment. At the end of the treatment period, the animals were sacrificed, the left tibia was removed and scanned using peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT. The results showed that although CLA decreased gain in body weight by 35%, it however increased bone mass by both reducing bone resorption and increasing bone formation. EX also decreased gain in body weight by 21% and increased bone mass; but a combination of CLA and EX, however, did not show any further increase in bone mass. In conclusion, CLA increases bone mass in both cancellous and cortical bones, and the effects of CLA on bone is not further improved by EX in pure cortical bone of young male mice.

  14. Treadmill exercise alleviates diabetic cardiomyopathy by suppressing plasminogen activator inhibitor expression and enhancing eNOS in streptozotocin-induced male diabetic rats.

    Chengji, Wang; Xianjin, Fan

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the biological mechanism of the effect of different intensity exercises on diabetic cardiomyopathy. 87 raise specific pathogen SPF healthy 6-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats, fed 6 weeks with high-fat diet for rats were used, and a diabetic model was established by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin - randomly selected 43 rats were divided into Diabetic control group (DCG, n  = 10), Diabetic exercise group 1 (DEG1, n  = 11), Diabetic exercise group 2 (DEG2, n  = 11) and Diabetic exercise group 3 (DEG3, n  = 11). The rats in DEG1 were forced to run on a motorized treadmill, the exercise load consisted of running at a speed of 10 m/min, the exercise load of the rats in DEG2 were running at a speed of 15 m/min, the exercise load of the rats in DEG3 were running at a speed of 20 m/min, for one hour once a day for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks of exercise intervention, glucose metabolism-related indexes in rats such as blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated serum protein (GSP) and insulin (FINS); cardiac fibrinolytic system parameters such as PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1), Von Willebrand factor (vWF), protein kinase C (PKC) and diacylglycerol (DAG); and serum level of NO, eNOS and T-NOS were measured. Compared with DCG, fasting blood glucose and GSP were decreased, while insulin sensitivity index and insulin level were increased in all rats of the three exercise groups. FBG decrease was statistically significant ( P  diabetic rats; myocardial PAI-1 in DEG1, DEG2 and DEG3 rats decreased significantly ( P  diabetic cardiomyopathy by affecting the levels of PAI-1 and eNOS, and there is a dependence on intensity. © 2018 The authors.

  15. Exercise-induced muscle damage is reduced in resistance-trained males by branched chain amino acids: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study

    Howatson Glyn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well documented that exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD decreases muscle function and causes soreness and discomfort. Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA supplementation has been shown to increase protein synthesis and decrease muscle protein breakdown, however, the effects of BCAAs on recovery from damaging resistance training are unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of a BCAA supplementation on markers of muscle damage elicited via a sport specific bout of damaging exercise in trained volunteers. Methods Twelve males (mean ± SD age, 23 ± 2 y; stature, 178.3 ± 3.6 cm and body mass, 79.6 ± 8.4 kg were randomly assigned to a supplement (n = 6 or placebo (n = 6 group. The damaging exercise consisted of 100 consecutive drop-jumps. Creatine kinase (CK, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC, muscle soreness (DOMS, vertical jump (VJ, thigh circumference (TC and calf circumference (CC were measured as markers of muscle damage. All variables were measured immediately before the damaging exercise and at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h post-exercise. Results A significant time effect was seen for all variables. There were significant group effects showing a reduction in CK efflux and muscle soreness in the BCAA group compared to the placebo (P Conclusion The present study has shown that BCAA administered before and following damaging resistance exercise reduces indices of muscle damage and accelerates recovery in resistance-trained males. It seems likely that BCAA provided greater bioavailablity of substrate to improve protein synthesis and thereby the extent of secondary muscle damage associated with strenuous resistance exercise. Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT01529281.

  16. Effects of loaded voluntary wheel exercise on performance and muscle hypertrophy in young and old male C57Bl/6J mice.

    Soffe, Z; Radley-Crabb, H G; McMahon, C; Grounds, M D; Shavlakadze, T

    2016-02-01

    This study compared the capacity of young and old male C57Bl/6J mice to exercise with increasing resistance over 10 weeks, and its impact on muscle mass. Young mice (aged 15-25 weeks) were subjected to low (LR) and high (HR) resistance exercise, whereas only LR was used for old mice (107-117 weeks). Weekly patterns of voluntary wheel activity, food consumption and body weights were measured. Running patterns changed over time and with age, with two peaks of activity detected for young, but only one for old mice: speed and distance run was also less for old mice. The mass for six limb muscles was measured at the end of the experiment. The most pronounced increase in mass in response to exercise was for the soleus in young and old mice, and also quadriceps and gastrocnemius in young mice. Soleus and quadriceps muscles were analyzed histologically for myofiber number and size. A striking feature was the many small myofibers in response to exercise in young (but not old) soleus, whereas these were not present after exercise in young or old quadriceps. Overall, there was a striking difference in response to exercise between muscles and this was influenced by age. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Exercise is More Effective at Altering Gut Microbial Composition and Producing Stable Changes in Lean Mass in Juvenile versus Adult Male F344 Rats.

    Agnieszka Mika

    Full Text Available The mammalian intestine harbors a complex microbial ecosystem that influences many aspects of host physiology. Exposure to specific microbes early in development affects host metabolism, immune function, and behavior across the lifespan. Just as the physiology of the developing organism undergoes a period of plasticity, the developing microbial ecosystem is characterized by instability and may also be more sensitive to change. Early life thus presents a window of opportunity for manipulations that produce adaptive changes in microbial composition. Recent insights have revealed that increasing physical activity can increase the abundance of beneficial microbial species. We therefore investigated whether six weeks of wheel running initiated in the juvenile period (postnatal day 24 would produce more robust and stable changes in microbial communities versus exercise initiated in adulthood (postnatal day 70 in male F344 rats. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to characterize the microbial composition of juvenile versus adult runners and their sedentary counterparts across multiple time points during exercise and following exercise cessation. Alpha diversity measures revealed that the microbial communities of young runners were less even and diverse, a community structure that reflects volatility and malleability. Juvenile onset exercise altered several phyla and, notably, increased Bacteroidetes and decreased Firmicutes, a configuration associated with leanness. At the genus level of taxonomy, exercise altered more genera in juveniles than in the adults and produced patterns associated with adaptive metabolic consequences. Given the potential of these changes to contribute to a lean phenotype, we examined body composition in juvenile versus adult runners. Interestingly, exercise produced persistent increases in lean body mass in juvenile but not adult runners. Taken together, these results indicate that the impact of exercise on gut microbiota

  18. A 3-day high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet does not alter exercise-induced growth hormone response in healthy males.

    Sasaki, Hiroto; Ishibashi, Aya; Tsuchiya, Yoshihumi; Shimura, Nobuhiro; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Ebi, Kumiko; Goto, Kazushige

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of 3 days isoenergetic high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet (HF-LC) relative to low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet (LF-HC) on the exercise-induced growth hormone (GH) response in healthy male subjects. Ten healthy young males participated in this study. Each subject consumed the HF-LC (18±1% protein, 61±2% fat, 21±1% carbohydrate, 2720 kcal per day) for 3 consecutive days after consuming the LF-HC (18±1% protein, 20±1% fat, 62±1% carbohydrate, 2755 kcal per day) for 3 consecutive days. After each dietary intervention period, the hormonal and metabolic responses to an acute exercise (30 min of continuous pedaling at 60% of V˙O2max) were compared. The intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) contents in the vastus lateralis, soleus, and tibialis anterior were evaluated by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Serum GH concentrations increased significantly during the exercise after both the HF-LC and LF-HC periods (Pexercise-induced GH response was not significantly different between the two periods. Fat utilization and lipolytic responses during the exercise were enhanced significantly after the HF-LC period compared with the LF-HC period. IMCL content did not differ significantly in any portion of muscle after the dietary interventions. We could not show that short-term HF-LC consumption changed significantly exercise-induced GH response or IMCL content in healthy young males. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Glucose uptake patterns in exercised skeletal muscles of elite male long-distance and short-distance runners.

    Tai, Suh-Jun; Liu, Ren-Shyan; Kuo, Ya-Chen; Hsu, Chi-Yang; Chen, Chi-Hsien

    2010-04-30

    The aim of this study was to determine glucose uptake patterns in exercised skeletal muscles of elite male long-distance and short-distance runners. Positron emission tomography (PET) using 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) was performed to determine the patterns of glucose uptake in lower limbs of short-distance (SD group, n=8) and long-distance (LD group, n=8) male runners after a modified 20 min Bruce treadmill test. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to delineate the muscle groups in lower limbs. Muscle groups from hip, knee, and ankle movers were measured. The total FDG uptake and the standard uptake value (SUV) for each muscle group were compared between the 2 groups. For the SD and LD runners, the 2 major muscle groups utilizing glucose during running were knee extensors and ankle plantarflexors, which accounted for 49.3 +/- 8.1% (25.1 +/- 4.7% and 24.2 +/- 6.0%) of overall lower extremity glucose uptake for SD group, and 51.3 +/- 8.0% (27.2 +/- 2.7% and 24.0 +/- 8.1%) for LD group. No difference in muscle glucose uptake was noted for other muscle groups. For SD runners, the SUVs for the muscle groups varied from 0.49 +/- 0.27 for the ankle plantarflexors, to 0.20 +/- 0.08 for the hip flexor. For the LD runners, the highest and lowest SUVs were 0.43 +/- 0.15 for the ankle dorsiflexors and 0.21 +/- 0.19 for the hip. For SD and LD groups, no difference in muscle SUV was noted for the muscle groups. However, the SUV ratio between the ankle dorsiflexors and plantarflexors in the LD group was significantly greater than that in the SD group. We thus conclude that the major propelling muscle groups account for approximately 50% of lower limb glucose utilization during running. Thus, the other muscle groups involving maintenance of balance, limb deceleration, and shock absorption utilize an equal amount. This result provides a new insight into glucose distribution in skeletal muscle, suggesting that propellers and supporters are both energetically important

  20. Cardiac oxidative stress following maternal separation stress was mitigated following adolescent voluntary exercise in adult male rat.

    Sahafi, Ehtramolsadat; Peeri, Maghsoud; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal; Azarbyjani, Mohammad Ali

    2018-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is known as a risk factor for the development of depression and its associated comorbidities, such as cardiomyopathy in depressed patients. Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of depression and cardiovascular diseases. Evidence indicates that regular physical activity has therapeutic effects on both mood and cardiovascular disorders. Therefore, the voluntary running wheel exercise (RW) during adolescence may be able to attenuate the negative impact of maternal separation stress (MS) as a valid animal model of depression on the behavior and cardiac mitochondrial function of adult rats. To do this, we applied MS to rat pups by separating them from their mothers for 180min during the postnatal day (PND) 2 to PND 14. Next, the animals were randomly divided into different treatment groups (fluoxetine [FLX] and RW) and received the treatments during adolescence, between PND 28 to PND 60. Then, we evaluated the effects of MS on the rat behaviors test, and finally, we assessed reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial glutathione, ATP and cytochrome c release in the cardiac tissue of animals. Our results showed that depressive-like behaviors following MS in adult male rats were associated with oxidative stress in cardiac tissue. Further, we found that treating animals with chronic FLX or RW during adolescence improved animal's behavior as well as cardiac mitochondrial function. The results of this study highlight the importance of adolescence as a period during which treating animals with non-pharmacological agents has significant protective effects against the negative influence of ELS on mood and cardiac energy hemostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal swimming exercise during pregnancy attenuates anxiety/depressive-like behaviors and voluntary morphine consumption in the pubertal male and female rat offspring born from morphine dependent mothers.

    Torabi, Masoumeh; Pooriamehr, Alireza; Bigdeli, Imanollah; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein

    2017-10-17

    This study was designed to examine whether maternal swimming exercise during pregnancy would attenuate prenatally morphine-induced anxiety, depression and voluntary consumption of morphine in the pubertal male and female rat offspring. Pregnant rats during the development of morphine dependence were allowed to swim (30-45min/d, 3days per a week) on gestational days 11-18. Then, the pubertal male and female rat offspring were tested for the elevated plus-maze (EPM), sucrose preference test (SPT) and voluntary morphine consumption using a two-bottle choice (TBC) paradigm. The results showed that male and female rat offspring born of the swimmer morphine-dependent mothers exhibited an increase in EPM open arm time and entries, higher levels of sucrose preference than their sedentary control mothers. Voluntary consumption of morphine was less in the male and female rat offspring born of the swimmer morphine-dependent mothers as compared with their sedentary control mothers during three periods of the intake of drug. Thus, swimming exercise in pregnant morphine dependent mothers decreased anxiety, depressive-like behavior and also the voluntary morphine consumption in the pubertal male and female offspring, which may prevent prenatally morphine-induced behavioral sensitization in offspring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Comparison of Load-Velocity and Load-Power Relationships Between Well-Trained Young and Middle-Aged Males During Three Popular Resistance Exercises.

    Fernandes, John F T; Lamb, Kevin L; Twist, Craig

    2018-05-01

    Fernandes, JFT, Lamb, KL, and Twist, C. A comparison of load-velocity and load-power relationships between well-trained young and middle-aged males during 3 popular resistance exercises. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1440-1447, 2018-This study examined the load-velocity and load-power relationships among 20 young (age 21.0 ± 1.6 years) and 20 middle-aged (age 42.6 ± 6.7 years) resistance-trained males. Participants performed 3 repetitions of bench press, squat, and bent-over-row across a range of loads corresponding to 20-80% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Analysis revealed effects (p velocity for all 3 exercises, and interaction effects on power for squat and bent-over-row (p bench press and bent-over-row, the young group produced higher barbell velocities, with the magnitude of the differences decreasing as load increased (ES; effect size 0.0-1.7 and 1.0-2.0, respectively). Squat velocity was higher in the young group than the middle-aged group (ES 1.0-1.7) across all loads, as was power for each exercise (ES 1.0-2.3). For all 3 exercises, both velocity and 1RM were correlated with optimal power in the middle-aged group (r = 0.613-0.825, p velocities at low external loads and power outputs as high as the young males across a range of external resistances. Moreover, the strong correlations between 1RM and velocity with optimal power suggest that middle-aged males would benefit from training methods which maximize these adaptations.

  3. Assessing the Therapeutic Effect of 630 nm Light-Emitting Diodes Irradiation on the Recovery of Exercise-Induced Hand Muscle Fatigue with Surface Electromyogram

    Dandan Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the effect of light emitting diode therapy (LEDT on exercise-induced hand muscle fatigue by measuring the surface electromyography (sEMG of flexor digitorum superficialis. Ten healthy volunteers were randomly placed in the equal sized LEDT group and control group. All subjects performed a sustained fatiguing isometric contraction with the combination of four fingertips except thumb at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC until exhaustion. The active LEDT or an identical passive rest therapy was then applied to flexor digitorum superficialis. Each subject was required to perform a re-fatigue task immediately after therapy which was the same as the pre-fatigue task. Average rectified value (ARV and fractal dimension (FD of sEMG were calculated. ARV and FD were significantly different between active LEDT and passive rest groups at 20%–50%, 70%–80%, and 100% of normalized contraction time (P<0.05. Compared to passive rest, active LEDT induced significantly smaller increase in ARV values and decrease in FD values, which shows that LEDT is effective on the recovery of muscle fatigue. Our preliminary results also suggest that ARV and FD are potential replacements of biochemical markers to assess the effects of LEDT on muscle fatigue.

  4. Effect of obesity on oxygen uptake and cardiovascular dynamics during whole-body and leg exercise in adult males and females.

    Green, Simon

    2018-05-01

    Obesity has been associated with a slowing of V˙O2 dynamics in children and adolescents, but this problem has not been studied in adults. Cardiovascular mechanisms underlying this effect are not clear. In this study, 48 adults (18 males, 30 females) grouped according to body mass index (BMI) (lean < 25 kg·m-2 , overweight = 25-29.9 kg·m-2 , obese ≥30 kg·m-2 ) provided a fasting blood sample, completed a maximal graded exercise test and six bouts of submaximal exercise on a cycle ergometer, and performed two protocols of calf exercise. Dynamic response characteristics of V˙O2 and leg vascular conductance (LVC) were assessed during cycling (80% ventilatory threshold) and calf exercise (30% MVC), respectively. Dynamic responses of cardiac output, mean arterial pressure and total systemic vascular conductance were also assessed during cycling based on measurements at 30 and 240 sec. The time constant of the second phase of the V˙O2 response was significantly greater in obese than lean subjects (39.4 (9.2) vs. 29.1 (7.6) sec); whereas dynamic responses of cardiac output and systemic vascular conductance were not affected by BMI. For calf exercise, the time constant of the second growth phase of LVC was slowed significantly in obese subjects (22.1 (12.7) sec) compared with lean and overweight subjects (11.6 (4.5) sec and 13.4 (6.7) sec). These data show that obesity slows dynamic responses of V˙O2 during cycling and the slower phase of vasodilation in contracting muscles of male and female adults.

  5. Effects of the Nordic Hamstring exercise on sprint capacity in male football players: a randomized controlled trial.

    Ishøi, Lasse; Hölmich, Per; Aagaard, Per; Thorborg, Kristian; Bandholm, Thomas; Serner, Andreas

    2018-07-01

    This assessor-blinded, randomized controlled superiority trial investigated the efficacy of the 10-week Nordic Hamstring exercise (NHE) protocol on sprint performance in football players. Thirty-five amateur male players (age: 17-26 years) were randomized to a do-as-usual control group (CG; n = 17) or to 10-weeks of supervised strength training using the NHE in-season (IG; n = 18). A repeated-sprint test, consisting of 4 × 6 10 m sprints, with 15 s recovery period between sprints and 180 s between sets, was conducted to evaluate total sprint time as the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were best 10 m sprint time (10mST) and sprint time during the last sprint (L10mST). Additionally, peak eccentric hamstring strength (ECC-P HS ) and eccentric hamstring strength capacity (ECC-CAP HS ) were measured during the NHE. Ten players were lost to follow-up, thus 25 players were analyzed (CG n = 14; IG n = 11). Between-group differences in mean changes were observed in favor of the IG for sprint performance outcomes; TST (-0.649 s, p = 0.056, d = 0.38), 10mST (-0.047 s, p = 0.005, d = 0.64) and L10mST (-0.052 s, p = 0.094, d = 0.59), and for strength outcomes; ECC-P HS (62.3 N, p = 0.006, d = 0.92), and ECC-CAP HS (951 N, p = 0.005, d = 0.95). In conclusion, the NHE showed small-to-medium improvements in sprint performance and large increases in peak eccentric hamstring strength and capacity. NCT02674919.

  6. Effect of Different Intensities of Short Term Aerobic Exercise on Expression of miR-124 in the Hippocampus of Adult Male Rats

    Shima Mojtahedi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most specific miRNA of the brain is miR-124 which has been detected in the hippocampal area. This microRNA through suppression of some target genes, cause the stem cell to be changed into the neuron. The aim of this study was to identify the effect of exercise intensity on the expression of miR-124.Materials and Method: Eighteenadult male Wistar rats were selected as subjects. The animals randomly divided into 3 groups of control (n=6 and runner (n=6. In low intensity group (n=6 animals daily, were allowed to run on treadmill with an intensity of about 35-40% of maximum oxygen consumption, daily for 30 minutes, of 2 weeks period. In high intensity group (n=6 the subjects were run in the same conditions but with an intensity of about 70-75% maximum oxygen consumption. After 24 hours of the last session of exercise, the animals were killed. Changes in expression analyzed using the quantitave RT-PCR technique.Results: Statistical analysis by one-way ANOVA showed a statistically significant association between the intensities of exercise and elevated expression of miR-124 in the exercise group at significant level of p≤0.05.Conclusion: To sum up, expression of miR-124, in the hippocampus of adult rats, is associated with exercise intensity and running forcefully in comparison with lower intensity, in which leads to robust changes in some mechanisms that involve in exercise- induced neurogenesis

  7. Exercise training and antioxidant supplementation independently improve cognitive function in adult male and female GFAP-APOE mice

    Kiran Chaudhari

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Exercise was the most effective treatment at improving cognitive function in both genotypes and sex, while antioxidants seemed to be effective only in the APOE4. In young adult mice only non-spatial learning and memory were improved. The combination of the two treatments did not yield further improvement in cognition, and there was no antagonistic action of the antioxidant supplementation on the beneficial effects of exercise.

  8. The effect of programmed exercise on body compositions and heart rate of 11-13 years-old male students

    Mohammad H. Dashti

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different forms of physical activities can play a very important role in improving health and physical fitness. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the programmed exercise on students’ body compositions and heart rate at rest.Materials and Method: Two groups each consisting of 15students, aged averagely 12.6 years were the subjects of this experimental study. The experimental group in each session took part in an exercise program consisting of 20 minutes of aerobic activity (running, 10 minutes of aerobic exercise, 30 minutes of local training and 5 minutes of free exercise. The experiment last for 24 sessions. Control group didn’t do any special practice. In both groups, weight, fat mass, fat percentage, lean body mass and heart rate were measured during rest period before and after the experiment. Results: Results showed that the fat percentage, weight, fat mass and heart rate had decreased after 8 weeks of programmed exercise in the experimental group unlike the control group. However, no significant difference was observed in lean body mass.Conclusion: The exercise program used in this study may help loosing weight and make the heart stronger

  9. Effects of Strength Training Combined with Specific Plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump height and lower limb strength development in elite male handball players: a case study

    Carvalho Alberto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to identify the effects of a strength training program combined with specific plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump (VJ height and strength development of lower limbs in elite male handball players. A 12-week program with combined strength and specific plyometric exercises was carried out for 7 weeks. Twelve elite male handball players (age: 21.6 ± 1.73 competing in the Portuguese Major League participated in the study. Besides the anthropometric measurements, several standardized jump tests were applied to assess VJ performance together with the strength development of the lower limbs in an isokinetic setting. No significant changes were found in body circumferences and diameters. Body fat content and fat mass decreased by 16.4 and 15.7% respectively, while lean body mass increased by 2.1%. Despite small significance, there was in fact an increase in squat jump (SJ, counter movement jump (CMJ and 40 consecutive jumps after the training period (6.1, 3.8 and 6.8%, respectively. After the applied protocol, peak torque increased in lower limb extension and flexion in the majority of the movements assessed at 90°s-1. Consequently, it is possible to conclude that combining general strength-training with plyometric exercises can not only increase lower limb strength and improve VJ performance but also reduce body fat content.

  10. Effects of Strength Training Combined with Specific Plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump height and lower limb strength development in elite male handball players: a case study.

    Carvalho, Alberto; Mourão, Paulo; Abade, Eduardo

    2014-06-28

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the effects of a strength training program combined with specific plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump (VJ) height and strength development of lower limbs in elite male handball players. A 12-week program with combined strength and specific plyometric exercises was carried out for 7 weeks. Twelve elite male handball players (age: 21.6 ± 1.73) competing in the Portuguese Major League participated in the study. Besides the anthropometric measurements, several standardized jump tests were applied to assess VJ performance together with the strength development of the lower limbs in an isokinetic setting. No significant changes were found in body circumferences and diameters. Body fat content and fat mass decreased by 16.4 and 15.7% respectively, while lean body mass increased by 2.1%. Despite small significance, there was in fact an increase in squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and 40 consecutive jumps after the training period (6.1, 3.8 and 6.8%, respectively). After the applied protocol, peak torque increased in lower limb extension and flexion in the majority of the movements assessed at 90ºs-1. Consequently, it is possible to conclude that combining general strength-training with plyometric exercises can not only increase lower limb strength and improve VJ performance but also reduce body fat content.

  11. The effect of regular aerobic exercise on both positive and negative symptoms of male patients with chronic Schizophrenia: A double blinded study

    Hossein Namdar areshtanab

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays in different communities, sport is being used as a mean to prevent diseases, improve health and have a sense of well-being. The evidences show that sport improves mental health, self-confidence, cognitive performance and on the other hand it decreases anxiety and depression. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effect of regular aerobic exercise on both positive and negative symptoms of male patients with chronic Schizophrenia who are hospitalized at RAZI Psychiatric hospital, TABRIZ, IRAN. The present study, which has been done on 68 male patients with chronic Schizophrenia, is a double-blinded clinical trial study. Randomly chosen samples have been categorized in two groups of case(34 patients and control (34 patients. The case group samples participated in the designed exercise program during 24sessions over 8 weeks, 11hours in total. The positive and negative symptoms for both groups were assessed in two steps before starting the exercise program and also after that through Standard Anderson Positive and Negative questionnaire (SAPS.SANS. The data of both groups were compared using statistical tests, T-test, paired t-test , and Chi-square test. The results demonstrated that there is no significant relationship between before intervention in terms of positive and negative symptoms of disease (P>0.05. Furthermore, the results indicated that there is a significant statistical difference between the average total score of positive and negative symptoms of the disease in both case and control group after intervention (P<0.05.Health system officials and managers can implement programs and solutions for creating regular aerobic exercises for patients with Schizophrenia in order to reduce disease symptoms and improve the rate of recovery in patients with chronic mental disorders.

  12. Birds of a feather stay active together: a case study of an all-male older adult exercise program.

    Dunlop, William L; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2013-04-01

    In this article, the authors report the results of a case study examining a group-based exercise program for older adult men. The purpose of the investigation was to identify the elements of this program responsible for its appeal. Interviews, conducted with a purposely sampled subset of program members, were subject to content-analytic procedures. Participants identified social connectedness (reflected by themes of demographic homogeneity, support and care, customs and traditions, and interpersonal comparisons) and supportive leadership behaviors (constituted by communication, the provision of choice, and individualized attention) as major attractions in the program. A few participants also noted the challenge that exists when a program is seen by some as being a social program that provides opportunities for exercise and by others as an exercise program that provides opportunities for socializing. Findings are discussed in relation to contextual factors associated with older adult men's involvement in physical activity programs.

  13. Influence of Physical Exercise and Food Restriction on the Biomechanical Properties of the Femur of Ageing Male Rats

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Skalicky, Monika; Viidik, Andrus

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voluntary running in wheels as well as food reduction increase the life spans of rats. Disparate parameters such as the collagen biomarker of ageing and the development of kidney pathologies are decreased by voluntary exercise. There are few reports on the influence of physical exercise...... were used: baseline (BL), voluntarily running in wheels (RW), food restriction to attain pair weight with RW animals (PW), forced running in treadmills (TM), and sedentary controls (SE). The biomechanical properties of femoral neck, diaphysis, and distal metaphysis were measured. RESULTS: While...

  14. The Effects of Adding Whey Protein and Branched-chain Amino Acid to Carbohydrate Beverages on Indices of Muscle Damage after Eccentric Resistance Exercise in Untrained Young Males

    Foad Asjodi; Hamid Mohebi; Ebrahim Mirzajani; Azimeh Izadi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation of Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs) plus carbohydrate (CHO) and whey protein plus CHO on muscle damage indices after eccentric resistant exercise. Materials and Methods: Twenty four untrained healthy males participated in this study. They were randomly divided into three groups, BCAA +glucose (0.1+0.1g/kg) supplement group (n=8), Whey+glucose (0.1+0.1g/kg) supplement group (n=8), and placebo (ma...

  15. Mechanical, hormonal, and hypertrophic adaptations to 10 weeks of eccentric and stretch-shortening cycle exercise training in old males

    Vaczi, Mark; Nagy, Szilvia A.; Koszegi, Tamas; Ambrus, Mira; Bogner, Peter; Perlaki, Gabor; Orsi, Gergely; Toth, Katalin; Hortobagyi, Tibor

    2014-01-01

    The growth promoting effects of eccentric (ECC) contractions are well documented but it is unknown if the rate of stretch per se plays a role in such muscular responses in healthy aging human skeletal muscle. We tested the hypothesis that exercise training of the quadriceps muscle with low rate ECC

  16. Additive insulinogenic action of Opuntia ficus-indica cladode and fruit skin extract and leucine after exercise in healthy males

    2013-01-01

    Background Oral intake of a specific extract of Opuntia ficus-indica cladode and fruit skin (OpunDia™) (OFI) has been shown to increase serum insulin concentration while reducing blood glucose level for a given amount of glucose ingestion after an endurance exercise bout in healthy young volunteers. However, it is unknown whether OFI-induced insulin stimulation after exercise is of the same magnitude than the stimulation by other insulinogenic agents like leucine as well as whether OFI can interact with those agents. Therefore, the aims of the present study were: 1) to compare the degree of insulin stimulation by OFI with the effect of leucine administration; 2) to determine whether OFI and leucine have an additive action on insulin stimulation post-exercise. Methods Eleven subjects participated in a randomized double-blind cross-over study involving four experimental sessions. In each session the subjects successively underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after a 30-min cycling bout at ~70% VO2max. At t0 and t60 during the OGTT, subjects ingested 75 g glucose and capsules containing either 1) a placebo; 2) 1000 mg OFI; 3) 3 g leucine; 4) 1000 mg OFI + 3 g leucine. Blood samples were collected before and at 30-min intervals during the OGTT for determination of blood glucose and serum insulin. Results Whereas no effect of leucine was measured, OFI reduced blood glucose at t90 by ~7% and the area under the glucose curve by ~15% and increased serum insulin concentration at t90 by ~35% compared to placebo (P<0.05). From t60 to the end of the OGTT, serum insulin concentration was higher in OFI+leucine than in placebo which resulted in a higher area under the insulin curve (+40%, P<0.05). Conclusion Carbohydrate-induced insulin stimulation post-exercise can be further increased by the combination of OFI with leucine. OFI and leucine could be interesting ingredients to include together in recovery drinks to resynthesize muscle glycogen faster post-exercise

  17. Effect of six weeks of endurance exercise and following detraining on serum brain derived neurotrophic factor and memory performance in middle aged males with metabolic syndrome.

    Babaei, P; Azali Alamdari, K; Soltani Tehrani, B; Damirchi, A

    2013-08-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and physical inactivity contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Aerobic training has been reported to improve MetS, however less attention has been directed toward the role of training and detraining on cognitive function in MetS. Twenty one healthy middle-aged males and 21 with MetS were distributed into four groups: MetS exercise (ME), MetS control (MC), Healthy exercise (HE) and healthy control (HC). Both ME and HE, followed a 6-week aerobic training program (3 sessions/week). Digit Span memory test and blood sampling were conducted pre training, post training and also following a six weeks detraining. Data were analyzed using spearman, pearson and repeated measure ANOVA tests. Baseline serum BDNF level was positively correlated with waist circumference (r=0.383, P=0.012) and showed significant elevation in MetS compared with healthy subjects (1101.66±61.34 vs. 903.72±46.57 pg/mL, P=0.014). After aerobic exercise BDNF level significantly increased in HE, but decreased in ME group (P=0.001). Both short and mid term memory significantly increased (PExercise induced cognitive improvement might be mediated via BDNF-linked mechanisms in healthy people. However, the health status of individuals should be considered.

  18. Gallic acid and exercise training improve motor function, nerve conduction velocity but not pain sense reflex after experimental sciatic nerve crush in male rats

    Maryam Hajimoradi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of oral administration of gallic acid (GA for 21 days alone and in combination with exercise on nerve conduction velocity and sensory and motor functions in rats with sciatic nerve crush. Materials and Methods: Seventy adult male Wistar rats (250-300 g were divided randomly into 7 groups with 10 in each: 1 Control (Cont, 2 Crushed + Vehicle (Cr +Veh, 3-5 Crushed + gallic acid (Cr+GA (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/2 mL, orally, 6 Crushed + exercise (Cr+Exe, and 7 Crushed + exercise + effective dose of gallic acid (Cr+Exe +GA200 for 21 days. In order to establish an animal model of sciatic nerve crush, equivalent to 7 kg of force pressed on 2-3 mm of sciatic nerve for 30 s, three times with 30 s intervals. Pain sense reflex in hot plate, motor coordination in rotarod, and sciatic nerve conduction velocity (SNCV in all groups were tested. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post hoc test and pResults: Pain threshold was increased significantly in untreated crushed rats while motor function and SNCV were decreased in all groups with nerve crush (p

  19. Gallic acid and exercise training improve motor function, nerve conduction velocity but not pain sense reflex after experimental sciatic nerve crush in male rats.

    Hajimoradi, Maryam; Fazilati, Mohammad; Gharib-Naseri, Mohammad Kazem; Sarkaki, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of oral administration of gallic acid (GA) for 21 days alone and in combination with exercise on nerve conduction velocity and sensory and motor functions in rats with sciatic nerve crush. Seventy adult male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were divided randomly into 7 groups with 10 in each: 1) Control (Cont), 2) Crushed + Vehicle (Cr +Veh), 3-5) Crushed + gallic acid (Cr+GA) (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/2 mL, orally), 6) Crushed + exercise (Cr+Exe), and 7) Crushed + exercise + effective dose of gallic acid (Cr+Exe +GA200) for 21 days. In order to establish an animal model of sciatic nerve crush, equivalent to 7 kg of force pressed on 2-3 mm of sciatic nerve for 30 s, three times with 30 s intervals. Pain sense reflex in hot plate, motor coordination in rotarod, and sciatic nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) in all groups were tested. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test and preflex latency was not changed in treated groups. Motor coordination and SNCV were improved in groups Cr+GA200 and Cr+Exe + GA200 (p<0.05, p<0.01 vs. Cr+Veh). GA, dose-dependently, may have therapeutic potential to improve the peripheral nerve degeneration, which is most likely related, at least in part, to its antioxidant and therapeutic properties.

  20. The effect of cinnamon extract and long-term aerobic training on heart function, biochemical alterations and lipid profile following exhaustive exercise in male rats.

    Badalzadeh, Reza; Shaghaghi, Mehrnoush; Mohammadi, Mustafa; Dehghan, Gholamreza; Mohammadi, Zeynab

    2014-12-01

    Regular training is suggested to offer a host of benefits especially on cardiovascular system. In addition, medicinal plants can attenuate oxidative stress-mediated damages induced by stressor insults. In this study, we investigated the concomitant effect of cinnamon extract and long-term aerobic training on cardiac function, biochemical alterations and lipid profile following exhaustive exercise. Male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were divided into five groups depending on receiving regular training, cinnamon bark extraction, none or both of them, and then encountered with an exhausted exercise in last session. An 8-week endurance training program was designed with a progressive increase in training speed and time. Myocardial hemodynamics was monitored using a balloon-tipped catheter inserted into left ventricles. Blood samples were collected for analyzing biochemical markers, lipid profiles and lipid-peroxidation marker, malondealdehyde (MDA). Trained animals showed an enhanced cardiac force and contractility similar to cinnamon-treated rats. Co-application of regular training and cinnamon had additive effect in cardiac hemodynamic (Ptraining and supplementation with cinnamon significantly decreased serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level and HDL/LDL ratio as compared to control group (Ptraining significantly reduced MDA level elevation induced by exhausted exercise (Ptraining improved cardiac hemodynamic through an additive effect. The positive effects of cinnamon and regular training on cardiac function were associated with a reduced serum MDA level and an improved blood lipid profile.

  1. The Effects of Adding Whey Protein and Branched-chain Amino Acid to Carbohydrate Beverages on Indices of Muscle Damage after Eccentric Resistance Exercise in Untrained Young Males

    Foad Asjodi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation of Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs plus carbohydrate (CHO and whey protein plus CHO on muscle damage indices after eccentric resistant exercise. Materials and Methods: Twenty four untrained healthy males participated in this study. They were randomly divided into three groups, BCAA +glucose (0.1+0.1g/kg supplement group (n=8, Whey+glucose (0.1+0.1g/kg supplement group (n=8, and placebo (malto dextrin 0.2g/kg group (n=8. Each subject consumed a carbohydrate beverage with addition of whey protein or branched-chain amino acid or placebo 30 minutes before exercise in a randomized,double-blind fashion. Serum levels of Creatine Kinase (CK, Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and muscle pain were measured before, 24, 48, 72 h after exercise. Follow-up analyses included 1-way repeated measures ANOVAs, and Bonferroni post hoc comparisons. Results: 24 h after test, serum levels of CK, LDH and muscle pain in both supplement groups were increased less than placebo group (0.015, 0.001 and 0.001, respectively. Also, the levels of CK and LDH showed significant changes in both intervention groups compared to placebo group at 24 h (0.001, 0. 015, respectively. Similarly, significant differences in the levels of CK and LDH between groups were observed. Conclusion: These data indicate that muscle damage and pain after resistant exercise were reduced by an ingestion of either BCAA drink or whey protein drink.

  2. Effects of hypobaric Endurance Training on Graded Exercise Induced Lymphocyte Mobilization, Senescence and Their Surface Thiol Levels in Elite Male Athletes

    Karim - Azali Alamdari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of each hypoxemic exercise session or overall training period still remains to be more elucidated in elite athletes. Therefore, we investigated the effects of hypobaric endurance training on lymphocytes mobilization and senescence and also their surface Thiol levels following to graded exercise test (GXT in elite male athletes. Fourty six volunteer subjects were randomized into normobaric control (NC, hypobaric control (HC, normobaric exercise (NE and hypobaric exercise (HE groups. The NE and HE groups were exposed to homeland (700 mmHg and 2800 meters above sea level (570 mmHg simulated barometric pressures respectively, while HC and NC groups were remained sedentary at the same conditions. The training was included on treadmill running for four weeks, five sessions/week, 45 min/ session. Each session was consisted of three-min warmed up period, three cycles of 10-min running at 65% maximal heart rate reserve (HRRmax interspersed with a three-min active recovery and three-min cool-down running period. Two GXTs were performed before (baseline and after the interventions and blood samples were collected three times at both occasions. In all groups, mobilization of CD8+lymphocytes and senescent phenotype population of their both CD4+ and CD8+ subsets were increased after both GXTs, however; these changes were reversed following to recovery period(P<0.05. Moreover, HE were decreased lymphocytes surface thiol levels before and after the second GXT (P<0.05.it can be concluded that HE has no additional benefits for elite athletes regarded to lymphocytes mobilization and senescence, however; it may render them to oxidative stress.  

  3. Polymorphisms in ACE and ACTN3 Genes and Blood Pressure Response to Acute Exercise in Elite Male Athletes from Serbia.

    Durmic, Tijana S; Zdravkovic, Marija D; Djelic, Marina N; Gavrilovic, Tamara D; Djordjevic Saranovic, Slavica A; Plavsic, Jadranka N; Mirkovic, Sanja V; Batinic, Djordje V; Antic, Milena N; Mihailovic, Zoran R; Atanasijevic, Nikola G; Mileusnic, Milan J; Stojkovic, Oliver V

    2017-12-01

    Physiological adaptations to various types of prolonged and intensive physical activity, as seen in elite athletes from different sports, include changes in blood pressure (BP) response to acute exercise. Also, functional polymorphisms of the angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) and alfa-actinin-3 (ACTN3) genes are shown to be associated with BP parameters changes, both in athletes and sedentary population. In this study, an Alu insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism in ACE gene, as well as nonsense mutation in the gene encoding ACTN3 have been scored in 107 elite Serbian athletes classified according to their sporting discipline to power/sprint (short distance runners/swimmers), endurance (rowers, footballers, middle-distance swimmers) or mixed sports (water polo, handball, volleyball players). Presence of nonfunctional allele in ACTN3 is associated with significantly increased maximal systolic BP (SBPmax, p = 0.04). Athletes with Alu insertion in ACE had significantly (p = 0.006) larger decline of systolic BP after 3 minutes of recovery (SBPR3), calculated as the percentage of maximal SBP response during exercise stress testing. Concomitant presence of non-functional variant in ACTN3 gene decreased this beneficiary effect of ACE mutation on SBPR3. Long term enrollment in power/sprint sports significantly increased resting diastolic BP (DBPrest: 74 mmHg) and SBPmax (197 mmHg) and improved SBPR3 (74.8%) compared to enrolment in endurance (72 mmHg; 178 mmHg; 81.1%) and mixed sports (69 mmHg; 185 mmHg; 80.0%). Lack of the effect of genotype by sport interaction on BP parameters suggests that the long-term effects of different disciplines on BP are not mediated by these two genes.

  4. Beneficial effects of fluoxetine, reboxetine, venlafaxine, and voluntary running exercise in stressed male rats with anxiety- and depression-like behaviors.

    Lapmanee, Sarawut; Charoenphandhu, Jantarima; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2013-08-01

    Rodents exposed to mild but repetitive stress may develop anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. Whether this stress response could be alleviated by pharmacological treatments or exercise interventions, such as wheel running, was unknown. Herein, we determined anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in restraint stressed rats (2h/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks) subjected to acute diazepam treatment (30min prior to behavioral test), chronic treatment with fluoxetine, reboxetine or venlafaxine (10mg/kg/day for 4 weeks), and/or 4-week voluntary wheel running. In elevated plus-maze (EPM) and forced swimming tests (FST), stressed rats spent less time in the open arms and had less swimming duration than the control rats, respectively, indicating the presence of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. Stressed rats also developed learned fear as evaluated by elevated T-maze test (ETM). Although wheel running could reduce anxiety-like behaviors in both EPM and ETM, only diazepam was effective in the EPM, while fluoxetine, reboxetine, and venlafaxine were effective in the ETM. Fluoxetine, reboxetine, and wheel running, but not diazepam and venlafaxine, also reduced depression-like behavior in FST. Combined pharmacological treatment and exercise did not further reduce anxiety-like behavior in stressed rats. However, stressed rats treated with wheel running plus reboxetine or venlafaxine showed an increase in climbing duration in FST. In conclusion, regular exercise (voluntary wheel running) and pharmacological treatments, especially fluoxetine and reboxetine, could alleviate anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in stressed male rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Response of mef2 Gene of Slow and Fast Twitch Muscles of Wistar Male Rats to One Bout of Resistance Exercise

    M Fathi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2 (mef2 gene relates with multiple myogenic transcriptional factors that induces activation Muscle-specific genes. MEF2 contributes in muscular cells development and differentiation as well as in fibers transition in response to stimulants. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of one bout of resistance exercise (RE on mef2 gene expression in fast and slow skeletal muscles of Wistar male rats. Methods: For this experimental study, 15 rats from Pasteur Institute were prepared and housed under natural conditions (temperature, light/dark (12:12 cycle, with ad libitum access to food and water and then randomly divided assigned to RE (n=10 and control groups (n=5; the RE group performed one RE session. 3 and 6 hours following, the rats were anaesthetized and sacrificed, then the soleus and Extensor digitorum longus (EDL muscles were removed. determine mef2 gene expression rate, the Quantitative Real time RT-PCR was used. Data were analyzed by one sample and independent samples t test. Results: In EDL muscle, in response to one RE session, the mef2 gene expression increased non significantly at 3 hour (p=0/093 and increased significantly (p=/008 at 6 hour after exercise, but in soleus muscle, the mef2 gene expression decreased significantly at 3 hour (p=0/01, and at 6 hour after RE session there was no observed significant change (p=0.247. Conclusion: Mef2 expression gene is differently changes in muscle fibers, which are likely associated with changes in fiber type in response to resistance exercise.

