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Sample records for male mice female

  1. Male mice ultrasonic vocalizations enhance female sexual approach and hypothalamic kisspeptin neuron activity.

    Asaba, Akari; Osakada, Takuya; Touhara, Kazushige; Kato, Masahiro; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2017-08-01

    Vocal communication in animals is important for ensuring reproductive success. Male mice emit song-like "ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs)" when they encounter female mice, and females show approach to the USVs. However, it is unclear whether USVs of male mice trigger female behavioral and endocrine responses in reproduction. In this study, we first investigated the relationship between the number of deliveries in breeding pairs for 4months and USVs syllables emitted from those paired males during 3min of sexual encounter with unfamiliar female mice. There was a positive correlation between these two indices, which suggests that breeding pairs in which males could emit USVs more frequently had more offspring. Further, we examined the effect of USVs of male mice on female sexual behavior. Female mice showed more approach behavior towards vocalizing males than devocalized males. Finally, to determine whether USVs of male mice could activate the neural system governing reproductive function in female mice, the activation of kisspeptin neurons, key neurons to drive gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the hypothalamus, was examined using dual-label immunocytochemistry with cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation (pCREB). In the arcuate nucleus (Arc), the number of kisspeptin neurons expressing pCREB significantly increased after exposure to USVs of male as compared with noise exposure group. In conclusion, our results suggest that USVs of male mice promote fertility in female mice by activating both their approaching behavior and central kisspeptin neurons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of the course of infection with Giardia muris in male and female mice.

    Daniels, C W; Belosevic, M

    1995-01-01

    The infection with Giardia muris in male and female C57BL/6 mice was characterized by enumerating cyst release in the feces and trophozoite burden in the small intestine. Cyst release differed between males and females during the course of the primary and challenge infections. Males and females released similar numbers of cysts in the feces during the acute phase of the infection. However, the trophozoite burden was significantly higher in males during the same period. Males released cysts in their feces longer than females and trophozoites present in their intestines for a longer period than females. From day 18 of infection the females did not release cysts in their feces, while males continued to do so for at least 60 days. Thus, distinct differences exist between male and female mice in their ability to harbor and eliminate this intestinal parasite.

  3. Defining Subpopulations of Arcuate Nucleus GABA Neurons in Male, Female, and Prenatally Androgenized Female Mice.

    Marshall, Christopher J; Desroziers, Elodie; McLennan, Timothy; Campbell, Rebecca E

    2017-01-01

    Arcuate nucleus (ARN) γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons are implicated in many critical homeostatic mechanisms, from food intake to fertility. To determine the functional relevance of ARN GABA neurons, it is essential to define the neurotransmitters co-expressed with and potentially co-released from ARN GABA neurons. The present study investigated the expression of markers of specific signaling molecules by ARN GABA neurons in brain sections from male, female, and, in some cases, prenatally androgen-treated (PNA) female, vesicular GABA transporter (VGaT)-ires-Cre/tdTomato reporter mice. Immunofluorescence for kisspeptin, β-endorphin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) was detected by confocal microscopy, and co-localization with tdTomato VGaT reporter expression throughout the ARN was quantified. GABA neurons rarely co-localized with kisspeptin (95%) co-localized with VGaT across groups. Both TH and nNOS labeling was co-localized with ∼10% of ARN GABA neurons. The proportion of TH neurons co-localized with VGaT was significantly greater in males than either control or PNA females, and the proportion of nNOS neurons co-localizing VGaT was higher in control and PNA females compared with males. These data highlight NPY as a significant subpopulation of ARN GABA neurons, demonstrate no significant impact of PNA on signal co-expression, and, for the first time, show sexually dimorphic co-expression patterns of TH and nNOS with ARN GABA neurons. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Serum antibody responses by male and female C57Bl/6 mice infected with Giardia muris.

    Daniels, C W; Belosevic, M

    1994-09-01

    We compared the levels of serum antibodies in male and female C57Bl/6 mice during the primary and after challenge infection with Giardia muris. Male mice began passing cysts in their faeces earlier than females, and were shedding cysts for over 60 days, while females stopped shedding cysts by day 20 after infection. In both males and females there were significant increases in parasite-specific IgM 10 and 20 days after infection. No differences in parasite-specific serum IgA were observed until 40 days after infection. Parasite-specific IgG (whole) levels were elevated on days 20 and 40 in females, while males showed no significant increases. In addition, females had a much stronger IgG2b and IgG3 response than males. After challenge with either cysts or soluble parasite protein only the females had significant increases in specific anti-parasite IgG2b. Our data show differential ability of males and females to control the infection with G. muris is paralleled by a difference in the anti-parasite serum IgG response of the mice.

  5. Potential contribution of progesterone receptors to the development of sexual behavior in male and female mice.

    Desroziers, Elodie; Brock, Olivier; Bakker, Julie

    2017-04-01

    We previously showed that estradiol can have both defeminizing and feminizing effects on the developing mouse brain. Pre- and early postnatal estradiol defeminized the ability to show lordosis in adulthood, whereas prepubertal estradiol feminized this ability. Furthermore, we found that estradiol upregulates progesterone receptors (PR) during development, inducing both a male-and female-typical pattern of PR expression in the mouse hypothalamus. In the present study, we took advantage of a newly developed PR antagonist (ZK 137316) to determine whether PR contributes to either male- or female-typical sexual differentiation. Thus groups of male and female C57Bl/6j mice were treated with ZK 137316 or OIL as control: males were treated neonatally (P0-P10), during the critical period for male sexual differentiation, and females were treated prepubertally (P15-P25), during the critical period for female sexual differentiation. In adulthood, mice were tested for sexual behavior. In males, some minor effects of neonatal ZK treatment on sexual behavior were observed: latencies to the first mount, intromission and ejaculation were decreased in neonatally ZK treated males; however, this effect disappeared by the second mating test. By contrast, female mice treated with ZK during the prepubertal period showed significantly less lordosis than OIL-treated females. Mate preferences were not affected in either males or females treated with ZK during development. Taken together, these results suggest a role for PR and thus perhaps progesterone in the development of lordosis behavior in female mice. By contrast, no obvious role for PR can be discerned in the development of male sexual behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Male mice emit distinct ultrasonic vocalizations when the female leaves the social interaction arena

    Mu eYang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Adult male mice emit large number of complex ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs when interacting with adult females. Call numbers and call categories differ greatly among inbred mouse strains. Little is known about USV emissions when the social partner departs. To investigate whether call repertoires and call rates are different when the male is interacting with a female and after the removal of the female, we designed a novel male-female social interaction test in which vocalizations were recorded across three phases. During phase 1, the male subject freely interacts with an unfamiliar estrus female mouse in a clean cage for 5 minutes. During phase 2, the female is removed while the male remains in the cage for 3 minutes. During phase 3, the same female is returned to the cage to rejoin the male subject mouse for 3 minutes. C57BL/6J (B6, FVB.129P2-Pde6b(+ Tyr(c-ch/Ant (FVB, and BTBR T+ tf/J (BTBR male subject mice were tested in this paradigm. All three strains emitted USVs during the absence of the estrous female, although at lower rates. When the female was reintroduced in phase 3, numbers of USVs were similar to the initial introductory phase 1. Strain comparisons indicated fewer calls in pairs of BTBR males and stimulus females than in pairs of B6 males and stimulus females and pairs of FVB males and stimulus females. In the absence of the female, all FVB males vocalized, while only one third of B6 males and one third of BTBR males vocalized. In all three strains, changes in call repertoires were detected after the female was removed. Call categories reverted to the phase 1 pattern when the female was returned in phase 3. Present findings indicate that males of commonly used inbred strains emit USVs when a partner female leaves the testing arena, suggesting that removing a salient social stimulus may be a unique approach to elicit USVs from mice. Our three-phase paradigm may also be useful for studying attention to social cues, and qualitative

  7. Male mice song syntax depends on social contexts and influences female preferences

    Jonathan eChabout

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2005 Holy & Guo advanced the idea that male mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV with some features similar to courtship songs of songbirds. Since then, studies showed that male mice emit USV songs in different contexts (sexual and other and possess a multisyllabic repertoire. Debate still exists for and against plasticity in their vocalizations. But the use of a multisyllabic repertoire can increase potential flexibility and information, in how elements are organized and recombined, namely syntax. In many bird species, modulating song syntax has ethological relevance for sexual behavior and mate preferences. In this study we exposed adult male mice to different social contexts and developed a new approach of analyzing their USVs based on songbird syntax analysis. We found that male mice modify their syntax, including specific sequences, length of sequence, repertoire composition, and spectral features, according to stimulus and social context. Males emit longer and simpler syllables and sequences when singing to females, but more complex syllables and sequences in response to fresh female urine. Playback experiments show that the females prefer the complex songs over the simpler ones. We propose the complex songs are to lure females in, whereas the directed simpler sequences are used for direct courtship. These results suggest that although mice have a much more limited ability of song modification, they could still be used as animal models for understanding some vocal communication features that songbirds are used for.

  8. Chronic nicotine differentially alters spontaneous recovery of contextual fear in male and female mice.

    Tumolo, Jessica M; Kutlu, Munir Gunes; Gould, Thomas J

    2018-04-02

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a devastating disorder with symptoms such as flashbacks, hyperarousal, and avoidance of reminders of the traumatic event. Exposure therapy, which attempts to extinguish fear responses, is a commonly used treatment for PTSD but relapse following successful exposure therapy is a frequent problem. In rodents, spontaneous recovery (SR), where extinguished fear responses resurface following extinction treatment, is used as a model of fear relapse. Previous studies from our lab showed that chronic nicotine impaired fear extinction and acute nicotine enhanced SR of contextual fear in adult male mice. In addition, we showed that acute nicotine's effects were specific to SR as acute nicotine did not affect recall of contextual fear conditioning in the absence of extinction. However, effects of chronic nicotine administration on SR are not known. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated if chronic nicotine administration altered SR or recall of contextual fear in adult male and female C57BL/6J mice. Our results showed that chronic nicotine significantly enhanced SR in female mice and significantly decreased SR in males. Chronic nicotine had no effect on recall of contextual fear in males or females. Female sham mice also had significantly less baseline SR than male sham mice. Overall, these results demonstrate sex differences in SR of fear memories and that chronic nicotine modulates these effects on SR but nicotine does not alter recall of contextual fear. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of p38 in mitochondrial respiration in male and female mice.

    Ju, Xiaohua; Wen, Yi; Metzger, Daniel; Jung, Marianna

    2013-06-07

    p38 is a mitogen-activated protein kinase and mediates cell growth, cell differentiation, and synaptic plasticity. The aim of this study is to determine the extent to which p38 plays a role in maintaining mitochondrial respiration in male and female mice under a normal condition. To achieve this aim, we have generated transgenic mice that lack p38 in cerebellar Purkinje neurons by crossing Pcp2 (Purkinje cell protein 2)-Cre mice with p38(loxP/loxP) mice. Mitochondria from cerebellum were then isolated from the transgenic and wild-type mice to measure mitochondrial respiration using XF24 respirometer. The mRNA and protein expression of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) in cerebellum were also measured using RT-PCR and immunoblot methods. Separately, HT22 cells were used to determine the involvement of 17β-estradiol (E2) and COX in mitochondrial respiration. The genetic knockout of p38 in Purkinje neurons suppressed the mitochondrial respiration only in male mice and increased COX expression only in female mice. The inhibition of COX by sodium azide (SA) sharply suppressed mitochondrial respiration of HT22 cells in a manner that was protected by E2. These data suggest that p38 is required for the mitochondrial respiration of male mice. When p38 is below a normal level, females may maintain mitochondrial respiration through COX up-regulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dopamine D5 receptor modulates male and female sexual behavior in mice.

    Kudwa, A E; Dominguez-Salazar, E; Cabrera, D M; Sibley, D R; Rissman, E F

    2005-07-01

    Dopamine exerts its actions through at least five receptor (DAR) isoforms. In female rats, D5 DAR may be involved in expression of sexual behavior. We used a D5 knockout (D5KO) mouse to assess the role of D5 DAR in mouse sexual behavior. Both sexes of D5KO mice are fertile and exhibit only minor disruptions in exploratory locomotion, startle, and prepulse inhibition responses. This study was conducted to characterize the sexual behavior of male and female D5KO mice relative to their WT littermates. Female WT and D5KO littermates were ovariectomized and given a series of sexual behavior tests after treatment with estradiol benzoate (EB) and progesterone (P). Once sexual performance was optimal the dopamine agonist, apomorphine (APO), was substituted for P. Male mice were observed in pair- and trio- sexual behavior tests. To assess whether the D5 DAR is involved in rewarding aspects of sexual behavior, WT and D5KO male mice were tested for conditioned place preference. Both WT and D5KO females can display receptivity after treatment with EB and P, but APO was only able to facilitate receptivity in EB-primed WT, not in D5KO, mice. Male D5KO mice display normal masculine sexual behavior in mating tests. In conditioned preference tests, WT males formed a conditioned preference for context associated with either intromissions alone or ejaculation as the unconditioned stimulus. In contrast, D5KO males only showed a place preference when ejaculation was paired with the context. In females, the D5 DAR is essential for the actions of dopamine on receptivity. In males, D5 DAR influences rewarding aspects of intromissions. Taken together, the work suggests that the D5 receptor mediates dopamine's action on sexual behavior in both sexes, perhaps via a reward pathway.

  11. Effect of Vomeronasal Organ Removal From Male Mice on Their Preference for and Neural Fos Responses to Female Urinary Odors

    Pankevich, Diana E.; Cherry, James A.; Baum, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to determine whether vomeronasal organ (VNO) inputs in male mice mediate the rewarding properties of estrous female urinary odors. Sexually naive male mice with either an intact (VNOi) or lesioned (VNOx) VNO preferred to investigate female urine over water in Y-maze tests. Subsequently, VNOi males ran significantly more quickly and remained in nasal contact longer with estrous female urine than with male urine, whereas VNOx males investigated these odors equall...

  12. Nucleus Accumbens Dopamine Signaling Regulates Sexual Preference for Females in Male Mice.

    Beny-Shefer, Yamit; Zilkha, Noga; Lavi-Avnon, Yael; Bezalel, Nadav; Rogachev, Ilana; Brandis, Alexander; Dayan, Molly; Kimchi, Tali

    2017-12-12

    Sexual preference for the opposite sex is a fundamental behavior underlying reproductive success, but the neural mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we examined the role of dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcc) in governing chemosensory-mediated preference for females in TrpC2 -/- and wild-type male mice. TrpC2 -/- males, deficient in VNO-mediated signaling, do not display mating or olfactory preference toward females. We found that, during social interaction with females, TrpC2 -/- males do not show increased NAcc dopamine levels, observed in wild-type males. Optogenetic stimulation of VTA-NAcc dopaminergic neurons in TrpC2 -/- males during exposure to a female promoted preference response to female pheromones and elevated copulatory behavior toward females. Additionally, we found that signaling through the D1 receptor in the NAcc is necessary for the olfactory preference for female-soiled bedding. Our study establishes a critical role for the mesolimbic dopaminergic system in governing pheromone-mediated responses and mate choice in male mice. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Nucleus Accumbens Dopamine Signaling Regulates Sexual Preference for Females in Male Mice

    Yamit Beny-Shefer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sexual preference for the opposite sex is a fundamental behavior underlying reproductive success, but the neural mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we examined the role of dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcc in governing chemosensory-mediated preference for females in TrpC2−/− and wild-type male mice. TrpC2−/− males, deficient in VNO-mediated signaling, do not display mating or olfactory preference toward females. We found that, during social interaction with females, TrpC2−/− males do not show increased NAcc dopamine levels, observed in wild-type males. Optogenetic stimulation of VTA-NAcc dopaminergic neurons in TrpC2−/− males during exposure to a female promoted preference response to female pheromones and elevated copulatory behavior toward females. Additionally, we found that signaling through the D1 receptor in the NAcc is necessary for the olfactory preference for female-soiled bedding. Our study establishes a critical role for the mesolimbic dopaminergic system in governing pheromone-mediated responses and mate choice in male mice.

  14. No evidence for female discrimination against male house mice carrying a selfish genetic element.

    Sutter, Andreas; Lindholm, Anna K

    2016-12-01

    Meiotic drivers distort transmission to the next generation in their favor, with detrimental effects on the fitness of their homologues and the rest of the genome. Male carriers of meiotic drivers commonly inflict costs on their mates through genetic incompatibility, reduced fecundity, or biased brood sex ratios. Given these costs, evidence for female discrimination against male carriers is surprisingly rare. One of few examples is the t haplotype in house mice, a meiotic driver that shows strong transmission distortion in males and is typically homozygote lethal. As a consequence, mating between 2 t heterozygous (+/ t ) mice leads to high embryo mortality. Previous experiments showing that +/ t females avoid this incompatibility cost by preferring +/+ versus +/ t males have inferred preference based on olfactory cues or brief social interactions. Evidence from mating contexts in laboratory settings and semi-natural populations has been inconclusive. Here, we investigated female choice from a large number of no-choice mating trials. We found no evidence for discrimination against +/ t males based on mating, remating, and copulatory behavior. Further, we found no evidence for avoidance of incompatibility through selective interactions between gametes. The likelihood of mating showed significant effects of female weight and genotype, suggesting that our test paradigm enabled females to exhibit mate choice. We discuss the strengths and limitations of our approach. By explicitly considering selection at both the individual and gene level, we argue why precopulatory female discrimination by +/ t females may be less evolutionarily stable than discrimination by all females based on postcopulatory mechanisms.

  15. Female scent signals enhance the resistance of male mice to influenza.

    Ekaterina A Litvinova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The scent from receptive female mice functions as a signal, which stimulates male mice to search for potential mating partners. This searching behavior is coupled with infection risk due to sniffing both scent marks as well as nasal and anogenital areas of females, which harbor bacteria and viruses. Consideration of host evolution under unavoidable parasitic pressures, including helminthes, bacteria, viruses, etc., predicts adaptations that help protect hosts against the parasites associated with mating. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We propose that the perception of female signals by BALB/c male mice leads to adaptive redistribution of the immune defense directed to protection against respiratory infection risks. Our results demonstrate migration of macrophages and neutrophils to the upper airways upon exposure to female odor stimuli, which results in an increased resistance of the males to experimental influenza virus infection. This moderate leukocyte intervention had no negative effect on the aerobic performance in male mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide the first demonstration of the adaptive immunological response to female odor stimuli through induction of nonspecific immune responses in the upper respiratory tract.

  16. Differences in peripheral sensory input to the olfactory bulb between male and female mice

    Kass, Marley D.; Czarnecki, Lindsey A.; Moberly, Andrew H.; McGann, John P.

    2017-04-01

    Female mammals generally have a superior sense of smell than males, but the biological basis of this difference is unknown. Here, we demonstrate sexually dimorphic neural coding of odorants by olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), primary sensory neurons that physically contact odor molecules in the nose and provide the initial sensory input to the brain’s olfactory bulb. We performed in vivo optical neurophysiology to visualize odorant-evoked OSN synaptic output into olfactory bub glomeruli in unmanipulated (gonad-intact) adult mice from both sexes, and found that in females odorant presentation evoked more rapid OSN signaling over a broader range of OSNs than in males. These spatiotemporal differences enhanced the contrast between the neural representations of chemically related odorants in females compared to males during stimulus presentation. Removing circulating sex hormones makes these signals slower and less discriminable in females, while in males they become faster and more discriminable, suggesting opposite roles for gonadal hormones in influencing male and female olfactory function. These results demonstrate that the famous sex difference in olfactory abilities likely originates in the primary sensory neurons, and suggest that hormonal modulation of the peripheral olfactory system could underlie differences in how males and females experience the olfactory world.

  17. Papain-induced experimental pulmonary emphysema in male and female mice.

    Machado, Mariana Nascimento; Figueirôa, Silviane Fernandes da Silva; Mazzoli-Rocha, Flavia; Valença, Samuel dos Santos; Zin, Walter Araújo

    2014-08-15

    In papain-induced models of emphysema, despite the existing extensive description of the cellular and molecular aspects therein involved, sexual hormones may play a complex and still not fully understood role. Hence, we aimed at exploring the putative gender-related differences in lung mechanics, histology and oxidative stress in papain-exposed mice. Thirty adult BALB/c mice received intratracheally either saline (50 μL) or papain (10 U/50 μL saline) once a week for 2 weeks. In males papain increased lung resistive and viscoelastic/inhomogeneous pressures, static elastance, and viscoelastic component of elastance, while females showed higher static elastance and resistive pressure only. Both genders presented similar higher parenchymal cellularity and mean alveolar diameter, and less collagen-elastic fiber content and body weight gain than their respective controls. Increased functional residual capacity was more prominent in males. Female papain-treated mice were more susceptible to oxidative stress. Thus, male and female papain-exposed mice respond differently, which should be carefully considered to avoid confounding results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficacy of protocols for induction of chronic hyperthyroidism in male and female mice.

    Engels, Kathrin; Rakov, Helena; Zwanziger, Denise; Hönes, Georg Sebastian; Rehders, Maren; Brix, Klaudia; Köhrle, Josef; Möller, Lars Christian; Führer, Dagmar

    2016-10-01

    Protocols for induction of hyperthyroidism in mice are highly variable and mostly involve short-term thyroid hormone (TH) treatment. In addition, little is known about a possible influence of sex on experimental TH manipulation. Here we analyzed the efficacy of intraperitoneal vs. oral levothyroxine (T4) administration to induce chronic hyperthyroidism in male and female mice and asked which T4 dosing intervals are required to achieve stable organ thyrotoxicosis. T4 was administered intraperitoneally or orally over a period of 6/7 weeks. Assessment included monitoring of body weight, TH serum concentrations, and serial quantitative TH target gene expression analysis in liver and heart. Our results show that both intraperitoneal and oral T4 treatment are reliable methods for induction of chronic hyperthyroidism in mice. Thereby T4 injection intervals should not exceed 48 h and oral levothyroxine should be administered continuously during experiments and up to sacrifice to ensure a hyperthyroid organ state. Furthermore, we found a sex-dependent variation in levothyroxine-induced TH serum state, with significantly higher T4 concentrations in female mice, while expression of investigated classical TH responsive genes in liver and heart did not vary with animal's sex. In summary, our study shows that common approaches for rendering rodents thyrotoxic can also be used for induction of chronic hyperthyroidism in male and female mice. Thereby T4 dosing intervals are critical as are read-out parameters to verify a chronic thyrotoxic organ state.

  19. Efficacy of Tramadol as a Sole Analgesic for Postoperative Pain in Male and Female Mice.

    Wolfe, A Marissa; Kennedy, Lucy H; Na, Jane J; Nemzek-Hamlin, Jean A

    2015-07-01

    Tramadol is a centrally acting weak μ opioid agonist that has few of the adverse side effects common to other opioids. Little work has been done to establish an effective analgesic dose of tramadol specific for surgical laparotomy and visceral manipulation in mice. We used general appearance parameters to score positive indicators of pain including posture, coat condition, activity, breathing, and interactions with other mice, activity events (that is, the number of times each mouse stretched up in a 3-min period) used as an indicator of decreased pain, von Frey fibers, and plasma levels of corticosterone to determine whether tramadol at 20, 40, or 80 mg/kg prevented postoperative pain in male and female C57BL/6 mice. A ventral midline laparotomy with typhlectomy was used as a model of postoperative pain. In male mice, none of the markers differed between groups that received tramadol (regardless of dose) and the saline-treated controls. However, general appearance scores and plasma corticosterone levels were lower in female mice that received 80 mg/kg tramadol compared with saline. In summary, for severe postoperative pain after laparotomy and aseptic typhlectomy, tramadol was ineffective in male C57BL/6 mice at all doses tested. Although 80 mg/kg ameliorated postoperative pain in female C57BL/6 mice, this dose is very close to the threshold reported to cause toxic side effects, such as tremors and seizures. Therefore, we do not recommend the use of tramadol as a sole analgesic in this mouse model of postoperative pain.

  20. Focal lesions within the ventral striato-pallidum abolish attraction for male chemosignals in female mice.

    Agustín-Pavón, Carmen; Martínez-García, Fernando; Lanuza, Enrique

    2014-02-01

    In rodents, socio-sexual behaviour is largely mediated by chemosensory cues, some of which are rewarding stimuli. Female mice display an innate attraction towards male chemosignals, dependent on the vomeronasal system. This behaviour likely reflects the hedonic value of sexual chemosignals. The anteromedial aspect of the olfactory tubercle, along with its associated islands of Calleja, receives vomeronasal inputs and sexually-dimorphic vasopressinergic innervation. Thus, we hypothesised that this portion of the ventral striato-pallidum, known to be involved in reward processing, might be important for sexual odorant-guided behaviours. In this study, we demonstrate that lesions of this region, but not of regions in the posterolateral striato-pallidum, abolish the attraction of female mice for male chemosignals, without affecting significantly their preference for a different natural reward (a sucrose solution). These results show that, at least in female mice, the integrity of the anterior aspect of the medioventral striato-pallidum, comprising a portion of the olfactory tubercle and associated islands of Calleja, is necessary for the attraction for male chemosignals. We suggest that this region contributes to the processing of the hedonic properties of biologically significant odorants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of the thymus on the capacity of female mice to reject male skin grafts

    De Pirro, E.S.; Goldberg, E.H.

    1989-01-01

    The ability of female mice to reject H-Y-incompatible, but otherwise histocompatible, male skin grafts differs greatly from strain to strain, as is illustrated particularly by the C57BL strain (B6 and other sublines), termed ''H-Y rejector,'' because females invariably and promptly reject C57BL male skin, in comparison with the C3H strain, termed ''H-Y nonrejector,'' because females characteristically accept male C3H skin. To assess the extent to which the thymus governs this rejector vs. nonrejector status, two studies were made. In the first, lethally irradiated B6 (C57BL) and C3H females were restored with (B6 X C3H)F1 female cells, providing a graft-vs.-host-free milieu for differentiation of the same immunopoietic cell population in B6 vs. C3H hosts. With respect to (B6 X C3H)F1 male skin grafts, B6 hosts responded as rejectors and C3H hosts as nonrejectors, signifying that rejector vs. nonrejector status was determined by the host during immunopoiesis. That the main organ responsible for rejector vs. nonrejector determination is the thymus was shown in a second study. Previously thymectomized (B6 X C3H)F1 females received a histocompatible graft of thymus from either B6 or C3H neonatal females and were restored with donor-marked (B6-Ly-5a X C3H)F1 female cells after lethal irradiation. With respect to (B6 X C3H)F1 male skin grafts, the recipients of B6 thymus grafts responded generally as rejectors and the recipients of C3H thymus grafts responded uniformly as nonrejectors

  2. Genetic and hormonal control of hepatic steatosis in female and male mice.

    Norheim, Frode; Hui, Simon T; Kulahcioglu, Emre; Mehrabian, Margarete; Cantor, Rita M; Pan, Calvin; Parks, Brian W; Lusis, Aldons J

    2017-01-01

    The etiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is complex and influenced by factors such as obesity, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and sex. We now report a study on sex difference in hepatic steatosis in the context of genetic variation using a population of inbred strains of mice. While male mice generally exhibited higher concentration of hepatic TG levels on a high-fat high-sucrose diet, sex differences showed extensive interaction with genetic variation. Differences in percentage body fat were the best predictor of hepatic steatosis among the strains and explained about 30% of the variation in both sexes. The difference in percent gonadal fat and HDL explained 9.6% and 6.7% of the difference in hepatic TGs between the sexes, respectively. Genome-wide association mapping of hepatic TG revealed some striking differences in genetic control of hepatic steatosis between females and males. Gonadectomy increased the hepatic TG to body fat percentage ratio among male, but not female, mice. Our data suggest that the difference between the sexes in hepatic TG can be partly explained by differences in body fat distribution, plasma HDL, and genetic regulation. Future studies are required to understand the molecular interactions between sex, genetics, and the environment. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Butyl paraben and propyl paraben modulate bisphenol A and estradiol concentrations in female and male mice

    Pollock, Tyler; Weaver, Rachel E.; Ghasemi, Ramtin; Catanzaro, Denys de, E-mail: decatanz@mcmaster.ca

    2017-06-15

    People are routinely exposed to the antimicrobial preservatives butyl paraben (BP) and propyl paraben (PP), as well as the monomer of polycarbonate plastics, bisphenol A (BPA). These chemicals are reliably detected in human urine and potentially interact. We investigated whether BP or PP exposure can modulate the concentrations of {sup 14}C-BPA and 17β-estradiol (E{sub 2}). Female and male CF1 mice were each given a subcutaneous injection of oil containing 0 (vehicle), 1, 3, or 9 mg BP or PP, then given a dietary supplement containing 50 μg/kg {sup 14}C-BPA. Radioactivity was measured in tissues through liquid scintillation counting. Significantly elevated {sup 14}C-BPA concentrations were observed following BP treatment in blood serum of both sexes, as well as the lungs, uterus, and ovaries of females and the testes and epididymides of males. Treatment with PP significantly elevated {sup 14}C-BPA concentrations in the uterus only. In another experiment, female and male CF1 mice were each injected with vehicle, 3 mg BP, or 3 mg PP, and E{sub 2} was measured in urine 2–12 h later. Whereas PP did not affect E{sub 2}, BP significantly elevated E{sub 2} 6–10 h after injection in females and 8 h after injection in males. These data indicate that BP and PP can alter the pharmacokinetics of BPA in vivo, and that BP can modulate E{sub 2} concentrations. These results are consistent with evidence that parabens inhibit enzymes that are critical for BPA and E{sub 2} metabolism, and demonstrate the importance of considering concurrent exposure to multiple chemicals when determining regulatory exposure limits. - Highlights: • We studied whether paraben exposure affects the distribution of oral {sup 14}C-BPA. • Elevated {sup 14}C–BPA was observed in mice given butyl or propyl paraben. • We also studied whether paraben exposure affects natural E{sub 2} levels in urine. • Elevated E{sub 2} was observed in mice given butyl, but not propyl, paraben. • Parabens may

  4. Comparison of Neurological Function in Males and Females from Two Substrains of C57BL/6 Mice

    Amy Ashworth

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The C57BL/6 (B6 mouse is the background strain most frequently used for genetically-modified mice. Previous studies have found significant behavioral and genetic differences between the B6J (The Jackson Laboratory and B6N substrains (National Institutes of Health; however, most studies employed only male mice. We performed a comprehensive battery of motor function and learning and memory tests on male and female mice from both substrains. The B6N male mice had greater improvement in the rotarod test. In contrast, B6J female mice had longer latencies to falling from the rotarod. In the Morris water maze (MWM, B6J males had significantly shorter latencies to finding the hidden platform. However, B6N females had significantly shorter path lengths in the reversal and shifted-reduced phases. In open field locomotor activity, B6J males had higher activity levels, whereas B6N females took longer to habituate. In the fear conditioning test, B6N males had a significantly longer time freezing in the new context compared with B6J males, but no significant differences were found in contextual or cued tests. In summary, our findings demonstrate the importance of testing both males and females in neurobehavioral studies. Both factors (sex and substrain must be taken into account when designing developmental neurotoxicology studies.

  5. Social isolation reduces serotonergic fiber density in the inferior colliculus of female, but not male, mice.

    Keesom, Sarah M; Morningstar, Mitchell D; Sandlain, Rebecca; Wise, Bradley M; Hurley, Laura M

    2018-05-12

    Early-life experiences, including maternal deprivation and social isolation during adolescence, have a profound influence on a range of adult social behaviors. Post-weaning social isolation in rodents influences behavior in part through the alteration of neuromodulatory systems, including the serotonergic system. Of significance to social behavior, the serotonergic system richly innervates brain areas involved in vocal communication, including the auditory system. However, the influence of isolation on serotonergic input to the auditory system remains underexplored. Here, we assess whether 4 weeks of post-weaning individual housing alters serotonergic fiber density in the inferior colliculus (IC), an auditory midbrain nucleus in which serotonin alters auditory-evoked activity. Individually housed male and female mice were compared to conspecifics housed socially in groups of three. Serotonergic projections were subsequently visualized with an antibody to the serotonin transporter, which labels serotonergic fibers with relatively high selectivity. Fiber densities were estimated in the three major subregions of the IC using line-scan intensity analysis. Individually housed female mice showed a significantly reduced fiber density relative to socially housed females, which was accompanied by a lower body weight in individually housed females. In contrast, social isolation did not affect serotonergic fiber density in the IC of males. This finding suggests that sensitivity of the serotonergic system to social isolation is sex-dependent, which could be due to a sex difference in the effect of isolation on psychosocial stress. Since serotonin availability depends on social context, this finding further suggests that social isolation can alter the acute social regulation of auditory processing. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Immune Alterations in Male and Female Mice after 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose Administration

    Dreau, Didier; Morton, Darla S.; Foster, Mareva; Swiggett, Jeanene P.; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1995-01-01

    Administration of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), an analog of glucose which inhibits glycolysis by competitive antagonism for phosphohexose isomerase, results in acute periods of intracellular glucoprivation and hyperglycemia resulting in hyperphagia. In addition to these changes in the carbohydrate metabolism, injection of 2-DG results in alterations of both the endocrine and neurological systems as suggested by modifications in oxytocin and glucocorticoid levels and norepinephrine production. Moreover, alterations of the immune response, such as a decrease in the in vitro proliferation of splenocytes after mitogen-stimulation, were observed in mice injected with 2-DG. Sex, genotype and environment are among the factors that may modulate effects of catecholamines and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis on these immune changes. Sexual dimorphism in immune function resulting from the effects of sex hormones on immune effector cells has been shown in both animals and humans. These observations have important implications, especially with regard to higher incidence of many autoimmune diseases in females. Evidence exists that reproductive hormones influence the immune system and increase the risk of immunologically related disorders in both animals and humans. Indeed, immunological responses in stressful situations may also be confounded by fluctuations of sex hormones especially in females. Lymphocyte distribution, cytoldne production, and the ability of lymphocyte to proliferate in vitro were analyzed in male and female mice to determine if sex influenced 2-DG immunomodulation. In addition, the influence of hormones, especially sex hormones, on these changes were evaluated.

  7. Cognitive performance of male and female C57BL/6J mice after repetitive concussive brain injuries.

    Velosky, Alexander G; Tucker, Laura B; Fu, Amanda H; Liu, Jiong; McCabe, Joseph T

    2017-05-01

    In contact sports, repetitive concussive brain injury (rCBI) is the prevalent form of head injury seen in athletes. The need for effective treatment is urgent as rCBI has been associated with a host of cognitive, behavioral and neurological complaints. There has been a growing trend in the use of female animals in pre-clinical research, but few studies have investigated possible sex differences following rCBI. The goal of the current study was to determine any differences between male and female C57BL/6J mice on assessments of learning and memory after repetitive concussive injury. Following rCBI by impact to the scalp, male mice exhibited longer righting reflexes during acute recovery. In both sexes, there were no evident histopathological changes observed in the underlying cerebral cortex or hippocampus. Reactive astrogliosis was elevated in the corpus callosum and optic tract, and astrogliosis was slightly less in the optic tract of female mice. rCBI mice exhibited impairment during the learning phase of the Morris water maze (MWM), but female mice, in comparison to male mice, were observed to have superior spatial memory during standard MWM probe trials. Female mice were overall more active, evidenced by greater distances traveled in the y-maze and greater swim speeds in the MWM. The results of this study demonstrate sex differences in cognitive performance following rCBI and support previous research suggesting the neuroprotective role of sex in brain injury. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Adult Gli2+/-;Gli3Δ699/+ Male and Female Mice Display a Spectrum of Genital Malformation.

    Fei He

    Full Text Available Disorders of sexual development (DSD encompass a broad spectrum of urogenital malformations and are amongst the most common congenital birth defects. Although key genetic factors such as the hedgehog (Hh family have been identified, a unifying postnatally viable model displaying the spectrum of male and female urogenital malformations has not yet been reported. Since human cases are diagnosed and treated at various stages postnatally, equivalent mouse models enabling analysis at similar stages are of significant interest. Additionally, all non-Hh based genetic models investigating DSD display normal females, leaving female urogenital development largely unknown. Here, we generated compound mutant mice, Gli2+/-;Gli3Δ699/+, which exhibit a spectrum of urogenital malformations in both males and females upon birth, and also carried them well into adulthood. Analysis of embryonic day (E18.5 and adult mice revealed shortened anogenital distance (AGD, open ventral urethral groove, incomplete fusion of scrotal sac, abnormal penile size and structure, and incomplete testicular descent with hypoplasia in male mice, whereas female mutant mice displayed reduced AGD, urinary incontinence, and a number of uterine anomalies such as vaginal duplication. Male and female fertility was also investigated via breeding cages, and it was identified that male mice were infertile while females were unable to deliver despite becoming impregnated. We propose that Gli2+/-;Gli3Δ699/+ mice can serve as a genetic mouse model for common DSD such as cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and incomplete fusion of the scrotal sac in males, and a spectrum of uterine and vaginal abnormalities along with urinary incontinence in females, which could prove essential in revealing new insights into their equivalent diseases in humans.

  9. 2-Methoxyestradiol Reduces Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension and Renal Dysfunction in Ovariectomized Female and Intact Male Mice.

    Pingili, Ajeeth K; Davidge, Karen N; Thirunavukkarasu, Shyamala; Khan, Nayaab S; Katsurada, Akemi; Majid, Dewan S A; Gonzalez, Frank J; Navar, L Gabriel; Malik, Kafait U

    2017-06-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 protects against angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension and associated cardiovascular changes in female mice, most likely via production of 2-methoxyestradiol. This study was conducted to determine whether 2-methoxyestradiol ameliorates Ang II-induced hypertension, renal dysfunction, and end-organ damage in intact Cyp1b1 -/- , ovariectomized female, and Cyp1b1 +/+ male mice. Ang II or vehicle was infused for 2 weeks and administered concurrently with 2-methoxyestradiol. Mice were placed in metabolic cages on day 12 of Ang II infusion for urine collection for 24 hours. 2-Methoxyestradiol reduced Ang II-induced increases in systolic blood pressure, water consumption, urine output, and proteinuria in intact female Cyp1b1 -/- and ovariectomized mice. 2-Methoxyestradiol also reduced Ang II-induced increase in blood pressure, water intake, urine output, and proteinuria in Cyp1b1 +/+ male mice. Treatment with 2-methoxyestradiol attenuated Ang II-induced end-organ damage in intact Cyp1b1 -/- and ovariectomized Cyp1b1 +/+ and Cyp1b1 -/- female mice and Cyp1b1 +/+ male mice. 2-Methoxyestradiol mitigated Ang II-induced increase in urinary excretion of angiotensinogen in intact Cyp1b1 -/- and ovariectomized Cyp1b1 +/+ and Cyp1b1 -/- female mice but not in Cyp1b1 +/+ male mice. The G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 antagonist G-15 failed to alter Ang II-induced increases in blood pressure and renal function in Cyp1b1 +/+ female mice. These data suggest that 2-methoxyestradiol reduces Ang II-induced hypertension and associated end-organ damage in intact Cyp1b1 -/- , ovariectomized Cyp1b1 +/+ and Cyp1b1 -/- female mice, and Cyp1b1 +/+ male mice independent of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1. Therefore, 2-methoxyestradiol could serve as a therapeutic agent for treating hypertension and associated pathogenesis in postmenopausal females, and in males. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. The Effects of Dietary Macronutrient Balance on Skin Structure in Aging Male and Female Mice

    McMahon, Aisling C.; Ruohonen, Kari; Raubenheimer, David; Ballard, J. William O.; Le Couteur, David G.; Nicholls, Caroline; Li, Zhe; Maitz, Peter K. M.; Wang, Yiwei; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition influences skin structure; however, a systematic investigation into how energy and macronutrients (protein, carbohydrate and fat) affects the skin has yet to be conducted. We evaluated the associations between macronutrients, energy intake and skin structure in mice fed 25 experimental diets and a control diet for 15 months using the Geometric Framework, a novel method of nutritional analysis. Skin structure was associated with the ratio of dietary macronutrients eaten, not energy intake, and the nature of the effect differed between the sexes. In males, skin structure was primarily associated with protein intake, whereas in females carbohydrate intake was the primary correlate. In both sexes, the dermis and subcutaneous fat thicknesses were inversely proportional. Subcutaneous fat thickness varied positively with fat intake, due to enlarged adipocytes rather than increased adipocyte number. We therefore demonstrated clear interactions between skin structure and macronutrient intakes, with the associations being sex-specific and dependent on dietary macronutrient balance. PMID:27832138

  11. The Accessory Olfactory System Facilitates the Recovery of the Attraction to Familiar Volatile Female Odors in Male Mice.

    Muroi, Yoshikage; Nishimura, Masakazu; Ishii, Toshiaki

    2017-10-31

    Odors in female mice induce sexual arousal in male mice. Repeated exposure to female odors attenuates male attraction, which recovers when the odors are removed. The neuronal mechanisms for the recovery of male attraction have not been clarified. In this study, we examined how olfactory systems are involved in the recovery of male attraction to female odors following habituation in mice. Presentation with volatile female odors for 5 min induced habituation in males. To evaluate male attraction to familiar volatile female odors, we measured the duration for investigating volatile female odors from the same female mouse, which was presented twice for 5 min with 1-, 3-, or 5-min interval. Intranasal irrigation with ZnSO4 solution almost completely suppressed investigating behavior, indicating that the main olfactory system is indispensable for inducing the attraction to volatile female odors. In contrast, removal of the vomeronasal organ, bilateral lesions of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), or pharmacological blockage of neurotransmission in the AOB did not affect the investigation time at the first odor presentation. However, each one of the treatments decreased the investigation time in the second presentation, compared to that in the first presentation, at longer intervals than control treatment, indicating that the disturbance of neurotransmission in the accessory olfactory system delayed the recovery of the attraction attenuated by the first presentation. These results suggest that the accessory olfactory system facilitates the recovery of the attraction to familiar volatile female odors in male mice. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Interaction between Sex Hormones and Matricaria Chamomilla Hydroalcholic Extract on Motor Activity Behavior in Gonadectomized Male and Female Mice

    H. Raie

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Locomotor activity is an important physiologic phenomenon that is influenced by several factors. In previous study we showed that the matricaria chamomilla (chamomile hydroalcholic extract acts differently in male and female mice. Therefore in this study, the role of sex hormones and chamomile hydroalcholic extract were investigated on motor activity behavior in absence of sex glands in adult male and female NMRI mice. Materials and Methods: Gonadectomized male and female mice were divided into groups (seven mice in each group including: receiving testosterone (2 mg/kg S.C., estradiol benzoate (0.1 mg/kg S.C., and progesterone (0.5 mg/kg S.C. with and without hydroalcholic extract of chamomile (50 mg/kg i.p. Motor activity monitor system was used to evaluate locomotor activity parameters (fast and slow activity, fast and slow stereotype activity, fast and slow rearing in all groups. Results: 1 Testosterone had no any effect on motor activity parameters, but extract of chamomile with and without testosterone decreased motor activity parameters in male mice. 2 Estradiol benzoate and chamomile hydroalcholic extract in presence and absence of each other increased locomotor activity parameters in female mice. 3 Progesterone also did not change motor activity parameters in presence and absence of chamomile hydroalcholic extract in female mice. 4 Administration of Estradiol benzoate with progestrone in presence and absence of chamomile hydroalcholic extract did not alter motor activity parameters in female mice. Conclusion: It seems both of the chamomile hydroalcholic extract and estradiol enhance motor activity and probably act through same system and potentiate the effect of each other. Also it seems there are interaction between estradiol and progesterone and also between chamomile extract and progesterone. Testosterone probably did not have any interaction with chamomile extract in locomotor activity.

  13. Dietary arginine depletion reduces depressive-like responses in male, but not female, mice.

    Workman, Joanna L; Weber, Michael D; Nelson, Randy J

    2011-09-30

    Previous behavioral studies have manipulated nitric oxide (NO) production either by pharmacological inhibition of its synthetic enzyme, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), or by deletion of the genes that code for NOS. However manipulation of dietary intake of the NO precursor, L-arginine, has been understudied in regard to behavioral regulation. L-Arginine is a common amino acid present in many mammalian diets and is essential during development. In the brain L-arginine is converted into NO and citrulline by the enzyme, neuronal NOS (nNOS). In Experiment 1, paired mice were fed a diet comprised either of an L-arginine-depleted, L-arginine-supplemented, or standard level of L-arginine during pregnancy. Offspring were continuously fed the same diets and were tested in adulthood in elevated plus maze, forced swim, and resident-intruder aggression tests. L-Arginine depletion reduced depressive-like responses in male, but not female, mice and failed to significantly alter anxiety-like or aggressive behaviors. Arginine depletion throughout life reduced body mass overall and eliminated the sex difference in body mass. Additionally, arginine depletion significantly increased corticosterone concentrations, which negatively correlated with time spent floating. In Experiment 2, adult mice were fed arginine-defined diets two weeks prior to and during behavioral testing, and again tested in the aforementioned tests. Arginine depletion reduced depressive-like responses in the forced swim test, but did not alter behavior in the elevated plus maze or the resident intruder aggression test. Corticosterone concentrations were not altered by arginine diet manipulation in adulthood. These results indicate that arginine depletion throughout development, as well as during a discrete period during adulthood ameliorates depressive-like responses. These results may yield new insights into the etiology and sex differences of depression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Differential Gene Expression in Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons of Male and Metestrous Female Mice.

    Vastagh, Csaba; Rodolosse, Annie; Solymosi, Norbert; Farkas, Imre; Auer, Herbert; Sárvári, Miklós; Liposits, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons play a pivotal role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis in a sex-specific manner. We hypothesized that the differences seen in reproductive functions of males and females are associated with a sexually dimorphic gene expression profile of GnRH neurons. We compared the transcriptome of GnRH neurons obtained from intact metestrous female and male GnRH-green fluorescent protein transgenic mice. About 1,500 individual GnRH neurons from each sex were sampled with laser capture microdissection followed by whole-transcriptome amplification for gene expression profiling. Under stringent selection criteria (fold change >1.6, adjusted p value 0.01), Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 PM array analysis identified 543 differentially expressed genes. Sexual dimorphism was most apparent in gene clusters associated with synaptic communication, signal transduction, cell adhesion, vesicular transport and cell metabolism. To validate microarray results, 57 genes were selected, and 91% of their differential expression was confirmed by real-time PCR. Similarly, 88% of microarray results were confirmed with PCR from independent samples obtained by patch pipette harvesting and pooling of 30 GnRH neurons from each sex. We found significant differences in the expression of genes involved in vesicle priming and docking (Syt1, Cplx1), GABAergic (Gabra3, Gabrb3, Gabrg2) and glutamatergic (Gria1, Grin1, Slc17a6) neurotransmission, peptide signaling (Sstr3, Npr2, Cxcr4) and the regulation of intracellular ion homeostasis (Cacna1, Cacnb1, Cacng5, Kcnq2, Kcnc1). The striking sexual dimorphism of the GnRH neuron transcriptome we report here contributes to a better understanding of the differences in cellular mechanisms of GnRH neurons in the two sexes. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Exercise training and antioxidant supplementation independently improve cognitive function in adult male and female GFAP-APOE mice

    Kiran Chaudhari; Jessica M. Wong; Philip H. Vann; Nathalie Sumien

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if antioxidant supplementation, moderate exercise, and the combination of both treatments could ameliorate cognitive performance in adult mice and whether the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype as well as sex could influence the functional outcomes of the treatments. Methods: For a period of 16 weeks, separate groups of male and female mice expressing either the human APOE3 or APOE4 isoforms were fed either a control diet (NIH-31) or the co...

  16. Diclofenac sex-divergent drug-drug interaction with Sunitinib: pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution in male and female mice.

    Chew, Chii Chii; Ng, Salby; Chee, Yun Lee; Koo, Teng Wai; Liew, Ming Hui; Chee, Evelyn Li-Ching; Modamio, Pilar; Fernández, Cecilia; Mariño, Eduardo L; Segarra, Ignacio

    2017-08-01

    Coadministration of diclofenac and sunitinib, tyrosine kinase inhibitor, led to sex-divergent pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction outcomes. Male and female mice were administered 60 mg/kg PO sunitinib alone (control groups) or with 30 mg/kg PO diclofenac. Sunitinib concentration in plasma, brain, kidney and liver were determined by HPLC and non-compartmental pharmacokinetic parameters calculated. In male mice, diclofenac decreased AUC 0→∞ 38% in plasma (p diclofenac increased the liver uptake efficiency in male (27%, p diclofenac with probable clinical translatability due to potential different effects in male and female patients requiring careful selection of the NSAID and advanced TDM to implement a personalized treatment.

  17. Inflammatory and mitochondrial gene expression data in GPER-deficient cardiomyocytes from male and female mice

    Hao Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We previously showed that cardiomyocyte-specific G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER gene deletion leads to sex-specific adverse effects on cardiac structure and function; alterations which may be due to distinct differences in mitochondrial and inflammatory processes between sexes. Here, we provide the results of Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA based on the DNA microarray data from GPER-knockout versus GPER-intact (intact cardiomyocytes. This article contains complete data on the mitochondrial and inflammatory response-related gene expression changes that were significant in GPER knockout versus intact cardiomyocytes from adult male and female mice. The data are supplemental to our original research article “Cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER leads to left ventricular dysfunction and adverse remodeling: a sex-specific gene profiling” (Wang et al., 2016 [1]. Data have been deposited to the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database repository with the dataset identifier GSE86843.

  18. Hormonal and molecular effects of restraint stress on formalin-induced pain-like behavior in male and female mice.

    Long, Caela C; Sadler, Katelyn E; Kolber, Benedict J

    2016-10-15

    The evolutionary advantages to the suppression of pain during a stressful event (stress-induced analgesia (SIA)) are obvious, yet the reasoning behind sex-differences in the expression of this pain reduction are not. The different ways in which males and females integrate physiological stress responses and descending pain inhibition are unclear. A potential supraspinal modulator of stress-induced analgesia is the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). This limbic brain region is involved in both the processing of stress and pain; the CeA is anatomically and molecularly linked to regions of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and descending pain network. The CeA exhibits sex-based differences in response to stress and pain that may differentially induce SIA in males and females. Here, sex-based differences in behavioral and molecular indices of SIA were examined following noxious stimulation. Acute restraint stress in male and female mice was performed prior to intraplantar injections of formalin, a noxious inflammatory agent. Spontaneous pain-like behaviors were measured for 60min following formalin injection and mechanical hypersensitivity was evaluated 120 and 180min post-injection. Restraint stress altered formalin-induced spontaneous behaviors in male and female mice and formalin-induced mechanical hypersensitivity in male mice. To assess molecular indices of SIA, tissue samples from the CeA and blood samples were collected at the 180min time point. Restraint stress prevented formalin-induced increases in extracellular signal regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) phosphorylation in the male CeA, but no changes associated with pERK2 were seen with formalin or restraint in females. Sex differences were also seen in plasma corticosterone concentrations 180min post injection. These results demonstrate sex-based differences in behavioral, molecular, and hormonal indices of acute stress in mice that extend for 180min after stress and noxious stimulation. Copyright

  19. The male sex pheromone darcin stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis and cell proliferation in the subventricular zone in female mice

    Emma eHoffman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The integration of newly generated neurons persists throughout life in the mammalian olfactory bulb and hippocampus, regions involved in olfactory and spatial learning. Social cues can be potent stimuli for increasing adult neurogenesis; for example, odors from dominant but not subordinate male mice increase neurogenesis in both brain regions of adult females. However, little is known about the role of neurogenesis in social recognition or the assessment of potential mates. Dominant male mice scent-mark territories using urine that contains a number of pheromones including darcin (MUP20, a male-specific major urinary protein that stimulates rapid learned attraction to the spatial location and individual odor signature of the scent owner. Here we investigate whether exposure to darcin stimulates neurogenesis in the female brain. Hippocampal neurons and cellular proliferation in the lateral ventricles that supply neurons to the olfactory bulbs increased in females exposed for seven days to male urine containing at least 0.5µg/µl darcin. Darcin was effective whether presented alone or in the context of male urine, but other information in male urine appeared to modulate the proliferative response. When exposed to urine from wild male mice, hippocampal proliferation increased only if urine was from the same individual over seven days, suggesting that consistency of individual scent signatures is important. While seven days exposure to male scent initiated the first stages of increased neurogenesis, this caused no immediate increase in female attraction to the scent or in the strength or robustness of spatial learning in short-term conditioned place preference tests. The reliable and consistent stimulation of neurogenesis by a pheromone important in rapid social learning suggests that this may provide an excellent model to explore the relationship between the integration of new neurons and plasticity in spatial and olfactory learning in a socially

  20. Deletion of the forebrain mineralocorticoid receptor impairs social discrimination and decision-making in male, but not in female mice

    Judith P Ter Horst

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Social interaction with unknown individuals requires fast processing of information to decide whether it is friend or foe. This process of discrimination and decision-making is stressful and triggers secretion of corticosterone activating mineralocorticoid receptors (MR and glucocorticoid receptors (GR. The MR is involved in appraisal of novel experiences and risk assessment. Recently, we have demonstrated in a dual-solution memory task that MR plays a role in the early stage of information processing and decision-making. Here we examined social approach and social discrimination in male and female mice lacking MR from hippocampal-amygdala-prefrontal circuitry and controls. The social approach task allows the assessment of time spent with an unfamiliar mouse and the ability to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics. The male and female test mice were both more interested in the social than the non-social experience and deletion of their limbic MR increased the time spent with an unfamiliar mouse. Unlike controls, the male MRCaMKCre mice were not able to discriminate between an unfamiliar and the familiar mouse. However, the female MR mutant had retained the discriminative ability between unfamiliar and familiar mice. Administration of the MR antagonist RU28318 to male mice supported the role of the MR in the discrimination between an unfamiliar mouse and a non-social stimulus. No effect was found with a GR antagonist. Our findings suggest that MR is involved in sociability and social discrimination in a sex-specific manner through inhibitory control exerted putatively via limbic-hippocampal efferents. The ability to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics is of uttermost importance for territorial defense and depends on a role of MR in decision-making.

  1. Deletion of the forebrain mineralocorticoid receptor impairs social discrimination and decision-making in male, but not in female mice.

    Ter Horst, Judith P; van der Mark, Maaike; Kentrop, Jiska; Arp, Marit; van der Veen, Rixt; de Kloet, E Ronald; Oitzl, Melly S

    2014-01-01

    Social interaction with unknown individuals requires fast processing of information to decide whether it is friend or foe. This process of discrimination and decision-making is stressful and triggers secretion of corticosterone activating mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The MR is involved in appraisal of novel experiences and risk assessment. Recently, we have demonstrated in a dual-solution memory task that MR plays a role in the early stage of information processing and decision-making. Here we examined social approach and social discrimination in male and female mice lacking MR from hippocampal-amygdala-prefrontal circuitry and controls. The social approach task allows the assessment of time spent with an unfamiliar mouse and the ability to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics. The male and female test mice were both more interested in the social than the non-social experience and deletion of their limbic MR increased the time spent with an unfamiliar mouse. Unlike controls, the male MR(CaMKCre) mice were not able to discriminate between an unfamiliar and the familiar mouse. However, the female MR mutant had retained the discriminative ability between unfamiliar and familiar mice. Administration of the MR antagonist RU28318 to male mice supported the role of the MR in the discrimination between an unfamiliar mouse and a non-social stimulus. No effect was found with a GR antagonist. Our findings suggest that MR is involved in sociability and social discrimination in a sex-specific manner through inhibitory control exerted putatively via limbic-hippocampal efferents. The ability to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics is of uttermost importance for territorial defense and depends on a role of MR in decision-making.

  2. Camellia sinensis Prevents Perinatal Nicotine-Induced Neurobehavioral Alterations, Tissue Injury, and Oxidative Stress in Male and Female Mice Newborns

    Ajarem, Jamaan S.; Al-Basher, Gadh; Allam, Ahmed A.

    2017-01-01

    Nicotine exposure during pregnancy induces oxidative stress and leads to behavioral alterations in early childhood and young adulthood. The current study aimed to investigate the possible protective effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) against perinatal nicotine-induced behavioral alterations and oxidative stress in mice newborns. Pregnant mice received 50 mg/kg C. sinensis on gestational day 1 (PD1) to postnatal day 15 (D15) and were subcutaneously injected with 0.25 mg/kg nicotine from PD12 to D15. Nicotine-exposed newborns showed significant delay in eye opening and hair appearance and declined body weight at birth and at D21. Nicotine induced neuromotor alterations in both male and female newborns evidenced by the suppressed righting, rotating, and cliff avoidance reflexes. Nicotine-exposed newborns exhibited declined memory, learning, and equilibrium capabilities, as well as marked anxiety behavior. C. sinensis significantly improved the physical development, neuromotor maturation, and behavioral performance in nicotine-exposed male and female newborns. In addition, C. sinensis prevented nicotine-induced tissue injury and lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant defenses in the cerebellum and medulla oblongata of male and female newborns. In conclusion, this study shows that C. sinensis confers protective effects against perinatal nicotine-induced neurobehavioral alterations, tissue injury, and oxidative stress in mice newborns. PMID:28588748

  3. TWEAK Receptor Deficiency Has Opposite Effects on Female and Male Mice Subjected to Neonatal Hypoxia–Ischemia

    Anton Kichev

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK is a multifunctional cytokine member of the TNF family. TWEAK binds to its only known receptor, Fn14, enabling it to activate downstream signaling processes in response to tissue injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of TWEAK signaling in neonatal hypoxia–ischemia (HI. We found that after neonatal HI, both TWEAK and Fn14 expression were increased to a greater extent in male compared with female mice. To assess the role of TWEAK signaling after HI, the size of the injury was measured in neonatal mice genetically deficient in Fn14 and compared with their wild-type and heterozygote littermates. A significant sex difference in the Fn14 knockout (KO animals was observed. Fn14 gene KO was beneficial in females; conversely, reducing Fn14 expression exacerbated the brain injury in male mice. Our findings indicate that the TWEAK/Fn14 pathway is critical for development of hypoxic–ischemic brain injury in immature animals. However, as the responses are different in males and females, clinical implementation depends on development of sex-specific therapies.

  4. Differential metabolism of acrylonitrile to cyanide is responsible for the greater sensitivity of male vs female mice: role of CYP2E1 and epoxide hydrolases

    Chanas, Brian; Wang, Hongbing; Ghanayem, Burhan I.

    2003-01-01

    Acrylonitrile (AN) is a potent toxicant and a known rodent carcinogen. AN epoxidation to cyanoethylene oxide (CEO) via CYP2E1 and its subsequent metabolism via epoxide hydrolases (EH) to yield cyanide is thought to be responsible for the acute toxicity and mortality of AN. Recent reports showed that male mice are more sensitive than females to the acute toxicity/mortality of AN. The present work was undertaken to assess the metabolic and enzymatic basis for the greater sensitivity of male vs female mice to AN toxicity. Male and female wild-type and CYP2E1-null mice received AN at 0, 2.5, 10, 20, or 40 mg/kg by gavage. Cyanide concentrations were measured at 1 or 3 h after dosing. Current data demonstrated that cyanide levels in blood and tissues of AN-treated wild-type mice of both sexes were significantly greater than in vehicle-treated controls and increased in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, cyanide levels in AN-treated CYP2E1-null mice were not statistically different from those measured in vehicle-treated controls. Furthermore, higher levels of cyanide were detected in male wild-type mice vs females in association with greater sensitivity of males to the acute toxicity/mortality of this chemical. Using Western blot analysis, negligible difference in CYP2E1 expression with higher levels of soluble and microsomal EH (sEH and mEH) was detected in the liver of male vs female mice. In kidneys, male mice exhibited higher expression of both renal CYP2E1 and sEH than did female mice. In conclusion, higher blood and tissue cyanide levels are responsible for the greater sensitivity of male vs female mice to AN. Further, higher expression of CYP2E1 and EH in male mice may contribute to greater formation of CEO and its subsequent metabolism to yield cyanide, respectively

  5. Female-to-male sex reversal in mice caused by transgenic overexpression of Dmrt1

    Zhao, Liang; Svingen, Terje; Ting Ng, Ee

    2015-01-01

    for primary sex determination and instead maintains Sertoli cell phenotype in postnatal testes. Here, we report that enforced expression of Dmrt1 in XX mouse fetal gonads using a Wt1-BAC transgene system is sufficient to drive testicular differentiation and male secondary sex development. XX transgenic fetal...... into testicular cell types, including steroidogenic fetal Leydig cells and non-meiotic germ cells. As a consequence, male internal and external reproductive organs developed postnatally, with an absence of female reproductive tissues. These results reveal that Dmrt1 has retained its ability to act as the primary...

  6. Splenectomy reduces infarct volume and neuroinflammation in male but not female mice in experimental stroke

    Dotson, Abby L.; Wang, Jianming; Saugstad, Julie; Murphy, Stephanie J.; Offner, Halina

    2014-01-01

    The peripheral immune response contributes to neurodegeneration after stroke yet little is known about how this process differs between males and females. The current study demonstrates that splenectomy prior to experimental stroke eliminates sex differences in infarct volume and activated brain monocytes/microglia. In the periphery of both sexes, activated T cells correlate directly with stroke outcome while monocytes are reduced by splenectomy only in males. This study provides new information about the sex specific mechanisms of the peripheral immune response in neurodegeneration after stroke and demonstrates the need for representation of both sexes in basic and clinical stroke research. PMID:25434281

  7. Neuropsychiatric Symptom Modeling in Male and Female C57BL/6J Mice after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury

    Tucker, Laura B.; Burke, John F.; Fu, Amanda H.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Psychiatric symptoms such as anxiety and depression are frequent and persistent complaints following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Modeling these symptoms in animal models of TBI affords the opportunity to determine mechanisms underlying behavioral pathologies and to test potential therapeutic agents. However, testing these symptoms in animal models of TBI has yielded inconsistent results. The goal of the current study was to employ a battery of tests to measure multiple anxiety- and depressive-like symptoms following TBI in C57BL/6J mice, and to determine if male and female mice are differentially affected by the injury. Following controlled cortical impact (CCI) at a parietal location, neither male nor female mice showed depressive-like symptoms as measured by the Porsolt forced-swim test and sucrose preference test. Conclusions regarding anxiety-like behaviors were dependent upon the assay employed; CCI-induced thigmotaxis in the open field suggested an anxiogenic effect of the injury; however, results from the elevated zero maze, light-dark box, and marble-burying tests indicated that CCI reduced anxiety-like behaviors. Fewer anxiety-like behaviors were also associated with the female sex. Increased levels of activity were also measured in female mice and injured mice in these tests, and conclusions regarding anxiety should be taken with caution when experimental manipulations induce changes in baseline activity. These results underscore the irreconcilability of results from studies attempting to model TBI-induced neuropsychiatric symptoms. Changes in injury models or better attempts to replicate the clinical syndrome may improve the translational applicability of rodent models of TBI-induced anxiety and depression. PMID:27149139

  8. Adult neurobehavioral alterations in male and female mice following developmental exposure to paracetamol (acetaminophen): characterization of a critical period.

