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Sample records for male native miners

  1. Chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes from male native miners working in the Peruvian Andes

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    Sergio R. Santa Maria

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes from underground miners from the Casapalca (n = 8, mean age = 45 y, range = 36 y to 55 y and Bellavista (n = 8, mean age = 28 y, range 23 y to 34 y high-altitude mining camps in the Peruvian Andes. This population was occupationally exposed to heavy metals such as lead and zinc as well as diesel emission particles, organic solvents and mine dust. The control groups consisted of individuals from a high altitude farming community in the Peruvian village of Tinco (n = 8, mean age = 37 y, range = 25 y to 52 y and the sea level city of Lima (n = 14, mean age = 26 y, range = 20 y to 35 y. All individuals were male native Peruvians. A significantly higher incidence (1.88%, p < 0.05 of chromosomal aberrations (chromatid deletions and breaks, chromosome breaks and acentric fragments were detected in lymphocytes from miners at the Casapalca camp as compared to miners from the Bellavista camp (0.5%, chromatid deletions and acentric fragments only and the Lima sea level (0.07%, chromatid deletions only and Tinco high altitude (no aberrations controls. These results suggest that male native Peruvians occupationally exposed to underground mining activity have an increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations, which could be related to both age and exposure time. The increased chromosomal damage observed in the mining populations studied may be attributable to the complex mixture of genotoxic agents to which the miners may have been exposed.

  2. Native Language Processing using Exegy Text Miner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compton, J

    2007-10-18

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's New Architectures Testbed recently evaluated Exegy's Text Miner appliance to assess its applicability to high-performance, automated native language analysis. The evaluation was performed with support from the Computing Applications and Research Department in close collaboration with Global Security programs, and institutional activities in native language analysis. The Exegy Text Miner is a special-purpose device for detecting and flagging user-supplied patterns of characters, whether in streaming text or in collections of documents at very high rates. Patterns may consist of simple lists of words or complex expressions with sub-patterns linked by logical operators. These searches are accomplished through a combination of specialized hardware (i.e., one or more field-programmable gates arrays in addition to general-purpose processors) and proprietary software that exploits these individual components in an optimal manner (through parallelism and pipelining). For this application the Text Miner has performed accurately and reproducibly at high speeds approaching those documented by Exegy in its technical specifications. The Exegy Text Miner is primarily intended for the single-byte ASCII characters used in English, but at a technical level its capabilities are language-neutral and can be applied to multi-byte character sets such as those found in Arabic and Chinese. The system is used for searching databases or tracking streaming text with respect to one or more lexicons. In a real operational environment it is likely that data would need to be processed separately for each lexicon or search technique. However, the searches would be so fast that multiple passes should not be considered as a limitation a priori. Indeed, it is conceivable that large databases could be searched as often as necessary if new queries were deemed worthwhile. This project is concerned with evaluating the Exegy Text Miner installed in the

  3. The Health Status of American Indian and Alaska Native Males

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    Rhoades, Everett R.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. This study summarizes current health status information relating to American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) males compared with that of AI/ANfemales. Methods. I analyzed published data from the Indian Health Service for 1994 through 1996 to determine sex differences in morbidity and mortality rates and use of health care facilities. Results. AI/AN males’ death rates exceed those of AI/AN females for every age up to 75 years and for 6 of the 8 leading causes of death. Accidents, suicide, and homicide are epidemic among AI/AN males. Paradoxically, AI/AN males contribute only 37.9% of outpatient visits, versus 62.1% for females, and only 47% of hospitalizations excluding childbirth. Conclusions. AI/AN males suffer inordinately from a combination of increased burden of illness and lack of utilization of health care services. Programs targeted to anomie, loss of traditional male roles, and violence and alcoholism are among the most urgently needed. PMID:12721143

  4. Mineral characterization of native fruits from the southern region of Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pereira, Marina Couto; Boschetti, Wiliam; Rampazzo, Roger; Celso, Paulo Gustavo; Hertz, Plinho Francisco; Rios, Alessandro de Oliveira; Vizzotto, Márcia; Flores, Simone Hickmann

    2014-01-01

    .... Therefore the aim of this study was to characterize the mineral composition and content present in seven native fruit species of Southern Brazil using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES...

  5. Negative priming of native soil organic carbon mineralization by oilseed biochars of contrasting quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francischinelli Rittl, T.; Novotny, E.H.; Baliero, F.C.; Hoffland, E.; Alves, B.J.R.; Kuijper, T.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Oilseed-derived biochar, a by-product of pyrolysis for biodiesel production, is richer in aliphatic compounds than the commonly studied wood-derived biochar, affecting both its mineralization in soil and its interaction with native soil organic carbon (nSOC). Here, we investigated the soil C

  6. Measurement of Bone Mineral Density in Male Detainees

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    Betül Bakan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We aimed to investigate the increased risk for osteoporosis due to closed environment and sedentary lifestyle of prisoners. In this way, we planned to inform prisoners and supervisors for protective measures that should be taken if low bone mineral density (BMD is detected compared with normal population. Materials and Methods: Sixty six prisoner men over the age of 45 as the study group and 66 male volunteers who are not detainees over the age of 45 as a control group were included in the study. All participants' age, occupation, duration in prison, habits, nutrition, exercise, diseases and medications used were noted. BMD values were measured using a phalangeal radiographic absorptiometry (Alara Metriscan®. Results: BMD values in the study group were measured as 0.341±0.030 g/cm2 and as 0.346±0.029 g/cm2 in the control group (p=0.968. BMD values of the study group were lower than those of the control group. Conclusion: In this study, we found that BMD values of the detainees were lower than those of the control group but this difference was not statistically significant. However, there was a negative correlation between BMD values and duration in prison. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2012;18: 81-5

  7. A new genus and species of leaf miner (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae for Chile associated to the native tree Lithraea caustica

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    Enrique A. Mundaca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of leaf miner (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae for Chile associated to the native tree Lithraea caustica. We propose the new genus and species of Gracillariidae (Lepidoptera Hualpenia lithraeophaga Mundaca, Parra &Vargas gen. nov., sp. nov., leaf miner of Lithraea caustica (Mol. H. et Arn (Anacardiaceae occurring in southern central Chile. Aspects of the life cycle, adult and larval morphology, development and feeding habits of the new genus and species are also presented. We emphasise the uniqueness and importance of this new species for broadening the current knowledge on the Chilean fauna of Gracillariidae.

  8. Wellness Coaching Outcomes in a Case Report of a Diabetic Native American Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Medically referred wellness coaching clients may present thinking patterns that generate internal resistance to change, including lack of urgency, inadequate incentives, and uncertainty about what they need to do differently.1 Applying the Wellcoaches (Wellcoaches Corp, Wellesley, Massachusetts) model interventions within a framework of the four domains of learning (cognitive, affective, behavioral, and conative)2 can enhance wellness coaching outcomes. This case report reviews wellness coaching outcomes with a 44-year-old single male tribal member of a Midwest Native American tribe who recently had been diagnosed with diabetes. Challenges presented by resistance to change and a discussion of the four domains of learning applied to wellness coaching are also reported. PMID:24278846

  9. Mineral requirements for growth and maintenance of F1 Boer × Saanen male kids.

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    Teixeira, I A M A; Härter, C J; Pereira Filho, J M; Sobrinho, A G da Silva; Resende, K T

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the net requirements of minerals for the growth and maintenance of intact male F1 Boer × Saanen goat kids in the initial phase of growth. The following 2 experiments were performed: Exp. 1 was performed to determine the net growth requirements for Ca, P, Mg, Na, and K by F1 Boer × Saanen goat kids from 5 to 25 kg of BW and Exp. 2 was performed to determine the maintenance requirements of F1 Boer × Saanen goats from 15 to 25 kg BW. In Exp. 1, 32 intact male goat kids were distributed in a completely randomized design and mineral body composition was fit to an allometric equation in the form of a nonlinear model. To determine the mineral requirements for maintenance in Exp. 2, 21 intact male goat kids were distributed in a randomized block design, where the goat kids were subjected to 3 levels of feed restriction (0, 30, and 60% feed restriction). At the onset of Exp. 2, 7 goat kids were harvested and used to estimate the initial body composition (15 kg BW). Initial body composition was used to calculate the retention of minerals. The maintenance requirements were estimated by regressions obtained from the retention of minerals in the empty body and the intake of the mineral. The concentration of Ca, P, Na, and K in the empty BW decreased by 11, 13, 26, and 23% with the increase in BW from 5 to 25 kg (P requirements of Ca, P, Mg, Na, and K for weight gain decreased by 27.5, 27.8, 4.25, 43.2, and 39.7%, respectively, with the increase in BW from 5 to 25 kg (P requirements (g/kg of ADG) decreased from 9.7 to 7.0 for Ca, 6.5 to 4.7 for P, 0.38 to 0.36 for Mg, 0.88 to 0.50 for Na, and 1.9 to 1.2 for K when BW increased from 5 to 25 kg. The daily net requirements for maintenance per kilogram of BW were 38 mg of Ca, 42 mg of P, 1.6 mg of Mg, 5.0 mg of Na, and 19 mg of K. These results for the nutritional requirements of minerals may help to formulate more balanced diets for F1 Boer × Saanen goat kids in the initial growth

  10. New data on the Hyrkkoelae U-Cu mineralization: the behaviour of native copper in a natural environment

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    Marcos, N. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Ahonen, L. [Geological Survey of Finland, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-05-01

    The Hyrkkoelae Cu-U mineralisation (SW Finland) is studied as an analogue to the behaviour of copper canister in crystalline bedrock. Uranium-native copper and uranium-copper corrosion products interactions are also addressed in this study. The integration of uranium series disequilibrium (USD) studies gives an estimate of the time-scales of the corrosion processes. The mineral assemblages native copper-copper sulfide, copper sulfides - copper iron sulfides, and native copper-copper oxide (cuprite) occur in open fractures at several depth intervals within granite pegmatites (GP). The surfaces of these open fractures have accumulations of uranophane crystals and other unidentified uranyl compounds. The secondary uranium minerals are mainly distributed around copper sulfide grains. Microscopic intergrowths of copper sulfides and uranyl compounds also have been observed. The surface of the fracture where native copper and cuprite occur is covered with uranium-rich smectite. The very low {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratio (0.29 - 0.39) in the main uranium fraction in smectite indicates chemical stable conditions (e.g., oxidising) during at least a time period comparable to the half-life of the {sup 234}U isotope (T{sub 1/2} = 2.44 x 10{sup 5} a). Groundwater samples were collected from intervals where copper minerals occur within open fractures. The Eh and pH conditions were measured during long-term pumping (2-4 weeks per sample). Eh was measured both in situ and an the surface using three electrodes (Pt, Au, C). The actual groundwater conditions are oxidising and would not allow the sulfidization of native copper. Sulfidization may be considered as on old phenomenon, older than the precipitation of uranyl phases in the samples. The end of sulfidization may be earlier than the precipitation and/or remobilisation of U(VI) phases in a time span from about 2 x 10{sup 5} years (precipitation of uranophane) to 2.44 x 10{sup 5} (remobilisation of U from smectite). (orig.)

  11. Isolated native tricuspid valve endocarditis presenting as PUO in a young adult male without any risk factors

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    Piyush Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 28-year-old male presented to our hospital with high-grade fever and weight loss for 4 months. Clinical examination was non-contributory and there was no history of any high-risk behavior or prolonged skin or dental infections. Native tricuspid-valve endocarditis may rarely present in these settings and high index of suspicion is essential for early diagnosis.

  12. Bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis risk factor in Egyptian male and female battery manufacturing workers.

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    Raafat, Bassem M; Hassan, Nahed S; Aziz, S W

    2012-04-01

    The study was conducted to estimate the relation between lead exposure and the risk of various symptoms of osteoporosis in male and female battery manufacturing workers by using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. A total of 18 female and 24 male workers were chosen with the same age range, duty hours per day, work history and weight. A total of 15 healthy controls were chosen with no previous history of bone illness and normal blood lead concentration. Blood lead concentration was measured in all workers and controls. Non-lead elevated subjects were excluded. Bone mineral density was measured by X-ray-based dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan machine. Spine, femur neck and radius sites were studied. Results showed that both male and female workers recorded significant elevated levels of lead concentration accompanied by osteoporosis when compared with control. Interestingly, the data revealed that fracture risk in female was significantly higher than male workers. It was concluded that lead poisoning may act as osteoporosis risk factor or co-factor in female workers by activating the conversion of osteopenia to osteoporosis.

  13. Bone mineral density is reduced by telmisartan in male spontaneously hypertensive rats.

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    Birocale, Antonio Marcos; Medeiros, Ana Raquel Santos; Ruffoni, Leandro Dias Gonçalves; Takayama, Liliam; de Oliveira, José Martins; Nonaka, Keico Okino; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza

    2016-12-01

    Telmisartan, an angiotensin AT1 receptor blocker, and treadmill running were compared for their effects on bone mineral density (BMD) and biomechanical properties of male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). It was hypothesized that running (18m/min/60min/d) and telmisartan (5mg/kg/d) would have a positive effect on bone parameters. Three-month-old male SHRs were divided into three groups: sedentary (S), telmisartan (T), and exercise (E). At the end of an 8-week protocol, femur and lumbar vertebrae were analyzed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for bone mineral density and by the three-point bending test for biomechanical properties. Blood pressure in all groups was measured by a tail-cuff manometer. Telmisartan and treadmill running reduced blood pressure when compared to the sedentary group; however, telmisartan did not improve bone characteristics. Instead, it reduced BMD of femur total and lumbar vertebrae and worsened bone biomechanic properties. Treadmill running maintained bone characteristics and hence was effective in maintaining bone health. Results showed that telmisartan negatively affected bones suggesting that caution should be taken in possible therapeutic applications for protecting bone health in hypertensive conditions. More studies are necessary to clarify the mechanisms through which telmisartan favors bone loss in this model. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  14. The Relationship between Cortisol and Bone Mineral Density in Competitive Male Cyclists

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    Shannon L. Mathis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine whether race day cortisol was related to bone mineral density (BMD in competitive male cyclists. A secondary purpose was to determine additional factors associated with BMD in competitive male cyclists. Methods. Measurements of lumbar spine and hip BMD were performed in 35 male competitors in a state championship cycling time trial event. Salivary cortisol was measured 10 minutes prior to the start of the race and 5 minutes after race finished. Participants reported daily calcium intake, age, years of bike training, races per season, and average weekly minutes spent riding a bike, weight training, and running on a survey. Results. Cortisol level increased significantly from pre- to postcompetition but was not significantly associated with BMD. Increased weekly minutes of weight training was associated with higher BMD of the lumbar spine and the hip. The increased number of years of cycling experience was associated with lower BMD of the femoral neck. Increased daily calcium intake was associated with higher BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Conclusions. Findings indicate that cyclists should participate in weight training and increase calcium intake in order to increase or maintain BMD of the lumbar spine and hip.

  15. Together we have fun: native-place networks and sexual risk behaviours among Chinese male rural-urban migrants.

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    Yang, Xiaozhao Yousef; Kelly, Brian C; Yang, Tingzhong

    2016-05-01

    Some scholars argue that the maintenance of social networks contributes to the lower prevalence of deviant behaviours and fewer adverse health effects among migrants. But others suggest that if migrants are embedded in homogeneous networks, such networks may enable the formation of a deviant subculture that promotes risk taking. Facing this dilemma, the present study investigates how native-place networks influence sexual risk behaviours (SRBs), specifically the pursuit of commercial sex and condomless sex with sex workers, for male rural-urban migrants. Using a multi-stage sample of 1,591 male rural-urban migrants from two major migrant-influx cities within China, we assessed migrants' general friend network ties and native place networks (townsmen in migrants' local networks) and tested their associations with SRBs. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicate that native-place network ties are associated with paying for sex (OR = 1.33, p rural-urban migrants are associated with SRBs because homogenous networks may serve as a platform for the emergence of a deviant subculture that promotes risk behaviours. A Virtual Abstract of this paper is available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Wg20I6j8XQ.

  16. Distribution of mineral nitrogen under native range and cultivated fields in the Nebraska Sandhills

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    Hergert, G. W.

    1982-07-01

    Seven different sites were sampled to the water table for soil moisture, nitrate and ammonium content. Three holes per site were taken for averaging the measured parameters over holes by depth. Hole to hole variability at a iven depth was not too large in most instances. Variation was greatest in the upper 12 meters due to soil textural differences caused by shifting of sands in the recent geologic past. The irrigation and N fertilizer application history of each site was documented. Only slight differences between nitrate-N under alfalfa and its adjacent native range were evident. This data can provide a good data base for verification of models used to predict nitrate-N movement under various crops grown on deep, very sandy soil.

  17. Bone mineral density in male adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and disruptive behavior disorder with or without antipsychotic treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Y.; Harten, P.N. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Tenback, D.E.; Quekel, L.G.; Rijke, Y.B. de; Boot, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term effects of antipsychotic (AP) treatment and AP-induced hyperprolactinemia on bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in male adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and/or disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). DESIGN: Physically healthy 10- to

  18. Bone mineral density in male adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and disruptive behavior disorder with or without antipsychotic treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Roke (Yvette); P.N. van Harten (Peter); J.K. Buitelaar (Jan); D.E. Tenback (Diederik); L.G.B.A. Quekel (Lorentz G. B.); Y.B. de Rijke (Yolanda); A.M. Boot (Annemieke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To investigate the long-term effects of antipsychotic (AP) treatment and AP-induced hyperprolactinemia on bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in male adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and/or disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). Design: Physically hea

  19. Bone mineral density in male adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and disruptive behavior disorder with or without antipsychotic treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Yvette; van Harten, Peter N.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Tenback, Diederik E.; Quekel, Lorentz G. B. A.; de Rijke, Yolanda B.; Boot, Annemieke M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the long-term effects of antipsychotic (AP) treatment and AP-induced hyperprolactinemia on bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in male adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and/or disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). Design: Physically healthy 10- to

  20. Bone Mineral Density and Respiratory Muscle Strength in Male Individuals with Mental Retardation (with and without Down Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Vinicius Zacarias Maldaner; Barros, Jonatas de Franca; de Azevedo, Monique; de Godoy, Jose Roberto Pimenta; Arena, Ross; Cipriano, Gerson, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the respiratory muscle strength (RMS) in individuals with mental retardation (MR), with or without Down Syndrome (DS), and its association with bone mineral density (BMD). Forty-five male individuals (15 with DS, 15 with mental retardation (MR) and 15 apparently healthy controls), aged 20-35, participated in…

  1. Demographic history of Canary Islands male gene-pool: replacement of native lineages by European

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    Amorim António

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin and prevalence of the prehispanic settlers of the Canary Islands has attracted great multidisciplinary interest. However, direct ancient DNA genetic studies on indigenous and historical 17th–18th century remains, using mitochondrial DNA as a female marker, have only recently been possible. In the present work, the analysis of Y-chromosome polymorphisms in the same samples, has shed light on the way the European colonization affected male and female Canary Island indigenous genetic pools, from the conquest to present-day times. Results Autochthonous (E-M81 and prominent (E-M78 and J-M267 Berber Y-chromosome lineages were detected in the indigenous remains, confirming a North West African origin for their ancestors which confirms previous mitochondrial DNA results. However, in contrast with their female lineages, which have survived in the present-day population since the conquest with only a moderate decline, the male indigenous lineages have dropped constantly being substituted by European lineages. Male and female sub-Saharan African genetic inputs were also detected in the Canary population, but their frequencies were higher during the 17th–18th centuries than today. Conclusion The European colonization of the Canary Islands introduced a strong sex-biased change in the indigenous population in such a way that indigenous female lineages survived in the extant population in a significantly higher proportion than their male counterparts.

  2. The status and importance of crude protein and macro minerals in native pastures growing on Vertisols of the central highlands of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizachew, Lemma; Smit, G N

    2012-01-01

    The effects of pasture management, season and soil nutrient status on crude protein (CP) and macro mineral concentration of native pasture was studied in the Vertisol areas of the central Ethiopian highland. Soil and herbage samples from 18 continuously grazed (CG) and 12 seasonally grazed (SG) pasture sites were analyzed for N, P, Ca, Mg, K and Na. Soil and dry season CG pasture samples were collected in January and February 2001 (dry season: November-February), while wet season CG and SG pasture samples were collected during September 2001 (wet season: April-October). The Potassium concentration (2.55%) of mixed herbage samples from SG pasture exceeded the K values (1.80%) from CG pasture (P macro minerals concentrations were noted among forage species. The mean CP and K concentrations of herbage from CG pasture were higher (P macro minerals and the corresponding herbage macro mineral concentrations, significant (P macro mineral composition. The levels of CP in CG pasture and that of P and Na in both CG and SG pastures may fall below the requirements of grazing livestock. Resting at critical stages of the growth cycle of the forage species encouraged the recovery of desirable species. For this reason resting of pasture can contribute significantly to the quality of the native pastures of the Vertisols of the central Ethiopian highlands and should be encouraged.

  3. Testosterone Replacement and Bone Mineral Density in Male Pituitary Tumor Patients

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    Min Jeong Lee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHypopituitarism is associated with osteoporosis and osteopenia especially when hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is present. Despite hypopituitarism being an important cause of secondary osteoporosis, osteoporosis in patients receiving surgery for pituitary tumors in Korea has not been studied. In this study, we evaluated the effects of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT on bone mineral density (BMD in postoperative hypogonadal patients with pituitary tumors.MethodsTo examine the effect of TRT on BMD, we performed a retrospective observational study in 21 postoperative male patients who underwent pituitary tumor surgery between 2003 and 2012 at the Ajou University Hospital. Testosterone was replaced in postoperative hypogonadal patients by regular intramuscular injection, daily oral medication, or application of transdermal gel. BMD (g/cm2 measurements of central skeletal sites (lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total femur were obtained using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (GE Lunar. For lumbar spine BMD, L1 to L4 values were chosen for analysis. Femur neck and total femur were also analyzed.ResultsDuring the follow-up period (mean, 56 months; range, 12 to 99 months serum testosterone levels increased with the administration of TRT (P=0.007. There was significant improvement (4.56%±9.81% in the lumbar spine BMD compared to baseline BMD. There were no significant changes in the femur neck BMD or total femur BMD. We did not find any statistically significant relationships between changes in testosterone levels and BMD using Spearman correlation analysis.ConclusionOur results indicated that TRT used in the postoperative period for hypogonadal pituitary tumor surgery patients may have beneficial effects on the BMD of the spine.

  4. Cancer Statistics for Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders, 2015: Convergence of incidence between males and females

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    Torre, Lindsey A.; Goding Sauer, Ann M.; Chen, Moon S.; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Jemal, Ahmedin; Siegel, Rebecca L.

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders (AANHPIs). In this report, the American Cancer Society presents AANHPI cancer incidence from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality from the National Center for Health Statistics. Among AANHPIs in 2016, there will be an estimated 57,740 new cancer cases and 16,910 cancer deaths. While AANHPIs have 30%–40% lower incidence and mortality rates than NHWs for all cancers combined, they have higher rates for some infection-related cancers (stomach, liver, nasopharynx).The aggregation of AANHPI subgroups conceals the diversity of these heterogeneous populations. AANHPI cancer rates vary by subgroup, with the lowest rates generally in Asian Indians/Pakistanis and the highest in Native Hawaiians, Samoans, and Japanese (except for infection-related cancers). The male-to-female incidence rate ratio among AANHPIs declined from 1.43 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.36-1.49) in 1992 to 1.04 (95% CI, 1.01-1.07) in 2012 due to declining prostate and lung cancer rates in males and increasing breast cancer rates in females. Liver cancer death rates among AANHPIs declined from 2003 to 2012, in contrast to increases in NHWs. Variation in cancer rates in AANHPIs are related to risk factors including lifestyle factors, use of screening and preventive services, and exposure to cancer-causing infections. Cancer control strategies include improved use of vaccination and screening; interventions to increase physical activity and reduce excess body weight, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption; and subgroup-level research on burden and risk factors. PMID:26766789

  5. Proximate composition and mineral and fatty acid profiles of male and female jinga shrimps (Metapenaeus affinis, H. Milne Edwards, 1837)

    OpenAIRE

    DİNÇER, Mehmet Tolga; İlker AYDIN

    2014-01-01

    The jinga shrimp (Metapenaeus affinis, H. Milne Edwards, 1837) is a commercially valuable alien decapod and a seafood product that is highly popular at seafood restaurants in İzmir (Turkey). The chemical, mineral, and fatty acid compositions of male and female jinga shrimps harvested in the Mediterranean Sea were determined for the first time. The compositions of both sexes confirmed that the jinga shrimp is a healthy food source due to its balance of nutrients, with efficient levels of prote...

  6. Minerals

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    Vaquero, M. P.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty

  7. Assessment of Bone Mineral Density in Male Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease by DXA and Quantitative Computed Tomography

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    George Fountoulis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the prevalence of osteoporosis in male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and quantitative computed tomography (QCT and to compare the diagnostic abilities of the above methods. Thirty-seven male patients with established COPD were examined with DXA and standard QCT in lumbar spine, including L1, L2, and L3 vertebrae. T-scores and bone mineral density values were calculated by DXA and QCT method, respectively. Comparative assessment of the findings was performed and statistical analysis was applied. QCT measurements found more COPD patients with impaired bone mineral density compared to DXA, namely, 13 (35.1% versus 12 (32.4% patients with osteopenia and 16 (43.2% versus 9 (16.2% patients with osteoporosis (p=0.04. More vertebrae were found with osteoporosis by QCT compared to DXA (p=0.03. The prevalence of osteoporosis among male patients with COPD is increased and DXA may underestimate this risk. QCT measurements have an improved discriminating ability to identify low BMD compared to DXA measurements because QCT is able to overcome diagnostic pitfalls including aortic calcifications and degenerative spinal osteophytes.

  8. Blood levels related to the Z-score of bone mineral density in young males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Sun-Hyung; Kim, Min-Tae; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Hae-Kag; Ahn, Jae-Ouk

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the blood levels related to the bone mineral density by using the dual energy X-ray absorption for females before menopause and males younger than 50 years old. [Subjects and Methods] Between August 1, and September 15, 2013, the Z-score was measured in females before menopause and males younger than 50 years old using a bone mineral density measuring instrument. After the measurement, the subjects were classified into two groups, that is, the below expectations and within expectations groups. Next, we analyzed and compared the differences in age, body mass index, and blood levels between the 2 groups. [Results] The results showed a correlation of 0.212 for total protein, -0.317 for alanine aminotransferase, -0.199 for gamma-glutamyl transferase, -0.358 for alkaline phosphatase, 0.266 for uric acid, -0.313 for lactate dehydrogenase, 0.244 for creatinine, -0.234 for the red blood cell count, and -0.230 for the red cell distribution width in patients with less than expected level for their age. [Conclusion] In conclusion, osteoporosis may occur in females before menopause and males younger than 50 years old, and aggressive attention is required for prevention and treatment.

  9. Effect of epimedium pubescen flavonoid on bone mineral status and bone turnover in male rats chronically exposed to cigarette smoke

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    Gao Shu-guang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epimedii herba is one of the most frequently used herbs in formulas that are prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and its main constituent is Epimedium pubescen flavonoid (EPF. However, it is unclear whether EPF during chronic exposure to cigarette smoke may have a protective influence on the skeleton. The present study investigated the effect of EPF on bone mineral status and bone turnover in a rat model of human relatively high exposure to cigarette smoke. Methods Fifty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: controls, passive smoking groups and passive smoking rats administered EPF at three dosage levels (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day in drinking water for 4 months. A rat model of passive smoking was prepared by breeding male rats in a cigarette-smoking box. Bone mineral content (BMC, bone mineral density (BMD, bone turnover markers, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical properties were examined. Results Smoke exposure decreased BMC and BMD, increased bone turnover (inhibited bone formation and stimulated its resorption, affected bone histomorphometry (increased trabecular separation and osteoclast surface per bone surface; decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, cortical thickness, bone formation rate and osteoblast surface per bone surface, and reduced mechanical properties. EPF supplementation during cigarette smoke exposure prevented smoke-induced changes in bone mineral status and bone turnover. Conclusion The results suggest that EPF can prevent the adverse effects of smoke exposure on bone by stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone turnover and bone resorption.

  10. Influence of mineral, olive or sunflower oils on male reproductive parameters in vitro--the wild rodent Calomys laucha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, T F; Varela, A S; Silva, E F; Vilela, J; Hartmann, A; Jardim, R D; Colares, E P; Corcini, C D

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of oils on male reproductive parameters in Calomys laucha. Twenty-four animals were distributed into four groups and given the following substances by gavage: water, mineral oil, olive oil and sunflower oil. After 10 days of gavage, the animals were euthanised and the semen was collected from them for assessing acrosome integrity and carrying out in vitro penetration (IVP) test. Acrosome was significantly reduced (P oil had statistically lower levels of reduction (P tests negatively, interfering in reproductive toxicological studies.

  11. Effects of short-term testosterone replacement on areal bone mineral density and bone turnover in young hypogonadal males

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    Prasun Deb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Effect of parenteral testosterone esters administration on bone-mineral density (BMD and bone turnover in young age onset male hypogonadism is not studied in Indian subjects. Aims: To prospectively study the effect of short-term (6 months replacement therapy with parenteral testosterone enanthate-propionate combination on BMD and bone turnover markers in hypogonadal adult patients. Settings and Design: Prospective, tertiary care academic center. Materials and Methods: Thirteen young, otherwise healthy hypogonadal males (age 25.5 ± 4.9 yrs, serum testosterone 2.56 ± 4.29 nmol/l were subjected to BMD measurements (DXA and estimation of urinary Crosslaps™ and serum osteocalcin at baseline. Twelve healthy age and BMI-matched males served as controls for BMD measurements. The hypogonadal patients were administered parenteral testosterone esters (as mixed enanthate and propionate 250 mg i.m. every 2-3 weeks, and prospectively followed for 6 months. BMD and bone markers were studied at the end of 6 months. Statistical Analysis Used: Mann-Whitney nonparametric test, paired t-test and Pearson′s test of two-tail significance. Results: At baseline, BMD was significantly lower in hypogonadal males as compared to that in controls. With testosterone replacement, there was significant improvement in BMD, both at trabecular and cortical sites, There was a decline in bone turnover with treatment (Ur Crosslaps™:creatinine ratio: pretreatment 72.8 ± 40.4, post-treatment 35.5 ± 23.8 μg/mmol, P = 0.098; serum osteocalcin: pre-treatment 41.0 ± 16.8, post-treatment 31.7 ± 2.1 ng/ml, P = 0.393. Conclusions: Short-term parenteral testosterone replacement significantly improves BMD at the hip, lumbar spine and forearm in hypogonadal young males.

  12. Advancing maternal age is associated with lower bone mineral density in young adult male offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Rudäng, R.; Mellström, D.; Clark, E.; Ohlsson, C; Lorentzon, M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Advancing maternal age has been related to increased risk of fetal death and morbidity, as well as higher fracture risk during childhood, in the offspring. In the present study, we demonstrate that advancing maternal age is independently associated with reduced bone mass in the young adult male offspring. Introduction In Sweden the maternal age in both primi- and multipara mothers has steadily increased during the last three decades. It has been previously reported that advancing mate...

  13. Energy Availability and Dietary Patterns of Adult Male and Female Competitive Cyclists With Lower Than Expected Bone Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viner, Rebecca T; Harris, Margaret; Berning, Jackie R; Meyer, Nanna L

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess energy availability (EA) and dietary patterns of 10 adult (29-49 years) male (n = 6) and female (n = 4) competitive (USA Cycling Category: Pro, n = 2; 1-4, n = 8) endurance cyclists (5 road, 5 off-road), with lower than expected bone mineral density (BMD; Z score competition (C), and off-season (OS) were estimated from 3-day dietary records, completed once per month, across a cycling season. BMD was measured by DXA at 0 months/5 months/10 months. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) was used to assess cognitive dietary restraint. Seventy percent of participants had low EA [(LEA); competitive road and off-road cyclists in the United States may be at risk for long-term LEA. Further studies are needed to explore strategies to prevent and monitor long-term LEA in these athletes.

  14. CHANGES IN LEVELS OF ANTIOXIDANT MINERALS AND VITAMINS IN WISTAR MALE RATS EXPOSED TO METHIONINE CONTAINING ACETAMINOPHEN FORMULATION

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    Adeniyi Francis A. A.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effect of toxic and subtoxic doses of acetaminophen on antioxidant vitamins and minerals in male Wistar rats. Five groups served as the test groups and received different doses of the acetaminophenmethionine formulation in ratio 9:1. The sixth group served as the control and received only the vehicle: physiologic saline. At the end of 24 hours of exposure, blood was obtained from each rat through retro-orbital bleeding, the levels of antioxidant vitamins and minerals were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and atomic absorption spectrophotometric technique. Results showed that at 100 mg/kg BW level of exposure, niacin, vitamin A, vitamin E, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium were significantly increased (p0.05 compared with controls. At both 350 and 1000 mgkg BW levels of exposure, all these antioxidant indices were significantly decreased (p0.05 at 350 mgkg BW (body weight level of exposure compared with the control group. The animals in 3000 mgkg BW and 5000 mgkg groups suffered 40% and 100% mortality respectively by the end of the 24th hour. This study therefore showed that acetaminophenmethionine formulation in the ratio of 9:1 may cause alteration of vital elements and biomolecules not only at toxic levels but also at tolerable level of 100 mgkg BW.

  15. Effects of endurance and resistance exercises on bone mineral density and mechanical strength of osteoporotic male rats

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    Maryam Banparvari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Osteoporosis is a complex disease characterized by  loss of bone mass, resulting in bone weakness and an increase in susceptibility to fractures. The aim of the current study was to determine skeletal changes induced by two progressive loading training programs on the bone properties of osteoporotic male rats. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was done on 30 Wistar male rats having mean weight of 180-200 g. They were divided into .5 equal groups. In the experimental group, osteoporosis was induced through intraperitoneal injection of 20% ethanol solution (3g/kg/day for four consecutive days for 3 weeks. The rest of the groups were  baseline group (pre test, resistance training, endurance training, and the control. The two training groups completed 12 five-day weeks of training program. according to resistance or endurance protocols. The other 6 rats were considered as the healthy group without any intervention . At the end of the intervention, the animals were killed and their bone mineral density (BMD of the femur and  L4, L5 were measured. Tensile max load of the left tibia and compression of the L5 vertebra were measured using mechanical tests. Results: The endurance (P= 0.035 and resistance (P= 0.001 groups femur BMD had significantly increased compared to that of the control . L4, L5 BMD in resistance training and control was significantly greater than that of endurance group (P= 0.001,P= 0.001. The tensile maximum load of the tibia and compression of the L5 in the resistance group was significantly greater than the control (P=0.01,P=0.03. Conclusion: Resistance training, compared to endurance training, can induce more effective favourable changes in bone mineral status and bone strength.

  16. Relationships between serum omentin-1, body fat mass and bone mineral density in healthy Chinese male adults in Changsha area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X P; Zeng, S; Wang, M; Wu, X P; Liao, E Y

    2014-10-01

    The present study is firstly designed to identify the relationship between serum omentin-1 concentration, body fat mass and bone mineral density in healthy Chinese male adults in Changsha city. A total of 219 (20-80 years old) healthy subjects were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum omentin-1, adiponectin, leptin, resistin and bone turn over biochemical markers were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Bone mineral density (BMD) and fat body composition were determined using dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry. Serum omentin-1 levels in the overweight subjects were significantly lower than those of the subjects with normal weight (p fat body mass (FBM, r = -0.430), fat % (r = -0.408), trunk fat (-0.431). However, after controlling for age, BMI and FBM, no significant correlation was noticed between omentin-1 and BMD at different skeletal sites. Pearson's correlation coefficients and partial correlation coefficients after adjustment showed no significant correlations between omentin-1 and bone turn over biochemical markers, including bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and bone cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen. Multiple line stepwise regression analysis revealed that FBM, WHR, adiponectin were important variables affecting omentin-1. Moreover, lean tissue mass was the most important factor affecting BMD and explained 10.5-14.7 % of the variance. Omentin-1, leptin and resistin were not the predictors of BMD. Serum omentin-1 was negatively correlated with FBM and BMI in healthy Chinese male adults, It was not significantly correlated with bone turnover biochemical markers. Omentin-1 may exert ambiguous effects on BMD, which maybe caused by the complex interactions among adipokines, hormonal activity, and body composition and bone metabolism.

  17. Dephytinisation of soyabean protein isolate with low native phytic acid content has limited impact on mineral and trace element absorption in healthy infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsson, Lena; Ziegler, Ekhard E; Kastenmayer, Peter; van Dael, Peter; Barclay, Denis

    2004-02-01

    Infant formulas based on soyabean protein isolate are often used as an alternative to cows'-based formulas. However, the presence of phytic acid in soya formulas has raised concern about the absorption of trace elements and minerals from these products. The aim of the present study was to evaluate mineral and trace element absorption from regular and dephytinised soya formula in healthy infants. Soyabean protein isolate with a relatively low native content of phytic acid was used for production of a regular soya formula (300 mg phytic acid/kg liquid formula) and an experimental formula was based on dephytinised soya protein isolate (absorptions were measured by a stable isotope technique based on 72 h faecal excretion of non-absorbed stable isotopes (Zn, Fe, Cu and Ca) and by the chemical balance technique (Mn, Zn, Cu and Ca) in nine infants (69-191 d old). Fe absorption was also measured by erythrocyte incorporation 14 d after intake. The results from the present study demonstrated that Zn absorption, measured by a stable isotope technique, was significantly greater after dephytinisation (mean value 16.7 v. 22.6 %; P=0.03). No other statistically significant differences between the two formulas were observed. The nutritional benefit of dephytinisation was marginal in the present study. Based on these results, the use of soyabean protein isolate with low native content of phytic acid should be promoted for production of soya formulas and adequate addition of ascorbic acid to enhance Fe absorption should be ensured in the products.

  18. Bone mineral density of the calcaneus in 70- to 81-yr-old male athletes and a population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suominen, H; Rahkila, P

    1991-11-01

    Bone mineral content (BMC/W) and density (BMD) were studied in 70- to 81-yr-old active male endurance-trained (long-distance runners, cross-country skiers, N = 67), strength-trained (throwers, weight-lifters, N = 14), and speed-trained (sprinters, jumpers, N = 16) athletes. A population sample of similar age (N = 42) served as a control group. The measurements were performed at the calcaneus by single-energy photon absorption. The endurance-trained athletes had higher bone width and depth, and the strength and speed-trained athletes higher bone depth than the control subjects. The three groups of athletes showed 19-28% higher BMC (g.cm-1) and BMC/W (g.cm-2) than the control group (P less than 0.01-0.001). When the results were corrected for bone depth by assessing BMD (g.cm-3), the mean differences between the athletes and controls were 11-16% (P less than 0.05-0.01, not significant for the strength group). The highest BMD values were associated with moderate training for running and cross-country skiing. BMD did not correlate with serum total testosterone, but there was a negative correlation between BMD and sex hormone binding globulin and a positive correlation between BMD and the free androgen index in the endurance group. The results indicate that athletes having a long-term training history and being still active at over 70 yr of age preserve superior trabecular bone mass compared with the average male population of the same age.

  19. Assessment of bone mineral density and bone metabolism in young male adults recently diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qinyue; Fan, Ping; Luo, Jing; Wu, Shufang; Sun, Hongzhi; He, Lan; Zhou, Bo

    2017-03-01

    Objective Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease. However, the exact mechanism underlying SLE-related osteopenia and osteoporosis in patients newly diagnosed with SLE remains unknown. Methods 60 male subjects with SLE aged 20-30 years were enrolled. Serum osteocalcin was examined as a marker of bone formation and type I collagen degradation products (β-crosslaps) as markers of bone resorption. Lumbar spine (L1-L4) and total hip bone mineral density (BMD) were determined by dual energy X-ray absorption (DXA). Results Among the 60 subjects with SLE at the time of diagnosis, the cohort showed a significant reduction of osteocalcin (12.62 ± 2.16 ng/mL), and serum β-crosslaps level (992.6 ± 162.6 pg/mL) was markedly elevated. Univariate correlation analyses revealed negative correlations between osteocalcin and SLEDAI, dsDNA antibody and β-crosslaps. A positive correlation was also observed between osteocalcin and C3, C4, 25-OH vitamin D, BMD L1-L4 and BMD total hip (see Table 3). Osteocalcin and β-crosslaps were strongly associated with SLE disease activity by multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis. Conclusion Osteocalcin was negatively associated with SLE disease activity, and β-crosslaps was positively associated with SLE disease activity, suggesting SLE disease activity itself directly contributed to the development of SLE-associated osteopenia and osteoporosis.

  20. Young male soccer players exhibit additional bone mineral acquisition during the peripubertal period: 1-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouch, Mohamed; Vico, Laurence; Frere, Delphine; Tabka, Zouhair; Alexandre, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether soccer could have different bone benefits in prepubescent and pubescent boys. We investigated 76 boys aged 10 to 13 years during a 1-year study. All boys were prepubescent at the beginning of the study (T0); pubescent status was determined by a complete 24-h urine hormonal assay of FSH-LH, with LH ≤ 0.31 IU/24 h and FSH ≤ 2.19 IU/24 h corresponding to prepubescent Tanner stage I and with 0.31 soccer players (F1) and 13 controls (C1)), and 41 boys had entered puberty (26 soccer players (F2) and 15 controls (C2)). Soccer players completed 2 to 5 h of training plus one competition game per week during the school year, and controls only had physical education at school. Bone mineral content (BMC) was measured at T0 and T1 by DPX in the lumbar spine, total hip, and whole body (WB) for a comparison between soccer players and controls. At T0, no BMC difference was found between F1 and C1, but BMC was higher in F2 than C2 in WB and weight-bearing sites. At T1, BMC was higher in WB and weight-bearing sites in both F1 and F2 compared to their respective controls. Between T0 and T1, soccer induced a BMC gain at weight-bearing sites in both F1 and F2 compared to C1 and C2, respectively. The soccer-related bone gain was greater in WB and weight-bearing (the lumbar spine, total hip, and supporting leg) and non-weight-bearing bones (dominant arm and nondominant arm) in boys who became pubescent than in boys who remained prepubescent. In conclusion, 1-year study in young male soccer players demonstrates that the process of bone accretion at the very early phase of puberty is more intensely stimulated by the combination of physical exercise and sexual impregnation than by one of these factors alone.

  1. Death Receptor 3 (TNFRSF25 Increases Mineral Apposition by Osteoblasts and Region Specific New Bone Formation in the Axial Skeleton of Male DBA/1 Mice

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    Fraser L. Collins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Genome wide association studies identified TNFSF member TNF-like protein 1A (TL1A, TNFSF15 as a potential modulator of ankylosing spondylitis (AS. TL1A is the only confirmed TNFSF ligand of death receptor 3 (DR3, TNFRSF25; however, its role in disease pathology is not characterised. We evaluated DR3’s role in controlling osteoblast- (OB- dependent bone formation in vitro and in vivo. Methods. Osteoprogenitor cells and OB were cultured from male DR3-deficient (DR3ko and wild-type (DR3wt DBA/1 mice. DR3 and RANKL expression were tested by flow cytometry. Alkaline phosphatase and mineralization were quantified. Osteopontin, osteoprotegerin, and pro MMP-9 were measured by ELISA. A fluorescent probe (BoneTag was used to measure in vivo mineralization in 10-month-old mice. Results. DR3 was expressed on osteoprogenitors and OB from DR3wt mice. Alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, and mineral apposition were significantly elevated in DR3wt cultures. Levels of RANKL were comparable whilst osteoprotegerin was significantly increased in DR3wt cultures. In vivo incorporation of BoneTag was significantly lower in the thoracic vertebrae of 10-month-old DR3ko mice. Conclusions. These data identify new roles for DR3 in regulating OB-dependent bone mineral apposition. They potentially begin to explain the atypical pattern of new bone formation observed in the axial skeleton of grouped, aging DBA/1 mice.

  2. Abundances of platinum group elements in native sulfur condensates from the Niuatahi-Motutahi submarine volcano, Tonga rear arc: Implications for PGE mineralization in porphyry deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Woo; Campbell, Ian H.; Kim, Jonguk

    2016-02-01

    Some porphyry Cu-Au deposits, which are enriched in Pd, are potentially an economic source of Pd. Magmatic volatile phases are thought to transport the platinum group elements (PGEs) from the porphyry source magma to the point of deposition. However, the compatibilities of the PGEs in magmatic volatile phases are poorly constrained. We report PGE and Re contents in native sulfur condensates and associated altered dacites from the Niuatahi-Motutahi submarine volcano, Tonga rear arc, in order to determine the compatibility of PGEs and Re in magmatic volatile phases, and their mobility during secondary hydrothermal alteration. The native sulfur we analyzed is the condensate of a magmatic volatile phase exsolved from the Niuatahi-Motutahi magma. The PGEs are moderately enriched in the sulfur condensates in comparison to the associated fresh dacite, with enrichment factors of 11-285, whereas Au, Cu and Re are strongly enriched with enrichment factors of ∼20,000, ∼5000 and ∼800 respectively. Although the PGEs are moderately compatible into magmatic volatile phases, their compatibility is significantly lower than that of Au, Cu and Re. Furthermore, the compatibility of PGEs decrease in the order: Ru > Pt > Ir > Pd. This trend is also observed in condensates and sublimates from other localities. PGE mineralization in porphyry Cu-Au deposits is characterized by substantially higher Pd/Pt (∼7-60) and Pd/Ir (∼100-10,500) than typical orthomagmatic sulfide deposits (e.g. Pd/Pt ∼0.6 and Pd/Ir ∼20 for the Bushveld). It has previously been suggested that the high mobility of Pd, relative to the other PGEs, may account for the preferential enrichment of Pd in porphyry Cu-Au deposits. However, the low compatibility of Pd in the volatile phase relative to the other PGEs, shown in this study, invalidates this explanation. We suggest that the PGE geochemistry of Pd-rich Cu-Au deposits is principally derived from the PGE characteristics of the magma from which the ore

  3. Mineral density and biomechanical properties of bone tissue from male Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) exposed to organochlorine contaminants and emaciation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Wolkers, Hans; Rigét, Frank F;

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the impact from dietary OC (organochlorine) exposure and restricted feeding (emaciation) on bone mineral density (BMD; g hydroxy-apatite cm(-2)) in femoral, vertebrate, skull and baculum osteoid tissue from farmed Arctic blue foxes (Vulpes lagopus). For femur, also biomechanical...

  4. The Effect of Calcium or Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation on Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Males: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Leslie N; Greene, David A; Baker, Michael K

    2015-10-01

    Research examining the preventative effects of calcium and vitamin D supplementation has focused on children and females, leaving the effects on male bone mineral density (BMD) largely unexplored. Thus, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to examine the efficacy of calcium supplementation, with or without vitamin D for improving BMD in healthy males. Medline, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, Academic Search Complete, CINHAHL Plus and PubMed databases were searched for studies including healthy males which provided participants calcium supplementation with or without vitamin D and used changes to BMD as the primary outcome measure. Between trial standardized mean differences of percentage change from baseline in BMD of femoral neck, lumbar spine, total body and total hip sites were calculated. Nine studies were included in the systematic review with six references totaling 867 participants contributing to the meta-analysis. Significant pooled effects size (ES) for comparison between supplementation and control groups were found at all sites included in the meta-analysis. The largest effect was found in total body (ES = 0.644; 95% CI = 0.406-0.883; p calcium and vitamin D supplementation for improving BMD in older males. There is a need for high quality randomized controlled trials, especially in younger and middle-aged male cohorts and athletic populations to determine whether supplementation provides a preventative benefit.

  5. Evaluating effect of a new sterile gauze containing Bentonite and Halloysite minerals on blood coagulation and wound healing in male rats

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    Mehrosadat Alavi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, a wide variety of researches are performed in the field of novel technologies to stop severe bleeding. Finally, an effective combination of a mineral called Zeolite has been introduced. Bentonite and Halloysite ores are very common in Iran. Likewise, coagulation properties of these minerals have been proven in several studies. In this study, the effect of new recombinant gauze, containing Bentonite and Halloysite minerals was studied on blood coagulation and wound healing time in male rats. Materials and methods: In this exprimental study, new sterile gauze was prepared from mixture of Bentonite and Halloysite minerals and Vaseline. Then the effect of gauze was studied on the wound healing process in the Wistar rat. Finally, SPSS software was used for data analysis (T-test and the nonparametric Mann-Whitney. Differences with P <0.05 were considered as significant. Results: In the first phase, the study was carried out on 40 blood samples of mice tails. The coagulation time of 81.31 ± 19.12 sec in control group and 33.2 ± 2.18 sec in study group (Bentonite-Halloysite treated were reported. In the second phase, the time of complete wound healing was considered. This figure was observed between 9 and 13 days in the control group and 5 to 6 days in study group which is treated with recombinant sterile gauze. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, topical application of the new sterile gauze, combined with Bentonite and Halloysite minerals decrease clotting and wound healing time significantly

  6. The Association between Trunk Body Composition and Spinal Bone Mineral Density in Korean Males versus Females: a Farmers' Cohort for Agricultural Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (FARM) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eun Kyoung; Park, Hee Won; Baek, Sora; Lim, Jae Young

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was proposed to identify the association of trunk body composition with spinal bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean male and female farmers. A total of 523 Korean farmers (259 males, 44 premenopausal females, and 220 postmenopausal females) were recruited. Computed tomography scans were acquired at the mid-L4 vertebral level, and total trunk muscle mass (TMM, cm³), back muscle mass (BMM), and abdominal wall muscle mass (AMM), total trunk fat mass (TFM), visceral fat mass (VFM), and subcutaneous fat mass (SFM) were assessed. Spinal BMD (g/cm²) was estimated from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the L4 level. In terms of muscle mass, spinal BMD was significantly correlated with all the components of the trunk muscle mass (r = 0.171-0.360; P Service (CRIS, http://cris.nih.go.kr), number KCT0000829.