  6. The Effects of Combination of High Intensity Intermittent Exercise and Supplement Flaxseed Oil 1 ICAM- Plasma Concentration in Male Rats

    Y Khademi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is rooted in inflammation and inflammation is along with the increase of ICAM-1. The aim of the present study was to review the effect of combination of high interval training and flaxseed oil supplementation on plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 30 rats were selected and divided into six groups of five male rats, including (1 control, (2 training, (3 10 mg/kg Flaxseed oil, (4 30 mg/kg Flaxseed oil, (5 training with 10 mg/kg Flaxseed oil and (6 training with 30 mg/kg Flaxseed oil. Groups of 2, 5 and 6 were trained with high intensity interval training for 10 weeks and five sessions per week, also groups 3 to 6 received flaxseed oil for 10 weeks. For statistical analysis of data two way ANOVA test was used (p≤0.05. Results: 10 weeks  treating high intensity interval training  for 10 weeks had significant effect on the increase of the plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of male rats (p=0.001. Nevertheless, Taking 10 weeks 10 and 30 mg/kg flaxseed oil supplementation for 10 weeks has significant effect on reducing  the plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of rats (p=0.001. Training and taking flaxseed oil supplementation have interactional effect on reduingc the plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of male rats (p=0.001. Conclusion: Combination of high intensity interval training and flaxseed oil supplementation has interactional effects on the improvement of plasma concentration of ICAM-1 in male rats.

  7. The Effects of Combination of High Intensity Intermittent Exercise and Supplement Flaxseed Oil 1 ICAM- Plasma Concentration in Male Rats

    Y Khademi; MA Azarbayejani; SA Hosseini

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is rooted in inflammation and inflammation is along with the increase of ICAM-1. The aim of the present study was to review the effect of combination of high interval training and flaxseed oil supplementation on plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 30 rats were selected and divided into six groups of five male rats, including (1) control, (2) training, (3) 10 mg/kg Flaxseed oil, (4) 30 mg/kg Flaxse...

  8. The Correlation of Plasma Levels of Apelin-13 with Insulin Resistance Index and Plasma Leptin of Diabetic Male Rats after 8-Week Aerobic Exercise

    Fahimeh Kazemi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The physiological role of apelin, an adipokine secreted by adipose tissue, in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes has been identified. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation of plasma levels of apelin-13 with insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR and plasma leptin of diabetic male rats after 8-week aerobic exercise. Materials and Methods: Peresent study was an experimental study with animal model. Twenty eight diabetic male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: Non-diabetic (n=9, control diabetic (n=9 and trained diabetic (n=10. Type 2 diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide and streptozotocin. The trained diabetic rat ran 8-week on treadmill progressively. After the training period, plasma levels of glucose, insulin, leptin and apelin-13 were measured and HOMA-IR was calculated. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation were used for analyzing data. p<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: A significant decrease in plasma levels of glucose, insulin and leptin and HOMA-IR in trained diabetic vs control diabetic rats, a significant increase in plasma levels of apelin in trained diabetic vs non-diabetic and control diabetic rats and a significant negative correlation of plasma levels of apelin with HOMA-IR and plasma leptin in trained diabetic rats was observed. Conclusion: In present study, 8-week aerobic training by improvement of insulin sensitivity (decrease of HOMA-IR and plasma leptin increased plasma levels of apelin-13 in diabetic male rats.

  9. Adding a post-training FIFA 11+ exercise program to the pre-training FIFA 11+ injury prevention program reduces injury rates among male amateur soccer players: a cluster-randomised trial

    Wesam Saleh A Al Attar

    2017-10-01

    Trial registration: ACTRN12615001206516. [Al Attar WSA, Soomro N, Pappas E, Sinclair PJ, Sanders RH (2017 Adding a post-training FIFA 11+ exercise program to the pre-training FIFA 11+ injury prevention program reduces injury rates among male amateur soccer players: a cluster-randomised trial. Journal of Physiotherapy 63: 235–242

  10. Assessing the therapeutic effect of 625-nm light-emitting diodes

    Mao, Zongzhen; Xu, Guodong; Yang, Yi

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of red Light-Emitting Diodes on elbow extensor and flexor strength and the recovery of exercise induced fatigue, the torque values from the isokinetic dynamometer as well as biochemistry parameters were used as outcome measures. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial was performed with twenty male young tennis athletes. Active LED therapy (LEDT, with wavelength 625nm, 10 minutes total irradiation time, irradiated area amount to 30cm2, and 900J of total energy irradiated) or an identical placebo was delivered under double-blinded conditions to the left elbow just before exercise. The isokinetic muscle strength was measured immediately after irradiation. The blood lactate levels were sampled pre-exercise and post-exercise. The peak torque values of elbow extensor strength were significantly different between two groups. As in elbow flexor strength, the difference of peak torque was not significant. The blood lactate concentration of LEDT group post-exercise was significantly lower than those of placebo group. The results indicate that 625nm LED therapy is effective in preventing muscle fatigue as it can significantly reduce peak torque value of elbow extensors and blood lactate concentration. It has no effect on the strength of left elbow flexor or backhand performance in tennis.

  11. ST-segment deviation during 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring and exercise stress test in healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    Vaage-Nilsen, M; Rasmussen, Verner; Sørum, C

    1999-01-01

    or descending ST-segment depression of >/=0.15 mV during Holter monitoring or at the exercise test, respectively. Furthermore, the specificity was 0.95 when a horizontal or downsloping ST-segment depression of 0.1 mV was displayed in both the Holter and exercise electrocardiographic recording system......BACKGROUND: Although ST-segment deviation has been evaluated and used during many years both on continuous electrocardiographic Holter monitoring and during exercise stress testing, considerable controversy still remains concerning the prevalence and diagnostic significance of fortuitously...... discovered ST-segment deviation in asymptomatic healthy persons. METHODS AND RESULTS: The occurrence of ST-segment deviation was studied in a population of 63 clinically healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age, with the use of 24-hour Holter monitoring and exercise stress testing. The subjects were...

  12. Effectiveness of High-Intensity Interval Exercise on Serum Dopamine Level and Improvement of Perceptual-Motor Skills in Male Students with Hyperactivity/Attention Deficit Disorder

    F. Torabi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Known by hyperactivity, inattentiveness, and impulsiveness, the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is considered as a behavioral disorder in the children, as well as in the adolescents. The disorder might also damage their motor skill procedure. The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of 6-week high intensity interval exercise on the serum dopamine levels and the improvement of perceptual-motor performance in boys with ADHD. Materials & Methods: In the controlled pretest-posttest semi-experimental study, 20 adolescent male students with ADHD of the eastern Tehran schools were studied in 2015. The subjects, selected by random sampling method, were randomly divided into two groups including experimental (n=10 and control (n=10 groups. 6-week high intensity interval training (3 days a week was conducted in experimental group. The anthropometric indices, dopamine levels, and perceptual-motor performance scores were measured both at the beginning and at the end of the course. Data was analyzed by SPSS 16 software using paired T and independent T tests. Findings: In the experimental group, the dopamine levels significantly increased at the posttest stage compared to the pretest (p=0.01, while BMI (p=0.001 and body fat percentage (p=0.002 significantly decreased. In addition, the motor skill score significantly increased in experimental group (p=0.001. No variable was significantly changed in control group during the 6 weeks (p>0.05. Conclusion: 6-week high intensity interval exercise improves perceptual-motor performance and increases serum dopamine levels in boys with ADHD.

  13. Intact regulation of the AMPK signaling network in response to exercise and insulin in skeletal muscle of male patients with type 2 diabetes

    Kjøbsted, Rasmus; Pedersen, Andreas J T; Hingst, Janne R

    2016-01-01

    ). Conversely, exercise decreased AMPK α1β2γ1 activity and TBC1D4 Ser(318)/Thr(642) phosphorylation. Interestingly, compared to pre-exercise, 3 h into exercise recovery AMPK α2β2γ1 and α1β2γ1 activity were increased concomitant with increased TBC1D4 Ser(318)/Ser(341)/Ser(704) phosphorylation. No differences...... and insulin stimulation. Our results reveal a hitherto unrecognized activation of specific AMPK complexes in exercise recovery. We hypothesize that the differential regulation of AMPK complexes plays an important role for muscle metabolism and adaptations to exercise....

  14. Effect of Exercise Intensity on Neurotrophic Factors and Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability Induced by Oxidative-Nitrosative Stress in Male College Students.

    Roh, Hee-Tae; Cho, Su-Youn; Yoon, Hyung-Gi; So, Wi-Young

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the effects of aerobic exercise intensity on oxidative-nitrosative stress, neurotrophic factor expression, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Fifteen healthy men performed treadmill running under low-intensity (LI), moderate-intensity (MI), and high-intensity (HI) conditions. Blood samples were collected immediately before exercise (IBE), immediately after exercise (IAE), and 60 min after exercise (60MAE) to examine oxidative-nitrosative stress (reactive oxygen species [ROS]; nitric oxide [NO]), neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF]; nerve growth factor [NGF]), and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability (S-100β; neuron-specific enolase). ROS concentration significantly increased IAE and following HI (4.9 ± 1.7 mM) compared with that after LI (2.8 ± 1.4 mM) exercise (p exercise (p exercise (p exercise (p exercise (p .05). Moderate- and/or high-intensity exercise may induce higher oxidative-nitrosative stress than may low-intensity exercise, which can increase peripheral neurotrophic factor levels by increasing BBB permeability.

  15. A High Fat Diet during Adolescence in Male Rats Negatively Programs Reproductive and Metabolic Function Which Is Partially Ameliorated by Exercise

    Carlos A. Ibáñez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An interaction between obesity, impaired glucose metabolism and sperm function in adults has been observed but it is not known whether exposure to a diet high in fat during the peri-pubertal period can have longstanding programmed effects on reproductive function and gonadal structure. This study examined metabolic and reproductive function in obese rats programmed by exposure to a high fat (HF diet during adolescence. The effect of physical training (Ex in ameliorating this phenotype was also assessed. Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats were fed a HF diet (35% lard w/w for 30 days then subsequently fed a normal fat diet (NF for a 40-day recovery period. Control animals were fed a NF diet throughout life. At 70 days of life, animals started a low frequency moderate exercise training that lasted 30 days. Control animals remained sedentary (Se. At 100 days of life, biometric, metabolic and reproductive parameters were evaluated. Animals exposed to HF diet showed greater body weight, glucose intolerance, increased fat tissue deposition, reduced VO2max and reduced energy expenditure. Consumption of the HF diet led to an increase in the number of abnormal seminiferous tubule and a reduction in seminiferous epithelium height and seminiferous tubular diameter, which was reversed by moderate exercise. Compared with the NF-Se group, a high fat diet decreased the number of seminiferous tubules in stages VII-VIII and the NF-Ex group showed an increase in stages XI-XIII. HF-Se and NF-Ex animals showed a decreased number of spermatozoa in the cauda epididymis compared with animals from the NF-Se group. Animals exposed to both treatments (HF and Ex were similar to all the other groups, thus these alterations induced by HF or Ex alone were partially prevented. Physical training reduced fat pad deposition and restored altered reproductive parameters. HF diet consumption during the peri-pubertal period induces long-term changes on metabolism and the reproductive

  16. Protective Effect of Curcumin Supplementation and Light Resistance Exercises on Superoxide Dismutase Enzyme Activity and Malondialdehyde Levels in a Severe Endurance Training Period in Male Wistar Rats

    A Gorzi

    2017-07-01

    Background and aim: Extreme endurance exercises lead to oxidative stress in athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of curcumin supplement supplementation and light resistance training on the activity of SOD and MDA levels of male Wistar rats during a 8-week endurance training. Methods: In the present experimental study, 36 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into one of six control groups, curcumin, endurance training, exercise, after one week of information (age 9 weeks and weight 255.62 ± 19.69 grams. Endurance + resistance, endurance training + curcumin and endurance training + curcumin + resistance. Incremental endurance training (8 weeks, 5 sessions per week was performed on a special treadmill. Speed ​​and running time in the last week reached 35 m / min and 70 minutes. Resistance training (8 weeks, 2 sessions per week was performed on vertical ladder by closing the rat's weight to the tail. Rats received supplemental curcumin by intraperitoneal injection (8 weeks, 3 sessions per week, 30 mg / kg body weight. SOD activity of the muscle was measured using ELISA kits and serum MDA levels using Tobartic acid (TBARS method. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA (ANOVA.   Results: The antioxidant enzyme activity of SOD in the endometrial muscle of endurance group (1.08 ± 0.222 μg / ml was significantly lower than control group (22.2 ± 0.481 kg (P = 0.043, and SOD activity in the endurance + resistance group (1.87 ± 0.172, p = 0.44, endurance + curcumin (2.24 ± 0.222; P = 0.039, and endurance + curcumin + resistance (0.202 ± 0.15, p = 0.029 was significantly higher than endurance group. The levels of malondialdehyde in the endurance group (4.27 ± 0.438 nmol / ml protein were significantly higher in comparison with the control group (3.42 ± 0.350 (0.331 and Also, serum MDA levels in endurance + resistance groups (± 3.03 ± 0.342, p = 0.003, endurance + curcumin (p = 0.001, p <0.001, and endurance + curcumin

  17. Pequi fruit (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) pulp oil reduces exercise-induced inflammatory markers and blood pressure of male and female runners.

    Miranda-Vilela, Ana L; Pereira, Luiz C S; Gonçalves, Carlos A; Grisolia, Cesar K

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) fruit oil and its effects on the postprandial lipidemia and arterial blood pressure of male and female athletes. These athletes were evaluated after races in the same environment and under the same type, intensity, and length of weekly training conditions, both before and after ingestion of 400 mg pequi oil capsules for 14 days. Pequi fruit contains several antioxidants, and its oil has been associated with anti-inflammatory properties in other pequi species. Because the oil of pequi is mostly composed of oleic and palmitic fatty acids, the oil may alter the ratio of triglyceride to cholesterol in postprandial lipidemia. Epidemiologic studies suggest that an increased intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (such as oleic acid) is inversely related to blood pressure. Thus, we hypothesize that pequi oil could reduce exercise-induced inflammation and blood pressure, and modulate postprandial lipidemia in runners. To test this hypothesis, arterial blood pressures were checked before races; blood samples were taken after the races and submitted for analysis of leukocytes and platelets analysis, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein values, and postprandial lipids. Pequi oil resulted in anti-inflammatory effects and reduced the total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein in the age group older than 45 years, mainly for men. The results showed a general trend for reduced arterial pressure, suggesting that pequi oil may have a hypotensive effect. However, this finding needs additional investigation. Thus, pequi oil, besides possessing many nutritional properties, may be a good candidate supplement for athletes.

  18. Kegel Exercises

    ... exercised my pelvic muscles ____ times. I spent ____ minutes exercising. At each exercise session, I squeezed my pelvic ... exercised my pelvic muscles ____ times. I spent ____ minutes exercising. At each exercise session, I squeezed my pelvic ...

  19. Body fat loss and compensatory mechanisms in response to different doses of aerobic exercise - a randomized controlled trial in overweight sedentary males

    Larsen, Mads Rosenkilde; Auerbach, Pernille Landrock; Reichkendler, Michala Holm

    2012-01-01

    The amount of weight loss induced by exercise is often disappointing. A diet-induced negative energy balance triggers compensatory mechanisms, e.g. lower metabolic rate and increased appetite. However, knowledge about potential compensatory mechanisms triggered by increased aerobic exercise...... is limited. A randomized controlled trial was performed in healthy sedentary moderately overweight young men to examine the effects of increasing doses of aerobic exercise on body composition, accumulated energy balance, and the degree of compensation. Eighteen participants were randomized to a continuous...... sedentary control group, 21 to a moderate (MOD; 300 kcal/day) and 22 to a high dose (HIGH; 600 kcal/day) exercise group for 13 weeks, corresponding to approximately 30 and 60 minutes of daily aerobic exercise, respectively. Body weight (MOD: -3.6kg, P...

  20. Prevention: Exercise

    Full Text Available ... Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly ... Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ...

  1. Voluntary resistance wheel exercise from mid-life prevents sarcopenia and increases markers of mitochondrial function and autophagy in muscles of old male and female C57BL/6J mice.

    White, Zoe; Terrill, Jessica; White, Robert B; McMahon, Christopher; Sheard, Phillip; Grounds, Miranda D; Shavlakadze, Tea

    2016-12-13

    There is much interest in the capacity of resistance exercise to prevent the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, known as sarcopenia. This study investigates the molecular basis underlying the benefits of resistance exercise in aging C57BL/6J mice of both sexes. This study is the first to demonstrate that long-term (34 weeks) voluntary resistance wheel exercise (RWE) initiated at middle age, from 15 months, prevents sarcopenia in selected hindlimb muscles and causes hypertrophy in soleus, by 23 months of age in both male and female C57BL/6J mice. Compared with 23-month-old sedentary (SED) controls, RWE (0-6 g of resistance) increased intramuscular mitochondrial density and oxidative capacity (measured by citrate synthase and NADH-TR) and increased LC3II/I ratios (a marker of autophagy) in exercised mice of both sexes. RWE also reduced mRNA expression of Gadd45α (males only) and Runx1 (females only) but had no effect on other markers of denervation including Chrng, Chrnd, Musk, and Myog. RWE increased heart mass in all mice, with a more pronounced increase in females. Significant sex differences were also noted among SED mice, with Murf1 mRNA levels increasing in male, but decreasing in old female mice between 15 and 23 months. Overall, long-term RWE initiated from 15 month of age significantly improved some markers of the mitochondrial and autophagosomal pathways and prevented age-related muscle wasting.

  2. Using implicit attitudes of exercise importance to predict explicit exercise dependence symptoms and exercise behaviors.

    Forrest, Lauren N; Smith, April R; Fussner, Lauren M; Dodd, Dorian R; Clerkin, Elise M

    2016-01-01

    "Fast" (i.e., implicit) processing is relatively automatic; "slow" (i.e., explicit) processing is relatively controlled and can override automatic processing. These different processing types often produce different responses that uniquely predict behaviors. In the present study, we tested if explicit, self-reported symptoms of exercise dependence and an implicit association of exercise as important predicted exercise behaviors and change in problematic exercise attitudes. We assessed implicit attitudes of exercise importance and self-reported symptoms of exercise dependence at Time 1. Participants reported daily exercise behaviors for approximately one month, and then completed a Time 2 assessment of self-reported exercise dependence symptoms. Undergraduate males and females (Time 1, N = 93; Time 2, N = 74) tracked daily exercise behaviors for one month and completed an Implicit Association Test assessing implicit exercise importance and subscales of the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire (EDQ) assessing exercise dependence symptoms. Implicit attitudes of exercise importance and Time 1 EDQ scores predicted Time 2 EDQ scores. Further, implicit exercise importance and Time 1 EDQ scores predicted daily exercise intensity while Time 1 EDQ scores predicted the amount of days exercised. Implicit and explicit processing appear to uniquely predict exercise behaviors and attitudes. Given that different implicit and explicit processes may drive certain exercise factors (e.g., intensity and frequency, respectively), these behaviors may contribute to different aspects of exercise dependence.

  3. Smoking Conditions and the Relationships Between Smoking Habits and Such Factors as Exercise Habits and Morning Diet among Male Students Aged 16 to 20 Years

    Kazuo, HASHIZUME; Yukinori, KUSAKA; Masayuki, IKI; Kazuo, KAWAHARA; Faculty of Education, Toyama University; Department of Environmental Health, Fukui Medical School; Department of Public Health, Kinki University School of Medicine; Community Health, Health Promotion and Nutrition Division, Health Service Bureau, Ministry of Health and Welfare

    1998-01-01

    This article explores the smoking behavior of 307 sixteen-to twenty-year-old students, and examines the relationships between their smoking and such factors as weight, exercise or morning diets. Four-year follow-up data on their physical characteristics, exercise and morning diet, and a five-year retrospective questionnaire on smoking habits were analyzed. Our longitudinal analysis revealed that : the prevalence of smoking increased from 17.6% to 54.1%, while the semi-annual incidence of smok...

  4. Smoking conditions and the relationships between smoking habits and such factors as exercise habits and morning diet among male students aged 16 to 20 years

    Hashizume, Kazuo; Kusaka, Yukinori; Iki, Masayuki; Kawahara, Kazuo

    1998-01-01

    This article explores the smoking behavior of 307 sixteen- to twenty-year-old students, and examines the relationships between their smoking and such factors as weight, exercise or morning diets. Four-year follow-up data on their physical characteristics, exercise and morning diet, and a five-year retrospective questionnaire on smoking habits were analyzed. Our longitudinal analysis revealed that: the prevalence of smoking increased from 17.6% to 54.1%, while the semi-annual incidence of smok...

  5. The Effect of Different Intensities of Acute Aerobic Exercise on Plasma Resistin Concentration and Insulin Resistance Index in Type 2 Diabetic Males

    Ziba Davoudi

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: It can be stated that acute exercise with different intensities does not affect resistin action in individuals with diabetes. These results may be due to the constant energy cost which is equivalent to 300 kcal per session, having no influence on the study variables.

  6. Gender and developmental differences in exercise beliefs among youth and prediction of their exercise behavior.

    Garcia, A W; Broda, M A; Frenn, M; Coviak, C; Pender, N J; Ronis, D L

    1995-08-01

    This study examined gender and developmental differences in exercise-related beliefs and exercise behaviors of 286 racially diverse youth and explored factors predictive of exercise. Compared to males, females reported less prior and current exercise, lower self-esteem, poorer health status, and lower exercise self-schema. Adolescents, in contrast to pre-adolescents, reported less social support for exercise and fewer exercise role models. In a path model, gender, the benefits/barriers differential, and access to exercise facilities and programs directly predicted exercise. Effects of grade, perceived health status, exercise self-efficacy, social support for exercise, and social norms for exercise on exercise behavior, were mediated through the benefits/barriers differential. Effect of race on exercise was mediated by access to exercise facilities and programs. Continued exploration of gender and developmental differences in variables influencing physical activity can yield valuable information for tailoring exercise promotion interventions to the unique needs of youth.

  7. Importance of sports during youth and exercise barriers in 20- to 29-year-old male nonathletes differently motivated for regular physical activities

    Leyk, Dieter; Witzki, Alexander; Sievert, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The number of sedentary young adults has dramatically increased in past decades, and sedentary lifestyles are adopted at an increasingly earlier age. Little is known about barriers or predictors to (re)initiate regular physical activity in this group. The purpose of the study is to (a) identify...... subgroups in nonathletes differing in their amenability to physical exercise, (b) to analyze them for differences in barriers and intention to exercise, and (c) compare importance of sports during youth in nonathletes to trained peers. Using a health and fitness questionnaire 589 nonathletes were queried.......5%), the other groups showed significantly more barriers and a broader distribution. Similar characteristics but minor differences were observed for perceived importance of sports during youth. The most significant differences between athletes and nonathletes emerged enquiring the attitude and activity...

  8. Importance of sports during youth and exercise barriers in 20- to 29-year-old male nonathletes differently motivated for regular physical activities.

    Leyk, Dieter; Witzki, Alexander; Sievert, Alexander; Rohde, Ulrich; Moedl, Anne; Rüther, Thomas; Löllgen, Herbert; Hackfort, Dieter

    2012-07-01

    The number of sedentary young adults has dramatically increased in past decades, and sedentary lifestyles are adopted at an increasingly earlier age. Little is known about barriers or predictors to (re)initiate regular physical activity in this group. The purpose of the study is to (a) identify subgroups in nonathletes differing in their amenability to physical exercise, (b) to analyze them for differences in barriers and intention to exercise, and (c) compare importance of sports during youth in nonathletes to trained peers. Using a health and fitness questionnaire 589 nonathletes were queried in the cross-sectional survey and compared with 270 trained peers. Athletic abstainers (A), lower (L), and higher (H) motivated nonathletes were separated based on previous engagement in sports. Of the nonathletes, 54.7% reported only 1 barrier to exercise. Although this feature was most prominent in H (71.5%), the other groups showed significantly more barriers and a broader distribution. Similar characteristics but minor differences were observed for perceived importance of sports during youth. The most significant differences between athletes and nonathletes emerged enquiring the attitude and activity of the parents. The majority of nonathletes (72.8%) indicate their intention to exercise in the future. Their intention differed significantly in H (88.1%), L (76.1%), and A (59.1%). However, there are good reasons to doubt that most of those intending nonathletes will actually become physically active. Even in the analyzed narrow age range of men different motivated groups of nonathletes were found. Because of the differences in receptiveness and approachability health promotion policies may not only consider the often recommended tailored interventions but also carefully designed incentive programs.

  9. Effects of powdered Montmorency tart cherry supplementation on an acute bout of intense lower body strength exercise in resistance trained males.

    Levers, Kyle; Dalton, Ryan; Galvan, Elfego; Goodenough, Chelsea; O'Connor, Abigail; Simbo, Sunday; Barringer, Nicholas; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U; Rasmussen, Christopher; Greenwood, Mike; Riechman, Steven; Crouse, Stephen; Kreider, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether short-term ingestion of a powdered tart cherry supplement prior to and following intense resistance-exercise attenuates muscle soreness and recovery strength loss, while reducing markers of muscle damage, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Twenty-three healthy, resistance-trained men (20.9 ± 2.6 yr, 14.2 ± 5.4% body fat, 63.9 ± 8.6 kg FFM) were matched based on relative maximal back squat strength, age, body weight, and fat free mass. Subjects were randomly assigned to ingest, in a double blind manner, capsules containing a placebo (P, n = 12) or powdered tart cherries [CherryPURE(®)] (TC, n = 11). Participants supplemented one time daily (480 mg/d) for 10-d including day of exercise up to 48-h post-exercise. Subjects performed ten sets of ten repetitions at 70% of a 1-RM back squat exercise. Fasting blood samples, isokinetic MVCs, and quadriceps muscle soreness ratings were taken pre-lift, 60-min, 24-h, and 48-h post-lift and analyzed by MANOVA with repeated measures. Muscle soreness perception in the vastus medialis (¼) (p = 0.10) and the vastus lateralis (¼) (p = 0.024) was lower in TC over time compared to P. Compared to pre-lift, TC vastus medialis (¼) soreness was significantly attenuated up to 48-h post-lift with vastus lateralis (¼) soreness significantly lower at 24-h post-lift compared to P. TC changes in serum creatinine (p = 0.03, delta p = 0.024) and total protein (p = 0.018, delta p = 0.006) were lower over time and smaller from pre-lift levels over time compared to P Significant TC group reductions from pre-lift levels were found for AST and creatinine 48-h post-lift, bilirubin and ALT 60-min and 48-h post-lift. No significant supplementation effects were observed for serum inflammatory or anti-inflammatory markers. None of the free radical production, lipid peroxidation, or antioxidant capacity markers (NT, TBARS, TAS, SOD) demonstrated significant changes with supplementation. Changes in TC

  10. Expected for acquisition movement exercise is more effective for functional recovery than simple exercise in a rat model of hemiplegia.

    Ikeda, Satoshi; Ohwatashi, Akihiko; Harada, Katsuhiro; Kamikawa, Yurie; Yoshida, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The use of novel rehabilitative approaches for effecting functional recovery following stroke is controversial. Effects of different but effective rehabilitative interventions in the hemiplegic patient are not clear. We studied the effects of different rehabilitative approaches on functional recovery in the rat photochecmical cerebral infarction model. Twenty-four male Wistar rats aged 8 weeks were used. The cranial bone was exposed under deep anesthesia. Rose bengal (20 mg/kg) was injected intravenously, and the sensorimotor area of the cerebral cortex was irradiated transcranially for 20 min with a light beam of 533-nm wavelength. Animals were divided into 3 groups. In the simple-exercise group, treadmill exercise was performed for 20 min every day. In the expected for acquisition movement-training group, beam-walking exercise was done for 20 min daily. The control group was left to recover without additional intervention. Hindlimb function was evaluated with the beam-walking test. Following cerebral infarction, dysfunction of the contralateral extremities was observed. Functional recovery was observed earlier in the expected for acquisition training group than in the other groups. Although rats in the treadmill group recovered more quickly than controls, the beam-walking group had the shortest overall recovery time. Exercise facilitated functional recovery in the rat hemiplegic model, and expected for acquisition exercise was more effective than simple exercise. These findings are considered to have important implications for the future development of clinical rehabilitation programs.

  11. Fat utilization during exercise

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W.; Richter, Erik

    2001-01-01

    1. This study was carried out to test the hypothesis that the greater fat oxidation observed during exercise after adaptation to a high-fat diet is due to an increased uptake of fat originating from the bloodstream. 2. Of 13 male untrained subjects, seven consumed a fat-rich diet (62 % fat, 21...... % carbohydrate) and six consumed a carbohydrate-rich diet (20 % fat, 65 % carbohydrate). After 7 weeks of training and diet, 60 min of bicycle exercise was performed at 68 +/- 1 % of maximum oxygen uptake. During exercise [1-(13)C]palmitate was infused, arterial and venous femoral blood samples were collected......, and blood flow was determined by the thermodilution technique. Muscle biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after exercise. 3. During exercise, the respiratory exchange ratio was significantly lower in subjects consuming the fat-rich diet (0.86 +/- 0.01, mean +/- S.E.M.) than...

  12. Prevention: Exercise

    Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...

  13. Prevention: Exercise

    Full Text Available ... Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy ...

  14. The impact of exercise performance dissatisfaction and physical exercise on symptoms of depression among college students: a gender comparison.

    Edman, Jeanne L; Lynch, Wesley C; Yates, Alayne

    2014-01-01

    Depression is a common psychological problem and females have been found to be at greater risk for this disorder than males. Although numerous studies have found that physical exercise is negatively associated with risk of depression, some studies suggest that negative exercise attitudes may increase the risk of depression. The present study used the survey method to examine the relationship between depressive symptoms, exercise performance dissatisfaction, body dissatisfaction, and physical exercise among a sample of 895 undergraduate university students. Females reported higher depression and exercise performance dissatisfaction scores than males; however, there were no gender differences in body dissatisfaction. Exercise performance dissatisfaction was positively associated with depression among both males and females. Physical exercise was negatively associated with depression among males, but not among females. The possibility of screening participants enrolled in exercise programs for performance dissatisfaction is discussed as negative exercise attitudes may diminish the positive impact of exercise on depressed mood.

  15. Pronounced effects of acute endurance exercise on gene expression in resting and exercising human skeletal muscle.

    Catoire, Milène; Mensink, Marco; Boekschoten, Mark V; Hangelbroek, Roland; Müller, Michael; Schrauwen, Patrick; Kersten, Sander

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity positively influences whole body energy metabolism and substrate handling in exercising muscle. While it is recognized that the effects of exercise extend beyond exercising muscle, it is unclear to what extent exercise impacts non-exercising muscles. Here we investigated the effects of an acute endurance exercise bouts on gene expression in exercising and non-exercising human muscle. To that end, 12 male subjects aged 44-56 performed one hour of one-legged cycling at 50% W(max). Muscle biopsies were taken from the exercising and non-exercising leg before and immediately after exercise and analyzed by microarray. One-legged cycling raised plasma lactate, free fatty acids, cortisol, noradrenalin, and adrenalin levels. Surprisingly, acute endurance exercise not only caused pronounced gene expression changes in exercising muscle but also in non-exercising muscle. In the exercising leg the three most highly induced genes were all part of the NR4A family. Remarkably, many genes induced in non-exercising muscle were PPAR targets or related to PPAR signalling, including PDK4, ANGPTL4 and SLC22A5. Pathway analysis confirmed this finding. In conclusion, our data indicate that acute endurance exercise elicits pronounced changes in gene expression in non-exercising muscle, which are likely mediated by changes in circulating factors such as free fatty acids. The study points to a major influence of exercise beyond the contracting muscle.

  16. Pronounced effects of acute endurance exercise on gene expression in resting and exercising human skeletal muscle.

    Milène Catoire

    Full Text Available Regular physical activity positively influences whole body energy metabolism and substrate handling in exercising muscle. While it is recognized that the effects of exercise extend beyond exercising muscle, it is unclear to what extent exercise impacts non-exercising muscles. Here we investigated the effects of an acute endurance exercise bouts on gene expression in exercising and non-exercising human muscle. To that end, 12 male subjects aged 44-56 performed one hour of one-legged cycling at 50% W(max. Muscle biopsies were taken from the exercising and non-exercising leg before and immediately after exercise and analyzed by microarray. One-legged cycling raised plasma lactate, free fatty acids, cortisol, noradrenalin, and adrenalin levels. Surprisingly, acute endurance exercise not only caused pronounced gene expression changes in exercising muscle but also in non-exercising muscle. In the exercising leg the three most highly induced genes were all part of the NR4A family. Remarkably, many genes induced in non-exercising muscle were PPAR targets or related to PPAR signalling, including PDK4, ANGPTL4 and SLC22A5. Pathway analysis confirmed this finding. In conclusion, our data indicate that acute endurance exercise elicits pronounced changes in gene expression in non-exercising muscle, which are likely mediated by changes in circulating factors such as free fatty acids. The study points to a major influence of exercise beyond the contracting muscle.

  17. High-threshold motor unit firing reflects force recovery following a bout of damaging eccentric exercise

    Macgregor, Lewis J.

    2018-01-01

    Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is associated with impaired muscle function and reduced neuromuscular recruitment. However, motor unit firing behaviour throughout the recovery period is unclear. EIMD impairment of maximal voluntary force (MVC) will, in part, be caused by reduced high-threshold motor unit firing, which will subsequently increase to recover MVC. Fourteen healthy active males completed a bout of eccentric exercise on the knee extensors, with measurements of MVC, rate of torque development and surface electromyography performed pre-exercise and 2, 3, 7 and 14 days post-exercise, on both damaged and control limb. EIMD was associated with decreased MVC (235.2 ± 49.3 Nm vs. 161.3 ± 52.5 Nm; p motor unit firing rate was reduced (16.4 ± 2.2 Hz vs. 12.6 ± 1.7 Hz; p motor units only, 48h post-exercise, and common drive was elevated (0.36 ± 0.027 vs. 0.56 ± 0.032; pmotor units was reduced in parallel with impaired muscle function, whilst early recruited motor units remained unaltered. Common drive of motor units increased in offset to the firing rate impairment. These alterations correlated with the recovery of force decrement, but not of pain elevation. This study provides fresh insight into the central mechanisms associated with EIMD recovery, relative to muscle function. These findings may in turn lead to development of novel management and preventative procedures. PMID:29630622

  18. Prevention: Exercise

    Full Text Available ... body. Pilates, yoga and martial arts all provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific core strengthening exercises are described below. ...

  19. Compulsive Exercise

    ... negative thinking and low self-esteem. Why Is Exercising Too Much a Bad Thing? We all know ... spent with friends. Warning Signs Someone may be exercising compulsively if he or she: won't skip ...

  20. Prevention: Exercise

    Full Text Available ... prescribe an exercise program that matches your abilities. Neck Press This is an isometric exercise to strengthen your neck. Press your palm against your forehead, then use ...

  1. Exercise Headaches

    ... headaches may require emergency medical attention. Symptoms Primary exercise headaches These headaches: Are usually described as throbbing ... sides of the head in most cases Secondary exercise headaches These headaches may cause: The same symptoms ...

  2. Prevention: Exercise

    Full Text Available ... programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific core strengthening exercises are described ... times... Abdominal Crunch Draw abdominal wall inward, exhale as you lift chest area. This can be done ...

  3. Prevention: Exercise

    Full Text Available ... provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific ... benefit from this exercise... Sagittal Core Strengthening You can stretch and strengthen the low back muscles that ...

  4. Prevention: Exercise

    Full Text Available ... Disc Replacement (ADR) Bone Graft Alternatives Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMP) Cervical Disc Replacement Cervical Laminoplasty Lumbar (Open) ... Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back ...

  5. Exercise Habit

    ... chunks of time. Exercise has so many health benefits that any amount is better than none. Try exercising for 10 minutes at a time throughout your ... second hand. Most people will get the greatest benefit and lower their risks if ... rate when exercising. To figure out your maximum heart rate, subtract ...

  6. Effects of 28 days of resistance exercise and consuming a commercially available pre-workout supplement, NO-Shotgun®, on body composition, muscle strength and mass, markers of satellite cell activation, and clinical safety markers in males

    Leutholtz Brian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose This study determined the effects of 28 days of heavy resistance exercise combined with the nutritional supplement, NO-Shotgun®, on body composition, muscle strength and mass, markers of satellite cell activation, and clinical safety markers. Methods Eighteen non-resistance-trained males participated in a resistance training program (3 × 10-RM 4 times/wk for 28 days while also ingesting 27 g/day of placebo (PL or NO-Shotgun® (NO 30 min prior to exercise. Data were analyzed with separate 2 × 2 ANOVA and t-tests (p Results Total body mass was increased in both groups (p = 0.001, but without any significant increases in total body water (p = 0.77. No significant changes occurred with fat mass (p = 0.62; however fat-free mass did increase with training (p = 0.001, and NO was significantly greater than PL (p = 0.001. Bench press strength for NO was significantly greater than PL (p = 0.003. Myofibrillar protein increased with training (p = 0.001, with NO being significantly greater than PL (p = 0.019. Serum IGF-1 (p = 0.046 and HGF (p = 0.06 were significantly increased with training and for NO HGF was greater than PL (p = 0.002. Muscle phosphorylated c-met was increased with training for both groups (p = 0.019. Total DNA was increased in both groups (p = 0.006, while NO was significantly greater than PL (p = 0.038. For DNA/protein, PL was decreased and NO was not changed (p = 0.014. All of the myogenic regulatory factors were increased with training; however, NO was shown to be significantly greater than PL for Myo-D (p = 0.008 and MRF-4 (p = 0.022. No significant differences were located for any of the whole blood and serum clinical chemistry markers (p > 0.05. Conclusion When combined with heavy resistance training for 28 days, NO-Shotgun® is not associated with any negative side effects, nor does it abnormally impact any of the clinical chemistry markers. Rather, NO-Shotgun® effectively increases muscle strength and mass

  7. Riesgo de adicción al ejercicio en triatletas hombres amateur varones y su relación con variables de entrenamiento. [Risk of exercise addiction among male amateur triathletes and its relationship with training variables].

    Pedro L. Valenzuela

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la creciente popularidad del triatlón a nivel amateur el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el potencial adictivo de este deporte, así como analizar si determinadas variables de entrenamiento podrían ser consideradas factores de riesgo. Atendiendo a la escala de dependencia al ejercicio revisada (Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised, EDS-R, 93 triatletas varones amateur (34.5 ± 9.4 años fueron divididos en no dependientes asintomáticos (NDA, 31.2%, no dependientes sintomáticos (NDS, 60.2% o en riesgo de dependencia (ERD, 8.6%. Se halló una correlación moderada entre el volumen de entrenamiento y la puntuación en la escala EDS-R, entrenando los sujetos ERD más horas y sesiones a la semana que los sujetos NDA. El porcentaje de sujetos clasificados como ERD era mayor según aumentaba la distancia de competición (0.0, 7.1 y 30.0 % de los triatletas de corta, media y larga distancia, respectivamente, siendo la puntuación en la EDS-R de los triatletas de larga distancia significativamente mayor que la de los de media y corta distancia. Estos resultados muestran el potencial adictivo del triatlón, en concreto en larga distancia, y resaltan la importancia del adecuado control psicológico en esta población. Abstract Due to the growing popularity of triathlon at an amateur level the aim of this study was to evaluate the addictive potential of this sport as well as to analyze if particular training variables could be considered as risk factors. Attending to the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised (EDS-R, 93 male amateur triathletes (34.5 ± 9.4 years old were classified as Non-Dependent Asymptomatic (NDA, 31.2%, Non-Dependent Symptomatic (NDS, 60.2% or At-Risk of Dependence (ARD, 8.6%. A moderate correlation between training volume and the EDS-R score was found, training ARD more hours and sessions per week than NDA. A greater percentage of subjects classified as ARD was found as race distance increased (0.0, 7.1 and 30.0 % for short

  8. Exercise addiction

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask

    2014-01-01

    Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications...... of exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short......-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels...

  9. Following Exhaustive Exercise in Male Rats

    reza Badalzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Long-term treatment of rats with cinnamon and regular training improved cardiac hemodynamic through an additive effect. The positive effects of cinnamon and regular training on cardiac function were associated with a reduced serum MDA level and an improved blood lipid profile.