    Philippot, Gaëtan; Gordh, Torsten; Fredriksson, Anders; Viberg, Henrik

    2017-10-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a widely used non-prescription drug with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Among pregnant women and young children, paracetamol is one of the most frequently used drugs and is considered the first-choice treatment for pain and/or fever. Recent findings in both human and animal studies have shown associations between paracetamol intake during brain development and adverse behavioral outcomes later in life. The present study was undertaken to investigate if the induction of these effects depend on when the exposure occurs during a critical period of brain development and if male and female mice are equally affected. Mice of both sexes were exposed to two doses of paracetamol (30 + 30 mg kg -1 , 4 h apart) on postnatal days (PND) 3, 10 or 19. Spontaneous behavior, when introduced to a new home environment, was observed at the age of 2 months. We show that adverse effects on adult behavior and cognitive function occurred in both male and female mice exposed to paracetamol on PND 3 and 10, but not when exposed on PND 19. These neurodevelopmental time points in mice correspond to the beginning of the third trimester of pregnancy and the time around birth in humans, supporting existing human data. Considering that paracetamol is the first choice treatment for pain and/or fever during pregnancy and early life, these results may be of great importance for future research and, ultimately, for clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Performance of Male and Female C57BL/6J Mice on Motor and Cognitive Tasks Commonly Used in Pre-Clinical Traumatic Brain Injury Research

    Tucker, Laura B.; Fu, Amanda H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To date, clinical trials have failed to find an effective therapy for victims of traumatic brain injury (TBI) who live with motor, cognitive, and psychiatric complaints. Pre-clinical investigators are now encouraged to include male and female subjects in all translational research, which is of particular interest in the field of neurotrauma given that circulating female hormones (progesterone and estrogen) have been demonstrated to exert neuroprotective effects. To determine whether behavior of male and female C57BL6/J mice is differentially impaired by TBI, male and cycling female mice were injured by controlled cortical impact and tested for several weeks with functional assessments commonly employed in pre-clinical research. We found that cognitive and motor impairments post-TBI, as measured by the Morris water maze (MWM) and rotarod, respectively, were largely equivalent in male and female animals. However, spatial working memory, assessed by the y-maze, was poorer in female mice. Female mice were generally more active, as evidenced by greater distance traveled in the first exposure to the open field, greater distance in the y-maze, and faster swimming speeds in the MWM. Statistical analysis showed that variability in all behavioral data was no greater in cycling female mice than it was in male mice. These data all suggest that with careful selection of tests, procedures, and measurements, both sexes can be included in translational TBI research without concern for effect of hormones on functional impairments or behavioral variability. PMID:25951234

  10. Sunitinib-ibuprofen drug interaction affects the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of sunitinib to brain, liver, and kidney in male and female mice differently.

    Lau, Christine Li Ling; Chan, Sook Tyng; Selvaratanam, Manimegahlai; Khoo, Hui Wen; Lim, Adeline Yi Ling; Modamio, Pilar; Mariño, Eduardo L; Segarra, Ignacio

    2015-08-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib (used in GIST, advanced RCC, and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors) undergoes CYP3A4 metabolism and is an ABCB1B and ABCG2 efflux transporters substrate. We assessed the pharmacokinetic interaction with ibuprofen (an NSAID used by patients with cancer) in Balb/c male and female mice. Mice (study group) were coadministered (30 min apart) 30 mg/kg of ibuprofen and 60 mg/kg of sunitinib PO and compared with the control groups, which received sunitinib alone (60 mg/kg, PO). Sunitinib concentration in plasma, brain, kidney, and liver was measured by HPLC as scheduled and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters estimated. In female control mice, sunitinib AUC0→∞ decreased in plasma (P brain (P male control mice. After ibuprofen coadministration, female mice showed lower AUC0→∞ in plasma (P brain, liver, and kidney (all P male mice, AUC0→∞ remained unchanged in plasma, increased in liver and kidney, and decreased in brain (all P male and female control mice, but changed after ibuprofen coadministration: Male mice showed 1.6-fold higher liver-to-plasma ratio (P female mice and in kidney (male and female mice) but decreased 55% in brain (P differences. The results illustrate the relevance of this DDI on sunitinib pharmacokinetics and tissue uptake. These may be due to gender-based P450 and efflux/transporters differences. © 2015 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  11. Illumination of murine gammaherpesvirus-68 cycle reveals a sexual transmission route from females to males in laboratory mice.

    Sylvie François

    Full Text Available Transmission is a matter of life or death for pathogen lineages and can therefore be considered as the main motor of their evolution. Gammaherpesviruses are archetypal pathogenic persistent viruses which have evolved to be transmitted in presence of specific immune response. Identifying their mode of transmission and their mechanisms of immune evasion is therefore essential to develop prophylactic and therapeutic strategies against these infections. As the known human gammaherpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus are host-specific and lack a convenient in vivo infection model; related animal gammaherpesviruses, such as murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (MHV-68, are commonly used as general models of gammaherpesvirus infections in vivo. To date, it has however never been possible to monitor viral excretion or virus transmission of MHV-68 in laboratory mice population. In this study, we have used MHV-68 associated with global luciferase imaging to investigate potential excretion sites of this virus in laboratory mice. This allowed us to identify a genital excretion site of MHV-68 following intranasal infection and latency establishment in female mice. This excretion occurred at the external border of the vagina and was dependent on the presence of estrogens. However, MHV-68 vaginal excretion was not associated with vertical transmission to the litter or with horizontal transmission to female mice. In contrast, we observed efficient virus transmission to naïve males after sexual contact. In vivo imaging allowed us to show that MHV-68 firstly replicated in penis epithelium and corpus cavernosum before spreading to draining lymph nodes and spleen. All together, those results revealed the first experimental transmission model for MHV-68 in laboratory mice. In the future, this model could help us to better understand the biology of gammaherpesviruses and could also allow the development of strategies that could prevent

  12. Male depression in females?

    Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Yücel, Mete

    2010-02-01

    Scientific evidence for a male-typed depression ("male depression") is still limited, but mainly supports this concept with respect to single externalizing symptoms or symptom clusters. In particular, studies on non-clinical populations including males and females are lacking. The present study aims at assessing general well-being, the risk and the symptoms of male depression dependent on biological sex and gender-role orientation on instrumental (masculine) and expressive (feminine) personality traits in an unselected community sample of males and females. Students (518 males, 500 females) of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Germany, were asked to participate in a "stress study" and complete the following self-report questionnaires: the WHO-5 Well-being Index [Bech, P., 1998. Quality of Life in the Psychiatric Patient. Mosby-Wolfe, London], the Gotland Scale for Male Depression [Walinder, J., Rutz, W., 2001. Male depression and suicide. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 16 (suppl 2), 21-24] and the German Extended Personal Attribute Questionnaire [Runge, T.E., Frey, D., Gollwitzer, P.M., et al., 1981. Masculine (instrumental) and feminine (expressive) traits. A comparison between students in the United States and West Germany. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 12, 142-162]. General well-being of the students was significantly lower compared to population norms. Contrary to expectations, female students had a greater risk of male depression than male students (28.9% vs. 22.4%; p<0.05). Overall, prototypic depressive symptoms as well as externalizing symptoms were more pronounced in females. In the subgroup of those at risk for male depression, biological sex and kind of symptoms were unrelated. Principal component analyses revealed a similar symptom structure for males and females. Low scores on masculinity/instrumentality significantly predicted higher risk of male depression, independent of biological sex. The study sample is not

  13. Below background levels of blood lead impact cytokine levels in male and female mice

    Iavicoli, I.; Carelli, G.; Stanek, E.J.; Castellino, N.; Calabrese, E.J.

    2006-01-01

    A number of studies have documented that Pb exerts immunotoxic effects on T lymphocytes. In studies designed to explore this general response over a broad dose range, female Swiss mice were administered six different diets containing Pb acetate 1 day after mating. During lactation, the mothers received the same feed given during pregnancy, and the same diets were administered to the offspring for 9 months after weaning. At the end of exposure, blood Pb level in the offspring was determined, and possible changes in two type 1 cytokines (IL-2, INF-γ) and one type 2 cytokine (IL-4) in the serum were measured. At higher dietary Pb levels (40 and 400 ppm), a significant increase in IL-4 production was associated with a profound decrease in INF-γ and IL-2 production. At the lowest Pb diet level (0.02 ppm), which resulted in a blood lead level of (0.8 μg/dL), which is below background (2-3 μg/dL) values in humans, increases in INF-γ and IL-2 production along with a significant decrease in IL-4 production were observed. The findings provide evidence of a reversal of lead-induced cytokine skewing depending on the blood lead concentration. As blood lead concentration increases, there is a notable skewing toward Th2, while the pattern is reversed favoring Th1 development at lower blood lead values. The present findings are also notable since they indicate the potential for dietary Pb to have significant biological effects below normal background concentrations

  14. Triclosan exacerbates the presence of {sup 14}C-bisphenol A in tissues of female and male mice

    Pollock, Tyler; Tang, Brandon; Catanzaro, Denys de, E-mail: decatanz@mcmaster.ca

    2014-07-15

    Current human generations are commonly exposed to both triclosan (TCS), an antimicrobial agent, and bisphenol A (BPA), the monomer of polycarbonate plastics and epoxies. Both are readily absorbed into circulation and found distributed among diverse tissues. Potential interactions between TCS and BPA are largely unstudied. We investigated whether TCS exposure affects the distribution of ingested {sup 14}C-BPA in select tissues. CF-1 mice were each subcutaneously injected with TCS then orally administered 50 μg/kg {sup 14}C-BPA. Females received 0, 0.2, 0.6, 1, 2, or 18 mg TCS (equivalent respectively to 0, 6.3, 16.9, 30.1, 60.5, and 558.9 mg/kg). Males received 0, 0.2, 2, or 18 mg TCS (equivalent respectively to 0, 5.3, 53.4, and 415.0 mg/kg). Levels of radioactivity were measured through liquid scintillation counting in blood serum and brain, reproductive, and other tissues. Significantly elevated levels of radioactivity were observed following combined TCS and {sup 14}C-BPA administration, with minimally effective TCS doses being tissue-dependent (Females: lungs, 0.6 mg; uterus, 1 mg; heart, muscle, ovaries, and serum, 18 mg. Males: serum, 0.2 mg; epididymides, 2 mg). Subsequently, we found that 2 or 6 mg TCS increased radioactivity in the ovaries and serum of females orally given only 5 μg/kg {sup 14}C-BPA. These data indicate that TCS can interact with BPA in vivo, magnifying its presence in certain tissues and serum. The data are consistent with evidence that TCS utilizes enzymes that are critical for metabolism and excretion of BPA. Further research should investigate the mechanisms through which these two chemicals interact at environmentally-relevant doses. - Highlights: • We examined whether triclosan exposure affects the distribution of oral {sup 14}C-BPA. • Radioactivity was elevated in select tissues of mice injected sc with triclosan. • In females, this effect was most pronounced in the uterus, ovaries, and lungs. • In males, this effect was

  15. Cross-generational impact of a male murine pheromone 2-sec-butyl-4,5-dihydrothiazole in female mice

    Koyama, Sachiko; Soini, Helena A.; Wager-Miller, James; Alley, William R.; Pizzo, Matthew J.; Rodda, Cathleen; Alberts, Jeffrey; Crystal, Jonathon D.; Lai, Cary; Foley, John; Novotny, Milos V.

    2015-01-01

    The current understanding of the activity of mammalian pheromones is that endocrine and behavioural effects are limited to the exposed individuals. Here, we demonstrate that the nasal exposure of female mice to a male murine pheromone stimulates expansion of mammary glands, leading to prolonged nursing of pups. Subsequent behavioural testing of the pups from pheromone-exposed dams exhibited enhanced learning. Sialic acid components in the milk are known to be involved in brain development. We hypothesized that the offspring might have received more of this key nutrient that promotes brain development. The mRNA for polysialyltransferase, which produces polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecules related to brain development, was increased in the brain of offspring of pheromone-exposed dams at post-natal day 10, while it was not different at embryonic stages, indicating possible differential brain development during early post-natal life. PMID:26136453

  16. Testosterone and Dihydrotestosterone Differentially Improve Cognition in Aged Female Mice

    Benice, Ted S.; Raber, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Compared with age-matched male mice, female mice experience a more severe age-related cognitive decline (ACD). Since androgens are less abundant in aged female mice compared with aged male mice, androgen supplementation may enhance cognition in aged female mice. To test this, we assessed behavioral performance on a variety of tasks in 22- to…

  17. Acute endocrine correlates of attack by lactating females in male mice: effects on plasma prolactin, luteinizing hormone and corticosterone levels.

    Broida, J; Michael, S D; Svare, B

    1984-05-01

    Immediately following defeat inflicted by lactating Rockland-Swiss (R-S) albino mice, adult R-S male mice exhibited significant reductions in circulating prolactin (PRL) and luteinizing hormone (LH), but not corticosterone (CORT). These results suggest that acute neuroendocrine responses to intersex competition may be as dramatic as those previously reported for intermale encounters.

  18. Nature of fatty acids in high fat diets differentially delineates obesity-linked metabolic syndrome components in male and female C57BL/6J mice

    El Akoum Souhad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse effects of high-fat diets (HFD on metabolic homeostasis are linked to adipose tissue dysfunction. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of the HFD nature on adipose tissue activity, metabolic disturbances and glucose homeostasis alterations in male mice compared with female mice. Methods C57BL/6J mice were fed either a chow diet or HFD including vegetal (VD or animal (AD fat. Body weight, plasmatic parameters and adipose tissue mRNA expression levels of key genes were evaluated after 20 weeks of HFD feeding. Results HFD-fed mice were significantly heavier than control at the end of the protocol. Greater abdominal visceral fat accumulation was observed in mice fed with AD compared to those fed a chow diet or VD. Correlated with weight gain, leptin levels in systemic circulation were increased in HFD-fed mice in both sexes with a significant higher level in AD group compared to VD group. Circulating adiponectin levels as well as adipose tissue mRNA expression levels were significantly decreased in HFD-fed male mice. Although its plasma levels remained unchanged in females, adiponectin mRNA levels were significantly reduced in adipose tissue of both HFD-fed groups with a more marked decrease in AD group compared to VD group. Only HFD-fed male mice were diabetic with increased fasting glycaemia. On the other hand, insulin levels were only increased in AD-fed group in both sexes associated with increased resistin levels. VD did not induce any apparent metabolic alteration in females despite the increased weight gain. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors gamma-2 (PPARγ2 and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα mRNA expression levels in adipose tissue were decreased up to 70% in HFD-fed mice but were more markedly reduced in male mice as compared with female mice. Conclusions The nature of dietary fat determines the extent of metabolic alterations reflected in adipocytes through modifications in the pattern of

  19. Excessive Vitamin E Intake Does Not Cause Bone Loss in Male or Ovariectomized Female Mice Fed Normal or High-Fat Diets.

    Ikegami, Hiroko; Kawawa, Rie; Ichi, Ikuyo; Ishikawa, Tomoko; Koike, Taisuke; Aoki, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Yoko

    2017-10-01

    Background: Animal studies on the effects of vitamin E on bone health have yielded conflicting and inconclusive results, and to our knowledge, no studies have addressed the effect of vitamin E on bone in animals consuming a high-fat diet (HFD). Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of excessive vitamin E on bone metabolism in normal male mice and ovariectomized female mice fed a normal diet (ND) or HFD. Methods: In the first 2 experiments, 7-wk-old male mice were fed an ND (16% energy from fat) containing 75 (control), 0 (vitamin E-free), or 1000 (high vitamin E) mg vitamin E/kg (experiment 1) or an HFD (46% energy from fat) containing 0, 200, 500, or 1000 mg vitamin E/kg (experiment 2) for 18 wk. In the third experiment, 7-wk-old sham-operated or ovariectomized female mice were fed the ND (75 mg vitamin E/kg) or HFD containing 0 or 1000 mg vitamin E/kg for 8 wk. At the end of the feeding period, blood and femurs were collected to measure bone turnover markers and analyze histology and microcomputed tomography. Results: In experiments 1 and 2, vitamin E intake had no effect on plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, or bone formation, resorption, or volume in femurs in mice fed the ND or HFDs. In experiment 3, bone volume was significantly reduced (85%) in ovariectomized mice compared with that in sham-operated mice ( P vitamin E/kg. Conclusions: The results suggest that excess vitamin E intake does not cause bone loss in normal male mice or in ovariectomized or sham-operated female mice, regardless of dietary fat content. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Over-Expression of Porcine Myostatin Missense Mutant Leads to A Gender Difference in Skeletal Muscle Growth between Transgenic Male and Female Mice.

    Ma, Dezun; Gao, Pengfei; Qian, Lili; Wang, Qingqing; Cai, Chunbo; Jiang, Shengwang; Xiao, Gaojun; Cui, Wentao

    2015-08-24

    Myostatin, a transforming growth factor-β family member, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development and growth. Piedmontese cattle breeds have a missense mutation, which results in a cysteine to tyrosine substitution in the mature myostatin protein (C313Y). This loss-of-function mutation in myostatin results in a double-muscled phenotype in cattle. Myostatin propeptide is an inhibitor of myostatin activity and is considered a potential agent to stimulate muscle growth in livestock. In this study, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing porcine myostatin missense mutant (pmMS), C313Y, and wild-type porcine myostatin propeptide (ppMS), respectively, to examine their effects on muscle growth in mice. Enhanced muscle growth was observed in both pmMS and ppMS transgenic female mice and also in ppMS transgenic male mice. However, there was no enhanced muscle growth observed in pmMS transgenic male mice. To explore why there is such a big difference in muscle growth between pmMS and ppMS transgenic male mice, the expression level of androgen receptor (AR) mutant AR45 was measured by Western blot. Results indicated that AR45 expression significantly increased in pmMS transgenic male mice while it decreased dramatically in ppMS transgenic male mice. Our data demonstrate that both pmMS and ppMS act as myostatin inhibitors in the regulation of muscle growth, but the effect of pmMS in male mice is reversed by an increased AR45 expression. These results provide useful insight and basic theory to future studies on improving pork quality by genetically manipulating myostatin expression or by regulating myostatin activity.

  1. Antidepressant-like effects of guanfacine and sex-specific differences in effects on c-fos immunoreactivity and paired-pulse ratio in male and female mice.

    Mineur, Yann S; Bentham, Matthew P; Zhou, Wen-Liang; Plantenga, Margreet E; McKee, Sherry A; Picciotto, Marina R

    2015-10-01

    The a2A-noradrenergic agonist guanfacine can decreases stress-induced smoking in female, but not male, human smokers. It is not known whether these effects are due to effects on mood regulation and/or result from nicotinic-cholinergic interactions. The objective of the study was to determine whether there are sex differences in the effect of guanfacine in tests of anxiolytic and antidepressant efficacy in mice at baseline and in a hypercholinergic model of depression induced by the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine. The effects of guanfacine were measured in the light/dark box, tail suspension, and the forced swim test in female and male C57BL/6J mice. In parallel, electrophysiological properties were evaluated in the prefrontal cortex, a critical brain region involved in stress responses. c-fos immunoreactivity was measured in other brain regions known to regulate mood. Despite a baseline sex difference in behavior in the forced swim test (female mice were more immobile), guanfacine had similar, dose-dependent, antidepressant-like effects in mice of both sexes (optimal dose, 0.15 mg/kg). An antidepressant-like effect of guanfacine was also observed following pre-treatment with physostigmine. A sex difference in the paired-pulse ratio in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) (male, 1.4; female, 2.1) was observed at baseline that was normalized by guanfacine. Other brain areas involved in cholinergic control of depression-like behaviors, including the basolateral amygdala and lateral septum, showed sex-specific changes in c-fos expression. Guanfacine has a robust antidepressant-like effect and can reverse a depression-like state induced by increased acetylcholine (ACh) signaling. These data suggest that different brain areas are recruited in female and male mice, despite similar behavioral responses to guanfacine.

  2. KChIP2 genotype dependence of transient outward current (Ito) properties in cardiomyocytes isolated from male and female mice.

    Waldschmidt, Lara; Junkereit, Vera; Bähring, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The transient outward current (Ito) in cardiomyocytes is largely mediated by Kv4 channels associated with Kv Channel Interacting Protein 2 (KChIP2). A knockout model has documented the critical role of KChIP2 in Ito expression. The present study was conducted to characterize in both sexes the dependence of Ito properties, including current magnitude, inactivation kinetics, recovery from inactivation and voltage dependence of inactivation, on the number of functional KChIP2 alleles. For this purpose we performed whole-cell patch-clamp experiments on isolated left ventricular cardiomyocytes from male and female mice which had different KChIP2 genotypes; i.e., wild-type (KChIP2+/+), heterozygous knockout (KChIP2+/-) or complete knockout of KChIP2 (KChIP2-/-). We found in both sexes a KChIP2 gene dosage effect (i.e., a proportionality between number of alleles and phenotype) on Ito magnitude, however, concerning other Ito properties, KChIP2+/- resembled KChIP2+/+. Only in the total absence of KChIP2 (KChIP2-/-) we observed a slowing of Ito kinetics, a slowing of recovery from inactivation and a negative shift of a portion of the voltage dependence of inactivation. In a minor fraction of KChIP2-/- myocytes Ito was completely lost. The distinct KChIP2 genotype dependences of Ito magnitude and inactivation kinetics, respectively, seen in cardiomyocytes were reproduced with two-electrode voltage-clamp experiments on Xenopus oocytes expressing Kv4.2 and different amounts of KChIP2. Our results corroborate the critical role of KChIP2 in controlling Ito properties. They demonstrate that the Kv4.2/KChIP2 interaction in cardiomyocytes is highly dynamic, with a clear KChIP2 gene dosage effect on Kv4 channel surface expression but not on inactivation gating.

  3. Similar reliability and equivalent performance of female and male mice in the open field and water-maze place navigation task.

    Fritz, Ann-Kristina; Amrein, Irmgard; Wolfer, David P

    2017-09-01

    Although most nervous system diseases affect women and men differentially, most behavioral studies using mouse models do not include subjects of both sexes. Many researchers worry that data of female mice may be unreliable due to the estrous cycle. Here, we retrospectively evaluated sex effects on coefficient of variation (CV) in 5,311 mice which had performed the same place navigation protocol in the water-maze and in 4,554 mice tested in the same open field arena. Confidence intervals for Cohen's d as measure of effect size were computed and tested for equivalence with 0.2 as equivalence margin. Despite the large sample size, only few behavioral parameters showed a significant sex effect on CV. Confidence intervals of effect size indicated that CV was either equivalent or showed a small sex difference at most, accounting for less than 2% of total group to group variation of CV. While female mice were potentially slightly more variable in water-maze acquisition and in the open field, males tended to perform less reliably in the water-maze probe trial. In addition to evaluating variability, we also directly compared mean performance of female and male mice and found them to be equivalent in both water-maze place navigation and open field exploration. Our data confirm and extend other large scale studies in demonstrating that including female mice in experiments does not cause a relevant increase of data variability. Our results make a strong case for including mice of both sexes whenever open field or water-maze are used in preclinical research. © 2017 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Similar reliability and equivalent performance of female and male mice in the open field and water‐maze place navigation task

    Fritz, Ann‐Kristina; Amrein, Irmgard

    2017-01-01

    Although most nervous system diseases affect women and men differentially, most behavioral studies using mouse models do not include subjects of both sexes. Many researchers worry that data of female mice may be unreliable due to the estrous cycle. Here, we retrospectively evaluated sex effects on coefficient of variation (CV) in 5,311 mice which had performed the same place navigation protocol in the water‐maze and in 4,554 mice tested in the same open field arena. Confidence intervals for Cohen's d as measure of effect size were computed and tested for equivalence with 0.2 as equivalence margin. Despite the large sample size, only few behavioral parameters showed a significant sex effect on CV. Confidence intervals of effect size indicated that CV was either equivalent or showed a small sex difference at most, accounting for less than 2% of total group to group variation of CV. While female mice were potentially slightly more variable in water‐maze acquisition and in the open field, males tended to perform less reliably in the water‐maze probe trial. In addition to evaluating variability, we also directly compared mean performance of female and male mice and found them to be equivalent in both water‐maze place navigation and open field exploration. Our data confirm and extend other large scale studies in demonstrating that including female mice in experiments does not cause a relevant increase of data variability. Our results make a strong case for including mice of both sexes whenever open field or water‐maze are used in preclinical research. PMID:28654717

  5. Comparison between C-FOS Expression in Male and Female Mice During Morphine Withdrawal in the Presence and Absence of Acute Administration of Matricaria Recutita

    Kesmati Mahnaz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are some evidences that indicate there are sexual differences in drug abuse and response to synthetic and herbal drugs. It has been shown that the expression of C-FOS increases in many areas of brain during morphine withdrawal. Concerning the sedative effect of Matricaria recutita extract, the aim of this study was to compare expression of C-FOS transcription factor during morphine withdrawal with and without acute administration of Matricaria recutita on male and female adult mice.Materials and Methods: This study was done at Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz in 2007 on NMRI mice. Male and female mice were assigned into 8 groups (morphine + saline; morphine + naloxone; morphine + Matricaria recutita + naloxone; and morphine + saline + naloxone. To develop morphine dependency, increasing doses of morphine (20, 40, 80 mg/kg injected subcutaneously for 4 days. Mice received a final morphine injection (40 mg/kg 3hours prior to naloxone (5 mg/kg on the day of testing (day 4. Matricaria recutita extract whit a dose of 30 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally 5 minutes before naloxone injection. In cellular study, 90minute after naloxone injection, mice were decapitated and their brains were separated, then mRNA was extracted from brain tissue. Using DIG-labeled DNA probe of C-FOS, beta-actin and dot blot technique, expression of C-FOS was analyzed by Zero Dscan software. Statistical evaluation of data was performed using student t-test and ANOVA with one factor followed by Duncan test in SPSS software. P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The rate of expression of C-FOS increased in male mice but decreased significantly in female mice after naloxone-precipitated abstinence P<0.01(. Matricaria recutita attenuated the rate of expression of C-FOS in male mice but it showed synergistic effect on it in female mice P<0.05(.Conclusion: It seems that the cellular processes involving morphine dependency and

  6. Early social enrichment provided by communal nest increases resilience to depression-like behavior more in female than in male mice.

    D'Andrea, Ivana; Gracci, Fiorenza; Alleva, Enrico; Branchi, Igor

    2010-12-20

    Early experiences produce persistent changes in behavior and brain function. Being reared in a communal nest (CN), consisting of a single nest where three mouse mothers keep their pups together and share care-giving behavior from birth to weaning, provides an highly stimulating social environment to the developing pup since both mother-offspring and peer-to-peer interactions are markedly increased. Here we show that being reared in a CN affects adult behavior of CD-1 mice in a gender-dependent fashion, with reduced depression-like responses in females and increased anxiety-like behavior in males. In particular, CN females showed higher sucrose preference at baseline condition, drinking more sweet solution compared to female mice reared in a standard laboratory condition (SN). In the isolation test, both SN and CN females showed a reduction in sucrose preference after exposure to isolation stress. However, after 24h, only CN females significantly recovered. Finally, in the forced swim test, compared to SN, CN females spent longer time floating, a behavioral response that in the CN model has been inversely associated with display of endophenotypes of depression. With regard to the emotional response, CN males displayed an increased anxiety-like behavior in comparison to SN, spending less time in the open arms and displaying reduced head-dippings in the elevated plus-maze test. No difference was found in females. Overall, our findings show that gender and early experiences interact in modulating adult behavior. In particular, we show that early experiences modified developmental trajectories shaping adult endophenotypes of depression more markedly in females than in males. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of environmental enrichment on anxiety-like behavior, sociability, sensory gating, and spatial learning in male and female C57BL/6J mice.

    Hendershott, Taylor R; Cronin, Marie E; Langella, Stephanie; McGuinness, Patrick S; Basu, Alo C

    2016-11-01

    The influence of housing on cognition and emotional regulation in mice presents a problem for the study of genetic and environmental risk factors for neuropsychiatric disorders: standard laboratory housing may result in low levels of cognitive function or altered levels of anxiety that leave little room for assessment of deleterious effects of experimental manipulations. The use of enriched environment (EE) may allow for the measurement of a wider range of performance in cognitive domains. Cognitive and behavioral effects of EE in male mice have not been widely reproduced, perhaps due to variability in the application of enrichment protocols, and the effects of EE in female mice have not been widely studied. We have developed an EE protocol using common laboratory equipment that, without a running wheel for exercise, results in significant cognitive and behavioral effects relative to standard laboratory housing conditions. We compared male and female wild-type C57BL/6J mice reared from weaning age in an EE to those reared in a standard environment (SE), using common measures of anxiety-like behavior, sensory gating, sociability, and spatial learning and memory. Sex was a significant factor in relevant elevated plus maze (EPM) measures, and bordered on significance in a social interaction (SI) assay. Effects of EE on anxiety-like behavior and sociability were indicative of a general increase in exploratory activity. In male and female mice, EE resulted in reduced prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response, and enhanced spatial learning and use of spatially precise strategies in a Morris water maze task. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The long-term effects of stress and kappa opioid receptor activation on conditioned place aversion in male and female California mice.

    Laman-Maharg, Abigail R; Copeland, Tiffany; Sanchez, Evelyn Ordoñes; Campi, Katharine L; Trainor, Brian C

    2017-08-14

    Psychosocial stress leads to the activation of kappa opioid receptors (KORs), which induce dysphoria and facilitate depression-like behaviors. However, less is known about the long-term effects of stress and KORs in females. We examined the long-term effects of social defeat stress on the aversive properties of KOR activation in male and female California mice (Peromyscus californicus) using a conditioned place aversion paradigm. Female California mice naïve to social defeat, formed a place aversion following treatment with 2.5mg/kg of the KOR agonist U50,488, but females exposed to defeat did not form a place aversion to this dose. This supports the finding by others that social defeat weakens the aversive properties of KOR agonists. In contrast, both control and stressed males formed an aversion to 10mg/kg of U50,488. We also examined EGR1 immunoreactivity, an indirect marker of neuronal activity, in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and found that stress and treatment with 10mg/kg of U50,488 increased EGR1 immunoreactivity in the NAc core in females but reduced activation in males. The effects of stress and U50,488 on EGR1 were specific to the NAc, as we found no differences in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. In summary, our data indicate important sex differences in the long-term effects of stress and indicate the need for further study of the molecular mechanisms mediating the behavioral effects of KOR in both males and females. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. ⍺4-GABAA receptors of hippocampal pyramidal neurons are associated with resilience against activity-based anorexia for adolescent female mice but not for males.

    Chen, Yi-Wen; Actor-Engel, Hannah; Aoki, Chiye

    2018-04-20

    Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is an animal model of anorexia nervosa, a mental illness with highest mortality and with onset that is most frequently during adolescence. We questioned whether vulnerability of adolescent mice to ABA differs between sexes and whether individual differences in resilience are causally linked to alpha4betadelta-GABA A R expression. C57BL6/J WT and α4-KO adolescent male and female mice underwent ABA induction by combining wheel access with food restriction. ABA vulnerability was measured as the extent of food restriction-evoked hyperactivity on a running wheel and body weight losses. alpha4betadelta-GABA A R levels at plasma membranes of pyramidal cells in dorsal hippocampus were assessed by electron microscopic immunocytochemistry. Temporal patterns and extent of weight loss during ABA induction were similar between sexes. Both sexes also exhibited individual differences in ABA vulnerability. Correlation analyses revealed that, for both sexes, body weight changes precede and thus are likely to drive suppression of wheel running. However, the suppression was during the food-anticipatory hours for males, while for females, suppression was delayed by a day and during food-access hours. Correspondingly, only females adaptively increased food intake. ABA induced up-regulation of alpha4betadelta-GABA A Rs at plasma membranes of dorsal hippocampal pyramidal cells of females, and especially those females exhibiting resilience. Conversely, α4-KO females exhibited greater food restriction-evoked hyperactivity than WT females. In contrast, ABA males did not up-regulate alpha4betadelta-GABA A Rs, did not exhibit genotype differences in vulnerability, and exhibited no correlation between plasmalemmal alpha4betadelta-GABA A Rs and ABA resilience. Thus, food restriction-evoked hyperactivity is driven by anxiety but can be suppressed through upregulation of hippocampal alpha4betadelta-GABA A Rs for female but not for males. This knowledge of sex

  10. Adolescent chronic variable social stress influences exploratory behavior and nicotine responses in male, but not female, BALB/cJ mice.

    Caruso, M J; Reiss, D E; Caulfield, J I; Thomas, J L; Baker, A N; Cavigelli, S A; Kamens, H M

    2018-04-01

    Anxiety disorders and nicotine use are significant contributors to global morbidity and mortality as independent and comorbid diseases. Early-life stress, potentially via stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) dysregulation, can exacerbate both. However, little is known about the factors that predispose individuals to the development of both anxiety disorders and nicotine use. Here, we examined the relationship between anxiety-like behaviors and nicotine responses following adolescent stress. Adolescent male and female BALB/cJ mice were exposed to either chronic variable social stress (CVSS) or control conditions. CVSS consisted of repeated cycles of social isolation and social reorganization. In adulthood, anxiety-like behavior and social avoidance were measured using the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and social approach-avoidance test, respectively. Nicotine responses were assessed with acute effects on body temperature, corticosterone production, locomotor activity, and voluntary oral nicotine consumption. Adolescent stress had sex-dependent effects on nicotine responses and exploratory behavior, but did not affect anxiety-like behavior or social avoidance in males or females. Adult CVSS males exhibited less exploratory behavior, as indicated by reduced exploratory locomotion in the EPM and social approach-avoidance test, compared to controls. Adolescent stress did not affect nicotine-induced hypothermia in either sex, but CVSS males exhibited augmented nicotine-induced locomotion during late adolescence and voluntarily consumed less nicotine during adulthood. Stress effects on male nicotine-induced locomotion were associated with individual differences in exploratory locomotion in the EPM and social approach-avoidance test. Relative to controls, adult CVSS males and females also exhibited reduced corticosterone levels at baseline and adult male CVSS mice exhibited increased corticosterone levels following an acute nicotine injection. Results

  11. Exposure to chronic variable social stress during adolescence alters affect-related behaviors and adrenocortical activity in adult male and female inbred mice.

    Caruso, Michael J; Kamens, Helen M; Cavigelli, Sonia A

    2017-09-01

    Rodent models provide valuable insight into mechanisms that underlie vulnerability to adverse effects of early-life challenges. Few studies have evaluated sex differences in anxiogenic or depressogenic effects of adolescent social stress in a rodent model. Furthermore, adolescent stress studies often use genetically heterogeneous outbred rodents which can lead to variable results. The current study evaluated the effects of adolescent social stress in male and female inbred (BALB/cJ) mice. Adolescent mice were exposed to repeat cycles of alternating social isolation and social novelty for 4 weeks. Adolescent social stress increased anxiety-related behaviors in both sexes and depression-related behavior in females. Locomotion/exploratory behavior was also decreased in both sexes by stress. Previously stressed adult mice produced less basal fecal corticosteroids than controls. Overall, the novel protocol induced sex-specific changes in anxiety- and depression-related behaviors and corticoid production in inbred mice. The chronic variable social stress protocol used here may be beneficial to systematically investigate sex-specific neurobiological mechanisms underlying adolescent stress vulnerability where genetic background can be controlled. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha during neonatal brain development affects anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult male and female mice.

    Babri, Shirin; Doosti, Mohammad-Hossein; Salari, Ali-Akbar

    2014-03-15

    A nascent literature suggests that neonatal infection is a risk factor for the development of brain, behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis which can affect anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in later life. It has been documented that neonatal infection raises the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in neonate rodents and such infections may result in neonatal brain injury, at least in part, through pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, previous studies have shown that TNF-α is involved in cellular differentiation, neurogenesis and programmed cell death during the development of the central nervous system. We investigated for the first time whether neonatal exposure to TNF-α can affect body weight, stress-induced corticosterone (COR), anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult mice. In the present study, neonatal mice were treated to recombinant mouse TNF-α (0.2, 0.4, 0.7 and 1 μg/kg) or saline on postnatal days 3 and 5, then adult male and female mice were exposed to different behavioral tests. The results indicated that neonatal TNF-α treatment reduced body weight in neonatal period in both sexes. In addition, this study presents findings indicating that high doses of TNF- increase stress-induced COR levels, anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult males, but increase levels of anxiety without significantly influencing depression in adult female mice [corrected]. Our findings suggest that TNF-α exposure during neonatal period can alter brain and behavior development in a dose and sex-dependent manner in mice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The suitability of 129SvEv mice for studying depressive-like behaviour: both males and females develop learned helplessness.

    Chourbaji, Sabine; Pfeiffer, Natascha; Dormann, Christof; Brandwein, Christiane; Fradley, Rosa; Sheardown, Malcolm; Gass, P

    2010-07-29

    Behavioural studies using transgenic techniques in mice usually require extensive backcrossing to a defined background strain, e.g. to C57BL/6. In this study we investigated whether backcrossing can be replaced by using the 129SvEv strain from which the embryonic stem cells are generally obtained for gene targeting strategies to analyze e.g. depression-like behaviour. For that purpose we subjected male and female 129SvEv mice to two frequently used depression tests and compared them with commonly used C57BL/6 mice. 129SvEv and C57BL/6 mice exhibited differing profiles with regard to locomotion and pain sensitivity. However, in the learned helplessness paradigm, a procedure, which represents a valid method to detect depressive-like behaviour, 129SvEv animals develop a similar level of helplessness as C57BL/6 mice. One great advantage of the 129SvEv animals though, is the fact that in this strain even females develop helplessness, which could not be produced in C57BL/6 mice. In the tail suspension test, both genders of 129SvEv exhibited more despair behaviour than C57BL/6 animals. We therefore suggest that this strain may be utilized in the establishment of new test procedures for affective diseases, since costly and time-consuming backcrossing can be prevented, depressive-like behaviour may be analyzed effectively, and gender-specific topics could be addressed in an adequate way. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Preventative topical diclofenac treatment differentially decreases tumor burden in male and female Skh-1 mice in a model of UVB-induced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    Oberyszyn, Tatiana M.

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) light is the major environmental carcinogen contributing to non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) development. There are over 3.5 million NMSC diagnoses in two million patients annually, with men having a 3-fold greater incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) compared with women. Chronic inflammation has been linked to tumorigenesis, with a key role for the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme. Diclofenac, a COX-2 inhibitor and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, currently is prescribed to patients as a short-term therapeutic agent to induce SCC precursor lesion regression. However, its efficacy as a preventative agent in patients without evidence of precursor lesions but with significant UVB-induced cutaneous damage has not been explored. We previously demonstrated in a murine model of UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis that when exposed to equivalent UVB doses, male mice had lower levels of inflammation but developed increased tumor multiplicity, burden and grade compared with female mice. Because of the discrepancy in the degree of inflammation between male and female skin, we sought to determine if topical treatment of previously damaged skin with an anti-inflammatory COX-2 inhibitor would decrease tumor burden and if it would be equally effective in the sexes. Our results demonstrated that despite observed sex differences in the inflammatory response, prolonged topical diclofenac treatment of chronically UVB-damaged skin effectively reduced tumor multiplicity in both sexes. Unexpectedly, tumor burden was significantly decreased only in male mice. Our data suggest a new therapeutic use for currently available topical diclofenac as a preventative intervention for patients predisposed to cutaneous SCC development before lesions appear. PMID:23125227

  15. Androgen Receptor (AR) Physiological Roles in Male and Female Reproductive Systems: Lessons Learned from AR-Knockout Mice Lacking AR in Selective Cells1

    Chang, Chawnshang; Lee, Soo Ok; Wang, Ruey-Sheng; Yeh, Shuyuan; Chang, Ta-Min

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Androgens/androgen receptor (AR) signaling is involved primarily in the development of male-specific phenotypes during embryogenesis, spermatogenesis, sexual behavior, and fertility during adult life. However, this signaling has also been shown to play an important role in development of female reproductive organs and their functions, such as ovarian folliculogenesis, embryonic implantation, and uterine and breast development. The establishment of the testicular feminization (Tfm) mouse model exploiting the X-linked Tfm mutation in mice has been a good in vivo tool for studying the human complete androgen insensitivity syndrome, but this mouse may not be the perfect in vivo model. Mouse models with various cell-specific AR knockout (ARKO) might allow us to study AR roles in individual types of cells in these male and female reproductive systems, although discrepancies are found in results between labs, probably due to using various Cre mice and/or knocking out AR in different AR domains. Nevertheless, no doubt exists that the continuous development of these ARKO mouse models and careful studies will provide information useful for understanding AR roles in reproductive systems of humans and may help us to develop more effective and more specific therapeutic approaches for reproductive system-related diseases. PMID:23782840

  16. Methylation changes in muscle and liver tissues of male and female mice exposed to acute and chronic low-dose X-ray-irradiation

    Kovalchuk, Olga; Burke, Paula; Besplug, Jill; Slovack, Mark; Filkowski, Jody; Pogribny, Igor

    2004-01-01

    The biological and genetic effects of chronic low-dose radiation (LDR) exposure and its relationship to carcinogenesis have received a lot of attention in the recent years. For example, radiation-induced genome instability, which is thought to be a precursor of tumorogenesis, was shown to have a transgenerational nature. This indicates a possible involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in LDR-induced genome instability. Genomic DNA methylation is one of the most important epigenetic mechanisms. Existing data on radiation effects on DNA methylation patterns is limited, and no one has specifically studied the effects of the LDR. We report the first study of the effects of whole-body LDR exposure on global genome methylation in muscle and liver tissues of male and female mice. In parallel, we evaluated changes in promoter methylation and expression of the tumor suppressor gene p16 INKa and DNA repair gene O 6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). We observed different patterns of radiation-induced global genome DNA methylation in the liver and muscle of exposed males and females. We also found sex and tissue-specific differences in p16 INKa promoter methylation upon LDR exposure. In male liver tissue, p16 INKa promoter methylation was more pronounced than in female tissue. In contrast, no significant radiation-induced changes in p16 INKa promoter methylation were noted in the muscle tissue of exposed males and females. Radiation also did not significantly affect methylation status of MGMT promoter. We also observed substantial sex differences in acute and chronic radiation-induced expression of p16 INKa and MGMT genes. Another important outcome of our study was the fact that chronic low-dose radiation exposure proved to be a more potent inducer of epigenetic effects than the acute exposure. This supports previous findings that chronic exposure leads to greater genome destabilization than acute exposure

  17. Species and gender differences in the metabolism and distribution of tertiary amyl methyl ether in male and female rats and mice after inhalation exposure or gavage administration.

    Sumner, Susan C J; Janszen, Derek B; Asgharian, Bahman; Moore, Timothy A; Parkinson, Horace D; Fennell, Timothy R

    2003-01-01

    Tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) is a gasoline fuel additive used to reduce emissions. Understanding the metabolism and distribution of TAME is needed to assess potential human health issues. The effect of dose level, duration of exposure and route of administration on the metabolism and distribution of TAME were investigated in male and female F344 rats and CD-1 mice following inhalation or gavage administration. By 48 h after exposure, >96% of the administered radioactivity was expired in air (16-71%) or eliminated in urine and feces (28-72%). Following inhalation exposure, mice had a two- to threefold greater relative uptake of [14C]TAME compared with rats. Metabolites were excreted in urine of rats and mice that are formed by glucuronide conjugation of tertiary amyl alcohol (TAA), oxidation of TAA to 2,3-dihydroxy-2-methylbutane and glucuronide conjugation of 2,3-dihydroxy-2-methylbutane. A saturation in the uptake and metabolism of TAME with increased exposure concentration was indicated by a decreased relative uptake of total [14C]TAME equivalents and an increase in the percentage expired as volatiles. A saturation of P-450 oxidation of TAA was indicated by a disproportional decrease of 2,3-dihydroxy-2-methylbutane and its glucuronide conjugate with increased exposure concentration. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Susceptibility and morbidity between male and female Swiss mice infected with Angiostrongylus costaricensis: Susceptibilidade e morbidade entre camundongos Swiss machos e fêmeas infectados com Angiostrongylus costaricensis

    Márcia B. Mentz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The gender of vertebrate hosts may affect the outcome of parasitic infections. An experimental murine infection with Angiostrongylus costaricensis was followed with determinations of body weight, fecal larval elimination, number and length of adult worms, number of macroscopic intestinal lesions, and mortality. Groups of male and female Swiss mice were infected with 10 3rd-stage A. costaricensis larvae per animal. The results indicate there are no significant differences related to gender of the host, except for higher length of worms developed in male mice.O sexo dos hospedeiros vertebrados pode influenciar no resultado de infecções parasitárias. A infecção experimental de camundongos com Angiostrongylus costaricensis foi acompanhada com observação do peso corporal, eliminação de larvas nas fezes, número e comprimento dos vermes adultos, número de lesões macroscópicas nos intestinos e mortalidade. Grupos de camundongos Swiss machos e fêmeas foram infectados cada um com 10 larvas de terceiro estágio de A. costaricensis. Os resultados indicam que não há diferenças significativas relacionados ao sexo dos hospedeiros, exceto pelo maior comprimento dos vermes nos hospedeiros machos.

  19. Trps1 differentially modulates the bone mineral density between male and female mice and its polymorphism associates with BMD differently between women and men.

    Lishi Wang

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to identify genetic factors that regulate bone mineral density (BMD in mice using well defined recombinant inbred strains. For this purpose we chose the BXD recombinant inbred (RI strains derived from progeny of the C57BL/6J (B6 and DBA/2J (D2 progenitor strains. We sampled both male and female mice (∼4 each of 46 strains at 3 months-of-age, measured their BMD, and conducted QTL mapping. The data were analyzed to identify candidates genes contained within the most significant quantitative trait locus (QTL. Evaluation of candidate genes included functional assessment, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping and direct sequencing. We established that there was a QTL for BMD in males on chromosome 15 that has the impact larger than QTLs on all other chromosomes. The QTL on chromosome 15 was narrowed to a genomic region between 38 Mbp and 52 Mbp. By examining transcripts within this region, we found an important candidate gene: trichorhinophalangeal syndrome, type I (Trps1. SNP analysis identified a nonsynonymous SNP (rs32398060 in Trps1 that co-segregated with bone mineral density. Analysis of association between this SNP within TRPS1 and BMD in a human population confirmed its significance.

  20. Exercise training and antioxidant supplementation independently improve cognitive function in adult male and female GFAP-APOE mice

    Kiran Chaudhari

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Exercise was the most effective treatment at improving cognitive function in both genotypes and sex, while antioxidants seemed to be effective only in the APOE4. In young adult mice only non-spatial learning and memory were improved. The combination of the two treatments did not yield further improvement in cognition, and there was no antagonistic action of the antioxidant supplementation on the beneficial effects of exercise.

  1. Toxicokinetics of α-thujone following intravenous and gavage administration of α-thujone or α- and β-thujone mixture in male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice

    Waidyanatha, Suramya; Johnson, Jerry D.; Hong, S. Peter; Robinson, Veronica Godfrey; Gibbs, Seth; Graves, Steven W.; Hooth, Michelle J.; Smith, Cynthia S.

    2013-01-01

    Plants containing thujone have widespread use and hence have significant human exposure. α-Thujone caused seizures in rodents following gavage administration. We investigated the toxicokinetics of α-thujone in male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice following intravenous and gavage administration of α-thujone or a mixture of α- and β-thujone (which will be referred to as α,β-thujone). Absorption of α-thujone following gavage administration was rapid without any dose-, species-, sex- or test article-related effect. Absolute bioavailability of α-thujone following administration of α-thujone or α,β-thujone was generally higher in rats than in mice. In rats, females had higher bioavailability than males following administration of either test article although a sex difference was not observed in mice. C max and AUC ∞ increased greater than proportional to the dose in female rats following administration of α-thujone and in male and female mice following administration of α,β-thujone suggesting possible saturation of elimination kinetics with increasing dose. Dose-adjusted AUC ∞ for male and female rats was 5- to 15-fold and 3- to 24-fold higher than mice counterparts following administration of α-thujone and α,β-thujone, respectively (p-value < 0.0001 for all comparisons). Following both intravenous and gavage administration, α-thujone was distributed to the brains of rats and mice with females, in general, having higher brain:plasma ratios than males. These data are in support of the observed toxicity of α-thujone and α,β-thujone where females were more sensitive than males of both species to α-thujone-induced neurotoxicity. In general there was no difference in toxicokinetics between test articles when normalized to α-thujone concentration. - Highlights: • Absorption of α-thujone following gavage administration was rapid in rats and mice. • Rats undergo higher exposure to α-thujone than mice. • α-Thujone brain:plasma ratios

  2. Toxicokinetics of α-thujone following intravenous and gavage administration of α-thujone or α- and β-thujone mixture in male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice

    Waidyanatha, Suramya, E-mail: waidyanathas@niehs.nih.gov [Division of National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Johnson, Jerry D.; Hong, S. Peter [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH 43201 (United States); Robinson, Veronica Godfrey [Division of National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Gibbs, Seth; Graves, Steven W. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH 43201 (United States); Hooth, Michelle J.; Smith, Cynthia S. [Division of National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Plants containing thujone have widespread use and hence have significant human exposure. α-Thujone caused seizures in rodents following gavage administration. We investigated the toxicokinetics of α-thujone in male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice following intravenous and gavage administration of α-thujone or a mixture of α- and β-thujone (which will be referred to as α,β-thujone). Absorption of α-thujone following gavage administration was rapid without any dose-, species-, sex- or test article-related effect. Absolute bioavailability of α-thujone following administration of α-thujone or α,β-thujone was generally higher in rats than in mice. In rats, females had higher bioavailability than males following administration of either test article although a sex difference was not observed in mice. C{sub max} and AUC{sub ∞} increased greater than proportional to the dose in female rats following administration of α-thujone and in male and female mice following administration of α,β-thujone suggesting possible saturation of elimination kinetics with increasing dose. Dose-adjusted AUC{sub ∞} for male and female rats was 5- to 15-fold and 3- to 24-fold higher than mice counterparts following administration of α-thujone and α,β-thujone, respectively (p-value < 0.0001 for all comparisons). Following both intravenous and gavage administration, α-thujone was distributed to the brains of rats and mice with females, in general, having higher brain:plasma ratios than males. These data are in support of the observed toxicity of α-thujone and α,β-thujone where females were more sensitive than males of both species to α-thujone-induced neurotoxicity. In general there was no difference in toxicokinetics between test articles when normalized to α-thujone concentration. - Highlights: • Absorption of α-thujone following gavage administration was rapid in rats and mice. • Rats undergo higher exposure to α-thujone than mice. • α-Thujone brain

  3. Genotypic differences in intruder-evoked immediate early gene activation in male, but not female, vasopressin 1b receptor knockout mice.

    Witchey, Shannah K; Stevenson, Erica L; Caldwell, Heather K

    2016-11-24

    The neuropeptide arginine vasopressin (Avp) modulates social behaviors via its two centrally expressed receptors, the Avp 1a receptor and the Avp 1b receptor (Avpr1b). Recent work suggests that, at least in mice, Avp signaling through Avpr1b within the CA2 region of the hippocampus is critical for normal aggressive behaviors and social recognition memory. However, this brain area is just one part of a larger neural circuit that is likely to be impacted in Avpr1b knockout (-/-) mice. To identify other brain areas that are affected by altered Avpr1b signaling, genotypic differences in immediate early gene activation, i.e. c-FOS and early growth response factor 1 (EGR-1), were quantified using immunocytochemistry following a single exposure to an intruder. In females, no genotypic differences in intruder-evoked c-FOS or EGR-1 immunoreactivity were observed in any of the brain areas measured. In males, while there were no intruder-evoked genotypic differences in c-FOS immunoreactivity, genotypic differences were observed in EGR-1 immunoreactivity within the ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the anterior hypothalamus; with Avpr1b -/- males having less EGR-1 immunoreactivity in these regions than controls. These data are the first to identify specific brain areas that may be a part of a neural circuit that includes Avpr1b-expressing cells in the CA2 region of the hippocampus. It is thought that this circuit, when working properly, plays a role in how an animal evaluates its social context.

  4. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups.

  5. Increased CRF mRNA expression in the sexually dimorphic BNST of male but not female GAD67 mice and TMT predator odor stress effects upon spatial memory retrieval.

    Janitzky, K; Peine, A; Kröber, A; Yanagawa, Y; Schwegler, H; Roskoden, T

    2014-10-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is an important region for 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT) predator odor-induced stress responses in mice. It is sexually dimorphic and a region for corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-enhanced stress responses. Dense GABAergic and CRF input from the amygdala to the BNST gives point to relevant interactions between CRF and GABA activity in these brain regions. Hence, to investigate sexual dimorphism of stress-induced neuronal changes, we studied effects of acute TMT exposure on CRF mRNA expression in stress-related brain regions in male and female GAD67 mice and their wild-type littermates. In GAD67 mice, heterozygous knock-in of GFP in GABAergic neurons caused a 50% decrease of GAD67 protein level in the brain [91,99]. Results show higher CRF mRNA levels in the BNST of male but not female GAD67 mice after TMT and control odor exposure. While CRF neurons in the BNST are predominantly GABAergic and CRF enhances GABAergic transmission in the BNST [20,51], the deficit in GABAergic transmission in GAD67 mice could induce a compensatory CRF increase. Sexual dimorphism of the BNST with greater density of GABA-ir neurons in females could explain the differences in CRF mRNA levels between male and female GAD67 mice. Effects of odor exposure were studied in a radial arm maze (RAM) task. Results show impaired retrieval of spatial memory after acute TMT exposure in both sexes and genotypes. However, only GAD67 mice show increased working memory errors after control odor exposure. Our work elicits GAD67 mice as a model to further study interactions of GABA and CRF in the BNST for a better understanding of how sex-specific characteristics of the brain may contribute to differences in anxiety- and stress-related psychological disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Similar reliability and equivalent performance of female and male mice in the open field and water-maze place navigation task

    Fritz, Ann-Kristina; Amrein, Irmgard; Wolfer, David P.

    2017-01-01

    Although most nervous system diseases affect women and men differentially, most behavioral studies using mouse models do not include subjects of both sexes. Many researchers worry that data of female mice may be unreliable due to the estrous cycle. Here, we retrospectively evaluated sex effects on coefficient of variation (CV) in 5,311 mice which had performed the same place navigation protocol in the water-maze and in 4,554 mice tested in the same open field arena. Confidence intervals for C...

  7. Discovery of human posterior head 20 (hPH20) and homo sapiens sperm acrosome associated 1 (hSPACA1) immunocontraceptive epitopes and their effects on fertility in male and female mice.

    Chen, Xuemei; Liu, Xiaodong; Ren, Xiuhua; Li, Xuewu; Wang, Li; Zang, Weidong

    2016-03-01

    The key goals of immunocontraception research are to obtain full contraceptive effects using vaccines administered to both males and females. Current research concerning human anti-sperm contraceptive vaccines is focused on delineating infertility-related epitopes to avoid autoimmune disease. We constructed phage-display peptide libraries to select epitope peptides derived from human posterior head 20 (hPH20) and homo sapiens sperm acrosome associated 1 (hSPACA1) using sera collected from infertile women harbouring anti-sperm antibodies. Following five rounds of selection, positive colonies were reconfirmed for reactivity with the immunoinfertile sera. We biopanned and analysed the chemical properties of four epitope peptides, named P82, Sa6, Sa37 and Sa76. Synthetic peptides were made and coupled to either bovine serum albumin (BSA) or ovalbumin. We used the BSA-conjugated peptides to immunise BALB/c mice and examined the effects on fertility in female and male mice. The synthetic peptides generated a sperm-specific antibody response in female and male mice that caused a contraceptive state. The immunocontraceptive effect was reversible and, with the disappearance of peptide-specific antibodies, there was complete restoration of fertility. Vaccinations using P82, Sa6 and Sa76 peptides resulted in no apparent side effects. Thus, it is efficient and practical to identify epitope peptide candidates by phage display. These peptides may find clinical application in the specific diagnosis and treatment of male and female infertility and contraceptive vaccine development.

  8. Voluntary resistance wheel exercise from mid-life prevents sarcopenia and increases markers of mitochondrial function and autophagy in muscles of old male and female C57BL/6J mice.

    White, Zoe; Terrill, Jessica; White, Robert B; McMahon, Christopher; Sheard, Phillip; Grounds, Miranda D; Shavlakadze, Tea

    2016-12-13

    There is much interest in the capacity of resistance exercise to prevent the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, known as sarcopenia. This study investigates the molecular basis underlying the benefits of resistance exercise in aging C57BL/6J mice of both sexes. This study is the first to demonstrate that long-term (34 weeks) voluntary resistance wheel exercise (RWE) initiated at middle age, from 15 months, prevents sarcopenia in selected hindlimb muscles and causes hypertrophy in soleus, by 23 months of age in both male and female C57BL/6J mice. Compared with 23-month-old sedentary (SED) controls, RWE (0-6 g of resistance) increased intramuscular mitochondrial density and oxidative capacity (measured by citrate synthase and NADH-TR) and increased LC3II/I ratios (a marker of autophagy) in exercised mice of both sexes. RWE also reduced mRNA expression of Gadd45α (males only) and Runx1 (females only) but had no effect on other markers of denervation including Chrng, Chrnd, Musk, and Myog. RWE increased heart mass in all mice, with a more pronounced increase in females. Significant sex differences were also noted among SED mice, with Murf1 mRNA levels increasing in male, but decreasing in old female mice between 15 and 23 months. Overall, long-term RWE initiated from 15 month of age significantly improved some markers of the mitochondrial and autophagosomal pathways and prevented age-related muscle wasting.

  9. Comparison of male and female foot shape.

    Luo, Gangming; Houston, Vern L; Mussman, Martin; Garbarini, Maryanne; Beattie, Aaron C; Thongpop, Chaiya

    2009-01-01

    Morphological and geometric differences between male and female feet can be the decisive factor of whether well-fitting, functional, and comfortable footwear is available for both men and women. Optical scans, plaster wrap casts, and a set of manual measurements from the right feet of 51 female participants, aged 20 to 59 years (32 +/- 10.2 years), and 39 male participants, aged 22 to 71 years (47.1 +/- 12.1 years), were taken to determine which parameters were the most significant in characterizing pedal geometry and which had the largest difference between male and female feet. Analysis showed that the heel-to-ball length (ball length) of the male participants' feet (181.5 mm) was significantly longer, on average, than that of the female participants' feet (165.0 mm). The width of the male paticipants' feet at the ball, instep, and heel regions, as well as the ball circumference, normalized by the ball length, were all significantly larger on average, than the female test participants' feet. However, toe region, instep, and medial and lateral malleoli heights were larger, on average, for the female participants than for the male. The results show that female feet differ in size and shape from male feet and are not algebraically scaled, smaller versions of male feet, as is often assumed. The study shows that the average male participants' feet are longer than that of the female participants' feet, while the female feet are relatively narrower but higher than those of the male participants.

  10. Ac-Trp-DPhe(p-I)-Arg-Trp-NH2, a 250-Fold Selective Melanocortin-4 Receptor (MC4R) Antagonist over the Melanocortin-3 Receptor (MC3R), Affects Energy Homeostasis in Male and Female Mice Differently.

    Lensing, Cody J; Adank, Danielle N; Doering, Skye R; Wilber, Stacey L; Andreasen, Amy; Schaub, Jay W; Xiang, Zhimin; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie

    2016-09-21

    The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) has been indicated as a therapeutic target for metabolic disorders such as anorexia, cachexia, and obesity. The current study investigates the in vivo effects on energy homeostasis of a 15 nM MC4R antagonist SKY2-23-7, Ac-Trp-DPhe(p-I)-Arg-Trp-NH2, that is a 3700 nM melanocortin-3 receptor (MC3R) antagonist with minimal MC3R and MC4R agonist activity. When monitoring both male and female mice in TSE metabolic cages, sex-specific responses were observed in food intake, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and energy expenditure. A 7.5 nmol dose of SKY2-23-7 increased food intake, increased RER, and trended toward decreasing energy expenditure in male mice. However, this compound had minimal effect on female mice's food intake and RER at the 7.5 nmol dose. A 2.5 nmol dose of SKY2-23-7 significantly increased female food intake, RER, and energy expenditure while having a minimal effect on male mice at this dose. The observed sex differences of SKY2-23-7 administration result in the discovery of a novel chemical probe for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of the sexual dimorphism present within the melanocortin pathway. To further explore the melanocortin sexual dimorphism, hypothalamic gene expression was examined. The mRNA expression of the MC3R and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) were not significantly different between sexes. However, the expression of agouti-related peptide (AGRP) was significantly higher in female mice which may be a possible mechanism for the sex-specific effects observed with SKY2-23-7.

  11. Male versus Female Attitudes toward Stuttering

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The study investigated the extent to which differences existed between public attitudes of males versus females. Method: One hundred adults, 50 males and 50 females, were chosen at random from each of 50 study samples comprising a total of 3371 respondents in a database archive who had completed the "Public Opinion Survey of Human…

  12. Sensitivity of the prefrontal GABAergic system to chronic stress in male and female mice: Relevance for sex differences in stress-related disorders.

    Shepard, Ryan; Page, Chloe E; Coutellier, Laurence

    2016-09-22

    Stress-induced modifications of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are believed to contribute to the onset of mood disorders, such as depression and anxiety, which are more prevalent in women. In depression, the PFC is hypoactive; however the origin of this hypoactivity remains unclear. Possibly, stress could impact the prefrontal GABAergic inhibitory system that, as a result, impairs the functioning of downstream limbic structures controlling emotions. Preclinical evidence indicates that the female PFC is more sensitive to the effects of stress. These findings suggest that exposure to stress could lead to sex-specific alterations in prefrontal GABAergic signaling, which contribute to sex-specific abnormal functioning of limbic regions. These limbic changes could promote the onset of depressive and anxiety behaviors in a sex-specific manner, providing a possible mechanism mediating sex differences in the clinical presentation of stress-related mood disorders. We addressed this hypothesis using a mouse model of stress-induced depressive-like behaviors: the unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) paradigm. We observed changes in prefrontal GABAergic signaling after exposure to UCMS most predominantly in females. Increased parvalbumin (PV) expression and decreased prefrontal neuronal activity were correlated in females with severe emotionality deficit following UCMS, and with altered activity of the amygdala. In males, small changes in emotionality following UCMS were associated with minor changes in prefrontal PV expression, and with hypoactivity of the nucleus accumbens. Our data suggest that prefrontal hypoactivity observed in stress-related mood disorders could result from stress-induced increases in PV expression, particularly in females. This increased vulnerability of the female prefrontal PV system to stress could underlie sex differences in the prevalence and symptomatology of stress-related mood disorders. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  13. Dim Light at Night Increases Body Mass of Female Mice

    Aubrecht, Taryn G.; Jenkins, Richelle; Nelson, Randy J.

    2014-01-01

    During the past century the prevalence of light at night has increased in parallel with obesity rates. Dim light at night (dLAN) increases body mass in male mice. However, the effects of light at night on female body mass remain unspecified. Thus, female mice were exposed to a standard light/dark (LD; 16h light at ~150 lux/8h dark at ~0 lux) cycle or to light/dim light at night (dLAN; 16h light at ~150 lux/8h dim light at ~5 lux) cycles for six weeks. Females exposed to dLAN increased the rat...

  14. [The reproductive correlates of social hierarchy in laboratory male mice].

    Osadchuk, L B; Salomacheva, I N; Bragin, A V; Osadchuk, A V

    2007-01-01

    In laboratory male mice the effects of social hierarchy on hormonal and spermatogenic testicular function, accessory organs and testicular weights, sexual behaviour have been investigated using an experimental model of social hierarchy, which is characterised by a minimal size (two male mice) and 5 days period of social interactions. The social rank of the partners was detected by asymmetry in aggressive behaviour. Using the experimental condition, when the both partners have no preferences for exclusive use of area we demonstrated that there were no rank differences in the number of mounts and testicular testosterone content. Nevertheless a rank asymmetry in the male sniffing behaviour towards a receptive female, weights of the testes, seminal vesicles, epididymes and the number of epididymal sperm was kept up in a stable social group. Social dominance was found to affect negatively on testicular testosterone increase in response to introduction of a receptive female and sexual attractiveness of male to a receptive female in both dominant and subordinate males. The results obtained demonstrate the impact of social hierarchy on reproduction in laboratory male mice, particular in respect of spermatogenesis and the testicular testosterone in response to a receptive female.