  7. THE EFFECT OF A 12-WEEK LOW-IMPACT EXERCISE PROGRAM IN BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN ADULT MALES AND FEMALES WITH QUADRIPLEGIC CEREBRAL PALSY

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    Kitsios A,

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an intervention physiotherapy program in adultmales and females with cerebral palsy on bone mineral density. 10 adults (7 males/3 females with quadriplegiccerebral palsy (CP consisted the experimental group and 10 people (7males/3 females serving as control grouptook part in the study. Measurements including bone mineral density (g/cm² assessment with DEXAabsorptiometry of lumbar spine were tested before and after a 12-week physical low-impact program. Treatmentprovided by community trainers consisted of conscious movement control and low-impact resistance training 3times a week. The study revealed the following: The pre-test and post-test examined variables of both groupswere within normal limits. CP patients group had significantly higher levels of bone density in their lumbar spineafter the intervention program compared to baseline values. The same trend was not found for the case of controlgroup. The BMD in the selected area of the experimental group was increased about 7% compared to baselinevalues and this was statistically significant (p<0.05. The results support application and development of thetreatment concept and highlight that physical activity at its simple status can increase BMD in CP patients. Ifsustained, the increases in BMD may reduce the risk of osteoporotic fracture and augments the quality of life ofthese people

  8. Simultaneous UPLC-MS/MS analysis of native catechins and procyanidins and their microbial metabolites in intestinal contents and tissues of male Wistar Furth inbred rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Katheryn M; Neilson, Andrew P

    2014-05-01

    Procyanidins have been extensively investigated for their potential health protective activities. However, the potential bioactivities of procyanidins are limited by their poor bioavailability. The majority of the ingested dose remains unabsorbed and reaches the colon where extensive microbial metabolism occurs. Most existing analytical methods measure either native compounds (catechins and procyanidins), or their microbial metabolites. The objectives of this study were to develop a high-throughput extraction and UPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous measurement of both native procyanidins and their metabolites, facilitating high-throughput analysis of native and metabolite profiles in various regions of the colon. The present UPLC-MS/MS method facilitates simultaneous resolution and detection of authentic standards of 14 native catechin monomers and procyanidins, as well as 24 microbial metabolites. Detection and resolution of an additional 3 procyanidin dimers and 10 metabolites for which standards were not available was achieved. Elution and adequate resolution of both native compounds and metabolites were achieved within 10min. The intraday repeatability for native compounds was between 1.1 and 16.5%, and the interday repeatability for native compounds was between 2.2 and 25%. Intraday and interday repeatability for metabolites was between 0.6 and 24.1% and 1 and 23.9%, respectively. Observed lower limits of quantification for native compounds were ∼9-350fmol on-column, and for the microbial metabolites were ∼0.8-12,000fmol on-column. Observed lower limits of detection for native compounds were ∼4.5-190fmol on-column, and for metabolites were 0.304-6020fmol on-column. For native monomers and procyanidins, extraction recoveries ranged from 38 to 102%. Extraction recoveries for the 9 microbial metabolites tested ranged from 41 to 95%. Data from tissue analysis of rats gavaged with grape seed extract indicate fairly high accumulation of native compounds

  9. Effects of 1.25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol and Hydroalcoholic Extract of Withania Coagulans Fruit on Bone Mineralization and Mechanical and Histological Properties of Male Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SJ Hosseini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Withania coagulans (WC fruit and 1.25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1.25-(OH2 D3 on bone mineralization, mechanical and histological properties of male broiler chickens at 21 and 42 d of age. A total of six hundred male day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 2×3×2 factorial arrangement with 12 treatments of five replicates of 10 birds each. Treatments consisted of two basal diets (positive control with adequate Ca level and negative control with 30% less Ca, three levels of WC (0, 100, or 200 mg/kg diet, and two levels of 1.25-(OH2 D3 (0 or 0.5 µg/kg diet. Birds were housed in floor pens. The diets were fed ad libitum from one to 42 days of age. On day 21 and 42, one bird per replicate was sacrificed and its tibiae were removed. Both Ca and P retention increased when dietary Ca level was reduced (p<0.001. The addition of 200 mg WC/kg to positive control diet increased Ca retention (p<0.01. Except for tibia diameter, no significant main effects of experimental treatments were observed on tibia physical characteristics or on bone mineralization. The diet with 30% Ca reduction decreased tibia diameter at 42 days of age (p<0.05. The dietary addition of 1.25-(OH2 D3 increased tibia fracture energy, width of tibia mineralized zone, and serum Ca at 42 days of age (p<0.05. At 21 days of age, supplementation of 100 mg WC/kg increased cortical thickness (p<0.05. At 42 days of age, supplementation of 100 mg WC/kg increased tibia shear force (p<0.05 and fracture energy (p<0.01. The results of this experiment showed that supplementation of 100 mg/kg hydroalcoholic extract of WC fruit increased tibia cortical thickness, shear force, and fracture energy.

  10. 不同乙醇摄入量对男性骨密度的影响%Effect of alcohol consumption on bone mineral density in males *

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢微波; 胥利; 赵庆华; 张明军; 王永红; 王郁

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of alcohol consumption on bone mineral density in males .Methods Association be-tween bone mineral density ,alkaline phosphatase and alcohol history ,daily alcohol consumption were analysed retrospectively in 563 men undergone physical examination .Results Of all the participates ,31 .6% has history of alcohol consumption for more than one year .The rate of osteopenia and osteoporosis was 31 .4% and 5 .9% ,respectively .The reduction of bone mineral density was posi-tively correlated with age ,length of alcohol consumption history ,daily alcohol consumption volume and the serum alkaline phospha-tase levels(P<0 .01) .The rate of osteopenia and osteoporosis were increased significantly in the males who had alcohol consump-tion history(P<0 .01) ,and paralleled with the increase of daily alcohol consumption (P<0 .01) .The alkaline phosphatase level of males with a history of alcohol consumption more than 20 years were higher than the ones without history of alcohol intake .While alkaline phosphatase level of the ones taking daily alcohol more than 50 g was higher than less than 50g or no consumption signifi-cantly(P<0 .05) .Conclusion Alcohol consumption is an important risk factor of male osteoporosis .%目的探讨乙醇摄入量对男性骨密度的影响。方法回顾性分析563例男性体检者乙醇摄入史和日摄入量与碱性磷酸酶(ALP)及骨密度的关联。结果563例男性体检者中,31.6%有1年以上乙醇摄入史,骨量减少和骨质疏松(OP)的发生率分别为31.4%和5.9%。骨密度降低与年龄、乙醇摄入史、日摄入量及ALP水平呈正相关(P<0.01)。OP和骨量减少在有乙醇摄入史男性中发生率明显增加(P<0.01),且随日摄入量的增加而增加(P<0.01)。乙醇摄入史大于20年组与无乙醇摄入史组,日摄入量50~100g和大于100g组与0g组、小于50g组分别比较,ALP差异均有统计学意义(P<0

  11. The mineralization and transformation of both added organic nitrogen and native soil N in red soils from four different ecological conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YeQing-Fu; HeZhen-Li; 等

    1998-01-01

    The NH4+-N,microbial biomass-N,humus-N,and extractable orgainc N derived from the added 15N-labelled ryegrass and soil indigenous pool were measured separately with 15N tracing techniques.Based on the recovery of NH4+-15N and lost-15N(mainly as NH3),more than 30% of the added ryegrass 15N was mineralized in 15d.The amount of mineralized N increased with time up to 90d for all soils except for the upland soil in which it decreased slightly.The minearlization of ryegrass N and incorporation of ryegrass-15N into microbial biomass was greatest in upland soil.The transformation of ryegrass 15N into humus 15N occurred rapidly in 15d,with higher humus 15N occurring in the upland or tea-garden soil than the paddy and unarable soil.The addition of ryegrass caused additional mineralization of soil indigenous organic N and enhanced the turnover of both microbial biomass N and stable organic N in soils.

  12. Low bone mineral density as a risk factor for osteoporosis and ways of its correction in male patients with ankylosing spondylosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Pirogova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to estimate bone mineral density (BMD in men with ankylosing spondylosis (AS.Subjects and methods. Seventy-two male patients (mean age 43.2±9.1 years diagnosed with extended- or late-stage AS (according to the 1984 modified New York criteria (a study group were followed up. A control group consisted of 70 apparently healthy men of the same age (46.7±1.9 years with neither a history of bone fractures and no complains about osteoporosis (OP. In the study and control groups, BMD was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.Results. The patients with AS were found to have statistically significantly lower BMD in the femoral neck and lumbar spine. In the study group, osteopenic syndrome (OPS was identified in 44 (61.1%: osteopenia (OPe in 16 (22.2% and OP in 28 (38.9%. In the control group, OPS was detected in 16 (21.62% patients, OPe in 12 (16.21%, and OP in 4 (5.40%. Lower BMD was noted in both the femoral neck and lumbar spine in the extended stage of AS and only in the femoral neck in its late stage.

  13. Low bone mineral density as a risk factor for osteoporosis and ways of its correction in male patients with ankylosing spondylosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Pirogova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to estimate bone mineral density (BMD in men with ankylosing spondylosis (AS.Subjects and methods. Seventy-two male patients (mean age 43.2±9.1 years diagnosed with extended- or late-stage AS (according to the 1984 modified New York criteria (a study group were followed up. A control group consisted of 70 apparently healthy men of the same age (46.7±1.9 years with neither a history of bone fractures and no complains about osteoporosis (OP. In the study and control groups, BMD was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.Results. The patients with AS were found to have statistically significantly lower BMD in the femoral neck and lumbar spine. In the study group, osteopenic syndrome (OPS was identified in 44 (61.1%: osteopenia (OPe in 16 (22.2% and OP in 28 (38.9%. In the control group, OPS was detected in 16 (21.62% patients, OPe in 12 (16.21%, and OP in 4 (5.40%. Lower BMD was noted in both the femoral neck and lumbar spine in the extended stage of AS and only in the femoral neck in its late stage.

  14. Risk factors for bone mineral density at the calcaneus in 40–59 year-old male workers: A cross-sectional study in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Chong-Soon

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few epidemiologic studies have attempted to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for osteopenia and osteoporosis in middle-aged Asian men. We performed this study to determine the prevalence and risk factors of osteopenia and osteoporosis in this population. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from March to July, 2004. The subjects were 2,073 males aged from 40 to 59 years in the KHNP (Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power workplace-based cohort. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured by peripheral, dual-energy, X-ray absorptiometry (DXA at the calcaneus. Anthropometric and lifestyle factors were investigated using a standard, self-reported questionnaire. Results BMD was 0.60 ± 0.09 g/cm2 (mean ± standard deviation and was negatively correlated with age (r = -0.18, P P P P P P In multiple linear regression analysis, the independent determinants associated with BMD were increasing age (coefficient = -0.002, P P P P P Conclusion We suggest that BMD of the calcaneus is correlated negatively with exposure to smoke and increased WHR, but positively with regular exercise and increased BMI.

  15. Loss of Bone Mineral Density Associated with Age in Male Rats Fed on Sunflower Oil Is Avoided by Virgin Olive Oil Intake or Coenzyme Q Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Julio J.; Llamas-Elvira, José M.; López-Frías, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    The role of dietary fat unsaturation and the supplementation of coenzyme Q have been evaluated in relation to bone health. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 6 or 24 months on two diets varying in the fat source, namely virgin olive oil, rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, or sunflower oil, rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Both dietary fats were supplemented or not with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). Bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated in the femur. Serum levels of osteocalcin, osteopontin, receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and parathyroid hormone (PTH), as well as urinary F2-isoprostanes were measured. Aged animals fed on virgin olive oil showed higher BMD than those fed on sunflower oil. In addition, CoQ10 prevented the age-related decline in BMD in animals fed on sunflower oil. Urinary F2-isoprostanes analysis showed that sunflower oil led to the highest oxidative status in old animals, which was avoided by supplementation with CoQ10. In conclusion, lifelong feeding on virgin olive oil or the supplementation of sunflower oil on CoQ10 prevented, at least in part mediated by a low oxidative stress status, the age-related decrease in BMD found in sunflower oil fed animals. PMID:28661441

  16. The effect of interference of endurance and concurrent (endurance-resistance training programs on femoral bone mineral density and mechanical strength of osteoporotic male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F nazem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is no information available regarding the effect of an incremental Concurrent aerobic and resistance training protocol on osteogenic response of bone tissue for osteoporosis prevention and treatment. This study evaluate the efficacy of Concurrent training compared to endurance training for enhancing femoral bone mineral density and mechanical strength of osteoporotic male Wistar Rats. Methodology: In this experimental design, firstly among forty male Wistar rats, 8 rats were separated as healthy group. Then Osteoporosis induced in other rats by intraperitoneal injection of 20% alcohol/saline solution (3 g per kg of body weight. Injection were carried out in the first 4 days of the week, once a day for three consecutive weeks. Osteoporotic rats divided into 4 groups (n=8 per group: baseline, resistance training, concurrent training and control. The endurance training protocol included running on a treadmill with a 0% grade and at a constant speed 12 m/min to a maximum of 60 minutes per day. Concurrent group carried out a combination of both endurance and resistance trainings (4 series of climbs on the 110-cm vertical ladder angled at 80º with weights tied to animal tail and Observance the principle of overload at 50% of the total body mass of the animal in the first series to 100% in the fourth series. After completing 12 weeks of exercise trainings (5 days a week, the animals were euthanized, and excised left femurs were scanned for BMD measurement and examined by three point bending test to obtain the Maximum breaking-force and stiffness. Data analysis performed by Independent t-test for comparing among healthy and baseline groups, as well, one way- ANOVA was applied for assessment of inter groups viabilities. A p- value (0.05 was set for data statistical analysis. Result: The Concurrent group showed a significantly increased on BMD (p=0.000, maximum force (p=0.000 and stiffness (p=0.000 versus to control group. Endurance

  17. Teores de proteína e minerais de espécies nativas, potenciais hortaliças e frutas Protein and mineral contents of native species, potential vegetables, and fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdely Ferreira Kinupp

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre (RMPA, Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil, apresenta uma significativa riqueza de hortaliças e frutas nativas com potencial alimentício negligenciado. Além de indicativos etnológicos sobre seus usos como alimento, pouco se conhece sobre elas, principalmente sobre sua composição bromatológica. Estudos revelam que plantas alimentícias não-convencionais são mais ricas nutricionalmente do que plantas domesticadas. Com o objetivo de prospectar o potencial alimentício e contribuir com dados sobre os teores de proteína e minerais de plantas nativas na RMPA foram selecionadas 69 espécies, distribuídas em 58 gêneros e 33 famílias botânicas, totalizando 76 análises de diferentes partes comestíveis. Além do N convertido em proteína, foram analisados os teores de Ca, Mg, Mn, P, Fe, Na, K, Cu, Zn, S e B. Muitas espécies mostraram-se promissoras, com teores protéico e mineral superiores ao das espécies comerciais de usos similares. Apesar de adaptadas e abundantes na RMPA e dos conteúdos significativos de proteína e minerais, a grande maioria destas espécies permanece desconhecida ou subutilizada. Estudos e incentivos efetivos para o aproveitamento econômico de espécies negligenciadas poderiam contribuir para a conservação, a valorização das espécies autóctones e para uma dieta mais diversa e saudável do homem.The Metropolitan Region of Porto Alegre (MRPA, Rio Grande do Sul state (Brazil, presents a significant richness of native vegetables and fruits with neglected nourishing potential. Beyond the ethnological indicatives on their uses as food, little is known on these vegetables and fruits, mainly regard to the bromatological composition. Studies reveal that the unconventional food plants are nutritionally richer than domesticated plants. In the aim to evaluate the nourishing potential of the native plants in the MRPA region and to contribute with data on their protein and mineral contents

  18. Declining trends in conception rates in recent birth cohorts of native Danish women: a possible role of deteriorating male reproductive health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Sobotka, Thomás; Hansen, Martin A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent findings of poor semen quality among at least 20% of normal young men in Denmark prompted us to use unique Danish registers on births and induced abortions to evaluate a possible effect of the poor male fecundity on pregnancy rates among their presumed partners - the younger cohorts of women...... of relatively young couples in the later cohorts. Furthermore, the lower rates of induced abortion among the younger birth cohorts, often viewed as a success of health education programs, may not be fully explained by improved use of contraception. It seems more likely that decreased fecundity because....... We have analysed data from the Danish birth and abortion registries as well as the Danish registry for assisted reproduction (ART) and defined a total natural conception rate (TNCR), which is equal to fertility rate plus induced abortion rate minus ART conception rate. A unique personal...

  19. Declining trends in conception rates in recent birth cohorts of native Danish women: a possible role of deteriorating male reproductive health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T.K.; Sobotka, T.; Hansen, Marc Allan

    2008-01-01

    Recent findings of poor semen quality among at least 20% of normal young men in Denmark prompted us to use unique Danish registers on births and induced abortions to evaluate a possible effect of the poor male fecundity on pregnancy rates among their presumed partners--the younger cohorts of women...... of relatively young couples in the later cohorts. Furthermore, the lower rates of induced abortion among the younger birth cohorts, often viewed as a success of health education programs, may not be fully explained by improved use of contraception. It seems more likely that decreased fecundity because....... We have analysed data from the Danish birth and abortion registries as well as the Danish registry for assisted reproduction (ART) and defined a total natural conception rate (TNCR), which is equal to fertility rate plus induced abortion rate minus ART conception rate. A unique personal...

  20. An Analysis of Student Evaluations of Native and Non Native Korean Foreign Language Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Damron

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of native and non-native teaching assistants and part-time teachers (both referred to as TAs in this article, students completed 632 evaluations of Ko-rean Language TAs from 2005 to 2008, and these evaluations were compiled for an analysis of variants (ANOVA. The evaluations were categorized into three groups of TAs: native Korean-speaking female, native Korean-speaking male, and non-native male; non-native females would have been included in the study, but there were not enough non-native female teachers to have a reliable sample. In an effort to encourage more self-examined teaching practices, this study addresses the greatest strengths and weaknesses of each group. Results revealed several significant differences between the ratings of the groups: native female TAs rated lowest overall, and non-native male TAs rated highest overall. The most prominent differences be-tween groups occurred in ratings of amount students learned, TAs’ preparedness, TAs’ active involvement in students’ learning, TAs’ enthusiasm, and TAs’ tardiness. This study reviews students’ written comments on the evaluations and proposes possible causes of these findings, concluding that differences in ratings are based on both teaching patterns associated with each group of TAs and student re-sponse bias that favors non-native male speakers. Teaching patterns include a tendency for native (Korean female TAs to teach using a lecture format and non-native male TAs to teach using a discussion format; for native TAs to have difficulty adapting to the language level of the students; and for a more visible enthusiasm for Korean culture held by non-native TAs. Causes for bias may include “other-ing” females and natives, TA selection procedures, and trends in evaluating TAs based on language level.

  1. Native iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Charles Kent

    2015-01-01

    , a situation unique in the Solar System. In such a world, iron metal is unstable and, as we all know, oxidizes to the ferric iron compounds we call 'rust'. If we require iron metal it must be produced at high temperatures by reacting iron ore, usually a mixture of ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric (Fe3+) oxides (Fe2O3......, hematite, or FeO.Fe2O3, magnetite), with carbon in the form of coke. This is carried out in a blast furnace. Although the Earth's core consists of metallic iron, which may also be present in parts of the mantle, this is inaccessible to us, so we must make our own. In West Greenland, however, some almost...... unique examples of iron metal, otherwise called 'native iron' or 'telluric iron', occur naturally....

  2. Native Americans with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Native Americans with Diabetes Better diabetes care can decrease kidney failure Language: ... between 1996 and 2013. Problem Kidney failure from diabetes was highest among Native Americans. Native Americans are ...

  3. Mineral oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  4. 影响安徽安庆地区农村男性骨密度相关因素研究%Study on bone mineral density-associated factors in males of rural area in Anhui Anqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴涤; 关明杰; 杨艳芳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate factors associated with bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur among males in rural area in Anqing. Methods A questionnaire was used to investigate the life style associated with osteoporosis. BMD of the femur of 377 male subjects was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Multivariate linear regression model was used to analyze the association among femoral BMD and the general characters of the male, work intensity, smoking, and alcohol and tea consumption. Results 'There were correlations among femoral BMD and age, height, body weight, and waistline. After adjustment of correlated risk factors, work intensity and alcohol consumption increased the femoral BMD (P = 0. 002, P = 0. 010, respectively). No correlation was found among smoking, tea drinking and the femoral BMD. Conclusion There were significant correlation among the age, height, weight, waistline, work intensity, alcohol consumption and the femoral BMD in males of the rural area in Anqing.%目的 研究影响安庆地区农村男性股骨骨密度相关因素。方法 采用与骨质疏松相关的生活方式情况调查表,用双能X线吸收仪对377名男性研究对象进行股骨扫描,用多元线性回归模型分析男性一般特征及劳动强度、吸烟、饮酒、饮茶与股骨骨密度关系。结果 年龄、身高、体重和腰围与股骨骨密度相关;在调整相关危险因素后,劳动强度和饮酒可增加股骨骨密度(P=0.002、0.010),而吸烟、饮茶与股骨骨密度未显示出相关性。结论 在安庆地区农村男性人群中年龄、身高、体重、腰围、劳动强度和饮酒与股骨骨密度有显著相关性。

  5. Influence of Clozapine on Bone Mineral Density in Male Patients with Schizophrenia%氯氮平对男性精神分裂症患者骨密度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宏亮; 王美娟; 张述杰; 赵路平; 李莉

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of non-classical antipsychotic drugs on bone mineral density in male patients with schizophrenia.Method: The bone mineral density between the two groups were determinated with absorptiometry to learn bone mineral density. General situation was surveyed, combined with the general situation to analyze the related factors associated with bone density.Result: The normal BMD values in the case group and the control group was 30.00%, 81.25%, respectively, the osteoporosis in the case group and the control group was 52.50%, 6.25%, respectively. There were significant differences on BMD values between the two groups (P<0.05). There was no difference on age, body mass index between the two groups, there were differences in smoking, milk factors (P<0.05). Conclusion: Compared with the healthy population, the BMD on patients with the long-term use of antipsychotic drug significantly.%目的:探讨非经典抗精神病药物对男性精神分裂症患者骨密度的影响。方法:应用骨密度仪对病例组及对照组进行骨密度测定,了解两组人群的骨密度状况。对两组人群的一般情况进行调查,结合一般情况的相关因素进行骨密度与相关性分析。结果:病例组和对照组骨密度值正常者分别为30.00%、81.25%,病例组和对照组骨质疏松症者分别为52.50%、6.25%。两组骨密度值比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。两组年龄、体重指数比较差异无统计学意义,但吸烟、牛奶因素比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:长期服用抗精神病药物的患者骨密度值与健康人群相比明显降低。

  6. Bioleaching of Minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Roberto

    2002-02-01

    Bioleaching is the term used to describe the microbial dissolution of metals from minerals. The commercial bioleaching of metals, particularly those hosted in sulfide minerals, is supported by the technical disciplines of biohydrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, pyrometallurgy, chemistry, electrochemistry, and chemical engineering. The study of the natural weathering of these same minerals, above and below ground, is also linked to the fields of geomicrobiology and biogeochemistry. Studies of abandoned and disused mines indicate that the alterations of the natural environment due to man's activities leave as remnants microbiological activity that continues the biologically mediated release of metals from the host rock (acid rock drainage; ARD). A significant fraction of the world's copper, gold and uranium is now recovered by exploiting native or introduced microbial communities. While some members of these unique communities have been extensively studied for the past 50 years, our knowledge of the composition of these communities, and the function of the individual species present remains relatively limited. Nevertheless, bioleaching represents a major strategy in mineral resource recovery whose importance will increase as ore reserves decline in quality, become more difficult to process (due to increased depth, increased need for comminution, for example), and as environmental considerations eliminate traditional physical processes such as smelting, which have served the mining industry for hundreds of years.

  7. Element Geochemistry and Its Genetic Significance of Native Copper Mineralization in the Mayang Deposit,Hunan Province,China%湖南麻阳砂岩自然铜矿床元素地球化学及其成因意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王大鹏; 张乾; 郭国林; 蔡伊

    2014-01-01

    The Mayang copper deposit located in the Central of Yuanma basin and near to Mount Xuefeng in the southern is a rarely sandstone type native copper deposit.The production of this deposit has a long history,and can be dated to Period of Spring and Autumn ,so far it has provided more than 2 million tons copper which about 90% from native copper.The ore bodies are multistory and mainly occur in the gray white or gray green sandstones of Jinjiang Formation of Cretaceous,and a single ore-body is stratified or lentoid.The native copper is important as cement in sandstones.In this paper,the content of major elements,trace elements and rare earth elements of the redbed rock,ores,native copper and chalcocite were calculated using the correlation analysis to discuss the relationship between the element character and copper mineralization.Kinds of elements,such as Fe,Ag,As,Ba,Sr,are positive correlated with Cu, which show these elements are closely related to the native copper formation.The native copper mineralization is due to the underground thermal water,and this type fluid may be low temperature and weak reduction environment.%麻阳铜矿床(又称九曲湾铜矿床)位于湖南省沅麻盆地中段南部,其南部靠近雪峰山,开采历史悠久,是一类十分罕见的产于砂岩中的自然铜矿床。含矿岩系主要为上白垩统锦江组,矿体呈层状或似层状产出,少数为短距离内尖灭的透镜体,严格受灰白灰绿色砂岩控制;矿化主要以胶结物产出,自然铜占总资源量的90%左右。测试了麻阳铜矿不同工作面的红色粉砂岩、自然铜砂岩(矿石)、辉铜矿砂岩(矿石)及自然铜、辉铜矿的常量元素和微量元素含量,应用 Spearman 秩相关分析对数据进行统计分析。结合矿物组合特点认为,与 Cu 有较强正相关的 Fe、Ag、As、Ba、Sr 等元素对矿化形成条件有指示意义。铜矿化的形成与成岩期热液活动有着密切联

  8. Macrominerais para bovinos de corte nas pastagens nativas dos Campos de Cima da Serra - RS Macro minerals to beef cattle in the native pastures of Campos de Cima da Serra - RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Wunsch

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Em face das poucas informações disponíveis sobre a composição mineral das pastagens nativas da região dos Campos de Cima da Serra (RS, o presente trabalho de pesquisa objetivou avaliar os teores dos principais macrominerais, em diferentes épocas do ano, e relacionar o perfil mineral destas pastagens com as necessidades nutricionais recomendadas pelo NRC (1996 para bovinos de corte. O projeto foi conduzido em vinte propriedades particulares, em Cambará do Sul, utilizando áreas de campo nativo que estavam sendo normalmente utilizadas em pastoreio por bovinos de corte e/ou ovinos e que não tinham sofrido nenhum tipo de melhoria, reforma ou recuperação (exceto queimada, no mínimo nos últimos 20 anos. Colheram-se, durante oito meses, e dentro de uma mesma área predeterminada em cada propriedade, amostras para determinar as concentrações de Ca, P, Mg, Na e S. Verificou-se efeito do mês de coleta sobre todos os minerais analisados. Foram constatados teores suficientes de Ca e Mg para as categorias de bovinos de corte menos exigentes. Os teores de Mg são deficientes para vacas em gestação e lactação e os teores de Ca são deficientes para terneiros. Por outro lado, os teores de P, Na e S apresentaram-se abaixo das exigências mínimas para as categorias de bovinos de corte avaliadas.The present study was conducted to determine the mineral status of natural range pastures of Campos de Cima da Serra region, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in different months of the year, to compare them to beef cattle requirements (NRC, 1996. The project was led in twenty private farms, in Cambará do Sul county, on grazing areas without improvements (except burning at the last twenty years. Pasture samples were collected at January, February, March April, May, July, September and December to determine its calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and sulphur levels. Effect of the season was verified on all analyzed minerals. The Ca and Mg contents

  9. Exigências de minerais para cabras SRD durante a gestação: cálcio e fósforo Minerals requirements of brazilian native goats during the pregnancy: calcium e phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber Tomás de Resende

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado para estimar a retenção e a exigência líquida dos minerais Ca e P em 120 cabras sem raça definida (SRD, não-gestantes, com peso médio de 42 kg. A estimativa de retenção baseou-se na diferença entre o total de cada mineral depositado no feto, no útero, nas membranas, nos fluídos fetais e na glândula mamária dos animais nas diferentes etapas da gestação e o total de cada mineral armazenado nas cabras vazias. O modelo de predição usado foi lnY=A+BX+CX², em que X = tempo de gestação. Na comparação dos valores estimados com os valores reais obtidos, foi observado que o modelo proposto explicou com coerência e precisão o comportamento biológico da retenção dos minerais durante todas as fases da gestação. O conteúdo de Ca durante a gestação foi de 38,9 e 78,7 g nas gestações de um e dois fetos, resultando em exigência líquida diária de 1,17 e 3,72 g, respectivamente. O conteúdo de P foi de 17,8 e 29,1 g, resultando em exigência líquida diária de 0,48 e 0,71 g, respectivamente.This work was carried out to estimate the retention and the net requirements of Ca and P, in 120 goats averaging 42 kg LW. The estimate retention based in the difference between the total of each mineral stored in the fetus, the uterus, the membranes, the fetal fluids and the mammary gland of animals in the different phases of pregnancy and the total of each mineral stored in the empty goats. The model of prediction used was lnY = A + BX + CX², where X = time of pregnancy. In the comparison of the estimated values and the real obtained values, that the suggested model explained with coherence and precision the biological behavior of mineral retention during all phases of pregnancy. The Ca content during the pregnancy was 38.9 and 78.7 g in the gestation of one and two fetus, respectively, resulting in a daily net requirement of 1.17 and 3.72 g, respectively. The P content was 17.8 and 29.1 g, resulting in a

  10. 肥胖男童骨矿物质含量及瘦体重的研究%Research of Bone Mineral Content and Lean Mass in Male Obese Children.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜梅; 黄玉春; 华天懿; 赵淑霞

    2001-01-01

    【目的】了解以体脂含量增加为特点的肥胖儿童骨矿物质含量、骨密度及瘦体重有何变化。【方法】应用体块指数(BMI)诊断的肥胖组及对年龄、身高进行一一配对的正常组儿童各17例,年龄7~13岁,测定其骨矿物质含量(BMC)、骨密度(BMD)及瘦体重(LM),观察二组间的差异,再用体脂含量百分比(F%)来重新诊断这34名儿童,观察肥胖组与对照组间上述指标的差异,并应用多因素分析肥胖与骨矿物质含量之间的关系。【结果】应用BMI为诊断标准时肥胖组与对照组间的BMC、BMD、LM有显著差异。改用F%为诊断标准后,肥胖儿童与正常儿童间的BMC、BMD差别消失,LM之间的差别也减小,多因素分析结果:体脂含量、肥胖与BMC无关。【结论】若以体脂含量增加来定义肥胖儿童,其骨矿物质含量、骨密度与正常儿童相比无差别,瘦体重差别也不大,单纯体脂含量的增加并不能引起骨矿物质含量的改变。%【Objective】 To assess and compare bone mineral content(BMC), bone mineral density(BMD)and lean mass(LM) in normal children and obese children who have excessive fat.  【Methods】 In a case control study,17 male obese children aged 7~13,diagnosed by body mass index(BMI)were recruited,17 healthy male children mached for age and height were enrolled as control.Total body BMC,total body BMD and total LM were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. The results were compared between the two groups. Then, obesity were rediagnosed by body fat percent(F%) in these 34 children, comparation was done again. Multiple-linear-regression analysis was used to access the influence of age, height, body composition variables and obesity on the dependent variable BMC. 【Results】 When BMI was used to diagnose obesity, there was significant differences in BMC,BMD and LM between two groups. However, when F% was used to assess obesity, no

  11. Native Health Research Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... APP WITH JAVASCRIPT TURNED OFF. THE NATIVE HEALTH DATABASE REQUIRES JAVASCRIPT IN ORDER TO FUNCTION. PLEASE ENTER ... To learn more about searching the Native Health Database, click here. Keywords Title Author Source of Publication ...

  12. Effects of bodybuilding exercise on bone mineral density and bone metabolism among college male students%健美操运动对男大学生骨密度和骨代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金绪忠; 吴纪饶

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨健美操运动对普通大学生骨密度(BMD)和部分骨代谢指标的影响,为了解运动对青春后期大学生骨代谢的影响提供依据.方法 以江西师范大学40名健康男大学生作为研究对象,比较运动组(健美操)和对照组(较少参加运动)的骨密度和血清睾酮、血碱性磷酸酶(ALP)、尿羟脯氨酸(U-HOP)及尿肌酐(U-Cr)等骨代谢指标.结果 与对照组相比,运动组的腰椎(L2-4)和左股骨颈骨密度均较高,腰椎骨密度差异有统计学意义;运动组的血清睾酮明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义;运动组的血ALP要高,而UHOP和U-HOP/U-Cr比值低,但差异均无统计学意义.结论 健美操运动能够通过影响骨代谢来增加骨形成、减少骨吸收,提高青春后期男大学生的骨密度和骨量.%Objective To explore the effects of bodybuilding on bone mineral density (BMD) and some indexes of bone metabolism among college students. Methods A total of 40 male students of college were divided into exercise group ( participates bodybuilding frequently ) and control group( sedentary), some indexes of bone metabolism and BMD were observed and analyzed. Results The level of bone density and bone mass of spine and left femoral neck in exercise group was relatively higher than control group; the concentration of serum testosterone was remarkably higher than control group ( P < 0. 05 ); blood ALP was higher, U - HOP and U - HOP/U - Cr ratio were lower in exercise group compared with control group, but failed to reach significant level. Conclusion Regular and moderate bodybuilding exercise is beneficial to the level of resting serum testerosterone in male college students; regular and moderate bodybuilding exercise may affect bone metabolism by increasing the formation of bone and decreasing the absorption of bone to increase the BMD and bone mass.

  13. 体成分对男性2型糖尿病患者骨密度的影响%Effect of body composition on bone mineral density in male patients with type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄淑玉; 重远; 管晓峰

    2015-01-01

    目的:应用双能X线骨密度仪( DXA)探讨体成分对男性2型糖尿病患者骨密度的影响。方法选择年龄50~60岁在我科住院的男性2型糖尿病患者107例,分为正常体重组、超重组和肥胖组,分别测定其身高、体重,计算体重指数( BMI ),利用全自动生化分析仪测定血糖、血脂,高压液相色谱法测定糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c),采用双能X线骨密度仪测定腰椎、左股骨大转子骨密度( BMD)及体成分,并进行统计学分析。结果3组男性2型糖尿病患者腰椎BMD分别为1.12±0.05,1.21±0.07,1.36±0.09,左股骨大转子BMD分别1.12±0.06,1.22±0.08,1.41±0.08,与骨密度呈正相关;全身各部位肌肉含量与骨密度成正相关,且大腿>上肢>躯干;不同部位脂肪含量对骨密度的影响是不同的,其中上肢脂肪和大腿脂肪与骨密度成正相关,而躯干脂肪与骨密度成负相关;年龄、糖化血红蛋白、血脂对男性2型糖尿病患者骨密度无明显影响,而体重指数、肌肉含量及脂肪含量影响明显。结论体重指数、肌肉含量和脂肪含量对男性2型糖尿病患者骨密度有直接影响。男性2型糖尿病患者加强锻炼,减少腹部脂肪含量,增加四肢肌肉含量,可以预防骨质疏松症的发生。%Objective To investigate the influence of body composition on bone mineral density of male patients with type 2 diabetes using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry ( DXA) .Methods One hundred and seven 50-60-year-old male patients with type 2 diabetes in our hospital were selected and divided to normal weight group, overweight group, and obese group.Height and body weight were measured and body mass index ( BMI) was calculated.Blood glucose and lipid were determined using a automatic biochemical analyzer.Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured using a high pressure liquid chromatography.Bone mineral density

  14. 拔牙后牙槽骨愈合速度及骨密度变化的横向研究%Mineral density of alveolar bone after tooth extraction in the male and famale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温宁; 陆怀秀; 王忠义; 刘洪臣; 储冰峰

    2000-01-01

    Objevect :To study the influence of sex on alveolar bone density after tooth extraction. Methods:Dual X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure the mineral density of alveolar bone after extraction of first or second molar in left mandible in the idividuals with different age in 22 males and 22 famales. Results:There was no remarkable difference in the density of alveolar bone between men and women in 35~ 54-year-groups (P>0.05),the alveolar bone density in men was heigher than that in momen in 55~64year-groups. Conclusions:After tooth extraction wound healing of alveolar bone in men is faster than that in women with ageing.%目的:探讨性别差异对拔牙创牙槽骨愈合速度的影响。方法:采用双能x线吸收法测量不同年龄组的男性、女性拔牙后的牙槽骨骨密度。结果:35~54岁之间,男性与女性之间牙槽骨骨密度值无显著差异,而牙槽骨愈合速度有一定差异;55~64岁年龄组男性牙槽骨骨密度值高于女性。结论:年龄、性别对牙槽骨骨密度变化有显著影响,随着年龄的增长,男性牙槽骨愈合速度高于女性。

  15. Male Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Esenyel

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis in men is now recognized as an increasingly important public health issue. About 30 % of hip fractures and 20 % of vertebral fractures occur in men. In the present study, we examined 19 men who did not have major risk factors that might affect bone mass. Parathormone(PTH, osteocalcin (marker of bone formation, OC and deoxypyridinoline (marker of bone resorption, DPD were measured. The bone mineral density (BMD measurements in 16 men were performed by dual-energy X-ray absorbtiometry (DXA from lumbar spine (L2-4, and left hip. Bone density at each site was categorized as osteoporosis or osteopenia according to World Health Organization (WHO criteria. In 19 patients with a mean age of 69 years, PTH levels were in the normal range except one patient. OC levels were elevated in %42.1 and DPD levels were elevated in 74 % of patients. L2-4 T score was osteoporotic (25% in 4 patients and osteopenic (25% in 4 patients. Femur Ward’s T score was osteoporotic (37.5% in 7 patients and osteopenic (37.5% in 7 patients. Osteoporosis is a significant problem in older men. Increased awareness for the risk factors of male osteoporosis is an important issue. Early diagnosis and treatment would help to reduce morbidity and mortality resulting from osteoporotic fractures.

  16. 新疆东天山觉罗塔格地区自然铜矿化玄武岩的成岩年代及其地质意义%Geochronology and geological indication of the native copper mineralized basalt formation in Jueluotage area, Eastern Tianshan, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张达玉; 周涛发; 袁峰; 刘帅; LU YongJun; 许超; 宁福泉

    2012-01-01

    新疆觉罗塔格地区自然铜矿化玄武岩沿着阿齐库都克深大断裂北侧分布,前人对其成岩年代一直存在争议.本文测得玄武岩条带中部的黑尖山玄武岩同岩浆期锆石SHRIMP U-Pb年龄为306.2±4.0Ma;测得东部东尖峰玄武岩的同岩浆期锆石LA-ICPMS U-Pb年龄为308.9±5.8Ma,确定了玄武岩是晚石炭世的岩浆作用,且归属于晚石炭世马头滩组.与觉罗塔格地区著名的晚石炭世-早二叠世铜镍矿化基性-超基性岩成因对比表明,该晚石炭世玄武岩与之具有共同岩浆源区特征,它们都是觉罗塔格地区晚石炭世-早二叠世岩石圈地幔深部受热熔融而形成岩浆作用.马头滩组玄武岩层是自然铜矿化的重要矿源层.%The native copper mineralized basalt ( NCMB) distributes north side along with the Aqikuduke deep fault, Jueluotage area, Eastern Tianshan, Xinjiang. As the basaltic magmatism erupted epoch hasn't been acknowledged yet, this study focuses on the geology and geochronology of the NCMB strata. The authors got the in-situ SHRIMP U-Pb age of basalts sampled from Heijianshan Cu-Fe mineralized occurrence (middle study area) is 306.2 ±4. OMa; and the in-situ La-ICPMS U-Pb age of basalt sampled from Dongjianfeng native copper mineralized occurrence (east study area) is 308. 9 ±5. 8Ma. These two confident and coherent ages can be used for confirming that the basalt bearing in Lower Matoutan Formation is the product of Late Carboniferous magmatism. After compared geochemical characters and genesis with the C2-P1 Cu-Ni sulfide mineralized mafic-ultramafic intrusions in Jueluotage area, It shows that the NCMB shared the same magmatic source with the younger one, and both NCMB and mafic-ultramafic intrusions were the products of the mafic magma, which were derived from the same vulnerable lithosphere mantle through some geodynamic heat abnormalities in Jueluotage area. The basaltic stratum is an important metal source of the Cu mineralized

  17. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Minerals

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This point occurrence data set represents the current mineral and selected energy resources of Utah. The data set coordinates were derived from USGS topographic maps...

  18. NATIVE VS NON-NATIVE ENGLISH TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masrizal Masrizal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the majority of English language teachers worldwide are non-native English speakers (NNS, no research was conducted on these teachers until recently. A pioneer research by Peter Medgyes in 1994 took quite a long time until the other researchers found their interests in this issue. There is a widespread stereotype that a native speaker (NS is by nature the best person to teach his/her foreign language. In regard to this assumption, we then see a very limited room and opportunities for a non native teacher to teach language that is not his/hers. The aim of this article is to analyze the differences among these teachers in order to prove that non-native teachers have equal advantages that should be taken into account. The writer expects that the result of this short article could be a valuable input to the area of teaching English as a foreign language in Indonesia.

  19. Fumarolic minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic Zunic, Tonci; Garavelli, Anna; Jakobsson, Sveinn Peter

    2016-01-01

    The fumarolic mineralogy of the Icelandic active volcanoes, the Tyrrhenian volcanic belt (Italy) and the Aegean active arc (Greece) is investigated, and literature data surveyed in order to define the characteristics of the European fumarolic systems. They show broad diversity of mineral...... associations, with Vesuvius and Vulcano being also among the world localities richest in mineral species. Volcanic systems, which show recession over a longer period, show fumarolic development from the hightemperature alkaline halide/sulphate, calcic sulphate or sulphidic parageneses, synchronous...... fluctuations in activity, illustrated by the example of Vulcano where the high-temperature association appears intermittently. A full survey of the mineral groups and species is given in respect to their importance and appearance in fumarolic associations....

  20. Proton induced luminescence of minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo del Castillo, H.; Millan, A.; Calderon, T. [Depto. Geologia y Geoquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Ctra. Colmenar, km. 15, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Beneitez, P. [Departamento Quimica Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Ruvalcaba S, J.L. [lFUNAM, Circuito de la lnvestigacion Cientifica s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a summary of Ionoluminescence (IL) for several minerals commonly found in jewellery pieces and/or artefacts of historical interest. Samples including silicates and non-silicates (native elements, halide, oxide, carbonate and phosphate groups) have been excited with a 1.8 MeV proton beam, and IL spectra in the range of 200- 900 nm have been collected for each one using a fiber optic coupled spectrometer. Light emissions have been related to Cr{sup 3+}, Mn{sup 2+} and Pr{sup 3+} ions, as well as intrinsic defects in these minerals. Results show the potential of IL for impurity characterization with high detection limits, local symmetry studies, and the study of the origin of minerals. (Author)

  1. 饮酒对中年男性2型糖尿病患者骨密度的影响%Effect of alcohol drinking on bone mineral density in middle-aged males with diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁; 刘惠苗; 陈志花; 周慧敏; 张萌萌; 董天; 赵媛媛

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of alcohol drinking on bone mineral density ( BMD) in middle-aged males with type 2 diabetes.Methods Ninety middle-aged males with type 2 diabetes were selected and divided into 2 groups, alcohol drinkers (n=45) and non-alcohol drinkers (n=45).In alcohol drinking group, they were divided to 3 levels, little amount ( 100 g/d), according to their alcohol consumption.And according to the alcohol drinking time, they were divided to 20years levels.BMD of the femoral neck, the greater trochanter, and the lumbar spine was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.The relationship between the different alcohol consumption, the different alcohol drinking time, and BMD of the different sites was analyzed.Results Compared to non-alcohol drinking group, BMD of the femoral neck, the greater trochanter, and the lumbar spine was significantly lower than that in alcohol drinking group with alcohol consumption 50-100 g/d and >100 g/d, and with alcohol drinking period 10-20 years and >20 years (P50 g/d and alcohol drinking period >10 years were negatively correlated with BMD of the femoral neck, the greater trochanter, and the lumbar spine (P50 g/d and alcohol drinking period >10 years, decreases significantly.The incidence of osteoporosis increases.%目的:探讨饮酒对中年男性2型糖尿病患者骨密度的影响。方法选取中年男性2型糖尿病患者90例,分为不饮酒组及饮酒组,各45例。饮酒组根据日饮酒量分为3个等级:少量饮酒(<50 g/d);S中等量饮酒(50~100 g/d);大量饮酒(>100 g/d)。按饮酒年限分为3级(<10年、10~20年、>20年)。测定各组股骨颈、大转子及腰椎骨密度,分析日饮酒量及饮酒年限与不同部位骨密度的相关性。结果与不饮酒组相比,摄入酒精50~100 g/d、>100 g/d组和饮酒10~20年、>20年受试者的股骨颈、大转子、腰椎骨密度显著降低(P<0.01

  2. MBS Native Plant Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data layer contains results of the Minnesota County Biological Survey (MCBS). It includes polygons representing the highest quality native plant communities...

  3. [Clinical characteristics of male osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Mika; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2016-07-01

    As men are less likely than women to develop osteoporosis, male osteoporosis remains poorly understood. However, elderly men have a clearly reduced bone mineral density and increased risk for fractures. In Japan, one in four patients with osteoporosis is male. Male osteoporosis is associated with not only reduction in androgen, but also estrogen, and differs from postmenopausal osteoporosis in that decreased bone formation is involved and that age-related changes in cortical bone structure and perforation of the trabeculae of cancellous bone are unlikely to occur. The proportion of secondary osteoporosis is higher for men than women;therefore, differential diagnosis is important in the diagnosis of male osteoporosis. In addition, it is recommended that bone mineral density be measured at the femoral neck or total hip in men. Men have a worse prognosis following fractures than women, and management of male osteoporosis is highly important for extending healthy life expectancy.

  4. Mineral bioprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torma, A.E.

    1993-05-01

    In the last 25 years, the introduction of biotechnological methods in hydrometallurgy has created new opportunities and challenges for the mineral processing industry. This was especially true for the production of metal values from mining wastes and low-and-complex-grade mineral resources, which were considered economically not amenable for processing by conventional extraction methods. Using bio-assisted heap, dump and in-situ leaching technologies, copper and uranium extractions gained their first industrial applications. The precious metal industries were the next to adopt the bio-preoxidation technique in the extraction of gold from refractory sulfide-bearing ores and concentrates. A variety of other bioleaching opportunities exist for nickel, cobalt, cadmium and zinc sulfide leaching. Recently developed bioremediation methods and biosorption technologies have shown a good potential for industrial applications to remove trace heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations from contaminated soils, and mining and processing effluents.

  5. Listen to the Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prensky, Marc

    2006-01-01

    "Digital natives" refer to today's students because they are native speakers of technology, fluent in the digital language of computers, video games, and the Internet. Those who were not born into the digital world are referred to as digital immigrants. Educators, considered digital immigrants, have slid into the 21st century--and into the digital…

  6. Mineral Oil Aspiration Related Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Andrew D.; Fischer, Philip R.; Reed, Ann M.; Wylam, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development of rheumatoid factor-positive migratory polyarthritis in a 5-year-old male who had been administered bidaily oral mineral oil as a laxative since birth. Minor respiratory symptoms, radiographic and bronchoscopic findings were consistent with chronic lipoid pneumonia. We speculate that immune sensitization to mineral oil promoted the clinical syndrome of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

  7. Passing the Totem: Successful High School Graduation of Native American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Cherie T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine obstacles Native American students, of American Indian ancestry, faced while they were attending high school and how they were able to overcome those obstacles. Eight Native American students, four male and four female, who attended schools on or near a Native American tribal reservation in Washington…

  8. Hydrothermal minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.

    -floor hydrothermal processes involving free circulation of seawater through ocean crust as convection. Heat flow, seafloor fracturing, permeability and fluid composition are the parameters governing the type and extent of mineralization. The chimney like... stream_size 23365 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Refresher_Course_Mar_Geol_Geophys_2007_Lecture_Notes_78.pdf.txt stream_source_info Refresher_Course_Mar_Geol_Geophys_2007_Lecture_Notes_78.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8...

  9. Native grasslands fertilize themselves

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — News article about Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge and how the native soils and plants function to stimulate the system, creating a more productive grassland.

  10. 老年男性肌肉力量、身体成分与骨密度的关联性%Association between muscle strength, body composition and bone mineral density of older male

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭思洁; 曹立全; 王健雄

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过对老年男性不同部位肌肉力量,身体成分、骨密度(BMD)的同步实验,探讨它们之间的确切关联,旨在为老年男性骨质疏松(OP)预防干预提供参考.方法 60~79岁男性志愿受试者66名,进行握力、仰卧推举、负重屈肘、膝关节最大屈伸肌力、踝关节等长屈伸力、屈臂支撑时间等肌肉力量与耐力测试;同步使用GE双能X线骨密度仪进行全身、正位脊椎、双侧股骨颈BMD及体脂%、肌肉含量等身体成分测定.结果 下肢最大肌力和肌肉耐力与全身BMD的相关度是0.604~0.711;握力与各部位BMD相关度为-0.60 ~0.162.下肢肌力与股骨颈BMD,背力、仰卧推举与脊柱BMD、负重屈肘除与上肢BMD表现了更高的相关度.结论 加强下肢肌力练习是预防和改善老年人BMD水平的最重要手段;其中动力性的肌肉耐力练习将产生更有益的影响.肌力对BMD的影响有明显的部位特征,根据其自身各部位BMD水平进行针对性的力量练习可获得将更好的效果.老年男性去脂体重与BMD呈高度相关,通过肌力练习增加瘦体重,降低脂肪含量有利于预防OP.%Objective To examine the relationship of the muscle strength, body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) of the elderly men. Methods 66 elderly men with no history of fracture who were between 60 and 79 years old were recruited. Muscle strength and endurance tests concluded grip bench press, bench press, weight-bearing elbow, maximum knee flexion and extension muscle strength, ankle length flexion and extension force and the time of bent support, and BMD of the whole body, anteroposterior spine and bilateral femoral neck were tested by GE dual-energy X-ray absorptiomery, and the body composition measurements like body fat, muscle content were obtained. Results The relevance of the maximum lower extremity muscle strength and endurance and whole body BMD was 0. 604~0. 711, and the grip bench press and BMD was

  11. Native valve Escherichia coli endocarditis following urosepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, D; Ramakrishnan, S; Patro, K C; Devaraj, S; Krishnamurthy, V; Kothari, Y; Satyaki, N

    2013-05-01

    Gram-negative organisms are a rare cause of infective endocarditis. Escherichia coli, the most common cause of urinary tract infection and gram-negative septicemia involves endocardium rarely. In this case report, we describe infection of native mitral valve by E. coli following septicemia of urinary tract origin in a diabetic male; subsequently, he required prosthetic tissue valve replacement indicated by persistent sepsis and congestive cardiac failure.