  10. Exercise addiction.

    Landolfi, Emilio

    2013-02-01

    This article examines the nature of exercise addiction. It presents a broad, congruent and discerning narrative literature review with the aim of providing a deeper understanding of the condition 'exercise addiction', including symptoms and options for treatment. In addition, guidelines are provided with respect to 'healthy' levels of exercise. Criteria used for determining the eligibility of studies evaluated in the review included the provision of relevant information in studies identified using pertinent search terms. The review highlights some of the key distinctions between healthy levels of exercise and exercise addiction. The findings suggest that an individual who is addicted to exercise will continue exercising regardless of physical injury, personal inconvenience or disruption to other areas of life including marital strain, interference with work and lack of time for other activities. 'Addicted' exercisers are more likely to exercise for intrinsic rewards and experience disturbing deprivation sensations when unable to exercise. In contrast, 'committed' exercisers engage in physical activity for extrinsic rewards and do not suffer severe withdrawal symptoms when they cannot exercise. Exercisers must acquire a sense of life-balance while embracing an attitude conducive to sustainable long-term physical, psychological and social health outcomes. Implementation of recommendations by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, which states that all apparently healthy adults between 18 and 64 years of age should accumulate at least 150 minutes of moderate (5 or 6 on a scale of 0-10) to vigorous (7 or 8 on a scale of 0-10) intensity aerobic physical activity per week in bouts of 10 minutes or more, also expressed as 30 minutes per day distributed over 5 days per week, would be a good start.

  11. Exposing College Students to Exercise: The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) Study

    Sailors, Mary H.; Jackson, Andrew S.; McFarlin, Brian K.; Turpin, Ian; Ellis, Kenneth J.; Foreyt, John P.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Bray, Molly S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) study is an exercise program designed to introduce sedentary college students to regular physical activity and to identify genetic factors that influence response to exercise. Participants: A multiracial/ethnic cohort (N = 1,567; 39% male), age 18 to 35 years,…

  12. Determination of optimal whole body vibration amplitude and frequency parameters with plyometric exercise and its influence on closed-chain lower extremity acute power output and EMG activity in resistance trained males

    Hughes, Nikki J.

    The optimal combination of Whole body vibration (WBV) amplitude and frequency has not been established. Purpose. To determine optimal combination of WBV amplitude and frequency that will enhance acute mean and peak power (MP and PP) output EMG activity in the lower extremity muscles. Methods. Resistance trained males (n = 13) completed the following testing sessions: On day 1, power spectrum testing of bilateral leg press (BLP) movement was performed on the OMNI. Days 2 and 3 consisted of WBV testing with either average (5.8 mm) or high (9.8 mm) amplitude combined with either 0 (sham control), 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Hz frequency. Bipolar surface electrodes were placed on the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), bicep femoris (BF) and gastrocnemius (GA) muscles for EMG analysis. MP and PP output and EMG activity of the lower extremity were assessed pre-, post-WBV treatments and after sham-controls on the OMNI while participants performed one set of five repetitions of BLP at the optimal resistance determined on Day 1. Results. No significant differences were found between pre- and sham-control on MP and PP output and on EMG activity in RF, VL, BF and GA. Completely randomized one-way ANOVA with repeated measures demonstrated no significant interaction of WBV amplitude and frequency on MP and PP output and peak and mean EMGrms amplitude and EMG rms area under the curve. RF and VL EMGrms area under the curve significantly decreased (p plyometric exercise does not induce alterations in subsequent MP and PP output and EMGrms activity of the lower extremity. Future studies need to address the time of WBV exposure and magnitude of external loads that will maximize strength and/or power output.

  13. Male Body Practices.

    Lefkowich, Maya; Oliffe, John L; Hurd Clarke, Laura; Hannan-Leith, Madeline

    2017-03-01

    The pressure on boys and men to engage in extensive body practices (e.g., closely monitored eating and exercise habits) and achieve ideal male bodies has grown significantly over the past 20 years. Central to the depiction of ideal male bodies and body practices are both the pursuit and achievement of lean and well-defined muscles. The labels "pitches," "purchases," and "performativities" were inductively derived from the literature, and used to describe the multifaceted connections between masculinities, muscularity, and idealized male body practices. "Pitches" distil how popular culture posture norms of masculinity, and manly bodies and behaviors attainable and necessary. "Purchases" refer to men's diverse buy-in to dominant discourses about acceptable male bodies and practices. "Performativities" chronicle how men embody and navigate gender norms as they evaluate their own bodies, behaviors, and eating habits and those of their peers. Based on findings from the current scoping review, future research could benefit from fully linking masculinities with the drive for muscularity to address health and social risks associated with the pursuit of the idealized male body. In highlighting the plurality of masculinities and the complexity of men's diverse identities, health care providers can better reach and support men. Focusing on, and celebrating, a wider range of male bodies could help recenter dominant discourses about how and whose bodies and experiences are idealized. The current scoping review article offers an overview of how masculinities and muscularity have been linked to male body practices, and recommendations to advance this emergent field.

  14. Exercise Dependence

    Erdal Vardar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Exercise dependence define a condition in which a person performs excessive exercise resulting in deterioration of his or her physical and mental health wellness. Despite many clinical research studies on exercise dependence, exact diagnostic criteria has not been developed yet. Clinical evidences concerning etiology, epidemiology, underlying mechanisms and treatment of exercise dependence are still not sufficient. Moreover, evaluation of this clinical disorder within dependency perspective is a fairly new concept. Recent studies have shown that exercise dependence has similar features like chemical substance dependence with regards to withdrawal and tolerance symptoms. The aim of this review was to briefly evaluate diagnostic and clinical features of exercise dependence. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(3.000: 163-173

  15. Prevention: Exercise

    Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...

  16. Exercise effects on HRV in cancer patients.

    Niederer, D; Vogt, L; Thiel, C; Schmidt, K; Bernhörster, M; Lungwitz, A; Jäger, E; Banzer, W

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of physical exercise on heart rate variability (HRV) in cancer patients. 3 matched groups of each 15 tumour patients (60.4±8.9 years, 27 male, 18 female) were recruited: Physical exercise group 1 (acute treatment), Physical exercise group 2 (post treatment) and non-intervention group (acute treatment, no exercise). Exercise group patients received counselling for exercise and participated in a Nordic-Walking program. Short-term HRV-recordings, assessments of fatigue and quality of life (QoL) were performed prior to and 16 weeks after the exercise program initiation. MANCOVA revealed group × time differences in total power frequency domain of HRV and QoL (pHRV-parameters and prolonged survival in cancer patients, improvement in autonomic control may be an important goal of exercise. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. risk factors for hypertension among urban males in mombasa kenya ...

    risk factors for hypertension among urban males in mombasa kenya. ... A community based cross-sectional study was done in Mombasa Old Town area, whereby males ... The study unveiled that physical exercise had protective effect there by ...

  18. Psychological determinants of exercise behavior of nursing students.

    Chan, Joanne Chung-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Though expected to be role models in health promotion, research has shown that nursing students often have suboptimal exercise behavior. This study explored the psychological factors associated with the exercise behavior of nursing students. A total of 195 first-year undergraduate nursing students completed a cross-sectional quantitative survey questionnaire, which included measures of their exercise behavior, the Physical Exercise Self-efficacy Scale, and the Exercise Barriers/Benefits Scale. The results showed that male students spent more time exercising and had higher exercise self-efficacy compared with female students, but there were no gender differences in the perceived barriers to or benefits of exercise. Fatigue brought on by exercising was the greatest perceived barrier to exercise, whereas increasing physical fitness and mental health were the greatest perceived benefits of exercise. Multiple linear regression showed that gender, exercise self-efficacy, perceived barriers to exercise, and perceived benefits of exercise were independent predictors of exercise behavior. Nurse educators can endeavor to promote exercise behavior among nursing students by highlighting the specific benefits of exercise, empowering students to overcome their perceived barriers to exercise, and enhancing students' exercise self-efficacy.

  19. Exercise and Posture

    ... About Spondylitis › Treatment Information › Exercise & Posture Print Page Exercise Exercise is an integral part of any spondylitis ... For First Responders For Chiropractors Research Article Archive Exercise Guidelines Having an exercise program that accomplishes your ...

  20. Crew Exercise

    Rafalik, Kerrie K.

    2017-01-01

    Johnson Space Center (JSC) provides research, engineering, development, integration, and testing of hardware and software technologies for exercise systems applications in support of human spaceflight. This includes sustaining the current suite of on-orbit exercise devices by reducing maintenance, addressing obsolescence, and increasing reliability through creative engineering solutions. Advanced exercise systems technology development efforts focus on the sustainment of crew's physical condition beyond Low Earth Orbit for extended mission durations with significantly reduced mass, volume, and power consumption when compared to the ISS.

  1. Exercise KATRINE

    Clahane, Darren; Burgoyne, William

    1995-01-01

    Based on a hypothetical incident at the Scottish Nuclear Ltd Torness AGR nuclear power station, Exercise KATRINE was the 1994 national civil nuclear exercise and the biggest simulation of a nuclear accident to take place in Britain last year. The exercise, held on 17 and 18 November, was based on a series of postulated faults which resulted in an uncontrolled release of radioactivity. It commenced at 07.00 on Thursday and continued for about 33 hours, until around 15.30 on Friday. Activity focused on the Torness Off-site Centre (TOSC), in Cockenzie near Edinburgh, and the brand new Torness Media Briefing Centre (TMBC) located nearby. (author)

  2. High-threshold motor unit firing reflects force recovery following a bout of damaging eccentric exercise.

    Macgregor, Lewis J; Hunter, Angus M

    2018-01-01

    Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is associated with impaired muscle function and reduced neuromuscular recruitment. However, motor unit firing behaviour throughout the recovery period is unclear. EIMD impairment of maximal voluntary force (MVC) will, in part, be caused by reduced high-threshold motor unit firing, which will subsequently increase to recover MVC. Fourteen healthy active males completed a bout of eccentric exercise on the knee extensors, with measurements of MVC, rate of torque development and surface electromyography performed pre-exercise and 2, 3, 7 and 14 days post-exercise, on both damaged and control limb. EIMD was associated with decreased MVC (235.2 ± 49.3 Nm vs. 161.3 ± 52.5 Nm; p exercise. Mean motor unit firing rate was reduced (16.4 ± 2.2 Hz vs. 12.6 ± 1.7 Hz; p motor units only, 48h post-exercise, and common drive was elevated (0.36 ± 0.027 vs. 0.56 ± 0.032; pexercise. The firing rate of high-threshold motor units was reduced in parallel with impaired muscle function, whilst early recruited motor units remained unaltered. Common drive of motor units increased in offset to the firing rate impairment. These alterations correlated with the recovery of force decrement, but not of pain elevation. This study provides fresh insight into the central mechanisms associated with EIMD recovery, relative to muscle function. These findings may in turn lead to development of novel management and preventative procedures.

  3. Male Infertility

    ... hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands. Low testosterone (male hypogonadism) and other hormonal problems have a number of possible underlying causes. Defects of tubules that transport sperm. Many ... syndrome — in which a male is born with two X chromosomes and one ...

  4. Anaerobic exercise - Induced changes in serum mineral ...

    Anaerobic exercise, a non 02 – dependent energy metabolism leads to transient metabolic changes, which are corrected gradually by homestatic mechanism. We investigated in eight male subjects, the effects of anaerobic exercise after a day sedentary activity on serum mineral concentration. There was significant ...

  5. Prevention: Exercise

    Full Text Available ... support for your body. Pilates, yoga and martial arts all provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple ... use progressively heavier balls, you will experience more benefit from this exercise... Sagittal Core Strengthening You can ...

  6. Prevention: Exercise

    Full Text Available ... Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic ... Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain ...

  7. Intercomparison exercises

    Arunachalam, J.

    2007-01-01

    Intercomparison exercises are vital to many a national programmes. These are only tools available with the laboratories to prove their competence to an international audience and also for the accrediting agencies to assess a laboratory

  8. Compulsive exercise

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Hinze, Cecilie Juul; Emborg Jannsen, Bolette

    2017-01-01

    found that compulsive exercise is associated with eating disorder pathology, perfectionism, neuroticism, narcissism, and obsessive compulsive traits. The most prominent negative consequences were injuries, social impairment, and depression, but more research is needed to uncover the potential......Compulsive exercise is a condition described since 1970s. It is characterized by a craving for physical training, resulting in uncontrollable excessive exercise behavior with harmful consequences, such as injuries and impaired social relations. It has not been accepted as a mental disorder...... dysfunction resulting from compulsive exercise. As the condition is not recognized as a psychiatric disorder, studies on treatment interventions are sparse. Problems with compliance have been reported; therefore, motivational interviewing has been proposed as a treatment approach, in combination...

  9. Prevention: Exercise

    Full Text Available ... Physical Therapy Postural Training Traction Watchful Waiting and Education Injection Treatments for ... Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on core strengthening, or building the muscles that provide ...

  10. Prevention: Exercise

    Full Text Available ... following suggested exercises increases your back pain after five repetitions, or causes acute pain, you should stop ... 10 seconds working towards 30 seconds. Repeat 1-5 times or to fatigue... Prone Bridge/Plank Prop ...

  11. Prevention: Exercise

    Full Text Available ... Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! ... in a straight line. Hold for 10 seconds working towards 30 seconds. Repeat 1-5 times or ...

  12. Prevention: Exercise

    Full Text Available ... Chronic Low Back Pain SI Joint Pain Other Scoliosis Back Pain and Emotional Distress Muscle Spasms Pinched ... DC Directional Exercises Electrothermal Modalities Ergonomic Changes Hydrotherapy Manual Therapy Physical Therapy Postural Training Traction Watchful Waiting and ...

  13. Prevention: Exercise

    Full Text Available ... weights (hand-held or training machines) or using isometric techniques. Common household items (like small canned goods) ... matches your abilities. Neck Press This is an isometric exercise to strengthen your neck. Press your palm ...

  14. Prevention: Exercise

    Full Text Available ... 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility ... Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories ...

  15. Prevention: Exercise

    Full Text Available ... slow full movements. Repeat 10-15 times, to fatigue... Abdominal Exercise Lay on your back with both ... Return leg and extend other leg. Repeat to fatigue, about 10-15 repetitions at a slow and ...

  16. Prevention: Exercise

    Full Text Available ... 15 repetitions at a slow and controlled pace... Resistance Training Resistance training is exercise done against something providing resistance. It can be done with weights (hand-held ...

  17. Prevention: Exercise

    Full Text Available ... legs to touch the wall, keeping hips and knees bent. Use your hips to push your body ... Abdominal Exercise Lay on your back with both knees bent. Draw abdominal wall in. Maintaining abdominal wall ...

  18. Nordic hamstring exercise training alters knee joint kinematics and hamstring activation patterns in young men.

    Delahunt, Eamonn; McGroarty, Mark; De Vito, Giuseppe; Ditroilo, Massimiliano

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the kinematic and muscle activation adaptations during performance of the Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) to a 6-week eccentric hamstring training programme using the NHE as the sole mode of exercise. Twenty-nine healthy males were randomly allocated to a control (CG) or intervention (IG) group. The IG participated in a 6-week eccentric hamstring exercise programme using the NHE. The findings of the present study were that a 6-week eccentric hamstring training programme improved eccentric hamstring muscle strength (202.4 vs. 177.4 nm, p = 0.0002, Cohen's d = 0.97) and optimized kinematic (longer control of the forward fall component of the NHE, 68.1° vs. 73.7°, p = 0.022, Cohen's d = 0.90) and neuromuscular parameters (increased electromyographic activity of the hamstrings, 83.2 vs. 56.6 % and 92.0 vs. 54.2 %, p 1.25) associated with NHE performance. This study provides some insight into potential mechanisms by which an eccentric hamstring exercise programme utilizing the NHE as the mode of exercise may result in an improvement in hamstring muscle control during eccentric contractions.

  19. Glucose response to exercise in the post-prandial period is independent of exercise intensity.

    Shambrook, P; Kingsley, M I; Wundersitz, D W; Xanthos, P D; Wyckelsma, V L; Gordon, B A

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the acute glucose response to low-intensity, moderate-intensity, and high-intensity interval exercise compared to no-exercise in healthy insufficiently active males using a four-arm, randomized, crossover design. Ten males (age: 37.3 ± 7.3 years, BMI: 29.3 ± 6.5 kg·m -2 ) completed four 30-minute interventions at weekly intervals comprising low-intensity exercise (LIE) at ~35% V˙O 2 R, moderate-intensity exercise (MIE) at ~50% V˙O 2 R, high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) at ~80% V˙O 2 R, and a no-exercise control. Participants performed cycle ergometer exercise 30 minutes after finishing breakfast. Glucose response was assessed using a continuous glucose monitor under free-living conditions with dietary intake replicated. A significant effect for intensity on energy expenditure was identified (P exercise trial. Glucose response was not different between exercise intensities (P > .05). Twenty-four-hour AUC was not affected by exercise intensity (P = .75). There was a significant effect for exercise enjoyment (P = .02), with LIE (69 ± 4) preferred less than HIIE (mean ± SD: 84 ± 14; P = .02), MIE (73 ± 5; P = .03), and no-exercise (75 ± 4; P = .03). Exercise at any intensity 30 minutes after a meal affects glycemic regulation equally in insufficiently active males. Moderate to vigorous exercise intensities were preferred, and therefore, the exercise guidelines appear appropriate for the prevention of cardiometabolic disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Exercise increases circulating GDF15 in humans

    Kleinert, Maximilian; Clemmensen, Christoffer; Sjøberg, Kim Anker

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is a stress-sensitive circulating factor that regulates systemic energy balance. Since exercise is a transient physiological stress that has pleiotropic effects on whole-body energy metabolism, we herein explored the effect of exercise on a......) circulating GDF15 levels and b) GDF15 release from skeletal muscle in humans. METHODS: Seven healthy males either rested or exercised at 67% of their VO2max for 1 h and blood was sampled from the femoral artery and femoral vein before, during, and after exercise. Plasma GDF15 concentrations were determined...... in these samples. RESULTS: Plasma GDF15 levels increased 34% with exercise (p exercise. There was no difference between the arterial and venous GDF15 concentration before, during, and after exercise. During...

  1. Endurance exercise after orange ingestion anaphylaxis

    Manu Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endurance exercise after orange ingestion cause anaphylaxis which is food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA which is a form of exercise-induced anaphylaxis. In this article, an individual develops symptoms such as flushing, itching, urticaria, angioedema, and wheezing after eating a food allergen and proceeds to exercise. Neither the food alone nor exercise alone is sufficient to induce a reaction. This case report describes a 36-year-old asthmatic male athlete who experienced nausea, vomiting, flushing, urticaria, and facial swelling while exercising in a gymnasium after eating oranges. Neither oranges alone nor exercise alone induced the reaction. Total avoidance of suspected food allergens would be ideal. Persons with FDEIA should keep at hand an emergency kit with antihistamines, injectable rapid action corticoids, and adrenaline.

  2. Supine exercise during lower body negative pressure effectively simulates upright exercise in normal gravity

    Murthy, G.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Exercise within a lower body negative pressure (LBNP) chamber in supine posture was compared with similar exercise against Earth's gravity (without LBNP) in upright posture in nine healthy male volunteers. We measured footward force with a force plate, pressure in soleus and tibialis anterior muscles of the leg with transducer-tipped catheters, calf volume by strain gauge plethysmography, heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures during two conditions: 1) exercise in supine posture within an LBNP chamber during 100-mmHg LBNP (exercise-LBNP) and 2) exercise in upright posture against Earth's gravity without LBNP (exercise-1 G). Subjects exercised their ankle joints (dorsi- and plantarflexions) for 5 min during exercise-LBNP and for 5 min during exercise-1 G. Mean footward force produced during exercise-LBNP (743 +/- 37 N) was similar to that produced during exercise-1 G (701 +/- 24 N). Peak contraction pressure in the antigravity soleus muscle during exercise-LBNP (115 +/- 10 mmHg) was also similar to that during exercise-1 G (103 +/- 13 mmHg). Calf volume increased significantly by 3.3 +/- 0.5% during exercise-LBNP compared with baseline values. Calf volume did not increase significantly during exercise-1 G. Heart rate was significantly higher during exercise-LBNP (99 +/- 5 beats/min) than during exercise-1 G (81 +/- 3 beats/min). These results indicate that exercise in supine posture within an LBNP chamber can produce similar musculoskeletal stress in the legs and greater systemic cardiovascular stress than exercise in the upright posture against Earth's gravity.

  3. Sex differences in autonomic function following maximal exercise.

    Kappus, Rebecca M; Ranadive, Sushant M; Yan, Huimin; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Cook, Marc D; Sun, Peng; Harvey, I Shevon; Wilund, Kenneth R; Woods, Jeffrey A; Fernhall, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure variability, (BPV) and heart rate recovery (HRR) are measures that provide insight regarding autonomic function. Maximal exercise can affect autonomic function, and it is unknown if there are sex differences in autonomic recovery following exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine sex differences in several measures of autonomic function and the response following maximal exercise. Seventy-one (31 males and 40 females) healthy, nonsmoking, sedentary normotensive subjects between the ages of 18 and 35 underwent measurements of HRV and BPV at rest and following a maximal exercise bout. HRR was measured at minute one and two following maximal exercise. Males have significantly greater HRR following maximal exercise at both minute one and two; however, the significance between sexes was eliminated when controlling for VO2 peak. Males had significantly higher resting BPV-low-frequency (LF) values compared to females and did not significantly change following exercise, whereas females had significantly increased BPV-LF values following acute maximal exercise. Although males and females exhibited a significant decrease in both HRV-LF and HRV-high frequency (HF) with exercise, females had significantly higher HRV-HF values following exercise. Males had a significantly higher HRV-LF/HF ratio at rest; however, both males and females significantly increased their HRV-LF/HF ratio following exercise. Pre-menopausal females exhibit a cardioprotective autonomic profile compared to age-matched males due to lower resting sympathetic activity and faster vagal reactivation following maximal exercise. Acute maximal exercise is a sufficient autonomic stressor to demonstrate sex differences in the critical post-exercise recovery period.

  4. Male Hypogonadism

    ... the hormone that plays a key role in masculine growth and development during puberty — or has an ... Adulthood In adult males, hypogonadism may alter certain masculine physical characteristics and impair normal reproductive function. Signs ...

  5. Male Infertility

    ... to have a baby? If treatment doesn’t work, what are our other options? Resources National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, What Causes Male Infertility? Last Updated: May 30, 2017 This ...

  6. Male contraception.

    Amory, John K

    2016-11-01

    Although female contraceptives are very effective at preventing unintended pregnancy, some women can not use them because of health conditions or side-effects, leaving some couples without effective contraceptive options. In addition, many men wish to take active responsibility for family planning. Thus, there is a great need for male contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancies, of which 80-90 million occur annually. At present, effective male contraceptive options are condoms and vasectomy, which are not ideal for all men. Therefore, efforts are under way to develop novel male contraceptives. This paper briefly reviews the advantages and disadvantages of condoms and vasectomies and then discusses the research directed toward development of novel methods of male contraception. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Condoms - male

    Prophylactics; Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... your health care provider or pharmacy about emergency contraception ("morning-after pills"). PROBLEMS WITH CONDOM USE Some ...

  8. Male contraception

    Mathew, Vivek; Bantwal, Ganapathi

    2012-01-01

    Contraception is an accepted route for the control of population explosion in the world. Traditionally hormonal contraceptive methods have focused on women. Male contraception by means of hormonal and non hormonal methods is an attractive alternative. Hormonal methods of contraception using testosterone have shown good results. Non hormonal reversible methods of male contraception like reversible inhibition of sperm under guidanceare very promising. In this article we have reviewed the curren...

  9. Male sexuality.

    Ginsberg, Terrie B

    2010-05-01

    It should be recognized that sexuality in the aging male is of such import that a complete sexual history must be performed. By taking a complete sexual history, facts can be obtained that will allow for appropriate focus relating to a holistic evaluation and will enable us to dispel antiquated sexual myths pertaining to the aging male. If initiated by the history taker, questions concerning sexuality may be discussed more comfortably by the patient. Erectile dysfunction, male sexual response cycle, testosterone, sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, long-term illness, along with religion and culture are explored in this article with the aim of improving one's knowledge base, self reflection, and awareness of the importance of male sexuality. A complete understanding and appreciation of the aging male's medical history, surgical history, social history, and emotional history as well as his sexual, cultural, and religious concepts will allow the health care provider to better analyze information, and to recommend and provide appropriate advice and treatment to the aging male patient. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 355-nm hypersensitization of optical fibers

    Canagasabey, A.; Canning, J.; Groothoff, N.

    2003-01-01

    A study is presented on 355-nm hypersensitization of optical fibers. It is found that the intrinsic 244-nm photosensitivity of boron-codoped germanosilicate optical fibers is enhanced by 355-nm hypersensitization. Hypersensitization through standard polymer coating is also demonstrated.

  11. Sport and male sexuality.

    Sgrò, P; Di Luigi, L

    2017-09-01

    The relationships between sport and sexuality in males are of great social and clinical interest, because of sports and motor activities that highly promote social and sexual relationships. Even if few literature exist, two main questions should be taken into account: whether and how physical exercise and sport positively or negatively influence sexual health and behavior and/or whether and how sexual behavior may affect a sub-sequent sport performance. Physical exercise and sport per se can influence, positively or negatively, the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis function and, consequently, the individual's reproductive and/or sexual health. This depends on individual factors such as genetic and epigenetic ones and on different variables involved in the practice of sport activities (type of sport, intensity and duration of training, doping and drug use and abuse, nutrition, supplements, psychological stress, allostatic load, etc.). If well conducted, motor and sport activities could have beneficial effects on sexual health in males. Among different lifestyle changes, influencing sexual health, regular physical activity is fundamental to antagonize the onset of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, competitive sport can lead both reproductive and/or sexual tract damages and dysfunctions, transient (genital pain, hypoesthesia of the genitalia, hypogonadism, DE, altered sexual drive, etc.) or permanent (hypogonadism, DE, etc.), by acting directly (traumas of the external genitalia, saddle-related disorders in cyclists, etc.) or indirectly (exercise-related hypogonadism, drug abuse, doping, stress, etc.). Sexual activities shortly performed before a sport competition could differently influence sport performance. Due to the few existing data, it is advisable to avoid an absolute pre-competition sexual abstinence.

  12. Exercise motivation: a cross-sectional analysis examining its relationships with frequency, intensity, and duration of exercise

    Wilson Philip M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is important to engage in regular physical activity in order to maintain a healthy lifestyle however a large portion of the population is insufficiently active. Understanding how different types of motivation contribute to exercise behavior is an important first step in identifying ways to increase exercise among individuals. The current study employs self-determination theory as a framework from which to examine how motivation contributes to various characteristics of exercise behavior. Methods Regular exercisers (N = 1079; n = 468 males; n = 612 females completed inventories which assessed the frequency, intensity, and duration with which they exercise, as well as the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire including four additional items assessing integrated regulation. Results Bivariate correlations revealed that all three behavioral indices (frequency, intensity, and duration of exercise were more highly correlated with more autonomous than controlling regulations. Regression analyses revealed that integrated and identified regulations predicted exercise frequency for males and females. Integrated regulation was found to be the only predictor of exercise duration across both genders. Finally, introjected regulation predicted exercise intensity for females only. Conclusions These findings suggest that exercise regulations that vary in their degree of internalization can differentially predict characteristics of exercise behavior. Furthermore, in the motivational profile of a regular exerciser, integrated regulation appears to be an important determinant of exercise behavior. These results highlight the importance of assessing integrated regulation in exercise settings where the goal of understanding motivated behavior has important health implications.

  13. Achilles tendon of wistar rats treated with laser therapy and eccentric exercise

    Maria Verônica de Souza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:Both laser therapy and eccentric exercises are used in tendon injuries. However, the association of these physiotherapeutic modalities is yet little investigated.Objective:To evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy associated to eccentric exercise (downhill walking on Achilles tendinopathy of Wistar rats.Method:Eighteen Achilles tendon from 15 adult male Wistar rats were used. Tendons were distributed in six groups (laser, eccentric exercise, laser and eccentric exercise, rest, contralateral tendon, and healthy tendon. Unilateral tendinopathy was surgically induced by transversal compression followed by scarification of tendon fibers. The treatments laser therapy (904 nm, 3J/cm² and/or eccentric exercise (downhill walking; 12 m/min; 50 min/day; 15o inclination treadmill began 24 hours after surgery and remained for 20 days. Clinical and biomechanical analyzes were conducted. Achilles tendon was macroscopically evaluated and the transversal diameter measured. Euthanasia was performed 21 days after lesion induction. Tendons of both limbs were collected and frozen at -20°C until biomechanical analysis, on which the characteristic of maximum load (N, stress at ultimate (MPa and maximum extension (mm were analyzed.Results:Swelling was observed within 72 hours postoperative. No fibrous adhesions were observed nor increase in transversal diameter of tendons. Animals with the exercised tendons, but not treated with laser therapy, presented lower (p=0.0000 locomotor capacity. No difference occurred be-tween groups for the biomechanical characteristics maximum load (p=0.4379, stress at ultimate (p=0.4605 and maximum extension (p=0.3820 evaluated, even considering healthy and contralateral tendons.Conclusion:The concomitant use of low-level laser and the eccentric exercise of downhill walking, starting 24 hours after surgically induced tendinopathy, do not result in a tendon with the same biomechanical resistance or elasticity

  14. Effects of a Short-Term High-Nitrate Diet on Exercise Performance

    Simone Porcelli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that nitrate supplementation can improve exercise performance. Most of the studies have used either beetroot juice or sodium nitrate as a supplement; there is lack of data on the potential ergogenic benefits of an increased dietary nitrate intake from a diet based on fruits and vegetables. Our aim was to assess whether a high-nitrate diet increases nitric oxide bioavailability and to evaluate the effects of this nutritional intervention on exercise performance. Seven healthy male subjects participated in a randomized cross-over study. They were tested before and after 6 days of a high (HND or control (CD nitrate diet (~8.2 mmol∙day−1 or ~2.9 mmol∙day−1, respectively. Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations were significantly higher in HND (127 ± 64 µM and 350 ± 120 nM, respectively compared to CD (23 ± 10 µM and 240 ± 100 nM, respectively. In HND (vs. CD were observed: (a a significant reduction of oxygen consumption during moderate-intensity constant work-rate cycling exercise (1.178 ± 0.141 vs. 1.269 ± 0.136 L·min−1; (b a significantly higher total muscle work during fatiguing, intermittent sub-maximal isometric knee extension (357.3 ± 176.1 vs. 253.6 ± 149.0 Nm·s·kg−1; (c an improved performance in Repeated Sprint Ability test. These findings suggest that a high-nitrate diet could be a feasible and effective strategy to improve exercise performance.

  15. Male baldness.

    Clarke, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Male baldness is very common. Its effect on individuals is extremely variable, and in some people it will have a significant adverse effect on their quality of life. The objectives of this article are to help general practitioners (GPs) be aware of potential health problems related to male baldness, to have an approach to assessing hair loss and to be aware of treatment options. Male baldness is, most often, a normal occurrence, but it may have significant effects on a man's health. It may also be a pointer to other potential health issues. The GP is in the ideal position to conduct an initial evaluation, consider other health issues and advise on treatment options.

  16. Repeated Bout Effect Was More Expressed in Young Adult Males Than in Elderly Males and Boys

    Giedrius Gorianovas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated possible differences using the same stretch-shortening exercise (SSE protocol on generally accepted monitoring markers (dependent variables: changes in creatine kinase, muscle soreness, and voluntary and electrically evoked torque in males across three lifespan stages (childhood versus adulthood versus old age. The protocol consisted of 100 intermittent (30 s interval between jumps drop jumps to determine the repeated bout effect (RBE (first and second bouts performed at a 2-week interval. The results showed that indirect symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage after SSE were more expressed in adult males than in boys and elderly males, suggesting that the muscles of boys and elderly males are more resistant to exercise-induced damage than those of adult males. RBE was more pronounced in adult males than in boys and elderly males, suggesting that the muscles of boys and elderly males are less adaptive to exercise-induced muscle damage than those of adult males.

  17. Exercise at Home

    ... Home Health Insights Exercise & Weight Exercise at Home Exercise at Home Make an Appointment Ask a Question ... with the movement and contact your provider. Posture Exercises Better posture means better breathing and movement. Axial ...

  18. Prevention: Exercise

    Full Text Available ... abdominal wall inward, exhale as you lift chest area. This can be done with quick short movements, or slow full movements. Repeat 10-15 times, to fatigue... Abdominal Exercise Lay on your back with both knees ... © 2018 North ...

  19. Prevention: Exercise

    Full Text Available ... 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic ... Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back ... Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories ...

  20. Evacuation exercise

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2094367

    2017-01-01

    In the event of an emergency, it is important that staff and visitors are evacuated safely and efficiently. Hence CERN organises regularly emergency response and evacuation exercise (also known as an ‘evacuation drill’) in different buildings across the sites.

  1. Compulsive Exercise

    ... compulsive habit when it is done for the wrong reasons. Some people start exercising with weight loss as their main ... developing normally. This is especially true if the person also has an eating disorder. Girls who overexercise and restrict their eating ...

  2. Prevention: Exercise

    Full Text Available ... Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 for Spine Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Prevention ...

  3. Why Exercise?

    ... strength, boosts energy, and can help you reduce stress. It can also help you maintain a healthy body weight and curb ... well-being and help treat depression. Help relieve stress and anxiety. Increase ... Can anyone exercise? Everyone can benefit from physical activity. ...

  4. Prevention: Exercise

    Full Text Available ... Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine ... Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on core strengthening, or building the muscles that provide support for your body. Pilates, yoga ...

  5. Exercise-trained men and women: role of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake.

    Howe, Stephanie M; Hand, Taryn M; Manore, Melinda M

    2014-11-10

    The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex) and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals.

  6. Exercise-Trained Men and Women: Role of Exercise and Diet on Appetite and Energy Intake

    Howe, Stephanie M.; Hand, Taryn M.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex) and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals. PMID:25389897

  7. Exercise Hypertension.

    Schultz, Martin G; Sharman, James E

    2014-05-01

    Irrespective of apparent 'normal' resting blood pressure (BP), some individuals may experience an excessive elevation in BP with exercise (i.e. systolic BP ≥210 mm Hg in men or ≥190 mm Hg in women or diastolic BP ≥110 mm Hg in men or women), a condition termed exercise hypertension or a 'hypertensive response to exercise' (HRE). An HRE is a relatively common condition that is identified during standard exercise stress testing; however, due to a lack of information with respect to the clinical ramifications of an HRE, little value is usually placed on such a finding. In this review, we discuss both the clinical importance and underlying physiological contributors of exercise hypertension. Indeed, an HRE is associated with an increased propensity for target organ damage and also predicts the future development of hypertension, cardiovascular events and mortality, independent of resting BP. Moreover, recent work has highlighted that some of the elevated cardiovascular risks associated with an HRE may be related to high-normal resting BP (pre-hypertension) or ambulatory 'masked' hypertension and that an HRE may be an early warning signal of abnormal BP control that is otherwise undetected with clinic BP. Whilst an HRE may be amenable to treatment via pharmacological and lifestyle interventions, the exact physiological mechanism of an HRE remains elusive, but it is likely a manifestation of multiple factors including large artery stiffness, increased peripheral resistance, neural circulatory control and metabolic irregularity. Future research focus may be directed towards determining threshold values to denote the increased risk associated with an HRE and further resolution of the underlying physiological factors involved in the pathogenesis of an HRE.

  8. Cardiac output during exercise

    Siebenmann, C; Rasmussen, P.; Sørensen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Several techniques assessing cardiac output (Q) during exercise are available. The extent to which the measurements obtained from each respective technique compares to one another, however, is unclear. We quantified Q simultaneously using four methods: the Fick method with blood obtained from...... the right atrium (Q(Fick-M)), Innocor (inert gas rebreathing; Q(Inn)), Physioflow (impedance cardiography; Q(Phys)), and Nexfin (pulse contour analysis; Q(Pulse)) in 12 male subjects during incremental cycling exercise to exhaustion in normoxia and hypoxia (FiO2  = 12%). While all four methods reported...... a progressive increase in Q with exercise intensity, the slopes of the Q/oxygen uptake (VO2) relationship differed by up to 50% between methods in both normoxia [4.9 ± 0.3, 3.9 ± 0.2, 6.0 ± 0.4, 4.8 ± 0.2 L/min per L/min (mean ± SE) for Q(Fick-M), Q(Inn), QP hys and Q(Pulse), respectively; P = 0...

  9. Astragalus membranaceus Improves Exercise Performance and Ameliorates Exercise-Induced Fatigue in Trained Mice

    Tzu-Shao Yeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus membranaceus (AM is a popular “Qi-tonifying” herb with a long history of use as a Traditional Chinese Medicine with multiple biological functions. However, evidence for the effects of AM on exercise performance and physical fatigue is limited. We evaluated the potential beneficial effects of AM on ergogenic and anti-fatigue functions following physiological challenge. Male ICR strain mice were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10 per group for treatment: (1 sedentary control and vehicle treatment (vehicle control; (2 exercise training with vehicle treatment (exercise control; and (3 exercise training with AM treatment at 0.615 g/kg/day (Ex-AM1 or (4 3.075 g/kg/day (Ex-AM5. Both the vehicle and AM were orally administered for 6 weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after 15-min swimming exercise. Exercise training combined with AM supplementation increased endurance exercise capacity and increased hepatic and muscle glycogen content. AM reduced exercise-induced accumulation of the byproducts blood lactate and ammonia with acute exercise challenge. Moreover, we found no deleterious effects from AM treatment. Therefore, AM supplementation improved exercise performance and had anti-fatigue effects in mice. It may be an effective ergogenic aid in exercise training.

  10. Advances in 750 nm VECSELs (Conference Presentation)

    Saarinen, Esa J.; Ranta, Sanna; Lyytikäinen, Jari; Saarela, Antti; Sirbu, Alexei; Iakovlev, Vladimir; Kapon, Eli; Guina, Mircea

    2017-03-01

    Lasers operating in the transmission window of tissue at wavelengths between 700 and 800 nm are needed in numerous medical and biomedical applications, including photodynamic therapy and fluorescence microscopy. However, the performance of diode lasers in this spectral range is limited by the lack of appropriate compound semiconductors. Here, we review our recent research on 750 nm VECSELs. Two approaches to reaching the 750 nm wavelength will be discussed. The first approach relies on intra-cavity frequency doubling a wafer-fused 1500 nm VECSEL. The VECSEL gain chip comprises a GaAs-based DBR and an InP-based gain section, which allows for optical pumping with low-cost commercial diodes at 980 nm. With this scheme we have achieved watt-level output powers and tuning of the laser wavelength over a 40 nm band at around 750 nm. The second approach is direct emission at 750 nm using the AlGaAs/GaAs material system. In this approach visible wavelengths are required for optical pumping. However, the consequent higher costs compared to pumping at 980 nm are mitigated by the more compact laser setup and prospects of doubling the frequency to the ultraviolet range.

  11. Hypersensitisation using 266nm Laser Light

    Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Canning, John; Kristensen, Martin

    UV-hypersensitisation using 266nm VW-light on hydrogenated Ge-doped fibre is reported. The optimum fluence to be between 5 to 10 kJ/cm2, coinciding with results obtained using 355nm light, indicating same end-process in both reactions.......UV-hypersensitisation using 266nm VW-light on hydrogenated Ge-doped fibre is reported. The optimum fluence to be between 5 to 10 kJ/cm2, coinciding with results obtained using 355nm light, indicating same end-process in both reactions....

  12. Dust Explosion Characteristics of Agglomerated 35 nm and 100 nm Aluminum Particles

    Hong-Chun Wu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the experiment, nanoparticles of 35 nm Al and 100 nm Al powders, respectively, formed particles with average sizes of 161 nm and 167 nm in agglomeration. The characteristics of dust cloud explosions with the two powder sizes, 35 nm and 100 nm, revealed considerable differences, as shown here: (dp/dtmax-35 nm = 1254 bar/s, (dp/dtmax-100 nm = 1105 bar/s; Pmax-35 nm = 7.5 bar, Pmax-100 nm = 12.3 bar, and MEC-35 nm = 40 g/m3, MEC-100 nm = 50 g/m3. The reason of Pmax-35 nm value is smaller than Pmax-100 nm may be due to agglomeration. From an analysis of the explosive residue, the study found that nanoparticles of 35 nm Al powder became filamentous strands after an explosion, where most of 100 nm Al nanoparticles maintained a spherical structure, This may be because the initial melting temperature of 35 nm Al is 435.71°C, while that for 100 nm Al is 523.58°C, higher by 87.87°C. This study discovered that explosive property between the 35 nm Al and 100 nm Al powders after agglomeration were different.

  13. Eccentric exercise

    Kjaer, Michael; Heinemeier, Katja Maria

    2014-01-01

    to differences in type and/or amount of mechanical stimulus with regard to expression of collagen, regulatory factors for collagen, and cross-link regulators. In overused (tendinopathic) human tendon, eccentric exercise training has a beneficial effect, but the mechanism by which this is elicited is unknown......Eccentric exercise can influence tendon mechanical properties and matrix protein synthesis. mRNA for collagen and regulatory factors thereof are upregulated in animal tendons, independent of muscular contraction type, supporting the view that tendon, compared with skeletal muscle, is less sensitive......, and slow concentric loading appears to have similar beneficial effects. It may be that tendinopathic regions, as long as they are subjected to a certain magnitude of load at a slow speed, independent of whether this is eccentric or concentric in nature, can reestablish their normal tendon fibril alignment...

  14. 308-nm excimer laser for the treatment of alopecia areata.

    Al-Mutairi, Nawaf

    2007-12-01

    Alopecia areata is loss of hair from localized or diffuse areas of hair-bearing area of the skin. Recently there are reports of efficacy of the 308-nm excimer radiation for this condition. To study the effect of the 308-nm excimer laser in the treatment of alopecia areata. Eighteen patients with 42 recalcitrant patches (including 1 adult with alopecia totalis) were enrolled in this study. The lesions were treated with the 308-nm excimer laser twice a week for a period of 12 weeks; one lesion on each patient was left as a control for comparison. There were 7 males and 11 females in this study. Regrowth of hair was observed in 17 (41.5%) patches. Thirteen of the 18 lesions in scalp showed a complete regrowth of hair. The extremity regions failed to show a response. Atopic diatheses had an unfavorable effect on the outcome in our patients. The 308-nm excimer laser is an effective therapeutic option for patchy alopecia areata of the scalp and for some cases with patchy alopecia areata of the beard area. It does not work for patchy alopecia areata of the extremities.