  15. Male microchimerism in the human female brain.

    William F N Chan

    Full Text Available In humans, naturally acquired microchimerism has been observed in many tissues and organs. Fetal microchimerism, however, has not been investigated in the human brain. Microchimerism of fetal as well as maternal origin has recently been reported in the mouse brain. In this study, we quantified male DNA in the human female brain as a marker for microchimerism of fetal origin (i.e. acquisition of male DNA by a woman while bearing a male fetus. Targeting the Y-chromosome-specific DYS14 gene, we performed real-time quantitative PCR in autopsied brain from women without clinical or pathologic evidence of neurologic disease (n=26, or women who had Alzheimer's disease (n=33. We report that 63% of the females (37 of 59 tested harbored male microchimerism in the brain. Male microchimerism was present in multiple brain regions. Results also suggested lower prevalence (p=0.03 and concentration (p=0.06 of male microchimerism in the brains of women with Alzheimer's disease than the brains of women without neurologic disease. In conclusion, male microchimerism is frequent and widely distributed in the human female brain.

  16. Epigenetics and sex differences in the brain: A genome-wide comparison of histone-3 lysine-4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) in male and female mice.

    Shen, Erica Y; Ahern, Todd H; Cheung, Iris; Straubhaar, Juerg; Dincer, Aslihan; Houston, Isaac; de Vries, Geert J; Akbarian, Schahram; Forger, Nancy G

    2015-06-01

    Many neurological and psychiatric disorders exhibit gender disparities, and sex differences in the brain likely explain some of these effects. Recent work in rodents points to a role for epigenetics in the development or maintenance of neural sex differences, although genome-wide studies have so far been lacking. Here we review the existing literature on epigenetics and brain sexual differentiation and present preliminary analyses on the genome-wide distribution of histone-3 lysine-4 trimethylation in a sexually dimorphic brain region in male and female mice. H3K4me3 is a histone mark primarily organized as 'peaks' surrounding the transcription start site of active genes. We microdissected the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and preoptic area (BNST/POA) in adult male and female mice and used ChIP-Seq to compare the distribution of H3K4me3 throughout the genome. We found 248 genes and loci with a significant sex difference in H3K4me3. Of these, the majority (71%) had larger H3K4me3 peaks in females. Comparisons with existing databases indicate that genes and loci with increased H3K4me3 in females are associated with synaptic function and with expression atlases from related brain areas. Based on RT-PCR, only a minority of genes with a sex difference in H3K4me3 has detectable sex differences in expression at baseline conditions. Together with previous findings, our data suggest that there may be sex biases in the use of epigenetic marks. Such biases could underlie sex differences in vulnerabilities to drugs or diseases that disrupt specific epigenetic processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Female perception of male body odor.

    Sergeant, Mark J T

    2010-01-01

    Olfaction is one of the most crucial forms of communication among nonhuman animals. Historically, olfaction has been perceived as being of limited importance for humans, but recent research has documented that not only do humans have sensitive olfactory abilities, but also odors have the potential to influence our physiology and behavior. This chapter reviews research on olfactory communication among humans, focusing on the effects of male bodily odors on female physiology and behavior. The process of body odor production and the detection of olfactory signals are reviewed, focusing on potential sex differences in these abilities. The effects of male body odors on female physiological and behavioral effects of body odors are considered. Finally, with specific regard to female mate choice, evidence regarding the influence of the major histocompatibility complex and fluctuating asymmetry on male olfactory cues is reviewed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Crybb2 deficiency impairs fertility in female mice

    Gao, Qian [Department of Laboratory Diagnosis, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Sun, Li-Li [Aviation Medical Evaluation and Training Center of Airforce in Dalian, Dalian, Liaoning Province 116013 (China); Department of Laboratory Diagnosis, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Xiang, Fen-Fen [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Putuo Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200062 (China); Gao, Li [Department of Pathology, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Jia, Yin; Zhang, Jian-Rong; Tao, Hai-Bo [Department of Laboratory Diagnosis, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhang, Jun-Jie, E-mail: zhangjj910@163.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, Wen-Jie, E-mail: wenjieli@pku.org.cn [Department of Laboratory Diagnosis, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • Crybb2 deletion impaired female fertility. • Crybb2 deletion dramatically affected the production of reproduction-related hormones and hormone response. • Crybb2 deletion impaired follicular development and inhibited the proliferation of granulosa cells. • Crybb2 deletion promoted follicular atresia and apoptosis in granulosa cells. - Abstract: Beta-B2-crystallin (CRYBB2), encoded by Crybb2 gene, is a major protein in the mammalian eye lens that plays an important role in maintaining the transparency of the ocular lens. However, CRYBB2 also plays important roles in many extra-lenticular tissues and organs such as the retina, brain and testis. Our previous studies demonstrated that male Crybb2 deficient (Crybb2{sup −/−}) mice have reduced fertility compared with wild-type (WT) mice, while female Crybb2{sup −/−} mice exhibited reduced ovary weights and shorter estrous cycle percentages. Here we specifically investigated the role of CRYBB2 in the female reproductive system. Our studies revealed that ovaries from female Crybb2{sup −/−} mice exhibited significantly reduced numbers of primordial, secondary and pre-ovulatory follicles when compared with WT mice, while the rate of atretic follicles was also increased. Additionally, fewer eggs were collected from the oviduct of Crybb2{sup −/−} female mice after superovulation. Estrogen levels were higher in the metestrus and diestrus cycles of female Crybb2{sup −/−} mice, while progesterone levels were lower in diestrus cycles. Furthermore, the expression of survival and cell cycle genes, Bcl-2, Cdk4 and Ccnd2, were significantly decreased in granulosa cells isolated from female Crybb2{sup −/−} mice, consistent with the predominant expression of CRYBB2 in ovarian granulosa cells. Our results reveal a critical role for CRYBB2 in female fertility and specific effects on the proliferation and survival status of ovarian granulosa cells.

  19. Crybb2 deficiency impairs fertility in female mice

    Gao, Qian; Sun, Li-Li; Xiang, Fen-Fen; Gao, Li; Jia, Yin; Zhang, Jian-Rong; Tao, Hai-Bo; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Li, Wen-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Crybb2 deletion impaired female fertility. • Crybb2 deletion dramatically affected the production of reproduction-related hormones and hormone response. • Crybb2 deletion impaired follicular development and inhibited the proliferation of granulosa cells. • Crybb2 deletion promoted follicular atresia and apoptosis in granulosa cells. - Abstract: Beta-B2-crystallin (CRYBB2), encoded by Crybb2 gene, is a major protein in the mammalian eye lens that plays an important role in maintaining the transparency of the ocular lens. However, CRYBB2 also plays important roles in many extra-lenticular tissues and organs such as the retina, brain and testis. Our previous studies demonstrated that male Crybb2 deficient (Crybb2 −/− ) mice have reduced fertility compared with wild-type (WT) mice, while female Crybb2 −/− mice exhibited reduced ovary weights and shorter estrous cycle percentages. Here we specifically investigated the role of CRYBB2 in the female reproductive system. Our studies revealed that ovaries from female Crybb2 −/− mice exhibited significantly reduced numbers of primordial, secondary and pre-ovulatory follicles when compared with WT mice, while the rate of atretic follicles was also increased. Additionally, fewer eggs were collected from the oviduct of Crybb2 −/− female mice after superovulation. Estrogen levels were higher in the metestrus and diestrus cycles of female Crybb2 −/− mice, while progesterone levels were lower in diestrus cycles. Furthermore, the expression of survival and cell cycle genes, Bcl-2, Cdk4 and Ccnd2, were significantly decreased in granulosa cells isolated from female Crybb2 −/− mice, consistent with the predominant expression of CRYBB2 in ovarian granulosa cells. Our results reveal a critical role for CRYBB2 in female fertility and specific effects on the proliferation and survival status of ovarian granulosa cells

  20. Male and Female Differences in Nonconscious Mimicry

    Lehane, Christine Marie

    2015-01-01

    , thus neglecting a discussion regarding the role of sex or gender as a moderator of nonconscious mimicry. This article reviews the research on nonconscious mimicry – facial, behavioural, and verbal, in order to identify whether or not there are male and female differences. The results indicate...... that mimicry may be moderated by participant sex or gender depending upon, among others, choice of mimicry measurement, stimulus exposure length, and social context. However, few studies address male and female differences in mimicry and many have methodological limitations. The review concludes...

  1. Proteomic Analysis of Pachytene Spermatocytes of Sterile Hybrid Male Mice.

    Wang, Lu; Guo, Yueshuai; Liu, Wenjing; Zhao, Weidong; Song, Gendi; Zhou, Tao; Huang, Hefeng; Guo, Xuejiang; Sun, Fei

    2016-09-01

    Incompatibilities in interspecific hybrids, such as reduced hybrid fertility and lethality, are common features resulting from reproductive isolation that lead to speciation. Subspecies crosses of house mice produce offspring in which one sex is infertile or absent, yet the molecular mechanisms of hybrid sterility are poorly understood. In this study, we observed extensive asynapsis of chromosomes and disturbance of the sex body in pachytene spermatocytes of sterile F1 males (PWK/Ph female × C57BL/6J male). We report the high-confidence identification of 4005 proteins in the pachytene spermatocytes of fertile F1 males (PWK/Ph male × C57BL/6J female) and sterile F1 males (PWK/Ph female × C57BL/6J male), of which 215 were upregulated and 381 were downregulated. Bioinformatics analysis of the proteome led to the identification of 43 and 59 proteins known to be essential for male meiosis and spermatogenesis in mice, respectively. Characterization of the proteome of pachytene spermatocytes associated with hybrid male sterility provides an inventory of proteins that is useful for understanding meiosis and the mechanisms of hybrid male infertility. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  2. Bodily integrity and male and female circumcision.

    Dekkers, W.J.M.; Hoffer, C.; Wils, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the ambiguous notion of bodily integrity, focusing on male and female circumcision. In the empirical part of the study we describe and analyse the various meanings that are given to the notion of bodily integrity by people in their daily lives. In the philosophical part we

  3. [Suicide in female and male physicians

    Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Luijks, H.D.P.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there are gender differences in the incidence of suicide in physicians, and whether there are differences in the methods used by male and female physicians to commit suicide. DESIGN: Systematic literature search. METHOD: A literature search was performed in the

  4. Male or female? Brains are intersex

    Daphna eJoel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The underlying assumption in popular and scientific publications on sex differences in the brain is that human brains can take one of two forms male or female, and that the differences between these two forms underlie differences between men and women in personality, cognition, emotion and behavior. Documented sex differences in brain structure are typically taken to support this dimorphic view of the brain. However, neuroanatomical data reveal that sex interacts with other factors in utero and throughout life to determine the structure of the brain, and that because these interactions are complex, the result is a multi-morphic, rather than a dimorphic, brain. More specifically, here I argue that human brains are composed of an ever-changing heterogeneous mosaic of male and female brain characteristics (rather than being all male or all female that cannot be aligned on a continuum between a male brain and a female brain. I further suggest that sex differences in the direction of change in the brain mosaic following specific environmental events lead to sex differences in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  5. Augmented healing process in female mice with acute myocardial infarction.

    Wang, Fangfei; Keimig, Thomas; He, Quan; Ding, Jennifer; Zhang, Zhenggang; Pourabdollah-Nejad, Siamak; Yang, Xiao-Ping

    2007-09-01

    It is well established that premenopausal women are protected from cardiovascular disease. This gender difference in favor of females is also demonstrated in animal studies. Our research group previously found that female mice had much lower incidence of cardiac rupture and mortality than did males during the acute phase of myocardial infarction (MI); however, the mechanisms responsible for such protection are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether the favorable cardiac effect observed in female mice with MI is due to an augmented healing process that includes less inflammation, reduced matrix degradation, and enhanced neovascularization. Twelve-week-old male and female C57BL/6J mice were subjected to MI by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery and then euthanized at 1, 4, 7, or 14 days post-MI. Inflammatory cell infiltration and myofibroblast transformation, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 activity, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-I expression, and neovascularization were examined by immunohistochemistry, zymography, Western blot, and laser scanning confocal microscopy, respectively. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography on day 14. We found that: (1) neutrophil infiltration during the early phase of MI (1-4 days) was much lower in females than in males and was associated with lower MMP-9 activity and higher TIMP-1 protein expression, indicating less-exaggerated inflammation and extracellular matrix degradation in females; (2) myofibroblast transformation, as indicated by expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, was significantly greater in females than in males at day 7 of MI (Pvascular area in the infarct border) was markedly increased in females, and was associated with better preserved cardiac function and less left ventricular dilatation. Our data suggest that less-exaggerated early inflammation and augmented reparative fibrotic response, indicated by enhanced myofibroblast

  6. Dim light at night increases body mass of female mice.

    Aubrecht, Taryn G; Jenkins, Richelle; Nelson, Randy J

    2015-05-01

    During the past century, the prevalence of light at night has increased in parallel with obesity rates. Dim light at night (dLAN) increases body mass in male mice. However, the effects of light at night on female body mass remain unspecified. Thus, female mice were exposed to a standard light/dark (LD; 16 h light at ∼150 lux/8 h dark at ∼0 lux) cycle or to light/dim light at night (dLAN; 16 h light at ∼150 lux/8 h dim light at ∼5 lux) cycles for six weeks. Females exposed to dLAN increased the rate of change in body mass compared to LD mice despite reduced total food intake during weeks five and six, suggesting that dLAN disrupted circadian rhythms resulting in deranged metabolism.

  7. Administration of the Antioxidant N-Acetyl-Cysteine in Pregnant Mice Has Long-Term Positive Effects on Metabolic and Behavioral Endpoints of Male and Female Offspring Prenatally Exposed to a High-Fat Diet

    Alessandra Berry

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests the consumption of high-fat diet (HFD during pregnancy to model maternal obesity and the associated increase in oxidative stress (OS, might act as powerful prenatal stressors, leading to adult stress-related metabolic or behavioral disorders. We hypothesized that administration of antioxidants throughout gestation might counteract the negative effects of prenatal exposure to metabolic challenges (maternal HFD feeding during pregnancy on the developing fetus. In this study, female C57BL/6J mice were fed HFD for 13 weeks (from 5-weeks of age until delivery and were exposed to the N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC antioxidant from 10-weeks of age until right before delivery. Body weight of the offspring was assessed following birth, up to weaning and at adulthood. The metabolic, neuroendocrine and emotional profile of the adult offspring was tested at 3-months of age. Prenatal HFD increased mother’s body weight and offspring’s weight at the time of weaning, when administered in conjunction with NAC. In females, NAC administration reduced high levels of leptin resulting from prenatal HFD. Prenatal NAC administration also resulted in greater glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity while increasing adiponectin levels, as well as increasing exploratory behavior, an effect accompanied by reduced plasma corticosterone levels in response to restraint stress. Analysis of glutathione levels in the hypothalamus and in brown adipose tissue indicates that, while HFD administration to pregnant dams led to reduced levels of glutathione in the offspring, as in the male hypothalamus, NAC was able to revert this effect and to increase glutathione levels both in the periphery (Brown Adipose Tissue, both males and females and in the central nervous system (males. Overall, results from this study indicate that the body redox milieu should be tightly regulated during fetal life and that buffering OS during pregnancy can have important

  8. Administration of the Antioxidant N-Acetyl-Cysteine in Pregnant Mice Has Long-Term Positive Effects on Metabolic and Behavioral Endpoints of Male and Female Offspring Prenatally Exposed to a High-Fat Diet.

    Berry, Alessandra; Bellisario, Veronica; Panetta, Pamela; Raggi, Carla; Magnifico, Maria C; Arese, Marzia; Cirulli, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests the consumption of high-fat diet (HFD) during pregnancy to model maternal obesity and the associated increase in oxidative stress (OS), might act as powerful prenatal stressors, leading to adult stress-related metabolic or behavioral disorders. We hypothesized that administration of antioxidants throughout gestation might counteract the negative effects of prenatal exposure to metabolic challenges (maternal HFD feeding during pregnancy) on the developing fetus. In this study, female C57BL/6J mice were fed HFD for 13 weeks (from 5-weeks of age until delivery) and were exposed to the N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) antioxidant from 10-weeks of age until right before delivery. Body weight of the offspring was assessed following birth, up to weaning and at adulthood. The metabolic, neuroendocrine and emotional profile of the adult offspring was tested at 3-months of age. Prenatal HFD increased mother's body weight and offspring's weight at the time of weaning, when administered in conjunction with NAC. In females, NAC administration reduced high levels of leptin resulting from prenatal HFD. Prenatal NAC administration also resulted in greater glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity while increasing adiponectin levels, as well as increasing exploratory behavior, an effect accompanied by reduced plasma corticosterone levels in response to restraint stress. Analysis of glutathione levels in the hypothalamus and in brown adipose tissue indicates that, while HFD administration to pregnant dams led to reduced levels of glutathione in the offspring, as in the male hypothalamus, NAC was able to revert this effect and to increase glutathione levels both in the periphery (Brown Adipose Tissue, both males and females) and in the central nervous system (males). Overall, results from this study indicate that the body redox milieu should be tightly regulated during fetal life and that buffering OS during pregnancy can have important long

  9. Female Versus Male Entrepreneurship within Europe

    Ardelean Dorina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is a topic much debated and analyzed by many research institutions and organizations. In recent years, the total number of entrepreneurs has been increasing significantly, female entrepreneurship being the one that has increased a lot. In this study, we are going to present and analyze the results of studies conducted at European level regarding the comparative evolution of male versus female entrepreneurship. The main conclusion that emerges from the analysis of the results obtained is that the number of women entrepreneurs is almost equal to that of men entrepreneurs in many European countries.

  10. Blood pharmacokinetics of tertiary amyl methyl ether in male and female F344 rats and CD-1 mice after nose-only inhalation exposure.

    Sumner, Susan C J; Janszen, Derek B; Asgharian, Bahman; Moore, Timothy A; Bobbitt, Carol M; Fennell, Timothy R

    2003-01-01

    Interest in understanding the biological behavior of aliphatic ethers has increased owing to their use as gasoline additives. The purpose of this study was to investigate the blood pharmacokinetics of the oxygenate tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), its major metabolite tertiary amyl alcohol (TAA) and acetone in rats and mice following inhalation exposure to TAME. Species differences in the area under the curve (AUC) for TAME were significant at each exposure concentration. For rats, the blood TAME AUC increased in proportion with an increase in exposure concentration. For mice, an increase in exposure concentration (100-500 ppm) resulted in a disproportional increase in the TAME AUC. Mice had greater (two- to threefold) blood concentrations of TAA compared with rats following exposure to 2500 or 500 ppm TAME. Mice had a disproportional increase in the TAA AUC with an increase in exposure concentration (100-500 ppm). This difference could result from saturation of a process (e.g. oxidation, glucuronide conjugation) that is involved in the further metabolism of TAA. For each species, gender and exposure concentration, acetone increased during exposure and returned to control values by 16 h following exposure. The source of acetone could be both as a metabolite of TAA or an effect on endogenous metabolism produced by exposure to TAME. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Social isolation during puberty affects female sexual behavior in mice

    Jasmina eKercmar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to stress during puberty can lead to long-term behavioral alterations in adult rodents coincident with sex steroid hormone-dependent brain remodeling and reorganization. Social isolation is a stress for social animals like mice, but little is known about the effects of such stress during adolescence on later reproductive behaviors. The present study examined sexual behavior of ovariectomized, estradiol and progesterone primed female mice that were individually housed from 25 days of age until testing at approximately 95 days, or individually housed from day 25 until day 60 (during puberty, followed by housing in social groups. Mice in these isolated groups were compared to females that were group housed throughout the experiment. Receptive sexual behaviors of females and behaviors of stimulus males were recorded. Females housed in social groups displayed greater levels of receptive behaviors in comparison to both socially isolated groups. Namely, social females had higher lordosis quotients and more often displayed stronger lordosis postures in comparison to isolated females. No differences between female groups were observed in stimulus male sexual behavior suggesting that female ’attractiveness’ was not affected by their social isolation. Females housed in social groups had fewer cells containing immunoreactive estrogen receptor (ER α in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV and in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH than both isolated groups. These results suggest that isolation during adolescence affects female sexual behavior and re-socialization for one month in adulthood is insufficient to rescue lordosis behavior from the effects of social isolation during the pubertal period.

  12. Sexual Selection on male cuticular hydrocarbons via male-male competition and female choice.

    Lane, S M; Dickinson, A W; Tregenza, T; House, C M

    2016-07-01

    Traditional views of sexual selection assumed that male-male competition and female mate choice work in harmony, selecting upon the same traits in the same direction. However, we now know that this is not always the case and that these two mechanisms often impose conflicting selection on male sexual traits. Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) have been shown to be linked to both social dominance and male attractiveness in several insect species. However, although several studies have estimated the strength and form of sexual selection imposed on male CHCs by female mate choice, none have established whether these chemical traits are also subject to sexual selection via male-male competition. Using a multivariate selection analysis, we estimate and compare sexual selection exerted by male-male competition and female mate choice on male CHC composition in the broad-horned flour beetle Gnatocerus cornutus. We show that male-male competition exerts strong linear selection on both overall CHC abundance and body size in males, while female mate choice exerts a mixture of linear and nonlinear selection, targeting not just the overall amount of CHCs expressed but the relative abundance of specific hydrocarbons as well. We discuss the potential implications of this antagonistic selection with regard to male reproductive success. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  13. Female mice deficient in alpha-fetoprotein show female-typical neural responses to conspecific-derived pheromones.

    Olivier Brock

    Full Text Available The neural mechanisms controlling sexual behavior are sexually differentiated by the perinatal actions of sex steroid hormones. We recently observed using female mice deficient in alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-KO and which lack the protective actions of AFP against maternal estradiol, that exposure to prenatal estradiol completely defeminized the potential to show lordosis behavior in adulthood. Furthermore, AFP-KO females failed to show any male-directed mate preferences following treatment with estradiol and progesterone, indicating a reduced sexual motivation to seek out the male. In the present study, we asked whether neural responses to male- and female-derived odors are also affected in AFP-KO female mice. Therefore, we compared patterns of Fos, the protein product of the immediate early gene, c-fos, commonly used as a marker of neuronal activation, between wild-type (WT and AFP-KO female mice following exposure to male or estrous female urine. We also tested WT males to confirm the previously observed sex differences in neural responses to male urinary odors. Interestingly, AFP-KO females showed normal, female-like Fos responses, i.e. exposure to urinary odors from male but not estrous female mice induced equivalent levels of Fos protein in the accessory olfactory pathways (e.g. the medial part of the preoptic nucleus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the amygdala, and the lateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus as well as in the main olfactory pathways (e.g. the piriform cortex and the anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus, as WT females. By contrast, WT males did not show any significant induction of Fos protein in these brain areas upon exposure to either male or estrous female urinary odors. These results thus suggest that prenatal estradiol is not involved in the sexual differentiation of neural Fos responses to male-derived odors.

  14. Darcin: a male pheromone that stimulates female memory and sexual attraction to an individual male's odour

    McLean Lynn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among invertebrates, specific pheromones elicit inherent (fixed behavioural responses to coordinate social behaviours such as sexual recognition and attraction. By contrast, the much more complex social odours of mammals provide a broad range of information about the individual owner and stimulate individual-specific responses that are modulated by learning. How do mammals use such odours to coordinate important social interactions such as sexual attraction while allowing for individual-specific choice? We hypothesized that male mouse urine contains a specific pheromonal component that invokes inherent sexual attraction to the scent and which also stimulates female memory and conditions sexual attraction to the airborne odours of an individual scent owner associated with this pheromone. Results Using wild-stock house mice to ensure natural responses that generalize across individual genomes, we identify a single atypical male-specific major urinary protein (MUP of mass 18893Da that invokes a female's inherent sexual attraction to male compared to female urinary scent. Attraction to this protein pheromone, which we named darcin, was as strong as the attraction to intact male urine. Importantly, contact with darcin also stimulated a strong learned attraction to the associated airborne urinary odour of an individual male, such that, subsequently, females were attracted to the airborne scent of that specific individual but not to that of other males. Conclusions This involatile protein is a mammalian male sex pheromone that stimulates a flexible response to individual-specific odours through associative learning and memory, allowing female sexual attraction to be inherent but selective towards particular males. This 'darcin effect' offers a new system to investigate the neural basis of individual-specific memories in the brain and give new insights into the regulation of behaviour in complex social mammals. See associated

  15. Darcin: a male pheromone that stimulates female memory and sexual attraction to an individual male's odour.

    Roberts, Sarah A; Simpson, Deborah M; Armstrong, Stuart D; Davidson, Amanda J; Robertson, Duncan H; McLean, Lynn; Beynon, Robert J; Hurst, Jane L

    2010-06-03

    Among invertebrates, specific pheromones elicit inherent (fixed) behavioural responses to coordinate social behaviours such as sexual recognition and attraction. By contrast, the much more complex social odours of mammals provide a broad range of information about the individual owner and stimulate individual-specific responses that are modulated by learning. How do mammals use such odours to coordinate important social interactions such as sexual attraction while allowing for individual-specific choice? We hypothesized that male mouse urine contains a specific pheromonal component that invokes inherent sexual attraction to the scent and which also stimulates female memory and conditions sexual attraction to the airborne odours of an individual scent owner associated with this pheromone. Using wild-stock house mice to ensure natural responses that generalize across individual genomes, we identify a single atypical male-specific major urinary protein (MUP) of mass 18893Da that invokes a female's inherent sexual attraction to male compared to female urinary scent. Attraction to this protein pheromone, which we named darcin, was as strong as the attraction to intact male urine. Importantly, contact with darcin also stimulated a strong learned attraction to the associated airborne urinary odour of an individual male, such that, subsequently, females were attracted to the airborne scent of that specific individual but not to that of other males. This involatile protein is a mammalian male sex pheromone that stimulates a flexible response to individual-specific odours through associative learning and memory, allowing female sexual attraction to be inherent but selective towards particular males. This 'darcin effect' offers a new system to investigate the neural basis of individual-specific memories in the brain and give new insights into the regulation of behaviour in complex social mammals.See associated Commentary http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/71.

  16. Brain serotonin signaling does not determine sexual preference in male mice.

    Mariana Angoa-Pérez

    Full Text Available It was reported recently that male mice lacking brain serotonin (5-HT lose their preference for females (Liu et al., 2011, Nature, 472, 95-100, suggesting a role for 5-HT signaling in sexual preference. Regulation of sex preference by 5-HT lies outside of the well established roles in this behavior established for the vomeronasal organ (VNO and the main olfactory epithelium (MOE. Presently, mice with a null mutation in the gene for tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2, which are depleted of brain 5-HT, were tested for sexual preference. When presented with inanimate (urine scents from male or estrous female or animate (male or female mouse in estrus sexual stimuli, TPH2-/- males show a clear preference for female over male stimuli. When a TPH2-/- male is offered the simultaneous choice between an estrous female and a male mouse, no sexual preference is expressed. However, when confounding behaviors that are seen among 3 mice in the same cage are controlled, TPH2-/- mice, like their TPH2+/+ counterparts, express a clear preference for female mice. Female TPH2-/- mice are preferred by males over TPH2+/+ females but this does not lead to increased pregnancy success. In fact, if one or both partners in a mating pair are TPH2-/- in genotype, pregnancy success rates are significantly decreased. Finally, expression of the VNO-specific cation channel TRPC2 and of CNGA2 in the MOE of TPH2-/- mice is normal, consistent with behavioral findings that sexual preference of TPH2-/- males for females is intact. In conclusion, 5-HT signaling in brain does not determine sexual preference in male mice. The use of pharmacological agents that are non-selective for the 5-HT neuronal system and that have serious adverse effects may have contributed historically to the stance that 5-HT regulates sexual behavior, including sex partner preference.

  17. Metabolic and affective consequences of fatherhood in male California mice.

    Zhao, Meng; Garland, Theodore; Chappell, Mark A; Andrew, Jacob R; Saltzman, Wendy

    2017-08-01

    Physiological and affective condition can be modulated by the social environment and parental state in mammals. However, in species in which males assist with rearing offspring, the metabolic and affective effects of pair bonding and fatherhood on males have rarely been explored. In this study we tested the hypothesis that fathers, like mothers, experience energetic costs as well as behavioral and affective changes (e.g., depression, anxiety) associated with parenthood. We tested this hypothesis in the monogamous, biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus). Food intake, blood glucose and lipid levels, blood insulin and leptin levels, body composition, pain sensitivity, and depression-like behavior were compared in males from three reproductive groups: virgin males (VM, housed with another male), non-breeding males (NB, housed with a tubally ligated female), and breeding males (BM, housed with a female and their first litter). We found statistically significant (Pfatherhood influences several metabolic, morphological, and affective measures in male California mice. Overall, the changes we observed in breeding males were minor, but stronger effects might occur in long-term breeding males and/or under more challenging environmental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Male and female sterility in Zambia

    Athena Pantazis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population measures of sterility are traditionally constructed for women, despite fertility and sterility being conditions of the couple. Estimates of male sterility provide insight into population-level sterility, and complement estimates based solely on women. Objective: This study seeks to estimate male sterility for the Gwembe Tonga of Zambia using male birth histories collected by the Gwembe Tonga Research Project from 1957 to 1995, while providing context by estimating female sterility for the Gwembe Tonga, as well as female sterility in all of Zambia, from Zambian DHS data (1992, 1997, 2001-02, and 2007. Methods: Sterility is measured using the Larson-Menken subsequently infertile indicator. Estimates are produced using discrete time event history analysis. Results: The odds of sterility were higher for women than men, though women's odds of sterility were only 1.5 times that of men's in the middle reproductive years. The odds of sterility increased steadily with age for both men and women, and across all datasets. However, women's sterility increased much more sharply with age than men's did, and women's odds of sterility were higher than men's at all reproductive ages.

  19. DIETARY EXPOSURE OF PHENOBARBITAL TO MALE AND FEMALE CD1 MICE FOR 2 OR 7 DAYS: EXAMINATION OF IN-LIFE, HEPATOCELLULAR ENZYME, PROLIFERATION, AND GENE EXPRESSION RESPONSES.

    Phenobarbital (PB) is a barbiturate used to relieve anxiety and control epilepsy. PB is also an archetypical inducer of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), resulting in liver hypertrophy in humans and both liver hypertrophy and hyperplasia in rodents. In this study, male ...

  20. Perceptions of Credibility of Male and Female Syndicated Political Columnists.

    Andsager, Julie L.

    1990-01-01

    Examines perceptions of the credibility of male and female syndicated political columnists. Finds that college students exhibited little prejudice against female versus male bylines in political interpretive columns. Finds a small tendency for male readers to evaluate male bylines higher in stereotypical ways, but female readers do not do this.…

  1. Professional recognition of female and male doctors.

    Bruguera, M; Arrizabalaga, P; Londoño, M C; Padrós, J

    2014-03-01

    The awards for the excellence of the Official College of Physicians of Barcelona (COMB) were instituted in 2004 to recognize the excellence of the professional exercise. The winners are yearly chosen by juries appointed by the board of government, whose members propose for the award doctors who, in their opinion, have an exemplary professional and human behaviour. The number of male and female doctors who have obtained this recognition has been analysed in relation with the sex distribution in the juries. Likewise it has been compared the ratios men-to-women of those who have been rewarded and this ratio among physicians of more than 45 years. Between the awarded physicians the ratio men-to-women was of 2.7/1 (range, from 1.2/1 for awardees in primary care to 6/1 in research). The men-to-women ratio among those who were awarded was in parallel to the man-to-women ratios of the juries. The ratio between men and women among members of the COMB of more than 45 years was 1.4/1, whereas in those who were awarded it was of 2.7/1. The increase in the proportion of women in the juries in the last four years has been followed by an increase in the number of female physicians awarded. This data demonstrates that the predominance of male doctors among those who were awarded does not depend so much on the age factor, but basically on the proportion of male and female doctors in the juries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. Limited evidence for affective and diurnal rhythm responses to dim light-at-night in male and female C57Bl/6 mice.

    Cleary-Gaffney, Michael; Coogan, Andrew N

    2018-05-15

    Circadian rhythms are recurring patterns in a range of behavioural, physiological and molecular parameters that display periods of near 24 h, and are underpinned by an endogenous biological timekeeping system. Circadian clocks are increasingly recognised as being key for health. Environmental light is the key stimulus that synchronises the internal circadian system with the external time cues. There are emergent health concerns regarding increasing worldwide prevalence of electric lighting, especially man-made light-at-night, and light's impact on the circadian system may be central to these effects. A number of previous studies have demonstrated increased depression-like behaviour in various rodent experimental models exposed to dim light-at-night. In this study we set out to study the impact of dim light-at-night on circadian and affective behaviours in C57Bl/6 mice. We set out specifically to examine the impact of sex on light at night's effects, as well as the impact of housing conditions. We report minimal impact of light-at-night on circadian and affective behaviours, as measured by the tail suspension test, the forced swim test, the sucrose preference test and the elevated plus maze. Light-at-night was also not associated with an increase in body weight, but was associated with a decrease in the cell proliferation marker Ki-67 in the dentate gyrus. In summary, we conclude that experimental contextual factors, such as model species or strain, may be considerable importance in the investigation of the impact of light at night on mood-related parameters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Social Responsibility Personality Differences between Male and Female Communicators.

    Hantz, Alan M.; Wright, Donald K.

    A study was conducted to explore in what ways, if any, male public relations practitioners differ from their female counterparts in their level of social responsibility. Subjects were 105 public relations practitioners (60% female and 40% male) and 215 college students (71% female and 29% male), who completed the Berkowitz-Lutterman SRS Scale. The…

  4. Effect of Soybean on Male Reproductive Physiology in Male Mice

    M Modaresi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Soybean (Soja hispida Moench is a member of Fabaceae family. It is a species of legume native to East Asia. Soy contains significant amount of all the essential amino acids for humans therefore, is a good source of protein .Soy has an important role in the improvement and treatment of some cancers such as colon, prostate, and breast. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of soybeans on reproductive system in male mice. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was conducted at Isfahan Payam e Noor University in 2009. In this research, 32 male mice were randomly grouped into four experimental groups. The control group was fed with soy-free basic diet. The experimental groups 1, 2, and 3 were fed with a diet containing 20%, 30% and 50% soy diet respectively.At the end of 9 weeks of treatment, blood samples were collected and serum levels of testosterone, LH and FSH were measured. The collected data was analyzed with SPSS software using one way ANOVA with Dunnett's post test and Duncan test. Results : In the experimental group which received 20% soy diet, the level of testosterone had a meaningful decrease in comparison with the control group (P<0.05, but in the experimental group which received a 50% soy diet, the level of testosterone had a meaningful increase (P<0.05 .The LH level in 30% and 50% groups had a meaningful increase but no significant differences were observed in FSH level & weight of testicles (P<0.05.The number of sperms in all of the treatment regimes had a meaningful decrease (P0.05 Conclusion: Results of this research indicated that the 20, 30, and 50 percent soy diet had a negative effect on the male reproductive system in mice.

  5. Disruption of genes encoding eIF4E binding proteins-1 and -2 does not alter basal or sepsis-induced changes in skeletal muscle protein synthesis in male or female mice.

    Steiner, Jennifer L; Pruznak, Anne M; Deiter, Gina; Navaratnarajah, Maithili; Kutzler, Lydia; Kimball, Scot R; Lang, Charles H

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis decreases skeletal muscle protein synthesis in part by impairing mTOR activity and the subsequent phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and S6K1 thereby controlling translation initiation; however, the relative importance of changes in these two downstream substrates is unknown. The role of 4E-BP1 (and -BP2) in regulating muscle protein synthesis was assessed in wild-type (WT) and 4E-BP1/BP2 double knockout (DKO) male mice under basal conditions and in response to sepsis. At 12 months of age, body weight, lean body mass and energy expenditure did not differ between WT and DKO mice. Moreover, in vivo rates of protein synthesis in gastrocnemius, heart and liver did not differ between DKO and WT mice. Sepsis decreased skeletal muscle protein synthesis and S6K1 phosphorylation in WT and DKO male mice to a similar extent. Sepsis only decreased 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in WT mice as no 4E-BP1/BP2 protein was detected in muscle from DKO mice. Sepsis decreased the binding of eIF4G to eIF4E in WT mice; however, eIF4E•eIF4G binding was not altered in DKO mice under either basal or septic conditions. A comparable sepsis-induced increase in eIF4B phosphorylation was seen in both WT and DKO mice. eEF2 phosphorylation was similarly increased in muscle from WT septic mice and both control and septic DKO mice, compared to WT control values. The sepsis-induced increase in muscle MuRF1 and atrogin-1 (markers of proteolysis) as well as TNFα and IL-6 (inflammatory cytokines) mRNA was greater in DKO than WT mice. The sepsis-induced decrease in myocardial and hepatic protein synthesis did not differ between WT and DKO mice. These data suggest overall basal protein balance and synthesis is maintained in muscle of mice lacking both 4E-BP1/BP2 and that sepsis-induced changes in mTOR signaling may be mediated by a down-stream mechanism independent of 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and eIF4E•eIF4G binding.

  6. Chronic Co-species Housing Mice and Rats Increased the Competitiveness of Male Mice.

    Liu, Ying-Juan; Li, Lai-Fu; Zhang, Yao-Hua; Guo, Hui-Fen; Xia, Min; Zhang, Meng-Wei; Jing, Xiao-Yuan; Zhang, Jing-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Xu

    2017-03-01

    Rats are predators of mice in nature. Nevertheless, it is a common practice to house mice and rats in a same room in some laboratories. In this study, we investigated the behavioral and physiological responsively of mice in long-term co-species housing conditions. Twenty-four male mice were randomly assigned to their original raising room (control) or a rat room (co-species-housed) for more than 6 weeks. In the open-field and light-dark box tests, the behaviors of the co-species-housed mice and controls were not different. In a 2-choice test of paired urine odors [rabbit urine (as a novel odor) vs. rat urine, cat urine (as a natural predator-scent) vs. rabbit urine, and cat urine vs. rat urine], the co-species-housed mice were more ready to investigate the rat urine odor compared with the controls and may have adapted to it. In an encounter test, the rat-room-exposed mice exhibited increased aggression levels, and their urines were more attractive to females. Correspondingly, the levels of major urinary proteins were increased in the co-species-housed mouse urine, along with some volatile pheromones. The serum testosterone levels were also enhanced in the co-species-housed mice, whereas the corticosterone levels were not different. The norepinephrine, dopamine, and 5-HT levels in the right hippocampus and striatum were not different between the 2. Our findings indicate that chronic co-species housing results in adaptation in male mice; furthermore, it appears that long-term rat-odor stimuli enhance the competitiveness of mice, which suggests that appropriate predator-odor stimuli may be important to the fitness of prey animals. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Male flat lizards prefer females with novel scents | Lewis | African ...

    Males were given a choice between two refuges, an odourless control and one of the following: a conspecific female from the same population (sympatric), a conspecific female from a distant population (allopatric), and a female from their sister species (heterospecific), P. capensis. Males chose refuges treated with the scent ...

  8. Sex Differences in Judgments of Male and Female Role Stereotypes.

    Getz, Sandra K.; Herman, Jeanne B.

    This study tests whether or not there are sex differences in judgments of the success of various male and female lifestyles, and if so, what differential standards are applied to males and females. The most interesting result of this study is that college men and women use the same standards to judge the success of male lifestyles but different…

  9. Repeated administrations of carbon nanotubes in male mice cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility

    Bai, Yuhong; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Jingping; Mu, Qingxin; Zhang, Weidong; Butch, Elizabeth R.; Snyder, Scott E.; Yan, Bing

    2010-09-01

    Soluble carbon nanotubes show promise as materials for in vivo delivery and imaging applications. Several reports have described the in vivo toxicity of carbon nanotubes, but their effects on male reproduction have not been examined. Here, we show that repeated intravenous injections of water-soluble multiwalled carbon nanotubes into male mice can cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility. Nanotubes accumulated in the testes, generated oxidative stress and decreased the thickness of the seminiferous epithelium in the testis at day 15, but the damage was repaired at 60 and 90 days. The quantity, quality and integrity of the sperm and the levels of three major sex hormones were not significantly affected throughout the 90-day period. The fertility of treated male mice was unaffected; the pregnancy rate and delivery success of female mice that mated with the treated male mice did not differ from those that mated with untreated male mice.

  10. Role of the vomeronasal system in intersexual attraction in female mice.

    Martínez-Ricós, J; Agustín-Pavón, C; Lanuza, E; Martínez-García, F

    2008-05-02

    Although it is generally accepted that rodents' sociosexual behavior relies mainly on chemosignals, the specific roles played by the vomeronasal and olfactory systems in detecting these signals are presently unclear. This work reports the results of three experiments aimed at clarifying the role of the vomeronasal system on gender recognition and intersexual attraction, by analyzing the effects of lesions of the accessory olfactory bulbs (AOB) in chemically naïve female mice. The first experiment demonstrates that lesions of the AOB abolish the preference that females show for male-soiled bedding in tests in which the females can contact the bedding, thus having access to both volatile and involatile male chemosignals. The second experiment shows that airborne male-derived chemosignals are not attractive to intact, chemically naïve females but tend to be preferentially explored by females whose AOB has been lesioned. However, repeated exposure to male-soiled bedding has opposite effects in sham-operated and AOB-lesioned female mice. Whereas after this experience sham-operated females show an (acquired) attraction toward male airborne chemosignals, in AOB-lesioned females the same experience makes male-derived volatiles aversive. Finally, in the third experiment we have confirmed that our AOB-lesioned females are able to detect urine-borne male odorants, as well as to discriminate them from the synthetic terpene geraniol. These findings strongly suggest that in mice, the involatile male sexual pheromone that is intrinsically attractive is detected by the vomeronasal system of the females. In addition, the repeated experience of females with male-soiled bedding would probably allow the association of this pheromone, acting as unconditioned stimulus, with olfactory stimuli (odorants) that therefore would become conditioned attractors to the females.

  11. Facing Aggression: Cues Differ for Female versus Male Faces

    Geniole, Shawn N.; Keyes, Amanda E.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Carr?, Justin M.; McCormick, Cheryl M.

    2012-01-01

    The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judge...

  12. Gene Linked to Excess Male Hormones in Female Infertility Disorder

    ... April 15, 2014 Gene linked to excess male hormones in female infertility disorder Discovery by NIH-supported ... may lead to the overproduction of androgens — male hormones similar to testosterone — occurring in women with polycystic ...

  13. Facing Aggression: Cues Differ for Female versus Male Faces

    Geniole, Shawn N.; Keyes, Amanda E.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Carré, Justin M.; McCormick, Cheryl M.

    2012-01-01

    The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F1,36 = 7.43, p = 0.01). In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait) and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively) and masculinity (negatively) ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as “honest signals”. PMID:22276184

  14. Facing aggression: cues differ for female versus male faces.

    Shawn N Geniole

    Full Text Available The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio, is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F(1,36 = 7.43, p = 0.01. In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively and masculinity (negatively ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as "honest signals".

  15. Facing aggression: cues differ for female versus male faces.

    Geniole, Shawn N; Keyes, Amanda E; Mondloch, Catherine J; Carré, Justin M; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2012-01-01

    The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F(1,36) = 7.43, p = 0.01). In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait) and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively) and masculinity (negatively) ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as "honest signals".

  16. Increased progesterone production in cumulus-oocyte complexes of female mice sired by males with the Y-chromosome long arm deletion and its potential influence on fertilization efficiency.

    Kotarska, Katarzyna; Galas, Jerzy; Przybyło, Małgorzata; Bilińska, Barbara; Styrna, Józefa

    2015-02-01

    It was revealed previously that B10.BR(Y(del)) females sired by males with the Y-chromosome long arm deletion differ from genetically identical B10.BR females sired by males with the intact Y chromosome. This is interpreted as a result of different epigenetic information which females of both groups inherit from their fathers. In the following study, we show that cumulus-oocyte complexes ovulated by B10.BR(Y(del)) females synthesize increased amounts of progesterone, which is important sperm stimulator. Because their extracellular matrix is excessively firm, the increased progesterone secretion belongs presumably to factors that compensate this feature enabling unchanged fertilization ratios. Described compensatory mechanism can act only on sperm of high quality, presenting proper receptors. Indeed, low proportion of sperm of Y(del) males that poorly fertilize B10.BR(Y(del)) oocytes demonstrates positive staining of membrane progesterone receptors. This proportion is significantly higher for sperm of control males that fertilize B10.BR(Y(del)) and B10.BR oocytes with the same efficiency. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Male risk taking, female odors, and the role of estrogen receptors.

    Kavaliers, Martin; Clipperton-Allen, Amy; Cragg, Cheryl L; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Korach, Kenneth S; Muglia, Louis; Choleris, Elena

    2012-12-05

    Male risk-taking and decision making are affected by sex-related cues, with men making riskier choices and decisions after exposure to either women or stimuli associated with women. In non-human species females and, or their cues can also increase male risk taking. Under the ecologically relevant condition of predation threat, brief exposure of male mice to the odors of a sexually receptive novel female reduces the avoidance of, and aversive responses to, a predator. We briefly review evidence showing that estrogen receptors (ERs), ERα and ERβ, are associated with the mediation of these risk taking responses. We show that ERs influence the production of the female odors that affect male risk taking, with the odors of wild type (ERαWT, ERβWT), oxytocin (OT) wildtype (OTWT), gene-deleted 'knock-out' ERβ (ERβKO), but not ERαKO or oxytocin (OT) OTKO or ovariectomized (OVX) female mice reducing the avoidance responses of male mice to cat odor. We further show that administration of specific ERα and ERβ agonists to OVX females results in their odors increasing male risk taking and boldness towards a predator. We also review evidence that ERs are involved in the mediation of the responses of males to female cues, with ERα being associated with the sexual and both ERβ and ERα with the sexual and social mechanisms underlying the effects of female cues on male risk taking. The implications and relations of these findings with rodents to ERs and the regulation of human risk taking are briefly considered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Androgen receptor disruption increases the osteogenic response to mechanical loading in male mice

    Callewaert, F.; Bakker, A.; Schrooten, J.; Van Meerbeek, B.; Verhoeven, G.; Boonen, S.; Vanderschueren, D.

    2010-01-01

    In female mice, estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) mediates the anabolic response of bone to mechanical loading. Whether ERα plays a similar role in the male skeleton and to what extent androgens and androgen receptor (AR) affect this response in males remain unaddressed. Therefore, we studied the

  19. Female preproenkephalin-knockout mice display altered emotional responses

    Ragnauth, A.; Schuller, A.; Morgan, M.; Chan, J.; Ogawa, S.; Pintar, J.; Bodnar, R. J.; Pfaff, D. W.

    2001-01-01

    The endogenous opioid system has been implicated in sexual behavior, palatable intake, fear, and anxiety. The present study examined whether ovariectomized female transgenic preproenkephalin-knockout (PPEKO) mice and their wild-type and heterozygous controls displayed alterations in fear and anxiety paradigms, sucrose intake, and lordotic behavior. To examine stability of responding, three squads of the genotypes were tested across seasons over a 20-month period. In a fear-conditioning paradigm, PPEKO mice significantly increased freezing to both fear and fear + shock stimuli relative to controls. In the open field, PPEKO mice spent significantly less time and traversed significantly less distance in the center of an open field than wild-type controls. Further, PPEKO mice spent significantly less time and tended to be less active on the light side of a dark–light chamber than controls, indicating that deletion of the enkephalin gene resulted in exaggerated responses to fear or anxiety-provoking environments. These selective deficits were observed consistently across testing squads spanning 20 months and different seasons. In contrast, PPEKO mice failed to differ from corresponding controls in sucrose, chow, or water intake across a range (0.0001–20%) of sucrose concentrations and failed to differ in either lordotic or female approach to male behaviors when primed with estradiol and progesterone, thereby arguing strongly for the selectivity of a fear and anxiety deficit which was not caused by generalized and nonspecific debilitation. These transgenic data strongly suggest that opioids, and particularly enkephalin gene products, are acting naturally to inhibit fear and anxiety. PMID:11172058

  20. Male and Female Perception of Physical Attractiveness

    Ray Garza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR and breast size are morphological traits that are associated with female attractiveness. Previous studies using line drawings of women have shown that men across cultures rate low WHRs (0.6 and 0.7 as most attractive. In this study, we used additional viewing measurements (i.e., first fixation duration and visual regressions to measure visual attention and record how long participants first focused on the female body and whether they regressed back to an area of interest. Additionally, we manipulated skin tone to determine whether they preferred light- or dark-skinned women. In two eye tracking experiments, participants rated the attractiveness of female nude images varying in WHR (0.5–0.9, breast size, and skin tone. We measured first fixation duration, gaze duration, and total time. The overall results of both studies revealed that visual attention fell mostly on the face, the breasts, and the midriff of the female body, supporting the evolutionary view that reproductively relevant regions of the female body are important to female attractiveness. Because the stimuli varied in skin tone and the participants were mainly Hispanic of Mexican American descent, the findings from these studies also support a preference for low WHRs and reproductively relevant regions of the female body.

  1. Adolescent Male-to-Female Transgender Voice and Communication Therapy

    Hancock, Adrienne; Helenius, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Current research to describe and evaluate effectiveness of voice and communication therapy for male-to-female transgender people is limited to adults. This paper provides rationale, procedures, and outcomes from voice and communication therapy for a male-to-female transgender adolescent 15 years of age. Treatment addressed vocal hygiene, breath…

  2. Female distance education students overtaking males in science ...

    This study was initiated to compare the performance of male and female distance education students of the University of Education, Winneba in Integrated Science. This was done by randomly selecting the cumulated grades of male and female students of 2002, 2003 and 2004-year groups in Integrated Science for analysis ...

  3. Male and Female Secondary School EFL Teachers' Code ...

    This study explored male and female secondary school EFL teachers' attitudes, reasons and beliefs about the functions of code-switching to L1 (Amharic) in their classes. The participants of the study were all the available (38 male and 19 female) English language teachers in seven secondary schools in Bahir Dar City and ...

  4. Equivalence of Symptom Dimensions in Females and Males with Autism

    Frazier, Thomas W.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated equivalence of autism symptom domains in males and females with autism. Symptom data were obtained from 2643 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (352 females, 2291 males; age range = 4-17 years) included in the Simons Simplex Collection. Items from the Social Responsiveness Scale and Autism Diagnostic…

  5. Male/Female Salary Disparity for Professors of Educational Administration.

    Pounder, Diana G.

    The earnings gap between male and female workers across all occupational groups has been well documented; full-time women workers earn, on average, approximately 65 percent of men's salaries. Although male/female salary disparity is largest across occupational groups, salary disparity within occupational groups still prevails. For example, the…

  6. Emotional Expressions between Male and Female in Hostalize Students

    Haider, Badeea; Khan, Sumaira; Anwar, Kanwal

    2016-01-01

    There are clear differences in the extent to which people express their emotions. These differences in emotional expressions have long interested researchers and are relevant to several areas of psychology. The research topic is emotional expressions between hostalize male and female in. The sum of 24 students (12 male and 12 female) were selected…

  7. Differences in Performance between Male and Female Business Students.

    Hornaday, Robert W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A study analyzed the grade point averages (GPAs) and scores on a business concepts quiz of 419 undergraduate business students. Effect of student major was also controlled. Females earned higher overall grades than males; males outperformed females in ability to describe basic business concepts. Gender and academic major accounted for over 10…

  8. Adolescents' Contribution to Household Production: Male and Female Differences.

    Sanik, Margaret Mietus; Stafford, Kathryn

    1985-01-01

    Develops a model to predict the contribution adolescent males and females make to household work, based upon family characteristics, human capital of the adolescent, geographic location, and societal expectations. Adolescent females worked longer than males, regardless of birth order. Time use for household work was largely unaffected by family…

  9. Comparison of the performances of male and female armed services ...

    Comparison of the performances of male and female armed services recruits undergoing sports vision testing. ... Previous research has shown that the difference in performance in both males and females is the result of brain lateralization, test familiarity and nerve conduction velocity in the brain. This was, however, not ...

  10. Characteristics of Female Solo and Female Co-Offenders and Male Solo Sexual Offenders Against Children.

    Williams, Rebecca; Gillespie, Steven M; Elliott, Ian A; Eldridge, Hilary J

    2017-09-01

    Studies have highlighted differences in the victim choice, offender, and offense characteristics of female and male sexual offenders. However, little is known about how solo and co-offending females differ from solo male sexual offenders. We compared the characteristics of 20 solo and 20 co-offending females (co-offended with a male and/or female accomplice), and 40 male sexual offenders against children. We found that solo female offenders showed the most evidence of personal problems, including depression and sexual dissatisfaction. Compared with male offenders, female co-offenders showed poorer self-management, but better sexual self-regulation. Male offenders had a greater history of offending and showed more evidence of sexual abuse supportive cognitions relative to both solo and co-offending females. These results are consistent with the need for a gender-specific approach to working with sexual offenders and may have implications for understanding the often complex treatment needs of these clients.

  11. Effects of Altered Levels of Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase and Irradiation on Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Female Mice

    Zou, Yani; Leu, David; Chui, Jennifer; Fike, John R.; Huang, Ting-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Altered levels of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) and cranial irradiation have been shown to affect hippocampal neurogenesis. However, previous studies were only conducted in male mice, and it was not clear if there was a difference between males and females. Therefore, female mice were studied and the results compared with those generated in male mice from an earlier study. Methods and Materials: Female wild-type, EC-SOD-null (KO), and EC-SOD bigenic mice with neuronal-specific expression of EC-SOD (OE) were subjected to a single dose of 5-Gy gamma rays to the head at 8 weeks of age. Progenitor cell proliferation, differentiation, and long-term survival of newborn neurons were determined. Results: Similar to results from male mice, EC-SOD deficiency and irradiation both resulted in significant reductions in mature newborn neurons in female mice. EC-SOD deficiency reduced long-term survival of newborn neurons whereas irradiation reduced progenitor cell proliferation. Overexpression of EC-SOD corrected the negative impacts from EC-SOD deficiency and irradiation and normalized the production of newborn neurons in OE mice. Expression of neurotrophic factors brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 were significantly reduced by irradiation in wild-type mice, but the levels were not changed in KO and OE mice even though both cohorts started out with a lower baseline level. Conclusion: In terms of hippocampal neurogenesis, EC-SOD deficiency and irradiation have the same overall effects in males and females at the age the studies were conducted

  12. Appetitive Aggression in Women: Comparing Male and Female War Combatants

    Danie eMeyer-Parlapanis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Appetitive aggression refers to positive feelings being associated with the perpetration of violent behavior and has been shown to provide resilience against the development of PTSD in combatants returning from the battlefield. Until this point, appetitive aggression has been primarily researched in males. This study investigates appetitive aggression in females. Female and male combatants and civilians from Burundi were assessed for levels of appetitive aggression. In contrast to non-combatants, no sex difference in appetitive aggression could be detected for combatants. Furthermore, each of the female and male combatant groups displayed substantially higher levels of appetitive aggression than each of the male and female civilian control groups. This study demonstrates that in violent contexts, such as armed conflict, in which individuals perpetrate numerous aggressive acts against others, the likelihood for an experience of appetitive aggression increases- regardless of whether the individuals are male or female.

  13. Equivalence of symptom dimensions in females and males with autism.

    Frazier, Thomas W; Hardan, Antonio Y

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated equivalence of autism symptom domains in males and females with autism. Symptom data were obtained from 2643 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (352 females, 2291 males; age range = 4-17 years) included in the Simons Simplex Collection. Items from the Social Responsiveness Scale and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised were mapped to nine a priori symptom dimensions. Multi-group confirmatory factor models, including measurement equivalence and item response theory analyses, examined whether males and females showed measurement or structural differences in autism symptom constructs. Results indicated mean differences in restricted interests that were not due to measurement bias. No other symptom dimension showed evidence of measurement bias and autism symptom structure was highly similar between males and females. Future studies are needed to carefully estimate any sex differences in the content, frequency, or intensity/severity of restricted interests in females and males.

  14. What makes a nest-building male successful? Male behavior and female care in penduline tits

    Szentirmai, [No Value; Komdeur, J; Szekely, T; Szentirmai, István

    Why do females increase parental effort when caring for the offspring of attractive males? First, attractive males may be poor fathers so that their females are compelled to increase their own contribution in order to fledge some young (the partner-compensation hypothesis). Second, females mated to

  15. Condition-dependent female preference for male genitalia length is based on male reproductive tactics.

    Hernandez-Jimenez, Armando; Rios-Cardenas, Oscar

    2017-12-06

    There is extensive morphological variation of male genitalia across animals with internal fertilization, even among closely related species. Most studies attempting to explain this extraordinary diversity have focused on processes that occur post-copula (e.g. sperm competition, cryptic female choice). Only a few studies have focused on the pre-copula process of female preference. In addition, the extent to which this variation could be associated with the use of different reproductive tactics has yet to be explored. Here, we show that female preference for male genitalia length in two livebearing fishes depends on the type of reproductive tactic of the males being evaluated as well as the body condition of the female. In a species where all males coax females to acquire matings (courters), females preferred males with short genitalia. In a species with genetically influenced alternative reproductive tactics (courter males that only court and produce courter sons, sneaker males that use the coercive tactic of sneak chase and produce sneaker sons), female preference depended on an interaction between male tactic and female condition: females in good condition preferred courter males with short genitalia, and sneaker males with long genitalia. Our results suggest that female preference for male traits favourable to their sons may be an important factor contributing to the diversification of male genitalia. Despite the contrasting selection for genitalia length that our female preference tests suggest, we found no significant differences in genitalia length between coaxing (courters) and coercive (sneakers) males. Our study represents a starting point to more clearly understand the role of alternative reproductive tactics and variation in female mate preference in the evolution of male genitalia. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. Induction of dominant lethals in male mice treated as embryos with 35S

    Reddy, K.S.; Reddy, P.P.; Reddy, O.S.

    1980-01-01

    Pregnant female mice were injected (ip) with 20 μCi of 35 S or 0.5 ml of saline (control) on 3.5 day of gestation. The animals were allowed to litter and the (CBA female x C 3 H/He male) F 1 males treated as embryos were tested at maturity (8-10 weeks) for dominant lethal incidence. Each male was mated to 3 untreated virgin females for a period of 3 weeks. The pregnant animals were killed at mid gestation and the uterine contents and corpora lutea were examined. There was a significant increase in the frequency of dominant lethals both at pre- and post-implantation stages in the treated group when compared to controls. As a result a significant increase in dead implantations/female and reduction in live implantations/female were noticed in the treated group. Thus the results clearly delineate the genetic effects of sulfur-35 in mice. (auth.)

  17. Comparing the Entrepreneurial Intention between Female and Male Engineering Students

    Lo Choitung; Sun Hongyi; Law Kris

    2012-01-01

    Women business ownership contributes to entrepreneurship quality and diversity. However, the new venture creation rate of females lags far behind that of males. How to increase female entrepreneurship by entrepreneurship education is an important topic in the field. It has been reported that students’ entrepreneurial intention is a key to their future entrepreneurial behaviors. This paper aims to empirically compare the entrepreneurial intentions between female and male engineering students w...

  18. Factors underlying male and female use of violent video games

    Hartmann, T.; Möller, I.; Krause, C.

    2015-01-01

    Research has consistently shown that males play violent video games more frequently than females, but factors underlying this gender gap have not been examined to date. This approach examines the assumption that males play violent video games more because they anticipate more enjoyment and less guilt from engaging in virtual violence than females. This may be because males are less empathetic, tend to morally justify physical violence more and have a greater need for sensation and aggression ...

  19. Is higher risk sex common among male or female youths?

    Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres

    2015-01-01

    There are several studies that showed the high prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors among youths, but little is known how significant the proportion of higher risk sex is when the male and female youths are compared. A meta-analysis was done using 26 countries' Demographic and Health Survey data from and outside Africa to make comparisons of higher risk sex among the most vulnerable group of male and female youths. Random effects analytic model was applied and the pooled odds ratios were determined using Mantel-Haenszel statistical method. In this meta-analysis, 19,148 male and 65,094 female youths who reported to have sexual intercourse in a 12-month period were included. The overall OR demonstrated that higher risk sex was ten times more prevalent in male youths than in female youths. The practice of higher risk sex by male youths aged 15-19 years was more than 27-fold higher than that of their female counterparts. Similarly, male youths in urban areas, belonged to a family with middle to highest wealth index, and educated to secondary and above were more than ninefold, eightfold and sixfold at risk of practicing higher risk sex than their female counterparts, respectively. In conclusion, this meta-analysis demonstrated that the practice of risky sexual intercourse by male youths was incomparably higher than female youths. Future risky sex protective interventions should be tailored to secondary and above educated male youths in urban areas.

  20. Dominant lethal mutations in male mice fed γ-irradiated diet

    Chauhan, P.S.; Aravindakshan, M.; Aiyer, A.S.; Sundaram, K.

    1975-01-01

    Three groups of Swiss male mice were fed a stock ration of an unirradiated or irradiated (2.5 Mrad) test diet for 8 wk. After the feeding period, the males were mated with groups of untreated female mice for 4 consecutive weeks. The females were autopsied at mid-term pregnancy for evaluation of dominant lethal mutations. Numbers of dead implantations, including deciduomas and dead embryos, showed no significant differences among the different groups, thus producing no evidence of any induced post-implantation lethality in mice fed on irradiated diet. Similarly, there was no indication of preimplantation lethality, since implantation rates remained comparable among different groups. Consumption of irradiated diet did not affect the fertility of mice. Total pre- and post-implantation loss, as indicated by the numbers of live implantations remained comparable among all the groups of mice. (author)

  1. Effects of playing a violent video game as male versus female avatar on subsequent aggression in male and female players.

    Yang, Grace S; Huesmann, L Rowell; Bushman, Brad J

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that violent video games can increase aggression in players immediately after they play. The present research examines the effects of one subtle cue within violent video games that might moderate these effects-whether the avatar is male or female. One common stereotype is that males are more aggressive than females. Thus, playing a violent video game as a male avatar, compared to a female avatar, should be more likely to prime aggressive thoughts and inclinations in players and lead to more aggressive behavior afterwards. Male and female university students (N = 242) were randomly assigned to play a violent video game as a male or female avatar. After gameplay, participants gave an ostensible partner who hated spicy food hot sauce to eat. The amount of hot sauce given was used to measure aggression. Consistent with priming theory, results showed that both male and female participants who played a violent game as a male avatar behaved more aggressively afterwards than those who played as female avatar. The priming effects of the male avatar were somewhat stronger for male participants than for female participants, suggesting that male participants identified more with the male avatar than did the female participants. These results are particularly noteworthy because they are consistent with another recent experiment showing that playing a violent game as an avatar with a different stereotypically aggressive attribute (black skin color) stimulates more aggression than playing as an avatar without the stereotypically aggressive attribute (Yang et al., 2014, Social Psychological and Personality Science). © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Radiographic comparison between male and female patients with lumbar spondylolysis.

    Takao, Shoichiro; Sakai, Toshinori; Sairyo, Koichi; Kondo, Tadashi; Ueno, Junji; Yasui, Natsuo; Nishitani, Hiromu

    2010-02-01

    We studied the lumbar spines of 117 adults (39 women and 78 men) with spondylolysis unrelated to low back pain using multidetector computed tomography (CT). Of the 117 subjects with spondylolysis, including five with multiple-level spondylolysis, there were 124 vertebrae with spondylolysis. In adult lumbar spines with unilateral spondylolysis, there was no significant difference between the incidence of spondylolisthesis in female and male subjects. However, in those with bilateral spondylolysis, there was a significantly higher incidence of spondylolisthesis in female subjects (90.9%) than in males (66.2%). Furthermore, females with bilateral spondylolysis had significant more slippage than males. Lumbar index and lumbar lordosis were not significantly different between male and female subjects, and did not significantly correlate with slippage. In conclusion, to treat acute spondylolysis in adolescents, it is important to obtain bony union at least unilaterally, especially in female subjects, to prevent further slippage.