  12. [Mineral water as a cure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocco, Priska Binz

    2008-01-01

    resorts mentioned, especially regarding the quality and quantity aspects of the performed mineral water analyses, as well as in the reported written evidence and publications on the success of the therapies. Differences were also to be found in the conditions of the health resort facilities and in the medical support given. The therapy opportunities included mainly drinking and bath cures, which could occur alone or in combination. In the mentioned health resorts different clinical disease symptoms were treated. The most important baths were located in Acquarossa and Stabio, which were specialized in selected therapeutical domains, because of their particular water compositions. Numerous personalities from science and politics were concerned by the local springs and accepted to contribute to the promotion of these structures. Their engagement led to the integration of the native springs in the Farmacopea Ticinese. Since at that time it was extremely difficult to find experienced mineral water analysts in the region, the analyses of local native sources were assigned to qualified experts mainly coming from Italy. This scientific co-operation between the southern part of Switzerland and the northern part of Italy was, already at that time, active also in other work domains. The evaluation of the historical documentation available from the Farmacia Vantussi shows that this pharmacy supplied a considerable assortment of national and foreign spring waters, as well as foreign dried components. Of commercial interest was, to be noted, the free sale of the waters to hospitals, institutions, hotels, restaurants as well as to private households. The sales of waters and of their dried components upon prescription, however, constituted only the minor part. The introduction of the industrial bottling occurring in the first decades of the 20th century, led to a lowering price trend, through which the product 'mineral water' became accessible to a broader public. Henceforth its

  13. Native listening: The flexibility dimension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.

    2012-01-01

    The way we listen to spoken language is tailored to the specific benefit of native-language speech input. Listening to speech in non-native languages can be significantly hindered by this native bias. Is it possible to determine the degree to which a listener is listening in a native-like manner? Pr

  14. Yarlongite:A New Metallic Carbide Mineral

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Nicheng; BAI Wenji; LI Guowu; XIONG Ming; FANG Qingsong; YANG Jingsui; MA Zhesheng; RONG He

    2009-01-01

    Yarlongite occurs in ophiolitic chromitite at the Luobusha mine(29°5'N 92°,5'E,about 200 km ESE of Lhasa),Qusum County,Shannan Prefecture,Tibet Autonomous Region,People'S Republic of China.Associated minerals are:diamond,moissanite,wiistite,iridium("osmiridium"), osmium("iridosmine"),periclase,chromite,native irun,native nickel,native chromium,forsterite. Cr-rich diopside,intermetallic compounds Ni-Fe-Cr,Ni-Cr,Cr-C,etc.Yariongite and its associated minerals were handpicked from a large heavy mineral sample of chromitite.The metallic carbides associated with yarlongite are cohenite,tongbaite,khamrabaevite and qusongite(IMA2007.034). Yarlongite occurs as irregular grains,with a size between 0.02 and 0.06 mm,steel-grey colour,H Mohs:5 1/2-6.Tenacity:brittle.Cleavage:{0 0 1}perfect.Fracture:conchoidal.Chemical formula: (Cr4Fe4Ni)∑9C4,or(Cr,Fe,Ni)∑9C4,Crystal system:Hexagonal,Space Group:P63/mc,a=18.839(2)A,C =4.4960(9)A,V=745.7(2)A3,Z=6,Density(calc.)=7.19 g/cm3(with simplified formula).Yarlongite has been approved as a new mineral by the CNMNC(IMA2007-035).Holotype material is deposited at the Geological Museum of China(No.M11650).

  15. Immigrants and Native Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Mette; Peri, Giovanni

    Using a database that includes the universe of individuals and establishments in Denmark over the period 1991-2008 we analyze the effect of a large inflow of non-European (EU) immigrants on Danish workers. We first identify a sharp and sustained supply-driven increase in the inflow of non......-EU immigrants in Denmark, beginning in 1995 and driven by a sequence of international events such as the Bosnian, Somalian and Iraqi crises. We then look at the response of occupational complexity, job upgrading and downgrading, wage and employment of natives in the short and long run. We find...... that the increased supply of non-EU low skilled immigrants pushed native workers to pursue more complex occupations. This reallocation happened mainly through movement across firms. Immigration increased mobility of natives across firms and across municipalities but it did not increase their probability...

  16. Minerals Yearbook, volume I, Metals and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  17. Male Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the urethra. Chromosome defects. Inherited disorders such as Klinefelter's syndrome — in which a male is born with ... or major abdominal or pelvic surgery Having a history of undescended testicles Being born with a fertility ...

  18. Male sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Terrie B

    2010-05-01

    It should be recognized that sexuality in the aging male is of such import that a complete sexual history must be performed. By taking a complete sexual history, facts can be obtained that will allow for appropriate focus relating to a holistic evaluation and will enable us to dispel antiquated sexual myths pertaining to the aging male. If initiated by the history taker, questions concerning sexuality may be discussed more comfortably by the patient. Erectile dysfunction, male sexual response cycle, testosterone, sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, long-term illness, along with religion and culture are explored in this article with the aim of improving one's knowledge base, self reflection, and awareness of the importance of male sexuality. A complete understanding and appreciation of the aging male's medical history, surgical history, social history, and emotional history as well as his sexual, cultural, and religious concepts will allow the health care provider to better analyze information, and to recommend and provide appropriate advice and treatment to the aging male patient.

  19. Empowering Young Black Males--III: A Systematic Modular Training Program for Black Male Children & Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Courtland C.

    This series of five interrelated modules is an update and revision of "Saving the Native Son: Empowerment Strategies for Young Black Males (1996)." It offers specific strategies for empowering young African American males to help them achieve optimal educational and social success. Empowerment is a developmental process by which people who are…

  20. Miscellaneous Industrial Mineral Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes miscellaneous industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team...

  1. Is Nativism Sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braine, Martin D. S.

    1994-01-01

    Provides a brief history of the empiricism-nativism issue, considering present-day intellectual roots of nativist and empiricist inclinations. A schema is proposed for explaining the ontogenetic origin of an innate attribute or principle relevant to language. An attempt is made to explain the origin of primitives as derived by learning. (Contains…

  2. Non-native seagrass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tussenbroek, B.I.; van Katwijk, M.M.; Bouma, T.J.; van der Heide, T.; Govers, L.L.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.

    2016-01-01

    Seagrasses comprise 78 species and are rarely invasive. But the seagrass Halophila stipulacea, firstly recorded in the Caribbean in the year 2002, has spread quickly throughout the region. Previous works have described this species as invasive in the Caribbean, forming dense mats that exclude native

  3. Minor Delinquency and Immigration: A Longitudinal Study among Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish…

  4. Native Peoples-Native Homelands Climate Change Workshop: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, N. G.

    2003-12-01

    The Native Peoples-Native Homelands Climate Change Workshop was held on October 28 through November 01, 1998, as part of a series of workshops being held around the U.S. to improve the understanding of the potential consequences of climate variability and change for the Nation. This workshop was specifically designed by Native Peoples to examine the impacts of climate change and extreme weather variability on Native Peoples and Native Homelands from an indigenous cultural and spiritual perspective and to develop recommendations as well as identify potential response actions. The workshop brought together interested Native Peoples, representatives of Tribal governments, traditional elders, Tribal leaders, natural resource managers, Tribal College faculty and students, and climate scientists from government agencies and universities. It is clear that Tribal colleges and universities play a unique and critical role in the success of these emerging partnerships for decision-making in addition to the important education function for both Native and non-Native communities such as serving as a culturally- appropriate vehicle for access, analysis, control, and protection of indigenous cultural and intellectual property. During the discussions between scientists and policy-makers from both Native and non-Native communities, a number of important lessons emerged which are key to building more effective partnerships between Native and non-Native communities for collaboration and decision-making for a more sustainable future. This talk summarizes the key issues, recommendations, and lessons learned during this workshop.

  5. Intelligibility of native and non-native Dutch Speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, S.J. van

    2001-01-01

    The intelligibility of speech is known to be lower if the speaker is non-native instead of native for the given language. This study is aimed at quantifying the overall degradation due to limitations of non-native speakers of Dutch, specifically of Dutch-speaking Americans who have lived in the Neth

  6. Speech intelligibility of native and non-native speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, S.J. van

    1999-01-01

    The intelligibility of speech is known to be lower if the talker is non-native instead of native for the given language. This study is aimed at quantifying the overall degradation due to acoustic-phonetic limitations of non-native talkers of Dutch, specifically of Dutch-speaking Americans who have l

  7. Native Americans' Interest in Horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Mary Hockenberry

    1999-01-01

    Focus groups arranged by local Native American Master Gardeners on two Minnesota reservations determined community interest in extension-horticulture programs. Topics of interest included food preservation and historical Native-American uses of plants. (SK)

  8. Native Prairie Adaptive Management (NPAM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — NPAM is a framework for guiding annual decisions about the management of Service‐owned native prairie parcels that are prone to invasions by non‐native grasses,...

  9. Determinants of pathologic mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    Physiologic mineralization is necessary for the formation of skeletal tissues and for their appropriate functions during adulthood. Mineralization has to be controlled and restricted to specific regions. If the mineralization process occurs in regions that normally do not mineralize, there can be severe consequences (pathologic or ectopic mineralization). Recent findings have indicated that physiologic and pathologic mineralization events are initiated by matrix vesicles, membrane-enclosed particles released from the plasma membranes of mineralization-competent cells. The understanding of how these vesicles are released from the plasma membrane and initiate the mineralization process may provide novel therapeutic strategies to prevent pathologic mineralization. In addition, other regulators (activators and inhibitors) of physiologic mineralization have been identified and characterized, and there is evidence that the same factors also contribute to the regulation of pathologic mineralization. Finally, programmed cell death (apoptosis) may be a contributor to physiologic mineralization and if occurring after tissue injury may induce pathologic mineralization and mineralization-related differentiation events in the injured and surrounding areas. This review describes how the understanding of mechanisms and factors regulating physiologic mineralization can be used to develop new therapeutic strategies to prevent pathologic or ectopic mineralization events.

  10. Who Stole Native American Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Lynn, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Native American Studies has failed to develop into an academic discipline because of the continued influence of postcolonial theories, attempts to discredit Native American scholars, politically determined research agendas, and the ideology of the "New Historicism." Native American Studies must seek autonomy from other opportunistic…

  11. Who Stole Native American Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Lynn, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Native American Studies has failed to develop into an academic discipline because of the continued influence of postcolonial theories, attempts to discredit Native American scholars, politically determined research agendas, and the ideology of the "New Historicism." Native American Studies must seek autonomy from other opportunistic…

  12. Digital Natives or Digital Tribes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Ian Robert

    2013-01-01

    This research builds upon the discourse surrounding digital natives. A literature review into the digital native phenomena was undertaken and found that researchers are beginning to identify the digital native as not one cohesive group but of individuals influenced by other factors. Primary research by means of questionnaire survey of technologies…

  13. Male Hypogonadism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of male hypogonadism can be treated with testosterone replacement therapy. Symptoms Hypogonadism can begin during fetal development, before puberty or during adulthood. Signs and symptoms depend on when the condition ... enough testosterone during fetal development, the result may be impaired ...

  14. Mineralização óssea em adolescentes do sexo masculino: anos críticos para a aquisição da massa óssea Bone mineralization among male adolescents: critical years for bone mass gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla C. Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o comportamento do conteúdo mineral ósseo e da densidade mineral óssea em adolescentes do sexo masculino em função da faixa etária e do nível maturacional dos caracteres sexuais secundários. MÉTODOS: 47 adolescentes saudáveis na faixa etária de 10 a 19 anos foram avaliados quanto a ingestão de cálcio, peso, estatura, índice de massa corporal, estágio puberal, densidade mineral óssea e conteúdo mineral ósseo na coluna e no fêmur proximal. A massa óssea foi mensurada através de densitometria óssea. A ingestão de cálcio foi calculada através de registro dietético de 3 dias. O índice de massa corporal foi calculado pelo Índice de Quetelet, e o estágio puberal foi definido segundo os critérios de Tanner. Foi utilizada estatística descritiva, média e desvio padrão, análise de variância para comparação entre os grupos etários e teste de Tukey para localizar as diferenças significativas. RESULTADOS: A ingestão de cálcio não alcançou o valor mínimo de 800 mg em várias faixas etárias estudadas. A densidade mineral óssea e o conteúdo mineral ósseo demonstraram incrementos com o avançar da idade, indicando diferenças significativas a partir dos 14 anos, bem como quando os adolescentes atingiam os estágios de maturação sexual G4. Os parâmetros de mineralização revelaram aumento pronunciado quando os adolescentes atingiam G3, porém sem significado estatístico. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados apontam um aumento importante na mineralização óssea durante a adolescência. A evidência de aumento na mineralização dos adolescentes foi percebida em níveis maturacionais superiores a G3. Os anos críticos para a aquisição da massa óssea neste estudo evidenciaram-se a partir dos 14-15 anos de idade.OBJECTIVE: To verify the behavior of the mineral bone content and density in male adolescents according to age and secondary sexual characters. METHODS: 47 healthy adolescents between 10 and 19

  15. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2014, 218, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 30% more ...

  16. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... non-Hispanic white adults to die from a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ...

  17. A study on the change and correlation of bone mineral density,vitamin D,IGF-I,IGF-II in T2DM male patients%T2DM 男性患者骨密度、IGF-I、IGF-II、维生素 D 的变化及相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕; 曾荣峰; 李延兵

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM)and bone mineral density(BMD) in male patients with insulin-like growth factor I(IGF-I),insulin-like growth factor II(IGF-II),the change and correlation of vitamin D.Methods One hundred cases of T2DM patients were chosen as T2DM group,50 cases of healthy controls undergoing physical examinations during the same period were chosen as control group and lumbar vertebral body(L2-4 )and femoral neck BMD,IGF-I,IGF-II and serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 were detected and correlation analysis was performed.Results In T2DM group,L2-4 and femoral neck BMD,IGF-I,IGF-II, 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 were lower than that of the control group( P <0.01).L2-4 bone mineral density and bone mineral density of fem-oral neck,IGF-I,IGF-II,25-hydroxy vitamin D3 between the two groups showed a positive correlation( P <0.01).Conclusion T2DM male patients may suffer from reduced bone mineral density,lower levels of IGF-I,IGF-II,vitamin D,and reduced IGF-I,IGF-II and vi-tamin D levels may be the relative factors causing decrease of BMD in T2DM male patients.%目的:探讨2型糖尿病(T2DM)男性患者骨密度、胰岛素样生长因子 I(IGF-I)、胰岛素样生长因子 II(IGF-II)及维生素 D 的变化及相关性。方法选取 T2DM 男性患者100例(T2DM 组),同期选取健康体检男性50例(对照组),分别检测两组腰椎体(L2~4)与股骨颈骨密度、IGF-I、IGF-II 及血清25-羟维生素 D3水平变化,分析其相关性。结果T2DM 组患者 L2~4与股骨颈骨密度、IGF-I、IGF-II、25-羟维生素 D3均低于对照组( P <0.01);L2~4骨密度、股骨颈骨密度、IGF-I、IGF-II、25-羟维生素 D3间两两比较均呈正相关性(均 P <0.01)。结论T2DM 男性患者存在骨密度、IGF-I、IGF-II 及维生素 D 水平降低, IGF-I、IGF-II、维生素 D 水平降低可能是引发 T2DM 男性患者骨密度降低的相关原因。

  18. Aquatic macroinvertebrate responses to native and non-native predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddaway N. R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-native species can profoundly affect native ecosystems through trophic interactions with native species. Native prey may respond differently to non-native versus native predators since they lack prior experience. Here we investigate antipredator responses of two common freshwater macroinvertebrates, Gammarus pulex and Potamopyrgus jenkinsi, to olfactory cues from three predators; sympatric native fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus, sympatric native crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes, and novel invasive crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus. G. pulex responded differently to fish and crayfish; showing enhanced locomotion in response to fish, but a preference for the dark over the light in response to the crayfish. P.jenkinsi showed increased vertical migration in response to all three predator cues relative to controls. These different responses to fish and crayfish are hypothesised to reflect the predators’ differing predation types; benthic for crayfish and pelagic for fish. However, we found no difference in response to native versus invasive crayfish, indicating that prey naiveté is unlikely to drive the impacts of invasive crayfish. The Predator Recognition Continuum Hypothesis proposes that benefits of generalisable predator recognition outweigh costs when predators are diverse. Generalised responses of prey as observed here will be adaptive in the presence of an invader, and may reduce novel predators’ potential impacts.

  19. Mineral resources of Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsall, D.F.; Woodcock, J.T. (eds.)

    1979-01-01

    The papers presented cover geological, geochemical technology and geophysics in mineral exploration, mineral resources, mining methods and technology, aspects of beneficiation, pyrometallurgy and hydrometallurgy, and environmental aspects. 4 of the 14 papers have been abstracted separately.

  20. Construction Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes construction minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  1. Agricultural Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes agricultural minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  2. Mineral Resources Data System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral resource occurrence data covering the world, most thoroughly within the U.S. This database contains the records previously provided in the Mineral Resource...

  3. Biological-Chemical Oxidation of Ore Minerals at Pezinok Deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Chovan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of leaching experiments of the comparison between chemical and biological-chemical leaching, at the same conditions in solution, of ores from the Sb-(Au- base metal deposit Pezinok (Malé Karpaty Mts., Western Carpathians, Slovakia. The research study shows the oxidation order and the progression of present ore minerals (löllingite, arsenopyrite, stibnite, native Sb, gudmundite, berthierite, pyrite, sphalerite and chalcopyrite. There are discussed differences between chemical and biological-chemical leaching activity of various ore minerals at the surface of polished sections. The extent of the leaching of sulphide minerals is significantly higher than that without bacteria.

  4. Analysis of bone mineral density of the calcaneus using ultrasound in 476 healthy adult males in Bama, Guangxi%广西巴马476名健康成年男性跟骨超声骨密度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐世民; 刘鹏; 李琴; 冯哲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changing pattern of bone mineral density ( BMD ) along with the changes of age, height, weight, and BMI by testing BMD in healthy adult males in Bama, Guangxi. Methods Four hundred and seventy - six healthy adult males, aging from 20 to 111 years old, were selected randomly. They were divided into 7 groups according to a 10-year-age division. People over 80 years old were in the same group. BMD of the calcaneus was tested using ultrasound BMD detector ( Korea ). A SPSS1 6. 0 software was used to analyze the data. Results The peak SI of BMD of the calcaneus in males presented in the group of 20 - 30 years old. SI of BMD declined along with the increase of age. The prevalence of osteoporosis in males increased along with the increase of age. Partial correlation analysis showed that SI of BMD in males was negatively correlated with age ( r = -0. 216, P <0.05 ). And it was significantly correlated with weight ( r = 0. 167 , P < 0. 05 ). But SI of BMD in males did not have correlation with height and BMI. Conclusions SI of BMD in healthy males, aging from 20 to 111 years old, in Bama, Guangxi is significantly correlated with age and weight. The SI acquired in this study provides reference value of BMD and the clinical diagnosis of osteoporosis in males in this region.%目的 检测广西巴马地区健康成年男性的骨密度,探讨其骨密度随年龄、身高、体重和BMI变化的规律.方法 采用韩国生产跟骨超声骨密度测定仪对广西巴马地区随机抽取的476名20~111岁健康成年男性进行跟骨SI测量.按不同年龄分组,每组10岁,80岁以上合并为1组,共7组,对所测量的数据通过SPSS16.0进行分析.结果 男性跟骨SI峰值骨密度在20~30岁年龄段,SI随着年龄的增加出现下降的趋势.男性骨质疏松症的患病率随年龄的增加而逐步升高.偏相关性分析显示,男性SI与年龄呈现负相关(r=-0.219,P<0.05)与体重有显著(r=0.167,P<0.05)关系,但

  5. Traditional West Coast Native Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Deagle, George

    1988-01-01

    An important part of the complex culture of the Native people of Canada's Pacific coast is the traditional system of medicine each culture has developed. Population loss from epidemics and the influence of dominant European cultures has resulted in loss of many aspects of traditional medicine. Although some Native practices are potentially hazardous, continuation of traditional approaches to illness remains an important part of health care for many Native people. The use of “devil's club” pla...

  6. Mineral Supply Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Faced with shortcomings in its mineral supply, it’s imperative for China to balance its desire for reserves with its current economic needs Mineral resources are the corner- stone of materials needed for China’s national economic and social development.The country even counts on its mineral resources to satisfy 90 percent of its energy demands and over 95

  7. The mineral matter of Ukrainian salty coals in connection with the environmental problems of their application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shendrik, T.G.; Simonova, V.V.; Pashchenko, L.V. [Inst. of Physical, Organic and Coal Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31

    The mineral composition for salty coals (SC) of Western Donbas, using X-ray-phase analysis of cold oxygen plasma ashes, have been determined. The transformation of native minerals during ashing processes of coals at 600 C, 800 C and during long-time keeping were studied. Brief characteristics of rational ways for SC application was given. (orig.)

  8. Effects of different numbers of metabolic syndrome components-complicating male patients with type 2 diabetes on bone mineral density%男性2型糖尿病代谢综合征组分对骨密度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雅静; 赵伟; 张宏; 吴晓明; 姜丽娟; 宋旭臣; 李美

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察男性2型糖尿病(T2DM)患者合并不同数目代谢综合征(MS)组分者腰椎骨密度(BMD)的变化及其影响因素.方法 将228例男性T2DM患者根据合并MS组分数目不同,分为不伴有其它MS组分的单纯T2DM组(G0组),合并1个组分的T2DM组(G1组),合并2个组分的T2DM组(G2组),合并3个组分的T2DM组(G3组),分析各组腰椎BMD变化.结果 随着合并MS异常组分的增多,BMD、血钙呈上升趋势,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);相关分析显示,腰椎BMD与体质量指数(BMI)、体质量、腰臀比(WHR)呈正相关,与血钙、血磷及糖基化血红蛋白(HbAlc)水平呈负相关;多元逐步回归分析显示,体质量、HbAlc、血钙、血磷为影响腰椎BMD的独立相关因素(P<0.05).结论 T2DM合并MS患者BMD增加,肥胖对骨量有一定的保护作用.%Objective To investigate the effects of the different numbers of metabolic syndrome(MS) components-complicating male patients with type 2 diabetes on L2-4 bone mineral density(BMD) and to analyze the relevant influential factors. Methods 228 male patients with type 2 diabetes were grouped according to the metabolic abnormalities. The diabetes patients without any other metabolic abnormalities were in group 0. Those with one to three other metabolic abnormalities were divided to group 1, group 2 and group 3. The changes of L2-4 bone mineral density(BMD) and their risk factors were analyzed. Results Body mass index(BMI), L2-4 bone mineral density(BMD) and blood calcium were increased according to the increasing numbers of MS components(P<0.05); L2-4 BMD was positively correlated with BMI, weight and WHR. It was negatively correlated with blood calcium, blood phosphorus and HbAlc. The multiple stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that L2-4 BMD was strongly correlated with weight, HbAlc,blood calcium and blood phosphorus. Conclusion The bone mineral density significantly increases in type 2 diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome, and

  9. Native American Training Program in Petroleum Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Winifred M.; Kokesh, Judith H.

    1999-04-27

    This report outlines a comprehensive training program for members of Native American tribes whose lands have oil and gas resources. The program has two components: short courses and internships. Programs are proposed for: (1) adult tribes representatives who are responsible for managing tribal mineral holdings, setting policy, or who work in the oil and gas industry; (2) graduate and undergraduate college students who are tribal members and are studying in the appropriate fields; and (3) high school and middle school teachers, science teachers. Materials and program models already have been developed for some components of the projects. The plan is a coordinated, comprehensive effort to use existing resources to accomplish its goals. Partnerships will be established with the tribes, the BIA, tribal organizations, other government agencies, and the private sector to implement the program.

  10. Native Speakers' Perception of Non-Native English Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Maysa; Hussein, Riyad F.

    2011-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the rating and intelligibility of different non-native varieties of English, namely French English, Japanese English and Jordanian English by native English speakers and their attitudes towards these foreign accents. To achieve the goals of this study, the researchers used a web-based questionnaire which…

  11. Composition of Mineral Produced by Dental Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volponi, A A; Gentleman, E; Fatscher, R; Pang, Y W Y; Gentleman, M M; Sharpe, P T

    2015-11-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from different dental tissues have been described to have osteogenic/odontogenic-like differentiation capacity, but little attention has been paid to the biochemical composition of the material that each produces. Here, we used Raman spectroscopy to analyze the mineralized materials produced in vitro by different dental cell populations, and we compared them with the biochemical composition of native dental tissues. We show that different dental stem cell populations produce materials that differ in their mineral and matrix composition and that these differ from those of native dental tissues. In vitro, BCMP (bone chip mass population), SCAP (stem cells from apical papilla), and SHED (stem cells from human-exfoliated deciduous teeth) cells produce a more highly mineralized matrix when compared with that produced by PDL (periodontal ligament), DPA (dental pulp adult), and GF (gingival fibroblast) cells. Principal component analyses of Raman spectra further demonstrated that the crystallinity and carbonate substitution environments in the material produced by each cell type varied, with DPA cells, for example, producing a more carbonate-substituted mineral and with SCAP, SHED, and GF cells creating a less crystalline material when compared with other dental stem cells and native tissues. These variations in mineral composition reveal intrinsic differences in the various cell populations, which may in turn affect their specific clinical applications.

  12. Chelated minerals for poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vieira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic minerals have been subject of an increasing number of investigations recently. These compounds can be considered the most significant event regarding commercial forms of minerals targeting animal supplementation in the last decades. Minerals, especially metals, are usually supplemented in poultry feeds using cheap saline sources and have never required a lot of attention in terms of quality. On the other hand, definitions of organic minerals are very broad and frequently lead to confusion when decision-making becomes necessary. Organic minerals include any mineral bound to organic compounds, regardless of the type of existing bond between mineral and organic molecules. Proteins and carbohydrates are the most frequent candidates in organic mineral combinations. Organic fraction size and bond type are not limitations in organic mineral definition; however, essential metals (Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mn can form coordinated bonds, which are stable in intestinal lumen. Metals bound to organic ligands by coordinated bonds can dissociate within animal metabolism whereas real covalent bonds cannot. Chelated minerals are molecules that have a metal bound to an organic ligand through coordinated bonds; but many organic minerals are not chelates or are not even bound through coordinated bonds. Utilization of organic minerals is largely dependent on the ligand; therefore, amino acids and other small molecules with facilitated access to the enterocyte are supposed to be better utilized by animals. Organic minerals with ligands presenting long chains may require digestion prior to absorption. After absorption, organic minerals may present physiological effects, which improve specific metabolic responses, such as the immune response. Many studies have demonstrated the benefits of metal-amino acid chelates on animal metabolism, but the detection positive effects on live performance is less consistent.

  13. Native American youth and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Laurence A. French

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth and delinquency issues have long been problematic among Native Americans groups both on- and off-reservation. This phenomenon is further complicated by the cultural diversity among American Indians and Alaska Natives scattered across the United States. In address these issues, the paper begins with a historical overview of Native American youth. This history presents the long tradition of federal policies that, how well intended, have resulted in discriminatory practices with the most damages attacks being those directed toward the destruction of viable cultural attributes – the same attributes that make Native Americans unique within United States society. Following the historical material, the authors contrast the pervasive Native American aboriginal ethos of harmony with that of Protestant Ethic that dominates the ethos of the larger United States society. In addition to providing general information on Native American crime and delinquency, the paper also provides a case study of Native American justice within the Navajo Nation, the largest tribe, in both size and population, in the United States. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues specific to Native American youth and efforts to address these problems.

  14. Native American Foods and Cookery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tom; Potter, Eloise F.

    Native Americans had a well-developed agriculture long before the arrival of the Europeans. Three staples--corn, beans, and squash--were supplemented with other gathered plants or cultivated crops such as white potatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and peanuts. Native Americans had no cows, pigs, or domesticated chickens; they depended almost…

  15. Ohiyesa's Path: Reclaiming Native Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Adrienne Brant; Renville, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    As Natives have assumed increasing authority and responsibility for tribal and federally funded and administered schools, a more balanced and enlightened view is emerging. Notable among these events is the recognition of the critical need to shift emphasis to the untapped heritage of more recently recognized and acknowledged Native American…

  16. Coyote's Eyes: Native Cognition Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafoya, Terry

    1982-01-01

    Using a Native American parable, compares the Standard Average European (SAE) world view with the Standard Native American (SNA) world view and the effects they have on education. Points out possible areas of interethnic confusion as a result of these two world views in communication dealing with cognitive schemes. (LC)

  17. Native American Foods and Cookery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tom; Potter, Eloise F.

    Native Americans had a well-developed agriculture long before the arrival of the Europeans. Three staples--corn, beans, and squash--were supplemented with other gathered plants or cultivated crops such as white potatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and peanuts. Native Americans had no cows, pigs, or domesticated chickens; they depended almost…

  18. Effect of oxidation state on Bi mineral speciation in oxidized and reduced granitoids from the Uetsu region, NE Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumino, Yuya; Maruoka, Teruyuki; Nakashima, Kazuo

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between bismuth (Bi) mineral speciation and redox state in three types of granitoids from the Uetsu region, northeast Japan is investigated. Electron microprobe analysis of Bi minerals, sphalerite, Mg-Fe-bearing carbonate minerals, and muscovite, as well as sulfur isotope analysis of sulfide minerals and microthermometric study of fluid inclusions reveal that Bi mineral speciation varies according to the redox state of the granitoids. For example, native bismuth and bismuthinite are abundant and Bi sulfosalts are rare in the lowest fS2 and fO2 mineralized zones of the reduced Iwafune granite (S-type, ilmenite-series) while Bi sulfosalts (Bi3+) are abundant and trace amounts of native bismuth (Bi0) and bismuthinite are found in the highest fS2 and fO2 mineralized zones of the oxidized Wasada granodiorite (I-type, magnetite-series). Bismuthinite is a major Bi mineral, and native bismuth and Bi sulfosalts occur in only minor amounts in the mineralized zones of the Nishitagawa granodiorite (I-type, ilmenite-series), which has intermediate fS2 and fO2 to that of the Iwafune and Wasada samples. Our study indicates that Bi mineral speciation related to granitic intrusive activity is controlled by the redox state of the magmatism, such that native bismuth is typical of reducing conditions, whereas Bi sulfosalts are typical of oxidizing conditions.

  19. The effect of input source (Native vs. Non- native and EFL learners’ perceptions towards it, on their listening performances, across gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Sadeghi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the “native/non-native speaker’s input source” occupies an important place in any EFL listening comprehension test. This study is meant to unveil whether listening to a native or non-native speaker (i.e., input source and students’ perceptions towards it affect the performance of upper-intermediate EFL learners in a listening test. For this purpose, an experimental design was used to compare the performance of two groups of learners on an EFL listening test. A test of 20 multiple choice items was administered to 66 EFL learners (31 male and 35 female, half of whom listened to a native speaker’s voice while the other 33 test takers listened to a non-native speaker’s voice. Moreover, a perception questionnaire considering students’ perceptions towards using native or non-native input source in listening tests was utilized. The results of the study highlighted that the overall performance of the two groups differed significantly. That is, the listeners to the non-native input outperformed those who listened to a native speaker. Also, the results of the questionnaire revealed some noteworthy findings which indicate that students preferred the use of non-native input in listening tests. Moreover, considering gender as a moderator variable, a statistically significant main effect was found for gender; that is, gender does play a significant role as a moderator variable. In other words, female test takers performed better than males in both conditions. Further findings and implications are discussed in the paper.

  20. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest... locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in parts...

  1. Impacts of fire on non-native plant recruitment in black spruce forests of interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Alexandra J.; Jean, Mélanie

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is expected to increase the extent and severity of wildfires throughout the boreal forest. Historically, black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) forests in interior Alaska have been relatively free of non-native species, but the compounding effects of climate change and an altered fire regime could facilitate the expansion of non-native plants. We tested the effects of wildfire on non-native plant colonization by conducting a seeding experiment of non-native plants on different substrate types in a burned black spruce forest, and surveying for non-native plants in recently burned and mature black spruce forests. We found few non-native plants in burned or mature forests, despite their high roadside presence, although invasion of some burned sites by dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) indicated the potential for non-native plants to move into burned forest. Experimental germination rates were significantly higher on mineral soil compared to organic soil, indicating that severe fires that combust much of the organic layer could increase the potential for non-native plant colonization. We conclude that fire disturbances that remove the organic layer could facilitate the invasion of non-native plants providing there is a viable seed source and dispersal vector. PMID:28158284

  2. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders are 70 percent more likely to have asthma as non-Hispanic whites. National data for this ...

  3. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders among Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ISORDERS A MONG N ATIVE A MERICANS Native American cultures, which encompass American Indian, Alaska Native and Native ... among American Indians: The mythical and real properties. American Indian Culture and Research Journal 18(2):121-143. www. ...

  4. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  5. [Male contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin, A

    1984-04-01

    Among the reasons why male hormonal contraception has lagged behind female methods are the necessity of preserving virility, the fact that spermatogenesis is a continuous process, the need to control secondary effects and toxicity, and the requirement that modes of administration be acceptable to both partners. Among currently available reversible mehtods, withdrawal is undoubtedly the most ancient. It is still widespread but cannot be recommended because of its limited effectiveness. The condom is used by about 10% of couples worldwide as a principal or temporary method, but its inter-ference with sensation has limited its acceptance. Condoms are nevertheless highly effective when used with a spermicide. Various androgens are currently under investigation. High doses of testosterone can induce azoospermia without affecting libido but their side effects may be serious. The use of combinations of steroids permits doses to be reduced and offers promise for the future. The combination of oral medroxyprogesterone acetate and percutaneous testosterone is one of the better approaches; the combination is effective and nontoxic but has the disadvantage of percutaneous administration. Gossypol, a pigment extracted from the cotton plant, has been used as a contraceptive in China with a reported efficacy of 99.89%, recovery of fertility within 3 months, and no effect on future fertility. However, its toxicity appears to be significant in the animal and its reversibility is uncertain. A search is on for analogs which would preserve the contraceptive effects while eliminating toxic effects. Several gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs under investigation for their interference with spermatogenesis have given promising results. Several chemicals tested for contraceptive effects have had unacceptably high toxicity. Chinese investigators have reported good results with various physical methods of interfering with sperm production, but their reversibility and innocuity

  6. Native Speakers in Linguistic Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    is recognised as desirable by some British experts, the native speakers in question seldom have this key qualification. This is even the case when the host country (Brunei) aims at bilingual education. It is unlikely that the host countries are getting value for money. Whether the UK and other ‘English...... the linguicism of British pedagogical expertise are generally involved in native speaker export businesses. They underpin a hierarchy with under-qualified native speakers projected as superior to local teachers who are seen as in need of foreign ‘aid’. In view of the British bodies involved openly declaring...

  7. The Rise of native advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius MANIC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Native advertising is described both as a new way for promoters to engage audiences and as a new, clever, source of revenue for publishers and media agencies. The debates around its morality and the need for a wide accepted framework are often viewed as calls for creativity. Aside from the various forms, strategies and the need for clarification, the fact that native advertising works and its revenue estimates increase annually transforms the new type of ad into a clear objective for companies, marketers and publishers. Native advertising stopped being a buzzword and started being a marketing reality.

  8. Native Terrestrial Animal Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all native mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and butterflies in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are...

  9. Native grassland inventory and monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Benton Lake refuge has nearly 6,000 acres of native western wheatgrass-green needlegrass prairie uplands. This pilot study was designed to assess the condition of...

  10. Charting Transnational Native American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsinya Huang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction to the Special Forum entitled "Charting Transnational Native American Studies: Aesthetics, Politics, Identity," edited by Hsinya Huang, Philip J. Deloria, Laura M. Furlan, and John Gamber

  11. Mineral Fiber Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical and physical properties of different forms of mineral fibers impact biopersistence and pathology in the lung. Fiber chemistry, length, aspect ratio, surface area and dose are critical factors determining mineral fiber-associated health effects including cancer and as...

  12. Mineral commodity summaries 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2017-01-31

    This report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering 2016 nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for more than 90 individual minerals and materials.

  13. Marine Mineral Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The past 20 years have seen extensive marine exploration work by the major industrialized countries. Studies have, in part, been concentrated on Pacific manganese nodule occurrences and on massive sulfides on mid-oceanic ridges. An international jurisdictional framework of the sea-bed mineral...... in EEZ areas are fairly unknown; many areas need detailed mapping and mineral exploration, and the majority of coastal or island states with large EEZ areas have little experience in exploration for marine hard minerals. This book describes the systematic steps in marine mineral exploration....... Such exploration requires knowledge of mineral deposits and models of their formation, of geophysical and geochemical exploration methods, and of data evaluation and interpretation methods. These topics are described in detail by an international group of authors. A short description is also given of marine...

  14. Priming of native soil organic matter by pyrogenic organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCiucies, Silene; Dharmakeerthi, Saman; Whitman, Thea; Woolf, Dominic; Lehmann, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Priming, in relation to pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM), describes the change in mineralization rate of non-pyrogenic ("native") soil organic matter (nSOM) due to the addition of PyOM. Priming may be 'positive', in that the addition of pyC increases the mineralization rate of native SOM, or 'negative', in that the mineralization rate of nSOM is decreased. Reasons for increased mineralization may include: (i) co-metabolism: microbial decomposition of labile C-additions increases microbial activity, and facilitates additional decomposition of npSOC by active enzymes; (ii) stimulation: substrate additions result in lifted pH, nutrient, oxygen, or water constraints resulting in increased microbial activity. Decreased mineralization may be a result of: (i) inhibition: the opposite of stimulation whereby constraints are aggravated by substrate addition. Substrate addition may also cause inhibition by interfering with enzymes or signaling compounds; (ii) preferential substrate utilization: labile fraction of PyOM additions are preferentially used up by microbes thus causing a decrease in nSOC decomposition; (iii) sorption: organic compounds are adsorbed onto PyOM surfaces, decreasing their rate of mineralization; (iv) stabilization: formation of organo-mineral associations forms stable SOC pools. We have conducted a suite of experiments to investigate these potential interactions. In a seven year long incubation study, PyOM additions increased total OM mineralization for the first 2.5 years, was equal to control after 6.2 years, and was 3% lower after 7.1 years. Cumulative nSOM mineralization was 23% less with the PyOM additions than without, and over 60% of the added PyOM was present in the labile soil fraction after the 7.1 year incubation. Two additional incubation studies, one with and without plants, showed greater nSOM mineralization in the short term and lower nSOM mineralization over the long term. Increased nSOC mineralization due to the presence of plants was

  15. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2008 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2007 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. National reserves and reserve base information for most mineral commodities found in this report, including those for the United States, are derived from a variety of sources. The ideal source of such information would be comprehensive evaluations that apply the same criteria to deposits in different geographic areas and report the results by country. In the absence of such evaluations, national reserves and reserve base estimates compiled by countries for selected mineral commodities are a primary source of national reserves and reserve base information. Lacking national assessment information by governments, sources such as academic articles, company reports, common business practice, presentations by company representatives, and trade journal articles, or a combination of these, serve as the basis for national reserves and reserve base information reported in the mineral commodity sections of this publication. A national estimate may be assembled from the following: historically reported reserves and reserve base information carried for years without alteration because no new information is available; historically reported reserves and reserve base reduced by the amount of historical production; and company reported reserves. International minerals availability studies conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, before 1996, and estimates of identified resources by an international collaborative effort (the International Strategic Minerals

  16. Why Mineral Interfaces Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnis, Andrew; Putnis, Christine V.

    2015-04-01

    While it is obvious that reactions between a mineral and an aqueous solution take place at the mineral-fluid interface it is only relatively recently that high spatial resolution studies have demonstrated how the local structure of the mineral surface and the chemical composition of the fluid at the interface control both the short-range and the long-range consequences of mineral-fluid interaction. Long-range consequences of fluid-mineral interaction control element cycles in the earth, the formation of ore-deposits, the chemical composition of the oceans through weathering of rocks and hence climate changes. Although weathering is clearly related to mineral dissolution, to what extent do experimentally measured dissolution rates of minerals help to understand weathering, especially weathering mechanisms? This question is related to the short-range, local reactions that take place when a mineral, that is not stable in the fluid, begins to dissolve. In this case the fluid composition at the interface will become supersaturated with respect to a different phase or phases. This may be a different composition of the same mineral e.g. a Ca-rich feldspar dissolving in a Na-rich solution results in a fluid at the interface which may be supersaturated with respect to an Na-rich feldspar. Alternatively, the interfacial fluid could be supersaturated with respect to a different mineral e.g. an Na-rich zeolite, depending on the temperature. Numerous experiments have shown that the precipitation of a more stable phase at the mineral-fluid interface results in a coupling between the dissolution and the precipitation, and the replacement of one mineral by another. This process separates the short-range mechanisms which depend only on the composition of the interfacial solution, and the long-range consequences that depend on the composition of the residual fluid released from the reacting parent mineral. Typically such residual fluids may carry metal ions tens to hundreds of

  17. Mineral facilities of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  18. Clinical Analysis of Relative Parameters of Bone Mineral Density and Bone Metabolism in Elderly Male Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease%老年男性慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者骨密度及骨代谢相关指标的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫芳; 孜那; 郗慧

    2011-01-01

    Objective By measuring the bone mineral density ( BMD ) and bone metabolic markers in elderly male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD ), to explore the relationship between COPD and osteoporosis.Methods Totally 203 COPD male patients and 40 healthy controls of the same sex were recruited as the research objects.The bone mineral density ( by Dual - energy X - ray bone mineral density detection instrument ), serum calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, alkaline phosphatase ( T- ALP ), parathyroid stimulated ( PTH ), fasting urinary calcium and creatinine ratio ( Ca/Cr ), tartrate - resistant acid phosphatase ( TRAP ), osteocalcin ( GBP ) and other bone metabolic markers were measured and analyzed.Results ( 1 ) BMD at L1, L3 and L4 , as well as the Neck, GT, and InterTro of the hip of patients with COPD were significantly lower than those in controls ( P < 0.05 ).The BMD values of COPD patients who Inhaled corticosteroids were significantly lower than those of COPD patients who did not inhale corticosteroids only at the L2 and the Neck of the hip ( P < 0.05 ).( 2 ) Serum calcium, phosphorus, and T 鈥?ALP activity levels were not significantly different ( P > 0.05 ), while the serum magnesium, PTH, TRAP, and Ca/Cr ratio were significantly different ( P <0.05 ) in COPD patients and controls.Compared with COPD patients who did not inhale corticosteroids, the patients who inhaled corticosteroids had decreased levels of magnesium and BGP, and increased values of TRAP and Ca/Cr ( P <0.05 ).( 3 ) The value of BMD at L3 and L4 , as well the Neck and GT of the hip of COPD patients was negatively correlated with duration of corticosteroid therapy ( r = - 0.69, - 0.38, - 0.46, -0.54, respectively, and P<0.05).Conclusion The level of BMD in Elderly male patients with COPD patients is lower than that in healthy people with the same age.And the BMD change shows no significant difference between COPD patients who inhale corticosteroids and those who do

  19. Mineral resources of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compiled and edited by Wright, Nancy A.; Williams, Paul L.

    1974-01-01

    Although the existence of mineral deposits in Antarctica is highly probable, the chances of finding them are quite small. Minerals have been found there in great variety but only as occurrences. Manganese nodules, water (as ice), geothermal energy, coal, petroleum, and natural gas are potential resources that could perhaps be exploited in the future. On the basis of known mineral occurrences in Antarctica and relationships between geologic provinces of Antarctica and those of neighboring Gondwana continents, the best discovery probability for a base-metal deposit in any part of Antarctica is in the Andean orogen; it is estimated to be 0.075 (75 chances in 1,000).

  20. Formation of gold mineralization in ultramafic alkalic magmatic complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabchikov, I. D.; Kogarko, L. N.; Sazonov, A. M.; Kononkova, N. N.

    2016-06-01

    Study of mineral inclusions within alluvial gold particles of the Guli Complex (East Siberia) and findings of lode gold in rocks of the same intrusion have demonstrated that gold mineralization occurs in interstitions of both early high-magnesium rocks (dunite) and later alkalic and carbonatite rocks. In dunite the native gold occurs in association with Fe-Ni sulfides (monosulfide solid solution, pentlandite, and heazlewoodite). Formation of the gold-bearing alloys took place under a low oxygen potential over a broad range of temperatures: from those close to 600°C down to below 400°C.

  1. An entomopathogenic fungus and nematode prove ineffective for biocontrol of an invasive leaf miner Profenusa thomsoni in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Progar; J.J. Kruse; John Lundquist; K.P. Zogas; M.J. Rinella

    2015-01-01

    A non-native invasive sawfly, the amber-marked birch leaf miner Profenusa thomsoni (Konow), was first detected in south-central Alaska in 1996 and is now widely distributed throughout urban and wild birch trees in Alaska. Impacts have been considered primarily aesthetic because leaf miners cause leaves of birch trees (Betula...

  2. 78 FR 70956 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Assessment of Native American... Title of Information Collection: Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian... American and Alaskan Native populations, most notably through the Indian Housing Block Grant. The level...

  3. Literacy Skill Differences between Adult Native English and Native Spanish Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Julia; Cote, Nicole Gilbert; Reilly, Lenore; Binder, Katherine S.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the literacy skills of adult native English and native Spanish ABE speakers. Participants were 169 native English speakers and 124 native Spanish speakers recruited from five prior research projects. The results showed that the native Spanish speakers were less skilled on morphology and passage comprehension…

  4. Literacy Skill Differences between Adult Native English and Native Spanish Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Julia; Cote, Nicole Gilbert; Reilly, Lenore; Binder, Katherine S.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the literacy skills of adult native English and native Spanish ABE speakers. Participants were 169 native English speakers and 124 native Spanish speakers recruited from five prior research projects. The results showed that the native Spanish speakers were less skilled on morphology and passage comprehension…

  5. [Synthetic mineral fibers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boillat, M A

    1999-03-27

    The group of man-made mineral fibres includes slagwool, glasswool, rockwool, glass filaments and microfibres, as well as refractory ceramic fibres. The toxicity of mineral fibres is determined by several factors such as the diameter (ceramic fibres. A slightly elevated standard mortality ratio for lung cancer has been documented in large cohorts of workers (USA, Europe and Canada) exposed to man-made mineral fibres, especially in the early technological phase. It is not possible to determine from these data whether the risk of lung cancer is due to the man-made mineral fibres themselves, in particular due to the lack of data on smoking habits. No increased risk of mesothelioma has been demonstrated in these cohorts. Epidemiological data are insufficient at this time concerning neoplastic diseases in refractory ceramic fibres.

  6. Minerals in environmental technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuiling, R.D. [Utrecht Univ., Utrecht (Netherlands). Faculty of Earth Sciences

    2000-07-01

    Minerals play a key role in the environment; this role is often not well understood, because the emphasis of most environmentalists is on air, water, or the composition of solid wastes as a whole, without paying attention to their mineralogical composition. Several minerals can serve as effective and cheap adsorbents for many toxic chemicals. Several minerals can be used as a cheap substitute for expensive chemicals in environmental technologies. Environmental technologies that produce an economically interesting mineral will have an edge over competing technologies. Most of the problems, overreaction, panicky and expensive measures with regard to exposure from quartz and asbestos stem from a poor understanding of natural levels of common contaminants, a disregard for mineralogy, and a lack of insight into natural processes in general.

  7. sequenceMiner algorithm

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Detecting and describing anomalies in large repositories of discrete symbol sequences. sequenceMiner has been open-sourced! Download the file below to try it out....

  8. Vitamins and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... minerals your body needs. But if you're skipping meals, dieting, or if you're concerned that ... Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Healthy Breakfast Planner Nutrition & Fitness Center Vitamin D Figuring Out ...

  9. Mineral absorption in relation to nutritional ecology of reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Staaland

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the way which absorption of minerals relate to nutritional ecology and mineral conservation processes. A latin square designed experiment was used to assess the effects of diet on mineral (Ca, Mg, K, Na absorption processes in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.. Three male calves were fed 3 different diets: concentrate with 25% grass meal (RF-71, lichens, and a mixed diet of lichens and RF-71. Two other male calves were fed the lichen or mixed diet, supplemented with 4 g Ca/day. Ca supplementation significantly increased fecal Ca excretion, reduced the excretion of K and Mg, but had no significant effect on Na excretion. Rates of intake and fecal exretion of Ca, Mg and K were highly correlated (P<0.001, while no correlations were found for Na. Negative digestibilities of Ca, Mg and K, and a positive Na digestibility were noted for the lichen diet. For the other diets, all minerals were in positive digestibility, and Ca supplements increased the digestibility of all minerals. Digesta from different sections of the alimentary tract were collected after termination of the experiment. Alimentary pools of Ca and K were equal for animals fed lichen or RF-71, whereas the Na pool was largest on the lichen diet and the Mg pool largest on the RF-71 diet. Rumen turnover time (rumen mineral pool size/daily mineral intake was consistently less than 3 days for Ca and Mg, but was 22 and 82 days for Na on the RF-71 and lichen diets respectively. Estimates of mineral exchange in various parts of the tract showed that the intestines play and important role in scavanging endogenously secreted minerals. Results are discussed with respect to mineral binding by lichens and the possible role of natural mineral supplements in the nutritional ecology of reindeer.