  15. Effects of light emitting diode (LED) therapy and cold water immersion therapy on exercise-induced muscle damage in rats.

    Camargo, Mariana Zingari; Siqueira, Cláudia Patrícia Cardoso Martins; Preti, Maria Carla Perozim; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; de Lima, Franciele Mendes; Dias, Ivan Frederico Lupiano; Toginho Filho, Dari de Oliveira; Ramos, Solange de Paula

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the effects of LED therapy at 940 nm or cold water immersion therapy (CWI) after an acute bout of exercise on markers of muscle damage and inflammation. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were allocated into four groups: animals kept at rest (control), exercised animals (E), exercised + CWI (CWI), and exercised + LED therapy (LED). The animals swam for 100 min, after which blood samples were collected for lactate analysis. Animals in the E group were returned to their cages without treatment, the CWI group was placed in cold water (10°C) for 10 min and the LED group received LED irradiation on both gastrocnemius muscles (4 J/cm(2) each). After 24 h, the animals were killed and the soleus muscles were submitted to histological analysis. Blood samples were used for hematological and CK analyses. The results demonstrated that the LED group presented fewer areas of muscle damage and inflammatory cell infiltration and lower levels of CK activity than the E group. Fewer areas of damaged muscle fiber were observed in the LED group than in CWI. CWI and LED did not reduce edema areas. Hematological analysis showed no significant effect of either treatment on leukocyte counts. The results suggest that LED therapy is more efficient than CWI in preventing muscle damage and local inflammation after exercise.

  16. The effects of elevated pain inhibition on endurance exercise performance

    Andrew Flood

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The ergogenic effects of analgesic substances suggest that pain perception is an important regulator of work-rate during fatiguing exercise. Recent research has shown that endogenous inhibitory responses, which act to attenuate nociceptive input and reduce perceived pain, can be increased following transcranial direct current stimulation of the hand motor cortex. Using high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS; 2 mA, 20 min, the current study aimed to examine the effects of elevated pain inhibitory capacity on endurance exercise performance. It was hypothesised that HD-tDCS would enhance the efficiency of the endogenous pain inhibitory response and improve endurance exercise performance. Methods Twelve healthy males between 18 and 40 years of age (M = 24.42 ± 3.85 were recruited for participation. Endogenous pain inhibitory capacity and exercise performance were assessed before and after both active and sham (placebo stimulation. The conditioned pain modulation protocol was used for the measurement of pain inhibition. Exercise performance assessment consisted of both maximal voluntary contraction (MVC and submaximal muscular endurance performance trials using isometric contractions of the non-dominant leg extensors. Results Active HD-tDCS (pre-tDCS, −.32 ± 1.33 kg; post-tDCS, −1.23 ± 1.21 kg significantly increased pain inhibitory responses relative to the effects of sham HD-tDCS (pre-tDCS, −.91 ± .92 kg; post-tDCS, −.26 ± .92 kg; p = .046. Irrespective of condition, peak MVC force and muscular endurance was reduced from pre- to post-stimulation. HD-tDCS did not significantly influence this reduction in maximal force (active: pre-tDCS, 264.89 ± 66.87 Nm; post-tDCS, 236.33 ± 66.51 Nm; sham: pre-tDCS, 249.25 ± 88.56 Nm; post-tDCS, 239.63 ± 67.53 Nm or muscular endurance (active: pre-tDCS, 104.65 ± 42.36 s; post-tDCS, 93.07 ± 33.73 s; sham: pre-tDCS, 123.42 ± 72.48 s; post

  17. Laser hypersensitisation using 266nm light

    Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Canning, J.; Kristensen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    UV hypersensitisation using CW 266 nm light on hydrogenated Ge-doped fibre is reported. The optimum sensitisation fluence is found to be in the range of 5 to 10 kJ/cm2, coinciding with previous results obtained using 355 nm light, indicating the same end-process used in the photochemical reaction...

  18. INFLUENCE OF SUBJECTIVE EXERCISE EXPERIENCE ON RECREATIONAL EXERCISING

    Dražen Čular

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of physical activity on psychological health and well-being have been intrigued topic for many researches (McAuley & Courneya, 1994. Also, the positive subjective experience lies in the basis of every successful recreational activity and training. However, the influence of different types of activities and their gender specifics regarding self-reported well-being have not yet been investigated. The aims of this study were: (1 to analyse gender differences before and after physical activity in “Subjective Exercise Experience Scale“(SEES in group of subjects involved in aesthetic and non-aesthetic recreational physical activities and (2 to determine differences between subjects involved in aesthetic and non-aesthetic recreational physical activities before and after the activity for female and male group separately. The SEES was used to assess psychological responses to exercise among female (N=32 and male (N=83 recreational athletes. The 12 items of SEES represented three-aspects of exercise experience: Positive Well-Being, Psychological Distress and Fatigue. The results showed significant gender differences only in non-aesthetic group before and after physical activity in Psychological Distress subscale. Female students (Mean=4.8 had lower values of Psychological Distress than Male students (Mean=6.9. Furthermore, female aesthetic group (Mean=24.4 had significantly higher values in Positive Well-Being subscale after physical activity than female nonaesthetic group (Mean=18.8, while male aesthetic group had significantly higher values in Positive Well-Being subscale before and after physical activity than male non-aesthetic group. It is possible to conclude that aesthetic activities have positive effect on both female and male sample. It is possible that music increased emotionally experienced activity and contributed to better physical well being especially among female recreational athletes.

  19. Capillary Condensation in 8 nm Deep Channels.

    Zhong, Junjie; Riordon, Jason; Zandavi, Seyed Hadi; Xu, Yi; Persad, Aaron H; Mostowfi, Farshid; Sinton, David

    2018-02-01

    Condensation on the nanoscale is essential to understand many natural and synthetic systems relevant to water, air, and energy. Despite its importance, the underlying physics of condensation initiation and propagation remain largely unknown at sub-10 nm, mainly due to the challenges of controlling and probing such small systems. Here we study the condensation of n-propane down to 8 nm confinement in a nanofluidic system, distinct from previous studies at ∼100 nm. The condensation initiates significantly earlier in the 8 nm channels, and it initiates from the entrance, in contrast to channels just 10 times larger. The condensate propagation is observed to be governed by two liquid-vapor interfaces with an interplay between film and bridging effects. We model the experimental results using classical theories and find good agreement, demonstrating that this 8 nm nonpolar fluid system can be treated as a continuum from a thermodynamic perspective, despite having only 10-20 molecular layers.

  20. The influence of exercising rams on the lambing performance of a ...

    obtained in body mass between the exercised and non-exercised rams. ... Several aspects of male fertility, viz. testis size, mating behaviour, libido ... no differences in the feeding status existed due to a possible difference in .... output in cattle.

  1. Accuracy of physical self-description among chronic exercisers and non-exercisers

    Joseph M. Berning

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study addressed the role of chronic exercise to enhance physical self-description as measured by self-estimated percent body fat. Accuracy of physical self-description was determined in normal-weight, regularly exercising and non-exercising males with similar body mass index (BMI’s and females with similar BMI’s (n=42 males and 45 females of which 23 males and 23 females met criteria to be considered chronic exercisers. Statistical analyses were conducted to determine the degree of agreement between self-estimated percent body fat and actual laboratory measurements (hydrostatic weighing. Three statistical techniques were employed: Pearson correlation coefficients, Bland and Altman plots, and regression analysis. Agreement between measured and self-estimated percent body fat was superior for males and females who exercised chronically, compared to non-exercisers. The clinical implications are as follows. Satisfaction with one’s body can be influenced by several factors, including self-perceived body composition. Dissatisfaction can contribute to maladaptive and destructive weight management behaviors. The present study suggests that regular exercise provides a basis for more positive weight management behaviors by enhancing the accuracy of self-assessed body composition.

  2. Studies on nanosecond 532nm and 355nm and ultrafast 515nm and 532nm laser cutting super-hard materials

    Zhang, Jie; Tao, Sha; Wang, Brian; Zhao, Jay

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, micro-processing of three kinds of super-hard materials of poly-crystal diamond (PCD)/tungsten-carbide (WC), CVD-diamond and cubic boron nitride (CNB) has been systematically studied using nanosecond laser (532nm and 355nm), and ultrafast laser (532nm and 515nm). Our purpose is to investigate a full laser micro-cutting solution to achieve a ready-to-use cutting tool insert (CTI). The results show a clean cut with little burns and recasting at edge. The cutting speed of 2-10mm/min depending on thickness was obtained. The laser ablation process was also studied by varying laser parameters (wavelength, pulse width, pulse energy, repetition rate) and tool path to improve cutting speed. Also, studies on material removal efficiency (MRE) of PCD/WC with 355nm-ns and 515nm-fs laser as a function of laser fluence show that 355nm-ns laser is able to achieve higher MRE for PCD and WC. Thus, ultrafast laser is not necessarily used for superhard material cutting. Instead, post-polishing with ultrafast laser can be used to clean cutting surface and improve smoothness.

  3. Maladaptive perfectionism as mediator among psychological control, eating disorders, and exercise dependence symptoms in habitual exerciser.

    Costa, Sebastiano; Hausenblas, Heather A; Oliva, Patrizia; Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Larcan, Rosalba

    2016-03-01

    Background and aims The current study examined the mediating role of maladaptive perfectionism among parental psychological control, eating disorder symptoms, and exercise dependence symptoms by gender in habitual exercisers. Methods Participants were 348 Italian exercisers (n = 178 men and n = 170 women; M age = 20.57, SD = 1.13) who completed self-report questionnaires assessing their parental psychological control, maladaptive perfectionism, eating disorder symptoms, and exercise dependence symptoms. Results Results of the present study confirmed the mediating role of maladaptive perfectionism for eating disorder and exercise dependence symptoms for the male and female exercisers in the maternal data. In the paternal data, maladaptive perfectionism mediated the relationships between paternal psychological control and eating disorder and exercise dependence symptoms as full mediator for female participants and as partial mediator for male participants. Discussion Findings of the present study suggest that it may be beneficial to consider dimensions of maladaptive perfectionism and parental psychological control when studying eating disorder and exercise dependence symptoms in habitual exerciser.

  4. 308nm Excimer Laser in Dermatology

    Mehraban, Shadi

    2014-01-01

    308nm xenon-chloride excimer laser, a novel mode of phototherapy, is an ultraviolet B radiation system consisting of a noble gas and halide. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the literature and summarize all the experiments, clinical trials and case reports on 308-nm excimer laser in dermatological disorders. 308-nm excimer laser has currently a verified efficacy in treating skin conditions such as vitiligo, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, alopecia areata, allergic rhinitis, folliculitis, granuloma annulare, lichen planus, mycosis fungoides, palmoplantar pustulosis, pityriasis alba, CD30+ lympho proliferative disorder, leukoderma, prurigo nodularis, localized scleroderma and genital lichen sclerosus. Although the 308-nm excimer laser appears to act as a promising treatment modality in dermatology, further large-scale studies should be undertaken in order to fully affirm its safety profile considering the potential risk, however minimal, of malignancy, it may impose. PMID:25606333

  5. PM Raman fiber laser at 1679 nm

    Svane, Ask Sebastian; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a PM Raman fiber laser emitting light at 1679 nm. The laser has an slope efficiency of 67 % and an output power of more than 275mWwith a 27 pm linewidth.......We demonstrate a PM Raman fiber laser emitting light at 1679 nm. The laser has an slope efficiency of 67 % and an output power of more than 275mWwith a 27 pm linewidth....

  6. 130-nm tunable grating-mirror VCSEL

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    configuration instead of the extended cavity configuration can bring 130-nm tuning range around 1330-nm wavelength. The air-coupled cavity is known to reduce the quantum confinement factor in VCSELs, increasing threshold. In our air-coupled cavity HCG VCSEL case, the very short power penetration length...... in the HCG minimizes this reduction of the quantum confinement factor, not as significant as in the air-coupled cavity DBR VCSEL....

  7. Exercise and immunity

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007165.htm Exercise and immunity To use the sharing features on ... take a daily walk or follow a simple exercise routine a few times a week. Exercise helps ...

  8. The effect of 12-week Pilates exercises on wellness in the elderly.

    Roh, Su Yeon

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the efficiency of 12-week Pilates exercises on wellness in the elderly. Before Pilates exercises training, the 88 elderly (63 females, 25 males) were given and completed a Wellness Scale. Then, the elderly participated in Pilates exercises and completed the same scale afterwards. Results of paired t-test showed that participants in 12-week Pilates exercises experienced significant improvement in physical (t=2.762, PPilates exercises helped improve wellness of the elderly.

  9. Effect of aerobic exercise intervention on DDT degradation and oxidative stress in rats

    Li, Kefeng; Zhu, Xiaohua; Wang, Yuzhan; Zheng, Shuqian; Dong, Guijun

    2017-01-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) reportedly causes extensively acute or chronic effects to human health. Exercise can generate positive stress. We evaluated the effect of aerobic exercise on DDT degradation and oxidative stress. Main methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into control (C), DDT without exercise training (D), and DDT plus exercise training (DE) groups. The rats were treated as follows: DDT exposure to D and DE groups at the first 2 weeks; aerobic exercise trea...

  10. Exercise excess pressure and exercise-induced albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Climie, Rachel E D; Srikanth, Velandai; Keith, Laura J; Davies, Justin E; Sharman, James E

    2015-05-01

    Exercise-induced albuminuria is common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in response to maximal exercise, but the response to light-moderate exercise is unclear. Patients with T2DM have abnormal central hemodynamics and greater propensity for exercise hypertension. This study sought to determine the relationship between light-moderate exercise central hemodynamics (including aortic reservoir and excess pressure) and exercise-induced albuminuria. Thirty-nine T2DM (62 ± 9 yr; 49% male) and 39 nondiabetic controls (53 ± 9 yr; 51% male) were examined at rest and during 20 min of light-moderate cycle exercise (30 W; 50 revolutions/min). Albuminuria was assessed by the albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) at rest and 30 min postexercise. Hemodynamics recorded included brachial and central blood pressure (BP), aortic stiffness, augmented pressure (AP), aortic reservoir pressure, and excess pressure integral (Pexcess). There was no difference in ACR between groups before exercise (P > 0.05). Exercise induced a significant rise in ACR in T2DM but not controls (1.73 ± 1.43 vs. 0.53 ± 1.0 mg/mol, P = 0.002). All central hemodynamic variables were significantly higher during exercise in T2DM (i.e., Pexcess, systolic BP and AP; P exercise Pexcess was associated with postexercise ACR (r = 0.51, P = 0.002), and this relationship was independent of age, sex, body mass index, heart rate, aortic stiffness, antihypertensive medication, and ambulatory daytime systolic BP (β = 0.003, P = 0.003). Light-moderate exercise induced a significant rise in ACR in T2DM, and this was independently associated with Pexcess, a potential marker of vascular dysfunction. These novel findings suggest that Pexcess could be important for appropriate renal function in T2DM. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Exercise addiction in CrossFit: Prevalence and psychometric properties of the Exercise Addiction Inventory.

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Jensen, Tanja Tang

    2016-06-01

    CrossFit is a mix of aerobic and anaerobic exercise regimes with the stated goal of improving fitness and physical performance. It is growing in popularity and has a strong community known to motivate and push the participants to maximal performance. The negative consequences of these extreme exercise patterns have rarely been described. The prevalence of injuries in CrossFit is high but exercise addiction and harmful exercise attitudes have not yet been assessed. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of exercise addiction in CrossFit and to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI) in a CrossFit population. We invited crossfitters to participate in an online survey using Facebook groups. A total of 603 regular crossfitters completed the EAI and additional questions concerning exercise amounts and negative exercise attitudes and beliefs. We used principal component analyses and structural equation models to test the psychometric properties of the EAI and to describe the characteristics of the addicted crossfitters. We found that 5% of the crossfitters were addicted to exercise and that young males had a higher risk. The EAI had good internal reliability (0.73) and construct validity. Thus we found significant positive associations between exercise addiction and the tendency to exercise in spite of injury, feelings of guilt when unable to exercise, passion turning into obsession and taking medication to be able to exercise. Exercise addiction is prevalent in CrossFit and needs further exploration. The EAI is recommended for research in CrossFit communities and applied settings.

  12. Exacerbation of Brain Injury by Post-Stroke Exercise Is Contingent Upon Exercise Initiation Timing

    Fengwu Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that post-stroke physical rehabilitation may reduce morbidity. The effectiveness of post-stroke exercise, however, appears to be contingent upon exercise initiation. This study assessed the hypothesis that very early exercise exacerbates brain injury, induces reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, and promotes energy failure. A total of 230 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery (MCA occlusion for 2 h, and randomized into eight groups, including two sham injury control groups, three non-exercise and three exercise groups. Exercise was initiated after 6 h, 24 h and 3 days of reperfusion. Twenty-four hours after completion of exercise (and at corresponding time points in non-exercise controls, infarct volumes and apoptotic cell death were examined. Early brain oxidative metabolism was quantified by examining ROS, ATP and NADH levels 0.5 h after completion of exercise. Furthermore, protein expressions of angiogenic growth factors were measured in order to determine whether post-stroke angiogenesis played a role in rehabilitation. As expected, ischemic stroke resulted in brain infarction, apoptotic cell death and ROS generation, and diminished NADH and ATP production. Infarct volumes and apoptotic cell death were enhanced (p < 0.05 by exercise that was initiated after 6 h of reperfusion, but decreased by late exercise (24 h, 3 days. This exacerbated brain injury at 6 h was associated with increased ROS levels (p < 0.05, and decreased (p < 0.05 NADH and ATP levels. In conclusion, very early exercise aggravated brain damage, and early exercise-induced energy failure with ROS generation may underlie the exacerbation of brain injury. These results shed light on the manner in which exercise initiation timing may affect post-stroke rehabilitation.

  13. A twin-sibling study on the relationship between exercise attitudes and exercise behavior.

    Huppertz, Charlotte; Bartels, Meike; Jansen, Iris E; Boomsma, Dorret I; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Moor, Marleen H M; de Geus, Eco J C

    2014-01-01

    Social cognitive models of health behavior propose that individual differences in leisure time exercise behavior are influenced by the attitudes towards exercise. At the same time, large scale twin-family studies show a significant influence of genetic factors on regular exercise behavior. This twin-sibling study aimed to unite these findings by demonstrating that exercise attitudes can be heritable themselves. Secondly, the genetic and environmental cross-trait correlations and the monozygotic (MZ) twin intrapair differences model were used to test whether the association between exercise attitudes and exercise behavior can be causal. Survey data were obtained from 5,095 twins and siblings (18-50 years). A genetic contribution was found for exercise behavior (50 % in males, 43 % in females) and for the six exercise attitude components derived from principal component analysis: perceived benefits (21, 27 %), lack of skills, support and/or resources (45, 48 %), time constraints (25, 30 %), lack of energy (34, 44 %), lack of enjoyment (47, 44 %), and embarrassment (42, 49 %). These components were predictive of leisure time exercise behavior (R(2) = 28 %). Bivariate modeling further showed that all the genetic (0.36 exercise attitudes and exercise behavior were significantly different from zero, which is a necessary condition for the existence of a causal effect driving the association. The correlations between the MZ twins' difference scores were in line with this finding. It is concluded that exercise attitudes and exercise behavior are heritable, that attitudes and behavior are partly correlated through pleiotropic genetic effects, but that the data are compatible with a causal association between exercise attitudes and behavior.

  14. Exercise Equipment: Neutral Buoyancy

    Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.

  15. Decreased muscle oxygenation and increased arterial blood flow in the non-exercising limb during leg exercise.

    Shiroishi, Kiyoshi; Kime, Ryotaro; Osada, Takuya; Murase, Norio; Shimomura, Kousuke; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated arterial blood flow, muscle tissue oxygenation and muscle metabolism in the non-exercising limb during leg cycling exercise. Ten healthy male volunteers performed a graded leg cycling exercise at 0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 watts (W) for 5 min each. Tissue oxygenation index (TOI) of the non-exercising left forearm muscle was measured using a near-infrared spatially resolved spectroscopy (NIR(SRS)), and non-exercising forearm blood flow ((NONEX)FBF) in the brachial artery was also evaluated by a Doppler ultrasound system. We also determined O(2) consumption of the non-exercising forearm muscle (NONEXV(O)(2mus)) by the rate of decrease in O(2)Hb during arterial occlusion at each work rate. TOI was significantly decreased at 160 W (p exercising muscle may be reduced, even though (NONEX)FBF increases at high work rates during leg cycling exercise.

  16. Investigation of Exercise Self - Efficacy and Stage of Exercise Behavior Change in University Students

    Celal ORAL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to investigate self - efficacy and stage of exercise behavior change in students who were studying in school of physical education and sport (PES and students who were studying in other faculty and departments (OFD in Akdeniz University and to evaluate their sport participation habits. Par ticipants were 360 students who were studying in Akdeniz University. Stage of Exercise Behavior Change Questionnaire and Exercise Self - Efficacy Questionnaire were applied to the participants in classroom environment. Results: Results of statistical analyse s revealed that , 27.5 % of men and 19.2% of women were in preparation stage of exercise behavior. There were no significant differences between genders ( p>.05. According to the result of exercise self - efficacy analyses, there were no significant differen ces between male and female students ( p>.05. When examining exercise self - efficacy in student studying different department, there were significant differences between the PES and OFD students (p<.05. Discussion and According to the results o f present study, it was conclude that there were no significant gender differences in both exercise self - efficacy and stage of exercise behavior change. It was found that, PES students had significantly higher score in exercise self - efficacy and in highe r stage of exercise behavior than OFD students.

  17. Can exercise mimetics substitute for exercise?

    Richter, Erik; Kiens, Bente; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    Exercise leads to changes in muscle phenotype with important implications for exercise performance and health. A recent paper in Cell by Narkar et al. (2008) shows that many of the adaptations in muscle phenotype elicited by exercise can be mimicked by genetic manipulation and drug treatment...

  18. Does chronic smoking affect induced-exercise catecholamine release?

    Gökhan İpekoğlu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the acute effect of the submaximal aerobic exercise upon epinephrine and nor-epinephrine levels in chronic smokers and non-smoker.  The study was carried out upon 10 regular (15> cigarettes/day smoker untrained male along five years and 10 never smoker untrained male. Subjects performed an endurance exercise that continues 40 minutes at 70% maximal heart rate. There were 15cc venous blood samples extracted from the forearm pre-exercise (PRE, post-exercise (POST, post-exercise 2 hours (2h, post-exercise 24 hours (24h to measure of epinephrine and nor-epinephrine levels. The plasma level of each hormone increased after exercise and the tendency of rise was similar between groups as it seen in which 55,6% and 54,68% for epinephrine and 27,1% and 35,7% for norepinephrine. In this respect no group-time relationship has been found (p>0,05.  But in between-group analyses, basal and after exercise levels were different (p<0,05. The study revealed the fact that, smokers have higher plasma levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine before and after exercise. The results demonstrate that long-term smoking induces elevate baseline and post-aerobic submaximal exercise plasma epinephrine and nor-epinephrine levels.  The sympatho-adrenal activity appears to be disrupt with long-term smoking which effect the glycolytic and fat metabolism during exercise.

  19. Links Among Eating Disorder Characteristics, Exercise Patterns, and Psychological Attributes in College Students

    Bonnie J. Brehm

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined associations among eating disorder characteristics, excessive exercise, and selected psychological attributes in college students (N = 499. Male and female participants were recruited from university psychology courses and administered the Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire (OEQ, Mental Health Inventory, Eating Self-Efficacy Scale, Revised Restraint Scale, and Eating Disorder Inventory. Results confirmed the multidimensionality of excessive exercise for both males and females. Profiles of male and female exercisers were developed based on the clustering of scores on the OEQ’s factor analytically derived subscales. Specific qualitative aspects of exercise (e.g., emotionality and obsession, rather than the quantity of exercise, were found to be associated with eating disorder traits and, for some groups, psychological distress (PD. For other groups, such as female excessive exercisers, exercise seems to act as a coping mechanism, thereby lessening PD and enhancing well-being.

  20. Concordant lipoprotein and weight responses to dietary fat changein identical twins with divergent exercise levels

    Williams, Paul T.; Blanche, Patricia J.; Rawlings, Robin; Krauss, Ronald M.

    2004-06-01

    Background/Objective: The purpose of this study is to testthe extent that individual lipoprotein responses to diet can beattributed to genes in the presence of divergent exercise levels.Design:Twenty-eight pairs of male monozygotic twins (one mostly sedentary, theother running an average of 50 km/week more than the sedentary twin) wentfrom a 6-week 40 percent fat diet to a 6-week 20 percent fat diet in acrossover design. The diets reduced fat primarily by reducing saturatedand polyunsaturated fat (both from 14 percent to 4 percent), whileincreasing carbohydrate intake from 45 percent to 65 percent. Results:Despite the twins' differences in physical activity, the dietarymanipulation produced significantly correlated changes (P<0.05) in thetwin's total cholesterol (r=0.56), low-density lipoprotein(LDL)-cholesterol (r=0.70), large, buoyant LDL (Sf7-12, r=0.52), apo A-I(r=0.49), Lp(a) (r=0.49), electrophoresis measurements of LDL-I (LDLsbetween 26 and 28.5 nm diameter, r=0.48), LDL-IIB (25.2-24.6 nm, r=0.54),LDL-IV (22-24.1 nm, r=0.50), and body weights (r=0.41). Replacing fatswith carbohydrates significantly decreased the size and ultracentrifugeflotation rate of the major LDL, the LDL mass concentrations of Sf7-12,LDL-I, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and apo A-I, andsignificantly increased LDL-IIIA (24.7-25.5 nm diameter) and Lp(a).Conclusions: Even in the presence of extreme exercise difference, genessignificantly affect changes in LDL, apo A-I, Lp(a) and body weight whendietary fats are replaced with carbohydrates.

  1. Radiation Failures in Intel 14nm Microprocessors

    Bossev, Dobrin P.; Duncan, Adam R.; Gadlage, Matthew J.; Roach, Austin H.; Kay, Matthew J.; Szabo, Carl; Berger, Tammy J.; York, Darin A.; Williams, Aaron; LaBel, K.; hide

    2016-01-01

    In this study the 14 nm Intel Broadwell 5th generation core series 5005U-i3 and 5200U-i5 was mounted on Dell Inspiron laptops, MSI Cubi and Gigabyte Brix barebones and tested with Windows 8 and CentOS7 at idle. Heavy-ion-induced hard- and catastrophic failures do not appear to be related to the Intel 14nm Tri-Gate FinFET process. They originate from a small (9 m 140 m) area on the 32nm planar PCH die (not the CPU) as initially speculated. The hard failures seem to be due to a SEE but the exact physical mechanism has yet to be identified. Some possibilities include latch-ups, charge ion trapping or implantation, ion channels, or a combination of those (in biased conditions). The mechanism of the catastrophic failures seems related to the presence of electric power (1.05V core voltage). The 1064 nm laser mimics ionization radiation and induces soft- and hard failures as a direct result of electron-hole pair production, not heat. The 14nm FinFET processes continue to look promising for space radiation environments.

  2. Diode laser (980nm) cartilage reshaping

    El Kharbotly, A.; El Tayeb, T.; Mostafa, Y.; Hesham, I.

    2011-03-01

    Loss of facial or ear cartilage due to trauma or surgery is a major challenge to the otolaryngologists and plastic surgeons as the complicated geometric contours are difficult to be animated. Diode laser (980 nm) has been proven effective in reshaping and maintaining the new geometric shape achieved by laser. This study focused on determining the optimum laser parameters needed for cartilage reshaping with a controlled water cooling system. Harvested animal cartilages were angulated with different degrees and irradiated with different diode laser powers (980nm, 4x8mm spot size). The cartilage specimens were maintained in a deformation angle for two hours after irradiation then released for another two hours. They were serially measured and photographed. High-power Diode laser irradiation with water cooling is a cheep and effective method for reshaping the cartilage needed for reconstruction of difficult situations in otorhinolaryngologic surgery. Key words: cartilage,diode laser (980nm), reshaping.

  3. Investigation the exercise dependence symptoms among dancers

    Özhan Bavlı

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the exercise addiction symptoms among dancers. Material and Methods: Totally 99 dancers (48 female and 51 male minimum 2 years licensed in dance (Folk dance, Modern dance, Latin dance participated in to the study voluntary. Demographic survey and Exercise Dependence Scale-21 which was developed by Hausenblas HA. and Downs DS. (2002 and adapted in to Turkish by Yeltepe H. and Ikizler H.C. (2007 used to collect data. Kruskal-Wallis test in SPSS was used to analyze data. Results: Analysis showed that %20.4 of participants was asymptomatic, %69.4 of was symptomatic and %10.2 was exercise addiction. Besides it is found that dancers had University level education majority (%80.6. Symptomatic (%48.1 and addicts (%8.1 were Folk dancers mostly. Symptomatic had statistically higher exercise age than asymptomatic and addicts had statistically higher daily exercise duration than the others were found. Conclusion: According to findings It is possible to say that; the high frequency of daily exercise and the high exercise age can be effective to appear the exercise dependence among dancers.

  4. Exercise increases circulating GDF15 in humans

    Maximilian Kleinert

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15 is a stress-sensitive circulating factor that regulates systemic energy balance. Since exercise is a transient physiological stress that has pleiotropic effects on whole-body energy metabolism, we herein explored the effect of exercise on a circulating GDF15 levels and b GDF15 release from skeletal muscle in humans. Methods: Seven healthy males either rested or exercised at 67% of their VO2max for 1 h and blood was sampled from the femoral artery and femoral vein before, during, and after exercise. Plasma GDF15 concentrations were determined in these samples. Results: Plasma GDF15 levels increased 34% with exercise (p < 0.001 and further increased to 64% above resting values at 120 min (p < 0.001 after the cessation of exercise. There was no difference between the arterial and venous GDF15 concentration before, during, and after exercise. During a resting control trial, GDF15 levels measured in the same subjects were unaltered. Conclusions: Vigorous submaximal exercise increases circulating GDF15 levels in humans, but skeletal muscle tissue does not appear to be the source. Keywords: Skeletal muscle, Growth differentiation factor 15, Recovery, Physical activity

  5. MPCV Exercise Operational Volume Analysis

    Godfrey, A.; Humphreys, B.; Funk, J.; Perusek, G.; Lewandowski, B. E.

    2017-01-01

    In order to minimize the loss of bone and muscle mass during spaceflight, the Multi-purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will include an exercise device and enough free space within the cabin for astronauts to use the device effectively. The NASA Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) has been tasked with using computational modeling to aid in determining whether or not the available operational volume is sufficient for in-flight exercise.Motion capture data was acquired using a 12-camera Smart DX system (BTS Bioengineering, Brooklyn, NY), while exercisers performed 9 resistive exercises without volume restrictions in a 1g environment. Data were collected from two male subjects, one being in the 99th percentile of height and the other in the 50th percentile of height, using between 25 and 60 motion capture markers. Motion capture data was also recorded as a third subject, also near the 50th percentile in height, performed aerobic rowing during a parabolic flight. A motion capture system and algorithms developed previously and presented at last years HRP-IWS were utilized to collect and process the data from the parabolic flight [1]. These motions were applied to a scaled version of a biomechanical model within the biomechanical modeling software OpenSim [2], and the volume sweeps of the motions were visually assessed against an imported CAD model of the operational volume. Further numerical analysis was performed using Matlab (Mathworks, Natick, MA) and the OpenSim API. This analysis determined the location of every marker in space over the duration of the exercise motion, and the distance of each marker to the nearest surface of the volume. Containment of the exercise motions within the operational volume was determined on a per-exercise and per-subject basis. The orientation of the exerciser and the angle of the footplate were two important factors upon which containment was dependent. Regions where the exercise motion exceeds the bounds of the operational volume have been

  6. Liquid Carbon Reflectivity at 19 nm

    Riccardo Mincigrucci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We hereby report on a pump-probe reflectivity experiment conducted on amorphous carbon, using a 780 nm laser as a pump and a 19 nm FEL emission as probe. Measurements were performed at 50 degrees with respect to the surface normal to have an un-pumped reflectivity higher than 0.5%. A sub-10 fs time synchronization error could be obtained exploiting the nearly jitter-free capabilities of FERMI. EUV FEL-based experiments open the way to study the behaviour of a liquid carbon phase being unaffected by plasma screening.

  7. Design of an 1800nm Raman amplifier

    Svane, Ask Sebastian; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    We present the experimental results for a Raman amplifier that operates at 1810 nm and is pumped by a Raman fiber laser at 1680 nm. Both the pump laser and the Raman amplifier is polarization maintaining. A challenge when scaling Raman amplifiers to longer wavelengths is the increase...... in transmission loss, but also the reduction in the Raman gain coefficient as the amplifier wavelength is increased. Both polarization components of the Raman gain is characterized, initially for linearly co-polarized signal and pump, subsequently linearly polarized orthogonal signal and pump. The noise...

  8. Super ACO FEL oscillation at 300 nm

    Nutarelli, D; Renault, E; Nahon, L; Couprie, Marie Emmanuelle

    2000-01-01

    Some recent improvements, involving both the optical cavity mirrors and the positron beam dynamics in the storage ring, have allowed us to achieve a laser oscillation at 300 nm on the Super ACO Storage Ring FEL. The Super ACO storage ring is operated at 800 MeV which is the nominal energy for the usual synchrotron radiation users, and the highest energy for a storage ring FEL. The lasing at 300 nm could be kept during 2 h per injection, with a stored current ranging between 30 and 60 mA. The FEL characteristics are presented here. The longitudinal stability and the FEL optics behaviour are also discussed.

  9. Effects of Exercise on Hemorheological Parameters of Young Nigerian Smokers

    AWODU, Omolade Augustina; FAMODU, Ademola Adekunle

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Regular physical exercise is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, the hypothesis that acute submaximal exercise has similar effects on rheological parameters of smokers and non-smokers was tested. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three male university undergraduates comprised of 18 smokers and 15 non-smokers were studied. All the subjects underwent submaximal exercise on cycloergometer for 30 minutes. Blood for hemorheological parameters was collected 30...

  10. Estimation of aerobic fitness among young men without exercise test

    Tanskanen Minna M.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: to develop and estimate the validity of non-exercise methods to predict VO2max among young male conscripts entering military service in order to divide them into the different physical training groups.

  11. Impact of aerobic exercises on selected inflammatory markers and ...

    aerobic exercise training on the immunologic parameters and inflammatory cytokines of patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) .... nificant differences in weight, height, body mass index ..... phosphatase 5a in obese Chinese male adolescents.

  12. Effect of exercise intensity on exercise and post exercise energy ...

    The aim of this study was to determine if exercise and post exercise energy expenditure are affected by the intensity of exercise during a set distance of 4km walking and/or jogging. Subjects for this study were 12 moderately obese females with mean fat percentage of 31.7±6.3% and mean age of 38.2±4.6 years. For the low ...

  13. Emergency exercise scenario tools

    Sjoeblom, K.

    1998-03-01

    Nuclear power plant emergency exercises require a realistically presented accident situation which includes various aspects: plant process, radioactivity, radiation, weather and people. Experiences from nuclear power plant emergency exercises show that preparing accident scenarios even for relatively short exercises is tedious. In the future modern computer technology and past experience could be used for making exercise planning more effective. (au)

  14. Exercise and Fatigue

    Ament, Wim; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.

    2009-01-01

    Physical exercise affects the equilibrium of the internal environment. During exercise the contracting muscles generate force or power and heat. So physical exercise is in fact a form of mechanical energy. This generated energy will deplete the energy stocks within the body. During exercise,

  15. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Exercise-Induced Asthma KidsHealth / For Parents / Exercise-Induced Asthma What's in ... Exercise-Induced Asthma Print What Is Exercise-Induced Asthma? Most kids and teens with asthma have symptoms ...

  16. The Effects of Regular Exercise on the Physical Fitness Levels

    Kirandi, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present research is investigating the effects of regular exercise on the physical fitness levels among sedentary individuals. The total of 65 sedentary male individuals between the ages of 19-45, who had never exercises regularly in their lives, participated in the present research. Of these participants, 35 wanted to be…

  17. Ammonia uptake in inactive muscles during exercise in humans

    Bangsbo, Jens; Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik

    1996-01-01

    The present study examined NH3 (ammonia and ammonium) uptake in resting leg muscle. Six male subjects performed intermittent arm exercise at various intensities in two separate 32-min periods (part I and part II) and in one subsequent 20-min period in which one-legged exercise was also performed ...

  18. Organic antireflective coatings for 193-nm lithography

    Trefonas, Peter, III; Blacksmith, Robert F.; Szmanda, Charles R.; Kavanagh, Robert J.; Adams, Timothy G.; Taylor, Gary N.; Coley, Suzanne; Pohlers, Gerd

    1999-06-01

    Organic anti-reflective coatings (ARCs) continue to play an important role in semiconductor manufacturing. These materials provide a convenient means of greatly reducing the resist photospeed swing and reflective notching. In this paper, we describe a novel class of ARC materials optimized for lithographic applications using 193 nm exposure tools. These ARCs are based upon polymers containing hydroxyl-alkyl methacrylate monomers for crosslinkable sites, styrene for a chromophore at 193 nm, and additional alkyl-methacrylate monomers as property modifiers. A glycouril crosslinker and a thermally-activated acidic catalyst provide a route to forming an impervious crosslinked film activate data high bake temperatures. ARC compositions can be adjusted to optimize the film's real and imaginary refractive indices. Selection of optimal target indices for 193 nm lithographic processing through simulations is described. Potential chromophores for 193 nm were explored using ZNDO modeling. We show how these theoretical studies were combined with material selection criteria to yield a versatile organic anti-reflectant film, Shipley 193 G0 ARC. Lithographic process data indicates the materials is capable of supporting high resolution patterning, with the line features displaying a sharp resist/ARC interface with low line edge roughness. The resist Eo swing is successfully reduced from 43 percent to 6 percent.

  19. The Effects of Electrostimulation and Core Exercises on Recovery After High-Intensity Exercise

    Ahmet Mor; Gökhan İpekoğlu; Cansel Arslanoglu; Kursat Acar; Erkal Arslanoglu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction and objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of electrostimulation and core exercises on recovery after high-intensity exercise. Methods: The participants of this study consists of 12 male bodybuilders who regularly train and between the ages 18-30. Tabata high intensity interval training (HIIT) was applied with different recovery methods to the athletes on three different days and the recovery levels of athletes were analysed. Heart rate and blood lacta...

  20. Muscle metabolism during graded quadriceps exercise in man

    Helge, Jørn W; Stallknecht, Bente; Galbo, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    , oxidation of plasma free fatty acids increases and accordingly oxidation of other fat sources decreases. These findings are in contrast to whole body measurements performed during graded exercise involving a large muscle mass during which fat oxidation peaks at around 60% of .......The aim of the study was to examine local muscle metabolism in response to graded exercise when the involved muscle mass is too small to elicit marked hormonal changes and local blood flow restriction. Nine healthy overnight fasted male subjects performed knee extension exercise with both thighs...... intensity. In conclusion, in the presence of a high blood flow and oxygen supply and only small hormonal changes, total fat oxidation in muscle increases from rest to light exercise, but then remains constant with exercise intensity up to heavy exercise. However, with increasing exercise intensity...

  1. Negative addiction to exercise: are there differences between genders?

    Vladimir Bonilha Modoio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Regular physical exercise has numerous benefits. However, there is a subset of the exercising population who may develop a compulsion to exercise excessively and who may, as a consequence, display physiological and psychological changes that have a direct influence on their quality of life. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine if there are differences between male and female athletes' scores on measures of negative addiction symptoms, quality of life, mood and sleep. METHODS: 144 female and 156 male athletes participated in this study by answering the following questionnaires: Negative Addiction Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Trait Anxiety Inventory, Profile of Mood States, SF-36 Quality of Life, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. RESULTS: Higher dedication to training sessions in the male group, and members of the female group with symptoms of negative addiction to exercise showed a lower score on vigor observed by the Profile of Mood States compared to the males in both situations. We also observed depression symptoms in both members of groups who had negative addiction symptoms when compared with their peers without symptoms, and these figures were even higher in females compared with the male group in the same situation. CONCLUSION: No differences were seen in the development of negative addiction exercise symptoms in males and females and there were no changes in the quality of life and mood of these athletes. Further studies of eating disorders associated with changes in body image perception could contribute to a better understanding of negative addiction to exercise.

  2. Systemic Exercise-Induced Hypoalgesia Following Isometric Exercise Reduces Conditioned Pain Modulation

    Alsouhibani, Ali; Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Hoeger Bement, Marie

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Physically active individuals show greater conditioned pain modulation (CPM) compared with less active individuals. Understanding the effects of acute exercise on CPM may allow for a more targeted use of exercise in the management of pain. This study investigated the effects of acute...... isometric exercise on CPM. In addition, the between-session and within-session reliability of CPM was investigated. Design: Experimental, randomized crossover study. Setting: Laboratory at Marquette University. Subjects: Thirty healthy adults (19.3±1.5 years, 15 males). Methods: Subjects underwent CPM....... Results: PPTs increased during ice water immersion (i.e., CPM), and quadriceps PPT increased after exercise (P CPM decreased similarly following exercise and quiet rest (P > 0.05). CPM within-session reliability was fair to good (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0...

  3. Alveolar macrophage accumulation rates, for 28 nm and 250 nm PSL, are mediated by separate mechanisms

    Moss, O R; Wong, V A, E-mail: moss@thehamner.or [Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27509-2137 (United States)

    2009-02-01

    When macrophages accumulate 28 nm and 250 nm diameter polystyrene latex (PSL) beads, the accumulation rates should reflect differences in molecular and cellular function. We used a confocal microscope to measure the accumulation rates of nanoparticles by F344-rat-alveolar macrophages (approx25,000 cells adhered to a 0.7 cm{sup 2} surface). Over the cells were layered 0.1 ml of media, and 0.1 ml of media-with-beads. Fresh cells were introduced for each exposure scenario. The maximum possible individual macrophage exposures were as follows: 8x10{sup 6}, 8x10{sup 5}, and 8x10{sup 4} 28 nm beads per macrophage; and 8x10{sup 4} and 1.12x10{sup 4} 250 nm beads per macrophage. Accumulation rates were estimated over 23 minutes. The increase in bead accumulation-rate matched changes in bead-availability: 7x increase for 250 nm beads; 100x increase for 28 nm beads; and 700x increase for all bead availabilities. The maximum sustained 28 nm bead accumulation rate was > 30,000 /min (for 5 min). Increases in bead accumulation could be explained by two mechanisms: bead-diffusion; and, for the macrophage, macropinocytosis. Also for the highest concentrations of 28 nm beads, we saw a colligative threshold - possibly due to beads masking the cell surface or obstructing cellular mechanisms.