  3. Activation of PPARα decreases bile acids in livers of female mice while maintaining bile flow and biliary bile acid excretion.

    Zhang, Youcai; Lickteig, Andrew J; Csanaky, Iván L; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2018-01-01

    Fibrates are hypolipidemic drugs that act as activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). In both humans and rodents, females were reported to be less responsive to fibrates than males. Previous studies on fibrates and PPARα usually involved male mice, but little has been done in females. The present study aimed to provide the first comprehensive analysis of the effects of clofibrate (CLOF) and PPARα on bile acid (BA) homeostasis in female mice. Study in WT male mice showed that a 4-day CLOF treatment increased liver weight, bile flow, and biliary BA excretion, but decreased total BAs in both serum and liver. In contrast, WT female mice were less susceptible to these CLOF-mediated responses observed in males. In WT female mice, CLOF decreased total BAs in the liver, but had little effect on the mRNAs of hepatic BA-related genes. Next, a comparative analysis between WT and PPARα-null female mice showed that lack of PPARα in female mice decreased total BAs in serum, but had little effect on total BAs in liver or bile. However, lack of PPARα in female mice increased mRNAs of BA synthetic enzymes (Cyp7a1, Cyp8b1, Cyp27a1, and Cyp7b1) and transporters (Ntcp, Oatp1a1, Oatp1b2, and Mrp3). Furthermore, the increase of Cyp7a1 in PPARα-null female mice was associated with an increase in liver Fxr-Shp-Lrh-1 signaling. In conclusion, female mice are resistant to CLOF-mediated effects on BA metabolism observed in males, which could be attributed to PPARα-mediated suppression in females on genes involved in BA synthesis and transport. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Both male and female identity influence variation in male signalling effort

    Svensson P Andreas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male sexual displays play an important role in sexual selection by affecting reproductive success. However, for such displays to be useful for female mate choice, courtship should vary more among than within individual males. In this regard, a potentially important source of within male variation is adjustment of male courtship effort in response to female traits. Accordingly, we set out to dissect sources of variation in male courtship effort in a fish, the desert goby (Chlamydogobius eremius. We did so by designing an experiment that allowed simultaneous estimation of within and between male variation in courtship, while also assessing the importance of the males and females as sources of courtship variation. Results Although males adjusted their courtship depending on the identity of the female (a potentially important source of within-male variation, among-male differences were considerably greater. In addition, male courtship effort towards a pair of females was highly repeatable over a short time frame. Conclusion Despite the plasticity in male courtship effort, courtship displays had the potential to reliably convey information about the male to mate-searching females. Our experiment therefore underscores the importance of addressing the different sources contributing to variation in the expression of sexually-selected traits.

  5. How female and male physicians' communication is perceived differently.

    Mast, Marianne Schmid; Kadji, Keou Kambiwa

    2018-06-07

    This paper is based on a 2017 Baltimore International Conference on Communication in Healthcare (ICCH) plenary presentation by the first author and addresses how female and male physicians' communication is perceived and evaluated differently. Female physicians use patient-centered communication which is the interaction style clearly preferred by patients. Logically, patients should be much more satisfied with female than male physicians. However, research shows that this is not the case. This article provides an overview on how female and male physician communication is evaluated and perceived differently by patients and discusses whether and how gender stereotypes can explain these differences in perception and evaluation. Male physicians obtain good patient outcomes when verbally expressing patient-centeredness while female physicians have patients who report better outcomes when they adapt their nonverbal communication to the different needs of their patients. The analysis reveals that existing empirical findings cannot simply be explained by the adherence or not to gender stereotypes. Female physicians do not always get credit for showing gender role congruent behavior. All in all, female and male physicians do not obtain credit for the same behaviors. Physician communication training might put different accents for female and male physicians. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Female qualities in males: vitellogenin synthesis induced by ovary transplants into the male silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Yang, Congwen; Lin, Ying; Shen, Guanwang; Chen, Enxiang; Wang, Yanxia; Luo, Juan; Zhang, Haiyan; Xing, Runmiao; Xia, Qingyou

    2014-10-10

    Female qualities in males are common in vertebrates but have not been extensively reported in insects. Vitellogenin (Vg) is highly expressed in the female fat body and is generally required for the formation of yolk proteins in the insect egg. Vg upregulation is generally regarded as a female quality in female oviparous animals. In this study, we found that Bombyx mori Vg (BmVg) is especially highly expressed in the female pupa. Downregulation of the BmVg gene in the female pupa by RNA interference (RNAi) interfered with egg formation and embryonic development, showing the importance of BmVg in these processes. So, we used BmVg as a biomarker for female qualities in the silkworm. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunofluorescence histochemistry showed that ovary transplants induced BmVg synthesis in the male pupa fat body. Ovaries transplanted into male silkworms produced only a few eggs with deformed yolk granules. These results suggested that the amount of BmVg in the male silkworm was insufficient for eggs to undergo complete embryonic development. After 17-beta-estradiol was used to treat male pupae and male pupal fat bodies, BmVg was upregulated in vivo and in vitro. These findings indicated that the male silkworm has innate female qualities that were induced by a transplanted ovary and 17β-estradiol. However, in silkworms, female qualities in males are not as complete as in females. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Highly competitive reindeer males control female behavior during the rut.

    Guillaume Body

    Full Text Available During the rut, female ungulates move among harems or territories, either to sample mates or to avoid harassment. Females may be herded by a male, may stay with a preferred male, or aggregate near a dominant male to avoid harassment from other males. In fission-fusion group dynamics, female movement is best described by the group's fission probability, instead of inter-harem movement. In this study, we tested whether male herding ability, female mate choice or harassment avoidance influence fission probability. We recorded group dynamics in a herd of reindeer Rangifer tarandus equipped with GPS collars with activity sensors. We found no evidence that the harassment level in the group affected fission probability, or that females sought high rank (i.e. highly competitive and hence successful males. However, the behavior of high ranked males decreased fission probability. Male herding activity was synchronous with the decrease of fission probability observed during the rut. We concluded that male herding behavior stabilized groups, thereby increasing average group size and consequently the opportunity for sexual selection.

  8. Retardation of muscle growth in castrated male mice: further ...

    Retardation of muscle growth in castrated male mice was studied as an evidence for the influence of hormones on the development of muscle mass. Male albino mice were castrated at 28days of age by open castration method. The weights and the muscle mass indices (mg muscle weight per gram body weight) of the ...

  9. A structural comparison of female-male and female-female mounting in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    Ottenheimer Carrier, Lydia; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Pellis, Sergio; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-10-01

    In certain populations, female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) mount both males and females. Vasey (2007) proposed that female-female sexual mounting in Japanese macaques may be a neutral evolutionary by-product of a purported adaptation, namely, female-male mounting. In this study, we aim to further examine the proposed link between female-male and female-female mounting in Japanese macaques by comparing the structural characteristics that define both forms of mounting. We do so using Eshkol-Wachman Movement Notation (EWMN), a globographic reference system that can be used to describe the position of body segments. No significant differences were observed in the female mounters' positioning of eight different body segments (i.e., lower torso, mid-torso, upper torso, upper arm, lower arm, upper leg, lower leg, and foot) during female-male and female-female mounting. This finding lends support to the conclusion that female-female and female-male mounting are structurally, and thus, evolutionarily, related. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Chronic High Fat Diet Consumption Impairs Metabolic Health of Male Mice.

    Morselli, Eugenia; Criollo, Alfredo; Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Clegg, Deborah J

    We show that chronic high fat diet (HFD) feeding affects the hypothalamus of male but not female mice. In our study we demonstrate that palmitic acid and sphingolipids accumulate in the central nervous system of HFD-fed males. Additionally, we show that HFD-feeding reduces proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) thus reducing estrogen receptor α (ERα) and driving hypothalamic inflammation in male but not female mice. Hypothalamic inflammation correlates with markers of metabolic dysregulation as indicated by dysregulation in glucose intolerance and myocardial function. Lastly, we demonstrate that there are blockages in mitophagy and lipophagy in hypothalamic tissues in males. Our data suggest there is a sexually dimorphic response to chronic HDF exposure, females; despite gaining the same amount of body weight following HFD-feeding, appear to be protected from the adverse metabolic effects of the HFD.

  11. Roentgenographic evaluation of the profiles for young male and female

    Park, Tae Won [Department of Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1975-11-15

    The author has studied on the profiles on Korean young male and female by the cephalometric roentgenograms, and the subjects consisted of 104 persons with normal occlusion, and the measurements were done on the soft and hard structures. The mean and standard deviations in the subjects were calculated and compared between male and female. The author has obtained the following results: 1. In the linear measurement, male was longer than female in most measuring points. 2. Compared with the angulation of soft tissue, there were no differences between both sexes. 3. In the skeletal patterns, there were some differences between male and female, but there was a similarity to the facial profile. 4. The individual variations on the cephalometric profiles on the subjects were recognized, especially, in the lower facial part.

  12. Gonadal function in male and female patients with classic galactosemia

    Rubio-Gozalbo, M. E.; Gubbels, C. S.; Bakker, J. A.; Menheere, P. P. C. A.; Wodzig, W. K. W. H.; Land, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Hypergonadotropic hypoestrogenic infertility is the most burdensome complication for females suffering from classic galactosemia. In contrast, male gonadal function seems less affected. The underlying mechanism is not understood and several pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed. Timing of the

  13. Preferred Leadership Behaviours of Male and Female Badminton Players

    Rajkumar S HARMA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pr eferences for specific coaching behaviours of male and female Badminton players were measured by the modified and revised Leadership Scale for Sport. Eighty two (Males=61, Females=21 badminton players were selected from amongst the players representing th eir respective university teams in East - zone Inter - university Badminton (Men/Women tournaments held at Bilaspur (CG. The present investigation noted the statistically significant differences among East - zone Inter - university level male as well as female B adminton player’s preferences for specific coaching behaviour. Differences were not observed between male and female badminton players in all the dimensions together of specific coaching behaviours of preferred leadership. It is recommended that coaches a lign their coaching style to meet the needs of their teams.

  14. Preventing Health Damaging Behaviors in Male and Female Army Recruits

    2013-08-01

    contraceptive methods among male and female adolescent and young adult soldiers in training.” This abstract focused on factors associated with... contraceptive methods among male and female adolescent and young adult soldiers in training Stephanie Adrianse, MD1, Lance M. Pollack, Ph.D2, Cherrie B...keywords: unintended pregnancy, prevention, contraceptive use, adolescents /young adults, psychosocial factors Purpose: Over 50% of pregnancies among

  15. Navy Job-Related Male-Female Differences: Annotated Bibliography.

    1982-04-01

    and 50 female Caucasian South African healing sciences students and 44 male and 43 female American medical, dental, physiotherapy students were...lesser extent, even the primary differences. The subjects used in the cited research, especially in the cognitive areas, were usually college students ...that may make college students atypical of and noncomparable to Navy enlisted personnel of the same general age. This appears more likely for males

  16. Why Are Males Bad for Females? Models for the Evolution of Damaging Male Mating Behavior

    Lessells, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    One explanation for the cost to mating for females caused by damaging male mating behavior is that this causes the females to adaptively modify their subsequent life histories in a way that also increases male fitness. This might occur because the reduction in residual reproductive value of the

  17. Sexy males and choosy females on exploded leks: correlates of male attractiveness in the Little Bustard.

    Jiguet, Frédéric; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    In their choice of mates, females may use alternative tactics, including a comparative assessment of males in a population, using one or several relative preference criteria. Traits involved in female choice should presumably be variable between, but not within males, thus potentially providing reliable cues of male identity and quality for prospecting females. In lekking species, sexual selection is usually intense, and females can freely choose mates. Studying the Little Bustard Tetrax tetrax, a bird with an exploded lek mating system, we first identified male phenotypic traits that showed higher among, than within variation (plumage pattern, display rates and call structure). Among those and other traits (ornaments and their symmetry, body condition, lek spatial organization and territory quality), we identified phenotypic traits that correlated with male attractiveness toward females. At least four phenotypic male traits were correlated with female attraction, i.e. body condition, lek attendance, ornamental symmetry and display rates. Traits related to the initial female attraction on male territory seem to differ from traits related to the decision of females to stay in the territory of attractive males. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison between young males and females with acute myocardial infarction

    Ricardo Augusto Slaibi Conti

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the differences between young males and females after acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 236 patients (54 females and 182 males after acute myocardial infarction and during hospital stay assessed the following parameters: risk factors; the treatment used; the pattern of coronary artery obstruction; left ventricular ejection fraction; complications; and, using a logistic regression model, the factors related to the occurrence of reinfarction and death. RESULTS: No significant difference was observed between the sexes in risk factors, pattern of coronary artery obstruction, and left ventricular function. The time interval between symptom onset and treatment was longer in females (p=0.03, who underwent thrombolysis (p=0.01 and angioplasty (p=0.03 less frequently than males did, but not myocardial revascularization. Female sex (OR = 5.98 and diabetes (OR = 14.52 were independent factors related to the occurrence of reinfarction and death. CONCLUSION: Young males and females after acute myocardial infarction did not differ in coronary risk factors, and clinical and hemodynamic characteristics. Females had their treatment started later, and they underwent chemical thrombolysis and angioplasty less frequently than males did. Female sex and diabetes were related to the occurrence of reinfarction and death.

  19. The Female-Male Differential in Unemployment Rates

    Niemi, Beth

    1974-01-01

    The male-female differential in unemployment is attributed to three major factors. They are frictional unemployment, cyclical layoff often connected with lack of specific training, and occupational and geographic immobility. Women receive less specific training then men; however, the net effect of this lack on female unemployment is quite small.…

  20. Factors underlying male and female use of violent video games

    Hartmann, T.; Möller, I.; Krause, C.

    2015-01-01

    Research has consistently shown that males play violent video games more frequently than females, but factors underlying this gender gap have not been examined to date. This approach examines the assumption that males play violent video games more because they anticipate more enjoyment and less

  1. 372 Learning Problems among Male and Female First Year ...

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... for male and female student but they differ on memory, attention and self concept. ... making mistakes and because poor time management has become a habit. ... as the ability to recall stimuli in their order of observation or presentation ..... cept. Tot al. Df. Cal. X2 value. Cri. X2 value at .05. Decision. Male.

  2. Male versus Female Breast Cancer : differences hidden behind similarities

    Lacle, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer in males is a rare disease. Due to its rarity, little research has been conducted on male breast cancer (MBC), especially when compared to its female counterpart. Knowledge on MBC is therefore based on small single institutional studies, as large series are lacking. The optimal

  3. The Lumbar Lordosis in Males and Females, Revisited.

    Ori Hay

    Full Text Available Whether differences exist in male and female lumbar lordosis has been debated by researchers who are divided as to the nature of variations in the spinal curve, their origin, reasoning, and implications from a morphological, functional and evolutionary perspective. Evaluation of the spinal curvature is constructive in understanding the evolution of the spine, as well as its pathology, planning of surgical procedures, monitoring its progression and treatment of spinal deformities. The aim of the current study was to revisit the nature of lumbar curve in males and females.Our new automated method uses CT imaging of the spine to measure lumbar curvature in males and females. The curves extracted from 158 individuals were based on the spinal canal, thus avoiding traditional pitfalls of using bone features for curve estimation. The model analysis was carried out on the entire curve, whereby both local and global descriptors were examined in a single framework. Six parameters were calculated: segment length, curve length, curvedness, lordosis peak location, lordosis cranial peak height, and lordosis caudal peak height.Compared to males, the female spine manifested a statistically significant greater curvature, a caudally located lordotic peak, and greater cranial peak height. As caudal peak height is similar for males and females, the illusion of deeper lordosis among females is due partially to the fact that the upper part of the female lumbar curve is positioned more dorsally (more backwardly inclined.Males and females manifest different lumbar curve shape, yet similar amount of inward curving (lordosis. The morphological characteristics of the female spine were probably developed to reduce stress on the vertebral elements during pregnancy and nursing.

  4. The Lumbar Lordosis in Males and Females, Revisited.

    Hay, Ori; Dar, Gali; Abbas, Janan; Stein, Dan; May, Hila; Masharawi, Youssef; Peled, Nathan; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2015-01-01

    Whether differences exist in male and female lumbar lordosis has been debated by researchers who are divided as to the nature of variations in the spinal curve, their origin, reasoning, and implications from a morphological, functional and evolutionary perspective. Evaluation of the spinal curvature is constructive in understanding the evolution of the spine, as well as its pathology, planning of surgical procedures, monitoring its progression and treatment of spinal deformities. The aim of the current study was to revisit the nature of lumbar curve in males and females. Our new automated method uses CT imaging of the spine to measure lumbar curvature in males and females. The curves extracted from 158 individuals were based on the spinal canal, thus avoiding traditional pitfalls of using bone features for curve estimation. The model analysis was carried out on the entire curve, whereby both local and global descriptors were examined in a single framework. Six parameters were calculated: segment length, curve length, curvedness, lordosis peak location, lordosis cranial peak height, and lordosis caudal peak height. Compared to males, the female spine manifested a statistically significant greater curvature, a caudally located lordotic peak, and greater cranial peak height. As caudal peak height is similar for males and females, the illusion of deeper lordosis among females is due partially to the fact that the upper part of the female lumbar curve is positioned more dorsally (more backwardly inclined). Males and females manifest different lumbar curve shape, yet similar amount of inward curving (lordosis). The morphological characteristics of the female spine were probably developed to reduce stress on the vertebral elements during pregnancy and nursing.

  5. Neuroendocrine mechanisms and the aetiology of male and female homosexuality.

    MacCulloch, M J; Waddington, J L

    1981-10-01

    Theories on the classification and aetiology of male homosexuality are reviewed, particularly recent hypotheses on the role of prenatal hormonal influences on brain sexual differentiation and subsequent sexual object choice in the male. Female as well as male brain sexual differentiation may be hormonally determined, and so primary homosexuality in both sexes may be due to abnormalities in foetal exposure to hormones, leading first to physical mis-differentiation and later to homosexual behaviour in genetically and phenotypically normal men and women.

  6. Gender Inequality in Female-Dominated Occupation: The Earnings of Male and Female Teachers.

    Verdugo, Richard R.; Schneider, Jeffrey M.

    1994-01-01

    Examines earnings differentials between male and female teachers, using data from the 1987 Schools and Staffing Survey by the U.S. Department of Education. The estimated cost of being a female teacher is 5% in annual contract salary. In the female-dominated teaching profession, despite regulated pay scales and other structures to ensure pay…

  7. Bourgeois Males of the Peacock Blenny, Salaria pavo, Discriminate Female Mimics from Females?

    Gonçalves, David; Matos, Ricardo Jorge Santa Clara; Fagundes, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    In a Portuguese population of Salaria pavo, two types of reproductively active males occur: large bourgeois males that defend nests and have fully developed secondary sex characters (SSC) and small sneaker males that mimic the females' morphology and behaviour to approach nests and parasitize...

  8. The Hispanic family and male-female relationships: an overview.

    Galanti, Geri-Ann

    2003-07-01

    An overview of the traditional Hispanic family and male-female relationships is presented, with an emphasis on issues relevant to providing health care to Hispanic populations. Aspects of the family presented include visitation, decision making, self-care, and emotional problems. Male-female relationships stem from traditional gender roles. Machismo and patriarchal authority characterize the male role; the roles of a traditional woman are housewife and mother. Women are expected to defer to the authority of their husbands. The negative aspects of machismo can result in heavy drinking and the pursuit of high-risk activities, leading to domestic violence and HIV/AIDS. These health risks are exacerbated by such cultural factors as male dominance, female modesty, and the practice of keeping problems within the family. The importance of personalism in patient-provider encounters is emphasized.

  9. Effects of lung exposure to carbon nanotubes on female fertility and pregnancy. A study in mice

    Hougaard, Karin S.; Jackson, Petra; Kyjovska, Zdenka O.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effects of preconceptional exposure to multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs): mature, female C57BL/6J mice were intratracheally instilled with 67μg NM-400 MWCNT, and the following day co-housed with mature males, in breeding pairs. Time to delivery of the first litter, litter...

  10. Female behaviour and the interaction of male and female genital traits mediate sperm transfer during mating.

    Friesen, C R; Uhrig, E J; Mason, R T; Brennan, P L R

    2016-05-01

    Natural selection and post-copulatory sexual selection, including sexual conflict, contribute to genital diversification. Fundamental first steps in understanding how these processes shape the evolution of specific genital traits are to determine their function experimentally and to understand the interactions between female and male genitalia during copulation. Our experimental manipulations of male and female genitalia in red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) reveal that copulation duration and copulatory plug deposition, as well as total and oviductal/vaginal sperm counts, are influenced by the interaction between male and female genital traits and female behaviour during copulation. By mating females with anesthetized cloacae to males with spine-ablated hemipenes using a fully factorial design, we identified significant female-male copulatory trait interactions and found that females prevent sperm from entering their oviducts by contracting their vaginal pouch. Furthermore, these muscular contractions limit copulatory plug size, whereas the basal spine of the male hemipene aids in sperm and plug transfer. Our results are consistent with a role of sexual conflict in mating interactions and highlight the evolutionary importance of female resistance to reproductive outcomes. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. Inequity between male and female coverage in state infertility laws.

    Dupree, James M; Dickey, Ryan M; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2016-06-01

    To analyze state insurance laws mandating coverage for male factor infertility and identify possible inequities between male and female coverage in state insurance laws. We identified states with laws or codes related to infertility insurance coverage using the National Conference of States Legislatures' and the National Infertility Association's websites. We performed a primary, systematic analysis of the laws or codes to specifically identify coverage for male factor infertility services. Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. The presence or absence of language in state insurance laws mandating coverage for male factor infertility care. There are 15 states with laws mandating insurance coverage for female factor infertility. Only eight of those states (California, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Montana, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, and West Virginia) have mandates for male factor infertility evaluation or treatment. Insurance coverage for male factor infertility is most specific in Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York, yet significant differences exist in the male factor policies in all eight states. Three states (Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York) exempt coverage for vasectomy reversal. Despite national recommendations that male and female partners begin infertility evaluations together, only 8 of 15 states with laws mandating infertility coverage include coverage for the male partner. Excluding men from infertility coverage places an undue burden on female partners and risks missing opportunities to diagnose serious male health conditions, correct reversible causes of infertility, and provide cost-effective treatments that can downgrade the intensity of intervention required to achieve a pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Female sticklebacks use male coloration in mate choice and hence avoid parasitized males

    Milinski, Manfred; Bakker, Theo C. M.

    1990-03-01

    AN important problem in evolutionary biology since the time of Darwin has been to understand why females preferentially mate with males handicapped by secondary sexual ornaments1-3. One hypothesis of sexual selection theory is that these ornaments reliably reveal the male's condition4-6, which can be affected for example by parasites4,7-13. Here we show that in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) the intensity of male red breeding coloration positively correlates with physical condition. Gravid females base their active mate choice on the intensity of the male's red coloration. Choice experiments under green light prevent the use of red colour cues by females, and males that were previously preferred are now chosen no more than randomly, although the courtship behaviour of the males remains unchanged. Parasitieation causes a deterioration in the males' condition and a decrease in the intensity of their red coloration. Tests under both lighting conditions reveal that the females recognize the formerly parasitized males by the lower intensity of their breeding coloration. Female sticklebacks possibly select a male with a good capacity for paternal care14 but if there is additive genetic variation for parasite resistance, then they might also select for resistance genes, as proposed by Hamilton and Zuk4.

  13. Male nurses and the protection of female patient dignity.

    Prideaux, Antony

    Nurses need to be aware of their professional, legal and ethical responsibilities towards patients. Male nurses in particular face problems in their practice as a result of their gender and the stereotypes associated with male nurses. Such stereotypes can act as a barrier to their duty of care. This article examines the challenges associated with male nurses carrying out intimate, physical care. It discusses the ethical, legal and professional issues that male nurses should consider in relation to maintenance of patient dignity during nursing care provision, particularly in relation to female patients.

  14. Male and female breeding strategies in a cooperative primate.

    Yamamoto, Maria Emilia; Araujo, Arrilton; Arruda, Maria de Fatima; Lima, Ana Karinne Moreira; Siqueira, Jose de Oliveira; Hattori, Wallisen Tadashi

    2014-11-01

    Marmosets are cooperative breeders organized as extended family groups, but breeding is generally restricted to a single pair. Breeding competition is fierce in female marmosets; males, on the other hand, show low levels of intragroup aggression. We investigated male and female breeding strategies and the resulting reproductive output in 9 wild groups. Reproductive output, tenure of breeding animals, identification of the breeding system, breeding position replacements, migration and infanticide were recorded; also, we recorded grooming and aggression. Replacement of the breeding male or female was observed on nine occasions. On four occasions, the son of the breeding male inherited the breeding post, but we never observed inheritance of a breeding post by a daughter. Mostly, females attained a breeding post by immigrating to a group that had a breeding vacancy. Our results showed that Callithrix jacchus males and females use different strategies to attain a breeding position and maintain it for as long as possible. These strategies prolong the tenure of the breeding position, which is the best way to produce a large number of offspring. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of urinary volatiles in Swiss male mice (Mus ...

    Unknown

    Information about diet is also available in guinea pigs. (Beauchamp ... change in diet can alter urine odours. Urinary ... adult male mice, which are dependent upon high levels of ... a protein or protein related substance (Marchlewska-Koj. 1977 ...

  16. Male mice with deleted Wolframin (Wfs1 gene have reduced fertility

    Aunapuu Marina

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wolfram Syndrome (WS is an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by non-autoimmune diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, cranial diabetes insipidus and sensorineural deafness. Some reports have described hypogonadism in male WS patients. The aim of our study was to find out whether Wfs1 deficient (Wfs1KO male mice have reduced fertility and, if so, to examine possible causes. Methods Wfs1KO mice were generated by homologous recombination. Both Wfs1KO and wild type (wt male mice were mated with wt female mice. The number of litters and the number of pups were counted and pregnancy rates calculated. The motility and morphology of the sperm and the histology of testes were analysed. Serum testosterone and FSH concentrations were also measured. Results The pregnancy rate in wt females mated with Wfs1KO males was significantly lower than in the control group (15% vs. 32%; p Conclusion The impaired fertility of Wfs1KO male mice is most likely due to changes in sperm morphology and reduced number of spermatogenic cells. The exact mechanism through which the Wfs1 gene influences sperm morphology needs to be clarified in further studies.

  17. Chemical cues from females trigger male courtship behaviour in grasshoppers.

    Finck, Jonas; Kuntze, Janine; Ronacher, Bernhard

    2016-05-01

    Gomphocerine grasshoppers use species-specific calling songs for sex recognition and mate attraction. In two closely related species, Chorthippus biguttulus and C. mollis, acoustic communication is the only experimentally characterized communication channel that elicits male courtship behaviour. However, courtship in these species involves extensive close-range interactions that are likely to be mediated by other signalling modalities, in particular chemical cues. We developed a bioassay to determine if female cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) act as chemical cues that induce courtship behaviour, and if males assess variation in CHCs to determine whether or not to court a female. The results of this approach provide evidence that grasshopper males use species- and sex-specific information from CHC signals and respond with a courtship song to the CHC profile of conspecific females but not to the CHC profile of heterospecific females and conspecific males. We conclude that males of C. biguttulus and C. mollis use multimodal channels for mating decisions, based on both acoustic and olfactory cues. We discuss various factors that might favour the evolution of male choosiness in grasshoppers.

  18. Rna synthesis of perinatal female and male gametes

    Doering, R.; Hubaleck, K.

    1980-01-01

    Intensity curves of RNA synthesis in the perinatal phase of gametogenesis were established for rat fetuses and young rats by 3 H-uridine autoradiography. Gonads of male and female rat fetuses were studied on days 15 to 22 p.c. and gonads of young animals on days 1 to 7 p.n. The nuclear surface of the gametes was found to increase continuously. The number of silver grains was the same for male and female gametes up to the 18th day of fetal life, and the same applies to the silver grain density. The rate of RNA synthesis of male germ celles remained at a constant, low level throughout the study; in the female germ cells, a 10-fold increase in RNA synthesis was measured after the 19th day of fetal life. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Male and Female Differences in Nonconscious Mimicry: A Systematic Review

    Christine M. Lehane

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on nonconscious mimicry suggests that females mimic their communication partners more often than males. Many studies have investigated the association between mimicry, emotion recognition, and empathy. However, there is a trend in this research area to recruit same-sex samples, thus neglecting a discussion regarding the role of sex or gender as a moderator of nonconscious mimicry. This article reviews the research on nonconscious mimicry – facial, behavioural, and verbal, in order to identify whether or not there are male and female differences. The results indicate that mimicry may be moderated by participant sex or gender depending upon, among others, choice of mimicry measurement, stimulus exposure length, and social context. However, few studies address male and female differences in mimicry and many have methodological limitations. The review concludes with a discussion and recommendations for future research.

  20. The dyadic adjustment of female-to-male transsexuals.

    Fleming, M; MacGowan, B; Costos, D

    1985-02-01

    Dyadic adjustment, sexual activities, and marital stability in the relationships of female-to-male transsexuals and their spouses were examined. Participants were 22 female-to-male transsexuals who had undergone some form of surgery to alter their anatomical sex, their spouses, and a control group of married or cohabitating nontranssexual men and women. Participants were administered the Dyadic Adjustment Scale and additional items to assess quantitatively their marital relationships. The transsexuals and their spouses were also asked open-ended interview questions concerning marital and life adjustments. Generally, the transsexuals and their spouses reported good and mutually satisfying interpersonal relationships that are in many ways comparable to those of the matched control group. These findings lend support to the previous clinical interview studies that have reported that female-to-male transsexuals form stable and enduring intimate relationships.

  1. Differential phytosociological interactions involving male and female atriplex bonnevillensis

    Sinclair, J.; Emlen, J.M.; Rinella, M.; Snelgrove, J.; Freeman, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    Wind-pollinated dioecious plants often exhibit spatial segregation of the sexes. This partial niche separation has most often been explored using abiotic niche axes. However, if the sexes are truly separated in space, then they are apt to encounter different plant species that may heavily affect growth and reproduction. Also, to the extent that their niches differ, the sexes may respond differently to the same co-occurring species. Here we examine interspecific interactions that influence male and female reproductive potential in Atriplex bonnevillensis. Using Emlen's interaction assessment, a technique which assesses species interactions based on cover classes, we show that Salsola species compete significantly with females but not males, while Halogeton glomeratus competes with males but not females. The effect of competition only became apparent when we corrected for site-specific fertility. These results imply that differential competition must be considered when studying dioecious plants that display spatial segregation of the sexes.

  2. Comparative toxicology of carfene in male and female rats

    Hassanin, M.M.; Tawfik, S.M.F.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the potential toxicity associated with daily oral administrations of carfene (2.5 mg/kg body weight) for 15 consecutive days on protein level in liver, kidney, brain and spleen tissues of male and female rats after 1, 5, 10 and 15 days of treatment. Evaluation of the trace elements, zinc and copper in serum, revealed that zinc level was decreased significantly while that of copper was increased in both male and female rats compared to controls. The incorporation rate of 14 C-isoleucine for synthesis of protein tended to decrease in liver tissues and increase in brain tissues of rats. Kidney and spleen tissues showed fluctuated changes. It was noticed in the present investigation that the incorporation rate of I4 C-radioactivity in different selected tissues under estimation was more pronounced in male than in female rats

  3. Tooth loss prevalence among cardiac males and females

    Bokhari, S.A.H.; Khan, A.A.; Butt, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    Objective of study was to observe differences of tooth loss prevalence in males and females with Cardiac diseases Poor oral health, tooth loss and periodontal diseases have been reported to be associated with coronary heart diseases. Studies report gender differences in prevalence of cardiac diseases and tooth loss. This paper presents gender differences of tooth loss in cardiac patients of a cardiac hospital of Lahore, Pakistan. Methodology: Age matched Cardiac males and females attending OPD of the Punjab Institute of Cardiology (PIC), Lahore were included in the study. Personal and health-related information were questioned and noted. Oral examination was performed for recording of missing teeth. 1200 CHD study subjects with age-range of 30 to 80 years were enrolled for study. 1045 age matched, 766 (73.30%) males and 279 (26.70%) females were examined for tooth loss. 852 (81.53%) genders had at least one tooth missing. 599 (78.19) males and 253 (90.68%) females were observed with mean tooth loss of 7.5 (SD 8.720) and 11.15 (SD 10.375)respectively statistical association among them was also significant (P= 0.000) with OR of 2.339. More subjects (76.29%) showed a loss of 1-15 teeth that I was also significant among males and females. Tooth loss was significant in age groups of 41-50 years (P=0.001) and 51-60 years (P=0.000) Gender differences of tooth loss prevalence among CHD Subjects were significant with more risk for males as compared to females. (author)

  4. Hostile sexist male patients and female doctors: a challenging encounter.

    Klöckner Cronauer, Christina; Schmid Mast, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Patient characteristics and attitudes can affect how patients react to the physician's communication style, and this reaction can then influence consultation outcomes. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether the attitude of a sexist male patient affects how he perceives a female physician's nonverbal communication and whether this then results in expecting less positive consultation outcomes. Participants were analog patients who viewed four videotaped male and four videotaped female physicians in a consultation with one of their patients. Physician videos were preselected to represent a range of high and low patient-centered physician nonverbal behavior. Participants filled in questionnaires to assess how patient-centered they perceived the female and male physicians' nonverbal communication to be, and participants indicated how positive they expected the consultation outcomes to be. Moreover, we assessed the participants' sexist attitudes with a questionnaire measuring hostile and benevolent sexism. Students (N = 60) from a French-speaking university in Switzerland were recruited on campus. The main outcome measures were the extent to which analog patients expect the consultation outcomes to be positive (high satisfaction, increased trust in the physician, intention to adhere to treatment recommendations, and perceived physician competence) and the extent to which analog patients perceive physicians as patient-centered (judged from the physicians' nonverbal cues). Male analog patients' hostile sexism was negatively related to perceiving the physicians as patient-centered, and male analog patients' hostile sexism was also negatively related to expected positive consultation outcomes. For male patients viewing female physicians, mediation analysis revealed that perceived physician patient-centeredness mediated the negative relationship between hostile sexism and expected positive consultation outcomes. Male hostile sexist patients perceive a female

  5. Relative Age Affects Marathon Performance in Male and Female Athletes

    Connick, Mark J.; Beckman, Emma M.; Tweedy, Sean M.

    2015-01-01

    Marathon runners are ranked in 5-year age groups. However the extent to which 5-year groupings facilitates equitable competition has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of relative age in male and female marathon running. Marathon finishing times for the top ten male (aged 20-69 years) and female athletes (aged 20-64 years) were obtained from the 2013 New York and Chicago marathons. Intra-class and inter-class validity were evaluated by comparing performances ...

  6. DIFFERENT ENDURANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF FEMALE AND MALE GERMAN SOCCER PLAYERS

    C. Baumgart

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to assess gender differences regarding lactate threshold and intermittent shuttle run performance in female and male soccer players as well as to investigate the relationships between both endurance characteristics in both genders. Fourteen female (1st division and thirteen male (4th division soccer players completed an incremental test (IT to determine running velocities at 2 and 4 mmol · l-1 blood lactate (v2 and v4 and maximum velocity (vmax as well as an interval shuttle run test (ISRT to determine running distance. Based on v2 and v4 and their percentages in relation to vmax, three intensity zones were calculated: a low lactate zone (v4. Female soccer players have a lower v4 (8.2%, vmax (11.3% and ISRT distance (31.6%. No gender difference was found in v2. In contrast to males, ISRT distance correlates with vmax as well as with v2 and v4 in female soccer players. The intensity zones v4 differ between genders. The present study revealed that gender differences increase when the running performance is intermittent including change of directions. In both genders, different relationships between lactate threshold and intermittent shuttle run performance exist. During incremental testing, the running performances of female and male players reflect different distributions of aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways. The revealed gender differences should be considered for soccer endurance training.

  7. Effects of leached components from a hybrid resin composite on the reproductive system of male mice

    Taher Akbari Saeed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: There is concern that leached components from dental composites may cause adverse changes in the reproductive health. This study aimed to assess the effects of leached components from a hybrid resin composite on the reproductive system of male mice.Materials and Methods: In the present animal study, twenty adult Syrian male mice were divided into two groups of 10 mice each. In the test group, components which leached from samples made from Filtek Z250 resin composite into 75% ethanol were daily administered to the mice for 28 days. In the control group, the procedure was repeated in the same way as the test group but without placing composite samples in the solution. Then, the body weight, weights of paired testes, Gonado Somatic Index, sperm viability, sperm motility, epididymal sperm reserve and daily sperm production were recorded. Four male mice in each group were mated with untreated female mice for 10 days. After that, the number of pregnant females and number of infants were recorded. The data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA, Chi-square test and t-test.Results: There was a significant reduction in the sperm viability and sperm motility of male mice in the test group compared to the control group (P=0.001. There was no any significant differences in other parameters between two groups (P>0.05.Conclusion: This study showed that the leached components from resin composites cannot cause infertility but they could potentially cause some adverse effects on the reproductive system of male mice.

  8. Males and females differ in brain activation during cognitive tasks.

    Bell, Emily C; Willson, Morgan C; Wilman, Alan H; Dave, Sanjay; Silverstone, Peter H

    2006-04-01

    To examine the effect of gender on regional brain activity, we utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a motor task and three cognitive tasks; a word generation task, a spatial attention task, and a working memory task in healthy male (n = 23) and female (n = 10) volunteers. Functional data were examined for group differences both in the number of pixels activated, and the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) magnitude during each task. Males had a significantly greater mean activation than females in the working memory task with a greater number of pixels being activated in the right superior parietal gyrus and right inferior occipital gyrus, and a greater BOLD magnitude occurring in the left inferior parietal lobe. However, despite these fMRI changes, there were no significant differences between males and females on cognitive performance of the task. In contrast, in the spatial attention task, men performed better at this task than women, but there were no significant functional differences between the two groups. In the word generation task, there were no external measures of performance, but in the functional measurements, males had a significantly greater mean activation than females, where males had a significantly greater BOLD signal magnitude in the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the right inferior parietal lobe, and the cingulate. In neither of the motor tasks (right or left hand) did males and females perform differently. Our fMRI findings during the motor tasks were a greater mean BOLD signal magnitude in males in the right hand motor task, compared to females where males had an increased BOLD signal magnitude in the right inferior parietal gyrus and in the left inferior frontal gyrus. In conclusion, these results demonstrate differential patterns of activation in males and females during a variety of cognitive tasks, even though performance in these tasks may not vary, and also that variability in performance may not

  9. Female professional divers. Similarities and differences between male and female professional divers.

    Irgens, Ågot; Troland, Kari; Grønning, Marit

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the potential differences between female and male professional divers with regards to demographics, diving certificates, areas of diving, diving activity and health effects. The Norwegian Labour Inspection Authority's Diving certificate register contains data on all professional inshore divers who have held a certificate at any time since 1980. Forty nine per cent of these divers responded to the "Norwegian diver 2011" questionnaire. Of these divers 64 female and 1327 male divers completed the questionnaire about their professional diving career, certificate, year of onset and the year they stopped diving professionally if they were not still active in the diving industry. The level of general education was higher among female divers. More males than females were fully certified in diving. The mean age was lower among female than male fully certified divers. Fully certified female divers reported a lower total number of dives, shallower dives and diving for a shorter period of time than the male divers. They also had a lower percentage of work within the quay/construction sector and more often worked as teachers/instructors. A lower percentage of fully certified females than males had experienced decompression sickness (16.7% vs. 26.9%). Life-threatening events and psychologically challenging events were less common among females, as were adverse health effects. No such gender differences were seen for divers with a restricted certificate. The fully certified, female professional divers in our study had a very short diving career, reported fewer and shallower dives, and chose less physically demanding jobs than their male counterparts. They also had a higher level of education, reported less health problems and a better quality of life. The health effects seem to be related to the type of work rather than to gender.

  10. Females do not express learned helplessness like males do.

    Dalla, Christina; Edgecomb, Carol; Whetstone, Abigail S; Shors, Tracey J

    2008-06-01

    Women are more likely than men to suffer from stress-related mental disorders, such as depression. In the present experiments, we identified sex differences in one of the most common animal models of depression, that of learned helplessness. Male and female rats were trained to escape a mild footshock each day for 7 days (controllable stress). Each rat was yoked to another rat that could not escape (uncontrollable stress), but was exposed to the same amount of shock. One day later, all stressed rats and unstressed controls were tested on a more difficult escape task in a different context. Most males exposed to uncontrollable stress did not learn to escape and were therefore helpless. In contrast, most females did learn to escape on the more difficult escape task, irrespective of whether they had been exposed to controllable or uncontrollable stress. The sex differences in helplessness behavior were not dependent on the presence of sex hormones in adulthood, because neither ovariectomy of females nor castration of males abolished them. The absence of helplessness in females was neither dependent on organizational effects of testosterone during the day of birth, because masculinized females did not express helplessness as adults. Thus, sex differences in helplessness behavior are independent of gonadal hormones in adulthood and testosterone exposure during perinatal development. Learned helplessness may not constitute a valid model for depressive behavior in women, at least as reflected by the response of female rats to operant conditioning procedures after stressful experience.

  11. Female genotype influences the behavioral performance of mice selected for reproductive traits.

    Weisker, S M; Barkley, M

    1991-10-01

    The behavioral performance of mice that differ in regularity of the estrous cycle and litter size was studied after female exposure to a male of the same or a different strain. Emotional reactivity was measured using the pole, straightaway and open field tests. Factor interpretations of emotionality included motor discharge, autonomic imbalance and acrophobia. Mice characterized by regular estrous cycles and large litters (line E) were more explorative and emotionally reactive with respect to motor discharge and autonomic imbalance. In contrast, mice with less regular estrous cycles and small litter size (line CN-) were more acrophobic. These strain differences in behavioral performance were influenced by the genotype of the female rather than the cohabitating male.

  12. Male-like sexual behavior of female mouse lacking fucose mutarotase

    Lim Dae-sik

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutarotases are recently characterized family of enzymes that are involved in the anomeric conversions of monosaccharides. The mammalian fucose mutarotase (FucM was reported in cultured cells to facilitate fucose utilization and incorporation into protein by glycosylation. However, the role of this enzyme in animal has not been elucidated. Results We generated a mutant mouse specifically lacking the fucose mutarotase (FucM gene. The FucM knockout mice displayed an abnormal sexual receptivity with a drastic reduction in lordosis score, although the animals were fertile due to a rare and forced intromission by a typical male. We examined the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPv of the preoptic region in brain and found that the mutant females showed a reduction in tyrosine hydoxylase positive neurons compared to that of a normal female. Furthermore, the mutant females exhibited a masculine behavior, such as mounting to a normal female partner as well as showing a preference to female urine. We found a reduction of fucosylated serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP in a mutant embryo relative to that of a wild-type embryo. Conclusions The observation that FucM-/- female mouse exhibits a phenotypic similarity to a wild-type male in terms of its sexual behavior appears to be due to the neurodevelopmental changes in preoptic area of mutant brain resembling a wild-type male. Since the previous studies indicate that AFP plays a role in titrating estradiol that are required to consolidate sexual preference of female mice, we speculate that the reduced level of AFP in FucM-/- mouse, presumably resulting from the reduced fucosylation, is responsible for the male-like sexual behavior observed in the FucM knock-out mouse.

  13. Stress and estrous cycle affect strategy but not performance of female C57BL/6J mice

    ter Horst, J.P.; Kentrop, J.; de Kloet, E.R.; Oitzl, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Stress induces a switch in learning strategies of male C57BL/6J mice from predominantly spatial to more stimulus-response learning. To study generalization of these findings over sex, we investigated female C57BL/6J mice at three phases of the estrous cycle under non stress and acute (10 min)

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of male and female genitals during coitus and female sexual arousal

    Schultz, WW; van Andel, P; Sabelis, [No Value; Mooyaart, E

    1999-01-01

    Objective To find out whether taking images of the male and female genitals during coitus is feasible and to find out whether former and current ideas about the anatomy during sexual intercourse and during female sexual arousal are based on assumptions or on facts. Design Observational study Setting

  15. Obstructive sleep apnea and cortical thickness in females and males.

    Macey, Paul M; Haris, Natasha; Kumar, Rajesh; Thomas, M Albert; Woo, Mary A; Harper, Ronald M

    2018-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects approximately 10% of adults, and alters brain gray and white matter. Psychological and physiological symptoms of the disorder are sex-specific, perhaps related to greater injury occurs in female than male patients in white matter. Our objective was to identify influences of OSA separated by sex on cortical gray matter. We assessed cortical thickness in 48 mild-severe OSA patients (mean age±std[range] = 46.5±9.0[30.8-62.7] years; apnea-hypopnea index = 32.6±21.1[6-102] events/hour; 12 female, 36 male; OSA severity: 5 mild, 18 moderate, 25 severe) and 62 controls (mean age = 47.7±8.9[30.9-65.8] years; 22 female, 40 male). All OSA patients were recently-diagnosed via polysomnography, and control subjects screened and a subset assessed with sleep studies. We used high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging to identify OSA-related cortical thinning, based on a model with condition and sex as independent variables. OSA and OSA-by-sex interaction effects were assessed (Pfrontal lobe in female OSA vs. all other groups. Significant thinning within the pre- and post-central gyri and the superior temporal gyrus, extending into the insula, appeared between the general OSA populations vs. control subjects. No areas showed increased thickness in OSA vs. controls or positive female OSA interaction effects. Reduced cortical thickness likely represents tissue atrophy from long term injury, including death of neurons and supporting glia from repeated intermittent hypoxic exposure in OSA, although disease comordities may also contribute to thinning. Lack of polysomnography in all control subjects means results may be confounded by undiagnosed OSA. The greater cortical injury in cognitive areas of female OSA patients may underlie enhanced symptoms in that group. The thinning associated with OSA in male and females OSA patients may contribute to autonomic dysregulation and impaired upper airway sensori-motor function.

  16. Male Seminal Relaxin Contributes to Induction of the Post-mating Cytokine Response in the Female Mouse Uterus

    Danielle J. Glynn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The hormone relaxin is important in female reproduction for embryo implantation, cardiovascular function, and during labor and lactation. Relaxin is also synthesized in males by organs of the male tract. We hypothesized that relaxin might be one component of seminal plasma responsible for eliciting the female cytokine response induced in the uterus at mating. When recombinant relaxin was injected into the uterus of wild-type (Rln+/+ mice at estrus, it evoked the production of Cxcl1 mRNA and its secreted protein product CXCL1 in four of eight animals. Mating experiments were then conducted using mice with a null mutation in the relaxin gene (Rln−/− mice. qRT-PCR analysis of mRNA expression in wild-type females showed diminished uterine expression of several cytokine and chemokine genes in the absence of male relaxin. Similar differences were also noted comparing Rln−/− and Rln+/+ females mated to wild-type males. Quantification of uterine luminal fluid cytokine content confirmed that male relaxin provokes the production of CXCL10 and CSF3 in Rln+/+ females. Differences were also seen comparing Rln−/− and Rln+/+ females mated with Rln−/− males for CXCL1, CSF3, and CCL5, implying that endogenous relaxin in females might prime the uterus to respond appropriately to seminal fluid at coitus. Finally, pan-leukocyte CD45 mRNA was increased in wild-type matings compared to other combinations, implying that male and female relaxin may trigger leukocyte expansion in the uterus. We conclude that male and/or female relaxin may be important in activating the uterine cytokine/chemokine network required to initiate maternal immune adaptation to pregnancy.

  17. Modified forelimb grip strength test detects aging-associated physiological decline in skeletal muscle function in male mice.

    Takeshita, Hikari; Yamamoto, Koichi; Nozato, Satoko; Inagaki, Tadakatsu; Tsuchimochi, Hirotsugu; Shirai, Mikiyasu; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Imaizumi, Yuki; Hongyo, Kazuhiro; Yokoyama, Serina; Takeda, Masao; Oguro, Ryosuke; Takami, Yoichi; Itoh, Norihisa; Takeya, Yasushi; Sugimoto, Ken; Fukada, So-Ichiro; Rakugi, Hiromi

    2017-02-08

    The conventional forelimb grip strength test is a widely used method to assess skeletal muscle function in rodents; in this study, we modified this method to improve its variability and consistency. The modified test had lower variability among trials and days than the conventional test in young C57BL6 mice, especially by improving the variabilities in male. The modified test was more sensitive than the conventional test to detect a difference in motor function between female and male mice, or between young and old male mice. When the modified test was performed on male mice during the aging process, reduction of grip strength manifested between 18 and 24 months of age at the group level and at the individual level. The modified test was similar to the conventional test in detecting skeletal muscle dysfunction in young male dystrophic mice. Thus, the modified forelimb grip strength test, with its improved validity and reliability may be an ideal substitute for the conventional method.

  18. Male and Female Graduates in the Canadian Labour Market.

    McQuarrie, Fiona A. E.

    1992-01-01

    Explores differences in labor market experiences between male and female journalism graduates (from 1976, 1982, and 1986) in Canada. Investigates occupations entered after graduation, income, time spent in various labor market activities, and job and salary satisfaction. Finds minimal gender-based differences. (SR)

  19. Lecture on Female Masturbation Harassed Him, Male Student Says.

    Wilson, Robin

    1995-01-01

    A male student in a California State University-Sacramento psychology lecture on female masturbation has filed a sexual harassment complaint, claiming the lecture violated institutional policy by creating an intimidating, hostile, and offensive learning environment. He felt the lecture was inappropriately graphic and political in intent. (MSE)

  20. Detecting salary discrimination against male and female managers

    Rutte, C.G.; Messick, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports two experiments that examine factors influencing the detection of salary discrimination in organizations. Subjects were presented with information about the qualifications and salaries of female and male managers in 10 departments of an hypothetical company and were asked to judge

  1. Do New Male and Female College Graduates Receive Unequal Pay?

    McDonald, Judith A.; Thornton, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the female-male gap in starting-salary offers for new college graduates using data from the annual surveys of the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE), unique (and proprietary) data that have not previously been used for this purpose. A major advantage of working with a data set on salaries for new college graduates is…

  2. Attitudes about Male-Female Relations among Black Adolescents.

    Rubin, Roger H.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the relationship of family structure, peer group affiliation, social class, and sex with five dependent variables concerned with attitudes toward dating values, marriage, romanticism, premarital pregnancy, and premarital sexual permissiveness among 85 rural, Black adolescent males and females. Findings suggest general community norms and…

  3. BONE MARROW AND KIDNEY FAT INDEX IN MALE AND FEMALE ...

    uvp

    Bone marrow and kidney fat indices in male and female (gravid and non-gravid) ... Determining body condition of game in the field accurately is not easy as it is not ... of Animal Science is available online at http://www.sasas.co.za/sajas.html ...

  4. Cosmetic surgery consideration among male and female university ...

    Although cosmetic surgeries are increasing in frequency, only few studies have investigated cosmetic surgery attitudes in Asia. The aim of the study was to investigate male and female university students' experiences and attitudes about cosmetic surgery in five ASEAN countries. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey and ...

  5. The role of oxytocin in male and female reproductive behavior

    Veening, J.G.; Jong, T.R. de; Waldinger, M.D.; Korte, S.M.; Olivier, B.

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is a nonapeptide with an impressive variety of physiological functions. Among them, the 'prosocial' effects have been discussed in several recent reviews, but the direct effects on male and female sexual behavior did receive much less attention so far. As our contribution to honor the

  6. Premarital Contraceptives Usage among Male and Female Adolescents.

    Hornick, Joesph P.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Variables important in predicting female contraception usage were found to be those which involved dyadic commitment, conditions of love, self-esteem, and father's occupation (social class). The best predictors of male contraception usage involved experience in dating and internalization of role models via mother's and father's permissiveness.…

  7. A Relational Study of Male and Female Students' Academic ...

    This study was conducted to ascertain the relationship between the male and female students' academic performance in radio communication in technical colleges in Delta State. There are two research questions and one null hypothesis formulated to guide the study. The population for the study consists of 735 students of ...

  8. Female-Male Earnings Differentials and Occupational Structure.

    Terrell, Katherine

    1992-01-01

    A review of econometric literature on female-male wage differences and asymmetrical distribution in occupations shows that differences in returns to human capital (i.e., discrimination) explains far more of the wage gap than differences in education and experience. Crowding of women into few occupations depresses wages. (SK)

  9. Noncomprehension Signaling in Males and Females with Fragile X Syndrome

    Thurman, Angela John; Kover, Sara T.; Brown, W. Ted; Harvey, Danielle J.; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study used a prospective longitudinal design to evaluate the trajectory and predictors of noncomprehension signaling in male and female youth with fragile X syndrome (FXS). Method: A direction-following task in which some of the directions were inadequate was administered. Participants were 52 youth (36 boys, 16 girls) with FXS. Upon…

  10. Leadership Behavior of Male and Female Managers, 1984-2002

    Robinson, Jill L.; Lipman-Blumen, Jean

    2003-01-01

    Using data collected from 1984 to 2002 from 2,371 male and 1,768 female middle and senior managers in the United States, the authors of this article demonstrate not only that traditional gender role stereotypes do "not" hold up, but also that counterstereotypical patterns exist. Using the Connective Leadership Model, based on nine sets…

  11. Fertilization in Flowering Plants: 1. Bringing the Male and Female

    Crop productivity, floral advertisements, plant diversity, pollination, pollinators, pollination by deceit, stigma, anther, nectar, sexual deception. ... As plants lack mobility, they cannot perform, ontheir own, the most important and primary requirement ofbringing the male (pollen grain) and the female (pistil) partnerstogether.

  12. Study success in higher education: male versus female students

    Kolster, Renze; Kaiser, Franciscus

    2015-01-01

    Study success is an important topic for countries concerned with the effectiveness of their higher education system. A closer look at study success outcomes suggests there are noticeable differences between male and female students: in terms of enrolment, study choices, drop‐out rates, retention

  13. Job Orientation of Males and Females: Are Sex Differences Declining?

    Brenner, O. C.; Tomkiewicz, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Sex differences in job orientation found by Manhardt (1972) were explored to determine if they still exist, or if a trend toward similarity as found in studies on traits and behaviors prevails. Implications for personnel managers in handling differences on job orientation of males and females are discussed. (Author/KC)

  14. Disposition of perfluorodecanoic acid in male and female rats

    Vanden Heuvel, J.P.; Kuslikis, B.I.; Van Rafelghem, M.J.; Peterson, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The elimination, tissue distribution, and metabolism of [1-14C]PFDA were examined in male and female rats for 28 days after a single ip dose (9.4 mumol/kg, 5 mg/kg). A sex difference in the fecal elimination of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) was observed with 51 and 24% of the administered 14C being recovered in the feces of male and female rats, respectively, by 28 days post-treatment. The cumulative excretion of PFDA-derived 14C in the urine in 28 days was less than 5% of the administered dose in both sexes. The sex-related difference in the rate of fecal elimination resulted in the observed difference in whole body elimination t1/2 of PFDA in males (t1/2 = 23 days) and females (t1/2 = 45 days). The liver contained the highest concentration of PFDA-derived 14C in both males and females, followed by the plasma and kidneys. The heart, fat pads, testes, and gastrocnemius muscle of males, and the ovaries of females contained much lower concentrations of PFDA. The reason for the high percentage of the ip dose of [1-14C]PFDA in the liver (53% males and 41% females, 2 hr post-treatment) was further examined using an in situ nonrecirculating liver perfusion technique. It was shown that approximately 25% of the [14C]PFDA in the perfusate was extracted by the liver in a single pass. The basis for the sex difference in fecal elimination of PFDA does not appear to be due to a sex difference in biliary excretion. In a 6-hr period, male and female rats with kidneys ligated eliminated essentially the same percentage dose of [14C]PFDA into bile. We had hypothesized that the persistence of PFDA in rats was due to formation of a PFDA-containing lipids. However, no evidence that PFDA is conjugated to form persistent hybrid lipids was obtained, nor were polar metabolites of PFDA detected in urine or bile

  15. Behavioural processes in social context: female abductions, male herding and female grooming in hamadryas baboons.

    Polo, Pablo; Colmenares, Fernando

    2012-06-01

    The formation of bonds between strangers is an event that occurs routinely in many social animals, including humans, and, as social bonds in general, they affect the individuals' welfare and biological fitness. The present study was motivated by an interest in the behavioural processes that drive bond formation in a social context of hostility, in which the incumbent partners vary greatly in physical power and reproductive interests, a situation in which individuals of many group-living species find themselves often throughout their lives. We focused on the quantitative analysis of female abductions via male aggressive herding in a nonhuman primate, the hamadryas baboon, in which intersexual bonds are known to be strong. We tested three hypotheses informed by sexual conflict/sexual coercion theory (male herding-as-conditioning and female grooming-as-appeasement) and by socioecological theory (unit size and female competition). The results supported the predictions: males resorted to coercive tactics (aggressive herding) with abducted females, and abducted females elevated the amount of grooming directed at their new unit males; in fact, they escaped from the otherwise negative effect of unit size on female-to-male grooming. These findings reveal that conflicts of interest are natural ingredients underpinning social bonds and that resorting to coercive aggression may be an option especially when partners differ greatly in their physical power. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Physical Performance in Elite Male and Female Team Handball Players.

    Wagner, Herbert; Fuchs, Patrick; Fusco, Andrea; Fuchs, Philip; Bell, W Jeffrey; Duvillard, Serge P

    2018-06-12

    Biological differences between men and women are well known; however, literature-addressing knowledge about the influence of sex to specific and general performance in team handball is almost nonexistent. Consequently, the aim of the study was to assess and compare specific and general physical performance in male and female elite team handball players, to determine if the differences are consequential for general compared to specific physical performance characteristics and the relationship between general and specific physical performance. Twelve male and ten female elite team handball players performed a game based performance test, upper- und lower-body strength and power tests, a sprinting test, and an incremental treadmill-running test. Significant differences (Phandball specific tests compared to the general tests. Our findings also suggest that female players should focus more on strength training.

  17. The Satellite Cell in Male and Female, Developing and Adult Mouse Muscle: Distinct Stem Cells for Growth and Regeneration

    Neal, Alice; Boldrin, Luisa; Morgan, Jennifer Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Satellite cells are myogenic cells found between the basal lamina and the sarcolemma of the muscle fibre. Satellite cells are the source of new myofibres; as such, satellite cell transplantation holds promise as a treatment for muscular dystrophies. We have investigated age and sex differences between mouse satellite cells in vitro and assessed the importance of these factors as mediators of donor cell engraftment in an in vivo model of satellite cell transplantation. We found that satellite cell numbers are increased in growing compared to adult and in male compared to female adult mice. We saw no difference in the expression of the myogenic regulatory factors between male and female mice, but distinct profiles were observed according to developmental stage. We show that, in contrast to adult mice, the majority of satellite cells from two week old mice are proliferating to facilitate myofibre growth; however a small proportion of these cells are quiescent and not contributing to this growth programme. Despite observed changes in satellite cell populations, there is no difference in engraftment efficiency either between satellite cells derived from adult or pre-weaned donor mice, male or female donor cells, or between male and female host muscle environments. We suggest there exist two distinct satellite cell populations: one for muscle growth and maintenance and one for muscle regeneration. PMID:22662253

  18. Reduced bone mass and muscle strength in male 5α-reductase type 1 inactivated mice.

    Sara H Windahl

    Full Text Available Androgens are important regulators of bone mass but the relative importance of testosterone (T versus dihydrotestosterone (DHT for the activation of the androgen receptor (AR in bone is unknown. 5α-reductase is responsible for the irreversible conversion of T to the more potent AR activator DHT. There are two well established isoenzymes of 5α-reductase (type 1 and type 2, encoded by separate genes (Srd5a1 and Srd5a2. 5α-reductase type 2 is predominantly expressed in male reproductive tissues whereas 5α-reductase type 1 is highly expressed in liver and moderately expressed in several other tissues including bone. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of 5α-reductase type 1 for bone mass using Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice. Four-month-old male Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice had reduced trabecular bone mineral density (-36%, p<0.05 and cortical bone mineral content (-15%, p<0.05 but unchanged serum androgen levels compared with wild type (WT mice. The cortical bone dimensions were reduced in the male Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice as a result of a reduced cortical periosteal circumference compared with WT mice. T treatment increased the cortical periosteal circumference (p<0.05 in orchidectomized WT mice but not in orchidectomized Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice. Male Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice demonstrated a reduced forelimb muscle grip strength compared with WT mice (p<0.05. Female Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice had slightly increased cortical bone mass associated with elevated circulating levels of androgens. In conclusion, 5α-reductase type 1 inactivated male mice have reduced bone mass and forelimb muscle grip strength and we propose that these effects are due to lack of 5α-reductase type 1 expression in bone and muscle. In contrast, the increased cortical bone mass in female Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice, is an indirect effect mediated by elevated circulating androgen levels.

  19. Effects of playing a violent video game as male versus female avatar on subsequent aggression in male and female players

    Yang, G.S.; Huesmann, L.R.; Bushman, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that violent video games can increase aggression in players immediately after they play. The present research examines the effects of one subtle cue within violent video games that might moderate these effects-whether the avatar is male or female. One common stereotype is

  20. Differences in personality traits between male-to-female and female-to-male gender identity disorder subjects.

    Miyajima, Eiichi; Taira, Naoki; Koda, Munenaga; Kondo, Tsuyoshi

    2014-12-15

    The present study aimed to investigate differences in personality traits among male-to-female (MtF), female-to-male (FtM) gender identity disorder (GID) subjects and non-transsexual male (M) and female (F) controls. Subjects were 72 MtF and 187 FtM GID subjects without psychiatric comorbidities together with 184 male and 159 female non-transsexual controls. Personality traits were assessed using a short version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-125). Group comparisons were made by two-way ANOVA. Statistical significances were observed as follows: 1) lower novelty seeking in FtM than in M or MtF, 2) higher reward dependence in FtM than in M, 3) higher cooperativeness in FtM than in M or MtF, 4) the highest self-transcendence in MtF among all the groups. The highest self-transcendence in MtF subjects may reflect their vulnerable identity and constrained adaptation to society as the minority. Nevertheless, higher reward dependence and cooperativeness in FtM subjects can be related to more determined motivation for the treatments of GID and might promise better social functioning and adjustment than MtF subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Estradiol-induced neurogenesis in the female accessory olfactory bulb is required for the learning of the male odor.