  10. Complements or Substitutes? Task Specialization by Gender and Nativity in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; de la Rica, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Learning about the impact of immigration on the labor market outcomes of natives is a topic of major concern for immigrant-receiving countries. There exists an extensive literature evaluating the impact of immigration on the employment and wages of natives in the U.S. Yet, despite the significant degree of occupational segregation by gender regardless of workers' origin, the literature has traditionally treated male and female immigrants as a homogenous group when examining the impact of immi...

  11. Male pattern baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alopecia in men; Baldness - male; Hair loss in men; Androgenetic alopecia ... Male pattern baldness is related to your genes and male sex hormones. It usually follows a pattern of receding hairline and ...

  12. Mathematical model for bone mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Komarova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Defective bone mineralization has serious clinical manifestations, including deformities and fractures, but the regulation of this extracellular process is not fully understood. We have developed a mathematical model consisting of ordinary differential equations that describe collagen maturation, production and degradation of inhibitors, and mineral nucleation and growth. We examined the roles of individual processes in generating normal and abnormal mineralization patterns characterized using two outcome measures: mineralization lag time and degree of mineralization. Model parameters describing the formation of hydroxyapatite mineral on the nucleating centers most potently affected the degree of mineralization, while the parameters describing inhibitor homeostasis most effectively changed the mineralization lag time. Of interest, a parameter describing the rate of matrix maturation emerged as being capable of counter-intuitively increasing both the mineralization lag time and the degree of mineralization. We validated the accuracy of model predictions using known diseases of bone mineralization such as osteogenesis imperfecta and X-linked hypophosphatemia. The model successfully describes the highly non-linear mineralization dynamics, which includes an initial lag phase when osteoid is present but no mineralization is evident, then fast primary mineralization, followed by secondary mineralization characterized by a continuous slow increase in bone mineral content. The developed model can potentially predict the function for a mutated protein based on the histology of pathologic bone samples from mineralization disorders of unknown etiology.

  13. Native American Conference on Petroleum Energy; November 16-17, 1996; Bartlesville, Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-27

    Thirty-three Native American tribal members, council members, and other interested parties gathered in Bartlesville, Oklahoma, to attend the Native American Conference on Petroleum Energy on October 16 and 17 1996, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and BDM-Oklahoma, Inc. Tribes represented at the workshop included the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Hopi, Jicarilla Apache, Osage, Seminole, and Ute. Representatives of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the Minerals Management Service (MMS) also attended. BDM-Oklahoma developed and organized the Native American Conference on Petroleum Energy to help meet the goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's Domestic Gas and Oil Initiative to help Native American Tribes become more self-sufficient in developing and managing petroleum resources.

  14. Leucaena leucocephala and adjacent native limestone forest habitats contrast in soil properties on Tinian Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marler, Thomas E; Dongol, Nirmala; Cruz, Gil N

    2016-01-01

    An ex situ germplasm collection of the endangered Cycas micronesica was established in a transition zone between biodiverse native forest and mature stands of the invasive species Leucaena leucocephala. Soil chemical properties were determined for the 2 tree cover types to inform management decisions. Total carbon, total nitrogen, calcium, and net ammonification were greater in native forest cover than in L. leucocephala patches. Net nitrification and net mineralization were greater under L. leucocephala cover. Trace metals also differed between the 2 forest cover types, with chromium, cobalt, and nickel accumulating to greater concentration under L. leucocephala cover and zinc accumulating to greater concentration under native forest cover. The results indicated that L. leucocephala cover generated substantial changes in soil chemical properties when compared with native forest tree cover, illuminating one means by which understory vegetation may be affected by changes in invasive tree cover.

  15. Who's on First? Part II: Bacterial and fungal colonization of fresh soil minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, T.; Neurath, R.; Zhang, P.; Yuan, T.; Weber, P. K.; Zhou, J.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Firestone, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization by soil minerals is an important mechanism influencing soil C cycling. Microbes make up only a few percent of total SOM, but have a disproportionate impact on SOM cycling. Their direct interactions with soil minerals, however, are not well characterized. We studied colonization of fresh minerals by soil microbes in an Avena barbata (wild oat) California grassland soil microcosm. Examining quartz, ferrihydrite, kaolinite, and the heavy fraction of the native soil, we asked: (1) Do different minerals select for different communities, or do random processes drive the colonization of fresh minerals? (2) What factors influence which taxa colonize fresh minerals? After incubating mesh bags (<18 μm) of minerals buried next to actively growing plant roots for 2 months, we used high-throughput sequencing of 16S and ITS2 genes to characterize the microbial communities colonizing the minerals. We found significant differences between the microbial community composition of different minerals and soil for both bacteria and fungi. We found a higher relative abundance of arbuscular mycorrhial fungi with ferrihydrite and quartz, and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) imaging of these minerals suggests that some fungal hyphae are moving C directly from roots to mineral surfaces. The enriched presence of both nematode-associated fungi (Pochonia sp.) and bacteria (Candidatus Xiphinematobacter) in the minerals suggests that these minerals may be a habitat for nematodes. Bacteria of the family Chitinophagaceae and genus Janthinobacterium were significantly enriched on both ferrihydrite and quartz minerals, both of which may interact with colonizing fungi. These findings suggest that: (1) Microbial colonization of fresh minerals is not a fully passive or neutral process. (2) Mineral exploration by plant-associated fungi and soil fauna transport may be factors in determining the initial colonization of minerals and subsequent C

  16. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  17. Measuring the Hardness of Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushby, Jessica

    2005-01-01

    The author discusses Moh's hardness scale, a comparative scale for minerals, whereby the softest mineral (talc) is placed at 1 and the hardest mineral (diamond) is placed at 10, with all other minerals ordered in between, according to their hardness. Development history of the scale is outlined, as well as a description of how the scale is used…

  18. Speech Recognition of Non-Native Speech Using Native and Non-Native Acoustic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    NATIVE AND NON-NATIVE ACOUSTIC MODELS David A. van Leeuwen and Rosemary Orr vanLeeuwentm .tno. nl R. 0rr~kno. azn. nl TNO Human Factors Research...a] is pronounced closer to the [c] by the vowels . Journal of Phonetics, 25:437-470, 1997. 32 [2] D. B. Paul and J. M. Baker. The design for [9] R. H...J. Kershaw, [12] Tony Robinson. Private Communication. L. Lamel, D. A. van Leeuwen , D. Pye, A. J. Robinson, H. J. M. Steeneken, and P. C. Wood- [13

  19. Native herbaceous perennials as ornamentals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne; Ørgaard, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Gardening with native perennials is a way to bring nature closer to urban citizens and bring up reflections on nature in a busy world. During three seasons of trialing Salvia pratensis, Dianthus deltoides, Campanula trachelium, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria, Saxifraga granulata, Plantago media and P...

  20. Native American College Student Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosholder, Richard; Goslin, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Native American students are the most likely racial/ethnic group tracked in post-secondary American education to be affected by poverty and limited access to educational opportunities. In addition, they are the most likely to be required to take remedial course work and are the least likely to graduate from college. A review of the literature was…

  1. Native Art of the Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langham, Barbara A.

    1997-01-01

    Provides historical information on native Southwest peoples and their arts to encourage appreciation and understanding of this cultural heritage. Provides instructions and supply lists for age-appropriate craft projects including woven baskets and rugs, clay pots, clay and paper beads, silver bracelets, kachina dolls, sand paintings, dream…

  2. 77 FR 72832 - Applications for New Awards; Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ..., traditional languages spoken by Native Americans, consistent with section 103 of the Native American Languages... methods of evaluation will provide performance feedback and permit periodic assessment of progress...

  3. Extraterrestrial magnetic minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechersky, D. M.; Markov, G. P.; Tsel'movich, V. A.; Sharonova, Z. V.

    2012-07-01

    Thermomagnetic and microprobe analyses are carried out and a set of magnetic characteristics are measured for 25 meteorites and 3 tektites from the collections of the Vernadsky Geological Museum of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Museum of Natural History of the North-East Interdisciplinary Science Research Institute, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It is found that, notwithstanding their type, all the meteorites contain the same magnetic minerals and only differ by concentrations of these minerals. Kamacite with less than 10% nickel is the main magnetic mineral in the studied samples. Pure iron, taenite, and schreibersite are less frequent; nickel, various iron spinels, Fe-Al alloys, etc., are very rare. These minerals are normally absent in the crusts of the Earth and other planets. The studied meteorites are more likely parts of the cores and lower mantles of the meteoritic parent bodies (the planets). Uniformity in the magnetic properties of the meteorites and the types of their thermomagnetic (MT) curves is violated by secondary alterations of the meteorites in the terrestrial environment. The sediments demonstrate the same monotony as the meteorites: kamacite is likely the only extraterrestrial magnetic mineral, which is abundant in sediments and associated with cosmic dust. The compositional similarity of kamacite in iron meteorites and in cosmic dust is due to their common source; the degree of fragmentation of the material of the parent body is the only difference.

  4. Native and Non-Native Perceptions on a Non-Native Oral Discourse in an Academic Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Dikilitaş

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study investigates discourse-level patterns typically employed by a Turkish lecturer based on the syntactic patterns found in the collected data. More specifically, the study aims to reveal how different native and non-native speakers of English perceive discourse patterns used by a non-native lecturer teaching in English. The data gathered from a Turkish lecturer teaching finance, and the interviews both with the lecturer and the students. The lecturer and the students were videotaped and the data was evaluated by content analysis. The results revealed a difference between the way non-native and native speakers evaluate an oral discourse of a non-native lecturer teaching in English. Native speakers of English found the oral performance moderately comprehensible, while non-native speakers found it relatively comprehensible.

  5. Bismuth mineral inclusions in gold-bearing magnetite from the giant Beiya gold deposit, SW China: insights into mineralization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haoyang; Sun, Xiaoming

    2017-04-01

    Bismuth minerals are commonly found in a wide range of gold deposits and could offer valuable information on the process of gold mineralization. This is because Bi minerals always show immediate association with gold and are sensitive to chemical-physical variations (Afifi et al., 1988). Specifically, native bismuth has a melting point of 271°C and could melt at lower temperatures when gold is added (Okamoto et al,, 1983). It has been verified that Bi melt could efficiently scavenge gold from hydrothermal fluids (Tooth et al., 2008, 2011). The Beiya deposit, situated in the Sanjiang Tethyan tectonic domain in the southwestern China, is one of the largest gold deposits in China 10.4 Moz Au @ 2.47g/t). Located along the contacts between a 36 Ma quartz syenite porphyry and the Triassic limestones, the deposit contains abundant massive Au-bearing magnetite ores, which are considered as a product of skarn mineralization. However, the pivotal processes accounting for the huge accumulation of gold resource at Beiya area are poorly constrained. In the massive magnetite ores, abundant native gold was observed to be present as submicron-scale inclusions hosted by magnetite (Zhou et al., 2017). We also noted that abundant Bi minerals occur within these ores (Zhou et al., 2016), which provide critical clues to reveal the processes of gold mineralization. An assemblage of Bi minerals, composed of native bismuth, maldonite and bismuthinite, is present as tiny inclusions in these Au-bearing magnetite grains. Mineralogical study illustrates the encapsulation of native bismuth and maldonite as melts during magnetite growth, which is also supported by the ore-forming temperatures over 300°C derived from previous fluid inclusions study (He et al., 2016). Our thermodynamic modeling demonstrates that Bi melts scavenged gold from hydrothermal fluids. Subsequently, sulfidation of Bi melts resulted in precipitation of gold, which was captured by growing magnetite. We thus propose that

  6. Views of coal miners in South Africa on sanctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puhe, H.; Schoeppner, K.P.

    1987-01-01

    Presents the results of a survey conducted during 1987, of the attitudes of a sample of black, male coal miners working in 6 export-orientated mines in Transvaal and 3 in Natal. Both mines and miners were selected at random and nearly 1,000 interviews were conducted. The most significant findings are as follows: South African coal miners are largely satisfied with their conditions of work, above all with social benefits, safety standards and the relations amongst the workers themselves. Regarding improvements in their working conditions miners attach by far the greatest importance to the question of wages. Next on the list are improvements in accomodation and the abolition of apartheid. The issue of 'sanctions' is not debated very widely. More than two-thirds of polled miners had not heard of sanctions previously. Nevertheless, after an explanation of what the term means, a large majority of South African coal miners (70%) rejects sanctions. Only one-fifth (21%) is for sanctions. Three-quarters of miners polled believe that sanctions would hit them hard. Above all they mentioned the risk of losing their jobs (79%), life at home (75%) and a decline in wages (74%). 34% of coal miners would support sanctions if they were ultimately to lead to the fall of the South African Government. 26% if sanctions were to lead to the fall of the South African Government, but also to a loss of their own jobs. Most of the miners polled felt that the trade unions were representing them well. However, South African coal miners are insufficiently informed on supposed positions adopted by the trade unions on separate issues and this applies to trade union policy on sanctions as well. 72% of miners polled seek a government that shares power equally between black and white. Moderate means are proposed to attain such a government. Only a minority, the hard core comprising about 25% of the South African miners, seeks violent confrontation.

  7. Thorium in mineral products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, D E; Brown, S A; Blagojevic, N; Soldenhoff, K H; Ring, R J

    2001-01-01

    Many ores contain low levels of thorium. When these ores are processed, the associated radioactivity can be found in mineral concentrates, intermediates and final products. There is an incentive for industries to remove radioactivity from mineral products to allow the movement and sale of these materials, both nationally and internationally, without the need for licensing. Control of thorium in various products involves the development and optimisation of process steps to be able to meet product specifications. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has undertaken a range of R & D programmes targeting the treatment of thorium-bearing minerals. This paper discusses the application of a microprobe technique for siting radioactivity in zircon and ilmenite and the problems experienced in measuring the concentrations in solid rare earth products.

  8. Willingness to use short-term oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) by migrant miners and female partners of migrant miners in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcao, Joana; Ahoua, Laurence; Zerbe, Allison; di Mattei, Pietro; Baggaley, Rachel; Chivurre, Victor; Mulondo, Prince; Ramiro, Isaias; Dalal, Shona; Morales, Fernando; O'Reilly, Kevin; El-Sadr, Wafaa

    2017-05-04

    Migrant miners from Mozambique who work in South Africa and their partners are at substantial risk for HIV infection. We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the willingness of migrant miners and female partners of miners to take short-term pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for prevention of HIV acquisition. The study was conducted in Gaza Province, Mozambique, between September and October 2015. A total of 131 male miners and female partners of male miners completed a questionnaire. Subsequently, 48 in-depth interviews among male miners and female partners of miners and 3 focus-group discussions (6 participants each) among female partners of miners were conducted. Quantitative data were tabulated using Stata. A structured coding scheme was developed and qualitative data were analysed using Atlas.ti. Most participants (94%) were willing to take PrEP for short-term use. Facilitating factors for willingness to use PrEP were concerns about partner's sexual behaviour, desire for pregnancy and one's own sexual behaviour. The main barriers to PrEP use were concerns regarding side-effects, perceived difficulty adhering to daily pill taking and concern about partner/family disapproval. Overall, participants saw potential barriers for PrEP as minor obstacles that could be overcome. The male partner's influence on PrEP use was significant.

  9. Comparison of quiescent inflow single-shot and native space for nonenhanced peripheral MR angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Emily V; Galizia, Mauricio S; Usman, Asad; Popescu, Andrada R; Dunkle, Eugene; Edelman, Robert R

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate two nonenhanced MRA methods: quiescent-interval single-shot (QISS) and Native SPACE (NATIVE = Non-contrast Angiography of the Arteries and Veins; SPACE = Sampling Perfection with Application Optimized Contrast by using different flip angle Evolution), using contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CEMRA) as a reference standard. Twenty patients (14 male; mean, 69.3 years old) referred for lower extremity MRA were recruited in a HIPAA-compliant prospective study. QISS and Native SPACE of the lower extremities were performed at 1.5 Tesla with a hybrid dual-injection contrast-enhanced MRA as reference. Image quality and stenosis severity were assessed in segments by two blinded radiologists. Methods were compared with logistic regression for correlated data for diagnostic accuracy. Of 496 arterial segments, 24 were considered nondiagnostic on the Native SPACE images. There were no QISS or CEMRA imaging segments considered to be nondiagnostic. Image quality was significantly higher for QISS than for Native SPACE. QISS stenosis sensitivity (84.9%) was not significantly different from Native SPACE (87.3%). QISS had better specificity (95.6%) than Native SPACE (87.0%), P = 0.0041. In comparison with QISS, Native SPACE proved less robust for imaging of the abdominal and pelvic segments. Native SPACE and QISS were sensitive for hemodynamically significant stenosis in this pilot study. QISS NEMRA demonstrated superior specificity and image quality, and was more robust in the abdominal and pelvic regions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  11. Native Americans Make Progress Against Diabetes Complication

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_162979.html Native Americans Make Progress Against Diabetes Complication Kidney failure down by 54 percent over 2 ... Failure Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Diabetes Complications Kidney Failure Native American Health About MedlinePlus Site ...

  12. Native Communities and the Peruvian Constitutional Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Indian Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    A loosely knit coalition of over 25 native groups, the Peruvian Amazon Peoples has prepared a statement directed at the Peruvian Constitutional Assembly for purposes of Native input into the preparation of a revised national constitution. (JC)

  13. Molecular packing in bone collagen fibrils prior to mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Benjamin; Zhou, Hong-Wen; Burger, Christian; Chu, Benjamin; Glimcher, Melvin J.

    2012-02-01

    The three-dimensional packing of collagen molecules in bone collagen fibrils has been largely unknown because even in moderately mineralized bone tissues, the organic matrix structure is severely perturbed by the deposition of mineral crystals. During the past decades, the structure of tendon collagen (e.g. rat tail) --- a tissue that cannot mineralize in vivo, has been assumed to be representative for bone collagen fibrils. Small-angle X-ray diffraction analysis of the native, uncalcified intramuscular fish bone has revealed a new molecular packing scheme, significantly different from the quasi-hexagonal arrangement often found in tendons. The deduced structure in bone collagen fibrils indicates the presence of spatially discrete microfibrils, and an arrangement of intrafibrillar space to form ``channels'', which could accommodate crystals with dimensions typically found in bone apatite.

  14. Relation between body composition and bone mineral density in young undregraduate students with different nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Filho, Edil de Albuquerque; Santos, Marcos André Moura Dos; Silva, Amanda Tabosa Pereira da; Farah, Breno Quintella; Costa, Manoel da Cunha; Campos, Florisbela de Arruda Camara E Siqueira; Falcão, Ana Patrícia Siqueira Tavares

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between total and segmental body fat, bone mineral density and bone mineral content in undergraduate students stratified according to nutritional status. The study included 45 male undergraduate students aged between 20 and 30 years. Total and segmental body composition, bone mineral density and bone mineral content assessments were performed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects were allocated into three groups (eutrophic, overweight and obese). With the exception of upper limb bone mineral content, significantly higher (pstudents, particularly in overweight individuals.

  15. 34 CFR 300.29 - Native language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Native language. 300.29 Section 300.29 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.29 Native language. (a) Native language, when used with respect to an individual who is limited English proficient, means the following: (1) The...

  16. Native American Children in Michigan. [Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. K. Kellogg Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Native American Children in Michigan," provides a historical context for the tenuous relationship between Michigan's 12 federally recognized tribes and the state government, paying particular attention to the erosion of Native American education programs and the disproportionate number of Native children who find themselves in both the child…

  17. Native herbaceous perennials as ornamentals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne; Ørgaard, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Gardening with native perennials is a way to bring nature closer to urban citizens and bring up reflections on nature in a busy world. During three seasons of trialing Salvia pratensis, Dianthus deltoides, Campanula trachelium, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria, Saxifraga granulata, Plantago media and P....... as a realistic plant community with an attractive, low habit and beautiful colors. Phyteuma spicatum is an attractive, novel species for a shady garden site.......Gardening with native perennials is a way to bring nature closer to urban citizens and bring up reflections on nature in a busy world. During three seasons of trialing Salvia pratensis, Dianthus deltoides, Campanula trachelium, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria, Saxifraga granulata, Plantago media and P....... maritima were found suitable for cultivation in wholesale-containers and applicable for dry, sunny conditions in gardens. On the other hand, Narthecium ossifragum, Pulsatilla palustris, Drosera rotundifolia, Vaccinium oxycoccos, Eriophorum angustifolium and Sphagnum sp. were cultivated and planted...

  18. Native Speakers in Linguistic Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of Native English Speaking Teachers’ performance in schemes in six Asian contexts, commissioned by the British Council, and undertaken by three British academics, is subjected to critical evaluation. Key issues for exploration are the issue of a monolingual approach to English...... learning and teaching, and the inappropriate qualifications of those sent to education systems when they are unfamiliar with the learners’ languages, cultures, and pedagogical traditions. Whether the schemes involved constitute linguistic imperialismis analysed. Whereas the need for multilingual competence...... is recognised as desirable by some British experts, the native speakers in question seldom have this key qualification. This is even the case when the host country (Brunei) aims at bilingual education. It is unlikely that the host countries are getting value for money. Whether the UK and other ‘English...

  19. Mineralization of fossil wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, P.

    1972-01-01

    Several pieces of fossil wood have been analyzed with X-ray diffraction and were grouped on the basis of mineralogical composition. Various mineralizations were studied in thin sections and by means of the scanning electron microscope. Wood-opals appear to show a structure preservation that points t

  20. Clay Mineral: Radiological Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotomácio, J. G.; Silva, P. S. C.; Mazzilli, B. P.

    2008-08-01

    Since the early days, clays have been used for therapeutic purposes. Nowadays, most minerals applied as anti-inflammatory, pharmaceutics and cosmetic are the clay minerals that are used as the active ingredient or, as the excipient, in formulations. Although their large use, few information is available in literature on the content of the radionuclide concentrations of uranium and thorium natural series and 40K in these clay minerals. The objective of this work is to determine the concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K in commercial samples of clay minerals used for pharmaceutical or cosmetic purposes. Two kinds of clays samples were obtained in pharmacies, named green clay and white clay. Measurement for the determination of 238U and 232Th activity concentration was made by alpha spectrometry and gamma spectrometry was used for 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K determination. Some physical-chemical parameters were also determined as organic carbon and pH. The average activity concentration obtained was 906±340 Bq kg-1 for 40K, 40±9 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 75±9 Bq kg-1 for 228Ra, 197±38 Bq kg-1 for 210Pb, 51±26 Bq kg-1 for 238U and 55±24 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, considering both kinds of clay.

  1. Mixtures and mineral reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, S.; Ganguly, J.

    1987-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in our understanding of the physicochemical evolution of natural rocks through systematic analysis of the compositional properties and phase relations of their mineral assemblages. This book brings together concepts of classical thermodynamics, solution models, and atomic ordering and interactions that constitute a basis of such analysis, with examples of application to subsolidus petrological problems.

  2. U.S. Geological Survey activities related to American Indians and Alaska Natives: Fiscal year 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Brunstein, F. Craig

    2006-01-01

    The USGS works in cooperation with American Indian and Alaska Native governments to conduct research on (1) water, energy, and mineral resources, (2) animals and plants that are important for traditional lifeways or have environmental or economic significance, and (3) natural hazards. This report describes most of the activities that the USGS conducted with American Indian and Alaska Native governments, educational institutions, and individuals during Federal fiscal year (FY) 2004. Most of these USGS activities were collaborations with Tribes, Tribal organizations, or professional societies. Other activities were conducted cooperatively with the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) or other Federal entities.

  3. Ecological impacts of non-native species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Non-native species are considered one of the greatest threats to freshwater biodiversity worldwide (Drake et al. 1989; Allen and Flecker 1993; Dudgeon et al. 2005). Some of the first hypotheses proposed to explain global patterns of amphibian declines included the effects of non-native species (Barinaga 1990; Blaustein and Wake 1990; Wake and Morowitz 1991). Evidence for the impact of non-native species on amphibians stems (1) from correlative research that relates the distribution or abundance of a species to that of a putative non-native species, and (2) from experimental tests of the effects of a non-native species on survival, growth, development or behaviour of a target species (Kats and Ferrer 2003). Over the past two decades, research on the effects of non-native species on amphibians has mostly focused on introduced aquatic predators, particularly fish. Recent research has shifted to more complex ecological relationships such as influences of sub-lethal stressors (e.g. contaminants) on the effects of non-native species (Linder et al. 2003; Sih et al. 2004), non-native species as vectors of disease (Daszak et al. 2004; Garner et al. 2006), hybridization between non-natives and native congeners (Riley et al. 2003; Storfer et al. 2004), and the alteration of food-webs by non-native species (Nystrom et al. 2001). Other research has examined the interaction of non-native species in terms of facilitation (i.e. one non-native enabling another to become established or spread) or the synergistic effects of multiple non-native species on native amphibians, the so-called invasional meltdown hypothesis (Simerloff and Von Holle 1999). Although there is evidence that some non-native species may interact (Ricciardi 2001), there has yet to be convincing evidence that such interactions have led to an accelerated increase in the number of non-native species and cumulative impacts are still uncertain (Simberloff 2006). Applied research on the control, eradication, and

  4. Native Terrestrial Animal Species Richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    These data represent predicted current distributions of all native mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and butterflies in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are available for both 8-digit HUCs and EMAP hexagons and represent total species counts for each spatial unit. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  5. Effect of Soybean on Male Reproductive Physiology in Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Modaresi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Soybean (Soja hispida Moench is a member of Fabaceae family. It is a species of legume native to East Asia. Soy contains significant amount of all the essential amino acids for humans therefore, is a good source of protein .Soy has an important role in the improvement and treatment of some cancers such as colon, prostate, and breast. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of soybeans on reproductive system in male mice. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was conducted at Isfahan Payam e Noor University in 2009. In this research, 32 male mice were randomly grouped into four experimental groups. The control group was fed with soy-free basic diet. The experimental groups 1, 2, and 3 were fed with a diet containing 20%, 30% and 50% soy diet respectively.At the end of 9 weeks of treatment, blood samples were collected and serum levels of testosterone, LH and FSH were measured. The collected data was analyzed with SPSS software using one way ANOVA with Dunnett's post test and Duncan test. Results : In the experimental group which received 20% soy diet, the level of testosterone had a meaningful decrease in comparison with the control group (P<0.05, but in the experimental group which received a 50% soy diet, the level of testosterone had a meaningful increase (P<0.05 .The LH level in 30% and 50% groups had a meaningful increase but no significant differences were observed in FSH level & weight of testicles (P<0.05.The number of sperms in all of the treatment regimes had a meaningful decrease (P0.05 Conclusion: Results of this research indicated that the 20, 30, and 50 percent soy diet had a negative effect on the male reproductive system in mice.

  6. Determinants of success in native and non-native listening comprehension: an individual differences approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Andringa; N. Olsthoorn; C. van Beuningen; R. Schoonen; J. Hulstijn

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explain individual differences in both native and non-native listening comprehension; 121 native and 113 non-native speakers of Dutch were tested on various linguistic and nonlinguistic cognitive skills thought to underlie listening comprehension. Structural equation mo

  7. Delayed Next Turn Repair Initiation in Native/Non-native Speaker English Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jean

    2000-01-01

    Examines a form of other-initiated conversational repair that is delayed within next turn position, a form that is produced by non-native speakers of English whose native language is Mandarin. Using the framework of conversational analysis, shows that in native/non-native conversation, other-initiated repair is not always done as early as possible…

  8. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Industrial Mineral Mining Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Industrial Mineral Mining Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Industrial Mineral Mining Program. The sub-facility types are listed below:Deep...

  9. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Industrial Mineral Mining Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — An Industrial Mineral Mining Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Industrial Mineral Mining Program. The sub-facility types are listed below:Deep...

  10. Regulation of calcium phosphate formation by native amelogenins in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Seo-Young; Kim, Sonia; Yamakoshi, Yasuo; Simmer, James P; Beniash, Elia; Margolis, Henry C

    2014-08-01

    Our previous in vitro studies have shown that recombinant full-length porcine amelogenin rP172 can transiently stabilize amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) and uniquely guide the formation of well-aligned bundles of hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals, as seen in the secretory stage of amelogenesis. This functional capacity is dependent on the hydrophilic C-terminal domain of full-length amelogenin. However, we have also found that native phosphorylated (single S-16 site) forms of full-length (P173) and C-terminal cleaved (P148) amelogenins can stabilize ACP for > 2 d and prevent HA formation. The present study was carried out to test the hypothesis that, at reduced concentrations, native full-length P173 also has the capacity to guide ordered HA formation. The effect of P148 and P173 concentrations (0.2-2.0 mg/ml) on the rate of spontaneous calcium phosphate precipitation was monitored via changes in solution pH, while mineral phases formed were assessed using TEM. At higher P173 concentrations (1.0-2.0 mg/ml), limited mineral formation occurred and only ACP nanoparticles were observed during a 48 h period. However, at 0.4 mg/ml P173, a predominance of organized bundles of linear, needle-like HA crystals were observed. At 0.2 mg/ml of P173, limited quantities of less organized HA crystals were found. Although P148 similarly stabilized ACP, it did not guide ordered HA formation, like P173. Hence, the establishment of the hierarchical enamel structure during secretory stage amelogenesis may be regulated by the partial removal of full-length amelogenin via MMP20 proteolysis, while predominant amelogenin degradation products, like P148, serve to prevent uncontrolled mineral formation.

  11. [Effects of soil texture and water content on the mineralization of soil organic carbon in paddy soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhong-lin; Wu, Jin-shui; Ge, Ti-da; Tang, Guo-yong; Tong, Cheng-li

    2009-01-01

    To understand how soil texture and water content affect the mineralization of organic C in paddy soil, 3 selected soils (sandy loam, clay loam, and silty clay) were incubated (25 degrees C) with 14 C-labelled rice straw (1.0 g x kg(-1)) at water content varied from 45% to 105% of water holding capacity (WHC). Data indicated that, in the sandy loam and clay loam, the mineralization rate of 14 C-labelled rice straw reached the maximum at 75% WHC, as 53% and 58% of the straw C mineralized in the incubation period of 160 d, whereas in the silty clay, it increased gradually (from 41.8% to 49.0%) as water content increased up to 105% WHC. For all of the three soils, the mineralization rate of soil native organic C reached the maximum at 75% WHC, with 5.8% of the organic C mineralized in the same period for the sandy loam, and 8.0% and 4.8% for the clay loam and silty clay, respectively. As water content increased further, the mineralization rate of native organic C in the three soils significantly declined. The mineralization rate of added rice straw and native organic C in all the three soils, was well fitted with a conic curve. These results suggest that water-logging can decrease the mineralization of organic C in paddy soils.

  12. Free classification of American English dialects by native and non-native listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clopper, Cynthia G; Bradlow, Ann R

    2009-10-01

    Most second language acquisition research focuses on linguistic structures, and less research has examined the acquisition of sociolinguistic patterns. The current study explored the perceptual classification of regional dialects of American English by native and non-native listeners using a free classification task. Results revealed similar classification strategies for the native and non-native listeners. However, the native listeners were more accurate overall than the non-native listeners. In addition, the non-native listeners were less able to make use of constellations of cues to accurately classify the talkers by dialect. However, the non-native listeners were able to attend to cues that were either phonologically or sociolinguistically relevant in their native language. These results suggest that non-native listeners can use information in the speech signal to classify talkers by regional dialect, but that their lack of signal-independent cultural knowledge about variation in the second language leads to less accurate classification performance.

  13. Carbon Mineral Ecology: Predicting the Undiscovered Minerals of Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, R. M.; Hummer, D. R.; Downs, R. T.; Hystad, G.; Golden, J.

    2015-12-01

    The diversity and distribution of Earth's minerals through deep time reflects key events in our planet's crustal evolution. Studies in mineral ecology exploit mineralogical databases to document diversity-distribution relationships of minerals, which reveal that all carbon-bearing minerals, as well as subsets containing C with O, H, Ca, or Na, conform to Large Number of Rare Events (LNRE) distributions. LNRE models facilitate prediction of total mineral diversity, and thus point to minerals that exist on Earth but have not yet been discovered and described. Our model predicts that at least 548 C minerals exist on Earth today, indicating that at least 145 carbon-bearing mineral species have yet to be discovered. Furthermore, by analyzing subsets of the most common additional elements in carbon-bearing minerals (i.e., 378 C + O species; 282 C + H species; 133 C + Ca species; and 100 C + Na species), we predict that 129 of these missing carbon minerals contain oxygen, 118 contain hydrogen, 52 contain calcium, and more than 60 contain sodium. The majority of these as yet undescribed minerals are predicted to be hydrous carbonates, many of which may have been overlooked because they are colorless, poorly crystalized, and/or water-soluble. We propose the identities of plausible as yet undescribed carbon minerals, as well as search strategies for their discovery. Some of these minerals will be natural examples of known synthetic compounds, including carbides such as calcium carbide (CaC2), crystalline hydrocarbons such as pyrene (C16H10), and numerous oxalates, anhydrous carbonates, and hydrous carbonates. Many other missing carbon minerals will be isomorphs of known carbon minerals, notably of the more than 100 different hydrous carbonate structures. An understanding of Earth's "missing" minerals provides a more complete picture of geochemical processes that influence crustal evolution.

  14. Mineral processing of heavy mineral sands from Malawi and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, C J

    1992-01-01

    Processing of heavy mineral sands involves many techniques including gravity, magnetic and electrostatic separation. As part of a laboratory programme to develop effective mineral processing techniques, two mineral sands from Malawi and Malaysia were processed using the standard techniques, with emphasis placed on the Carpco electrostatic separator. These sands were initially characterised mineralogically by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron microprobe analysis (EPMA...

  15. Adsorption of RNA on mineral surfaces and mineral precipitates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Elisa; Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Kawai, Jun

    2017-01-01

    The prebiotic significance of laboratory experiments that study the interactions between oligomeric RNA and mineral species is difficult to know. Natural exemplars of specific minerals can differ widely depending on their provenance. While laboratory-generated samples of synthetic minerals can have controlled compositions, they are often viewed as "unnatural". Here, we show how trends in the interaction of RNA with natural mineral specimens, synthetic mineral specimens, and co-precipitated pairs of synthetic minerals, can make a persuasive case that the observed interactions reflect the composition of the minerals themselves, rather than their being simply examples of large molecules associating nonspecifically with large surfaces. Using this approach, we have discovered Periodic Table trends in the binding of oligomeric RNA to alkaline earth carbonate minerals and alkaline earth sulfate minerals, where those trends are the same when measured in natural and synthetic minerals. They are also validated by comparison of co-precipitated synthetic minerals. We also show differential binding of RNA to polymorphic forms of calcium carbonate, and the stabilization of bound RNA on aragonite. These have relevance to the prebiotic stabilization of RNA, where such carbonate minerals are expected to have been abundant, as they appear to be today on Mars.

  16. The relevance of cultural activities in ethnic identity among California Native American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigman, Kurt; Soto, Claradina; Wright, Serena; Unger, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed data from a large statewide sample of Native American adolescents throughout California to determine whether participation in cultural practices was associated with stronger ethnic identity. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) scale was used to measure the ethnic identity of 945 Native American adolescents (416 male, 529 female) aged 13 - 19 across California. Respondents who participated in cultural activities including pow-wows, sweat lodge, drum group and roundhouse dance reported significantly higher Native American ethnic identity than their counterparts who did not take part in cultural activities. The association between cultural activities and ethnic identity was only significant among urban youth and not among reservation youth. Higher grades in school were associated with ethnic identity among females but not among males. Findings from this study show a strong association between cultural activities and traditional practices with tribal enculturation among Native American youth in California. Cultural-based practices to enhance Native identity could be useful to improve mental and behavioral health among Native American youth.

  17. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  18. Inducing Mineral Precipitation in Groundwater by Addition of Phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karen E. Wright; Yoshiko Fujita; Thomas Hartmann; Mark Conrad

    2011-10-01

    Induced precipitation of phosphate minerals to scavenge trace metals and radionuclides from groundwater is a potential remediation approach for contaminated aquifers. Phosphate minerals can sequester trace elements by primary mineral formation, solid solution formation and/or adsorption, and they are poorly soluble under many environmental conditions, making them attractive for long-term sustainable remediation. The success of such engineered schemes will depend on the particular mineral phases generated, their rates of formation, and their long term stability. The purpose of this study was to examine the precipitation of calcium phosphate minerals under conditions representative of a natural groundwater. Because microorganisms are present in groundwater, and because some proposed schemes for induced phosphate mineral precipitation rely on the stimulation of native groundwater populations, we also tested the effect of bacterial cells (initial densities of 105 and 107 ml-1) within the precipitation medium. We also tested the effect of a trace mixture of propionic, isovaleric, formic and butyric acids (total concentration 0.035 mM). The experiments showed that the general progression of mineral precipitation was similar under all of the conditions, with initial formation of amorphous calcium carbonate, and transformation to poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite (HAP) by the end of the week-long experiments. The presence of the bacterial cells appeared to delay precipitation, although by the end of 7 days the overall extent of precipitation was similar for all of the treatments. The stoichiometry of the final precipitates as well as results of Rietveld refinement of x-ray diffraction data indicated that the treatments including organic acids and bacterial cells resulted in increased distortion of the HAP crystal lattice, with the higher concentration of cells resulting in the greatest distortion. Uptake of Sr into the phosphate minerals was decreased in the treatments

  19. [Male urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, TA de; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2008-01-01

    *Urinary incontinence in males is gaining increasingly more attention. *Male urinary incontinence can be classified as storage incontinence due to overactive bladder syndrome or stress incontinence due to urethral sphincter dysfunction. *Most patients benefit from the currently available treatment o

  20. Male pattern baldness (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  1. Marine minerals: The Indian perspective

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Nath, B.N.; Banerjee, R.

    The sea floor of the continental margins of India is covered by a wide variety of terrigenous, biogenous, and chemogenous mineral deposits. Terrigenous heavy mineral placers containing ilmenite, magnetite, monazite, zircon, and rutile are reported...

  2. Unmixing of spectrally similar minerals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available -bearing oxide/hydroxide/sulfate minerals in complex mixtures be obtained using hyperspectral data? Debba (CSIR) Unmixing of spectrally similar minerals MERAKA 2009 3 / 18 Method of spectral unmixing Old method: problem Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis (LSMA...

  3. Agricultural Minerals Operations - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes agricultural minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  4. Construction Minerals Operations - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes construction minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  5. The aging male project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Saad

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available With an increasing life expectancy and a decreasing reproduction rate, the population structure changes. A Jenapharm R & D program investigates the endocrinology of aging men. In men, a decrease in production of sex steroids and other hormones with age can be observed. The typical patterns of daily rhythmicity become less distinct. This is part of a very complex picture in which not only isolated hormones are involved, but also the influence of hormones on each other. Many factors from the external and intemal environment mediated by neurotransmitters constantly affect the highly sensitive hormonal balance. Therefore, aging has also been defined as "the gradual dysfunction of homeostatic processes". Declining testosterone (T levels are involved in 'andropausal' symptoms in men: loss of libido, erectile dysfunction, insulin receptor resistance, obesity, osteoporosis, disturbances of lipid metabolism, myocardial and circulatory disturbances, impaired well-being and mood. Data are derived from studies in hypogonadal men treated by T replacement. In such parients under T treatment libido increases, fat mass decreases, muscle strenth, bone mineral density and erythropoesis increase. Whether the symptoms of andropause in aging men could successfully be treated by T substitution remains to be investigated. Negative effects of T, especially on the prostate and the cardiovascular system, are under discussion. There is increasing evidence that low T levels seem to be a risk factor for both the prostate and the cardiovascular system. Jenapharm's new testosterone undecanoate formulation for intramuscular injection can be administered every three months. T levels remain within the physiologic range. No supraphysiologic peaks occur. In women, estrogens have beneficial non-genital effects. Studies concentrate on synthetic estrogens for men without feminizing properties such as gynecomastia and reduced testicular size. Several derivatives of 17-

  6. Discussion on Nontraditional Mineral Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the authors introduce the concept of nontraditional mineral resources, and pro pose the major system of nontraditional mineral resources, including nontraditional resources, research methods, mining and mineral economics. Then the authors conclude that the research on nontraditional mineral resources is not only significant to satisfication the human needs in the 21st century, but also important to the development of the present geological theory.

  7. 长期酒精摄入对中老年男性骨密度与骨代谢及抗骨折能力的影响%Effect of chronic alcohol drinking on bone mineral density, bone metabolism and bone strength in middle and elderly males

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晖; 厉娜; 王燕

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the Effect of chronic alcohol drinking on bone mineral density, bone meta-bolic index and bone strength in middle and elderly males. Method Nine hundred eighty two normal men aged 45~79 with drinking history more than 5 years,who came to the clinic to do health examination,were divided into four groups: no drinking, 100 g/d group According to the different alcohol consumption and three alcohol drinking conducted by unified questionnaires, and the serum level of calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phos-phatase were measured by fully automatic biochemistry analyzer,osteocalcin measured by radio-immunoassay, deoxy-pyridinoline measured by ELISA. BMD at the lumbar spine and the hip measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiome-try. Result There was no significant difference in the age, body height, Body weight,body mass index, the serum level of calcium, phosphorus and the ratio of uric deoxypyridinoline andcreatinine ( P > 0. 05 ). Compared to no drinking group, the serum level of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin significantly lower in the drinking groups,and with the, increase of alcohol consumption and the more advanced beginning age of alcohol drinking, this difference became significantly greater( P 0.05) , but BMD were lower in 100 g/d group and 0. 01 ). The FS and MS were also decreased in these groups ( P >0.01). Of 982 normal men,there was 423 osteoporosis by measurement of the hip BMD including 63case in no drinking group,97case in 100 g/d group and 79 case in 30 group. The prevalence rate of osteoporosis was significantly higher in 50 - group and > 100 group than no drinking group, and significantly higher in 30 group and 20 ~30 group(P100 g/d);按开始饮酒年龄分为30岁3个等级.采用统一的问卷进行调查,测定血钙磷及碱性磷酸酶(ALP),放射免疫法测定骨钙素(BGP),酶联免疫吸附法测定尿脱氧吡啶啉(DPD),采用双能X线吸收法测量腰椎和股骨颈骨密度.结果 ①与

  8. Aggregates from mineral wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baic Ireneusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem concerning the growing demand for natural aggregates and the need to limit costs, including transportation from remote deposits, cause the increase in growth of interest in aggregates from mineral wastes as well as in technologies of their production and recovery. The paper presents the issue related to the group of aggregates other than natural. A common name is proposed for such material: “alternative aggregates”. The name seems to be fully justified due to adequacy of this term because of this raw materials origin and role, in comparison to the meaning of natural aggregates based on gravel and sand as well as crushed stones. The paper presents characteristics of the market and basic application of aggregates produced from mineral wastes, generated in the mining, power and metallurgical industries as well as material from demolished objects.

  9. Rock and mineral magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    O’Reilly, W

    1984-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a revolution in the earth sciences. The quantitative, instrument-based measurements and physical models of. geophysics, together with advances in technology, have radically transformed the way in which the Earth, and especially its crust, is described. The study of the magnetism of the rocks of the Earth's crust has played a major part in this transformation. Rocks, or more specifically their constituent magnetic minerals, can be regarded as a measuring instrument provided by nature, which can be employed in the service of the earth sciences. Thus magnetic minerals are a recording magnetometer; a goniometer or protractor, recording the directions of flows, fields and forces; a clock; a recording thermometer; a position recorder; astrain gauge; an instrument for geo­ logical surveying; a tracer in climatology and hydrology; a tool in petrology. No instrument is linear, or free from noise and systematic errors, and the performance of nature's instrument must be assessed and ...

  10. Iodine mineral waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iluta Alexandru

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Iodine mineral waters are found especially in sub-Carpathian region, also in regions with Salif deposits. Waters are currently used iodine in drinking cure for chaps and Basedow. Are also indicated in balneology. Iodine water containing at least 1 mg L, there is pure iodine is usually given the nature of other types of mineral waters further: sodium chlorinated water (Bazna (50-70 mg iodine / l, Baile Govora (50 - 70 mg / l, Bălţăteşti (4-5 mg / l, salted Monteoru (30 mg / l, mine water mixed alkaline chlorination, sulphate, which are indicated for crenoterapie (hypo or isotonic to the bathrooms Olăneşti or Călimăneşti-Căciulata.

  11. Historical mineral collections in the silver mining town of Kongsberg, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordrum, F.S.; Berg, B.I.

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of native silver deposits at Kongsberg, Norway, in 1623 created interest for silver specimens and mineral collecting, also among mining officers. Large collections were donated by J. Hiort, M.T. Brünnich and J. Esmark to the Mining Academy at Kongsberg. The Academy’s collections were i

  12. Historical mineral collections in the silver mining town of Kongsberg, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordrum, F.S.; Berg, B.I.

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of native silver deposits at Kongsberg, Norway, in 1623 created interest for silver specimens and mineral collecting, also among mining officers. Large collections were donated by J. Hiort, M.T. Brünnich and J. Esmark to the Mining Academy at Kongsberg. The Academy’s collections were i

  13. Glucuronic acid and phosphoserine act as mineralization mediators of collagen I based biomimetic substrates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tejero, R.; Bierbaum, S.; Douglas, T.E.L.; Reinstorf, A.; Worch, H.; Scharnweber, D.

    2010-01-01

    Glucuronic acid (GlcA) and phosphoserine (pS) carrying acidic functional groups were used as model molecules for glycosaminoglycans and phosphoproteins, respectively to mimic effects of native biomolecules and influence the mineralization behaviour of collagen I. Collagen substrates modified with Gl

  14. Historical mineral collections in the silver mining town of Kongsberg, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordrum, F.S.; Berg, B.I.

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of native silver deposits at Kongsberg, Norway, in 1623 created interest for silver specimens and mineral collecting, also among mining officers. Large collections were donated by J. Hiort, M.T. Brünnich and J. Esmark to the Mining Academy at Kongsberg. The Academy’s collections were

  15. Coastal placer minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Gujar, A.R.

    by mechanical concentration and natural gravity separation of mineral particles derived from weathered rocks. The formation of placers requires factors such as: climate, source rock, weathering, transport, deposition, concentration, high specific gravity... and transport of the rocks. For example, in cold and glaciated regions, there would be limited physical weathering and less concentration and more dispersion of the weathered material and placers would not FE AT U R E FE AT U R E A RT IC LE form...

  16. Mineral metabolism in cats

    OpenAIRE

    Pineda Martos, Carmen María

    2014-01-01

    The present Doctoral Thesis wa metabolism in the feline species. Through a series of studies, the relationship between calcium metabolism and the main hormones involved in it has been determined metabolism during the juvenile stage of growing cats effects linked to feeding calculolytic diets on feline mineral metabolism. The first part of the work was aimed the quantification of intact (I-PTH) and whole PTH) and to characterize the dynamics of PTH secretion, including ...

  17. Culture systems: mineral oil overlay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbeck, Dean E; Leonard, Phoebe H

    2012-01-01

    Mineral oil overlay microdrop is commonly used during in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures. Though mineral oil appears homogeneous, it is an undefined product that can vary in quality. Here, we describe the history, chemistry, processing, and optimal use of mineral oil for IVF and embryo culture.

  18. Polymer-mediated mesoscale mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN ShaoFeng; YU ShuHong

    2009-01-01

    Polymer-controlled mineralization in aqueous solution or in a mixed solvent media, as well as its com-bination with the interface of air-water can lead to the formation of minerals with unique structures and morphologies, which sheds light on the possibility to mimic the detailed structures of the natural min-erals.

  19. Definitions of Health Terms: Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/definitions/mineralsdefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms : Minerals To use the sharing features on ... of the minerals that you need. Find more definitions on Fitness | General Health | Minerals | Nutrition | Vitamins Antioxidants Antioxidants are substances that ...

  20. Refractory Minerals in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Qinguo; LI Jing; LIU Jiehua; LIU Yanjun

    2004-01-01

    Henan province is very rich in refractory minerals of many varieties including silica, dolomite, graphite,pearlite, sepiolite, olivine, and sillimanite group minerals, besides the abundant reserves of fireclay and bauxite,which lay a good foundation for the development of the refractories industry of the province. The paper introduces the reserves, distribution and character of the refractory minerals in Henan province.

  1. Measurement of bone mineral content by dual photon absorptiometry in patients with metabolic bone diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtani, Masami; Hino, Megumu; Ikekubo, Katsuji (Kobe City General Hospital (Japan)) (and others)

    1991-12-01

    Dual photon absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral content in 225 patients with metabolic bone diseases (84 males and 102 females) and 186 healthy subjects (25 males and 200 females). Mineral content of the lumbar vertebrae tended to rapidly decrease after the age of 40 in healthy female subjects. For males, gradual decrease in mineral content was associated with aging. Bone mineral content showed a correlation with the severity of osteoporosis as shown on X-ray films. Mineral content tended to be decreased in the lumbar vertebrae in patients with vertebral compression fracture, and in the femur in patients with vertebral or femoral fracture. For hyperthyroidism, mineral content of the lumbar vertebrae was decreased in some females, but was within normal limit in males. Hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism tended to be associated with decrease and increase in mineral content, respectively. Two each patients with osteomalacia or Cushing syndrome had a decreased mineral content. In these patients, it was increased after the treatment. (N.K.).

  2. Cancer incidence among 1st generation migrants compared to native Danes--a retrospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørredam, Marie Louise; Krasnik, A; Pipper, C

    2007-01-01

    had a significantly lower incidence. All migrants had a significantly lower incidence of breast and colorectal cancer but male migrants from East Europe had a significantly higher incidence of lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The overall cancer incidence among migrants was lower compared to native Danes......STUDY AIMS: To investigate the incidence of cancer among 1st generation migrants compared to native Danes, including time trends in the risk of cancer among migrants. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study design. Migrants were matched 1:4 on age and sex with a Danish born reference population....... The cohort was linked to the Danish Cancer Register and cancer cases among migrants (n=537) and native Danes (n=2829) were identified. RESULTS: The overall cancer incidence did not differ significantly between migrants from East Europe and native Danes; whereas migrants from the Middle East and North Africa...