  4. Repair of near-UV (365nm or 313 nm) induced DNA strand breaks

    Miguel, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    The action of near-UV (365 nm or 313 nm) radiation in cellular inactivaton (biological measurements) and induction and repair of breaks (physical measurements) is studied in repair proficient strain and in pol A, rec A and uvr A deficient strains of Escherichia coli K-12. (M.A.C.) [pt

  5. Self-Reported Exercise Prevalence and Determinants in the Long Term After Stroke: The North East Melbourne Stroke Incidence Study.

    Simpson, Dawn; Callisaya, Michele L; English, Coralie; Thrift, Amanda G; Gall, Seana L

    2017-12-01

    Exercise has established benefits following stroke. We aimed to describe self-reported exercise 5 and 10 years after stroke, change in exercise over time, and to identify factors associated with long-term exercise. Data on exercise (defined as 20 minutes' duration, causing sweating and increased heart rate) were obtained by questionnaire from a population-based stroke incidence study with 10-year follow-up. For change in exercise between 5 and 10 years (n = 276), we created 4 categories of exercise (no exercise, ceased exercising, commenced exercising, continued exercising). Multinomial regression determined associations between exercise categories and exercising before stroke, receiving exercise advice and functional ability and demographic factors. The prevalence of exercise at 5 years (n = 520) was 18.5% (n = 96) (mean age 74.7 [standard deviation {SD} 14] years, 50.6% male) and 24% (n = 78) at 10 years. In those with data at both 5 and 10 years (mean age 69 [standard deviation 14] years, 52.9% male), 15% (n = 42) continued exercising, 10% (n = 27) commenced exercising, 14% (n = 38) ceased exercising, and 61% (n = 169) reported no exercise. Continued exercise was associated with younger age (relative risk [RR] .47 95% confidence interval [CI] .25-0.89), greater Barthel score (RR 2.97 95% CI 1.00-8.86), independent walking (RR 2.32 95% CI 1.16-4.68), better quality of life (RR 10.9 95% CI 2.26-52.8), exercising before stroke (RR 16.0 95%CI 4.98-51.5), and receiving advice to exercise (RR 2.99 95% CI 1.73-5.16). Few people exercise after stroke and fewer commence exercise long term. Innovative interventions to promote and maintain exercise are required after stroke. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Effects of Exercise Advertising on Self-efficacy and Decisional Balance

    Berry, Tanya R.; Howe, Bruce L.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of exercise advertising on self-efficacy and decisional balance for changing exercise behavior. Methods: One hundred seventy-four university students (females = 108; males = 66) watched a video that contained health, appearance, or control advertising and completed stage of change, exercise self-efficacy, and…

  7. Photochemistry of acrylates at 222 nm

    Knolle, Wolfgang; Naumov, Sergej; Madani, Mohamed; Sonntag, Clemens von

    2005-01-01

    Excimer lamps as monochromatic UV sources with an intense short-wavelength emission (especially KrCl * , 222 nm) allow a photoinitiator-free initiation of the acrylate polymerisation. Laser photolysis (KrCl * excimer laser, pulse width 20 ns, up to 5 mJ per pulse) gives rise to similar transient spectra (λ max ∼ 280 nm) for all acrylates studied. As the rather unspecific spectra do not allow conclusions as to the main reaction channel, a product study has been performed by GC-MS following steady-state photolysis of acrylate solutions in acetonitrile, methanol and n-hexane. Somewhat unexpected, α-cleavage seems to be a main reaction channel, and quantum chemical calculations show that such a reaction can occur from either the excited singlet state or the unrelaxed triplet state, but not from the relaxed triplet state that is observed spectroscopically. A reaction scheme accounting for the observed products is presented

  8. Does Exercising for a While Changes the Motivation of Exercise Participation?

    Perican BAYAR KORUÇ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Total 300 individuals who are above eighteen years old, of which 176 (age X=23.53 Ss=4.47 are females and 124 (age X=24.16 Ss=5.21 are males, participated in the study conducted to determine the difference between the exercise motivations of adult female s and males who has newly started to exercise and have been exercising for more than three years. The Recreational Exercise Motivation Measurement (REMM was used in the research. The scale was applied before the session by the researcher on the females an d males who just participated in the study and had been exercising for three years at the Fitness centers. The data obtained were applied with descriptive statistics, MANOVA and one - way ANOVA. As a result of MANOVA performed to compare genders and durati ons of participation, it was observed that there was a difference based on exercise participants' gender {F(5.292=4.615; p=.000} and durations of participation {F(5.292=2.812; p=.017}. It was determined in the one - way variance analysis that there was a difference between females and males in favor of males in the subscale of challenge {F(1.296=5.910; p=.016} and the subscale of skill development {F(1.296=14.016; p=.000}. When compared in terms of duration of participation, it could be seen that there w as a difference in favor of those who had been exercising for three years and more in the sub dimensions health {F(1.296=6.063; p=.014}, challenge {F(1.296=11.194; p=.001}, body and outer appearance {F(1.296=7.560; p=.006}, and skill development {F(1.29 6=5.238; p=.023}. To be exercising (for three years and more creates a discrepancy in the participation motives of females and males. It is observed that there are differences based on body and outer appearance, challenge, health, and skill development. It can also be seen that there is a difference in the participation motive between females and males based on gender. For the sub dimensions challenge and skill development, this difference

  9. Core Muscle Activation in Suspension Training Exercises.

    Cugliari, Giovanni; Boccia, Gennaro

    2017-02-01

    A quantitative observational laboratory study was conducted to characterize and classify core training exercises executed in a suspension modality on the base of muscle activation. In a prospective single-group repeated measures design, seventeen active male participants performed four suspension exercises typically associated with core training (roll-out, bodysaw, pike and knee-tuck). Surface electromyographic signals were recorded from lower and upper parts of rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, lower and upper parts of erector spinae muscles using concentric bipolar electrodes. The average rectified values of electromyographic signals were normalized with respect to individual maximum voluntary isometric contraction of each muscle. Roll-out exercise showed the highest activation of rectus abdominis and oblique muscles compared to the other exercises. The rectus abdominis and external oblique reached an activation higher than 60% of the maximal voluntary contraction (or very close to that threshold, 55%) in roll-out and bodysaw exercises. Findings from this study allow the selection of suspension core training exercises on the basis of quantitative information about the activation of muscles of interest. Roll-out and bodysaw exercises can be considered as suitable for strength training of rectus abdominis and external oblique muscles.

  10. Exercise economy in skiing and running

    Thomas eLosnegard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Substantial inter-individual variations in exercise economy exist even in highly trained endurance athletes. The variation is believed to be determined partly by intrinsic factors. Therefore, in the present study, we compared exercise economy in V2-skating, double poling and uphill running. Ten highly trained male cross-country skiers (23 ± 3 years, 180 ± 6 cm, 75 ± 8 kg, VO2peak running: 76.3 ± 5.6 mL•kg-1•min-1 participated in the study. Exercise economy and VO2peak during treadmill running, ski skating (V2 technique and double poling were compared based on correlation analysis with subsequent criteria for interpreting the magnitude of correlation (r. There was a very large correlation in exercise economy between V2-skating and double poling (r = 0.81 and a large correlation between V2-skating and running (r = 0.53 and double poling and running (r = 0.58. There were trivial to moderate correlations between exercise economy and VO2peak (r = 0.00-0.23, cycle rate (r = 0.03-0.46, body mass (r = -0.09-0.46 and body height (r = 0.11-0.36. In conclusion, the inter-individual variation in exercise economy could only moderately be explained by differences in VO2peak, body mass and body height and therefore we suggest that other intrinsic factors contribute to the variation in exercise economy between highly trained subjects.

  11. Exercisers' identities and exercise dependence: the mediating effect of exercise commitment.

    Lu, Frank Jing-Horng; Hsu, Eva Ya-Wen; Wang, Junn-Ming; Huang, Mei-Yao; Chang, Jo-Ning; Wang, Chien-Hsin

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of exercise identity, exercise commitment, exercise dependence, and, particularly, the mediating effects of exercise commitment on the relationship between exercise identity and exercise dependence. 253 Taiwanese regular exercisers completed measures, including the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised, the Exercise Identity Scale, the Exercise Commitment Scale, and the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire. Results showed that exercise identity, exercise dependence, and two types of exercise commitment were moderately to highly correlated. Furthermore, structural equation modelling indicated that a "have to" commitment partially mediated the relationship between exercise identity and exercise dependence. Based on the mediating role of a "have to" commitment, the findings are particularly informative to exercise instructors and for exercise program managers.

  12. Exercise in Pregnancy.

    Gregg, Vanessa H; Ferguson, James E

    2017-10-01

    Routine exercise should be recommended to healthy pregnant women after consultation with an obstetric provider. Even pregnant women who have not been exercising regularly can gradually increase their exercise during pregnancy. Regular exercise during pregnancy promotes overall wellness and helps maintain appropriate gestational weight gain and appropriate fetal weight gain. Exercise in pregnancy may also reduce hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and gestational diabetes, and may be associated with shorter first stage of labor and decreased risk for cesarean section. Exercise in pregnancy is safe for pregnant women and their fetuses and can have multiple health benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [A man with a painful upper arm after bench press exercise].

    Sijtsma, Ben C T; van der Veen, Hugo C; van Raay, Jos J A M

    2015-01-01

    A 22-year-old male bodybuilder presented with pain and a haematoma of his right upper arm after bench press exercises. Suspicion of a pectoralis muscle tear was confirmed by MRI and surgical repair was performed. Ruptures of the pectoralis major muscle are rare, but may occur in young male bodybuilders, typically after bench press exercises.

  14. Design of Polymer Wavelength Splitter 1310 nm/1550 nm Based on Multimode Interferences

    V. Prajzler

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We report about design of 1x2 1310/1550 nm optical wavelength division multiplexer based on polymer waveguides. The polymer splitter was designed by using RSoft software based on beam propagation method. Epoxy novolak resin polymer was used as core waveguides layer, silicon substrate with silica layer was used as buffer layer and polymethylmethacrylate was used as protection cover layer. The simulation shows that the output energy for the fundamental mode is 67.1 % for 1310 nm and 67.8 % for 1550 nm wavelength.

  15. A study of exercise ECT

    Nohara, Ryuji; Suzuki, Yukisono; Tamaki, Shunichi; Kadota, Kazunori; Kambara, Hirofumi; Kawai, Chuichi; Tamaki, Nagara; Toritsuka, Kanji

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with angina pectoris, 18 patients with post-myocardial infarction angina and 2 normal patients (mean age of 57 years, male/ female=40/5) were examined by exercise thallium-201 emission computed tomography (ECT). The results were compared to those of planar scintigraphy. A large-field-of-view gamma camera with a high resolution pallarel-hole collimator supported by gantry was rotated 180 0 around the long axis of the patient. Thirty-two different views every 5.8 0 with sampling time of 20 seconds each were obtained. Total acquisition time was 11 minutes. Data collection started from the left posterior oblique view and ended at the right anterior oblique view. Exercise was performed by graded bicycle ergometer. Post exercise ECT was compared to that of reperfusion imaging 2-3 hours after exercise. Sensitivity and specificity to detect involved coronary arteries by identifying myocardial perfusion defect were 96 and 86% ; 84 and 92% ; 81 and 100% for the right coronary artery (RCA), the left anterior descending artery (LAD) and the left circumflex artery (LCX), respectively. These data surpassed to those of planar scintigraphy (83 and 86% ; 66 and 85% ; 38 and 100% for RCA, LAD-and LCX, respectively). Especially in 3 vessel discase, ECT revealed better sensitivity (100%, 86%, 79% for RCA, LAD and LCX, respectively) than that to planar imaging (86%, 57%, 29% respectively). For 1, 2 and 0 vessel discase sensitivity and specificity of both techniques were comparable, though specificity of ECT tended to be a little better than planar's one. In conclusion, exercise ECT was very useful for detection of coronary lesions, especially in 3 vessel disease. (author)

  16. Histomorphometric analysis of the Achilles tendon of Wistar rats treated with laser therapy and eccentric exercise

    Maria V. de Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Low-level laser therapy is recommended for the treatment of tendinopathies despite the contradictory results related to the ideal dose of energy, wavelength and time of application. This study aimed to assess the effects of laser therapy and eccentric exercise on tendinopathy of the Achilles tendon of Wistar rats. Forty-eight adult male rats were randomly distributed into four groups (L= laser; E= eccentric exercise; LE = laser and eccentric exercise; and R= rest. Laser therapy (904nm/3J/cm2 and/or eccentric exercise (downhill walking; 15o incline treadmill; 12m/min; 50min/day was started 24h after induction of unilateral tendinopathy and remained for 20 days. At 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after lesion induction, three rats from each group were euthanized and the tendons were collected for histological and morphometric analyses. There was no difference among groups or among times for the characteristics hemorrhage (p=0.4154, fibrinous adhesion formation (p=0.0712, and organization of collagen fibers (p=0.2583 and of the connective tissue (p=0.1046. For these groups, regardless of the time, eccentric exercise led to epitenon thickening (p=0.0204, which was lower in the group treated with laser therapy. Histological analysis revealed differences (p=0.0032 in the number of inflammatory cells over time. They were more numerous in the group that only exercised. This result was confirmed by morphometric analysis, which showed a significant interaction (groups x time for this characteristic. Eccentric exercise increased (p=0.0014 the inflammatory infiltrate over time (3 and 21 days. However, association with laser therapy reduced inflammatory reaction. On the other hand, the combination of the treatments increased angiogenesis in morphometric (p=0.0000 and histological (p=0.0006 analyses compared with the other groups, while the isolated application of low-level laser reduced this characteristic over time. Animals maintained at rest presented the

  17. Gender differences in residual effect of prior drop jumps on oxygen uptake during heavy cycling exercise

    Neringa Baranauskienė

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions: Prior eccentric–concentric exercise of thigh muscles (100 drop jumps accelerates VO2 kinetics at the start and increases VO2 during steady state of heavy cycling only in the male group. So, prior exercise of such type has a higher negative impact on cycling economy in men than in women and this might be related to greater muscle damage and fatigue in physically active male persons after plyometric exercise.

  18. Passively mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser operating at 1073 nm and 1085 nm

    Waritanant, Tanant; Major, Arkady

    2018-02-01

    A passively mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser operating at 1073 nm and 1085 nm was demonstrated with an intracavity birefringent filter as the wavelength selecting element. The average output powers achieved were 2.17 W and 2.18 W with optical-to-optical efficiency of 19.6% and 19.7%, respectively. The slope efficiencies were more than 31% at both output wavelengths. The pulse durations at the highest average output power were 10.3 ps and 8.4 ps, respectively. We believe that this is the first report of mode locking of a Nd:YVO4 laser operating at 1073 nm or 1085 nm lines.

  19. Blood temperature and perfusion to exercising and non-exercising human limbs.

    González-Alonso, José; Calbet, José A L; Boushel, Robert; Helge, Jørn W; Søndergaard, Hans; Munch-Andersen, Thor; van Hall, Gerrit; Mortensen, Stefan P; Secher, Niels H

    2015-10-01

    What is the central question of this study? Temperature-sensitive mechanisms are thought to contribute to blood-flow regulation, but the relationship between exercising and non-exercising limb perfusion and blood temperature is not established. What is the main finding and its importance? The close coupling among perfusion, blood temperature and aerobic metabolism in exercising and non-exercising extremities across different exercise modalities and activity levels and the tight association between limb vasodilatation and increases in plasma ATP suggest that both temperature- and metabolism-sensitive mechanisms are important for the control of human limb perfusion, possibly by activating ATP release from the erythrocytes. Temperature-sensitive mechanisms may contribute to blood-flow regulation, but the influence of temperature on perfusion to exercising and non-exercising human limbs is not established. Blood temperature (TB ), blood flow and oxygen uptake (V̇O2) in the legs and arms were measured in 16 healthy humans during 90 min of leg and arm exercise and during exhaustive incremental leg or arm exercise. During prolonged exercise, leg blood flow (LBF) was fourfold higher than arm blood flow (ABF) in association with higher TB and limb V̇O2. Leg and arm vascular conductance during exercise compared with rest was related closely to TB (r(2) = 0.91; P exercise, LBF increased in association with elevations in TB and limb V̇O2, whereas ABF, arm TB and V̇O2 remained largely unchanged. During incremental arm exercise, both ABF and LBF increased in relationship to similar increases in V̇O2. In 12 trained males, increases in femoral TB and LBF during incremental leg exercise were mirrored by similar pulmonary artery TB and cardiac output dynamics, suggesting that processes in active limbs dominate central temperature and perfusion responses. The present data reveal a close coupling among perfusion, TB and aerobic metabolism in exercising and non-exercising

  20. Blood temperature and perfusion to exercising and non‐exercising human limbs

    Calbet, José A. L.; Boushel, Robert; Helge, Jørn W.; Søndergaard, Hans; Munch‐Andersen, Thor; van Hall, Gerrit; Mortensen, Stefan P.; Secher, Niels H.

    2015-01-01

    New Findings What is the central question of this study? Temperature‐sensitive mechanisms are thought to contribute to blood‐flow regulation, but the relationship between exercising and non‐exercising limb perfusion and blood temperature is not established. What is the main finding and its importance? The close coupling among perfusion, blood temperature and aerobic metabolism in exercising and non‐exercising extremities across different exercise modalities and activity levels and the tight association between limb vasodilatation and increases in plasma ATP suggest that both temperature‐ and metabolism‐sensitive mechanisms are important for the control of human limb perfusion, possibly by activating ATP release from the erythrocytes. Temperature‐sensitive mechanisms may contribute to blood‐flow regulation, but the influence of temperature on perfusion to exercising and non‐exercising human limbs is not established. Blood temperature (T B), blood flow and oxygen uptake (V˙O2) in the legs and arms were measured in 16 healthy humans during 90 min of leg and arm exercise and during exhaustive incremental leg or arm exercise. During prolonged exercise, leg blood flow (LBF) was fourfold higher than arm blood flow (ABF) in association with higher T B and limb V˙O2. Leg and arm vascular conductance during exercise compared with rest was related closely to T B (r 2 = 0.91; P exercise, LBF increased in association with elevations in T B and limb V˙O2, whereas ABF, arm T B and V˙O2 remained largely unchanged. During incremental arm exercise, both ABF and LBF increased in relationship to similar increases in V˙O2. In 12 trained males, increases in femoral T B and LBF during incremental leg exercise were mirrored by similar pulmonary artery T B and cardiac output dynamics, suggesting that processes in active limbs dominate central temperature and perfusion responses. The present data reveal a close coupling among perfusion, T B and aerobic metabolism

  1. Exercise After Pregnancy

    ... 2 days a week. When can I start exercising after pregnancy? If you had a healthy pregnancy ... some guidelines I can follow when I begin exercising after pregnancy? Aim to stay active for 20– ...

  2. Benefits of Exercise

    ... activity into your life. To get the most benefit, you should try to get the recommended amount ... likely even live longer. What are the health benefits of exercise? Regular exercise and physical activity may ...

  3. Experience in exercise evaluations

    Bickerton, George E [Office of Emergency Planning, Food Safety and Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC (United States)

    1989-09-01

    This summary outline presents environmental ingestion exposure pathways exercise evaluations that should be followed by state and local governments. It includes environmental monitoring, food, feeds and monitoring of organisms as well as emergency planning and execution exercises.

  4. Muscle glycogenolysis during exercise

    Richter, Erik; Ruderman, N B; Gavras, H

    1982-01-01

    glycogenolysis during exercise: contractions principally stimulate glycogenolysis early in exercise, and a direct effect of epinephrine on muscle is needed for continued glycogenolysis. In addition, epinephrine increased oxygen consumption and glucose uptake in both resting and electrically stimulated...

  5. Fight Cravings with Exercise

    ... run up and down the stairs. Fact: Exercise boosts your endorphins, gives you time to clear your ... I find gardening really helps me keep my mind off smoking. It’s relaxing and good exercise, too!" - ...

  6. Experience in exercise evaluations

    Bickerton, George E.

    1989-01-01

    This summary outline presents environmental ingestion exposure pathways exercise evaluations that should be followed by state and local governments. It includes environmental monitoring, food, feeds and monitoring of organisms as well as emergency planning and execution exercises

  7. Eating and Exercise

    ... recovery smoothie Turkey on whole-grain bread with vegetables Don't forget to drink fluids. You need adequate fluids before, during and after exercise to help prevent dehydration. To stay well-hydrated for exercise, the American ...

  8. Exercise during Pregnancy

    ... wear loose-fitting clothing, and exercise in a temperature-controlled room. Do not exercise outside when it ... breathing. There are even prenatal yoga and Pilates classes designed for pregnant women. These classes often teach ...

  9. Aerobic exercise (image)

    Aerobic exercise gets the heart working to pump blood through the heart more quickly and with more ... must be oxygenated more quickly, which quickens respiration. Aerobic exercise strengthens the heart and boosts healthy cholesterol ...

  10. Isometric exercise (image)

    Isometric exercise works muscles and strengthens bone. Increased muscle mass elevates metabolism, which in turn burns fat. Strength training is also called anaerobic exercise, as opposed to aerobic, because increased oxygen production is not ...

  11. Exercise and Asthma

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Exercise and Asthma Page Content Article Body Almost every child (and ... of Pediatrics about asthma and exercise. What is asthma Asthma is the most common chronic medical problem ...

  12. Clinical Applications for Exercise.

    Goldstein, David

    1989-01-01

    Patients with chronic conditions such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity might benefit from prescribed exercise. Although exercise does not reverse pathologic changes, it may play a role in disease management. (JD)

  13. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB)

    ... Conditions & Treatments ▸ Conditions Dictionary ▸ Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Share | Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) « Back to A to Z Listing Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction, (EIB), often known as exercise-induced ...

  14. Acute effects of exercise and active video games on adults' reaction time and perceived exertion.

    Guzmán, José F; López-García, Jesús

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the acute effects of resting, aerobic exercise practised alone, and aerobic exercise with active video games (AVG), on complex reaction time (CRT) and the post-exercise acute rate of perceived exertion (RPE) in young healthy adults. The experimental group was composed of 92 healthy young adults, 78 males and 13 females (age M = 21.9 ± 2.7 years) who completed two sessions, A and B. In session A, participants rode 30 min on an ergometer, while in session B they exercised for 30 min on an ergometer while playing an AVG on a Wii. The control group was composed of 30 young adults, 26 males and 4 females (age M = 21.4 ± 2.9 years) who rested for 30 min. In each session, a CRT task was performed before and after exercising or resting, and post-exercise global RPE was noted. Repeated measures general linear model (GLM) and Wilcoxon tests were performed. (1) Both aerobic exercise alone and aerobic exercise combined with AVG improved CRT, while resting did not; (2) aerobic exercise combined with AVG did not improve CRT more than aerobic exercise only; and (3) RPE was lower after aerobic exercise combined with AVG compared with aerobic exercise only. In young adults, exercise produces acute benefits on CRT, and practising exercise with AVG helps to decrease RPE.

  15. Harmonic Inverse FEL Interaction at 800nm

    Sears, C M S; Siemann, R; Spencer, J E

    2005-01-01

    The inverse Free Electron Laser (IFEL) interaction has recently been proposed and demonstrated as a premodulator for High Gain Harmonic Generation (HGHG) experiments. These experiments utilized the fundamental of the interaction between the laser field and electron bunch. In the current experiment, we explore the higher order resonances of the IFEL interaction from a 3 period, 1.8 centimeter wavelength undulator with a picosecond, 0.25 mJ/pulse laser at 800nm. The resonances are observed by adjusting the gap of the undulator while keeping the beam energy constant. The harmonic IFEL can add flexibility to HGHG FEL design.

  16. Laser–fibre vibrometry at 1550 nm

    Waz, A T; Kaczmarek, P R; Abramski, K M

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents new solutions for laser vibrometry, which are based on fibre vibrometry in the third telecommunication window. The scattered laser beam from a vibrating object is guided by a fibre collimator and coherently detected through heterodyning it with an acousto-optical frequency-shifted reference beam. The concept of measuring vibration parameters from many points of the vibrating object has been inspired by wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) in fibre telecommunications. The N-independent WDM separated 15XX nm fibre-coupled laser diodes (used for optical fibre telecommunications) form a system of sources for multipoint vibration measurement according to the rule 'one wavelength–one point'

  17. Exercise in Pregnancy

    Hinman, Sally K.; Smith, Kristy B.; Quillen, David M.; Smith, M. Seth

    2015-01-01

    Context: Health professionals who care for pregnant women should discuss potential health benefits and harms of exercise. Although most pregnant women do not meet minimal exercise recommendations, there are a growing number of physically active women who wish to continue training throughout pregnancy. Evidence Acquisition: A search of the Web of Science database of articles and reviews available in English through 2014. The search terms exercise pregnancy, strenuous exercise pregnancy, and vi...

  18. Exercise and cancer

    Idorn, Manja; thor Straten, Per

    2017-01-01

    Exercise improves functional capacity and patient-reported outcomes across a range of cancer diagnoses. The mechanisms behind this protection have been largely unknown, but exercise-mediated changes in body composition, sex hormone levels, systemic inflammation, and immune cell function have been...... hypothesize that this link between exercise and the immune system can be exploited in cancer therapy in particular in combination with immunotherapy. Thus, we believe that exercise may not just be “healthy” but may in fact be therapeutic....

  19. Exercise performance, core temperature, and metabolism after prolonged restricted activity and retraining in dogs

    Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Pohoska, E.; Turlejska, E.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Kozlowski, S.

    1992-01-01

    Physiological effects of restricted activity (RA) and subsequent retraining have been studied. Ten male mongrel dogs performed a submaximal exercise endurance test on a treadmill during kennel control, after 8 weeks of cage confinement and after eight weeks of retraining using the same treadmill protocol 1 h/d for 6 d/week. Data obtained show that RA reduces exercise endurance, the effectiveness of exercise thermoregulation, muscle glycogen stores, and the lipolytic response to exercise and to noradrenaline stimulation.

  20. Exercise and Your Heart.

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This pamphlet presents information on the effects of physical activity on the heart and practical guidelines for starting and staying on an exercise program. The following topics are discussed: (1) the benefits of getting sufficient exercise; (2) possible risks in exercising compared to benefits; (3) when to seek doctor's advice and prevention of…

  1. WOMEN AND EXERCISE

    Tarran, Leanne

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the social attitudes and expectations that limit women's freedom to move in the world. The history of gendered attitudes to exercise, current gendered differences in patterns of exercise and issues of body image and ageing are discussed. The importance of these issues when considering exercise as a preventative health measure is emphasised.

  2. Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition.

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…

  3. A meta-analytic review of the effects of exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Szuhany, Kristin L; Bugatti, Matteo; Otto, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Consistent evidence indicates that exercise improves cognition and mood, with preliminary evidence suggesting that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may mediate these effects. The aim of the current meta-analysis was to provide an estimate of the strength of the association between exercise and increased BDNF levels in humans across multiple exercise paradigms. We conducted a meta-analysis of 29 studies (N = 1111 participants) examining the effect of exercise on BDNF levels in three exercise paradigms: (1) a single session of exercise, (2) a session of exercise following a program of regular exercise, and (3) resting BDNF levels following a program of regular exercise. Moderators of this effect were also examined. Results demonstrated a moderate effect size for increases in BDNF following a single session of exercise (Hedges' g = 0.46, p exercise intensified the effect of a session of exercise on BDNF levels (Hedges' g = 0.59, p = 0.02). Finally, results indicated a small effect of regular exercise on resting BDNF levels (Hedges' g = 0.27, p = 0.005). When analyzing results across paradigms, sex significantly moderated the effect of exercise on BDNF levels, such that studies with more women showed less BDNF change resulting from exercise. Effect size analysis supports the role of exercise as a strategy for enhancing BDNF activity in humans, but indicates that the magnitude of these effects may be lower in females relative to males. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Male pattern baldness

    Alopecia in men; Baldness - male; Hair loss in men; Androgenetic alopecia ... Male pattern baldness is related to your genes and male sex hormones. It usually follows a pattern of receding hairline and ...

  5. Genital sores - male

    Sores - male genitals; Ulcers - male genitals ... A common cause of male genital sores are infections that are spread through sexual contact, such as: Genital herpes (small, painful blisters filled with clear ...

  6. Affect, exercise, and physical activity among healthy adolescents.

    Schneider, Margaret; Dunn, Andrea; Cooper, Daniel

    2009-12-01

    Many adolescents do not meet public health recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). In studies of variables influencing adolescent MVPA, one that has been understudied is the affective response to exercise. We hypothesized that adolescents with a more positive affective response to acute exercise would be more active. Adolescents (N = 124; 46% male) completed two 30-min exercise tasks (above and below the ventilatory threshold [VT]), and wore ActiGraph accelerometers for 6.5 +/- 0.7 days. Affective valence was assessed before, during, and after each task. A more positive affective response during exercise below the VT was associated with greater participation in MVPA (p positive affective response to exercise will engage in more MVPA. To promote greater participation in MVPA among adolescents, programs should be designed to facilitate a positive affective experience during exercise.

  7. Oxidation of urate in human skeletal muscle during exercise

    Hellsten, Ylva; Tullson, P. C.; Richter, Erik

    1997-01-01

    the level was more than twofold higher and remained elevated throughout recovery (p exercise, probably due to generation of free radicals. Furthermore, the findings support the suggested importance of urate......The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether high metabolic stress to skeletal muscle, induced by intensive exercise, would lead to an oxidation of urate to allantoin in the exercised muscle. Seven healthy male subjects performed short term (4.39 +/- 0.04 [+/-SE] min) exhaustive...... cycling exercise. Muscle samples were obtained from m. v. lateralis before and during the first few minutes after the exercise. Venous blood samples were obtained before and up to 45 min after the exercise. The concentration of urate in muscle decreased from a resting level of 0.26 +/- 0.023 to 0...

  8. Early Option Exercise

    Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Jensen, Mads Vestergaard

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  9. Early Option Exercise

    Jensen, Mads Vestergaard; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  10. High power diode lasers emitting from 639 nm to 690 nm

    Bao, L.; Grimshaw, M.; DeVito, M.; Kanskar, M.; Dong, W.; Guan, X.; Zhang, S.; Patterson, J.; Dickerson, P.; Kennedy, K.; Li, S.; Haden, J.; Martinsen, R.

    2014-03-01

    There is increasing market demand for high power reliable red lasers for display and cinema applications. Due to the fundamental material system limit at this wavelength range, red diode lasers have lower efficiency and are more temperature sensitive, compared to 790-980 nm diode lasers. In terms of reliability, red lasers are also more sensitive to catastrophic optical mirror damage (COMD) due to the higher photon energy. Thus developing higher power-reliable red lasers is very challenging. This paper will present nLIGHT's released red products from 639 nm to 690nm, with established high performance and long-term reliability. These single emitter diode lasers can work as stand-alone singleemitter units or efficiently integrate into our compact, passively-cooled Pearl™ fiber-coupled module architectures for higher output power and improved reliability. In order to further improve power and reliability, new chip optimizations have been focused on improving epitaxial design/growth, chip configuration/processing and optical facet passivation. Initial optimization has demonstrated promising results for 639 nm diode lasers to be reliably rated at 1.5 W and 690nm diode lasers to be reliably rated at 4.0 W. Accelerated life-test has started and further design optimization are underway.

  11. Compact corner-pumped Nd:YAG/YAG composite slab 1319 nm/1338 nm laser

    Liu, H; Gong, M; Wushouer, X; Gao, S

    2010-01-01

    A corner-pumped type is a new pumping type in the diode-pumped solid-state lasers, which has the advantages of high pump efficiency and favorable pump uniformity. A corner-pumped Nd:YAG/YAG composite slab continuous-wave 1319 nm/1338 nm dual-wavelength laser is first demonstrated in this paper. When the cavity length is 25 mm, the maximal output power is up to 7.62 W with a slope efficiency of 16.6% and an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 17%. The corresponding spectral line widths of 1319 nm laser and 1338 nm laser are 0.11 and 0.1 nm, respectively. The short-term instability of the output power is better than 1% when the pumping power is 39.5 W. The experimental results show that a corner-pumped type is a kind of feasible schedules in the design of diode-pumped solid-state 1.3 μm lasers with low or medium output powers

  12. Comparison of 193 nm and 308 nm laser liquid printing by shadowgraphy imaging

    Palla-Papavlu, A., E-mail: apalla@nipne.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, Magurele, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Shaw-Stewart, J. [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Laboratory for Functional Polymers, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Paul Scherrer Institute, General Energy Research Department, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Mattle, T. [Paul Scherrer Institute, General Energy Research Department, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Dinca, V. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, Magurele, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Lippert, T.; Wokaun, A. [Paul Scherrer Institute, General Energy Research Department, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, Magurele, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-08-01

    Over the last years laser-induced forward transfer has emerged as a versatile and powerful tool for engineering surfaces with active compounds. Soft, easily damageable materials can be transferred using a triazene polymer as a sacrificial layer which acts as a pressure generator and at the same time protects the material from direct laser irradiation. To understand and optimize the transfer process of biomolecules in liquid solution by using an intermediate triazene polymer photosensitive layer, shadowgraphy imaging is carried out. Two laser systems i.e. an ArF laser operating at 193 nm and a XeCl laser operating at 308 nm are applied for the transfer. Solutions with 50% v/v glycerol concentration are prepared and the influence of the triazene polymer sacrificial layer thickness (60 nm) on the deposits is studied. The shadowgraphy images reveal a pronounced difference between laser-induced forward transfer using 193 nm or 308 nm, i.e. very different shapes of the ejected liquid.

  13. Time pattern of exercise-induced changes in type I collagen turnover after prolonged endurance exercise in humans

    Langberg, Henning; Skovgaard, D; Asp, S

    2000-01-01

    after exercise, collagen resorption did not change from basal levels throughout the remaining period (P > 0.05). Muscle breakdown was elevated during the days following the exercise and peaked 24 hours after the exercise (S-CK concentration: 3,133 +/- 579 U/liter). The findings in the present study......Type I collagen is known to adapt to physical activity, and biomarkers of collagen turnover indicate that synthesis can be influenced by a single intense exercise bout, but the exact time pattern of these latter changes are largely undescribed. In the present study, 17 healthy young males had...... after completion of a marathon run (42 km). Serum concentrations of creatine kinase (S-CK) were measured as an indicator of muscular breakdown in response to the exercise bout. After a transient decrease in collagen formation immediately after exercise (plasma PICP concentration: 176 +/- 17 microg/liter...

  14. Influence of pre-exercise muscle glycogen content on exercise-induced transcriptional regulation of metabolic genes

    Pilegaard, Henriette; Keller, Charlotte; Steensberg, Adam

    2002-01-01

    Transcription of metabolic genes is transiently induced during recovery from exercise in skeletal muscle of humans. To determine whether pre-exercise muscle glycogen content influences the magnitude and/or duration of this adaptive response, six male subjects performed one-legged cycling exercise...... to lower muscle glycogen content in one leg and then, the following day, completed 2.5 h low intensity two-legged cycling exercise. Nuclei and mRNA were isolated from biopsies obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of the control and reduced glycogen (pre-exercise glycogen = 609 +/- 47 and 337 +/- 33...... mmol kg(-1) dry weight, respectively) legs before and after 0, 2 and 5 h of recovery. Exercise induced a significant (P glycogen leg only. Although PDK4...

  15. THE RARE CAUSE OF THE ANAPHYLAXIS: EXERCISE

    Sami OZTURK

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA is a rare syndrome. We described two patients experienced anaphylaxis after exercise. Case 1: A 24 -year-old male patient, recruited to army as a private 6 months ago. The medical history was suggestive of an anaphylactic reaction which was developed about 30 minute after a vigorous exercise. Case 2: A 42-year old female, was referred to our clinic because of the recurrent episodes of generalized pruritus, nausea, vomiting, swelling on extremities and breathing difficultly. She was experienced with symptoms after moderate exercises which were performed to losing weight. Evaluation: The complete diagnostic procedures including skin tests with foods and inhalant allergens were performed. In Case 2, positive skin test results were detected in food allergens (apricot, tomato, vanilla and inhalant allergens (house-dust mites and cockroach. Management: In Case 1, he was first experienced EIA symptoms with the military training. For this reason, he exempted from vigorous exercises during his remaining compulsory military service and self-injectable epinephrine kit and antihistamine were prescribed him. In Case 2, she advised to avoid from vigorous exercises. Conclusion: EIA should be considered in cases of anaphylaxis with uncertain etiology. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(1.000: 46-49

  16. Read-through transcript from NM23-H1 into the neighboring NM23-H2 gene encodes a novel protein, NM23-LV

    Valentijn, Linda J.; Koster, Jan; Versteeg, Rogier

    2006-01-01

    NM23-H1 and NM23-H2 are neighboring genes on chromosome 17q. They encode nucleoside diphosphate kinases that have additional roles in signal transduction, transcription, and apoptosis. NM23-H1 expression is a strong marker for prognosis and metastatic behavior in many tumor types. A new

  17. Every exercise bout matters

    Dethlefsen, Christine; Pedersen, Katrine Seide; Hojman, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    Cumulative epidemiological evidence shows that regular exercise lowers the risk of developing breast cancer and decreases the risk of disease recurrence. The causality underlying this relation has not been fully established, and the exercise recommendations for breast cancer patients follow...... the general physical activity guidelines, prescribing 150 min of exercise per week. Thus, elucidations of the causal mechanisms are important to prescribe and implement the most optimal training regimen in breast cancer prevention and treatment. The prevailing hypothesis on the positive association within...... exercise oncology has focused on lowering of the basal systemic levels of cancer risk factors with exercise training. However, another rather overlooked systemic exercise response is the marked acute increases in several potential anti-cancer components during each acute exercise bout. Here, we review...

  18. Diabetes, insulin and exercise

    Richter, Erik; Galbo, H

    1986-01-01

    The metabolic and hormonal adaptations to single exercise sessions and to exercise training in normal man and in patients with insulin-dependent as well as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus are reviewed. In insulin-dependent (type I) diabetes good metabolic control is best obtained...... by a regular pattern of life which will lead to a fairly constant demand for insulin from day to day. Exercise is by nature a perturbation that makes treatment of diabetes difficult: Muscle contractions per se tend to decrease the plasma glucose concentration whereas the exercise-induced response of the so......-called counter-regulatory hormones tend to increase plasma glucose by increasing hepatic glucose production and adipose tissue lipolysis. If the pre-exercise plasma insulin level is high, hypoglycaemia may develop during exercise whereas hyperglycaemia and ketosis may develop if pre-exercise plasma insulin...

  19. 308-nm excimer laser in endodontics

    Liesenhoff, Tim

    1992-06-01

    Root canal preparation was performed on 20 extracted human teeth. After opening the coronal pulp, the root canals were prepared by 308 nm excimer laser only. All root canals were investigated under SEM after separation in the axial direction. By sagittal separation of the mandibles of freshly slaughtered cows, it was possible to get access to the tissues and irradiate under optical control. Under irradiation of excimer laser light, tissue starts to fluoresce. It was possible to demonstrate that each tissue (dentin, enamel, bone, pulpal, and connective tissue) has a characteristic spectral pattern. The SEM analyses showed that it is well possible to prepare root canals safely. All organic soft tissue has been removed by excimer laser irradiation. There was no case of via falsa. The simultaneous spectroscopic identification of the irradiated tissue provides a safe protection from overinstrumentation. First clinical trials on 20 patients suffering of chronical apical parodontitis have been carried out successfully.

  20. Effects of a Single Bout of Resistance Exercise in Different Volumes on Endothelium Adaptations in Healthy Animals

    Marcelo Mendonça Mota

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Resistance exercise (RE has been recommended for patients with cardiovascular diseases. Recently, a few studies have demonstrated that the intensity of a single bout of RE has an effect on endothelial adaptations to exercise. However, there is no data about the effects of different volumes of RE on endothelium function. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of different volumes of RE in a single bout on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and nitric oxide (NO synthesis in the mesenteric artery of healthy animals. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Control (Ct; low-volume RE (LV, 5 sets x 10 repetitions and high-volume RE (HV, 15 sets x 10 repetitions. The established intensity was 70% of the maximal repetition test. After the exercise protocol, rings of mesenteric artery were used for assessment of vascular reactivity, and other mesenteric arteries were prepared for detection of measure NO production by DAF-FM fluorescence. Insulin responsiveness on NO synthesis was evaluated by stimulating the vascular rings with insulin (10 nM. Results: The maximal relaxation response to insulin increased in the HV group only as compared with the Ct group. Moreover, the inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis (L-NAME completely abolished the insulin-induced vasorelaxation in exercised rats. NO production showed a volume-dependent increase in the endothelial and smooth muscle layer. In endothelial layer, only Ct and LV groups showed a significant increase in NO synthesis when compared to their respective group under basal condition. On the other hand, in smooth muscle layer, NO fluorescence increased in all groups when compared to their respective group under basal condition. Conclusions: Our results suggest that a single bout of RE promotes vascular endothelium changes in a volume-dependent manner. The 15 sets x 10 repetitions exercise plan induced the greatest levels of NO synthesis.

  1. Ocular effects of ultraviolet radiation from 295 to 365 nm

    Pitts, D.G.; Cullen, A.P.; Hacker, P.D.