    Brus, Maïna; Trouillet, Anne-Charlotte; Hellier, Vincent; Bakker, Julie

    2016-08-01

    Odors processed by the main and accessory olfactory bulbs (MOB, AOB) are important for sexual behavior. Interestingly, both structures continue to receive new neurons during adulthood. A role for olfactory neurogenesis in sexual behavior in female mice has recently been shown and gonadal hormones such as estradiol can modulate adult neurogenesis. Therefore, we wanted to determine the role of estradiol in learning the odors of sexual partners and in the adult neurogenesis of female aromatase knockout mice (ArKO), unable to produce estradiol. Female wild-type (WT) and ArKO mice were exposed to male odors during 7 days, and olfactory preferences, cell proliferation, cell survival and functional involvement of newborn neurons were analyzed, using BrdU injections, in combination with a marker of cell activation (Zif268) and neuronal fate (doublecortin, NeuN). Behavioral tasks indicated that both WT and ArKO females were able to discriminate between the odors of two different males, but ArKO mice failed to learn the familiar male odor. Proliferation of newborn cells was reduced in ArKO mice only in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Olfactory exposure decreased cell survival in the AOB in WT females, suggesting a role for estradiol in a structure involved in sexual behavior. Finally, newborn neurons do not seem to be functionally involved in the AOB of ArKO mice compared with WT, when females were exposed to the odor of a familiar male, suggesting that estradiol-induced neurogenesis in the AOB is required for the learning of the male odor in female mice. Aromatase knockout mice (ArKO) presented deficits in olfactory preferences without affecting their olfactory discrimination abilities, and showed no functional involvement of newborn neurons in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) in response to the odor of a familiar male. These results suggest that estradiol-induced neurogenesis in the female AOB is required for the learning of the male odor. © 2016 International

  2. CETP Expression Protects Female Mice from Obesity-Induced Decline in Exercise Capacity.

    Cappel, David A; Lantier, Louise; Palmisano, Brian T; Wasserman, David H; Stafford, John M

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological approaches to reduce obesity have not resulted in dramatic reductions in the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Exercise, in contrast, reduces CHD risk even in the setting of obesity. Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) is a lipid transfer protein that shuttles lipids between serum lipoproteins and tissues. There are sexual-dimorphisms in the effects of CETP in humans. Mice naturally lack CETP, but we previously reported that transgenic expression of CETP increases muscle glycolysis in fasting and protects against insulin resistance with high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in female but not male mice. Since glycolysis provides an important energy source for working muscle, we aimed to define if CETP expression protects against the decline in exercise capacity associated with obesity. We measured exercise capacity in female mice that were fed a chow diet and then switched to a HFD. There was no difference in exercise capacity between lean, chow-fed CETP female mice and their non-transgenic littermates. Female CETP transgenic mice were relatively protected against the decline in exercise capacity caused by obesity compared to WT. Despite gaining similar fat mass after 6 weeks of HFD-feeding, female CETP mice showed a nearly two-fold increase in run distance compared to WT. After an additional 6 weeks of HFD-feeding, mice were subjected to a final exercise bout and muscle mitochondria were isolated. We found that improved exercise capacity in CETP mice corresponded with increased muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity, and increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α). These results suggest that CETP can protect against the obesity-induced impairment in exercise capacity and may be a target to improve exercise capacity in the context of obesity.

  3. CETP Expression Protects Female Mice from Obesity-Induced Decline in Exercise Capacity.

    David A Cappel

    Full Text Available Pharmacological approaches to reduce obesity have not resulted in dramatic reductions in the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD. Exercise, in contrast, reduces CHD risk even in the setting of obesity. Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP is a lipid transfer protein that shuttles lipids between serum lipoproteins and tissues. There are sexual-dimorphisms in the effects of CETP in humans. Mice naturally lack CETP, but we previously reported that transgenic expression of CETP increases muscle glycolysis in fasting and protects against insulin resistance with high-fat diet (HFD feeding in female but not male mice. Since glycolysis provides an important energy source for working muscle, we aimed to define if CETP expression protects against the decline in exercise capacity associated with obesity. We measured exercise capacity in female mice that were fed a chow diet and then switched to a HFD. There was no difference in exercise capacity between lean, chow-fed CETP female mice and their non-transgenic littermates. Female CETP transgenic mice were relatively protected against the decline in exercise capacity caused by obesity compared to WT. Despite gaining similar fat mass after 6 weeks of HFD-feeding, female CETP mice showed a nearly two-fold increase in run distance compared to WT. After an additional 6 weeks of HFD-feeding, mice were subjected to a final exercise bout and muscle mitochondria were isolated. We found that improved exercise capacity in CETP mice corresponded with increased muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity, and increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α. These results suggest that CETP can protect against the obesity-induced impairment in exercise capacity and may be a target to improve exercise capacity in the context of obesity.

  4. Nasal mucociliary transportability of male and female smokers.

    Uzeloto, Juliana Souza; Ramos, Dionei; C F Freire, Ana Paula; G D Christofaro, Diego; Mara C Ramos, Ercy

    Female smoker's present increased susceptibility to several diseases when compared to the opposite gender. However, there are no studies showing differences in nasal mucociliary transport behavior between male and female smokers. To compare the nasal mucociliary transportability in male and female smokers and non-smokers, taking into consideration age, anthropometric data, smoking load and pulmonary function. The analysis included 139 individuals (33 men and 37 women smokers and 32 men and 37 women non-smokers). All participants answered an initial interview to obtain personal data and smoking load. Anthropometric data and carbon monoxide in the exhaled air were assessed. Individuals also performed pulmonary function test and Saccharin Transit Time test. To compare saccharin transit time values between men and women, smokers and non-smokers, stratification of all independent variables was performed (sociodemographic, smoking and respiratory variables) into two categories: below and above the median values. There was no difference between men and women, smokers and non-smokers, regarding nasal mucociliary transportability. Significant differences were only observed between non-smokers. Among those with less forced vital capacity values (smokers), FCV and FEV1 (men non-smokers) and FEF 25-75% (women non-smokers) on saccharin transit time values. Based on the findings of this study, nasal mucociliary transport in male and female adult smokers, apparently healthy, are similar. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Endothelial dysfunction of resistance vessels in female apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    Vasquez Elisardo C

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of hypercholesterolemia on vasomotricity in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE mice, a murine model of spontaneous atherosclerosis, are still unclear. The studies were mostly performed in conductance vessels from male mice fed a high-fat diet. In the present study, we evaluated the endothelial function of resistance vessels from normal C57BL/6 (C57 and hypercholesterolemic (ApoE female mice in both normal and ovariectomized conditions. Methods Twenty week-old C57 and ApoE mice underwent ovariectomy or sham surgery and were studied 30 days later. The vascular reactivities to norepinephrine (NE, 10-9 to 2 × 10-3 mol/L, acetylcholine (ACh and sodium nitroprusside (SNP (10-10 to 10-3 mol/L were evaluated in the isolated mesenteric arteriolar bed through dose-response curves. Results ACh-induced relaxation was significantly reduced (P 50 (-5.67 ± 0.18 vs. -6.23 ± 0.09 mol/L. Ovariectomy caused a significant impairment in ACh-induced relaxation in the C57 group (maximal response: 61 ± 4% but did not worsen the deficient state of relaxation in ApoE animals (maximal response: 39 ± 5%. SNP-induced vasorelaxation and NE-induced vasoconstriction were similar in ApoE and C57 female mice. Conclusion These data show an impairment of endothelial function in the resistance vessels of spontaneously atherosclerotic (ApoE-deficient female mice compared with normal (C57 female mice. The endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic animals was so marked that ovariectomy, which impaired endothelial function in C57 mice, did not cause additional vascular damage in ApoE-deficient mice.

  6. Cortical activation during mental rotation in male-to-female and female-to-male transsexuals under hormonal treatment.

    Carrillo, Beatriz; Gómez-Gil, Esther; Rametti, Giuseppina; Junque, Carme; Gomez, Angel; Karadi, Kazmer; Segovia, Santiago; Guillamon, Antonio

    2010-09-01

    There is strong evidence of sex differences in mental rotation tasks. Transsexualism is an extreme gender identity disorder in which individuals seek cross-gender treatment to change their sex. The aim of our study was to investigate if male-to-female (MF) and female-to-male (FM) transsexuals receiving cross-sex hormonal treatment have different patterns of cortical activation during a three-dimensional (3D) mental rotation task. An fMRI study was performed using a 3-T scan in a sample of 18 MF and 19 FM under chronic cross-sex hormonal treatment. Twenty-three males and 19 females served as controls. The general pattern of cerebral activation seen while visualizing the rotated and non-rotated figures was similar for all four groups showing strong occipito-parieto-frontal brain activation. However, compared to control males, the activation of MF transsexuals during the task was lower in the superior parietal lobe. Compared to control females, MF transsexuals showed higher activation in orbital and right dorsolateral prefrontal regions and lower activation in the left prefrontal gyrus. FM transsexuals did not differ from either the MF transsexual or control groups. Regression analyses between cerebral activation and the number of months of hormonal treatment showed a significant negative correlation in parietal, occipital and temporal regions in the MF transsexuals. No significant correlations with time were seen in the FM transsexuals. In conclusion, although we did not find a specific pattern of cerebral activation in the FM transsexuals, we have identified a specific pattern of cerebral activation during a mental 3D rotation task in MF transsexuals under cross-sex hormonal treatment that differed from control males in the parietal region and from control females in the orbital prefrontal region. The hypoactivation in MF transsexuals in the parietal region could be due to the hormonal treatment or could reflect a priori cerebral differences between MF transsexual

  7. Urethral dysfunction in female mice with estrogen receptor β deficiency.

    Yung-Hsiang Chen

    Full Text Available Estrogen has various regulatory functions in the growth, development, and differentiation of the female urogenital system. This study investigated the roles of ERβ in stress urinary incontinence (SUI. Wild-type (ERβ(+/+ and knockout (ERβ(-/- female mice were generated (aged 6-8 weeks, n = 6 and urethral function and protein expression were measured. Leak point pressures (LPP and maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP were assessed in mice under urethane anesthesia. After the measurements, the urethras were removed for proteomic analysis using label-free quantitative proteomics by nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS analysis. The interaction between these proteins was further analysed using MetaCore. Lastly, Western blot was used to confirm the candidate proteins. Compared with the ERβ(+/+ group, the LPP and MUCP values of the ERβ(-/- group were significantly decreased. Additionally, we identified 85 differentially expressed proteins in the urethra of ERβ(-/- female mice; 57 proteins were up-regulated and 28 were down-regulated. The majority of the ERβ knockout-modified proteins were involved in cell-matrix adhesion, metabolism, immune response, signal transduction, nuclear receptor translational regelation, and muscle contraction and development. Western blot confirmed the up-regulation of myosin and collagen in urethra. By contrast, elastin was down-regulated in the ERβ(-/- mice. This study is the first study to estimate protein expression changes in urethras from ERβ(-/- female mice. These changes could be related to the molecular mechanism of ERβ in SUI.

  8. Chromosome aberrations in F1 from irradiated male mice studied by their synaptonemal complexes

    Kalikinskaya, E.I.; Kolomiets, O.L.; Shevchenko, V.A.; Bogdanov, Yu.F.

    1986-01-01

    Possible implications of surface-spread synaptonemal complex (SC) karyotyping in analysing the causes of sterility of F 1 from irradiated male mice are demonstrated in this work. After irradiation by 137 Cs γ-rays at a dose of 5 Gy the males were mated to unirradiated females and genetic analysis of fertility in the F 1 progeny was carried out. Males with abnormal fertility were examined for the presence of chromosome aberrations in diakinesis-metaphase I and in pachytene by the method of surface-spread SC karyotyping. In most cases, SC karyotyping provides additional information and permits the detection and analysis of aberrations that are not revealed in diakinesis. Two reciprocal translocations, one X autosomal and one nonreciprocal translocation were discovered in five F 1 males studied. It is concluded that the method is efficient in detecting translocations in pachytene in partially fertile F 1 hybrids of irradiated and normal mice. (orig.)

  9. Student Evaluations of College Professors: Are Female and Male Professors Rated Differently?

    Basow, Susan A.; Silberg, Nancy T.

    1987-01-01

    Over 1,000 undergraduates evaluated 16 male and female professors in terms of teaching effectiveness and sex-typed characteristics. Male students gave female professors significantly poorer ratings than male professors on the six teaching evaluation measures. Female students evaluated female professors less favorably than male professors on three…

  10. Speciation and reduced hybrid female fertility in house mice.

    Suzuki, Taichi A; Nachman, Michael W

    2015-09-01

    In mammals, intrinsic postzygotic isolation has been well studied in males but has been less studied in females, despite the fact that female gametogenesis and pregnancy provide arenas for hybrid sterility or inviability that are absent in males. Here, we asked whether inviability or sterility is observed in female hybrids of Mus musculus domesticus and M. m. musculus, taxa which hybridize in nature and for which male sterility has been well characterized. We looked for parent-of-origin growth phenotypes by measuring adult body weights in F1 hybrids. We evaluated hybrid female fertility by crossing F1 females to a tester male and comparing multiple reproductive parameters between intrasubspecific controls and intersubspecific hybrids. Hybrid females showed no evidence of parent-of-origin overgrowth or undergrowth, providing no evidence for reduced viability. However, hybrid females had smaller litter sizes, reduced embryo survival, fewer ovulations, and fewer small follicles relative to controls. Significant variation in reproductive parameters was seen among different hybrid genotypes, suggesting that hybrid incompatibilities are polymorphic within subspecies. Differences in reproductive phenotypes in reciprocal genotypes were observed and are consistent with cyto-nuclear incompatibilities or incompatibilities involving genomic imprinting. These findings highlight the potential importance of reduced hybrid female fertility in the early stages of speciation. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Male authority vs. female authority in traditional rural society

    Brie, Mircea

    2009-01-01

    In traditional rural societies, the relationships between the two partners are genuine community patterns. It is not good to mingle male authority with thefe male’s, just like it is not possible to reverse the roles. Each of them has clear-cutt asks on both inter-relational level and on the level of socio-economic activities within or outside the household. The (male or female) authority in point is brought to the foreground as early as the first contacts between the partners. The whole “...

  12. The threat of male-to-female erotic transference.

    Celenza, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Vignettes from an ongoing psychoanalysis with a patient, Michael, are presented to illustrate the various dimensions of the erotic transference at different phases of the treatment. The relation to power, the experience and expression of aggression, how these may be organized by gender, and the female analyst's countertransference are discussed as potentially fostering or inhibitory in the development of an erotic transference. Traditional sociocultural gender stereotypes kept alive in fantasy can cause female analysts to subtly foreclose the impending threat of an intense erotic transference with male analysands due to a fear of outwardly directed male aggression. It is suggested that the maternal/containing transference can be unconsciously fostered by both analyst and analysand to defensively avoid expression of the aggressivized erotic transference in its full intensity. Similarities and differences in cases of sexual boundary violations with opposite-gender pairings are discussed.

  13. Awareness regarding female breast cancer in Kashmiri males - A study

    Salati , SA; Rather, A

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is a major killer disease in females globally and in developing regions, where the early cancer detection facilities are unavailable, prognosis is even worse. Awareness about this disease can lead to early detection and thereby decrease the morbidity and mortality. A self designed questionnaire was used to study the level of awareness regarding breast cancer among males. The questionnaire had 15 questions and on the basis on score attained, the subjects were classified as havi...

  14. Radiographic comparison between male and female patients with lumbar spondylolysis

    Takao, Shoichiro; Sakai, Toshinori; Sairyo, Koichi; Kondo, Tadashi; Ueno, Junji; Yasui, Natsuo; Nishitani, Hiromu

    2010-01-01

    We studied the lumbar spines of 117 adults (39 women and 78 men) with spondylolysis unrelated to low back pain using multidetector computed tomography (CT). Of the 117 subjects with spondylolysis, including five with multiple-level spondylolysis, there were 124 vertebrae with spondylolysis. In adult lumbar spines with unilateral spondylolysis, there was no significant difference between the incidence of spondylolisthesis in female and male subjects. However, in those with bilateral spondyloly...

  15. Juvenile spermatogonial depletion (jsd): a genetic defect of germ cell proliferation of male mice.

    Beamer, W G; Cunliffe-Beamer, T L; Shultz, K L; Langley, S H; Roderick, T H

    1988-05-01

    Adult C57BL/6J male mice homozygous for the mutant gene, juvenile spermatogonial depletion (jsd/jsd), show azoosper4ia and testes reduced to one-third normal size, but are otherwise phenotypically normal. In contrast, adult jsd/jsd females are fully fertile. This feature facilitated mapping the jsd gene to the centromeric end of chromosome 1; the gene order is jsd-Isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (Idh-1)-Peptidase-3 (Pep-3). Analysis of testicular histology from jsd/jsd mice aged 3-10 wk revealed that these mutant mice experience one wave of spermatogenesis, but fail to continue mitotic proliferation of type A spermatogonial cells at the basement membrane. As a consequence, histological sections of testes from mutant mice aged 8-52 wk showed tubules populated by modest numbers of Sertoli cells, with only an occasional spermatogonial cell. Some sperm with normal morphology and motility were observed in epididymides of 6.5- but not in 8-wk or older mutants. Treatment with retinol failed to alter the loss of spermatogenesis in jsd/jsd mice. Analyses of serum hormones of jsd/jsd males showed that testosterone levels were normal at all ages--a finding corroborated by normal seminal vesicle and vas deferens weights, whereas serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels were significantly elevated in mutant mice from 4 to 20 wk of age. We hypothesize the jsd/jsd male may be deficient in proliferative signals from Sertoli cells that are needed for spermatogenesis.

  16. Sportiness and masculinities among female and male physiotherapy students.

    Dahl-Michelsen, Tone

    2014-07-01

    This article explores the gendered importance of sportiness in terms of students' judgments of themselves and their classmates as suitable physiotherapy students. The article is based on observations and qualitative interviews with students attending clinical skills training classes in the first year of a bachelor's degree program in physiotherapy in Norway. The analysis focuses on sportiness as a display of masculinity and is inspired by Connell's concept of multiple masculinities. The findings demonstrate sportiness as a shared common value among students. However, it was also found that there are two main typologies: (1) hyper-sportiness; and (2) ordinary sportiness. Male students judged as possessing hyper-sportiness are acknowledged as particularly suitable physiotherapy students and assume a hegemonic position in the student milieu. Female students who adapt hyper-sportiness have the potential to assume a hegemonic position, but tend not to do so. Female students with an ordinary level of sportiness have no particular problems in being identified as suitable physiotherapy students, whereas male students do encounter such problems. The article demonstrates how physiotherapy students' sportiness is more complex than previously known, particularly concerning differences in how female and male students are acknowledged in terms of perceived suitability as physiotherapy students. Additionally, this work shows a continuity of historical lines with respect to how sportiness is embedded in gender within the physiotherapy profession.

  17. Salary discrepancies between practicing male and female physician assistants.

    Coplan, Bettie; Essary, Alison C; Virden, Thomas B; Cawley, James; Stoehr, James D

    2012-01-01

    Salary discrepancies between male and female physicians are well documented; however, gender-based salary differences among clinically practicing physician assistants (PAs) have not been studied since 1992 (Willis, 1992). Therefore, the objectives of the current study are to evaluate the presence of salary discrepancies between clinically practicing male and female PAs and to analyze the effect of gender on income and practice characteristics. Using data from the 2009 American Academy of Physician Assistants' (AAPA) Annual Census Survey, we evaluated the salaries of PAs across multiple specialties. Differences between men and women were compared for practice characteristics (specialty, experience, etc) and salary (total pay, base pay, on-call pay, etc) in orthopedic surgery, emergency medicine, and family practice. Men reported working more years as a PA in their current specialty, working more hours per month on-call, providing more direct care to patients, and more funding available from their employers for professional development (p pay, overtime pay, administrative pay, on-call pay, and incentive pay based on productivity and performance (p pay (p = .001) in orthopedic surgery, higher total income (p = .011) and base pay (p = .005) in emergency medicine, and higher base pay in family practice (p discrepancies remain between employed male and female PAs regardless of specialty, experience, or other practice characteristics. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Reproductive effects of lipid soluble components of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud in male mice

    Raghav Kumar Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum (clove have been used in indigenous medicines for the treatment of male sexual disorders in Indian subcontinent. Objective: To evaluate the effect of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud on male reproduction, using Parkes (P strain mice as animal model. Materials and Methods: Mice were orally administered lipid soluble components of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud in doses of 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg body weight for 35 days, and several male reproductive endpoints were evaluated. Results: Treatment with lower dose (15 mg of Syzygium increased the motility of sperm and stimulated the secretory activities of epididymis and seminal vesicle, while higher doses (30 and 60 mg had adverse effects on sperm dynamics of cauda epididymidis and on the secretory activities of epididymis and seminal vesicle. Libido was not affected in treated males; however, a significant decrease in litter in females sired by males treated with higher doses of Syzygium was recorded. Conclusion: Treatment with Syzygium aromaticum flower bud causes dose-dependent biphasic effect on male reproductive indices in P mice; lower dose of Syzygium appears stimulatory, while the higher doses have adverse effect on male reproduction. The results suggest that the lower dose of Syzygium may have androgenic effect, but further studies are needed to support this contention.

  19. Cannabidiol Prevents the Development of Cold and Mechanical Allodynia in Paclitaxel-Treated Female C57Bl6 Mice

    Ward, Sara Jane; Ramirez, Michael David; Neelakantan, Harshini; Walker, Ellen Ann

    2011-01-01

    The taxane chemotherapeutic paclitaxel frequently produces peripheral neuropathy in humans. Rodent models to investigate mechanisms and treatments are largely restricted to male rats, whereas female mouse studies are lacking. We characterized a range of paclitaxel doses on cold and mechanical allodynia in male and female C57Bl/6 mice. Because the nonpsycho-active phytocannabinoid cannabidiol attenuates other forms of neuropathic pain, we assessed its effect on paclitaxel-induced allodynia. Pa...

  20. Ego development in female-to-male transsexual couples.

    Fleming, M; Costos, D; MacGowan, B

    1984-12-01

    The ego development of 22 postoperative female-to-male transsexuals and their spouses or lovers with whom they had been living for a year or more was investigated. The transsexuals, their spouses, and a control group of 22 couples were administered the Washington University Sentence Completion Test of Ego Development, a projective measure of ego functioning. Ego development refers to the framework of meaning that the individual brings to an experience. The construct of ego development incorporates a series of sequential stages that integrate various frames of reference including cognitive style, interpersonal style, conscious preoccupation, and impulse control. These processes have received little attention in studies on female-to-male transsexuals who have successfully negotiated the social barrier of cross-living to the extent that they are living the male role in a heterosexual relationship. No significant differences in the distribution of ego development scores were found between the transsexuals and the control males, or between the transsexuals' spouses and the control spouses. Over 93% of the transsexuals and their spouses scored above the conformist level of ego development. These findings are discussed in terms of some of the previous literature on conformist thinking by transsexuals.

  1. Alternative reproductive tactics in female striped mice: Solitary breeders have lower corticosterone levels than communal breeders.

    Hill, Davina L; Pillay, Neville; Schradin, Carsten

    2015-05-01

    Alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs), where members of the same sex and population show distinct reproductive phenotypes governed by decision-rules, have been well-documented in males of many species, but are less well understood in females. The relative plasticity hypothesis (RPH) predicts that switches between plastic ARTs are mediated by changes in steroid hormones. This has received much support in males, but little is known about the endocrine control of female ARTs. Here, using a free-living population of African striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio) over five breeding seasons, we tested whether females following different tactics differed in corticosterone and testosterone levels, as reported for male striped mice using ARTs, and in progesterone and oestrogen, which are important in female reproduction. Female striped mice employ three ARTs: communal breeders give birth in a shared nest and provide alloparental care, returners leave the group temporarily to give birth, and solitary breeders leave to give birth and do not return. We expected communal breeders and returners to have higher corticosterone, owing to the social stress of group-living, and lower testosterone than solitary breeders, which must defend territories alone. Solitary breeders had lower corticosterone than returners and communal breeders, as predicted, but testosterone and progesterone did not differ between ARTs. Oestrogen levels were higher in returners (measured before leaving the group) than in communal and solitary breeders, consistent with a modulatory role. Our study demonstrates hormonal differences between females following (or about to follow) different tactics, and provides the first support for the RPH in females. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Radon progeny dose conversion coefficients for Chinese males and females

    Yu, K.N. E-mail: peter.yu@city.edu.hk; Cheung, T.T.K.; Haque, A.K.M.M.; Nikezic, D.; Lau, B.M.F.; Vucic, D

    2001-07-01

    The airway dimensions for Caucasian males have been scaled by multiplying by factors 0.95 and 0.88 to give those for Chinese males and females, respectively. Employing the most recent data on physical and biological parameters, the radiation doses to the basal and secretory cells due to {alpha} particles from {sup 218}Po and {sup 214}Po, homogeneously distributed in the mucous layer, have been calculated. The emission of {alpha} particles has been simulated by a Monte Carlo method. For both basal and secretory cells, the dose conversion coefficients (DCCs) for physical conditions of sleep, rest, light and heavy exercise, have been obtained for Chinese males and females for unattached progeny, and for attached progeny of diameters 0.02, 0.15, 0.25, 0.30 and 0.50 {mu}m. For basal cells, the coefficients lie in the range 0.69-6.82 mGy/(J s/m{sup 3}) or 8.7-86 mGy/WLM for unattached progeny and in the range 0.045-1.98 mGy/(J s/m{sup 3}) or 0.57-25 mGy/WLM for attached progeny. The corresponding ranges for Caucasian males are 1.27-8.81 mGy/(J s/m{sup 3}) or 16-111 mGy/WLM{sup -1} and 0.05-2.30 mGy/(J s/m{sup 3}) or 0.64-29 mGy/WLM. For secretory cells, the coefficients lie in the range 0.095-16.82 mGy/(J s/m{sup 3}) (1.2-212 mGy/WLM) for unattached progeny and in the range 0.095-6.67 mGy/(J s/m{sup 3}) (1.2-84 mGy/WLM) for attached progeny. The corresponding ranges for Caucasian males are 0.34-21.51 mGy/(J s/m{sup 3}) (4.3-271 mGy/WLM) and 0.1-7.78 mGy/(J s/m{sup 3}) (1.3-98 mGy/WLM). The overall DCCs calculated for a typical home environment are 0.59 and 0.52 mSv/(J s/m{sup 3}) (7.4 and 6.5 mSv/WLM) for Chinese males and females, respectively, which are 80 and 70% of the value, 0.73 mSv/(J s/m{sup 3}) (9.2 mSv/WLM), for Caucasian males.

  3. Are Females Better Than Males In Communication In Second Language?

    IEVA RUDZINSKA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although research in education, including worldwide Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD and Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, shows that female language learners outdo their male counterparts in the development of verbal skills, a number of researchers have strongly challenged that claim. The aim of this paper is to find out whether professional foreign language competence in a higher education institution (HEI in Latvia is different between females and males. In order to determine this, we have analyzed final grades and presentation scores (lecturer, peer and self-assessment of students in an ESP (English for Specific Purposes, in our case: Sport English course, as well as their levels of second language acquisition, obtained in centralized secondary school leaving exams, which serves as the basis for further development of professional foreign language competence in a sport related HEI. Whereas grades, scores and levels are considered in the present paper as dependent variables, gender constitutes an independent variable. A series of Mann-Whitney U tests has revealed no significant difference in male and female achievement in centralized school leaving exam in second language (English; in final grades, obtained by students in an ESP course; and in lecturer assessment of student presentations in the ESP course. However, the analysis of peer assessment of student presentations in the ESP course reveals that females tend to overestimate themselves and their peers. The latter observation, as this paper argues, may result from the fact that sport related HEI students are characterized by increased self-esteem (Rudzinska, 2007.

  4. Female Stereotyping in Advertising: An Experiment on Male-Female Perceptions of Leadership.

    Kilbourne, William E.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the impact of sex role stereotyping in advertising on the perception of the degree to which women possess managerial attributes considered requisite for success in business. Finds that depicting women in professional roles in magazine ads results in higher evaluations by male subjects of the degree to which the nonrole female possessed…

  5. Male-to-female transsexuals have female neuron numbers in a limbic nucleus

    Kruijver, F. P.; Zhou, J. N.; Pool, C. W.; Hofman, M. A.; Gooren, L. J.; Swaab, D. F.

    2000-01-01

    Transsexuals experience themselves as being of the opposite sex, despite having the biological characteristics of one sex. A crucial question resulting from a previous brain study in male-to-female transsexuals was whether the reported difference according to gender identity in the central part of

  6. Female vs. Male Ampelmännchen-Gender-Specific Reaction Times to Male and Female Traffic Light Figures

    Farid I. Kandil

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Traffic signs are important visual guiding signals for the safe navigation through complex road traffic. Interestingly, there is little variation in the traffic signs for cars around the world. However, remarkable variation exists for pedestrian traffic signs. Following up from an earlier study, we investigated the visual efficacy of female vs. male German Ampelmännchen pedestrian traffic signs. In a Stroop-like test, 30 subjects were presented with female and male go and no-go traffic light figures that were shown either in the corresponding or opposing color. Subjects had to indicate, based either solely on the form or the color of the figure, whether they were allowed to go. Accuracy and response times across all subjects did not differ for the female vs. male signs, indicating that Ampelfrau and Ampelmann signs have equal visual efficacy. However, subjects responded faster to signs of their own vs. the opposite gender. This preference for signs of one's own gender is in accordance with effects in social psychology described by social learning theory. An introduction of such novel traffic lights may, thus, contribute to higher compliance with the traffic sign signals.

  7. Behavioral and endocrine consequences of placentophagia in male California mice (Peromyscus californicus).

    Perea-Rodriguez, Juan P; Zhao, Meng; Harris, Breanna N; Raqueno, Joel; Saltzman, Wendy

    2018-05-01

    Ingestion of placenta by mammalian mothers can lead to changes in pain sensitivity, hormone levels, and behavioral responses to newborns. In some biparental mammals, males, in addition to females, ingest placenta when their offspring are born. In the monogamous, biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus), males first become attracted to placenta when cohabitating with their pregnant mate, and virgin males administered placenta are less neophobic than males given oil vehicle. In this study, we investigated the effects of placentophagia on pain sensitivity, anxiety-like behavior, behavioral responses to pups, and circulating corticosterone levels of both breeding and nonbreeding male California mice. We orally administered either a conspecific placenta or oil vehicle to male mice from three reproductive conditions (first-time fathers, first-time expectant fathers, and virgin males) and tested their pain sensitivity 1 h later, as well as their exploratory behavior and paternal responsiveness in an open field 4 h post-treatment. We measured plasma corticosterone immediately after the open-field test. We found that placenta-treated males, independent of reproductive condition, traveled significantly longer distances in the open field than males treated with oil, indicative of lower anxiety. Additionally, fathers had shorter latencies to approach and to care for pups (i.e., huddling and licking pups), and spent more time engaging in these behaviors, than did age-matched expectant fathers and virgin males, independent of treatment. We found no effect on plasma corticosterone levels or pain sensitivity as a result of either treatment or reproductive condition. These findings indicate that placenta ingestion decreases anxiety-related behaviors in male California mice, but might not influence pain sensitivity, paternal responsiveness, or plasma corticosterone concentrations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Flexible adaptation of male germ cells from female iPSCs of endangered Tokudaia osimensis.

    Honda, Arata; Choijookhuu, Narantsog; Izu, Haruna; Kawano, Yoshihiro; Inokuchi, Mizuho; Honsho, Kimiko; Lee, Ah-Reum; Nabekura, Hiroki; Ohta, Hiroshi; Tsukiyama, Tomoyuki; Ohinata, Yasuhide; Kuroiwa, Asato; Hishikawa, Yoshitaka; Saitou, Mitinori; Jogahara, Takamichi; Koshimoto, Chihiro

    2017-05-01

    In mammals, the Y chromosome strictly influences the maintenance of male germ cells. Almost all mammalian species require genetic contributors to generate testes. An endangered species, Tokudaia osimensis , has a unique sex chromosome composition XO/XO, and genetic differences between males and females have not been confirmed. Although a distinctive sex-determining mechanism may exist in T. osimensis , it has been difficult to examine thoroughly in this rare animal species. To elucidate the discriminative sex-determining mechanism in T. osimensis and to find a strategy to prevent its possible extinction, we have established induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and derived interspecific chimeras using mice as the hosts and recipients. Generated iPSCs are considered to be in the so-called "true naïve" state, and T. osimensis iPSCs may contribute as interspecific chimeras to several different tissues and cells in live animals. Surprisingly, female T. osimensis iPSCs not only contributed to the female germ line in the interspecific mouse ovary but also differentiated into spermatocytes and spermatids that survived in the adult interspecific mouse testes. Thus, T. osimensis cells have high sexual plasticity through which female somatic cells can be converted to male germline cells. These findings suggest flexibility in T. osimensis cells, which can adapt their germ cell sex to the gonadal niche. The probable reduction of the extinction risk of an endangered species through the use of iPSCs is indicated by this study.

  9. Gender-specific reduction of hepatic Mrp2 expression by high-fat diet protects female mice from ANIT toxicity

    Kong, Bo; Csanaky, Iván L.; Aleksunes, Lauren M.; Patni, Meghan; Chen, Qi; Ma, Xiaochao; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Weir, Scott; Broward, Melinda; Klaassen, Curtis D.; Guo, Grace L.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) to rodents affects the expression of genes involved in drug transport. However, gender-specific effects of HFD on drug transport are not known. The multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2, Abcc2) is a transporter highly expressed in the hepatocyte canalicular membrane and is important for biliary excretion of glutathione-conjugated chemicals. The current study showed that hepatic Mrp2 expression was reduced by HFD feeding only in female, but not male, C57BL/6J mice. In order to determine whether down-regulation of Mrp2 in female mice altered chemical disposition and toxicity, the biliary excretion and hepatotoxicity of the Mrp2 substrate, α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT), were assessed in male and female mice fed control diet or HFD for 4 weeks. ANIT-induced biliary injury is a commonly used model of experimental cholestasis and has been shown to be dependent upon Mrp2-mediated efflux of an ANIT glutathione conjugate that selectively injures biliary epithelial cells. Interestingly, HFD feeding significantly reduced early-phase biliary ANIT excretion in female mice and largely protected against ANIT-induced liver injury. In summary, the current study showed that, at least in mice, HFD feeding can differentially regulate Mrp2 expression and function and depending upon the chemical exposure may enhance or reduce susceptibility to toxicity. Taken together, these data provide a novel interaction between diet and gender in regulating hepatobiliary excretion and susceptibility to injury. -- Highlights: ► High-fat diet decreases hepatic Mrp2 expression only in female but not in male mice. ► HFD significantly reduces early-phase biliary ANIT excretion in female mice. ► HFD protects female mice against ANIT-induced liver injury.

  10. Neonatal exposure to daidzein, genistein, or the combination modulates bone development in female CD-1 mice.

    Kaludjerovic, Jovana; Ward, Wendy E

    2009-03-01

    Neonatal exposure to genistein (GEN), an isoflavone abundant in soy, favorably modulates bone mineral density (BMD) and bone strength in mice at adulthood. The study objective was to determine whether early exposure to a combination of the soy isoflavones daidzein (DAI) and GEN that naturally exists in soy protein-based infant formula results in greater benefits to bone at adulthood than either treatment alone. Male and female CD-1 mice (n = 8-16 pups per group per gender) were randomized to subcutaneous injections of DAI (2 mg x kg body weight(-1) x d(-1)), GEN (5 mg x kg body weight(-1) x d(-1)), DAI+GEN (7 mg x kg body weight(-1) x d(-1)), diethylstilbesterol (DES; positive control) (2 mg x kg body weight(-1) x d(-1)), or control (CON) from postnatal d 1-5 and were studied to 4 mo of age. BMD, biomechanical bone strength, and bone microarchitecture were assessed at the femur and lumbar vertebrae (LV). Females treated with DAI, GEN, DAI+GEN, or DES had greater (P GEN resulted in greater (P GEN had a positive effect on the skeleton of female mice at adulthood, but, compared with individual treatments, DAI+GEN did not have a greater benefit to bone in females or males.

  11. Increased Cortical Thickness in Male-to-Female Transsexualism.

    Luders, Eileen; Sánchez, Francisco J; Tosun, Duygu; Shattuck, David W; Gaser, Christian; Vilain, Eric; Toga, Arthur W

    2012-08-01

    The degree to which one identifies as male or female has a profound impact on one's life. Yet, there is a limited understanding of what contributes to this important characteristic termed gender identity . In order to reveal factors influencing gender identity, studies have focused on people who report strong feelings of being the opposite sex, such as male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals. To investigate potential neuroanatomical variations associated with transsexualism, we compared the regional thickness of the cerebral cortex between 24 MTF transsexuals who had not yet been treated with cross-sex hormones and 24 age-matched control males. Results revealed thicker cortices in MTF transsexuals, both within regions of the left hemisphere (i.e., frontal and orbito-frontal cortex, central sulcus, perisylvian regions, paracentral gyrus) and right hemisphere (i.e., pre-/post-central gyrus, parietal cortex, temporal cortex, precuneus, fusiform, lingual, and orbito-frontal gyrus). These findings provide further evidence that brain anatomy is associated with gender identity, where measures in MTF transsexuals appear to be shifted away from gender-congruent men.

  12. Comparing Female and Male Perpetrators' Modus Operandi: Victims' Reports of Sexual Abuse.

    Kaufman, Keith L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated similarities and differences in modus operandi of female and male child sexual abusers by comparing victims of female and male perpetrators. Females were more often involved with males in co-offender situations and were more likely to exploit victims. Males were more sexually invasive and more likely to use bribes to obtain victim…

  13. The SocioBox: A novel paradigm to assess complex social recognition in male mice

    Dilja Krueger-Burg

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Impairments in social skills are central to mental disease, and developing tools for their assessment in mouse models is essential. Here we present the SocioBox, a new behavioral paradigm to measure social recognition memory. Using this paradigm, we show that male wildtype mice of different strains can readily identify an unfamiliar mouse among 5 newly acquainted animals. In contrast, female mice exhibit lower locomotor activity during social exploration in the SocioBox compared to males and do not seem to discriminate between acquainted and unfamiliar mice, likely reflecting inherent differences in gender-specific territorial tasks. In addition to a simple quantification of social interaction time of mice grounded on predefined spatial zones (zone-based method, we developed a set of unbiased, data-driven analysis tools based on heat map representations and characterized by greater sensitivity. First proof-of-principle that the SocioBox allows diagnosis of social recognition memory deficits is provided using male PSD-95 heterozygous knockout mice, a mouse model related to psychiatric pathophysiology.

  14. Histomorphological effects of isoniazid induced hepatotoxicity in male albino mice

    Humayun, F.; Zareen, N.

    2017-01-01

    To observe the histomorphological changes of isoniazid induced hepatotoxicity in male albino mice. Methodology: This experimental study was carried out at University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan from January to December 2013. Forty male albino mice selected by simple random technique, were divided into two groups; A-Control, and B-experimental. Group A comprised of 15, while Group B comprised 25 mice. Both the groups were kept under identical conditions and diet. However, experimental group was treated with an additional oral hepatotoxic dose of isoniazid i.e. 100mg/kg bodyweight daily for 30 days. After 30 days, the animals were sacrificed and livers were dissected out. Gross comparison of the organ and stained sections were histologically compared for morphological differences between the groups. Fischer Exact test was used to analyze the qualitative data and a p<0.05 was considered significant. Results: Group A animals showed the normal liver architecture. Whereas, those of Group B showed deranged hepatic histomorphology. Conclusion: Hepatotoxic dose of Isoniazid caused histomorphological alterations in the liver of male albino mice. (author)

  15. Genetics and evolution of hybrid male sterility in house mice.

    White, Michael A; Stubbings, Maria; Dumont, Beth L; Payseur, Bret A

    2012-07-01

    Comparative genetic mapping provides insights into the evolution of the reproductive barriers that separate closely related species. This approach has been used to document the accumulation of reproductive incompatibilities over time, but has only been applied to a few taxa. House mice offer a powerful system to reconstruct the evolution of reproductive isolation between multiple subspecies pairs. However, studies of the primary reproductive barrier in house mice-hybrid male sterility-have been restricted to a single subspecies pair: Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus. To provide a more complete characterization of reproductive isolation in house mice, we conducted an F(2) intercross between wild-derived inbred strains from Mus musculus castaneus and M. m. domesticus. We identified autosomal and X-linked QTL associated with a range of hybrid male sterility phenotypes, including testis weight, sperm density, and sperm morphology. The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) was strongly associated with hybrid sterility phenotypes when heterozygous. We compared QTL found in this cross with QTL identified in a previous F(2) intercross between M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus and found three shared autosomal QTL. Most QTL were not shared, demonstrating that the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility largely differs between these closely related subspecies pairs. These results lay the groundwork for identifying genes responsible for the early stages of speciation in house mice.

  16. Iron overload induces hypogonadism in male mice via extrahypothalamic mechanisms.

    Macchi, Chiara; Steffani, Liliana; Oleari, Roberto; Lettieri, Antonella; Valenti, Luca; Dongiovanni, Paola; Romero-Ruiz, Antonio; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Cariboni, Anna; Magni, Paolo; Ruscica, Massimiliano

    2017-10-15

    Iron overload leads to multiple organ damage including endocrine organ dysfunctions. Hypogonadism is the most common non-diabetic endocrinopathy in primary and secondary iron overload syndromes. To explore the molecular determinants of iron overload-induced hypogonadism with specific focus on hypothalamic derangements. A dysmetabolic male murine model fed iron-enriched diet (IED) and cell-based models of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons were used. Mice fed IED showed severe hypogonadism with a significant reduction of serum levels of testosterone (-83%) and of luteinizing hormone (-86%), as well as reduced body weight gain, body fat and plasma leptin. IED mice had a significant increment in iron concentration in testes and in the pituitary. Even if iron challenge of in vitro neuronal models (GN-11 and GT1-7 GnRH cells) resulted in 10- and 5-fold iron content increments, respectively, no iron content changes were found in vivo in hypothalamus of IED mice. Conversely, mice placed on IED showed a significant increment in hypothalamic GnRH gene expression (+34%) and in the intensity of GnRH-neuron innervation of the median eminence (+1.5-fold); similar changes were found in the murine model HFE -/- , resembling human hemochromatosis. IED-fed adult male mice show severe impairment of hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis without a relevant contribution of the hypothalamic compartment, which thus appears sufficiently protected from systemic iron overload. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Reproductive ability of pubertal male and female rats

    T. Zemunik

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Ten Fisher rats 50 to 55 days of age made up the pubertal group, and ten rats 90 to 95 days of age served as the controls. The testicular and epididymal weights and volumes of the pubertal males were lower than those of the controls (P0.05. At the beginning of gestation, the pubertal dams weighed less than the controls (P<0.001 but following uterectomy the body weights were equal. Pubertal dams delivered fewer pups than the controls (8.1 ± 2.5 vs 10.4 ± 1.3, P<0.05. There was no difference in the body weights of their offspring or in the weights of their placentas. The results suggest that, in contrast to their female counterparts, pubertal male rats are not fully mature and have not reached complete reproductive capacity at 50-55 days of age.

  18. Selecting Female Mice in Estrus and Checking Plugs.

    Behringer, Richard; Gertsenstein, Marina; Nagy, Kristina Vintersten; Nagy, Andras

    2016-08-01

    The female mouse estrous cycle is divided into four phases: proestrus (development of ovarian follicles), estrus (ovulation), metestrus (formation of corpora lutea), and diestrus (beginning of follicle development for next ovulation and elimination of previous oocytes). The appearance of the epithelium of the external genitalia is used to identify the stage of the estrous cycle of a female mouse. This is usually easier to see in strains with either no or only light skin pigmentation. By examining the color, moistness, and degree of swelling of the vagina, females in estrus can readily be identified. To set up the matings, females are examined in the afternoon, and those in estrus are placed into the cages with males (one or two females in each cage with one male). Usually, 50% or more of the selected females will mate. The presence of a vaginal copulation plug next morning indicates that mating has occurred, but it does not mean that a pregnancy will result even if proven breeder fertile males were used. It is important to check vaginal plugs early in the morning because they fall out or are no longer detectable ~12 h after mating or sometimes earlier. © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  19. Isolation and characterization of string-forming female germline stem cells from ovaries of neonatal mice.

    Liu, Jing; Shang, Dantong; Xiao, Yao; Zhong, Pei; Cheng, Hanhua; Zhou, Rongjia

    2017-09-29

    Germline stem cells are essential in the generation of both male and female gametes. In mammals, the male testis produces sperm throughout the entire lifetime, facilitated by testicular germline stem cells. Oocyte renewal ceases in postnatal or adult life in mammalian females, suggesting that germline stem cells are absent from the mammalian ovary. However, studies in mice, rats, and humans have recently provided evidence for ovarian female germline stem cells (FGSCs). A better understanding of the role of FGSCs in ovaries could help improve fertility treatments. Here, we developed a rapid and efficient method for isolating FGSCs from ovaries of neonatal mice. Notably, our FGSC isolation method could efficiently isolate on average 15 cell "strings" per ovary from mice at 1-3 days postpartum. FGSCs isolated from neonatal mice displayed the string-forming cell configuration at mitosis ( i.e. a "stringing" FGSC (sFGSC) phenotype) and a disperse phenotype in postnatal mice. We also found that sFGSCs undergo vigorous mitosis especially at 1-3 days postpartum. After cell division, the sFGSC membranes tended to be connected to form sFGSCs. Moreover, F-actin filaments exhibited a cell-cortex distribution in sFGSCs, and E-cadherin converged in cell-cell connection regions, resulting in the string-forming morphology. Our new method provides a platform for isolating FGSCs from the neonatal ovary, and our findings indicate that FGCSs exhibit string-forming features in neonatal mice. The sFGSCs represent a valuable resource for analysis of ovary function and an in vitro model for future clinical use to address ovarian dysfunction. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Female Nur77-deficient mice show increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity.

    Sonia Perez-Sieira

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is essential in the regulation of body weight. The key process in fat catabolism and the provision of energy substrate during times of nutrient deprivation or enhanced energy demand is the hydrolysis of triglycerides and the release of fatty acids and glycerol. Nur77 is a member of the NR4A subfamily of nuclear receptors that plays an important metabolic role, modulating hepatic glucose metabolism and lipolysis in muscle. However, its endogenous role on white adipose tissue, as well as the gender dependency of these mechanisms, remains largely unknown. Male and female wild type and Nur77 deficient mice were fed with a high fat diet (45% calories from fat for 4 months. Mice were analyzed in vivo with the indirect calorimetry system, and tissues were analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Female, but not male Nur77 deficient mice, gained more weight and fat mass when compared to wild type mice fed with high fat diet, which can be explained by decreased energy expenditure. The lack of Nur77 also led to a decreased pHSL/HSL ratio in white adipose tissue and increased expression of CIDEA in brown adipose tissue of female Nur77 deficient mice. Overall, these findings suggest that Nur77 is an important physiological modulator of lipid metabolism in adipose tissue and that there are gender differences in the sensitivity to deletion of the Nur77 signaling. The decreased energy expenditure and the actions of Nur77 on liver, muscle, brown and white adipose tissue contribute to the increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in females lacking Nur77.

  1. Discriminating male and female voices: differentiating pitch and gender.

    Latinus, Marianne; Taylor, Margot J

    2012-04-01

    Gender is salient, socially critical information obtained from faces and voices, yet the brain processes underlying gender discrimination have not been well studied. We investigated neural correlates of gender processing of voices in two ERP studies. In the first, ERP differences were seen between female and male voices starting at 87 ms, in both spatial-temporal and peak analyses, particularly the fronto-central N1 and P2. As pitch differences may drive gender differences, the second study used normal, high- and low-pitch voices. The results of these studies suggested that differences in pitch produced early effects (27-63 ms). Gender effects were seen on N1 (120 ms) with implicit pitch processing (study 1), but were not seen with manipulations of pitch (study 2), demonstrating that N1 was modulated by attention. P2 (between 170 and 230 ms) discriminated male from female voices, independent of pitch. Thus, these data show that there are two stages in voice gender processing; a very early pitch or frequency discrimination and a later more accurate determination of gender at the P2 latency.

  2. Constraints on the coevolution of contemporary human males and females

    Stearns, Stephen C.; Govindaraju, Diddahally R.; Ewbank, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Because autosomal genes in sexually reproducing organisms spend on average half their time in each sex, and because the traits that they influence encounter different selection pressures in males and females, the evolutionary responses of one sex are constrained by processes occurring in the othe...... included (16.9 ± 15.7°), compared with when they were excluded (87.9 ± 31.6°). We conclude that intralocus sexual conflict constrains the joint evolutionary responses of the two sexes in a contemporary human population.......Because autosomal genes in sexually reproducing organisms spend on average half their time in each sex, and because the traits that they influence encounter different selection pressures in males and females, the evolutionary responses of one sex are constrained by processes occurring in the other...... sex. Although intralocus sexual conflict can restrict sexes from reaching their phenotypic optima, no direct evidence currently supports its operation in humans. Here, we show that the pattern of multivariate selection acting on human height, weight, blood pressure and glucose, total cholesterol...

  3. Hypogonadism alters cecal and fecal microbiota in male mice.

    Harada, Naoki; Hanaoka, Ryo; Hanada, Kazuki; Izawa, Takeshi; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2016-11-01

    Low testosterone levels increase the risk for cardiovascular disease in men and lead to shorter life spans. Our recent study showed that androgen deprivation via castration altered fecal microbiota and exacerbated risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including obesity, impaired fasting glucose, excess hepatic triglyceride accumulation, and thigh muscle weight loss only in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed male mice. However, when mice were administered antibiotics that disrupted the gut microbiota, castration did not increase cardiovascular risks or decrease the ratio of dried feces to food intake. Here, we show that changes in cecal microbiota (e.g., an increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and number of Lactobacillus species) were consistent with changes in feces and that there was a decreased cecal content secondary to castration in HFD mice. Castration increased rectal body temperature and plasma adiponectin, irrespective of diet. Changes in the gut microbiome may provide novel insight into hypogonadism-induced cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Female and male life tables for seven wild primate species

    Bronikowski, Anne M.; Cords, Marina; Alberts, Susan C.; Altmann, Jeanne; Brockman, Diane K.; Fedigan, Linda M.; Pusey, Anne; Stoinski, Tara; Strier, Karen B.; Morris, William F.

    2016-01-01

    We provide male and female census count data, age-specific survivorship, and female age-specific fertility estimates for populations of seven wild primates that have been continuously monitored for at least 29 years: sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) in Madagascar; muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) in Brazil; capuchin (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica; baboon (Papio cynocephalus) and blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis) in Kenya; chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) in Tanzania; and gorilla (Gorilla beringei) in Rwanda. Using one-year age-class intervals, we computed point estimates of age-specific survival for both sexes. In all species, our survival estimates for the dispersing sex are affected by heavy censoring. We also calculated reproductive value, life expectancy, and mortality hazards for females. We used bootstrapping to place confidence intervals on life-table summary metrics (R0, the net reproductive rate; λ, the population growth rate; and G, the generation time). These data have high potential for reuse; they derive from continuous population monitoring of long-lived organisms and will be invaluable for addressing questions about comparative demography, primate conservation and human evolution. PMID:26928014

  5. Sim1 Neurons Are Sufficient for MC4R-Mediated Sexual Function in Male Mice.

    Semple, Erin; Hill, Jennifer W

    2018-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a poorly understood condition that affects up to one-third of men around the world. Existing treatments that target the periphery do not work for all men. Previous studies have shown that central melanocortins, which are released by pro-opiomelanocortin neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, can lead to male erection and increased libido. Several studies specifically implicate the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) in the central control of sexual function, but the specific neural circuitry involved is unknown. We hypothesized that single-minded homolog 1 (Sim1) neurons play an important role in the melanocortin-mediated regulation of male sexual behavior. To test this hypothesis, we examined the sexual behavior of mice expressing MC4R only on Sim1-positive neurons (tbMC4Rsim1 mice) in comparison with tbMC4R null mice and wild-type controls. In tbMC4Rsim1 mice, MC4R reexpression was found in the medial amygdala and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. These mice were paired with sexually experienced females, and their sexual function and behavior was scored based on mounting, intromission, and ejaculation. tbMC4R null mice showed a longer latency to mount, a reduced intromission efficiency, and an inability to reach ejaculation. Expression of MC4R only on Sim1 neurons reversed the sexual deficits seen in tbMC4R null mice. This study implicates melanocortin signaling via the MC4R on Sim1 neurons in the central control of male sexual behavior. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  6. Responses of Male C57BL/6N Mice to Observing the Euthanasia of Other Mice

    Boivin, Gregory P; Bottomley, Michael A; Grobe, Nadja

    2016-01-01

    The AVMA Panel on Euthanasia recommends that sensitive animals should not be present during the euthanasia of others, especially of their own species, but does not provide guidelines on how to identify a sensitive species. To determine if mice are a sensitive species we reviewed literature on empathy in mice, and measured the cardiovascular and activity response of mice observing euthanasia of conspecifics. We studied male 16-wk-old C57BL/6N mice and found no increase in cardiovascular parameters or activity in the response of the mice to observing CO2 euthanasia. Mice observing decapitation had an increase in all values, but this was paralleled by a similar increase during mock decapitations in which no animals were handled or euthanized. We conclude that CO2 euthanasia of mice does not have an impact on other mice in the room, and that euthanasia by decapitation likely only has an effect due to the noise of the guillotine. We support the conceptual idea that mice are both a sensitive species and display empathy, but under the controlled circumstances of the euthanasia procedures used in this study there was no signaling of stress to witnessing inhabitants in the room. PMID:27423146

  7. Hot issues in female and male hormonal contraception.

    Gava, Giulia; Lantadilla, Claudia; Martelli, Valentina; Fattorini, Anna; Seracchioli, Renato; Meriggiola, Maria C

    2016-02-01

    In recent years a number of significant developments in the field of female hormonal contraception have been made which have produced new formulations and delivery systems providing high efficacy, safety and important non-contraceptive benefits. In particular long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) formulations have been demonstrated to ensure extremely high efficacy in typical use, minimal contraindications, optimal safety in all women thereby representing the best option for most women of all ages. Their effectiveness is not reliant upon user adherence and their ability to reduce unintended pregnancies and abortions has been proven. Unfortunately the same considerations cannot be made for male hormonal contraception. Although a large number of men are interested and would welcome the opportunity to use male contraceptive methods, no safe, effective and reversible methods are available on the market. Current methods available for men are limited to condoms and vasectomy. Highly effective prototype regimens have been developed but the pharmaceutical industry is unwilling to pursue further development and market these products. Of all new approaches to male contraception, hormonal methods are the closest to clinical application. These are based on the reversible suppression of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone with subsequent reversible inhibition of spermatogenesis and consequent replacement to maintain androgen dependent physiological functions. Most approaches tested combination regimens such as testosterone and a progestin or testosterone and a GnRH analog.

  8. The influence of male takeovers on female dispersal in Colobus vellerosus.

    Sicotte, Pascale; Teichroeb, Julie A; Vayro, Josie V; Fox, Stephanie A; Bădescu, Iulia; Wikberg, Eva C

    2017-07-01

    Male takeovers affect male tenure, female mate choice and ultimately, individual reproductive success in group-living primates. In social systems with female philopatry and high male reproductive skew, male takeovers largely determine female mate choice, whereas in species with female dispersal, females have the option of deserting a new male. We focused on a species with facultative female dispersal to investigate which factors promote female desertion of males after takeover, using 15 cases (12 for which we have complete data on the takeover process and the female dispersal outcome). These cases took place in nine groups of Colobus vellerosus between 2001 and 2013 at the Boabeng-Fiema Monkey Sanctuary, Ghana. Quick takeovers were usually achieved by single adult males and were never followed by female dispersal. Slow takeovers involved several males, and these takeovers were regularly accompanied by female emigration. Infant attacks and infanticide by males occurred during both kinds of takeovers, but females with dependent offspring never dispersed, regardless of whether their infant was attacked or killed by the new male(s). Subadult females, who were not constrained by the presence of infants, dispersed more often after slow takeovers than after quick takeovers. Whether female dispersal post-takeover is an expression of female mate choice, or occurs to avoid the social upheaval surrounding slow takeovers, remains to be investigated. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22436, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Male and female stem cells and sex reversal in Hydra polyps

    Bosch, Thomas C. G.; David, Charles N.

    1986-01-01

    Single interstitial stem cells of male polyps of Hydra magnipapillata give rise to clones that differentiate either male or female gametes. To test the sexual stability of these clones, stem cells were recloned. The results indicate that stem cells from female clones are stable in their sexual differentiation capacity; male stem cells, by comparison, switch sexual phenotype at the rate of 10-2 per cell per generation. As a result, female polyps contain only female stem cells; male polyps cont...

  10. Altered social cognition in male BDNF heterozygous mice and following chronic methamphetamine exposure.

    Manning, Elizabeth E; van den Buuse, Maarten

    2016-05-15

    Growing clinical evidence suggests that persistent psychosis which occurs in methamphetamine users is closely related to schizophrenia. However, preclinical studies in animal models have focussed on psychosis-related behaviours following methamphetamine, and less work has been done to assess endophenotypes relevant to other deficits observed in schizophrenia. Altered social behaviour is a feature of both the negative symptoms and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, and significantly impacts patient functioning. We recently found that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) heterozygous mice show disrupted sensitization to methamphetamine, supporting other work suggesting an important role of this neurotrophin in the pathophysiology of psychosis and the neuronal response to stimulant drugs. In the current study, we assessed social and cognitive behaviours in methamphetamine-treated BDNF heterozygous mice and wildtype littermate controls. Following chronic methamphetamine exposure male wildtype mice showed a 50% reduction in social novelty preference. Vehicle-treated male BDNF heterozygous mice showed a similar impairment in social novelty preference, with a trend for no further disruption by methamphetamine exposure. Female mice were unaffected in this task, and no groups showed any changes in sociability or short-term spatial memory. These findings suggest that chronic methamphetamine alters behaviour relevant to disruption of social cognition in schizophrenia, supporting other studies which demonstrate a close resemblance between persistent methamphetamine psychosis and schizophrenia. Together these findings suggest that dynamic regulation of BDNF signalling is necessary to mediate the effects of methamphetamine on behaviours relevant to schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Male harassment influences female movements and associations in Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi)

    Siva R. Sundaresan; Ilya R. Fischhoff; DI Rubenstein

    2007-01-01

    In traditional models for social organization, female movements and association patterns track resource distribution, whereas males track females. More recently, this model has been expanded to include feedback effects of male behavior, especially sexual harassment, on female decisions. In Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi), males defend territories containing resources attractive to females, who form unstable groups. Past research has explained female behavior based on resource distribution and ne...

  12. Do Female and Male On-Line Students Meet Their Needs Differently? Introducing New Data.

    Gougeon, Thomas D.

    Deborah Tannen's framework for interpersonal communication between males and females (published in 1990) was used to explore how male and female distance education students meet their primary needs through communication. The study population consisted of the 19 female and 6 male students enrolled in a 13-week computer conferencing course at the…

  13. Sexual Harassment by Males Reduces Female Fecundity in the Alfalfa Leafcutting Bee (Megachile rotundata)

    Under sexual conflict, males evolve traits to increase their mating and reproductive success that impose costs on females. Females evolve counter-adaptations to resist males and reduce those costs. Female resistance may instead serve as a mechanism for mate choice if the male-imposed costs are outwe...

  14. Infertility as a consequence of spermagglutinating Staphylococcus aureus colonization in genital tract of female mice.

    Siftjit Kaur

    Full Text Available Various studies have shown Staphylococcus aureus to be one of the most prevalent organism in male and female genital tract but most practitioners dismiss it as mere contamination which is assumed to be of no significance. However, it is now suggested that the presence of this organism should not be ignored, as incubation of spermatozoa with S. aureus results in reduced sperm motility. Although S. aureus has been reported to cause immobilization of spermatozoa, however, its role in infertility has yet to be elucidated. The present study was designed to establish a spermagglutinating strain of S. aureus isolated from the cervix of a woman with unexplained infertility, in mouse and evaluate its effect on fertility outcome. Female Balb/c mice were inoculated intravaginally with different doses of S. aureus (10(4, 10(6 or 10(8cfu/20 µl for 10 consecutive days. Microbial colonization monitored every 3(rd day by vaginal cultures, revealed that strain could efficiently colonize mouse vagina. Mating on day 12, with proven breeder males led to 100% decrease in fertility as compared to control. Even a single dose of 10(6 or 10(8cfu could lead to vaginal colonization which persisted for 10 days followed by gradual clearing till 21 days, vaginal cultures were negative thereafter. Female mice mated on day 7 (culture positive, were rendered infertile, however, the mice mated on day 22 (culture negative, retained fertility and delivered pups indicating its role in provoking infertility. Further, except infertility, no other clinical manifestation could be seen apparently or histologically. However, when a non-spermagglutinating/immobilizing standard strain of S. aureus MTCC6625 was inoculated intravaginally at 10(8cfu for 10 days followed by mating on day 12, fertility was observed in all the female mice. This supports the hypothesis that infertility observed in the former groups was as a result of colonization with spermagglutinating strain of S. aureus.

  15. Preference for Male Traits Differ in Two Female Morphs of the Tree Lizard, Urosaurus ornatus

    Lattanzio, Matthew S.; Metro, Kevin J.; Miles, Donald B.

    2014-01-01

    Non-random female mating preferences may contribute to the maintenance of phenotypic variation in color polymorphic species. However, the effect of female preference depends on the types of male traits used as signals by receptive females. If preference signals derive from discrete male traits (i.e., morph-specific), female preferences may rapidly fix to a morph. However, female preference signals may also include condition-dependent male traits. In this scenario, female preference may differ depending on the social context (i.e., male morph availability). Male tree lizards (Urosaurus ornatus) exhibit a dewlap color polymorphism that covaries with mating behavior. Blue morph males are aggressive and defend territories, yellow males are less aggressive and defend smaller territories, and orange males are typically nomadic. Female U. ornatus are also polymorphic in dewlap color, but the covariation between dewlap color and female behavior is unknown. We performed an experiment to determine how female mate choice depends on the visual and chemical signals produced by males. We also tested whether female morphs differ in their preferences for these signals. Female preferences involved both male dewlap color and size of the ventral color patch. However, the female morphs responded to these signals differently and depended on the choice between the types of male morphs. Our experiment revealed that females may be capable of distinguishing among the male morphs using chemical signals alone. Yellow females exhibit preferences based on both chemical and visual signals, which may be a strategy to avoid ultra-dominant males. In contrast, orange females may prefer dominant males. We conclude that female U. ornatus morphs differ in mating behavior. Our findings also provide evidence for a chemical polymorphism among male lizards in femoral pore secretions. PMID:25033282

  16. Constitutive luteinizing hormone receptor signaling causes sexual dysfunction and Leydig cell adenomas in male mice.

    Hai, Lan; Hiremath, Deepak S; Paquet, Marilène; Narayan, Prema

    2017-05-01

    The luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR) is necessary for fertility, and genetic mutations cause defects in reproductive development and function. Activating mutations in LHCGR cause familial male-limited precocious puberty (FMPP). We have previously characterized a mouse model (KiLHRD582G) for FMPP that exhibits the same phenotype of precocious puberty, Leydig cell hyperplasia, and elevated testosterone as boys with the disorder. We observed that KiLHRD582G male mice became infertile by 6 months of age, although sperm count and motility were normal. In this study, we sought to determine the reason for the progressive infertility and the long-term consequences of constant LHCGR signaling. Mating with superovulated females showed that infertile KiLHRD582G mice had functional sperm and normal accessory gland function. Sexual behavior studies revealed that KiLHRD582G mice mounted females, but intromission was brief and ejaculation was not achieved. Histological analysis of the reproductive tract showed unique metaplastic changes resulting in pseudostratified columnar epithelial cells with cilia in the ampulla and chondrocytes in the penile body of the KiLHRD582G mice. The infertile KiLHRD582G exhibited enlarged sinusoids and a decrease in smooth muscle content in the corpora cavernosa of the penile body. However, collagen content was unchanged. Leydig cell adenomas and degenerating seminiferous tubules were seen in 1-year-old KiLHRD582G mice. We conclude that progressive infertility in KiLHRD582G mice is due to sexual dysfunction likely due to functional defects in the penis. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Sphingomyelin Synthase 1 Is Essential for Male Fertility in Mice.

    Anke Wittmann

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids and the derived gangliosides have critical functions in spermatogenesis, thus mutations in genes involved in sphingolipid biogenesis are often associated with male infertility. We have generated a transgenic mouse line carrying an insertion in the sphingomyelin synthase gene Sms1, the enzyme which generates sphingomyelin species in the Golgi apparatus. We describe the spermatogenesis defect of Sms1-/- mice, which is characterized by sloughing of spermatocytes and spermatids, causing progressive infertility of male homozygotes. Lipid profiling revealed a reduction in several long chain unsaturated phosphatidylcholins, lysophosphatidylcholins and sphingolipids in the testes of mutants. Multi-Spectral Optoacoustic Tomography indicated blood-testis barrier dysfunction. A supplementary diet of the essential omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid diminished germ cell sloughing from the seminiferous epithelium and restored spermatogenesis and fertility in 50% of previously infertile mutants. Our findings indicate that SMS1 has a wider than anticipated role in testis polyunsaturated fatty acid homeostasis and for male fertility.