  3. Native and Non-Native English Language Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Walkinshaw

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The English language teaching industry in East and Southeast Asia subscribes to an assumption that native English-speaking teachers (NESTs are the gold standard of spoken and written language, whereas non-native English-speaking teachers (non-NESTs are inferior educators because they lack this innate linguistic skill. But does this premise correspond with the views of second language learners? This article reports on research carried out with university students in Vietnam and Japan exploring the advantages and disadvantages of learning English from NESTs and non-NESTs. Contrary to the above notion, our research illuminated a number of perceived advantages—and disadvantages—in both types of teachers. Students viewed NESTs as models of pronunciation and correct language use, as well as being repositories of cultural knowledge, but they also found NESTs poor at explaining grammar, and their different cultures created tension. Non-NESTs were perceived as good teachers of grammar, and had the ability to resort to the students’ first language when necessary. Students found classroom interaction with non-NESTs easier because of their shared culture. Non-NESTs’ pronunciation was often deemed inferior to that of NESTs, but also easier to comprehend. Some respondents advocated learning from both types of teachers, depending on learners’ proficiency and the skill being taught.

  4. Chinese Native Speakers Counterfactuals Revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    1.IntroductionI have found,in my teaching experience,that English counterfactuals are among the most diffi-cult problems for Chinese native speaker EFL learners. A recent survey of EFL teachers in Guilin,China also supports these findings. In response to the question“What do you think is the most diffi-cult for your students to learn in English”,5 6out of 71 ,or 79% said the English subjunctive verbsare. To the question“Do you think the English subjunctives are difficultfor your students”,1 0 0 % ofthe EFL ...

  5. Native Chicken Production in Indonesia: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hidayat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a country rich in native chicken genetic resources. There are 31 native chicken breed in Indonesia. Native chicken farming was developed for decades. In early period of 1907’s, mostly farmers reared their native chicken by traditional system (about 80%. In 1980s until now, the number of native chicken farmers which rear native chicken by semi intensive and intensive system have been increasing. These rearing system changing have significantly increased the native chicken productivity. The major constraints for the development of native chicken i.e. low growth rate, risks of high mortality, low egg production. Many research results stated that improving in breeding, feeding and management aspect will increase native chicken production. The information and data contained in this paper is the result of study literature for scientific papers, either in the form of journals, books, or proceedings, and livestock statistics books. This paper is made to support the development of native chickens in Indonesia.

  6. RELATIVE TRACE MINERAL BIOAVAILABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rchard D. Miles

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar a eficiência de utilização de elementos minerais dietéticos, deve-se conhecer a biodisponibilidade relativa de cada elemento de um determinado ingrediente ou de uma ração completa. Análises químicas da dieta ou de um determinado ingrediente não indicam a efetividade biológica de um nutriente. Existem muitos fatores que influenciam a biodisponibilidade dos minerais, especialmente dos minerais-traço, tais como: nível de consumo do mineral, forma química, digestibilidade da dieta, tamanho da partícula, interações com outros minerais e nutrientes, agentes quelantes, inibidores, estado fisiológico do animal, qualidade da água, condições de processamento ao qual ingredientes individuais ou uma dieta completa foram expostos e, é óbvio, a idade e a espécie animal. Quando um mineral-traço é ingerido, sua biodisponibilidade é influenciada por propriedades específicas do mineral da maneira como está incluído na dieta. Por exemplo, sua valência e forma molecular (orgânica versus inorgânica são importantes. Por causa dessas propriedades específicas, o mineral pode formar complexos com outros componentes no intestino, o que pode dificultar ou facilitar a absorção pela mucosa, o transporte ou o metabolismo do mineral no organismo. É bem conhecido que certos minerais em sua forma inorgânica competem com outros minerais por sítios de ligação e por absorção no intestino. O conhecimento sobre a biodisponibilidade dos minerais-traço nos ingredientes e fontes suplementares é importante para a formulação econômica de uma ração para garantir ótimo desempenho animal. A biodisponibilidade deve ser entendida como um valor “estimado” que reflete a absorção e a utilização do mineral sobre condições de um experimento específico e não de uma propriedade inerente e específica de um ingrediente ou suplemento de ração. Com a tecnologia disponível, a determinação da biodisponibilidade dentro de

  7. Preservation of Archaeal Surface Layer Structure During Mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Adrienne; Miot, Jennyfer; Lombard, Carine; Guigner, Jean-Michel; Bernard, Sylvain; Zirah, Séverine; Guyot, François

    2016-05-25

    Proteinaceous surface layers (S-layers) are highly ordered, crystalline structures commonly found in prokaryotic cell envelopes that augment their structural stability and modify interactions with metals in the environment. While mineral formation associated with S-layers has previously been noted, the mechanisms were unconstrained. Using Sulfolobus acidocaldarius a hyperthermophilic archaeon native to metal-enriched environments and possessing a cell envelope composed only of a S-layer and a lipid cell membrane, we describe a passive process of iron phosphate nucleation and growth within the S-layer of cells and cell-free S-layer "ghosts" during incubation in a Fe-rich medium, independently of metabolic activity. This process followed five steps: (1) initial formation of mineral patches associated with S-layer; (2) patch expansion; (3) patch connection; (4) formation of a continuous mineral encrusted layer at the cell surface; (5) early stages of S-layer fossilization via growth of the extracellular mineralized layer and the mineralization of cytosolic face of the cell membrane. At more advanced stages of encrustation, encrusted outer membrane vesicles are formed, likely in an attempt to remove damaged S-layer proteins. The S-layer structure remains strikingly well preserved even upon the final step of encrustation, offering potential biosignatures to be looked for in the fossil record.

  8. Preservation of Archaeal Surface Layer Structure During Mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Adrienne; Miot, Jennyfer; Lombard, Carine; Guigner, Jean-Michel; Bernard, Sylvain; Zirah, Séverine; Guyot, François

    2016-05-01

    Proteinaceous surface layers (S-layers) are highly ordered, crystalline structures commonly found in prokaryotic cell envelopes that augment their structural stability and modify interactions with metals in the environment. While mineral formation associated with S-layers has previously been noted, the mechanisms were unconstrained. Using Sulfolobus acidocaldarius a hyperthermophilic archaeon native to metal-enriched environments and possessing a cell envelope composed only of a S-layer and a lipid cell membrane, we describe a passive process of iron phosphate nucleation and growth within the S-layer of cells and cell-free S-layer “ghosts” during incubation in a Fe-rich medium, independently of metabolic activity. This process followed five steps: (1) initial formation of mineral patches associated with S-layer; (2) patch expansion; (3) patch connection; (4) formation of a continuous mineral encrusted layer at the cell surface; (5) early stages of S-layer fossilization via growth of the extracellular mineralized layer and the mineralization of cytosolic face of the cell membrane. At more advanced stages of encrustation, encrusted outer membrane vesicles are formed, likely in an attempt to remove damaged S-layer proteins. The S-layer structure remains strikingly well preserved even upon the final step of encrustation, offering potential biosignatures to be looked for in the fossil record.

  9. Male Osteoporosis in Our Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seher Kocaoğlu

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Male osteoporosis is encountered as an important problem in clinical medicine in the recent years. Our purpose was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD of vertebrae (L2-L4 and femur (neck and Wards distributed according to age groups in males who applied to physical therapy and rehabilitation and osteoporosis units. Age, height, weight of the patients were measured. Patients with diseases causing secondary osteoporosis were excluded. Lomber vertebral and femoral scores of 110 patients between ages of 22-87 were measured with Lunar DPX 6956 (DEXA. They were classified as normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic based on WHO criteria. Rate of osteopenia and osteoporosis on the basis of lomber t scores were 55.6% and 11.1% in patients between 20-29 years, 40% and 10% in patients between 30-39 years, 18.2% and 27.3% in patients between 40-49 years, 26.3% and 36.8% in patients between 50-59 years, 40.9% and 27.3% in patients 60-69 years, 33.3% and 23.3% in patients 70-79 years, 14.3% and 14.3% in patients between 80-89 years respectively. Rate of osteopenia and osteoporosis on the basis of femur t scores were 11.1% and 11.1% in patients between 20-29 years, 30% and 10% in patients between 30-39 years, 36.4% and 18.2% in patients between 40-49 years, 63.2% and 15.8% in patients between 50-59 years, 54.5% and 31.8% in patients between 60-69 years, 46.9% and 25% in patients between 70-79 years, 28.6% and 28.6% in patients between 80-89 years. As a conclusion of our study we want to draw attention to age at which a decrease in the bone mineral density of male patients starts, and we suggest that neccessary precautions must be taken.

  10. Mineral mixtures from solid salt residues for lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bomfim Manera

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate water, mineral, feed and nutrient voluntary intakes, in addition to dry matter and nutrient digestibility and the nitrogen balance of lambs fed three mineral supplements. The first treatment consisted of solid salt residue (SSR from an aquaculture tank; the second contained SSR from desalination waste; and the third treatment was control, which corresponded to the supplementation of a commercial mineral supplement. The study lasted 20 days, the first 15 of which were used for animals to adapt to the pens and diets, and the last five days were used for data collection. Twenty-four castrated male lambs with a body weight of 19.72±2.52 kg were utilized in the experiment. The mineral supplements evaluated did not affect the intake and digestibility of the dry matter and nutrients, the water and mineral-salt intake or nitrogen balance. Mineral supplements produced from the SSR from aquaculture tanks and from the desalination waste did not reduce feed, nutrient and water intakes or nutrient digestibility, which suggests that these raw materials can be used in the elaboration of mineral mixtures for lambs.

  11. Mineral precipitation and dissolution at two slag-disposal sites in northwestern Indiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, E.R.; Schulz, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    Slag is a ubiquitous byproduct of the iron- and steel-refining industries. In northwestern Indiana and northeastern Illinois, slag has been deposited over more than 52 km2 of land surface. Despite the widespread use of slag for fill and construction purposes, little is known about its chemical effects on the environment. Two slagdisposal sites were examined in northwestern Indiana where slag was deposited over the native glacial deposits. At a third site, where slag was not present, background conditions were defined. Samples were collected from cores and drill cuttings and described with scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe analysis. Ground-water samples were collected and used to assess thermodynamic equilibria between authigenic minerals and existing conditions. Differences in the mineralogy at background and slag-affected sites were apparent. Calcite, dolomite, gypsum, iron oxides, and clay minerals were abundant in native sediments immediately beneath the slag. Mineral features indicated that these minerals precipitated rapidly from slag drainage and co-precipitated minor amounts of non-calcium metals and trace elements. Quartz fragments immediately beneath the slag showed extensive pitting that was not apparent in sediments from the background site, indicating chemical weathering by the hyperalkaline slag drainage. The environmental impacts of slag-related mineral precipitation include disruption of natural ground-water flow patterns and bed-sediment armoring in adjacent surface-water systems. Dissolution of native quartz by the hyperalkaline drainage may cause instability in structures situated over slag fill or in roadways comprised of slag aggregates.

  12. Chitosan: collagen sponges. In vitro mineralization; Mineralizacao in vitro de esponjas de quitosana: colageno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Virginia da C.A.; Silva, Gustavo M.; Plepis, Ana Maria G., E-mail: virginia@iqsc.usp.br [Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos- IQSC, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The regeneration of bone tissue is a problem that affects many people and scaffolds for bone tissue growth has been widely studied. The aim of this study was the in vitro mineralization of chitosan, chitosan:native collagen and chitosan:anionic collagen sponges. The sponges were obtained by lyophilization and mineralization was made by soaking the sponges in alternating solutions containing Ca{sup 2+} and PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}. The mineralization was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction observing the formation of phosphate salts, possibly a carbonated hydroxyapatite since Ca/P=1.80. The degree of mineralization was obtained by thermogravimetry calculating the amount of residue at 750 deg C. The chitosan:anionic collagen sponge showed the highest degree of mineralization probably due to the fact that anionic collagen provides additional sites for interaction with the inorganic phase. (author)

  13. Water, mineral waters and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraccia, Luisa; Liberati, Giovanna; Masciullo, Stefano Giuseppe; Grassi, Marcello; Fraioli, Antonio

    2006-06-01

    The authors focus on water resources and the use of mineral waters in human nutrition, especially in the different stages of life, in physical activity and in the presence of some morbid conditions. Mineral water is characterized by its purity at source, its content in minerals, trace elements and other constituents, its conservation and its healing properties recognized by the Ministry of Health after clinical and pharmacological trials. Based on total salt content in grams after evaporation of 1l mineral water dried at 180 degrees C (dry residues), mineral waters can be classified as: waters with a very low mineral content, waters low in mineral content, waters with a medium mineral content, and strongly mineralized waters. Based on ion composition mineral waters can be classified as: bicarbonate waters, sulfate waters, sodium chloride or saltwater, sulfuric waters. Based on biological activity mineral waters can be classified as: diuretic waters, cathartic waters, waters with antiphlogistic properties. Instructions for use, doses, and current regulations are included.

  14. Encrusted pyelitis of native kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertig, A; Duvic, C; Chretien, Y; Jungers, P; Grünfeld, J P; Rieu, P

    2000-06-01

    This study reports the first four cases of encrusted pyelitis involving native kidneys. The clinical features, management, and outcome of these patients were analyzed. Predisposing factors were underlying urologic disease and/or urologic manipulations, debilitating diseases, hospitalization, and prolonged antibiotic therapies. Presenting symptoms were renal failure in three patients with ureteroileal urinary diversion and manifestations of cystitis in one patient. Computed tomography scan of the urinary tract was critical for diagnosis. Presence of struvite was demonstrated by crystalluria and infrared spectrophotometry analysis of the encrusted material. Corynebacterium urealyticum urinary infection was identified in one case. Surgery (one patient) and palliative ureteral diversion (one patient), respectively, led to death and end-stage renal failure. Successful dissolution of encrusted pyelitis was obtained in two patients treated with intravenous vancomycin and local acidification of the renal collecting system. Clinical observation shows that encrusted pyelitis is a threatening disorder that destroys the native kidneys and may lead to end-stage renal failure. Successful treatment of the disease by chemolysis and antibiotics depends on correct and early diagnosis. Diagnosis required recognition of the predisposing factors, computed tomography imaging of the urinary tract, crystalluria, and identification of urea-splitting bacteria with prolonged culture on selective medium.

  15. Reconstructing Native American population history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, David; Patterson, Nick; Campbell, Desmond; Tandon, Arti; Mazieres, Stéphane; Ray, Nicolas; Parra, Maria V; Rojas, Winston; Duque, Constanza; Mesa, Natalia; García, Luis F; Triana, Omar; Blair, Silvia; Maestre, Amanda; Dib, Juan C; Bravi, Claudio M; Bailliet, Graciela; Corach, Daniel; Hünemeier, Tábita; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Salzano, Francisco M; Petzl-Erler, María Luiza; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Riba, Laura; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Lopez-Alarcón, Mardia; Coral-Vazquez, Ramón; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan Carlos; Contreras, Alejandra V; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Gómez-Vázquez, Maria José; Molina, Julio; Carracedo, Angel; Salas, Antonio; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Witonsky, David B; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Sukernik, Rem I; Osipova, Ludmila; Fedorova, Sardana A; Vasquez, René; Villena, Mercedes; Moreau, Claudia; Barrantes, Ramiro; Pauls, David; Excoffier, Laurent; Bedoya, Gabriel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Larrouy, Georges; Klitz, William; Labuda, Damian; Kidd, Judith; Kidd, Kenneth; Di Rienzo, Anna; Freimer, Nelson B; Price, Alkes L; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2012-08-16

    The peopling of the Americas has been the subject of extensive genetic, archaeological and linguistic research; however, central questions remain unresolved. One contentious issue is whether the settlement occurred by means of a single migration or multiple streams of migration from Siberia. The pattern of dispersals within the Americas is also poorly understood. To address these questions at a higher resolution than was previously possible, we assembled data from 52 Native American and 17 Siberian groups genotyped at 364,470 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Here we show that Native Americans descend from at least three streams of Asian gene flow. Most descend entirely from a single ancestral population that we call 'First American'. However, speakers of Eskimo-Aleut languages from the Arctic inherit almost half their ancestry from a second stream of Asian gene flow, and the Na-Dene-speaking Chipewyan from Canada inherit roughly one-tenth of their ancestry from a third stream. We show that the initial peopling followed a southward expansion facilitated by the coast, with sequential population splits and little gene flow after divergence, especially in South America. A major exception is in Chibchan speakers on both sides of the Panama isthmus, who have ancestry from both North and South America.

  16. Reconstructing Native American Population History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, David; Patterson, Nick; Campbell, Desmond; Tandon, Arti; Mazieres, Stéphane; Ray, Nicolas; Parra, Maria V.; Rojas, Winston; Duque, Constanza; Mesa, Natalia; García, Luis F.; Triana, Omar; Blair, Silvia; Maestre, Amanda; Dib, Juan C.; Bravi, Claudio M.; Bailliet, Graciela; Corach, Daniel; Hünemeier, Tábita; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Salzano, Francisco M.; Petzl-Erler, María Luiza; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Riba, Laura; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Lopez-Alarcón, Mardia; Coral-Vazquez, Ramón; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan Carlos; Contreras, Alejandra V.; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Gómez-Vázquez, María José; Molina, Julio; Carracedo, Ángel; Salas, Antonio; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Witonsky, David B.; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Sukernik, Rem I.; Osipova, Ludmila; Fedorova, Sardana; Vasquez, René; Villena, Mercedes; Moreau, Claudia; Barrantes, Ramiro; Pauls, David; Excoffier, Laurent; Bedoya, Gabriel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Dugoujon, Jean Michel; Larrouy, Georges; Klitz, William; Labuda, Damian; Kidd, Judith; Kidd, Kenneth; Rienzo, Anna Di; Freimer, Nelson B.; Price, Alkes L.; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    The peopling of the Americas has been the subject of extensive genetic, archaeological and linguistic research; however, central questions remain unresolved1–5. One contentious issue is whether the settlement occurred via a single6–8 or multiple streams of migration from Siberia9–15. The pattern of dispersals within the Americas is also poorly understood. To address these questions at higher resolution than was previously possible, we assembled data from 52 Native American and 17 Siberian groups genotyped at 364,470 single nucleotide polymorphisms. We show that Native Americans descend from at least three streams of Asian gene flow. Most descend entirely from a single ancestral population that we call “First American”. However, speakers of Eskimo-Aleut languages from the Arctic inherit almost half their ancestry from a second stream of Asian gene flow, and the Na-Dene-speaking Chipewyan from Canada inherit roughly one-tenth of their ancestry from a third stream. We show that the initial peopling followed a southward expansion facilitated by the coast, with sequential population splits and little gene flow after divergence, especially in South America. A major exception is in Chibchan-speakers on both sides of the Panama Isthmus, who have ancestry from both North and South America. PMID:22801491

  17. Effects of training on learning non-native speech contrasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott, Joan M.

    2002-05-01

    An animal psychoacoustic procedure was used to train human listeners to categorize two non-native phonemic distinctions. In Exp 1, Japanese perception of the English liquid contrast /r-l/ was examined. In Exp 2, American-English perception of the Hindi dental-retroflex contrast /d-D/was examined. The training methods were identical in the two studies. The stimuli consisted of 64 CVs produced by four different native talkers (two male, two female) using four different vowels. The procedure involved manually moving a lever to make either a ``go-left'' or ``go-right'' response to categorize the stimuli. Feedback was given for correct and incorrect responses after each trial. After 32 training sessions, lasting about 8 weeks, performance was analyzed using both percent correct and response time as measures. Results showed that the Japanese listeners, as a group, were statistically similar to a group of native listeners in categorizing the liquid contrast. In contrast, the Amercan-English listeners were not nativelike in categorizing the dental-retroflex contrast. Hypotheses for the different results in the two experiments are discussed, including possible subject-related variables. In addition, the use of an animal model is proposed to objectively ``calibrate'' the psychoacoustic salience of various phoneme contrasts used in human speech.

  18. Population structure of Mazandaran native fowls using pedigree analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholizadeh, Mohsen

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to use pedigree analysis to evaluate the population structure and genetic variability of the Mazandaran native fowls in Iran by quantifying the pedigree completeness index, effective population size, genetic diversity, inbreeding level, and individual increase in inbreeding. The pedigree completeness analysis showed 3.31 full, 10.19 maximum, and 6.30 equivalent generations. The effective number of founders (f e) was 131, representing 5% of the potential number of founders. The effective number of ancestors (f a) was 81, and the genetic contribution of the 37 most influent ancestors explained 50% of the genetic variability in the population. The ratio f e/f a (effective number of founders/effective number of ancestors), which expresses the effect of population bottlenecks, was 1.62. The inbreeding coefficient increased over generations and the average was 1.93%. The average relatedness coefficient between individuals of the population was estimated to be 2.59%. The effective population size, based on the number of full generations, was 56. Family size analysis showed that fewer males than females were used, resulting in the observed levels of inbreeding. Average inbreeding coefficient in the Mazandaran native fowls can be regarded to be below critical levels. However, considering the relationship coefficients of individuals is recommended to aid maintaining genetic diversity of Mazandaran native fowls.

  19. NativeView: A Geospatial Curriculum for Native Nation Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattling Leaf, J.

    2007-12-01

    In the spirit of collaboration and reciprocity, James Rattling Leaf of Sinte Gleska University on the Rosebud Reservation of South Dakota will present recent developments, experiences, insights and a vision for education in Indian Country. As a thirty-year young institution, Sinte Gleska University is founded by a strong vision of ancestral leadership and the values of the Lakota Way of Life. Sinte Gleska University (SGU) has initiated the development of a Geospatial Education Curriculum project. NativeView: A Geospatial Curriculum for Native Nation Building is a two-year project that entails a disciplined approach towards the development of a relevant Geospatial academic curriculum. This project is designed to meet the educational and land management needs of the Rosebud Lakota Tribe through the utilization of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS). In conjunction with the strategy and progress of this academic project, a formal presentation and demonstration of the SGU based Geospatial software RezMapper software will exemplify an innovative example of state of the art information technology. RezMapper is an interactive CD software package focused toward the 21 Lakota communities on the Rosebud Reservation that utilizes an ingenious concept of multimedia mapping and state of the art data compression and presentation. This ongoing development utilizes geographic data, imagery from space, historical aerial photography and cultural features such as historic Lakota documents, language, song, video and historical photographs in a multimedia fashion. As a tangible product, RezMapper will be a project deliverable tool for use in the classroom and to a broad range of learners.

  20. Immigration, education and native wage inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Lumpe, Christian; Weigert, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the effect of immigration on the labour market prospects for different skill groups among natives. We develop a model of endogenous labour supply in which immigration affects educational decisions of natives. We argue that the distributional consequences of immigration with respect to native between-skill-group inequality are ambiguous in general and crucially depend on the host country's level of educational attainment. We show that this result is robust irrespective...

  1. Walking in Balance: Native American Recovery Programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Owen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews Native American ritual practices, frameworks and key concepts employed by several substance abuse treatments centres in the U.S. and Canada. It also examines the way Alcoholics Anonymous’ Twelve Step programme has been modified to attract and serve the needs of Native Americans and First Nations and its potential impact on the ritual practices. Native concepts of wellbeing are highlighted and linked to the idea of living in “balance”.

  2. Strategic Minerals of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Wadia

    1952-09-01

    Full Text Available The state of disequilibrium in the country's mineral economy may not be harmful in time of international peace, but is a source of double danger to national security in a war emergency, when imports of essential commodities, e.g., petroleum may be jeopardised and the off-take of credit earning exports may be stopped. A healthy economy can be achieved by balancing as near as possible, the surpluses against deficits through building up civilian industrial power of production of substitute for some deficient and sub-marginal commodities and stockpiling of others.

  3. Mineral mining installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plevak, L.; Weirich, W.

    1982-04-20

    A longwall mineral mining installation has a longwall conveyor and a plurality of roof support units positioned side-by-side at the goaf side of the conveyor. The hydraulic appliances of the roof support units, such as their hydraulic props, hydraulic advance rams and hydraulic control valves, are supplied with pressurized hydraulic fluid from hydraulic supply lines which run along the goaf side of the conveyor. A plurality of flat, platelike intermediate members are provided at the goaf side of the conveyor. These intermediate members are formed with internal ducts for feeding the hydraulic fluid from the supply lines to the hydraulic appliances of the roof support units.

  4. Reinforcing the mineral layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pishchulin, V.V.; Kuntsevich, V.I.; Seryy, A.M.; Shirokov, A.P.

    1980-05-15

    A way of reinforcing the mineral layer includes drilling holes and putting in anchors that are longer than the width of the layer strip being extracted. It also includes shortening the anchors as the strip is mined and reinforcing the remaining part of the anchor in the mouth of the hole. To increase the productivity and safety of the work, the anchors are shortened by cutting them as the strip is mined and are reinforced through wedging. The device for doing this has auxilliary lengthwise grooves in the shaft located along its length at an interval equal to the width of the band being extracted.

  5. Word Durations in Non-Native English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rachel E.; Baese-Berk, Melissa; Bonnasse-Gahot, Laurent; Kim, Midam; Van Engen, Kristin J.; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we compare the effects of English lexical features on word duration for native and non-native English speakers and for non-native speakers with different L1s and a range of L2 experience. We also examine whether non-native word durations lead to judgments of a stronger foreign accent. We measured word durations in English paragraphs read by 12 American English (AE), 20 Korean, and 20 Chinese speakers. We also had AE listeners rate the `accentedness' of these non-native speakers. AE speech had shorter durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, greater reduction of function words, and less between-speaker variance than non-native speech. However, both AE and non-native speakers showed sensitivity to lexical predictability by reducing second mentions and high frequency words. Non-native speakers with more native-like word durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, and greater function word reduction were perceived as less accented. Overall, these findings identify word duration as an important and complex feature of foreign-accented English. PMID:21516172

  6. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: sdoyle2@nhs.net [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  7. Biodesulfurization of two Colombian coals with native microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardona, Isabel Cristina; Marquez, Marco Antonio [Applied Mineralogy Group, National University of Colombia, Medellin, 05001000 (Colombia)

    2009-09-15

    A biodesulfurization process was carried out for two coals from the southwest of Colombia using a consortium of native microorganisms Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans-like and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans-like. Characterization techniques as X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM/EDX) and chemical analysis were used in order to establish the mineralogy of the process. The sulfur content in coals varies from 2.6% to 5.7%, and pyrite is the main sulphide present in the inorganic phase. Other minerals in the substrates include kaolinite, calcite, dolomite and quartz. An 85-95% reduction of pyritic sulfur and 31-51% of total sulfur in a period of 30 days were achieved, for a particle size of - 74 {mu}m, 10% w/v pulp density and 30 C. (author)

  8. Sleep and native language interference affect non-native speech sound learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, F Sayako; Myers, Emily B

    2015-12-01

    Adults learning a new language are faced with a significant challenge: non-native speech sounds that are perceptually similar to sounds in one's native language can be very difficult to acquire. Sleep and native language interference, 2 factors that may help to explain this difficulty in acquisition, are addressed in 3 studies. Results of Experiment 1 showed that participants trained on a non-native contrast at night improved in discrimination 24 hr after training, while those trained in the morning showed no such improvement. Experiments 2 and 3 addressed the possibility that incidental exposure to perceptually similar native language speech sounds during the day interfered with maintenance in the morning group. Taken together, results show that the ultimate success of non-native speech sound learning depends not only on the similarity of learned sounds to the native language repertoire, but also to interference from native language sounds before sleep.

  9. Contrasting xylem vessel constraints on hydraulic conductivity between native and non-native woody understory species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S Smith

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined the hydraulic properties of 82 native and non-native woody species common to forests of Eastern North America, including several congeneric groups, representing a range of anatomical wood types. We observed smaller conduit diameters with greater frequency in non-native species, corresponding to lower calculated potential vulnerability to cavitation index. Non-native species exhibited higher vessel-grouping in metaxylem compared with native species, however, solitary vessels were more prevalent in secondary xylem. Higher frequency of solitary vessels in secondary xylem was related to a lower potential vulnerability index. We found no relationship between anatomical characteristics of xylem, origin of species and hydraulic conductivity, indicating that non-native species did not exhibit advantageous hydraulic efficiency over native species. Our results confer anatomical advantages for non-native species under the potential for cavitation due to freezing, perhaps permitting extended growing seasons.

  10. 46,XX Male Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Uçan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 46, XX male syndrome – testicular disorder of sexual differentiation (DSD is a rare condition characterized by a spectrum of clinical presentations, ranging from ambiguous to normal male genitalia. These cases are diagnosed more easily in childhood. In adults, the diagnosis can be difficult due to the current normal gender development. Here, we report hormonal, molecular and cytogenetic results in an adult male patient with primary hypogonadism who was diagnosed with 46, XX male syndrome in our clinic. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 46-8

  11. Mineral fibres and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, J C

    1984-04-01

    A synthesis is presented of the salient findings to date from laboratory and epidemiological research, on the health effects of asbestos and other natural and man-made mineral fibres. Experimental evidence suggests that all mineral fibres are capable of causing fibrosis and malignancy, with chrysotile at least as pathogenic as other fibres. However, penetration, retention and phagocytosis are affected by size and shape and reactivity and durability by physico-chemical properties. Thus it is not surprising that in man the results of exposure vary considerably with fibre type and industrial process. A considerable body of evidence suggests that chrysotile has seldom, if ever, caused peritoneal mesothelioma and that the great majority of pleural mesotheliomas are also attributable to crocidolite or amosite. Without more reliable information on intensity and duration of exposure by fibre type, the epidemiological evidence on this point cannot be wholly conclusive. There are stronger grounds from a limited number of cohort studies for believing that in relation to estimated exposure, the risk of lung cancer has been much higher in textile plants than in fibre production or in the manufacture of friction products, with asbestos-cement plants somewhere in between. The data on man-made fibre production remains equivocal. It is concluded that attempts to regulate asbestos without regard for fibre type, although perhaps adequate for lung cancer and fibrosis, may do little to reduce the risk of mesothelioma. The search for safe fibre substitutes for asbestos will remain difficult until the parameters of pathogenicity are better understood.

  12. Y-chromosome lineages in native South American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Verea, A; Jaime, J C; Brión, M; Carracedo, A

    2010-04-01

    The present work tries to investigate the population structure and variation of the Amerindian indigenous populations living in Argentina. A total of 134 individuals from three ethnic groups (Kolla, Mapuche and Diaguitas) living in four different regions were collected and analysed for 26 Y-SNPs and 11 Y-STRs. Intra-population variability was analysed, looking for population substructure and neighbour populations were considered for genetic comparative analysis, in order to estimate the contribution of the Amerindian and the European pool, to the current population. We observe a high frequency of R1b1 and Q1a3a* Y-chromosome haplogroups, in the ethnic groups Mapuche, Diaguita and Kolla, characteristic of European and Native American populations, respectively. When we compare our native Argentinean population with other from the South America we also observe that frequency values for Amerindian lineages are relatively lower in our population. These results show a clear Amerindian genetic component but we observe a predominant European influence too, suggesting that typically European male lineages have given rise to the displacement of genuinely Amerindian male lineages in our South American population. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Aerococcus viridans Native Valve Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwan Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerococcus viridans is an infrequent human pathogen and few cases of infective endocarditis have been reported. A case involving a 69-year-old man with colon cancer and hemicolectomy 14 years previously, without recurrence, is reported. A diagnosis of native mitral valve endocarditis was established on the basis of clinical presentation, characteristic echocardiographic findings and pathological specimen examination after urgent valve replacement. A viridans endocarditis appears to be particularly virulent, requiring a surgical approach in four of 10 cases reported and death in one of nine. Given the aggressive nature of A viridans endocarditis and the variable time to diagnosis (a few days to seven months, prompt recognition of symptoms and echocardiography, in addition to blood cultures, should be performed when symptoms persist.

  14. Speaking C++ as a native

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroustrup, Bjarne

    2001-08-01

    C++ supports several styles ("multiple paradigms") of programming. This allows great flexibility, notational convenience, maintainability, and close-to-optimal performance. Programmers who don't know the basic native C++ styles and techniques "speak" C++ with a thick accent, limiting themselves to relatively restrictive pidgin dialects. Here, I present language features such as classes, class hierarchies, abstract classes, and templates, together with the fundamental programming styles they support. In particular, I show how to provide generic algorithms, function objects, access objects, and delayed evaluation as needed to build and use flexible and efficient libraries. The aim is to give an idea of what's possible to provide, and some understanding of the fundamental techniques of modern C++ libraries.

  15. Neural Tube Defects in Native Fars Ethnicity in Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Golalipour

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Neural tube defects (NTD are one of the leading causes of infant mortality worldwide. This study was de­signed to determine the prevalence of NTDs among native Fars ethnic groups during 1998-2005, and to identify maternal and demographic factors associated with NTDs. "nMethods: We performed a descriptive cross-sectional hospital-based study in Dezyani Hospital, Gorgan, North of Iran, since January 1998 until December 2005. The design was based on a sample of 30,639 births of native Fars ethnic groups. Data were analyzed by using spss V13.5 software and were compared with the chi-square test."nResults: The prevalence of NTDs in Native Fars during the 8-year period was 25.4 per 10000 births (95% confidence inter­val: 20.1-31.8. The prevalence of NTDs was 20.6/10000 and 30.6/10000 in males and females respectively but this differ­ence was not significant. The prevalence of spina bifida, anencephaly and encephalocele were 12.7, 11.4 and 1.3 per 10000 respec­tively. The rate of NTD was 48.9/10000 in newborns with mothers aged > 35 years. The highest rate of NTDs and spina bi­fida was in 2002. The highest and lowest rate of anencephaly was in 2005 and 2003 respectively. Twenty eight percent of the parents had consanguineous marriages. Degree relatedness 3, 4, 5 and 6 of consanguineous marriages were 12.8%, 9%, 3.8%, 2.5%, respectively. Also 47.5% of the parents resided in rural areas.  "nConclusion: This investigation showed that the rate of NTDs in Native Fars was higher in Iran. In addition, this rate is higher than the Canada and Ukraine and lower than Chinese people.

  16. Turkish Students' Perspectives on Speaking Anxiety in Native and Non-Native English Speaker Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozavli, Ebubekir; Gulmez, Recep

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal the effect of FLA (foreign language anxiety) in native/non-native speaker of English classrooms. In this study, two groups of students (90 in total) of whom 38 were in NS (native speaker) class and 52 in NNS (non-native speaker) class taking English as a second language course for 22 hours a week at Erzincan…

  17. Cellular profile of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in Turkish miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayacan, O.; Beder, S.; Karnak, D. [Ankara University, Ankara (Turkey). School of Medicine

    2003-09-01

    Pneumoconiosis is still a health problem in Turkey and has a relatively high incidence. Retired underground miners were investigated to document alveolitis, and to observe the difference in the cellular profiles of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid with or without pneumoconiosis. Twenty nine retired male miners and 17 controls, eight non-smokers (four male, four female) and nine smokers (six male, three female), without any dust exposure were evaluated. According to the International Labor Office 1980 classification system, the miners were allocated to three subgroups: eight without pneumoconiosis, 11 with simple pneumoconiosis, and 10 with progressive massive fibrosis (PMF). Spirometric tests and arterial blood gases analysis were done and fibreoptic bronchoscopy and BAL were performed in all subjects. The study and the control subjects were comparable in respect to age, smoking habits, except the non-smoker controls, and the duration of dust exposure, except the controls. The amount of recovered BAL fluid was lower in all miners compared with the non-smoker controls (p {lt} 0.05). The amount of recovered BAL fluid and the total cell count correlated significantly (r = 0.48, p{lt} 0.01). The percentage of lymphocytes in the BAL fluid of miners without pneumoconiosis and with PMF (p{lt} 0.05) and that of simple pneumoconiosis (p{lt} 0.01) was significantly lower compared with the non-smoker controls. Alveolitis was not a representative feature of Turkish subjects with an occupational history of underground mining, and BAL fluid cellular profile did not seem to be different in miners with or without pneumoconiosis.

  18. Cartilage Degeneration, Subchondral Mineral and Meniscal Mineral Densities in Hartley and Strain 13 Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yubo; Scannell, Brian P; Honeycutt, Patrick R; Mauerhan, David R; H, James Norton; Hanley, Edward N

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a joint disease involved in articular cartilage, subchondral bone, meniscus and synovial membrane. This study sought to examine cartilage degeneration, subchondral bone mineral density (BMD) and meniscal mineral density (MD) in male Hartley, female Hartley and female strain 13 guinea pigs to determine the association of cartilage degeneration with subchondral BMD and meniscal MD. Cartilage degeneration, subchondral BMD and meniscal MD in 12 months old guinea pigs were examined with histochemistry, X-ray densitometry and calcium analysis. We found that male Hartley guinea pigs had more severe cartilage degeneration, subchondral BMD and meniscal MD than female Hartley guinea pigs, but not female strain 13 guinea pigs. Female strain 13 guinea pigs had more severe cartilage degeneration and higher subchondral BMD, but not meniscal MD, than female Hartley guinea pigs. These findings indicate that higher subchondral BMD, not meniscal MD, is associated with more severe cartilage degeneration in the guinea pigs and suggest that abnormal subchondral BMD may be a therapeutic target for OA treatment. These findings also indicate that the pathogenesis of OA in the male guinea pigs and female guinea pigs are different. Female strain 13 guinea pig may be used to study female gender-specific pathogenesis of OA.

  19. A Comparative Study on the Use of Compliment Response Strategies by Persian and English Native Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Shabani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The significance of pragmatic knowledge and politeness strategies has recently been emphasized in language learning and teaching. Most communication failures originate in the lack of pragmatic awareness which is evident among EFL learners while communicating with English native speakers. The present study aimed at investigating compliment response strategies, as a sub-category of politeness strategies, used by a group of Persian and English native speakers, and examining the effect of gender on the use of strategies to respond to compliments. To these ends and with the use of convenient sampling, thirty Iranian native speakers (15 females and 15 males in Iran and 26 English native speakers (13 females and 13 males in Canada, all college students with age range of 17-30, participated in this study. In order to collect a corpus of compliment responses, a researcher-made questionnaire in the form of a Discourse Completion Task was distributed among the participants. Using two-way ANOVAs, the findings indicated that there is a significant difference between Persian native speakers and Canadian English speakers (p .05.Considering the findings of the present study, materials developers and textbook writers can make more space in EFL textbooks for exercises about compliments (responses; and help in highlighting the significance of this aspect of pragmatic knowledge. Keywords: pragmatics, politeness, compliment, compliment response, EFL

  20. Influence of native and non-native multitalker babble on speech recognition in noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandni Jain

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess speech recognition in noise using multitalker babble of native and non-native language at two different signal to noise ratios. The speech recognition in noise was assessed on 60 participants (18 to 30 years with normal hearing sensitivity, having Malayalam and Kannada as their native language. For this purpose, 6 and 10 multitalker babble were generated in Kannada and Malayalam language. Speech recognition was assessed for native listeners of both the languages in the presence of native and nonnative multitalker babble. Results showed that the speech recognition in noise was significantly higher for 0 dB signal to noise ratio (SNR compared to -3 dB SNR for both the languages. Performance of Kannada Listeners was significantly higher in the presence of native (Kannada babble compared to non-native babble (Malayalam. However, this was not same with the Malayalam listeners wherein they performed equally well with native (Malayalam as well as non-native babble (Kannada. The results of the present study highlight the importance of using native multitalker babble for Kannada listeners in lieu of non-native babble and, considering the importance of each SNR for estimating speech recognition in noise scores. Further research is needed to assess speech recognition in Malayalam listeners in the presence of other non-native backgrounds of various types.

  1. Comparison of native and non-native phone imitation by English and Spanish speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Anne J; Viswanathan, Navin; Aivar, M Pilar; Manuel, Sarath

    2013-01-01

    Experiments investigating phonetic convergence in conversation often focus on interlocutors with similar phonetic inventories. Extending these experiments to those with dissimilar inventories requires understanding the capacity of speakers to imitate native and non-native phones. In the present study, we tested native Spanish and native English speakers to determine whether imitation of non-native tokens differs qualitatively from imitation of native tokens. Participants imitated a [ba]-[pa] continuum that varied in VOT from -60 ms (prevoiced, Spanish [b]) to +60 ms (long lag, English [p]) such that the continuum consisted of some tokens that were native to Spanish speakers and some that were native to English speakers. Analysis of the imitations showed two critical results. First, both groups of speakers demonstrated sensitivity to VOT differences in tokens that fell within their native regions of the VOT continuum (prevoiced region for Spanish and long lag region for English). Secondly, neither group of speakers demonstrated such sensitivity to VOT differences among tokens that fell in their non-native regions of the continuum. These results show that, even in an intentional imitation task, speakers cannot accurately imitate non-native tokens, but are clearly flexible in producing native tokens. Implications of these findings are discussed with reference to the constraints on convergence in interlocutors from different linguistic backgrounds.

  2. Vowel perception: Effects of non-native language versus non-native dialect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.; Smits, R.; Cooper, N.

    2005-01-01

    Three groups of listeners identified the vowel in CV and VC syllables produced by an American English talker. The listeners were (a) native speakers of American English, (b) native speakers of Australian English (different dialect), and (c) native speakers of Dutch (different language). The syllable

  3. Native- and Non-Native Speaking English Teachers in Vietnam: Weighing the Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkinshaw, Ian; Duong, Oanh Thi Hoang

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines a common belief that learners of English as a foreign language prefer to learn English from native-speaker teachers rather than non-native speakers of English. 50 Vietnamese learners of English evaluated the importance of native-speakerness compared with seven qualities valued in an English language teacher: teaching…

  4. Risk to native Uroleucon aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from non-native lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphids in the genus Uroleucon Mordvilko (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are native herbivores that feed on goldenrod (Solidago spp.) and other Asteraceae in North America. The aphids are potential prey for a wide variety of natural enemies, including native and non-native species of lady beetles (Coleoptera...

  5. Native American History in a Box: A New Approach to Teaching Native American Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Emory C.; Hitt, Austin M.; Schipper, Jason A.; Jones, Adam M.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the Native American History in a Box curriculum which is designed to introduce elementary and middle-level students to Native American cultures. The curriculum consists of a five day unit addressing the following concepts pertaining to Native American Nations: settlements, tools, sustenance, pottery, and contact with…

  6. Vowel perception: Effects of non-native language versus non-native dialect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.; Smits, R.; Cooper, N.

    2005-01-01

    Three groups of listeners identified the vowel in CV and VC syllables produced by an American English talker. The listeners were (a) native speakers of American English, (b) native speakers of Australian English (different dialect), and (c) native speakers of Dutch (different language). The

  7. Comparison of native and non-native phone imitation by English and Spanish speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie J Olmstead

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Experiments investigating phonetic convergence in conversation often focus on interlocutors with similar phonetic inventories. Extending these experiments to those with dissimilar inventories requires understanding the capacity of speakers to imitate native and non-native phones. In the present study, we tested native Spanish and native English speakers to determine whether imitation of non-native tokens differs qualitatively from imitation of native tokens. Participants imitated a [ba] -[pa] continuum that varied in VOT from -60 ms (prevoiced, Spanish [b] to +60 ms (long lag, English [p] such that the continuum consisted of some tokens that were native to Spanish speakers and some that were native to English speakers. Analysis of the imitations showed two critical results. First, both groups of speakers demonstrated sensitivity to VOT differences in tokens that fell within their native regions of the VOT continuum (prevoiced region for Spanish and long lag region for English. Secondly, neither group of speakers demonstrated such sensitivity to VOT differences among tokens that fell in their non-native regions of the continuum. These results show that, even in an intentional imitation task, speakers cannot accurately imitate non-native tokens, but are clearly flexible in producing native tokens. Implications of these findings are discussed with reference to the constraints on convergence in interlocutors from different linguistic backgrounds.

  8. Spectroscopic characterization of manganese minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi Reddy, S.; Padma Suvarna, K.; Udayabhaska Reddy, G.; Endo, Tamio; Frost, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    Manganese minerals ardenite, alleghanyite and leucopoenicite originated from Madhya Pradesh, India, Nagano prefecture Japan, Sussex Country and Parker Shaft Franklin, Sussex Country, New Jersey respectively are used in the present work. In these minerals manganese is the major constituent and iron if present is in traces only. An EPR study of on all of the above samples confirms the presence of Mn(II) with g around 2.0. Optical absorption spectrum of the mineral alleghanyite indicates that Mn(II) is present in two different octahedral sites and in leucophoenicite Mn(II) is also in octahedral geometry. Ardenite mineral gives only a few Mn(II) bands. NIR results of the minerals ardenite, leucophoenicite and alleghanyite are due to hydroxyl and silicate anions which confirming the formulae of the minerals.

  9. Spectroscopic characterization of manganese minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi Reddy, S; Padma Suvarna, K; Udayabhaska Reddy, G; Endo, Tamio; Frost, R L

    2014-01-03

    Manganese minerals ardenite, alleghanyite and leucopoenicite originated from Madhya Pradesh, India, Nagano prefecture Japan, Sussex Country and Parker Shaft Franklin, Sussex Country, New Jersey respectively are used in the present work. In these minerals manganese is the major constituent and iron if present is in traces only. An EPR study of on all of the above samples confirms the presence of Mn(II) with g around 2.0. Optical absorption spectrum of the mineral alleghanyite indicates that Mn(II) is present in two different octahedral sites and in leucophoenicite Mn(II) is also in octahedral geometry. Ardenite mineral gives only a few Mn(II) bands. NIR results of the minerals ardenite, leucophoenicite and alleghanyite are due to hydroxyl and silicate anions which confirming the formulae of the minerals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Idiopathic recurrent calcium urolithiasis (IRCU: pathophysiology evaluated in light of oxidative metabolism, without and with variation of several biomarkers in fasting urine and plasma - a comparison of stone-free and -bearing male patients, emphasizing mineral, acid-base, blood pressure and protein status*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwilie PO

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IRCU is traditionally considered as lifestyle disease (associations with, among others, overweight, obesity, hypertension, type-2 diabetes, arising from excess, in 24 h urine, of calcium (Ca salts (calcium oxalate (CaOx, calcium phosphate (CaPi, supersaturation of, and crystallization in, tubular fluid and urine, causing crystal-induced epithelial cell damage, proteinuria, crystal aggregation and uroliths. Methods Another picture emerges from the present uncontrolled study of 154 male adult IRCU patients (75 stone-bearing (SB and 79 age-matched stone-free (SF, in whom stone-forming and other parameters in fasting urine and plasma were contrasted with five biomarkers (see footnote of oxidative metabolism (OM, without and with variation of markers. Results 1 In SB vs. SF unstratified OM biomarkers were statistically unchanged, but the majority of patients was overweight; despite, in SB vs. SF urine pH, total and non-albumin protein concentration were elevated, fractional urinary uric acid excretion and blood bicarbonate decreased, whereas urine volume, sodium, supersaturation with CaOx and CaPi (as hydroxyapatite were unchanged; 2 upon variation of OM markers (strata below and above median numerous stone parameters differed significant!', among others urine volume, total protein, Ca/Pi ratio, pH, sodium, potassium, plasma Ca/Pi ratio and parathyroid hormone, blood pressure, renal excretion of non-albumin protein and other substances; 3 a significant shift from SF to SB patients occurred with increase of urine pH, decrease of blood bicarbonate, and increase of diastolic blood pressure, whereas increase of plasma uric acid impacted only marginally; 4 in both SF and SB patients a strong curvilinear relationship links a rise of urine Ca/Pi to urine Ca/Pi divided by plasma Ca/Pi, but in SB urine Ca/Pi failed to correlate significantly with urine hydroxyapatite supersaturation; 5 also in SB, plasma Ca/Pi and urinary nitrate were

  11. Muscle strength and soccer practice as major determinants of bone mineral density in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabra, André; Marques, Elisa; Brito, João

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse the relationship between isokinetic strength of the lower limb muscles and bone mineral density and content (BMD, BMC) of adolescent male soccer players and age-matched controls not involved in sport (12-15years). METHODS: A random sample of 151 young males was divided...

  12. Radioactivity of phosphate mineral products

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Branislava; Vitorović Gordana; Stojanović Mirjana; Vitorović Duško

    2011-01-01

    The phosphate industry is one of the biggest polluters of the environment with uranium. Different products are derived after processing phosphoric ore, such as mineral and phosphate fertilizers and phosphate mineral supplements (dicalcium-and monocalcium phosphate) for animal feeding. Phosphate mineral additives used in animal food may contain a high activity of uranium. Research in this study should provide an answer to the extent in which phosphate minera...

  13. Elucidation of differential mineralisation on native and regenerated silk matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midha, Swati; Tripathi, Rohit; Geng, Hua; Lee, Peter D; Ghosh, Sourabh

    2016-11-01

    Bone mineralisation is a well-orchestrated procedure triggered by a protein-based template inducing the nucleation of hydroxyapatite (HA) nanocrystals on the matrix. In an attempt to fabricate superior nanocomposites from silk fibroin, textile braided structures made of natively spun fibres of Bombyx mori silkworm were compared against regenerated fibroin (lyophilized and films) underpinning the influence of intrinsic properties of fibroin matrices on HA nucleation. We found that native braids could bind Ca(2+) ions through electrostatic attraction, which initiated the nucleation and deposition of HA, as evidenced by discrete shift in amide peaks via ATR-FTIR. This phenomenon also suggests the involvement of amide linkages in promoting HA nucleation on fibroin. Moreover, CaCl2-SBF immersion of native braids resulted in preferential growth of HA along the c-axis, forming needle-like nanocrystals and possessing Ca/P ratio comparable to commercial HA. Though regenerated lyophilized matrix also witnessed prominent peak shift in amide linkages, HA growth was restricted to (211) plane only, albeit at a significantly lower intensity than braids. Regenerated films, on the other hand, provided no crystallographic evidence of HA deposition within 7days of SBF immersion. The present work sheds light on the primary fibroin structure of B. mori which probably plays a crucial role in regulating template-induced biomineralisation on the matrix. We also found that intrinsic material properties such as surface roughness, geometry, specific surface area, tortuosity and secondary conformation exert influence in modulating the extent of mineralisation. Thus our work generates useful insights and warrants future studies to further investigate the potential of bone mimetic, silk/mineral nanocomposite matrices for orthopaedic applications.