    1977-01-01

    A 5,000 watt Xe--Hg source and a double monochromator were used to produce 6.6 nm full band-pass ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Pigmented rabbit eyes were exposed to the 6.6 nm band-pass UV radiant energy in 5 nm steps from 295 to 320 nm and at random intervals above 320 nm. Corneal and lenticular damage was assessed and classified with a biomicroscope. Corneal threshold radiant exposure (Hc) rose very rapidly from 0.022 Jcm -2 at 300 nm to 10.99 Jcm -2 at 335 nm. Radiant exposures exceeding 2 x Hc resulted in irreversible corneal damage. Lenticular damage was limited to wavebands above 295 nm. The action spectrum for the lens began at 295 nm and extended to about 315 nm. Permanent lenticular damage occurred at radiant exposure levels approximately twice the threshold for lenticular radiant exposure. The importance in establishing both corneal and lenticular damage criteria is emphasized

  2. Systemic Exercise-Induced Hypoalgesia Following Isometric Exercise Reduces Conditioned Pain Modulation.

    Alsouhibani, Ali; Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Hoeger Bement, Marie

    2018-04-03

    Physically active individuals show greater conditioned pain modulation (CPM) compared with less active individuals. Understanding the effects of acute exercise on CPM may allow for a more targeted use of exercise in the management of pain. This study investigated the effects of acute isometric exercise on CPM. In addition, the between-session and within-session reliability of CPM was investigated. Experimental, randomized crossover study. Laboratory at Marquette University. Thirty healthy adults (19.3±1.5 years, 15 males). Subjects underwent CPM testing before and after isometric exercise (knee extension, 30% maximum voluntary contraction for three minutes) and quiet rest in two separate experimental sessions. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) at the quadriceps and upper trapezius muscles were assessed before, during, and after ice water immersions. PPTs increased during ice water immersion (i.e., CPM), and quadriceps PPT increased after exercise (P CPM decreased similarly following exercise and quiet rest (P > 0.05). CPM within-session reliability was fair to good (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.43-0.70), and the between-session reliability was poor (ICC = 0.20-0.35). Due to the variability in the systemic exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) response, participants were divided into systemic EIH responders (N = 9) and nonresponders (N = 21). EIH responders experienced attenuated CPM following exercise (P = 0.03), whereas the nonresponders showed no significant change (P > 0.05). Isometric exercise decreased CPM in individuals who reported systemic EIH, suggesting activation of shared mechanisms between CPM and systemic EIH responses. These results may improve the understanding of increased pain after exercise in patients with chronic pain and potentially attenuated CPM.

  3. Association of von Willebrand factor blood levels with exercise hypertension.

    Nikolic, Sonja B; Adams, Murray J; Otahal, Petr; Edwards, Lindsay M; Sharman, James E

    2015-05-01

    A hypertensive response to moderate intensity exercise (HRE) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The mechanisms of an HRE are unclear, although previous studies suggest this may be due to haemostatic and/or haemodynamic factors. We investigated the relationships between an HRE with haemostatic and hemodynamic indices. Sixty-four participants (57 ± 10 years, 71 % male) with indication for exercise stress testing underwent cardiovascular assessment at rest and during moderate intensity exercise, from which 20 participants developed an HRE (defined as moderate exercise systolic BP ≥ 170 mmHg/men and ≥ 160 mmHg/women). Rest, exercise and post-exercise blood samples were analysed for haemostatic markers, including von Willebrand factor (vWf), and haemodynamic measures of brachial and central blood pressure (BP), aortic stiffness and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRi). HRE participants had higher rest vWf compared with normotensive response to exercise (NRE) participants (1,927 mU/mL, 95 % CI 1,240-2,615, vs. 1,129 mU/mL, 95 % CI 871-1,386; p = 0.016). vWf levels significantly decreased from rest to post-exercise in HRE participants (p = 0.005), whereas vWf levels significantly increased from rest to exercise in NRE participants (p = 0.030). HRE participants also had increased triglycerides, rest BP, aortic stiffness and exercise SVRi (p HRE at moderate intensity.

  4. Measuring stroke patients’ exercise preferences using a discrete choice experiment

    Wolfgang Geidl

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity post stroke improves health, yet physical inactivity is highly prevalent. Tailored exercise programs considering physical activity preferences are a promising approach to promote physical activity. Therefore, this study seeks to measure exercise preferences of stroke survivors. Stroke survivors conducted a discrete choice experiment (DCE. DCE was presented in a face-to-face interview where patients had to choose eight times between two different exercise programs. Exercise programs differed by characteristics, with the six attributes under consideration being social situation, location, type of exercise, intensity, frequency, and duration. Utilities of the exercise attributes were estimated with a logit choice model. Stroke survivors (n=103, mean age: 67, SD=13.0; 60% male show significant differences in the rated utilities of the exercise attributes (P<0.001. Participants had strong preferences for light and moderate intense physical activity and favored shorter exercise sessions. Stroke survivors have remarkable exercise preferences especially for intensity and duration of exercise. Results contribute to the tailoring of physical activity programs after stroke thereby facilitating maintenance of physical activity.

  5. Acute exercise and motor memory consolidation: Does exercise type play a role?

    Thomas, Richard; Flindtgaard, Mads; Skriver, Kasper Christen

    2017-01-01

    d. The results demonstrate that high-intensity, acute exercise can lead to a decrease in motor performance assessed shortly after motor skill practice (R1h), but enhances offline effects promoting long-term retention (R1d). Given that different exercise modalities produced similar positive off...... following visuomotor skill acquisition on the retention of motor memory in 40 young (25.3 ±3.6 years), able-bodied male participants randomly assigned to one of four groups either performing strength training (STR), circuit training (CT), indoor hockey (HOC) or rest (CON). Retention tests of the motor skill......-line effects on motor memory, we conclude that exercise-induced effects beneficial to consolidation appear to depend primarily on the physiological stimulus rather than type of exercise and movements employed....

  6. Comparing Physical Therapy Accompanying Exercise with Only Exercise Treatments in Patients with Chronic Mechanical Low Back Pain

    Özlem Yılmaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Investigating and comparing the effects of exercise and physical therapy accompanying exercise treatments in patients with chronic low back pain. Materials and Methods: Twenty three patients with mechanical type low back existing more than 3 months were included one of the exercise or the physical therapy+exercise groups according to their application sequence. Both of the groups performed lumbar flexion and extension exercises, strengthening of the lumbar and abdominal muscle exercises and iliopsoas, hamstring and quadriceps stretching exercises two times a day for 14 days. The physical therapy group was given hot pack+therapeutic ultrasound+ interferential current for 10 days additionally. Degree of the low back pain was evaluated with visual analog scale (VAS, range of joint motion was evaluated with hand finger floor distance (HFFD and Modified Schober test, functional status was evaluated with Modified Oswestry Low Back Pain Scale and quality of life was evaluated with Short form-36 (SF-36 before and a month after the treatments. Results: In both groups (exercise group: average age 59 years, 21 females, 2 males; physical therapy group: average age 60 years, 20 females, 3 males pain intensity and HFFD decreased and Modified Schober increased, functionality recovered, pain and physical functions of SF-36 improved after the treatments. SF-36-physical role difficulty also improved in the exercise group. Decrease in pain, increase in HFFD andimproving of the functional status were all significantly more in the physical therapy group. There were no difference between the groups in terms of Modified Schober measurement and changes of the quality of life. Conclusions: Exercises and exercise+physical therapy are both effective in chronic low back pain. Successful results can be taken by addition of the physical therapy in patients who do not benefit sufficiently from exercise therapy. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2015;21: 73-8

  7. Absolute frequency atlas from 915 nm to 985 nm based on laser absorption spectroscopy of iodine

    Nölleke, Christian; Raab, Christoph; Neuhaus, Rudolf; Falke, Stephan

    2018-04-01

    This article reports on laser absorption spectroscopy of iodine gas between 915 nm and 985 nm. This wavelength range is scanned utilizing a narrow linewidth and mode-hop-free tunable diode-laser whose frequency is actively controlled using a calibrated wavelength meter. This allows us to provide an iodine atlas that contains almost 10,000 experimentally observed reference lines with an uncertainty of 50 MHz. For common lines, good agreement is found with a publication by Gerstenkorn and Luc (1978). The new rich dataset allows existing models of the iodine molecule to be refined and can serve as a reference for laser frequency calibration and stabilization.

  8. Dynamic Regulation of Circulating microRNAs During Acute Exercise and Long-Term Exercise Training in Basketball Athletes

    Yongqin Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence indicates the beneficial effects of physical exercise on human health, which depends on the intensity, training time, exercise type, environmental factors, and the personal health status. Conventional biomarkers provide limited insight into the exercise-induced adaptive processes. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs are dynamically regulated in response to acute exhaustive exercise and sustained rowing, running and cycling exercises. However, circulating miRNAs in response to long-term basketball exercise remains unknown. Here, we enrolled 10 basketball athletes who will attend a basketball season for 3 months. Specifically, circulating miRNAs which were involved in angiogenesis, inflammation and enriched in muscle and/or cardiac tissues were analyzed at baseline, immediately following acute exhaustive exercise and after 3-month basketball matches in competitive male basketball athletes. Circulating miR-208b was decreased and miR-221 was increased after 3-month basketball exercise, while circulating miR-221, miR-21, miR-146a, and miR-210 were reduced at post-acute exercise. The change of miR-146a (baseline vs. post-acute exercise showed linear correlations with baseline levels of cardiac marker CKMB and the changes of inflammation marker Hs-CRP (baseline vs. post-acute exercise. Besides, linear correlation was observed between miR-208b changes (baseline vs. after long-term exercise and AT VO2 (baseline. The changes of miR-221 (baseline vs. after long-term exercise were significantly correlated with AT VO2, peak work load and CK (after 3-month basketball matches. Although further studies are needed, present findings set the stage for defining circulating miRNAs as biomarkers and suggesting their physiological roles in long-term exercise training induced cardiovascular adaptation.

  9. Dynamic Regulation of Circulating microRNAs During Acute Exercise and Long-Term Exercise Training in Basketball Athletes.

    Li, Yongqin; Yao, Mengchao; Zhou, Qiulian; Cheng, Yan; Che, Lin; Xu, Jiahong; Xiao, Junjie; Shen, Zhongming; Bei, Yihua

    2018-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates the beneficial effects of physical exercise on human health, which depends on the intensity, training time, exercise type, environmental factors, and the personal health status. Conventional biomarkers provide limited insight into the exercise-induced adaptive processes. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are dynamically regulated in response to acute exhaustive exercise and sustained rowing, running and cycling exercises. However, circulating miRNAs in response to long-term basketball exercise remains unknown. Here, we enrolled 10 basketball athletes who will attend a basketball season for 3 months. Specifically, circulating miRNAs which were involved in angiogenesis, inflammation and enriched in muscle and/or cardiac tissues were analyzed at baseline, immediately following acute exhaustive exercise and after 3-month basketball matches in competitive male basketball athletes. Circulating miR-208b was decreased and miR-221 was increased after 3-month basketball exercise, while circulating miR-221, miR-21, miR-146a, and miR-210 were reduced at post-acute exercise. The change of miR-146a (baseline vs. post-acute exercise) showed linear correlations with baseline levels of cardiac marker CKMB and the changes of inflammation marker Hs-CRP (baseline vs. post-acute exercise). Besides, linear correlation was observed between miR-208b changes (baseline vs. after long-term exercise) and AT VO 2 (baseline). The changes of miR-221 (baseline vs. after long-term exercise) were significantly correlated with AT VO 2 , peak work load and CK (after 3-month basketball matches). Although further studies are needed, present findings set the stage for defining circulating miRNAs as biomarkers and suggesting their physiological roles in long-term exercise training induced cardiovascular adaptation.

  10. Exercisers' perceptions of their fitness instructor's interacting style, perceived competence, and autonomy as a function of self-determined regulation to exercise, enjoyment, affect, and exercise frequency.

    Puente, Rogelio; Anshel, Mark H

    2010-02-01

    The primary purpose of the present investigation was to test the hypothesis, derived from Self-Determination Theory (SDT), that an individual's perceived competence and autonomy mediate the relationship between the exercisers' perception of their instructor's interaction style and the exercisers' motivation to exercise. A secondary purpose was to identify the affective and behavioral outcomes derived from self-determined regulation. It was hypothesized that SDT would significantly explain and predict exercise behavior. Participants consisted of 238 college students, 103 males and 135 females (M age = 20.4 years, SD = 2.16), who volunteered to participate in the study. They were asked to complete a battery of questionnaires measuring instructor's interacting style, self-regulation to exercise, perceived autonomy and competence, enjoyment, positive and negative affect, and exercise frequency. Using structural equation modeling with observed variables, the results showed that perceived competence and autonomy mediated the relationship between perceived instructor's interacting style and self-determined regulation. It was also found that self-determined regulation was significantly related to exercise enjoyment, positive affect, and exercise frequency. It was concluded that understanding the motivational factors and emotional and behavioral consequences of physical activity will partially explain an individual's motives to engage regularly in exercise.

  11. EFFECTS OF EXERCISE AND CAFFEIC ACID PHENETHYL ESTER AFTER CHRONIC EXERCISE RAT MODEL

    Ayse Alp

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand whether exercise and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE has an effect on obesity and weight control, we investigated the effects of CAPE, and exercise on lipid parameters (triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, and adipokine substances such as leptin and resistin in rats. 40 male rat were randomly assigned into 4 groups. It was determined that CAPE does not have any significant effect on these parameters but that lipid parameters and leptin values in exercise groups decreased considerably, while no significant change occurred in resistin levels. In order to understand whether diet has an effect on exercise, body weights of all animal groups in pre and post-exercise were compared. A significant weight gain was observed (p = 0.005 in all groups. This study concluded that exercise has a considerable effect on leptin and lipid parameters; however, exercise alone was not sufficient for weight control and could be effective in weight control only when accompanied by a restricted diet.

  12. The prospective association between different types of exercise and body composition

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A.; Sagner, Michael; Shook, Robin P.; Burgess, Stephanie; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Despite the widely accepted benefits of exercise on chronic disease risk, there remains controversy on the role of exercise in weight loss. This study examined the effect of different exercise types on measures of adiposity across different fat categories. Methods A total of 348 young adults (49% male; 28±4 years), participating in an ongoing observational study, provided valid data over a period of 12 months. Fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) were measured via dual x-ray absorptiometry every 3 months. Percent body fat (BF) was calculated and used to differentiate between normal fat, over fat and obese participants. At each measurement time point participants reported engagement (min/week) in aerobic exercise, resistance exercise and other exercise. Results Most participants (93%) reported some exercise participation during the observation period. Total exercise or specific exercise types did not significantly affect subsequent BMI after adjusting for sex, ethnicity, age and baseline values of adiposity and exercise. Resistance exercise affected lean mass (pexercise only affected fat mass (pexercise type positively affected lean mass in normal fat participants (pexercise (p≤0.02) but not with aerobic exercise (p≥0.09). Additionally adjusting for objectively assessed total physical activity level did not change these results. Conclusion Despite the limited effects on BMI, exercise was associated with beneficial changes in body composition. Exercise increased lean mass in normal fat participants and reduced fat mass in overfat and obese adults. Adults with excess body fat may benefit particularly from resistance exercise. PMID:25970664

  13. Exercise following Mental Work Prevented Overeating.

    Neumeier, William H; Goodner, Emily; Biasini, Fred; Dhurandhar, Emily J; Menear, Kristi S; Turan, Bulent; Hunter, Gary R

    2016-09-01

    Mental work may promote caloric intake, whereas exercise may offset positive energy balance by decreasing energy intake and increasing energy expenditure. This study aimed to replicate previous findings that mental work increases caloric intake compared with a rest condition and assess whether exercise after mental work can offset this effect. Thirty-eight male and female university students were randomly assigned to mental work + rest (MW + R) or mental work + exercise (MW + E). Participants also completed a baseline rest (BR) visit consisting of no mental work or exercise. Visit order was counterbalanced. During the MW + R or MW + E visit, participants completed a 20-min mental task and either a 15-min rest (MW + R) or a 15-min interval exercise (MW + E). Each visit ended with an ad libitum pizza lunch. A two-way repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare eating behavior between groups. Participants in the MW + R condition consumed an average of 100 more kilocalories compared with BR (633.3 ± 72.9 and 533.9 ± 67.7, respectively, P = 0.02), and participants in MW + E consumed an average of 25 kcal less compared with BR (432.3 ± 69.2 and 456.5 ± 64.2, respectively, P > 0.05). When including the estimated energy expenditure of exercise in the MW + E conditions, participants were in negative energy balance by an average of 98.5 ± 41.5 kcal, resulting in a significant difference in energy balance between the two groups (P = 0.001). An acute bout of interval exercise after mental work resulted in significantly decreased food consumption compared with a nonexercise condition. These results suggest that an acute bout of exercise may be used to offset positive energy balance induced by mental tasks.

  14. The Effects of Exercise Intensity vs. Metabolic State on the Variability and Magnitude of Left Ventricular Twist Mechanics during Exercise.

    Craig Armstrong

    Full Text Available Increased left ventricular (LV twist and untwisting rate (LV twist mechanics are essential responses of the heart to exercise. However, previously a large variability in LV twist mechanics during exercise has been observed, which complicates the interpretation of results. This study aimed to determine some of the physiological sources of variability in LV twist mechanics during exercise. Sixteen healthy males (age: 22 ± 4 years, [Formula: see text]O2peak: 45.5 ± 6.9 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, range of individual anaerobic threshold (IAT: 32-69% of [Formula: see text]O2peak were assessed at rest and during exercise at: i the same relative exercise intensity, 40%peak, ii at 2% above IAT, and, iii at 40%peak with hypoxia (40%peak+HYP. LV volumes were not significantly different between exercise conditions (P > 0.05. However, the mean margin of error of LV twist was significantly lower (F2,47 = 2.08, P 0.05. Overall, LV twist mechanics were linearly related to rate pressure product. During exercise, the intra-individual variability of LV twist mechanics is smaller at the same relative exercise intensity compared with IAT. However, the absolute magnitude (degrees of LV twist mechanics appears to be associated with the prevailing rate pressure product. Exercise tests that evaluate LV twist mechanics should be standardised by relative exercise intensity and rate pressure product be taken into account when interpreting results.

  15. The Effects of Exercise Intensity vs. Metabolic State on the Variability and Magnitude of Left Ventricular Twist Mechanics during Exercise

    Armstrong, Craig; Samuel, Jake; Yarlett, Andrew; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Stembridge, Mike; Stöhr, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Increased left ventricular (LV) twist and untwisting rate (LV twist mechanics) are essential responses of the heart to exercise. However, previously a large variability in LV twist mechanics during exercise has been observed, which complicates the interpretation of results. This study aimed to determine some of the physiological sources of variability in LV twist mechanics during exercise. Sixteen healthy males (age: 22 ± 4 years, V˙O2peak: 45.5 ± 6.9 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, range of individual anaerobic threshold (IAT): 32–69% of V˙O2peak) were assessed at rest and during exercise at: i) the same relative exercise intensity, 40%peak, ii) at 2% above IAT, and, iii) at 40%peak with hypoxia (40%peak+HYP). LV volumes were not significantly different between exercise conditions (P > 0.05). However, the mean margin of error of LV twist was significantly lower (F2,47 = 2.08, P 0.05). Overall, LV twist mechanics were linearly related to rate pressure product. During exercise, the intra-individual variability of LV twist mechanics is smaller at the same relative exercise intensity compared with IAT. However, the absolute magnitude (degrees) of LV twist mechanics appears to be associated with the prevailing rate pressure product. Exercise tests that evaluate LV twist mechanics should be standardised by relative exercise intensity and rate pressure product be taken into account when interpreting results. PMID:27100099

  16. Gender-related difference in arterial elastance during exercise in patients with hypertension.

    Park, Sungha; Ha, Jong-Won; Shim, Chi Young; Choi, Eui-Young; Kim, Jin-Mi; Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Se-Wha; Rim, Se-Joong; Chung, Namsik

    2008-04-01

    Exercise intolerance and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction are common in females. Recently, arterial stiffness has been suggested to be a significant contributor in the development of heart failure. How gender difference affects arterial stiffening and its response to exercise is not well known. We hypothesized that arterial elastance index during exercise would be more abnormal in females with hypertension than males. Arterial elastance index was estimated as arterial end systolic pressure/stroke volume controlled for body surface area and was measured at rest and during graded supine bicycle exercise (25 watts, 3-minute increments) in 298 patients with hypertension (149 males; 149 females; mean age, 59). The subjects were divided into 2 groups by gender. Exercise duration was significantly shorter in females compared to males (692+/-222 versus 483+/-128 seconds, Pexercise being significantly higher in females compared to males (0.69+/-0.83 versus 0.43+/-0.69, P=0.018). Arterial elastance index at each stage of exercise up to 75 W was independently associated with decreased exercise duration. In conclusion, despite lower arterial elastance index at rest, the increase during exercise was steeper in women with hypertension, suggesting a gender-related difference in dynamic arterial stiffness. The arterial elastance index during exercise was significantly associated with exercise duration in patients with hypertension.

  17. Effectiveness of low level laser therapy for treating male infertility

    Vladimirovich Moskvin, Sergey; Ivanovich Apolikhin, Oleg

    2018-01-01

    In half of the cases, the infertility of the couple is due to the disorder of the male fertility. The leading factors that cause male infertility are urogenital infections, disorders of the immune system, testicular and prostate pathology, as well as endocrine disorders. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) is a very effective physical therapy method, used in many areas of medicine, including obstetrics and gynaecology, andrology and urology; and it is recommended as an integral part of the complex treatment of infertility. The literature review showed that LLLT is beneficial in treating male infertility. Laser can significantly improve the survival, motility and speed of movement of spermatozoa. Laser therapy of patients with prostatitis and vesiculitis can eliminate infiltrative-exudative changes, improve reproductive and copulatory functions. Local illumination of red (635 nm) and infrared (904 nm) spectra should be combined with intravenous laser blood illumination (ILBI) of red (635 nm) and ultraviolet (UV) (365 nm) spectra. PMID:29806585

  18. Laser Shock Processing of 6061-T6 Al alloy with 1064 nm and 532 nm wavelengths

    Gomez-Rosas, G.; Rubio-Gonzalez, C.; Ocana, J.L.; Molpeceres, C.; Porro, J.A.; Morales, M.; Casillas, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Laser Shock Processing (LSP) has been proposed as a competitive alternative technology to classical treatments for improving fatigue and wear resistance of metals. We present a configuration and results in the LSP concept for metal surface treatments in underwater laser irradiation at 532 nm and 1064 nm. The purpose of the work is to compare the effect of both wavelengths on the same material. A convergent lens is used to deliver 1.2 J/pulse (1064 nm) and 0.9 J/pulse (532 nm) in a 8 ns laser FWHM pulse produced by 10 Hz Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with spots of a 1.5 mm in diameter moving forward along the work piece. A LSP configuration with experimental results using a pulse density of 2500 pulses/cm 2 and 5000 pulses/cm 2 in 6061-T6 aluminum samples are presented. High level compressive residual stresses are produced using both wavelengths. It has been shown that surface residual stress level is comparable to that achieved by conventional shot peening, but with greater depths. This method can be applied to surface treatment of final metal products.

  19. Characterization of LANDSAT Panels Using the NIST BRDF Scale from 1100 nm to 2500 nm

    Markham, Brian; Tsai, Benjamin K.; Allen, David W.; Cooksey, Catherine; Yoon, Howard; Hanssen, Leonard; Zeng, Jinan; Fulton, Linda; Biggar, Stuart; Markham, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Many earth observing sensors depend on white diffuse reflectance standards to derive scales of radiance traceable to the St Despite the large number of Earth observing sensors that operate in the reflective solar region of the spectrum, there has been no direct method to provide NIST traceable BRDF measurements out to 2500 rim. Recent developments in detector technology have allowed the NIST reflectance measurement facility to expand the operating range to cover the 250 nm to 2500 nm range. The facility has been modified with and additional detector using a cooled extended range indium gallium arsenide (Extended InGaAs) detector. Measurements were made for two PTFE white diffuse reflectance standards over the 1100 nm to 2500 nm region at a 0' incident and 45' observation angle. These two panels will be used to support the OLI calibration activities. An independent means of verification was established using a NIST radiance transfer facility based on spectral irradiance, radiance standards and a diffuse reflectance plaque. An analysis on the results and associated uncertainties will be discussed.

  20. Genetic influences on exercise participation in 37,051 twin pairs from seven countries.

    Janine H Stubbe

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A sedentary lifestyle remains a major threat to health in contemporary societies. To get more insight in the relative contribution of genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in exercise participation, twin samples from seven countries participating in the GenomEUtwin project were used.Self-reported data on leisure time exercise behavior from Australia, Denmark, Finland, Norway, The Netherlands, Sweden and United Kingdom were used to create a comparable index of exercise participation in each country (60 minutes weekly at a minimum intensity of four metabolic equivalents.Modest geographical variation in exercise participation was revealed in 85,198 subjects, aged 19-40 years. Modeling of monozygotic and dizygotic twin resemblance showed that genetic effects play an important role in explaining individual differences in exercise participation in each country. Shared environmental effects played no role except for Norwegian males. Heritability of exercise participation in males and females was similar and ranged from 48% to 71% (excluding Norwegian males.Genetic variation is important in individual exercise behavior and may involve genes influencing the acute mood effects of exercise, high exercise ability, high weight loss ability, and personality. This collaborative study suggests that attempts to find genes influencing exercise participation can pool exercise data across multiple countries and different instruments.

  1. Does Aerobic Exercise Influence Intrinsic Brain Activity?

    Flodin, Pär; Jonasson, Lars S; Riklund, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    exercise group or an active control group. Both groups recieved supervised training, 3 days a week for 6 months. Multimodal brain imaging data was acquired before and after the intervention, including 10 min of resting state brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and arterial spin labeling......Previous studies have indicated that aerobic exercise could reduce age related decline in cognition and brain functioning. Here we investigated the effects of aerobic exercise on intrinsic brain activity. Sixty sedentary healthy males and females (64-78 years) were randomized into either an aerobic...... group improved more. Contrary to our hypothesis, we did not observe any significant group by time interactions with regard to any measure of intrinsic activity. To further probe putative relationships between fitness and brain activity, we performed post hoc analyses disregarding group belongings...

  2. Dietary antioxidants and exercise.

    Powers, Scott K; DeRuisseau, Keith C; Quindry, John; Hamilton, Karyn L

    2004-01-01

    Muscular exercise promotes the production of radicals and other reactive oxygen species in the working muscle. Growing evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species are responsible for exercise-induced protein oxidation and contribute to muscle fatigue. To protect against exercise-induced oxidative injury, muscle cells contain complex endogenous cellular defence mechanisms (enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants) to eliminate reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, exogenous dietary antioxidants interact with endogenous antioxidants to form a cooperative network of cellular antioxidants. Knowledge that exercise-induced oxidant formation can contribute to muscle fatigue has resulted in numerous investigations examining the effects of antioxidant supplementation on human exercise performance. To date, there is limited evidence that dietary supplementation with antioxidants will improve human performance. Furthermore, it is currently unclear whether regular vigorous exercise increases the need for dietary intake of antioxidants. Clearly, additional research that analyses the antioxidant requirements of individual athletes is needed.

  3. Exercise therapy for fibromyalgia.

    Busch, Angela J; Webber, Sandra C; Brachaniec, Mary; Bidonde, Julia; Bello-Haas, Vanina Dal; Danyliw, Adrienne D; Overend, Tom J; Richards, Rachel S; Sawant, Anuradha; Schachter, Candice L

    2011-10-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome, a chronic condition typically characterized by widespread pain, nonrestorative sleep, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, and other somatic symptoms, negatively impacts physical and emotional function and reduces quality of life. Exercise is commonly recommended in the management of people with fibromyalgia, and interest in examining exercise benefits for those with the syndrome has grown substantially over the past 25 years. Research supports aerobic and strength training to improve physical fitness and function, reduce fibromyalgia symptoms, and improve quality of life. However, other forms of exercise (e.g., tai chi, yoga, Nordic walking, vibration techniques) and lifestyle physical activity also have been investigated to determine their effects. This paper highlights findings from recent randomized controlled trials and reviews of exercise for people with fibromyalgia, and includes information regarding factors that influence response and adherence to exercise to assist clinicians with exercise and physical activity prescription decision-making to optimize health and well-being.

  4. DIABETES AND EXERCISE

    Aydın BALCI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a crucial health problem due to its incidence and serious complications. Physical inactivity is one of the risk factors associated with it. Therapeutic exercises are beneficial in the treatment and prevention of diabetes. There are several studies about the effects of exercise type and intensity on glycemic control. The exercise programs should be prepared individually after a comprehensive medical evaluation. There are some regulations to prevent acute complications before, after and during the exercises. The importance of regular exercise for public health should be pointed out and physical activity should be urged. The present review discusses issues concerning the prevention and treatment of diabetes through exercise, and the possible risks, in view of current literature.

  5. Exercise for midlife women.

    Shangold, M M; Sherman, C

    1998-12-01

    Exercise is good for everyone, but it's more important than ever when you reach midlife. While regular exercise may not eliminate symptoms like hot flushes, it can improve your general well-being and increase your strength and stamina in daily life. If you want to lose fat or maintain a healthy weight, exercise is far more effective than diet alone. A physically active lifestyle, along with good nutrition and estrogen therapy, will also help protect you against heart disease, overweight, and osteoporosis.

  6. Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis.

    Lee, George

    2014-11-03

    Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis, or exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER), is a clinical entity typically considered when someone presents with muscle stiffness, swelling, and pain out of proportion to the expected fatigue post exercise. The diagnosis is confirmed by myoglobinuria, and an elevated serum Creatinine Phosphokinase (CPK) level, usually 10 times the normal range. However, an elevation in CPK is seen in most forms of strenuous exercise, up to 20 times the upper normal range. Therefore, there is no definitive pathologic CPK cut-off. Fortunately the dreaded complication of acute renal failure is rare compared to other forms rhabdomyolysis. We review the risks, diagnosis, clinical course and treatment for exercise- induced rhabdomyolysis.

  7. PILOT STUDY: Report on the CCPR Pilot Comparison: Spectral Responsivity 10 nm to 20 nm

    Scholze, Frank; Vest, Robert; Saito, Terubumi

    2010-01-01

    The CCPR Pilot Comparison on spectral responsivity in the 10 nm to 20 nm spectral range was carried out within the framework of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement by three laboratories: PTB (Germany), NIST (USA), and NMIJ/AIST (Japan) with PTB acting as the central and reporting laboratory. All participating laboratories used monochromatized synchrotron radiation. PTB and NIST used a cryogenic radiometer as the primary standard detector and NMIJ, an ionization chamber with extrapolation by a wavelength-independent detector. The aim of the pilot comparison was to check the accuracy of the radiometric scale of spectral responsivity in the short wavelength EUV spectral range which has recently gained in technological importance. The wavelengths of measurement were from 11.5 nm to 20 nm in 0.5 nm steps and additionally 12.2 nm. The comparison was carried out through the calibration of a group of transfer standard detectors. Two sets of three diodes of types AXUV and SXUV from International Radiation Detectors, Inc. were used for the comparison. The comparison had the form of a star comparison: Pilot-lab A-pilot-lab B-pilot, PTB acting as the pilot laboratory. All results were communicated directly to the pilot laboratory. The report describes in detail the measurements made at PTB and summarizes the reports submitted by the participants. Measurements carried out by the pilot laboratory before and after the circulation of the detectors proved that the stability of the detectors was sufficient for the comparison. For the type AXUV detectors, however, changes in their responsivity contributed to the uncertainty of the comparison. Measurement results from participants and their associated uncertainties were analyzed in this report according to the Guidelines for CCPR Comparison Report Preparation. The uncertainty contributions were separated, as to whether they are wavelength dependent or not. All bilateral DoE are well within the respective k = 2 expanded uncertainty

  8. When exercise does not pay: Counterproductive effects of impending exercise on energy intake among restrained eaters.

    Sim, Aaron Y; Lee, Li Ling; Cheon, Bobby K

    2018-04-01

    Evidence suggests people may overestimate the effectiveness of future positive behaviour, leading to counterproductive behaviours in the present. Applied to weight-management, we hypothesize that inaccurate expectations about impending exercise may impede weight management by promoting overconsumption prior to exercise. This study aimed to determine how expectations about impending exercise and its potential ability to expend energy may influence i) energy intake before exercise and ii) overall energy balance (energy intake minus energy expended via exercise). Using a randomised, counterbalanced design, 21 inactive, overweight males, following a baseline session, completed two experimental trials: i) ad-libitum snack meal (potato-crisps) followed by an exercise session (SE) and ii) ad-libitum snack meal only (SO). There was no main effect of condition (SE vs. SO) on ad-libitum snack intake (p = .917). However, after accounting for dietary restraint (covariate), a difference in snack intake between SE and SO was revealed (p = .050). Specifically, participants who scored higher in dietary restraint consumed more in the SE (vs. SO) session (162 ± 359 kcal more) compared with participants who scored lower in dietary restraint (89 ± 135 kcal less). Among restrained eaters, the relative (net) energy consumed after accounting for energy expended from exercise in SE was not different from the energy consumed in the SO condition, suggesting that energy expended via exercise in SE does not appear to negate extra energy consumed in this condition compared with SO. Of interest, desire to eat and prospective food consumption ratings at the start of the trial were greater (p ≤ .029) in SE compared with SO. Findings suggest that restrained-eaters are at risk of adopting compensatory eating behaviour that may impede negative energy balance typically resulting from exercise (i.e. expending insufficient energy to negate compensatory energy intake

  9. Acute exercise and motor memory consolidation: Does exercise type play a role?

    Thomas, R; Flindtgaard, M; Skriver, K; Geertsen, S S; Christiansen, L; Korsgaard Johnsen, L; Busk, D V P; Bojsen-Møller, E; Madsen, M J; Ritz, C; Roig, M; Lundbye-Jensen, J

    2017-11-01

    A single bout of high-intensity exercise can augment off-line gains in skills acquired during motor practice. It is currently unknown if the type of physical exercise influences the effect on motor skill consolidation. This study investigated the effect of three types of high-intensity exercise following visuomotor skill acquisition on the retention of motor memory in 40 young (25.3 ±3.6 years), able-bodied male participants randomly assigned to one of four groups either performing strength training (STR), circuit training (CT), indoor hockey (HOC) or rest (CON). Retention tests of the motor skill were performed 1 (R1h) and 24 h (R1d) post acquisition. For all exercise groups, mean motor performance scores decreased at R1h compared to post acquisition (POST) level; STR (P = 0.018), CT (P = 0.02), HOC (P = 0.014) and performance scores decreased for CT compared to CON (P = 0.049). Mean performance scores increased from POST to R1d for all exercise groups; STR (P = 0.010), CT (P = 0.020), HOC (P = 0.007) while performance scores for CON decreased (P = 0.043). Changes in motor performance were thus greater for STR (P = 0.006), CT (P exercise can lead to a decrease in motor performance assessed shortly after motor skill practice (R1h), but enhances offline effects promoting long-term retention (R1d). Given that different exercise modalities produced similar positive off-line effects on motor memory, we conclude that exercise-induced effects beneficial to consolidation appear to depend primarily on the physiological stimulus rather than type of exercise and movements employed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The vastus lateralis neuromuscular activity during all-out cycling exercise.

    Bercier, Stephane; Halin, Renaud; Ravier, Philippe; Kahn, Jean-Francois; Jouanin, Jean-Claude; Lecoq, Anne-Marie; Buttelli, Olivier

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this work was to study modifications in motor control through surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity during a very short all-out cycling exercise. Twelve male cyclists (age 23+/-4 years) participated in this study. After a warm-up period, each subject performed three all-out cycling exercises of 6s separated by 2 min of complete rest. This protocol was repeated three times with a minimum of 2 days between each session. The braking torque imposed on cycling motion was 19 Nm. The sEMG of the vastus lateralis was recorded during the first seven contractions of the sprint. Time-frequency analysis of sEMG was performed using continuous wavelet transform. The mean power frequency (MPF, qualitative modifications in the recruitment of motor units) and signal energy (a quantitative indicator of modifications in the motor units recruitment) were computed for the frequency range 10-500 Hz. sEMG energy increased (P0.05) between contraction number 1 and 2, decreased (P recruitment of motor units (MUs) at the beginning of the sprint followed by a preferential recruitment of faster MUs at the end of the sprint, respectively.

  11. Aerobic Interval Exercise Training Induces Greater Reduction in Cardiac Workload in the Recovery Period in Rats

    Borges, Juliana Pereira; Masson, Gustavo Santos; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic interval exercise training has greater benefits on cardiovascular function as compared with aerobic continuous exercise training. The present study aimed at analyzing the effects of both exercise modalities on acute and subacute hemodynamic responses of healthy rats. Thirty male rats were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: continuous exercise (CE, n = 10); interval exercise (IE, n = 10); and control (C, n = 10). Both IE and CE groups performed a 30-minute exercise session. The IE group session consisted of three successive 4-minute periods at 60% of maximal velocity (Max Vel), with 4-minute recovery intervals at 40% of Max Vel. The CE group ran continuously at 50% of Max Vel. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure(BP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were measured before, during and after the exercise session. The CE and IE groups showed an increase in systolic BP and RPP during exercise as compared with the baseline values. After the end of exercise, the CE group showed a lower response of systolic BP and RPP as compared with the baseline values, while the IE group showed lower systolic BP and mean BP values. However, only the IE group had a lower response of HR and RPP during recovery. In healthy rats, one interval exercise session, as compared with continuous exercise, induced similar hemodynamic responses during exercise. However, during recovery, the interval exercise caused greater reductions in cardiac workload than the continuous exercise

  12. Aerobic Interval Exercise Training Induces Greater Reduction in Cardiac Workload in the Recovery Period in Rats

    Borges, Juliana Pereira; Masson, Gustavo Santos; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano

    2014-01-01

    Background Aerobic interval exercise training has greater benefits on cardiovascular function as compared with aerobic continuous exercise training. Objective The present study aimed at analyzing the effects of both exercise modalities on acute and subacute hemodynamic responses of healthy rats. Methods Thirty male rats were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: continuous exercise (CE, n = 10); interval exercise (IE, n = 10); and control (C, n = 10). Both IE and CE groups performed a 30-minute exercise session. The IE group session consisted of three successive 4-minute periods at 60% of maximal velocity (Max Vel), with 4-minute recovery intervals at 40% of Max Vel. The CE group ran continuously at 50% of Max Vel. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure(BP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were measured before, during and after the exercise session. Results The CE and IE groups showed an increase in systolic BP and RPP during exercise as compared with the baseline values. After the end of exercise, the CE group showed a lower response of systolic BP and RPP as compared with the baseline values, while the IE group showed lower systolic BP and mean BP values. However, only the IE group had a lower response of HR and RPP during recovery. Conclusion In healthy rats, one interval exercise session, as compared with continuous exercise, induced similar hemodynamic responses during exercise. However, during recovery, the interval exercise caused greater reductions in cardiac workload than the continuous exercise. PMID:24270864

  13. Aerobic Interval Exercise Training Induces Greater Reduction in Cardiac Workload in the Recovery Period in Rats

    Borges, Juliana Pereira, E-mail: julipborges@gmail.com; Masson, Gustavo Santos; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    Aerobic interval exercise training has greater benefits on cardiovascular function as compared with aerobic continuous exercise training. The present study aimed at analyzing the effects of both exercise modalities on acute and subacute hemodynamic responses of healthy rats. Thirty male rats were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: continuous exercise (CE, n = 10); interval exercise (IE, n = 10); and control (C, n = 10). Both IE and CE groups performed a 30-minute exercise session. The IE group session consisted of three successive 4-minute periods at 60% of maximal velocity (Max Vel), with 4-minute recovery intervals at 40% of Max Vel. The CE group ran continuously at 50% of Max Vel. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure(BP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were measured before, during and after the exercise session. The CE and IE groups showed an increase in systolic BP and RPP during exercise as compared with the baseline values. After the end of exercise, the CE group showed a lower response of systolic BP and RPP as compared with the baseline values, while the IE group showed lower systolic BP and mean BP values. However, only the IE group had a lower response of HR and RPP during recovery. In healthy rats, one interval exercise session, as compared with continuous exercise, induced similar hemodynamic responses during exercise. However, during recovery, the interval exercise caused greater reductions in cardiac workload than the continuous exercise.

  14. Magnetic Susceptibility of liquid Gd-NM (NM = Cu, Ga, Ge alloys

    Shimakura Hironori

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For rare earth alloys, the indirect interaction of RKKY is at work between rare-earth atoms. Therefore, the magnetism of them depends on the number of conduction electrons and the distance between rare-earth metals. In this work, to reveal the relationship between the number of conduction electrons and magnetic property of rare earth metal alloys, magnetic susceptibility measurements for liquid Gd-NM (NM = Cu, Ga, Ge was performed by Faraday method. As the results, it was observed that the sign of paramagnetic Curie temperature of Cu-Gd alloys are positive at all composition, while Ga-Gd and Ge-Gd alloys show negative paramagnetic Curie temperature at certain composition. Moreover, it was indicated when the alloy at certain composition shows highest melting temperature, it has the lowest paramagnetic Curie temperature.

  15. TUNABLE DIODE LASER MEASUREMENTS OF NO2 NEAR 670 NM AND 395 NM. (R823933)

    Two single-mode diode lasers were used to record high-resolution absorption spectra of NO2 (dilute in Ar) near 670.2 and 394.5 nm over a range of temperatures (296 to 774 K) and total pressures (2.4 x 10(-2) to 1 atm). A commercial InGaAsP laser was tuned 1.3 cm(-1) at a repetiti...