  18. Watching Aggressive, Attractive, Female Protagonists Shapes Gender Roles for Women Among Male and Female Undergraduate Viewers.

    Taylor, Laramie D; Setters, Tiffany

    2011-07-01

    The impact of exposure to media representations of aggressive, attractive, female protagonists on audiences' gender role expectations for women was explored through a laboratory experiment with 122 undergraduates from a large university on the west coast of the United States. Participants viewed a segment of a major Hollywood motion picture that featured a female protagonist who was either highly attractive or less attractive and either highly aggressive or not aggressive. Viewing clips featuring a female protagonist who was both aggressive and stereotypically attractive led to greater endorsement of stereotypically feminine and stereotypically masculine gender role expectations for women. The effect on endorsement of stereotypically masculine expectations was partially mediated by the perception that the protagonist was a good role model for women. Although women endorsed both feminine and masculine gender role expectations for women more strongly than men, the effects of exposure to aggressive, attractive, female protagonists were similar for both male and female participants. Results are discussed in terms of gender stereotype activation and superwoman expectations for women.

  19. Being Bullied in Virtual Environments: Experiences and Reactions of Male and Female Students to a Male or Female Oppressor

    Nicole Krämer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is a pressing societal problem. As such, it is important to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in bullying and of resilience factors which might protect victims. Moreover, it is necessary to provide tools that can train potential victims to strengthen their resilience. To facilitate both of these goals, the current study tests a recently developed virtual environment that puts participants in the role of a victim who is being oppressed by a superior. In a 2 × 2 between-subjects experiment (N = 81, we measured the effects of gender of the oppressor and gender of the participant on psychophysiological reactions, subjective experiences and willingness to report the event. The results reveal that even when a male and a female bully show the exact same behavior, the male bully is perceived as more threatening. In terms of gender of the victim, the only difference that emerged was a more pronounced increase in heart rate in males. The results were moderated by the personality factors social gender, neuroticism, and need to belong, while self-esteem did not show any moderating influence.

  20. Regional ventilation during phonation in professional male and female singers.

    Traser, Louisa; Knab, Jana; Echternach, Matthias; Fuhrer, Hannah; Richter, Bernhard; Buerkle, Hartmut; Schumann, Stefan

    2017-05-01

    The respiratory system is a central part of voice production, but details in breath control during phonation are not yet fully understood. This study therefore aims to investigate regional ventilation of the lungs during phonation. It was analyzed in 11 professional singers using electrical impedance tomography during breathing and phonation with maximum phonation time. Our results show differences in impedance changes between phonation and exhalation in the courses of time and amplitude normalized curves. Furthermore, differences related to gender and professionalism were found in the temporal and spatial profiles of regional ventilation. For female singers (sopranos and mezzo-sopranos) the anterior region participated less at the start of ventilation, and was more stable at the midpoint compared to male singers (tenors). This might be an expression of a smaller relative movement in rib cage and anterior diaphragm, primarily in early phonation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of SOX3 as an XX male sex reversal gene in mice and humans.

    Sutton, Edwina; Hughes, James; White, Stefan; Sekido, Ryohei; Tan, Jacqueline; Arboleda, Valerie; Rogers, Nicholas; Knower, Kevin; Rowley, Lynn; Eyre, Helen; Rizzoti, Karine; McAninch, Dale; Goncalves, Joao; Slee, Jennie; Turbitt, Erin; Bruno, Damien; Bengtsson, Henrik; Harley, Vincent; Vilain, Eric; Sinclair, Andrew; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Thomas, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Sex in mammals is genetically determined and is defined at the cellular level by sex chromosome complement (XY males and XX females). The Y chromosome-linked gene sex-determining region Y (SRY) is believed to be the master initiator of male sex determination in almost all eutherian and metatherian mammals, functioning to upregulate expression of its direct target gene Sry-related HMG box-containing gene 9 (SOX9). Data suggest that SRY evolved from SOX3, although there is no direct functional evidence to support this hypothesis. Indeed, loss-of-function mutations in SOX3 do not affect sex determination in mice or humans. To further investigate Sox3 function in vivo, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing Sox3. Here, we report that in one of these transgenic lines, Sox3 was ectopically expressed in the bipotential gonad and that this led to frequent complete XX male sex reversal. Further analysis indicated that Sox3 induced testis differentiation in this particular line of mice by upregulating expression of Sox9 via a similar mechanism to Sry. Importantly, we also identified genomic rearrangements within the SOX3 regulatory region in three patients with XX male sex reversal. Together, these data suggest that SOX3 and SRY are functionally interchangeable in sex determination and support the notion that SRY evolved from SOX3 via a regulatory mutation that led to its de novo expression in the early gonad.

  2. Identification of SOX3 as an XX male sex reversal gene in mice and humans

    Sutton, Edwina; Hughes, James; White, Stefan; Sekido, Ryohei; Tan, Jacqueline; Arboleda, Valerie; Rogers, Nicholas; Knower, Kevin; Rowley, Lynn; Eyre, Helen; Rizzoti, Karine; McAninch, Dale; Goncalves, Joao; Slee, Jennie; Turbitt, Erin; Bruno, Damien; Bengtsson, Henrik; Harley, Vincent; Vilain, Eric; Sinclair, Andrew; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Thomas, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Sex in mammals is genetically determined and is defined at the cellular level by sex chromosome complement (XY males and XX females). The Y chromosome–linked gene sex-determining region Y (SRY) is believed to be the master initiator of male sex determination in almost all eutherian and metatherian mammals, functioning to upregulate expression of its direct target gene Sry-related HMG box–containing gene 9 (SOX9). Data suggest that SRY evolved from SOX3, although there is no direct functional evidence to support this hypothesis. Indeed, loss-of-function mutations in SOX3 do not affect sex determination in mice or humans. To further investigate Sox3 function in vivo, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing Sox3. Here, we report that in one of these transgenic lines, Sox3 was ectopically expressed in the bipotential gonad and that this led to frequent complete XX male sex reversal. Further analysis indicated that Sox3 induced testis differentiation in this particular line of mice by upregulating expression of Sox9 via a similar mechanism to Sry. Importantly, we also identified genomic rearrangements within the SOX3 regulatory region in three patients with XX male sex reversal. Together, these data suggest that SOX3 and SRY are functionally interchangeable in sex determination and support the notion that SRY evolved from SOX3 via a regulatory mutation that led to its de novo expression in the early gonad. PMID:21183788

  3. Gender-specific effects of endogenous testosterone: female alpha-estrogen receptor-deficient C57Bl/6J mice develop glomerulosclerosis.

    Elliot, S J; Berho, M; Korach, K; Doublier, S; Lupia, E; Striker, G E; Karl, M

    2007-08-01

    Young female mice on a C57Bl/6J (B6) background are considered glomerulosclerosis (GS)-resistant but aging B6 mice develop mild GS. Estrogen deficiency accelerates while estrogen replacement retards GS in young sclerosis-prone oligosyndactyly mutant mice on an ROP background. To explore the effects of sex hormones on glomerular structure and function in the context of gender and genetic background, we studied mice in which the estrogen-receptor (ER) genes alpha- or -beta were deleted (alpha- or betaER knockout (KO)) and crossed into the B6 background. We also studied ovariectomized (Ovx) B6 mice given testosterone. Male and female betaERKO and male alphaERKO mice had no glomerular dysfunction at 9 months of age; however, alphaERKO female mice displayed albuminuria and GS. Ovx prevented glomerular dysfunction in alphaERKO female mice by eliminating endogenous testosterone production while exogenous testosterone induced GS in Ovx B6 mice. Androgen receptor (AR) expression and function was found in microdissected glomeruli and cultured mesangial cells. Testosterone compared to placebo increased both AR expression and TGF-beta1 mRNA levels in glomeruli isolated from female B6 mice. Estrogen deficiency had no deleterious effects on the glomeruli in B6 mice. Our study shows that genetic traits strongly influence the GS-promoting effects of estrogen deficiency while testosterone induces GS in a gender-specific manner.

  4. Classical and alternative activation and metalloproteinase expression occurs in foam cell macrophages in male and female ApoE null mice in the absence of T- and B-lymphocytes

    Elaine Mo Hayes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rupture of advanced atherosclerotic plaques accounts for most life-threatening myocardial infarctions. Classical (M1 and alternative (M2 macrophage activation could promote atherosclerotic plaque progression and rupture by increasing production of proteases, including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. Lymphocyte-derived cytokines may be essential for generating M1 and M2 phenotypes in plaques, although this has not been rigorously tested until now.Methods and Results: We validated the expression of M1 markers (iNOS and COX-2 and M2 markers (arginase-1, Ym-1 and CD206 and then measured MMP mRNA levels in mouse macrophages during classical and alternative activation in vitro. We then compared mRNA expression of these genes ex vivo in foam cells from subcutaneous granulomas in fat-fed immune-competent ApoE knockout and immune-compromised ApoE/Rag-1 double knockout mice, which lack all T and B cells. Furthermore, we performed immunohistochemistry in subcutaneous granulomas and in aortic root and brachiocephalic artery atherosclerotic plaques to measure the extent of M1/M2 marker and MMP protein expression in vivo. Classical activation of mouse macrophages with bacterial lipopolysaccharide in vitro increased MMPs-13, -14 and -25 but decreased MMP-19 and TIMP-2 mRNA expressions. Alternative activation with IL-4 increased MMP-19 expression. Foam cells in subcutaneous granulomas expressed all M1/M2 markers and MMPs at ex vivo mRNA and in vivo protein levels, irrespective of Rag-1 genotype. There were also similar percentages of foam cell macrophages carrying M1/M2 markers and MMPs in atherosclerotic plaques from ApoE knockout and ApoE/Rag-1 double knockout mice. Conclusions: Classical and alternative activation leads to distinct MMP expression patterns in mouse macrophages in vitro. M1 and M2 polarization in vivo occurs in the absence of T and B lymphocytes in either granuloma or plaque foam cell macrophages.

  5. Promotion of hepatic preneoplastic lesions in male B6C3F1 mice by unleaded gasoline.

    Standeven, A M; Wolf, D C; Goldsworthy, T L

    1995-01-01

    In previous studies, unleaded gasoline (UG) vapor was found to be a liver tumor promoter and hepatocarcinogen in female mice, but UG was not a hepatocarcinogen in male mice. However, UG vapor had similar transient mitogenic effects in nonlesioned liver of both male and female mice under the conditions of the cancer bioassay. We used an initiation-promotion protocol to determine whether UG vapor acts as a liver tumor promoter in male mice and to examine proliferative effects that may be critical to tumor development. Twelve-day-old male B6C3F1 mice were injected with N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN; 5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or vehicle. Starting at 5-7 weeks of age, mice were exposed by inhalation 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 16 weeks to 0 or 2046 ppm of PS-6 blend UG. UG treatment caused a significant 2.3-fold increase in the number of macroscopic hepatic masses in DEN-initiated mice, whereas no macroscopic masses were observed in non-initiated mice. Altered hepatic foci (AHF), which were predominantly basophilic in phenotype, were found almost exclusively in DEN-initiated mice. UG treatment significantly increased both the mean volume (threefold) and the volume fraction (twofold) of the AHF without increasing the number of AHF per unit area. UG also induced hepatic pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (PROD) activity, a marker of CYP2B, by more than 12-fold over control with or without DEN cotreatment. To study hepatocyte proliferative effects of UG, we treated mice with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) via osmotic pump for 3 days before necropsy and measured hepatocyte BrdU labeling index (LI) in AHF and nonlesioned liver.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1. PMID:7588481

  6. Inhalation reproductive toxicology studies: Male dominant lethal study of n-hexane in Swiss (CD-1) mice: Final report

    Mast, T.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Evanoff, J.J.; Sasser, L.B.; Decker, J.R.; Stoney, K.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1988-08-01

    The straight-chain hydrocarbon, n-hexane, is a volatile, ubiquitous solvent routinely used in industrial environments; consequently, the opportunity for industrial, environmental or accidental exposure to hexane vapors is significant. Although myelinated nerve tissue is the primary target organ of hexane, the testes have also been identified as being sensitive to hexacarbon exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate male dominant lethal effects in Swiss (CD-1) mice after exposure to 0, 200, 1000, or 5000 ppM n-hexane, 20 h/day for 5 consecutive days. Each exposure concentration consisted of 30 randomly selected, proven male breeders; 4 groups. The mice were weighed just prior to the first day of exposure and at weekly intervals until sacrifice. Ten males in each dose group were sacrificed one day after the cessation of exposure, and their testes and epididymides were removed for evaluation of the germinal epithelium. The remaining male mice, 20 per group, were individually housed in hanging wire-mesh breeding cages where they were mated with unexposed, virgin females for eight weekly intervals; new females were provided each week. The mated females were sacrificed 12 days after the last day of cohabitation and their reproductive status and the number and viability of the implants were recorded. The appearance and behavior of the male mice were unremarkable throughout the study period and no evidence of n-hexane toxicity was observed. 18 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Inhalation reproductive toxicology studies: Male dominant lethal study of n-hexane in Swiss (CD-1) mice: Final report

    Mast, T.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Evanoff, J.J.; Sasser, L.B.; Decker, J.R.; Stoney, K.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1988-08-01

    The straight-chain hydrocarbon, n-hexane, is a volatile, ubiquitous solvent routinely used in industrial environments; consequently, the opportunity for industrial, environmental or accidental exposure to hexane vapors is significant. Although myelinated nerve tissue is the primary target organ of hexane, the testes have also been identified as being sensitive to hexacarbon exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate male dominant lethal effects in Swiss (CD-1) mice after exposure to 0, 200, 1000, or 5000 ppM n-hexane, 20 h/day for 5 consecutive days. Each exposure concentration consisted of 30 randomly selected, proven male breeders; 4 groups. The mice were weighed just prior to the first day of exposure and at weekly intervals until sacrifice. Ten males in each dose group were sacrificed one day after the cessation of exposure, and their testes and epididymides were removed for evaluation of the germinal epithelium. The remaining male mice, 20 per group, were individually housed in hanging wire-mesh breeding cages where they were mated with unexposed, virgin females for eight weekly intervals; new females were provided each week. The mated females were sacrificed 12 days after the last day of cohabitation and their reproductive status and the number and viability of the implants were recorded. The appearance and behavior of the male mice were unremarkable throughout the study period and no evidence of n-hexane toxicity was observed. 18 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs

  8. Changes in personality among male and female dental graduates.

    McCreary, C P; Gershen, J A

    1982-05-01

    This study examines changes in personality traits in male and female dental students and recent graduates. The Comrey Personality Scales were administered to two freshman classes, and the test was readministered two months after graduation for one class and twenty-six months after graduation for the other class. Sex. class, and test/retest scores were analyzed using a three-way analysis of variance with repeated measures for each scale. Significant test/retest differences consisted of increases on the Orderliness versus Lack of Compulsion Scale and Conformity versus Rebelliousness Scale and a decrease on the Activity versus Lack of Energy Scale. There were significant sex differences on the Activity versus Lack of Energy, Emotional Stability versus Neuroticism, and Masculinity versus Femininity Scales; a decrease on the Empathy versus Egocentrism Scale occurred among females in one of the classes. Dental students became increasingly more orderly and identified with established social values; they also became less competitive and less driven to excel. The dental school experience may partially explain these changes; however, other conditions, such as maturation and societal influences, may have been involved.

  9. Chimpanzee females queue but males compete for social status

    Foerster, Steffen; Franz, Mathias; Murray, Carson M.; Gilby, Ian C.; Feldblum, Joseph T.; Walker, Kara K.; Pusey, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    Dominance hierarchies are widespread in animal social groups and often have measureable effects on individual health and reproductive success. Dominance ranks are not static individual attributes, however, but instead are influenced by two independent processes: 1) changes in hierarchy membership and 2) successful challenges of higher-ranking individuals. Understanding which of these processes dominates the dynamics of rank trajectories can provide insights into fitness benefits of within-sex competition. This question has yet to be examined systematically in a wide range of taxa due to the scarcity of long-term data and a lack of appropriate methodologies for distinguishing between alternative causes of rank changes over time. Here, we expand on recent work and develop a new likelihood-based Elo rating method that facilitates the systematic assessment of rank dynamics in animal social groups, even when interaction data are sparse. We apply this method to characterize long-term rank trajectories in wild eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and find remarkable sex differences in rank dynamics, indicating that females queue for social status while males actively challenge each other to rise in rank. Further, our results suggest that natal females obtain a head start in the rank queue if they avoid dispersal, with potential fitness benefits. PMID:27739527

  10. Correlated Male Preferences for Femininity in Female Faces and Voices

    Paul J Fraccaro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sexually dimorphic physical traits are important for mate choice and mate preference in many species, including humans. Several previous studies have observed that women's preferences for physical cues of male masculinity in different domains (e.g., visual and vocal are correlated. These correlations demonstrate systematic, rather than arbitrary, variation in women's preferences for masculine men and are consistent with the proposal that sexually dimorphic cues in different domains reflect a common underlying aspect of male quality. Here we present evidence for a similar correlation between men's preferences for different cues of femininity in women; although men generally preferred feminized to masculinized versions of both women's faces and voices, the strength of men's preferences for feminized versions of female faces was positively and significantly correlated with the strength of their preferences for feminized versions of women's voices. In a second study, this correlation occurred when men judged women's attractiveness as long-term, but not short-term, mates, which is consistent with previous research. Collectively, these findings (1 present novel evidence for systematic variation in men's preferences for feminine women, (2 present converging evidence for concordant preferences for sexually dimorphic traits in different domains, and (3 complement findings of correlations between women's facial and vocal femininity.

  11. Dyadic relationships and operational performance of male and female owners and their male dogs.

    Kotrschal, Kurt; Schöberl, Iris; Bauer, Barbara; Thibeaut, Anne-Marie; Wedl, Manuela

    2009-07-01

    In the paper we investigate how owner personality, attitude and gender influence dog behavior, dyadic practical functionality and the level of dog salivary cortisol. In three meetings, 12 female and 10 male owners of male dogs answered questionnaires including the Neo-FFI human personality inventory. Their dyadic behavior was video-taped in a number of test situations, and saliva samples were collected. Owners who scored highly in neuroticism (Neo-FFI dimension one) viewed their dogs as social supporters and spent much time with them. Their dogs had low baseline cortisol levels, but such dyads were less successful in the operational task. Owners who scored highly in extroversion (Neo-FFI dimension two) appreciated shared activities with their dogs which had relatively high baseline cortisol values. Dogs that had female owners were less sociable-active (dog personality axis 1) than dogs that had male owners. Therefore, it appears that owner gender and personality influences dyadic interaction style, dog behavior and dyadic practical functionality.

  12. Male mice that lack the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR41 have low energy expenditure and increased body fat content.

    Bellahcene, Mohamed; O'Dowd, Jacqueline F; Wargent, Ed T; Zaibi, Mohamed S; Hislop, David C; Ngala, Robert A; Smith, David M; Cawthorne, Michael A; Stocker, Claire J; Arch, Jonathan R S

    2013-05-28

    SCFA are produced in the gut by bacterial fermentation of undigested carbohydrates. Activation of the Gαi-protein-coupled receptor GPR41 by SCFA in β-cells and sympathetic ganglia inhibits insulin secretion and increases sympathetic outflow, respectively. A possible role in stimulating leptin secretion by adipocytes is disputed. In the present study, we investigated energy balance and glucose homoeostasis in GPR41 knockout mice fed on a standard low-fat or a high-fat diet. When fed on the low-fat diet, body fat mass was raised and glucose tolerance was impaired in male but not female knockout mice compared to wild-type mice. Soleus muscle and heart weights were reduced in the male mice, but total body lean mass was unchanged. When fed on the high-fat diet, body fat mass was raised in male but not female GPR41 knockout mice, but by no more in the males than when they were fed on the low-fat diet. Body lean mass and energy expenditure were reduced in male mice but not in female knockout mice. These results suggest that the absence of GPR41 increases body fat content in male mice. Gut-derived SCFA may raise energy expenditure and help to protect against obesity by activating GPR41.

  13. Why do males of the spider Pisaura mirabilis wrap their nuptial gifts in silk: Female preference or male control?

    Andersen, Tina; Bollerup, Kristine; Toft, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Males of the spider Pisaura mirabilis present a nuptial prey gift to the female during courtship as a mating effort. The gift is usually round and wrapped in white silk. It was suggested that the wrapped gift functions as a sensory trap by mimicking the female's eggsac implying that males exploit...

  14. Costs of female odour in males of the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Ruther, Joachim; Steiner, Sven

    2008-06-01

    The display of female traits by males is widespread in the animal kingdom. In several species, this phenomenon has been shown to function adaptively as a male mating strategy to deceive sexual rivals (female mimicry). Freshly emerged males of the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are perceived by other males as if they were females because of a very similar composition of cuticular hydrocarbons which function as a sex pheromone in this species inducing courtship behaviour in males. Within 32 h, however, males deactivate the pheromone and are no longer courted by other males. In this paper, behavioural experiments were performed to test hypotheses on potential costs and benefits associated with the female odour in young males. We did not find any benefits, but demonstrated that young males were significantly more often outrivaled in male-male contests when competing with two older males for a female. Also, young males were significantly more often mounted in homosexual courtship events during these contests. Thus, display of female traits by males is not necessarily beneficial, and in fact, can be disadvantageous. We suggest that these costs have favoured the evolution of the pheromone deactivation mechanism in L. distinguendus males. The function of cuticular hydrocarbons as a female courtship pheromone in L. distinguendus might have evolved secondarily from a primary function relevant for both genders, and the deactivation of the signal in males might have caused a shift of specificity of the chemical signal from the species level to the sex level.

  15. Relational and sexual fluidity in females partnered with male-to-female transsexual persons.

    Aramburu Alegría, C

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports on a study examining sexuality in females who remain partnered with male-to-female transsexual persons. Participants' self-view and sexual fluidity following their partners' transition from man to woman is examined. Sixteen females participated in in-depth, semi-structured interviews. An inductive process of data analysis was conducted, using the constant comparative method, an iterative process by which data are compared within and across subjects. Data were collected until thematic saturation was achieved. Four themes related to sexuality emerged: (1) questioning of sexual orientation; (2) sexual orientation categorization; (3) relational fluidity without sexual relations; and (4) relational fluidity with sexual relations. Participants maintained a heterosexual identity, yet modified their self-view to include an identity that reflected their reformed relationship. The majority of the respondents reported sexual lives that were active or evolving. Others remained in relationships that no longer included sexual activity. The study findings highlight the potential fluidity within the sexual and relational lives of females, and can enhance healthcare providers' preparedness and efficacy with diverse populations. Providers are in a unique position to offer resources to patients who identify as sexually or gender-diverse, or who are in relationships with sexually or gender-diverse persons. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing.

  16. A mineral-rich extract from the red marine algae Lithothamnion calcareum preserves bone structure and function in female mice on a Western-style diet.

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Kreider, Jaclynn M; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; DaSilva, Marissa; Zernicke, Ronald F; Goldstein, Steven A; Varani, James

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a mineral-rich extract derived from the red marine algae Lithothamnion calcareum could be used as a dietary supplement for prevention of bone mineral loss. Sixty C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups based on diet: the first group received a high-fat Western-style diet (HFWD), the second group was fed the same HFWD along with the mineral-rich extract included as a dietary supplement, and the third group was used as a control and was fed a low-fat rodent chow diet (AIN76A). Mice were maintained on the respective diets for 15 months. Then, long bones (femora and tibiae) from both males and females were analyzed by three-dimensional micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and (bones from female mice) concomitantly assessed in bone strength studies. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), osteocalcin, and N-terminal peptide of type I procollagen (PINP) were assessed in plasma samples obtained from female mice at the time of sacrifice. To summarize, female mice on the HFWD had reduced bone mineralization and reduced bone strength relative to female mice on the low-fat chow diet. The bone defects in female mice on the HFWD were overcome in the presence of the mineral-rich supplement. In fact, female mice receiving the mineral-rich supplement in the HFWD had better bone structure/function than did female mice on the low-fat chow diet. Female mice on the mineral-supplemented HFWD had higher plasma levels of TRAP than mice of the other groups. There were no differences in the other two markers. Male mice showed little diet-specific differences by micro-CT.

  17. Induction of external abnormalities in offspring of male mice irradiated with 252Cf neutron

    Kurishita, Akihiro; Ono, Tetsuya; Mori, Yuriko; Okada, Shigefumi; Sawada, Syozo

    1992-01-01

    To assess the genetic effects of fission neutron, the induction of external malformations was studied in F 1 fetuses after F 0 male mice were irradiated. Male mice of the ICR:MCH strain were irradiated with 252 Cf neutron at doses of 0.238, 0.475, 0.95 and 1.9 Gy. They were mated with non-irradiated female mice at 71-120 days after irradiation. Pregnant females were autopsied on day 18 of gestation and their fetuses were examined for deaths and external abnormalities. No increases of pre- and post-implantation losses were noted at any dose. External abnormalities were observed at rates of 1.40% in the 0.238 Gy, 2.23% in the 0.475 Gy, 3.36% in the 0.95 and 3.26% in the 1.9 Gy groups; the rate in the control group was 1.65%. The dose-response curve was linear up to 0.95 Gy, and then flattened out; the induction rate of external abnormalities was 2.7x10 -4 /gamete/cGy based on the linear regression. These results indicated that fission neutron effectively induces external abnormalities in F 1 fetuses after spermatogonial irradiation. (author). 29 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  18. Nuptial gifts of male spiders: sensory exploitation of the female's maternal care instinct or foraging motivation?

    Bilde, T.; Tuni, Cristina; Elsayed, Rehab

    2007-01-01

    by producing a nuptial gift that resembles the female's eggsac. In mating experiments we examined whether males exploit the female's foraging motivation or the female's maternal care instinct. We carried out a gift-switching experiment, where males presented an eggsac, a wrapped fly or an unwrapped fly...... as nuptial gifts. Females fed on eggsacs as well as on prey gifts. Mating success was similar for males with both wrapped and unwrapped gifts, indicating that wrapping per se does not increase male mating success. In a food manipulation experiment, we investigated the effect of the female's hunger level...... on male mating success. Hungry females were more likely to accept a gift and copulate; hence the female's hunger state is decisive for male mating success. Our results strongly suggest that the female's foraging motivation is the true context for the maintenance of the nuptial gift....

  19. Heterozygosity for a Bub1 mutation causes female-specific germ cell aneuploidy in mice

    Leland, Shawn; Nagarajan, Prabakaran; Polyzos, Aris; Thomas, Sharon; Samaan, George; Donnell, Robert; Marchetti, Francesco; Venkatachalam, Sundaresan

    2009-06-24

    Aneuploidy, the most common chromosomal abnormality at birth and the main ascertained cause of pregnancy loss in humans, originates primarily from chromosome segregation errors during oogenesis. Here we report that heterozygosity for a mutation in the mitotic checkpoint kinase gene, Bub1, induces aneuploidy in female germ cells of mice, and that the effect increases with advancing maternal age. Analysis of Bub1 heterozygous oocytes showed that aneuploidy occurred primarily during the first meiotic division and involved premature sister chromatid separation. Furthermore, aneuploidy was inherited in zygotes and resulted in the loss of embryos after implantation. The incidence of aneuploidy in zygotes was sufficient to explain the reduced litter size in matings with Bub1 heterozygous females. No effects were seen in germ cells from heterozygous males. These findings show that Bub1 dysfunction is linked to inherited aneuploidy in female germ cells and may contribute to the maternal age-related increase in aneuploidy and pregnancy loss.

  20. FEMALE MICE ARE RESISTANT TO Fabp1 GENE ABLATION-INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN BRAIN ENDOCANNABINOID LEVELS

    Martin, Gregory G.; Chung, Sarah; Landrock, Danilo; Landrock, Kerstin K.; Dangott, Lawrence J.; Peng, Xiaoxue; Kaczocha, Martin; Murphy, Eric J.; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2017-01-01

    Although liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP1, L-FABP) is not detectable in brain, Fabp1 gene ablation (LKO) markedly increases endocannabinoids (EC) in brains of male mice. Since the brain EC system of females differs significantly from that of males, it was important to determine if LKO differently impacted the brain EC system. LKO did not alter brain levels of arachidonic acid (ARA)-containing ECs, i.e arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), but decreased non-ARA-containing N-acylethanolamides (OEA, PEA) and 2-oleoylglycerol (2-OG) that potentiate the actions of AEA and 2-AG. These changes in brain potentiating EC levels were not associated with: i) a net decrease in levels of brain membrane proteins associated with fatty acid uptake and EC synthesis; ii) a net increase in brain protein levels of cytosolic EC chaperones and enzymes in EC degradation; or iii) increased brain protein levels of EC receptors (CB1, TRVP1). Instead, the reduced or opposite responsiveness of female brain EC levels to loss of FABP1 (LKO) correlated with intrinsically lower FABP1 level in livers of WT females than males. These data show that female mouse brain endocannabinoid levels were unchanged (AEA, 2-AG) or decreased (OEA, PEA, 2-OG) by complete loss of FABP1 (LKO). PMID:27450559

  1. Animal models of physiologic markers of male reproduction: genetically defined infertile mice

    Chubb, C.

    1987-10-01

    The present report focuses on novel animal models of male infertility: genetically defined mice bearing single-gene mutations that induce infertility. The primary goal of the investigations was to identify the reproductive defects in these mutant mice. The phenotypic effects of the gene mutations were deciphered by comparing the mutant mice to their normal siblings. Initially testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis were investigated. The physiologic markers for testicular steroidogenesis were steroid secretion by testes perifused in vitro, seminal vesicle weight, and Leydig cell histology. Spermatogenesis was evaluated by the enumeration of homogenization-resistant sperm/spermatids in testes and by morphometric analyses of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium. If testicular function appeared normal, the authors investigated the sexual behavior of the mice. The parameters of male sexual behavior that were quantified included mount patency, mount frequency, intromission latency, thrusts per intromission, ejaculation latency, and ejaculation duration. Females of pairs breeding under normal circumstances were monitored for the presence of vaginal plugs and pregnancies. The patency of the ejaculatory process was determined by quantifying sperm in the female reproductive tract after sexual behavior tests. Sperm function was studied by quantitatively determining sperm motility during videomicroscopic observation. Also, the ability of epididymal sperm to function within the uterine environment was analyzed by determining sperm capacity to initiate pregnancy after artificial insemination. Together, the experimental results permitted the grouping of the gene mutations into three general categories. They propose that the same biological markers used in the reported studies can be implemented in the assessment of the impact that environmental toxins may have on male reproduction.

  2. Deficient Purposeful Use of Forepaws in Female Mice Modelling Rett Syndrome

    Bianca De Filippis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RTT is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by severe behavioural and physiological symptoms. Mutations in the methyl CpG binding protein 2 gene (MECP2 cause more than 95% of classic cases. Motor abnormalities represent a significant part of the spectrum of RTT symptoms. In the present study we investigated motor coordination and fine motor skill domains in MeCP2-308 female mice, a validated RTT model. This was complemented by the in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS analysis of metabolic profile in behaviourally relevant brain areas. MeCP2-308 heterozygous female mice (Het, 10-12 months of age were impaired in tasks validated for the assessment of purposeful and coordinated forepaw use (Morag test and Capellini handling task. A fine-grain analysis of spontaneous behaviour in the home-cage also revealed an abnormal handling pattern when interacting with the nesting material, reduced motivation to explore the environment, and increased time devoted to feeding in Het mice. The brain MRS evaluation highlighted decreased levels of bioenergetic metabolites in the striatal area in Het mice compared to controls. Present results confirm behavioural and brain alterations previously reported in MeCP2-308 males and identify novel endpoints on which the efficacy of innovative therapeutic strategies for RTT may be tested.

  3. NanoTIO2 (UV-Titan does not induce ESTR mutations in the germline of prenatally exposed female mice

    Boisen Anne Mette

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particulate air pollution has been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Animal studies have shown that inhalation of air particulates induces mutations in the male germline. Expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR loci in mice are sensitive markers of mutagenic effects on male germ cells resulting from environmental exposures; however, female germ cells have received little attention. Oocytes may be vulnerable during stages of active cell division (e.g., during fetal development. Accordingly, an increase in germline ESTR mutations in female mice prenatally exposed to radiation has previously been reported. Here we investigate the effects of nanoparticles on the female germline. Since pulmonary exposure to nanosized titanium dioxide (nanoTiO2 produces a long-lasting inflammatory response in mice, it was chosen for the present study. Findings Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed by whole-body inhalation to the nanoTiO2 UV-Titan L181 (~42.4 mg UV-Titan/m3 or filtered clean air on gestation days (GD 8–18. Female C57BL/6 F1 offspring were raised to maturity and mated with unexposed CBA males. The F2 descendents were collected and ESTR germline mutation rates in this generation were estimated from full pedigrees (mother, father, offspring of F1 female mice (192 UV-Titan-exposed F2 offspring and 164 F2 controls. ESTR mutation rates of 0.029 (maternal allele and 0.047 (paternal allele in UV-Titan-exposed F2 offspring were not statistically different from those of F2 controls: 0.037 (maternal allele and 0.061 (paternal allele. Conclusions We found no evidence for increased ESTR mutation rates in F1 females exposed in utero to UV-Titan nanoparticles from GD8-18 relative to control females.

  4. [Perinatal clomiphene citrate treatment changes sexual orientations of male mice].

    He, Feng-Qin; Zhang, Heng-Rui

    2013-10-01

    Perinatal period and adolescence are critical for brain development, which is the biological basis of an individual's sexual orientation and sexual behavior. In this study, animals were divided into two groups and their sexual orientations were observed: one group experienced drug treatments during the perinatal period, and the other group was castrated at puberty. The results showed that estradiol treatment had no effect on mature male offspring's sexual orientations, but 9 days and 14 days of clomiphene citrate treatment significantly increased the chance of homosexuality and effeminized behavior. In addition, the sexual orientation of mature normal male offspring, which were castrated when they were 21 days old,was not significant different from the control animals. These findings suggest that the inhibition of perinatal estrogen activities could suppress individual male-typical responses, enhance female-typical responses and induce homosexual orientations. Moreover, the masculinizing effects of estrogen were more obvious during perinatal period than adolescence.

  5. Effects of fetal exposure to gamma rays on aggressive behavior in adult male mice

    Minamisawa, Takeru; Hirokaga, Kouichi; Sasaki, Shunsaku; Noda, Yutaka.

    1992-01-01

    Aggressive behavior (AB) in first generation (F 1 ) hybrid male C57BL/6 x C3H mice irradiated on the 14th day of gestation was studied at 100-135 days of age. Gravid female mice were irradiated with 1.0 or 2.0 Gy of gamma rays to the whole body. The AB of pairs of mice were recorded with a capacitance-induction motility monitor and on videotape. Recordings were continued for 90 min, starting at 2:00 PM. Vigorous wrestling, boxing and biting were regarded as AB. Data recorded at 15-min intervals were stored on micro-computer discs. The body weight for the irradiated group was significantly lower than that for the control group. The number of instances of AB was significantly higher in the irradiated group. The AB of the 2.0 Gy group was significantly more intensive than that of the control group. No difference in the duration of AB was found for the 2 irradiated and the control groups. Results demonstrate that male mice irradiated prenatally show increased aggressiveness. (author)

  6. Responses of female rock lizards to multiple scent marks of males: effects of male age, male density and scent over-marking.

    Martín, José; López, Pilar

    2013-03-01

    Scent-marked substrates may inform conspecifics on the characteristics of territorial males. Scent-marks of male Carpetan rock lizards (Iberolacerta cyreni) affect space use of females, which by selecting an area may increase the probability of mating with the male that has scent-marked that area. However, males do not hold exclusive territories, and scent-marks of different individual males are often together. This may provide complex information from multiple sources on the social structure. Here, we examined female preference in response to scent marks of various males and combinations in a laboratory experiment. Females preferred areas scent-marked by territorial old males against those scent-marked by young satellite-sneaker males. This reflected the known preference of females for mating with old males. In a second experiment, females preferred areas scent-marked by two males to areas of similar size marked by a single male. This may increase the probability of obtaining multiple copulations with different males, which may favour sperm competition and cryptic female choice, or may be a way to avoid infertile males. Finally, when we experimentally over-marked the scent-marks of an old male with scent-marks of a young male, females did not avoid, nor prefer, the over-marked area, suggesting that the quality of the old male may override the presence of a satellite male. We suggest that, irrespective of the causes underlying why a female selects a scent-marked area, this strategy may affect her reproductive success, which may have the same evolutionary consequences that "direct" mate choice decisions of other animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Neonatal androgenization of hypogonadal (hpg male mice does not abolish estradiol-induced FSH production and spermatogenesis

    Kerr Jeffrey B

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Testicular development is arrested in the hypogonadal (hpg mouse due to a congenital deficiency in hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH synthesis. Chronic treatment of male hpg mice with estradiol induces FSH synthesis and secretion, and causes testicular maturation and qualitatively normal spermatogenesis. As estradiol negative feedback normally inhibits FSH production in the male, this study tested whether this paradoxical response to estradiol in the male hpg mouse might be due to inadequate masculinisation or incomplete defeminization in the neonatal period. Previous studies have demonstrated that treatment of hpg mice with testosterone propionate in the immediate neonatal period is necessary to allow full reproductive behaviors to be expressed following suitable endocrine stimulation at adult ages. Methods Hpg mice were treated with 100 μg testosterone propionate or vehicle on postnatal day 2. At 35 days of age, subgroups of these mice were treated with silastic implants containing estradiol or cholesterol. Reproductive behavior was scored in tests with steroid-primed female mice, then testicular development was assessed histologically, and measures of pituitary FSH content made at 85 days of age. Results The neonatal testosterone propionate treatment successfully defeminized female litter mates, as revealed by impaired vaginal opening and deficiencies in lordosis behavior, and it allowed appropriate male reproductive behavior to be expressed in a proportion of the hpg males when tested at an adult age. However, neonatal androgen supplementation did not block or even reduce the subsequent actions of estradiol in increasing pituitary FSH content, nor did it affect the ability of estradiol to induce qualitatively normal spermatogenesis. Conclusion The ability of the hpg male to show a "female" neuroendocrine response to estradiol is not a result of inadequate androgenization during neonatal development, and

  8. Oxytocin modulates social distance between males and females.

    Scheele, Dirk; Striepens, Nadine; Güntürkün, Onur; Deutschländer, Sandra; Maier, Wolfgang; Kendrick, Keith M; Hurlemann, René

    2012-11-14

    In humans, interpersonal romantic attraction and the subsequent development of monogamous pair-bonds is substantially predicted by influential impressions formed during first encounters. The prosocial neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) has been identified as a key facilitator of both interpersonal attraction and the formation of parental attachment. However, whether OXT contributes to the maintenance of monogamous bonds after they have been formed is unclear. In this randomized placebo-controlled trial, we provide the first behavioral evidence that the intranasal administration of OXT stimulates men in a monogamous relationship, but not single ones, to keep a much greater distance (~10-15 cm) between themselves and an attractive woman during a first encounter. This avoidance of close personal proximity occurred in the physical presence of female but not male experimenters and was independent of gaze direction and whether the female experimenter or the subject was moving. We further confirmed this unexpected finding using a photograph-based approach/avoidance task that showed again that OXT only stimulated men in a monogamous relationship to approach pictures of attractive women more slowly. Importantly, these changes cannot be attributed to OXT altering the attitude of monogamous men toward attractive women or their judgments of and arousal by pictures of them. Together, our results suggest that where OXT release is stimulated during a monogamous relationship, it may additionally promote its maintenance by making men avoid signaling romantic interest to other women through close-approach behavior during social encounters. In this way, OXT may help to promote fidelity within monogamous human relationships.

  9. [Study of genome instability using DNA fingerprinting of the offspring of male mice subjected to chronic low dose gamma irradiation].

    Bezlepkin, V G; Vasil'eva, G V; Lomaeva, M G; Sirota, N P; Gaziev, A I

    2000-01-01

    By a polymerase chain reaction with an arbitrary primer (AP-PCR), the possibility of transmission of genome instability to somatic cells of the offspring (F1 generation) from male parents of mice exposed to chronic low-level gamma-radiation was studied. Male BALB/c mice 15 days after exposure to 10-50 cGy were mated with unirradiated females. Biopsies were taken from tale tips of two month-old offspring mice and DNA was isolated. The primer in the AP-PCR was a 20-mer oligonucleotide flanking the microsatellite locus Atp1b2 on chromosome 11 of the mouse. A comparative analysis of individual fingerprints of AP-PCR products on DNA-templates from the offspring of irradiated and unirradiated male mice revealed an increased variability of microsatellite-associated sequences in the genome of the offspring of the males exposed to 25 and 50 cGy. The DNA-fingerprints of the offspring of male mice exposed to chronic irradiation with the doses 10 and 25 cGy 15 days before fertilization (at the post-meiotic stage of spermatogenesis) showed an increased frequency of "non-parent bands". The results of the study point to the possibility of transmission to the offspring somatic cells of changes increasing genome instability from male parents exposed to chronic low-level radiation prior to fertilization.

  10. Reduced anxiety-like behavior and altered hippocampal morphology in female p75NTR exon IV-/- mice.

    Zoe ePuschban

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of the neurotrophin receptor p75NTR in adult basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, precursor cells in the subventricular cell layer and the subgranular cell layer of the hippocampus has been linked to alterations in learning as well as anxiety- and depression- related behaviors. In contrast to previous studies performed in a p75NTR exonIII-/- model still expressing the short isoform of the p75NTR, we focused on locomotor and anxiety–associated behavior in p75NTR exonIV-/- mice lacking both p75NTR isoforms. Comparing p75NTR exonIV-/- and wildtype mice for both male and female animals showed an anxiolytic-like behavior as evidenced by increased central activities in the open field paradigm and flex field activity system as well as higher numbers of open arm entries in the elevated plus maze test in female p75NTR knockout mice.Morphometrical analyses of dorsal and ventral hippocampus revealed a reduction of width of the dentate gyrus and the granular cell layer in the dorsal but not ventral hippocampus in male and female p75NTR exonIV -/- mice. We conclude that germ-line deletion of p75NTR seems to differentially affect morphometry of dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus and that p75NTR may play a role in anxiety-like behavior, specifically in female mice.

  11. Male fertility is reduced by chronic intermittent hypoxia mimicking sleep apnea in mice.

    Torres, Marta; Laguna-Barraza, Ricardo; Dalmases, Mireia; Calle, Alexandra; Pericuesta, Eva; Montserrat, Josep M; Navajas, Daniel; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso; Farré, Ramon

    2014-11-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by intermittent hypoxia and oxidative stress. However, it is unknown whether intermittent hypoxia mimicking OSA modifies male fertility. We tested the hypothesis that male fertility is reduced by chronic intermittent hypoxia mimicking OSA in a mouse model. Case-control comparison in a murine model. University research laboratory. Eighteen F1 (C57BL/6xCBA) male mice. Mice were subjected to a pattern of periodic hypoxia (20 sec at 5% O2 followed by 40 sec of room air) 6 h/day for 60 days or normoxia. After this period, mice performed a mating trial to determine effective fertility by assessing the number of pregnant females and fetuses. After euthanasia, oxidative stress in testes was assessed by measuring the expression of glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1) and superoxide dismutase-1 (Sod1) by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Sperm motility was determined by Integrated Semen Analysis System (ISAS). Intermittent hypoxia significantly increased testicular oxidative stress, showing a reduction in the expression of Gpx1 and Sod1 by 38.9% and 34.4%, respectively, as compared with normoxia (P intermittent hypoxia group (P = 0.04). The proportion of pregnant females and number of fetuses per mating was significantly lower in the intermittent hypoxia group (0.33 ± 0.10 and 2.45 ± 0.73, respectively) than in normoxic controls (0.72 ± 0.16 and 5.80 ± 1.24, respectively). These results suggest that the intermittent hypoxia associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) could induce fertility reduction in male patients with this sleep breathing disorder.

  12. Supplementation of male pheromone on rock substrates attracts female rock lizards to the territories of males: a field experiment.

    José Martín

    Full Text Available Many animals produce elaborated sexual signals to attract mates, among them are common chemical sexual signals (pheromones with an attracting function. Lizards produce chemical secretions for scent marking that may have a role in sexual selection. In the laboratory, female rock lizards (Iberolacerta cyreni prefer the scent of males with more ergosterol in their femoral secretions. However, it is not known whether the scent-marks of male rock lizards may actually attract females to male territories in the field.In the field, we added ergosterol to rocks inside the territories of male lizards, and found that this manipulation resulted in increased relative densities of females in these territories. Furthermore, a higher number of females were observed associated to males in manipulated plots, which probably increased mating opportunities for males in these areas.These and previous laboratory results suggest that female rock lizards may select to settle in home ranges based on the characteristics of scent-marks from conspecific males. Therefore, male rock lizards might attract more females and obtain more matings by increasing the proportion of ergosterol when scent-marking their territories. However, previous studies suggest that the allocation of ergosterol to secretions may be costly and only high quality males could afford it, thus, allowing the evolution of scent-marks as an honest sexual display.

  13. Supplementation of Male Pheromone on Rock Substrates Attracts Female Rock Lizards to the Territories of Males: A Field Experiment

    Martín, José; López, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    Background Many animals produce elaborated sexual signals to attract mates, among them are common chemical sexual signals (pheromones) with an attracting function. Lizards produce chemical secretions for scent marking that may have a role in sexual selection. In the laboratory, female rock lizards (Iberolacerta cyreni) prefer the scent of males with more ergosterol in their femoral secretions. However, it is not known whether the scent-marks of male rock lizards may actually attract females to male territories in the field. Methodology/Principal Findings In the field, we added ergosterol to rocks inside the territories of male lizards, and found that this manipulation resulted in increased relative densities of females in these territories. Furthermore, a higher number of females were observed associated to males in manipulated plots, which probably increased mating opportunities for males in these areas. Conclusions/Significance These and previous laboratory results suggest that female rock lizards may select to settle in home ranges based on the characteristics of scent-marks from conspecific males. Therefore, male rock lizards might attract more females and obtain more matings by increasing the proportion of ergosterol when scent-marking their territories. However, previous studies suggest that the allocation of ergosterol to secretions may be costly and only high quality males could afford it, thus, allowing the evolution of scent-marks as an honest sexual display. PMID:22253895

  14. When not to copy: female fruit flies use sophisticated public information to avoid mated males

    Loyau, Adeline; Blanchet, Simon; van Laere, Pauline; Clobert, Jean; Danchin, Etienne

    2012-10-01

    Semen limitation (lack of semen to fertilize all of a female's eggs) imposes high fitness costs to female partners. Females should therefore avoid mating with semen-limited males. This can be achieved by using public information extracted from watching individual males' previous copulating activities. This adaptive preference should be flexible given that semen limitation is temporary. We first demonstrate that the number of offspring produced by males Drosophila melanogaster gradually decreases over successive copulations. We then show that females avoid mating with males they just watched copulating and that visual public cues are sufficient to elicit this response. Finally, after males were given the time to replenish their sperm reserves, females did not avoid the males they previously saw copulating anymore. These results suggest that female fruit flies may have evolved sophisticated behavioural processes of resistance to semen-limited males, and demonstrate unsuspected adaptive context-dependent mate choice in an invertebrate.

  15. [The social background of male to female transsexuals].

    Bruck, J C

    2013-08-01

    Gender alignment surgery was introduced into German law in 1981. Judicial guidelines for the change of first names and gender were established and transsexuality was labelled as a psychosomatic and somatopsychic syndrome and disorder, thus opening the way for treatment to the social health-care under well-defined conditions requesting cross-dressing and hormone therapy as well as psychological counselling by 2 independent psychologists or psychiatrists. In a retrospective, chart-related survey of questionnaires on male to female transsexuals it was found that patients start to suspect being born into the wrong gender at the onset of puberty, it takes them however approximately 20 years to have gender alignment surgery. More than half the patients are single at this time, while the remaining group is married or divorced with equal rates. 68% regard themselves as heterosexual, 21% lesbian and 11% were undecided. About half the patients experienced support by their families for their decision. Despite numerous secondary corrections of the surgical alignment, patients were content with the result, although emotional acceptance of the desired result took about one year. In general plastic surgical gender alignment treatment was perceived as the major contribution to harmonise their phenotype with their identity. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Regional gray matter variation in male-to-female transsexualism

    Luders, Eileen; Sánchez, Francisco J.; Gaser, Christian; Toga, Arthur W.; Narr, Katherine L.; Hamilton, Liberty S.; Vilain, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Gender identity—one's sense of being a man or a woman—is a fundamental perception experienced by all individuals that extends beyond biological sex. Yet, what contributes to our sense of gender remains uncertain. Since individuals who identify as transsexual report strong feelings of being the opposite sex and a belief that their sexual characteristics do not reflect their true gender, they constitute an invaluable model to understand the biological underpinnings of gender identity. We analyzed MRI data of 24 male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals not yet treated with cross-sex hormones in order to determine whether gray matter volumes in MTF transsexuals more closely resemble people who share their biological sex (30 control men), or people who share their gender identity (30 control women). Results revealed that regional gray matter variation in MTF transsexuals is more similar to the pattern found in men than in women. However, MTF transsexuals show a significantly larger volume of regional gray matter in the right putamen compared to men. These findings provide new evidence that transsexualism is associated with distinct cerebral pattern, which supports the assumption that brain anatomy plays a role in gender identity. PMID:19341803

  17. Regional thermal comfort zone in males and females.

    Ciuha, Ursa; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2016-07-01

    Skin regions differ in their sensitivity to temperature stimuli. The present study examined whether such regional differences were also evident in the perception of thermal comfort. Regional thermal comfort was assessed in males (N=8) and females (N=8), by having them regulate the temperature of the water delivered to a water-perfused suit (WPS), within a temperature range considered thermally comfortable. In separate trials, subjects regulated the temperature of the WPS, or specific regions of the suit covering different skin areas (arms, legs, front torso and back torso). In the absence of subjective temperature regulation (TR), the temperature changed in a sinusoidal manner from 10°C to 50°C; by depressing a switch and reversing the direction of the temperature at the limits of the thermal comfort zone (TCZ), each subject defined TCZ for each body region investigated. The range of regulated temperatures did not differ between genders and skin regions. Local Tsk at the lower and upper limits of the TCZ was similar for both genders. Higher (pthermally comfortable conditions, the well-established regional differences in thermosensitivity are not reflected in the TCZ, with similar temperature preferences by both genders. Thermal comfort of different skin regions and overall body is not achieved at a single skin temperature, but at range of temperatures, defined as the TCZ. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Male chimpanzees' grooming rates vary by female age, parity, and fertility status

    Proctor, Darby P; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steve

    2011-01-01

    , should show little or no preference when choosing mating partners (e.g. should mate indiscriminately). To determine if the preferences indicated by copulations appear in other contexts as well as how they interact, we examined how male chimpanzees' grooming patterns varied amongst females. We found...... that males' preferences were based on interactions among females' fertility status, age, and parity. First, grooming increased with increasing female parity. We further found an effect of the estrous cycle on grooming; when females were at the lowest point of their cycle, males preferentially groomed parous...... females at peak reproductive age, but during maximal tumescence, males preferred the oldest multiparous females. Nulliparous females received relatively little grooming regardless of age or fertility. Thus, male chimpanzees apparently chose grooming partners based on both female's experience and fertility...

  19. When less is best: female brown-headed cowbirds prefer less intense male displays.

    O'Loghlen, Adrian L; Rothstein, Stephen I

    2012-01-01

    Sexual selection theory predicts that females should prefer males with the most intense courtship displays. However, wing-spread song displays that male brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) direct at females are generally less intense than versions of this display that are directed at other males. Because male-directed displays are used in aggressive signaling, we hypothesized that females should prefer lower intensity performances of this display. To test this hypothesis, we played audiovisual recordings showing the same males performing both high intensity male-directed and low intensity female-directed displays to females (N = 8) and recorded the females' copulation solicitation display (CSD) responses. All eight females responded strongly to both categories of playbacks but were more sexually stimulated by the low intensity female-directed displays. Because each pair of high and low intensity playback videos had the exact same audio track, the divergent responses of females must have been based on differences in the visual content of the displays shown in the videos. Preferences female cowbirds show in acoustic CSD studies are correlated with mate choice in field and captivity studies and this is also likely to be true for preferences elucidated by playback of audiovisual displays. Female preferences for low intensity female-directed displays may explain why male cowbirds rarely use high intensity displays when signaling to females. Repetitive high intensity displays may demonstrate a male's current condition and explain why these displays are used in male-male interactions which can escalate into physical fights in which males in poorer condition could be injured or killed. This is the first study in songbirds to use audiovisual playbacks to assess how female sexual behavior varies in response to variation in a male visual display.

  20. Comparing Male and Female Juveniles Charged with Homicide: Child Maltreatment, Substance Abuse, and Crime Details

    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique Eve

    2009-01-01

    This study examines a sample of 136 male and female juveniles charged with attempted homicide or homicide. The purpose of this study is to explore the differences between nondirect file male and female juvenile homicide offenders regarding individual, family, and crime circumstances. Findings suggest that compared to male juvenile offenders,…

  1. Effect of inulin supplementation in male mice fed with high fat diet on ...

    Purpose: To evaluate the preventive and therapeutic effects of inulin supplementation in Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) male mice fed with high fat diet. Methods: NMRI male mice (n = 36) were divided into three groups. Control (C1), obese (O1) and experimental mice (E1) were fed during 8 weeks as follows: C1 ...

  2. An International Comparison of Female and Male Students' Attitudes to the Use of Animals

    Phillips, Clive; Izmirli, Serdar; Aldavood, Javid; Alonso, Marta; Choe, Bi; Hanlon, Alison; Handziska, Anastasija; Illmann, Gudrun; Keeling, Linda; Kennedy, Mark; Lee, Gwi; Lund, Vonne; Mejdell, Cecilie; Pelagic, Veselinas; Rehn, Therese

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary We surveyed university students in 11 Eurasian countries for their attitudes to animals, using an internet-based questionnaire to which 1,902 female and 1,530 male student responded from 102 universities. Across countries female students had greater concern for animal welfare and rights than males, but especially so in more gender empowered countries. One contributing factor appeared to be the greater association of females than males with pets, and a possible outcome was greater female avoidance of meat consumption, especially red meat. Abstract Previous research has demonstrated that in households where the male partner is more dominant, there is convergence in male and female attitudes towards animals, whereas if the female partner is empowered they exhibit greater empathy towards animals than the male partner. We tested this theory of ‘female empowered empathy’ internationally in a survey of female and male students' attitudes towards use of animals, conducted in 11 Eurasian countries: China, Czech Republic, Great Britain, Iran, Ireland, South Korea, Macedonia, Norway, Serbia, Spain and Sweden. Gender empowerment was estimated for each country using the Gender Empowerment Measure designed by the United Nations. The survey was administered via the internet in universities within countries, and 1,902 female and 1,530 male student responses from 102 universities were received. Respondents rated the acceptability of 43 major concerns about human use of animals, and the importance of 13 world social issues, including animal protection, environmental protection and sustainable development. Females had greater concern for animal welfare and rights than males. There was a positive correlation between the Gender Empowerment Measure and the ratio of female to male concern for animal welfare and rights, but not for other world issues. Thus in countries where females were more empowered, principally Sweden, Norway and Great Britain, females had much

  3. Male irradiation affects female remating behavior in Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Landeta-Escamilla, Anais; Hernández, Emilio; Arredondo, José; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Pérez-Staples, Diana

    2016-02-01

    Female remating in target pest species can affect the efficacy of control methods such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) but very little is known about the postcopulatory mating behavior of these pests. In this study, we investigated the remating behavior of female Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae), an oligophagous pest of Sapotaceae. First, we tested how long the sexual refractory period of females lasted after an initial mating. Second, we tested the effect of male and female sterility, female ovipositing opportunities and male density on female propensity to remate. Lastly, we tested if the amount of sperm stored by females was correlated to the likelihood of females to remate. We found that receptivity of mass-reared A. serpentina females had a bimodal response, with up to 16% of mass-reared A. serpentina females remating five days after the initial copulation, decreasing to 2% at 10 and 15 days and increasing to 13% after 20 days. Compared to fertile males, sterile males were less likely to mate and less likely to inhibit females from remating. Copula duration of sterile males was shorter compared to fertile males. Remating females were less likely to mate with a sterile male as a second mate. Sterile females were less likely to mate or remate compared to fertile females. Opportunity to oviposit and male density had no effect on female remating probability. Sperm numbers were not correlated with female likelihood to remate. Information on the post-copulatory behavior of mass-reared A. serpentina will aid fruit fly managers in improving the quality of sterile males. We discuss our results in terms of the differences this species presents in female remating behavior compared to other tephritids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Phase-Specific Vocalizations of Male Mice at the Initial Encounter during the Courtship Sequence.

    Yui K Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations featuring a variety of syllables. Vocalizations are observed during social interactions. In particular, males produce numerous syllables during courtship. Previous studies have shown that vocalizations change according to sexual behavior, suggesting that males vary their vocalizations depending on the phase of the courtship sequence. To examine this process, we recorded large sets of mouse vocalizations during male-female interactions and acoustically categorized these sounds into 12 vocal types. We found that males emitted predominantly short syllables during the first minute of interaction, more long syllables in the later phases, and mainly harmonic sounds during mounting. These context- and time-dependent changes in vocalization indicate that vocal communication during courtship in mice consists of at least three stages and imply that each vocalization type has a specific role in a phase of the courtship sequence. Our findings suggest that recording for a sufficiently long time and taking the phase of courtship into consideration could provide more insights into the role of vocalization in mouse courtship behavior in future study.

  5. Do knowledge and cultural perceptions of modern female contraceptives predict male involvement in Ayete, Nigeria?

    Sanusi, A; Akinyemi, Oluwaseun O; Onoviran, Oghemetega O

    2014-12-01

    Male involvement is crucial to female contraceptive use. This study examined how male knowledge and cultural perceptions of modern female contraceptives influence involvement in contraceptive use. A cross-sectional survey of 389 men from Ayete, Nigeria was used to regress a continuous male involvement score on demographic variables, knowledge of at least one method of modern female contraception and a scored male perception variable using Ordinary Least Squares regression. Controlling for perception, the knowledge of at least one method of modern female contraception was not significantly associated with a change in male involvement (p=0.264). Increasing positive perception was associated with higher male involvement scores (p=0.001). Higher educated males, those with a current desire to have children and males whose partners were currently using a method had greater male involvement scores (pcultural perceptions, in addition to providing in-depth knowledge of contraceptive methods.

  6. Male foraging efficiency, but not male problem-solving performance, influences female mating preferences in zebra finches

    Véronique Chantal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental evidence suggests that females would prefer males with better cognitive abilities as mates. However, little is known about the traits reflecting enhanced cognitive skills on which females might base their mate-choice decisions. In particular, it has been suggested that male foraging performance could be used as an indicator of cognitive capacity, but convincing evidence for this hypothesis is still lacking. In the present study, we investigated whether female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata modify their mating preferences after having observed the performance of males on a problem-solving task. Specifically, we measured the females’ preferences between two males once before and once after an observation period, during which their initially preferred male was incapable of solving the task contrary to their initially less-preferred male. We also conducted a control treatment to test whether the shift in female preferences was attributable to differences between the two stimulus males in their foraging efficiency. Finally, we assessed each bird’s performance in a color associative task to check whether females can discriminate among males based on their learning speed. We found that females significantly increased their preference toward the most efficient male in both treatments. Yet, there was no difference between the two treatments and we found no evidence that females assess male cognitive ability indirectly via morphological traits. Thus, our results suggest that females would not use the males’ problem-solving performance as an indicator of general cognitive ability to gain indirect fitness benefits (i.e., good genes but rather to assess their foraging efficiency and gain direct benefits.

  7. Male/female differences in neuroprotection and neuromodulation of brain dopamine.

    Mélanie eBourque

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a sex difference in Parkinson’s disease is observed in several variables, including susceptibility of the disease, age at onset and symptoms. These differences between men and women represent a significant characteristic of Parkinson’s disease which suggests that estrogens may exert beneficial effects against the development and the progression of the disease. This paper reviews the neuroprotective and neuromodulator effect of 17β-estradiol and progesterone as compared to androgens in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system of both female and male rodents. The 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP mice model of Parkinson’s disease and methamphetamine toxicity faithfully reproduce the sex differences of Parkinson’s disease in that endogenous estrogen levels appear to influence the vulnerability to toxins targeting the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. Exogenous 17β-estradiol and/or progesterone treatments show neuroprotective properties against nigrostriatal dopaminergic toxins while androgens fail to induce beneficial effect. Sex steroids treatments show males and females difference in their neuroprotective action against methamphetamine toxicity. Nigrostriatal dopaminergic structure and function, as well as the distribution of estrogen receptors, show sex difference and may influence the susceptibility to the toxins and the response to sex steroids. Genomic and non-genomic actions of 17β-estradiol converge to promote survival factors and the presence of both estrogen receptors α and β are critical to 17β-estradiol neuroprotective action against MPTP toxicity.

  8. Brain oxytocin: a key regulator of emotional and social behaviours in both females and males.

    Neumann, I D

    2008-06-01

    In addition to various reproductive stimuli, the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is released both from the neurohypophysial terminal into the blood stream and within distinct brain regions in response to stressful or social stimuli. Brain OXT receptor-mediated actions were shown to be significantly involved in the regulation of a variety of behaviours. Here, complementary methodological approaches are discussed which were utilised to reveal, for example, anxiolytic and anti-stress effects of OXT, both in females and in males, effects that were localised within the central amygdala and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Also, in male rats, activation of the brain OXT system is essential for the regulation of sexual behaviour, and increased OXT system activity during mating is directly linked to an attenuated anxiety-related behaviour. Moreover, in late pregnancy and during lactation, central OXT is involved in the establishment and fine-tuned maintenance of maternal care and maternal aggression. In monogamous prairie voles, brain OXT is important for mating-induced pair bonding, especially in females. Another example of behavioural actions of intracerebral OXT is the promotion of social memory processes and recognition of con-specifics, as revealed in rats, mice, sheep and voles. Experimental evidence suggests that, in humans, brain OXT exerts similar behavioural effects. Thus, the brain OXT system seems to be a potential target for the development of therapeutics to treat anxiety- and depression-related diseases or abnormal social behaviours including autism.

  9. Study on The Reproductive Organs and Fertility of The Male Mice following Administration of Metronidazole

    Poonam Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metronidazole (MTZ is commonly used as an antibacterial and antiprotozoaldrug. Various doses of MTZ have been reported to inhibit spermatogenic activityand sperm indices.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, dose-dependent effects of MTZ onthe structural and functional integrity of the testis and accessory reproductive organshave been investigated. Adult male mice of Swiss strain were administered orally withMTZ at the doses of 250 mg/kgBW/day and 500 mg/kgBW/day for 28 consecutive daysto study the changes in the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, sperm indices and fertility.Reversal effects of the drug were also studied on the same mice, 42 days after cessationof the treatment.Results: Therapeutic dose of MTZ (250 mg/kgBW/day neither altered the weights ofthe testis, epididymis and seminal vesicle nor their histoarchitecture and sperm indices.The drug at the high dose (500 mg/kg BW/day caused significant reductions in theweights of the testis and epididymis. Histoarchitecture of the testis and epididymis at thehigh dose revealed marked regressive changes while that of seminal vesicle remainedunaffected. Significant reductions were noticed in the motility, viability and count ofepididymal spermatozoa while the concentrations of epididymal sialic acid and seminalvesicular fructose remained unaltered after the treatment. No significant changes werenoticed in the mating ability as well as in the level of serum testosterone in the treatedmice. Fertility of the male mice treated with high dose of MTZ declined markedly leadingto an increase in pre- and postimplantation loss while a significant decrease wasnoticed in the number of live blastocysts in females impregnated with such males. MTZinducedchanges in the male reproductive organs and fertility were reinstated 42 daysafter cessation of the treatment.Conclusion: High dose of MTZ induced reversible deleterious effects on the male reproductionand fertility.