  14. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  15. Role of mineralization inhibitors in the regulation of hard tissue biomineralization: relevance to initial enamel formation and maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry C. Margolis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate mineralized tissues, i.e., enamel, dentin, cementum and bone, have unique hierarchical structures and chemical compositions. Although these tissues are similarly comprised of a crystalline calcium apatite mineral phase and a protein component, they differ with respect to crystal size and shape, level and distribution of trace mineral ions, the nature of the proteins present, and their relative proportions of mineral and protein components. Despite apparent differences, mineralized tissues are similarly derived by highly concerted extracellular processes involving matrix proteins, proteases, and mineral ion fluxes that collectively regulate the nucleation, growth and organization of forming mineral crystals. Nature, however, provides multiple ways to control the onset, rate, location, and organization of mineral deposits in developing mineralized tissues. Although our knowledge is quite limited in some of these areas, recent evidence suggests that hard tissue formation is, in part, controlled through the regulation of specific molecules that inhibit the mineralization process. This paper addresses the role of mineralization inhibitors in the regulation of biological mineralization with emphasis on the relevance of current findings to the process of amelogenesis. Mineralization inhibitors can also serve to maintain driving forces for calcium phosphate precipitation and prevent unwanted mineralization. Recent evidence shows that native phosphorylated amelogenins have the capacity to prevent mineralization through the stabilization of an amorphous calcium phosphate precursor phase, as observed in vitro and in developing teeth. Based on present findings, the author proposes that the transformation of initially formed amorphous mineral deposits to enamel crystals is an active process associated with the enzymatic processing of amelogenins. Such processing may serve to control both initial enamel crystal formation and subsequent maturation.

  16. Modifications of biological effects of drinking mineral waters in Pyatigorsk resort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reps, Valentina; Efimenko, Natalia; Abramtsova, Anna; Kozlova, Victoria; Sagradyan, Gayne; Tovbushenko, Tatiana; Kotova, Margarita

    2017-04-01

    A variety of types of drinking mineral waters (MW) of Pyatigorsk Deposit (PD) is explained by its structural style and hydrogeological conditions. In resort conditions the most widely used mineral waters are acidulated and carbonate chloride sodium hydrocarbonate MW. It has been shown earlier that natural MW have a high biological exposure potential on exchange processes both in norm and during pathological metabolic changes [1, 2]. We have studied some modification options of the composition of natural drinking mineral waters (MW) in Pyatigorsk resort to increase their rehabilitation potential. In the experiment on 110 male-rats of Wistar line there have been examined some biological effects of a course drinking intake (21 days) of natural MW from the spring that has sulphate-hydrocarbonate-chloride calcium-sodic composition with ferrum elevated level (3-5 mg/dm3), mineralization of 5,0-5,2 g/dm3, CO2 1,3-2,2 g/dm3, daily flow of 10-86 m3/day, temperature from 14 to 370C at the wellhead and MW modified by nanoparticles (NP) of Se (0,04 mg/kg, d - 35 nm) and Ag nanoparticles (0,001 mg/kg, d - 30 nm). One of the mechanisms of selenium influence on carbohydrate metabolism is the regulation of blood glucose level and its utilization by tissues. After the course by the studied MW type there has been noticed Ca-ATPase level reduction in liver against the background of insulin downregulation and glycemia elevation in blood serum of the rats [1]. There has been also observed glucagon retrogression in the blood of the labolatory animals after the treatment course by natural MW in 3 times (pnatural MW - 4,8 (4,6-5 ‰) mmol/l in comparison with the control - 4 (4 - 4,4 ‰) mmol/l. Insulin concentration did not change with the animals after the watering course by MW with Se nanoparticles whereas the course by MW with Ag nanoparticles was followed by insulin decreased secretion by 22% against the background of hypoglycemia. In the impact analysis of the course influence of

  17. Degradation and mineralization of chitin in an estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, J.

    1987-01-01

    A method for measuring microbial degradation and mineralization of radiolabeled native chitin is described. /sup 14/C-labeled chitin was synthesized in vivo by injecting shed blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) with N-acetyl-D-(/sup 14/C)-glucosamine, allowing for its incorporation into the exoskeleton. Rates of chitin degradation and mineralization in estuarine water and sediments were determined as functions of temperature, inoculum source, and oxygen condition. Significant differences in rates between temperature treatments were evident. Q/sub 10/ values ranged from 1.2 to 2.5 for water and sediment, respectively. Increased incubation temperature also resulted in decreased lag times before onset of chitinoclastic bacterial growth and chitin degradation. The anaerobic pathway of chitin decomposition by chitinoclastic bacteria was examined with an emphasis on end product coupling to other bacterial types. Actively growing chitinoclastic bacterial isolates produced primarily acetate, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide in broth culture.

  18. Reading Native American Literature: A Teacher's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Bruce A.

    2004-01-01

    High school and college teachers interested in offering units or courses on Native American literature have often had to carve out new teaching strategies because ready resources and guides are scarce. In "Reading Native American Literature: A Teacher's Guide," Bruce A. Goebel offers innovative and practical suggestions about how to introduce…

  19. Support for Native Americans with Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Wylie; Rife, Christine

    This report addresses the high incidence of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol effects (FAE) among Native Americans and suggests that there is a lack of comprehensive effort to provide outreach services to the Native American population in Illinois. The report begins with an overview of American Indian history and the migration of…

  20. Native grasses for rehabilitating Hunter Valley minesites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huxtable, C. [NSW Department of Land and Water Conservation, NSW (Australia)

    1998-04-01

    Introduced plant species, particularly grasses, have long been used to rehabilitate mined land in Australia. Interest in using native species spawned a research project in the Hunter Valley which has demonstrated the suitability of certain native species for rehabilitation and put forward guidelines to enhance the chance of their successful establishment. 4 photos., 1 tab.

  1. The Native Speaker: Membership Has Its Privileges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siskin, H. Jay

    This paper responds to Claire Kramsch's essay on the demise of the notion of the idealized native speaker as the model for second language learning and implications for second languages and cultures education. In her essay, Kramsch forcefully argues against the native speaker construct and exhorts teachers and learners not to abandon their unique…

  2. Stennis Space Center celebrates Native American culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Famie Willis (left), 2009-2010 Choctaw Indian Princess, displays artifacts during Native American Heritage Month activities at Stennis Space Center on Nov. 24. The celebration featured various Native American cultural displays for Stennis employees to view. Shown above are (l to r): Willis, Elaine Couchman of NASA Shared Services Center, John Cecconi of NSSC and Lakeisha Robertson of the Environmental Protection Agency.

  3. How Digital Native Learners Describe Themselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Penny

    2015-01-01

    Eight university students from the "digital native" generation were interviewed about the connections they saw between technology use and learning, and also their reactions to the popular press claims about their generation. Themes that emerged from the interviews were coded to show patterns in how digital natives describe themselves.…

  4. Can We Teach Digital Natives Digital Literacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wan

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there has been much debate about the concept of digital natives, in particular the differences between the digital natives' knowledge and adoption of digital technologies in informal versus formal educational contexts. This paper investigates the knowledge about educational technologies of a group of undergraduate students…

  5. Theoretical Perspectives of How Digital Natives Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivunja, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Marck Prensky, an authority on teaching and learning especially with the aid of Information and Communication Technologies, has referred to 21st century children born after 1980 as "Digital Natives". This paper reviews literature of leaders in the field to shed some light on theoretical perspectives of how Digital Natives learn and how…

  6. Brain Hemispheric Functions and the Native American.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Allen Chuck

    1982-01-01

    Uses brain research conducted by Dr. Roger Sperry to show that traditional Native Americans are more dominant in right hemisphere thinking, setting them apart from a modern left hemisphere-oriented society (especially emphasized in schools). Describes some characteristics of Native American thinking that illustrate a right hemisphere orientation…

  7. Substance Abuse among Native-American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncher, Michael S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Reviews social epidemiological data on substance abuse among Native American youth and discusses culturally relevant etiological factors. Highlights strategies for identification of high-risk youth, concentrating on theoretical and methodological aspects appropriate for Native American populations. Issues of sensitive technology transfer and…

  8. Staphylococcus saprophyticus causing native valve endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garduño, Eugenio; Márquez, Irene; Beteta, Alicia; Said, Ibrahim; Blanco, Javier; Pineda, Tomás

    2005-01-01

    Coagulase negative staphylococci are a rare cause of native valve endocarditis. Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a coagulase-negative Staphylococcus infrequently reported as a human pathogen, and most of the cases reported are urinary tract infections. We describe a case of native valve endocarditis attributed to this organism. The patient needed valve replacement due to heart failure.

  9. Spatial arrangement overrules environmental factors to structure native and non-native assemblages of synanthropic harvestmen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Muster

    Full Text Available Understanding how space affects the occurrence of native and non-native species is essential for inferring processes that shape communities. However, studies considering spatial and environmental variables for the entire community - as well as for the native and non-native assemblages in a single study - are scarce for animals. Harvestmen communities in central Europe have undergone drastic turnovers during the past decades, with several newly immigrated species, and thus provide a unique system to study such questions. We studied the wall-dwelling harvestmen communities from 52 human settlements in Luxembourg and found the assemblages to be largely dominated by non-native species (64% of specimens. Community structure was analysed using Moran's eigenvector maps as spatial variables, and landcover variables at different radii (500 m, 1000 m, 2000 m in combination with climatic parameters as environmental variables. A surprisingly high portion of pure spatial variation (15.7% of total variance exceeded the environmental (10.6% and shared (4% components of variation, but we found only minor differences between native and non-native assemblages. This could result from the ecological flexibility of both, native and non-native harvestmen that are not restricted to urban habitats but also inhabit surrounding semi-natural landscapes. Nevertheless, urban landcover variables explained more variation in the non-native community, whereas coverage of semi-natural habitats (forests, rivers at broader radii better explained the native assemblage. This indicates that some urban characteristics apparently facilitate the establishment of non-native species. We found no evidence for competitive replacement of native by invasive species, but a community with novel combination of native and non-native species.

  10. Native and Non-native English Teachers' Perceptions of their Professional Identity: Convergent or Divergent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia Tajeddin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There is still a preference for native speaker teachers in the language teaching profession, which is supposed to influence the self-perceptions of native and nonnative teachers. However, the status of English as a globalized language is changing the legitimacy of native/nonnative teacher dichotomy. This study sought to investigate native and nonnative English-speaking teachers’ perceptions about native and nonnative teachers’ status and the advantages and disadvantages of being a native or nonnative teacher. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. A total of 200 native and nonnative teachers of English from the UK and the US, i.e. the inner circle, and Turkey and Iran, the expanding circle, participated in this study. A significant majority of nonnative teachers believed that native speaker teachers have better speaking proficiency, better pronunciation, and greater self-confidence. The findings also showed nonnative teachers’ lack of self-confidence and awareness of their role and status compared with native-speaker teachers, which could be the result of existing inequities between native and nonnative English-speaking teachers in ELT. The findings also revealed that native teachers disagreed more strongly with the concept of native teachers’ superiority over nonnative teachers. Native teachers argued that nonnative teachers have a good understanding of teaching methodology whereas native teachers are more competent in correct language. It can be concluded that teacher education programs in the expanding-circle countries should include materials for teachers to raise their awareness of their own professional status and role and to remove their misconception about native speaker fallacy.

  11. Protein- mediated enamel mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Enamel is a hard nanocomposite bioceramic with significant resilience that protects the mammalian tooth from external physical and chemical damages. The remarkable mechanical properties of enamel are associated with its hierarchical structural organization and its thorough connection with underlying dentin. This dynamic mineralizing system offers scientists a wealth of information that allows the study of basic principals of organic matrix-mediated biomineralization and can potentially be utilized in the fields of material science and engineering for development and design of biomimetic materials. This chapter will provide a brief overview of enamel hierarchical structure and properties as well as the process and stages of amelogenesis. Particular emphasis is given to current knowledge of extracellular matrix protein and proteinases, and the structural chemistry of the matrix components and their putative functions. The chapter will conclude by discussing the potential of enamel for regrowth. PMID:22652761

  12. Mineralization by nanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajander, E. Olavi; Bjorklund, Michael; Ciftcioglu, Neva

    1998-07-01

    Nanobacteria are the smallest cell-walled bacteria, only recently discovered in human and cow blood and in commercial cell culture serum. In this study, we identified with energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis and chemical analysis that all growth phases of nanobacteria produce biogenic apatite on their cell envelope. Fourier transform IR spectroscopy revealed the mineral as carbonate apatite. Previous models for stone formation have lead to a hypothesis that an elevated pH due to urease and/or alkaline phosphatase activity are important lithogenic factors. Our results indicate that carbonate apatite can be formed without these factors at pH 7.4 at physiological phosphate and calcium concentrations. Due to their specific macromolecules, nanobacteria can produce apatite very efficiency in media mimicking tissue fluids and glomerular filtrate and rapidly mineralizing most of available calcium and phosphate. This can be also monitored by (superscript 85)Sr incorporation and provides a unique model for in vitro studies on calcification. Recently, bacteria have been implicated in the formation of carbonate (hydroxy)fluorapatite in marine sediments. Apatite grains are found so commonly in sedimentary rocks that apatite is omitted in naming the stone. To prove that apatite and other minerals are formed by bacteria would implicate that the bacteria could be observed and their actions followed in stones. We have started to approach this in two ways. Firstly, by the use of sensitive methods for detecting specific bacterial components, like antigens, muramic acid and nucleic acids, that allow for detecting the presence of bacteria and, secondly, by follow-up of volatile bacterial metabolites observed by continuous monitoring with ion mobility spectrometry, IMCELL, working like an artificial, educatable smelling nose. The latter method might allow for remote real time detection of bacterial metabolism, a signature of life, in rocks via fractures of drillholes with or without

  13. Nativization processes in L1 Esperanto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, B K

    2001-10-01

    The artificial language Esperanto is spoken not only as a second language, by its proponents, but also as a native language by children of some of those proponents. The present study is a preliminary description of some characteristics of the Native Esperanto (NE) of eight speakers, ranging in age from six to fourteen years. As such, it is the first of its kind--previous works on NE are either theoretical treatises or individual case studies. We find, at least for the eight subjects studied, both bilingualism and nativization effects, differentiating native from non-native Esperanto speech. Among these effects are loss or modification of the accusative case, phonological reduction, attrition of the tense/aspect system, and pronominal cliticization. The theoretical ramifications are discussed, particularly with regard to universals of language acquisition and the effects of expressive requirements of language.

  14. The new digital natives cutting the chord

    CERN Document Server

    Dingli, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    The first generation of Digital Natives (DNs) is now growing up.  However, these digital natives were rather late starters since; their exposure to computers started when they could master the mouse and the penetration of computers in educational institutions was still very low. Today, a new breed of digital natives is emerging.  This new breed includes those individuals who are being introduced from their first instances to the world of wireless devices. One year olds manage to master the intuitive touch interfaces of their tablets whilst sitting comfortably in their baby bouncers. The controller-less interfaces allow these children to interact with a machine in a way which was unconceivable below. Thus, our research investigated the paradigm shift between the different generations of digital natives. We analysed the way in which these two generations differ from each other and we explored how the world needs to change in order to harness the potential of these new digital natives.

  15. Native Generations: A campaign addressing infant mortality among American Indians and Alaska Natives in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutman, Shira; Loughran, Julie; Tanner, Leah; Randall, Leslie L

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the development and evaluation of Native Generations, a campaign addressing high rates of infant mortality (IM) among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) in urban areas. Campaign development included reviews of literature and previous campaigns, an advisory council, and focus groups. Campaign messages are strength-based, encouraging AI/AN caregivers to utilize available Native-specific resources, including health care, support services, and programming as IM protective factors. The primary campaign material is an 11-minute video. Pilot survey data indicate the video may help increase awareness of IM and Native-specific resources, and increase connection to Native identity, culture, and community.

  16. Lactic acid bacterial extract as a biogenic mineral growth modifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Ballav M.; Singh, Atul K.; Ramesh, Aiyagari; Das, Gopal

    2009-04-01

    The formation of minerals and mechanisms by which bacteria could control their formation in natural habitats is now of current interest for material scientists to have an insight of the mechanism of in vivo mineralization, as well as to seek industrial and technological applications. Crystalline uniform structures of calcium and barium minerals formed micron-sized building blocks when synthesized in the presence of an organic matrix consisting of secreted protein extracts from three different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) viz.: Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 1325, Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL B4495 and Pediococcus acidilactici CFR K7. LABs are not known to form organic matrix in biological materialization processes. The influence of these bacterial extracts on the crystallization behavior was investigated in details to test the basic coordination behavior of the acidic protein. In this report, varied architecture of the mineral crystals obtained in presence of high molecular weight protein extracts of three different LAB strains has been discussed. The role of native form of high molecular weight bacterial protein extracts in the generation of nucleation centers for crystal growth was clearly established. A model for the formation of organic matrix-cation complex and the subsequent events leading to crystal growth is proposed.

  17. Parallels with the Female Athlete Triad in Male Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenforde, Adam S; Barrack, Michelle T; Nattiv, Aurelia; Fredericson, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Participation in sports offers many health benefits to athletes of both sexes. However, subsets of both female and male athletes are at increased risk of impaired bone health and bone stress injuries. The Female Athlete Triad (Triad) is defined as the interrelationship of low energy availability (with or without disordered eating), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. The Triad may result in health consequences, including bone stress injuries. Our review presents evidence that an analogous process may occur in male athletes. Our review of the available literature indicates that a subset of male athletes may experience adverse health issues that parallel those associated with the Triad, including low energy availability (with or without disordered eating), hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and low bone mineral density. Consequently, male athletes may be predisposed to developing bone stress injuries, and these injuries can be the first presenting feature of associated Triad conditions. We discuss the evidence for impaired nutrition, hormonal dysfunction, and low bone mineral density in a subset of male athletes, and how these health issues may parallel those of the Triad. With further research into the mechanisms and outcomes of these health concerns in active and athletic men, evidence-based guidelines can be developed that result in best practice.

  18. Native bees and plant pollination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, H.S.

    2004-01-01

    Bees are important pollinators, but evidence suggests that numbers of some species are declining. Decreases have been documented in the honey bee, Apis mellifera (which was introduced to North America), but there are no monitoring programs for the vast majority of native species, so we cannot be sure about the extent of this problem. Recent efforts to develop standardized protocols for bee sampling will help us collect the data needed to assess trends in bee populations. Unfortunately, diversity of bee life cycles and phenologies, and the large number of rare species, make it difficult to assess trends in bee faunas. Changes in bee populations can affect plant reproduction, which can influence plant population density and cover, thus potentially modifying horizontal and vertical structure of a community, microclimate near the ground, patterns of nitrogen deposition, etc. These potential effects of changes in pollination patterns have not been assessed in natural communities. Effects of management actions on bees and other pollinators should be considered in conservation planning.

  19. 77 FR 56273 - Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... opportunity to improve a company's existing risk management and supply chain management, stimulating... Minerals Already in the Supply Chain a. Proposed Rules b. Comments on the Proposed Rules c. Final Rule 6... Content and Supply Chain Due Diligence 1. Content of the Conflict Minerals Report a. Proposed Rules...

  20. Minerals From the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Michael J.

    The current interest in minerals centering on, among other things, potential shortages, long-term needs, and deep seabed nodules, accentuates the usefulness and timeliness of this little book authored by a former chairman of the British National Environmental Research Council.In less than 100 pages, the author puts into perspective the potential for producing minerals from offshore areas of the world. After introducing the reader to the ocean environment and the extraordinary variety of the nature of the seabed, the author describes in some detail the variety of minerals found there. This is done in seven separate chapters entitled ‘Bulk and Non-Metallic Minerals From the Seas’ ‘Metals From the Shallow Seas’ ‘Metals From the Deep Oceans’ ‘Minerals From Solution’ ‘Oil and Gas from the Shallow Seas’ ‘Oil and Gas From Deep Waters’ and ‘Coal Beneath the Sea.’ The remaining chapters give a brief regional review of marine minerals distribution for eight areas of significant socioeconomic structure, and a short recapitulation of special problems of mineral recovery in the marine environment including such matters as the effect of water motion on mineral processing and of international law on investments. Glossaries of geological periods and technical terms, a short list of references, and an index complete the work.

  1. Mineral Atlas of the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    In 1997 the mineral resources of Europe and neighbouring countries were presented as a printed map and a book of exhaustive information and references. This was the first published map inventory of mineral deposits from all parts of the formerly politically divided Europe (East and West), measured and evaluated according to identical geological and mining standards.

  2. A Mineral Processing Field Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a field course in Cornwall looking at mineral processing with the focus on the chemistry involved. The course was split into two parts. The first looked at tin mining based around Penzance. This involved visiting mines, hunting for mineral samples, carrying out a stream survey and visiting the Camborne School of Mines…

  3. Geotechnical Description of Mineral Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasvári Tibor

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Performing various mineral deposits extraction methods requires thorough knowledge of the rock masses` geomechanical parameters. In the geotechnical description of mineral deposits there is proposed a methodical approarch at the collection, registration, and evaluation of rock masses` geological properties for geotechnics being applied within the mining industry.

  4. Plant macro- and micronutrient minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    All plants must obtain a number of inorganic mineral elements from their environment to ensure successful growth and development of both vegetative and reproductive tissues. A total of fourteen mineral nutrients are considered to be essential. Several other elements have been shown to have beneficia...

  5. 75 FR 80947 - Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... violence in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, particularly sexual- and gender-based violence... conflict free,'' the facilities used to process the conflict minerals, the country of origin of the conflict minerals, and ``the efforts to determine the mine or location of origin with the greatest...

  6. Deep UV Native Fluorescence Imaging of Antarctic Cryptoendolithic Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storrie-Lombardi, M. C.; Douglas, S.; Sun, H.; McDonald, G. D.; Bhartia, R.; Nealson, K. H.; Hug, W. F.

    2001-01-01

    An interdisciplinary team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Center for Life Detection has embarked on a project to provide in situ chemical and morphological characterization of Antarctic cryptoendolithic microbial communities. We present here in situ deep ultraviolet (UV) native fluorescence and environmental scanning electron microscopy images transiting 8.5 mm into a sandstone sample from the Antarctic Dry Valleys. The deep ultraviolet imaging system employs 224.3, 248.6, and 325 nm lasers to elicit differential fluorescence and resonance Raman responses from biomolecules and minerals. The 224.3 and 248.6 nm lasers elicit a fluorescence response from the aromatic amino and nucleic acids. Excitation at 325 nm may elicit activity from a variety of biomolecules, but is more likely to elicit mineral fluorescence. The resultant fluorescence images provide in situ chemical and morphological maps of microorganisms and the associated organic matrix. Visible broadband reflectance images provide orientation against the mineral background. Environmental scanning electron micrographs provided detailed morphological information. The technique has made possible the construction of detailed fluorescent maps extending from the surface of an Antarctic sandstone sample to a depth of 8.5 mm. The images detect no evidence of microbial life in the superficial 0.2 mm crustal layer. The black lichen component between 0.3 and 0.5 mm deep absorbs all wavelengths of both laser and broadband illumination. Filamentous deep ultraviolet native fluorescent activity dominates in the white layer between 0.6 mm and 5.0 mm from the surface. These filamentous forms are fungi that continue into the red (iron-rich) region of the sample extending from 5.0 to 8.5 mm. Using differential image subtraction techniques it is possible to identify fungal nuclei. The ultraviolet response is markedly attenuated in this region, apparently from the absorption of ultraviolet light by iron-rich particles coating

  7. Geographic variation in apparent competition between native and invasive Phragmites australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Ganesh P; Meyerson, Laura A; Cronin, James T

    2017-02-01

    Apparent competition, the negative interaction between species mediated by shared natural enemies, is thought to play an important role in shaping the structure and dynamics of natural communities. However, its importance in driving species invasions, and whether the strength of this indirect interaction varies across the latitudinal range of the invasion, has not been fully explored. We performed replicated field experiments at four sites spanning 900 km along the Atlantic Coast of the United States to assess the presence and strength of apparent competition between sympatric native and invasive lineages of Phragmites australis. Four herbivore guilds were considered: stem-feeders, leaf-miners, leaf-chewers and aphids. We also tested the hypothesis that the strength of this interaction declines with increasing latitude. Within each site, native and invasive plants of P. australis were cross-transplanted between co-occurring native and invasive patches in the same marsh habitat and herbivore damage was evaluated at the end of the growing season. Apparent competition was evident for both lineages and involved all but the leaf-chewer guild. For native plants, total aphids per plant was 296% higher and the incidence of stem-feeding and leaf-mining herbivores was 34% and 221% higher, respectively, when transplanted into invasive than native patches. These data suggest that invasive P. australis has a negative effect on native P. australis via apparent competition. Averaged among herbivore types, the indirect effects of the invasive lineage on the native lineage was 57% higher than the reverse situation, suggesting that apparent competition was asymmetric. We also found that the strength of apparent competition acting against the native lineage was comparable to the benefits to the invasive lineage from enemy release (i.e., proportionately lower mean herbivory of the invasive relative to the native taxa). Finally, we found the first evidence that the strength of

  8. Oxidative stress & male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makker, Kartikeya; Agarwal, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh

    2009-04-01

    The male factor is considered a major contributory factor to infertility. Apart from the conventional causes for male infertility such as varicocoele, cryptorchidism, infections, obstructive lesions, cystic fibrosis, trauma, and tumours, a new and important cause has been identified: oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is a result of the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants in the body. It is a powerful mechanism that can lead to sperm damage, deformity and eventually, male infertility. This review discusses the physiological need for ROS and their role in normal sperm function. It also highlights the mechanism of production and the pathophysiology of ROS in relation to the male reproductive system and enumerate the benefits of incorporating antioxidants in clinical and experimental settings.

  9. Cytogenetic of Male Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfiye Ozpak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Infertility by definition, is not to get pregnant within one year of regular sexual relationship without protection, affects 15-20% of reproductive age couples. Approximately 30% of infertility cases are male originated. Male infertility is caused by endocrine-related genetic defects affecting urogenital system function. These defects adversely affect subsequent spermatogenesis, sexual function, fertility, early embryonic stage of sexual maturation. Autosomal and gonosomal, numerical and structural chromosome abnormalities and related syndromes rank at the top causes of male infertility. Similar chromosome abnormalities are detected in male infertility and as the rate of these abnormalities increase, it was found to reduce sperm count especially in azospermic and oligozoospermic men. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2011; 20(4.000: 230-245

  10. Males and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  11. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer include exposure to radiation, a family history of breast cancer, and having high estrogen levels, which can happen with diseases like cirrhosis or Klinefelter's syndrome. Treatment for male breast cancer is usually ...

  12. 30 CFR 57.5070 - Miner training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Miner training. 57.5070 Section 57.5070 Mineral... Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5070 Miner training. (a) Mine operators must provide annual training to all miners at a mine covered by this part who...

  13. Thyroid and male reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH, pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction.

  14. Dysgenetic male pseudohermaphroditism

    OpenAIRE

    Proença, E; Freitas, S.; Fonseca, M.; Figueiredo, S; Rodrigues, C.

    2001-01-01

    Acta Med Port. 2001 Sep-Dec;14(5-6):511-4. [Dysgenetic male pseudohermaphroditism] [Article in Portuguese] Proença E, Freitas S, Fonseca M, Figueiredo S, Rodrigues C. Serviço de Cirurgia Pediátrica, Hospital Maria Pia, Porto. Abstract Dysgenetic male pseudohermaphroditism is the result of a defect of testis development that encompasses a large clinical heterogeneity. It is characterized by bilateral dysgenetic testis, absence of mullerian regression, ambiguous genitalia and/...

  15. Fluency in native and nonnative English speech

    CERN Document Server

    Götz, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    This book takes a new and holistic approach to fluency in English speech and differentiates between productive, perceptive, and nonverbal fluency. The in-depth corpus-based description of productive fluency points out major differences of how fluency is established in native and nonnative speech. It also reveals areas in which even highly advanced learners of English still deviate strongly from the native target norm and in which they have already approximated to it. Based on these findings, selected learners are subjected to native speakers' ratings of seven perceptive fluency variables in or

  16. Mineral mining installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K.; Rosenberg, H.; Weirich, W.

    1981-12-29

    A longwall mineral mining installation has a conveyor and a plurality of roof support units positioned side-by-side on the goaf side of the conveyor. Each roof support unit has a roof shield having an advanceable shield extension. Each unit has a first hydraulic ram for extending its shield extension, and a second hydraulic ram for advancing the conveyor. The extension of each first ram is controlled in dependence upon the retraction of one of the second rams (Either the second ram of the same unit or that of an adjacent unit). This control is effected by controlling the supply of pressurized hydraulic fluid to the first rams. In one embodiment this is carried out by a control valve which has a spring-loaded plunger which engages with a series of equispaced cams on the movable cylinder of the associated second ram. In another embodiment, the piston rods of the rams are provided with series of equispaced magnets. The cylinders of the rams are provided with sensors, which sense the magnets and generate control signals. A control box is provided to direct the control signals to control valves associated with the rams, so that the first rams are extended by the same distance as that through which the second rams are retracted.

  17. Mineral mining installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weirich, W.

    1984-01-24

    A longwall mineral mining installation has a conveyor and a plurality of roof support units positioned side-by-side on the goaf side of the conveyor. Each roof support unit has a roof shield having an advanceable shield extension. Each unit has a first hydraulic ram for extending its shield extension, and a second hydraulic ram for advancing the conveyor. The extension of each first ram is controlled in dependence upon the retraction of one of the second rams (either the second ram of the same unit or that of an adjacent unit). This control is effected by controlling the supply of pressurized hydraulic fluid to the first rams. In one embodiment this is carried out by a control valve which has a springloaded plunger which engages with a series of equispaced cams on the movable cylinder of the associated second ram. In another embodiment, the piston rods of the rams are provided with series of equispaced magnets. The cylinders of the rams are provided with sensors, which sense the magnets and generate control signals. A control box is provided to direct the control signals to control valves associated with the rams, so that the first rams are extended by the same distance as that through which the second rams are retracted.

  18. The estimation of mineral contents in oriental supplements consumed by elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hansang; Lee, Namju; Kim, Jongkyu

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold: to examine macro (calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus) and trace mineral (iron) concentration in oriental supplements (OS), and to define OS prevalence in elite athletes. Participants of this study were 928 varsity athletes (male: 680, female: 248) with 23 sports types. Recent 3-month dietary supplements (DS) and OS practice was surveyed during training period, and mineral concentration in 72 randomly collected OS samples were analyzed. DS use was 41% and OS use was 20% in university elite athletes. Most common OS use informants were parents (74%). OS intake reason was for health maintenance (37%), energy supplement (25%), and recovery improvement (15%). Moreover, health maintenance was higher in females (47%) than males (32%) while energy supplement was higher in males (28%) than females (18%) (χ(2)(8) = 17.676, p = 0.024). Beliefs in OS efficacy and importance were significantly higher in female athletes compared to male athletes (p iron (8.10 ppb), which was a small amount. An association between OS intake reason and mineral concentration in calcium, phosphorus, and iron was found, but no association between OS intake and magnesium. In conclusion, an association between OS intake reason and mineral concentration differed by the ingredients. Minerals in OS were very small amount, which would be improved for mineral balance in elite athletes.

  19. Evaluation of the Mineral Concentration in Beef from Polish Native Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domaradzki, Piotr; Florek, Mariusz; Staszowska, Agnieszka; Litwińczuk, Zygmunt

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the content of macrominerals and microminerals in the longissimus lumborum (LL) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles of young bulls of five breeds-Polish Red (PR), White-Backed (WB), Polish Black-and-White (PBW), Simmental (SIM) and Polish Holstein-Friesian (PHF). The meat of the Polish Holstein-Friesian bulls was found to contain significantly less K, Mg and Ca and more Mn than other breeds. The meat of the White-Backed bulls contained significantly (P  0.05).

  20. The chronology of third molar mineralization by digital orthopantomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maled, Venkatesh; Vishwanath, S B

    2016-10-01

    The present study was designed to determine the chronology of third molar mineralization to establish Indian reference data and to observe the advantages of digital orthopantomography. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was undertaken by evaluating 167 digital orthopantomographs in order to assess the mineralization status of the mandibular third molar of Caucasian individuals (85 males and 82 females) between the age of 14 and 24. The evaluation was carried out using the 8-stage developmental scheme of Demirjian et al (1973). The range, mean age, standard deviation and Student t-test are presented for each stage of mineralization in all four quadrants. Statistically significant differences between males and females were not found for all four third molars. All the individuals in this study with mature third molar were at least 18 years of age. For medicolegal purposes, the likelihood of whether an Indian is older than 18 years or not was determined. The advantage of digital orthopantomography in the interpretation of the tooth mineralization over the traditional method was acknowledged.

  1. The PHEX transgene corrects mineralization defects in 9-month-old hypophosphatemic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskey, Adele; Frank, Aaron; Fujimoto, Yukiji; Spevak, Lyudmila; Verdelis, Kostas; Ellis, Bruce; Troiano, Nancy; Philbrick, William; Carpenter, Thomas

    2009-02-01

    Hypophosphatemia is an X-linked dominant disorder resulting from a mutation in the PHEX gene. While osteoblast-specific expression of the PHEX transgene has been reported to decrease the phosphate wasting associated with the disease in male hypophosphatemic (HYP) mice, there are reports that the mineralization defect is only partially corrected in young animals. To test the hypothesis that osteoblast-specific expression of the PHEX gene for a longer time would correct the mineralization defect, this study examined the bones of 9-month-old male and female HYP mice and their wild-type controls with or without expression of the transgene under a collagen type I promoter. Serum phosphate levels, alkaline phosphatase activity, and FGF23 levels were also measured. Mineral analyses based on wide-angle X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and FT-IR imaging confirmed the decreased mineral content and increased mineral crystal size in male HYP humerii compared to wild-type males and females with or without the transgene and in female HYP mice with or without the transgene. There was a significant increase in mineral content and a decrease in crystallinity in the HYP males' bones with the transgene, compared to those without. Of interest, expression of the transgene in wild-type animals significantly increased the mineral content in both males and females without having a detectable effect on crystallinity or carbonate content. In contrast to the bones, based on micro-computed tomography and FT-IR imaging, at 9 months there were no significant differences between the HYP and the WT teeth, precluding analysis of the effect of the transgene.

  2. Economic drivers of mineral supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Lorie A.; Sullivan, Daniel E.; Sznopek, John L.

    2003-01-01

    The debate over the adequacy of future supplies of mineral resources continues in light of the growing use of mineral-based materials in the United States. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the quantity of new materials utilized each year has dramatically increased from 161 million tons2 in 1900 to 3.2 billion tons in 2000. Of all the materials used during the 20th century in the United States, more than half were used in the last 25 years. With the Earth?s endowment of natural resources remaining constant, and increased demand for resources, economic theory states that as depletion approaches, prices rise. This study shows that many economic drivers (conditions that create an economic incentive for producers to act in a particular way) such as the impact of globalization, technological improvements, productivity increases, and efficient materials usage are at work simultaneously to impact minerals markets and supply. As a result of these economic drivers, the historical price trend of mineral prices3 in constant dollars has declined as demand has risen. When price is measured by the cost in human effort, the price trend also has been almost steadily downward. Although the United States economy continues its increasing mineral consumption trend, the supply of minerals has been able to keep pace. This study shows that in general supply has grown faster than demand, causing a declining trend in mineral prices.

  3. Bone mineral density, Bone mineral contents, MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels in Human Mandible and alveolar bone: Simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep; Catalina, Maria

    Exposure to microgravity has been associated with several physiological changes in astronauts and cosmonauts, including an osteoporosis-like loss of bone mass. It has been reported that head-down tilt bed-rest studies mimic many of the observations seen in flights. There is no study on the correlation on effects of mandibular bone and alveolar bone loss in both sex in simulating microgravity. This study was designed to determine the Bone mineral density and GCF MMP-8 MMP-9 in normal healthy subject of both sexes in simulated microgravity condition of -6 head-down-tilt (HDT) bed rest. The subjects of this investigation were 10 male and 10 female volunteers participated in three weeks 6 HDT bed-rest exposure. The Bone density and bone mineral contents were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry before and in simulated microgravity. The GCF MMP-8 MMP-8 were measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Human Quantikine MMP-8,-9 ELISA kit). The bone mineral density and bone mineral contents levels were significantly decreased in simulated microgravity condition in both genders, although insignificantly loss was higher in females as compared to males. MMP-8 MMP-9 levels were significantly increased in simulated microgravity as compared to normal condition although insignificantly higher in females as compared to males. Further study is required on large samples size including all factors effecting in simulated microgravity and microgravity. Keys words-Simulated microgravity condition, head-down-tilt, Bone loss, MMP-8, MMP-9, Bone density, Bone mineral contents.

  4. Glycine Polymerization on Oxide Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadai, Norio; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Umemoto, Koichiro; Usui, Tomohiro; Fukushi, Keisuke; Nakashima, Satoru

    2016-07-01

    It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played an important role in peptide bond formation on the primitive Earth. However, it remains unclear which mineral species was key to the prebiotic processes. This is because great discrepancies exist among the reported catalytic efficiencies of minerals for amino acid polymerizations, owing to mutually different experimental conditions. This study examined polymerization of glycine (Gly) on nine oxide minerals (amorphous silica, quartz, α-alumina and γ-alumina, anatase, rutile, hematite, magnetite, and forsterite) using identical preparation, heating, and analytical procedures. Results showed that a rutile surface is the most effective site for Gly polymerization in terms of both amounts and lengths of Gly polymers synthesized. The catalytic efficiency decreased as rutile > anatase > γ-alumina > forsterite > α- alumina > magnetite > hematite > quartz > amorphous silica. Based on reported molecular-level information for adsorption of Gly on these minerals, polymerization activation was inferred to have arisen from deprotonation of the NH3 + group of adsorbed Gly to the nucleophilic NH2 group, and from withdrawal of electron density from the carboxyl carbon to the surface metal ions. The orientation of adsorbed Gly on minerals is also a factor influencing the Gly reactivity. The examination of Gly-mineral interactions under identical experimental conditions has enabled the direct comparison of various minerals' catalytic efficiencies and has made discussion of polymerization mechanisms and their relative influences possible Further systematic investigations using the approach reported herein (which are expected to be fruitful) combined with future microscopic surface analyses will elucidate the role of minerals in the process of abiotic peptide bond formation.

  5. Nonverbal Communications in Native North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Allan Ross

    1975-01-01

    This article describes several types of native American nonspeech communications systems, including the Plains sign language, distance signaling of various kinds, picture writing and whistle speech. See FL 508 188 for availability. (CLK)

  6. Native Freshwater Fish and Mussel Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all native freshwater fish and freshwater mussels in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are available for...

  7. Management Recommendations: Native Adaptive Management Program (NPAM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Management recommendations are a product of the decision support tool for the Native Adaptive Management Program (NPAM). The provides tall and mixed grass management...

  8. Advancing Efforts to Energize Native Alaska (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-04-01

    This brochure describes key programs and initiatives of the DOE Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs to advance energy efficiency, renewable energy, and energy infrastructure projects in Alaska Native villages.

  9. 75 FR 8105 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Native Claims Settlement Act will be issued to NANA Regional Corporation, Inc., Successor in Interest to... these lands will also be conveyed to NANA Regional Corporation, Inc. when the surface estate is...

  10. Nonverbal Communications in Native North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Allan Ross

    1975-01-01

    This article describes several types of native American nonspeech communications systems, including the Plains sign language, distance signaling of various kinds, picture writing and whistle speech. See FL 508 188 for availability. (CLK)

  11. Decision Policy: Native Prairie Adaptive Management (NPAM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A decision support for the Native Adaptive Management Program (NPAM). The documents provide tall and mixed grass decision policies in relation to the management...

  12. Mineral mining machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mc Gaw, B.H.

    1984-01-01

    A machine for mining minerals is patented. It is a cutter loader with a drum actuating element of the worm type equipped with a multitude of cutting teeth reinforced with tungsten carbide. A feature of the patented machine is that all of the cutting teeth and holders on the drum have the identical design. This is achieved through selecting a slant angle for the cutting teeth which is the mean between the slant angle of the conventional radial teeth and the slant angle of the advance teeth. This, in turn, is provided thanks to the corresponding slant of the holders relative to the drum and (or) the slant of the cutting part of the teeth relative to their stems. Thus, the advance teeth projecting beyond the surface of the drum on the face side and providing upper and lateral clearances have the same angle of attack as the radial teeth, that is, from 20 to 35 degrees. A series of modifications of the cutting teeth is patented. One of the designs allows the cutting tooth to occupy a varying position relative to the drum, from the conventional vertical to an inverted, axially projecting position. In the last case the tooth in the extraction process provides the upper and lateral clearances for the drum on the face side. Among the different modifications of the cutting teeth, a design is proposed which provides for the presence of a stem which is shaped like a truncated cone. This particular stem is designed for use jointly with a wedge which unfastens the teeth and is placed in a holder. The latter is completed in a transverse slot thanks to which the rear end of the stem is compressed, which simplifies replacement of a tooth. Channels are provided in the patented machine for feeding water to the worm spiral, the holders and the cutting teeth themselves in order to deal with dust.

  13. Mineral Commodity Profiles -- Rubidium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterman, W.C.; Reese, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    Overview -- Rubidium is a soft, ductile, silvery-white metal that melts at 39.3 ?C. One of the alkali metals, it is positioned in group 1 (or IA) of the periodic table between potassium and cesium. Naturally occurring rubidium is slightly radioactive. Rubidium is an extremely reactive metal--it ignites spontaneously in the presence of air and decomposes water explosively, igniting the liberated hydrogen. Because of its reactivity, the metal and several of its compounds are hazardous materials, and must be stored and transported in isolation from possible reactants. Although rubidium is more abundant in the earth?s crust than copper, lead, or zinc, it forms no minerals of its own, and is, or has been, produced in small quantities as a byproduct of the processing of cesium and lithium ores taken from a few small deposits in Canada, Namibia, and Zambia. In the United States, the metal and its compounds are produced from imported raw materials by at least one company, the Cabot Corporation (Cabot, 2003). Rubidium is used interchangeably or together with cesium in many uses. Its principal application is in specialty glasses used in fiber optic telecommunication systems. Rubidium?s photoemissive properties have led to its use in night-vision devices, photoelectric cells, and photomultiplier tubes. It has several uses in medical science, such as in positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging, the treatment of epilepsy, and the ultracentrifugal separation of nucleic acids and viruses. A dozen or more other uses are known, which include use as a cocatalyst for several organic reactions and in frequency reference oscillators for telecommunications network synchronization. The market for rubidium is extremely small, amounting to 1 to 2 metric tons per year (t/yr) in the United States. World resources are vast compared with demand.

  14. Book review: Mineral resource estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Mineral Resource Estimation is about estimating mineral resources at the scale of an ore deposit and is not to be mistaken with mineral resource assessment, which is undertaken at a significantly broader scale, even if similar data and geospatial/geostatistical methods are used. The book describes geological, statistical, and geostatistical tools and methodologies used in resource estimation and modeling, and presents case studies for illustration. The target audience is the expert, which includes professional mining geologists and engineers, as well as graduate-level and advanced undergraduate students.

  15. Epistemologies in the Text of Children's Books: Native- and non-Native-authored books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Morteza; Bang, Megan; Medin, Douglas; Marin, Ananda; Leddon, Erin; Waxman, Sandra

    2013-09-01

    An examination of artifacts provides insights into the goals, practices, and orientations of the persons and cultures who created them. Here, we analyze storybook texts, artifacts that are a part of many children's lives. We examine the stories in books targeted for 4-8-year-old children, contrasting the texts generated by Native American authors versus popular non-Native authors. We focus specifically on the implicit and explicit 'epistemological orientations' associated with relations between human beings and the rest of nature. Native authors were significantly more likely than non-Native authors to describe humans and the rest of nature as psychologically close and embedded in relationships. This pattern converges well with evidence from a behavioral task in which we probed Native (from urban inter-tribal and rural communities) and non-Native children's and adults' attention to ecological relations. We discuss the implications of these differences for environmental cognition and science learning.

  16. Intraguild predation and native lady beetle decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary M Gardiner

    Full Text Available Coccinellid communities across North America have experienced significant changes in recent decades, with declines in several native species reported. One potential mechanism for these declines is interference competition via intraguild predation; specifically, increased predation of native coccinellid eggs and larvae following the introduction of exotic coccinellids. Our previous studies have shown that agricultural fields in Michigan support a higher diversity and abundance of exotic coccinellids than similar fields in Iowa, and that the landscape surrounding agricultural fields across the north central U.S. influences the abundance and activity of coccinellid species. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of egg predation experienced by a native coccinellid within Michigan and Iowa soybean fields and explore the influence of local and large-scale landscape structure. Using the native lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata as a model, we found that sentinel egg masses were subject to intense predation within both Michigan and Iowa soybean fields, with 60.7% of egg masses attacked and 43.0% of available eggs consumed within 48 h. In Michigan, the exotic coccinellids Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis were the most abundant predators found in soybean fields whereas in Iowa, native species including C. maculata, Hippodamia parenthesis and the soft-winged flower beetle Collops nigriceps dominated the predator community. Predator abundance was greater in soybean fields within diverse landscapes, yet variation in predator numbers did not influence the intensity of egg predation observed. In contrast, the strongest predictor of native coccinellid egg predation was the composition of edge habitats bordering specific fields. Field sites surrounded by semi-natural habitats including forests, restored prairies, old fields, and pasturelands experienced greater egg predation than fields surrounded by other croplands. This study shows

  17. Multiple conformations of proteins in native state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Examples of protein sequences that can adopt multiple native states are recently accumulated. Characterization of the protein multiple conformations will have important implications for our understanding of the relationship between structure and function, and their folding kinetics. In present review, the experimental evidence for the existence of multiple conformations in the native state of proteins, the molecular basis and the biological significance of multiple conformations of proteins are focused.

  18. Should Australia Export its Native Birds?

    OpenAIRE

    Kingwell, Ross S.

    1994-01-01

    Commercial export from Australia of native birds, wild or captive bred, is prohibited. This paper firstly describes the current legislation and regulations that restrict the export of native birds and discusses why governments have adopted such a regulatory approach to bird species preservation. Secondly, the paper reviews the debate concerning the export ban, pointing out strengths and weaknesses in arguments and indicating the important role of CITES. Lastly, the paper outlines a new case f...

  19. Functional characterization on native starch of Peruvian native potatoes (Solanum phureja)

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, P.; Málaga, A.; Betalleluz, I.; Ibarz, A; C. Velezmoro

    2015-01-01

    There are many varieties of native potatoes grown in different regions of Peru, usually for farmers´ consumption. However, the possibility of a commercial use has led this work in order to give them added value. To evaluate the possibility of use of native starch from these potatoes, as an ingredient in the food industry, it was presented as objective to determine the physicochemical, functional and viscoelastic native potato starches obtained from Pampacorral properties (Cuzco, Peru): Puka A...

  20. Apology Strategy in English By Native Speaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezia Kemala Sari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This research discussed apology strategies in English by native speaker. This descriptive study was presented within the framework of Pragmatics based on the forms of strategies due to the coding manual as found in CCSARP (Cross-Cultural Speech Acts Realization Project.The goals of this study were to describe the apology strategies in English by native speaker and identify the influencing factors of it. Data were collected through the use of the questionnaire in the form of Discourse Completion Test, which was distributed to 30 native speakers. Data were classified based on the degree of familiarity and the social distance between speaker and hearer and then the data of native will be separated and classified by the type of strategies in coding manual. The results of this study are the pattern of apology strategies of native speaker brief with the pattern that potentially occurs IFID plus Offer of repair plus Taking on responsibility. While Alerters, Explanation and Downgrading appear with less number of percentage. Then, the factors that influence the apology utterance by native speakers are the social situation, the degree of familiarity and degree of the offence which more complicated the mistake tend to produce the most complex utterances by the speaker.

  1. How do immigrants fare during the downturn? Evidence from matching comparable natives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Paggiaro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This paper provides empirical evidence regarding the supposed vulnerability of immigrants to the recent economic downturn. OBJECTIVE Our purpose is to understand whether immigrant workers are suffering more from the downturn and, if so, to disentangle whether this is related to being an immigrant or to specific characteristics that make immigrants different from natives. METHODS We use longitudinal data from the Italian Labour Force Survey to compare immigrant and native workers, matched for observable personal, household, and job characteristics by propensity score methods. RESULTS Immigrant workers face a higher probability of ending an ongoing employment spell because their characteristics are more likely associated with higher separation rates, while, when comparing similar workers, differences with natives disappear. In 2009 job separations increased for all male workers, but the impact was stronger for immigrants, mainly because of their characteristics. On the contrary, both groups of female workers showed a slightly lower probability of losing a job in 2009, so that observed differences remained the same before and after the downturn. CONCLUSIONS The impact of the downturn differs markedly by gender, with only male workers being affected. Among these, immigrants suffer more than natives, as their observable characteristics are more associated with losing a job. When comparing only comparable workers, immigrant status itself has no impact on separation rates.

  2. Hybridization rapidly reduces fitness of a native trout in the wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, C.C.; Kalinowski, S.T.; McMahon, T.E.; Taper, M.L.; Painter, S.; Leary, R.F.; Allendorf, F.W.

    2009-01-01

    Human-mediated hybridization is a leading cause of biodiversity loss worldwide. How hybridization affects fitness and what level of hybridization is permissible pose difficult conservation questions with little empirical information to guide policy and management decisions. This is particularly true for salmonids, where widespread introgression among non-native and native taxa has often created hybrid swarms over extensive geographical areas resulting in genomic extinction. Here, we used parentage analysis with multilocus microsatellite markers to measure how varying levels of genetic introgression with non-native rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) affect reproductive success (number of offspring per adult) of native westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) in the wild. Small amounts of hybridization markedly reduced fitness of male and female trout, with reproductive success sharply declining by approximately 50 per cent, with only 20 per cent admixture. Despite apparent fitness costs, our data suggest that hybridization may spread due to relatively high reproductive success of first-generation hybrids and high reproductive success of a few males with high levels of admixture. This outbreeding depression suggests that even low levels of admixture may have negative effects on fitness in the wild and that policies protecting hybridized populations may need reconsideration. ?? 2009 The Royal Society.