  16. Changes in EEG during graded exercise on a recumbent cycle ergometer.

    Bailey, Stephen P; Hall, Eric E; Folger, Stephen E; Miller, Paul C

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have shown changes in brain activity as a result of exercise; however, few studies have examined changes during exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine brain activity during a graded exercise test. Twenty male participants performed a graded exercise test on a recumbent cycle ergometer. Exercise intensity was set initially at 50W and was increased by 50W every 2 minutes until volitional fatigue was reached. Electroencephalography (EEG) was measured prior to the onset of exercise, during the last minute of each stage of exercise, immediately post-exercise, and 10 minutes into recovery. EEG was recorded from 8 scalp sites leading to analysis of alpha 1, alpha 2, beta 1, beta 2, and theta activities. Expired air was collected and analyzed for ventilation rate (VE), VO2, % of peak VO2, and Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER). No differences were seen in EEG between the hemispheres of the brain. There was, however, a significant increase in brain activity across the spectrum occurring at 200 W through immediately post-exercise. Brain activity returned to pre- exercise levels by 10 minutes post. VO2, % of peak VO2 and RER increased linearly with exercise intensity. VE increased linearly through 200 W; however, a disproportionate increase was seen in VE from 200 W to peak exercise. The results of this investigation demonstrate that brain activity may be related to exercise intensity. Future research will want to examine how these changes in brain activity influence affective, perceptual and cognitive changes often associated with exercise. Efforts will also need to be made to determine if changes in brain activity during exercise are mediated by central (within the brain) or peripheral mechanisms. Key pointsEEG can be recorded during exercise.Brain EEG activity increases during exercise and may be related to exercise intensity.Brain EEG activity returns to resting levels quickly after the cessation of exercise.

  17. Monolithic PM Raman fiber laser at 1679 nm for Raman amplification at 1810 nm

    Svane, Ask Sebastian; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) has been subject to much attention within the field of fiber lasers and amplifiers as it provides an extended wavelength coverage in comparison to rare-earth based devices. Motivated by the projected capacity crunch [1], different approaches are being explored...... demonstrate a monolithic RM Raman fiber laser (RFL), which acts as a pump for a Raman amplifier (RA) at 1810 nm. The lasing wavelength of a RFL, thus also for a RA, can in principle be designed arbitrarily within the entire wavelength range from the Erbium band up to the Thulium/Holmium band...... of OFS PM Raman fiber, with an estimated propagation loss of 0.42/0.46/1.3 dB/km at 1564/1679/1810 nm. The Raman gain coefficient was measured to be gR=2.66/2.35 W-1km-1 at 1679/1810 nm. The laser curve of the RFL is depicted in Fig. 1b, with a slope efficiency of 67 %. The high slope efficiency...

  18. Women, 'madness' and exercise.

    Hardes, Jennifer Jane

    2018-03-21

    The positive relationship between exercise and mental health is often taken for granted in today's society, despite the lack of academic literature evidencing this symbiosis. Gender is considered a significant determinant in a number of mental health diagnoses. Indeed, women are considered twice as likely as men to experience the most pervasive mental health condition, depression. Exercise for women's mental health is promoted through various macrolevel charity, as well as microlevel, campaigns that influence government healthcare policy and National Health Service guidelines. Indeed, 'exercise prescriptions' in the treatment of depression is not uncommon. Yet, this link between exercise as a treatment for women's mental health has not always been so pervasive. In fact, an examination of asylum reports and medical journals from the late 19th century highlights a significant shift in attitude towards the role of exercise in the treatment of women's emotional states and mental health. This paper specifically examines how this treatment of women's mental health through exercise has moved from what might be regarded as a focus on exercise as a 'cause' of women's mental ailments to exercise promoted as a 'cure'. Unpacking the changing medical attitudes towards exercise for women in line with larger sociopolitical and historic contexts reveals that while this shift towards exercise promotion might prima facie appear as a less essentialist view of women and their mental and physical states, it inevitably remains tied to larger policy and governance agendas. New modes of exercise 'treatment' for women's mental health are not politically neutral and, thus, what appear to emerge as forms of liberation are, in actuality, subtler forms of regulation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Male pattern baldness (image)

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  20. [Male urinary incontinence

    Boer, T.A. de; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2008-01-01

    *Urinary incontinence in males is gaining increasingly more attention. *Male urinary incontinence can be classified as storage incontinence due to overactive bladder syndrome or stress incontinence due to urethral sphincter dysfunction. *Most patients benefit from the currently available treatment

  1. Self catheterization - male

    ... male; CIC - male Images Catheterization References Davis JE, Silverman MA. Urologic procedures. In: Roberts JR, ed. Roberts ... provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial ...

  2. Acute exercise and motor memory consolidation

    Thomas, Richard; Beck, Mikkel Malling; Lind, Rune Rasmussen

    2016-01-01

    High intensity aerobic exercise amplifies offline gains in procedural memory acquired during motor practice. This effect seems to be evident when exercise is placed immediately after acquisition, during the first stages of memory consolidation, but the importance of temporal proximity...... of the exercise bout used to stimulate improvements in procedural memory is unknown. The effects of three different temporal placements of high intensity exercise were investigated following visuomotor skill acquisition on the retention of motor memory in 48 young (24.0 ± 2.5 yrs), healthy male subjects randomly...... assigned to one of four groups either performing a high intensity (90% Maximal Power Output) exercise bout at 20 min (EX90), 1 h (EX90+1), 2 h (EX90+2) after acquisition or rested (CON). Retention tests were performed at 1 d (R1) and 7 d (R7). At R1 changes in performance scores after acquisition were...

  3. Perceptions of exercise screening among older adults.

    Stathokostas, Liza; Petrella, Andrea F M; Blunt, Wendy; Petrella, Robert J

    2018-06-01

    Prephysical activity screening is important for older adults' participating in physical activity. Unfortunately, many older adults face barriers to exercise participation and thus, may not complete proper physical activity screening. The purpose of this project was to conduct a thematic analysis of perceptions and experiences of community-dwelling older adults regarding prephysical activity screening (i.e., Get Active Questionnaire (GAQ) and a standardized exercise stress test). A convenience sample of adults (male n = 58, female n = 54) aged 75 ± 7 years living in the City of London, Ontario, Canada, was used. Participants completed a treadmill stress test and the GAQ at a research laboratory for community-based referrals. One week later, participants completed the GAQ again and were asked questions by a research assistant about their perceptions of the screening process. Thematic analysis of the responses was conducted. The results indicated that older adults view physical activity screening as acceptable, but not always necessary. Also, the experiences expressed by this sample of older adults indicated that physical activity screening can contribute to continued confidence (through reassurance) and can contribute to increased motivation (through yearly fitness results) in exercise participation. In conclusion, older adults may perceive screening as supportive in exercise adoption, if screening is simple, convenient, and supports older adults' motivation and confidence to exercise.

  4. EFFECT OF MUSIC ON ANAEROBIC EXERCISE PERFORMANCE

    Tülin Atan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiorespiratory exercise performance have been studied, but a few studies have examined the effect of music on anaerobic exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of listening to music and its rhythm on anaerobic exercise: on power output, heart rate and the concentration of blood lactate. 28 male subjects were required to visit the laboratory on 6 occasions, each separated by 48 hours. Firstly, each subject performed the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST under 3 conditions on separate days: while listening to “slow rhythm music”, “fast rhythm music” or “no music”. 48 hours after the subjects completed RAST under 3 conditions, Wingate Anaerobic Power (WAN tests were performed under 3 music conditions. The order of the 3 conditions (slow music, fast music and no music was selected randomly to prevent an order effect. Results showed no significant differences between 3 conditions in anaerobic power assessments, heart rate or blood lactate (p>0.05. On the basis of these results it can be said that music cannot improve anaerobic performance. The type of music had no impact on power outputs during RAST and WAN exercise. As a conclusion, listening to music and its rhythm cannot enhance anaerobic performance and cannot change the physiological response to supramaximal exercise.

  5. Strengthening physical self-perceptions through exercise.

    Caruso, C M; Gill, D L

    1992-12-01

    Two studies examined the effects of physical activity/exercise on physical self-perceptions, self-efficacy, body satisfaction, fitness and relationships among these variables. In study 1, 34 female undergraduates participated in a 10-week exercise/activity program. Participants were selected from existing classes forming a weight training, aerobic exercise and activity control group. Results revealed changes in physical self-perceptions, strength, and body composition over the 10-weeks. Improvements in physical self-perceptions and fitness occurred independent of exercise/activity group. Groups differed in the perceived importance attached to physical self-perceptions. Correlations among the measures revealed relationships among physical self-perceptions, body satisfaction, global self-esteem, and fitness. In study 2, we hypothesized that weight training would have a greater effect on physical self-perceptions and body image perceptions than physical education activity classes. Thirty-seven males and 28 females were selected from existing classes forming a weight training and activity group. Results revealed no significant changes in physical self-perceptions, body image, or global self-esteem over the 10-week program, while strength and physical self-efficacy improved. Correlations among measures from both studies offer preliminary support for Sonstroem and Morgan's model for the examination of self-esteem in exercise settings.

  6. Comparison between cold water immersion therapy (CWIT) and light emitting diode therapy (LEDT) in short-term skeletal muscle recovery after high-intensity exercise in athletes--preliminary results.

    Leal Junior, Ernesto Cesar; de Godoi, Vanessa; Mancalossi, José Luis; Rossi, Rafael Paolo; De Marchi, Thiago; Parente, Márcio; Grosselli, Douglas; Generosi, Rafael Abeche; Basso, Maira; Frigo, Lucio; Tomazoni, Shaiane Silva; Bjordal, Jan Magnus; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro Brandão

    2011-07-01

    In the last years, phototherapy has becoming a promising tool to improve skeletal muscle recovery after exercise, however, it was not compared with other modalities commonly used with this aim. In the present study we compared the short-term effects of cold water immersion therapy (CWIT) and light emitting diode therapy (LEDT) with placebo LEDT on biochemical markers related to skeletal muscle recovery after high-intensity exercise. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial was performed with six male young futsal athletes. They were treated with CWIT (5°C of temperature [SD ±1°]), active LEDT (69 LEDs with wavelengths 660/850 nm, 10/30 mW of output power, 30 s of irradiation time per point, and 41.7 J of total energy irradiated per point, total of ten points irradiated) or an identical placebo LEDT 5 min after each of three Wingate cycle tests. Pre-exercise, post-exercise, and post-treatment measurements were taken of blood lactate levels, creatine kinase (CK) activity, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. There were no significant differences in the work performed during the three Wingate tests (p > 0.05). All biochemical parameters increased from baseline values (p < 0.05) after the three exercise tests, but only active LEDT decreased blood lactate levels (p = 0.0065) and CK activity (p = 0.0044) significantly after treatment. There were no significant differences in CRP values after treatments. We concluded that treating the leg muscles with LEDT 5 min after the Wingate cycle test seemed to inhibit the expected post-exercise increase in blood lactate levels and CK activity. This suggests that LEDT has better potential than 5 min of CWIT for improving short-term post-exercise recovery.

  7. Resistance exercise improves hippocampus-dependent memory

    R.C. Cassilhas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that resistance exercise improves cognitive functions in humans. Thus, an animal model that mimics this phenomenon can be an important tool for studying the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms. Here, we tested if an animal model for resistance exercise was able to improve the performance in a hippocampus-dependent memory task. In addition, we also evaluated the level of insulin-like growth factor 1/insulin growth factor receptor (IGF-1/IGF-1R, which plays pleiotropic roles in the nervous system. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (N = 10 for each group: control, SHAM, and resistance exercise (RES. The RES group was submitted to 8 weeks of progressive resistance exercise in a vertical ladder apparatus, while the SHAM group was left in the same apparatus without exercising. Analysis of a cross-sectional area of the flexor digitorum longus muscle indicated that this training period was sufficient to cause muscle fiber hypertrophy. In a step-through passive avoidance task (PA, the RES group presented a longer latency than the other groups on the test day. We also observed an increase of 43 and 94% for systemic and hippocampal IGF-1 concentration, respectively, in the RES group compared to the others. A positive correlation was established between PA performance and systemic IGF-1 (r = 0.46, P < 0.05. Taken together, our data indicate that resistance exercise improves the hippocampus-dependent memory task with a concomitant increase of IGF-1 level in the rat model. This model can be further explored to better understand the effects of resistance exercise on brain functions.

  8. Self-regulation strategies may enhance the acute effect of exercise on smoking delay.

    Hatzigeorgiadis, Antonis; Pappa, Vassiliki; Tsiami, Anastasia; Tzatzaki, Theodora; Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Zourbanos, Nikos; Goudas, Marios; Chatzisarantis, Nikos; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined the acute effect of a moderate intensity aerobic exercise session combined with self-regulation on smoking delay in physically inactive smokers. Participants were 11 adults (5 males and 6 females) that completed three experimental conditions: control, exercise, and exercise using self-regulation strategies (SR). Following the experimental treatment smoking for the two exercise conditions delayed significantly more than for the control condition; in addition exercise SR delayed smoking marginally more that the plain exercise condition. Findings supported previous research that acute exercise reduces cravings to smoke, and suggests that the use of self-regulation strategies may strengthen exercise for smoking cessation interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prostatitis and male infertility.

    Alshahrani, Saad; McGill, John; Agarwal, Ashok

    2013-11-01

    The prostate gland plays an important role in male reproduction. Inflammation of the prostate gland (prostatitis) is a common health problem affecting many young and middle aged men. Prostatitis is considered a correctable cause of male infertility, but the pathophysiology and appropriate treatment options of prostatitis in male infertility remain unclear. This literature review will focus on current data regarding prostatitis and its impact on male infertility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Noradrenaline spillover during exercise in active versus resting skeletal muscle in man

    Savard, G; Strange, S; Kiens, Bente

    1987-01-01

    Increases in plasma noradrenaline (NA) concentration occur during moderate to heavy exercise in man. This study was undertaken to examine the spillover of NA from both resting and contracting skeletal muscle during exercise. Six male subjects performed one-legged knee-extension so that all...... in the exercising leg than in the resting leg both during 50% and 100% leg exercise. These results suggest that contracting skeletal muscle may contribute to a larger extent than resting skeletal muscle to increasing the level of plasma NA during exercise. Contractile activity may influence the NA spillover from...

  11. Influence of prior intense exercise and cold water immersion in recovery for performance and physiological response during subsequent exercise

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-01-01

    ) and the influence from prior intense exercise on subsequent performance and physiological response to moderate and maximal exercise with and without the use of cold water immersion (CWI) in recovery (part B). In part A, performance times during eight World championships for male track cyclists were extracted from...... min preceded by an identical warm-up period in both a control setting (CON) and using cold water immersion in recovery (CWI; 15 min at 15°C). Performance was lowered (P

  12. Varicocele and male infertility

    Jensen, Christian Fuglesang S.; Østergren, Peter; Dupree, James M.

    2017-01-01

    The link between varicoceles and male infertility has been a matter of debate for more than half a century. Varicocele is considered the most common correctable cause of male infertility, but some men with varicoceles are able to father children, even without intervention. In addition, improvements...... if the male partner has a clinically palpable varicocele and affected semen parameters....

  13. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    ... Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner of how a ...

  14. Exercise for Your Bone Health

    ... FAQs Breadcrumb Home Exercise for Your Bone Health Exercise for Your Bone Health Vital at every age ... A Complete Osteoporosis Program For Your Information Why Exercise? Like muscle, bone is living tissue that responds ...

  15. EMG evaluation of hip adduction exercises for soccer players

    Serner, Andreas; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Andersen, Lars Louis

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Exercise programmes are used in the prevention and treatment of adductor-related groin injuries in soccer; however, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the intensity of frequently used exercises. OBJECTIVE: Primarily to investigate muscle activity of adductor longus during six...... traditional and two new hip adduction exercises. Additionally, to analyse muscle activation of gluteals and abdominals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 40 healthy male elite soccer players, training >5 h a week, participated in the study. Muscle activity using surface electromyography (sEMG) was measured bilaterally...

  16. Exercise through Menopause.

    Stuhr, Robyn M.

    2002-01-01

    Menopause is associated with many different health effects and symptoms. This paper explains that regular exercise can play a critical role in protecting health and battling the increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, pelvic floor atrophy, and joint stiffness associated with menopause. Exercise programs for menopausal women should…

  17. EXERCISE-INDUCED ASTHMA

    Enrique

    to a repeat bout of intense exercise within 2 hours after an initial. EIA response. In this ... advantage of athletes, if the athlete then competes following a warm-up in this .... Diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm in the work-up of the athlete with EIA. .... Avoid exercise in excessively cold Reduced responsiveness of airways.

  18. Exercises in Computational Chemistry

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    A selection of HyperChem© PC-exercises in computational chemistry. Answers to most questions are appended (Roskilde University 2014-16).......A selection of HyperChem© PC-exercises in computational chemistry. Answers to most questions are appended (Roskilde University 2014-16)....

  19. Factors Associated with Exercise Motivation among African-American Men.

    Mohammed, Alana; Harrell, Jules P; Makambi, Kepher H; Campbell, Alfonso L; Sloan, Lloyd Ren; Carter-Nolan, Pamela L; Taylor, Teletia R

    2016-09-01

    The primary aims of this study were to: (1) characterize exercise stages of change among a sample of African-American men, (2) determine if exercise motivation was associated with self-reported exercise behavior, and (3) examine if groups of personal (i.e., age, BMI, income, educational attainment, and perceived health), psycho-social (i.e., exercise self-efficacy, personality type, social influence), and environmental factors (i.e., neighborhood safety) predicted stages of change for physical exercise among African-American men. One hundred seventy African-American male participants were recruited for this study (age: 47.63(10.23) years). Participants completed a self-report questionnaire assessing study variables. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the association of exercise stages of change with an array of personal, psychosocial, and environmental factors. BMI, exercise self-efficacy, and nighttime neighborhood safety were entered as independent variables in the full model. BMI and exercise self-efficacy continued to be significant predictors of exercise stages of change in the full model. Obese men had a 9.24 greater odds of being in the action stage of change than in the maintenance stage. Also, men reporting greater exercise self-efficacy had lower odds of being in the lower stages of change categories (pre-preparation, preparation, and action) than in the maintenance stage. Our results confirmed that using an ecological framework explained more of the variance in exercise stages of change than any of the individual components alone. Information gleaned from this study could inform interventionists of the best ways to create tailored exercise programs for African-American men.

  20. Influence of exercise modality on cardiac parasympathetic and sympathetic indices during post-exercise recovery.

    Michael, Scott; Jay, Ollie; Graham, Kenneth S; Davis, Glen M

    2018-02-12

    This study investigated indirect measures of post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation (using heart-rate-variability, HRV) and sympathetic withdrawal (using systolic-time-intervals, STI) following upper- and lower-body exercise. Randomized, counter-balanced, crossover. 13 males (age 26.4±4.7years) performed maximal arm-cranking (MAX-ARM) and leg-cycling (MAX-LEG). Subsequently, participants undertook separate 8-min bouts of submaximal HR-matched exercise of each mode (ARM and LEG). HRV (including natural-logarithm of root-mean-square-of-successive-differences, Ln-RMSSD) and STI (including pre-ejection-period, PEP) were assessed throughout 10-min seated recovery. Peak-HR was higher (p=0.001) during MAX-LEG (182±7beatsmin -1 ) compared with MAX-ARM (171±12beatsmin -1 ), while HR (preflecting sympathetic withdrawal). Exercise modality appears to influence post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation and sympathetic withdrawal in an intensity-dependent manner. These results highlight the need for test standardization and may be relevant to multi-discipline athletes and in clinical applications with varying modes of exercise testing. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Exercise and exercise training-induced increase in autophagy markers in human skeletal muscle

    Brandt, Nina; Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson; Bangsbo, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Moderately trained male subjects (mean age 25 years; range 19-33 years) completed an 8-week exercise training intervention consisting of continuous moderate cycling at 157 ± 20 W for 60 min (MOD; n = 6) or continuous moderate cycling (157 ± 20 W) interspersed by 30-sec sprints (473 ± 79 W) every 10...... muscle AMPKThr172 and ULKSer317 phosphorylation was elevated immediately after exercise, whereas mTORSer2448 and ULKSer757 phosphorylation was unchanged. Two hours after exercise LC3I, LC3II and BNIP3 protein content was overall higher than before exercise with no change in p62 protein. In MOD, Beclin1...... protein content was higher immediately and 2 h after exercise than before exercise, while there were no differences within SPRINT. Oxphos complex I, LC3I, BNIP3 and Parkin protein content was higher after the training intervention than before in both groups, while there was no difference in LC3II and p62...

  2. Achilles tendinopathy modulates force frequency characteristics of eccentric exercise.

    Grigg, Nicole L; Wearing, Scott C; O'Toole, John M; Smeathers, James E

    2013-03-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that ground reaction force (GRF) recorded during eccentric ankle exercise is characterized by greater power in the 8- to 12-Hz bandwidth when compared with that recorded during concentric ankle exercise. Subsequently, it was suggested that vibrations in this bandwidth may underpin the beneficial effect of eccentric loading in tendon repair. However, this observation has been made only in individuals without Achilles tendinopathy. This research compared the force frequency characteristics of eccentric and concentric exercises in individuals with and without Achilles tendinopathy. Eleven male adults with unilateral midportion Achilles tendinopathy and nine control male adults without tendinopathy participated in the research. Kinematics and GRF were recorded while the participants performed a common eccentric rehabilitation exercise protocol and a concentric equivalent. Ankle joint kinematics and the frequency power spectrum of the resultant GRF were calculated. Eccentric exercise was characterized by a significantly greater proportion of spectral power between 4.5 and 11.5 Hz when compared with concentric exercise. There were no significant differences between limbs in the force frequency characteristics of concentric exercise. Eccentric exercise, in contrast, was defined by a shift in the power spectrum of the symptomatic limb, resulting in a second spectral peak at 9 Hz, rather than 10 Hz in the control limb. Compared with healthy tendon, Achilles tendinopathy was characterized by lower frequency vibrations during eccentric rehabilitation exercises. This finding may be associated with changes in neuromuscular activation and tendon stiffness that have been shown to occur with tendinopathy and provides a possible rationale for the previous observation of a different biochemical response to eccentric exercise in healthy and injured Achilles tendons.

  3. Ergogenic effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on intermittent exercise performance preceded by intense arm cranking exercise

    Marriott, Matthaus; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caffeine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have been suggested to improve high-intensity intermittent exercise, but it is unclear if these ergogenic substances affect performance under provoked metabolic acidification. To study the effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate on intense...... to CAF and PLA, while no difference in heart rate was observed between trials. CONCLUSIONS: Caffeine and sodium bicarbonate administration improved Yo-Yo IR2 performance and lowered perceived exertion after intense arm cranking exercise, with greater overall effects of sodium bicarbonate intake....... intermittent exercise performance and metabolic markers under exercise-induced acidification, intense arm-cranking exercise was performed prior to intense intermittent running after intake of placebo, caffeine and sodium bicarbonate. METHODS: Male team-sports athletes (n = 12) ingested sodium bicarbonate (Na...

  4. Compliance with physical exercise

    Gram, Anne Sofie; Bønnelycke, Julie; Rosenkilde Larsen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Sixty-one healthy, sedentary, moderately overweight young men participated in a randomised controlled trial to examine the effects of two different doses of endurance exercise on health behaviour and exercise compliance. Methods: Participants were randomised to a sedentary control group......), a post hoc thematic analysis was conducted to connect qualitative and quantitative data in a joint analysis. Results: Of the subjects interviewed, exercise compliance expressed as 95% CI was [96.8; 103%] in the MOD group and [82.9; 99.6%] in the HIGH group. The different doses of daily exercise equally...... or quantitative methodology alone. The preconditions of the TBP were fulfilled, and it represents a methodological model to explain the high degree of compliance and motivation to exercise....

  5. Exercise and reproductive dysfunction.

    Chen, E C; Brzyski, R G

    1999-01-01

    To provide an overview of our current understanding of exercise-induced reproductive dysfunction and an approach to its evaluation and management. A MEDLINE search was performed to review all articles with title words related to menstrual dysfunction, amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, exercise, and athletic activities from 1966 to 1998. The pathophysiology, proposed mechanisms, clinical manifestations, evaluation, and management of exercise-associated reproductive dysfunction were compiled. Exercise-induced menstrual irregularity appears to be multifactorial in origin and remains a diagnosis of exclusion. The underlying mechanisms are mainly speculative. Clinical manifestations range from luteal phase deficiency to anovulation, amenorrhea, and even delayed menarche. Evaluation should include a thorough history and a complete physical plus pelvic examination. Most cases are reversible with dietary and exercise modifications. Hormonal replacement in cases of a prolonged hypoestrogenic state with evidence of increased bone loss is recommended, although the long-term consequences of prolonged hormonal deficiency are ill-defined.

  6. Galois theory through exercises

    Brzeziński, Juliusz

    2018-01-01

    This textbook offers a unique introduction to classical Galois theory through many concrete examples and exercises of varying difficulty (including computer-assisted exercises). In addition to covering standard material, the book explores topics related to classical problems such as Galois’ theorem on solvable groups of polynomial equations of prime degrees, Nagell's proof of non-solvability by radicals of quintic equations, Tschirnhausen's transformations, lunes of Hippocrates, and Galois' resolvents. Topics related to open conjectures are also discussed, including exercises related to the inverse Galois problem and cyclotomic fields. The author presents proofs of theorems, historical comments and useful references alongside the exercises, providing readers with a well-rounded introduction to the subject and a gateway to further reading. A valuable reference and a rich source of exercises with sample solutions, this book will be useful to both students and lecturers. Its original concept makes it particula...

  7. Effects of gender, education and health communication on the regularity of physical exercise: a 2016 Vietnamese cross-section survey

    Vuong, Quan-Hoang; Pham, Hiep-Hung; Vuong, Thu Trang

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, physical exercise and sports activities are regarded as the best means for people to keep fit and boost their health. In Vietnam, exercising on a daily basis is still underappreciated as twothirds of the population only exercise at trivial or low levels. Based on applying the baseline category logit model, we conduct an analysis to figure out the factors affecting people’s level of exercise. The findings show that males tend to engage in physical activities more than females, with t...

  8. Exercising for weight and shape reasons vs. health control reasons : the impact on eating disturbance and psychological functioning

    Gonçalves, Sónia; Gomes, António Rui

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of exercise motivated by health and weight/shape reasons. In total, 301 participants (53.5% males) completed questionnaires assessing eating behaviors, affect, self-esteem and attitudes toward exercise. Almost 48% of the participants reported that their exercise is motivated by weight/shape reasons. These individuals were more likely to report eating problems and more positive affect after exercising. For both groups, gender...

  9. Habitual exercise instigation (vs. execution) predicts healthy adults' exercise frequency.

    Phillips, L Alison; Gardner, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Habit is thought to be conducive to health behavior maintenance, because habits prompt behavior with minimal cognitive resources. The precise role of habit in determining complex behavioral sequences, such as exercise, has been underresearched. It is possible that the habit process may initiate a behavioral sequence (instigation habit) or that, after instigation, movement through the sequence is automated (execution habit). We hypothesized that exercise instigation habit can be empirically distinguished from exercise execution habit and that instigation habit strength is most predictive of future exercise and reflective of longitudinal exercise behavior change. Further, we evaluated whether patterned exercise action-that is, engaging in the same exercise actions from session to session-can be distinct from exercise execution habit. Healthy adults (N = 123) rated their exercise instigation and execution habit strengths, patterned exercise actions, and exercise frequency in baseline and 1-month follow-up surveys. Participants reported exercise engagement via electronic daily diaries for 1 month. Hypotheses were tested with regression analyses and repeated-measures analyses of variance. Exercise instigation habit strength was the only unique predictor of exercise frequency. Frequency profiles (change from high to low or low to high, no change high, no change low) were associated with changes in instigation habit but not with execution habit or patterned exercise action. Results suggest that the separable components of exercise sessions may be more or less automatic, and they point to the importance of developing instigation habit for establishing frequent exercise. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Exercise treatment for drug abuse -a Danish pilot study

    Roessler, Kirsten Kaya

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: The paper presents a recent Danish programme using exercise to alter the behaviour and body image of drug addicts. METHODS: 38 participants (23 male and 15 female) took part in groups three times per week for a minimum of two to a maximum of six months. Self-reported data combined with the ......AIMS: The paper presents a recent Danish programme using exercise to alter the behaviour and body image of drug addicts. METHODS: 38 participants (23 male and 15 female) took part in groups three times per week for a minimum of two to a maximum of six months. Self-reported data combined...

  11. The effects of 16 weeks of intensive cycling training on seminal oxidants and antioxidants in male road cyclists.

    Maleki, Behzad Hajizadeh; Tartibian, Bakhtyar; Vaamonde, Diana

    2014-07-01

    To examine the effects of 16 weeks of intensive cycling training on seminal reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in male road cyclists. Repeated measures design. The Exercise Physiology Laboratory of the Urmia University. Twenty-four healthy nonprofessional male road cyclists (aged 17-26 years) participated in this study. All subjects participated in 16 weeks of intensive cycling training. The semen samples were collected, respectively, at baseline (T1), immediately (T2), 12 (T3), and 24 (T4) hours after the last training session in week 8; immediately (T5), 12 (T6), and 24 (T7) hours after the last training session in week 16; and 7 (T8) and 30 (T9) days after the last training session in week 16. Total antioxidant capacity and SOD were measured by colorimetric assay. The levels of ROS were measured by a chemiluminescence assay. Malondialdehyde levels were measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assay. Catalase was measured by monitoring the initial rate of disappearance of hydrogen peroxide (initial concentration 10 mM) at 240 nm. The levels of seminal ROS and MDA increased (P < 0.008) and remained high after 30 days of recovery. The levels of seminal SOD, catalase, and TAC decreased (P < 0.008) and remained low after 30 days of recovery (P < 0.008). Sixteen weeks of intensive cycling training may have deleterious consequences for spermatozoa and hence may affect sperm healthy parameters in male cyclists.

  12. Stimulation of DNA synthesis by 340nm/ 351nm UV laser irradiation

    Meldrum, R.A.; Wharton, C.W.

    1991-01-01

    During preliminary experiments designed to test the feasibility of using a 'caged' DNA break trapping agent, the authors observed a stimulation of incorporation of 3 H-thymidine into DNA when cells were irradiated with low doses (100-1000J/m 2 ) of 351nm UV laser irradiation. This wavelength is used to photolyse 'caged' dideoxynucleotides in our fast time course measurements of DNA repair in mammalian cells. The dose at which this stimulation was observed is well below that at which measurable damage is detected. (author)

  13. Acute Exercise and Motor Memory Consolidation: The Role of Exercise Timing

    Richard Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High intensity aerobic exercise amplifies offline gains in procedural memory acquired during motor practice. This effect seems to be evident when exercise is placed immediately after acquisition, during the first stages of memory consolidation, but the importance of temporal proximity of the exercise bout used to stimulate improvements in procedural memory is unknown. The effects of three different temporal placements of high intensity exercise were investigated following visuomotor skill acquisition on the retention of motor memory in 48 young (24.0 ± 2.5 yrs, healthy male subjects randomly assigned to one of four groups either performing a high intensity (90% Maximal Power Output exercise bout at 20 min (EX90, 1 h (EX90+1, 2 h (EX90+2 after acquisition or rested (CON. Retention tests were performed at 1 d (R1 and 7 d (R7. At R1 changes in performance scores after acquisition were greater for EX90 than CON (p<0.001 and EX90+2 (p=0.001. At R7 changes in performance scores for EX90, EX90+1, and EX90+2 were higher than CON (p<0.001, p=0.008, and p=0.008, resp.. Changes for EX90 at R7 were greater than EX90+2 (p=0.049. Exercise-induced improvements in procedural memory diminish as the temporal proximity of exercise from acquisition is increased. Timing of exercise following motor practice is important for motor memory consolidation.

  14. Maximal exercise increases mucosal associated invariant T cell frequency and number in healthy young men.

    Hanson, Erik D; Danson, Eli; Nguyen-Robertson, Catriona V; Fyfe, Jackson J; Stepto, Nigel K; Bartlett, David B; Sakkal, Samy

    2017-11-01

    Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells have properties of the innate and acquired immune systems. While the response to vigorous exercise has been established for most leukocytes, MAIT cells have not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose was to determine if MAIT cell lymphocytosis occurs with acute maximal aerobic exercise and if this response is influenced by exercise duration, cardiovascular fitness, or body composition. Twenty healthy young males with moderate fitness levels performed an extended graded exercise test until volitional fatigue. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from venous blood obtained prior and immediately after exercise and were labeled to identify specific T cell populations using flow cytometry. The percentage of MAIT cells relative to total T cells significantly increased from 3.0 to 3.8% and absolute MAIT cell counts increased by 2.2-fold following maximal exercise. MAIT cell subpopulation proportions were unchanged with exercise. Within cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), MAIT cells consisted of 8% of these cells and this remained constant after exercise. MAIT cell counts and changes with exercise were not affected by body composition, VO 2peak , or exercise duration. Maximal exercise doubled MAIT cell numbers and showed preferential mobilization within total T cells but the response was not influenced by fitness levels, exercise duration, or body composition. These results suggest that acute exercise could be used to offset MAIT cell deficiencies observed with certain pathologies. MAIT cells also make up a substantial proportion of CTLs, which may have implications for cytotoxicity assays using these cells.

  15. Sugars, exercise and health.

    Codella, Roberto; Terruzzi, Ileana; Luzi, Livio

    2017-12-15

    There is a direct link between a variety of addictions and mood states to which exercise could be relieving. Sugar addiction has been recently counted as another binge/compulsive/addictive eating behavior, differently induced, leading to a high-significant health problem. Regularly exercising at moderate intensity has been shown to efficiently and positively impact upon physiological imbalances caused by several morbid conditions, including affective disorders. Even in a wider set of physchiatric diseases, physical exercise has been prescribed as a complementary therapeutic strategy. A comprehensive literature search was carried out in the Cochrane Library and MEDLINE databases (search terms: sugar addiction, food craving, exercise therapy, training, physical fitness, physical activity, rehabilitation and aerobic). Seeking high-sugar diets, also in a reward- or craving-addiction fashion, can generate drastic metabolic derangements, often interpolated with affective disorders, for which exercise may represent a valuable, universal, non-pharmachological barrier. More research in humans is needed to confirm potential exercise-mechanisms that may break the bond between sugar over-consumption and affective disorders. The purpose of this review is to address the importance of physical exercise in reversing the gloomy scenario of unhealthy diets and sedentary lifestyles in our modern society. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. EXERCISE DURING PREGNANCY

    Zrna Agačević

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Exercise has become a vital part of many women's lives. However, theoretic concerns have been raised about the safety of some forms of exercise during pregnancy. Because of the physiologic changes associated with pregnancy, as well as the hemodynamic response to exercise, some precautions should be observed. The physician should screen for any contraindications to exercise and encourage patients to avoid overly vigorous activity, especially in the third trimester, when most pregnant women have a decreased tolerance for weight-bearing exercise. Adequate hydration and appropriate ventilation are important in preventing the possible teratogenic effects of overheating. Pregnant women should avoid exercise that involves the risk of abdominal trauma, falls or excessive joint stress, as in contact sports and vigorous racquet sports. In the absence of any obstetric or medical complications, most women can maintain a regular exercise regimen during pregnancy. Some studies have found a greater sense of well-being, shorter labor and fewer obstetric interventions in physically wellconditioned women as compared with other women.

  17. The Effects of Exercise on Judoists’ Circulating Blood Neutrophils

    A Zar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Type, intensity and duration of exercises exert pivotal effects on athletes’ immune system and probably athletes’ susceptibility to upper respiratory tract infections. In this study we examined the effects of one session of moderate-intensity exercise on male judoists’ circulating blood neutrophil counts (BNC and respiratory burst, and self-reported upper respiratory clinical infections 24 hours after the exercise and during the sport seasons. Methods: Ten male judoists after obtaining informed consent were included in the study. The athletes took part in a session of moderate-intensity exercise (60 minutes running on a treadmill at 60% of maximum heart rate. Blood samples were drawn at rest immediately after the exercise. Blood neutrophil count and percentage of Phorbol Myristate Acetate (PMA stimulated neutrophils in whole blood were assessed [as a marker of oxidative burst (OB quality]. Athletes were asked about any signs of upper respiratory infections 24 hours after the exercise and during sport seasons. Paired-t test was used for statistical analysis and statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: BNC were in normal range at rest, and meaningfully increased immediately after the exercise (p<0.05. At rest, the OB activity was in normal range, and increased immediately after the exercise (not significant. During 24 hours after the exercise, athletes showed no signs of upper respiratory system infections. Also they mentioned no history of increased susceptibility of upper respiratory infections during sport seasons. Conclusion: Continuous judo exercises have no negative effects on BNC and OB activity. This finding is in accordance with the absence of self-reported upper respiratory infections in judoists during sport seasons. Significant increase in BNC after a session of exercise was a

  18. Investigating Degradation Mechanisms in 130 nm and 90 nm Commercial CMOS Technologies Under Extreme Radiation Conditions

    Ratti, Lodovico; Gaioni, Luigi; Manghisoni, Massimo; Traversi, Gianluca; Pantano, Devis

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the mechanisms underlying performance degradation in 130 nm and 90 nm commercial CMOS technologies exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation. The investigation has been mainly focused on their noise properties in view of applications to the design of low-noise, low-power analog circuits to be operated in harsh environment. Experimental data support the hypothesis that charge trapping in shallow trench isolation (STI), besides degrading the static characteristics of interdigitated NMOS transistors, also affects their noise performances in a substantial fashion. The model discussed in this paper, presented in a previous work focused on CMOS devices irradiated with a 10 Mrad(SiO2) gamma -ray dose, has been applied here also to transistors exposed to much higher (up to 100 Mrad(SiO2 )) doses of X-rays. Such a model is able to account for the extent of the observed noise degradation as a function of the device polarity, dimensions and operating point.

  19. "It's exercise or nothing": a qualitative analysis of exercise dependence

    Bamber, D; Cockerill, I; Rodgers, S; Carroll, D

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—To explore, using qualitative methods, the concept of exercise dependence. Semistructured interviews were undertaken with subjects screened for exercise dependence and eating disorders. Methods—Female exercisers, four in each case, were allocated a priori to four groups: primary exercise dependent; secondary exercise dependent, where there was a coincidence of exercise dependence and an eating disorder; eating disordered; control, where there was no evidence of either exercise dependence or eating disorder. They were asked about their exercise and eating attitudes and behaviour, as well as about any history of psychological distress. Their narratives were taped, transcribed, and analysed from a social constructionist perspective using QSR NUD*IST. Results—Participants classified as primary exercise dependent either showed no evidence of exercise dependent attitudes and behaviour or, if they exhibited features of exercise dependence, displayed symptoms of an eating disorder. Only the latter reported a history of psychological distress, similar to that exhibited by women classified as secondary exercise dependent or eating disordered. For secondary exercise dependent and eating disordered women, as well as for controls, the narratives largely confirmed the a priori classification. Conclusions—Where exercise dependence was manifest, it was always in the context of an eating disorder, and it was this co-morbidity, in addition to eating disorders per se, that was associated with psychological distress. As such, these qualitative data support the concept of secondary, but not primary, exercise dependence. Key Words: exercise dependence; eating disorders; psychological distress; anorexia; bulimia PMID:11131229

  20. Exercise as medicine

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Saltin, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    disease, asthma, cystic fibrosis); musculo-skeletal disorders (osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, back pain, rheumatoid arthritis); and cancer. The effect of exercise therapy on disease pathogenesis and symptoms are given and the possible mechanisms of action are discussed. We have interpreted the scientific......This review provides the reader with the up-to-date evidence-based basis for prescribing exercise as medicine in the treatment of 26 different diseases: psychiatric diseases (depression, anxiety, stress, schizophrenia); neurological diseases (dementia, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis...... literature and for each disease, we provide the reader with our best advice regarding the optimal type and dose for prescription of exercise....

  1. IMP metabolism in human skeletal muscle after exhaustive exercise

    Tullson, P. C.; Bangsbo, Jens; Hellsten, Ylva

    1995-01-01

    This study addressed whether AMP deaminase (AMPD)myosin binding occurs with deamination during intense exercise in humans and the extent of purine loss from muscle during the initial minutes of recovery. Male subjects performed cycle exercise (265 +/- 2 W for 4.39 +/- 0.04 min) to stimulate muscle...... inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) formation. After exercise, blood flow to one leg was occluded. Muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were taken before and 3.6 +/- 0.2 min after exercise from the occluded leg and 0.7 +/- 0.0, 1.1 +/- 0.0, and 2.9 +/- 0.1 min postexercise in the nonoccluded leg. Exercise...... activated AMPD; at exhaustion IMP was 3.5 +/- 0.4 mmol/kg dry muscle. Before exercise, 16.0 +/- 1.6% of AMPD cosedimented with the myosin fraction; the extent of AMPD:myosin binding was unchanged by exercise. Inosine content increased about threefold during exercise and twofold more during recovery; by 2...

  2. Exercise increases lactoferrin, but decreases lysozyme in salivary granulocytes.

    Gillum, Trevor; Kuennen, Matthew; McKenna, Zachary; Castillo, Micaela; Jordan-Patterson, Alex; Bohnert, Caitlin

    2017-05-01

    Intracellular lactoferrin (Lac) and lysozyme (Lys) content play an important role in regulating inflammation and promoting host protection. While exercise has demonstrated an increase in Lac and Lys concentration in exocrine solutions, little is known regarding intracellular concentration changes in response to exercise. To quantify intracellular Lac and Lys concentration before and after exercise in salivary CD45 + CD15 + cells. 11 males (20.3 ± 0.8 years, 57.2 ± 7.6 mL/kg/min V̇O 2pk , 11.1 ± 3.9% body fat) ran for 45 min at 75% of VO 2pk . 12 mL of stimulated saliva were collected pre and immediately post exercise. Saliva was filtered through a 30-µm filter before analysis of leukocytes (CD45 + ) and granulocytes (CD45 + CD15 + ) using flow cytometry. Median fluorescent intensity (MFI) of Lac increased from pre (64,268 ± 46,036 MFI) to post (117,134 ± 88,115 MFI) exercise (p exercise (pre: 16,933 ± 8249; post: 11,616 ± 6875) (p exercise. Conversely, the exercise-associated decrease of intracellular Lys content could be the cause of increased Lys in exocrine solutions.