  10. Adult Behavior in Male Mice Exposed to E-Cigarette Nicotine Vapors during Late Prenatal and Early Postnatal Life.

    Dani Smith

    Full Text Available Timed-pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2.4% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG or 0% nicotine /PG once a day from gestational day 15 until delivery. After delivery, offspring and mothers were exposed to E-cigarette vapors for an additional 14 days from postnatal day 2 through 16. Following their last exposure serum cotinine levels were measured in female juvenile mice. Male mice underwent behavioral testing at 14 weeks of age to assess sensorimotor, affective, and cognitive functional domains.Adult male mice exposed to 2.4% nicotine/PG E-cigarette vapors had significantly more head dips in the zero maze test and higher levels of rearing activity in the open field test compared to 0% nicotine/PG exposed mice and untreated controls. In the water maze test after reversal training, the 2.4% nicotine/PG mice spent more than 25% of time in the new location whereas the other groups did not.Adult male mice exhibited increased levels of activity in the zero maze and open field tests when exposed to E-cigarette vapor containing nicotine during late prenatal and early postnatal life. These findings indicate that nicotine exposure from E-cigarettes may cause persistent behavioral changes when exposure occurs during a period of rapid brain growth.

  11. Adult Behavior in Male Mice Exposed to E-Cigarette Nicotine Vapors during Late Prenatal and Early Postnatal Life.

    Smith, Dani; Aherrera, Angela; Lopez, Armando; Neptune, Enid; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Klein, Jonathan D; Chen, Gang; Lazarus, Philip; Collaco, Joseph M; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A

    2015-01-01

    Timed-pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2.4% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG) or 0% nicotine /PG once a day from gestational day 15 until delivery. After delivery, offspring and mothers were exposed to E-cigarette vapors for an additional 14 days from postnatal day 2 through 16. Following their last exposure serum cotinine levels were measured in female juvenile mice. Male mice underwent behavioral testing at 14 weeks of age to assess sensorimotor, affective, and cognitive functional domains. Adult male mice exposed to 2.4% nicotine/PG E-cigarette vapors had significantly more head dips in the zero maze test and higher levels of rearing activity in the open field test compared to 0% nicotine/PG exposed mice and untreated controls. In the water maze test after reversal training, the 2.4% nicotine/PG mice spent more than 25% of time in the new location whereas the other groups did not. Adult male mice exhibited increased levels of activity in the zero maze and open field tests when exposed to E-cigarette vapor containing nicotine during late prenatal and early postnatal life. These findings indicate that nicotine exposure from E-cigarettes may cause persistent behavioral changes when exposure occurs during a period of rapid brain growth.

  12. Gender-related beliefs of Turkish female science teachers and their effect on interactions with female and male students

    Uysal, Sibel

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between Turkish female science teachers' gender-related beliefs and those teachers' corresponding interaction with their male and female students. The data was collected from five different sources: Surveys, interviews, observations, chi square data from the observation phase, and interviews with selected teachers. The data was analyzed using the Ericson interpretive method of socio-cultural theories which provided a framework for understanding the development of teacher beliefs and their interactions with their students. In this study, the survey revealed three types of teachers ranging from traditional, moderate to modern. Moderate teachers exhibited characteristics that were on a continuum between the traditional and modern teachers. Traditional teachers believed that males and females should have certain defined roles. Females should be responsible for taking care of the needs of their children and their husbands. By comparison, modern teachers did not assign specific roles to either males or females. With regard to the role of women in science, traditional teachers believed that female scientists could not be as successful as male scientists. By comparison, modern teachers believed that female scientists could be as successful as male scientists. Modern teachers did indicate that they thought females needed to work harder than males to prove themselves. When it came to the teachers' views and beliefs regarding their female and male students' success in their science classrooms, traditional teachers believed that their male students were brighter than their female students. They also believed that female students excelled only because they worked harder. Modern teachers believed that success is dependent on each student's background and his or her interest in science. Classroom observation indicated that traditional and modern teachers interacted differently with their male and female students

  13. Lower susceptibility of female mice to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity: Role of mitochondrial glutathione, oxidant stress and c-jun N-terminal kinase

    Du, Kuo; Williams, C. David; McGill, Mitchell R.; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose causes severe hepatotoxicity in animals and humans. However, the mechanisms underlying the gender differences in susceptibility to APAP overdose in mice have not been clarified. In our study, APAP (300 mg/kg) caused severe liver injury in male mice but 69–77% lower injury in females. No gender difference in metabolic activation of APAP was found. Hepatic glutathione (GSH) was rapidly depleted in both genders, while GSH recovery in female mice was 2.6 fold higher in the mitochondria at 4 h, and 2.5 and 3.3 fold higher in the total liver at 4 h and 6 h, respectively. This faster recovery of GSH, which correlated with greater induction of glutamate-cysteine ligase, attenuated mitochondrial oxidative stress in female mice, as suggested by a lower GSSG/GSH ratio at 6 h (3.8% in males vs. 1.4% in females) and minimal centrilobular nitrotyrosine staining. While c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation was similar at 2 and 4 h post-APAP, it was 3.1 fold lower at 6 h in female mice. However, female mice were still protected by the JNK inhibitor SP600125. 17β-Estradiol pretreatment moderately decreased liver injury and oxidative stress in male mice without affecting GSH recovery. Conclusion: The lower susceptibility of female mice is achieved by the improved detoxification of reactive oxygen due to accelerated recovery of mitochondrial GSH levels, which attenuates late JNK activation and liver injury. However, even the reduced injury in female mice was still dependent on JNK. While 17β-estradiol partially protects male mice, it does not affect hepatic GSH recovery. - Highlights: • Female mice are less susceptible to acetaminophen overdose than males. • GSH depletion and protein adduct formation are similar in both genders. • Recovery of hepatic GSH levels is faster in females and correlates with Gclc. • Reduced oxidant stress in females leads to reduced JNK activation. • JNK activation and mitochondrial translocation are critical

  14. Interdependent effects of male and female body size plasticity on mating behaviour of predatory mites.

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The adaptive canalization hypothesis predicts that traits with low phenotypic plasticity are more fitness relevant, because they have been canalized via strong past selection, than traits with high phenotypic plasticity. Based on differing male body size plasticities of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis (low plasticity) and Neoseiulus californicus (high plasticity), we accordingly hypothesized that small male body size entails higher costs in female choice and male-male competition in P. persimilis than N. californicus . Males of both species are highly polygynous but females differ in the level of polyandry (low level in P. persimilis ; medium level in N. californicus ). We videotaped the mating interactions in triplets of either P. persimilis or N. californicus , consisting of a virgin female (small or standard-sized) and a small and a standard-sized male. Mating by both small and standard-sized P. persimilis females was biased towards standard-sized males, resulting from the interplay between female preference for standard-sized males and the inferiority of small males in male-male competition. In contrast, mating by N. californicus females was equally balanced between small and standard-sized males. Small N. californicus males were more aggressive ('Napoleon complex') in male-male competition, reducing the likelihood of encounter between the standard-sized male and the female, and thus counterbalancing female preference for standard-sized males. Our results support the hypothesis that male body size is more important to fitness in the low-level polyandrous P. persimilis than in the medium-level polyandrous N. californicus and provide a key example of the implications of sexually selected body size plasticity on mating behaviour.

  15. Work Activities and Compensation of Male and Female Cardiologists.

    Jagsi, Reshma; Biga, Cathie; Poppas, Athena; Rodgers, George P; Walsh, Mary N; White, Patrick J; McKendry, Colleen; Sasson, Joseph; Schulte, Phillip J; Douglas, Pamela S

    2016-02-09

    Much remains unknown about experiences, including working activities and pay, of women in cardiology, which is a predominantly male specialty. The goal of this study was to describe the working activities and pay of female cardiologists compared with their male colleagues and to determine whether sex differences in compensation exist after accounting for differences in work activities and other characteristics. The personal, job, and practice characteristics of a national sample of practicing cardiologists were described according to sex. We applied the Peters-Belson technique and multivariate regression analysis to evaluate whether gender differences in compensation existed after accounting for differences in other measured characteristics. The study used 2013 data reported by practice administrators to MedAxiom, a subscription-based service provider to cardiology practices. Data regarding cardiologists from 161 U.S. practices were included, and the study sample included 2,679 subjects (229 women and 2,450 men). Women were more likely to be specialized in general/noninvasive cardiology (53.1% vs. 28.2%), and a lower proportion (11.4% vs. 39.3%) reported an interventional subspecialty compared with men. Job characteristics that differed according to sex included the proportion working full-time (79.9% vs. 90.9%; p worked (387 vs. 406 days; p = 0.001), and mean work relative value units generated (7,404 vs. 9,497; p women and men, respectively. Peters-Belson analysis revealed that based on measured job and productivity characteristics, the women in this sample would have been expected to have a mean salary that was $31,749 (95% confidence interval: $16,303 to $48,028) higher than that actually observed. Multivariate analysis confirmed the direction and magnitude of the independent association between sex and salary. Men and women practicing cardiology in this national sample had different job activities and salaries. Substantial sex-based salary differences existed

  16. Specific cerebral activation due to visual erotic stimuli in male-to-female transsexuals compared with male and female controls: an fMRI study.

    Gizewski, Elke R; Krause, Eva; Schlamann, Marc; Happich, Friederike; Ladd, Mark E; Forsting, Michael; Senf, Wolfgang

    2009-02-01

    Transsexuals harbor the strong feeling of having been born to the wrong sex. There is a continuing controversial discussion of whether or not transsexualism has a biological representation. Differences between males and females in terms of functional imaging during erotic stimuli have been previously described, revealing gender-specific results. Therefore, we postulated that male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals may show specific cerebral activation differing from their biological gender. Cerebral activation patterns during viewing of erotic film excerpts in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twelve male and 12 female heterosexual volunteers and 12 MTF transsexuals before any treatment viewed erotic film excerpts during fMRI. Additionally, subjective rating of sexual arousal was assessed. Statistics were performed using the Statistical Parametric Mapping software. Significantly enhanced activation for men compared with women was revealed in brain areas involved in erotic processing, i.e., the thalamus, the amygdala, and the orbitofrontal and insular cortex, whereas no specific activation for women was found. When comparing MTF transsexuals with male volunteers, activation patterns similar to female volunteers being compared with male volunteers were revealed. Sexual arousal was assessed using standard rating scales and did not differ significantly for the three groups. We revealed a cerebral activation pattern in MTF transsexuals compared with male controls similar to female controls compared with male controls during viewing of erotic stimuli, indicating a tendency of female-like cerebral processing in transsexualism.

  17. The vibrational signals that male fiddler crabs ( Uca lactea) use to attract females into their burrows

    Takeshita, Fumio; Murai, Minoru

    2016-06-01

    In some fiddler crab species, males emit vibrations from their burrows to mate-searching females after they have attracted a female to the burrow entrance using a waving display. Although the vibrations are considered acoustic signals to induce mating, it has not been demonstrated whether the vibrations attract the females into the burrow and, consequently, influence females' mating decisions. We investigated the structures and patterns of the vibrations using a dummy female and demonstrated experimentally a female preference for male vibrations in Uca lactea in the field. The acoustic signals consisted of repetitions of pulses. The dominant frequency of the pulses decreased with male carapace width. The pulse length decreased slightly with an increasing number of vibrational repetitions, and the pulse interval increased with increasing repetitions. These factors imply that the vibrations convey information on male characteristics, such as body size and stamina. In the experiment on female mate choice, the females significantly preferred males with higher pulse repetition rates when they were positioned at the entrance of the burrow, indicating that the females use the male vibrational signals to decide whether to enter the burrow. However, females showed no preference for the vibrations once they were inside a burrow, i.e., whether they decided to copulate, suggesting that the vibrations do not independently affect a female's final decision of mate choice. The vibrations inside the burrow might influence a female's decision by interaction with other male traits such as the burrow structure.

  18. Robotic crabs reveal that female fiddler crabs are sensitive to changes in male display rate.

    Mowles, Sophie L; Jennions, Michael D; Backwell, Patricia R Y

    2018-01-01

    Males often produce dynamic, repetitive courtship displays that can be demanding to perform and might advertise male quality to females. A key feature of demanding displays is that they can change in intensity: escalating as a male increases his signalling effort, but de-escalating as a signaller becomes fatigued. Here, we investigated whether female fiddler crabs, Uca mjoebergi , are sensitive to changes in male courtship wave rate. We performed playback experiments using robotic male crabs that had the same mean wave rate, but either escalated, de-escalated or remained constant. Females demonstrated a strong preference for escalating robots, but showed mixed responses to robots that de-escalated ('fast' to 'slow') compared to those that waved at a constant 'medium' rate. These findings demonstrate that females can discern changes in male display rate, and prefer males that escalate, but that females are also sensitive to past display rates indicative of prior vigour. © 2018 The Authors.

  19. Preferred leadership prototypes of male and female leaders in 27 countries

    Lori D Paris; Jon P Howell; Peter W Dorfman; Paul J Hanges

    2009-01-01

    Our study shows that preferred leadership prototypes held by female leaders differ from the prototypes held by male leaders, and that these prototype differences vary across countries, cultures, and especially industries. In general, female managers prefer participative, team oriented, and charismatic leadership prototype dimensions more than males. Contrary to popular belief, both males and females valued humane-oriented leadership equally. Gender egalitarianism and industry type were import...

  20. THE BITTER TRUTH: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF BLACK MALE AND BLACK FEMALE ENTREPRENEURS

    SHERRHONDA R. GIBBS

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines variables stated to be central to entrepreneurial success and reports differences between black male and black female entrepreneurs. Variables studied include task-specific efficacy, firm performance and opportunity recognition. Using a sample of 85 males and 58 females, results indicated that although black male and female entrepreneurs are somewhat similar in terms of business environment and demographics (e.g., education levels, years of business industry experience, lik...

  1. public-private sector wage differentials for males and females in vietnam

    Nguyen Danh, Hoang Long

    2002-01-01

    This study examines public administration-private wage differentials and SOEs-private wage differentials for males and females. Based on data from Vietnam Living Standards Survey in 2002 (VLSS 2002), wage equations with and without selectivity correction are estimated by sector of employment for males and females. From these results, the study compares the wage structure by sector of work for males and females. Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition of the public administration-private sector wage diff...

  2. 17ß-Estradiol Regulates Histone Alterations Associated with Memory Consolidation and Increases "Bdnf" Promoter Acetylation in Middle-Aged Female Mice

    Fortress, Ashley M.; Kim, Jaekyoon; Poole, Rachel L.; Gould, Thomas J.; Frick, Karyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Histone acetylation is essential for hippocampal memory formation in young adult rodents. Although dysfunctional histone acetylation has been associated with age-related memory decline in male rodents, little is known about whether histone acetylation is altered by aging in female rodents. In young female mice, the ability of 17ß-estradiol…

  3. [Genotype-related changes in the reproductive function under social hierarchy in laboratory male mice].

    Osadchuk, L V; Salomacheva, I N; Osadchuk, A V

    2010-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate genetic differences in reproductive consequences of social hierarchy using inbred mice strains BALB/cLac, PT and CBA/Lac. Two adult males of different genotypes were housed together for 5 days. Hierarchical status of both partners was determined by asymmetry in agonistic behavior. The number of epididymal sperm and a proportion of abnormal sperm, weights of reproductive organs, serum concentration and testicular content of testosterone, and the testosterone response to introduction of a receptive female were determined. The testosterone measures were significantly decreased in the PT strain, the epididymal sperm number was significantly decreased in the BALB/cLac strain and a proportion of abnormal sperm heads was significantly increase in the CBA/Lac (in both dominants and subordinates) as compared to control mice. The testicular testosterone response to a receptive female and precopulatory behavior was unchanged in dominants and suppressed in subordinates of the BALB/cLac strain. The results indicate that in laboratory mice the pattern of reproductive response to social hierarchy is determined by genetic background.

  4. A test of Hirschi's social bonding theory: a comparison of male and female delinquency.

    Ozbay, Ozden; Ozcan, Yusuf Ziya

    2008-04-01

    In this study, Hirschi's social bonding theory is employed to identify what aspects of the theory can explain male and female delinquency and whether social bonding variables can equally explain male and female delinquency (generalizability problem) in a developing society, Turkey. The data include a two-stage-stratified cluster sample of 1,710 high school students from the central districts of Ankara, the capital of Turkey. The findings suggest that social bonding variables play a more important role for male students than for female students. Furthermore, they indicate that components of the social bonding theory can equally explain both male and female delinquent acts.

  5. The smell of virgins: mating status of females affects male swimming behaviour in Oithona davisae

    Heuschele, Jan; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    in the presence of virgin when compared with mated females and that the cue is waterborne. The ability to distinguish between virgin and mated females may reduce male mortality during mate search and the cost related to mating behaviour (precopula) in both sexes. We estimate that at realistic population densities...... the ability of males to distinguish between virgin and mated females saves them several hours per day of dangerous and energetically expensive fast female tracking...

  6. Prolyl Endopeptidase (PREP) is Associated With Male Reproductive Functions and Gamete Physiology in Mice.

    Dotolo, Raffaele; Kim, Jung Dae; Pariante, Paolo; Minucci, Sergio; Diano, Sabrina

    2016-03-01

    Prolyl endopeptidase (PREP) is a serine protease which has been implicated in many biological processes, such as the maturation and degradation of peptide hormones and neuropeptides, learning and memory, cell proliferation and differentiation, and glucose metabolism. A small number of reports have also suggested PREP participation in both male and female reproduction-associated processes. In the present work, we examined PREP distribution in male germ cells and studied the effects of its knockdown (Prep(gt/gt)) on testis and sperm in adult mice. The protein is expressed and localized in elongating spermatids and luminal spermatozoa of wild type (wt) mice, as well as Sertoli, Leydig, and peritubular cells. PREP is also expressed in the head and midpiece of epididymal spermatozoa, whereas the remaining tail region shows a weaker signal. Furthermore, testis weight, histology of seminiferous tubules, and epididymal sperm parameters were assessed in wt and Prep(gt/gt) mice: wild type testes have larger average tubule and lumen diameter; in addition, lumenal composition of seminiferous tubules is dissimilar between wt and Prep(gt/gt), as the percentage of spermiated tubules is much higher in wt. Finally, total sperm count, sperm motility, and normal morphology are also higher in wt than in Prep(gt/gt). These results show for the first time that the expression of PREP could be necessary for a correct reproductive function, and suggest that the enzyme may play a role in mouse spermatogenesis and sperm physiology. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Influence of chronic exposure to uranium on male reproduction in mice

    Llobet, J.M.; Sirvent, J.J.; Ortega, A.; Domingo, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Relatively few data are available concerning the reproductive and developmental toxicity of uranium. The present study was designed to evaluate the reproductive effects of this metal in male Swiss mice. The animals were treated with uranyl acetate dihydrate at doses of 0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg/day given in the drinking water for 64 days. To evaluate the fertility of the uranium-treated males, mice were mated with untreated females for 4 days. There was a significant but non-dose-related decrease in the pregnancy rate of these animals. Body weights were significantly depressed only in the 80 mg/kg/day group. Testicular function/spermatogenesis was not affected by uranium at any dose, as evidenced by normal testes and epididymis weights and normal spermatogenesis, whereas interstitial alterations and vacuolization of Leydig cells were seen at 80 mg/kg/day. The results of this investigation indicate that uranium does not cause any adverse effect on testicular function in mice at the concentrations usually ingested in the diet and drinking water, with a safety factor of more than 1000. However, although spermatogenesis was not affected by uranium administration, uranium produces a significant decrease in the pregnancy rate at 10, 20, 40, or 80 mg/kg/day

  8. Relationships among estrogen receptor, oxytocin and vasopressin gene expression and social interaction in male mice.

    Murakami, G; Hunter, R G; Fontaine, C; Ribeiro, A; Pfaff, D

    2011-08-01

    The incidence of social disorders such as autism and schizophrenia is significantly higher in males, and the presentation more severe, than in females. This suggests the possible contribution of sex hormones to the development of these psychiatric disorders. There is also evidence that these disorders are highly heritable. To contribute toward our understanding of the mechanisms underlying social behaviors, particularly social interaction, we assessed the relationship of social interaction with gene expression for two neuropeptides, oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP), using adult male mice. Social interaction was positively correlated with: oxytocin receptor (OTR) and vasopressin receptor (V1aR) mRNA expression in the medial amygdala; and OT and AVP mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). When mice representing extremes of social interaction were compared, all of these mRNAs were more highly expressed in high social interaction mice than in low social interaction mice. OTR and V1aR mRNAs were highly correlated with estrogen receptor α (ERα) mRNA in the medial amygdala, and OT and AVP mRNAs with estrogen receptor β (ERβ) mRNA in the PVN, indicating that OT and AVP systems are tightly regulated by estrogen receptors. A significant difference in the level of ERα mRNA in the medial amygdala between high and low social interaction mice was also observed. These results support the hypothesis that variations of estrogen receptor levels are associated with differences in social interaction through the OT and AVP systems, by upregulating gene expression for those peptides and their receptors. © 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2011 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Weight cycling enhances adipose tissue inflammatory responses in male mice.

    Sandra Barbosa-da-Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation attributed to dysregulated production, release of cytokines and adipokines and to dysregulated glucose-insulin homeostasis and dyslipidemia. Nutritional interventions such as dieting are often accompanied by repeated bouts of weight loss and regain, a phenomenon known as weight cycling (WC. METHODS: In this work we studied the effects of WC on the feed efficiency, blood lipids, carbohydrate metabolism, adiposity and inflammatory markers in C57BL/6 male mice that WC two or three consecutive times by alternation of a high-fat (HF diet with standard chow (SC. RESULTS: The body mass (BM grew up in each cycle of HF feeding, and decreased after each cycle of SC feeding. The alterations observed in the animals feeding HF diet in the oral glucose tolerance test, in blood lipids, and in serum and adipose tissue expression of adipokines were not recuperated after WC. Moreover, the longer the HF feeding was (two, four and six months, more severe the adiposity was. After three consecutive WC, less marked was the BM reduction during SC feeding, while more severe was the BM increase during HF feeding. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the results of the present study showed that both the HF diet and WC are relevant to BM evolution and fat pad remodeling in mice, with repercussion in blood lipids, homeostasis of glucose-insulin and adipokine levels. The simple reduction of the BM during a WC is not able to recover the high levels of adipokines in the serum and adipose tissue as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokines enhanced during a cycle of HF diet. These findings are significant because a milieu with altered adipokines in association with WC potentially aggravates the chronic inflammation attributed to dysregulated production and release of adipokines in mice.

  10. Yangjing Capsule Ameliorates Spermatogenesis in Male Mice Exposed to Cyclophosphamide

    Hongle Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yangjing capsule (YC, a traditional Chinese compound herbal preparation, has been proven as an effective drug to improve spermatogenesis in clinical practice. However, its pharmacological mechanisms were not fully clarified. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of YC on spermatogenesis in the mouse model of spermatogenesis dysfunction induced by cyclophosphamide (CP. The administration of YC significantly increased the epididymal index, sperm count, and sperm motility of model mice. Histopathological changes demonstrated that CP caused obvious structural damage to testis, which were reversed by the administration of YC. Results from TUNEL assay showed that treatment with YC dramatically decreased the apoptosis of spermatogenic cell induced by CP. Moreover, YC treatment could inhibit the mRNA and protein expression of Bax to Bcl-2 and also raised expression of AR at both mRNA and protein levels. These data suggest that YC might ameliorate spermatogenesis in male mice exposed to CP through inhibiting the apoptosis of spermatogenic cell and enhancing the actions of testosterone in spermatogenesis.

  11. Neurosteroids in Adult Hippocampus of Male and Female Rodents: Biosynthesis and Actions of Sex Steroids

    Yasushi Hojo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The brain is not only the target of steroid hormones but also is able to locally synthesize steroids de novo. Evidence of the local production of steroids in the brain has been accumulating in various vertebrates, including teleost fish, amphibia, birds, rodents, non-human primates, and humans. In this review, we mainly focus on the local production of sex steroids in the hippocampal neurons of adult rodents (rats and mice, a center for learning and memory. From the data of the hippocampus of adult male rats, hippocampal principal neurons [pyramidal cells in CA1–CA3 and granule cells in dentate gyrus (DG] have a complete system for biosynthesis of sex steroids. Liquid chromatography with tandem-mass-spectrometry (LC-MS/MS enabled us to accurately determine the levels of hippocampal sex steroids including 17β-estradiol (17β-E2, testosterone (T, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT, which are much higher than those in blood. Next, we review the steroid synthesis in the hippocampus of female rats, since previous knowledge had been biased toward the data from males. Recently, we clarified that the levels of hippocampal steroids fluctuate in adult female rats across the estrous cycle. Accurate determination of hippocampal steroids at each stage of the estrous cycle is of importance for providing the account for the fluctuation of female hippocampal functions, including spine density, long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD, and learning and memory. These functional fluctuations in female had been attributed to the level of circulation-derived steroids. LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that the dendritic spine density in CA1 of adult female hippocampus correlates with the levels of hippocampal progesterone and 17β-E2. Finally, we introduce the direct evidence of the role of hippocampus-synthesized steroids in hippocampal function including neurogenesis, LTP, and memory consolidation. Mild exercise (2 week of treadmill running elevated

  12. Sexual orientation, theory of mind and empathy: a comparison of male homosexual and male and female heterosexuals.

    Shapouri, Soheil; Nejati, Vahid; Eftekhar Ardebili, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have been investigating similarities of and differences between homosexuals and heterosexuals for past few decades. Several studies have shown that in the particular domain (e.g., spatial ability), male homosexuals would resemble female heterosexuals better than male heterosexuals. Executive function, however, has received more attention than social cognition in this line of research. This study focuses on theory of mind and empathy as two important components of social cognition in male homosexuals (N=14), male heterosexuals (N=15) and female heterosexuals (N=14). Applying Reading the Mind in the Eyes test and the Empathy Quotient, no significant difference between groups was identified. This study suggests that similarities of male homosexuals and female heterosexuals may be confined to executive function and not extended to some social cognition abilities like theory of mind or empathy.

  13. Visual perceptions of male obesity: a cross-cultural study examining male and female lay perceptions of obesity in Caucasian males.

    Robinson, Eric; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S

    2015-05-16

    Obesity is now common and this may have altered visual perceptions of what constitutes a 'normal' and therefore healthy weight. The present study examined cross-cultural differences in male and female participants' ability to visually identify the weight status of photographed Caucasian males. Five hundred and fifty three male and female young adults from the US (high obesity prevalence), UK and Sweden (lower obesity prevalence) participated in an online study. Participants judged the weight status of a series of photographed healthy weight, overweight and obese (class I) Caucasian males and rated the extent to which they believed each male should consider losing weight. There was a strong tendency for both male and female participants to underestimate the weight status of the photographed overweight and obese males. Photographed males were frequently perceived as being of healthier weight than they actually were. Some modest cross-cultural differences were also observed; US participants were worse at recognising obesity than UK participants (p cross-cultural differences were observed for perceptions or attitudes towards the photographed healthy weight or overweight males. The weight status of overweight and obese (class I) Caucasian males is underestimated when judged by males and females using visual information alone. This study provides initial evidence of modest cross-cultural differences in attitudes toward, and the ability to recognise, obesity in Caucasian males.

  14. Should I stay or should I go? Female brood desertion and male counterstrategy in rock sparrows

    Griggio, Matteo; Matessi, Giuliano; Pilastro, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    petronia), a species in which females can desert their first brood before the nestlings from the first brood leave the nest. We predicted that the male would either desert the brood first or stay even if this implied the risk of caring for the brood alone. We found that males mated to loaded females did...... not leave but stayed and significantly increased their courtship rate and mate guarding. Unexpectedly, they also increased their food provisioning to the nestlings, even though loaded females did not reduce their nestling-feeding rate. The increase in male feeding rate may be explained as a way for the male...... to reduce the female's propensity to switch mate and desert or to increase her propensity to copulate with the male to obtain paternity in her next brood. Altogether, our results demonstrate that the perception of the risk of being deserted by the female does not necessarily induce males to desert first...

  15. Early weaning impairs body composition in male mice

    Maria Carolina Borges

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of early weaning on body composition and on parameters related to nutritional status in mice. The experimental group consisted of male Swiss Webster mice that were weaned early (at postnatal day fourteen and fed an appropriate diet for growing rodents until postnatal day twenty-one (EW group. The control group consisted of male mice breastfed until postnatal day twenty-one (CON group. All animals were sacrificed on the twenty-first day of life. The EW group showed a decrease in liver and muscle protein content and concentration, brain protein concentration, brain DNA content and concentration, as well as liver and muscle protein/RNA ratio (pO presente estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito do desmame precoce sobre a composição corporal e sobre parâmetros indicativos do estado nutricional de camundongos. O grupo experimental consistiu de camundongos Swiss Webster, machos, desmamados precocemente (14º dia de vida e alimentados com ração apropriada para roedores em crescimento até o 21º dia pós-natal (grupo DESM. O grupo controle consistiu de camundongos amamentados até o 21º dia pós-natal (grupo CON. Todos os animais foram sacrificados no 21º dia de vida. O grupo DESM apresentou redução da concentração e conteúdo hepático e muscular de proteínas, da concentração cerebral de proteínas, da concentração e conteúdo cerebral de DNA e da razão proteína/RNA hepática e muscular (p<0,05. Quanto à composição corporal, o grupo DESM apresentou maior conteúdo de umidade, maior percentual de umidade e lipídios e menor conteúdo e percentual de cinzas e proteína na carcaça (p<0,05. Os resultados indicam que o desmame precoce acarreta em prejuízo à composição corporal e a parâmetros indicativos do estado nutricional, o que pode estar relacionado ao retardo do processo de maturação química. Os dados do presente estudo podem contribuir para o entendimento da influência da alimenta

  16. Embryonic effects transmitted by male mice irradiated with 512 MeV/u 56Fe nuclei

    Wiley, L.M.; Van Beek, M.E.A.B.; Raabe, O.G.

    1994-01-01

    High-energy, high-charge nuclei may contribute substantially to the yearly equivalent dose in space flight from galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) at solar minimum. The largest single heavy-ion component is 56 Fe. We used the mouse embryo chimera assay to test 512 MeV/u 56 Fe nuclei for effects on the rate of proliferation of embryonic cells transmitted by sperm from irradiated mice. Male CD1 mice were acutely irradiated with 0.01, 0.05, or 0.1 Gy (LET, 184 keV/μm; fluence, 3.5 x 10 4 -3.3 x 10 5 nuclei/cm 2 ; average dose rate, 0.02 Gy/min) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory BEVATRON/BEVALAC Facility in Berkeley, CA. Irradiated males were bred weekly for 7 weeks to nonirradiated females and their four-cell embryos were paired with control embryos, forming aggregation chimeras. After 30-35 h of culture, chimeras were dissociated to obtain open-quotes proliferation ratiosclose quotes (number of cells contributed by the embryo from the irradiated male/total number of cells in the chimera). Significant dose-dependent decreases in proliferation ratios were obtained across all three dose groups for postirradiation week 2 (P 56 Fe nuclei. However, up to 47% of sperm during postirradiation weeks 1 and 2 transmitted proliferation ratios that were at or below one standard deviation from control mean proliferation ratios. 26 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs

  17. Male chimpanzees' grooming rates vary by female age, parity, and fertility status.

    Proctor, Darby P; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2011-10-01

    Copulation preferences in our closest living relative, the chimpanzee, suggest that males prefer older females who have had previous offspring. However, this finding is counter to some behavioral models, which predict that chimpanzee males, as promiscuous breeders with minimal costs to mating, should show little or no preference when choosing mating partners (e.g. should mate indiscriminately). To determine if the preferences indicated by copulations appear in other contexts as well as how they interact, we examined how male chimpanzees' grooming patterns varied amongst females. We found that males' preferences were based on interactions among females' fertility status, age, and parity. First, grooming increased with increasing female parity. We further found an effect of the estrous cycle on grooming; when females were at the lowest point of their cycle, males preferentially groomed parous females at peak reproductive age, but during maximal tumescence, males preferred the oldest multiparous females. Nulliparous females received relatively little grooming regardless of age or fertility. Thus, male chimpanzees apparently chose grooming partners based on both female's experience and fertility, possibly indicating a two-pronged social investment strategy. Male selectivity seems to have evolved to effectively distribute costly social resources in a pattern which may increase their overall reproductive success. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Lightweight males of Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae neglect lightweight females due low reproductive fitness

    A. I. A. Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract Sexual choice by male stink bugs is important because females that experience food shortages lay fewer eggs with lower viability compared with well-fed females. In this study, we investigated whether Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae males fed with a low-quality diet during its nymphal stage show selectivity for sexual partners resulting in high-quality progeny. Lightweight males and females were obtained from nymphs fed weekly with Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae pupae. By contrast, heavyweight males and females were fed three times a week and received an extra nutritional source: cotton leaves, Gossypium hirsutum L. (Malvaceae. Lightweight males preferred to mate with heavy females (77.78 ± 14.69%, whereas heavyweight males did not discriminated between light or heavyweight females. Females mated with lightweight males showed similar levels of reproduction to those mated with heavyweight males. The results provide an indication of the importance of male and female body weight for sexual selection in Asopinae stink bugs.

  19. Male but not female olfaction is crucial for intermolt mating in European lobsters (Homarus gammarus L.).

    Skog, Malin

    2009-02-01

    Chemical signals are common in most crustacean social interactions and are often perceived via chemosensory (olfactory) organs on the first antenna. Intermolt courtship behaviors and mating were investigated in size-matched pairs of intermolt European lobsters (Homarus gammarus) where the olfactory receptors of either the male or the female were lesioned with distilled water (olfactory ablation) or seawater (control). Matings or advanced male courtship behaviors (mounting and turning) were common in seawater controls and olfactory-ablated females. In contrast, when male olfaction was ablated with distilled water, there was not a single mating, and the only male courtship behaviors seen were a few very brief and unsuccessful mounting attempts. Individual females mated up to 5 times with different males, showing that previously inseminated females were still attractive to males. Thus, male but not female olfaction is crucial for intermolt mating in H. gammarus, indicating the presence of a female sex pheromone during the entire female molt cycle, not only at the time of molting. Female sex discrimination may be based on other cues from the male in combination with typical male behaviors.

  20. Chemosignalling effects of human tears revisited: Does exposure to female tears decrease males' perception of female sexual attractiveness?

    Gračanin, Asmir; van Assen, Marcel A L M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/407629971; Omrčen, Višnja; Koraj, Ivana; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2016-01-01

    Gelstein et al. reported the results of three experiments suggesting a dampening influence of inhalation of female emotional tears on males' arousal and perception of female sexual attractiveness, specifically in non-sexual situations. This prompted the hypothesis that crying exerts its influence on

  1. Chemosignalling effects of human tears revisited : Does exposure to female tears decrease males' perception of female sexual attractiveness?

    Gracanin, A.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.; Omrčen, Višnja; Koraj, Ivana; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Gelstein et al. reported the results of three experiments suggesting a dampening influence of inhalation of female emotional tears on males' arousal and perception of female sexual attractiveness, specifically in non-sexual situations. This prompted the hypothesis that crying exerts its influence on

  2. Imperfect chemical female mimicry in males of the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior

    Cremer, Sylvia; D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Drijfhout, Falko P.; Sledge, Matthew F.; Turillazzi, Stefano; Heinze, Jürgen

    2008-11-01

    Winged and wingless males coexist in the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior. Wingless (“ergatoid”) males never leave their maternal colony and fight remorselessly among each other for the access to emerging females. The peaceful winged males disperse after about 10 days, but beforehand also mate in the nest. In the first 5 days of their life, winged males perform a chemical female mimicry that protects them against attack and even makes them sexually attractive to ergatoid males. When older, the chemical profile of winged males no longer matches that of virgin females; nevertheless, they are still tolerated, which so far has been puzzling. Contrasting this general pattern, we have identified a single aberrant colony in which all winged males were attacked and killed by the ergatoid males. A comparative analysis of the morphology and chemical profile of these untypical attacked winged males and the tolerated males from several normal colonies revealed that normal old males are still performing some chemical mimicry to the virgin queens, though less perfect than in their young ages. The anomalous attacked winged males, on the other hand, had a very different odour to the females. Our study thus exemplifies that the analysis of rare malfunctioning can add valuable insight on functioning under normal conditions and allows the conclusion that older winged males from normal colonies of the ant C. obscurior are guarded through an imperfect chemical female mimicry, still close enough to protect against attacks by the wingless fighters yet dissimilar enough not to elicit their sexual interest.

  3. Imperfect chemical female mimicry in males of the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior

    Cremer, S.; D'Ettorre, P.; Drijfhout, F.P.

    2008-01-01

    in the nest. In the first 5 days of their life, winged males perform a chemical female mimicry that protects them against attack and even makes them sexually attractive to ergatoid males. When older, the chemical profile of winged males no longer matches that of virgin females; nevertheless, they are still...... and the tolerated males from several normal colonies revealed that normal old males are still performing some chemical mimicry to the virgin queens, though less perfect than in their young ages. The anomalous attacked winged males, on the other hand, had a very different odour to the females. Our study thus...... exemplifies that the analysis of rare malfunctioning can add valuable insight on functioning under normal conditions and allows the conclusion that older winged males from normal colonies of the ant C. obscurior are guarded through an imperfect chemical female mimicry, still close enough to protect against...

  4. Preferences of Male and Female Students for TSA Competitive Events

    Mitts, Charles R.; Haynie, W. J., III

    2010-01-01

    Arguably a major issue facing technology education (TE) since its inception has been its failure to attract and keep female students. This article explains one primary reason female students may be avoiding TE courses, presents a research-tested set of tools that TE teachers can use to help fix the problem, and offers a new realizable pathway…

  5. Conspicuous female ornamentation and tests of male mate preference in threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    Daniel Shane Wright

    Full Text Available Sexual selection drives the evolution of exaggerated male ornaments in many animal species. Female ornamentation is now acknowledged also to be common but is generally less well understood. One example is the recently documented red female throat coloration in some threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus populations. Although female sticklebacks often exhibit a preference for red male throat coloration, the possibility of sexual selection on female coloration has been little studied. Using sequential and simultaneous mate choice trials, we examined male mate preferences for female throat color, as well as pelvic spine color and standard length, using wild-captured threespine sticklebacks from the Little Campbell River, British Columbia. In a multivariate analysis, we found no evidence for a population-level mate preference in males, suggesting the absence of directional sexual selection on these traits arising from male mate choice. Significant variation was detected among males in their preference functions, but this appeared to arise from differences in their mean responsiveness across mating trials and not from variation in the strength (i.e., slope of their preference, suggesting the absence of individual-level preferences as well. When presented with conspecific intruder males, male response decreased as intruder red throat coloration increased, suggesting that males can discriminate color and other aspects of phenotype in our experiment and that males may use these traits in intrasexual interactions. The results presented here are the first to explicitly address male preference for female throat color in threespine sticklebacks.

  6. Conspicuous female ornamentation and tests of male mate preference in threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    Wright, Daniel Shane; Pierotti, Michele E R; Rundle, Howard D; McKinnon, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Sexual selection drives the evolution of exaggerated male ornaments in many animal species. Female ornamentation is now acknowledged also to be common but is generally less well understood. One example is the recently documented red female throat coloration in some threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations. Although female sticklebacks often exhibit a preference for red male throat coloration, the possibility of sexual selection on female coloration has been little studied. Using sequential and simultaneous mate choice trials, we examined male mate preferences for female throat color, as well as pelvic spine color and standard length, using wild-captured threespine sticklebacks from the Little Campbell River, British Columbia. In a multivariate analysis, we found no evidence for a population-level mate preference in males, suggesting the absence of directional sexual selection on these traits arising from male mate choice. Significant variation was detected among males in their preference functions, but this appeared to arise from differences in their mean responsiveness across mating trials and not from variation in the strength (i.e., slope) of their preference, suggesting the absence of individual-level preferences as well. When presented with conspecific intruder males, male response decreased as intruder red throat coloration increased, suggesting that males can discriminate color and other aspects of phenotype in our experiment and that males may use these traits in intrasexual interactions. The results presented here are the first to explicitly address male preference for female throat color in threespine sticklebacks.

  7. Estrous cycle influences the expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the hypothalamus and limbic system of female mice

    Viglietti-Panzica Carla

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitric oxide plays an important role in the regulation of male and female sexual behavior in rodents, and the expression of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS is influenced by testosterone in the male rat, and by estrogens in the female. We have here quantitatively investigated the distribution of nNOS immunoreactive (ir neurons in the limbic hypothalamic region of intact female mice sacrificed during different phases of estrous cycle. Results Changes were observed in the medial preoptic area (MPA (significantly higher number in estrus and in the arcuate nucleus (Arc (significantly higher number in proestrus. In the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial nucleus (VMHvl and in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST no significant changes have been observed. In addition, by comparing males and females, we observed a stable sex dimorphism (males have a higher number of nNOS-ir cells in comparison to almost all the different phases of the estrous cycle in the VMHvl and in the BST (when considering only the less intensely stained elements. In the MPA and in the Arc sex differences were detected only comparing some phases of the cycle. Conclusion These data demonstrate that, in mice, the expression of nNOS in some hypothalamic regions involved in the control of reproduction and characterized by a large number of estrogen receptors is under the control of gonadal hormones and may vary according to the rapid variations of hormonal levels that take place during the estrous cycle.

  8. Does More Mean Less? The Male/Female Wage Gap and the Proportion of Females at the Establishment Level

    Reilly, Kevin T.; Wirjanto, Tony S.

    1998-01-01

    of the gap in log wages between men and women. Due to an inadequacy of the traditional method of decomposing wages when examining an affirmative action program, a new method of decomposition is developed: the characteristic wage decomposition. The results suggest that an employment equity program will reduce......This paper examines the effect of the proportionof females in the establishment on the male/female wage gap and the effectiveness of an affirmaive action program in reducing this gap. A unique data set makes this paper possible since it has information on both individuals and the establishments...... the male/female log wage gap by 20 percent....

  9. Maternal enrichment affects prenatal hippocampal proliferation and open-field behaviors in female offspring mice.

    Maruoka, Takashi; Kodomari, Ikuko; Yamauchi, Rena; Wada, Etsuko; Wada, Keiji

    2009-04-17

    The maternal environment is thought to be important for fetal brain development. However, the effects of maternal environment are not fully understood. Here, we investigated whether enrichment of the maternal environment can influence prenatal brain development and postnatal behaviors in mice. An enriched environment is a housing condition with several objects such as a running wheel, tube and ladder, which are thought to increase sensory, cognitive and motor stimulation in rodents compared with standard housing conditions. First, we measured the number of BrdU-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of fetuses from pregnant dams housed in an enriched environment. Our results revealed that maternal enrichment influences cell proliferation in the hippocampus of female, but not male, fetuses. Second, we used the open-field test to investigate postnatal behaviors in the offspring of dams housed in the enriched environment during pregnancy. We found that maternal enrichment significantly affects the locomotor activity and time spent in the center of the open-field in female, but not male, offspring. These results indicate that maternal enrichment influences prenatal brain development and postnatal behaviors in female offspring.

  10. Personal and practice profile of male and female ophthalmologists in India

    Kumar Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to study the practice pattern, personal profile, and work-family balance of male and female ophthalmologists in India. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted through 41 point questionnaire sent to the members of All India Ophthalmological Society dealing with practice profile and personal circumstances of ophthalmologists. Results: Six hundred and twenty-two (8% responses were obtained out of 7723 invitations sent. A total of 452 were male and 170 were female ophthalmologists. Age group of 30-39 years was most common age of respondents (male 155; 35.3%; female 81; 47.6%. Larger number of male ophthalmologists (157; 34.7% worked for more than 9 h a day than female ophthalmologists (41; 24.1% (P = 0.01. Larger number of male ophthalmologists (229; 50.7% earned more than Rs. 1 lakh/month than female ophthalmologists (55; 32.4% (P = 0.00001 More female ophthalmologists (21; 12.4% than males (26; 5.8% said that they faced cultural, ethnic or gender bias at work place (P = 0.002. Forty-four (25.9% female and 54 (12% male ophthalmologists said that they often curtailed their work for family needs (P = 0.0001. Two hundred and fifty-two (55.8% male ophthalmologists and 78 (45.9% female ophthalmologists considered their profession rewarding (P = 0.02. Conclusion: Ophthalmology as a profession was considered rewarding by both male and female ophthalmologists. However, female ophthalmologists were curtailing their work for family needs and earning less than male ophthalmologists. Female ophthalmologists were also subject to gender bias at workplace. These issues need to be tackled to improve the work satisfaction of ophthalmology workforce.

  11. Female and Male Modes of Rhetoric in an Advanced Composition Course.

    Lamb, Catherine E.

    A college composition course based on teaching the difference between male and female modes of rhetoric offers advantages over the traditional course in reference, persuasive, and expressive discourse: the appeal to student emotion provided by the terms "female" and "male," and the clarity of the terms in delineating the…

  12. Cricothyroid approximation and subluxation in 21 male-to-female transsexuals

    Kanagalingam, Jeeve; Georgalas, Christos; Wood, Gary R.; Ahluwalia, Suki; Sandhu, Guri; Cheesman, Anthony D.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the medium-term outcome of cricothyroid approximation and subluxation (CTAS) with postoperative speech therapy for pitch elevation in male-to-female transsexuals. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study of male-to-female transsexuals who underwent pitch-raising surgery between

  13. Explaining Academic Success in Engineering Degree Programs : Do Female and Male Students Differ?

    Kamphorst, Jan C.; Hofman, W.H. Adriaan; Jansen, Ellen P.W.A.; Terlouw, Cees

    2015-01-01

    Background In Dutch engineering education, female students outperform male students. Using an interactionalist framework, this study explores factors that contribute to this gender-based difference. Purpose This study aims to answer two questions: Do female and male students differ in background

  14. Perceptions of Male and Female STEM Aptitude: The Moderating Effect of Benevolent and Hostile Sexism

    Reilly, Erin D.; Rackley, Kadie R.; Awad, Germine H.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated evaluations and advice communicated to male and female technology interns experiencing work difficulties, using a 2 (workplace issue: ability or interpersonal) ×2 (intern gender: male vs. female) between-subjects experimental design. Technology professionals rated hypothetical interns on competence, qualifications,…

  15. Familiarity and Sex Based Stereotypes on Instant Impressions of Male and Female Faculty

    Nadler, Joel T.; Berry, Seth A.; Stockdale, Margaret S.

    2013-01-01

    To address the stranger-to-stranger critique of stereotyping research, psychology students (n = 139) and law students (n = 58) rated photographs of familiar or unfamiliar male or female professors on competence. Results from Study 1 indicated that familiar male psychology faculty were rated as more competent than were familiar female faculty,…

  16. The Differences between Iranian Male and Female Students in Using Language Learning Strategies

    Sherafat, Zahra; Kabiri, Pantea; Soori, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    The current study aimed at investigating the differences between male and female Iranian students in using different learning strategies. The participants of the study included 60 Iranian EFL students (30 male and 30 female) in Islamic Azad University in Larestan branch. The results of this study revealed that the frequency of using different…

  17. The Relative Performance of Female and Male Students in Accounting Principles Classes.

    Bouillon, Marvin L.; Doran, B. Michael

    1992-01-01

    The performance of female and male students in Accounting Principles (AP) I and II was compared by using multiple regression techniques to assess the incremental explanatory effects of gender. Males significantly outperformed females in AP I, contradicting earlier studies. Similar gender of instructor and student was insignificant. (JOW)

  18. A SWOT Analysis of Male and Female Students' Performance in Chemistry: A Comparative Study

    Ezeudu, Florence O.; Chiaha, Gertrude-Theresa Uzoamaka; Anazor, Lynda Chioma; Eze, Justina Uzoamaka; Omeke, Faith Chinwe

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to do a SWOT analysis and compare performances of male and female students in chemistry. Four research questions and four null hypotheses guided the study. Two boys', two girls' and two coeducational schools involving 1319 males and 1831 females, were selected by a stratified, deliberate sampling technique. A…

  19. Experimental removal and elevation of sexual selection: does sexual selection generate manipulative males and resistant females?

    Crudgington, Helen S; Beckerman, Andrew P; Brüstle, Lena; Green, Kathleen; Snook, Rhonda R

    2005-05-01

    Sexual conflict over reproduction can occur between males and females. In several naturally promiscuous insect species, experimental evolution studies that have enforced monogamy found evidence for sexual conflict. Here, we subjected the naturally promiscuous, sperm-heteromorphic fruit fly Drosophila pseudoobscura to enforced monogamy, standard levels of promiscuity, and elevated opportunities for promiscuity in four replicate lines. We examined the effect of male and female selection history and the proximate effect of variation in male density on female fitness parameters. We found that male density rather than male selection history explained a greater degree of female fecundity, egg hatching success, and productivity. Additionally, females selected under elevated promiscuity had greater fecundity and hatching success than did enforced monogamy females. Selection line males do not differ in their capacity to coerce females to remate, suggesting no divergence in precopulatory manipulative ability. However, these males did vary in their ability to suppress female remating, suggesting postcopulatory manipulation. These results indicate that sexual conflict can be manifested through both the proximate effects of male density and the historical levels of sexual selection and that the sexes respond differentially to these factors and further stress the multifarious channels of sexual communication that contribute to fitness.

  20. Female and male communication in co-operative problem solving in high school science

    Harskamp, Egbert; Dhig, Ning; Tremante, A; Welsch, F; Malpica, F

    2007-01-01

    Empirical evidence is presented that males working in mixed-gender dyads on science problems do better than their female partners. This is not the case when males and females work in same gender dyads. There is a difference in communication style in mixed gender dyads in comparison with same gender

  1. Feed efficiency, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of young Nellore males and females.

    Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; Cyrillo, Joslaine Noely dos Santos Gonçalves; dos Santos, Guilherme Pinheiro; Branco, Renata Helena; Ribeiro, Enilson Geraldo; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate differences in efficiency of feed utilization between young Nellore males and females by comparing growth traits, feed intake, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of the animals. Data from 768 Nellore males and females that participated in eight performance tests for individual feed intake evaluation were used. Performance and feed efficiency measures, efficiency-related hematological, metabolic and hormonal variables, and data regarding ingestive behavior were collected. Feed efficiency measures were defined by the relationship between performance and feed intake. Data were analyzed using mixed models that included the fixed effects of sex, herd, and the covariate age within sex and the random effects of facility within year, year, and residual. Significant differences between males and females were observed for traits related to weight gain and feed intake. Although individual dynamics of feed efficiency measures differed between males and females, no significant differences in residual feed intake, feed efficiency, or relative growth rate were observed between sexes. Significant differences between sexes were found for platelets, red blood cells, hemoglobin, creatinine, glucose, urea, triglycerides, insulin, cortisol, and IGF-I. Females spent more time feeding and less time ruminating when compared to males. However, males exhibited higher feeding efficiency and lower rumination efficiency than females. Growing Nellore males and females are efficient in feed utilization, and the differences in blood variables observed are probably due to differences in body size and feed intake. Males spend less time eating, consume more food, and spend more time ruminating than females.

  2. Cryptic forcible insemination: male snakes exploit female physiology, anatomy, and behavior to obtain coercive matings.

    Shine, Richard; Langkilde, Tracy; Mason, Robert T

    2003-11-01

    Whether males can inseminate uncooperative females is a central determinant of mating system evolution that profoundly affects the interpretation of phenomena such as multiple mating by females, mate choice, reproductive seasonality, and courtship tactics. Forcible insemination is usually inferred from direct physical battles between the sexes and has been dismissed on intuitive grounds for many kinds of animals. For example, snakes have elongate flexible bodies (making it difficult for a male to restrain a female physically), males are typically smaller than females, and copulation requires female cloacal gaping to enable intromission. Male garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) do not display any overt aggression during courtship and simply lie over the female and exhibit rhythmic pulsating caudocephalic waves of muscular contraction; previous studies have interpreted this behavior as a mechanism for eliciting female receptivity. In contrast, we show that male garter snakes forcibly inseminate females. They do so by taking advantage of specific features of snake physiology, respiratory anatomy, and antipredator behavior. The snake lung extends along most of the body, with the large posterior section (the saccular lung) lacking any respiratory exchange surface. Rhythmic caudocephalic waves by courting male garter snakes push anoxic air from the saccular lung forward and across the respiratory surfaces such that females cannot obtain oxygen. Their stress response involves cloacal gaping, which functions in other contexts to repel predators by extruding feces and musk but in this situation permits male intromission. Thus, superficially benign courtship behaviors may involve cryptic coercion even in species for which intuition dismisses any possibility of forcible insemination.

  3. Pair housing differentially affects motivation to self-administer cocaine in male and female rats.

    Westenbroek, Christel; Perry, Adam N; Becker, Jill B

    2013-09-01

    Female rats exhibit greater intake and motivation to self-administer cocaine. In females but not males, isolation by itself is a stressor, which could lead to increased drug intake. Therefore, we hypothesized that social housing would buffer against stress and reduce the motivation to self-administer cocaine primarily in females. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were housed individually or in same-sex pairs. The individually housed rats and one of each pair were allowed to self-administer (SA) a low dose of cocaine (0.2 mg/kg/inf) on a fixed ratio (FR1) schedule for one week. Motivation for cocaine SA was measured for an additional 2 weeks on a progressive ratio schedule. Isolated females had greater cocaine-intake on the FR1 schedule and greater motivation to take cocaine than males. Pair-housing in females, but not males, attenuated the motivation to take cocaine. Isolated females, but not males, showed escalation of their motivation to take cocaine, which was attenuated by pair housing of females. Concluding, the motivation to take cocaine escalates in females but not males, and pair-housing of females attenuates this escalation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Climate Change Adaptation Needs of Male and Female Oil Palm ...

    User

    2008 and Ayodele, 2010) and also results in an increase in demand for palm oil. The demand .... climate change adaptation practice needs of oil palm entrepreneurs in Edo State, .... female respondents had one form of education or the other.

  5. Compared to Sucrose, Previous Consumption of Fructose and Glucose Monosaccharides Reduces Survival and Fitness of Female Mice123

    Ruff, James S; Hugentobler, Sara A; Suchy, Amanda K; Sosa, Mirtha M; Tanner, Ruth E; Hite, Megumi E; Morrison, Linda C; Gieng, Sin H; Shigenaga, Mark K; Potts, Wayne K

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intake of added sugar has been shown to correlate with many human metabolic diseases, and rodent models have characterized numerous aspects of the resulting disease phenotypes. However, there is a controversy about whether differential health effects occur because of the consumption of either of the two common types of added sugar—high-fructose corn syrup (fructose and glucose monosaccharides; F/G) or table sugar (sucrose, a fructose and glucose disaccharide). Objectives: We tested the equivalence of sucrose- vs. F/G-containing diets on mouse (Mus musculus) longevity, reproductive success, and social dominance. Methods: We fed wild-derived mice, outbred mice descended from wild-caught ancestors, a diet in which 25% of the calories came from either an equal ratio of F/G or an isocaloric amount of sucrose (both diets had 63% of total calories as carbohydrates). Exposure lasted 40 wk, starting at weaning (21 d of age), and then mice (104 females and 56 males) were released into organismal performances assays—seminatural enclosures where mice competed for territories, resources, and mates for 32 wk. Within enclosures all mice consumed the F/G diet. Results: Females initially fed the F/G diet experienced a mortality rate 1.9 times the rate (P = 0.012) and produced 26.4% fewer offspring than females initially fed sucrose (P = 0.001). This reproductive deficiency was present before mortality differences, suggesting the F/G diet was causing physiologic performance deficits prior to mortality. No differential patterns in survival, reproduction, or social dominance were observed in males, indicating a sex-specific outcome of exposure. Conclusion: This study provides experimental evidence that the consumption of human-relevant levels of F/G is more deleterious than an isocaloric amount of sucrose for key organism-level health measures in female mice. PMID:25733457

  6. Compared to sucrose, previous consumption of fructose and glucose monosaccharides reduces survival and fitness of female mice.

    Ruff, James S; Hugentobler, Sara A; Suchy, Amanda K; Sosa, Mirtha M; Tanner, Ruth E; Hite, Megumi E; Morrison, Linda C; Gieng, Sin H; Shigenaga, Mark K; Potts, Wayne K

    2015-03-01

    Intake of added sugar has been shown to correlate with many human metabolic diseases, and rodent models have characterized numerous aspects of the resulting disease phenotypes. However, there is a controversy about whether differential health effects occur because of the consumption of either of the two common types of added sugar-high-fructose corn syrup (fructose and glucose monosaccharides; F/G) or table sugar (sucrose, a fructose and glucose disaccharide). We tested the equivalence of sucrose- vs. F/G-containing diets on mouse (Mus musculus) longevity, reproductive success, and social dominance. We fed wild-derived mice, outbred mice descended from wild-caught ancestors, a diet in which 25% of the calories came from either an equal ratio of F/G or an isocaloric amount of sucrose (both diets had 63% of total calories as carbohydrates). Exposure lasted 40 wk, starting at weaning (21 d of age), and then mice (104 females and 56 males) were released into organismal performances assays-seminatural enclosures where mice competed for territories, resources, and mates for 32 wk. Within enclosures all mice consumed the F/G diet. Females initially fed the F/G diet experienced a mortality rate 1.9 times the rate (P = 0.012) and produced 26.4% fewer offspring than females initially fed sucrose (P = 0.001). This reproductive deficiency was present before mortality differences, suggesting the F/G diet was causing physiologic performance deficits prior to mortality. No differential patterns in survival, reproduction, or social dominance were observed in males, indicating a sex-specific outcome of exposure. This study provides experimental evidence that the consumption of human-relevant levels of F/G is more deleterious than an isocaloric amount of sucrose for key organism-level health measures in female mice. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Roles of Female and Male Genotype in Post-Mating Responses in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Delbare, Sofie Y N; Chow, Clement Y; Wolfner, Mariana F; Clark, Andrew G

    2017-10-30

    Mating induces a multitude of changes in female behavior, physiology, and gene expression. Interactions between female and male genotype lead to variation in post-mating phenotypes and reproductive success. So far, few female molecules responsible for these interactions have been identified. Here, we used Drosophila melanogaster from 5 geographically dispersed populations to investigate such female × male genotypic interactions at the female transcriptomic and phenotypic levels. Females from each line were singly-mated to males from the same 5 lines, for a total of 25 combinations. Reproductive output and refractoriness to re-mating were assayed in females from the 25 mating combinations. Female × male genotypic interactions resulted in significant differences in these post-mating phenotypes. To assess whether female × male genotypic interactions affect the female post-mating transcriptome, next-generation RNA sequencing was performed on virgin and mated females at 5 to 6 h post-mating. Seventy-seven genes showed strong variation in mating-induced expression changes in a female × male genotype-dependent manner. These genes were enriched for immune response and odorant-binding functions, and for expression exclusively in the head. Strikingly, variation in post-mating transcript levels of a gene encoding a spermathecal endopeptidase was correlated with short-term egg production. The transcriptional variation found in specific functional classes of genes might be a read-out of female × male compatibility at a molecular level. Understanding the roles these genes play in the female post-mating response will be crucial to better understand the evolution of post-mating responses and related conflicts between the sexes. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. A comparison of Gaelic football injuries in males and females in primary care.

    Crowley, J

    2011-10-01

    The Ladies Gaelic Football Association has a playing population of 150,000 of which 33% are adults. A number of studies have been published on rates of injury among male athletes but none on female athletes in Gaelic football. A retrospective review of insurance claims, submitted under the Gaelic Athletic Association Player Insurance Injury Scheme. 405 injuries were recorded, 248 [107 (70%) male, 141 (58%) female] to the lower limb, 91 [33 (21%) male, 58 (23%) female] to the upper limb. The majority of lower limb injuries [56 (52%) male, 56 (40%) female] were to muscle. Almost a third of upper limb injuries were fractures [10 (30.3%) male, 33 (57%) female]. injuries\\/1000 hours playing was 8.25 for men and 2.4 for women. The injury rate in ladies Gaelic football was found to be significantly lower than in men\\'s Gaelic football. Lower limb injuries accounted for the majority of injuries in both sports.

  9. Neuroticism Associates with Cerebral in Vivo Serotonin Transporter Binding Differently in Males and Females

    Tuominen, Lauri; Miettunen, Jouko; Cannon, Dara M

    2017-01-01

    scores from 91 healthy males and 56 healthy females. We specifically tested if the association between neuroticism and serotonin transporter is different in females and males. Results: We found that neuroticism and thalamic serotonin transporter binding potentials were associated in both males......). Conclusions: The finding is in agreement with recent studies showing that the serotonergic system is involved in affective disorders differently in males and females and suggests that contribution of thalamic serotonin transporter to the risk of affective disorders depends on sex....... and females, but with opposite directionality. Higher neuroticism associated with higher serotonin transporter binding potential in males (standardized beta 0.292, P=.008), whereas in females, higher neuroticism associated with lower serotonin transporter binding potential (standardized beta -0.288, P=.014...

  10. Mating with large males decreases the immune defence of females ...

    1Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, BCVK Campus, ... observed results are very likely due to qualitative/quantitative differences in the .... Materials and methods .... that mated with the three types of males within each block.

  11. Origin and evolution of female plant from an identical male plant, in carica papaya

    Tariq, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    A field study was carried during January 2011 to March, 2013, to confirm the origin and evolution of female plant from an identical male plant in, a dioecious plant, the Carica papaya L. The plants were grown from the seeds of a normal female plant fruit. The grown, plants were identified as XX, XY and XYh (in March - April, 2012) on the basis of male and female flower bearing. The identical male plants, which usually bear only male (unisexual) flowers having calyx, corrolla and androecium, were observed also to bear bisexual flower, having calyx, corrolla, and gynoecium (ovary fused with androecium ). The fruits were set having the bisexual flowers in the identical male (hermaphrodite) plant. These fruits were kept under observation from setting to ripening stage. The ripened fruits were harvested from the identical male plants and 90-95% fruits from these plants were found with the seeds. Plants grown from these male fruit seeds produced all three type of plants i.e., male, female and hermaphrodite. This study indicated that an identical male (XYh) plant produced the female (XX) plant naturally, because of the XXY= XYh condition, which can contribute basic genetic material to male and female plants i.e an identical male (XYh = XXY= 2N +1 = 18+1= 19) produced all three type of plants, the pure male, the hermaphrodite and the female plant, originated from a single source of an identical male, as shown here. XYh = XXY g XY + XX + XXY. The propagation of all three sexes of Carica papaya from a single source of an identical male plant seeds is the first report in the world. (author)

  12. Baseline simple and complex reaction times in female compared to male boxers.

    Bianco, M; Ferri, M; Fabiano, C; Giorgiano, F; Tavella, S; Manili, U; Faina, M; Palmieri, V; Zeppilli, P

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the study was to compare baseline cognitive performance of female in respect to male amateur boxers. Study population included 28 female amateur boxers. Fifty-six male boxers, matched for age, employment and competitive level to female athletes, formed the control group. All boxers had no history of head concussions (except boxing). Each boxer was requested to: 1) fulfill a questionnaire collecting demographic data, level of education, occupational status, boxing record and number of head concussions during boxing; 2) undergo a baseline computerized neuropsychological (NP) test (CogSport) measuring simple and complex reaction times (RT). Female were lighter than male boxers (56±7 vs. 73.1±9.8 kg, Pknock-outs, etc.) correlated with NP scores. Female and male Olympic-style boxers have no (or minimal) differences in baseline cognitive performance. Further research with larger series of female boxers is required to confirm these findings.

  13. Aspartame administered in feed, beginning prenatally through life span, induces cancers of the liver and lung in male Swiss mice.

    Soffritti, Morando; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Manservigi, Marco; Tibaldi, Eva; Lauriola, Michelina; Falcioni, Laura; Bua, Luciano

    2010-12-01

    Aspartame (APM) is a well-known intense artificial sweetener used in more than 6,000 products. Among the major users of aspartame are children and women of childbearing age. In previous lifespan experiments conducted on Sprague-Dawley rats we have shown that APM is a carcinogenic agent in multiple sites and that its effects are increased when exposure starts from prenatal life. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of APM to induce carcinogenic effects in mice. Six groups of 62-122 male and female Swiss mice were treated with APM in feed at doses of 32,000, 16,000, 8,000, 2,000, or 0  ppm from prenatal life (12 days of gestation) until death. At death each animal underwent complete necropsy and all tissues and organs of all animals in the experiment were microscopically examined. APM in our experimental conditions induces in males a significant dose-related increased incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas (P < 0.01), and a significant increase at the dose levels of 32,000  ppm (P < 0.01) and 16,000  ppm (P < 0.05). Moreover, the results show a significant dose-related increased incidence of alveolar/bronchiolar carcinomas in males (P < 0.05), and a significant increase at 32,000  ppm (P < 0.05). The results of the present study confirm that APM is a carcinogenic agent in multiple sites in rodents, and that this effect is induced in two species, rats (males and females) and mice (males). No carcinogenic effects were observed in female mice. Am. J. Ind. Med. 53:1197-1206, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Effects of the distribution of female primates on the number of males.

    Laurel Mariah Carnes

    Full Text Available The spatiotemporal distribution of females is thought to drive variation in mating systems, and hence plays a central role in understanding animal behavior, ecology and evolution. Previous research has focused on investigating the links between female spatiotemporal distribution and the number of males in haplorhine primates. However, important questions remain concerning the importance of spatial cohesion, the generality of the pattern across haplorhine and strepsirrhine primates, and the consistency of previous findings given phylogenetic uncertainty. To address these issues, we examined how the spatiotemporal distribution of females influences the number of males in primate groups using an expanded comparative dataset and recent advances in bayesian phylogenetic and statistical methods. Specifically, we investigated the effect of female distributional factors (female number, spatial cohesion, estrous synchrony, breeding season duration and breeding seasonality on the number of males in primate groups. Using bayesian approaches to control for uncertainty in phylogeny and the model of trait evolution, we found that the number of females exerted a strong influence on the number of males in primate groups. In a multiple regression model that controlled for female number, we found support for temporal effects, particularly involving female estrous synchrony: the number of males increases when females are more synchronously receptive. Similarly, the number of males increases in species with shorter birth seasons, suggesting that greater breeding seasonality makes defense of females more difficult for male primates. When comparing primate suborders, we found only weak evidence for differences in traits between haplorhines and strepsirrhines, and including suborder in the statistical models did not affect our conclusions or give compelling evidence for different effects in haplorhines and strepsirrhines. Collectively, these results demonstrate that

  15. Male mate choice and female response in relation to mating status and time since mating

    Douglass H. Morse

    2010-01-01

    Models of sperm allocation predict that male mating behavior will vary with a female's reproductive condition and with information about her present and likely future status available to a male. Tests across a wide taxonomic range have shown that males allocate more sperm to previously mated females than to virgins but that in a minority of instances this allocation pattern is reversed. To investigate the basis for this discrepancy I ran sequential pairings of the crab spider Misumena vatia (...

  16. Male rock sparrows adjust their breeding strategy according to female ornamentation: parental or mating investment?

    Pilastro, Andrea; Griggio, Matteo; Matessi, Giuliano

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the relations between female quality and ornamentation and between male breeding investment and female ornamentation in the rock sparrow, Petronia petronia, a passerine in which both sexes have a yellow breast patch. Breast patch size in females was positively correlated with body...

  17. Female- and male-specific signals of quality in the barn owl

    Roulin, A; Dijkstra, C; Riols, C; Ducrest, AL

    Most bird studies of female signalling have been confined to species in which females display a male-ornament in a vestigial form. However, a great deal of benefit may be gained from considering phenotypic traits that are specific to females. This is because (1) sex-specific traits may signal

  18. Self Perceived Leadership Styles of Male and Female Superintendents in Wisconsin Public Schools

    Rieckmann, Kelly Renée

    2016-01-01

    The number of female superintendents in Wisconsin public schools remains disproportionately low compared to males. With research supporting a connection between female leaders and transformational leadership, the question as to why more females do not enter the realm of leadership and how they see themselves as leaders remains unanswered. This…

  19. Glutamate and Opioid Antagonists Modulate Dopamine Levels Evoked by Innately Attractive Male Chemosignals in the Nucleus Accumbens of Female Rats.

    Sánchez-Catalán, María-José; Orrico, Alejandro; Hipólito, Lucía; Zornoza, Teodoro; Polache, Ana; Lanuza, Enrique; Martínez-García, Fernando; Granero, Luis; Agustín-Pavón, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Sexual chemosignals detected by vomeronasal and olfactory systems mediate intersexual attraction in rodents, and act as a natural reinforcer to them. The mesolimbic pathway processes natural rewards, and the nucleus accumbens receives olfactory information via glutamatergic projections from the amygdala. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the mesolimbic pathway in the attraction toward sexual chemosignals. Our data show that female rats with no previous experience with males or their chemosignals display an innate preference for male-soiled bedding. Focal administration of the opioid antagonist β-funaltrexamine into the posterior ventral tegmental area does not affect preference for male chemosignals. Nevertheless, exposure to male-soiled bedding elicits an increase in dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens shell and core, measured by microdialysis. Infusion of the opioid antagonist naltrexone in the accumbens core does not significantly affect dopamine efflux during exposure to male chemosignals, although it enhances dopamine levels 40 min after withdrawal of the stimuli. By contrast, infusion of the glutamate antagonist kynurenic acid in the accumbens shell inhibits the release of dopamine and reduces the time that females spend investigating male-soiled bedding. These data are in agreement with previous reports in male rats showing that exposure to opposite-sex odors elicits dopamine release in the accumbens, and with data in female mice showing that the behavioral preference for male chemosignals is not affected by opioidergic antagonists. We hypothesize that glutamatergic projections from the amygdala into the accumbens might be important to modulate the neurochemical and behavioral responses elicited by sexual chemosignals in rats.

  20. Characterization of untreated and treated male and female date palm leaves

    AlMaadeed, M.A.; Kahraman, Ramazan; Noorunnisa Khanam, P.; Al-Maadeed, Somaya

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sheshi female and male date palm leaves were treated with NaOH concentrations. ► Male leaves have lower mechanical properties and improved when treated by NaOH 2%. ► Female leaves have higher thermal stability. ► There are different properties for different types of date leaves. ► Leaves can be used as reinforcements for thermoplastic materials. -- Abstract: This paper describes the characterization of male and female date palm leaves from two different cultivars, Sheshi female and unknown male leaves. Characterization was done for both untreated and NaOH treated date palm leaves by infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopic techniques. To our knowledge, the difference in specious reaction to the treatment type of date palm fiber has not been investigated earlier. These leaves were treated with different concentrations of NaOH, 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 5% (w/w). The results from this investigation indicate that female leaves have better tensile properties which deteriorate with the increase of the alkali. The male leaves have lower tensile properties than female leaves and their mechanical properties are improved slightly by NaOH treatment. Female leaves have more pores than male leaves, this was proved and calculated by image analysis. Untreated female leaves have higher thermal stability (353 °C) than male leaves (343 °C). Both can be used as reinforcements in thermoplastic matrix materials whose processing temperatures are below 300 °C.

  1. Female social response to male sexual harassment in poeciliid fish: a comparison of six species

    Dadda, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Sexual harassment is common among poeciliid fish. In some fishes, males show a high frequency of sneak copulation; such sexual activity is costly to the females in terms of foraging efficiency. In mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), when males are present, the distance between females tends to decrease, and this behavior has been interpreted as an adaptive strategy to dilute the costs of male sexual activity. In this study, the tendency to reduce distance in the presence of a male has been investigated in females of six poeciliid species (Girardinus metallicus, Girardinus falcatus, G. holbrooki, Poecilia reticulata, Xiphophorus hellerii, and Xiphophorus mayae) that exhibit different male mating strategies and different levels of sexual activity. Results revealed large interspecific differences in the pattern of female aggregation. Females of species with a high frequency of sneak copulations tended to reduce their social distance in the presence of a male. By contrast, species that rely mainly on courtship showed little or no variation in social distance. The proportion of sneak copulations predicts the degree of variation in female social response, but the amount of total sexual activity does not, suggesting that the change in females' social distance when a male is present may indeed serve to reduce the costs of male sexual harassment. PMID:26483719

  2. Female social response to male sexual harassment in poeciliid fish: a comparison of six species.

    Dadda, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Sexual harassment is common among poeciliid fish. In some fishes, males show a high frequency of sneak copulation; such sexual activity is costly to the females in terms of foraging efficiency. In mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), when males are present, the distance between females tends to decrease, and this behavior has been interpreted as an adaptive strategy to dilute the costs of male sexual activity. In this study, the tendency to reduce distance in the presence of a male has been investigated in females of six poeciliid species (Girardinus metallicus, Girardinus falcatus, G. holbrooki, Poecilia reticulata, Xiphophorus hellerii, and Xiphophorus mayae) that exhibit different male mating strategies and different levels of sexual activity. Results revealed large interspecific differences in the pattern of female aggregation. Females of species with a high frequency of sneak copulations tended to reduce their social distance in the presence of a male. By contrast, species that rely mainly on courtship showed little or no variation in social distance. The proportion of sneak copulations predicts the degree of variation in female social response, but the amount of total sexual activity does not, suggesting that the change in females' social distance when a male is present may indeed serve to reduce the costs of male sexual harassment.

  3. Airway Inflammation and Remodeling in Two Mouse Models of Asthma : Comparison of Males and Females

    Blacquiere, M. J.; Hylkema, M. N.; Postma, D. S.; Geerlings, M.; Timens, W.; Melgert, B. N.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Asthma and especially severe asthma affect women more frequently than men. Since asthma severity correlates with remodeling changes in the lung, a female propensity to remodeling could be expected. We studied whether our previous observation that female mice have more pronounced airway

  4. Strain-specific aggressive behavior of male mice submitted to different husbandry procedures

    Loo, P.L.P. van; Meer, E. van der; Kruitwagen, C.L.J.J.; Koolhaas, J.M.; Zutphen, L.F.M. van; Baumans, V.

    Severe aggression within groups of male laboratory mice can cause serious welfare problems. Previous experiments have shown that the transfer of specific olfactory cues during cage cleaning and the provision of nesting material decrease aggression and stress in group-housed male mice. In this study,

  5. Modulation of aggression in male mice : Influence of cage cleaning regime and scent marks

    Van Loo, PLP; Kruitwagen, CLJJ; Van Zutphen, LFM; Koolhaas, JM; Baumans, [No Value

    Group housing of male laboratory mice often leads to welfare problems due to aggressive behaviour. From a welfare perspective, individual housing is not a preferred solution to these problems - and so we sought other ways of reducing aggression between male mice. Aggression peaks after disturbances

  6. Worthless donations: male deception and female counter play in a nuptial gift-giving spider.

    Albo, Maria J; Winther, Gudrun; Tuni, Cristina; Toft, Søren; Bilde, Trine

    2011-11-14

    In nuptial gift-giving species, benefits of acquiring a mate may select for male deception by donation of worthless gifts. We investigated the effect of worthless gifts on mating success in the spider Pisaura mirabilis. Males usually offer an insect prey wrapped in silk; however, worthless gifts containing inedible items are reported. We tested male mating success in the following experimental groups: protein enriched fly gift (PG), regular fly gift (FG), worthless gift (WG), or no gift (NG). Males that offered worthless gifts acquired similar mating success as males offering nutritional gifts, while males with no gift experienced reduced mating success. The results suggest that strong selection on the nuptial gift-giving trait facilitates male deception by donation of worthless gifts. Females terminated matings faster when males offered worthless donations; this demonstrate a cost of deception for the males as shorter matings lead to reduced sperm transfer and thus give the deceiving males a disadvantage in sperm competition. We propose that the gift wrapping trait allows males to exploit female foraging preference by disguising the gift content thus deceiving females into mating without acquiring direct benefits. Female preference for a genuine prey gift combined with control over mating duration, however, counteracts the male deception.

  7. A disparity between locomotor economy and territory-holding ability in male house mice.

    Morris, Jeremy S; Ruff, James S; Potts, Wayne K; Carrier, David R

    2017-07-15

    Both economical locomotion and physical fighting are important performance traits to many species because of their direct influence on components of Darwinian fitness. Locomotion represents a substantial portion of the total daily energy budget of many animals. Fighting performance often determines individual reproductive fitness through the means of resource control, social dominance and access to mates. However, phenotypic traits that improve either locomotor economy or fighting ability may diminish performance in the other. Here, we tested for a predicted disparity between locomotor economy and competitive ability in wild-derived house mice ( Mus musculus ). We used 8 week social competition trials in semi-natural enclosures to directly measure male competitive ability through territorial control and female occupancy within territories. We also measured oxygen consumption during locomotion for each mouse using running trials in an enclosed treadmill and open-flow respirometry. Our results show that territory-holding males have higher absolute and mass-specific oxygen consumption when running (i.e. reduced locomotor economy) compared with males that do not control territories. This relationship was present both before and after 8 week competition trials in semi-natural enclosures. This disparity between physical competitive ability and economical locomotion may impose viability costs on males in species for which competition over mates is common and may constrain the evolution of behavioral and phenotypic diversity, particularly in natural settings with environmental and resource variability. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Female nurses' sensitivity to male genitalia-related care in mainland China.

    Zang, Yu-Li; Chung, Loretta Y F; Wong, Thomas K S; Chan, Moon Fai

    2012-02-01

    To discover the latent psychosocial construct of female nurses' sensitivity to male genitalia-related care in the context of sexual conservativeness. Many nursing activities involve direct exposure or contact with male external genitalia. In the sexually conservative culture and the predominance of female nurses, this area is the subject of continuing interest and investigation. Methodological research design. An item pool related to male genitalia-related care was generated through a panel of experts and then reduced to a short form questionnaire, the Female Nurses' Sensitivity to Male Genitalia Related Care scale. Using data from a purposive sample of 588 female nurses, the structure of the questionnaire was examined using structural equation modelling. The validity was examined against existing scales. The 13-item Female Nurses' Sensitivity to Male Genitalia Related Care scale has a two-factor structure with high internal consistency (α = 0·87) and test-retest reliability of 0·90. Nearly all model fit measures reach the criteria of being an acceptable model fit except chi-squared statistics. Scores on Female Nurses' Sensitivity to Male Genitalia Related Care can be best predicted by that of brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, Embarrassability Scale and Situational Susceptibility to Embarrassment Scale. The anxiety of projecting a positive image and the pursuit of sexual propriety may underpin female nurses' sensitivity to male genitalia-related care. This trait can be measured by the 13-item female nurses' sensitivity-male genitalia-related care scale with satisfactory psychometric properties including internal consistency, reliability, content validity and construct validity. Particular attention shall be paid to the negative effects of social rules or norms including sexual propriety rules over (female) nurses' perceptions, attitudes and behaviours. Strengthening nursing education in this regard is important to overcome negative effects on female

  9. Female novelty and the courtship behavior of male guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus

    Cohn D.W.H.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In several rodent species, an increase or recovery of sexual behavior can be observed when sexually satiated males are placed in contact with a novel mate. In order to assess the influence of female novelty on the courtship behavior of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus, four adult males were observed during four daily 15-min sessions while interacting with the same pregnant female (same-female sessions. A new female was presented during the fifth session (switched-female session. The duration of behavioral categories was obtained from videotape records using an observational software. From the first to the second session, all males decreased the time allocated to investigating (sniffing and licking, following, and mounting the female, and that response did not recover by the end of the same-female sessions. No similar decreasing tendencies were detected in the circling or rumba categories. A marked increase of investigating occurred in all males from the last same-female session (8.1, 11.9, 15.1 and 17.3 percent session time to the switched-female one (16.4, 18.4, 37.1 and 28.9 percent session time, respectively. Increases in following and circling were recorded in three of four males, and full-blown recovery of mounting in one male. No consistent changes in the females' responses to males (following or attacking were observed throughout testing. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that guinea pig males recognize individual females and that courtship responses may suffer a habituation/recovery process controlled by mate novelty.

  10. An X chromosome effect responsible for asymmetric reproductive isolation between male Drosophila virilis and heterospecific females.

    Nickel, Desirée; Civetta, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Reproductive isolation between closely related species is expressed through uncoordinated courtship, failed fertilization, and (or) postzygotic barriers. Behavioural components of mating often form an initial barrier to hybridization between species. In many animals, females are responsible for mating discrimination in both intra- and interspecific crosses; males of Drosophila virilis group represent an exception to this trend. Using overall productivity tests, we show that a lower proportion of D. virilis males sire progeny when paired with a heterospecific female (Drosophila novamexicana or Drosophila americana texana) for 2 weeks. This suggests male mate discrimination or some other kind of asymmetrical incompatibility in courtship and mating or early zygote mortality. We used males from D. virilis-D. novamexicana and from D. virilis-D. a. texana backcross populations to map chromosome effects responsible for male reproductive isolation. Results from the analysis of both backcross male populations indicate a major X chromosome effect. Further, we conduct a male behavioural analysis to show that D. virilis males significantly fail to continue courtship after the first step of courtship, when they tap heterospecific females. The combined results of a major X chromosome effect and the observation that D. virilis males walk away from females after tapping suggest that future studies should concentrate on the identification of X-linked genes affecting the ability of males to recognize conspecific females.

  11. An experimental test of condition-dependent male and female mate choice in zebra finches.

    Marie-Jeanne Holveck

    Full Text Available In mating systems with social monogamy and obligatory bi-parental care, such as found in many songbird species, male and female fitness depends on the combined parental investment. Hence, both sexes should gain from choosing mates in high rather than low condition. However, theory also predicts that an individual's phenotypic quality can constrain choice, if low condition individuals cannot afford prolonged search efforts and/or face higher risk of rejection. In systems with mutual mate choice, the interaction between male and female condition should thus be a better predictor of choice than either factor in isolation. To address this prediction experimentally, we manipulated male and female condition and subsequently tested male and female mating preferences in zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, a songbird species with mutual mate choice and obligatory bi-parental care. We experimentally altered phenotypic quality by manipulating the brood size in which the birds were reared. Patterns of association for high- or low-condition individuals of the opposite sex differed for male and female focal birds when tested in an 8-way choice arena. Females showed repeatable condition-assortative preferences for males matching their own rearing background. Male preferences were also repeatable, but not predicted by their own or females' rearing background. In combination with a brief review of the literature on condition-dependent mate choice in the zebra finch we discuss whether the observed sex differences and between-studies differences arise because males and females differ in context sensitivity (e.g. male-male competition suppressing male mating preferences, sampling strategies or susceptibility to rearing conditions (e.g. sex-specific effect on physiology. While a picture emerges that juvenile and current state indeed affect preferences, the development and context-dependency of mutual state-dependent mate choice warrants further study.

  12. Cyclophosphamide-induced male subfertility in mice: An assessment of the potential benefits of Maca supplement.

    Onaolapo, A Y; Oladipo, B P; Onaolapo, O J

    2018-04-01

    Effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced gonadal toxicity in male mice were investigated. Mice were assigned to six treatment groups: Vehicle control, CYP control, CYP plus oral Maca (500 or 1,000 mg/kg), and oral Maca (500 or 1,000 mg/kg). CYP was administered via the intraperitoneal route (days 1-2), while vehicle or Maca were administered daily for 28 days. On day 28, half of the animals in each group were either sacrificed or paired with age-matched females for fertility assessment. Plasma testosterone assay, sperm analysis and assessment of tissue antioxidant/morphological status were also carried out. CYP administration was associated with oxidative stress, subfertility and morphometric/morphological indices of gonadal injury, while administration of Maca mitigated CYP-induced gonadal toxicity and subfertility. This study shows that Maca is beneficial in the mitigation of CYP-induced male gonadal insufficiency and/or testicular morphological changes; however, further studies will be needed to ascertain its usability for this purpose in humans. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Influence of electromagnetic pulse on the offspring sex ratio of male BALB/c mice.

    Li, Jin-Hui; Jiang, Da-Peng; Wang, Ya-Feng; Yan, Jia-Jia; Guo, Qi-Yan; Miao, Xia; Lang, Hai-Yang; Xu, Sheng-Long; Liu, Jun-Ye; Guo, Guo-Zhen

    2017-09-01

    Public concern is growing about the exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and its effect on male reproductive health. Detrimental effect of EMF exposure on sex hormones, reproductive performance and sex-ratio was reported. The present study was designed to clarify whether paternal exposure to electromagnetic pulse (EMP) affects offspring sex ratio in mice. 50 male BALB/c mice aged 5-6 weeks were exposed to EMP daily for 2 weeks before mated with non-exposed females at 0d, 7d, 14d, 21d and 28d after exposure. Sex hormones including total testosterone, LH, FSH, and GnRH were detected using radioimmunoassay. The sex ratio was examined by PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis. The results of D0, D21 and D28 showed significant increases compared with sham-exposed groups. The serum testosterone increased significantly in D0, D14, D21, and D28 compared with sham-exposed groups (p<0.05). Overall, this study suggested that EMP exposure may lead to the disturbance of reproductive hormone levels and affect the offspring sex ratio. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Plant Reproduction: AMOR Enables Males to Respond to Female Signals.

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Coimbra, Silvia

    2016-04-25

    The pollen tube of flowering plants undertakes a long journey to transport two sperm cells for double fertilization. New work on pollen tube guidance has identified an arabinogalactan-derived ovular factor that primes tubes to respond to female gametophyte-secreted attraction signals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. From Client to Pimp: Male Violence against Female Sex Workers

    Karandikar, Sharvari; Prospero, Moises

    2010-01-01

    The present study explores intimate partner violence (IPV) among female sex workers from the red-light area based in Mumbai, India. Using a grounded theory approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with ten sex workers to explore their experiences of IPV in the context of commercial sex work. Narratives were analyzed and themes constructed. A…

  16. About females and males: continuity and discontinuity in flies

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... Institute of Molecular Life Sciences, University of Zurich, Wintherthurerstrasse, 8057 Zurich, ... tion of its sexual fate seems to operate on a much less com- .... their mothers and pass it on to the next generations of fe- males. .... In cells with a low content (XY), Sxl remains .... how mammals keep the balance.

  17. Attitudes to female genital mutilation/cutting among male ...

    husband is indifferent or not on the mother's side.[1,3] Focusing on male adolescents, who are .... [1] Much of the collaboration for abolition of FGM/C ... However, only women with life-threatening acute complications usually present to hospital ...

  18. Implications of male migration on female status in the Democratic ...

    However, wives often reported conflicts with their in-laws, were overwhelmed by family responsibilities, had difficulties raising children and feared that their husbands might acquire HIV from other women or marry at their place of destination. Key words: male migration, gender roles, role conflict, Democratic Republic of ...

  19. Increased 4E-BP1 Expression Protects against Diet-Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Male Mice

    Shih-Yin Tsai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major risk factor driving the global type II diabetes pandemic. However, the molecular factors linking obesity to disease remain to be elucidated. Gender differences are apparent in humans and are also observed in murine models. Here, we link these differences to expression of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1, which, upon HFD feeding, becomes significantly reduced in the skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of male but not female mice. Strikingly, restoring 4E-BP1 expression in male mice protects them against HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Male 4E-BP1 transgenic mice also exhibit reduced white adipose tissue accumulation accompanied by decreased circulating levels of leptin and triglycerides. Importantly, transgenic 4E-BP1 male mice are also protected from aging-induced obesity and metabolic decline on a normal diet. These results demonstrate that 4E-BP1 is a gender-specific suppressor of obesity that regulates insulin sensitivity and energy metabolism.

  20. A chimera embryo assay reveals a decrease in embryonic cellular proliferation induced by sperm from X-irradiated male mice

    Obasaju, M.F.; Wiley, L.M.; Oudiz, D.J.; Raabe, O.; Overstreet, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Male mice were divided into three experimental groups and a control group. Mice in the experimental groups received one of three doses of acute X irradiation (1.73, 0.29, and 0.05 Gy) and together with the control unirradiated mice were then mated weekly to unirradiated female mice for a 9-week experimental period. Embryos were recovered from the weekly matings at the four-cell stage and examined by the chimera assay for proliferative disadvantage. Aggregation chimeras were constructed of embryos from female mice mated to irradiated males (experimental embryos) and embryos from females mated to unexposed males (control embryos) and contained either one experimental embryo and one control embryo (heterologous chimera) or two control embryos (control chimera). The control embryo in heterologous chimeras and either embryo in control chimeras were prelabeled with the vital dye fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), and the chimeras were cultured for 40 h and viewed under phase-contrast and epifluorescence microscopy to obtain total embryo cell number and the cellular contribution from the FITC-labeled embryo. Experimental and control embryos that were cultured singly were also examined for embryo cell number at the end of the 40-h culture period. In control chimeras, the mean ratio of the unlabeled cells:total chimera cell number (henceforth referred to as ''mean ratio'') was 0.50 with little or no weekly variation over the 9-week experimental period. During Weeks 4-7, the mean ratios of heterologous chimeras differed significantly from the mean ratio of control chimeras with the greatest differences occurring during Week 7 (0.41 for chimeras of 0.05 Gy dose group, 0.40 for chimeras of the 0.29 Gy dose group, and 0.17 for chimeras of the 1.73 Gy dose group)

  1. Male songbirds provide indirect parental care by guarding females during incubation

    Fedy, B.C.; Martin, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    Across many taxa, guarding of fertile mates is a widespread tactic that enhances paternity assurance. However, guarding of mates can also occur during the nonfertile period, and the fitness benefits of this behavior are unclear. Male songbirds, for example, sometimes guard nonfertile females during foraging recesses from incubation. We hypothesized that guarding postreproductive mates may have important, but unrecognized, benefits by enhancing female foraging efficiency, thereby increasing time spent incubating eggs. We tested the hypothesis in 2 songbird species by examining female behavior during natural and experimentally induced absences of males. Male absence caused increased vigilance in foraging females that decreased their efficiency and resulted in less time spent incubating eggs. Male guarding of nonfertile females can thus provide a previously unrecognized form of indirect parental care.

  2. Responsiveness to Ipratropium Bromide in Male and Female Patients with Mild to Moderate Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Xuan Li

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: Ipratropium induces a larger bronchodilator response in female than in male patients and the benefits are particularly notable in non-obese females. Female lungs have greater gene expression for the M3 muscarinic receptor relative to M2 receptors than male lungs. Female patients are thus more likely to benefit from ipratropium than male COPD patients.

  3. Mouthpart dimorphism in male and female wasps of Vespula vulgaris and Vespula germanica (Vespidae, Hymenoptera

    Bianca Baranek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Social wasps perform a variety of tasks with their mouthparts. Female workers use them to feed on carbohydrate-rich fluids, to build nests by collecting wood fibers and forming paper, to hunt and manipulate insect prey for feeding larvae as well as for brood care. Since male wasps neither feed on insects nor participate in nest building, sex-specific differences in mouthpart morphology are expected. Despite these different applications, general mouthpart morphology of male and female wasps from the genus Vespula was similar. However, males possessed significantly shorter mandibles with fewer teeth than females. Furthermore, the adductor muscles of the mandibles were distinctly smaller in males than in females. Male wasps showed a higher number of sensilla on the mandibles and the labial palpi. Mouthpart dimorphism and functional morphology of fluid uptake are discussed.

  4. Mating competitiveness of irradiated males and females of the indian meal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Brower, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    One-day-old adults of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Huebner), were irradiated (I) with either 35 krad (a partially sterilizing dose) or 50 krad (a sterilizing dose) and combined with untreated (U) adults at numbers of 1, 5, 10, 15, or 25 treated males or females per pair of untreated adults. At 25 males per pair, egg hatch was reduced to 4.8 and 22.2% at 35 and 50 krad, respectively. The calculated degree of competitiveness showed that both males and females were more competitive after treatment with 35 krad than after treatment with 50 krad and that treated females were more competitive (based on percentage egg hatch) at both doses than corresponding males. Irradiated females were fully competitive at most release ratios, but I males were not fully competitive even at the higher release ratios, although the decreases were not large enough to seriously affect their use for field control. (author)

  5. Female social response to male sexual harassment in poeciliid fish: A comparison of six species

    Marco eDadda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual harassment is common among poeciliid fish. In some fishes, males show a high frequency of sneak copulation; such sexual activity is costly to the females in terms of foraging efficiency. In mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki, when males are present, the distance between females tends to decrease, and this behavior has been interpreted as an adaptive strategy to dilute the costs of male sexual activity. In this study, the tendency to reduce distance in the presence of a male has been investigated in females of 6 poeciliid species (Girardinus metallicus, Girardinus falcatus, Gambusia holbrooki, Poecilia reticulata, Xiphophorus hellerii and Xiphophorus mayae that exhibit different male mating strategies and different levels of sexual activity. Results revealed large interspecific differences in the pattern of female aggregation. Females of species with a high frequency of sneak copulations tended to reduce their social distance in the presence of a male. By contrast, species that rely mainly on courtship showed little or no variation in social distance. The proportion of sneak copulations predicts the degree of variation in female social response, but the amount of total sexual activity does not, suggesting that the change in females’ social distance when a male is present may indeed serve to reduce the costs of male sexual harassment.

  6. A behavioral comparison of male and female adults with high functioning autism spectrum conditions.

    Meng-Chuan Lai

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum conditions (ASC affect more males than females in the general population. However, within ASC it is unclear if there are phenotypic sex differences. Testing for similarities and differences between the sexes is important not only for clinical assessment but also has implications for theories of typical sex differences and of autism. Using cognitive and behavioral measures, we investigated similarities and differences between the sexes in age- and IQ-matched adults with ASC (high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome. Of the 83 (45 males and 38 females participants, 62 (33 males and 29 females met Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R cut-off criteria for autism in childhood and were included in all subsequent analyses. The severity of childhood core autism symptoms did not differ between the sexes. Males and females also did not differ in self-reported empathy, systemizing, anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive traits/symptoms or mentalizing performance. However, adult females with ASC showed more lifetime sensory symptoms (p = 0.036, fewer current socio-communication difficulties (p = 0.001, and more self-reported autistic traits (p = 0.012 than males. In addition, females with ASC who also had developmental language delay had lower current performance IQ than those without developmental language delay (p<0.001, a pattern not seen in males. The absence of typical sex differences in empathizing-systemizing profiles within the autism spectrum confirms a prediction from the extreme male brain theory. Behavioral sex differences within ASC may also reflect different developmental mechanisms between males and females with ASC. We discuss the importance of the superficially better socio-communication ability in adult females with ASC in terms of why females with ASC may more often go under-recognized, and receive their diagnosis later, than males.

  7. Conserved and differential effects of dietary energy intake on the hippocampal transcriptomes of females and males.

    Bronwen Martin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The level of dietary energy intake influences metabolism, reproductive function, the development of age-related diseases, and even cognitive behavior. Because males and females typically play different roles in the acquisition and allocation of energy resources, we reasoned that dietary energy intake might differentially affect the brains of males and females at the molecular level. To test this hypothesis, we performed a gene array analysis of the hippocampus in male and female rats that had been maintained for 6 months on either ad libitum (control, 20% caloric restriction (CR, 40% CR, intermittent fasting (IF or high fat/high glucose (HFG diets. These diets resulted in expected changes in body weight, and circulating levels of glucose, insulin and leptin. However, the CR diets significantly increased the size of the hippocampus of females, but not males. Multiple genes were regulated coherently in response to energy restriction diets in females, but not in males. Functional physiological pathway analyses showed that the 20% CR diet down-regulated genes involved in glycolysis and mitochondrial ATP production in males, whereas these metabolic pathways were up-regulated in females. The 40% CR diet up-regulated genes involved in glycolysis, protein deacetylation, PGC-1alpha and mTor pathways in both sexes. IF down-regulated many genes in males including those involved in protein degradation and apoptosis, but up-regulated many genes in females including those involved in cellular energy metabolism, cell cycle regulation and protein deacetylation. Genes involved in energy metabolism, oxidative stress responses and cell death were affected by the HFG diet in both males and females. The gender-specific molecular genetic responses of hippocampal cells to variations in dietary energy intake identified in this study may mediate differential behavioral responses of males and females to differences in energy availability.

  8. Male mate choice scales female ornament allometry in a cichlid fish

    Kullmann Harald

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies addressing the adaptive significance of female ornamentation have gained ground recently. However, the expression of female ornaments in relation to body size, known as trait allometry, still remains unexplored. Here, we investigated the allometry of a conspicuous female ornament in Pelvicachromis taeniatus, a biparental cichlid that shows mutual mate choice and ornamentation. Females feature an eye-catching pelvic fin greatly differing from that of males. Results We show that allometry of the female pelvic fin is scaled more positively in comparison to other fins. The pelvic fin exhibits isometry, whereas the other fins (except the caudal fin show negative allometry. The size of the pelvic fin might be exaggerated by male choice because males prefer female stimuli that show a larger extension of the trait. Female pelvic fin size is correlated with individual condition, suggesting that males can assess direct and indirect benefits. Conclusions The absence of positive ornament allometry might be a result of sexual selection constricted by natural selection: fins are related to locomotion and thus may be subject to viability selection. Our study provides evidence that male mate choice might scale the expression of a female sexual ornament, and therefore has implications for the understanding of the relationship of female sexual traits with body size in species with conventional sex-roles.

  9. Testing of mitosis and meiosis in female and male gametes

    L. F. Kurilo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Method of quantitative evaluation of the immature germ cells, their pathology in mitosis and meiosis (in semen, embryo and fetal ovaries, of gonad biopsies or fragments of sectioned material is informative method and should be introduced into the clinical practice in andrology and gynecology and fundamental research. Quantitative analysis of mitosis and female meiosis development was initiated on experimental animals and fetal gonads from spontaneous or therapeutic abortions.

  10. Emotional intelligence in male and female sport climbers

    Milena Marczak

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Male sport climbers used the recognition and understanding of emotional states to solve problems for success in climbing and characterize their higher level of overall emotional intelligence in a better way. Sport climbers of both sexes had average levels of acceptance of emotion and empathy. This means that climbers of both sexes were characterized by low levels of other emotional experiences and the use of emotional experiences in prospective activities.

  11. Late gestational intermittent hypoxia induces metabolic and epigenetic changes in male adult offspring mice.

    Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Cortese, Rene; Qiao, Zhuanhong; Ye, Honggang; Bao, Riyue; Andrade, Jorge; Gozal, David

    2017-04-15

    Late gestation during pregnancy has been associated with a relatively high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Intermittent hypoxia, a hallmark of OSA, could impose significant long-term effects on somatic growth, energy homeostasis and metabolic function in offspring. Here we show that late gestation intermittent hypoxia induces metabolic dysfunction as reflected by increased body weight and adiposity index in adult male offspring that is paralleled by epigenomic alterations and inflammation in visceral white adipose tissue. Fetal perturbations by OSA during pregnancy impose long-term detrimental effects manifesting as metabolic dysfunction in adult male offspring. Pregnancy, particularly late gestation (LG), has been associated with a relatively high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Intermittent hypoxia (IH), a hallmark of OSA, could impose significant long-term effects on somatic growth, energy homeostasis, and metabolic function in offspring. We hypothesized that IH during late pregnancy (LG-IH) may increase the propensity for metabolic dysregulation and obesity in adult offspring via epigenetic modifications. Time-pregnant female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to LG-IH or room air (LG-RA) during days 13-18 of gestation. At 24 weeks, blood samples were collected from offspring mice for lipid profiles and insulin resistance, indirect calorimetry was performed and visceral white adipose tissues (VWAT) were assessed for inflammatory cells as well as for differentially methylated gene regions (DMRs) using a methylated DNA immunoprecipitation on chip (MeDIP-chip). Body weight, food intake, adiposity index, fasting insulin, triglycerides and cholesterol levels were all significantly higher in LG-IH male but not female offspring. LG-IH also altered metabolic expenditure and locomotor activities in male offspring, and increased number of pro-inflammatory macrophages emerged in VWAT along with 1520 DMRs (P < 0.0001), associated with 693

  12. Variable Suppression of Serum Thyroxine in Female Mice of Different Inbred Strains by Triiodothyronine Administered in Drinking Water

    Hamidi, Sepehr; Aliesky, Holly; Chen, Chun-Rong; Rapoport, Basil

    2010-01-01

    Background Recombinant-inbred mouse strains differ in their susceptibility to Graves'-like hyperthyroidism induced by immunization with adenovirus expressing the human thyrotropin (TSH) receptor. Because one genetic component contributing to this susceptibility is altered thyroid sensitivity to TSH receptor agonist stimulation, we wished to quantify thyroid responsiveness to TSH. For such studies, it is necessary to suppress endogenous TSH by administering L-3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (L-T3), with the subsequent decrease in serum thyroxine (T4) reflecting endogenous TSH suppression. Our two objectives were to assess in different inbred strains of mice (i) the extent of serum T4 suppression after L-T3 administration and (ii) the magnitude of serum T4 increase induced by TSH. Methods Mice were tail-bled to establish baseline-serum T4 before L-T3 administration. We initially employed a protocol of L-T3-supplemented drinking water for 7 days. In subsequent experiments, we injected L-T3 intraperitoneally (i.p.) daily for 3 days. Mice were then injected i.p. with bovine TSH (10 mU) and euthanized 5 hours later. Serum T4 was assayed before L-T3 administration, and before and after TSH injection. In some experiments, serum T3 and estradiol were measured in pooled sera. Results Oral L-T3 (3 or 5 μg/mL) suppressed serum T4 levels by 26%–64% in female BALB/c mice but >95% in males. T4 suppression in female B6 mice ranged from 0% to 90%. In C3H mice, L-T3 at 3 μg/mL was ineffective but 5 μg/mL achieved >80% serum T4 reduction. Unlike inbred mice, in outbred CF1 mice the same protocol was more effective: 83% in females and 100% suppression in males. The degree of T4 suppression was unrelated to baseline T4, T3, or estradiol, but was related to mouse weight and postmortem T3, with greater suppression in larger mice (outbred CF1 animals and inbred males). Among females with serum T4 suppression >80%, the increase in serum T4 after TSH injection was greater for BALB

  13. Regional differences in mu and kappa opioid receptor G-protein activation in brain in male and female prairie voles.

    Martin, T J; Sexton, T; Kim, S A; Severino, A L; Peters, C M; Young, L J; Childers, S R

    2015-12-17

    Prairie voles are unusual mammals in that, like humans, they are capable of forming socially monogamous pair bonds, display biparental care, and engage in alloparental behaviors. Both mu and kappa opioid receptors are involved in behaviors that either establish and maintain, or result from pair bond formation in these animals. Mu and kappa opioid receptors both utilize inhibitory G-proteins in signal transduction mechanisms, however the efficacy by which these receptor subtypes stimulate G-protein signaling across the prairie vole neuraxis is not known. Utilizing [(35)S]GTPγS autoradiography, we characterized the efficacy of G-protein stimulation in coronal sections throughout male and female prairie vole brains by [D-Ala2,NMe-Phe4,Gly-ol5]-enkephalin (DAMGO) and U50,488H, selective mu and kappa opioid agonists, respectively. DAMGO stimulation was highest in the forebrain, similar to that found with other rodent species. U-50,488H produced greater stimulation in prairie voles than is typically seen in mice and rats, particularly in select forebrain areas. DAMGO produced higher stimulation in the core versus the shell of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in females, while the distribution of U-50,488H stimulation was the opposite. There were no gender differences for U50,488H stimulation of G-protein activity across the regions examined, while DAMGO stimulation was greater in sections from females compared to those from males for NAc core, entopeduncular nucleus, and hippocampus. These data suggest that the kappa opioid system may be more sensitive to manipulation in prairie voles compared to mice and rats, and that female prairie voles may be more sensitive to mu agonists in select brain regions than males. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Precopulatory sexual behavior of male mice is changed by the exposure to tannery effluent.

    Quintão, Thales Chagas; Rabelo, Letícia Martins; Alvarez, T G S; Guimarães, A T; Rodrigues, A S L; Cardoso, L S; Ferreira, R O; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2018-03-01

    Although the toxic potential of tannery effluents (TE) is acknowledged, the impacts these residues have on mammals who intake water contaminated with this pollutant are not completely known. Thus, in order to broaden the knowledge about how these contaminants affect the biota, the aim of the current study is to assess different behavioral categories (e.g.: sexual odor preference, opposite-sex attraction, and sexual discrimination) related to the sexual motivation and pre-copulation of male Swiss mice subjected to TE intake for 30 days, at concentrations 0.8% and 22%. The animals were subjected to locomotor performance evaluation through the Basso Mouse Scale (BMS), as well as to the open field (OF), odor preference (OPT), sexual orientation (SOT) and to scent marking tests (SMT) one week before the experiment ended. Our results evidenced that the treatments did not affect the animals' locomotor activity (in OF and BMS) or caused changes compatible to anxiogenic or anxiolytic behavior (in OF). However, mice exposed to TE (at both concentrations) presented discriminatory capacity deficit in the OPT test at the time to distinguish conspecific odors from the same sex, and from the opposite sex. They randomly explored (without preference) males and females, did not responded to stimuli in the SOT test, as well as did not appear capable of detecting female odor (in estrus phase) during the SMT. Thus, the current study was pioneer in evidencing that TE can influence the reproduction and the population dynamics of small rodents who intake water contaminated with the pollutant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Differential Effect of Active Smoking on Gene Expression in Male and Female Smokers

    Paul, Sunirmal; Amundson, Sally A

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is the second leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Cohort epidemiological studies have demonstrated that women are more vulnerable to cigarette-smoking induced diseases than their male counterparts, however, the molecular basis of these differences has remained unknown. In this study, we explored if there were differences in the gene expression patterns between male and female smokers, and how these patterns might reflect different sex-specific responses to the stress of smoking. Using whole genome microarray gene expression profiling, we found that a substantial number of oxidant related genes were expressed in both male and female smokers, however, smoking-responsive genes did indeed differ greatly between male and female smokers. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) against reference oncogenic signature gene sets identified a large number of oncogenic pathway gene-sets that were significantly altered in female smokers compared to male smokers. In addition, functional annotation with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) identified smoking-correlated genes associated with biological functions in male and female smokers that are directly relevant to well-known smoking related pathologies. However, these relevant biological functions were strikingly overrepresented in female smokers compared to male smokers. IPA network analysis with the functional categories of immune and inflammatory response gene products suggested potential interactions between smoking response and female hormones. Our results demonstrate a striking dichotomy between male and female gene expression responses to smoking. This is the first genome-wide expression study to compare the sex-specific impacts of smoking at a molecular level and suggests a novel potential connection between sex hormone signaling and smoking-induced diseases in female smokers. PMID:25621181

  16. Dynamics of enhanced mitochondrial respiration in female compared with male rat cerebral arteries.

    Rutkai, Ibolya; Dutta, Somhrita; Katakam, Prasad V; Busija, David W

    2015-11-01

    Mitochondrial respiration has never been directly examined in intact cerebral arteries. We tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial energetics of large cerebral arteries ex vivo are sex dependent. The Seahorse XFe24 analyzer was used to examine mitochondrial respiration in isolated cerebral arteries from adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. We examined the role of nitric oxide (NO) on mitochondrial respiration under basal conditions, using N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, and following pharmacological challenge using diazoxide (DZ), and also determined levels of mitochondrial and nonmitochondrial proteins using Western blot, and vascular diameter responses to DZ. The components of mitochondrial respiration including basal respiration, ATP production, proton leak, maximal respiration, and spare respiratory capacity were elevated in females compared with males, but increased in both male and female arteries in the presence of the NOS inhibitor. Although acute DZ treatment had little effect on mitochondrial respiration of male arteries, it decreased the respiration in female arteries. Levels of mitochondrial proteins in Complexes I-V and the voltage-dependent anion channel protein were elevated in female compared with male cerebral arteries. The DZ-induced vasodilation was greater in females than in males. Our findings show that substantial sex differences in mitochondrial respiratory dynamics exist in large cerebral arteries and may provide the mechanistic basis for observations that the female cerebral vasculature is more adaptable after injury. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Sexual selection on receptor organ traits: younger females attract males with longer antennae

    Johnson, Tamara L.; Symonds, Matthew R. E.; Elgar, Mark A.

    2017-06-01

    Sexual selection theory predicts that female choice may favour the evolution of elaborate male signals. Darwin also suggested that sexual selection can favour elaborate receiver structures in order to better detect sexual signals, an idea that has been largely ignored. We evaluated this unorthodox perspective by documenting the antennal lengths of male Uraba lugens Walker (Lepidoptera: Nolidae) moths that were attracted to experimentally manipulated emissions of female sex pheromone. Either one or two females were placed in field traps for the duration of their adult lives in order to create differences in the quantity of pheromone emissions from the traps. The mean antennal length of males attracted to field traps baited with a single female was longer than that of males attracted to traps baited with two females, a pattern consistent with Darwin's prediction assuming the latter emits higher pheromone concentrations. Furthermore, younger females attracted males with longer antennae, which may reflect age-specific changes in pheromone emission. These field experiments provide the first direct evidence of an unappreciated role for sexual selection in the evolution of sexual dimorphism in moth antennae and raise the intriguing possibility that females select males with longer antennae through strategic emission of pheromones.

  18. Den site activity patterns of adult male and female swift foxes, Vulpes velox, in Northwestern Texas

    Lemons, P.R.; Ballard, W.B.; Sullivan, R.M.; Sovada, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Activity of Swift Foxes (Vulpes velox) at den sites was studied in northwestern Texas during pup rearing seasons in 2000 and 2001 to determine role of males in parental care. Twenty-four percent of radio-collared females with a potential to breed successfully raised pups to eight weeks of age. We intensively monitored presence and absence of male and female Swift Foxes at two den sites each year. Females were present >2.6 times more at den sites than males during the pup rearing season. Female and male Swift Foxes largely stayed at dens during diurnal hours and were active away from dens during nocturnal and crepuscular hours. Females and males spent 12.4% and 3.0% more time at dens before pups emerged, than after pups emerged, respectively. Following depredation of one male parent, the female spent 29% less time at the den site. Decrease in time spent at the den by the female following loss of her mate suggested that loss of one parent might severely impact recruitment of Swift Foxes. Our observations indicated that intense Coyote (Canis latrans) depredation may severely impact pup-rearing success as well as the parental care within Swift Fox family groups.

  19. The physical environment mediates male harm and its effect on selection in females.

    Yun, Li; Chen, Patrick J; Singh, Amardeep; Agrawal, Aneil F; Rundle, Howard D

    2017-07-12

    Recent experiments indicate that male preferential harassment of high-quality females reduces the variance in female fitness, thereby weakening natural selection through females and hampering adaptation and purging. We propose that this phenomenon, which results from a combination of male choice and male-induced harm, should be mediated by the physical environment in which intersexual interactions occur. Using Drosophila melanogaster , we examined intersexual interactions in small and simple (standard fly vials) versus slightly more realistic (small cages with spatial structure) environments. We show that in these more realistic environments, sexual interactions are less frequent, are no longer biased towards high-quality females, and that overall male harm is reduced. Next, we examine the selective advantage of high- over low-quality females while manipulating the opportunity for male choice. Male choice weakens the viability advantage of high-quality females in the simple environment, consistent with previous work, but strengthens selection on females in the more realistic environment. Laboratory studies in simple environments have strongly shaped our understanding of sexual conflict but may provide biased insight. Our results suggest that the physical environment plays a key role in the evolutionary consequences of sexual interactions and ultimately the alignment of natural and sexual selection. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Effects of kappa opioid receptors on conditioned place aversion and social interaction in males and females

    Robles, Cindee F.; McMackin, Marissa Z.; Campi, Katharine L.; Doig, Ian E.; Takahashi, Elizabeth Y.; Pride, Michael; Trainor, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of kappa opioid receptors (KOR) on motivated behavior are well established based on studies in male rodents, but relatively little is known about the effects of KOR in females. We examined the effects of KOR activation on conditioned place aversion and social interaction in the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus). Important differences were observed in long-term (place aversion) and short-term (social interaction) effects. Females but not males treated with a 2.5mg/kg dose of U50,488 formed a place aversion, whereas males but not females formed a place aversion at the 10 mg/kg dose. In contrast the short term effects of different doses of U50,488 on social interaction behavior were similar in males and females. Acute injection with 10 mg/kg of U50,488 (but not lower doses) reduced social interaction behavior in both males and females. The effects of U50,488 on phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase (pERK) and p38 MAP kinase were cell type and region specific. Higher doses of U50,488 increased the number of pERK neurons in the ventrolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminals in males but not females, a nucleus implicated in male aggressive behavior. In contrast, both males and females treated with U50,488 had more activated p38 cells in the nucleus accumbens shell. Unexpectedly, cells expressing activated p38 co-expressed Iba-1, a widely used microglia marker. In summary we found strong sex differences in the effects of U50,488 on place aversion whereas the acute effects on U50,488 induced similar behavioral effects in males and females. PMID:24445073

  1. Male and female meiotic behaviour of an intrachromosomal insertion determined by preimplantation genetic diagnosis

    Doshi Alpesh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two related family members, a female and a male balanced carrier of an intrachromosomal insertion on chromosome 7 were referred to our centre for preimplantation genetic diagnosis. This presented a rare opportunity to investigate the behaviour of the insertion chromosome during meiosis in two related carriers. The aim of this study was to carry out a detailed genetic analysis of the preimplantation embryos that were generated from the three treatment cycles for the male and two for the female carrier. Patients underwent in vitro fertilization and on day 3, 22 embryos from the female carrier and 19 embryos from the male carrier were biopsied and cells analysed by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Follow up analysis of 29 untransferred embryos was also performed for confirmation of the diagnosis and to obtain information on meiotic and mitotic outcome. Results In this study, the female carrier produced more than twice as many chromosomally balanced embryos as the male (76.5% vs. 36%, and two pregnancies were achieved for her. Follow up analysis showed that the male carrier had produced more highly abnormal embryos than the female (25% and 15% respectively and no pregnancies occurred for the male carrier and his partner. Conclusion This study compares how an intrachromosomal insertion has behaved in the meiotic and preimplantation stages of development in sibling male and female carriers. It confirms that PGD is an appropriate treatment in such cases. Reasons for the differing outcome for the two carriers are discussed.

  2. [Hindlimb antigravity muscles' reaction in male and female rats to the deficit of functional loading].

    Il'ina-Kakueva, E I

    2002-01-01

    Histological and histomorphometric comparison of the antigravity muscles of rats of both sexes was performed following 30-d unloading of their hind limbs by head-down suspension. It was shown that growth rate of control males was higher as compared to control females. This is attributed to the synergic effects of somatotropin and testosterone on metabolism and growth of males and only somatotropin in females. Load deprivation of the hind limbs inhibited body mass gain in all animals; however, this inhibition was twice as great in males. Increase of the soleus and gastrocnemius in the control males in this experiment was slightly ahead of the muscle mass gain in the females. The histomorphometric investigation of the cross-section area of myofibers did not reveal differences between males and females either in the control or suspension. No difference was found in percent of various types of fibers in the control males and females. In the soleus of the suspended rats, a part of slow fibers had transformed into fast ones without any sex-related particularities. The conclusion was made that despite the significant difference in the hormonal profile, the reaction of males and females to insufficient weight loading of the antigravity muscles was alike.

  3. Males of Hylamorpha elegans burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) are attracted to odors released from conspecific females.

    Quiroz, Andrés; Palma, Ruben; Etcheverría, Paulina; Navarro, Vicente; Rebolledo, Ramón

    2007-04-01

    The behavioral responses of Hylamorpha elegans L. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae) to the semiochemicals released from conspecific individual adults were studied, with particular attention paid to female attraction of males. Odors released from virgin females significantly attracted male conspecifics in both the field and laboratory olfactometer and wind tunnel bioassays. However, females did not attract other females, and males attracted no one. The response of male H. elegans to (1) compounds (1,4-hydroquinone and 1,4-benzoquinone) released only by unmated females; (2) the essential oil of the secondary host (Nothofagus obliqua); and (3) the blend of 1,4-hydroquinone and 1,4-benzoquinone with N. obliqua essential oil was studied. The blend of 1,4-benzoquinone mixed with essential oil at the trial concentration was attractive with males. The same response was found with 1,4-hydroquinone alone. The essential oil did not have the expected attractant effect on conspecific males. These results suggest that, when combined with essential oil, 1,4-benzoquinone may function in the sexual behavior of males and females. These findings are discussed in terms of the ecological role of this putative sexual pheromone and its potential use in a strategy of control of this pest.

  4. Regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities in male and female rat macrophages by sex steroids

    Azevedo R.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Human and animal immune functions present sex dimorphism that seems to be mainly regulated by sex hormones. In the present study, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes total superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px were measured in intraperitoneal resident macrophages from adult male and female rats. In addition to comparing males and females, we also examined the regulation of these enzyme activities in macrophages by sex steroids. GSH-Px activity did not differ between male and female macrophages. However, both total SOD and CAT activities were markedly higher in females than in males (83 and 180%. Removal of the gonads in both males and females (comparison between castrated groups increased the difference in SOD activity from 83 to 138% and reduced the difference in CAT activity from 180 to 86%. Castration and testosterone administration did not significantly modify the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in male macrophages. Ovariectomy did not affect SOD or GSH-Px activity but markedly reduced (48% CAT activity. This latter change was fully reversed by estrogen administration, whereas progesterone had a smaller effect. These results led us to conclude that differences in the SOD and CAT activities may partially explain some of the differences in immune function reported for males and females. Also, estrogen is a potent regulator of CAT in macrophages and therefore this enzyme activity in macrophages may vary considerably during the menstrual cycle.

  5. [Photosynthesis and transpiration characteristics of female and male Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim individuals].

    Liu, Yun; Zhong, Zhang-cheng; Wang, Xiao-xue; Xie, Jun; Yang, Wen-ying

    2011-03-01

    A field research was conducted on the photosynthesis and transpiration characteristics of dioecious Trichosanthes kirilowii individuals at four key development stages. At vegetative growth stage, the photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and water use efficiency of male individuals were higher than those of female individuals, and hence, male individuals entered into reproductive growth stage 22 days earlier than female individuals. After entering into reproductive growth stage, male individuals had higher photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance, but slightly lower water use efficiency than female individuals. As the female individuals started to reproductive growth, their photosynthesis rate and water use efficiency were significantly lower, while the transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were higher than those of the male individuals. The effects of climate factors on the growth and development of T. kirilowii mainly occurred at its vegetative growth and early reproductive growth stages, and weakened at later reproductive growth stages. Higher temperature and lower relative humidity benefited the growth and development of T. kirilowii, and illumination could enhance the photosynthesis rate of T. kirilowii, especially its male individuals. After entering into reproductive growth stage, the photosynthesis rate of male individuals increased significantly with increasing illumination, but that of female individuals only had a slight increase, and the transpiration rate of male individuals as well as the photosynthesis rate of female individuals all increased significantly with increasing temperature.

  6. Female choice impacts residential male takeover in golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana).

    Fang, Gu; Chen, Jing; Pan, Ru-Liang; Qi, Xiao-Guang; Li, Bao-Guo

    2018-07-18

    In primate species with social systems consisting of one-male breeding units (OMUs), resident male takeover represents a major challenge to individual reproductive success and mating strategies. The golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) is characterized by large multilevel societies (MLS) comprised of several OMUs and all-male units (AMUs); however, the factors and mechanisms associated with resident male takeover, which offer important insight into primate reproduction and social strategies, are still poorly understood. Based on 5-year monitoring data from a free-ranging herd of golden monkeys from the Qinling Mountains in China, we categorized three phases of an OMU, that is, a rising phase, developing phase, and declining phase. The rising and declining phases were unstable periods in which male takeover in an OMU might occur. Factors causing takeover, such as leader male rank, fighting ability, reproduction rate, and affiliation (proximity, allogrooming), were analyzed for males and females and for different OMUs. Results indicated that the new resident male's fighting ability was lower than that of the former resident male in 23 cases. After replacement, the rank order of the new resident male significantly declined. Females involved in a takeover increased their distance from the resident male and decreased mating frequency during the three months prior to takeover. Females with infants under one-year-old had a marked effect on the specific time of takeover occurrence. These results suggested that female choice was the main factor deciding whether a takeover attempt was successful. Furthermore, rather than male conflict, females more often initiated and affected takeover and outcome, implying that the social status and competitive ability of the males played lesser roles during takeover.

  7. The effect of female quality on male ejaculatory expenditure and reproductive success in a praying mantid.

    Anuradhi Jayaweera

    Full Text Available Strategic ejaculation is a behavioural strategy shown by many animals as a response to sperm competition and/or as a potential mechanism of cryptic male choice. Males invest more mating resources when the risk of sperm competition increases or they invest more in high quality females to maximize their reproductive output. We tested this hypothesis in the false garden mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata, where females are capable of multiply mating and body condition is an indicator of potential reproductive fitness. We predicted male mantids would ejaculate strategically by allocating more sperm to high quality females. To determine if and how males alter their ejaculate in response to mate quality, we manipulated female food quantity so that females were either in good condition with many eggs (i.e. high quality or poor condition with few eggs (i.e. low quality. Half of the females from each treatment were used in mating trials in which transferred sperm was counted before fertilisation occurred and the other half of females were used in mating trials where fertilisation occurred and ootheca mass and total eggs in the ootheca were recorded. Opposed to our predictions, the total number of sperm and the proportion of viable sperm transferred did not vary significantly between female treatments. Male reproductive success was entirely dependent on female quality/fecundity, rather than on the number of sperm transferred. These results suggest that female quality is not a major factor influencing postcopulatory male mating strategies in P. albofimbriata, and that sperm number has little effect on male reproductive success in a single mating scenario.

  8. Roosevelt elk density and social segregation: Foraging behavior and females avoiding larger groups of males

    Weckerly, F.; McFarland, K.; Ricca, M.; Meyer, K.

    2004-01-01

    Intersexual social segregation at small spatial scales is prevalent in ruminants that are sexually dimorphic in body size. Explaining social segregation, however, from hypotheses of how intersexual size differences affects the foraging process of males and females has had mixed results. We studied whether body size influences on forage behavior, intersexual social incompatibility or both might influence social segregation in a population of Roosevelt elk (Cervus elaphus roosevelt) that declined 40% over 5 y. Most males and females in the population occurred in the same forage patches, meadows, but occupied different parts of meadows and most groups were overwhelming comprised of one sex. The extent of segregation varied slightly with changing elk density. Cropping rate, our surrogate of forage ingestion, of males in mixed-sex groups differed from males in male-only groups at high, but not low, elk density. In a prior study of intersexual social interactions it was shown that females avoided groups containing ???6 males. Therefore, we predicted that females should avoid parts of meadows where groups of males ???6 were prevalent. Across the 5 y of study this prediction held because ???5% of all females were found in parts of meadows where median aggregation sizes of males were ???6. Social segregation was coupled to body size influences on forage ingestion at high density and social incompatibility was coupled to social segregation regardless of elk density.

  9. Divergent hypoxia tolerance in adult males and females of the plainfin midshipman (Porichthys notatus).

    LeMoine, Christophe M R; Bucking, Carol; Craig, Paul M; Walsh, Patrick J

    2014-01-01

    In the summer, the plainfin midshipman (Poricththys notatus) migrates to reproduce in the nearshore environment, where oxygen levels are influenced by the tidal cycles. Parental males establish nests under rocks in the intertidal zone, where they reside until the eggs they guard are fully developed. In contrast, females and sneaker males leave the nests shortly after spawning. We examined the physiological resistance and metabolic response of parental male and female adult midshipman to hypoxia to test whether they exhibited sex-specific differences reflecting their reproductive strategies. Further, we assessed whether metabolic enzymes and metabolites were differentially enriched in tissues of parental males and females to explain the differences observed in their hypoxia tolerance. While parental males and females exhibited similar depression of their oxygen consumption in response to graded hypoxia, parental males could withstand significantly longer exposures to severe hypoxic stress. At the biochemical level, parental males showed higher hepatic glycogen reserves and higher glycolytic enzyme capacities in gills and skeletal muscles than females. Although some of these enzymatic variations could be explained by differences in body size, we also observed a significant effect of sex on some of these factors. These results suggest that parental male midshipman may benefit from sexual dimorphism at the whole-organismal (larger body size) and biochemical (enzyme activities) levels, conferring on them a higher glycolytic potential to sustain the extensive hypoxia bouts they experience in nature.

  10. Cdc20 is critical for meiosis I and fertility of female mice.

    Fang Jin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome missegregation in germ cells is an important cause of unexplained infertility, miscarriages, and congenital birth defects in humans. However, the molecular defects that lead to production of aneuploid gametes are largely unknown. Cdc20, the activating subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C, initiates sister-chromatid separation by ordering the destruction of two key anaphase inhibitors, cyclin B1 and securin, at the transition from metaphase to anaphase. The physiological significance and full repertoire of functions of mammalian Cdc20 are unclear at present, mainly because of the essential nature of this protein in cell cycle progression. To bypass this problem we generated hypomorphic mice that express low amounts of Cdc20. These mice are healthy and have a normal lifespan, but females produce either no or very few offspring, despite normal folliculogenesis and fertilization rates. When mated with wild-type males, hypomorphic females yield nearly normal numbers of fertilized eggs, but as these embryos develop, they become malformed and rarely reach the blastocyst stage. In exploring the underlying mechanism, we uncover that the vast majority of these embryos have abnormal chromosome numbers, primarily due to chromosome lagging and chromosome misalignment during meiosis I in the oocyte. Furthermore, cyclin B1, cyclin A2, and securin are inefficiently degraded in metaphase I; and anaphase I onset is markedly delayed. These results demonstrate that the physiologically effective threshold level of Cdc20 is high for female meiosis I and identify Cdc20 hypomorphism as a mechanism for chromosome missegregation and formation of aneuploid gametes.

  11. Discriminating males and unpredictable females: males differentiate self-similar facial cues more than females in the judgment of opposite-sex attractiveness.

    Jin-Ying Zhuang

    Full Text Available Attractiveness judgment in the context of mate preferences is thought to reflect an assessment of mate quality in relation to an absolute scale of genetic fitness and a relative scale of self-similarity. In this study, subjects judged the attractiveness and trustworthiness of faces in composite images that were manipulated to produce self-similar (self-resemblance and dissimilar (other-resemblance images. Males differentiated between self- and other-resemblance as well as among different degrees of self-resemblance in their attractiveness ratings; females did not. Specifically, in Experiment 1, using a morphing technique, we created previously unseen face images possessing different degrees (0%, 30%, 40%, or 50% of incorporation of the subject's images (different degrees of self-resemblance and found that males preferred images that were closer to average (0% rather than more self-similar, whereas females showed no preference for any degree of self-similarity. In Experiment 2, we added a pro-social question about trustworthiness. We replicated the Experiment 1 attractiveness rating results and further found that males differentiated between self- and other-resemblance for the same degree of composites; women did not. Both males and females showed a similar preference for self-resemblances when judging trustworthiness. In conclusion, only males factored self-resemblance into their attractiveness ratings of opposite-sex individuals in a manner consistent with cues of reproductive fitness, although both sexes favored self-resemblance when judging trustworthiness.

  12. Enhanced proliferation of transfused marrow and reversal of normal growth inhibition of female marrow in male hosts 2 months after sublethal irradiation