  3. The online application of binding condition B in native and non-native pronoun resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Clare; Trompelt, Helena; Felser, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that anaphor resolution in a non-native language may be more vulnerable to interference from structurally inappropriate antecedents compared to native anaphor resolution. To test whether previous findings on reflexive anaphors generalize to non-reflexive pronouns, we carried out an eye-movement monitoring study investigating the application of binding condition B during native and non-native sentence processing. In two online reading experiments we examined when during processing local and/or non-local antecedents for pronouns were considered in different types of syntactic environment. Our results demonstrate that both native English speakers and native German-speaking learners of English showed online sensitivity to binding condition B in that they did not consider syntactically inappropriate antecedents. For pronouns thought to be exempt from condition B (so-called "short-distance pronouns"), the native readers showed a weak preference for the local antecedent during processing. The non-native readers, on the other hand, showed a preference for the matrix subject even where local coreference was permitted, and despite demonstrating awareness of short-distance pronouns' referential ambiguity in a complementary offline task. This indicates that non-native comprehenders are less sensitive during processing to structural cues that render pronouns exempt from condition B, and prefer to link a pronoun to a salient subject antecedent instead.

  4. The Native Comic Book Project: native youth making comics and healthy decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Michelle; Manuelito, Brenda; Nass, Carrie; Chock, Tami; Buchwald, Dedra

    2012-04-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives have traditionally used stories and drawings to positively influence the well-being of their communities. The objective of this study was to describe the development of a curriculum that trains Native youth leaders to plan, write, and design original comic books to enhance healthy decision making. Project staff developed the Native Comic Book Project by adapting Dr. Michael Bitz's Comic Book Project to incorporate Native comic book art, Native storytelling, and decision-making skills. After conducting five train-the-trainer sessions for Native youth, staff were invited by youth participants to implement the full curriculum as a pilot test at one tribal community site in the Pacific Northwest. Implementation was accompanied by surveys and weekly participant observations and was followed by an interactive meeting to assess youth engagement, determine project acceptability, and solicit suggestions for curriculum changes. Six youths aged 12 to 15 (average age = 14) participated in the Native Comic Book Project. Youth participants stated that they liked the project and gained knowledge of the harmful effects of commercial tobacco use but wanted better integration of comic book creation, decision making, and Native storytelling themes. Previous health-related comic book projects did not recruit youth as active producers of content. This curriculum shows promise as a culturally appropriate intervention to help Native youth adopt healthy decision-making skills and healthy behaviors by creating their own comic books.

  5. The online application of binding condition B in native and non-native pronoun resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare ePatterson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that anaphor resolution in a non-native language may be more vulnerable to interference from structurally inappropriate antecedents compared to native anaphor resolution. To test whether previous findings on reflexive anaphors generalise to non-reflexive pronouns, we carried out an eye-movement monitoring study investigating the application of binding condition B during native and non-native sentence processing. In two online reading experiments we examined when during processing local and/or non-local antecedents for pronouns were considered in different types of syntactic environment. Our results demonstrate that both native English speakers and native German-speaking learners of English showed online sensitivity to binding condition B in that they did not consider syntactically inappropriate antecedents. For pronouns thought to be exempt from condition B (so-called 'short-distance pronouns', the native readers showed a weak preference for the local antecedent during processing. The non-native readers, on the other hand, showed a preference for the matrix subject even where local coreference was permitted, and despite demonstrating awareness of short-distance pronouns' referential ambiguity in a complementary offline task. This indicates that non-native comprehenders are less sensitive during processing to structural cues that render pronouns exempt from condition B, and prefer to link a pronoun to a salient subject antecedent instead.

  6. Refractory, Abrasive and Other Industrial Mineral Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes refractory, abrasive, and other industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals...

  7. VT Mineral Resources - MRDS Extract

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) MRDSVT is an extract from the Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS) covering the State of Vermont only. MRDS database contains the records provided...

  8. Nondigestible carbohydrates and mineral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greger, J L

    1999-07-01

    Generally, fiber and compounds associated with fiber in cereal products (e.g., phytates) have been found to reduce the apparent absorption of minerals (such as calcium, magnesium, zinc and manganese) in humans, livestock and animal models. The effects of "soluble" forms of fiber (specifically pectins, gums, resistant starches, lactulose, oligofructose and inulin) on mineral absorption are more difficult to characterize. The addition of these soluble forms of fiber has been found in various studies to add viscosity to the gut contents, promote fermentation and the production of volatile fatty acids in the cecum, have a trophic effect on the ceca of animals and increase serum enteroglucagon concentrations. Thus it is not surprising that the addition of soluble forms of fiber to diets often has been found to improve absorption of minerals. This may reflect absorption of electrolytes from the large intestine. Future work should address the mechanisms by which ingestion of nondigestible carbohydrates improves mineral absorption in humans.

  9. BET measurements: Outgassing of minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2000-01-01

    Outgassing minerals at elevated temperatures prior to BET measurements can lead to phase changes, especially in the case of amorphous and poorly crystalline materials. In order to evaluate the applicability of the BET method when low outgassing temperatures are required, selected aquifer minerals...... were outgassed at different temperatures and for different times. The studied minerals are 2-line ferrihydrite, goethite, lepidocrocite, quartz, calcite, ®-alumina, and kaolinite. The results demonstrate that measured specific surface areas of iron oxides are strongly dependent on outgassing conditions...... because the surface area increased by 170% with increasing temperature. In the poorly crystalline minerals, phase changes caused by heating were observed at temperatures lower than 100±C. Therefore low outgassing temperatures are preferable for minimizing phase changes. As demonstrated in this study...

  10. Infrared spectra of mineral species

    CERN Document Server

    Chukanov, Nikita V

    2014-01-01

    This book details more than 3,000 IR spectra of more than 2,000 mineral species collected during last 30 years. It features full descriptions and analytical data of each sample for which IR spectrum was obtained.

  11. Male infertility microsurgical training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akanksha Mehta; Philip S Li

    2013-01-01

    Microsurgical training is imperative for urologists and clinical andrologists specializing in male infertility.Success in male infertility microsurgery is heavily dependent on the surgeon's microsurgical skills.Laboratory-based practice to enhance microsurgical skills improves the surgeon's confidence,and reduces stress and operating time,benefiting both the patient and the surgeon.This review provides guidelines for setting up a microsurgical laboratory to develop and enhance microsurgical skills using synthetic and animal models.The role of emerging techniques,such as robotic-assisted microsurgery,is also discussed.

  12. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111673 Cao Ban(Zhejiang Institute of Geological & Mineral Resources,Hangzhou 310007,China);Ma Jun Determination of 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Groundwater by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence-Ultraviolet Detector(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,29(5),2010,p.539-542,2 illus.,4 tables,15 refs.)Key words:liquid chromatography,polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,fluorescence analysis

  13. Mineral resources of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kušnír Imrich

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam je bohatý na nerastné suroviny, ktoré sa nachádzajú prevažne na severe krajiny. Ložiská bauxitov, fosfátov, vzácnych zemín (REE, majú svetový význam. Ale i zásoby celého radu ïalších surovín (ropy, uhlia, zlata, železných rúd, chromitu, cínu, ilmenitu, medi, grafitu, atï. sú významné, ekonomicky ažite¾né a ich potenciál je obrovský. Za uvedené nerastné bohatstvo je „zodpovednᓠrozmanitá geologická stavba krajiny. Taktiež i morfológia a klíma (vlhká, tropická prispeli ku vytvoreniu niektorých ložísk (bauxity v krasových priehlbniach, atï.. Súèasná produkcia, okrem ropy (3,5 Mt/rok, zahròuje: 10,7 Mt uhlia, 3,5 Mt chromitu, asi 1 000 kg zlata, grafitu, kaolínu a mnohé iné minerály. Napriek tomu, je banícky priemysel v porovnaní so surovinovou základòou slabo vyvinutý. K jeho rozvoju urèite prispeje i úèas zahranièných spoloèností, odnedávna prítomných pri prieskume a ažbe surovín urèených pre export. Okrem struèného úvodu do geológie krajiny, obsahuje tento èlánok krátky popis nerastného bohatstva Vietnamu.

  14. Stomach cancer incidence rates among Americans, Asian Americans and Native Asians from 1988 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeerae; Park, Jinju; Nam, Byung-Ho; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    Stomach cancer is the second most common cancer in Eastern Asia, accounting for approximately 50% of all new cases of stomach cancer worldwide. Our objective was to compare the stomach cancer incidence rates of Asian Americans in Los Angeles with those of native Asians to assess the etiology of stomach cancer from 1988 to 2011. To examine these differences, Asian Americans (Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino Americans living in Los Angeles, California, USA) and native Asians (from Korea, Japan, China, and the Philippines) were selected for this study. Using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents database, stomach cancer incidence rates were examined. Data from the National Cancer Registry of Korea were used for native Koreans. Between native countries, the incidence rates in Japan, China, the Philippines, and the US declined over time, but the incidence in Korea has remained constant. The incidences among Asian immigrants were lower than those among native Asians. The incidence rates of males were approximately 2 times higher than those among females in Asian countries were. The effect of immigration on stomach cancer incidence suggests that lifestyle factors are a significant determinant of stomach cancer risk. However, the incidence in Korea remains the highest of these countries.

  15. Effect of life in industrialized societies on hearing in natives of Easter Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goycoolea, M V; Goycoolea, H G; Farfan, C R; Rodriguez, L G; Martinez, G C; Vidal, R

    1986-12-01

    In an effort to determine whether life in industrialized societies can have an effect on hearing, 90 natives from Easter Island over 45 years old were evaluated. They underwent complete clinical and audiological assessment and were divided into groups according to those having lived only on the island or those having lived in modern civilization. With all factors being equal, except exposure to modern civilization, our results showed that living in civilized societies has a significant negative effect on hearing; the severity is directly proportional to the years of exposure. The median hearing thresholds of natives always living on the island (men and women combined) was found to be similar to those of female citizens of the United States; there was no significant difference in hearing thresholds between men and women among these natives. These results suggest that there are no significant inherent racial differences nor significant inherent differences between males and females in the sensitivity of hearing. A relationship between aging and hearing was noted and interpreted as true or intrinsic presbycusis. There were no cases of otosclerosis, Meniere's disease, or exostoses of the external ear canal among natives who had always lived on the island. Pure natives were found not to be prone to otitis media in spite of having an extremely high incidence of severe upper respiratory tract allergies.

  16. Giving back or giving up: Native American student experiences in science and engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jessi L; Cech, Erin; Metz, Anneke; Huntoon, Meghan; Moyer, Christina

    2014-07-01

    Native Americans are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) careers. We examine communal goal incongruence-the mismatch between students' emphasis on communal work goals and the noncommunal culture of STEM-as a possible factor in this underrepresentation. First, we surveyed 80 Native American STEM freshmen and found they more highly endorsed communal goals than individualistic work goals. Next, we surveyed 96 Native American and White American students in STEM and non-STEM majors and confirmed that both Native American men and women in STEM highly endorsed communal goals. In a third study, we conducted a follow-up survey and in-depth interviews with a subset of Native American STEM students in their second semester to assess their experiences of belonging uncertainty, intrinsic motivation, persistence intentions, and perceived performance in STEM as a function of their initial communal work goals. Results demonstrate the prominence of communal goals among incoming Native American freshman (especially compared with White male STEM majors) and the connection between communal goals and feelings of belonging uncertainty, low motivation, and perceived poor performance 1 semester later. The interview data illustrate that these issues are particularly salient for students raised within tribal communities, and that a communal goal orientation is not just a vague desire to "help others," but a commitment to helping their tribal communities. The interviews also highlight the importance of student support programs for fostering feelings of belonging. We end by discussing implications for interventions and institutional changes that may promote Native American student retention in STEM.

  17. Are there differences in injury mortality among refugees and immigrants compared with native-born?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norredam, Marie; Olsbjerg, Maja; Petersen, Jorgen H; Laursen, Bjarne; Krasnik, Allan

    2013-04-01

    The authors studied injury mortality in Denmark among refugees and immigrants compared with that among native Danes. A register-based, historical prospective cohort design. All refugees (n=29, 139) and family reunited immigrants (n=27, 134) who between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 1999 received residence permission were included and matched 1:4 on age and sex with native Danes. Civil registration numbers were cross-linked to the Register of Causes of Death, and fatalities due to unintentional and intentional injuries were identified based on ICD-10 diagnosis. Sex-specific mortality ratios were estimated by migrant status and region of birth, adjusting for age and income and using a Cox regression model after a median follow-up of 11-12 years. Compared with native Danes, both female (RR=0.44; 95% CI 0.23 to 0.83) and male (RR=0.40; 95% CI 0.29 to 0.56) refugees as well as female (RR=0.40; 95% CI 0.21 to 0.76) and male (RR=0.22; 95% CI 0.12 to 0.42) immigrants had significantly lower mortality from unintentional injuries. Suicide rates were significantly lower for male refugees (RR=0.38; 95% CI 0.24 to 0.61) and male immigrants (RR=0.24; 95% CI 0.10 to 0.59), whereas their female counterparts showed no significant differences. Only immigrant women had a significantly higher homicide rate (RR=3.09; 95% CI 1.11 to 8.60) compared with native Danes. Overall results were advantageous to migrant groups. Research efforts should concentrate on investigating protective factors among migrants, which may benefit injury prevention in the majority population.

  18. Second-Language Fluency Predicts Native Language Stroop Effects: Evidence from Spanish–English Bilinguals

    OpenAIRE

    Suarez, Paola A.; Gollan, Tamar H.; Heaton, Robert; Grant, Igor; Cherner, Mariana; Group, HNRC

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown reduced Stroop interference in bilinguals compared to monolinguals defined dichotomously, but no study has explored how varying degrees of second language fluency, might affect linguistic inhibitory control in the first language. We examined effects of relative English fluency on the ability to inhibit the automatic reading response on the Golden version of the Stroop Test administered in Spanish. Participants were 141 (49% male) adult native Spanish speakers from the U.S.–...

  19. Use of stable isotopes and mathematical modelling to investigate human mineral metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainty, J R

    2001-12-01

    Individuals have varying needs for minerals that are dependent, amongst other things, on their lifestyle, age and genetic makeup. Knowledge of exact individual nutritional requirements should lead to better health, increased quality of life and reduced need for expensive medical care. Bioavailability, nutrient-gene interactions and whole-body metabolism all need to be investigated further if we are to progress towards the goal of defining optimal health and nutritional status. The discussion which follows will critically review the latest developments in the area of metabolism for several of the minerals that are essential for human health: Ca, Zn, Cu and Se. Stable-isotope tracers and mathematical modelling are some of the tools being used to facilitate the greater understanding in uptake, utilisation and excretion of these minerals. Stable isotopes, administered in physiological doses, present little or no risk to volunteers and allow metabolic studies to be carried out in vulnerable population groups such as children and pregnant women. Intrinsic labelling of foodstuffs ensures that the tracer and the native mineral will behave similarly once inside the body. Advances in computing power and software dedicated to solving nutritional problems have made it possible for investigators to use mathematical modelling in their experimental work. Mineral metabolism is ideally suited to a form of modelling known as compartmental analysis, which allows rates of mineral transferand sizes of mineral stores to be calculated accurately without the need for invasive sampling of body tissues.

  20. Gifted Native American Students: Underperforming, Under-Identified, and Overlooked

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Marcia; Fugate, C. Matthew

    2012-01-01

    There has been limited focus among researchers on the nature and needs of gifted Native American students in the past 30 years, and the work that has been done frequently generalizes findings across Native American cultures. This article reviews recent literature on Native American youth and on gifted Native American students; examines the current…

  1. 45 CFR 670.20 - Designation of native birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of native birds. 670.20 Section 670.20... CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates § 670.20 Designation of native birds. The following are designated native birds: Albatross...

  2. 20 CFR 632.11 - Designation of Native American grantees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Designation of Native American grantees. 632... INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Designation Procedures for Native American Grantees § 632.11 Designation of Native American grantees. (a) When designations are required and...

  3. 45 CFR 670.19 - Designation of native mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of native mammals. 670.19 Section 670... CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates § 670.19 Designation of native mammals. The following are designated native mammals: Pinnipeds: Crabeater seal—Lobodon...

  4. Lycopene and male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Damayanthi Durairajanayagam; Ashok Agarwal; Chloe Ong; Pallavi Prashast

    2014-01-01

    Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Elevated levels of ROS are a major cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. Lycopene, the most potent singlet oxygen quencher of all carotenoids, is a possible treatment option for male infertility because of its antioxidant properties. By reacting with and neutralizing free radicals, lycopene could reduce the incidence of oxidative stress and thus, lessen the damage that would otherwise be inlficted on spermatozoa. It is postulated that lycopene may have other beneifcial effects via nonoxidative mechanisms in the testis, such as gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunoenhancement. Various lycopene supplementation studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown promising results in alleviating male infertility-lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were decreased, while sperm count and viability, and general immunity were increased. Improvement of these parameters indicates a reduction in oxidative stress, and thus the spermatozoa is less vulnerable to oxidative damage, which increases the chances of a normal sperm fertilizing the egg. Human trials have reported improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 4-8 mg of lycopene daily for 3-12 months. However, further detailed and extensive research is still required to determine the dosage and the usefulness of lycopene as a treatment for male infertility.

  5. Male Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... designed to produce, nourish, and transport either the egg or sperm. Unlike the female, whose sex organs are located ... zygote and contains 46 chromosomes — half from the egg and half from the sperm. The genetic material from the male and female ...

  6. Lycopene and male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damayanthi Durairajanayagam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Elevated levels of ROS are a major cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. Lycopene, the most potent singlet oxygen quencher of all carotenoids, is a possible treatment option for male infertility because of its antioxidant properties. By reacting with and neutralizing free radicals, lycopene could reduce the incidence of oxidative stress and thus, lessen the damage that would otherwise be inflicted on spermatozoa. It is postulated that lycopene may have other beneficial effects via nonoxidative mechanisms in the testis, such as gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunoenhancement. Various lycopene supplementation studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown promising results in alleviating male infertility-lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were decreased, while sperm count and viability, and general immunity were increased. Improvement of these parameters indicates a reduction in oxidative stress, and thus the spermatozoa is less vulnerable to oxidative damage, which increases the chances of a normal sperm fertilizing the egg. Human trials have reported improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 4-8 mg of lycopene daily for 3-12 months. However, further detailed and extensive research is still required to determine the dosage and the usefulness of lycopene as a treatment for male infertility.

  7. A tortoiseshell male cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A. S.; Berg, Lise Charlotte; Almstrup, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    . Immunostaining using anti-vimentin and anti-VASA (DDX4) showed that only Sertoli cells and no germ cells were observed in the testicular tubules. As no sign of spermatogenesis was detected, we conclude that this is a classic case of a sterile, male tortoiseshell cat with a 39,XXY chromosome complement. © 2013 S...

  8. Male rat sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agmo, A

    1997-05-01

    The male rat's sexual behavior constitutes a highly ordered sequence of motor acts involving both striate and smooth muscles. It is spontaneously displayed by most adult made rats in the presence of a sexually receptive female. Although the behavior is important for the survival of the species it is not necessary for survival of the individual. In that way it is different from other spontaneous behaviors such as eating, drinking, avoidance of pain, respiration or thermoregulation. Among other things, this means that it is difficult to talk about sexual deprivation or need. Nevertheless, studies of male sex behavior distinguish sexual motivation (the ease by which behavior is activated, "libido") from the execution of copulatory acts (performance, "potency") (Meisel, R.L. and Sachs, B.D., The physiology of male sexual behavior. In: E. Knobil and J.D. Neill (Eds.), The Physiology of Reproduction, 2nd Edn., Vol. 2, Raven Press, New York, 1994, pp. 3-105 [13]). The hormonal control of male sexual behavior has been extensively studied. It is clear that steroid hormones, androgens and estrogens, act within the central nervous system, modifying neuronal excitability. The exact mechanism by which these hormones activate sex behavior remains largely unknown. However, there exists a considerable amount of knowledge concerning the brain structures important for sexual motivation and for the execution of sex behavior. The modulatory role of some non-steroid hormones is partly known, as well as the consequences of manipulations of several neurotransmitter systems.

  9. Predictors of male microchimerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2012-01-01

    logistic regression and thereafter random forest modeling to evaluate the ability of a range of reproductive, lifestyle, hospital or clinic visit history, and other variables to predict whether women tested positive for male microchimerism. We found some indication that current use of contraceptive pills...

  10. Hydrothermal processes in partially serpentinized peridotites from Costa Rica: evidence from native copper and complex sulfide assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenbach, Esther M.; Gazel, Esteban; Caddick, Mark J.

    2014-11-01

    Native metals and metal alloys are common in serpentinized ultramafic rocks, generally representing the redox and sulfur conditions during serpentinization. Variably serpentinized peridotites from the Santa Elena Ophiolite in Costa Rica contain an unusual assemblage of Cu-bearing sulfides and native copper. The opaque mineral assemblage consists of pentlandite, magnetite, awaruite, pyrrhotite, heazlewoodite, violarite, smythite and copper-bearing sulfides (Cu-pentlandite, sugakiite [Cu(Fe,Ni)8S8], samaniite [Cu2(Fe,Ni)7S8], chalcopyrite, chalcocite, bornite and cubanite), native copper and copper-iron-nickel alloys. Using detailed mineralogical examination, electron microprobe analyses, bulk rock major and trace element geochemistry, and thermodynamic calculations, we discuss two models to explain the formation of the Cu-bearing mineral assemblages: (1) they formed through desulfurization of primary sulfides due to highly reducing and sulfur-depleted conditions during serpentinization or (2) they formed through interaction with a Cu-bearing, higher temperature fluid (350-400 °C) postdating serpentinization, similar to processes in active high-temperature peridotite-hosted hydrothermal systems such as Rainbow and Logatchev. As mass balance calculations cannot entirely explain the extent of the native copper by desulfurization of primary sulfides, we propose that the native copper and Cu sulfides formed by local addition of a hydrothermal fluid that likely interacted with adjacent mafic sequences. We suggest that the peridotites today exposed on Santa Elena preserve the lower section of an ancient hydrothermal system, where conditions were highly reducing and water-rock ratios very low. Thus, the preserved mineral textures and assemblages give a unique insight into hydrothermal processes occurring at depth in peridotite-hosted hydrothermal systems.

  11. Associations of psychological capital, demographic and occupational factors with cigarette smoking among Chinese underground coal miners

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Li; Xu, Xin; Wu, Hui; Yang, Yilong; Wang, Lie

    2015-01-01

    Background As a specific male occupational group, underground coal miners have been commonly found to have a high prevalence of cigarette smoking. It is of urgent need to explore some factors that could be intervened to reduce smoking from personal or internal perspective. The purpose of the present study was to examine the associations of psychological capital (PsyCap), demographic and occupational factors with smoking among Chinese underground coal miners. Methods A cross-sectional survey w...

  12. Defining reactive sites on hydrated mineral surfaces: Rhombohedral carbonate minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Jiménez, Adrián; Mucci, Alfonso; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Schott, Jacques

    2009-08-01

    Despite the success of surface complexation models (SCMs) to interpret the adsorptive properties of mineral surfaces, their construct is sometimes incompatible with fundamental chemical and/or physical constraints, and thus, casts doubts on the physical-chemical significance of the derived model parameters. In this paper, we address the definition of primary surface sites (i.e., adsorption units) at hydrated carbonate mineral surfaces and discuss its implications to the formulation and calibration of surface equilibria for these minerals. Given the abundance of experimental and theoretical information on the structural properties of the hydrated (10.4) cleavage calcite surface, this mineral was chosen for a detailed theoretical analysis of critical issues relevant to the definition of primary surface sites. Accordingly, a single, generic charge-neutral surface site ( tbnd CaCO 3·H 2O 0) is defined for this mineral whereupon mass-action expressions describing adsorption equilibria were formulated. The one-site scheme, analogous to previously postulated descriptions of metal oxide surfaces, allows for a simple, yet realistic, molecular representation of surface reactions and provides a generalized reference state suitable for the calculation of sorption equilibria for rhombohedral carbonate minerals via Law of Mass Action (LMA) and Gibbs Energy Minimization (GEM) approaches. The one-site scheme is extended to other rhombohedral carbonate minerals and tested against published experimental data for magnesite and dolomite in aqueous solutions. A simplified SCM based on this scheme can successfully reproduce surface charge, reasonably simulate the electrokinetic behavior of these minerals, and predict surface speciation agreeing with available spectroscopic data. According to this model, a truly amphoteric behavior is displayed by these surfaces across the pH scale but at circum-neutral pH (5.8-8.2) and relatively high ΣCO 2 (⩾1 mM), proton/bicarbonate co

  13. Study on mineral processing technology for abrasive minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Woong; Yang, Jung Il; Hwang, Seon Kook; Choi, Yeon Ho; Cho, Ken Joon; Shin, Hee Young [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Buyeo Materials in Buyeogun, Choongnam province is a company producing feldspar concentrate, but does not yet utilize the garnet as abrasive material and other useful heavy minerals wasted out from the process of feldspar ore. The purpose of this study is to develop technology and process for the recovery of garnet concentrate. As results, the garnet is defined as ferro manganese garnet. The optimum process for recovery of garnet concentrate is to primarily concentrate heavy minerals from tailings of feldspar processing. And secondly the heavy minerals concentrated is dried and separated garnet concentrate from other heavy minerals. At this time, the garnet concentrate is yield by 0.176%wt from 0.31%wt of heavy minerals in head ore. The garnet concentrate contains 33.35% SiO{sub 2}, 12.20% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 28.47% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 11.96% MnO. As for utilization of abrasive materials, a fundamental data was established on technology of grinding and classification. (author). 13 refs., 47 figs., 24 tabs.

  14. Mineral commodity profiles: nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    Overview -- Nitrogen (N) is an essential element of life and a part of all animal and plant proteins. As a part of the DNA and RNA molecules, nitrogen is an essential constituent of each individual's genetic blueprint. As an essential element in the chlorophyll molecule, nitrogen is vital to a plant's ability to photosynthesize. Some crop plants, such as alfalfa, peas, peanuts, and soybeans, can convert atmospheric nitrogen into a usable form by a process referred to as 'fixation.' Most of the nitrogen that is available for crop production, however, comes from decomposing animal and plant waste or from commercially produced fertilizers. Commercial fertilizers contain nitrogen in the form of ammonium and/or nitrate or in a form that is quickly converted to the ammonium or nitrate form once the fertilizer is applied to the soil. Ammonia is generally the source of nitrogen in fertilizers. Anhydrous ammonia is commercially produced by reacting nitrogen with hydrogen under high temperatures and pressures. The source of nitrogen is the atmosphere, which is almost 80 percent nitrogen. Hydrogen is derived from a variety of raw materials, which include water, and crude oil, coal, and natural gas hydrocarbons. Nitrogen-based fertilizers are produced from ammonia feedstocks through a variety of chemical processes. Small quantities of nitrates are produced from mineral resources principally in Chile. In 2002, anhydrous ammonia and other nitrogen materials were produced in more than 70 countries. Global ammonia production was 108 million metric tons (Mt) of contained nitrogen. With 28 percent of this total, China was the largest producer of ammonia. Asia contributed 46 percent of total world ammonia production, and countries of the former U.S.S.R. represented 13 percent. North America also produced 13 percent of the total; Western Europe, 9 percent; the Middle East, 7 percent; Central America and South America, 5 percent; Eastern Europe, 3 percent; and Africa and Oceania

  15. An invasive non-native mammal population conserves genetic diversity lost from its native range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, A J; Holland, O J; McDonald, R A; Clout, M N; Gleeson, D M

    2015-05-01

    Invasive, non-native species are one of the major causes of global biodiversity loss. Although they are, by definition, successful in their non-native range, their populations generally show major reductions in their genetic diversity during the demographic bottleneck they experience during colonization. By investigating the mitochondrial genetic diversity of an invasive non-native species, the stoat Mustela erminea, in New Zealand and comparing it to diversity in the species' native range in Great Britain, we reveal the opposite effect. We demonstrate that the New Zealand stoat population contains four mitochondrial haplotypes that have not been found in the native range. Stoats in Britain rely heavily on introduced rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus as their primary prey and were introduced to New Zealand in a misguided attempt at biological control of rabbits, which had also been introduced there. While invasive stoats have since decimated the New Zealand avifauna, native stoat populations were themselves decimated by the introduction to Britain of Myxoma virus as a control measure for rabbits. We highlight the irony that while introduced species (rabbits) and subsequent biocontrol (myxomatosis) have caused population crashes of native stoats, invasive stoats in New Zealand, which were also introduced for biological control, now contain more genetic haplotypes than their most likely native source. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A Corpus-Based Study of Adverbial Connectors in Native and Non-native Students’ Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    WANG, Yan-jun; Li, Rui

    2016-01-01

    , this paper firstly makes a comparison to the usage of adverbial connectors in their writings of the native students and non-native students and then exposes a distinctive gap between these two types of writings in usage of adverbial connectors. In order to help Chinese second-language learners acquire...

  17. Patterns of English phoneme confusions by native and non-native listeners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.; Weber, A.C.; Smits, R.; Cooper, N.

    2004-01-01

    Native American English and non-native (Dutch) listeners identified either the consonant or the vowel in all possible American English CV and VC syllables. The syllables were embedded in multispeaker babble at three signal-to-noise ratios (0, 8, and 16 dB). The phoneme identification performance of

  18. No More Mad-Dog Concept Nativism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Japola DesVergnes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available According to Jerry Fodor, there are two possibilities with respect to the origin of concepts: a concept is either innate, or it is acquired from experience by means of the process of ‘concept learning.’ Fodor’s view in his 1975 and 1980 is that the empiricist method of concept acquisition, forming and testing hypotheses about objects that fall under a concept, can only work for complex concepts. He claims that we must possess some concepts in order to form hypotheses, so none of our simple (or primitive concepts can be learned. If we have them—then they must be innate. In his 2008 Fodor contends furthermore that no new concepts at all, neither primitive, nor complex, can be learned, and so that all concepts must be innate. I argue that Fodor’s famous mad-dog concept nativism should be rejected because it could only work together with what I call neural nativism, and the latter turns out to be scientifically untenable. In addition, I suggest that one’s position in the empiricism/nativism debate should be a function of one’s account of the architecture of the mind, which, in Fodor’s case, only implies architectural nativism, and so, the existence of innate mechanisms. It neither obviously requires, nor precludes, representational—or concept—nativism.

  19. Mineralization of mandibular third molars can estimate chronological age--Brazilian indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Fernando Toledo; Capelozza, Ana Lúcia Álvares; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; de Bullen, Izabel Regina Fischer Rubira

    2012-06-10

    Forensic age estimation is an important element of anthropological research, as it produces one of the primary sources of data that researchers use to establish the identity of a person living or the identity of unknown bodily remains. The aim of this study was to determine if the chronology of third molar mineralization could be an accurate indicator of estimated age in a sample Brazilian population. If so, mineralization could determine the probability of an individual being 18 years or older. The study evaluated 407 panoramic radiographs of males and females from the past 5 years in order to assess the mineralization status of the mandibular third molars. The evaluation was carried out using an adaptation of Demirjian's system. The results indicated a strong correlation between chronological age and the mineralization of the mandibular third molars. The results indicated that modern Brazilian generation tends to demonstrate an earlier mandibular third molar mineralization than older Brazilian generation and people of other nationalities. Males reached developmental stages slightly earlier than females, but statistically significant differences between the sex were not found. The probability that an individual with third molar mineralization stage H had reached an age of 18 years or older was 96.8-98.6% for males and females, respectively.

  20. Diabetic retinopathy in native and non-native Sarawakians--findings from the Diabetic Eye Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallika, P S; Aziz, S; Goh, P P; Lee, P Y; Cheah, W L; Chong, M S; Tan, A K

    2012-08-01

    This study aims to determine the risk factors associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) among natives and non-natives Sarawakians who were seen at 3 public hospitals and one health clinic in Sarawak. It is a cross sectional study where data on patients with DM were collected by staff at these healthcare facilities and entered into the web-based Diabetic Eye Registry. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to determine the association factors for DR. DR was significantly less associated with natives (24.4%) compared to non-native Sarawakians (34.1%) (p < 0.001). The odds of getting DR was higher in patients whose duration of DM was more than 20 years (OR = 2.6), who have renal impairment (OR = 1.7) and non-natives (OR = 1.4).

  1. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mineral oil. 573.680 Section 573.680 Food and... Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Mineral oil, for the purpose of this section, is that complying with the...

  2. U.S. Geological Survey Activities Related to American Indians and Alaska Natives: Fiscal Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    ), or other Federal agencies. The USGS routinely works with its sister bureaus in the Department of the Interior to provide the scientific information and expertise needed to meet the Department's science priorities. Some USGS activities described in this report are conducted as collateral tasks that result from USGS employees identifying and responding to perceived needs. These endeavors are usually prompted by employee interests and frequently involve educational activities. The education is often a reciprocal learning and teaching experience for USGS employees and for Native participants. Through these activities, USGS employees help to fulfill a mission of the USGS - to demonstrate scientific relevance - while helping their fellow citizens. Increasingly, some of the educational activities are becoming parts of formal USGS projects. USGS employees also take initiative in assisting American Indians and Alaska Natives by participating in several organizations that promote awareness of science career opportunities among Native peoples and help build support and communication networks. One such group is the American Indian Science and Engineering Society (AISES). USGS employees join this organization on a voluntary basis, bringing the benefits of this expanded network to the USGS, as many employees do with other professional organizations. The studies briefly described in this report span subsistence issues, wildlife health, water quality, mineral resources, monitoring and modeling to gather information and predict what may happen in the future. Although each project description relates to Native Americans in some way, the projects vary widely, including who conducted the work, the goals and products, the duration of the study, and whether it was local or covered a broad area. Each major organizational unit of the USGS has identified an American Indian/Alaska Native liaison. The USGS has a regional organizational structure, with Western, Central,

  3. Co-operative mineralization and protein self-assembly in amelogenesis: silica mineralization and assembly of recombinant amelogenins in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Christabel E; Beniash, Elia; Yamakoshi, Yasuo; Simmer, James P; Margolis, Henry C

    2006-05-01

    An amorphous silica mineralization technique was used to produce inorganic/protein composites to elucidate the structure and mechanism of formation of amelogenin assemblies, which may play an important role in regulating enamel structure during the initial stages of amelogenesis. Full-length recombinant amelogenins from mouse (rM179) and pig (rP172) were investigated along with key degradation products (rM166 and native P148) lacking the hydrophilic C terminus found in parent molecules. The resulting products were examined using transmission electron microscopy and/or small-angle X-ray scattering. Using protein concentrations of 0.1-3 mg ml-1, large monodisperse spheres of remarkably similar mean diameters were observed using rM179 (124+/-4 nm) and rP172 (126+/-7 nm). These spheres also exhibited 'internal structure', comprising nearly spherical monodisperse particles of approximately 20 nm in diameter. In the presence of rM166, P148, and bovine serum albumin (control), large unstructured and randomly shaped particles (250-1000 nm) were observed. Without added protein, large dense spherical particles of silica (mean approximately 500 nm) lacking internal structure were produced. These findings demonstrate that full-length amelogenins have the ability to form higher-order structures, whereas amelogenins that lack the hydrophilic C terminus do not. The results also suggest that full-length amelogenin can guide the formation of organized mineralized structures through co-operative interactions between assembling protein and forming mineral.

  4. Decoding speech perception by native and non-native speakers using single-trial electrophysiological data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Brandmeyer

    Full Text Available Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs are systems that use real-time analysis of neuroimaging data to determine the mental state of their user for purposes such as providing neurofeedback. Here, we investigate the feasibility of a BCI based on speech perception. Multivariate pattern classification methods were applied to single-trial EEG data collected during speech perception by native and non-native speakers. Two principal questions were asked: 1 Can differences in the perceived categories of pairs of phonemes be decoded at the single-trial level? 2 Can these same categorical differences be decoded across participants, within or between native-language groups? Results indicated that classification performance progressively increased with respect to the categorical status (within, boundary or across of the stimulus contrast, and was also influenced by the native language of individual participants. Classifier performance showed strong relationships with traditional event-related potential measures and behavioral responses. The results of the cross-participant analysis indicated an overall increase in average classifier performance when trained on data from all participants (native and non-native. A second cross-participant classifier trained only on data from native speakers led to an overall improvement in performance for native speakers, but a reduction in performance for non-native speakers. We also found that the native language of a given participant could be decoded on the basis of EEG data with accuracy above 80%. These results indicate that electrophysiological responses underlying speech perception can be decoded at the single-trial level, and that decoding performance systematically reflects graded changes in the responses related to the phonological status of the stimuli. This approach could be used in extensions of the BCI paradigm to support perceptual learning during second language acquisition.

  5. Effect of mineral processing wastewater on flotation of sulfide minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-ming; LIU Run-qing; SUN Wei; QIU Guan-zhou

    2009-01-01

    The effects of mineral processing wastewater on sulfide minerals were investigated by flotation, infrared spectrometry and electrochemistry test. The results show that lead-concentrate water can improve the flotation of galena, while the sulfur-concentrate water has negative effect on flotation of galena compared with distilled water. The flotation behavior of pyrite is contrary to that of galena in three kinds of water. Infrared spectra indicate that the residual collector in the lead-concentrate water is beneficial to the formation of lead xanthate on the surface of galena. Electrochemistry results indicate that electrochemistry reaction on galena surface has apparent change. The anode polarization is improved and cathode polarization is depressed.

  6. Chronological age estimation of third molar mineralization of Han in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Dong Lin; Wu, Zhi Ling; Cui, Min Yi

    2010-03-01

    In order to study the chronology of age of third molar mineralization of Han in southern China, Demirjian staging method was used to determine the stage of four third molars (18, 28, 38, 48) mineralization in 3,100 Han in southern China aged 4.1-26.9 years based on radiological evidence from digital orthopantomograms. The mean age of the 3,100 patients was 15.96 +/- 4.73 years, including 1,200 male (mean age, 15.32 +/- 4.62) and 1,900 female (mean age, 16.35 +/- 4.76). Results show that there was no significant difference in mineralization between 18 and 28 and 38 and 48 of male or female. However, significant difference was observed between 28 and 38 of female at stage C; 28 was 0.25 years earlier than 38. In male, at stage G, 38 was 0.61 years earlier than 28, and 48 was 0.62 years earlier than 18. At stages D, E, F, G, and H, male 48 was 0.34, 0.66, 0.72, 1.34, and 0.76 years earlier than that of female, respectively. At stages A, D, E, F, G, and H, male 38 was 0.73, 0.26, 0.56, 0.91, 1.29, and 0.70 years earlier than that of female, respectively. At stages B, E, F, G, and H, the mineralization mean age of male 18 was 0.54, 0.50, 0.76, 0.92, and 0.58 years earlier than that of female, respectively. At stages E, F, G, and H, the mineralization mean age of male 28 was 0.51, 0.76, 0.92, and 0.49 years earlier than that of female, respectively. After reviewing the literature, the chronological mineralization age of 48, at stages D to G, of Han in southern China was 1 to 4.6 years earlier than that of Japanese and 1 to 3 years earlier than that of German. The mean age at stage H of 48 of Han in southern China was similar to Turkish, Black African, Japanese, and German, but was later than Spanish. Finally, the conclusions are: (1) in the same gender group of Han in southern China, the mineralization ages between two sides in upper or lower jaw are very similar, and (2) the chronology mean age and complete time of third molar mineralization of male were earlier than

  7. Conceptual geologic model and native state model of the Roosevelt Hot Springs hydrothermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulder, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    A conceptual geologic model of the Roosevelt Hot Springs hydrothermal system was developed by a review of the available literature. The hydrothermal system consists of a meteoric recharge area in the Mineral Mountains, fluid circulation paths to depth, a heat source, and an outflow plume. A conceptual model based on the available data can be simulated in the native state using parameters that fall within observed ranges. The model temperatures, recharge rates, and fluid travel times are sensitive to the permeability in the Mineral Mountains. The simulation results suggests the presence of a magma chamber at depth as the likely heat source. A two-dimensional study of the hydrothermal system can be used to establish boundary conditions for further study of the geothermal reservoir. 33 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeon-Soo; Kim, Dae-Won; Chun, Se-Yoon; Sung, Samsun; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal; Oh, Sung-Jong

    2014-10-01

    Indigenous (native) breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB) which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/) provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed's characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  9. Managing the Sacred Lands of Native America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne T. Ornelas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research paper is a review of ten years of sacred lands management and policy in the United States. The author reports from the unique position of having been involved in national and international meetings with communities of indigenous peoples and intergovernmental stakeholders during this time. Discussion includesan historical overview of such topics as environmental justice and the 2001 Native American Sacred Lands Forum, one of the first national meetings in the United States to specifically address the sacred lands of Native Americans. Further discussion draws attention to the adoption of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in 2007 as a gateway to better sacred lands management and policy for Native Americans in the future.

  10. Discovery of Cu-Zn, Cu-Sn intermetallic minerals and its significance for genesis of the Mianning-Dechang REE Metallogenic Belt, Sichuan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Yuling; HOU Zengqian; XU Jiuhua; YUAN Zhongxin; BAI Ge; LI Xiaoyu

    2006-01-01

    Mianning-Dechang Himalayan REE Metallogenetic Belt in Sichuan Province lies along the western margin of the Yangtze Craton. We have conducted detailed mineralogical studies on ore minerals collected from Maoniuping and Dalucao, the two largest deposits in the belt. With optical microscope, SEM/EDS, and EPMA, three rare intermetallic minerals, i.e., zinccopperite (Cu2Zn), Sn- bearing native copper, and Cu-bearing jupiter were found to occur in the main ore along with barite, fluorite, apatite, sulfide and bastnaesite. Since the conditions under which zinccopperite and Sn- bearing native copper formed are quite unique, finding of these minerals, for the first time in domestic REE deposits, has significant implications for the genesis of the ore deposits in which they occur. In comparison with Cu-Zn intermetallic minerals in other occurrences, we propose that the formation of this REE metallogenetic belt is associated with fast upwelling of the Himalayan magma from deep source.

  11. Male Gender Role Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Daig, Isolde

    2010-01-01

    Background: Men have a higher alcohol and cigarette consumption than women, they use more drugs, they have twice as high a suicide rate and only a minority of men attend on preventive medical checkups. Hypotheses: The central questions of the present study pertained to the identification of dysfunctional aspects of a male self concept and the possible correlations with risk behaviour of men in different age stages. One possible explanation for this high risk behaviour may be higher mascul...

  12. Native Mutant Huntingtin in Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Ellen; Valencia, Antonio; Li, Xueyi; Aronin, Neil; Kegel, Kimberly B.; Vonsattel, Jean-Paul; Young, Anne B.; Wexler, Nancy; DiFiglia, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is caused by polyglutamine expansion in the N terminus of huntingtin (htt). Analysis of human postmortem brain lysates by SDS-PAGE and Western blot reveals htt as full-length and fragmented. Here we used Blue Native PAGE (BNP) and Western blots to study native htt in human postmortem brain. Antisera against htt detected a single band broadly migrating at 575–850 kDa in control brain and at 650–885 kDa in heterozygous and Venezuelan homozygous HD brains. Anti-polyglutamine antisera detected full-length mutant htt in HD brain. There was little htt cleavage even if lysates were pretreated with trypsin, indicating a property of native htt to resist protease cleavage. A soluble mutant htt fragment of about 180 kDa was detected with anti-htt antibody Ab1 (htt-(1–17)) and increased when lysates were treated with denaturants (SDS, 8 m urea, DTT, or trypsin) before BNP. Wild-type htt was more resistant to denaturants. Based on migration of in vitro translated htt fragments, the 180-kDa segment terminated ≈htt 670–880 amino acids. If second dimension SDS-PAGE followed BNP, the 180-kDa mutant htt was absent, and 43–50 kDa htt fragments appeared. Brain lysates from two HD mouse models expressed native full-length htt; a mutant fragment formed if lysates were pretreated with 8 m urea + DTT. Native full-length mutant htt in embryonic HD140Q/140Q mouse primary neurons was intact during cell death and when cell lysates were exposed to denaturants before BNP. Thus, native mutant htt occurs in brain and primary neurons as a soluble full-length monomer. PMID:22375012

  13. Adolescent male health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Michael; Pinzon, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Although adolescent males have as many health issues and concerns as adolescent females, they are much less likely to be seen in a clinical setting. This is related to both individual factors and the health care system itself, which is not always encouraging and set up to provide comprehensive male health care. Working with adolescent boys involves gaining the knowledge and skills to address concerns such as puberty and sexuality, substance use, violence, risk-taking behaviours and mental health issues. The ability to engage the young male patient is critical, and the professional must be comfortable in initiating conversation about a wide array of topics with the teen boy, who may be reluctant to discuss his concerns. It is important to take every opportunity with adolescent boys to talk about issues beyond the presenting complain, and let them know about confidential care. The physician can educate teens about the importance of regular checkups, and that they are welcome to contact the physician if they are experiencing any concerns about their health or well-being. Parents of preadolescent and adolescent boys should be educated on the value of regular health maintenance visits for their sons beginning in their early teen years.

  14. BONE MINERAL ANALYSIS OF WHOLE BODY IN 292 NORMAL SUBJECTS ASSESSED BY DUAL X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦明伟; 余卫; 徐苓; 田均平; 邢小平; 孟迅吾

    2003-01-01

    Objective. To study the whole body bone mineral changes in normal subjects.Methods. Bone mineral was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry(DXA) in 292 normal subjectsaged 10~79 years, including 152 females and 140 males. They were divided into age-groups by decade.Results. In males, the ages with peak value of total bone mineral content (TBMC), total bone min-eral density (TBMD), anteroposterior spine BMD(L2-4 BMD) were in the 30~39,20~39, 20~29 age-groups respectively. In females, they were all in the 30~39 age-group. Peak values of TBMC, TBMD,L2-4 BMD were higher in males than those in females. Loss of bone mineral for females was more pro-nounced than that for males. Loss of L2-4 BMD was more pronounced than TBMD.Conclusion. This study provides the normal bone mineral data of whole body for males and females,and the characteristic of changes.

  15. Reproduction of the non-native fish Lepomis gibbosus (Perciformes: Centrarchidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Rangel E; Silva, Tayara P; Chehayeb, Igor V; de Magalhães, André L B

    2012-09-01

    Minas Gerais is the fourth largest Brazilian state, and has an estimate of 354 native fish species. However, these fish species may be threatened, as this state has the highest rank of fish introductions reported for Brazil and South America. As one from the total of 85 non-native species detected, Lepomis gibbosus was introduced in the 60s to serve both as foragefish and to improve sport fishing. In this study, we evaluated the establishment of L. gibbosus in a shallow lake in the city ofOuro Preto, Doce River basin, state of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. We collected fish with fishing rods every two months from March 2002-February 2003. Fragments of gonads from a total of 226 females and 226 males were obtained and processed following standard histological techniques; then 5-7 microm thickness sections were taken and stained in hematoxylin-eosin. Besides, for each specimen, the biometric measurements included the standard length (SL) and body weight (BW); and the sex ratio was obtained. The reproductive cycle stages were confirmed by the distribution of oocytes and spermatogenic cells. The type of spawning was determined by the frequency distribution of the reproductive cycle stages and ovarian histology. Based on the microscopic characteristics of the gonads, the following stages of the reproductive cycle were determined: one=Rest, two=Mature, three=Spawned for females or Spent for males; males and females in reproduction were found throughout the study period. Post-spawned ovaries containing oocytes in stages one (initial perinucleolar), two (advanced perinucleolar), three (pre-vitellogenic), four (vitellogenic) and post-ovulatory follicles indicated fractionated-type spawning in this species. The smallest breeding male and female measured were 4.6 and 4.9cm standard length, respectively, suggesting stunting. The sex ratio did not vary between males and females along the year and bimonthly, being 1:1. Moreover, L. gibbosus appears to be at stage three of

  16. Native Darag Chicken Menu Variations: Its Acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Rosario Clarabel C. Contreras

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional native chicken delicacies like lechon and adobo are very common dishes in a rural Filipino folks’ dining table. As the family economic standing improves, meat becomes a main item in a family diet, dishes like fried chicken and chicken nuggets have also become part of the family choices of chicken dishes in their meal. Intensification of the production of native Darag chicken would lead to optimization of food technological output for the university which will hopefully be a potential one town-one product (OTOP of the municipality.

  17. Clay minerals in pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateo, F. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerca sulle Argille, Tito Scalo, PZ (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Clay minerals are fundamental constituents of life, not only as possible actors in the development of life on the Earth (Cairns-Smith and Hartman, 1986), but mainly because they are essential constituents of soils, the interface between the solid planet and the continental biosphere. Many, many authors have devoted themselves to the study of clays and clay minerals since the publication of the early modern studies by Grim (1953, 1962) and Millot (1964). In those years two very important associations were established in Europe (Association Internationale pour l'Etude des Argiles, AIPEA) and in the USA (Clay Mineral Society, CMS). The importance of these societies is to put together people that work in very different fields (agronomy, geology, geochemistry, industry, etc.), but with a common language (clays), very useful in scientific work. Currently excellent texts are being published, but introductory notes are also available on the web (Schroeder, 1998).

  18. MALE SEXUAL DISORDERS IN INDIAN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE- A HISTORICAL REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Padhi, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    The description of male sexual disorders by ancient authors of Indian medicine is praiseworthy. Effort has been made to describe the standard of approach with reference to certain books on Ayurveda and astrology. The development of administration of mineral medicines has added a new aspect in their treatment, but the description regarding their forms, etiopathogenesis, prognosis and the principle of treatment has remained unchanged. The opinions of various authors have been presented historic...