  3. Acute exercise and motor memory consolidation: The role of exercise intensity and timing

    Thomas, Richard; Korsgaard Johnsen, Line; Geertsen, Svend Sparre

    2015-01-01

    Background A single bout of high intensity cycling (~90% VO2peak) immediately after motor skill training enhances motor memory consolidation. It is unclear how different parameters of exercise may influence this process and the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesize......) accompanying skill learning and exercise. Methods Sixty able-bodied male subjects (20-35 years) were randomly assigned to one of five groups that practiced a visuomotor accuracy task. 20 min post motor skill learning (MSL), subjects in Experiment A performed either a single bout of aerobic exercise at 45% (EX...... and baseline motor performance. Delayed retention tests of motor skill were tested 24 hours (R24) & 7 days (R7) post acquisition. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied to the primary motor cortex to obtain measures of CSE, intracortical inhibition (SICI) and facilitation (SICF) before and after...

  4. Exercise program design considerations for head and neck cancer survivors.

    Midgley, Adrian W; Lowe, Derek; Levy, Andrew R; Mepani, Vishal; Rogers, Simon N

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to establish exercise preferences, barriers, and perceived benefits among head and neck cancer survivors, as well as their level of interest in participating in an exercise program. Patients treated for primary squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck between 2010 and 2014 were identified from the hospital database and sent a postal questionnaire pack to establish exercise preferences, barriers, perceived benefits, current physical activity levels, and quality of life. A postal reminder was sent to non-responders 4 weeks later. The survey comprised 1021 eligible patients of which 437 (43%) responded [74% male, median (interquartile range) age, 66 (60-73) years]. Of the respondents, 30% said 'Yes' they would be interested in participating in an exercise program and 34% said 'Maybe'. The most common exercise preferences were a frequency of three times per week, moderate-intensity, and 15-29 min per bout. The most popular exercise types were walking (68%), flexibility exercises (35%), water activites/swimming (33%), cycling (31%), and weight machines (19%). Home (55%), outdoors (46%) and health club/gym (33%) were the most common preferred choices for where to regularly exercise. Percieved exercise benefits relating to improved physical attributes were commonly cited, whereas potential social and work-related benefits were less well-acknowledged. The most commonly cited exercise barriers were dry mouth or throat (40%), fatigue (37%), shortness of breath (30%), muscle weakness (28%) difficulty swallowing (25%), and shoulder weakness and pain (24%). The present findings inform the design of exercise programs for head and neck cancer survivors.

  5. Excessive Exercise Habits in Marathoners as Novel Indicators of Masked Hypertension

    Kim, Young-Joo; Park, Yongbum; Kang, Duk-Ho; Kim, Chul-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Background. Excessive exercise such as marathon running increases the risk of cardiovascular events that may be related to myocardial infarction and sudden death. We aimed to investigate that the exercise characteristics can be used as a novel indicator of masked hypertension. Methods. A total of 571 middle-aged recreational male marathoners were assigned to a high blood pressure group (HBPG; n = 214) or a normal blood pressure group (NBPG; n = 357). A graded exercise test was used to examine...

  6. Achilles tendon of wistar rats treated with laser therapy and eccentric exercise

    Souza, Maria Verônica de; Silva, Carlos Henrique Osório; Silva, Micheline Ozana da; Costa, Marcela Bueno Martins da; Dornas, Raul Felipe; Borges, Andréa Pacheco Batista; Natali, Antônio José

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTIntroduction:Both laser therapy and eccentric exercises are used in tendon injuries. However, the association of these physiotherapeutic modalities is yet little investigated.Objective:To evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy associated to eccentric exercise (downhill walking) on Achilles tendinopathy of Wistar rats.Method:Eighteen Achilles tendon from 15 adult male Wistar rats were used. Tendons were distributed in six groups (laser, eccentric exercise, laser and eccentric e...

  7. Playing it safe: exercise and cardiovascular health.

    Dhutia, Harshil; Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-10-01

    Regular physical activity controls acquired cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia. Exercise is generally associated with a 50% reduction in adverse events from coronary artery disease (CAD). The benefits of exercise extend well beyond the cardiovascular system. Recent evidence suggests that exercise prevents cell senescence, and active individuals are at lower risk of developing certain malignancies including cancer of the prostate and the colon, osteoporosis, depression and dementia. Individuals who exercise regularly extend their life expectancy by three to seven years. Healthy individuals should engage in 150 minutes of moderate-intensity, aerobic exercise per week. Recent studies have demonstrated that even lower volumes of exercise below these recommendations confer health benefits, which is highly relevant to individuals with established cardiac disease including heart failure. Sudden cardiac death in athletes under 35 is rare with.estimates ranging from 1 in 50,000 to 1 in 200,000. Hereditary and congenital abnormalities of the heart are the most common cause of nontraumatic death during sport in young athletes. In middle-aged recreational athletes more than 90% of sudden cardiac deaths occur in males and more than 90% are caused by atherosclerotic CAD. The AHA and the ESC advocate pre-participation screening of young athletes. The ECG has the ability to detect congenital accessory pathways and ion channelopathies, and is frequently abnormal in individuals with cardiomyopathy. Screening with a 12-lead ECG in older athletes is of limited value given the overwhelming contribution of atherosclerotic CAD to sudden cardiac death.

  8. Exercise reinforcement, stress, and β-endorphins: an initial examination of exercise in anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence.

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Shope, Sydney; Varangis, Eleanna; Klein, Diane; Pfaff, Donald W; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-06-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) are abused primarily in the context of intense exercise and for the purposes of increasing muscle mass as opposed to drug-induced euphoria. AASs also modulate the HPA axis and may increase the reinforcing value of exercise through changes to stress hormone and endorphin release. To test this hypothesis, 26 adult males drawn from a larger study on AAS use completed a progressive ratio task designed to examine the reinforcing value of exercise relative to financial reinforcer. Sixteen experienced and current users (8 on-cycle, 8 off-cycle) and 10 controls matched on quantity×frequency of exercise, age, and education abstained from exercise for 24 h prior to testing and provided 24-h cortisol, plasma cortisol, ACTH, β-endorphin samples, and measures of mood, compulsive exercise, and body image. Between group differences indicated that on-cycle AAS users had the highest β-endorphin levels, lowest cortisol levels, higher ACTH levels than controls. Conversely, off-cycle AAS users had the highest cortisol and ACTH levels, but the lowest β-endorphin levels. Exercise value was positively correlated with β-endorphin and symptoms of AAS dependence. The HPA response to AASs may explain why AASs are reinforcing in humans and exercise may play a key role in the development of AAS dependence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Stimulation of splanchnic glucose production during exercise in humans contains a glucagon-independent component

    Coker, R H; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2001-01-01

    To determine the importance of basal glucagon to the stimulation of net splanchnic glucose output (NSGO) during exercise, seven healthy males performed cycle exercise during a pancreatic islet cell clamp. In one group (BG), glucagon was replaced at basal levels and insulin was adjusted to achieve...

  10. Comparison of Effects of Running and Playing Exercises on Differential Leucocyte Count in Young Elite Athletes

    Cenikli, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present research are to test the effects of running and playing exercises on leucocyte and differential leucocyte accounts, and to test the possible differences between running and playing exercises in terms of leucocyte accounts. They were thirty two male young soccer players. Participants arrived at the laboratory after a 12-hour…

  11. Diet and sex modify exercise and cardiac adaptation in the mouse.

    Konhilas, John P; Chen, Hao; Luczak, Elizabeth; McKee, Laurel A; Regan, Jessica; Watson, Peter A; Stauffer, Brian L; Khalpey, Zain I; Mckinsey, Timothy A; Horn, Todd; LaFleur, Bonnie; Leinwand, Leslie A

    2015-01-15

    The heart adapts to exercise stimuli in a sex-dimorphic manner when mice are fed the traditional soy-based chow. Females undergo more voluntary exercise (4 wk) than males and exhibit more cardiac hypertrophy per kilometer run (18, 32). We have found that diet plays a critical role in cage wheel exercise and cardiac adaptation to the exercise stimulus in this sex dimorphism. Specifically, feeding male mice a casein-based, soy-free diet increases daily running distance over soy-fed counterparts to equal that of females. Moreover, casein-fed males have a greater capacity to increase their cardiac mass in response to exercise compared with soy-fed males. To further explore the biochemical mechanisms for these differences, we performed a candidate-based RT-PCR screen on genes previously implicated in diet- or exercise-based cardiac hypertrophy. Of the genes screened, many exhibit significant exercise, diet, or sex effects but only transforming growth factor-β1 shows a significant three-way interaction with no genes showing a two-way interaction. Finally, we show that the expression and activity of adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase-α2 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase is dependent on exercise, diet, and sex.

  12. Diet and sex modify exercise and cardiac adaptation in the mouse

    Chen, Hao; Luczak, Elizabeth; McKee, Laurel A.; Regan, Jessica; Watson, Peter A.; Stauffer, Brian L.; Khalpey, Zain I; Mckinsey, Timothy A.; Horn, Todd; LaFleur, Bonnie; Leinwand, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    The heart adapts to exercise stimuli in a sex-dimorphic manner when mice are fed the traditional soy-based chow. Females undergo more voluntary exercise (4 wk) than males and exhibit more cardiac hypertrophy per kilometer run (18, 32). We have found that diet plays a critical role in cage wheel exercise and cardiac adaptation to the exercise stimulus in this sex dimorphism. Specifically, feeding male mice a casein-based, soy-free diet increases daily running distance over soy-fed counterparts to equal that of females. Moreover, casein-fed males have a greater capacity to increase their cardiac mass in response to exercise compared with soy-fed males. To further explore the biochemical mechanisms for these differences, we performed a candidate-based RT-PCR screen on genes previously implicated in diet- or exercise-based cardiac hypertrophy. Of the genes screened, many exhibit significant exercise, diet, or sex effects but only transforming growth factor-β1 shows a significant three-way interaction with no genes showing a two-way interaction. Finally, we show that the expression and activity of adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase-α2 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase is dependent on exercise, diet, and sex. PMID:25398983

  13. Acute regulation of IGF-I by alterations in post-exercise macronutrients

    This investigation sought to examine the contributions of exercise and nutrient replenishment on in vivo regulation of the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis components. Eight college-aged males completed three high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols followed by three post-exercise ...

  14. Transient post-exercise hyper-perspiration of forehead area | Reza ...

    Information about sweating responses during exercise recovery is insufficient and mostly controversial. In the present study, particular attention is given to sweating behavior at forehead area immediately after exercise. Simultaneous changes of some underlying factors are also addressed. Eight healthy young males ...

  15. Breakfast consumption and exercise interact to affect cognitive performance and mood later in the day. A randomized controlled trial.

    Veasey, R C; Gonzalez, J T; Kennedy, D O; Haskell, C F; Stevenson, E J

    2013-09-01

    The current study assessed the interactive effect of breakfast and exercise on cognition and mood. Twelve active males completed four trials; no breakfast-rest, breakfast-rest, no breakfast-exercise or breakfast-exercise in a randomized, cross-over design. The trials consisted of; breakfast or fast, a 2h rest, exercise (treadmill run) or equivalent rest, a chocolate milk drink, a 90 min rest and an ad libitum lunch. Cognitive performance and mood were recorded frequently throughout each trial. Data was analysed as pre-exercise/rest, during and immediately post exercise/rest and post-drink. No effects were found prior to consumption of the drink. Post-drink, fasting before exercise increased mental fatigue compared to consuming breakfast before exercise and fasting before rest. Tension increased when breakfast was consumed at rest and when exercise was undertaken fasted compared to omitting breakfast before rest. Breakfast before rest decreased rapid visual information processing task speed and impaired Stroop performance. Breakfast omission improved Four Choice Reaction Time performance. To conclude, breakfast before exercise appeared beneficial for post-exercise mood even when a post-exercise snack was consumed. Exercise reversed post-breakfast cognitive impairment in active males. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Emergency exercise ''Mosel 90''

    Miska, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    An emergency exercise for the environs of the nuclear power plant CPN de Cattenom was performed from April, 5th to 7th, 1990. Administration and operational personnel from Luxembourg, Saarland, and Rhineland-Palatinate (RP) participated in the combined staff and field exercise; the competent French authority, la Prefecture de Metz, played the role of the licencee. While each responsible authority tested its alarm -and response plan and trained its personnel, a major aim of the off-site exercise was to investigate and improve the methods of communication in this border region location; the outer planning zone (radius 25 km) of the French reactors encompasses parts of Luxembourg and of the two German states mentioned above. Preparation and scenario of the exercise will be explained and lessons learned will be discussed

  17. Parkinson's Disease: Exercise

    ... physical activity can improve many PD symptoms. These benefits are supported by research. The Parkinson’s Outcomes Project shows that people with PD who start exercising earlier and a minimum of 2.5 hours ...

  18. 'Exercise is Medicine'?

    exercise in the treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidaemia. Conclusion. .... Arthritis. 109 (45). 89 (37). 34 (14). 12 (5). Rheumatoid arthritis. 86 (36). 83 (35) .... PA is free and consequently a viable alternative to pharmaceuticals.

  19. Cardiovascular control during exercise

    Dela, Flemming; Mohr, Thomas; Jensen, Christina M R

    2003-01-01

    We studied the role of the central nervous system, neural feedback from contracting skeletal muscles, and sympathetic activity to the heart in the control of heart rate and blood pressure during 2 levels of dynamic exercise....

  20. Exercise and activity - children

    ... Group sports are another option, such as soccer, football, basketball, karate, or tennis. Choose an exercise that ... herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any ...

  1. Why Exercise Is Wise

    ... dancing, in-line skating, tennis , cross-country skiing, hiking, and walking quickly. Strength Training The heart isn't the only muscle to benefit from regular exercise. The other muscles in your ...

  2. Exercise and Asthma

    ... bursts of energy are also recommended. These include: • Hiking • Baseball • Golf • Walking • Leisure biking Because cold, dry ... plan. Exercise is important and provides many health benefits, especially for people with asthma. So don’t ...

  3. Kids and Exercise

    ... a better outlook on life Besides enjoying the health benefits of regular exercise, fit kids sleep better. They' ... Can I Get My Kids to Be Active Outdoors? Strength Training What If I Don't Like ...

  4. Heart-Healthy Exercise

    ... also important to perform stretches, resistance training, and balance exercises on a regular basis; these will help to improve flexibility, increase strength, and reduce fall risk ( Table ). View this table: View inline View popup ...

  5. Exercise clothing and shoes

    ... form-fitting, stretchy clothing for activities like: Running Biking Advanced yoga/Pilates Swimming You may be able ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Exercise and Physical Fitness Browse the Encyclopedia ...

  6. Rethinking exercise identity

    Adamsen, Lis; Andersen, Christina; Lillelund, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To explore physically inactive breast and colon cancer patients’ prediagnosis exercise history and attitudes to physical activity (PA) and experiences in initiating PA while undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy. Design: An explorative qualitative study guided the interpretive analysis...... age 49 years: 25 patients with breast cancer and 8 with colon cancer, 72% with a low cardiac respiratory fitness level and the majority with a high level of education. Patients received adjuvant chemotherapy, oncologist’s PA recommendation and exercise, cancer nurse specialist’s counselling prior...... to allocation to PA interventions or waitlist control group. Results: Prediagnosis exercise had been excluded from patients’ daily lives due to perceptions of exercise as boring, lack of discipline and stressful work conditions for both genders. Recommendations from oncologists and nurses inspired the patients...

  7. [Exercise in arterial hypertension].

    Predel, Hans-Georg; Schramm, Thomas

    2006-09-01

    Regular endurance training has established itself as a major therapeutic principle in the specter of nonpharmacological measures in arterial hypertension. An initial medical check as well as an adequate technique, dosage and intensity of the prescribed exercise training are mandatory. With respect to the concomitant pharmacological treatment, it should be considered that the beneficial effects of lifestyle modification will not be counteracted by the chosen antihypertensive drug but, ideally, synergistically supported. Based on the individual clinical situation, principally all antihypertensive drugs recommended by the current European guidelines, may be prescribed as mono- or combination therapy.beta-receptor blockers are especially capable of controlling excessive exercise-induced blood pressure increase; however, they have metabolic and exercise physiological limitations. The neutrality concerning metabolic and exercise physiological parameters as well as the positive profile of side effects favor ACE inhibitors, long-acting calcium channel blockers and especially AT(1) antagonists in physically active hypertensive patients with concomitant metabolic syndrome.

  8. Exercise Equipment: Neutral Buoyancy

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Axial skeletal loads coupled with muscle forces maintain bone in the spine and lower extremities during International Space Station (ISS) missions. Current exercise...

  9. Learn to love exercise

    ... well, such as tickets to a concert or movie. Alternative Names Prevention - learn to love exercise; Wellness - ... 23630089 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23630089 . Review Date 5/21/2016 Updated by: Linda J. ...

  10. [Lumbar stabilization exercises].

    Vásquez-Ríos, Jorge Rodrigo; Nava-Bringas, Tania Inés

    2014-01-01

    Exercise is the intervention with the highest level of evidence on efficacy for treatment of chronic low back pain, with a higher benefit in terms of pain and function compared to any other intervention. A wide variety of exercises programs have been designed; however, "lumbar stabilization exercises" have become increasingly popular among clinicians who are in contact with spine diseases. However, there is controversy regarding the adequate prescription and there are multiple protocols. The aim of this literature review is to analyze the information about these exercises to promote better decision-making among clinicians and design the best program for each patient. We found the program an essential tool in the treatment of low back pain in both therapeutic and preventive phases.

  11. Why Exercise Is Cool

    ... these: swimming basketball hockey running or walking skating soccer cross-country skiing riding your bike jumping rope ... My Body? Can Kids With Asthma Play Sports? Nutrition & Fitness Center Sports, Exercise, and Diabetes Getting Muscles ...

  12. Getting Exercise in College

    ... in college? What Does My Body Need? The importance of exercise is nothing new. Thomas Jefferson once ... commitment to regular activity. According to the 2008 Physical activity guidelines, kids and teens should do 60 minutes ...

  13. "It's exercise or nothing": a qualitative analysis of exercise dependence.

    Bamber, D; Cockerill, I M; Rodgers, S; Carroll, D

    2000-12-01

    To explore, using qualitative methods, the concept of exercise dependence. Semistructured interviews were undertaken with subjects screened for exercise dependence and eating disorders. Female exercisers, four in each case, were allocated a priori to four groups: primary exercise dependent; secondary exercise dependent, where there was a coincidence of exercise dependence and an eating disorder; eating disordered; control, where there was no evidence of either exercise dependence or eating disorder. They were asked about their exercise and eating attitudes and behaviour, as well as about any history of psychological distress. Their narratives were taped, transcribed, and analysed from a social constructionist perspective using QSR NUD*IST. Participants classified as primary exercise dependent either showed no evidence of exercise dependent attitudes and behaviour or, if they exhibited features of exercise dependence, displayed symptoms of an eating disorder. Only the latter reported a history of psychological distress, similar to that exhibited by women classified as secondary exercise dependent or eating disordered. For secondary exercise dependent and eating disordered women, as well as for controls, the narratives largely confirmed the a priori classification. Where exercise dependence was manifest, it was always in the context of an eating disorder, and it was this comorbidity, in addition to eating disorders per se, that was associated with psychological distress. As such, these qualitative data support the concept of secondary, but not primary, exercise dependence.

  14. Physiotherapy exercise programmes: are instructional exercise sheets effective?

    Smith, Jo; Lewis, Jeremy; Prichard, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Effective compliance with physiotherapy exercises is only possible if patients remember the exercises accurately. The purpose of this study was to assess how well elderly in-patients remembered simple physiotherapy exercises, by comparing the ability to accurately reproduce a set of exercises in a group of patients that had received a written exercise sheet, with a group that had not. The study also aimed to investigate the relationship between memory for exercises and cognition. Sixty-four in-patients in an acute hospital were taught 3 exercises. Half of the subjects were randomised to receive exercise sheets to reinforce the teaching (Group 1). The rest of the subjects did not receive this memory aid (Group 2). Two to three days later subjects were asked to demonstrate their exercises. The accurate recall of the exercises was scored using a new assessment scale with a maximum score of 24. The mean exercise score was 17.19 for group 1 (SD = 5.91) and 16.24 for Group 2 (SD = 6.01). There was no significant difference in exercise score between groups (Mann Whitney U test p = 0.44). There was a statistically significant small positive correlation between exercise score and cognition (tau = 0.263). The study showed that older adult in-patients do not remember physiotherapy exercises effectively after a single teaching session and that their memory is not significantly improved by provision of an exercise sheet.

  15. Exercise Therapy for Fibromyalgia

    Busch, Angela J.; Webber, Sandra C.; Brachaniec, Mary; Bidonde, Julia; Bello-Haas, Vanina Dal; Danyliw, Adrienne D.; Overend, Tom J.; Richards, Rachel S.; Sawant, Anuradha; Schachter, Candice L.

    2011-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome, a chronic condition typically characterized by widespread pain, nonrestorative sleep, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, and other somatic symptoms, negatively impacts physical and emotional function and reduces quality of life. Exercise is commonly recommended in the management of people with fibromyalgia, and interest in examining exercise benefits for those with the syndrome has grown substantially over the past 25 years. Research supports aerobic and strength training ...

  16. Soil conservation measures: exercises

    Figueiredo, Tomás de; Fonseca, Felícia

    2009-01-01

    Exercises proposed under the topic of Soil Conservation Measures addresses to the design of structural measure, namely waterways in the context of a soil conservation plan. However, to get a better insight on the actual meaning of soil loss as a resource loss, a prior exercise is proposed to students. It concerns calculations of soil loss due to sheet (interrill) erosion and to gully erosion, and allows the perception through realistic number of the impact of these mechanism...

  17. Troponin and exercise.

    Gresslien, T; Agewall, S

    2016-10-15

    Cardiac troponins are the preferred biomarkers in diagnostic of myocardial infarction, but these markers also can rise in response to exercise. Multiple studies have assessed troponins post-exercise, but the results have varied and there have been disagreements about the mechanism of troponin release. The aim of this paper was to review the literature, and to consider factors and mechanisms regarding exercise-induced increase of troponin. 145 studies were found after a search in pubmed and inclusion of additional articles found in the reference list of the first articles. Results showed that troponin rises in 0-100% of subjects after prolonged heavy exercise like marathon, but also after short-term and intermittent exercise like 30min of running and basketball. The variation can be due to factors like intensity, age, training experience, variation in sample size, blood sample timing and troponin assay. The pattern of troponin level post-exercise corresponds to release from the cytosolic compartment of cardiomyocytes. Increased membrane permeability might be caused by production of reactive oxygen species or alterations in calcium, pH, glucose/fat metabolism or in communication between integrins. Other suggested mechanisms are increased cardiovascular stress, inflammation, vasculitis, release of troponin degradation products in "blebs", dehydration, impaired renal clearance and expression of cardiac troponin in skeletal muscle. It can be concluded that both heavy and light exercise may cause elevated troponin, which have to be considered when patient are suspected to have a myocardial infarction. Several factors probably influence post-exercise levels of troponin, but the mechanism of release is most likely physiologic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of exercise on activity-and blood flow-related neuromuscular degeneration

    Ishihara, Akihiko; 石原 昭彦

    2006-01-01

    Effects of running exercise with increasing loads on hindlimb unloading-induced neuromuscular degeneration in male rats were investigated. Ten-week-old male rats were hindlimb suspended at horizontal position for two weeks and thereafter were rehabilitated by voluntary running exercise with increasing loads for two weeks. A decreased percentage of type 1 fibers and atrophy and decreased oxidative enzyme activity of all types of fibers in the soleus muscle were observed after hindlimb unloadin...

  19. Low Fat Loss Response after Medium-Term Supervised Exercise in Obese Is Associated with Exercise-Induced Increase in Food Reward

    Graham Finlayson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine exercise-induced changes in the reward value of food during medium-term supervised exercise in obese individuals. Subjects/Methods. The study was a 12-week supervised exercise intervention prescribed to expend 500 kcal/day, 5 d/week. 34 sedentary obese males and females were identified as responders (R or non-responders (NR to the intervention according to changes in body composition relative to measured energy expended during exercise. Food reward (ratings of liking and wanting, and relative preference by forced choice pairs for an array of food images was assessed before and after an acute exercise bout. Results. 20 responders and 14 non-responders were identified. R lost 5.2 kg ± 2.4 of total fat mass and NR lost 1.7 kg ± 1.4. After acute exercise, liking for all foods increased in NR compared to no change in R. Furthermore, NR showed an increase in wanting and relative preference for high-fat sweet foods. These differences were independent of 12-weeks regular exercise and weight loss. Conclusion. Individuals who showed an immediate post-exercise increase in liking and increased wanting and preference for high-fat sweet foods displayed a smaller reduction in fat mass with exercise. For some individuals, exercise increases the reward value of food and diminishes the impact of exercise on fat loss.

  20. First principles study on the interfacial properties of NM/graphdiyne (NM = Pd, Pt, Rh and Ir): The implications for NM growing

    Lu, Zhansheng; Li, Shuo; Lv, Peng [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); He, Chaozheng, E-mail: hecz2013@nynu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Normal University, Nanyang 473061 (China); Ma, Dongwei [School of Physics, Anyang Normal University, Anyang 455000 (China); Yang, Zongxian, E-mail: yzx@henannu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Nano Functional Materials and Applications, Kaifeng (China)

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The NM adatoms belong to embedded adsorption in 18C-hexagon of GDY. • The Rh and Ir/GDY can be applied to single metal catalysts or sensors. • A simple linear relationship between E{sub e-ads} and E{sub b} is presented. • The linear relationship can be used in the noble metal modified GDY. - Abstract: Based on the dispersion-corrected density functional calculations (DFT-D), we systematically studied the adsorption of noble metals (NM), Pd, Pt, Rh and Ir, on graphdiyne (GDY). We present a systematic study on the geometry, embedded adsorption energy and electronic structure of four different adatoms adsorbed on the GDY. The strong interaction between the NM adatoms and the GDY substrate is found with the NM embedded in the 18C-hexagon of the GDY. We investigated the mobility of the NM adatoms on the GDY, and found that the mobility barrier energy increases along with the increasing of the embedded adsorption energy. We present the NM adatoms growth of high concentrations on the GDY. Upon the analysis of the electronic structure and the frontier molecular orbitals, Rh and Ir adatoms of low concentrations (about 1.37 at%) on the GDY have the potential to be applied as single metal catalysts or gas molecule sensors.

  1. Off-site emergency exercises

    Miska, H.

    1999-01-01

    Because of the rareness of nuclear emergencies, the response to such an event has to be exercised regularly. The main objectives of such exercises, examination of plans, test of equipment, and education of the personnel, will be dealt with. Different types of exercises are presented, and good practices for exercises explained. Finally, a critical assessment of exercise experience and an outlook is presented. (orig.) [de

  2. Effects of acute exercise on gene expression in exercising and non-exercising human skeletal muscle

    Catoire, Milene; Mensink, Marco; Boekschoten, Mark; Hangelbroek, Roland; Muller, Michael; Schrauwen, Patricht; Kersten, Sander

    2012-01-01

    Background: Exercising is know to have an effect on exercising skeletal muscle, but unkown is the effect on non-exercising skeletal muscle. Gene expression changes in the non-exercising skeletal muscle would point to a signalling role of skeletal muscle

  3. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  4. Male mating biology

    Howell, Paul I.; Knols, Bart G. J.

    2009-01-01

    Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings

  5. Male breast cancer

    Lautrup, Marianne D; Thorup, Signe S; Jensen, Vibeke

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Describe prognostic parameters of Danish male breast cancer patients (MBCP) diagnosed from 1980-2009. Determine all-cause mortality compared to the general male population and analyze survival/mortality compared with Danish female breast cancer patients (FBCP) in the same period...

  6. Male depression in females?

    Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Yücel, Mete

    2010-02-01

    Scientific evidence for a male-typed depression ("male depression") is still limited, but mainly supports this concept with respect to single externalizing symptoms or symptom clusters. In particular, studies on non-clinical populations including males and females are lacking. The present study aims at assessing general well-being, the risk and the symptoms of male depression dependent on biological sex and gender-role orientation on instrumental (masculine) and expressive (feminine) personality traits in an unselected community sample of males and females. Students (518 males, 500 females) of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Germany, were asked to participate in a "stress study" and complete the following self-report questionnaires: the WHO-5 Well-being Index [Bech, P., 1998. Quality of Life in the Psychiatric Patient. Mosby-Wolfe, London], the Gotland Scale for Male Depression [Walinder, J., Rutz, W., 2001. Male depression and suicide. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 16 (suppl 2), 21-24] and the German Extended Personal Attribute Questionnaire [Runge, T.E., Frey, D., Gollwitzer, P.M., et al., 1981. Masculine (instrumental) and feminine (expressive) traits. A comparison between students in the United States and West Germany. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 12, 142-162]. General well-being of the students was significantly lower compared to population norms. Contrary to expectations, female students had a greater risk of male depression than male students (28.9% vs. 22.4%; p<0.05). Overall, prototypic depressive symptoms as well as externalizing symptoms were more pronounced in females. In the subgroup of those at risk for male depression, biological sex and kind of symptoms were unrelated. Principal component analyses revealed a similar symptom structure for males and females. Low scores on masculinity/instrumentality significantly predicted higher risk of male depression, independent of biological sex. The study sample is not

  7. Self-determined to exercise? Leisure-time exercise behavior, exercise motivation, and exercise dependence in youth.

    Symons Downs, Danielle; Savage, Jennifer S; DiNallo, Jennifer M

    2013-02-01

    Scant research has examined the determinants of primary exercise dependence symptoms in youth. Study purposes were to examine sex differences across leisure-time exercise behavior, motivation, and primary exercise dependence symptoms in youth and the extent to which exercise behavior and motivation predicted exercise dependence within the Self-Determination Theory framework. Adolescents (N = 805; mean age = 15 years; 46% girls) completed measures of exercise behavior, motivation, and exercise dependence in health/PE classes. One-way ANOVA revealed boys scored higher than girls on leisure-time exercise behavior, exercise dependence symptoms, and most of the exercise motivation subscales. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated a) sex, exercise behavior, motivation, and their interaction terms explained 39% of the variance in primary exercise dependence; b) Integrated Regulation and Introjected Regulation were important determinants of exercise dependence; and c) sex moderated the contributions of External Regulation for predicting exercise dependence such that boys in the high and low external regulation groups had higher symptoms than girls in the high and low external regulation groups. These preliminary findings support the controlled dimensions of Integrated Regulation (boys, girls), Introjected Regulation (boys, girls), and External Regulation (boys only) are important determinants of primary exercise dependence symptoms.

  8. Exercise motivational regulations and exercise addiction: The mediating role of passion.

    Sicilia, Álvaro; Alcaraz-Ibáñez, Manuel; Lirola, María-Jesús; Burgueño, Rafael; Maher, Anthony

    2018-05-23

    Background and aims The study explored the mediating role of forms of passion in the relationship between motivational regulations in exercise and exercise addiction (EA). Methods A total of 485 university students (368 males and 117 females; M age  = 20.43, SD = 3.21) completed a questionnaire measuring the frequency and intensity of exercise, motivational regulations in exercise, passion for exercise, and EA. Controlling the effects of age, frequency, and intensity of practice, the relationships between the study variables were examined though a path analysis. Results Both self-determined and non-self-determined forms of motivation showed positive association with EA. The forms of motivation with greatest predictive power for EA were introjected and integrated regulations. Both forms of motivation had positive direct and indirect effects through obsessive passion (OP) on EA; however, integrated regulation also showed negative indirect effects through harmonious passion on EA. Conclusions Both forms of passion and, especially, OP, seem to affect how motivational regulations are associated with EA. These findings clarify the association found in previous studies between self-determined forms of motivation and EA.

  9. Cardiovascular responses to plyometric exercise are affected by workload in athletes.

    Arazi, Hamid; Asadi, Abbas; Mahdavi, Seyed Amir; Nasiri, Seyed Omid Mirfalah

    2014-01-01

    With regard to blood pressure responses to plyometric exercise and decreasing blood pressure after exercise (post-exercise hypotension), the influence of different workloads of plyometric exercise on blood pressure is not clear. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of a low, moderate and high workload of plyometric exercise on the post-exercise systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR) and rate-pressure product (RPP) responses in athletes. TEN MALE ATHLETES (AGE: 22.6 ±0.5 years; height: 178.2 ±3.3 cm; and body mass: 75.2 ±2.8 kg) underwent PE protocols involving 5 × 10 reps (Low Workload - LW), 10 × 10 reps (Moderate Workload - MW), and 15 × 10 reps (High Workload - HW) depth jump exercise from a 50-cm box in 3 non-consecutive days. After each exercise session, SBP, DBP and HR were measured every 10 min for a period of 70 min. No significant differences were observed among post-exercise SBP and DBP when the protocols (LW, MW and HW) were compared. The MW and HW protocols showed greater increases in HR compared with LW. Also the HW indicated greater increases than LW in RPP at post-exercise (p plyometric exercise, HW condition indicated greater increases in HR and RPP and strength and conditioning professionals and athletes must keep in their mind that HW of plyometric exercise induces greater cardiovascular responses.

  10. Different Intensities of Treadmill Running Exercise do Not Alter Melatonin Levels in Rats

    Ionara Rodrigues Siqueira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regular and moderate exercise has been considered an interesting neuroprotective strategy. Our research group demonstrated that a protocol of moderate exercise on a treadmill reduced, while a protocol of high-intensity exercise increased in vitro ischemic cell damage in Wistar rats. The molecular mechanisms by which physical exercise exerts neuroprotective effects remain unclear. Accumulating evidence suggests that exercise may have short- and long-term effects on melatonin secretion in humans. Melatonin, the main product of the pineal gland, has been shown to have neuroprotective effects in models of brain and spinal cord injury and cerebral ischemia. A dual modulation of melatonin secretion by physical activity has also been demonstrated. This study aimed to investigate the effect of different exercise intensities, moderate- and high-intensity exercise, on serum melatonin levels in rats. Methods: Thirty-five adult male Wistar rats were divided into non-exercised (sedentary and exercised (20- or 60-min sessions groups. The exercise protocols consisted of two weeks of daily treadmill training. Blood samples were collected approximately 16 hours after the last training session (8:00-10:00 and melatonin levels were assayed by ELISA. Results: The exercise protocols, two weeks of 20 min/day or 60 min/day of treadmill running, did not affect serum melatonin levels. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that melatonin levels may not be directly involved in the exercise-induced, intensity-dependent dual effect on in vitro ischemia.

  11. Effect of aerobic exercise intervention on DDT degradation and oxidative stress in rats.

    Li, Kefeng; Zhu, Xiaohua; Wang, Yuzhan; Zheng, Shuqian; Dong, Guijun

    2017-03-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) reportedly causes extensively acute or chronic effects to human health. Exercise can generate positive stress. We evaluated the effect of aerobic exercise on DDT degradation and oxidative stress. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into control (C), DDT without exercise training (D), and DDT plus exercise training (DE) groups. The rats were treated as follows: DDT exposure to D and DE groups at the first 2 weeks; aerobic exercise treatment only to the DE group from the 1st day until the rats are killed. DDT levels in excrements, muscle, liver, serum, and hearts were analyzed. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined. Aerobic exercise accelerated the degradation of DDT primarily to DDE due to better oxygen availability and aerobic condition and promoted the degradation of DDT. Cumulative oxidative damage of DDT and exercise led to significant decrease of SOD level. Exercise resulted in consistent increase in SOD activity. Aerobic exercise enhanced activities of CAT and GSH-Px and promoted MDA scavenging. Results suggested that exercise can accelerate adaptive responses to oxidative stress and activate antioxidant enzymes activities. Exercise can also facilitate the reduction of DDT-induced oxidative damage and promoted DDT degradation. This study strongly implicated the positive effect of exercise training on DDT-induced liver oxidative stress.

  12. Demand for male contraception.

    Dorman, Emily; Bishai, David

    2012-10-01

    The biological basis for male contraception was established decades ago, but despite promising breakthroughs and the financial burden men increasingly bear due to better enforcement of child support policies, no viable alternative to the condom has been brought to market. Men who wish to control their fertility must rely on female compliance with contraceptives, barrier methods, vasectomy or abstinence. Over the last 10 years, the pharmaceutical industry has abandoned most of its investment in the field, leaving only nonprofit organisations and public entities pursuing male contraception. Leading explanations are uncertain forecasts of market demand pitted against the need for critical investments to demonstrate the safety of existing candidate products. This paper explores the developments and challenges in male contraception research. We produce preliminary estimates of potential market size for a safe and effective male contraceptive based on available data to estimate the potential market for a novel male method.

  13. Male depression and suicide.

    Wålinder, J; Rutzt, W

    2001-03-01

    Based on the experiences of the Gotland Study that education of general practitioners about depressive illness resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the number of female suicides, leaving the rate of male suicides almost unaffected, we propose the concept of a male depressive syndrome. This syndrome comprises a low stress tolerance, an acting-out behavior, a low impulse control, substance abuse and a hereditary loading of depressive illness, alcoholism and suicide. This notion is supported by data from The Amish study as well as the concept of van Praag of a stress-precipitated, cortisol-induced, serotonin-related and anxiety-driven depressive illness most often seen in males. In order to identify depressed males, the Gotland Male Depression Scale has been developed. Some preliminary data using the scale in a group of alcohol-dependant patients are presented.

  14. Effect of music tempo on exercise performance and heart rate among young adults.

    Thakare, Avinash E; Mehrotra, Ranjeeta; Singh, Ayushi

    2017-01-01

    Music captures attention, triggers a range of emotions, alters or regulates mood, increases work output, heightens arousal, induces states of higher functioning, reduces inhibitions and encourages rhythmic movement. Music has ergo-genic effect as well, it increases exercise performance, delays fatigue and increases performance and endurance, power and strength. Our study tried to evaluate the effect of music on exercise performance in young untrained subjects. In this study, we tested the effect of music on sub maximal exercise performance time duration in young adults. 25 Male and 25 females were subjected to standard submaximal exercise with and without music. Resting HR and Max. HR during exercise and the exercise time duration was recorded. Total exercise duration in whole group with music (37.12 ± 16.26** min) was significantly greater than exercise duration without music (22.48 ± 10.26 min). Males (42.4 ± 15.6** min) outperformed significantly better than females (31.84 ± 15.48 min). Also, we observed statistically significant higher values of Maximal heart rate with music than without music. But there was no significant correlation between duration of exercise, music and change in Heart rate. We can conclude that Music increases duration of exercise in both sexes and hence endurance.

  15. Relations among exercise, coping, disordered eating, and psychological health among college students.

    Thome, Jennifer; Espelage, Dorothy L

    2004-11-01

    Researchers have long been interested in the coping styles of individuals who display disordered eating characteristics. Recently, exercise has been recognized as both a behavior and coping strategy that might be present among individuals with disordered eating. The present study evaluates the role of exercise as both a coping mechanism and as a health behavior in relation to eating pathology and other measures of psychological health in a nonclinical university population. Female (n=235) and male (n=86) undergraduate students completed questionnaires that assessed exercise behavior, coping strategies, eating attitudes, self-esteem, life satisfaction, affect, depression, and anxiety. The results indicate that the relations among exercise, coping, and eating pathology is complex. Exercise was related to positive psychological health in males, whereas exercise in females was associated with both positive and negative psychological health. For women with high Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) scores, exercise was significantly associated with negative affect, and a trend existed in this group such that exercise was associated with higher levels of depression and anxiety. Conversely, for women with low EAT scores, exercise was associated with positive affect. This suggests that exercise might be differentially associated with mental health based on the presence or absence of eating pathology.

  16. Oxidative stress and antioxidants in athletes undertaking regular exercise training.

    Watson, Trent A; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley K; Garg, Manohar L

    2005-04-01

    Exercise has been shown to increase the production of reactive oxygen species to a point that can exceed antioxidant defenses to cause oxidative stress. Dietary intake of antioxidants, physical activity levels, various antioxidants and oxidative stress markers were examined in 20 exercise-trained "athletes" and 20 age- and sex-matched sedentary "controls." Plasma F2-isoprostanes, antioxidant enzyme activities, and uric acid levels were similar in athletes and sedentary controls. Plasma alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene were higher in athletes compared with sedentary controls. Total antioxidant capacity tended to be lower in athletes, with a significant difference between male athletes and male controls. Dietary intakes of antioxidants were also similar between groups and well above recommended dietary intakes for Australians. These findings suggest that athletes who consume a diet rich in antioxidants have elevated plasma alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene that were likely to be brought about by adaptive processes resulting from regular exercise.

  17. Acute Effect of Various Exercise Intensities on Cognitive Performance

    Ceylan, Halil Ibrahim; Saygin, Ozcan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the acute effect of various exercise intensities on coincidence anticipation timing at different stimulus speeds. Fifteen male students who attend to Faculty of Sport Sciences at Mugla Sitki Kocman University, have been dealing with individual or team sports and having licenses for 5 or more years with no…

  18. EXERCISE-INDUCED PULMONARY HEMORRHAGE AFTER RUNNING A MARATHON

    We report on a healthy 26-year-old male who had an exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) within 24 hours of running a marathon. There were no symptoms, abnormalities on exam, or radiographic infiltrates. He routinely participated in bronchoscopy research and the EIPH was e...

  19. Exploring exercise behavior, intention and habit strength relationships

    de Bruijn, G.J.; Rhodes, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relevance of integrating exercise habit strength within the framework of the theory of planned behavior. Data were obtained from 538 undergraduate students [mean age=21.19 (SD=2.57); 28.4% males] using validated questionnaires and analyzed using

  20. Effect of physical and flexibility exercise on certain hormones and ...

    0.05) in both sexes. Progesterone levels increased in male participants and decreased in female ... relationship between mental alertness and physical ... used to determine the mean, standard error of mean for ..... Exercise and the Stress System. Hormones ... Effect of concurrent strength and endurance training on skeletal ...