  19. The Kongsberg silver deposits, Norway: Ag-Hg-Sb mineralization and constraints for the formation of the deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotková, Jana; Kullerud, Kåre; Šrein, Vladimír; Drábek, Milan; Škoda, Radek

    2017-07-01

    The Kongsberg silver district has been investigated by microscopy and electron microprobe analysis, focusing primarily on the Ag-Hg-Sb mineralization within the context of the updated mineral paragenesis. The earliest mineralization stage is represented by sulfides, including acanthite, and sulfosalts. Native silver formed initially through breakdown of early Ag-bearing phases and later through influx of additional Ag-bearing fluids and silver remobilization. The first two generations of native silver were separated in time by the formation of Ni-Co-Fe sulfarsenides and the monoarsenide niccolite along rims of silver crystals. The presence of As-free sulfosalts and the absence of di- and tri-arsenides suggest a lower arsenic/sulfur activity ratio for the Kongsberg deposits compared to other five-element deposits. Native silver shows binary Ag-Hg and Ag-Sb solid solutions, in contrast to the ternary Ag-Hg-Sb compositions typical for other deposits of similar type. Antimonial silver together with allargentum, dyscrasite, and pyrargyrite was documented exclusively from the northern area of the district. Elsewhere, the only Sb-bearing minerals are polybasite and tetrahedrite/freibergite. Hg-rich silver (up to 21 wt% Hg) has been documented only in the central-western area. Myrmekite of freibergite and chalcopyrite reflects exsolution from an original Ag-poor tetrahedrite upon cooling, while myrmekite of pyrite and silver, forming through breakdown of low-temperature phases (argentopyrite or lenaite) upon heating, characterizes the Kongsberg silver district. Based on the stabilities of minerals and mineral assemblages, the formation of the silver mineralization can be constrained to temperatures between 180 and 250 °C.

  20. Proficient beyond borders: assessing non-native speakers in a native speakers’ framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Fleckenstein

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background English language proficiency is considered a basic skill that students from different language backgrounds are expected to master, independent of whether they are native or non-native speakers. Tests that measure language proficiency in non-native speakers are typically linked to the common European framework of reference for languages. Such tests, however, often lack the criteria to define a practically relevant degree of proficiency in English. We approach this deficit by assessing non-native speakers’ performance within a native speakers’ framework. Method Items from two English reading assessments—the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA and the National Assessment (NA for English as a foreign language in Germany—were administered to N = 427 German high school students. Student abilities were estimated by drawing plausible values in a two-dimensional Rasch model. Results Results show that non-native speakers of English generally underperformed compared to native speakers. However, academic track students in the German school system achieved satisfactory levels of proficiency on the PISA scale. Linking the two scales showed systematic differences in the proficiency level classifications. Conclusion The findings contribute to the validation and international localization of NA standards for English as a foreign language. Practical implications are discussed with respect to policy-defined benchmarks for the successful participation in a global English-speaking society.

  1. Invasive prey indirectly increase predation on their native competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castorani, Max C N; Hovel, Kevin A

    2015-07-01

    Ecological theory predicts that invasive prey can interact with native prey directly by competing for shared resources or indirectly by changing the abundance or behavior of shared native predators. However, both the study and management of invasive prey have historically overlooked indirect effects. In southern California estuaries, introduction of the Asian nest mussel Arcuatula senhousia has been linked to profound changes in native bivalve assemblages, but the mechanisms of these interactions remain unclear. We performed three field experiments to assess the mechanisms of competition between Arcuatula and native bivalves, and evaluated the potential for Arcuatula to indirectly mediate native predator-prey dynamics. We found that Arcuatula reduces the diversity, abundance, and size of native bivalve recruits by preemptively exploiting space in surface sediments. When paired with native shallow-dwelling clams (Chione undatella and Laevicardium substriatum), Arcuatula reduces adult survival through overgrowth competition. However, Arcuatula also attracts native predators, causing apparent competition by indirectly increasing predation of native clams, especially for poorly defended species. Therefore, invasive prey can indirectly increase predation rates on native competitors by changing the behavior of shared native predators, but the magnitude of apparent competition strongly depends on the vulnerability of natives to predation. Interestingly, our results indicate that the vulnerability of invasive prey to predation can greatly exacerbate impacts on their native competitors. Our findings suggest that consideration of both direct and indirect effects of invasive prey, as well as native predator-prey relationships, should lead to more effective invasive species management.

  2. Polishing of municipal secondary effluent using native microalgae consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Rocha, Julio César; Barceló-Quintal, Icela Dagmar; García-Martínez, Magdalena; Osornio-Berthet, Luis; Saavedra-Villarreal, Nidia; Villarreal-Chiu, Juan; López-Chuken, Ulrico Javier

    2017-04-01

    This work evaluates the use of native microalgae consortia for a dual role: polishing treatment of municipal wastewater effluents and microalgae biomass feedstock potential for biodiesel or biofertilizer production. An initial screening was undertaken to test N and P removal from secondary effluents and biomass production by 12 consortia. A subsequent treatment was performed by selected consortia (01 and 12) under three operational conditions: stirring (S), S + 12 h of daily aeration (S + A) and S + A enriched with CO2 (S + AC). All treatments resulted in compliance with environmental regulations (e.g. Directive 91/271/EEC) and high removal efficiency of nutrients: 64-79% and 80-94% of total N and PO4(3-)-P respectively. During the experiments it was shown that pH alkalinization due to microalgae growth benefits the chemical removal of ammonia and phosphorus. Moreover, advantages of pH increase could be accomplished by intermittent CO2 addition which in this research (treatment S + AC) promoted higher yield and lipid concentration. The resulting dry biomass analysis showed a low lipid content (0.5-4.3%) not ideal for biodiesel production. Moreover, the high rate of ash (29.3-53.0%) suggests that biomass could be readily recycled as a biofertilizer due to mineral supply and organic constituents formed by C, N and P (e.g. carbohydrate, protein, and lipids).

  3. Microbial Variants from Iron Ore Slimes: Mineral Specificity and pH Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhilash; Ghosh, A; Pandey, B D; Sarkar, S

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the isolation of the native bacterial strains from the iron ore mines slime pond and its extremophilic characteristics. The two microbial isolates designated as CNIOS-1 and CNIOS-2 were grown in selective silicate broth at pH 7.0 and the organisms were tested for their selective adhesion on silicate and alumina minerals. The silicate bacteria with their exopolymers are very potent to grow over aluminosilicates. It was established that CNIOS-1 grew preferentially in the presence of silicate mineral compared to CNIOS-2 which grew in the presence of alumina. The organisms were tested for growth at various pH and trials were carried to define their efficacy for eventual applications to remove gangue minerals of silica and alumina from the raw material.

  4. Suplementacion de minerales en la produccion bovina – Mineral supplementation for cattle production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcesio Salamanca

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe hace una revisión de las deficiencias de minerales en los suelos y su relación con la planta y el animal, evidencias en las pajas nativas de la sabana inundable del Departamento de Arauca, de la importancia de los minerales en la alimentación bovina, de algunos resultados de investigación y de las convicciones productivas al suplementar a los bovinos con sales mineralizadas SummaryA review of mineral deficiencies in soils and its relation to plant and animal evidence in the native straw flooded savanna of the Department of Arauca, the importance of mineral in the diet of cattle, some results research and belief productive to supplement the cattle with mineral salts.

  5. From anorthite to vesuvianite: an excursion through the minerals first discovered in Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GiovanniFerraris; MarcoCiriotti

    2003-01-01

    With regard to the number of mineral species first dis-covered in a particular country, Italy ranks fourth, being preceded only by USA, Russia and Germany. Important rock-forming minerals like analcime, anorthite, anortho-clase, antigorite, celadonite, diopside, dolomite,forsterite, humite, leucite, lime, lizardite, magnesiochlo-ritoid, magnesite, nepheline, and sepiolite are among the 240 species first discovered in Italy. Other significant first Italian findings are some important index mineralsof the UHP metamorphism (ellenbergerite, phosphoel-lenbergerite, magnesiodumortierite, and magnesiostau-rolite; second occurrence of coesite) which were discov-ered in the well-known and first reported UHP outcrop of the Dora-Màira massif Italy is also the native land of about 30 zeolites and of the two most abundant modern species: balangeroite and carlosturanite, which are rock-forming asbestos-like minerals of serpentinites in the western Alps.

  6. The vowel inherent spectral change of English vowels spoken by native and non-native speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Su-Hyun; Liu, Chang

    2013-05-01

    The current study examined Vowel Inherent Spectral Change (VISC) of English vowels spoken by English-, Chinese-, and Korean-native speakers. Two metrics, spectral distance (amount of spectral shift) and spectral angle (direction of spectral shift) of formant movement from the onset to the offset, were measured for 12 English monophthongs produced in a /hvd/ context. While Chinese speakers showed significantly greater spectral distances of vowels than English and Korean speakers, there was no significant speakers' native language effect on spectral angles. Comparisons to their native vowels for Chinese and Korean speakers suggest that VISC might be affected by language-specific phonological structure.

  7. Overview of Native-speaker English Teacher Versus Non-native-speaker English Teacher

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Xu

    2015-01-01

    As much more non-native-speaker English teachers teach alongside native-speaker English teachers, either in China or any other non-English-speaking country, research on the differences between native-speaker English teacher and non-na⁃tive-speaker English teacher is necessary. This paper offers an overview of such difference between the two groups of English teachers in terms of their strengths and weaknesses, teaching styles and approaches. The conclusion suggests that cooperation and communication be emphsised and that the two groups of teachers communicate more and exchange their ideas on how to teach the same group of students more effectively.

  8. Declining Employment Assimilation of Immigrant Males in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bevelander, Pieter; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2001-01-01

    Focusing on Nordic and Yugoslavian immigrant males, we study the determinants of employment success of natives and immigrants in Sweden. Furthermore, we investigate the reasons behind the arising gap in employment success between Swedes and immigrants from 1970 to 1990. In a decomposition analysis...

  9. Are there differences in injury mortality among refugees and immigrants compared with native-born?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norredam, Marie; Olsbjerg, Maja; Petersen, Jorgen H

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The authors studied injury mortality in Denmark among refugees and immigrants compared with that among native Danes. METHOD: A register-based, historical prospective cohort design. All refugees (n=29¿139) and family reunited immigrants (n=27¿134) who between 1 January 1993 and 31......-specific mortality ratios were estimated by migrant status and region of birth, adjusting for age and income and using a Cox regression model after a median follow-up of 11-12 years. RESULTS: Compared with native Danes, both female (RR=0.44; 95% CI 0.23 to 0.83) and male (RR=0.40; 95% CI 0.29 to 0.56) refugees...... as well as female (RR=0.40; 95% CI 0.21 to 0.76) and male (RR=0.22; 95% CI 0.12 to 0.42) immigrants had significantly lower mortality from unintentional injuries. Suicide rates were significantly lower for male refugees (RR=0.38; 95% CI 0.24 to 0.61) and male immigrants (RR=0.24; 95% CI 0.10 to 0...

  10. Bone Mineral Density Evaluation in Four Different Occupational Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Turgut Yıldızgören

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD and to discuss the potential risk factors for osteoporosis in four different occupational groups. Materials and Methods: In this study, 100 males who were admitted to our clinics for their periodic occupational controls and 40 healthy subjects were included. Demographic features of the participants were recorded. BMD was evaluated by Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA from lumbar vertebrae and proximal femur. Results: Participants were mainly from the following four occupational groups; accumulator manufacturers (n=30, 21.4%, painting workers (n=30, 21.4%, welders (n=15, 10.7%, and quartz miners (n=25, 17.9% sectors. In addition, there were 40 healthy subjects (28.6%. Compared with the control group, femoral neck T-scores (p=0.023 and Z-scores (p=0.031 were significantly lower in miners. L2-L4 BMD values were significantly lower in accumulator manufacturers (p=0.041 and quartz miners (p=0.022 as compared with the control group. Conclusion: Workers in the accumulator and mining sectors had lower BMD than control subjects. Clinicians should keep in mind occupational risk factors related with chemical exposure for osteoporosis while questioning osteoporosis risk factors. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2015;21: 19-22

  11. Native Americans with Disabilities: Postsecondary Education Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Deborah J.; Eadens, Daniel W.

    2017-01-01

    This correlation study examined relationships between special education and standardized testing variables of 100 Arizona secondary school districts with Native American populations, and the archival records for postsecondary outcomes between 2012 and 2014 of students with disabilities, using archival data collected by the Arizona Department of…

  12. 50 CFR 216.23 - Native exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... without a permit, if such taking is: (1) By Alaskan Natives who reside in Alaska for subsistence, or (2... complete, true and correct to the best of my knowledge and belief. I understand that this information is... (including illegal takings and net entanglements but excluding all legally harvested whales) and all...

  13. Nativization, Linguistic Theory, and Deaf Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James Paul; Goodhart, Wendy

    1985-01-01

    Considers the acquisition of language by deaf children of deaf parents and by deaf children of hearing parents in the light of such linguistic theories as Andersen's "nativization-denativization" and Bickerton's "bioprograms." Findings both support the theories and bring to light complexities that the theories do not exactly explain. (SED)

  14. Native American Languages as Heritage Mother Tongues

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Teresa L.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines current efforts to revitalise, stabilise, and maintain Indigenous languages in the USA. Most Native American languages are no longer acquired as a first language by children. They are nonetheless languages of identity and heritage, and in this sense can and should be considered mother tongues. The article begins with a…

  15. Stylized Figures: Inspired by Native American Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Susie B.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching elementary-level art in the Pacific Northwest makes it natural for the author to develop a lesson based on Native American art of the area. The designs of the Northwest Indians can sometimes be a bit too sophisticated for the students to grasp, however, and it can be frustrating when developing such a project. Over a Labor Day weekend,…

  16. Influence of Family on Native American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Lisa J.

    2012-01-01

    "Native American"* postsecondary education students encounter several barriers to academic persistence including cultural assimilation issues, limited access to career information services, and an individual sense of duty and responsibility to remain tied to traditional spiritual values and beliefs systems, joined with family pressure to…

  17. Non-natives: 141 scientists object

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simberloff, D.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Supplementary information to: Non-natives: 141 scientists object Full list of co-signatories to a Correspondence published in Nature 475, 36 (2011); doi: 10.1038/475036a. Daniel Simberloff University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. dsimberloff@utk.edu Jake Alexander Institute of Integrative

  18. Interpreting Native American Literature: An Archetypal Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevillano, Mando

    1986-01-01

    Compares two approaches to discussing Indian literature and religion. Demonstrates Jungian archetypal approach as transcultural method of analyzing Indian literature. Relates and analyzes Hopi traditional story. Emphasizes accessibility of Native American literature to the non-Indian while supporting multicultural plurality of interpretations.…

  19. Will HTML5 Kill the Native App?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredette, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    For colleges and universities today, the question is no longer whether to develop a campus app or not. Instead, the debate has shifted to the best--and most cost-efficient--way to make campus applications accessible to the myriad devices and operating systems out there. Schools have a few options: They can develop multiple native app versions;…

  20. Digital Natives: Where Is the Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsper, Ellen Johanna; Eynon, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Generational differences are seen as the cause of wide shifts in our ability to engage with technologies and the concept of the digital native has gained popularity in certain areas of policy and practice. This paper provides evidence, through the analysis of a nationally representative survey in the UK, that generation is only one of the…

  1. Will HTML5 Kill the Native App?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredette, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    For colleges and universities today, the question is no longer whether to develop a campus app or not. Instead, the debate has shifted to the best--and most cost-efficient--way to make campus applications accessible to the myriad devices and operating systems out there. Schools have a few options: They can develop multiple native app versions;…

  2. Influence of Family on Native American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Lisa J.

    2012-01-01

    "Native American"* postsecondary education students encounter several barriers to academic persistence including cultural assimilation issues, limited access to career information services, and an individual sense of duty and responsibility to remain tied to traditional spiritual values and beliefs systems, joined with family pressure to…

  3. Nativism Does Not Equal Universal Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe-Quintero, Kate

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on nativist theories of language learning and how they apply to second-language acquisition (SLA). The article is seeking a nativism that goes beyond the scope of Universal Grammar and explains the human cognitive capacity for language learning, the learning of all language structures found in natural languages, and SLA. (95 references)…

  4. Two Native American Near-Death Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorer, C. E.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses two tales of near-death experiences from the Chippewas in Michigan during the 1820s with reference to local origin, influence of White American culture, and universality. One tale has autoscopic, specifically Native American elements while the other contains elements of the transcendental type. (Author/NRB)

  5. Native American Rights Fund: 1982 Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Native American Rights Fund, Boulder, CO.

    The 1982 annual report of the Native American Rights Fund (NARF), a non-profit organization specializing in the protection of Indian rights, explains the organization, its structure, its priorities, its activities, and its financial status. Opening statements by the chairman, Roger Jim, and the executive director, John Echohawk, note that despite…

  6. THE EQUIVALENCE THEORY OF NATIVE SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-Tian Luh

    2001-01-01

    In this paper some equivalence definitions are given for native spaces which were introduced by Madych and Nelson and have become influential in the theory of radial basis functions. The abstract elements in na tive spaces are interpreted. Moreaver, Weinrich and Iske's theonies are unified.

  7. Non-natives: 141 scientists object

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simberloff, D.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Supplementary information to: Non-natives: 141 scientists object Full list of co-signatories to a Correspondence published in Nature 475, 36 (2011); doi: 10.1038/475036a. Daniel Simberloff University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. dsimberloff@utk.edu Jake Alexander Institute of Integrative

  8. American Indian-Alaska Native Youth Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Robert W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 13,454 rural Native American adolescents. Found 2 percent reported poor physical health and high rates of health-compromising behaviors, which were significantly correlated with physical or sexual abuse, suicide attempts, substance abuse, poor school performance, and poor nutrition. Academic risk was strongly associated with physical,…

  9. Native American Culture: An Interdisciplinary Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Andrea

    1995-01-01

    Provides suggestions for a literature-based approach when integrating Native American culture into the middle school curriculum. Recommends resources in the following subjects: language arts, mathematics, physical education, health, home and career skills, technology, art, music, and second language. (AEF)

  10. Advanced Procedures in Male Incontinence: The Male Sling

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Advanced Procedures in Male Incontinence: The Virtue® Male Sling Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2017 BroadcastMed, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Advanced Procedures in Male Incontinence: The Male Sling

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Advanced Procedures in Male Incontinence: The Virtue® Male Sling Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2017 BroadcastMed, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Projection of male fantasies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Hans

    2013-01-01

    -war period. Advocates of women's athletics interpreted competitive sports as perfect tools for women's conquest of male territory, whereas supporters of female gymnastics considered athletics to be an antidote to the health-promoting and graceful essence of femininity. Agnete Bertram was one of Lindhard......-1949) laid the foundation for the birth of exercise physiology in Scandinavia. In addition to his basic-level studies of physiology, Lindhard also became deeply involved in developing a theory of gymnastics that would bring a wide range of Danish gymnastics traditions onto a surer theoretical footing...

  13. [Urethrocele in males].

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Mrini, M; Bennani, S; Aboutaieb, R; Joual, A; Benjelloun, S

    1993-01-01

    Concerning one case of male urethral diverticulum, the characteristics of this rare affection are reviewed. Carriage for long time of urethral catheter and urethroplasty are the more frequent etiologies of this affection. The diagnosis is clinic, based on the discovery of tumefaction on the urethral track which pression makes spring up urine through urethral meatus. The urethrography confirms the diagnosis. Surgical approach consists on the resection of the diverticulum and urethrorrhaphy in one or two stages, based on diverticular neck size and sheet quality.

  14. Native Culture Issues in Cross-cultural Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万欣

    2012-01-01

      The bi-direction of cross-cultural communication determines culture teaching should include both target culture and native culture. Currently, however, mere emphasis of target culture with ignoring native culture has resulted in“two-skin”phenomenon and“aphasia of Chinese culture”. Therefore, this paper aims to underline native culture teaching, to explore proper techniques for native culture teaching, to achieve integration of target culture and native culture, to enhance students’expressive competence in native culture and finally to carry out effective cross-cultural communication.

  15. Impact of mineral resource depletion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brent, AC

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In a letter to the editor, the authors comment on BA Steen's article on "Abiotic Resource Depletion: different perceptions of the problem with mineral deposits" published in the special issue of the International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment...

  16. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150874Chen Haidong(Inner Mongolia Institute of Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration,Hohhot 010010,China);Li Jiao Zircon U-Pb Dating of the Hypersthene-Plagioclase Granulite in Liangcheng Area of Central Inner Mongolia and Its Geological Significance(Geology in China,ISSN1000-3657,CN11-1167/P,41(4),2014,p.1136-1142,

  17. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20152386 Hao Yuanfang(Shenyang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,CGS,Shenyang 110032,China);Xu Yingkui Determination of Calcium Oxide in Nickel Ores with EDTA Titration(Geology and Resources,ISSN1671-1947,CN21-1458/P,23(6),2014,p.580-582,2tables,6 refs.)

  18. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131550 Bai Jinfeng(Institute of Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Langfang 065000,China);Bo Wei Determination of 36Elements in Geochemical Samples by High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,31(5),2012,p.814

  19. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>20050704 Cheng Lin (Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China); Feng Songlin Analysis of Colored Elements in Ancient Colored Glaze by SRXRF (Rock and Mineral Analysis, ISSN0254-5357, CN11 -2131/TD, 23 (2), 2004, p. 113-116, 120, 3 illus. , 3 tables, 6 refs. )

  20. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20142093Chen Daohua(Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey,Guangzhou 510075,China);Diao Shaobo The Latest Progress of Geological Marine Testing Technology in China(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,32(6),2013,p.850-859,105refs.)Key words:chemical analysis,China

  1. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070252 Chen Meilan (Biological and Environmental College, Zhejiang Shuren University, Hangzhou 310015, China); Li Li Study on Adsorption of Phenol by Modified Organobentonite (Rock and Mineral Analysis, ISSN0254-5357, CN11-2131/TD, 24(4), 2005, p.259-261, 267, 6 illus., 1 table, 11 refs.) Key words: bentonite, benzene, adsorption

  2. Leptin and bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morberg, Cathrine M; Tetens, Inge; Black, Eva;

    2003-01-01

    Leptin has been suggested to decrease bone mineral density (BMD). This observational analysis explored the relationship between serum leptin and BMD in 327 nonobese men (controls) (body mass index 26.1 +/- 3.7 kg/m(2), age 49.9 +/- 6.0 yr) and 285 juvenile obese men (body mass index 35.9 +/- 5.9 kg...

  3. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20160255 Wang Na(Tianjin Center of Geological Survey,China Geological Survey,Tianjin 300170,China);Teng Xinhua Determination of Low-Content Iron Carbonate in Stream Sediments by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Aluminum Chloride Extraction(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,34(2),2015,p.229

  4. KeyPathwayMinerWeb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Markus; Alcaraz, Nicolas; Dissing-Hansen, Martin;

    2016-01-01

    We present KeyPathwayMinerWeb, the first online platform for de novo pathway enrichment analysis directly in the browser. Given a biological interaction network (e.g. protein-protein interactions) and a series of molecular profiles derived from one or multiple OMICS studies (gene expression...

  5. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140786Deng Zhenping(Institute of Karst Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Guilin 541004,China);Yang Wen-qiong Application of Stripping Voltammetry with a Solid Amalgam Electrode for Determination of Copper in a Tracer and Groundwater Tracing Experiment(Rock and Mineral Analy-

  6. Positive effects of non-native grasses on the growth of a native annual in a southern california ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pec, Gregory J; Carlton, Gary C

    2014-01-01

    Fire disturbance is considered a major factor in the promotion of non-native plant species. Non-native grasses are adapted to fire and can alter environmental conditions and reduce resource availability in native coastal sage scrub and chaparral communities of southern California. In these communities persistence of non-native grasses following fire can inhibit establishment and growth of woody species. This may allow certain native herbaceous species to colonize and persist beneath gaps in the canopy. A field manipulative experiment with control, litter, and bare ground treatments was used to examine the impact of non-native grasses on growth and establishment of a native herbaceous species, Cryptantha muricata. C. muricata seedling survival, growth, and reproduction were greatest in the control treatment where non-native grasses were present. C. muricata plants growing in the presence of non-native grasses produced more than twice the number of flowers and more than twice the reproductive biomass of plants growing in the treatments where non-native grasses were removed. Total biomass and number of fruits were also greater in the plants growing in the presence of non-native grasses. Total biomass and reproductive biomass was also greater in late germinants than early germinants growing in the presence of non-native grasses. This study suggests a potential positive effect of non-native grasses on the performance of a particular native annual in a southern California ecosystem.

  7. Positive Effects of Non-Native Grasses on the Growth of a Native Annual in a Southern California Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pec, Gregory J.; Carlton, Gary C.

    2014-01-01

    Fire disturbance is considered a major factor in the promotion of non-native plant species. Non-native grasses are adapted to fire and can alter environmental conditions and reduce resource availability in native coastal sage scrub and chaparral communities of southern California. In these communities persistence of non-native grasses following fire can inhibit establishment and growth of woody species. This may allow certain native herbaceous species to colonize and persist beneath gaps in the canopy. A field manipulative experiment with control, litter, and bare ground treatments was used to examine the impact of non-native grasses on growth and establishment of a native herbaceous species, Cryptantha muricata. C. muricata seedling survival, growth, and reproduction were greatest in the control treatment where non-native grasses were present. C. muricata plants growing in the presence of non-native grasses produced more than twice the number of flowers and more than twice the reproductive biomass of plants growing in the treatments where non-native grasses were removed. Total biomass and number of fruits were also greater in the plants growing in the presence of non-native grasses. Total biomass and reproductive biomass was also greater in late germinants than early germinants growing in the presence of non-native grasses. This study suggests a potential positive effect of non-native grasses on the performance of a particular native annual in a southern California ecosystem. PMID:25379790

  8. Condensate minerals from a burning coal-waste heap in Avion, Northern France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masalehdani, M.N.N.; Mees, F.; Dubois, M.; Coquinot, Y.; Potdevin, J.L.; Fialin, M.; Blanc-Valleron, M.M. [University of Lille 1, Villeneuve Dascq (France)

    2009-06-15

    A coal-waste heap in Avion, northern France, that has been undergoing subsurface combustion for several decades, is marked by the occurrence of efflorescences at combustion sites where gas and water vapor escape from surficial cracks and vents. Analysis of the efflorescences show that twenty different species of mineral are present, comprising various sulfates, as well as halides and native sulfur. The constituents needed for the formation of these minerals are ultimately derived from the heap of coalmine waste, composed mainly of pyrite-bearing carbonaceous shale, coal and minor amounts of sandstone. They may be partly released by acid weathering of waste-heap materials prior to combustion, but largely by thermal decomposition and oxidation of those materials during combustion processes. Formation of the efflorescences near gas-discharge zones indicates transport of constituent to those zones from the inner part of the waste heap, which can occur in the gas phase for some elements (S, N, H and Cl), but would require droplets of water vapor as carriers for most cations. Interaction between condensate solutions and the local debris at the surface of the waste heap may also contribute to cations input prior to the formation of secondary minerals. Most minerals formed from a liquid phase along the rock-debris surface at low temperatures (T {<=}100 {sup o}C), as confirmed by the occurrence of fluid inclusions. Only salammoniac, native sulfur and mascagnite (where crystallized as a monocrystalline phase) were formed directly from a gas phase. The coal-waste heap shows great variations in mineral assemblages among sampling sites, which must be related to variations in waste composition and in conditions at the level at which the elements are released and where mineral formation takes place.

  9. Inducing mineral precipitation in groundwater by addition of phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmann Thomas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Induced precipitation of phosphate minerals to scavenge trace elements from groundwater is a potential remediation approach for contaminated aquifers. The success of engineered precipitation schemes depends on the particular phases generated, their rates of formation, and their long term stability. The purpose of this study was to examine the precipitation of calcium phosphate minerals under conditions representative of a natural groundwater. Because microorganisms are present in groundwater, and because some proposed schemes for phosphate mineral precipitation rely on stimulation of native microbial populations, we also tested the effect of bacterial cells (initial densities of 105 and 107 mL-1 added to the precipitation medium. In addition, we tested the effect of a trace mixture of propionic, isovaleric, formic and butyric acids (total concentration 0.035 mM. Results The general progression of mineral precipitation was similar under all of the study conditions, with initial formation of amorphous calcium phosphate, and transformation to poorly crystalline hydroxylapatite (HAP within one week. The presence of the bacterial cells appeared to delay precipitation, although by the end of the experiments the overall extent of precipitation was similar for all treatments. The stoichiometry of the final precipitates as well as Rietveld structure refinement using x-ray diffraction data indicated that the presence of organic acids and bacterial cells resulted in an increasing a and decreasing c lattice parameter, with the higher concentration of cells resulting in the greatest distortion. Uptake of Sr into the solids was decreased in the treatments with cells and organic acids, compared to the control. Conclusions Our results suggest that the minerals formed initially during an engineered precipitation application for trace element sequestration may not be the ones that control long-term immobilization of the contaminants. In

  10. Small mammal use of native warm-season and non-native cool-season grass forage fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan L Klimstra,; Christopher E Moorman,; Converse, Sarah J.; Royle, J. Andrew; Craig A Harper,

    2015-01-01

    Recent emphasis has been put on establishing native warm-season grasses for forage production because it is thought native warm-season grasses provide higher quality wildlife habitat than do non-native cool-season grasses. However, it is not clear whether native warm-season grass fields provide better resources for small mammals than currently are available in non-native cool-season grass forage production fields. We developed a hierarchical spatially explicit capture-recapture model to compare abundance of hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), and house mice (Mus musculus) among 4 hayed non-native cool-season grass fields, 4 hayed native warm-season grass fields, and 4 native warm-season grass-forb ("wildlife") fields managed for wildlife during 2 summer trapping periods in 2009 and 2010 of the western piedmont of North Carolina, USA. Cotton rat abundance estimates were greater in wildlife fields than in native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields and greater in native warm-season grass fields than in non-native cool-season grass fields. Abundances of white-footed mouse and house mouse populations were lower in wildlife fields than in native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields, but the abundances were not different between the native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields. Lack of cover following haying in non-native cool-season grass and native warm-season grass fields likely was the key factor limiting small mammal abundance, especially cotton rats, in forage fields. Retention of vegetation structure in managed forage production systems, either by alternately resting cool-season and warm-season grass forage fields or by leaving unharvested field borders, should provide refugia for small mammals during haying events.

  11. [Prolactin and male fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, G; Börner, A; Lauterbach, H; Thiel, W

    1983-03-01

    On 68 selected patients with disturbances of the potentia generandi et/sive coeundi (25 males with healthy metabolism and 43 males with diabetes) as well as 14 control persons PRL, LH, FSH, testosterone and oestradiol were determined radioimmunologically and the results were ascribed to sexological, clinical, spermatological and testo-histological findings. A statistically secure correlation was found between PRL values and disturbance of the libido as well as the presence of a gynaecomasty. PRL did not correlate with the spermatological variables volume of ejaculate, relative and absolute number of spermatozoa and motility. PRL did also not correlate with the testohistological findings. A relation between PRL and the peptide hormones LH and FSH as well as the steroid hormones testosterone and oestradiol could not be ascertained. Therefore the diagnostic values of a PRL determination is much limited; the pertinency of a hyperprolactinaemia may be increased by the proof of the symptoms reduction of libido and gynaecomasty with simultaneous disturbance of fertility. In our opinion the definition of hyperprolactinaemia needs revision, since at only determination of the basal value of more than 800 mU/l no more frequently pathologically andrological findings are to be observed than below 200 mU/l.

  12. Experiencing Male Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmée Hanna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the qualitative research literature that exists in relation to men’s experiences of male infertility. Since men have often been marginalized in the realm of reproduction, including academic research on infertility, it is important to focus on any qualitative research that gives voices to male perspectives and concerns. Given the distress documented by studies of infertile women, we focus in particular on the emotive responses and lived experiences of men in relation to infertility. In this article then, we present an analysis of the core themes across 19 qualitative articles, which include “infertility as crisis”; “emoting infertility- men as “being strong”’ “infertility as a source of stigma”; and the “desire for fatherhood.” In light of these insights, we identify key areas for future research and development including men’s emotional responses to infertility, how men seek support for infertility, the intersection between masculinity and infertility, the relationship between the desire to father and infertility, and the outcomes of infertility for men in terms of other aspects of their lives. We suggest that such research would facilitate making the experiences of men more central within our understandings of infertility within a field that has primarily been female focused.

  13. [Orchitis and male infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuppe, H-C; Pilatz, A; Hossain, H; Meinhardt, A; Bergmann, M; Haidl, G; Weidner, W

    2010-05-01

    Infections and inflammations of the genital tract are considered the most frequent causes of reduced male fertility, but conclusive epidemiological data are not available. In view of the exposure of germ cells to pathogenic components as well as the cells and mediators involved in the inflammatory processes, irreversible damage to spermatogenesis and corresponding decline of ejaculate quality are to be expected, particularly in cases of chronic orchitis. While the consequences of orchitis and epididymo-orchitis that exhibit clinical symptoms due to systemic or local infections are well known, including testicular atrophy and complete loss of fertility, those cases of inflammatory reactions of the testicles that manifest an asymptomatic or subclinical course, or are not even due to an infection, have received little attention until now. However, systematic histopathological analyses have shown a high prevalence of asymptomatic inflammatory reactions in testicular biopsies from infertile men. The mostly focal lymphocytic infiltrates correlate with the degree of damage to spermatogenesis and corresponding clinical and endocrinological parameters of testicular function. Noninvasive diagnostic techniques are not yet available so that chronic asymptomatic inflammations of the testicles as the primary cause or cofactor of male fertility disorders are underestimated. Except for administration of pathogen-specific antibiotics, treatment recommendations are to a large extent still lacking.

  14. Lisping and male homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Borsel, John; Van de Putte, Anneleen

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined the popular stereotype that gay men lisp by evaluating to what extent listeners associated dental or frontal articulation/lisping with gayness. Fifteen heterosexual males and 15 heterosexual females listened to 275 samples of read speech and judged the sexual orientation of the speakers. A total of 175 of the samples were of homosexual men, 74 (42.3 %) of which had been identified with lisping in a previous study; 100 were of heterosexual men, 18 (18 %) of which had been identified with lisping previously. Based on the ratings of the listeners of the present study, lisping speakers were significantly more often judged to be homosexual. This was true for the group as a whole as well as for the subgroup of homosexual and heterosexual men separately. Furthermore, there was no significant gender difference with respect to associating lisping with gayness. Male and female judges associated lisping with gayness to a similar degree. Additional analysis showed that overall 56.2 % of the time the judges were correct in their judgment of the speakers' sexual orientation. The results of this study confirmed previous preliminary findings that suggested that frontal or dental articulation/lisping is a feature that listeners associate with gayness. The reason for this association remains to be clarified.

  15. Proceedings of XXIV international mineral processing congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Dianzuo; Sun Chuan Yao; Wang Fu Liang; Zhang Li Cheng; Han Long (eds.)

    2008-07-01

    Topics covered in volume 1 include applied mineralogy, comminution, classification, physical separation, flotation chemistry, sulphide flotation, non-sulphide flotation and reagent in mineral industry. Volume 2 covers processing of complex ores, processing of industrial minerals and coal, solid liquid separation, dispersion and aggregation, process simulation, expert systems and control of mineral processing, biohydrometallurgy, and mineral chemical processing. Volume 3 contains powder technology, mineral materials, treatment and recycling for solid wastes, waste water treatment, secondary resource recovery, soil remediation, concentrator engineering and process design, and application of mineral processing in related industry. It includes a CD-ROM of the proceedings.

  16. Phenotypic traits variation among native diploid, native tetraploid and invasive tetraploid Senecio inaequidens DC. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monty, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Senecio inaequidens DC. is a rapidly spreading plant invader in Europe. In its native range, it occurs at two co-existing diploid and tetraploid cytotypes. To date, only tetraploids are reported in Europe, even though invasive diploids were recorded in other parts of the world. We compared native diploid and both native and invasive tetraploid populations in common gardens in Europe for a suite of life history traits. Diploids were able to develop, showed high biomass production and produced more flower heads than tetraploids. In contrast, winter survival was null for diploids. It was low for native tetraploids, but reached 40% in invasive tetraploids. Results suggested that diploid cytotype tends to an annual life form when grown in Western Europe, with earlier and more abundant flowering. In contrast, the tetraploid cytotype was mainly perennial which may enhance its invasiveness.

  17. Mental health status in pregnancy among native and non-native Swedish-speaking women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Anne-Marie; Schei, Berit; Ryding, Elsa Lena

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe mental health status in native and non-native Swedish-speaking pregnant women and explore risk factors of depression and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted at midwife-based antenatal clinics in South......OBJECTIVES: To describe mental health status in native and non-native Swedish-speaking pregnant women and explore risk factors of depression and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted at midwife-based antenatal clinics...... in Southern Sweden. SAMPLE: A non-selected group of women in mid-pregnancy. METHODS: Participants completed a questionnaire covering background characteristics, social support, life events, mental health variables and the short Edinburgh Depression Scale. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Depressive symptoms during...

  18. Stable Te isotope fractionation in tellurium-bearing minerals from precious metal hydrothermal ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornadel, Andrew P.; Spry, Paul G.; Haghnegahdar, Mojhgan A.; Schauble, Edwin A.; Jackson, Simon E.; Mills, Stuart J.

    2017-04-01

    The tellurium isotope compositions of naturally-occurring tellurides, native tellurium, and tellurites were measured by multicollector-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) and compared to theoretical values for equilibrium mass-dependent isotopic fractionation of representative Te-bearing species estimated with first-principles thermodynamic calculations. Calculated fractionation models suggest that 130/125Te fractionations as large as 4‰ occur at 100 °C between coexisting tellurates (Te VI) and tellurides (Te -II) or or native tellurium Te(0), and smaller, typically secondary emmonsite, δ130/125Te compositions were identical. The coincidence of δ130/125Te between all oxidized and reduced species in this study and the apparent lack of isotopic fractionation between native tellurium and emmonsite in one sample suggest that oxidation processes cause little to no fractionation. Because Te is predominantly transported as an oxidized aqueous phase or as a reduced vapor phase under hydrothermal conditions, either a reduction of oxidized Te in hydrothermal liquids or deposition of Te from a reduced vapor to a solid is necessary to form the common tellurides and native tellurium in ore-forming systems. Our data suggest that these sorts of reactions during mineralization may account for a ∼3‰ range of δ130/125Te values. Based on the data ranges for Te minerals from various ore deposits, the underpinning geologic processes responsible for mineralization seem to have primary control on the magnitude of fractionation, with tellurides in epithermal gold deposits showing a narrower range of isotope values than those in orogenic gold and volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits.

  19. U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program—Mineral resource science supporting informed decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Aleeza M.; Doebrich, Jeff L.

    2016-09-19

    The USGS Mineral Resources Program (MRP) delivers unbiased science and information to increase understanding of mineral resource potential, production, and consumption, and how mineral resources interact with the environment. The MRP is the Federal Government’s sole source for this mineral resource science and information. Program goals are to (1) increase understanding of mineral resource formation, (2) provide mineral resource inventories and assessments, (3) broaden knowledge of the effects of mineral resources on the environment and society, and (4) provide analysis on the availability and reliability of mineral supplies.

  20. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - INDUSTRIAL_MINERALS_POINTS_IN: Industrial Mineral Data in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — INDUSTRIAL_MINERALS_POINTS_IN is a shapefile that shows the distribution of stratigraphic data for various industrial minerals in Indiana. These data were derived...

  1. Occupational causes of male infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens P E

    2013-01-01

    To highlight and discuss the new evidence on occupational and environmental risk to male reproductive function.......To highlight and discuss the new evidence on occupational and environmental risk to male reproductive function....

  2. Bilateral synchronous male breast cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nwashilli, Nnamdi J; Ugiagbe, Ezekiel E

    2015-01-01

    .... The importance of this case report is to create more awareness that breast cancer can occur in males just as in females, though the incidence is rare in males. Early presentation and compliance with treatment modality provide a better outcome.

  3. Trophic consequences of non-native pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus for native pond fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Copp, G. H.; Britton, J R; Guo, Z.; Edmonds-Brown, V; Pegg, Josie; L. VILIZZI; Davison, P.

    2017-01-01

    Introduced non-native fishes can cause considerable adverse impacts on freshwater ecosystems. The pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus, a North American centrarchid, is one of the most widely distributed non-native fishes in Europe, having established self-sustaining populations in at least 28 countries, including the U.K. where it is predicted to become invasive under warmer climate conditions. To predict the consequences of increased invasiveness, a field experiment was completed over a summer peri...

  4. Increased Abundance of Native and Non-Native Spiders With Habitat Fragmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Bolger, Douglas T.; Beard, Karen H.; Suarez, Andrew; Case, Ted

    2008-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation and invasive species often contribute to the decline of native taxa. Since the penetration of non-native species into natural habitat may be facilitated by habitat fragmentation, it is important to examine how these two factors interact. Previous research documented that, in contrast to most other arthropod taxa, spiders increased in density and morphospecies richness with decreasing fragment area and increasing fragment age (time since insularization) in urban habitat f...

  5. Food sources of dominant macrozoobenthos between native and non-native mangrove forests: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luzhen; Yan, Ting; Xiong, Yiyi; Zhang, Yihui; Lin, Guanghui

    2017-03-01

    The macrozoobenthos is an important link of the food web in coastal wetlands. Diet-habitat relationships may significantly depend on qualitative differences and seasonal availability of food sources. Increasing interest has been shown in food web structure altered by non-native plants. In particular, however, a non-native mangrove species from Bangladesh, Sonneratia apetala, has been widely planted in China, but little is known about its possible impact on food sources of macrozoobenthos living in these non-native mangrove forests. Therefore, in this study, we used fatty acid analysis to compare the food sources of one littorinid snail and two grapsid crab species between two native mangrove forests and one non-native S. apetala plantation in the Zhanjiang Mangrove National Nature Reserve of China. We found that the sediment of all three forests had high diatom and bacteria signals, but low mangrove leaf signals, while the opposite patterns were detected in the three macrozoobenthos. Specifically, the gastropod Littoraria melanostoma relied mainly on mangrove leaves and brown algae as food sources, with significant differences among the three mangrove forests, and showed significant seasonal variation in its diet. The grapsidae species (Perisesarma bidens and Parasesarma plicatum) mainly grazed on mangrove litter, brown and green algae, and occasionally consumed diatoms and bacteria, also showing significant seasonal variation in their diet. Overall, Principle Components Analysis (PCA) of the fatty acid profiles showed a significant overlapping in food sources among the macrozoobenthos living in the non-native and native mangrove forests, but significant seasonal variations in their food sources. This suggests that the planting of non-native S. apetala near original mangrove forests has had little effect on the feeding behavior of macrozoobenthos some 10 years after planting.

  6. Minería de datos con Oracle Data Miner

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Ruiz, Benjamín

    2016-01-01

    La intención del proyecto es mostrar las diferentes características que ofrece Oracle en el campo de la minería de datos, con la finalidad de saber si puede ser una plataforma apta para la investigación y la educación en la universidad. En la primera parte del proyecto se estudia la aplicación “Oracle Data Miner” y como, mediante un flujo de trabajo visual e intuitivo, pueden aplicarse las distintas técnicas de minería (clasificación, regresión, clustering y asociación). Para mostrar la ej...

  7. Bone mineral density in adults with Down`s syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelopoulou, N.; Souftas, V.; Mandroukas, K. [Ergophysiology Lab., Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece); Sakadamis, A. [Medical School, Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece)

    1999-05-01

    The objective of the study was to elucidate if individuals with Down`s syndrome (DS) are likely to experience an increased risk of osteoporosis with advancing age, in addition to precocious aging and their skeletal anomalies. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 22 home-reared adults (9 males and 13 females; age 26.22 {+-} 4.45 and 23.65 {+-} 3.23 years, respectively) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The BMD of the second to fourth lumbar vertebrae was measured in posteroanterior projection and the mean density expressed as grams per square centimetre. The BMD of DS individuals was compared with 27 control subjects (12 males and 15 females) of the same age (age 24.16 {+-} 3.46 and 23.86 {+-} 2.92 years, respectively). The results showed that the BMD of the lumbar spine in the males as well as in the females with DS was significantly lower than that in their control counterparts (p < 0.001). Comparing the DS males with the females, the BMD was lower in the males at a level of 9 %. Factors that contribute to this disorder may be mainly the muscular hypotonia, the sedentary lifestyle and the accompanying diseases which frequently observed in the syndrome. Future studies must be focused on the biochemistry of bone metabolism, the evaluation of gonadal, thyroid and parathyroid function, and the genes of the extra chromosome 21. (orig.) With 1 tab., 21 refs.

  8. Male-male pheromone signalling in a lekking Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widemo, Fredrik; Johansson, Björn G

    2006-03-22

    Interest in sex pheromones has mainly been focused on mate finding, while relatively little attention has been given to the role of sex pheromones in mate choice and almost none to competition over mates. Here, we study male response to male pheromones in the lekking Drosophila grimshawi, where males deposit long-lasting pheromone streaks that attract males and females to the leks and influence mate assessment. We used two stocks of flies and both stocks adjusted their pheromone depositing behaviour in response to experimental manipulation, strongly indicating male ability to distinguish between competitors from qualitative differences in pheromone streaks alone. This is the first example of an insect distinguishing between individual odour signatures. Pheromone signalling influenced competition over mates, as males adjusted their investment in pheromone deposition in response to foreign pheromone streaks. Both sexes adapt their behaviour according to information from olfactory cues in D. grimshawi, but the relative benefits from male-female, as compared to male-male signalling, remain unknown. It seems likely that the pheromone signalling system originally evolved for attracting females to leks. The transition to a signalling system for conveying information about individuals may well, however, at least in part have been driven by benefits from male-male signalling.

  9. American Indian and Alaska Native Heart Disease and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Indian and Alaska Native Heart Disease and Stroke Fact Sheet Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... American Indian and Alaska Native Heart Disease and Stroke Facts Heart Disease is the first and stroke ...

  10. 36 CFR 51.83 - Sale of Native Handicrafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... includes any person so defined either or both of whose adoptive parents are not Alaska Natives. It also... whose father or mother is (or, if deceased, was) regarded as an Alaska Native by any village or...

  11. Chronic Liver Disease and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Native Hawaiian/ ... times more likely to be diagnosed with chronic liver disease in 2006. American Samoans were 8 times ...

  12. Origin of native copper in the Paraná volcanic province, Brazil, integrating Cu stable isotopes in a multi-analytical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggio, Sérgio Benjamin; Hartmann, Léo Afraneo; Lazarov, Marina; Massonne, Hans-Joachim; Opitz, Joachim; Theye, Thomas; Viefhaus, Tillmann

    2017-06-01

    Different hypotheses exist on the origin of native copper mineralization in the Paraná volcanic province that invoke magmatic, late magmatic, or hydrothermal events. The average copper content in the host basalts is 200 ppm. Native copper occurs as dendrites in cooling joints, fractures, and cavities within amygdaloidal crusts. Cuprite, tenorite, chrysocolla, malachite, and azurite occur in breccias at the top of the lava flows. Chemical analyses, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectrometry, electron microprobe analyses, LA-ICP-MS, and Cu isotope analyses were used to evaluate the origin of native copper in the volcanic province. Copper contents in magnetite of the host basalt are close to 1 wt.%, whereas clinopyroxene contains up to 0.04 wt.% Cu. Cretaceous hydrothermal alteration of magnetite and clinopyroxene released copper to generate hydrothermal copper mineralization. The isotopic composition of the native copper in the Paraná volcanic province varies from -0.9‰ in the southeastern portion (Rio Grande do Sul state) to 1.9‰ in the central portion (Paraná state) of the province. This study supports a hydrothermal origin followed by supergene enrichment for native copper in the Paraná volcanic province.

  13. Effect of excessive iodine intake on bone metabolism in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄逎萍

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore possible poisonous and harnfful effect of excessive iodine intake on skeleton in male rats. Methods Male rat models receiving various amounts of excessive iodine were established for 3,6,12 months, and quantitative bone histomorphometric parameters and bone mineral density (BMD)of femur and lumbar spine (L1-4) were measured by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptimetry in vitro, and rats receiving normal diet were considered as control group. Results There was no significant difference in bone mineral quantity and

  14. Saos-2 cell-mediated mineralization on collagen gels: Effect of densification and bioglass incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gengbo; Pastakia, Meet; Fenn, Michael B; Kishore, Vipuil

    2016-05-01

    Plastic compression is a collagen densification process that has been widely used for the development of mechanically robust collagen-based materials. Incorporation of bioglass within plastically compressed collagen gels has been shown to mimic the microstructural properties of native bone and enhance in vitro cell-mediated mineralization. The current study seeks to decouple the effects of collagen densification and bioglass incorporation to understand the interplay between collagen packing density and presence of bioglass on cell-mediated mineralization. Saos-2 cell-mediated mineralization was assessed as a measure of the osteoconductivity of four different collagen gels: (1) uncompressed collagen gel (UC), (2) bioglass incorporated uncompressed collagen gel (UC + BG), (3) plastically compressed collagen gel (PC), and (4) bioglass incorporated plastically compressed collagen gel (PC + BG). The results indicated that collagen densification enhanced mineralization as shown by SEM, increased alkaline phosphatase activity and produced significantly higher amounts of mineralized nodules on PC gels compared to UC gels. Further, the amount of nodule formation on PC gels was significantly higher compared to UC + BG gels indicating that increase in matrix stiffness due to collagen densification had a greater effect on cell-mediated mineralization compared to bioglass incorporation into loosely packed UC gels. Incorporation of bioglass into PC gels further enhanced mineralization as evidenced by significantly larger nodule size and higher amount of mineralization on PC + BG gels compared to PC gels. In conclusion, collagen densification via plastic compression improves the osteoconductivity of collagen gels. Further, incorporation of bioglass within PC gels has an additive effect and further enhances the osteoconductivity of collagen gels.

  15. Mineral operations outside the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral facilities and operations outside the United States compiled by the National Minerals Information Center of the USGS. This representation combines source...

  16. Characterization of biological mineralization in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitema, L.F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Mineralization is an essential requirement for normal skeletal development, which is generally accomplished through the function of two cell types, osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Soft tissues do not mineralize under normal conditions, but under certain pathological conditions some tissues like articu

  17. Miscellaneous Industrial Minerals Operations - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes miscellaneous industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team...

  18. Studies of mineralization in South African rivers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hall, GC

    1978-03-01

    Full Text Available Several South African rivers are polluted by mineral salts of diffuse source. This pollution can be related to geological phenomena and to irrigation practices. Mineralization is problematic in that it can render surface waters unsuitable...

  19. ARC Code TI: sequenceMiner

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The sequenceMiner was developed to address the problem of detecting and describing anomalies in large sets of high-dimensional symbol sequences. sequenceMiner works...

  20. Mineral Operations of Latin America and Canada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries...